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Full text of "The works of President Edwards"


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BE it remembered, That on the eleventh day of December, in the fifty-fonrth year 
of the Independence of the United States ot' America,. Sereoo £. D wight, of the said 
District, hatn deposited in this office the title of a' book, the right whereof to the 
y ^ " works" he claims as proprietor, and to the *' memoii*' as author, in the words fol- 

lowing, to wit : 
I ** The Works of President Edwards, with a Memoir of his life. lu ten Toliiroes." 

: In conformity to the act of Congress of the Unitod Stat6S| entitled '* An act for the 

' encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the 

authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and 
also to an act, entitled ** An act supplementarjr to an act, mtitled An act for the en- 
couragement of learning, by secunng the eopies of raafM, charts, and books, to the 
authors and proprietors of such copies, daring the timet tbersin mentioned, and ex- 
tending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engnmn^ and etching historical 
and other prints." 

CHAS. A. IN0ER80LL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut 
A true copy of record, examined and sealed by roe, 

CHAS. A. INGERSOLLi Clerk of the District of Connecticut, 


I. Types of the MeMiah. •--... page 9 
II. Notes on the Bible. 115 

I« ■ 


That ike things of the Old Testament are Types of things apper" 
iaining to the Messiah and his kingdom and salvation^ made 
manifest from the Old Testament itself 

We find by the Old Testament, that it has ever been God's man- 
ner from the beginning of the world, to exhibit and reveal future 
things by symbolical representations, which were no other than 
types of the future things revealed. Thus when fature things 
were made known in visions,, the things that were seen were not 
the future things themselves, but some other things that were made 
use of as shadows, symbols, or types of the things. Thus the 
bowing of the sheaves of Joseph's brethren, and the sun, moon, 
and stars doing obeisance to him, and Pharaoh's fat and lean kine, 
and Nebuchadnezzar's image, and Daniel's four beasts, be. were 
figures or types of the future things represented by them. And 
not only were types and figures made use of to represent future 
things when they were revealed by visions and dreams, but also 
when they were revealed by the word of the Lord coming by the 
mouth of the prophets, (as it is expressed.) *The prophecies that 
the prophets uttered concerning future things, were generally by 
similitudes, figures, and symbolical representations. Hence pro- 
phecies were of old c^WeA parables ; as Balaam's prophecies, and 
especially the prophecies of the things of the Messiah's kingdom 
The prophecies are given forth in allegories, and the things fore- 
told spoken of, not under the proper names of the things them- 
selves, but under the names of other things that are made use of 
in the prophecy as symbols or types of the things foretold. And 
it was the manner in those ancient times, to deliver divine instruc- 
tions in general in symbols and emblems, and in their speeches 
and discourses to make use of types, and figures, and enigmatical 
speeches, into which holy men were led by the Spirit of Crod* 
This manner of delivering wisdom was originally divtoei ai mmj 
VOL. IX. 2 


be argaed from that of Solomon. Prov. i. 6. '* To understand 
a proverb, (or parable,) and the interpretation, the words of the 
wise and their dark sayings ;" and from that of the psalmist, Ps. 
zlix. 3, 4, '* ^y mouth shall speak of wisdom, and the meditation 
of my heart shall be of understanding. I will incline mine ear to 
a parable. I will open my dark sayings upon the harp." And Ps. 
Ixzviii. 1, 2. **Give ear, O my people, to my law; incline your 
ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in a para- 
ble, I will utter dark sayings of old." By a parable is meant an 
enigmatical symbolical speech. £zek. xvii. 2, and xxiii. 3. Hence 
speeches of divine wisdom in general came to be called parables, 
as the speeches of Job and his friends. Hence of old the wise 
men of all nations, who derived their wisdom chiefly by tradition 
from the wise men of the church of God, who spoke by inspira- 
tion, fell into that method. They received instruction that way, 
and they imitated it. Hence it became so much the custom in the 
eastern nations to deal so much in enigmatical speeches and dark 
figures, and to make so much use of symbols and hieroglyphics, 
to represent divine things, or things appertaining to their gods 
and their religion. It seems to have been in imitation of the pro- 
phets and other holy and eminent persons in the church of God, 
who were inspired, that it became so universally the custom among 
all ancient nations, for their priests, prophets, and wise men to ut- 
ter their angaries, and to deliver their knowledge and wisdom in 
tbeir writings and speeches in allegories and enigmas, and under 
symbolical representations. Every thing that the wise said must 
be in a kind of allegory, and vailed with types : as it was also the 
manner of the heathen oracles, to utter themselves under the like 

We find that it was God's manner throughout the ages of the 
Old Testament, to typify future things, not only as he signified them 
by symbolical and typical representations in those visions and pro« 
pbecies in which they were revealed, but also as he made use of 
those things that had an actual existence, to typify them, either by 
events that he brought to pass by his special providence to that 
end, or by things that he appointed and commanded to be done for 
that end. 

We find future things typified by what God did himself, by 
things that he brought to pass by his special providence. Thus 
the future struggling of the two nations of the Israelites and 
£domite8 was typified by Jacob's and Esau's struggling together 
in the womb. Gen. xxv. 22, 23. '* And the children struggled 
together within her, and she said. If it be so, why am I thus f And 
«be went to inquire of the Lord ; and the Lord said unto her. 
Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be 
separated from thy bowels. And the one people shall be stronger 


than the other people, and the elder shall serve the yoanger." And 
the prevalence of Jacob over Esau, and his supplanting him, so 
as to get away his birthright and blessing, and his posterity's 
prevailing over the Edomites, was typified by Jacob's hand tak** 
ing hold on Esau's heeKin the birth. Gen. xxv. 26. *< And after 
that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel ; 
and his name was called Jiscoft," or supplanter. Chap, xxvii. 36. 
** Is he not rightly named Jacob? for he hath supplanted me these 
two times. He took away my birthright, and behotd now he hath 
taken away my blessing." Hosea xii. 3. 6. *' He took his bro- 
ther by the heel in the womb— —Therefore, turn thou to thy God," 
dsc. And as the Israelites overcoming and supplanting their 
enemies in their struggling or wrestling with them, was typified 
by Jacob's taking hold on Esau's heel, so Jacob's and his seed's 
prevailing with God, in their spiritual wrestling with him, was ty- 
pified by his wrestling with God and prevailing. Gen. xxxii. 28. 
** Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel ; for as a 
prince thou hast power with^God and with men, and hast prevail- 
ed." Hos. xii. 4. '^ Yea, he had power over the angel, and pre- 
vailed : he wept and made supplication unto him. He found him 
in Bethel, and there he spake with us, even the Lord God of hosts, 
the Lord is his memorial. Therefore, turn thou to thy God : 
keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually." The 
prevalence of the posterity of Pharez over Zarah, who first put 
forth his hand, was typified by his unexpectedly breaking forth out 
of the womb before him. Gen. xxxfx. 29. So by Moses's being won- 
derfully preserved in the midst of great waters, though but a little 
helpless infant, and being drawn out of the water, seems apparent- 
ly to be typified the preservation and deliverance of his people, 
that he was made the head and deliverer of, who were preserved 
io the midst of dangers they were in in Egypt, which were ready 
to overwhelm them, when the prince and people sought to their 
utmost to destroy them, and root them out, and they had no power 
to withstand them, but were like an helpless infant, and who were 
at last wonderfully delivered out of their great and overwhelming 
troubles and dangers, which in scripture language is delivering 
oat of great waters, or drawing out of many waters. 2 Sam. 
xiii. 17. '* He sent from above ; he took me, he drew me out of 
many waters." And Psal. xviii. 16. It is the same sort of dcli- 
Terance^ from cruel blood and blood-thirsty enemies that the 
psalmist speaks of, that the Israelites were delivered from. And 
to he does again, Ps. cxiiv. 7. *' Send thine hand from above ; 
rid me and deliver me out of great waters from the hand of strange 
children. And Ps. Ixix. 2. ** I sink in deep mire, where there is 
no standing ; 1 am come into deep waters, where the floods over- 
low me;" with verse 14. '^ Deliver me out of the mir^and let 


not sink ; let me be delivered from tbem that hate me, and ont 
of tbe deep waters." That the king of Israel smote three times 
upon the ground with his arrows, was ordered in providence to be 
m type of his beating the Syrians three times. 2 Kings xiii. IS, 19. 
The potter's working a work upon the wheels, and the vessel's be- 
ing marred in the hand of the potter, so that he made it again an- 
other vessel, as seemed good to him to make it, at the time when 
Jeremiah went down to the potter's house, was ordered in provi- 
dence to be a type of God's dealing with the Jews. Jer. xviii. 

The twelve fountains of water and the threescore and ten palm- 
trees, that were in Elim, Exod. xv. 27, were manifestly types of 
the twelve patriarchs, the fathers of the tribes, and of the three- 
score and ten elders of the congregation. The paternity of a 
family, tribe, or nation, in the language of the Old Testament, is 
called a fountain. Deut. xxxiii. 28. *' Israel shall dwell in safety 
alone ; tbe fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of corn and 
wine." Ps. Ixviii. 26. '* Bless the Lord from the fountain of 
Israel." Isai. zlviii. 1. *' Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which 
are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the wa- 
ters of Judah." And the church of God is often represented in 
scripture by a palm-tree or palm-trees. Ps. xcii. 12. Cant. vii. 7, 
8. And therefore fitly were the elders or representatives of the 
church compared to palm-trees. God's people often are compar- 
ed to trees. Isai. Ixi. 3, and Ix. 21, and elsewhere. 

We find that God was often pleased to bring to pass extraordi- 
nary and miraculous appearances and events, to typify future 
things. Thus God's making Eve of A.dam's rib, was to typify 
tbe near relation and strict union of husband and wife, and the 
respect that is due, in persons in that relation, from one to the 
other, as is manifest from the account given of it, Gen. ii. 21, 22, 
23, 24. *' And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon 
Adam, and he slept, and he took one of his ribs and closed up the 
flesh instead thereof; and the rib which the Lord God had taken 
from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And 
Adam said. This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh ; 
she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man. 
Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall 
cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh." And when 
God spake to Moses from the burning bush, concerning the great 
affliction and oppression of the children of Israel in Egypt, 
and promised to preserve and deliver them, what appeared 
in the bush, vis. its burning with fire, and yet not being 
consumed, was evidently intended as a type of the same thing that 
God then spake to Moses about, viz. the church of Israel being in 
the fire of affliction in Egypt, and appearing in the utmost dan- 
ger of teing utterly consumed there, and yet being marvellously 


preserved and delivered. Such a low and weak state as the peo- 
ple were in in Egypt, and such an inability for self-defence, we 
find in the Old Testament represented by a bush or low tree, and a 
root out of a dry ground, as was that bush in Horeb, which signi- 
fies a dry place. Isai. iiii. 2. Ezek. xvii. 22, 23,24. Affliction 
and danger in the language of the Old Testament, are called ^re. 
Zech. xiii. 9. "I will bring the third part through the^r<?." Isai. 
zlviii. 10. " I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction." And 
God's marvellously preserving his people, when in great affliction 
and danger, is represented by their being preserved in the fire 
from being burnt* Isai. xliii. 2. *< When thou passest through 
the waters, I will be with thee — when thou walkcst through the fire, 
thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the flame kindle upon thee." 
And God's delivering the people of Israel from affliction, and 
from the destruction of which they were in danger, through 
bondage and oppression under the hand of their enemies, is re- 
presented by their being delivered out of the fire. Zech. iii. 2. Is 
uot this a brand plucked out of the fire ? Tea, that very thing of 
the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, is often represented as their 
being delivered out of the fire. Psalm Ixvi. 12. *' We went 
through fire and through water, but thou broughtest us into a 
wealthy place." Deut. iv. 20. *' The Lord hath taken you and 
brought you out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt." So 
1 Kings viii. 51, and Jcr. xi. 4. 

So Moses's rod's swallowing up the magicians' rods, Exod.' 
vii. 12, is evidently given of God as a sign and type of the supe- 
riority of God's power above the power of their gods, and that his 
power should prevail and swallow up theirs. For that rod was a 
token of God's power, as a prince's rod or sceptre was a token of 
bis power. Thus we read read of the rod of the Messiah's 
strength. Psalm ex. So the turning of the water of the river of 
Egypt into blood, first by Moses's taking and pouring it out on 
the dry land, and its becoming blood on the dry land, and after- 
wards by the river itself, and all the other waters of Egypt being 
turned to blood, in the first plague on Egypt, was evidently a 
foreboding sign and type of what God threatened at the same 
time, viz. that if they \vould not let the people go, God would 
slay their first born, and of his afterward destroying Pharaoh 
and all the prime of Egypt in the Red sea. (See Exod. iv. 9. 
and chap, vii.) God's making a great destruction of the lives of 
a people is, in the language of the Old Testament, a giving them 
blood to drink. Isai. xlix. 26. " And I will feed them that op- 
press thee with their own "flesh, and they shall be drunken with 
their own blood." Aaron's Tod budding, blossoming, and bear- 
ing fruit, is given as a type of God's owning and blessing his 
ministry, and crowning it with success. His rod was the rod of 


an aImond*tree, Numb. xvii. 8, which God makes ase of in 
Jen i. 11, 12, as a token and type of his word, that speedily 
lakes effect, as Moses's rod of an almond tree speedily brought 
forth fruit. 

God caused the corn in the land of Judab to spring again, after 
it had been cut off with the sickle, and to bring forth another crop 
from the roots that seemed to be dead, and so once and again, to 
be a sign and type that the remnant that was escaped of the house 
of Judah should again take root downward, and bear fruit up- 
ward, and that his church should revive again, as it were out of 
its own ashes, and flourish like a plant, after it has been seeming* 
ly destroyed and past recovery : as 2 Kings, xix. 29, 30 ; and 
Isa. xxxvii. 30, 31. 

God wrought the miracle of causing the shadow in the dial of 
Ahaz to go backward, contrary to the course of nature, to be a 
sign and type of king Hezekiah's being in a miraculous manner, 
and contrary to the course of nature, healed of his sickness, that 
was in itself mortal, and brought back from the grave whither he 
was descending, and the sun of the day of his life being made to 
return back again, when according to the course of nature it was 
just a setting. 2 Kings xx. 

The miraculous uniting of the two sticks, that had the names 
of Judah and Joseph written upon them, so that they became one 
stick in the prophet's hand, was to typify the future entire union 
of Judah and Israel. 

Also God miraculously caused a gourd to come up in a night, 
over the bead of Jonah, and to perish in a night, to typify the 
life of man. That gourd was a feeble, tender, dependent frail 
vine. It came up suddenly, and was very green and flourishing, 
and was pleasant and refreshing, and it made a fine show for on^ 
day, and then withered and dried up. Jonah iv. 6, &c. 

God reproved Jonah for his so little regarding the lives of the 
inhabitants of Nineveh, by the type of the gourd, which was mani- 
festly intended as a type of the life of man; or of man with respect 
to his life, being exactly agreeable to the representations frequent- 
ly made of man and his present frail life in other parts of the Old 
Testament. This gourd was a vine, a feeble, dependent plant, 
that could not stand alone. This God therefore makes use of to 
represent man, in Ezek. xv. This gourd was a very tender, frail 
plant. It sprang up suddenly, and was very short lived. Its life 
was but one day; as the life of man is often compared to a day. 
It was green and flourishing, and made a fine show one day, and was 
withered and dried up the next. It came up in a night and perished in 
a night; appeared flourishing in the morning, and the next evening 
was smitten, exactly agreeable to the representation made of man's 
life in Psalm xc. 6. <' In the morning it flourisheth and growetb 


op; hi the evening it is cut down and withereth." The worm 
Chat smote the gourd, represents the cause of man's death. The 
gourd was killed by a worm, a little thing; as man is elsewhere 
said to be crushed before the moth. It was that, the approach of 
which was not discerned; it came under ground: as elsewhere 
roan is represented as not knowing the time of his death, as the 
fishes are taken in an evil net, &c. And as being smitten by an 
arrow that flies unseen* That this gourd was intended by God 
as an emblem of man's life, is evident from what God himself says 
of it, and the application he makes of it. God himself compares 
the lives of the inhabitants of Nineveh with this gourd, verse x« 
11. Jonah had pity on the gourd, i. e. on himself for tlie loss of 
it : for it was very pleasing and refreshing to him, while it lasted ; 
and defended him from scorching heat. So life is sweet. The 
Minevites by its preservation were held back from the wrath of 
God, that had been threatened for their sins. How much more 
therefore should Jonah have had pity on the numerous inhabit- 
ants of Nineveh, when God had threatened them with the loss of 
life, which was an enjoyment so much more desirable than the 
gourd was to him ! And if he found fault with God, that he did 
not spare to him the shadow of the gourd ; how unreasonable 
was he in also finding fault with God, that he did spare the Nine- 
▼ites their precious lives f 

God miraculously enabled David to kill the lion and the bear, 
and to deliver the lamb out of their mouth, plainly and evidently 
to be a type, sign, and encouragement unto him, that he would 
enable him to destroy the enemies of his people, that were much 
stronger than they, and deliver his people from them. David did 
this as a shepherd over the flock of his father ; and his acting the 
part of a shepherd toward them, is expressly spoken of as a resem- 
blance of his acting the part of a king and shepherd towards 
God's people from time to time. 1 Chron. xi. 2. Psalm Ixxviii. 70, 
71, 72. Jerem. xxiii. 4, 5, 6. Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24. Chap, xxxvii. 
24^ And God's people in places innumerable are called his flock, 
and his sheep, and their enemies in David's Psalms and elsewhere, 
ar« compared to the lion and other beasts of prey that' devour 
the sheep; and David himself calls his own deliverance, and the 
deliverance of God's people, a being saved from the lion's mouth* 
Psalm vii. 1,2, and xvii. 12, 13, and xxii. 20, 21, and xxxv. 17, 
and Ivii. 3. 4. And David himself thus understood and improved 
God's thus miraculously enabling him to conquer these wild* beasts^ 
and deliver the lamb, as a representation and sign of what God 
would enable him to do for hrs people against their strong ene- 
mies; as IS evident from what he said to Saul, when he oflfered to 
go against Goliath. 


The accidental rending of Samuel's mantle, 1 Sara. xv. 27, 
28, signified the rending of the kingdom from SaiiK It was a 
common thing for God to order and appoint things to be done by 
men, in order to typify future events; so Samuel poured out water 
in Mizpeh, 1 Sam. vii. 6, to signify tlieir repentance. See Pool's 
Synopsis. Ahijah's rending Jeroboam's garment in twelve pieces, 
and giving him ten, was to testify the rending the kingdom of 
Israel, and giving him ten tribes. 1 Kings xi. 30, fee. So see 
1 Kings xx. 35, &c. and 2 Kings xiii. 14 — 20. The prophet's as- 
sisting the king of Israel, in shooting an arrow eastward, towards 
Syria, was appointed of God to signify that he would assist the 
king of Israel in fighting with the Syrians. 2 Kings xiii. 15, &c. 
The prophet Isaiah by God's appointment went naked and bare- 
foot, to typify the Egyptians and Ethiopians going naked and 
barefoot in their captivity. Isaiah xx. Jeremiah by God's ap- 
pointment typified the captivity of the Jews into Babylon, with 
many of its circumstances, by taking a linen girdle and putting 
it on his loins, and hiding it in a hole in a rock by the river £u- 

Ehrates, and returning again to take it from thence. Jer. xiii* 
[e was commanded to typify the destruction of the people by 
breaking a potter's vessel. Chap, xix.- By taking a wine cup and 
offering it to many nations agreeably to God's appointment and 
direction, he typified God's causing them as it were to drink the 
cup of his fury. Chap. xxv. And he was commanded to make 
bonds and yokes, and put them upon his neck and send them to the 
neighbouring kings, to typify the yoke of bondage under Nebu- 
chadnezzar that God was about to bring upon them. Chap, xxvii. 
Mehemiah shook his lap, Neh. v. 13, to signify the shaking of 
every man from his house, who should not perform the oath which 
they had taken. Ezekiel very often typified future events, by 
things that he did by God's appointment; as by his eating the 
roll, &c. Ezek. iii. And by lying on his side, and many other 
things that he was to do, that we have an account of, Ezek. iv. 
And by shaving his head and beard, and burning part of the 
hair in the fire, &c. chap. v. ; and by making a chain, chap. vii. 
23; and by his removing, with the many circumstances that God 
directed him to, chap. xii. 1, &c. ; and by his eating his bread 
with trembling, verse 18; by filling a pot with the choice pieces 
of flesh on the fire, fac; and by his not mourning for his wife, 
chap. xxiv. The prophet Hosea typified the things he prophesied 
of, by taking a wife of whoredoms, Hos. i. and by marrying an 
adultress, with the circumstances of it, chap. iii. The prophet 
Zechariah was commanded to typify the things he predicted, by 
making silver and golden crowns on the heads of those that re- 
turned from the captivity, Zech. vi. ; and by the two staves call- 
ed Beauty and Bands ; and by his casting moi^ey to the potter in 


the house of the Lord ; and his taking the instruments of a foolish 
shepherd. Chap. xi. 

It was so common a thing for the prophets to typify things that 
were the subjects of their prophecies by divine appointment, that 
the false prophets imitated them in it, and were wont to feign di- 
rections from God to typify the subjects of their false prophecies. 
See 1 Kings xxii. 11, and Jer. xxviii. 10. Things in common use 
among the Israelites were spoken of by the Spirit of God as 
types. Thus the vine-tree is spoken of as a type of man, espe- 
cially of God's visible people. Ezek. xv. 

It being so much God's manner from the beginning of the 
worldy to represent divine things by types, hence it probably came 
to pass, that typical representations were looked upon by the an- 
cient nations, the Egyptians in particular, as sacred things, and 
therefore called hieroglyphics^ which ^x^mfies sacred images or re^ 
presentations. And animals being very much made use of in the 
ancient types of the church of God, so they were very much used in 
the Egyptian hieroglyphics, which probably led the way to their 
worship of all manner of living creatures. 

Now since it was, as has been observed, God's manner of old, 
in the times of the Old Testament, from generation to generation, 
and even from the beginning of the world to the end of the Old 
Testament history, to represent divine things by outward signs, 
types, and symbolical representations, and especially thus to ty- 
pify and prefigure future events, that he revealed by his Spirit, and 
foretold by the prophets ; it is very unlikely, that the Messiah, 
and things appertaining to his kingdom and salvation, should not 
be tlius abundantly prefigured and typified under the Old Testa- 
ment, if the following things be considered. 

It is apparent from the Old Testament that these things are the 
main subject of the prophecies of the Old Testament, the subject 
about which the spirit of prophecy was chiefly conversant from 
the beginning of the world. It was the subject of the first proper 
prophecy that ever was uttered : and it is abundantly evident from 
the Old Testament, that it is every way the chief of all prophetical 
events. 'Tis spoken of abundantly as the greatest and most glo- 
rious event, beyond all that eye bad seen, ear heard, or had en- 
tered into the heart of man; at the accomplishment of which not 
only God's people and all nations should unspeakably rejoice ; 
but the trees of the field, the hills and mountains, the sea and dry 
land, and all heaven and earth, should rejoice and shout for joy ; 
and in comparison of which the greatest events of the Old Testa- 
ment, and particularly those two most insisted on, the creation of 
the world and the redemption out of Egypt, were not worthy to 
be mentioned or to come into mind, and in comparison of which 
the greatest and most sacred things of the Mosaic dispeasatioD, 

VOL. IX. 3 


even the ark itself, the most sacred of all, was not worthy of notice. 
And it is also abundantly evident from the Old Testament, that it 
was the grand event that, above all other future events, was the 
object of the contemplations, hopes, and raised expectations of 
God's people, from the beginning of the world. 

And furthermore, the introducing of the Messiah and his king- 
dom and salvation, is plainly spoken of in the Old Testament, 
as the great event which was the substance, main drift, and end of 
all the prophecies of the Old Testament, to reveal which chiefly it 
was, that the spirit of prophecy was given, in that the angel, in 
Dan. ix. 24, speaks of this event, as that in the accomplishment of 
which prophecies in general are summed up, and have their nlti- 
mate confirmation, in which the vision and prophecy or all pr<>- 
phetical revelation has its last result and consummation. ** Se- 
venty weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city; 
to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make 
reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteous- 
ness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy ^ and to anoint the 
most holy." That what has been expressed is the import of 
the phrase of sealing up the vision and prophecy, is evident firom 
the drift and manner of expression of the whole verse, and alto 
Trom Eiek. xxviii. 12. '' Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom 
and perfect in beauty." Mr. Basnage, in his history of the Jewv, 
observes, that the rabbles among the Jews still agree to this da/t 
that all the oracles of the prophets relate to the Messiah. Page 
S71, Col. 1. 

And besides, it is to be considered, that this event was that Id 
which the people of God, from the beginning of the world, werB 
most nearly and greatly concerned : yea, was of infinitely the 
greatest concern to them of all prophetical events ; for His evi- 
dent from the Old Testament, that the Messiah was not only to 
be the Saviour of Grod's people, that should be after bis coming ; 
but that he was the Saviour of the saints in all ages from the 
beginning of the world, and that through his coming, and wbat 
-he should do at his appearing, they all should have the only tme 
atonement for their sins, and restoration from the curse broagfat 
npon them by the fall of Adam, the resurrection from the dead, 
and eternal life. 

'Tis much more reasonable to suppose, that many things per- 
taining to the sute and constitution of the nation of Israel, many 
things which God ordered and appointed among them shonld be 
typical of things appertaining to the Messiah ; because it is evi- 
dent from the Old Testament, that the very being of that people 
as God*s people, and their being distinguished and separated firosi 
the rest of the world, was to prepare the way for the mtrodiietiMi 
of that great blessing into the world of mankind, of the Mesnaii 

and bti kingdlMB^II^nk^^^^^. ^^U the days of thy 

■t tlie first planting of lite ViS;->^ ' serpent that 

and separating (hat people ''"■n^'it^f by 'h<^ ^''^ 

of Abraham, in the three fiwt 'wO^NSifcL ^ **» '''^ "^" 

bad said unto Abraham, getlhnowJi"V^^S^,%« s&iah; as 

kindred, and from thy father's house. oS '"•sJ-i^TS gether; 

ihee; and I will make of ihce a 8***^ w^^^^T^J, ^^ '''* 

thee, and make thy name great ; and i\ia!^ "^t^^S '"''' 

and I will bless them that bless thee, &"(icw^S\^^^ ^^^'' 

tbee ; and in thee shall a)l families of Ifae eu^^^^'V^S, V' 

here seems to be manifest, that the inirodiicina^^Viq^%«^ ^ 

wbicfa God had in view, to all lbs families of the ,.** ^ti* ^Vn \ 

God bad in view in thus calltoff and separating Abtlc ^^m!^ \ 

of him an happy nation. It is tberefure much (he n>ofe'y\><iJL 
many things belonging to them should be typical of i^'^S.Y'fc^ 
lure (bings appertaining to this great blessing, wli\ci,*'^V 
great end God designed by ibem : and especially coQiiA^^J*'^ 
wc find it to be God's manner under the Old Testament, ii^^*^ 
persons and things, to signify and vepivieiit befor*hirt.^!ft 
which God made or separated them for, or tba special mse «(? 
sign God had in view with respect to thena. It wu Ctod'a^^ 
ner beforehand to signify and represent these things, in what u^ 
pertained to tbem, or happened concerning tbein> So baoftsi 
did in the signification of the names that be gave tbem, u in tba 
names of Eve, Noab, Abraham, Isaac, Israel, Judab, Joshns, 

David, Solomon, &ic. and in things whirh they saw Qt did, 

or which came to past concerning tbem ; as Hptei's being drawa 
out of the water, and what God showed bim in Horeb, before b* 
went into Egypt from Midian, in the burning bnsb ; aod io David, 
ia his slaying the lion and bear and delivering the limb. 

Again we find that many lesser redemptions, deliverances, and 
victories uf God's people, which it is plain even frtim the Old Te^ 
lament, were as nothing in comparison wiih the salvation and vic- 
tory of the Messiah, were by God's ordering represented by 
types ; as the redemption out uf Egypt. Tiiis was mucb typified 
afterwards in institutions that God appointed in commemoraiioD 
of it. And the reason given by God for bis thus typifying of it, 
was that it was so worthy to have signs and representations to fii 
it in the mind. Thus concerning the representations of their 
coming out of Egypt, in the passuver, by eating it with unleaven- 
ed bread, with their staff in their hand, inc., this reason is given 
why they should have such representations and memorials of it. 
Esod. siii. 42. It is a night mucb to be remembered. This re- 
demption out of Egypt was also much typified beforehand. It 
was typified in the smoking furnace and the burning lamp following 
it which Abraham saw. Gen. zv. 17. It was typified in Hoscs'a 


being drawn out of the water, and in the burning bush that sur- 
vived the flames, and by Moses's rod's swallowing up the magi- 
cian's rods. David's victory over the enemies of God's people, 
and his saving them out of their hands, was typified by his con- 
quering the lion and the bear, and rescuing the lamb. God's 
giving victory to Israel over the Syrians and delivering them from 
them, was typified by the prophet's helping the king of Israel shoot 
an arrow towards them. 2 Kings xiii. 15, &c. The salvation of 
Jerusalem from Sennacherib's army was typified by the spring- 
ing of the corn afresh t>om the roots of the stubble. Hezekiah's 
being saved from death was typified by bringing back the sun, 
when it was going down. Since, therefore, God did so much to 
typify those lesser victories and salvations, is it not exceedingly 
likely that great victory and redemption of the Messiah, which ap- 
pears by the Old Testament to be infinitely greater, and that was 
all along so much more insisted on, in the word of the Lord to 
the people, should be much more typified f 

It is much more reasonably and credibly supposed, that God 
should through the ages of the Old Testament, be very much in ty- 
pifying things pertaining to the Messiah and his salvation, not only 
in prophecies, but also in types ; because we find in fact, that at 
the very beginning of God's revealing the Messiah to mankind, 

Erophecies and types went together in the first prophecy of the 
lessiah, and the first proper prophecy that ever was in the world, 
God foretold and typified the redemption both together, when God 
said to the serpent, Gen. iii. 15^ *^ I will put enmity between thee 
and the woman, ai^j^t^ween thy seed and her seed. It shall bruise 
thy head, and thou sHfiU bruise his heel." This is undoubtedly a 
prediction of the Messiah's victory over Satan, and his suffering 
from Satan, and of the Messiah's people's victory and deliverance 
through him. And none can reasonably question but that here is 
also some respect had to that enmity there is between mankind and 
serpents, and the manner of serpents wounding mankind and 
of men's killing them'; for God is here speaking concerning a beast 
of the field that was ranked with the cattle, as appears by the 
foregoing verse. And this state of things with respect to ser- 
pents, was plainly ordered and established in these words. But 
if we suppose that both these things were intended in the same 
words, then undoubtedly one is spoken of and ordained as a re- 
presentation of the other. If God orders and speaks of the bruis- 
ing of a serpent's head, and thereby signifies the Messiah's con- 
quering the devil, that is the same thing as God's ordering and 
speaking of the bruising of a serpent's head as a sign, significa- 
tion, or (which is the same thing) type of his conquering the de- 
vil. And in what is said to the serpent, ver. 14, " Thou art cursed 
'above all cattle, and above every beast of the field : upon thy 


belly shah thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy 
life ;'* it is evident that God speaks concerning that serpent that 
was a beast of the field. And yet it is also evident by the Old 
Testament, that he has respect to something pertaining to the state 
of the devil, that should be brought to pass by the Messiah ; as 
by Isat. Ixv. 25. '* The wolf and the lamb shall feed togetiier ; 
and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock, and dust shall be the 
serpent's meat* They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy 
monntain;" compared with Isai. xi. 1 — 9, together with Isai« 
xxvii. 1, and Zech. iii. 1, 2, &c. Thus the very first thing that 
was ordered and established in this world after the fall, was a type 
of the Messiah, and was ordered as such : which argues that typi- 
fying of the Messiah is one principal way of God's foreshowing 
him. And as types and prophecies of the Messiah began together, 
so there is reason to think that they have kept pace one with an- 
other ever since. 

It is more credible, that not only some particular events that 
came to pass among the Jews, or things appointed to be done 
among them, should be typical, but that the state or constitution 
of the nation, and their way of living in many things, was typical, 
because we have an instance of an appointment of a way of liv- 
ing in^ a particular family or race, to continue from generation to 
generation, in the chief and more important things appertaining 
to the outward state and way of life, requiring that which was very 
diverse from the manner of living of all others, and that which was 
very self-denying, in order to typify something spiritual The in- 
stance I mean is that of the posterity of Jonadab, the son of Re- 
chab, who was required by the command of Jonadab, commanding 
them by the spirit of prophecy to drink no wine, nor build any 
house, nor sow seed, nor plant vineyard. 

It is a great argument, that the ancient state of the nation of 
Israel, and both things that appertained to their religious constitu- 
tion, and God's providential disposal of them, were typical of the 
Messiah ; that the Jews themselves anciently thus understood the 
matter. The ancient Jewish rabbies (as Mr. Basnage, in his his- 
tory of the Jews, observes, p. 36S,) judged that all things hap- 
pened to their fathers as types and figures of the Messiah. See 
also Bp. Kidder's Dcmn. of the Messiah, part 2, p. 40, and part 
1, p. 73, 74. Ibid. p. Ill, 112. Ibid. 150, and part 2, p. 67, 
71. 77, 78, and 106. 

As to the Historical events of the Old Testament, it is an argu- 
ment that many of them were types of things appertaining to the 
Messiah's kingdom and salvation, that these things are often in 
the Old Testament expressly spoken of as represented or resembled 
by those historical events. And those events are sometimes not 
only mentioned as resemblances, but as signs and pledges of those 


great things of the Messiah. In Isaiah xli. Abraham's great 
victory over the kings and nations of the east, is spoken of as a 
resemblance of the victory of the Messiah and his people over 
their enemies. Abraham is here called the righteous man, verse 
2 ; as the Messiah in the same discourse: in the beginning of the 
next chapter, the Messiah is called God's servant^ that shall bring 
forlh judgment to the Gentiles, and bring forth judgment onto 
truth, and set judgment in the earth. God is said, xli. 2, to call 
Abraham to his foot* Chap. xlii. 6, it is said of the Messiah, 
*' I have called thee in righteousness." Of Abraham it is said 
chap. xlL 2, '* That God gave the nations before him, as the 
dust to his sword, and as the driven stubble to his bow :" And 
this is spoken of for the encouragement of God's people, as a re- 
semblance and pledge of what he would do for them in the days of 
the Messiah, when he would cause their enemies before them to 
be ashamed and confounded, to be as nothing and to perish ; so 
that they shall seek them, and should not find them, and they 
that war against them shall be as nothing, and as a thing of 
nought; and they should thresh the mountains and beat them 
small, and make the hills as chaff; so that the wind should carry 
them away, and the whirlwind should scatter them. Verses II, 12. 

The church or spouse of the Messiah is spoken of, in CanL 
vi. 13, as being represented by the company of Mahanaim, that 
we have an account of Gen. xxxii. at the beginning, made ap of 
Jacob's family and the heavenly host that joined them. 

The redemption out of Egypt is very often in the Old Testa- 
ment spoken of as a resemblance of the redemption by the Mes- 
siah. Num. xxiii. 22, 23. **God brought them out of Egypt, 
he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn. Surely there is no 
enchantment against Jacob, neither is there any divination against 
Israel. According to this time shall it be said of Jacob and of 
Israel what hath God wrought?" Mic. vii. 15.- "According to 
the days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt, will I show unto 
him marvellous things." Isaiah Ixiv. 1. 3, 4. Oh that thoa 
wouldest rend the heavens ; that that thou wouldest come down, 
that the mountains might flow down at thy presence ! When thoo 
didst terrible things that we look not for, the mountains flowed 
down at thy presence. For since the beginning of the world, 
men have not heard nor perceived by the ear," &c. Isaiah 
xi. 11. ''And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord 
shall set his hand a^ain the second time, to recover the remnant of 
his people which shlll be left from Assyria, and from Egypt;" to- 
gether with verses 15, 16. This redemption out of Egypt, is evi- 
dently spoken of as a resemblance of the redemption of the Messiah. 
In Psalm Ixviii. 6. '' God bringeth out those that were bound 


with chains." Verse 13. ^^Tboogh ye have lieo among the pots, 
yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her 
feathers with yellow gold ;" in which there is an evident reference 
to the people's hands being delivered from the pots in Egypt. 
Pi. Ixxxi. 6, and the context, makes this evident. And the drift 
and design of the psalm shows this to be a promise of the Mes- 
siah's redemption. God's dividing the Red sea and the Jordan, 
and leading the people through them, are often spoken of as re- 
semblances of what God shall accomplish for his people in the 
days of the Messiah. Isai. xi. 11. ^^ And it shall come to pass iu 
that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to 
recover the remnant of his people that shall be left — from Egypt." 
Ver. 15, 16. ** And the Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the 
Egyptian sea, and shake his hand over the river, and shall smite 
it io the seven streams, and cause men to go over dry shod. And 
there shall be an high way for the remnant of his people, which 
shall be left from Assyria, like as it was to Israel, in the day that 
be came up out of the land of Egypt." Isai. xliii. 2, 3. *' When 
tboo passest through the waters, I will be with thee ; and through 
the rivers, they shall not overflow thee — for I — gave Egypt for th^ 
ransom ;" ver. 16, 17, 18, 19. '^Thus saith the Lord, which maketh 
a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters, which bringeth 
forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie 
down together, they shall not rise : they are extinct, they are quench- 
ed as tow. Remember not former things — Behold, I will do a new 
thing." Chap, xxvii. 12. " And it shall come to pass at that day, 
that the Lord shall beat ofl" from the channel of the river under 
the stream of Egjrpt," (or the Lord shall strike ofl", or smite away 
both the channel of the river and the stream of Egypt,) ** and 
ye shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel." Cbap. 
li. 10, 11. ** Art not thou It which hath dried up the sea, the wa- 
ters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of the sea a way 
for the ransomed of the Lord to pass overf Therefore, the re- 
deemed of the Lord shall return and come with singing nnto 
Ztoo," &c. Ver. J 5. '' But I am the Lord thy God, that divided 
the sea," &c. Chap. Ixiii. 11, 12, 13. '* Then he remembered 
the days of old, Moses and his people, saying. Where is he that 
brooght them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock f 
Where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him ? That led them by 
the right hand of Moses, with his glorious arm, dividing the water 
hefore them, to make himself an everlasting name f That led them 
through the deep as an horse in the wilderness f" Psa. Ixviii. 22. 
"I frill bring my people againr from the ilepths of the sea." 
Zecb* z. 10, 11. ** I will bring them again also out of the land of 
Egjp(......*4iiid he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and 

iMI smite the -waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river 


shall dry up, and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, 
and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away." 

The destruction of Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea, is 
spoken of as a resemblance of the destruction of the enemies of 
God's people by the Messiah. Isai. xliii. 16, 17. '^ Thus saich 
the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty 
waters ; which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and 
the power ; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise." 
And particularly Pharaoh's destruction in the Red sea, ^is spoken 
of as a type of the Messiah's bruising the head of the old serpent 
or dragon. Isai. li.9, 10. '' Awake, awake, put on thy strength, 
O arm of the Lord. Art not thou it tha^ hath cut Rahab and 
wounded the dragon f Art not thou it which hath dried up the 
sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of 
the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over f Therefore, the re- 
deemed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto 
Zion," &c« Pharaoh is called leviathan and the dragon in Psalm 
Ixxiv. 13, 14, as the devil is in a like destruction in the Messiah's 
time, Isai. xxvii. 1. That Pharaoh is intended in those foremen- 
tioned places by the dragon and leviathan, is very manifest from 
£zek. xxix. 3, and xxxii. 2. 

The joy and songs of the children of Israel at their redemption 
out of Egypt, and their great deliverance from the Egyptians at 
the Red sea, are spoken of as a resemblance of the joy God's 
people shall have in the redemption of the Messiah. Hos. ii. 15. 
*' And she shall sing there as in the days of her youth ; and as io 
the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." The Spi- 
rit of God seems to have reference to the manner of his leading 
and guarding the people when they went up out of Egypt, in go- 
ing before them to lead them, and behind to keep the Egyptians 
from hurting them ; and to compare wliut he would do in the 
Messiah's days thereto. Isai. lii. 12. '< For ye shall not go out 
with haste, nor go by flight: for the Lord will go before you ; the 
God of Israel will be your rereward ;" the God of Israel, that God 
that thus led Israel out of Egypt, when he entered into covenant 
with them, and became the God of that people. Here see Pool's 
Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14. God's leading the people through the 
wilderness, is spoken of as a resemblance of what should be ac- 
complished towards God's people in the Messiah's times. Isaiah 
Ixiii. 13. " That led them through the deep as an horse in the 
wilderness." Psalm Ixviii. 8. " O God, when thou wentest be- 
fore thy people ; when thou didst march through the wilderness ;*' 
compared with the^restof the psalm. Hos. ii. 14, 15. " I will al- 
lure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably 
to her, and she shall sing as in the days of her youth ; as in th^ 
day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." Ezek. xx. 
37. " And I will bring you out from the people, and gather yo 

and wiih a stretcht ,, _„„^ .^ 

alluding to God's maonerof r<!d«C>ywij'«*,v, 
" And I will bring you into tb« »i\fc^>*^'^\r?S* W 
there will I plead with you face \a fw "-^'^ «^ ■A^'*» >i 
your failiers in liie wilderness of itie lani ^ v^^vaV*-**'^ 1 
plead Willi yon, saitli the Lord God. \n4 \H'iV.?^^i4i 
pass under llie rod, and will bring 3(OR.iWoHi4L^''*''t* ^ \ 
nam." Where we may also obwrve^Bt^od'iiy^V^ '''**'^ 1 
people face to face, and entering into eM'enatiii!vai''^*^Vht 
mnking them his covenant people when be brouc\,^.L^^"), ^^, 
£g'ypt, is spoken of as a resemblance of God'g revca.V,,.'^ ,^^l of 
to his people in the days of the Messiah, and bringing Hwm-"'**^! 
covenant relation lo himself by him. God's appearing viEl'*'* 
children of Israel in a pillar of cloud and fire, is spokea of 
resembtiuice of what God would do for his people in the dj^ \ 
the Messiah. Isai. iv. " And the Lord will create upon tve?« 
dwelling-place of mount Sion, and upon lier astemhliei, «c\n^ 
and smoke by day, and the shining of » flame of fire by nigbL 
For upon all the glory shall be a defence." The quaking of the 
earth and of mount Sinai, at the time of the giving of the 1aw,i| 
spoken of as a resemblance of what should be in the Meiiiah's 
days. Ps. Ixviii. 8. " The earth shook— even Sinai itself wu 
moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel." So the great 
effect of God's presence on (he mountains, and especially mount 
Sinai's being all enkindled by so great and dreadful m fire, ii 
plainly spoken of as a resemblance of what should be in the dayi 
of the Messiah. Isai. Ixiv. 1 — 4. "Oh that thou wouldst rend 
the heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that the mountain* 
might flow down at thy presence, as when the melting fire burn- 
etii When thou didst terrible tilings wliich we looked notfor, 

thoa comest down ; the mountains flowed down at thy presence. 
For since the beginning of the world men have not heard," Sec. 
So the rain thai descended on the people, at the time of the thun- 
der and lightning at mount Sinai, or at the time of the great hail> 
MDnes that God sent on the Ainorites, Psalm Ixviii. 7, 8, 9. " O 
God, when thou wentest forth before thy people; when thou didst 
march through the wilderness, the earth shook, the heavens drop- 
ped at the presence of God. Thou, O Lord, didst send a plenti- 
ful rain, whereby thou didst refresh thine inheritance when it was 
weary." These things do abundantly .confirm, that the redemp- 
tion out of Egypt, and the circumstances and events that attended 
it, were intended by the great disposer of all things to be l}'pes of 
the redemption of God's people by the Messiah, and of things 
appertaining to that redemption. 
VOL. IX. 4 


It Is an argament that the manna that God gave the children of 
Israel was a type of something spiritaal, because it is called the 
corn of heaven and angels' food. Psal. bLXvili. 24, 26 ; andPsaU 
cv. 40. It could be angels' food no otherwise than as representing 
something spiritual. 

Now by the way I would remark, that was before made use of 
as an argument, that the great redemption by the Messiah was very 
much typified beforehand, is very greatly strengthened by what 
has been now observed. I mean that argument that lesser re- 
demptions were by God's ordering represented by types, and par- 
ticularly that the redemption of the children of Israel out of * 
Egypt was much typified beforehand. Now if this was so, that 
God was much in typifying this redemption beforehand, which it- 
self was a type of the great redemption by the Messiah ; how much 
more may we suppose this great redemption itself, that is the anti- 
type of that, should be abundantly typified f Will God do much 
to typify that, which was itself but a shadow of the Messiah's sal 
vation f And shall he not be much more in prefiguring the very 
substance— even that great redemption by the Messiah, in com- 
parison of which the former is oflen in the Old Testament repre- 
sented as worthy of no remembrance or notice f 

God's bringing his people into Canaan, to a state of rest and 
happiness there, is spoken of as a resemblance of what God would 
do for his people through the Messiah. Jer. xxxi. 2. *' Thus 
saith the Lord, the people that were lefl of the sword, found 
grace in the wilderness, even Israel, whea I went to cause him to 
rest :" compared with the rest of the chapter and the foregoing 
chapter. Isai. Ixiii. 14. *' As the beast goeth down into the val- 
ley, the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest. So didst thou lead 
thy people to make thyself a glorious name :" together with the 
context. Psal. Ixviii. 10. '' Thy congregation hath dwelt therein: 
Thou, O God, hast prepared of thy goodness for the poor." Ver. 
13. " Though ye have lain among the pots, yet shall ye be as the 
wings of a dove," &c. together with the context. The man- 
ner of God's giving Israel the possession of Canaan, viz. by a 
glorious conquest of the kings and nations of the land, is spoken 
of as a resemblance of the manner in which God would bring his 
people to rest and glory, by the Messiah, after his exaltation, Psa. 
Ixviii. 11, 12. ** The Lord gave the word ; great was the compa- 
ny of them that published it. Kings of armies did flee apace; and 
she that tarried at home divided the spoil." Ver. 14. •* When the 
Almighty scattered kings in it, it was white as snow in Salmon," 
taken with ver. 21, 22, 23. <' But God shall wound the head of his 
enemies — The Lord said, I will bring again from Bashan ; I will 
bring my people again from the depths of the sea : that thy foot 
may be dipped in the blood of thine enemies, and the tongue of 


Ihj dogs in the same.'^ Ver. 30. *< Rebuke the company of spear*- 
men, the multitude of bulls," &c. — together with the rest of the 

What the people of God should be brought to, in the days of 
the Messiah, is spoken of as represented by the children of Israel's 
slaying Achan in Joshua's time. Hos. ii. 15. '* And I will give 
ber her vineyards from thence, and the valley of Achor for a door 
of hope ; and she shall sing there, as in the days of her youth, as 
in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." 

What came to pass in the time of Joshua's battle with the five 
kings of the Amorites, and particularly God's sending down great 
bail stones upon them, is spoken of as a resemblance of what 
should be in the days of the Messiah. Isai. zxviii. 21. ''For the 
Lord shall rise up in mount Perazim, and his wrath as in the vaU 
ley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work, and 
briDg to pass his act, bis strange act :" together with ver. 2. '' Be- 
hold the Lord hath a mighty and strong one, which as a tempest 
of hail, and a destroying storm, —^ shall cast down to the earth 
with the band." And chap. xxx. 30. '' And the Lord shall cause 
bis |]^loriou8 voice to be beard, and shall show the lighting down 
of his arm, with the indignation of bis anger ——— with tempest and 
hailstones." And xxxii. 19. '' When it shall hail coming down on 
the forest ; and the city shall be low in a low place," (or shall be 
utterly abased.) And Ezek. xxxviii. 22. '* I will rain upon him 
an overflowing rain, and great hailstones." 

What God did- for Israel in the victory of Deborah and Barak 
over the Canaanites, is spoken of as a resemblance of what God 
would do for his people against their enemies in the days of the 
Messiah ; Psal. Ixxxiii. 9, 10. ** Do unto them as unto Sisera, as 
to Jabin at the brook of Kison, which perished at Endor : they 
became as dung for the earth." For this psalm is prophetical, 
and these things have respect to the great things God would do 
against the future enemies of his church. For it does not appear 
that there, was any such confederacy of the nations mentioned 
against Israel in David's or Asaph's time ; and particularly it 
does not look probable^ that there was any such enmity of the in- 
habitants of Tyre against Israel, as is here spoken of, ver. 7. And 
it is very probable, that as this psalm is prophetical, so it is pro- 
phetical of the Messiah's days ; as most of the psalms are. And 
there is a great agreement between what is here foretold of the de- 
struction of the enemies of the church, and what is foretold of the 
Messiah's days in many other places. And the last verse, which 
speaks of God's being made known to all mankind as the only true 
God, and the God of all the earth, further confirms this. 

Gideon's victory over the Midianites, is spoken of as a re- 
lemblaDce of what should be accomplished in the Messiah's days. 


Isai. ix. 4. *' For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden and the 
staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of 
Midian." Psal. Ixxxiii. 9. ** Do unto them as unto the Midian- 
ites." Ver. 11.'' Make their nobles like Oreb and like Zeeb ; yea, 
all their princes as Zeba and Zaimunna." As in the destruction 
ofthe Midinnites every man's sword was against his brother ; so 
it is foretold, that it should be with the enemies of God's people 
in the Messiah's times. Ezek. xxxviii. 14. '' Every man's sword 
shall be against his brother." Hag. ii. 22. *' And I will over- 
throw the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of 
the kingdoms of the heathen, and I will overthrow the chariots of 
them that ride in them, and the horses and their riders shall come 
down every one by the sword of his brother." 

God's wonderful appearance for David at Baal-Perazim, to 
fight for him, against his enemies, is spoken of as a resemblance of 
what should be in the Messiah's times. Isai. xiviii. 21. **For 
the Lord shall ride up as in mount Perazim." 

In Zech. ix. 15, '' The Lord of hosts shall defend them, and 
shall devour and subdue with sling stones." There seems a refe- 
rence to David's subduing Goliath with a sling stone, as though 
that were a resemblance of the manner in which the enemies of 
God's people should be subdued in the times ofthe Messiah ; and 
this is an argument that David's bruising the head of this giant 
and grand enemy of God's church, is a type of the Messiah, the 
son of David, and who is often called by the name of David in 
scripture, bruising the head of Satan. 

It is an argument that the historical events of the Old Tes- 
tament in the whole series of them, from the beginning of God's 
great works for Israel in onler to their redemption out of Egypt, 
even to their full possession of the promised land in the days 
of David, and the building of the temple in the days of Solo- 
mon, were typical things, and that under the whole history was 
hid in a mystery or parable, a glorious system of divine truth 
concerning greater things than these, that a plain summary, 
rehearsal or narration, of them is called a parable and dark 
saying or enigma. Psalm Ixxviii. 2. It is evident that here 
by a parable is not meant merely a set discourse of things, ap- 
pertaining to divine wisdom, as the word parable is sometimes 
used ; but properly a mystical enigmatical speech signifying spi- 
ritual and divine things, and figurative and typical representa- 
tions; because it is called both a parable and dark sayings. 

It is an argument that many of the historical events of 

the Old Testament are types of the great events appertain- 

ing^to the Messiah's coming and kingdom, that the Spirit 

"* ^ ' * vpk occasion from the former to speak of the latter. 

takes occasion to speak of and foretel the Messiah, 

reat events ap|)ertaining to his salvation, ui)on occa- 


sion of the coming to pass of these ancient events, or on his 
speaking of these events, celebrating or promising them, he 
takes occasion to speak of these latter and greater events, join- 
ing what is declared of the one with what he reveals of the 
other in the same discourse ; which is an argument that one 
has relation to the other, and is the image of the other. Thus 
the Spirit of God, when speaking by Balaam, took occasioni 
when celebrating the wonderful work of God in bringing them 
out of Egypt, to foretel that great salvation that God should 
work for his people by the Messiah. Num. xxiii. 23« So the 
Spirit of God in Nathan, when speaking of the glorious reign 
of Solomon and his building an house to God's name, and pro- 
mising these things to David, 2 Samuel vii., takes occasion to 
foretel and promise the more glorious and everlasting kingdom 
of the Messiah, as it is evident that David understood the words 
of Nathan by what he says in chapter xxiii., and in the book 
of Psalms ; and as it is evident from many things in the prophets, 
the Spirit of God intended them. From the ark's being carried 
up into mount Sion, and the great joy and privileges of Israel 
consequent thereupon, the spirit took occasion to speak very 
much of the exaltation of the Messiah, and the glorious privi- 
leges of his people consequent thereupon ; as in 1 Chron. xvi. 7 — 
36, especially from verse 22. So in Psalm Ixviii. which was pen- 
ned or indited on occasion of the ascension of the ark into mount 
Sion, as any one may be satisfied by duly considering the matter 
ofthe psalm, especially verses 25— -29, and by comparing the first 
and seventh verses of this psalm with Num. x. 35, and by com- 
paring many passages in this psalm with many parts of that 
song of David, on occasion of the carrying up the ark that is 
recorded in 1 Chron. xvi. Again on this occasion the Spirit of 
God speaks of the things ofthe Messiah in Psalm cxxxii., which 
was penned on that occasion, as is very plain from the matter 
of the psalm, and by comparing verses, 8, 9, 10, 11, with 2 
CbroD. vi.41,42. 

From David's great victories over the Syrians and Edomites, 
the Spirit of God takes occasion to speak much of the victories 
of the Messiah in Psalms tx. and cviii. Psalm Ixxii., which 
is evidently a remarkable prophecy of the Messiah, was writ- 
ten on occasion of the introducing of Solomon to the throne of 
Israel, as is evident from the title, together with the first verse 
of the psalm. 

So the Spirit of God does abundantly take occasion to foretel 
and promise the redemption ofthe Messiah, and the overthrow 
of bis people's enemies by him ; from these two events, the des- 
tractioD of Sennacherib's army, and the deliverance of Jerusalem 


from hiuiy and likewise the destruction of Babjlon, and the le- 
demption of the Jews from their Babylonish captivity. 

Not only does God take occasion from these historical eFenti 
lo speak of the great events that appertain to the Messiah's 
coming and salvation ; but with regard to several of them, he 
manifestly speaks of both under one ; the same words have 
respect to both events. One is spoken of under the other, as 
though one were contained in the other ; or as though one 
were the other, which can be no other way, than by one being 
the type or representation of the other in that sense wherein 
David said the waters of the well of Bethlehem was the blood 
of those men that bought it in jeopardy of their lives ; as the 
beasts Daniel saw are said to be kingdoms and the horns to be 
kings, and as Ezekiel's hair is said to be Jerusalem. Ezek. 
▼. 5. 

Thus Balaam prophesied of David who smote the four corners 
of Moab, and of the Messiah, under one. So it is most mani- 
fest that the peace and glory of Solomon's reign, and that of 
the reign of the Messiah, are spoken of under one. Psalm Izxii. 
And that the ascending of the ark into mount Sion and the as- 
■cension of the Messiah are also spoken of under one in Psalm 

Some of the historical events of the Old Testament, if they 
are not typical, must needs be very impertinently taken notice 
of in the history ; as David's sacrificing when they had gone 
aix paces with the ark; 2 Sam. vi. 13. It must be both insig- 
nificantly done and impertinently related in the history, unless 
there be some signification of some important thing in it. So 
the relation of there being twelve fountains of water and three- 
score and ten palm-trees. 

The remarkable similitude there is between many of the 
events in the Old Testament, both miraculous and others, and 
the prophetical descriptions of events relating to the Messiah, 
is an argument that the former were designed resemblances of 
the latter. God's causing the light to shine out of darkness, 
as Moses gives us an account of it in the history of the crea- 
tion, has a great similitude with what is foretold to come to pass 
in the Messiah's times. Isaiah zlii. 16. '* I will make darkness 
light before them." Isaiah ix. 2. *' The people that walked in 
darkness have seen a great light. They that dwell in the 
land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined." 
Isaiah, xxix. 18. '* The eyes of the blind shall see out of ob- 
scurity and out of darkness." So there is a great resemblance 
between the account Moses gives us of a river that ran through 
the midst of Eden to water the trees of paradise, and the des- 
criptions which the prophets give of what should be in the Mes- 
siah's times ; as Ezek. xlvii. 7. ^* Now when I had returned, be- 


bold at the bank of the rirer were very many trees, on the one 
ride and on the other." Ver. 12. '* And by the river upon the 
bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow all trees 
for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit there- 
of be consumed." Isaiah xli. 18, 19. '*1 will open rivers in 
hi^h places, and fountains in the midst of the valleys. I will 
make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs 
of water. I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah 
tree and the myrtle and the oil tree. I will set in the desert 
the fir tree and the pine and the box tree together." Compar- 
ed with Isaiah li. 3. ''The Lord will comfort Sion — and he will 
make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden 
of the Lord." Ezek. zxxvi. 35. *' This land that was desolate 
is become like the garden of Eden ;" and Psalm xlvi. 4. '' There 
is a river the streams whereof make glad the city of God ;" 
taken with Num. xxiv. 5, 6. '* How goodly are thy tents, O 
Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel ! As the valleys are they 
spread forth; as the gardens by the river side ; as the trees of 
lign aloes which the Lord hath planted^ and as cedar-trees be* 
tide the waters;^* and Jer. xxxi. 12. '* And their soul shall be 
like a watered garden, and they shall not sorrow any more at 
all." So between what we are told of the tree of life in Eden, 
(which being in the midst of the garden, we have reason to 
think was by the river,) and the representations made of what 
should be in the Messiah's times, Ezek. xlvii. 9. 12, '* Every 
thing that liveth, which moveth whithersoever the river shall 
come shall live. Every thing shall live whither the river 
Cometh. And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side 
and on that side, shall grow all trees for meat, whose leaf shall 
not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed. It shall 
bring forth new fruit according to his months. The fruit there- 
of shall be for meat and the leaf thereof for medicine." 

The things that we have an account of in Moses's history of 
the deluge, have a great resemblance of many of the Old Testa« 
ment representations of things that shall be brought to pass in 
the time of the Messiah's kingdom. That destruction of the 
wicked world by a flood of waters is very agreeable to the Old 
Testament representation of the future destruction that shall 
come on all God's enemies, and particularly in the Messiah's 
days. The wicked of the old woild were destroyed by a dread- 
ful tempest. So it is said concerning the ungodly, Job xxvii. 
20, 21. ** Terrors take hold on him as waters ; a tempest steal- 
eth him away in the night. The east wind carrieth him away, 
and be departeth ; a storm hurleth him out of his place." Sor- 
fow and misery is very often represented by overwhelming wa* 
tersy and God's wrath by waves and billows. Ps. xlii. 7, and 


Izzxviii. 7. The waters of the flood did not only overwhelm 
the wicked, but came into their bowels. God's wrath on the 
ungodly is compared to this very thing. Ps. cix. 18. ** As he 
clothed himself with cursing like as with a garment, so let it 
come into his bowels like water." In the time of the flood the 
waters were poured down out of heaven like spouts or cataracts 
of water. God's wrath is compared unto this, Ps. xlii. 7. •* Deep 
calleth unto deep at the noise of thy water-spouts." The wa- 
ters of the deluge were what the ungodly of the world could not 
escape, or hide themselves from them by resorting to caves in 
the ground, or digging deep in the earth, or ^ing to the tops of 
mountains ; so likewise is the matter represented with respect 
to God's wrath on the ungodly, in Isaiah zxviii. 17. " The wa- 
ters shall overflow the hiding-place;" and Amos ix. 1, 2. '* He 
that fleeth of them shall not flee away : he that escapeth of 
them shall not be delivered. Though they dig into hell, thence 
shall mine hand take them : though they climb up to heaven, 
thence will I bring them down : and though they hide them- 
selves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out 
thence :" and so in many other places. Particularly is there 
a great resemblance between the destruction that was brought 
on the wicked world by the flood, and what is foretold of the 
wicked in the Messiah's times ; as in Isaiah xxiv. 18, 19, 20. 
** And it shall come to pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the 
fear, shall fall into a pit; and he that cometh up out of the midst 
of the pit, shall be taken in the snare." (So that there shall be no 
escaping, let them flee where they will, as it was in the time of 
the deluge.) ** For the windows from on high are open, and 
the foundations of the earth do shake. The earth is utterly 
broken down ; the earth is clean dissolved ; the earth is moved 
exceedingly — and the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon 
it." There is not only a resemblance between this representa- 
tion of the punishment of the wicked world in the Messiah's 
days, and the history of the flood, but here seems to be an evi- 
dent allusion to the flood, and a designed comparison of that de- 
struction of God's enemies, and what was in the time of the 
flood, when we are told the windows of heaven were opened and 
the fountains of the great deep were broken up, &c. So the 
destruction of God's enemies in the Messiah's times is repre- 
sented as being by a flood. D^n. ix. 26. '* And the end thereof, 
shall be with a flood ;" and to a flood occasioned by a mighty rain. 
Ezek. xxxviii. 22. <* I will rain upon him and upon his bands, 
and upon the many people that are with him, an overflowing 
rain." There is also a remarkable agreement between what 
we are told in Moses's history of ^he preservation of those that 
were in the ark, and what is often declared in Old Testa- 


: prophecies concerning the preserration and salvation of 
burch by the Messiah. Isai. xxxii., at the beginning. '* A 
shall be a hiding place from the wind, a covert from the 
test." Isa. iv. 6. ** And there shall be a place of refuge, 
for a covert from storm, and from rain." Isa. xxv. 4. 
ou hast beeii a strength to the poor, a strength to the needy 
itress, a refuge from the storm — when the blast of the ter- 
ones is as the storm against the wall." Psa. xlvi. 1, 2, 3. 
d is our refuge and strength, we will not fear though the 
\ be removed, though the mountains be carried into the midst 
3 sea," (as they in a sense were in the flood. They were in 
lidstof the sea ; the sea surrounded and overwhelmed them.) 
ough the waters thereof roar and are troubled ; though the 
itains shake with the swelling thereof." Isai. xliii. 2. " When 
passeth through the waters, I will be with thee :" compare 

texts with Psalm xxxii. 6. '' Surely in the flood of great 
rs, they shall not come high thee," and Psalm xci. 7. " A 
and shall fall at thy side, and ten thouand at thy right hand, 

shall not come nigh thee." We may suppose that there 
1 resolving and flocking of animals from all parts of the 
I, such as are proper to hot countries, from the south; and 
ELS dwell in colder climates from the north. And as there 
lany countries that have their peculiar kinds of animals ; 
J may suppose there was a resorting from every quarter, 
sorting of beasts and a flocking of birds, which is a lively 
iblance of what is often foretold of the gathering of God's 
e into his church from all quarters in the Messiah's days, 
oming to him for salvation when all the ends of the earth 
d look to him to be saved. Isaiah xlv. 22. When God 
d bring the seed of his church from the east, and gather 
from the west, and would say to the north. Give up, and to 
uth, Keep not back. Bring my sons from far and my daugh- 
rom the ends of the earth. Isaiah xliii. 6, 7, and many other 
lei places. And God would gather his people from all coun- 
agreeably to many prophecies, and it shall be said. Who are 
that fly as a cloud and as doves to their windows f The ga* 
ig of all kinds of creatures to the ark, clean and unclean, 
and wild, gentle and rapacious, innocent and venomous; 
f(, wolves, bears, lions, leopards, serpents, vipers, dragons ; 
he door of the ark standing open to them, and their all 
ing there peaceably together under one head, even Noah, 
(indly received them and took care of them, fed and saved 
, and to whom they tamely submitted, is a lively rcpre- 
tion of what is often foretold concerning the Messiah's 

when it is foretold, that not only the Jews should be saved 
L. IX. 5 


but unclean Gentile nations, when the gates of God's church 
should be open to all sorts of people, (Isai. Ix, 11, with the 
context,) when proclamation should be made to every one to 
come freely. Isai. Iv. 1 — 9. And God would abundantly pardon 
the wicked and unrighteous, ver. 6, 7, 8, 9, and would bring 
again even the captivity of Sodom and her daughters. Kzek. 
xvi. 53. And those nations should be gathered to God's church, 
to be one holy society with Israel that were wont to be their most 
cruel and inveterate enemies ; such as the Egyptians; Psalm 
Izxxvii. 4, and Ixviii. 31. Isai. xix. 18, to the end, and xlv. 14. 
The Philistines ; Psa. Ix. 8, and Ixxxvii. 4. Zech. ix. 6, 7. The 
Chaldeans; Psa. Ixxxvii. 4, and Assyrians; Isai. xix. 23,24, 
25 ; and the most wild and barbarous nations. Tabor and ller- 
mon, that were noted haunts of wild beasts ; Psa. Ixxxvii. 12 ; 
Cant. iv. 8 ; Psa. xlii. 6. Hos. v. 1, and the nations of Arabia 
and Ethiopia, (in many places see fulfilment of prophecies of 
Messiah 4 160,) countries that abounded with the most rapa- 
cious, venomous and terrible animals. When it is foretold that 
the beasts of the field should honour God, and the dragons and 
the owls, lsa.xliii. 19, 20; and when it is foretold ** jthat the wolf 
shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with 
the kid, and the calf and the young lion and the fatling to- 
gether, and a little child shall lead them ; and the cow and 
the bear shall feed, and their young ones shall lie down to- 
gether ; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox, and the suck- 
ing child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child 
shall put his hand on the cockatrice den, and they shall not hurt 
nor destroy in all Gud's holy mountain," Isai. xi. 6 — 9, and 
chap. Ixv. 25, events under the Messiuh^s kingdom are intend- 
ed. The ark was a great while tossed to and fro on the face 
of the flood, ready to be overwhelmed ; but at last rested on a 
high mountain or rock, and the company in it had enlargement 
and liberty, and were brought into a new world. So the church 
in the Messiah's days is long in a state of affliction, tossed with 
tempest and not comfoitcd. Isai. liv. 11. But when she is ready 
to be overwhelmed, God will lead her to the rock that is higher 
than she, Psa. Ixi. 2, and she shall be brought out of her afflic- 
tion into a new world, Isa. Ixv. 17, 18, and shall dwell in God's 
holy mountain, as is often foretold. 

Another historical event, between which and the Old Testa- 
ment representations of spiritual things, and particular things ap- 
pertaining to the Messiah's kingdom, there is a great resemblance 
in the destruction of Sodom and the neighbouring cities. There 
is a great resemblance between this and the future punishment of 
the wicked in general, as represented in the Old Testament. 
Fire and brimstone were poured out from God outof heaven, and 
rained down on these cities : so the wrath of God is often in the 


Old Testamenrcompared to fire, and is represented as poured out 
from heaven on the ungodly, and particularly to he poured out 
like fire. Nahumi. 6. Isai. xlii. 25. Jer. xliv. 6. Lam. ii. 4. and 
iv. 11. Eiek. xxii. 21, 22. 31. So it is threatened in allusion to 
the manner of Sodom's destruction, Psa. xi. G, that upon the 
wicked God would rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horri- 
ble or burning tempest, (as it is in the margin,) and it is said this 
should be the portion of their cup. That destruction came on So- 
dom suddenly and unexpectedly, while the inhabitants were in the 
midst of their voluptuousness and wickedness, and wholly at ease 
and quiet, in the morning, when the sun arose pleasantly on the 
earth, and when the idle and unclean inhabitants were drowned in 
sloth, sleep, and pleasures ; which is agreeable to what is often 
represented in the Old Testament of the manner of God's bring- 
ing destruction on the wicked. It came on Sodom as a snare. So 
it is said in that xi. Psa. ''Snares, fire and brimstone, shall God 
rain," &c. That while the wicked is about to fill his belly, God 
shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and rain it upon him 
while he is eating. Job. xx. 23. That God hath set them in slip- 
pery places, and that they are cast down to destruction in a mo- 
ment, and are utterly consumed with terrors. Ps. Ixxiii. 18, 19. 
That their destruction falls suddenly upon them, as the fishes are 
taken in an evil net, (when sporting securely in the water,) and 
as birds are caught in the snare (when they are feeding and pleas- 
ing themselves with the bait.) Eccl. ix. 12. Particularly this if 
represented as the manner of destruction's coming on them that 
harden their necks when often reproved, as the inhabitants of So- 
dom had been by Lot, as appears by Gen. xix. 9. Prov. xxix. 1. 
*' He that being often reproved, hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly 
b^ destroyed, anfll that without remedy." There is a special re- 
semblance between the destruction of Sodom, and the destruction 
that is foretold to come on the enemies of God and the Messiah 
ander the Messiah's kingdom, which is often represented as being 
by fire. Mai. iii. 1. '* Who may abide the day of his coming? 
And who shall stand when he appeareth f For he is like a refin- 
er's fire." A refiner's fire is a vehement furnace, that burns up the 
dross. Chap. iv. 1. ** For behold, the day cometh that shall burn 
as an oven, and the proud, yea, all that do wickedly, shall be as 
stubble ; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the 
Lord of hosts ; it shall leave them neither root nor branch." Ps. 
xxi. 9. ** Thou shalt make them as in a fiery oven the day of thine 
anger. The Lord shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the 
fire shall devour them." Dan. vii. 11. «* I beheld till the beast 
was slain, and his body destroyed and given to the burning flame." 
Tea, that destruction is represented as efiected by raining down 
fire and brimstone npon them. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. ** And I will 
plead against him with pestilence and with blood ; and I will rain 


upon bim, and upon bis bands, and upon the many people that are 
with hinii an overflowing rain and great hailstones, fire and brim- 
stone. Isai. XXX. 30. «*And the Lord shall cause his glorious 
voice to be heard, and shall show the lighting down of his arm 
with the indignation of his anger, and with the flame of devouring 
fire, with scattering, and tempest, rnd hail-stones." Ver. 33. 
'* For Tophet is ordained of old ; for the king it is prepared. He 
hath made it deep and large. The pile thereof is fire and much 
wood. The breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth 
kindle it. Chap. xxix. 6. '* Thou shalt be visited of the Lord 
of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with 
storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire." The Mes- 
siah's enemies are represented as destroyed with everlasting fire ; 
Isai. xxxiii. 11 — 14. " The people shall be as the burning of 
lime; as thorns cut up shall they be burnt in the fire. — Who 
among us shall dwell with the devouring fire ? Who among us 
shall dwell with everlasting burnings ?" Isai. Ixvi. 15, 16. *< For 
behold, the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots like a 
whirlwind, to render vengeance with fury, and his rebuke with 
flames of fire. For by fire and by his sword will the TiOrd plead 
with all flesh, and the slain of the Lord shall be many :" with ver. 
24. " And they shall go forth and look upon the carcases of the 
men that have transgressed against me, for their worm shall not 
die, neither shall their fire be quenched." There was something 
in the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah to represent this. The 
fire that destroyed them was, as if were, everlasting fire, inasmuch 
as the destruction it brought upon them was everlasting and irre- 
parable desolation, so that they never could be built again, and 
never any creature, either man or beast, could live there any more ; 
which is often particularly remarked in scripture. Isai. xiii. 19, 
20. Jer. xlix. 18, and chap. 1. 39, 40. Isai. i. 0. The place, 
land, or lake where Sodom and its neighbour cities once were, is 
a place that ever since abounds with that sulphurous inflammable 
matter, that is called bitumen and asphalium^ and in our transla- 
tion of the Bible, pitchy which is a further representation of eter- 
nal burnings, and is a remarkable resemblance of what is foretold 
concerning the destruction of God's enemies in the Messiah's 
times. Isai. xxxiv. 8—^10. *' For it is the day of the Lord's ven- 
geance, and the year of recompences for the controversy of Zion ; 
and the streams thereof shall be turned \\\\o pitch (or bitumen or 
asphaliunij) and the dust thereof into brimstone ; and the land 
thereof shall become burning pitch. It shall not be quenched 
night nor day. The smoke thereof shall go up for ever ; from 
generation to generation it shall lie waste ; none shall pass through 
it for ever and ever." This destruction came on Sodom just as the 
SUD was up, and had enlightened the world by its beams. So it is 


manifest, from many prophecies, that great destruction of the ene- 
mies of the church so often spoken of, is when God comes and ap- 
pears gloriously for his people, and when the morning of that glo- 
rioas day of the church's light, peace, and triumph is come on, 
and the glory of the Lord shall be risen upon the church, and the 
Son of Righteousness with healing in his wings. Then will the 
day come that will burn as an oven, and the wicked shall be as 
stubble. Lot's being so wonderfully delivered and saved from the 
destruction, well represents that great preservation of God's church 
and people, so often spoken of by the prophets, in that time of 
God's indignation and day of his wrath and vengeance on his 

The remarkable similitude there is between very many things 
in the history of Joseph, and the Old Testament prophecies of the 
Messiah, argue the former to be a type of the latter. Joseph is 
said to be the son of Jacob's old age. Gen. xxxvii. 3. So the Mes- 
siah is every where represented in the prophecies, as coming and 
setting up his kingdom in the latter days. He was Jacob's beloved 
son. Gen. xxxvii. 3. So the prophecies do represent the Messiah 
as the beloved Son of God. They represent him as the Son of 
God. (See fulfilment of the prophecies of theMessiah ^15.) They 
also represent him as one that should be in a very peculiar and 
transcendent manner the beloved of God. (See fulfilment of pro- 
phecies, be. ^ 18.) Joseph was clothed with a beautiful garment. 
So the prophecies represent the Messiah as clothed with beautiful 
and glorious garments. Zech. iii. 4, 5. ''Take away the filthy 
garments from him. I will clothe thee with change of raiment— - 
so they set a fair mitre on his head and clothed him with gar- 
ments." Isai. Ixi. 10. '' He hath clothed me with the garments 
of salvation. He hath covered me with a robe of righteous- 
ness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a 
bride adorneth herself with her jewels." The sheaves of Jo- 
seph's brethren in his vision all bow down to his sheaf. So it 
is prophecied of the Messiah, that God would make him his first 
bom, higher than the kings of the earth. Psa. Ixxxix. 27. 
Kings are said all of them to be the sons of the Most High ; but 
this king is represented as made the highest by God, and all the 
rest as being made to bow down unto him. Psa. Ixxii. 11. ''Tea, 
all things shall fall down before him." Isai. xlix. 7. "Kings 
shall see and arise ; princes also shall worship ; because of the 
Lord that is faithful and the holy one of Israel, and he shall choose 
thee." See also ver. 23, and Psa. xlv. " He hath anointed thee with 
the oil of gladness above thy fellows." And many other places 
import the same thing. The saints are often in the prophecies 
called the children of .God. And they are represented as the 
Messiah's brethren. Psa. zxii. 22. " I will declare thy name unto 


niy brethren ; in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.** 
But the Messiah is every where represented as their Lord and 
King, whom they honour, and submit to and obey. Yea, it is 
promised that every knee should bow to him. Isai. xlv. 23. The 
fan, moon, and stars, are represented as making obeisance to Jo- 
seph. So in the prophecies the Messiah is represented as God, 
whom the Old Testament often speaks of as ruling-sun, moon, 
and stars. And the heavens are represented as declaring the 
Messiah's righteousness. (Psa. xcvii. 6, and 1. 6.) And the hea- 
vens and earth, and sea, and the whole universe is represented as 
rejoicing and worshipping and praising the Messiah on occasion 
of his coming and kingdom. Psa. xcvi. 11 — 13. Ixix. 34. Isai. 
xliv. 23. and xlix. 13. And the sun is represented as being 
ashamed, and the moon confounded, and the stars withdrawing 
their shining, (as it were vailing their faces as the worshipping 
angels do) before the Messiah, at his coming to reign in the 
world. Isai. xxiv. 23. Joeliii. 15. And the stars as falling from 
heaven ; Isai. xxxiv. 4. Joseph's father and mother are repre- 
sented as bowing down to him to the earth. This was never ful- 
filled properly with respect to Joseph. His father, when he met 
him in Egypt, did not, that we have any account, thus bow down 
to him ; and his mother was dead long before ; both Rachel and 
Leah were dead before Jacob went down into Egypt. But the 
Messiah's ancestors are represented as worshipping him. The 
Messiah is represented as the son of David ; but David calls him 
Lord. Psa. ex. 1. Joseph was hated by his brethren, which is 
agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the Messiah. Psa. 
Ixix. 8. *' I am become a stranger to my brethren, and an alien unto 
my mother's children." Joseph was hated by the sons of the same 
father, Jacob. So the prophecies do represent the Messiah as a 
son of Jacob, one of the seed of Isfael, but as hated by the gene- 
rality of his seed, the Jews. Joseph's brethren sold him for a few 
pieces of silver; so the prophecies do represent the Jews as selling 
the Messiah for a few pieces of silver. Zech. xi. 12, 13. Joseph's 
brethren went about to murder him ; so the prophecies represent 
the Messiah as being murdered by the Jews. Joseph was the 
saviour of his brethren and the church of God. He saved their 
lives. So the Messiah is abundantly represented in the prophe- 
cies as the saviour of his brethren ; the saviour of the saints, the 
church of God, and of the nation of the Jews; and as one that 
saves them from death. Joseph was the saviour of the world, not 
only of the seed of Israel, but the Gentile nations, yea, of all na- 
tions. For the famine was sore in all lands, even over all the 
face of the earth, and all countries came into Kgypt to Joseph to 
boy corn. Gen. xli.56, 57. And his name Zaphnath-pauneah, in 
th« Egyptian language, signifies the Saviour of the world. This 


ift exactly agreeable to the Old Testament representation of the 
Messiah. Joseph was first in a state of great humiliation, and 
afterwards in a state of exaltation. In his state of humiliation he 
was a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. His disgrace 
and sufferings were very great. He suffered all unjustly from the 
hands of men, being innocent, and wrongfully condemned. He 
suffered as being guilty of horrid crimes. And had his place and 
lot among great criminals ; and suffered all with admirable 
meekness, which is exactly agreeable to the prophecies of the 
Messiah. Joseph was a servant to one of the chief rulers of 
Egypt, Potiphar, the captain of the guard. So the Messiah is 
called the servant of rulers. Isai. xlix. 7. Joseph was one of the 
king's prisoners, under the hand of the king's chief officer of 
jnstice, the captain of the guard, and as it were, high sheriff of 
Egypt. So the Messiah is represented as suffering from the hands 
of GikI, who bruized him and put him to grief, and as executing 
Justice npon him for man's sins, making his soul an offering for 
sin. Joseph^s being cast into the dungeon is a fit representation 
of what the prophecies do represent of the Messiah's extreme af- 
fliction and grief, and his being brought to the grave, (often called 
the pit in the Old Testament,) and remaining some time in the 
state of death. Joseph was a prophet. He had divine visions 
himself, and had knowledge in the vidons of God, and could in- 
terpret the visions of others. This is agreeable to Old Testament 
representations of the Messiah. He was a revealer of secrets, as 
his name ZaphmUh-paaneah signifies in the Hebrew tongue, and 
revealed those secrets that none other could reveal, and after the 
wisdom of all the wise men of Egypt had been tried and proved 
insufficient. Gen. xli. 8, 9, ^c. This is agreeable to what is repre- 
sented of the Messiah in Isai. xli. two last verses, and xlii. 1. 
** For 1 beheld, and there was no man even amongst them, and 
there was no counsellor, that when I asked of them, could answer 
a word. Behold, they are all vanity. Behold my servant whom 
1 uphold, mine elect in whom my soul delighteth. I have put my 
spirit upon him ; he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles." 
Joseph is spoken of as distinguished from all in that he was one 
io whom the Spirit of God was. How agreeable is this to the 
frequent representations in the Old Testament of the Messiah, as 
one that God puts his Spirit upon ! Joseph is spoken of as one 
to whom none was to be compared for wisdom, and prudence, and 
counsel through the Spirit of God. Gen. xli. 38, 39. This is 
agreeable to what is foretold of the Messiah, Isai. ix. 6. ** His 
Qame shall be called wonderful, counsellor." Chap. xi. 2, 3. 
" The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him ; the spirit of wis- 
dom and understanding ; the spirit of counsel and might ; the 
ipirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord, and shall make 


bim of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord." Zech. iih 
9* '* Upon ode stone shall be seven eyes." Isai. Hi. 13. *' Be- 
hold my servant shall deal prudently." See also that foremen- 
tioned, Isai. xli. and two last verses, and xlii. 1. Joseph was ex- 
alted for this his great wisdom ; which is agreeable to what is said 
of the Messiah, Isai. lii. 13. *' Behold, my servant shall deal pru- 
dently ; he shall be exalted, and extolled, and be very high." So 
agreeably to this, Joseph's exaltation was very great. He was 
exalted by the king of the country, who we may well suppose in 
this case represents God, seeing it is evident by the Old Testa- 
ment, that kings in their kingly authority are the images of God. 
(Ps. Ixxxii. 1, 6.) Pharaoh exalts Joseph over all his house and 
people. So the prophecies do often represent God as exalting the 
Messiah over his people and his house, or temple, and over heaven. 
The king exalted Joseph to be next to himself in his kingdom, to 
ride in the second chariot which he had. So the prophecies re- 
present the Messiah as the second in God's kingdom, next to God 
the Father, and exalted by him to this dignity. Ps. ex. 1. '* Sit 
thou on my right hand." Ps. Ixxxix. *' 1 will make him my first 
bom higher than the kings of the earth." Joseph was exalted 
over all the nobles and rulers of the land of Egypt, excepting 
Pharaoh himself. Ps. cv. 21, 22. 'Agreeable to this it is often 
represented in the prophecies, that all kings shall be made to 
bow and submit to the Messiah. And it is also implied that the 
angels of heaven, as well as all nations of the earth, should be 
subjected to him by God. Dan. vii. 9, &c. '' I beheld till the 
thrones were cast down, and the ancient of days did sit. Thou- 
sand thousands ministered unto him — I saw one in the night vi- 
sions, and beheld one like unto the Son of man come forth in 
the clouds of heaven, and come to the- ancient of days; and 
they brought him near before him, and there was given him do- 
minion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all nations and lan- 
guages should serve him." Dan. xii, 1. Michael the great prince 
— together with chap. x. 13. *' Michael, the first of the chief 
princes," with the context, that speaks of angels as princes. 
Pharaoh invested Joseph with his own authority and honour as 
his representative and vicegerent. For he took off his own 
ring from his hand, and put it on Joseph's hand. So the pro- 
phecies do represent God as investing the Messiah with his au- 
thority and honour, seating him on his own throne, and causing 
him to bear the glory. Zech. vi. 12, 13. And there are many 
other prophecies that imply the same. Pharaoh arrayed Jo- 
seph with change of raiment, pure garments, and ensigns of 
royalty, agreeably to what is foretold of the Messiah. Zech. iii., 
and Isaiah Ixi. 10. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in fine linen. Gen. 


xli. 42, as the Messiah is represented as clothed in fine linen, Dan. 
X.5 : for it may, by well considering the chapter, be gathered, that 
the person there spoken of is the same with Michael mentioned 
in verses 13 and 21, and chapter xii. 1. Pharaoh, when he ex- 
alted Joseph, committed all his treasures and stores into Joseph's 
hand, to bestow on otheis and feed mankind. Psalm cv. 21. 
He made him lord of his house and ruler of all his substance. 
And particularly Joseph received those stores and treasures to 
bestow on his injurious brethren that had been mortal enemies 
to him ; which is agreeable to what is said of the Messiah's 
exaltation. Psalm Ixviii. 18. '* Thou hast ascended on high — 
thou hast received gifts for men, yea, for the rebellious also." 
When Pharaoh exalted Joseph he gave him his wife. So the 
Messiah's marriage with his church is represented as following 
bis humiliation and attending his exaltation, in Isaiah liii. and 
lir. Joseph marries the daughter of Potipherah, which signi- 
6e9 destroyer of fatness, a word of the same signification 
with some of the names given in scripture to the devil. This 
Potipherah was priest of On, which signifies iniquity, or 
sorrow. So the prophecies do represent the Messiah as bring- 
ing his church into espousals with himself from a state of sin 
and wickedness. Jer. iii. 14. '* Turn, O backsliding children, 
unto me, for I am married unto you." Compare Hos. ii. 
throughout; Psalm xlv. 10, with Ezek. xvi. 3, &c. '^Thy birth and 
thy nativity is of the land of Canaan ; thy father was an Amo- 
rite, and thy mother a Hittite. — When I passed by thee and saw 
thee polluted in thy blood — behold, thy time was the time of 
love — and I entered into covenant with thee, and thou becamest 
mine." And the prophecies do every where represent the Mes* 
tiah as bringing his people into a blessed relation and union 
with himself from a state of sin. Joseph's wife's name was 
Asenaihf which signifies an unfortunate thing. Agreeably to this 
the Messiah is represented as espousing, after his exaltation, a 
poor, unhappy, afflicted, disconsolate creature. Isaiah liv. 4, 
kc ** Fear not, for thou shalt not be ashamed, neither be thou 
confounded ; for thou sh^lt not be put to shame. For thou shalt 
forget the shame of thy youth, and shalt not remember the re^ 
proach of thy widowhood any more, for thy Maker is thy hus- 
band ; for the Lord hath called thee as a woman forsaken and 
giieved in spirit, and a wife of youth, when thou wast refused.'* 
Verse 11. " O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest and not com- 
forted: Behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours," be. 
Hos. ii. 9, &c. •*! will return and take away my corn — ^none 
ihall deliver out of my hand — I will destroy her vines and her 
-trees — I will visit upon her the days of Baalim — I will bring 

fig-trees — I will visit upon her the days 

her into the wilderness and speak comfortably unto her— and 
VOL. IX. 6 


at that day she shall call me Ishi/' Verses 19, 20. '* And I will 
betroth thee unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto 
me,'* &c. Isaiah 1^"- 44.^ " Thou shalt no more be termed for- 
saken, neither shall thy land be any more termed desolate, but 
thou shalt be called Hephzibah, and thy land Beiilah ; for the 
Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married — and as 
the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God re- 
joice over thee.'* Joseph's brethren are in great trouble and 
perplexity, and are brought to reflect on themselves for their 
sins, and deeply to humble themselves before him, before Jo- 
seph speaks comfortably to them, and makes known his love 
and favour to them, and receives them to the blessings and glory 
of his kingdom. This is agreeable to what the procheciesdo 
often represent of the Messiah with respect to sinners. Hos. ii. 
14, 15. ** I will allure her and bring her into the wilderness, and 
speak comfortably unto her, and 1 will give her her vineyards 
from thence — and she shall sing there." See also Jer. iii. 12» 
13. 21, 22. Chap. xxxi. Id — ^20. Joseph's brethren, before 
they were comforted and made happy by him, are brought to cry 
with the greatest humility, and earnestness, and penitence, for 
their abuse of Joseph, to him for mercy. Agreeably to the 
prophecies of the Messiah, Zech. xii. 10, ^c. ^' And I will pour 
upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusa- 
lem the spirit of grace and supplications, and they shall look 
upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him," 
&.C. Hos. V. 15. *' I will go and return to my place, till they ac- 
knowledge their offence and seek my face : in their affiiction, 
they shall seek me early." Ezek. xxxvi. 37. •• I will yet for this 
be inquired of by the house of Israel to do it for them." Jer. 
xxix. 12 — 14. ** Then shall ye call upon me, and ye shall go 
and pray unto me, and I will hearken unto you, and ye shall 
^eek me and find me, when ye shall search for me with all 
your heart.'* And I will be found of you, saith the Lord, 
and I will turn away your cufitivity." When once Joseph's 
brethren were thoroughly humbled, then his bowels yearned 
towards them with exceeding great compassion and tender- 
ness of heart, though before he treated them as if he was 
very angry with them. See, agreeable to this, Jeremiah xxxi. 
18, fcc. " I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning him- 
self thus, Thou hast chastised me and I was chastised, as a 
bullock unaccustomed to the yoke. Turn thou me and I shall 
be turned ; for thou art the Lord my God. Surely after I was 
turned, I repented ; and after that I was instructed, I smote 
U|)on my thigh : I was ashamed, yea, even confounded, because 
1 did bear the reproach of my youth. Is Ephraim my dear son.'* 
is he a pleasant child .^ For since I spake against him, I do 
earnestly remember him still. Therefore my bowels are tron- 


bled for him, I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the Lord." 
Joseph perfectly forgives all their past ill treatment, or blots it 
out, as though it had never been, and will have it remembered 
no more. Gen. xlv. 5—8, and I. 19 — 21. This is agreeable to 
what is often spoken of in the prophecies, as a great benefit 
God's people shall have by the Messiah. (See fulfilment of 
prophecies, ^ 79, and '^ 86.) The manner of Joseph's comfort- 
ing his brethren in the manifestations and fruits of his special 
and peculiar love, his bringing them near him, making known 
himself to them as theirs in a near relation, his treating them 
with such great tenderness, his embracing them, his manifesting 
so great a concern for their welfare, his putting such honour 
upon them before the Egyptians, his entertaining them with a 
sumptuous joyful feast in his house and at his own table, his 
clothing them with change of raiment, his bringing them into 
his own land and there giving them a goodly inheritance, plenti- 
fully providing for them in Goshen, a land of light ; all is re- 
inarkably agreeable to the descriptions given in the prophecies 
of the manner of God's comforting, blessing, exalting, and mani- 
festing his great favour to his church, after her long continued 
sin and sorrows, in the days of the Messiah's kingdom, in places 
too many to be enumerated. Joseph's brethren at this time 
are like them'that dream, Gen. xlv. 3, &c. ; which is agreeable 
to what is said of the church of God, when delivered and com- 
forted by the Messiah. Psalm cxxvi. 1. " When the Lord turn- 
ed again the captivity of Zion, we were like them that dream.'* 
There is joy in Pharaoh's court among his servants and nobles 
on the occasion of Joseph's receiving his brethren. Gen xlvi. 
16. Answering to this is Isaiah xliv. 22, 23. " I have redeem- 
ed thee. Sing, O ye heavens ; for the Lord hath done it." And 
chap. xlix. 13. " Sing, O heaven, and be joyful, O earth — for 
the Lord hath comforted his people." And Psalm cxiviii. 4. 
** Praise him, ye heaven of heavens, and ye waters that be 
above the heavens," with verses 13, 14. ** Let them praise the 
name of the Lord : for his name alone is excellent ; his glory 
is above the earth and heaven. He also exalteth the horn of 

hie people." 

The remarkable agreement between many things in the his- 
tory of Moses, and the prophecies of the Messiah, argue the 
i former to be a type of the latter. Moses was God's elect. Ps. 
I crL 23. " Had not Moses his chosen stood before him." In 
I his being so wonderfully preserved and upheld by God when in 
I great danger, preserved in the midst of many waters, when he 
1 was cast into the river. Moses was drawn out of the water 
1 when a babe. Compare Ps. Ixix. and Isai. liii. 2. He was pre- 
jjI served in his banishment, preserved and delivered from the 


wrath of the king of Egypt, when he from time to time went to 
him with messages that so much provoked him ; preserved at 
the Red sea, in the wilderness and in the midst of that perverse, 
invidious congregation, and delivered from the strivings of the 
people. This is agreeable to many things said in the prophecies 
of the Messiah. Moses was twice delivered out of great wa- 
ters, when he was designed by his enemies for death ; once in 
his being drawn out of the river, and another time in rising out 
of the Red sea. This is agreeable to the prophecies of the 
Messiah's sufferings and death, and his rising from them. Mi- 
sery, and wrath, and sore affliction, are often in scripture com- 
pared to great waters, to waves and billows, and great deeps, 
and the like ; and the Messiah's sufferings in fmrticular, as Ps. 
Ixix. 1 — 3. 14, 15, and his deliverance out of those sufferings 
is represented as his being delivered out of great waters. Ps. 
Ixix. 14, 15. The region of the dominion of death and de- 
struction is represented as being down under the waters. Job 
XXV. 5, 6. These deliverances of Moses, therefore, are agreea- 
ble to the prophecies of Christ's resurrection. Moses was not 
only delivered from his troubles and danger, but his deliverances 
were followed with great exaltation, resembling the exaltation 
of the Messiah that the prophecies speak of. After he was 
drawn out of the water, he was exalted in the king's palace, as 
his son and heir. After his banishment he converses with God 
in mount Sinai, a resemblance of heaven, and is made king 
over God's church. In about forty days after his resurrection 
out of the Red sea, he ascends up to God in mount Sinai. 

The things that are said of the burning bush, do wonderfully 
agree with the Old Testament representations of the Messiah. 
It was not a high tree, but a bush ; as the Messiah is called the 
low tree ; Ezck. xvii. 24, and elsewhere, the twig and the ten^ 
der plant. This bush was a root out of a dry ground ; for it 
was a bush that grew in mount Horeb, which was so called for 
the remarkable dryness of the place. The word signifies dry^ 
ness ; there was no spring about the mountain, till Moses there 
fetched water of the dry rock. It was in a thirsty wilderness, 
where was wont to be no rain. Therefore the children of Is- 
rael in that wilderness were supplied with water only miracu- 
lously. Hos. xiii. 5. *' I did know thee in the wilderness, in the 
land of great drought." See Deut. viii. 15. That bush was the 
growth of the earth, as the human nature of Christ in the Old 
Testament is represented to be. Yet it had the divine nature 
of Christ in it ; for this angel of the Lord that is said to appear 
in the bush, has been proved to bo the same with the Messiah 
from the Old Testament, in my discourse on the prophecies of 
the Messiah. This angel is said to dweU in this bush, Deut. 


zxxiii. 16, the more to represent the divine nature of the 
Messiah dwelling in the human nature. This bush burnt with 
fire, agreeably to what the prophecies speak of the sufferings of 
Christ; great calamity and affliction in the Old Testament are 
often called fire. This was especially a resemblance of the 
wrath of God, that is often called fire in the Old Testament, 
and which the prophecies represent the Messiah as enduring. 
(See fulfilment of prophecies, ^70.) The bush was preserved 
from being consumed, though it burnt with fire, agreeably to the 
prophecies of the preservation and upholding of the Messiah. 
God's not suffering his holy one to see corruption, be. The bush 
emerged alive and fresh out of the fire, agreeably to the prophe- 
cies of the Messiah's resurrection from the dead, and deliverance 
from all his sufferings. The angel that dwelt out of that bush, 
who was the Messiah, comes out of the fire, and appears in the 
bush, and delivered alive from the flames, to work redemption 
for his people. See Exod. iii. 8. So the prophecies represent the 
Messiah rising from the dead, and exalted out of his state of hu- 
miliation, to work salvation for his people. 

If we consider the remarkable agreement there is between 
the account Moses gives of the brazen serpent, Num. xxi., and 
the representation the prophet makes of the Messiah, we shall 
see good reason to think that the former was intended to be a 
type of the latter. Doubtless God's appointing that way for 
the healing of those that were bitten with fiery serpents, by 
making an image of those fiery serpents, and putting it on a 
pole, had some significancy. It was not wholly an insignificant 
appointment. There was doubtless some important thing that 
Gcid aimed at in it. It was not an appointment without any aim 
or any instruction contained in it, as it seems as though it must 
be, unless some important spiritual thing was represented and 
exhibited by it. And whoever considers the remarkable agree- 
ment between this appointment and its circumstances, and the 
things spoken concerning the Messiah, will see reason to con- 
clude, that these are doubtless the things signified and pointed 
forth by it. That sin, misery, and death that the Messiah is re- 
presented as coming to save us from, is represented in the Old 
Testament as bein<r from a serpent. See Gen. iii. 1 — 6, and 
XV. and xx. The Messiah is represented as saving from all 
hurt by the most poisonous serpents ; Isai. xi. 8, 9, and Ixv. 
25. Sin, our spiritual disease, is in the Old Testament com- 
pared to the poison of the serpent. Deut. xxxii. 33. Ps. Iviii. 
4, and cxI. 3. The brazen serpent is called a fiery serpent. 
Num. xxi. 8 ; because it was in the image of the fiery serpents. 
So the prophets represent the Messiah as set forth as a sinner, 
tppearing in the form of sinners, and of a great sinner. Isai. 


liii. 6. " All we like sheep have gone astray ; we have turned 
every one to his own way ; and the Lord hath made the iniqui- 
ties of us all to meet in him," (for so it is in the Hebrew.) Ver. 9. 
*' He made his grave with the wicked." Ver. 12. •* He was 
numbered with the transgressors, and he bare the sin of many." 
He was treated as the greatest of sinners. The Messiah be- 
ing set forth in the form of a great sinner, he was, as it were, 
exhibited in the form of a very venomous serpent, according to 
the manner of representing things in the Old Testament, for 
there great sinners are represented as poisonous serpents. Ps. 
Iviii. 3, 4. " The wicked are estranged from the womb ; their 
poison is like the poison of a serpent ; they are like the deaf 
adder that stoppeth up her ear." Ps. cxI. 3. " They have 
sharpened their tongues like a serpent ; adders' poison is un- 
der their lips." In order to the Israelites being saved from 
death through the poison of the fiery serpents, the brazen ser- 
pent was set up as an ensign to the congregation or army of 
Israel. For the word translated pole^ signifies ensign^ which is 
the much more proper Knglish of the word. This is in exact 
agreeableness to the prophecies of the Messiah. Isai. xi. 10. 
'* And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall 
stand for an ensign to the people." Here the word translated 
ensign^ is the very same with that word translated pole in the 
xxi. of Numb. The brazen serpent was set up as an ensign, 
that it might be exhibited to public view, and the diseased are 
called upon to look upon it, or behold it. Thus in the prophe- 
cies men are from time to time called upon to behold the Mes- 
siah ; Isai. xl. 9. '' O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee 
up into the high mountain ; O Jerusalem, that bringest good 
tidings, lift up thy voice with strength. Lift it up ; be not 
afraid. Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God." We 
may well suppose, that when the brazen serpent was lifted up 
in the wilderness, there was proclamation made by heralds to 
that vast congregation, calling upon them to look on that. Isai. 
Ixv. 1. '* I said. Behold me, behold me, to a nation that was 
not called by my name." Chap. Ixii. 10, 11. *' Lift up a stand- 
ard for the people. Behold, the Lord hath proclaimed to the 
end of the world, say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy 
salvation cometh ; behold, his reward is with him, and his work 
before him." Zech. ix. 9 — 12. '' Rejoice greatly^ O daughter 
of Zion ; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem ; behold, thy king com- 
eth unto thee. He is just, and having salvation — and he shall 
speak peace unto the heathen — by the blood of the covenant 1 will 
send forth thy prisoners — turn ye to the strong hold, ye prison- 
ers of hope." Isai. lii. 7, 8. '* How beautiful on the mountains 
are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth 


peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salra- 
tioiiy that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth. Thy watchman 
shall lift up the voice ; with the voice together shall they sing ; 
for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again 
Zion." The way that the people were saved by the brazen • 
serpent, was by looking to it, beholding it, as seeking and ex- 
pecting salvation from it : as an ensign saves an army by the 
soldiers looking on it and keeping it in their view. Agreeably 
to this, it is said concerning the Messiah, Isai. xi. 10, *' There 
shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the 
people ; to it shall the Gentiles seek." And Isai. xlv. 22. *' Look 
to me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth." And faith 
and trust in the Messiah for salvation is often spoken of in the 
prophecies as the great condition of salvation through him. 
The Chaldee paraphrasts looked on the brazen serpent as a 
type of the Messiah, and gave it the name of the Word. (Bas- 
nage's History of the Jews, page 367.) 

The great agreement there is between the history of Joshua 
and the things said of him in scripture, and the things said of 
the Messiah in the Old Testament, strongly argues Joshua to be 
a type of the Messiah. There is a great agreement between 
the names by which he is called in scripture and the names and 
things attributed to the Messiah in the Old Testament. His 
first name was Oshea^ Num. xiii. 8 — 16, which signifies Saviour. 
So the Messiah is called by the same name, a Saviour^ Isai. xix. 
20. '* He shall send them a saviour and a great one." The 
word is of the same root with Oshea. So again the Messiah is 
called a saviour, Isai. xliii. 3. II. Hosea xiii. 4. 9, 10. Obad. 
21 9 and other places. So he is called Salvation, Isai. Ixii. 11^ 
** Behold, thy salvation cometh ; behold, his reward is with him, 
and his work before him." And this name is agreeable to what 
is abundantly spoken of in the prophets, as the great work and 
office of the Messiah, which is to be a Saviour and Redeemer, and 
to work out the greatest and most eminent salvation for God's 
people that ever was or will be; that which is therefore often 
called the Salvation. This name Oshea was by Moses changed 
into Jehoshua. Num. xiii. 16. '' And Moses called Oshea, the 
•on Nun, Jehoshua, i. e. the Lord the Saviour, or Jthovah our 
Saviour; which makes his name still more agreeable to the 
name and nature of the Messiah. And it is difficult to assign 
any other reason why Moses thus changed his name by the di- 
rection of the Spirit of God, but that it might be so. This is 
agreeable to those names by which the Messiah is called in the 
prophets Immanutl, God with us, and Jehovah our Righteousnest. 
So Joshua is called the Shepherd, the stone of Israel ; Gen. xlix. 
24 ; agreeably to names by which the Messiah is often called in 


the prophets. Joshua's name being the same with the Mes- 
siah's, and agreeable to his ofBce, make it the more probable 
that it was that he might be a type of the Messiah ; because it 
was frequently God's manner to presignify future things by the' 
signification of names; as is evident in many instances. Jo- 
shua was God's elect ; he was called to his office and exalted to 
his high dignity by God's election and special designation, agree- 
ably to what is said of the Messiah in the prophets. He resem- 
bled the Messiah in things spoken of him by the prophets in 
many things wherein Moses did so $ particularly in near access 
to God in mount Sinai and in the tabernacle. Exod. xxxiii. 11, 
and xxiv. 13, and xxxii. 17. Joshua was a man in whom was 
the Spirit in an eminent manner. Num. xxvii. 18. " Take thee 
Joshua, the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit ;" agreea- 
bly to what is often said of the Messiah in the prophets. It is 
said of Joshua that he was full of the spirit of wisdom. Deut. 
zxxiv. 9 ; agreeably to many prophecies of the Messiah. Jo- 
shua was both a king and a prophet. See Num. xxvii. 18, and 
Deut. xxxiv. 9, and Joshua the two last chapters. Herein he is 
like the Messiah. Joshua was the captain of the host of Israel, 
that fought their battles for them, and subdued their enemies, 
though many and mighty. He was their captain in their war 
with Amalek, and as we may suppose, the other enemies of Is- 
rael that they encountered in the wilderness ; and he conquered 
the numerous and mighty enemies in Canaan ; agreeably to what 
is represented of the Messiah every where by the prophets. He 
came up out of the Jordan when it was swelled with a great flood 
into Canaan ; as the Messiah is spoken of by the prophets as com- 
ing up out of great affliction, terrible suflTerings and death, into hea- 
ven, a land of rest and great delight. Great suflerings are in the Old 
Testament represented by the swelling of the Jordan. Jer. xii. 5. 
Joshua brought the children of Israel out of the wilderness and 
out of Bashan, and out of great waters into Canaan, a land 
of rest flowing with milk and honey, agreeably to Psalm Ixviii. 
22. *' The Lord said, I will bring again from Bashan, I will bring 
my people again from the depths of the sea:" and Isaiah xi. 10. 
*' There shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign 
of the people, and his rest shall be glorious." Hosea ii. 14, 15. 
**I will allure her and bring her into the wilderness and speak 
comfortably to her, and I will give her her vineyard from thence, 
and the valley of Achor for a door of hope, and she shall sing 
there, as in the days of her youth, and as in the day when she 
came up out of the land of Egypt :" and agreeably to many 
prophecies that represent the salvation of the Messiah as a bringing 
of God's people into a state of liberty, rest, and joy, in Canaan, 
out of a state of bondage aad great aflliction in foreign lands, 


Comparing it to God^s first bringing his people through the wil- 
derness into Canaan, which were observed before; and agreeable 
to many prophecies which speak of God's people, as delivered 
from great misery, and brought into happy circumstances by the 
Messiah, and as therein partaking with the Messiah in his delive- 
rance from his sufferings and advancement to a state of rest and 
glory. Joshua, in going before the children of Israel as the cap- 
tain of the Lord's host, and bringing them into the land of 
Canaan, did that which is spoken of in the books of Moses and 
Joshua themselves, as the office of that angel of God's presence, 
who (as I have shown is evident. by the Old Testament) was the 
same person with the Messiah, Num. xxiii. 20. *^ Behold I send an 
angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into 
the place which I have prepared." Verse 23. '* For mine angel 
shall go before thee and bring thee in unto the Amorites and the 
Htttites," &c. Chap, xxxiii. 14. *'My presence shall go with thee, 
and I will give thee rest." Josh. v. 14. '' Nay but as the captain of 
the Lord's host am I now come." Joshua was a most glorious con- 
queror, as the Messiah is every where represented to be in the 
prophecies. Joshua entered Canaan, conquered his enemies, and 
brought in his people to their rest and inheritance, by his righteous- 
ness or strict obedience to God's commands. Josh. i. 2, &lc. '* Go 
over this Jordan, thou and all this people, into the land which I 
do give thee — every place that the sole of your feet shall tread 
apon, that have I given unto you — from the wilderness, and this 
Lebanon, unto the great river, the river £uphrates. — There shall 
not a man be able to stand before thee. — Unto this people shalt 
thou divide for an inheritance the land which 1 sware.unto their 
fathers to give them. Only be thou strong and very courageous, 
that thou mayest observe and do according to all the law which 
Hoses my servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right 
band nor to the left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou 
goest. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, 
bat tboQ shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest 
observe to do according to all that is written therein : for then 
thoa shalt make thy way prosperous, and thou shalt have good 
success." God promised that he would be with Joshua and would 
uphold him, and not fail him, till he had complete victory over all 
bis enemies, agreeably to what is said of the Messiah, Isaiah xlii. 
l-*-4. '* Behold my servant whom I uphold. The smoking flax 
•ball he not quench : he shall bring forth judgment unto truih. 
He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgtnent 
in the earth, and the isles wait for his law." Verse 6. '* 1 the 
Lord have called thee in righteousness : I will hold thine hand : 
I will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people." 
Cbap. xlix. 2. '^ He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword ; in 
VOL. IX. 7 


the shadow of his hand hath he held me, and made me as a polish- 
ed shaft ; in his quiver hath he hid me, •" Verses 7, 8. "Kings 
shall see and arise ; princes also shall worship, because of the 
Lord that is faithful. — In a day of salvation have I helped thee, 
and 1 will preserve thee mnd give thee for a covenant of the 
people.'* Psalm Ixxxix. 20, &c. " 1 have found David my ser- 
vant, with my holy oil have 1 anointed him, with whom any hand 
shall be established ; mine arm also shall strengthen him. The 
enemy shall not exact upon him, nor the son of wickedness af- 
flict him* 1 will beat down his foes before his face, and plague them 
that hate him. Uut my faithfulness and my mercy shall be with 
him, and in my name shall his horn be exalted :" and many otiier 
places ; and agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah, (jod 
made his enemies his footstool. Josh. i. 3-^5. " Every place that 
the sole of your feet shall tread upon," &c. with chnp. x. 24. " Put 
your feet upon the necks of those kings," &,c. Joshua, agreeably 
to the prophecy of the Messiah, was an intercessor for his people. 
Joshua x« The high walls of God's enemies came down before 
Joshua agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah. Isaiah xxv. 
12. *' And the fortress of the high fort of thy walls shall he bring 
down, lay low and bring to the ground, even to the dust." Chap, 
xxvi. 6. "For he bringeih down them that dwell on high; the 
lofty city he layeth it low, he layetli it low even to the ground ; 
he bringeth it even to the dust. Chnp. xxx. 25. "In the day of 
the great slaughter, when the towers fall.'' Joshua destroyed the 
giants. Josh. xi. 21. ; agreeably to this see Isaiah xlv. 14. " The 
Bubeans, men of stature, shall come over to thee. — In chains shall 
fliey come over, and they shall fall down unto thee." Isaiah x. 
33. "And the high ones of stature shall be hewn down, and the 
haughty shall be bumbled." This seems to be connected with 
the prophecy in the beginning of the next chapter, in the next 
verse but one. God assisted Joshua in battle by destroying his 
enemies by great hailstones out of heaven. See, agreeable to this, 
Isaiah xxx. 30, and xxxii. 19. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. Joshua con- 
quered among kings. Joshua made Israel to trample their 
haughtiest and strongest enemies under their feet. Josh. x. 24. 
See, agreeable to this, Isaiah xxvi. 7. Chap. xlix. 23 Zech. x. 5: 
Psalm Ixviii. 23. Mich. vii. 10. Psalm xlvii. 3. Isaiah Ix. 14. 
Psalm Iviii. 10. Joshua did as it were make the sun stand still 
over Israel. Agreeably to those prophecies of the times of the 
Messiah's kingdom. Isaiah Ix. 20. Zechariah xiv. 6, 7. Joshua 
houghed the horses and burnt the chariots of the enemies 
of God's people in the (ire. Josh. xi. 6. 9. Hag. ii. 22. " And 
I will overthrow the chariots and those that ride in them, and the 
horses and their riders shall come down." Psalm xlvi. 9. He 
maketh wars to cease to the end of the earth ; he breaketh the 
bow and cuttetb the spear in sunder; he burneth the chariot in 


the fire." Joshua divided onto Israel their inheritance, as one 
that Ciiod had appointed to be judge, what portion belonged to 
every tribe. 

There is also such an agreement between what is said of Is- 
rael's victory over the Canaanites under Deborah^ and what is said 
in the prophecies of the church's victory over her eneitiies id the 
Messiah's times, as argues the former to be a type of the latten 
The Canaanites were exceeding strong, and God's people very 
feeble and defenceless, having no weapons of war, and were 
Biightily oppressed by their enemies. So are things represented 
between God's people and their enemies, before their glorious 
victory and deliverance under the Messiah, in places too many to 
be enumerated. This victory was obtained by a female. So the 
war under the Messiah against God's enemies, is spoken of as 
maintained by the church, and the glorious victory obtained oVef 
them by her, who is spoken of almost every where by the prophe^ 
cies as a wom^n or female, and is represented sometimes as sucli 
in prophecies of her battle and victory over her enemies* HlCi iv« 
13. ** Arise, thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make thine 
born iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass ; and thou shalt beat 
in pieces many people." Cant. vi. 13. <' What will ye sec in the 
Sbulamite f As it were the company of two armies." Cant, u 
Q. " I have compared thee, O my love, to a company of horses 
in Pharaoh's chariots." Chap. vi. 4. " Thou art beautiful, O my 
love, as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with 
banners." Ver. 10. ^* Who is she thatlookcth forth as the morn- 
ing, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with 
banners .^" And Deborah's being a prophetess, well agrees with 
the church's being endowed with such abundant measures of the 
Spirit of God at the time of the church's glorious victory over her 
enemies, and all her members becoming as it were prophets agree- 
ably to the prophecies. The assistance given by Jael^ another 
woman, the wife of Hcber the Kenite, a Gentile, who slew Sisera, 
the captain of the host, and so is said to be blessed among wo- 
men, well represents the assistance of the Gentile churdi in the 
victory over God's enemies in the Messiah's days. Deborah tella 
Barak — ** The Lord is gone out before thee.;" which is agreeable 
to Isai. xlii. 13. '* The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man. He 
shall stir up jealousy as a man of war. He shall cry, yea, roar. 
He shall prevail against bis enemies ;" and many other places in 
the prophecies. The work of God in that victory of Israel i» 
spoken of as parallel with those things that are represented in ex" 
pressions very much like those used in the prophecies to represent 
what shall come to pass in the time of the church's victory over 
her enemies under the Messiah; such as going out of Seir, hi^ 
loarching out of the field of EHow o-' *» 


heaven as it were dissolving and dropping, and mountains melt- 
ing. Judges V. 45. See Isai. xxxiv. 4—6, and xxiv. 18 — 21, and 
Ixiii. 1 — 6, and Ixiv. 1 — 4. The work of God in this victory is com- 
pared to God's great work towards Israel, at their coming out of 
Kgypt, and hi the wilderness, just as the glorious victory of the 
Messiah is in the Ixviii. Psalm, almost in the same words, (compare 
Judges V. 4, 5, with Psalm Ixviii. 7, 8,) which is a clear evidence 
that this victory is a great image of that. For those things that 
agree in a third thing, agree among themselves. There was a 
plentiful shower at the time of that victory, that swelled the brook 
Kishon, as is manifest from Judg. v. 4, and ver. 20, 21. So at 
the time of the great victory of the church over her enemies un- 
der the Messiah, there will be an abundant outpouring of the Spi- 
rit, which is often represented in the prophets as a plentiful and 
very great shower of rain. And these spiritual showers are in 
the Ixviii. Psalm compared to the very same showers on Israel that 
this is. So the effects produced in the time of the Messiah's vic- 
tories are compared to the mountains melting in Isai. Ixiv. 1 — 4, 
as the effect of this victory is, Judg. v. 5, and both compared to 
the same effects at mount Sinai. Barak, on this occasion, is called 
upon to lead captivity captive, Judg. v. 12, in the very same ex- 
pressions that are used concerning the Messiah, concerning his 
triumph over his enemies, Ps. Ixviii. 18. It is a remnant of Is- 
rael that is spoken of as having the benefit of this salvation, 
Judg. V. 13, as it is a remnant that is often spoken of as having 
the benefit of the Messiah's salvation. Isai. iv. 3. Chap. vii. 3. 
X. 21,22. xi. 11— 16. Jer. xxiii. 3. Joel ii. 32. Mic. ii. 12, 
and iv. 7, and v. 3, vii. 8, and vii. 18. Zeph. iii. 13. Zech. 
viii. 12. It is said of the remnant of Israel in Deborah's time, 
Judg. V. 13, '*Then he made him that remaineth to have domi- 
nion over the nobles among the people : the Lord made me have 
dominion over the mighty," agr^bly to the honour of the saints 
in the Messiah's times, spoken of Ps. cxlix. 6, &c. " Let the high 
praises of God be in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their 
hand, to execute vengeance upon the heathen — to bind their kings 
with ciiains, and their nobles with fetters of iron, to execute upon 
them the judgment written. This honour have all the saints.'' 
And what is said, Isai. xlix. 23, of kings licking up the dust of 
the church's feet. The angels of heaven are represented as fight- 
inc^ in this battle, Judg. v. 20, as they are in the battle of God's 
people under the Messiah, Ps. Ixviii. ''The chariots of God are 
twenty thousand, even thousands of angels." Cant. vi. 13. "The 
company of two armies," compared with Gen. xxxii. I, 2. The 
enemies of Israel in Deborah's battle were swept away with a 
flood, Judg. V. 21. See Dan. ix. 26. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. Isai. 
xxviii. 17. The church, on occasion of Deborah's victory, tri- 


nmphi thus: '* O my soul, thou hast trodden down strength.'^ 
This is agreeable ;to Isai. xxvi. 7. Chap. xlix. 23, Zech. x. 5. 
Ps. Ixviii. 23. Mic vii- 10. Ps. xlvii. 3, and ex. 1. Isai. Ix. 
14. Ps. Iviii. 10. 

The great agreement there also is between the story of Gide- 
on's victory over the Midiauites, and things spoken in the pro- 
phecies concerning the Messiah, is an argument that the former is 
typical of the latter. Gideon brought Israel out of the wilderness, 
and from the caves, rocks, and mountains, where they had had their 
abode. Judg. vi. 2. This agrees with Psa. Ixviii. 22. "The liord 
said, I will bring again from Bashan V^ And Ixxxix. 12. " Tabor 
and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name." Hos. ii. 14. '' I will 
bring her into the wilderness and speak comfortably unto her.'^ 
Eiek. XX. 35, be. '* 1 will bring you into tite wilderness of the 
people, and there will I plead with you — I will bring you into 
the bond of the covenant." Isai. xlii. 11. <*Let the wilderness 
and the cities thereof lift up their voice — let the inhabitants of 
the rock sing : let them shout from the tops of the mountains." 
Cant. ii. 14. " O my dove that art in the clefts of the rock — let 
me see thy face." And Jer. xvi. IG. ** I will send for many hunters, 
and they shall hunt them from every mountain and from every 
hill, and out of the holes of the rocks :" taken with the two fore- 
going verses, and verses 19, 20, and 21, fc^lowing. 

Isai. xlii. 7. " To bring out the prisoners from the prison, and 
them that sit in darkness, out of the prison house." Ver. 22, fee. 
" This is a people robbed and spoiled, they are all of them snared 
in holes, and they are hid in prison houses ; they are for a prey, 

and none delivereth ; for a spoil, and none saith^ Restore. Who 

gave Jacob for a spoil and Israel to the robbers i He hath poured 

upon him the fury of his anger and the strength of battle. 

Bat now thus saith the Lord that created thee, O Jacob, fear 

not, for I have redeemed thee." Compare this with Judg. vi. 
2—6. " The children of Israel made them dens which are in 
the moantains, and caves and strong holds. — And they destroyed 
the increase of the earth, and left no sustenance for Israel, neither 
dieep, nor ox, nor ass and Israel was greatly impoverished." 

God, agreeably to some of these and other prophecies of the 
times of the Messiah, first pleaded with Israel concerning their 
sin, and brought them to cry earnestly to him, before he de- 
livered them by Gideon. Judg. vi. 6 — 10. God did not send 
them deliverance till they were brought to extremity. Agreeably 
to Dent, xxxii. 36, 37, and many other prophecies. 

The enemies of Israel, that sought their destruction, that Gideon 
overcame, were an innumerable multitude, and many nations asso- 
ciated and combined together ; agreeably to many prophecies of 
the victory and salvation of the Messiah* Gideon was appointed 


to the office of a saviour and deliverer of God's people by the 
sovereign election and special designation of God ; agreeably to 
many prophecies of the Messiah. lie was endued with might, 
and upheld and strengthened immediately from God, and by the 
Spirit of God and the spirit of might resting upon him. Judg. 
vi. 14 — 16, 34. Agreeably to many prophecies of the Messiah.— 
Gideon was as it were a root of a dry ground, of a poor family, and 
the least in his father's bonse ; a low tree without form or comeCh 
ness. Judg. vi. 15. Agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah. 
Gideon was not only the captain of the host of Israel, but was im- 
mediately appointed of God to be a priest to build the altar of 
God, and to offer sacrifice to God, to make atonement for that 
iniquity of Israel that had brought that sore judgment upon them, 
that he came to deliver them from. Judg. vi. 20 — 28. And he of* 
fered a sacrifice acceptable unto God, and of which God gave 
special testimony of his acceptance, by Consuming his sacrifice by 
lire immediately enkindled from heaven. Ver. 21. And his sacri- 
fice procured reconciliation and peace for Israel, ver. 24. These 
things are exactly agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah. 
Gideon destroyed idols, abolished their worship, threw down their 
altars, and set up the worship of the true God. At this time that 
Gideon overthrew the idols and their worship, those idols and their 
worshippers were solemnly challenged to plead and make good 
their own cause. Judg. vi. 31 — 33. Agreeably to Isai. xli. 1 — 7, 
and 21 — 20. Gideon drank of the brook in the way, and was so 
prepared for the battle, and obtained a glorious conquest over the 
kings and the heads of many countries, and filled the place with 
the dead bodies, agreeably to Psa. ex. 5 — 7. *' The Lord at thy 
right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath: lie 
shall judge among the heathen : he shall fill the places with the 
dead bodies : he shall wound the beads over many countries : he 
shall drink of the brook in the way, therefore shall he Yid up the 
head. The company with Gideon was a small remnaiH, that was 
left afler most of the people departed. So is the company repre- 
sented that shall obtain victory over tlieir enemies in the Mes- 
siah's times. Isai. X. 20. &c. " And it shall come to pass in that 
day, that the remnant of Israel shall stay upon the Lord, the holy 
one of Israel, in truth. For though thy people Israel be as die 
sand of the sea ; yet a remnant shall return. Therefore thus 
saith the Lord, O my people, be not afraid of the Assyrian 
For the Lord shall stir up a scourge for him according to the 
slaughter of Midian." Mic. v. 8, 9. *« And the remnant of Jacob 
shall be among the Gentiles in the midst of many people, as a 
lion among the beasts of the forests, as a young lion among tlie 
flocks of sheep ; who if he go through, both treadeth down and 
teareth in pieces, and none can deliver. Thine band shall be lift 


up opoD thine adversaries, and all thine enemies shall be ciU off.'* 
Gideon's company, with which he overcame his mighty enemies 
irere not only small but weak, and without weapons of war. 
Agreeably to this is Isai. xli. 14, &c. " Fear not, thou worm Ja- 
cob, and ye men (or few mcn^ as it is in the margin) of Israel ; I 
will help thee, saith the Lord, and thy Redeemer, the holy One of 
Israel* Behold, I will make thee a new sharp threshing instru- 
mcDt having teeth; thou shah thresh the mountains and beat them 
small, and shah make the hills as chaff," &c. And Mic. iv. 7. " I 
will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far off, a 
itrong nation ;" with verse 13, "Arise, and thresh, O daughter of 
Zion : for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thine hoofs 
brass ; and thou shah beat in pieces many people," &£c. Zeph. 
iii. 12. " I will also leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor 
people, and they shall trust in the name of the Lord." Ver. 16, 
17. '^ In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem, Fear thou not, and 
to Zion, Let not thine hands be slack or faint," (as it is in the mar- 
gin.) '* The Lord thy God in the midst of thee ismighty, he will 
save." Ver. 19. '* Behold, at that time I will undo all that afflict 
thee, and I will save her that halteih,'^ &c. The representation of 
a cake of barley bread tumbling into the host of Midian, and com- 
ing onto a tent, and smiting it that it fell, and overturned it, that 
the tent lay along, signifying Gideon's destroying the host of Mi- 
dian, Judg. V. 13, is not unlike that in Daniel ii. of a stone cut 
oat of the mountains without hands smiting the image and break- 
ing it all in pieces, that it all became as the chaff of the summer 
threshing floor. Gideon and his company overcame and destroy- 
ed the mighty host of their enemies, without any other weapons 
liian trumpets and lamps. This is agreeable to the prophecies of 
the Messiah, which show that the weapons by which he should 
overcome his enemies should not be carnal but spiritual, and par- 
ticalarly that it should be by the preaching of the word. Psa. cx.2. 
''The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion : rule 
thou in the midst of thine enemies ;" together with Isai. xi. 4. 
" He shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, with the 
breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." Isai. xlix. 2. *' And 
he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword." The word of God 
if in the Old Testament compared to a lamp and a light. Prov. 
vi. 23. " For the commandment is a lamp and the law is a light." 
Pia. cxix. 105. ''Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light 
aoto my path ;" and particularly it is so represented in the pro- 
phecies of the Messiah's times. Isai. li. 4. <*Alaw shall proceed 
from noe, and I will make my judgment to rest for a light of the 
people." So preaching the word in the Old Testament is com- 
pared lo blownig a trumpet. Isai. Iviii. 1. ^' Lift up thy voice 
fike a trumpet: show my people their transgression.'' Ezek. 


xxxiii. 2, 3, &c. " If ihe people take a man and set him.,-: 

their watchman ; if he blow the trumpet, and warn ihejiT- 

ple," &c. Particularly it is so represented in the prophecie^i 
the Messiah's times. Isai. xxvii. 13. "And it shall come to ^. 
in that day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they i|. 
come that were ready to perish," fcc. Psa. Ixxxix. 15. ** Bleti, 
is the people that know the joyful sound. They shall walk^^ 
Lord, ID the light of thy countenance." God destroyed the fc 
of Midian by setting every man's sword against his fellow. Agn 
ably to this is Hag. ii. 22. " And the horses and their riders dif, 
come down, every one by the sword of his brother." Ei| 
xxxviii. 14, "Every man's sword shall be against his brotbek. 
Gideon led captivity captive agreeably to Psa. Ixviii. He \ 
those kings and princes in chains that before had taken them c^^ 
lives ; agreeably to Psa. cxiix. 7 — 9. " To execute vengeam 
upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people : to bind tM 
kings in chains and their nobles with fetters of iron : to execij 
upon them the judgment written. This honour have all the saint^ 
There is a no less remarkable agreement between the thin|j 
said of Samson in his history, and the things said of the Me 
siah in the prophecies of him. His name Samson signifies Lf 
tie Snn^ well agreeing with a type of the Messiah, that Great S^ 
of righteousness, so often compared in the prophecies to the sal 
The antitype is far greater than the type, as being its end. Ther 
fore, w hen the type is called by the name of the antitype, it is fiti 
with a diminutive termination. Samson and other saviours Ui 
der the Old Testament, that were types of the great Saviour, wei 
but little saviours. The prophets, priests, kings, captains, at 
deliverers of the Old Testament, were indeed images of the gre 
light of the church and the world that was to follow. But thi 
were but images : they were little lights, that shone during tl 
night. But when Christ came, the great light arose and intr 
duced the day. Samson's birth was miraculous ; it was a gre 
wonder in his case, that a woman should " compass a man," . 
the prophecies represent it to be in the case of the birth of tl 
Messiah. Samson was raised up to be a saviour to God's pa 
pie from their enemies, agreeably to prophetical representatioi 
of the Messiah. Samson was appointed to this great work I 
God's special election and designation, and that in an emine: 
and extraordinary way, agreeably to the prophecies of the Me 
siah. Samson was a Nazarite from the womb. The word Nt 
zariie signifies separated. This denotes holiness and purit 
The. Nazarite was, with very great and extraordinary care ar 
strictness indeed, to abstain from the least legal defilement ; \ 
appears by Num. vi. 6 ; and the reason is given in the 8lh vers 
" AH the days of his separation he is holy unto the Lord :" an 


lib the ulmost strictness he was to abstain from wine and strong 

ink, and every thing that appertained in any respect to the fruit 
the vine; wine being the liquor that was especially the object 
the carnaLappetites of men. And he was to suffer no razor to 

me upon his head, any way to alter what he was by nature, be- 

use that would defile it, as the lifting up a tool to hew the stones 
the altar would defile it. The design of those institutions con- 

ming the Nazarite, about his hair and about wine is declared, 
Nnm. vi. 5. ^* He shall be holy, and shall let the locks of the hair 

ow." This sanctity of the Nazarite representing a perfect ho- 
liness both negative and positive, is spoken of in Lam. iv. 7. 
" Her Nazarites were purer than snow: they were whiter than 
milk : they were more ruddy in body than rubies : their polishing 
was of sapphire." Therefore Samson's being a Nazarite from 
the womb, remarkably represents that perfect innocence and pu« 
rity, ^nd transcendent holiness of nature, and life in the Messiah, 
which the prophecies often speak of. The great things that Sam- 
son wrought for the deliverance of Israel and the overthrow of 
their enemies, was not by any natural strength of his, but by the 
special influence and extraordinary assistance of the Spirit of 
God, Judg. xiii. 25, and xiv. 6. 19, andxv. 14. xvi. 20; agreea- 
bly to many prophecies I have already observed of the Messiah's 
being anointed and filled with God's Spirit, and being upheld, and 
helped, and strengthened, and succeeded by God. Samson mar- 
ried a Philistine, and all the women that he loved were of that 
people that were his great enemies. Agreeably to those prophe- 
cies that represent the Messiah as marrying an alien from the com- 
monwealth of Israel : as Ps. xlv. : and his marrying one that was 
the daughter of the accursed people of Canaan, Ezek. xvi. 3. S, 
&c., together with the latter end of the chapter, and the many 
prophecies that speak of Christ's calling the Gentiles and his sav- 
ing sinnei^. Samson was a person of exceeding great strength ; 
herein he is like the Messiah, as he is represented, Ps. Ixxxix. 19. 
** I have laid help on one that is mighty." Ps. xlv. 3. ** Gird on 
thy sword on thy thigh, O most mighty, in thy glory and in thy 
majesty." Isai. Ixiii. 1. ** Who is this — travelling in the great- 
ness of hisstrength i^" When Samson was going to take his 
wife, a young lion roared against him. So the enemies of the 
Messiah and his people are compared to a lion roaring upon him, 
gaping with his mouth ready to devour him. Ps. xxii. 13. ^* They 
gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring 
lion.'^ Ver. 21. ** Save me from the lion*s mouth." Samson 
rent the lion as the lion would have rent the kid ; which is agreea- 
ble to the prophecies which represent the Messiah destroying his 
enemies as a strong lion devouring his prey. Gen. xlix. 9, &c., 
and the many prophecies that speak of his punishing leviathan 

VOL. IX. 8 


with bis great, and 8ore, and strong sword, his mightily and dread- 
fully destroying his enemies, treading them down as the mire, 
treading them in his anger and trampling them in his fury, sprink- 
ling his raiment with their blood, be. Samson is fed with ho- 
ney out of the carcase of the lion, which is agreeable to what the 
prophecies represent of the glorious benefits of the Messiah's 
conquest over his enemies, to himself and his people, his own 
ascension, glory and kingdom, and the glory of his people. Sam- 
son made a feast on occasion of his marriage, which is agreeable 
to Isai. zzv. 6. *' And in this mountain shall the Lord of hosts 
make unto all people a feast of fat things ; a feast of wines on 
the lees of fat things, full of marrow ; of wines on the Jees well 
refined." Isai. Ixv. 13, 14. " My servants shall cat — my servants 
shall drink — my servants shall rejoice — my servants shall sing for 
joy of heart ;'' and innumerable prophecies that speak of the 
great plenty and joy of God's people in the Messiah's times ; and 
this accompanying the Messiah's marriage with his spiritual 
spouse. See Isai. Uii. 4, 5. 7 — 9, and Hos. ii. 19 — ^22, and Cant, 
ii. 4, and V. 1. When Samson visited his wife with a kid, he was 
rejected, and her younger sister, that was fairer than she, given to 
him ; Judg. xv. 2. Which is agreeable to what the prophecies 
represent of the Messiah's coming to the Jews first, when he was 
offered up as a lamb or kid, and making the first offer of the glo- 
rious benefits of his sacrifice to them, and their rejecting him, and 
the calling of the Gentiles, and the more glorious and beautiful 
state of the Gentile church than of the ancient Jewish church. In 
Judg. xvi. 1, 2, we have an account how Samson loved an harlot, 
and from his love to her exposed himself to be compassed round 
by his enemies. So the prophecies represent the Messiah as lov- 
ing a sinful people, and from love seeking such a people to be his 
spouse, as that which occasions his suffering from his enemies. 
Isia. liii. taken with the following chapter. Samson, while his 
enemies are compassing him round, to destroy him, rises from 
sleep, and from midnight darkness, and takes away the strength 
and fortification of the city of his enemies, the gate of the city, 
which his enemies shut and barred fast upon him to confine him, 
and the two posts, bar and all, and put them on his shoulders, and 
carried them up to the top of an hill. Judg. xvi. 3. So the pro- 
phecies represent the Messiah, when compassed round by his ene- 
mies, rising from the sleep of death, and emerging out of the thick 
darkness of his sorrows and sufferings, spoiling his enemies, and 
ascending into heaven, and leading captivity captive. Samson 
was betrayed and sold by Delilah, his false spouse or companion. 
So the prophecies do represent the Messiah as sold by his false and 
treacherous people. Samson was delivered up into the hands of 
his enemies, and was mocked and derided, and very cruelly treat- 


ed by them ; agreeably to what is foretold of the Messiah. Sam- 
SOD died partly through the cruelty and murderous malice of his 
enemies, and partly from his own act : agreeably to what is fore- 
told of the Messiah. Ibid. ^ 51. 58, 59. 72. Samson at his 
death destroyed his enemies^ and the destruction he made of his 
enemies was chiefly at his death ; which is agreeable to Isai. liii. 
10 — 19, and Ps. Ixviii. 18. Samson overthrew the temple of 
Dagop, which is agreeable to what the prophecies say of the Mes- 
siah's overthrowing idols and idol worship in the world. Samson 
destroyed his enemies suddenly in the midst of their triumph over 
him, so that their insulting him in the prospect of his destruction, 
instantly issues in their own destruction ; agreeably to Isai. xxix. 

There is a yet a more remarkable, manifest and manifold agree- 
ment between the things said of David in his history,* and the 
things said of the Messiah in the prophecies. His name David 
signifies beloved^ as the prophecies do represent the Messiah as 
in a peculiar and transcendent manner the beloved of God. Da- 
vid was God's elect in an eminent manner. Saul was the king 
wbom| the people chose. 1 Sam. viii. 18, and xii. 13. But Da- 
vid was the king whom God chose, one whom he found and 
ptched upon according to his o)¥n mind, without any concern 
of man in the affair, and contrary to what men would have chosen. 
When Jesse caused all his elder sons to pass before Samuel, God 
said concerning one and another of them, '* The Lord hath not 
chosen this;'' neither hath the Lord chosen this, &c. See 1 
ChroD. xxviii. 4. There David says, <VThe Lord God of Israel 
chose me before all the house of my father, to be king over Israel 
forever: for he hath chosen Judah to be the ruler; and of the 
hoose of Judah the house of my father ; and among the sons of my 
lather he liked me to make me king over all Israel." See Psa. 
Ixxviii. 67 — YO, and Ixxxix. 3. ** I have made a covenant with 
my cfiosen ; I have sworn unto David my servant, agreeably to 
Isai. xlii. 1. " Mine elect," &c. 49. '* And he shall choose 
thee." He was a king of God's finding and providing, and he 
speaks of him as his king. 1 Sam xvi. 1. ** I will send thee to 
Jess e f or I have provided me a king among his sons." 2 Sam. 
xxii. 51. *^ He is the tower of salvation for his king." Agreeably 
to Psa. ii. ** 1 have set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.'^ He 
is spoken of as a man after God's own heart, and one in whom God 
delighted. 2 Sam. xxii. 20. "He delivered me because he de- 
lighted in me;" agreeably to I sai. xlii. 1. *' Behold my servant 
whom I uphold ; mine elect in whom my soul delighteth." Da- 
vid was in a very eminent manner God's anoiiUed^ or MesHak^ (as 
the word is,) and is so spoken of, Ps. xxii. 51. *' He showeth 
mercy to his anointed, unto David ;'' and xxiii. 1, ** David, the 


too of Jesse ; the man who was raised apon high, the anoint- 
ed of the God of Jacob.'* Ps. Ixxxix. 19, 20. '' I have exalted 
one chosen out of the people; I have found David my servant; 
with my holy oil have I anointed him." Samuel anointed him 
with peculiar solemnity. 1 Sam. xvi. 13. See how this agrees 
with the prophecies of the Messiah. David's anointing remarka- 
bly agrees with what the prophecies say of the anointing of the 
Messiah, which speak of him as a being anointed with the Spirit 
of God. So David was anointed with the Spirit of God, at the 
same time tliat be was anointed with oil. 1 Sam* xvi. 13. '* And 
Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of bis 
brethren ; and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from tkat 
day forward." David is spoken of as being a poor man» of a 
low family, and in mean circumstances. 1 Sam. xviii. 23. ** I am a 
poor man, and lightly esteemed." 2 Sam. vii. 18. ** Who am I ? and 
what is my house that thou hast brought me hitherto .^' Agreeably 
to this, it is said of the Messiah in the prophecies, that he was a root 
out of a dry ground ; that he was a low tree. David is spoken of as 
an eminently holy person, a man after God's own heart. He is spo- 
ken of in the history of the kings of Judah, as one whose heart was 
perfect with the Lord his God ; 1 Kings xi. 4 ; one that went fully 
after the Lord ; 1 Kings xi. 6 ; one that did that that was right 
in the eyes of the Lord. 1 Kings xv. 1 1. 2 Kings xviii. 3. 2 
Chron. xxviii. 1, and xxix.2. Ue is spoken of as pure, upright, 
and righteous ; one that had clean hands ; that kept the ways of 
the Lord, and did not wickedly depart from God ; 2 Sam. xxii. 
21 — 21. This agrees with what is said in the prophecies of the 
Messiah. David was the youngest son of Jesse ; as the Messiah 
in the prophecies is spoken of as coming in the latter days. He 
has frequently the appellation of God's servant. It would be 
endkss to mention all the places : see them in the Concordance 
under the word seroant DAVID. So has the Messiah often this 
appellation in the prophecies. Isai. xlii. 1 — 19, xlix. 3 — 6, Hi. 13, 
lui. 1 1. Zech. iii. 8. David's outward appearance was not such 
as would have recommended him to the esteem and choice of men, 
as a person fit for rule and victory, but, on the contrary, such as 
tended to cause men to despise him as a candidate for such things ; 
1 Sam. xvi. 7. ^' Look not on his countenance, or on the height 
of his stature for man looketh on tlie outward appearance ; 
but the Lord looketh on the heart" 1 Sam.^xxii. 42. *' And 
when the Philistine looked about and saw David, he disdained 
him ; for he was but a youth. Ver. 56. ^' Inquire whose son 
this stripling is." Eliab, his elder brother, thought him fitter to 
be with the sheep, than to come to the army. 1 Sam. xvii. 28. 
Agreeably to Isai. liii. 2, ^* He shall grow up before him as a ten- 
der plant, as a root out of a dry ground. He hath no form nor 
comeliness ; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that wc 


sboald desire him." David appeared unexpectedly. Samuel ex- 
pected a man of great stature, and appearing outwardly like a 
man of valour ; and therefore when he saw Eliab, David's elder 
brother^ that had such an appearance, he said, surely the Lord's 
inoiDted is before him. His appearance was astonishing to Goli- 
ath and to Saul. So the prophecies represent the Messiah's ap- 
pearance as unexpected and astonishing, being so mean. Isai, 
xlii. 14. ^* Many were astonished at thee. His visage was so 
marred more than any man." But yet David was ruddy aud of 
a fair countenance, and goodly to look to. 1 Sam. xvi. 12, xvii. 
42, agreeable to Psalm xlv. 2. << Thou art fairer than the children 
of men." Cant. ▼. 10. <* My beloved is white and ruddy, the 
chiefest among ten thousands." He was anointed king after of- 
fering sacrifice. 1 Sam. xvi. So the prophecies represent the 
Messiah's exaltation to his kingdom, after he had by his sufierings 
offered up a sacrifice to atone for the sins of men. David says 
of himself, 1 Chron. xxviii. 14, ^^ The Lord God of Israel chose 
me to be king over Israel for ever." And God says to him, 2 
Sam. vii. 16, ** And thine house and thy kingdom shall be estab- 
Hsbed for ever before thee. Thy throne shall be established for 
ever." This is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah. Da- 
vid, by occupation was a shepherd, and afterwards was made a 
shepherd to God's Israel. Ps. Ixxviii. 70 — 72. " He chose David , 
bis servant, and took him from the sheepfolds, from following the 
ewes great with young. He brought him to feed Jacob his peo- 
pk, and Israel his inheritance." This is agreeable to many pro- 
phecies of the Messiah, who is often spoken of in them as the 
shepherd of God's people, and therein is expressly compared to 
David. Isaiah xl. 1 i. ** He shall feed his flock like a shepherd." 
Isaiah xlix. 9, 10. ^' They shall feed in the ways, and their pas- 
tures shall be in all high places. They shall not hunger nor 
thirst, neither shall the heat nor sun smite them. For he that hath 
mercy on them shall lead them '; by the springs of water shall he 
goide tbem.^^ Jer. xxiii. 4, 5. ^' And I will set up shepherds over 

them, which shall feed them 1 will raise up unto David a 

righteous branch," &c. Ezek. xxxiv. 23. '* And I will set up 
one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them ; even my servant 
David : he shall feed them, and shall be their shepherd." Eze- 
kiel zxxvii. 24. *^ And David my servant shall be king over 
them, and they shall have one shepherd." Canticles i. 7. 
*^ Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth, where thou feedest, 
where thou makest thy flock to rest at noon." David wsts 
of an . bumble, meek, and merciful spirit. 1 Samuel xviii. 
23. 2 Samuel vi.21, 22. vii. 18. 1 Samuel xxiv. throughout, and 
xxvi. throughout ; 2 Sam. ii. 5. 21, andiv. 9, &c. vii. 18. 2Sam. 
xxii. 26, and many places in the Psalms show the same spirit, too 


many to be mentioned. This is agreeable to what is said of the Mes- 
siah, Zech. ix. 9. ** He is just and having salvation, lowly and rid- 
ing on an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass." Isaiah xlii. 3. ^' A brais- 
ed reed shall he not break,*' &&c. Isaiah xl. 1 1 . He shall gather the 
lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently 
lead those that are with young.'' Isaiah liii. 7. ^< He is brought as 
a lamb to the slaughter, as a sheep before his shearers is dumb, so 
be opened not his mouth." David was a person that was eminent 
for wisdom and prudence. 1 Samuel, xvi. 18. '* Behold I have 
seen a son of Jesse — prudent in matters.*' And xviii. 5. ^* And 
David behaved himself wisely." Verse 14. ^* And David behaved 
himself wisely in all his ways*" Ver. 30. ** David behaved him- 
self more wisely than all the servants of Saul." Ps. Ixxviii. 72. 
** He guided them by the skilfulness of his hands." This is agree- 
able to what is said of the Messiah, Isaiah[ix.'6. Chap. xi. 2, 3 ; xli. 
two last verses, with xlii. 1, lii. 13. Zech. iii. 9. David is said to be 
*< a mighty valiant man." 1 Sam. xvi. 18. '^Behold I have seen'a 
soa of Jesse, a mighty valiant man." This is agreeable to Psalm 
xlv. 3. ^^ Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy 
glory, and thy majesty." Isaiah Ixiii. 1. <* Who is this travelling in 
the greatness of his strength f 1 that speak in righteousness, 
mighty to save." And in this very thing the Messiah is compared 
to David. Psalm Ixxxix. 19, 20. ^* I have laid help upon one that is 
mighty ; I have exalted one chosen out of the people ; I have 
found David my servant." David was a sweet musician ; was 
preferred as such to all that were to be found in Israel, to relieve 
Saul in his melancholy. He is called ''the sweet Psalmist of 
Israel." 2 Sam xxiii. 1. He led the whole church of Israel io 
their praises. He instituted the order of singers and musicians in 
the house of God. He delivered to the church the book of songs 
they were to use in their ordinary public worship. This is most 
agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah, which do every where 
represent, that he. should introduce the most pleasant, joyful, glo- 
rious state of the church, wherein they should abound in tbe praises 
of God, and the world be filled with sweet and joyful songs after 
sorrow and weeping ; wherein songs should be heard from the 
uttermost ends of the earth, and all nations should sing, and the 
mountains and trees of the field, and all creatures, sun, moon and 
stars, heaveaand earth should break forth into singing, and even 
the dead should awake and sing, and the lower parts of the earth 
should shout, and the tongue of the dumb should sing, and the dra- 
gons and all deeps ; the barren, the prisoners, the desolate and 
mourners should sing ; and all nations should come and sing in 
the height of Zion ; they should sing a loud, and sing a new song, 
or in a new niuuner, with music and praises exalting all that had 
been before. The particular texts are too many to enumerate. 


*lie patriarch from whom Christ descended, for this reason is call- 
i Judah, 1. e. Praise : and the Messiah is represented as leading 
le church of God in their sweet and joyful songs. Ps« xxii. 22. 
I will declare thy name unto my brethren. In the midst of the 
ongregation will I praise thee." Ver. 25. ^' My praise shall be 
f ihec in the great congregation.'' Ps. Ixix. 30 — 32. " I will 
raise the name of God with a song, and will magnify him with 
lanksgiving. The humble shall see this and be glad.'' Yen 
4. '*Let the heaven and the earth praise him, the seas and every 
ling that moveth therein." See also Ps. cxxxviii. 1 — 5. We 
sad in Ps. Ixxxix. 15, of the joyful sound that shall be at that 
me ; and the day of the Messiah's kingdom is compared to the 
priDg, the time of the singing of birds. Cant. ii. David slew a 
CD and a bear, and delivered a lamb out of their mouths. So the 
nemies of the Messiah and of his people are in the prophecies 
ompared to a lion, as was observed before. So the prophetical 
epresentations made of God's people that are delivered by the 
lessiab, well agree with the symbol of a lamb. The prophecies 
^present them as feeble, poor, and defenceless in themselves, and 
8 meek and harmless. Ps. xlv. 4, and xxii. 26, Ixix. 32, cxlvii. 
, and cxiix. 4* Isai. xi. 4, xxix. 19, and Ixi. 1. David comes to 
lie camp of Israel, to save them from Goliath and the Philistines, 
ist at a time when they were in special and iihmediate danger ; 
^ben the host were going forth to the fight, and shouted for the 
attle. So the Messiah in the prophecies is represented as appear- 
Qg to save his people at the time of their extremity^ So God ap- 
leared for the redemption of his people out of Kgypt. . But Ba- 
Aam prophecying of the redemption, of the Messiah, Nunu xxiii. 
!3, says, according to this time shall it be said of Jacob and of 
srael, what hath God wrought ? This is also agreeable to that 
iropbecy of the deliverance of God's people in the Messiah's 
iine«; Deut. xxxii. 36. ''The Lord shall judge his people, and 
epeDt himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is 
[One, and there is none shut up or left." So Ps. xiv., and liii., 
tod xxj. 11, 12, and xlvi., and Iviii. 7, to the end ; and 1x. and 
xviii. 10, to the end; and xxviii. 21, 22; and xxix. 5 — 8, and 
xx. 27 — 30 ; xxxi. 4—5, xl. the latter end, and xli. throughout, 
;!!!• at the beginning, Ii. 7, to the end, and many other places. 
[)avid was hated and envied by his brethren, and misused by 
hem, when became to them on a kind errand from his father, to 
)riog them provision. Herein he resembled the Messiah as Jo- 
lepb did. David kills Goliath, who, in bis huge stature, great 
Urength, mighty army, and exceeding pride, much resembled the 
devil, according. to the representations of the devil in the prophe- 
cies of the Messiah's conquest and destruction of him ; who is 
called Leviathan, (Isaiah xxvii. l,) which in the Old Testa- 


ment, is represented as an huge and terrible creature of Tast 
strength and impenetrable armouri disdaining the weapons and 
strengthpf his enemies, and the king over all the children of pride ; 
Job zli. David went againstGoliath without carnal weapons. 
David prevailed against Goliath with a sling and a stone, which 
is agreeable to Zech. ix. 15. ^' The Lord of hosts shall defend 
them, and they shall devour and subdue with sling stones." 
David, when going against Goliath, took strength out of the 
brook in the way, agreeable to that concerning the Messiah, 
Ps. ex. 6, 7. *' He shall fill the places with the dead bodies : be 
shall wound the heads over many countries : he shall drink of 
the brook in the way ; therefore shall he lift up the head.'' Da- 
vid cut off the head of the Philistine with his own sword. So it 
may be clearly gathered from what the prophecies say of the 
Messiah's sufferings, and that from the cruelty of his enemies, 
and the consequences of them with respect to his exaltation and 
victory over his enemies, that the Messiah shall destroy Satan 
with his own weapons. David carried the head of Goliath to 
Jerusalem : which is agreeable to what is foretold of the Mes- 
siah, Ps. Ixviii. 18. ** Thou hast ascended on high ; thou hast 
led captivity captive ;" together with the context. David put 
Goliath's armour in his tent : which is agreeable to Ps. Ixxvi. 2, 
3. ** In Salem is his tabernacle, (or tent,) and his dwelling-place 
in Zion. There brake he the arrows of the bow, the shield, 
the sword, and the battle." When Saul saw David returning 
from his victory, he says repeatedly with great admiration con- 
cerning him, '* whose son is this youth?" 1 Sam. xvii. 55. 
** Inquire whose son this stripling is ;" ver. 56. *^ Whose son 
art thou ?" ver. 58, agreeably to Psalm xxviii. 8. '* Who is this 
king of glory f" Again, ver. 10, and Isai. Ixiii. 1. ''Who is 
this that Cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosrah? 
This that is glorious in his apparel," &c. The daughters of 
Israel went forth to meet king David, and sang praises to him 
when he returned from the slaughter of the Philistine ; agreea- 
bly to Ps. xxiv. and Ixviii., and many other places. David ob- 
tained his wife by exposing his life in battle with the Philistines, 
and in destroying them: agreeably to what is propheciedof the 
Messiah's sufferings and death, his conflict with and victory 
over his enemies, and his redemption of his church by this 
means, and the consequent joy of his espousals with the church. 
David was a great saviour. He saved Israel from Goliath, 
and the Philistines, and from all their enemies round about. 
2 Sam. iii. 18. " The Lord hath spoken of David, saying, By 
the hand of my servant David will I save my people Israel out 
of the hand of the Philistines, and out of the hand of all their 
enemies ; agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah. David 


was greatly persecuted, and his life sought unjustly; agrecabty 
to prophecies of the Messiah. David's marriage with Abi- 
gail, the wife of a son of Belial, a virtuous woman, and of a 
beautiful countenance, is agreeable to the innumerable prophe- 
cies that represent the church of the Messiah, that the prophecies 
speak of as his spouse, as brought into that happy state from a 
state of guilt and bondage to sin. David was resorted to by eve- 
ry one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and 
every one that was bitter of soul, and he became their captain ; 
which is agreeable to innumerable prophecies that represent the 
Messiah as the Captain and Saviour of the poor, afflicted, distress- 
ed sinners and prisoners, &c. David's host is compared to the 
host of God, 1 Chron. xii. 22, which is agreeable to what the 
prophecies represent of the divinity of the Messiah, and God's 
people in his times, and under him becoming as an host of mighty 
valiant men, tliat shall thresh the mountains, and tread down their 
enemies, &c« David, as it were raised from the dead, was won- 
derfully delivered from death, when from great danger he was 
brooght back from the wilderness, and from banishment, and from 
ctves of the earth that resembled tlie grave ; (Psa. xxz. 3. ^* O 
Lord, thou hast brought up my soul from the grave ;") which is 
agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's restoration from his 
low and snflering state and resurrection from death. David was 
made king over the strong city Hebron, that had been taken from 
the Anakims, the gigantic enemies of God's people : which is 
agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's conquering the strong 
city, bringing low the lofly city, conquering the devil, and tak- 
ing possession of the mightiest and strongest kingdoms of the 
world. David's followers that came to him to make him king, 
were men of understanding, mighty men of valour, and men of a 
perfect heart: 1 Chron. xii.: which is agreeable to what the pro- 
phecies represent of the followers of the Messiah. David was made 
king by the act and choice both of God and his people. 1 Chron. 
xi. 1 — 3, and xii. 2 Sam. ii. 4. v. 1, he. This is agreeable to 
Ibe prophecies of the Messiah. Hos. i. 11. '^ Then shall the 
children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered toge- 
ther, and appoint themselves one head." David was made king 
with great feasting and rejoicing, I Chron. xii. 39, 40, which is 
agreeable to what the prophecies do abundantly represent of 
the joy of the introduction of the Messiah's kingdom. David 
was the first king of Jerusalem, that city so often spoken of in 
the prophecies as a type of the church of the Messiah. David 
insnltoil the idols as lame and blind, and destroyed them. 2 Sam. 
T. 21. Agreeable to ^ 132—135. 153. David conquered the 
strongest hold of the Jobusites, and reigned there. See what 
was said before concerning his reigning in Hebron. He res- 
VOL. IX. 9 


cued Zion rrom the strong possession of idols, and the cneraies 
of God's |>eupl(*, and reigned in mount Zion : agreeably to in- 
numerulilc prophecies of the Messiah. David's kingdom gra- 
dually increased from small beginnings till he had sulidued all 
his enemies. It was first in David's time, that God chose him 
a place to put his name there. Through him God made Jeriifea- 
lem his holy city, and the place of his s|iecial gracious residence : 
agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah. Psalm exxxii* 13, 
&c. Zech. i. 17, and ii. 12, and Isaiah xiv. 1. David provid'* 
cd a settled habitation for God, and God is represented as 
through his favour to Duvid taking up a settled abode with 
them, no more walking in a moveable tent and tabernacle that 
might be taken down, and giving Israel a constant abode, that 
they might no more be afllicted, and carried into captivity ; 2 
Sam. vii. G. 10. 24 ; according to many prophecies of the Messiah. 
David provided a place for God's habitation in Zion and in 
mount Moriah ; agreeably to Zech. vi. 12. " He shall build the 
temple of the Lord." David brought up the ark to abide in 
the midst of God's people; after it had departed into the luad 
of the Philistines, and had long remained in the utmost con- 
fines of the land, in Kirjath-jearim : which is agreeable to 
what the prophecies represent of the benefit which the |icopIo 
of God in the Messiah's days shall receive, in the return of the 
tokens of God's f>resence to them, after long absence, and his 
placing his tabernacle in the midst of them, and his souPs no 
more abhorring them. David ascended into the hill of the 
Lord with the ark, at the head of all Israel, rejoicing, and gave 
gifts to men. 2 Samuel vi. Itut this is agreeable to what is 
aaid of the ascension of the Messiah. Psalm Ixviii. David 
ascended with the ark wherein was the law of God ; as the 
Messiah ascended with that human nature that was the cabi- 
net of the law. David after he had ascended returned to bless 
his household, as the Messiah especially blessed his church after 
his ascension. But Michal his first wife despised his abasement, 
and received no part in this blessing, but was as it were repu- 
diated ; as the prophecies do represent the Jews, as despising 
the Messiah for his humiliation, and so as not receiving the 
benefits and blessing that he should bestow after his ascension ; 
but as being repudiated. When David came to the crown, Gotl 
broke forth on his enemies, as the breach of water, and in a 
dreadful storm of thunder, fire, and hail. 2 iSam. v. 20. 1 
Chron. xiv. 9, and Psalm xviii., which is agreeable to Isaiah 
xxiv. 18 — 20. Daniel ix. 26. Eiek. xxxviii. 22. Isaiah xxx. 30, 
xxxii. 19. Yea, the dcslruclion of the enemies of God's people, 
in the days of the Mosiah, 13 ^xpic-sly cnnipared to that very 
breaking forth of Hud on the enemies of David ; Isaiuh xxviii. 


tL "For the I.onl shnll riso up ns in Mount Pornzini." The 
king of Tyre (th:it was nhovc nil others in the worhl, n city no- 
ted for merchandise and scafarinir) huilt David nn house. 2 
Sam. ¥• 11. 1 Chron. xiv. 1. David was not only a king,, but 
ft great prophet, 2 Sam. xxiii. 2, and also was a priest. He 
officiated as such on occasion of the bringing in of tiie ark. 2 
Sam. vi. 13—18. 1 Chron. xv. 27. Again he ofliciated as 
such, 2 Sam. xxvii. 17, to the end, and 1 Chron. xvi. 21, &c. 
'And in some respects he officiated as chiof in all saccnlotal 
matters, ordering all things in the house of God, directing and 
ordering the priests in things relating to their function, dispos- 
ing them into courses, &c. So the prophecies do abundantly 
represent the Messiah as ()rophct, priest, and king. David is 
spoken of as the man that was raised up on high ; which is 
agreeable to what is said of the Messiah in Psalm Ixxxix. J 9. 
"I have exalted one chosen out of the people;" and vcr. 27, 
''I will make him my first born, higher than the kings of the 
earth." Psalm xlv. '* Thy throne, O God, is for ever ;" and 
Psalm ex. " Sit thou on my right hand ;'' and innumerable 
other places, lie is s|>oken of as eminently a just ruler, one 
that fed God's people in the integrity of his heart and executed 
judgment and justice ; 2 Sam. viii. J5. 1 Chron. xviii. 14; which 
is agreeable to that which is abundantly spoken of the Messiah, 
as the just Kuler over men ; the King that shall reign in right- 
eousness ; he that shall sit on the throne of his father David, to 
order and establish it with judgment and justice ; the righteous 
branch that shall grow upto David, &c. God made David a name 
like the name of the great men that are in the earth. See also 2 
Kara. vii. 9, viii. 13, agreeable to Isai. liii. 12. ** Therefore will 
I divide him a portion with the great." The fame of David 
went out into all lands ; the Lord brought the fear of him upon 
all nations. 1 Chron. xiv. 17. Agreeable to Psa. xlv. 17. '*! 
will make my name to be remembered." Psa. Ixxii. 11. '* All 
nations shall serve him." Ver. 17. 'Mlis name shall endure for- 
ever-;'* and innumerable other places." David carried up the ark, 
clothed with a robe of fine linen ; 1 Chron. xv. 27; ngrerable 
to Isai. Ixi. 10. "He hath clothed me with the garments of sal- 
vation ; he hath covered me with a robe of righteousness." 
Zech. iii. 4. "Take away the filthy garments from him ; and 
unto him he said. Behold, 1 have caused thine iniquity to pass 
from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment." See 
also Dan. x. 5, compared with 13, and 21, and xii. 1. God was 
with Duvid whithersoever he went, and cut off all his enemies. 2 
Sam. vii. 9, and viii. 6. 14. 1 Chron. xvii. 8. 10, xviii. 6. 13. 2 
Sam. xxii. I, &c. ; agreeable to Psa. ii.,and xlv., ex., Ixxxix, and 
iununicrable other places. David subdued all the remainder of 


the Canaanites, and the ancient inhabitantaof the land, and so 
perfected what Joshua had begun in giving the people the land. 
See what is said of Joshua as a type of the Messiah in this ic- 
spect. David brought it to pass that the Canaanites and enemies 
of Israel should no longer dwell with them, as mixed among 
them in the same land. Joel iii. 17. '' No stranger shall pass 
through thee any more." Zech. xiv. 21. '' In that day there 
shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the Lord." Psa. 
Ixix. 35, 36. ** For God will save Zion and will build the cities 
of Judah, that they may dwell there, and have it in possession. 
The seed also of his servants shall inherit it, and they that 
love thy name shall dwell therein." Isai. Ixv. 9- — 11. ** And I 
will bring forth a seed out of Jacob and out of Judab, an in- 
heritor of my mountains ; and mine elect shall inherit it, and 
my servants shall dwell there." Isai. xxxv. 8. *' An highway 
shall be there, and a way, and it shall be called the way of ho- 
liness: the unclean shall not pass over it." Czok. xx. 38. 
*' And I will purge out from among you the rebels and them that 
transgress against me. I will bring ihem forth out of the coun- 
try where they sojourn, and they shall not enter into the land of 
Israel. David subdued the Philistines, and the MoabitcSi and 
Ammonites, and the Edomites, agreeably to Isai. xi. 14. JNum. 
xxiv. 17. Psa. Ix. 8, and cviii. 9. Isai. xxv. 10. Chap, xxxiv. 
and Ixiii £zek. xxxv., xxxvi. 5. David's kingdom reached 
from the river to the ends of the earth. 2 Sam. viii.3. 2 Chron. 
xviii. 3 ; agreeable to Psa. Ixxii. 8. Zech. ix. 10. David's 
reign was a time of the destruction of giants; he slew all the 
remnant of the race of giants. 1 Sam. xvii. 2 Sam. xxi. 18, 
to the end, andxxiii.20,21. 1 Chron. xx. 4Jto theend,aud jxi. 
22, 23, agreeable to Isai. x. 33. '* And the high ones of sta- 
ture shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled." 
This seems (as I observed before) to be connected with tJie pro- 
phecy in the beginning of the next chaprer, next verse but one. 
Isai. xlv. 14. ** The Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over 
to thee : in chains shall they comeovei." Psa. Ixxvi. 5. " The 
stout-hearted are s|>oilcd ; they have slept their sleep." David 
destroyed the chariots and houghed the horses of the enemies 
of God's people. 2 Sam. viii. 4. x. 18. 1 Chron. xviii. 4, and 
xix. 7 ; agreeably to Psa. xlvi. 9. '* He breakcth the bow and 
cutteth the spear in sunder. He burncth the chariot in the fire." 
Psa. Ixxvi. 3. *« There brake he the arrows of the bow, the 
shield, and the sword, and the battle." Ver. 6. ** At thy rebukr, 
O God of Jacob, both the chariot and horse are cast intoii 
dead sleep." See also Ezek. xxxix. 9, 10. 20, and Zech. xii. 3, 
4. What David says, Psa. xviii. and 2 Sam. xxii. of the man- 
ner in which God appeared for him against his enemies, to de- 


stroy them in a terrible tempest with thunder, lightning, earth- 
qaake, devouring fire, &;c. is agreeable to many things in the 
prophecies of the Messiah. See what has before been observed, 
wlien speaking of the deluge and destruction of Sodom, and the 
deitruction of the Amorites in Joshua's time. Other kings 
broogbt presents unto David and bowed down unto him. 2 Sam. 
V. 11. 1 Chron. xiv. 1. 2 Sam. viii. 2. 10. 1 Chron. xviii. 10. 
2 Sam. X. 19. 1 Chron. xxii. 4; agreeable to Psa. Ixxii. 10, 11. 
xlv. 12. Ixviii. 29. Isai. xlix. 7, and Ix. 9. 

The honour, dominion, and crown of David's enemies was 
given unto him. 2 Sam. xii. 30, and 1 Chron. xx. 2. Ezek. xxi. 
26, 27. *^ Thus saith the Lord, Remove the diadem and take off 
the crown ; this shall not be the same. Exalt him that is low, 
aod abase him that is high : perverted, perverted, perverted will 
I make it, until he come whose right it is, and I will give it him." 
David's sons were princes. David's sons were chief rulers or 
princes, as it is in the margin ; agreeably to Ps. xlv. 16. '* In- 
stead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou roayest make 
princes in all the earth." David brought the wealth of the hea- 
then into Jerusalem and dedicated it to God, and as it were built 
the temple with it. 2 Sam. viii. II, 12. 1 Chron. xviii. 11, and 
xxvi. 26, 27, and chap. xxii. throughout, and xxix. ; tigreeably to 
Hie. iv. 13. '^ Arise, thresh, O daughter of Zion ; for I will make 
thine horn iron, and thy hoofs brass ; and thou slialt beat in pieces 
many people; and I will consecrate their gain unto the Lord, and 
their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth." Isai. xxiii. 
17, 18. •* The Lord will visit Tyre — and her merchandise and 
hire shall be holiness unto the Lord. It shall not be treasured 
nor laid up ; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell be- 
fore the Lord, to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing." See 
also Isai. Ix. 5, 6. 9. 11. 13, Ixi. 6, and Zech. xiv. 14. David 
was a mediator; he stood between God and the people, both to 
keep off judgments and the punishment of sin, and also to pro- 
care God's favour towards them. For his sake God granted his 
gracious presence and favour with Israel. 2 Sam. vii. 10. Thus 
we read of favour which God showed to Israel, and withholding 
jndgments from time to time for his servant David's sake. 1 Kings 
xi. 12, 13. 32. 34, xv. 4. 2 Kings viii. 19, xix. 34, and xx. G. 
And he stood between God and the people of Jerusalem, when he 
saw the sword of justice drawn against it to. destroy it. 2 Sam. 
xiiv. 17, to the end. So the Messiah is spoken of as in like man- 
ner tlie Mediator ; being himself peculiarly God's elect and be- 
loved, is given for a covenant of the people, Isai. xlii. 6. xlix. 8, 
and the messenger of the covenant, and a prophet like unto Mo- 
^, who was a mediator. And the prophecies speak of the for- 
giveness of sin, and the greatest mercy towards God's people, and 


an everlasting covenant, and Uie pure mercies of David as being 
tiirougli the Messiah. 

David as mediator saved the people of Jerusalem from destruc- 
tion, by offering liimself to suffer and die by the sword of the de- 
stroying angel, and by building an altar and offering sacrifice; 2 
Sam. xxiv. 17, to the end, agreeably to the prophecies of the 

David not only made a tabernacle for God in mount Zion, and 
so provided an habitation for the Lord, but he in effect built the 
temple. He bought the ground on which it was buih, built an 
altar upon it, and made provision for the building of the temple* 
It was in his heart to build an house to God's name, and he direct- 
ed and ordered precisely how it should be built, and ordered all its 
services, 1 Chron. xxii., and xxiii., xxiv., xxv., xxvi. : agreeably 
to Zech. vi. 12, 13. Herein David was as the Messiah, a prophet 
like unto Moses, who built the tabernacle and the altar according 
to the pattern God gave him, (as he gave David the pattern of the 
tabernacle,) and gave the ordinances of the house, and ordered all 
things appertaining to the worship of the tabernacle. God by 
David gave to Israel new ordinances, a new law of worship, ap* 
pointed many things that were not in the law of Moses, and some 
things that superseded the ordinances of Moses. This is agreea- 
ble to the things said of the Messiah. David made all manner of 
preparation for the building of the temple, and that in vast abun- 
dance ; he laid up an immense treasure; 1 Chron. xxii. 14, xzviii. 
14, A^c, xxix. 2, &c., agreeably to Isai. xxv. 6. '* And in this 
mountain shall the Lord make unto all people a feast of fat things/' 
&c. Isai. Iv. 1 — 9. ** Ho, every one that thirsteth," &,c. Hag. 
ii. 7. *' I will (ill this house with glory." Jcr. xxxiii. 6. '* I will 
reveal unto them the al)nndance of truth and peace.'^ Isai. Ixiv. 
*' Eye hath not seen, nor car heard,'' &,c. Isai. Ixvi. 12. ''I 
will extend peace to her as a river." Ps. Ixxii. 3. " The moun- 
tains shall bring peace." Ver. 7. ^* There shall be abundance 
of peace." Amos ix. 13. '* The mountains shall drop sweet 
wine." Joel iii. 18. '* And it shall come to pass in that day, 
that the mountains shall droj) down new wine, and the hills shsdl 
flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judnh shall flow with waten, 
and a fountain shall come forth out of the house of the Lord, and 
shall water the valley of Chitiim." And Isai. ix. throughout; 
besides the things which the prophecies say of the perfect satis- 
faction of Gofl's justfcp, by the sacrifice of the Messiah, and the 
abundance of his riphteousness and excellency. David made 
snch great provision for the building of the temple, in his trouble 
by war, and by exposing his own liO, which is agreeable to what 
the propherirs rpprrseni of Cliris»i's procuring the immense bless- 
ings of his church, by his extreme sufferings and precious blood. 


David was llic head of God's people, the prince of the congrega- 
tion of Israel, not only in their civil affairs, but in ecclesiastical 
affairs also, and their leader in all things appertaining to religion 
and ihe worship of God. Herein be was as the Messiah is repre- 
sented in the prophecies, which speak of him as a prophet like 
unto Moses, and as the head of God's people, as their great king, 
prophet, and priest; and indeed almost all that the prophecies say 
of the Messiah, implies that he shall be the great head of God's 
people in their religious concerns. David regulated the whole 
biKiy of the people, and brought them into the most exact and 
beaatiful order ; 1 Chron. xxvii., which is agreeable to what is 
represented of the church in the Messiah's days, as ^^ beautiful 
for situation." Isai. xlviii. 2. " The perfection of beauty.'^ Ps. 
1. 2. ** An eternal excellency, the joy of many generations.'* 
And what is represented in Ezekiel of the exact measures and or- 
der of all parts of the temple, the city, and the whole land. Da- 
vid built the altar in the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusitc, 

00 Gentile ground ; which is agreeable to what the prophecies re- 
present of the church of the Messiah being erected in Gentile 
hndi, and being made up of those that had been sinners. 

The things that are said of Solomon fall little, if any thing, 
ihort of those that are said of David, in their remarkable agree- 
ment with things said of the Messiah in the prophecies. His name 
Sokmnnj signifies peace or peaceable, and was given him by God 
himself, from respect to the signification, because he should enjoy 
feacCf and be a means of peace to God's people. 1 Chron. xxii. 9. 
"Behold a son shall be born to thee, who shall be a man of rest; and 

1 will give him rest from all his enemies round about. For his 
mune shall be Solomon ; and I will give peace and quietness unto 
Israel Id his days." This is agreeable to Isai. ix.6, 7. ^'For unto 
OS a child is born, unto us a son is given ; and the government 

shall be upon his shoulder; and his name shall be called the 

frinte ofpecu^Cf of the increase of his peace there shall be no 

end." Psa* ex./' Thou art a priest forever after the order of Mel- 
chiiedec," who as the Apostle -observes, was king ofSidemj that is 
king of peace. Psa. Ixxii. 3. *'The mountains shall bring peace 
mo the people." Ver.7. 'Hn his days shall the righteous flourish and 
ibaodance of peace, so long as the moon cndureth." Psa. xxxv. 10. 
"Righteousness and peace have kissed each other." Isai. lii. 7. 

" How beautiful are the feet of him that publisheth peace." 

Jer. ixxiii. 6. *M will reveul unto them the abundance of truth 
ind peace :" and many other places. When Solomon was born it 
i« said the Lord loved him. 1 Sam. xii. 24. And the prophet Na- 
lliau for this reason called him by the name Jcdidiah; i. e. the />«- 
lotietlof the Lord. He is also spoken of as the beloved son of his 
failicr. Prov. iv. 3. *' Fori was my father's son, tender and only 


beloved ill the sight of my mother." Solomon was the son of 
a woman that had been the wife of an Ilittite, a Gentile by na- 
tion ; fitly denoting the honour that the prophecies represent, 
that the Gentiles should have by their relation to the Messiah. 
God made mention of Solomon's name as one that was to be the 
fl^reat prince of Israel and means of their happiness from his mo- 
ther's womb; agreeably tolsai. xjix. ]. '* The Lord hath call- 
ed me from the womb ; from the bowels of my mother hath 
he made mention of my name." God promised to establish 
the throne of Solomon for ever, in terms considerably like those 
used by the prophets concerning the kingdom of the Messiah. 
2 Sam. vii. 13. *' I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall 
proceed out of thine own bowels : and I will establish his king- 
dom. He shall build an house for my name, and I will establish 
the throne of his kingdom for ever." Also 1 Chron. xxii. 10. 
Isai. ix. 6, 7. *^ Of the increase of his government there shall 

be no end upon the throne of David and his kingdom — to 

establish it from henceforth even for ever." Psa. ex. " Thou 

art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedec.'' Dan. vii. 
14. *' His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not 
pass away ; and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 
Solomon is spoken of as God's son. 1 Chron. vii. 14. '*! will 
be his father and he shall bo my son." 1 Chron. xxii. 9, 10. 

*'His name shall bo Solomon he shall be my son and I will 

be his father." Chap, xxviii. 6. ** And he said unto me, Solo- 
mon thy son, he shall build my house and my courts. For 1 
have chosen him to be my son, and I will be his father*" Solo- 
mon was in an eminent manner OoiTs elect. 1 Chron. xxviii. 5, 
6. ''And of ail my sons (for the Lord hath given me many 
sons) he hath chosen Solomon my son, to sit upon the throne of 
the kingdom of the Lord over Israel. And he said Solomon 

ihy son have I chosen to be my son.*' Chap, xxxix. 1. 

*' David the king said unto all the congregation, Solomon my 
son, whom alone God hath chosen." Though David had many 
sons, and many born before Solomon, yet Solomon was made 
his first born, higher than all the rest, and his father's heir and 
his brethren's prince; agreeably to Psa. Ixxxvii. 27. "I will 
make him my first liorn, higher than the kings of the earth." 
Psa. xlv. 7. "Thy God hath anointed thee with the oil of glad- 
ness above thy fellows." The word which Nathan, the minis- 
ter of the Lord, spake to Bathsheba, David's wife, and Solo- 
mon's mother, and the counsel he gave her, was the occasion of 
the introduction of the blissful and glorious reign of Solomon, 
1 Kings i. 11 — L3. So the prophecies represent the preaching 
of God's mini»tors as the means of introducing ihc glorious 
kingdom of the Messiah. Isui. Ixii. 6, 7. " 1 have set watch- 


len apon tliy walls, O Jerusalem, which shall never hold their 

eaceday nor nighi till he make Jerusalem a praise in the 

irih/* Chap. Hi. 7, 8. ** How beautiful upon the mountains 
re the feet of him that bringeth good tidings ! Thy watchmen 
ball lift up the voice ; with the voice together shall they sing* 
'or they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again 
■ion/* This earnest incessant preaching of ministers shall be 
I Ibe first place to the visible church of God, that is represent- 
i in the Old Testament both as the wife and mother of Christ. 
he is represented as his mother, Mic. iv. 10. '* Be in pain, and 
dbourto bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in tra- 
ail;'' with the next chapter, ver. 2, 3. '* Thou, Bethlehem 
Iphratahy out of thee shall he come forth unto me, that is to 

e ruler in Israel Therefore will he give them up, until the 

ime that she which travaileth hath brought forth." Isai. ix. 6. 
'Unto us a child is bom, unto us a son is given." Cant. iii. 
1. ** Behold king Solomon with the crown wherewith his mo* 
ber crowned him." Solomon's father had solemnly promised, 
ad covenanted, and sworn to Bathsheba long beforehand, that 
lolomon should reign and sit on his throne. So the sending of 
be Messiah and introducing the blessings of his reign was the 
iraod promise, covenant, and oath of God to his church of old, 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and in David's and the prophets* 
iuies. Ps. Ixxxix. 3, 4. 35, 36. 2 Sam. xxiii. 3—5. Jer. 
Lxziii. 17 to the end, and many other places. The glorious 
eign of Solomon is introduced on the earnest petitions and 
ilmdings of Bathsheba with his father. 1 Kings i. 15 — 21. 
lo the prophecies often represent that the glorious peace and 
voeperity of the Messiah's reign shall be given in answer to the 
•meat and importunate prayers of the church. Ezek. xxxvi. 
17. ** I will yet for this be inquired of by the house of Israel 
do it for them." Jer. xxix. 11 — 14. Cant. ii. 14. Zech. 
ii. 10. Bathsheba pleads the king's promise and covenant, 
lo the church is often represented as waiting for the fulfilment 
f God's promises with lespect to the benefits of the Messiah's 
UQgdom. Gen. xlix. 18. Isai. viii. 17, and xxx. 18, xl. 31, 
lud xlix. 23. Zeph. iii. 8. Isai. xxv. 9, xxvi. 8, and Ixiv. 4. 
Momoo came to the crown after the people had set up a false 
leir, one that pretended to be the heir of David's crown, and 
or a while seemed as though he would carry all before him. 
This is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah, which re- 
present that his king shall be set up on the ruins of that of 
others, who should exalt themselves and assume the dominion. 
Excfc. xvii. 24. «« I the Lord have brought down the high tree 
lod exalted the low tree," &c. Ch. xxi. 26. " Thus saith the Lord 
God, Remove the diadem, take ofl' the crown ; this shall not be 
VOL. IX. 10 


the same. Exalt him that is low ; abase him that is high." 
Ps. ii. ** The kings of the earth set themselves ; the rulers 
take counsel together, saying, Let us break their bands, &c. — 
Yet have I set my King on my holy hill of Zion/' Ps. cxviii. 
22. ** The stone which the builders refused, the same is become 
the head of the corner." And particularly this is agreeable to 
what the prophet Daniel says of the reign of Antichrist, that 
shall precede the glorious day of the Messiah's reign, who shall 
set up himself in the room of the Most High, as law*giver in 
his room, shall think to change times and laws, whose reign 
shall continue till the Messiah comes to overthrow it, by setting 
up his glorious kingdom. When David understands the oppo- 
sition that was made to Solomon's reign by him that had usurp- 
ed the kingdom, and by the rulers and great men that were 
with him, he solemnly declares his firm and immutable purpose 
and decree of exalting Solomon that day to his throne which 
was in mount Zion. 1 Kings i. 20, 30; agreeable to Ps. ii. 
'* The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take 
counsel together against the Lord and against his Anointed; 

saying. Let us break their bands. Yet have I set my King 

on my holy hill of Zton. 1 will declare the decree. The Lord 
hath said unto me. Thou art my son, this day have I begotten 
thee." Solomon was made king by a most solemn oath of his 
father, that he declares ho will not repent of, but fulfil. 1 Kin. 
xxix. 30. '^ And the king sware, and said, As the Lord liveth, 
that hath redeemed my soul out of all distress, even as I sware 
unto thee by the Lord God of Israel, saying, Assuredly Solo- 
mon thy son shall reign after me, an<l he shall sit upon my 
throne in my stead ; even so will i certainly do this day." 
Agreeable to Ps. ex. 4. *' The Lord hath sworn, and will not 
repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchize- 
deck." When the time came for Solomon to be proclaimed 
king, all the opposition and interest of his competitors, though 
very great, and of great men, (and though they seemed to have 
made their part strong, and to have got the day,) all vanished 
away as it were of itself, and came to nothing at once, like a 
dream when one awakes ; agreeably to Ps. ii. ^^ The Lord shall 
laugh at them.— Yet have I set my King on my holy hill of 
Zion." Isai. xxix. 7, 8. *^ And the multitude of all the nations 
that fight against Ariel, even all that fight against her and her 
munition, shall be as a dream of a night vision. It shall be 
even as when a hungry man dreameth, and behold, he eateth ; 
and he awaketh, and his soul is empty," &:c. Ps. Ixviii* 1, 2. 
" Let God arise; let his enemies be scattered; let them also 
that hate him flee before him, as smoke is driven away, as wax 
roelteth before the fire." Isai. Ixiv. 1. '< Oh that thou wouldcst 


rend ibe heavens, that thou wouldest come down, that the moun- 
taios might flow down at thy presence." Dan. ii. 34, 35. *' Thou 
sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the 
imaffe— — — then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the 
gold broken to pieces, and- became like the chaflf of the summer 
threshing floors, and the wind carried them away." The fol- 
lowers of Adonijah were dispersed without any battle, only by 
what tbey beard and saw of what David had done in exalting So- 
lomon, and the manner in which he was introduced and instated 
io the kingdom ; which is agreeable to Ps. xlviii. 4 — 6. " For lo, 
the kings were assembled ; they passed by together ; they saw it, 
and so they marvelled. They were troubled, and hasted away. 
Fear took hold upon them there, and pain as of a woman in tra- 
vail." After David had declared the decree, that Solomon should 
be king in Zion, it was dangerous for the princes and rulers not 
lo sabmit themselves to Solomon, and behave with suitable re- 
spect to him, leat he should be angry, and they should perish. Ps. 
ii. SolomoUi in his way to the throne, is made as it were to drink 
of the brook. He first descended from the height of mount Zion 
down into a low valley without the city, to the water course of 
Gibon* There he had a baptism to be baptized with. And 
then he ascended in the state and majesty of a king. Agreea- 
ble to Psalm ex. '* He shall drink of the brook in the way, 
therefore shall he lift up the head :" and the many pro- 
phecies that speak of his humiliation, and sufierings, and 
glorioas exaltation consequent thereon. Solomon, after be 
bad descended into the valley to the waters of Gihon, as- 
cended up into the height of Zion in a manner resembling 
the ascension of the Messiah, very much after the same man- 
ner that the ascension of the ark resembled it. For he went 
up with the sound of the trumpet, all the people following 
him with, songs, and instruments of music, and hosannas, re- 
joicing with great joy, so that the earth rent again. 1 Kings i. 
39, 40. Agreeable to Psalm Ixviii., and xlvii. 5, and xxiv* That 
the peaceful, happy and glorious reign of Solomon should be in- 
troduced with such extraordinary joy, shouting, songs and instru- 
ments of music in Zion, is agreeable to what is often foretold con- 
cerning the introduction of the glorious day of the Messiah's 
reign. Zech. ix. 9. " Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion ; 
shout, O daughter of Jerusalem ; behold thy king cometh unto 
thee." To the like purpose, chap. ii. 10, Isaiah xl. 9, and Hi. 7 
— ^9. Psalm xcvi. 10, &c. "Say among the heathen the Lord 
reigneth ; the world also shall be established, that it shall not be 
moved. He shall judge the people righteously. Let the heavens 
rejoice, and let the earth be glad. Let the sea roar and the fulness 
thereof. Let the field be joyful and all that is therein. Then 


shall all the trees of the wood rejoice before the Lord," and Psa. 
xcvii. 1. 8. 12, xcviii. 4, to the end, aiid c. 1,2. Iftaiah xlv. 23, 
xlix. 13. Isaiah Iv. 12, and many [other places. The great pros- 
perity of Israel through the reign of Solomon was introdoced 
with the sound of the trumpet. 1 Kin. i. 34. 39. 1 Chroo* xxix. 
21, 22. Agreeable to Isaiah xxvii. 1 3. " The great trumpet shall 
be blown," &tc. Solomon was the Messiah or anointed io ao 
eminent manner. He was anointed by the special direction both 
of David and of Nathan the prophet. 1 Kings i. 11. 34. 39. He 
was anointed with God's holy anointing oil out of the tabernacle, 
verse 39 ; not only was Solomon anointed of God, but be was 
anointed also by the people. They made him king over them 
by their own act, 1 Chron. xxix. 22; agreeable to Hos. i. IL 
** Then shall the children of Judah, and the children of Israel be 
gathered together, and appoint over them one head ; and they 
shall come up out of the land. For great shall be the day of 
Jezreel." David made Solomon to ride on his own mule, and 
he sat on his father's throne, while David was yet living, and was 
king. His father solemnly invested him with his kingly authority; 
and himself gives him his charge. 1 King i. 30. 33. 35. 47, 48, 
ii. 12. 1 Chron. xxviii, xxix. Thi^ is agreeable to the account 
that is given of God the Father's investing the Messiah with his 
dominion in Dan. vii. See also Zech. vi. 12, 13, and Czek. xlvi. 
1, 2, with xliv. 2. Solomon is spoken of as not only sitting on 
the throne of his father David ; but also as sitting on God's 
throne, and reigning in some respect in God's stead, as his vice- 
gerent. 1 Chron. xxviii. 5. The Lord hath chosen Solomon my 
son, to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the Lord — over Israel." 
Chap, xxxix. 23. ^* Then Solomon sat upon the throne of the 
Lord as king in stead of David his father." 2 Chron. ix. 8. 
** Blessed be the Lord thy God, which delighted in thee, to seat 
thee on his throne, to be king for the Lord thy God." So the 
prophecies do represent the Messiah, as sitting on the throne of 
David his father. Isaiah ix. 7. '* On the throne of David, and 
upon his kingdom to order it," &tc. Jcr. xxxiii. 17. 21. And also 
as sitting on the throne of God. Zech. vi. 13. '* He shall build 
the temple of the Lord and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit 
and rule upon his throne." Also Dan. vii. 13, 14, and Psalm ii. 
*• I have set my king on my holy hill of Zion." Psalm ex. " Sit 
thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool." 
Psalm xlv. 6. "Thy throne, O God, is for ever." The beginning 
of Solomon's reign was a remarkable time of vengeance on the 
wicked, and such as had been opposers or false friends of David 
and Solomon. Many such were then cut off. 1 Kings ii. So that 
it was as it were the righteous only that delighted themselves in 
that abundance of peace, and partook of the glory, prosperity 


and triamph of God's people, that was enjoyed in this reign, which 
is agreeable to Isaiah. Ixi. 2. '< To proclaim the acceptable year 
of the LfOrd, and the day of vengeance of our God : hv. 12, &rC. 
** Therefore will I number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow 
down to the slaughter — my servants shall eat ; but ye shall be 
hoDgry/' be. Chap. Ixvi. 14 — 16. ''And the hand of the Lord 
shall be known towards his servants, and his indignation towards 
his enemies* For behold, the Lord will come with fire and witti 
iris chariots, like a whirfwind, to render his anger with fury — and 
the slain of the Lord shall be many." Isaiah xxxiii. 14, be. 
'*The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprized 
the hypocrite. He that walketh righteously — shall dwell on high 
— thine eye shall see the king in his beauty.'' Mai. iv. 1 — 3* ''All 
tbe^iroud, yea, all that do wickedly, shall be as stubble. But 
auto yoa that fear my name, shall the Sun of Righteousness arise 
iritfa healing in his wings. And ye shall tread down the wicked." 
Eiek. XX. 38. *' And I will purge out from among you the rebels, 
and them that transgress against me." Psalm xxxvii. 9 — 11. 
"For evil doers shall be cut off: but those that wait upon the 
Lord, shall inherit the earth. For yet a little while and the wick- 
ed shall not be : yea thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it 
sbfldi not be. But the meek shall inherit the earth, and delight 
themtelves in the abundance of peace." And many other places. 
Solomon did not immediately cut off these rebels and transgres- 
sors ; bat gave them opportunity to enjoy the blessings of his 
reig^ with others, if they would turn from their evil wav, and 
sabmit to him, and approve themselves worthy men and faithful 
ntgects. But when they went on still in their transgressions he 
cat them off. Agreeable to what is foretold should be at the intro- 
doctiott of the glory of the Messiah's reign, in Psalm Ixviii. 18, &c. 
'^Thon hast ascended on high — thou hast received gifts for men, yea, 
for the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among 
tbem. Blessed be the Lord who daily loadeth us with his benefits. 
Bat God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp 
of sach an one as goeth on still in hisjtrespasses." Solomon was a 
n&n of great and unparalleled wisdom. This is agreeable to Isaiah 
ii. 6. ** His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor." xi. 2, 
3. "The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wis- 
dom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and of might, the 
spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord ; and shall make 
bim of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord." Zech* iii. 
9. "Upon one stone shall be seven eyes." See also Isaiah xli. 
two last verses, with xlii. 1. God was with Solomon and 
greatly established his throne. 1 Kings ii. 12. 2 Chron. i. 
1, agreeable to Isaiah ix. 7. 0. "Upon the throne of Da- 
vid and upon liis kingdom, to order it and to establish it 

from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts 


shall do this.'^ Psa. Ixxxix. 2, 3. *^ Mercy shall he build 
up for ever: thy faiihrulness wilt thou establish iu the very 
heavens. I have made a covenant with mv chosen." 20, 21. 
*' With my holy oil have I anointed him, wiih whom my hand shall 
be established ; mine arm also shall strengthen him." 36, 37. 
*' His throne shall endure as the sun before me : it shall be esta- 
blished for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven." 
Psa. ii. throughout. Psa. xlv. •* Thy throne, O God, is for ever 

and ever." Psa. ex. " Sit thou at my right hand, the Lord 

hath sworn," &g. Isai. xlii. 1. 4. '* Behold my servant whom { 
uphold ■■ he shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set 
judgment in the earth, and the isles shall wait for his law." And 
xlix. 8. '' I have helped thee, and I will preserve thee, to establish 
the earth." The Lord magnified Solomon exceedingly, and be- 
stowed upon him such royal majesty as had not been on any before 
him in Israel. 1 Chron. xxix. 25. 2 Chron. i. 1.; agreeable to 

Psa. xlv. 2, &c. " Thou art fairer than the children of men 

gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most Mighty, with thy glory 
and thy majesty." Ver. 6. ** Thy throne, O God, is for ever and 
ever." Isai. ix. 6. '* For unto us a child is born, unto as a sou 
is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder; and bis 
name shall be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, 
The everlasting Father, The Prince of peace." Solomon married 
Pharaoh's daughter, a stranger; agreeably to Psa. xlv. 10. 
'' Hearken, O daughter, consider, and incline thine ear ; forget 
also thine own people," be. ^^ She was the daughter of a 
king;" agreeably to Psa. xlv. 13. " The King's daughter," &c. 
a Gentile, agreeably to Hos. ii. 16. **Thou shall call me Ishi," 
(i. e. my husband.) Ver. 19, 20. '^ Andl will betroth thee unto me.*' 
Ver. 23. '^ And 1 will have mercy upon her that hath not obtained 
mercy; and I will say unto them which were not my people, 
Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God;" 
with innumerable other prophecies of the calling of the Gentiles. 
She was an Egyptian, and Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh, 
king of Egypt. Agreeably to Psa. Ixxxvii. 4. '^ I will make 
mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me." Psa. 
Ixviii. 31. ''Princes shall come out of Egypt." Isai. xix. 18, to 
the end. In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak 
the language of Canaan— —and there shall be an altar unto the 

Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt and the Lord shall 

be known unto Egypt; and the Egyptians shall know the Lord 

and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians —— the Lord 
of hosts shall bless, saying. Blessed shall be Egypt my people." 
Pharaoh's daughter being an Egyptian, was of a swarthy com* 
plexion ; agreeably to Cant. i. 5. ** I am black, but comely, O 
yc daughters of Jerusalem." We read of no person that ever of- 


:h great sacrifices as Solomon did. 1 Kin. iii. 4, and 8, 
14. 1 Kin. ix. 25. This is agreeable to what the prophe- 
resent of the Messiah, as the great priest of God, who by 
ifices he should offer, should perfectly satisfy divine justice, 
y procure the favour of God for his people ; bis sacrifices 
erein of greater value than thousands of rams and ten 
ds of rivers of oil, and all the beasts of the field. Solomon 
e temple; agreeably to Zech. vi. 12, 13. He made the 
; place of God, that before was only a moveable tent, to 
a stable building, built on a rock or everlasting mountain ; 
ly to [sai. xxxiii. 20. '* Look upon Zion, the city of our 
Lies. Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a 
:le that shall not be taken down : not one of the stakes 
shall ever be removed ; neither shall any of the cords 
be broken." Chap, xxviii. 16, 17. ^* Behold I lay in Zion 
indation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a 

mdation juclgment also will I lay to the line, and 

isness to the plummet." Ezek. xxxvii. 26. ^* Moreover I 
ie a covenant of peace with them : it shall be an everlast- 
?nant with them ; and I will place them and multiply them, 
1 set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore," 
>gether with the prophetical description of that sanctuary in 
ieth and following chapters. Solomon's temple and bis 
oildiiigs in Jerusalem were exceeding stately and mag- 
, so that he vastly increased the beauty and glory of the 
[sai. I. 13. ^' The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, 
-tree, the pine-tree, and the box-tree together, to beautify 
:e of my sanctuary : and I will make the place of my feet 
s." Ver. 15. **1 will make thee an eternal excellency." 
iv. 1 1, 12. *' Behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours, 
thy foundations with sapphires ; and 1 will make thy win- 
r agates and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy borders of 
t scones." The temple that Solomon built was exceeding 
ical of fame and of glory throughout all lands. 1 Chron. 
; agreeably to Isai. ii. 2. '* And it shall come to pass in the 
^s, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be esta- 
in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the 
nd all nations shall flow into it." See also Mic. iv. 1, 2. 
.,atthel3eginning. ** Arise, shine ; for thy light is come— — 
rd shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon 
ind the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the 
less of ihy rising." Solomon enlarged the place of sacri- 
so that sacrifices were not only ofiered on the altar, but all 
Idle part of the court was made use of for that end, by rea- 
the multitude of worshippers and the abundance of sacrifices, 
viii. 64. 2Chron. vii. 7. ; which is agreeable to Jer. iii. 16, 


17. " And it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and in- 
creased in the land in those days, saith the Lord, they shall say no 

more, the ark of the covenant of the Lord," &c. at that 

time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord, and all na- 
tions shall be gathered unto the name of the Lord unto Jerusa- 
lem." Mai. i. 10, 11. *^ From the rising of the sun unto the go- 
ing down of the same, my name shall be great among the Gentiles, 
and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name, and a 

pure offering:'' and many other places. Solomon was a 

great intercessor for Israel, and by his intercession he obtained 
that God should forgive their sins, lEind hear their prayers, and 
pity them under their calamities, and deliver them from their ene- 
mies, and fulfil his promises, and supply all their necessities that 
they might find mercy and find grace to help in a time of need| 
and that God might dwell with Israel, and take up his abode 
among them, as their king, saviour, and father. (2 Kin. viii. 2 
Chron. vi.) By his intercession and prayer he brought fire down 
from heaven, to consume their sacrifices ; and obtained that God 
should come down in a cloud of glory to fill his temple. 2 Chron. 
vii. 1 — 3. 1 Kin. viii. 54. His intercession was as it were con- 
tinual, as though he ever lived to make intercession for his peo- 
ple, that they might obtain mercy and find grace to help in time 
of need. See those remarkable words, 1 Kin. viii. 59. Solomoo 
was not only an intercessor for Israel, but for the stranger 
that was not of Israel, but came out of a far country for 
God's name sake, when he should hear of his great name 
and great salvation. 1 Kin. viii. 41 — 43. 2 Chron. vi.32, 33.; 
which is agreeable to what the prophecies do abundantly represent 
of the joint interest of the Gentiles in the utmost ends of the earth, 
with Israel in the Messiah, through hearing his great name, and 
the report of his salvation. Solomon prayed for all the people of 
the earth that they might know the true God. 1 Kin. viii. 60. So 
the prophecies do abundantly show, that the Messiah should ac- 
tually obtain this benefit for all nations of the world. Solomon 
did the part of a priest in blessing the congregation. 1 Kin. viii. 
14. 2 Chron. vi. 3, with Num. vi. 23. ; which is agreeable to the 
prophecies which do represent the Messiah as a priest, and also to 
Gen. xxii. 18. ** In thy seed shall all the families of the earth be 
blessed." To the like purpose, chap. xii. 3, xviii. 18, and xxvi. 
4, and Psa. Izxii. 17. '< And men shall be blessed in him." Salo- 
mon made a covenant with the king of Tyre, and the servants of 
the king of Tyre were associated with the servants of Solomon in 
the building of the temple : which is agreeable to the prophecies 
of the Messiah's being a light to the Gentiles and covenant of the 
people ; and the Gentiles being associated with the Jews and be- 
coming one people with them ; and their coming and building in 


pie ofihe liord. Zcch. vi. 15^ Isai. h, 10. '' And the sons 
igers shall bnild up tliy walls, and their kings shall minister 
ee." And particularly the prophecies that represent that 
ion in the islands and ends of the earth and maritime pla- 
chief nations for arts, wealth, raerchnndise, and seafaring 
be brought into the kingdom of the Messiah, bringing 
ver and gold to the name of the J^ord, &,c. And that the 
s in particular should be the people of the Messiah. Solo- 
ought the glory of Lebanon, or the best and fairest of its 
, to build the temple of God ; agreeably to Isai. Ix. 13. 
»n in an eminent manner executed Judgment and justice, 
ill* 11. 23. and x. 9. 18. His throne of judgment was of 
1 white, pure and precious substance, used in the Old Tes- 
as a symbol of purity and righteousness. This is agreeable 
merable prophecies of the Messiah. It was in Solomon's 
It God first gave his people Israel fully to enjoy that rest 
aian, that he had promised them in the time of Moses ; lAid 
»n's rest was glorious. 1 Kin. v. 4. ''But now the Lord 
d hath given me rest on every side." And ch. viii. 56. 
ed be the Lord God, that hath given rest unto his people 
according to all that be promised, there hath not failed one 
r all his good promise, which he promised by the hand of 
liis servant." This is agreeable to Isai. xi. 10. '' And in 
f there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an 
of the people : to it shall the Gentiles seek ; and bis rest 
glorious." Jer. xxx. 10. ''So I will save thee from afar, 
seed from the land of their captivity ; and Jacob shall re- 
d be in rest and quiet, and none shall make him afraid.'' 
:xiii. 20. "Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities, 
eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle 
Ji not be taken down." And xxxii. 17, 18. "And the 
f righteousness shall be peace, and the effect of righteons- 
|uietness and assurance for even And my people shall 
n a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in 
^sting places." Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man 
lis own vine, and under his own fig-tree, from Dan even 
rsheba, all the days of Solomon. 1 Kin. iv. 25 ; agreeable 
. iv. 4. " But they shall sit every man under his vine and 
lis fig-tree, and none shall make them afraid." Zech. iii. 
[n that day, saith the Lord of hosts, ye shall call every man 
ghbour under his vine, and under his fig-tree." In Solo- 
*eign there was neither adversary nor evil occnrrent. So 
ing to the prophecies in the Messiah's times there shall be 
ersary. Isai. xxv. 5. "Thou shalt bring down the noise of 
T8 as the heat in a dry place, even the heat with the shadow 
)ud; the branch of the terrible ones shall be brought low." 
.IX. 11 


Itai. liy. 14. " In righteoosoess sba]t thoo be established. Thou 
shall be far from oppression, for thoo shall not fear ; and from ter- 
ror, for it shall not come near thee." And xlix. 19. " They that 
swallowed thee op, shall be far away." Isai. Ix. 13. ''Violence 
shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor deslmction within 
thy borders." And xi. 13. " The adversaries of Judah shall he 
col off." So Eiek. zxxvi. 12, 13, and many other places. So by 
the prophecies of the Messiah's times, there should not be evil oe- 
current Isai. xxt. 8. '^ He will wipe away tears from off all 
faces." And zxzv. 10. *' Sorrow and sighing shall flee away." 
Isai. XXXV. 24. " And the inhabitant shall not say, I am sick." 
Isai. Ixv. 19. '< And the voice of weeping shall no more be heard 
in her, nor the voice of crying." Ver. 21. '* And they shall build 
bouses and inhabit them, and they shall plant vineyards and 
eat the fruit of them.'* Zech. viii. 12. •' The seed shall be 
prosperous ; the vine shall give her fruit ; and the ground shall 
give her increase ; and the heavens shall give their dew ; and I 
will cause the remnant of this people to possess all these things;** 
and many other places. In Solomon^s time Israel were possessed 
of great riches, silver, and gold, and other precious things in vast 
abundance. I Kings x. 21 — ^23. 27 ; agreeable to Isai. Ix. S. 
*' The abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee. The 
forces (or wealth) of the Gentiles shall come unto thee." Ver. 6. 
'' The multitude of camels shall cover thee. The dromedaries of 
Midian and Ephah they shall bring gold." Ver. 9. '' The ships 
of Tarshisb shall bring their silver and their gold." Ver. II. 
*' Thy gates shall be open continually, they shall not be shut dajf 
nor night ; that men may bring unto thee the forces (or wealth) of 
the Gentiles." Ver. 17. '' For brass I will bring gold, and for 
iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron." 
Ixi. 6. '^ Te shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory 
shall ye boast yourselves." Ixvi. II, 12. "That ye may milk 
out and be delighted with the abundance of her glory. For thus 
saith the Lord, Behold, 1 will extend peace to her like a river, 
and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream ; then shall 
ye suck," he., and many other phices. Solomon's reign was a 
time of great (easting and rejoicing in Israel. 1 Kin. iv. 20 — 22, 
23, viii. 65, and x. 5 ; agreeable to Isai. xxv. 6. " And in this 
monniaio shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people a feast of 
fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of mar- 
row, of wines on the lees well refined." Isai. Ixv. 13, 14- " Be- 
hold, my servants shall eat — my servants shall drink — my servants 
shall rejoice — my servants shall sing for Joy of heart." Ver. 1 8. 
** Behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing and her people a joy." 
Jer. xxxi. 12. " Therefore shall ye come and sing in tlie height 
of Son, and shall flow together to the goodness of the Lord, for 


wheat, and for wine, and for oil, and for the young of the flock, 
and of the herd, and their soul shall be as a watered garden, and 
Chey shall not sorrow any more at alL" Zech. viii. 19. ^* Thus 
taidi the Lord of hosts. The fast of the fourth month, and the fast 
of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth 
shall be to the house of Judah joy, and gladness, and cheerful 
fcatts.*' Chap. ix. 15. '' They shall drink and make a noise as 
Chroogh wine, and they shall be filled like bowls and as the cor- 
aers of the altar." Also Isai. xxxv. 1,2, 10, xliv. 23, xlix. 13, 
and Ixi. 3, and li. II, and very many other places. 

There was a vast increase of God's people Israel in Solomon's 
days, so that they were as the sand of the sea, and were so many 
that they could not be numbered or counted for multitude. 1 Kin. 
liL 8, iv. 20. The servants of Solomon and those that stood 
eonUnually before him, were pronounced happy, eminently and 
mnrkably so. 1 Kin. x. 8. *^ Happy are these thy men ; happy 
aie these thy servants, which stand continually before thee, and 
that bear thy wisdom." Agreeable to Ps. Ixxii. 17. " And man 
shall be blessed in him." Isai. xxxiii. 17. '* Thine eyes shall 
see the king in his beauty." Isai. ii. 5. *' O house of Jacob, 
come ye, let us walk in the light of the Lord." In Solomon's 
reign the remnant of the heathen were made bondmen, but the 
Israelites were for noble employments. I Kings ix. 21, 22. 
Agreeable to Isai. Ixi. 5, 6. '* And strangers shall stand and feed 
your flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be your ploughmen 
and your vine dressers. But ye shall be named the priests of the 
Lord : men shall call you the ministers of our God. Te shall 
eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast 
yourselves. Solomon made cedars to be as the sycamore trees 
that are in the vale for abundance." Agreeable to Isai. Iv. IS. 
" Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir-tree, and instead of 
the brier shall come up the myrtle-tree, and it shall be to the Lord 
for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off." 
Chap. xli. 19. '* I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shit- 
tah-tree, and the myrtle and the oil-tree. I will set in the desert 
the fir-tree, and the pine, and the box-tree together." Isai. xxxv. 
I, 2. '< The desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. It shall 
blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing. The 
glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel 
and Sharon." In Solomon's days, the house of the Lord was in 
a remarkable manner filled with glory. 1 Kings viii. 10, II. 
2 Chron. v. 13, 14, and vii. 1, 2; agreeable to Hag. ii. 7. In 
Solomon's days, a great and extraordinary feast of tabernacles 
was kept. 1 Kings viii. 65. 2 Chron. v. 3, and vii. 8 — iO. It 
was by far the greatest feast of tabernacles that ever was kept in 
Israel. This is agreeable to Zech. xiv. 16—19. The blessings 


of Solorooii^s reign were the fruit of God^s everlasting love to I»- £ 
nel. 1 Kings x. 9. '* Because the Lord loved Israel for ever, ^ 
therefore made he the king to do judgment and justiGe." Jer. e 
zxju. 3. ** I have loved thee with an everlasting love ; therefore ■ 
with loving-kindness have I drawn thee." Solomon reigned from « 
the river JBuphrates to the ends of the earth, even the uttennost part ■ 
of the land next to the great sea, as it was called. 1 Kings iv. ■ 
21, agreeable to Ps. Ixxii. 8, and Zech. ix. 10. Solomon had ■ 
muny chariots. 1 Kings iv. 26, and x. 26. This is agreeable ■ 
to Ps. Ixviii. 18, and Dan. vii. 10. The exceeding greatness of j^ 
Solomon's court, the vast number of his servants, ministers, and ^i 
attendants, which may be learned from 1 Kings iv. 1 — 19. 22, 23. i 
Chap. ix. 22. 2Chron. viii. 9, 10, is agreeable to Ps. Ixviii. 18, i 
and Dan. x. 13. 21, and xii. 1, compared with Dan. vii. J^ \ 
Other kings and nations brought presents unto Solomon. 1 Kin. | 
iv. 21, ix. 14, and x. 25. Ps. Ixviii. 29. " Because of thy Um^ \ 
pie at Jerusalem, kings shall bring presents unto thee." Ps. Ixxti. ; 
10, and xlv. 12. The queen of Sheba came to hear the wisdom 
of Solomon, and to be instructed by him, and brought great pre- 
sents, and particularly gold and spices. 1 Kings x. 2. 10. This 
*s agreeable to Isai. Ix. 0. ^^ All they from Shcba shall come: 
they shall bring gold and incense, and they shall show forth the 
praises of the Lord." Ps. hxii. 9, 10. <« The kings of Sheba 
and Seba shall offer gifls." Ver. 15. '' To him shall be given 
of the gold of Sheba." 

The queen of Sheba came bringing her presents on a multitude 
of camels. 1 Kings x. 2. ^' And she came to Jerusalem with a 
very great train, with camels that bare spices and very much gold ;'* 
agreeable to Isia. Ix. 6. *^ The multitude of camels shall cover 
thee: the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah, all they from Slie- 
ba shall come : they shall bring gold and incense." Solomon ex- 
tended his royal bounty to the queen of Sheba, and gave her all 
her desire. Agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the 
blessings and favour of the Messiah to be extended to the Gen- 
tiles, and his granting the requests of those that look to him 
from the ends of the earth. Israel, in Solomon's time, was 
enriched and adorned with the gold of Ophir, especially they of 
Solomon's courts, and of his own family : agreeably to Psa. xlv. 
9. ^* On thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir." 
All the kings and merchants of Arabia brought presents of gold 
mod spices unto Solomon. 1 Kings x. 14, 15. This is agreea- 
ble to Isai. xlv. 14. '< The merchandise of Ethiopia shall come 
over to thee." Zeph. iii. 10. " From beyond the rivers of Ethio- 
pia my suppliants." Ps. Ixviii. 31. <^ Ethiopia shall soon stretch 
oot her hands to God." Ps. Ixxii. 9, 10. " They that dwell in 
the wilderness shall bow before him the kings of Shcba and 


11 offer gi(U/' Isai. Ix. 6. << The multilude of camels 
er thee. The dromedaries of Midian and Epbah, all 
I Sheba shall come : they shall bring gold and incense.'' 

11. ^* Lei the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up 
e, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit. Let the inhabit- 
le rock sing." Chap. Ix. 7. '< All the flocks of Kedar 
gathered together unto thee : the rams of Nebaioth shall 
into thee." The ships of Tarshish came bringing gold 
r, and precious stones, and other precious things to So- 
[ Kings viii. 26 to the end, ix. 10, 11 ; and Solomon im- 
hat they brought to adorn the temple, ver. 12, agreeable 
ui. 10. *^ The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall 
rsents." Isai. Ix. 5. '^ The abundance of the sea shall 
rted unto thee." Isai. Ix. 9. ^^ Surely the isles shall wait 
ind the ships of Tarshish first Their silver and their 
1 them to the name of the Lord thy God, and to the holy 
irael ; because he hath glorified thee.'' There came of 
3 from all kings of the earth to hear tKe wisdom of Solo- 
I brought presents of gold, silver, spices, Slc. 1 Kings 
' And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of 
, from all kings of the earth which had heard of his wis- 
2 Chron. ix. 23, 24. << And all the kings of the earth 
he presence of Solomon, to hear bis wisdom, that God 
in his heart ; and they brought every man his present, 
f silver and vessels of gold, and raiment, harness and 
orses and mules, a rate year by year.'' Thus all kings 
were bow down unto Solomon. Solomon was a king of 
2 Chron. ix. 26. '' And he reigned over all the kings 

river even unto the land of the Philistines, and to the 
r Egypt, 
ibour of Egypt was brought over to Israel in Solomon's 

Kin. X. 28. ** And Solomon had horses brought out of 
nd linen yarn. The king's merchants received the linen 
{ price ;" which is agreeable to Isai. xlv. 14. ** The labour 
t and the merchandise of Ethiopia— ^— shall come over 
;e." From that, 1 Kin. x 28, it is manifest that fine 
s very much used for clothing in Solomon's days, at least 
non's court, which is a fit emblem of spiritual purity and 
sness, and was manifestly used as such by priests and 
and was abundantly used as such in the service of the 
y. This is agreeable to what is often spoken in the pro- 
the extraordinary holiness and purity of the church in the 
^s days, and to Isai. Hi. 1. *^ Awake, awake, put on thy 
, O Zion ; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, 

city ; for henceforth there shall no more come unto thee 
rcumcised and the unclean." Solomon spake many pro- 


verbs, or parables, or dark sayings. I Kin. iv. 32. *^ And he 
spake three thousand proverbs." This is agreeable to what the 
prophets represent concerning the Messiah, as an eminent teacher ; 
and what may be learned from them of the wonderful and mj^ste- 
rious things he should teach in his doctrine. Solomon was, as 
Joseph, a revealer of secrets. 1 Kin. x. ** The queen of Sheba 
came to prove Solomon with hard questions : and Solomon told 
her all her questions ; there was not any thing hid from the king 
which he told her not.'' This is agreeable to what the prophe-* 
cies say of the Messiah's being a great teacher, and of the vast in- 
crease of light and knowledge that shall be by him. Solomon 
made a great number of songs. 1 Kin. iv. 32. ^^ His songs were t 
thousand and five." This is agreeable to innumerable prophe- 
cies which represent the Messiah's times as times of extraordinary 
singing and melody, wherein God's people and all the world 
should employ themselves in joyful songs of praise ; yea, whereto 
all creatures, the mountains, rocks, trees, the sea, the heavens and 
the earth, should break forth into singing. Solomon had a vast 
multitude of wives and concubines, fitly representing the vast 
number of saints in the Messiah's times, who are members of 
the church that is so often spoken of as the Messiah's wife. 

I shall mention but one thing more under this head of things 
that we have an account of in the history of the Old Testament, 
remarkably agreeing with things said in the prophecies relating 
to the Messiah's kingdom and redemption ; and that is the return 
of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity. It is manifest that the 
great redemption of the Messiah is abundantly represented by a 
redemption of Israel from captivity and bondage under the hand 
of their enemies in strange and far distant lands, from the north 
country, and their return to their own land, and rebuild- 
ing Jerusalem and the cities of Israel, and repairing the 
old wastes; in places too many to be enumerated. This re- 
demption *of the Jews was accompanied with a great destruc- 
tion of those mighty and proud enemies, that had carried them 
captive, that were stronger than they, God pleading their cause 
and revenging their quarrel on the greatest empire in the world, 
as it were causing them to tread down the loftiest city, the 
highest walls and towers in the world, destroying their enemies 
with a great slaughter, and dreadful havock of their enemies; 
agreeable to Hag. ii. 22. <« And I will overthrow the throne of 
kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the 
heathen." Isai. xxvi. 5, 6. <* For he bringeth down them that 
dwell on high, the lofty city he layeth it low ; he layeth it low 
even to the ground : he bringeth it even to Uie dust : the foot 
treadeth it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps of the 
needy." Chap. xxv. 12. " And the fortress of the high fort of 
thy walls shall he bring down, lay low and bring to the ground, 


even to the dust." Chap. xxxiL 19. << When it shall hail, coming 
dowQ on the forest, and the city shall be low in a low place," or 
shall be utterly abased. Chap. xxx. 25. <' And there shall be 
upon every high mountain and upon every high hill, rivers and 
streams of water, in the day of the great slaughter, when the 
towers fall.'' See also Isaiah xxxiv. 1 — 8, and Joel iii. 9 — 17. 
Isaiah ii. 10 to the end, and many other places. This redemp- 
tion of the Jews was attended with the final and everlasting de- 
struction of Babylon, that great enemy of the Jewish church, that 
bad oppressed her and carried her captive. This is agreeable to 
prophecies of the Messiah's redemption. Isai. xxxix. 10 to the 
end,andxli. 11, 12, and xliii. 17. Dan. ii. 35. Obad. 10. 17, 
18| and many other places. The temple of Jerusalem was rebuilt 
by the countenance and authority of Gentile kings. Ezra i. 2, 
kc« Chap. vi. 6 — 15, and vii, 11, &c. Neh. ii. 7 — 9; agreeable 
to Isai. xlix. 23. '* And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and 
their queens thj nursing mothers." It seems to be intimated that 
the queen of Persia, as well as the king, favoured the Jews, and 
promoted the restoring of their state, in Neh. ii. 6. The temple 
and city were rebuilt very much at the charge of Gentile kings 
and people, who offered silver and gold. Ezra i. 4 — 8, and vi. 
8, and vii. 15 — ^23. Neh. ii. 7 — 9. This is agreeable to many 
places mentioned in the preceding section concerning Solomon's 
reign. At the time of this restoration of the Jews, strangers or 
Gentiles, and their princes assisted with sacrifices for the house of 
God. Exra i. 4. 6, vi. 9, and vii. 17. This is agreeable to Psa. 
xxii. 29. '< All they that be fat upon the earth shall eat and wor- 
ship/' Isai. xlix. 7. *' Kings shall see and arise ; princes also shall 
worship, because of the Lord that is faithful, and the Holy One of 
Israel, and he shall choose thee." Isai. Ix. 6,7. ''The multitude 
of camels shall cover thee ; the dromedaries of Midian, he. They 
shall bring gold, incense. All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered 
unto thee. The rams of Nebaiotli shall minister unto thee. They 
shall come up with acceptance on mine altar, and I will glorify the 
house of my glory." Gold, and silver, and sacrifices, and incense 
were brought to the new temple at Jerusalem, especially from the 
nations on this side the river Euphrates. Ezra i. 4. 6. Chap. vi. 
6—10. Chap. vii. 16—18. 21—23. Neh. ii. 7—9. Which in- 
clude Tyre and Ethiopia, Midian and Ephah, Kedar, Nebaioth, 
and the countries of Arabia, which are spoken of in prophecies 
that have been already mentioned in this and the foregoing sec- 
lion, as bringing presents, offering gifts, gold, incense and sacri- 
fices. The Jews at their return out of Babylon, were redeemed 
without money. Isai. xlv. 13. "He shall build my city, and he 
shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward." Agreeable 
to Isai. Iii. 3. ** Ye have soid yourselves for nought, and ye shall 


be redeemed without money/' The temple was built by Joshua, 
that signifies Jehovah the Saviour ; agreeable to what is oAeo 
represented of the Messiah in the prophecies. See what has been 
said above, concerning Joshua the son of Nun. 

We often read of praying, fasting, confessing of sin, their own 
sins, and the sins of their fathers, and weeping and mourning finr 
sin that attended this restoration of the Jews. Dan. ix. i — 19. 
Exra viii. 21 — 23. Chap. ix. throughout, x. 1 — 17. Neb. i. 4, 
&c. iv. 4, 5, ix. throughout. God gave the Jews remarkable and 
wonderful protection in their journey as they were returning from 
Babylon towards Jerusalem, and also in the midst of the great 
dangers and manifold oppositions they passed through, io re- 
building the temple and city. Ezra viii. 21 — 23. 31. v. vi. vii. ' 
Nch. iv. vi. This is agreeable to Jer. xxxi. 8, 9. *^ Beholdy I . 
will bring from the north country, and gather them from the coasli i 
of the earth. They shall come with weeping, and with suppli- 
cations will I lead them. 1 will cause them to walk by the riven | 
of waters in a straight way, wherein they shall not stumble. For i 
I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my first-born.'' Isal 
xliii. 2. *' When thou passest through the waters I will be with \ 
thee, and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; when ) 
thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt, neither ' 
shall the dame kindle upon thee.'' There was kept an extraordi- 
nary feast of tabernacles on occasion of this restoration of the 
Jews, the only one that had been kept according to the law of 
Moses since the time of Joshua, the son of Nun. Neh. viii. 14. 
This is agreeable to Zech. xiv. 16 — 19. After this return froiD 
the captivity, the Jews had extraordinary means of instruction in 
the law of God, much greater than they had before. Esra. vii. 
25. Neh. viii. After this, synagogues were set up all over the 
.land, in each of which was kept a copy of the law of the pro- 
phets, which were read and explained every Sabbath day. And 
there seems to be a great alteration as to the frequency of the so- 
lemn public worship of God. Idolatry was utterly abolished 
among the Jews after their return from the Babylonish captivity. 
This is agreeable to Isai. ii. 18. ** The idols shall he utterly abol- 
ish.'' Zech. xiii. 2. *' And it shall come to pass in that day, saith 
the Jjord of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols oat i 
of the land ; and they shall no more be remembered." Hos* !!• 
17. '< For 1 will take away the names of Baalim out of her moutb, 
and they shall no more be remembered by their name/' Exek. 
xxxvi. 25. <' Then will 1 sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye 
shall be clean from all your filthiness, and from all your idols will 
I cleause you." Chap. xxxv. 23. << Neither shall they defile thciB- 
selves any more with their idols, nor with their detestable thingi>" 
See further, fulfilment of prophecies, ^ 153. 


The agreement between what wc are told of Daniel and Sliad-^ 
racb, Meshach, and Abcdnego, and what is said in the prophecy 
of the Messiah and his people, is such as naturally leads us to 
sappose the former a designed type of the latter. Compare Dan. 
ill. and vi. with Isai. xlviii. 10, and xliii. 2. Ps. xxii. 20, 21, 
XXXV. 17* Cant. iv. 8. 

It is remarkable that it should be so ordered, that so many of 
the chief women that we read of in the history of the Old Testa- 
ment, and mothers of so many of the most eminent persons, should 
for so long a time be barren, and that their conception afterwards 
of those eminent persons they were The mothers of, should be 
through God's special mercy and extraordinary providence ; as in 
Sarab, Rebekah, Rachel, Manoah's wife, and Hannah. It is rea* 
sooable to suppose, that God had something special in view in 
thus remarkably ordering it in so many instances. Considering 
ibiSy and also considering the agreement of such an event with 
several prophetical representations made of the church of God in 
the Messiah's times, there appears a great deal of reason to sup* 
pose the one of these to be designed as a type of the other. Psa. 
ixviii. 6* ^' God setteth the solitary in families." Psa. cxiii. 9. 
** He maketh the barren woman to keep house and to be a joyful 
mother of children.'' Isai. liv. 1. *<Sing, O barren, and thou 
that didst not bear ; break forth into ringing and cry aloud ; thou 
that didst not travail with child. For more are the children of 
the desolate, than the children of the married wife, saith the Lqrd.'' 

With respect to some of the principal persons spoken of in the 
Old Testament, there is this evidence, that they were types 
of the Messiah, viz: that the Messiah in the prophecies is 
called by tbeir names. Thus the Messiah is called by the name 
of Israel. Isai. xlix. 3. *' And he said unto me. Thou art my servant, 
O Isradf in whom I will be glorified." And he is often called in 
the prophecies by the name of David. Hos. iii. 5. ''Afterward 
shall the children of Israel return and seek the Lord and David 
their king." Jer. xxx. 0. ''But they shall serve the Lord their 
God, apd David their king, whom I will raise up unto them." 
Esek. xxxvi. 24. " And I the Lord will be their God, and my ser- 
vant David a prince among them." Chap, xxxvii. 24, 25. " And 
David my servant shall be king over them, and they all shall have 
one shepherd. They shall also walk in my judgments and ob- 
serve my statutes and do them ; and they shall dwell in the land 
that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers 
have dwelt, and they shall dwell therein, even they and their chil- 
dren for ever, and my servant David shall be their prince for 
ever." Ps. Ixxxix. 20. " 1 have found David my servant ; with 

my holy oil have I anointed him." Ver. 27. '* I will make him 

my first-born," &c. The Messiah is called by the name of So- 
VOL. IX. 12 


lomon. Cant. iii. 7. 11, viii. 11, 12. So the Messiah's great 
forerunner is called by the name of Elijah^ Mai. iv. ; which argues 
that Elijah was a type of him. The Messiah is called by the 
name of ZerubbabeL Ha^. ii. 23. ** In that day, saith the Lord 
of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of 
Shealtiel, sailh the Lord, and I will make thee a signet : for I have 
chosen thee, saith the Lord of hosts." 

And as the Messiah is called by the proper names of some of 
the more eminent persons of the Old Testament, so some of them 
are called by names that it is evident by the prophecies do much 
more eminently and prepay belong to the Messiah. So Joshua 
is called the shepherd, the stone of Israel ; Gen. xxix. 44 ; which 
according to the prophecies, are appellations most properly be- 
longing to the Messiah. So the name Isra^ly though it was the 
proper name of Jacob rather than of the Messiah, yet its signifi- 
cation, the prince of God^ most properly and eminently belongs 
to the Messiah, according to the prophecies. So it is with the 
name of Abram^ high father, and Abraham^ the father of a mul- 
titude. Davidj beloved, and Solomon^ peace or peaceable. God 
also calls Solomon hi$ son^ an appellation which most properly 
belongs to the Messiah. 

There is snch a commutation of names between not only per- 
sons, but also things, that we have an account of in the histories 
and prophecies of the Old Testament. Thus the people of the 
Messiah, though it is plain by the prophecies that they should 
chieBy be of the Gentiles, yet are very generally called by the 
name of Jacob and Israel. So the church of the Messiah, ihongh it 
is plain by the prophecies that they shall dwell all over the world, 
yet are often called by the name of Jerusalem and Zion. So we 
read in the prophecies of the Messiah's times of all nations going 
up from year to year to Jerusalem, to keep the feast of taberna- 
cles, and of their being gathered to together to the mountain of 
the house of the Lord, which is utterly impossible. Therefore, 
we must understand only things that were typified by Jerusalem 
and the mountain of the house of the Lord, God's holy mountain, 
holy hill, mountain of the height of Israel, &c., and by the feast 
of tabernacles, and Israel's going up from year to year to keep 
that feast. So something appertaining to the Messiah's kingdom 
is called by the name of the altar of the Lord at Jerusalem, and 
it is represented as though all nations should bring sacrifices and 
offer them there on that altar. Yet this is utterly inconsistent with 
what the prophecies themselves do plainly teach of the state and 
worship of the church of Grod at that time. So something apper- 
taining to the Messiah's kingdom is called by the names of the 
temple, and the tabernacle, and of God's throne in the temple, 
Zech. vi. 13. But it is plain by the prophecies that there should 


indeed be no material temple or tabernacle in the kingdom of the 
Messiah. So we read also, Ezek. xlv. xlvi., of the passover, that 
grand memorial of the bringing the children of Israel up out of 
Egypt. But it is evident that there will be no such memorial of 
that eveot upheld in the church in the Messiah's times, by Jer. xvi. 
14f 15, and chap, xxiii. 7, 8. Certain officers in the church of 
the Messiah are called priests and Levites^ Isai. Ix!. 6, and Jer. 
xxiii. 18 ; and yet it is plain by the prophecies that the ceremonial 
law should be abolished in the Messiah's times. A work of f^mce 
that is wrought on the hearts of men is often in the Old Testament 
called by the name of circumcision ; and it is evident by the pro- 
phecies that this should in a very eminent and distinguishing man- 
D€r be wrought in the Messiah's times. Something that the Mes- 
siah was to be the subject of, is called in the xl. Psalm by the 
name of boring the ear ; as was appointed in the laiv concerning 
the servant that chose his master's service. Something in the 
prophecies of the Messiah is called by the name of at'/ and anointings 
that, it is evident, is not any such outward oil or anointing as was 
appointed in the ceremonial law. Ps. xlv. 7. Zech. iv. 12-^14. 
Isai. Ixt. 1. Ps. ii.2. 6, and xx. 6, Ixxxix. 20, with cxxxiii. So 
we find something of a spiritual nature called in the prophecies by 
the name of the golden candlestick that was in the tabernacle and 
temple, Zech. iv. Something is called by the name of that cloud 
of glory that was above the mercy scat, Zech. vi. 1^ Something 
is called by the name of God's dwelling between the cherubims, 
Ps. zcix. 1 ; and something in the Messiah's kingdom is called bv 
the name of the precious stones that adorn the temple. Compare 
Isai. liv. 11, 12, with 1 Chron. xxix. 2, and 2 Chron. iii. 8. The 
name of the incense and the names of the sweet spices that were 
^used in the incense and anointing oil in the sanctuary, are made 
use of to signify spiritual things appertaining to the Messiah and 
Ins kingdom, in the book of the Canticles and Ps. xlv. 8 ; and 
something spiritual in that prophecy, Ps. xlv., is called needle- 
work, the name of the work of the hangings and garments of the 
sanctnary. Exod. xxvi. 36, xxvii. 16, xxxvi. 37, xxxviii. 18, 
xxviii. 39, and xxxix. 29. The garments of the church of the 
Messiah are spoken of under the same representation as the cur- 
tains of the tabernacle and beautiful garments of the high priest. 
See also Cant. i. 5. Something in the Messiah's kingdom is call- 
ed by the names of the outward ornaments of the temple, Isai. 

As the people of the Messiah are in the prophecies called by 
the name of God's people Israel, though they should be chiefly 
ol the Gentiles, so likewise we find the enemies of the Messiah's 
pebple called by the names of the enemies of Israel ; such as 
Edom^ Moabi the children of Amnion^ the Philistines ^ &c. And 


the places of the abode of those enemies of the Messiah's people 
are called by the names of the coantries and cities of God's ene- 
mies ; as Egypt y Babylon^ Bazrah^ &c. And yet it is evident 
that those prophecies cannot have respect to these nations literal- 
ly, as hereafter to be such grievous and troublesome neighboan to 
the Messiah's people, as thos^ nations were to Israel. For the 
Messiah's people are to be dispersed all over the world, and not to 
dwell in the neighbourhood of those countries only. 

Here it may be observed that the manna is called by the name 
of something spiritual. Ps. Ixxviii. 25. He had given them the 
corn of heaven ; man did eat angels' food, which is an argnroeot 
that it was a type of something spiritual. 

It was before observed, that the things of the Messiah are in 
the prophecies expressly compared to many of the things of the 
Old Testament : and I would now observe, that many of them, 
where they are thus compared, are compared in such a manner as < 
to be at the same time called by the same names. Thus the bond- 
age that the Messiah should redeem his people from is called a 
lying among the pots ; Ps. Ixviii. 13. And this redemption of 
the Messiah is expressly called a redeeming them from Egypt, 
Isai. xi. II. Zech. x. 10. And something that God would do for 
them, is called his destroying the tongue of the Egyptian sea, and 
making men go over dry shod ; ver. 15, and dividing the sea and 
the river. Zech. x. 10, 1 1. "I will bring them again also out of 
the land of Egypt, and he shall pass through the sea with afflic- 
tion, and shall smite the waves of the sea, and all the deeps of the 
river shall dry up." In Ps. Ixviii. 22, the redemption of the 
Messiah is called a bringing God's people again from the depths 
of the sea. So something that should be in the days of the Mes- 
siah, is called by the name of a cloud by day and pillar of fire by 
night, Isai. iv. Something appertaining to the kingdom of the 
Messiah is called by the name of the valley of Achor, the place 
where Achan was slain. Hos. ii. 15. So things appertaining to 
the destruction of the Messiah's enemies arc often called by the 
names of things made use of in the destruction of the old world, 
of Sodom and Gomorrah, of the Egyptians, Canaanites, &ic., as 
a flood of waters, rain, hail, stones, fire and brimstone, a burning 
tempest, &c., as has been observed before. The redemption of 
the Messiah is called by the names by which the redemption out 
of Babylon was called. Jer. xvi. 15. *< But the Lord liveth 
which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of the 
north." So again xxiii. 8. That by the tiortk country^ or land 
of the north, was an appellative name by which Chaldea was call- 
ed, is very manifest. See Jer. iv. 6, vi. 22, and i. 14, and very 
many other places. (See the Concordance.) Things that shall 
be brought to pass in the Messiah's days, are called by the name 


of what literally came to pass in the wilderness after the redemp- 
tion of Egjrpt ; in that in the prophecies, we often read of waters 
in the wilderness, and streams in the desert and in dry places, and 
the Messiah's drinking of the brook in the way ; and living wa^^ 
ten mnning through the desert in the east country, which is the 
desert of Arabia ; Ezek. xlvii. 8 ; waters in dry places, to give 
drink to God's people, when ready to fail with thirst. Isai. xxxv. 
1, xli. 17, 18, xxxii. 2, xliii. 19, 20, and Iv. 1. 

Sin or corruption, which it is evident by the prophecies the 
Messiah comes to heal, is called by the same general names that 
belonged to the leprosy, as wounds, and bruises, and putrifying 
sores, from the crown of the head to the soles of the feet. Some- 
thing that should be in the Messiah's times is spoken of under the 
name of a trumpet, an instrument much in use by God's appoint- 
ment, in the observances of the ceremonial law ; Isai. xxvii. 13 ; 
and something seems to be spoken of under the name of that 
sound that was made with the trumpets on their joyful festivals, 
especially on the year of jubilee; Ps. Ixxxix. 15. Something 
tlmt should be fulfilled in the Messiah's times, is called by the 
name of that which the serpent is doomed to, Gen. iii. 14. <* Dust 
shah thon eat." Isai. Ixv. 25. <* Dust shall be the serpent's 
neat." Something that should be done by the Messiah is spoken 
of nnder the name of the application that was made of water in 
the legal purifications. Isai. Hi. 15. ** So shall he sprinkle many 
nations." Esek. xxxvi. 25, 26. << Then will I sprinkle clean wa- 
ter apon you." Zech. xiii. 1. ^^ In that day there shall be a foun- 
tain opened*— — for sin and for uncleanness." Compare these 
with Num. viii. 7, and xix. 13. 18 — 21. 

The congregation in the wilderness were in the form of an ar- 
ny, smd an army with banners. So the church of the Messiah is 
men represented as an army. They are represented as being 
called forth to war, and engaged in battle, gloriously conquering 
and triumphing, in places innumerable, and are spoken of as be- 
ing God's goodly horse in the battle, and as a company of horses in 
Pharaoh's chariots, and being made as the sword of a mighty man, 
and being gathered to an ensign (Isai. xi. 10. 12,) and standard ; 
Isai. xlix. 22, lix. 19, and Ixii. 10. And having a banner given 
them, Ps. Ix. 4. And setting up their banners in God's name, 
Ps. XX. 5. And befhg terrible as an army with banners, Cant. 
vi. 4. 10. 

Something in the kingdom of the Messiah is spoken of in the 
prophecies under the name of Pomegranates, which were repre- 
lented in the work of the tabernacle and temple. Cant. iv. 3, 
13, vi. 7, 11, vii. 12, viii. 2. Figures that were made in the ta- 
bernacle and temple were called cherubim, the same name by 
which angels arc called in the Old Testament : which is an evi- 


dence that they were made as types or representations of angels. 
The church and people of the Messiah are in the prophecies of 
the Messiah compared to and called a palm-tree, or palm-treets 
Cant. vii. 7, 8. Ps. xcii. 12 ; which is an argument that they wcif 
typified by the figures of palm-trees in the tabernacle and tempfei 
Something that should be in the Messiah's time is represented fay 
what appertained to the manner of God's appearance in the holy 
of holies. Ps. xcvii. '< Clouds and darkness are round aboat 
him." Compare 2 Sam. xxii. 12. 

Some of the persons that we have an account of in the bistoiy 
of the Old Testament, are expressly spoken of as resembling tiw 
Messiah. So Moses^ '* A prophet will the Lord thy God raise 
up unto thee, like unto me," Deut. xviii. 15. IS. So Mdchizeddc^ 
Ps. ex. *' Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchii^ 
dek." And the account we have, Isai. vii., concerning Sheat'jth 
shtiby the son of Isaiah the prophet, is equivalent to expressly de- 
claring him to be a type of the Messiah. And Zerubbabd aai 
Joshua are evidently spoken of as types of the Messiah. Haggii 
ii. 23. ''In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, I will take thee. 
Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, and make theeasa 
signet." Zech. iv. 7. '' Who art thou, O great mountain f Be> 
fore Zerubbabel, thou shalt become a plain ; and he shall briag 
forth the head-stone thereof with shoutings; crying, Grace, gract 
unto it." Ver. 10. '' For who hath despised the day of small 
things } For they shall rejoice and shall see the plummet in the 
hand of Zerubbabel with those seven. They are the eyes of the 
Lord," &c. Zech. iii. *' And be showed me Joshua the high 

priest and unto him he said 1 will clothe thee with change of 

raiment. And I said. Let them set a fair mitre upon his head. 
Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou and thy fellows that^t 
before thee, (for they are men wondered at,) for behold, I will 
bring forth my servant the Branch." Zech. vi. 11, 12. *' Thea 
take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them on the head 
of Joshua, the son of Josedech the high priest, and speak aalo 
him. Behold, the man whose name is the Branch." 

It is an evidence, that some of the more eminent persona that 
we have an account of in the history of the Old Testament, aie 
types of the Messiah, that some of them and the Messiah aie 
plainly spoken of under one. It is plain concerning David ia 
the Ixxxix. Psalm, where the name of David is mentioned onoe 
and again, and yet the psalm evidently looks beyond David to 
the Messiah. It is also plain concerning Solomon in the IziiL 
Psalm, which the title declares to have respect to Solomon, and 
yet the matter of the psalm most evidently shows that it has re- 
spect to the Messiah ; many things in it being true of the Mes- 
siah, and peculiar to him, and not true of Solomon. 


And here, by the way, I would observe, that to the many evi- 
iiices that ha?e already been taken notice of, that David and 
ykrnion are types of the Messiah, this may be added, that the 
iwt tliemselves looked on them as types of the Messiah. (See 
asnage's History of the Jews, page 367.) 

Many things occasionally appointed of God, if they signify 
itbing spiritual, must be wholly insignificant actions, and so 
bolly impertinent. Such as the setting up a brazen serpent for 
tn to look upon, in order to a being healed. God's appointing 
e priiices of the congregation to dig a well with their staves, to 
pply the congregations with water, and a public record's being 
ttde of it by divine inspiration, and its being celebrated in a 
Bg of the people that is also recorded by divine inspiration. 
oin. xxi. 17, 18. Moses's holding up his hand by divine direc- 
in, that Joshua and Israel might prevail over Amaiek : Elijah's 
"etching himself three times upon the widow of Zarephath's son, 
order to raise him to life. 1 Kin. xvii. 21. Elisha's ordering 
I staff to be laid on the face of the Shunamite's dead child, and 
ierwards his lying upon the child, and putting his mouth on his 
oath, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands upon his hands, 
id stretching himself on the child, in order to raise it to life. 
nd so many other like actions that God appointed might be men- 

But to say something more particularly concerning the cere<* 
ODial law. There is abundant evidence even in the Old Testa- 
nit, that the things that belong to that law are typical of the 
itigs of the Messiah. 

If the things of the ceremonial law are not typical of moral and 
iritual things, they are wholly insignificant and so wholly im- 
•rtinent and vain. For God does abundantly declare, even in 
eOld Testament, that he has no delight in them on their own 
count, and that they are in his esteem worthless and vain in 
eniselves, and therefore it will follow that they must be worth- 
is and vain to all intents and purposes, unless they are other- 
ise by the relation they bear to something that God delights in 
I its own account, i. e. unless they are some way significant 
things moral and spiritual. If the things of the ceremonial 
w were pleasing to God, and were not pleasing on their own 
count, or by reason of any thing that God saw in them ; then it 
nst be on account of something else that they represent and be- 
luse they some way stand in stead of them. For instance, 
hen God went out through the land of Egypt to smite the 
rsC born, and saw the blood of the paschal lamb on the door 
ists of an house, it is represented as being something plea- 
g to God, for the sake of which he would spare the inhabi- 
nts of that bouse. But the Old Testament reveals, that 



blood was not at all pleasing on its own account. For that 
declares that God hath no delight in the blood of beasts; 
and therefore the way in which it was something pleasing to God 
must be its being something, which represented or stood in stead of | 
something that was truly in itself pleasing. So the sweet savoor that I 
was made in offering incense is spoken of as something sweet and 
pleasant to God ; and a white clean garment as something pare, 
and so pleasing to God. But we know that these things were not 
pleasant or acceptable on their own account, and therefore it must 
be only as related to something else that was so. But in what way b 
a sweet smell related to any thing really' sweet to God, except as 
it is a type, or has some signification of it? And which way has 
the purity of a garment any relation to spiritual purity, bat as it 
has a representation of it f 

This leads me to observe, that there is an apparent and desigo* 
ed resemblance between those things that were instituted, that were 
in themselves worthless, and those moral and spiritual things that 
in themselves were valuable in the sight of God. Thus it is ap* 
parent, that outward cleanliness and purity resemble and sbadoir 
forth that which is in the sight of God real purity; and outward 
sweetness resembles real sweetness to God. So the light of the 
lamps in the sanctuary had a resemblance of spiritual light ; and 
the preciousness of gold and pearls, that were used in the sanctu- 
ary and priests' garments, had a resemblance of some real preciovs- ' 
ness in the sight of God; and the beauty and ornaments of the ^ 
sanctuary and its vessels and holy garments, &c. had a resem- i 
blance of real beauty, and of those things that were ornaments in ' 
the sight of God. So that seeming atonement for sin, that was in ' 
the legal sacrifices, had a resemblance of that only true atonement 
the prophecies speak of. The seeming vicariousness there was io 
the sufferings of beasts for sinners had a resemblance of a true vica- 
riousness and substitution. And it is also manifest, that God chose 
those things, or had respect to them in his choice and appoint- 
ment of them, because they did resemble or shadow forth those 
correspondent spiritual things, that have a real value and excel- 
lency in themselves in his sight. The very nature of the thing 
makes it manifest. Thus it is manifest that God chose pure gar^ 
ments rather than filthy ones, because outward purity did more 
resemble real purity. He chose a sweet smell to be offered as a 
pleasant savour unto him, because sweet smell has more re- 
semblance of what is really sweet to him. It is manifest that he 
chose the suffering of beasts as an atonement for sin, rather than 
the feeding and pampering of them, because this has more of a re- 
semblance of a true atonement, which the prophecies speak of as 
being by the sufferings of a surety. It is evident that God chose 
the blood or life of the creature to be offered, to make atonement 


lor the soul rather than the hair, because it Las a greater re- 
iemblance ofthe life of a surety, which is a true atonement for the 
ioal» as the prophecies of tlie Old Testament do represent. But 
if it be evident, that God in the institution of the things of the 
ceremonial law, iiad respect to the resemblance that was in them 
of spiritual things and things of the Messiah, and appointed 
those rather than things of .a diverse nature, for the sake of that 
resemblance, this is the same thing as to say, that the former are 
appointed as types of the latter* 

All ihe people of Israel, if they exercised consideration, must 
iuppose and understand that these things pertaining to the cere- 
monial law were app'>inte(l and used as representations and sym- 
bols of something spiritual, and not for the sake of any innate 
goodness in them, or any value God had for them. As for in- 
stance, that God appointed white garments rather than yellow, 
green, or black, not for any excellency of the colour, but as a 
Bore proper representation of righteousness and spiritual purity ; 
and the making a sweet odour with spices, not that God smelt 
that odour and so was pacified towards men as though he were 
recompensed by the great pleasure they thereby gave him ; but to 
represent something spiritual that was highly acceptable to him ; 
and so that God appointed them to offer the flesh of beasts and 
bread, as the food or bread of God, as these things are called, and 
the drink offering of wine, not that God eat and drank those 
things, and was pleased with the taste of them, and received re- 
freshment and benefit, as a hungry and thirsty man does by meat 
and drink ; but that these things were mystical and symbolical 
representations of things of a higher and more divine nature. 
They must know, that laying hands on the head of the sacrifice, 
and what was called laying sins on the scape goat, was no real 
hying sins on those beasts. And besides, God did expressly and 
abttodantly teach his people under the Old Testament the con- 
trary of these things. They must naturally therefore suppose, 
that they were used as things significant of something of a nature 
higher than themselves. They must naturally suppose, that the 
eating the passover with the staff in the hand and with bitter 
herbs, and putting the blood of the sacrifices upon the tip of the 
right car, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the 
right foot, were mystical, and symbolical, and significant of some- 
thing in itself of value and importance. 

With respect to the legal sacrifices, the evidence that they were 
types of the Messiah is very strong; which will appear if we con- 
sider the following things. 

It is evident there is some real and pn>per atonement for sin, 
which is in God's account requisite, and which he insists upon in 
order to the pardon of sin, and which he accepts at a true atone- 

VOL. IX. 13 


ment, and is willing to forgive sin on account of it. Otherwise, 
God never would designedly have taken a course by such an abun- 
dance of institutions, to bring up his people of the nation of Ii- 
rael in the notion of the need of some atonement for sin, and some 
vicariousness and substitution of suffering for the sinner, in order 
to satisfy divine justice, and not only to bring up the Jews in ibis 
nation, but his church and people from the beginning of the world, 
insomuch that all nations received this notion from the first pro- 
genitors and founders of the nations and families of the eanb. 

It is also very manifest that the legal sacrifices of beasts and 
birds were no real atonement. This appears not only from the 
nature of the thing, but it is what God abundantly taught bia peo- 
ple under the Old Testament, of whom he required these sacri- 
fices. Ps. xl. 6, 1. 5 to the end, li. 16. Isai. i. 11, be. Ixvi. 2, 
3. Hos. vi. 6. Jer. vii. 21 — 23, and especially Mic. vi. 6 — 8. 

It is apparent by the prophecies of the Old Testament, that 
the Messiah was to offer a true and real atonement for the sins of 
men. That the Messiah should offer up himself a sacrifice for 
sin, is very clearly implied in many places there mentioned. Bat 
this doctrine is not only implied, but it is declared, that the Mes- 
siah should atone for sin, or expiate it by sacrifice. Isai. liii. 10. 
'' When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin.'' Dan. ix. 
24. ^* Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upoa 
thy holy city" — to make reconciliaium for iniquity, or to expiate 
iniquity by sacrifice, or io make atonemeiU for iniquity ; for the 
word in the original is the very same that is used from time Io 
time in the law about sacrifices for making atonement. In what 
follows, it is declared how this atonement was to be made, vhi., by 
anointing the most holy and the coming of the Messiah, and by 
bis being cut off, but not for himself, and making the sacrifice and 
oblation to cease in the last half of the seventieth week. And it 
is evident that the atonement for sin here spoken of is a proper 
atonement, that makes real satisfaction for sin, and truly pays and 
finishes the debt, by the other expressions that are added, *' To fin- 
ish the transgression, and make an end of sin, and bring in ever- 
lasting righteousness;" and making the sacrifice and oblation to 
cease, i. e. by making sin to cease, making an end of sin and fin- 
ishing the transgression, that there shall be no further occasion 
for sacrifice and oblation. And making atonement for sin is here 
prophecied of as that which was to be, but never yet was : it was 
a new thing, as the prophecy must be understood. But it could 
be a new thing in no other sense but that, viz., that a true and 
proper atonement for sin should be offered. For atonement in 
other senses beside this had been abundantly offered from the be- 
ginning of the world. What is translated to finish the transgres- 
sion, might have been rendered to consume transgression. But 


that expiation for sin that consumes transgression and makes an 
end of sins, and brings into a state of perpetual righteousness, so 
at to make all further sacrifices, or attempts, and means, and re- 
presentations of atonement to cease, and should abolish them as 
now needless, that is undoubtedly a proper atonement for sin. 

Again, it is not only manifest by the Old Testament that the sa- 
crifice of the Messiah is a true real atonement, but that it is the 
only trne and real atonement for sin. For the Old Testament 
speaks of no other sorts of sacrifices of expiation for sin but those 
two, vix., the ancient legal sacrifices of beasts, and the sacrifice of 
the Messiah. What the prophecies sometimes say of sacrifices 
that should be ofiered by God's people, after the Messiah's ascen- 
sion, mast be understood figuratively ; because it is expressly fore- 
told, that the Messiah by his sacrifice should cause the sacrifice 
and oblation to cease. And besides, as 1 observed before, the 
Messiah's making expiation for sin, is prophecied of as a new 
thing; and as it is foretold as a new thing, or the first thing of that 
natore, so it is also. prophecied of as the last thing of that nature, 
as is implied in those expressions of his making an end of sin, 
finishing the transgression, and making the sacrifice and oblation 
to cease. And these two things put together, imply that this is 
the only truly expiatory sacrifice. See also Zech. iii. 8, 9. And 
then, that this is the only sacrifice by which the sins of God's peo- 
ple are atoned, and that never any one is forgiven and accepted 
on account of any other atonement, is implied in Isai. liii. 6. 
" AU we like sheep have gone astray : we have turned every one 
to bis own way ; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of 
as all." 

Another thing that is very manifest, is, that the legal sacrifices 
had a manifold resemblance and representation of that great, true, 
and proper sacrifice that the prophecies foretold that the Messiah 
sboold ofier. Thus those beasts that were ofiered were without 
blemish, as the prophecies represent the Messiah to be, Isai. liii., 
and other places. These sacrifices were not of unclean but clean 
beasts, therein representing that spiritual purity that the prophe- 
cies speak of in the Messiah. A very great part of those sacri- 
fices were of lambs, as the paschal lamb, Exod. xxix. 39 ; and 
very many other of their sacrifices, which had a resemblance of 
what the prophecies represent of the feebleness, innocence, meek- 
ness, and gentleness of the Messiah. Most of the sacrifices were 
males, as the Messiah is represented as of the male sex. They 
were ofi'ered by a priest in white robes, representing the purity 
and holiness of the Messiah ; who, when spoken of, Dan. ix., as 
the great priest that should offer that atonement that should make 
an end of sin, is called «' the Most Holy." " Seventy weeks are 
determined to make reconciliation for iniquity and to anoint 


the Most Holy." The priests were anointed : herein there was 
a resemblance between them and the great Messiah, or anointed* 
The sacrifices suffered as the Messiah, the great sacrifice, is repre- 
sented to suffer. The sacrifices suffered death, and a viodent 
death, as the Messiah suffered death — the sacrifices were burnt bjr 
fire from heaven ; as the prophecies represent the Messiah as suf- 
fering from the immediate hand of Gud. In most of the sacrifi* 
ce8« their inward parts were to be burnt on the altar, that art 
aliundantly made use of in the Old Testament to represent the 
soul ; which is agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the 
Messiah's making his soal an offering for sin. The fat of ibt 
inwards of the sacrifices was melted, and consumed, and burnt ap 
in the fire ; which is agreeable to Ps. xxii. 14, 15. ** I am poured 
out like water— «-my heart is like wax ; it is melted in the midst 
of my bowels ; my strength is dried up like a potsherd ;*' and 
Ps. cii. 4. '* My heart is smitten and withered like grass ;*' and 
Isai. liii. 12. *' He hath poured out my soul unto death." There 
was the resemblance of the substitution of the sacrificed beast in 
suffering for the sinner, as the prophecies represent concerning 
the Messiah. There was an appearance of laying the iniquities 
of those for whom the sacrifices was offered, on the animal sacri- 
ficed, especially on some of the sacrifices on the head of which 
the hands of those for whom they were offered were laid, that they 
might lay their sins upon them. This is agreeable to Isai. liii. 6. 
^ The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." The scape- 
goat is represented as bearing the sins of those for whom he was 
offered into the wilderness; which is agreeable to Isai. liii. 4. 
** Surely he hath borne our griefs, he haih carried our sorrows.*' 
The Messiah is expressly spoken of as being like a lamb, in bis 
beiiig slain, and offered as a sacrifice for sin, Isai. liii. The high 
priest made intercession for the people with the blood of the sa- 
crifices, agreeably to Isai. liii. 12. 

Beside all that has been already observed, this further is ma- 
nifest, vis., that they are by God called an atonement, and are 
said to be an atonement, times without number. (See the Concor- 
dance under the word Atonement.) Seeing therefore, that the legal 
sacrifices are declared expressly and abundantly to be no real 
atonement, but have evidently a great resemblance of the true 
atonement, and are plainly representations of it, and are abun- 
dantly spoken of by him that instituted them, as being an atone- 
ment, and as instituted by him that they might be an atonement; 
it is very apparent, that they were appointed figures and represen- 
tations of the true atonement. For there are but these two ways 
of any thing's being consistently with truth said to be such a 
thing, by the name of which it is called, viz., either its being that 
thing truly and properly, or figuratively and by representation. 


£itber it most b« that thing that it is said to be id reality, dr by 
repreieBtatioii of the reality, or not at all. We have often in the 
itir of Hoses this expression used with regard to the sacrifices, 
The priest shall make an atonement for him. Now one of these 
two meanings must be put upon the words, either that he shall 
■ake a real proper atonement, or that he shall make an 
ilonement figuratively or significantly. It is either a true 
stoneinent or a seeming atonement : otherwise it could not be an 
HoneiDent in any sense, nor would it be so called by God. If 
Ikere be such a thing as a real atonement for sin, and the legal 
merifices be not a real atonement.for sin, yet are appointed and 
icoepled as an atonement, then they are appointed and accepted 
iMtrnd of an atonement, for that is the same thing. So that it 
is evident, that God appointed the legal sacrifices to stand in stead 
0I9 or to represent the real atonement. If a man be appointed to 
Hand for another that is absent, and be accepted for an absent 
friend, then he is his representative. When the prophet called 
Ihe arrow that the king of Israel shot out of his window, the ar- 
row of the Lord's deliverance, nothing else could be meant, but 
that it was a sign of the arrow of the Lord's deliverance. So 
vhen the man that interpreted his fellow's dream, said of the bar- 
ky cake, ** this is the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash ;" he 
eonld mean nothing else, but that this signified the sword of 
Gideon. So when Joseph said *' The seven lean kine are seven 
years of famine." And so in innumerable other instances that 
night be mentioned. It is evident from what has been already 
observed, that here are certain resemblances and shadows of sa- 
crifices, and substitutions in suffering for sinners, and atonements 
for sin : and it is manifest that it was out of regard to this resem- 
blaoce there was in the shadow of the atonement, that the shadow 
was appointed. God himself has decided it by calling the shadow 
by the name of the substance, and by declaring that he appointed 
the shadow, that it might be ifor the substance,' which he has done 
in declaring that he appointed it, that it mi^ht be for an atone- 
ment, u e. instead of the real atonement, which is the substance. 

These shadows of atonement are not merely called by the name 
of an atonement, but they are spoken of from time to time as be- 
ing an atonement, and are said to be appointed, that they might 
be an atonement. Now what other way there is of being an 
atonement, but either being so really, or being so in figure, and 
significance, I know not. 

The incense appointed in the law had a sweet smell, and was 
acceptable to the senses, and so had a shadow of that which was 
acceptable to God and a sweet savour to him. And seeing that 
it is expressly declared by God in the law, that he appoints this 
iuceiise for a sweet savour to him, this demonstrates that God 


ID the appointment has respect to that resemblance, that it is ap- 
pointed to be a standing representation' of a true sweet sayoQf to 
him. Sweet smell is appointed, because it resembles what is tm* 
\y acceptable to God. When external whiteness and parity, tiimt 
is a shadow of true purity in the sight of Grod, is called by the 
name of true purity ; and is declared to be appointed that it 
might be for purity in the sight of God ; this demonstrates that 
it is appointed to be a standing representation of true parity. 
So, likewise when the shadows of sufferings for sinners, aod 
atonements for sin are called by the name of real sufferings ibr 
sinners, and atonements for sin, and are said from time to time, to 
be atonements for sin, and to be appointed that they might be 
for atonements for sin : it demonstrates clearly, that these shadows 
of atonement are appointed out of respect to the resemblance 
they have to the real atonement, and that they might be instead 
of it, and standing representations of it ; or which is tlie same thing 
that they might be types of it. God appointed the suffering of 
the creature, rather than the feeding or fatting of it, for the making 
atonement, because the suffering of the creature has a greater re- 
semblance of that suffering that makes a real atonement for sin. 
God in thus calling these shadows from time to time by the name 
of the things resembled, and speaking of them from time to time 
as being the things resembled, does therein plainly put them in 
their stead, and does make use of them as representations of them; 
as if any should on design call one by another's name, that was 
not his own name, and ordinarily speak of him and treat him as 
being that other, this would be the same thing as to substitute him 
for the other, and to make use of him as the other's representatiye. 

It is an argument that the sacrifices were types of the Messiah, 
that when Manoah offered sacrifice by God's appointment, he that 
is called the *' angel of the Lord," and who was the Lord, 
ascended in the flame of the sacrifice, Judg. xiii. 20. And 
so did, as it were, offer up himself in the flame of the sa- 
crifice, intimating that he was the great sacrifice, that was the 
antitype of those sacrifices of beasts. The beasts that were sacri- 
ficed to God, ascended up in the flame befi>re God for a sweet 
savour. So the matter is represented in the Old Testament. 
But here we see, that when the sacrifice was ascending in the 
flame, the angel of the Lord ascends in the same, to show that that 
was the end of the sacrificing fire, viz., to cause him to ascend as a 
sweet savour unto God. 

Again there is clear proof, that the legal sacrifices were types 
of the great sacrifice of the Messiah in Dan. ix. 24. " Seventy 
weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to 
finish the transgression and to make an end of sins, and to make 
reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteous- 
ness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the 


St Holy ;^' taken together with ver. 27. *^ And he shall confirm 
covenant with many for one week, and in the midst of the 
k shall he cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease." What is 
islated in ver. 24, *' And to make an end of^in^," might have 
Btranslated, '' He shall seal up the tin offerings.^' The word 
islated sins in the original is ChaUaoth^ the very same word 
t is made use of in the law of Moses, to signify sin-offerings. 
that the word might as well be translated sin-offerings here as 
■e. And It is the more likely, that sin-offerings should be 
iQt here, because the word is in the plural number ; whereas if 
It was intended was the same with iniquity in the clause pre- 
ing, and transgression in the clause following, thus varying 
expression for eloquence sake, it would be more likely this 
'd would have been in the singular number as those are. And 
ides, it is the more likely that the word signifies sin-offerings, 
aose it is evident that this text is a prophecy of the sacrifice 
i the Messiah should offer for sin. In the next words it is said, 
le shall make reconciliation for iniquity/' The word rendered 
mdUaUan (as has been already observed) signifies expiatUm 
sacrifice; it being the same that is so often rendered atonement 
be law of Moses, when speaking of sacrifices for sin. But 
It argues yet more strongly that this should have been trans- 
^fhe shall make an end, or seal up^ sin-offerings, is, that in the 
h verse there seems to be a reference to what had been said 
>re in this verse, when it is said. In the midst of the week, or 
he half of the week, he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to 
le. In the 24th verse it had been said, that the sacrifices or 
offerings should be made an end of or sealed up in seventy 
fks;and the 25th 26th and 27th verses are evidently exegetical 
that 24th, to explain how the anointed Holy One or Messiah 
uld make atonement for iniquity, and seal up the sin-offering 
I sacrifices in seventy weeks, viz., from the commandment to 
Id Jerusalem there should be seven weeks and threescore and 
»' weeks, that is 69 weeks, and then in the remaining week he 
old establish the covenant with many, and in the half of the 
»k he should make the sacrifice and oblation to cease, or make 
end of the sin-offerings, as was said before. Now let us mind 
expression; the word translated make an end, in the original is 
AM seal up. " He shall seal up the sin-offerings." It is the 
y same word that is used in the following clause concerning 
on and prophecy. *^ He shall sralup the vision and prophecy." 
e same word being thus used twice in like manner, in different 
uses of the same sentence, once concerning the vision and 
phecy, and the other time concerning the sin-offering, there 
all reason to understand it in both places in the same 
se. Bat the plain meaning of that clause, to seal up the vision 


and prophecy, is thig ; then shall be accomplished the grand event 
so often exhibited by the prophecies of the prophets, and so often 
represented and signified by the visions which they saw, and so 
the vision and prophecy shall be finished and brought lo their 
grand accomplishment; that which they ultimately aimed at. 
Then shall be fulfilled the sum of what was signified in the vision 
and prophecy. (Ezek. zxviii. 12. *' Thou sealest up the snm 
full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.") So when in the same sen- 
tence it is said, to seal up the sin-ofierings, and make^atonement for 
iniquity, we must in a like sense understand it thus, to ofier that j 
grand sacrifice or atonement for iniquity, that is so mncb ezbi- I 
bited and represented by the sin-ofierings. So that the sin-ofler- 
ings shall be made to cease, their design being obtained and 
finished, that grand event, that great and true atonement for siD, 
which was aimed at in them, and which they all signified and re- 
presented, being now accomplished. 

Again it is evident, that the priests of old, in their office of of- ^ 
fering sacrifices, were types of the Messiah in oflering his sacri- 
fice : otherwise there is no truth iu that prophecy that God de- 
clares in so solemn a manner, and confirms with an oath, in Jer« 
xzxiii. 18. *^ Neither shall the priests, the Levites, want a man 
before me to ofiTer burnt offerings, and to kindle meat ofierings, 
and to do sacrifice continually." See how solemnly this is con- 
firmed and sworn to, in the following words. Unless this befal- 
filled in the true sacrifice or atonement, which the Messiah offers, 
and in the accomplishment of that prophecy of the Messiah, Psa. 
ex. ** The Lord hath sworn and will not repent, thou art a priest 
for ever, after the order of Melchizedeck ;" it is not fulfilled at all ; 
and is neither agreeable to fact nor to other prophecies. Unless 
this prophecy be fulfilled thus, it is not agreeable to fact. For the 
priests and Levifes have had no man literally to ofier sacrifices 
literally, for a much longer time than ever they had a man to of- 
fer sacrifices. And it is not agreeable to other prophecies, par- 
ticularly that fore-mentioned, Dan. ix. 24. 27. That speaks of 
the Messiah's causing the sacrifice and oblation to cease ; and 
sealing them op, which is directly contrary to this prophecy of 
Jeremiah xxxiii. if this latter be understood literally. For this 
very prophecy of Jeremiah is evidently a prophecy of the Messiah. 
See ver. 15. ** I will cause the branch of righteousness to grow 
up to David.*' So that upon this supposition Jeremiah foretells 
the Messiah's abundantly confirming the priests and Levites in 
their business of oflering sacrifice and oblation, so as to perpetu- 
ate it for ever ; and Daniel foretells his finishing the business 
wholly, sealing it up and making it to cease. And it is elsewhere 
foretold that there should be no temple made with hands, no ark, 
no sacrifices of beasts, iu the Messiah's times. 


From what has been now observed of the prophecies foretelling 
that the Messiah should abolish the legal sacrifices, it is manifest 
dial whenever the prophecies of the Messiah's times do speak of 
sacrifices then to be offered, they are to be understood mystically, 
Le. of spiritual things typified by the sacrifices, as Isai. ziz. 21, 
hu 7. Eiek. xx. 40, 41. Mai. i. 11 . 

The blood of the legal sacrifices is called the blood of the 
covcDant bv Moses, Exod. zxiv. 8. << And Moses took the blood 
and sprinkled it on the people, and said. Behold the blood of the 
covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these 
words." But God calls the blood of the Messiah the blood of 
(he coyenant that he had made with his people, or the blood of 
their covenant. Zech. ix. 11. '< As for thee also, by the blood of 
iby covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein 
there is no water/' It is evident that the blood of the Messiah is 
that blood by which the church will be redeemed, when the Mes- 
liah comes, which is the time here spoken of. See ver. 9, forego- 
{oingy '^ R^oice greatly, O daughter of Zion ; shout, O daugh- 
ter of Jerusalem: behold, tBy King cometh," be. Therefore, as 
both these, viz., the blood of the legal sacrifices, and the blood of 
the Itessiah, are called the blood of the church's covenant, it is 
Vianifest that one is represented by the other. The same sacri- 
fice must be intended in that prophecy of the Messiah's times, 
Ps. L 5. " Gather my saints together, those that have made a 
covenant with me by sacrifice." Thus plain it is that the legal 
lacrifices were types of the Messiah, the great sacrifice and true 
atonement for sin, and were appointed as such. And by some 
Ihiaga that have been already observed, it is also manifest that 
(heir legal purifications were types of that spiritual purity that 
ihoald be by the Messiah, and the sweet incense a type of that 
irhicb 11 spiritual and truly sweet to God. And concerning the 
iooeiisei I further observe, that spiritual things are expressly com- 
pared to it in the Old Testament, Ps. cxli. 2. ** Let my prayer be 
let forth before thee as incense, and the lifting up of my hands as the 
iveniog sacrifice." And the Messiah is expressly compared to a 
doad of incense ; Cant. iii. 6. White and beautiful garments 
wtn appointed the priests by the law of Moses. These garments 
M the priests are expressly spoken of as representing something 
in the Messiah, and particularly are there spoken of as represent- 
ing' righteousness. Again, the righteousness of the Messiah is 
compared to beautiful garments, Isai. Ixi. 10. ^' He hath covered 
one with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh him- 
lelf with his ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her 
jeivels." Job xxix. 14. << I put on righteousness, and it clothed 
me." God is represented as clothed with a garment white as 

VOL. IX. 14 


snow. Dan. vii. 7. And the Messiah appears to Daniel clothed 
in linen. Dan. x. 5, 6, and xii. 7. Spiritual purity is represented 
by the colour white. Isai. i. 18. ** Though thy sins be as scar- 
let, they shall be white as snow." Dan. xii. 10. " Many shall be 
purified and made white." The high priest had broidered gar- 
ments : such are spoken of as representing righteousness. £iek. 
xvi. 9, 10. '' Then I washed thee with water; I thoroughly wash- 
ed away thy blood from thee ; and I anointed thee with oil. I 

clothed thee also with broidered work and I girded thee about 

with fine linen." 

Jt is manifest that the legal uncleannesses were types of sioi 
they are said to be an abomination to the Lord. Yea, they are 
called sin in the law of the sin-ofiering. Levit- vi. 6 — 8, and xiv. 
13, 14. 19^ 22. 24, 25« 53, xv. 30. Moral impurities seem to be 
represented by legal impurities, Hag. ii. 11 — 14. One thing that 
was a legal pollution, was blood. This is made use of by the 
prophets to represent sin. Ezek. xvi. 6. '' When I saw thee pol- 
luted in thy blood." So 9. 22. Isai. i. 18. <' Though yonr sins 

be as scarlet and red like crimson." Chap. iv. 4. " l¥ben 

the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the danght<ers of 
Zioni and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the 
midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of barn- 

One kind of legal uncleanness was through menstruous blood. 
Moral or spiritual pollution is compared to this. Isai. Ixiv. 6. '^ All 
our righteousnesses are as filthy rags," or menstruous clothes, 
as it might have been rendered. The leprosy was one kind of le- 
gal uncleanness. Sin seems to be compared to this, in Isai. i. 6. 
** From the sole of the foot even unto the head, there is no sound- 
ness in it, but wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores.*' 

The legal purifications by washing the hands in the laver, and 
other parts of the body in water, is what a spiritual cleansing from 
sin is compared to. Ps. xxvi. 6. ** I will wash my hands in inno- 
cency, and so will I compass thine altar ;" alluding to the priests 
washing their hands at the laver before they compassed God's al- 
tar. Zech. xiii. 1. "In that day there shall be a fountain opened 
to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for 
sin and for uncleanness." Ps. li. 2. " Wash me from my iniqui- 
ty ; cleanse me from my sin." Isai. i. 16. " Wash ye, make yon 
clean ; put away the evil of your doings." Jer. iv. 14. " Wash 
thy heart from wickedness." Prov. xxx. 12. " There is a genera- 
tion that are purein their' own eyes, and yet is not cleansed from 
their filthiness.'' Isai. iv. 4. <' When the Lord shall have wash- 
ed away the filth of the daughters of Zion." Eiek. xvi. 4. 
** Neither wast thou washed in water." Ver. 9. " Then washed 


I thee in water." Ezek. xxxvi. 25. <' Then will I sprinkle 
clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean from all your filthi- 

That the anointing under the law typified something spirituali 
is confirmed by this, that what is spiritual is called anointing. 
Exek. xvi.'9. *^ I anointed thee with oil." It is an argument that 
those officers that were anointed, were types of the Messsiah that 
his name is MesHahy or the anointed. The holy anointing oil re- 
presented the Spirit of God, because the Holy Spirit is represented 
by holy anointing oil. Zech. iv. 2 — 6. 12, and Isai. Ixi. 1. *^ The 
Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord hath anoint- 
ed me." By which last words it may also be confirmed, that the 
anointing of the officers of the Jewish church represented the 
spiritual anointing of the Messiah. 

Something spiritual that shall be in the Messiah's times is com- 
pared to the wine of the drink-offering. Zech. ix. 15. ''They 
shall drink and make a noise as through wine. They shall be 
filled like bowls and as the corners of the altar." 

We have the testimony of the Holy Spirit in the Old Testa- 
menty that the golden candlestick with its bowl on the top and its 
seven lamps, and oil for the lamps, is a representation of the church 
of the Messiah. Zech. iv. taken with the preceding chapter. 

The sanctuary or temple was a type of heaven, as may be ar- 
gued from this, that heaven is called in the Old Testament his 
dwelling place, his holy habitation, his sanctuary and his temple* 
I Kin. viii. 30. " Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place." So 
39. 43. 49. 2 Chron. vi. 21. 30. 39. ; and 2 Chron. xxx. 27 ; 
andPsa. xxxiii. 13, 14. ** The Lord looketh from heaven, he be- 
holdeth all the sons of men ; from the place of his habitation he 
looketh on all the inhabitants of the earth." Isai. Ixiii. 15. 
" Look down from heaven and behold from the habitation of thy 
holiness and thy glory." Jer. xxv. 30. '* The Lord shall roar 
from on high and utter his voice from his holy habitation.'' Deut. 
xxvi. 16. "Look down from thy holy habitation." Psa. Ixviii. 
4, 5. ** Sing unto the Lord ; sing praises unto his name ; extol 

him that rideth on the heavens by his name Jah. A Judge of 

the widows is God in his holy habitation." Psa. cii. 19. " For he 
hath looked down from the height of his sanctuary, from heaven 
did the Lord behold the earth." Psa. xi. 4. " The Lord is in his 
holy temple ; the Ijord's throne is in heaven." 

That the great, costly, or precious stones that were the foun- 
dation of the temple, spoken of 1 Kin. v. J9. ; and of Solomon^s 
boQse, chap. vii. 10, represented the Messiah, is confirmed by Isai. 
xxviii. 16. Psa. cxviii. 22. Zech. iii. 9, and iv. 7. 

It is a confirmation that the frame of the tabernacle and temple 
were typical, from the agreement there is between it, and the 


TisioDS under which God sometimes manifested himself. The 
mercy seat with the cherubims is called the chariot of the chem* 
bims. 1 Chron. xxviii. 18.; agreeable to the vision that Ecekid 
had of God riding in a chariot drawn by cherubims. Ezekiel's 
vision of the chariot of the cherubims was also agreeable with the 
frame of the chariot, in which the iavers were set, and represented 
as drawn by lions, oxen and cherubim ; agreeable to the shapes of 
Exekiel's living creatures. See I Kin. vii. 27 — 39. 

But a very great and clear evidence, that the city of Jemsa* 
lem, the holy city and the temple in all its parts and measures, and 
its various appendages and utensils, with all its officers, services, 
sacrifices, and ceremonies, and so all things appertaining to the 
ceremonial law, and indeed many things appertaining to the civil 
state of the people as divided into twelve tribes, were typical of 
things appertaining to the Messiah and his church and kingdom, 
is that these things are evidently made use of as such, in a very 
particular manner in the vision of the prophet Ezekiel ; that we 
have an account of in the nine last chapters of his prophecy. 
These there mentioned, which are the same which were in Israel 
under the law of Moses, are mentioned as resemblances, figures, or 
symbolical representations of spiritual things. So that God has 
in these chapters determined, that these things are figures, symbols, 
or types representing the things of the Messiah's kingdom, be- 
cause here he plainly makes use of them as such. 

It is no argument, that the thinp^s that have been treated of 
were not designed as types of the Messiah, and things pertaining 
to his kingdom, that God when he instituted them, did not ex- 
pressly declare them to be so. For there is no more necessity of 
supposing that all types signifying future events, when given 
should be explained, than that all visions and prophecies signify- 
ing future events should be explained. The things that were ex- 
hibited in visions, wore truly a sort of types of future events ; as 
Abraham's smoking furnace and burning lamp, which was not ex- 
plained por expressly declared to represent an^ thing future. The 
twelve fountains and threescore and ten palm-trees atElim, were 
evidently types of the twelve tribes, and threescore and ten elders; 
but yet it is not expressly said so. The like might be observed 
of Jacob's taking Esau by the heel at his birth, and God's making 
Eve of Adam's rib, and Moses's rod's swallowing up the magicians' 
rods, and many other things. 

Corollary. Seeing it is thus abundantly evident by the Old 
Testament iuelf, that the things of the Old Testament were typi- 
cal of the Messiah, and things appertaining to him, hence a great 
and most convincing argument may be drawn that Jesus is the 
Messiah ; seeing there is so wonderful a correspondence, and 
evident, manifold, and great agreement between him and his 


gospel, and those types of *the Old Testament. And as it is so 
plain by the Old Testament, that the ancient state of things amongst 
the Jews was all ^ical of the Messiah ; and the Jews themselves 
acknowledge it. So it is a great argument, that Jesas and his 
kingdom were the end and antitype of these things, because pre- 
KOtly after he comes and sets up his kingdom, God puts a total 
and final end to that typical state of the Jews, and all things ap« 
pertaining to it, blots out all those types at once, and wipes 
theoi clean away, and poured the utmost contempt upon them, 
and co^'ered them with the roost dreadful darkness, and utterly 
destroyed, as by one great fatal and final blow, that whole typical 
world, and has now continued their abolition for so many ages, 
BQcb longer than he did their existence, and has followed all 
that refect the antitype, and will cleave to the types, with so aw- 
fiil and continual a curse, and all this agreeably to the pro- 
phecies of what God would do, when the Messiah, this great anti- 
type, was come. 

That typical representations were' looked upon by God, as no 
trifling matters, but things of great importance, as is manifest 
in that it is spoken of in scripture as a matter of such importance, 
thai Christ's body should not see corruption, before it was raised. 

It was common for names to be given by a spirit of prophecy, 
(See Owen on Heb. vii; 2, p. 112.) 

We have reason to suppose, that very many things in the Old 
Testament are intended as types, seeing it is manifest in some in- 
stances, that so very minute circumstances were so ordered, such 
as the negative circumstances of the story -of Melchizedeck, there 
being no mendon made of his father or mother, of his birth or 

That all things, even to the least circumstance, pescribed by 
God about the tabernacle, and its services, were types of heavenly 
things, appears by the Apostle's manner of arguing, (Heb. viii. 
6,) from those words of God to Moses, ** See that thou make all 
things according to the pattern showed to thee in the Mount." 
And if they were all types, they were all for our instruction, and 
if they #ere for our instruction, then we must endeavour to under- 
stand them, even those of them that are no where explained in 

Heb. jx. 3 — 5. The Apostle there mentioning the ark, 
mercy seat, tables of the covenant, the golden censer, pot of 
manna, Aaron's rod that budded, concludes thus, ^' Of which 
I cannot now speak particularly ;'' i. e, I cannot now explain 
particularly the design of those things, and tell you particu- 
larly what evangelical and heavenly things were represented 
thereby; which proves evidently, that many things in the 
tabernacle were typical, and intended to represent to God's 


people evangelical things, which signification is not explained to 
us in scripture. 

The Jews of old seemed to look on the redemption from "Esgypt 
as a type of the redemption which should be accomplished by the 
Messiah. (See Pool's Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14.) 

It is an evidence that legal uncleanness was a type of no, thmt 
it is in effect called sin. (See Pool's Synopsis on Lev. ui. 8.) 

That the temporal things of the Old Testament were types 
of the spiritual things of the New. (See Pool's Synopsis od 2 
Sam. ii» 10.) 

An OBJECTION is raised from the abuse that will be made of this 
doctrine of types. Answer. I do not know that the types of scrip- 
ture are more abused by people that are enthusiastic and of teem- 
ing imagination, than the visionary representations of the book 
of Revelation ; and yet none make that an objection against all 
attempts to understand and interpret that book. We have as good 
warrant from the word of God to suppose the whole ceremonial 
law to be given in order to a figurative representing and signifying 
spiritual and evangelical things to mankind, as we have to sup* 
pose that prophetical representations are to represent and signify 
the events designed by them, and therefore have as good reason to 
endeavour to interpret them. 

The principles of human nature render TYPES a fit method of 
instruction. It tends to enlighten and illustrate, and to convey 
instruction with impression, conviction, and pleasure, and to help 
the memory. These things are confirmed by man's natural de- 
light in the imitative arts, in painting, poetry, fables, metaphori- 
cal language, and dramatic performances. This disposition ap- 
pears early in children. 

This may be observed concerning types in general, that not 
only the things of the Old Testament are typical ; for this is but 
one part of the typical world. The system of created beings may 
be divided into two parts, the typical world, and the antitypical 
world. The inferior and carnal, i. e. the more external and tran- 
sitory part of the universe, that part of it which is inchoative, 
imperfect, and subservient, is typical of the superior, more spiri- 
tual, perfect, and durable part of it which is the end, and as it 
were the substance and consummation of the other. Thus the 
material and natural world is typical of the moral, spiritual, and 
intelligent world, or the city of God. And many things in the 
world of mankind, as to their external and worldly state, are typi- 
cal of things pertaining to the city and kingdom of God : as ma- 
ny things in the state of the ancient Greeks, and Romans, be. 
And those things belonging to the city of God, which belong to 
its more imperfect, carnal, inchoative, transient, and preparatory 


State, are typical of those things which belong to its more spiri- 
tual, perfect, and durable state; as things belonging to the state 
of Uie church under the Old Testament were typical of things be- 
looging to the church and kingdom of God under the New Tes- 
tament. The external works of Christ were typical of his spiri- 
toal works. The ordinances of the external worship of the 
Christian church are typical of things belonging to its heavenly 

I The manner of the apostle's expressing himself in Gal. iv. 21, 
22, will clearly prove that Abraham's two sons, and their mo- 
thers, and mount Sinai, and mount Sion, were intended to be types 
of those things he mentions ; which is a great confirmation that 
the history of the Old Testament in general is intended to be ty- 
jncal of spiritual things. The apostle's manner of speaking seems 
to ifoply, that it might well be expected of God, that his people 
shoaid understand such like things as representations of divine 
thiogfl, and receive particular instruction exhibited in them, even 
before they are particularly explained to them by God by a new 

I revelation. 


▼OL. IX. IB 



" AT the Pentateuch was written by Moses, is the voice of all 

'quity. It has been all alon/?, even to this day, the received 

Mon of both Jews and Christians, that Moses, being com • 

'led and inspired by God, wrote those books, which are 

A.'ed the Pentateuch, except only some particular passages, 

'hirh were inserted afterwards by a divine direction, for the 

eit^T understanding of the history. 

V ? read, Exodus xxiv. 4. 7, 8, that Moses wrote all the 
oris of the Lord, which before that time bad been delivered 
om mount Sinai, in a book, which is there called The Book of 
X Covenant. Afterwards, when God had added more precepts, 
e again commands Moses to write them, Exodus xxxiv. 27. 
And the Lord said unto Moses, Write thou these words ; for 
her the tenor of these words have I made a covenant with 
lee and with Israel/' Near 40 years afterwards, Moses was 
'fianded to write all the commands which God had given 
iieople, and the revelations which he had made of himself 
*iem, in a book, to be laid up by the side of the ark of the 
iv.jnant, to be kept for a testimony against Israel. Deut. xxxi. 
4— -26. *' And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end 
r writing the wx)rds of this law in a book, until they were finish- 
d, that Moses commanded the Levites, which bare the ark of 
ie covenant of the Lord, saying, Take this book of the law, 
nd put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord 
our God, that it may be there for a witness against thee." 
Lnd the oiiginal of this book of the law was in being, as we 
ead expressly, till the times of Josiah ; 2 Kings xxii. and 2 
yhron. xxxiv. ; and so, doubtless, till the captivity into Baby- 
on. This book of the law, which Moses was thus commanded 
lay up beside the ark, did not only comprehend those things, 
ivhich were contained in some of those preceding chapters of 
Deuteronomy, wherein some things of the law were repealed ; 
but the whole system of divine law, which God gave to the 
children of Israel, expressing the whole of the duty which Gknl 
•ipeeted of them. This appears from Joshua i. 7, 8. '^Ooljr 


be thou Strong, and very courageous, that thuu mayest obsenre 
and do according to all the law which Moses, my servant, com- 
manded them; turn not from it to the right hand or to the 
left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou goest. This 
book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou 
shult meditate on them day and night, that thou mayest ob- 
serve to do according to all that is written therein,*' &c. And 
therefore the Lcvites, whom Jehoshophat sent to teach the 
people their duty, did not do it in any other way than out of the 
book of the law. 2 Chron. xvii. 9. '^ And they taught in Judah, 
and had the book of the law of the Lord with them and went 
about, throughout all the cities of Judah, and taught the people." 
And then it is further evident, that the book of the law which 
we have an account of Moses's committing to the Levites, to be 
laid up in the side of the ark, Deut. xxxi., did not contain mere- 
ly what had then lately been delivered in some preceding chap- 
ters of Deuteronomy ; because in this book of the law were con- 
tained the precepts concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices, 
and the office and business of the priesthood ; which are not 
contained so much in Deuteronomy as in Leviticus and Num- 
bers, as appears from 2 Chron. xxiii. 18. ** Also Jehoiada ap- 
pointed the officers of the house of the Lord, by the bands of 
the priests, the Levites, whom David had distributed in the 
bouse of the Lord to offer the burnt-offering of the Lord, as it 
is written in the law of Moses." 2 Chron. xzxv. 12. Nefa. x. 
34, 35, 36. Hag. ii. 11, &c. Josh. viii. 31. Ezra vi. 18, and 
Nehem. viii. 14, 15* 2 Chron. xxx. 5. and xxxi. 3. And in 
the book of the law were contained not merely the precepts 
which God delivered to Moses, but the sanctions and enforce- 
ments of those laws, the promises and threatenings ; as ap- 
pears from Deut. xxix. 20, 21. '' The Lord will not spare him, 
but then the anger of the Lord, and his jealousy shall smoke 
against that man, and all the curses that are written in this 
book shall lie upon him ; and the Lord shall blot out his name 
from under heaven ; and the Lord shall separate him unto evil, 
out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the 
-covenant, that are written in this book of the law. See also 
verse 27, and Deut. xxviii. 61. " Also every plague, and every 
aickness, which is not written in the book of this law, will the 
Lord bring upon thee, until thou be destroyed." See also 2 
Kings xxii, 13. 16. 19, and parallel places in 2 Chron. xxxiv. 
Dan. ix. and Josh. viii. 34, 35. '* And afterwards he read all 
the words of the law, the blessings and the cursings according 
to all that is written in the book of the law. There was not a 
word, of all that Moses commanded, that Joshua read not." 
See Ps. ev. 8, 9, 10. And not only the promises and threaten- 


iDgs were contained in the book of the law, but all the revelations 
which God gave, which tended to enforce it, or which in any way 
related to it, and even the prophecies that were there contained of 
what should afterwards happen to the people on their sin or on 
their repentance. This appears from Nehem. i. 8, 9. << Remem- 
ber, I beseech thee, the word that thou commandest thy servant 
MoseSy saying. If ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad among 
the nations. But if ye turn unto me„ and keep my command- 
ments, and do them, though there were of you cast out unto the 
Qtteroiost part of the heaven, yet will I gather them from thence, 
and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to set my 
name there." 

And besides, we read of Moses being expressly commanded to 
write histories of the acts of the Lord towards his people, as well 
as of the revelations which he made to them. So he was com- 
manded to write an account of the people's war with Amalek, 
with its attendant circumstances, that posterity might see the rea- 
son of this perpetual war which God had declared against Ama- 
lek. Ezod. xvii. 14. *^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Write 
this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Jo- 
shoa ; for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from 
voder heaven*'* Now a full account could not be given of this 
adair without relating much of the preceding history of Israel ; 
for an account must be given in the writing of the reason and oc- 
casion of the children of Israel's coming to the border of the 
Amalekites, and what was the cause of the discord and war 
which subsisted between them and Israel, which would take up 
no small part of the history of the book of Exodus. 

Besides, we are expressly told that Moses wrote the journeys of 
the children of Israel by God's command. Num. xxxiii. 2. 
** And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys, 
by the commandment of th^ Lord ;" and is it reasonably to be 
supposed that he would write those for the use of the children of 
Israel in after generations, and not write the great and mighty acts 
of the Lord towards that people in Egypt and at the Red sea, at 
roonnt Sinai, ^nd in the wilderness, which were a thousand times 
more worthy of a record, and of being delivered down to posteri- 
ty, than a mere journal of the people's prog'ress in the wilderness, 
without those mighty acts ? It is every way incredible that Moses, 
of whom we so often read expressly t,hat he wrote God's com- 
mands, tbreatenings, promises^ and nevelations, and the early his- 
tories of mankind, that he should not write those great acts of the 
Lord, and leave a record of them with the congregation of Isra- 
el ; especially when it is evident in fact that Moses was exceeding 
careful that they might not forget those great acts of the Lord in 
fotnrt generations. Deut. iv. 9, 10, 11. << Only take heed to 


tbyteiC aod keep thy soul diligently, lest ihoa forget the things 
which thine eyes have seen, and lest they depart from thine heart 
all the days of thy life, but teach them thy sons, and thy sons* 
sons specially, the day when thou stoodest before the Lord thy 
God in Horeb," &c. Here the very same orders are given for 
the keeping the acts of the Lord in the memory of posterity, as 
are given for the keeping up the memory of the precepts, chap, 
vi. 7, and xi. 18, 19. Job speaks of writing words in a book, as 
a proper mean to keep up the memory of them, and so does God 
to Isaiah. Isai. xxx. 8. '' Now go write it before them in a ta- 
ble, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for 
ever and ever." Moses did not trust the precepts of God merely 
to oral tradition, he was sensible that that way only was notsnffi* 
cient, though he gave such a charge to the people to teach their 
children ; and the memory of the war with Amalek, when God 
aaw it needful that it should be transmitted to posterity, was not 
trusted to oral tradition, but Moses was commanded to write it, 
that other generations might know it ; and so the travels of the 
children of Israel, when they were thought of importance to be 
remembered, were not trusted to tradition, but a record was writ* 
ten to be transmitted. Very great care was taken that these acts 
should be remembered, in appointing monuments of them* Thus 
the passover was instituted as a perpetual monument or memorial 
of the redemption of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and the 
beginning of the year was appointed as a memorial of it, and the 
first born sons were consecrated to God in memory of God's slay- 
ing the first born of Egypt. Certain laws were appointed about 
strangers and the poor. Deut. xxiv. 17, 18. 22, and xvi. 11, IS, 
and XV. 15, xvi. 12. Levit. xxv. 42. 55^ and about bondmen in 
remembrance of their peregrination and bondage in Egypt. To 
suppose that such care should be taken lest the laws themselves 
«hould be forgotten, which were appointed for the very end of 
keeping up the memory of the fact, and that those laws should be 
written down ; and yet that no care should be taken that the facts 
themselves should be so far remembered as to write them down, 
when the memory of the fact is supposed to be of so great im- 
portance, that the very being and remembrance of those laws b 
by the supposition subordinate thereto, the memory of the fact be- 
ing the end both of the existence and of the memory of the 
laws, is absurd. In Nehem. xiii. 1, 2, 3, a precept is cited, with 
a part of the history anneited as the reason of the law, and alto« 
gether is said to be read in the book of Moses. The manna was 
laid up as a monument of their manner of living in the wilder- 
ness, and God's miraculous sustaining of the people there. The 
feast of tabernacles was to keep in remembrance the manner of 
their sojourning in the wilderness; as in Levit. xxiii. 43. Aaron's 


rod that bodded, was laid up as a memorial of the great things 
dooe by that rod in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, 
and particularly of the contest with Korah and his company, and 
the censers of the rebels kept and turned into broad plates for the 
covering of the altar, as a memorial of what happened in tha 
matter of Korah, and the fire from heaven, was kept without ever 
going out as a perpetual monument of its miraculous descent 
from heaven, and the occasion of it ; and the brazen serpent was 
kept as a memorial of the plague of fiery serpents, and the mira-r 
calous healing of those that were bitten* The tabernacle that 
was built in the wilderness, was a monument of the great manifes* 
tatioos which God made of himself there, and the many things 
that came to pass relating to the building of the tabernacle. The 
two tables of stone kept in the ark were a monument of those 
great things which happened when they were given* The rest of 
the Jewish Sabbath was appointed as a memorial of the deliver*^ 
ance of the children of Israel out of bondage. The laws con* 
ceming the Moabites and Ammonites were appointed as monu* 
nents ; and the gold taken in the war with the Midianites was laid 
op for a monument of that war. Num. xxxi. 54. A great many 
places were named to keep in remembrance memorable facts in 
the wilderness ; and who can think that all this care was taken to 
keep those things in memory, and yet no history be written to be 
•anexed to these many monuments to explain them, by him by 
vbose hand these monuments were appointed; and he, at the 
•aae time, so great a writer, and so careful to keep up the memo- 
ry of events by writing, in those instances of the writing of which 
«e have express mention f 

Another instance of Moseses great care that these great acts 
Bight not be forgotten, is his calling together the congregation 
te rehearse them over to them a little before his death, as we have 
so ioeount in Deuteronomy. He also left some precepts wherein 
tbeeiuldren of Israel were required themselves from time to time 
to rehearse over something of the general history of their ances* 
tors the patriarchs, of whom we have an account in Genesis ; and 
10 the history of the people from that time, as in the law of him 
that oiered the first fruit, Deut. xxvi. 

And we find that great care was taken to erect monuments of 
the great acts of God towards the people after Moses's death, as 
of their passing through Jordan, though less memorable than 
tone of those. And the fact that there were monuments express^ 
I; appointed to keep in memory so many of God's acts in Moses's 
tiflis, and not of some others more memorable, is an argument 
tint they had a history of them instead of monuments, as partictt- 
My of the children of Israel passing through the Red sea, and 
the destruction of Pharaoh and bis hosts there. No act of God 


tovirards that people is more celebrated through the scriptures thi 
this ; and yet we have no account of any monuments ofit, or ai 
ordinance expressly said to be appointed in memory of it, thoa( 
there was a monument of their passing through Jordan, an eve 
much like it, but less remarkable, and far less celebrated 
scripture. No account can be given of this, but that the bisto 
and song that Moses wrote and left in the book of the law, we 
monuments of it. Such was the care that was taken, that soi 
of the acts of God towards the people might be remembered, th 
in appointing the monuments for their remembrance, it is ezprei 
ed that it was for that end, that they might have it perpetually 
mind as a token on their hand, and as frontlets between their eye 
as particularly in appointing the law of consecrating the fit 
born, to keep up the remembrance of God's slaying the iSrst boi 
of Egypt, Exod. xiii. 15, 16. One of the laws or precep 
themselves of the book of the law was, that the people shoo 
take heed never by any means to forget the great acts of Go< 
which they had seen, and that ttiey should not be forgotten by f 
tare generations, Deut. iv. How unreasonable then, is it to 80| 
pose that no history was annexed to those laws, and that at tl 
same time that such a strict injunction of great care to keep o 
the memory of those things in future generations was given, the 
should yet be left without the necessary means of it ! Again tec 
tber precept is, that they should not forget their own acts and b< 
haviour from time to time, Deut* ix. 7, &c. See also cbap« vii 
14, 15, 16, &c., and chap. v. 15. So they are strictly require 
to remember their bondage in the land of Egypt, Deut. xvi. 15 
and chap. xxiv. 18. 22. And also to remember what God didt 
Pharaoh and all Egypt, all those great signs and wonders, ao 
the manner of their deliverance out of Egypt, Deut vii. 18, 11 
So they are strictly enjoined to remember all their travel, the wa 
that they went, and the circumstances and events of their joumej 
Deut. viii. 2 — 5, and 14 to the end. And they are charged t 
know God's great acts in Egypt, and from time to time in Dea 
xi., at the beginning. They are commanded to remember wbi 
God did to Miriam, Deut. xxiv. 9. Writing of those works c 
God that are worthy to be remembered and celebrated by praise 
to God, is spoken of as a proper way of conveying the memor 
of them to posterity for that end, in Psalm cii. 18. ** This shal 
be written for the generation to come, and the people which sha! 
be created shall praise the Lord." The importance of remembei 
ing these works of God related in the Pentateuch, is mentiooe 
not only in the Pentateuch itself, but also in other parts of scrip 
ture, as in Psalm cv. 5. '* Remember his marvellous works tba 
he hath done, his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth." B; 
the marvellous works which God has done, and his wonderSi i 


«eant those marvellous works that he did to Abraham and his 
seed, from the calliog of Abraham to the bringing in of the peo- 
ple into Canaan, as appears froiff the following part of the psalm; 
and it is observable here that the psalmist connects the wonderful 
works and the laws or judgments of God's mouth together as in 
like manner worthy to be remembered. See also 1 Chron. xvi. 
12» with the subsequent part of that song. The law, and cove- 
nants and wonderful works, are in like manner connected as not to 
be forgotten, in Ps. Ixxviii. 10, 11 ; and in the cxi. Psalm, the 
psalmist intimates that God has taken some special care to keep 
up the memory of those works ; ver. 4, '* He hath caused his 
wonderful works to be remembered," speaking of these works, 
u appears from what follows in the psalm. And what other way 
can we suppose it to be that God hath done this, than the same 
with that whereby he caused his covenant and commandments 
spoken of in the following verses, to be remembered, viz., by 
causing them to be recorded f The works and commandments 
are joined together. Ver. 7. '* The works of his hands are ve- 
rity and judgment, all his commandments are sure;" and again in 
the 9th verse, *' He hqth sent redemption to his people, he hath 
commanded his covenant for ever ;" as they are doubtless connect- 
ed in the record. Compare Psalm cxivii. 19, and ciii. 7. In the 
Ixxviii. Psalm, the psalmist, 'aAer speaking of the great care that 
Hoses took that the history of the great works of God towards 
Israel in Egypt and the wilderness should be remembered and de- 
livered to future generations, (in ver. 4, 5, 6, 7,) then proceeds to 
rehearse the principal things in that history in a great many par- 
ticulars, so as to give us, in short, the scheme of the whole history, 
with many minute circumstances, in such a manner as to show 
plainly that what is there rehearsed is copied out of the history of 
the Pentateuch. 

It is the more likely that the Ai>/a^ of the Pentateuch should be 
a part of that which was called the law of Moses^ because it is ob- 
servable that the words laWj doctrine^ statute^ ordinancesj be, as 
they were used of old, did not only intend precepts, but also pro- 
mises, and threatenings, and prophecies, and monuments, and his- 
tories, and whatever was revealed, promulgated, and established,' 
to direct men in their duty to God, or to enforce that duty upon 
them. So the blessings and the curses that were written by Mo- 
les are included in that phrase, and the words that Moses com- 
manded. Joshua viii. 34, 35. So promises are called law, and the 
word which God commanded in Psa. cv. 9, and 1 Chron. xvi. 15. 
So promises and threatenings are called the word which God 
, commanded his servant Moses. Nehem. i. 8, 9. Threatenings and 

5romises are called statutes and judgments in Levit. xzvi. 46. 
['bus we read, Exod. xv. 25, 26, that at Marah God made for 
VOL. IX. 16 


the people a statate and an ordinance, but that which is to called 
is only a promise. So we read in Joshua zxiv. 25, that Joshoa 
made a covenant with the people, and set them a statate and an 
ordinance in Shechero, which was nothing else than only his 
establishing what had been there said by a record and a moniH 
ment, as appears from the context. So when God, in the song of 
Moses, Deut. xxxii. calls upon heaven and earth to give ear to 
his doctrine, which he says shall distil as the rain, &c., therein is 
included both history and prophecy, as appears by what followSp 
and what, in Psa. Ixxviii. 1, is called a law, is only a history, and 
the very same with the history in the Pentateuch in epitome, 
those dark sayings of old, which the psalmist there rehearses, as 
appears from what follows in the psalm ; which makes it the more 
easily supposable that the original and more full history, of which 
this is ail epitome, was also amongst them called a law. And itii 
probable, that when we read of the great things of God's law, Hot* 
viii. 12, and the wondrous things of God's law, that thereby is 
not only intended precepts and sanctions, but the great and 
wondrous works of God recorded in the law. It is evident that 
the history is as much of an enforcement of the precepts, (and is 
so made use of,) as the threatenings, promises, and prophecies ; 
and why then should it not be included in the name of the law as 
well as they ? There is something of history, or a declaration of 
the great acts, or works of God in that, which is by way of emi- 
nency called the LaWy viz. the Decalogue ; in that there is a de» 
claration of the two greatest works of which the history of the 
Pentateuch gives an account, viz. the creation of the world, and 
the redemption out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage: the 
latter is mentioned in the preface of the Decalogue, and both in 
the 4th commandment in Deuteronomy. But the fact that history 
was included in what was called the laWj is so plain from nothing 
as from Moses's own records. Deut. i. 5. '< On this side Jordan in 

the land of Moab, began Moses to declare that law, saying " 

and then follows in this and the ensuing chapters, that which is 
called this law, which consists in great part of history, being a re- 
hearsal and recapitulation of the history in the preceding books 
of the Pentateuch. What follows next in this and the two next 
chapters, is almost wholly history, which undoubtedly there is 
special reason to understand as intended by those words, *< Moses 
began to declare the law, saying." See also Deut. iv. 44, 45. ; 
and xxxi. 9. 24, 25, 26. ; and v. 1. 

Again tke book of the Ifiw^ and the book of the covenant j were sy- 
nonimous expressions ; (see among other places, psalm cv. 8, 9, 
10;) but the word covenant^ as it was then used, included history, 
as Deut. xxix. " These are the words of the covenant which the 
Lord commanded Moses ;" and what next follows is history, 


inch history as was introductory, or concomitant, or confirmatory 
Ui the precepts, and threatenings, and promises that follow, and of 
this nature is all the history of the Pentateuch. It is abundantly 
manifest that the manner of inditing and writing laws in the 
wilderness delivered by Moses, was to intermix history with pre- 
cept, counsels, warnings, threatenings, promises, and prophecies. 

It may be noted, that it was very early the custom in Israel to 
keep records of the public transactions of the nation, and they 
regarded this as a matter of so great importance, as to have men 
appointed, whose business and office it was to keep these records. 
So we find it was in the days of Solomon and David, and in the 
days of the Judges, as early as the days of Deborah. Judg. v. 14. 
*^ Out of Zebulon, they that handle the pen of the writer." It is 
probable from the context, that these were their rulers, or some of 
the chief officers in the land that kept records of public afiUirs. 
Before this, also, we have express account of Joshua and Moses 
makingrecords of public transactions. (See Josh. xxiv. 26, and 
the forementioned place concerning Aloses's writing records.) 
And it is evident that these transactions which related to the 
bringing of that nation into a covenant relation with God, and 
redeeming them out of Egypt, be. were always by that nation 
chiefly celebrated, and looked upon as the greatest and most 
memorable events of their history. Now, therefore, is it credible, 
that in a nation, whose custom it was all along, even from the very 
times of those great transactions, to keep records of all public af- 
fairs, that they should be without any written record of these 
transactions ? 

There is no other way that would be natural of writing a divine 
law, or law given by God in an extraordinary manner, with 
wonderful and astonishing circumstances, and great manifesta- 
tioni of his presence and power, except that of writing it in this 
manner, and recording those extraordinary circumstances under 
which it was given : first introducing it by giving an account 
that it was given by God, and then declaring when, how, on what 
occasion, and in what manner it was given. And this will bring 
in alt the history, from the beginning of Exodus to the end of Deu- 
teronomy. Who can believe that Moses wrote the law which 
God gave at mount Sinai, without giving an account how it was 
given there; when the manner of giving was so exceedingly re- 
markable, and so afiecied Moses's mind, as appears from many 
things which Moses wrote in Deuteronomy, which are there ex- 
pressly called by the name of a teu?, and which we arc also ex- 
pressly told that Moses wrote in the book of the law, and delivered 
to the priests to be laid up in the sanctuary? 

There is such a dependence between many of the precepts 
and sanctions of the law, and other parts of the Pentateuch, that 


are ezpresly called the law, and that we are expressly told were 
written in the book of the law, and laid up in the sanctuary; I 
say there is such a dependence between these and the hitstoryi 
that they cannot be understood without the history. Many of 
the precepts, as was observed before,-(p. 117.) was appointed to that 
end to keep up the remembrance of historical facts; and that if 
expressly mentioned in the words of these laws themselves. But 
such laws obviously cannot be understood without the history* 
Thus this is mentioned as the reason of the appointment of the 
feasts of tabernacles, viz. that the children of Israel might remem- 
ber how thev dwelt in tabernacles in the wilderness. Levit. zxiii. 
43. Now this required the history of their travels and sojourning 
there. So the law concerning the Amalekites, Moabites, and 
Amorites, appointed in commemoration of what passed between 
the congregation of Israel in the wilderness in their travels there, 
and those nations, cannot be understood without the history of 
those facts ; and these require the history of the travels of the 
children of Israel, and of the things that led to those incidentSp 
and that occasioned them. So that great law of the passover 
that is said in the law to be in remembrance of their redemption 
oat of Egypt, and the many particular rites and ceremonies of 
that feast, are said expressly in the law to be in remembrance of 
these, and those circumstances of that redemption* Now it is 
impossible to understand all these particular precepts about the 
passover without an history of that affair; and this requires the 
history of their bondage in Egypt, and the manner how they came 
into that bondage; and this draws in the history of the patriarchs* 
The preface to the ten commandments cannot be understood with* 
out the history of the redemption of Israel out of Egypt, and of 
their circumstances there, in the house of bondage ; nor can what 
is given as one reason of the 4th commandment in Deuteronomy 
be understood without an account how they were servants in the 
land of Egypt, and how they were delivered from their servitude. 
We very often find this mentioned as an enforcement of one pre* 
cept and another, viz. God's deliverance of the people out of the 
land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, and out of the iron 
furnace. See Levit. xviii. 3, xix. 34, xxii. 33, xxv. 42* 55, 
zxiii. 43, and xxvi. 13. 45. Numb. xv. 41. Dent. iv. 20, vi* 12, vii. 
8, viii. 14, xiii. 10, and xx. 1. Which shows how necessary the 
history is to understand the law. The many precepts about the 
poor bondman and stranger that are expressly enforced, from 
the circumstance of the Israelites in Egypt, absolutely reqnire a 
history of their circumstances there. And there are in the enforce* 
ment of the laws, frequent references to the plagues and diseases 
of £!gypt, threatening^ of inflicting those plagues, or promises of 
Ireedom from them, which cannot be understood without the bisto* 


>f those plagroes. The law of no more returning again into Egypt, 
of. zvii. 16^ requires the history of their coming out from 
nee. The law concerning not admitting the Moabites and 
mooites into the congregation of the Lord/ because they so 
ated them in their journey, could not be understood without 

ftory of their treatment, and that required an account of their 
mey. The law concerning sins of ignorance, Numb. xv. 22, 
, 24, depends on the history for its being intelligible : '* and 
re have erred, and not observed all these commandments which 

Lord hath spoken unto Moses, even all that the Lord hath 
Dmanded yon by the hand of Moses, from the day that the 
rd commanded Moses, and henceforward among your genera- 
ns, then it shall be, if ought be committed by ignorance," be. 
re is a reference to God's revealing himself from time to time, 
along series of revelations to Moses, which cannot be under- 
od withont the history. 

The law was written as a covennnt, or as a record of a cove- 
it between God and the people ; and therefore the tables of the 
Dand the tables of the covenant ^ the book of the l^w and the hook 
Ike covenant^ are synonimous phrases in scripture. And the 
ilnist, Ps. cv. 9, 10, s|)eaking of the covenant that God made 
ih the patriarchs, says, that God confirmed the same unto 
cob for a law, and unto Israel for an everlasting covenant. It 
to be noted that the promise to Abraham is what is there espe-* 
illy called the Inw^ and the word which God commanded. The 
emtenings of the law are called the words of the covenant 
ich God made by Moses in Jer. xi. 8. But if Moses wrote the 
ok of the law as a record of the covenant that was made be- 
een God and the congregation of Israel, it was necessary to 
ite the people's consent, or what was done on both sides, for 
ire was a mutual transacting in this covenant: See Deut. xxvi. 
, 18* '* Thou hast avouched the Lord this day to be thy God, 
1 to walk in his ways," iS&c. — ** And the Lord hath avouched thee 
I day to be his peculiar people as he hath promised thee, and 
It thou shouldest keep all his commandments." Agreeable here- 
is the account we have, Exod. xix. 8, and xxiv. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
1 Deut. V. 27, and xxvi. 17. 

riie discourse that we have in Dent. xxix. and xxx. is intro- 
:ed thus, "These are the words of the covenant which the 
rd commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in 

land ofMoab, beside the covenant which he made with them 
Soreb " But the following discourse, called the words of the 
mamtf is made up of the following things, viz. a history of the 
BMCtion, Moses's rehearsal of past transactions and wonderful 
ilin^^s of God with them, with reproofs for their insensibility and 
tffectedness as introducing what he had further to say. He 


then proceeds to charge them to serve the true God, and to avoU 
idolatry, and then to enforce this charge with awfol threateoinfl 
and predictions of judgments that shall come npon them if'tlici 
transgress, with the circumstances of these judgmeotBi and piOr 
mises of forgiveness on repentance ; and the whole concluded wHh 
various arguments, pressing instances, solemn appeals* obteslir 
tions, exhortations, &c. to enforce their duty. If such a miscat 
lany is called the words of the covenant^ wc need not wonder if thi 
whole book, that is called the book of the laWj should be a •imilv , 

It was necessary that a record of a covenant between God and : 
the nation of Israel, should contain the story of the trantacdoii \ 
But this, if fully related, would bring in very much of tbehistoif^ 
of the Pentateuch, which is extensively made up of an accoaatj 
of those things that were done by God, to bring the peopkn 
into a covenant relation to him, and the way in which tbsf j 
became his covenant | people. Hence the psalmist, in Psalm Cft|j 
having mentioned this covenant and law which God established 
with the people, proceeds, in the ensuing part of the psalm, to IV* 
hearse the series of events relating to this covenant transactkil 
from God's entering into covenant with the patriarchs, to tl||,i 
children of Israel's being brought into Canaan. *. \ 

It was exceedingly necessary, in particular, when Moses wM 
about to write a record of the covenant which God eitablishit| 
with the people, and to give an account of the manner in .wbicfc| 
he entered into covenant with them, and brought them into acoi^ 
venant relation to him, to show the beginning of it with thepi»i 
triarchs, with whom that covenant was first established, and wtk 
whom was laid the foundation of all that transaction, and thil 
great dispensation of the Lord of heaven and earth with that peo- 
ple, in separating them from all the rest of the world, to be bb 
peculiar covenant people. The beginning and ground-work d 
the whole affair was mainly with them, and what was done afia^ 
wards by the hand of Moses, was only in pursuance of what bad 
been promised to them, and often established with them, and ibr 
which God made way by his acts and revelations towards tbeM» 
What God said and did towards those patriarchs, is often ipokM 
of in the words of the law (those that are expressly called iIms lav) 
as the foundation of the whole, and also in other parts of the On 
Testament; as most expressly in Psalm cv. 8, 9, 10.; see alio 
Josh. xxiv. 3, be; and many other parallel places. 

And there is very often in the law, strictly so called, an ezpro0 
reference to the covenant that God had made with AbrahaMi 
Isaac, and Jacob, as in Levit. xxvi. 42. Dent. iv. 31. 37. Deat 
vi. 10. 18, and vii. 8. 12, and ix. 5. 27, and x. 11. 16, aad 
xix. 8, xxvi. 3. 15, and xxx. 20, which passages are unintelH- 


I^Ue witboat the history of the patriarchs. And there are many 
Mher passages in the law, wherein there is an implicit reference 
lathe same thing; as in those in which God speaks of the land, 
vUcb the Lord their God had given them, or had promised them, 
Aeland of the Amorites, the Hittites, the Canaanites, &c., refer- 
ring to ifae promise made to Abraham, Gen. xv. 18 to the end; 
wkm God promises to Abraham the land of those nations by 

Again, the forementioned considerations, many of them mnst 
It least, induce us to believe that Moses wrote the history of the 
ivdemption of the children of Israel out of Egypt, so far at least 
as he himself was concerned in that affair, and was made the chief 
kstrament of it from his being first called and sent of God on that 
«rand. But this as naturally leads us back further still, even to 
what God said and did to the patriarchs ; for the beginning of 
ttb bistoiy directly points and leads us to those things as the 
fbandation of this great affair, of which God now called Moses to 
be the great instrument. Thus when God first appeared to Mo* 
aesy and spake to him in mount Sinai out of the bush, and gave 
bin bis commission, it was with these words, <* I am the God of 
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." Exod. iii. 6. 
So again ver. 13, 14, 15, 16. *' And Moses said unto God, Behold, 
when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, 
The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you, and they shall 
lay to me, What is his name f What shall I say unto them ? And 
God taid onto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus 
ihalt thon say onto the children of Israel, 1 AM hath sent me 
aato you. And God said, moreover, unto Moses, Thus shalt 
thoQ say nnto the children of Israel, The Lord God of your 
frthen,' the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of 
Jacob, bath sent me unto you : this is my name for ever, and this 
b ny oiemorial unto all generations. Go and gather the elders 
of Israel together, and say nnto them. The Lord God of your 
fcthers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared 
aato me, saying, I have surely visited you, for that which is 
done to yon in Egypt." So again, chap. iv. 5. ^* That they may 
befieve that the Lord God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, 
the Grod of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee." 
And chap. vi. 2, 3, 4. '^ And God spake unto Moses, and said 
ante biro, 1 am the Lord, and I appeared unto Abraham, unto 
Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; but by 
my name JEHOVAH was 1 not known to them. And I have 
established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Ca- 
naan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers." 
It is unreasonable on many forementioned accounts, to believe any 
other than that Moses should write this history, and it is most 


credible that be did it on tbis account, that those first extrmordi- 
nary appearances of God to him, as is natural to suppose, mide 
most strong impressions on bis mind, and if be wrote any bistorj 
it is likely he wrote this. But from these things it appears that 
the history of the patriarchs lays the whole foundation of the hit* 
tory of the redemption of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and 
of God's separating them and bringing them into a covenant re« 
lation with himself. So that it cannot be understood without the 
history of the patriarchs. Would it not therefore have beeoao 
essential defect in Moses, in writing that history, to leave the 
children of Israel without any record of that great foundatioD? 

There is frequent mention in that part of the Pentateacb, 
(which is expressly styled the law) of several tribes of Israel aad 
their names, and of the patriarchs who were the beads of the 
tribes. DeuU iii. 12, 13. 15, 16, and zxvii. 11. 13, and else- 
where* And Moses was commanded to engrave the names of tb 
twelve patriarchs on the stones of the breastplate of the high- 
priest. But these things are not intelligible without the history 
of Jacob's family. In Deut. x. 22, there is a reference to Js- 
cob's going down into £gypt with threescore and ten persoai, 
which is not intelligible without the history. 

The law for him that brings the offering of the first fruits caoMt 
be understood without the history of Jacob's difficulties and sot 
ferings in Padan-Aram, and the history of his going down into 
Egypt with its circumstances, and the history of the great increase 
of his posterity there, and the history of their oppression, and hard 
bondage there, and the history and circumstances of their d^ 
liverance from it, and the history of the great and wondroM 
works of God in Egypt, and the Red sea, and the wilderness, UDlii 
the people came to Canaan. And if Moses left no record of 
these things; then, in the law, he enjoined him who oflertd the 
first fruits, (i. e. of all the people, every individual householdefi 
from generation to generation) to make an explicit confessioa 
and declaration of those things that he did not understand. 

What is said in the law, of the Edomites, as the children of 
Esau, and what God had ^iven to him for his possession, and the 
favour God had showed Esau, in Deut. ii. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and i2; 
and the law concerning the Edomites, Deut. xxiii. 7, 8, how thcj 
should be treated, because Esau was their brother, cannot be nih 
derstood without the history of the family of Isaac. And the 
kind of mention made of Moab and Ammon, as the founders of 
Uie nations of the Moabites and Ammonites, and the favoar show- 
ed them on their father Lot's account, in Dent, ii., seems to sap- 
pose the history of Lot and his family^ and cannot be onderitood 
without it And the reference there is in the law to the overthrow 


3odoni and Gomorrah, Deut. xxix. 23, cannot be understood 
lOut the history of that aflTair. 

l^hese things that have been mentioned, lead us up in the his- 
' of the Pentateuch, within less than eleven chapters of its ba- 
ling ; so that according to what has been said, all except this 
f small part of the Pentateuch must have been delivered by 
les to the children of Israel; and it is unreasonable to sup- 
i that this small part was not delivered by the same hand as 
:of the same record. The history of Abraham begins with 
26th verse of the xi. chap, of Genesis ; and the beginning of 
history is there so connected with, and as it were grows upon, 
preceding history of Noah and his posterity, that to suppose 
other than that they were originally the same record, having 
same author, is most unreasonable. That Moses's history 
an any where between that and the beginning of Genesis, or 
that part of Genesis from the beginning to the 26th verse of 
zi. chapter, is to be divided, as having several writers, are sup- 
tions which, from a bare view of the history itself, any one 
be convinced are erroneous. But it will appear still more 
jasonable not to ascribe it to Moses, if we consider not only 
connection of the beginning of the history of Abraham with 
)Ut the dependence of many things in the following history 
Q it ; and also in that part of the Pentateuch that is more 
nly called the Law. There is frequent mention made both in 
law and history of the posterity of the sons of Ham, Mizraim 
Canaan^ called by the names of these their ancestors, 'men- 
ed chap. x. 6, and of those of the posterity of Mizraim, call- 
Haphterim, mentioned ver. 14, and in Deut. ii. 23, and of the 
erity of the sons of Canaan, mentioned ver. 15, he, called 
:heir names. And in the followidg history there is mention 
le of Ham, the son of Noah, Gen. xiv. 5. Mention is made 
Slam and Shinar, Gen. xiv. 1, &c., of whom we have an ac- 
nt, chap. X. Frequent mention is made of the land of Cifsh, 
9ar translation, Ethiopia^) so named from Gush, the son of 
D, of whom we have an account. Gen. x. 6, 7, 8. So there is 
be following history frequent mention of the land of Aram, 
soil of Shem. In Balaam's prophecy, referred to in the law 
>eateronomy, mention is made of Ashur, Chitiim, and Eber, 
nb. xxiv. 22. 24. The great event of which Moses most evi- 
lly wrote the history, and which takes up all the historical part 
ae Pentateuch, from Gen. x. 26 to the end of Deuteronomy, is 
I'i separating the seed of Abraham and Israel from all nations, 
bringing them near to himself to be his peculiar people. But 
ic well understanding of this, it was requisite to be informed 
be origin of nations, the peopling of the world, and the Most 
h dividing to the nations their inheritance : and therefore tb« 
OL. IX. n 


ix., X., and xi. chapters of Genesis are but a proper introdoctioo 
to the history of this great eveut* In the song of Moses, of 
which mention is made in the law, and which Moses in the law 
was required to write, and the people in the law were reqaired to 
keep, and learn, and often rehearse, there is an express reference 
to the separating the sons of Adam, and God's dividing the earth 
among its inhabitants ; which is unintelligible without the x. and 
xu chapters of Genesis. In that song, also, is plainly supposed 
a connection between this affair, and that great affair of separat* 
ing the children of Israel from all nations to be his peculiar peo- 
ple, about which most of the history of the Pentateuch k taken 
up. The words are as follows, and in them the people are ex- 
pressly called upon to keep in remembrance both these events that 
are so connected, which obviously supposes an history of both, 
Deut« xxxii. 7, 8, 9. '' Remember the days of old, consider the 
years of many generations. Ask thy father, and he will show thee; 
thy elders, and they will tell thee ; when the Most High divided 
to the nations their inheritance i when he separated the sons of 
Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number 
of the children of Israel. For the Lord's portion is his people, 
Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.'' And by the way 1 would 
observe, that in the following words are also references to other 
historical facts of the Pentateuch that cannot be understood with- 
out the history. 

In the fourth commandment, there is such a mention made of 
the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the sea, and all that 
in them is, and of God's resting the seventh day, as is a kind of 
epitome of the first chapter of Genesis, and the beginning of the 
second, and is unintelligible without that history ; and there is 
a reference, in Deut. iv. 32, to God's creation of man, and there 
ii mention in the prophetical song of Moses of the name o( Adam^ 
as the grand progenitor of mankind, Deut. xxxii. 8. And there 
19 mention made of the garden of God, or Paradise, Gen. xiii. 10. 
And before I leave this argument from references to historical 
facts, I would observe, that a very great part of the thirty-one 
first chapters of Deuteronomy, (which are most evidently, as I 
observed before, a part of the law of Moses, laid up in the holy 
of holies,) are made up of nothing but recapitulations, brief re- 
hearsals, references, and hints of preceding historical fact?, and 
counsels, and enforcements from history, which cannot be ander- 
stood without the knowledge of that history. 

And not only does the law of Moses depend upon the history, 
and bear such a relation to it, and contain such references to it that it 
cannot be understood without it, but the manner of writing the law 
•hows plainly that the law and history were written together, they 
are so connected, interwoven, blended, inwrought, and incorpo- 


I the writing. The history is a part of the law, as its pre- 
from time to time being often made an introduction to laws; 
ere are continually such transitions from liistory to law, 
>m law to history, and such a connectioni and reference, 
pendence, that all appears as it were so grow together as 
eral parts of a tree. These, as they stand, are parts of the 
led history, and the history of the facts is only as an intro- 
i and preamble, or reason and enforcement of the laws, 
ring in a continued series, as the several parts of one unin- 
sd stream, all as one body. So that the bare inspection of 
ting, as it stands, may be enough to convince any one that 
the same author, and that both were written together, 
i the manner of writing the laws concerning the passover, 
f of all the ceremonial observances, in the zii. chap, of Exo- 
d the law concerning the first born, in the ziii. chap., and 
ute and ordinance mentioned in the xv. chap, of Ezod. 
irerses. Such also is the manner of writing that law by which 
! known to the children of Israel, which particular day if 
ibath, Exod. xvi. 23. Such is the manner of writing the 
^ue itself, which in the highest sense is called the law of 
in Exod. xx., that it is unreasonable to think that it was re- 
by Moses without any of the concomitant history, and 
ords in the law, Exod. xx. 22, 23. Such are the lawi or- 
ihe particular frame of the tabernacle, ark, anointing oil, 
, priests' garments, with the history of the consequent 
^, &;c. The revelation made to Moses when God pro- 
I his name, Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7, which is an important part 
aw, together with ver. 10, 11, be, and ver. 30, 31. The 
laws given on occasion of Nadab and Abihu's being burnt, 
L, and chap, xvi., particularly ver. 1, 2, taken with what 
, together with the last words in the chapter. See also 
ixi. 1, and ver. 24, and chap. xxii. 1, 2, 3. 17, 18. The 
icerning blasphemy, with the story of tlie blasphemy of 
ith's son, Levit. xxiv. The law of the Levites' service, 
? history of their being numbered and accepted instead bf 
t-born and consecrated. Num. iii., and iv., and viii. The 
putting the leper out of the camp, Num. v., at the begin- 
The law of polluted persons keeping the passover, with 
ory, that gave occasion for it. Num. ix. 6. The history 
ing the trumpets, with the law concerning their use, Nutii. 
le law constituting the seventy elders, which is only giving 
>ry of their first appointment, Num. xi. The law of th 
ptuous sinner, with the history of the sabbath->breaket 
LV. 30, be. The law for the prieiCs, Num. xviii., Whi^h 
es a foregoing history of the rebellion of Korafa, tee ver. 5 
r. 27, compared with the 13th verse of the preceding chap- 


ten The law of the inheritance of daughters, with the history 
of Zelophehad's daughters. The law of the cities of refuge on 
the east side of Jordan, with the history of the taking of the 

History and law are every where so grafled one into another, so 
mutually inwrought, and do, as it were, so grow one out of and 
into another, and flow one from another in a continued carrenty 
that there is all appearance of their originally growing together, 
and not in the least of their being artificially patched and com- 
pacted together afterwards. It seems impossible impartially and 
carefully to view the manner of their connection, and to judge 

Another argument that the same care was taken to preserve the 
memory of the facts, as to preserve the precepts of the law, viz., by 
making a public record of them, to be preserved with the same 
care, and so in like manner laid up in the sanctuary, is, that it is 
declared in the law, that the whole law was written, and the re- 
cord of all the precepts of it transmitted to posterity as a mono- 
ment of the historical facts, or to that end that the memory of 
those facts might be kept up in future generations. Deut. vi. 20 to 
the end. '^ And when thy son asketh thee in time to come, sayingi 
What mean the testimonies, and the statutes, and the judgments 
which the Lord our God hath commanded you f Then thou sbalt 
say unto thy son, We were Pharaoh's bondmen in Egypt, and 
the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and the 
Lord showed signs and wonders great and sore upon Pharaoh 
and upon all his household before our eyes, and he brought usoat 
from thence, that he might bring us in to give us the laud which 
he sware unto our fathers. And the Lord* commanded us to do 
all these statutes, to fear the Lord our God, for our good always, 
that he might preserve us alive, as it is at this day : and it shall 
be our righteousness if we observe to do all these commandments 
before the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us." 

It is a plain and demonstrative evidence, that the Jews had all 
along some standing public records of the facts that we have an 
account of in the history of the Pentateuch, that these facts are so 
abundantly, and in such a manner mentioned or referred to all 
along in other books of the Old Testament. There is scarcely 
any part of the history from the beginning of Genesis to the end 
of Deuteronomy, but what is mentioned or referred to .in other 
books of the Old Testament, that were the writings of after ages, 
and some of them are mentioned very often, and commonly with 
the names of persons and places, and many particular and minute 
circunistances, not only that part of the history which belongs 
more immediately to the redemption of Israel out of Egypt, and 
their journey through the wilderness, but the preceding introduc- 


ry history, and not only that which concerns the Jewish patri- 
cbSy but the first part of the history of Genesis, even from the 
ry beginning. In these writings we have very oflen mention 

God's creating the heavens and the earth; Isai. Ixv. 17, and 
ri. 22, and xl. 21, 22. 28, and li. 13, and xlii. 5, and xliv. 24, 
td xlv. 12, and xxxvii. 16, and Ixvi. 1, 2. Jer. x. 11, 12, and 
:xii. 17, and li. J 5, and xiv. 22. 2 Kinp:s xix. 15. Psalm 
xxix. 11, 12, and cii. 25. Zech. xii. 1. Psalm cxv. 15, and 
Lxi.2, and cxxiv. 8, and cxxxiv. 3. The manner of God's creat- 
f by speaking the word, Ps. xxxiii. 6. 9, and cxiviii. 5. 

The world being at first without form and void, and cover- 
i with darkness, agreeably to Genesis i. 2, is referred to Jer. 

God's creating the light, is referred to, Ps. Ixxiv. 16. 

God's creating the light and darkness, Isai. xliv. 7, agreeable 
) Genesis i. 3, 4. 

God's creating the firmament, Ps. xix. 1. 

God's creating the waters that are above the heavens. Psalm 
ilviii. 4. 6, agreeable to Genesis i. 7. 

God's gathering together the waters, Ps. xxxiii. 7. His mak- 
(g the sea and the dry land, Ps. xcv. 5 ; stretching out the earth 
bove the waters, Ps. cxxxvi. 6j appointing the sea its decreed 
laee, Jer. v. 22. Prov. viii. 29. Ps. civ. 9. 

God's creating the sun, Ps. xix. 1. 4, and Ixxiv. 16. 

God's creating the sun for a light by day, and the moon and 
lestars for a light by night, Jer. xxxi. 35. Ps. cxiviii. 3. 6. 

God's creating great lights. The sun to rule by day, and the 
ooo and stars to rule by night, Ps. cxxxvi. 7,8, 9. See also Ps. 
?. 19, with ver. 24. 

God's creating the sea, and the many creatures that move here- 
I, mod the whale in particular, Ps. civ. 25, 26. 

God's creating the heavens, the earth, and the sea, and all that 

therein, Ps. cxlvi. 6 ; many parts of the creation is mentioned, 
rov. viii. 22 — ^29. 

God's creating man and beast, Jer. xxvii. 5. 

God's creating man, Ps. viii. 5. 

Mao being made of the dust of the earth, Eccles. xii. 7. 

Man^s having dominion given him in his creation over the fish 
f the sea, and the fowls of the air, and beasts of the earth, Ps. 
111. 6, 7, 8. 

Man's having the herbs and plants of the earth given him for 
Beat, Ps. civ. 14, 15, agreeable to Gen. i. 29, and iii. 18. 

The first marriage, or God's making Adam and Eve one, is re- 
brredto, Mai. ii. 15. 
Adam's name is metioned, Hos. vi. 7. 


The grarden of Eden is often mentioned by name, with its plea- 
sures and delights, Isai. li. 3. Esek. zxviii. 13, and zxzi. 8, 9. 
16. 18, and xxxvi. 35, and Joel ii. 3. 

Adam's violating the covenant, is referred to, Hos. vi. 7. 

The cnrse denounced against Adam, that as he was dust, lo 
unto dust he should return, is referred to, Eccles. xii. 7. 

The curse denounced on the serpent, that he should eat dait 
all the days of his life, is referred to, Isai. Ixv. 25, Mic. vii. 17. 

Mention is made of the flood of waters that stood above the 
mountains, and God's rebuking and removing the flood, Psalm . 
civ. 6, 7. 

Noah's name is mentioned, and his righteousness before God| 
and great acceptance with him, referred to, isai. liv. 9, and £iek. 
xiv. 14. 20. 

The waters of Noah's flood, and their going over the earth, j 
and God's covenant with Noah, that he would no more destroy J 
the earth with a flood, are mentioned, Isai. liv. 9. 

Many of the names of the descendants of Noah that we iMve ^ 
an account of in Gen. x., are mentioned in other parts of the OU ; 
Testament, and some of them very often, and every where is ; 
an agreeableness with the account we have of them there ; Pi. ] 
Ixxviii. 51, and cv. 23. 27, and cvi. 22, and Ixxxiii. 6. Isai.xi. ^ 
11, and xxiii. 1, 2. 12, 13. Jer. ii. 10, and xxv. 20 — 25, udxlili j 
34-— 39. Ezek. xxvii. 5 — 15, and ver. 20 — 25, chap. xxx. 45, and i 
xxxii. 24. 26, and xxxviii. 2 — 5, 6. 13. Micah v. 6, and inmif 
ny other places. I 

The names of others also that we have an account of as beads 
of nations in the history of the Pentateuch before Moses's birth, j 
beside the patriarchs of the Jewish nation, are frequently men- | 
tinned, Ps. Ixxxiii. 6, 7. Isai. xi. 14, 15. Isai. Ix. 6,7. Jer. ii- 
10. Jer. xxv. 20. 25. Jer. xlix. throughout, and in many other 
places, all is in agreeableness to the history of the Pentateacb. 
The Philistines coming forth out of Caphtor, Amos ix. 7. Jer. 
xlvii. 4, compared with Genesis x. 14, and Deut. ii. 23. 

The name Babel is often mentioned. There is particular men- 
tion of the ancestors of the Jews dwelling on the other side of the 
river Euphrates , and particularly Terah the father of Abraham^ 
and the father ofNahor^ Josh. xxiv. 

Abraham being brought from thence of God, from the East, 
from the other side of the river, his coming at the call of God, 
and being led by him into the land of Canaan, Josh. xiiv. 3- 
Isai. xli. 2. 

His being called with Sarah his wife, Is. It. 1, 2. 

God's leading Abraham throughout the land of Canaan, Josh- 
xxiv. 3, agreeable to Gen. xii. 6, and xiii. 17. 


God's blessing Abraham is mentioaed Isai. li. 1, 2. 
Abraham is spoken of as a righteous man, and God's servant 
id friendy lasi. xli. 2, and verse 8, Ps. cv. 42. 

God*s entering into covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
omising them the land of Canaan, Ps. cv. S, 9, 10, 11. Ps. 

The church of God in the families of those patriarchs, being 
>ry small, and their being strangers and sojourners in the land 
; Canaan, and their going from one nation to another, and from 
lie kingdom to another people, and God's wonderfully restrain- 
ig men from hurting them, and his reproving kings for their 
ikes, and God's calling them prophets, Ps. cv. 12 — 15. 

God's giving Abraham an easy conquest over great kings and 
ulers of the principal nations of the world, as in Gen. xiv. 
4, &c. is mentioned in Isai. xli. 2, 3. 

Melchizedeck is mentioned by name as being a great priest of 
be true God, and both a king and a priest, Ps. ex. 4. 

God's fixing the border of the seed of Abraham at the river 
^phrates, as the history of the Pentateuch informs us that God 
lid in bis promise to Abraham, Gen. xv. 18. and afterwards from 
Ine to time to the Israelites, is referred to 2 Sam. viii 3. 

The great plentifuliicss of the land of Sodom is spoken of, 
!sek. xvi. 49. 

The great wickedness of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah, 
!iek. xvi. 46 — 56. Isai. i. 10. 

Their being guilty of notorious uncleanness, Ezek. xvi. 50. 

Kings xiv. 24, and xv. 12, and xxii. 46. 2. Kings xxiii. 7. 

Their being of a very proud and haughty spirit, Ezek.xvi* 49, 
0, agreeable to Gen. xv. 9. 

Their being very open and barefaced, and shameless in their 
rickeduess, Isai. iii. 9. 

Their being overthrown with a very great and terrible, and 
iter destruction, Isai. i. 9, and xiii. 19. Jer. xlix. 18 

Their being the subjects of sudden destruction. Lam. iv. 6. 

God's overthrowing them with fire, Amos, iv. 11. 

Their being overthrown with perpetual and everlasting deso- 
stion, without ever being rebuilt, or inhabited any more, Isai. 
tlix. 18, and 1. 40. Ezek. xvi. 53. 55. Zeph. ii. 9. 

Their being overthrown together with neighbouring cities, 
ler. xlix. 18, and 1. 40. 

The birtii of Isaac, as a special gift of God to Abraham, 
Joih. xxiv. 3. 

The birth of Jacob and Esau, the sons of Isaac, by a special gift 
of God, Josh. xxiv. 4. 
Esau is mentioned under the names of both Esau and Edom, 

>i Jacob's brother, in the book of Obadiah, and often elsewhere. 


Jacob's taking hold of Esau's heel when they were born, is 
mentioned, Hosea xii. 3. 

Jacob's being preferred before his brother by God's electioD, 
Ps. cv. 6. Isai xli. 8. Mai. i. 2, 3. 

God's appearing to Jacob at Bethel, Hosea xii. 4. 

Jacob's fleeing into the country of Syria, and there serving for 
a wife, and particularly his serving there in doing the business of 
a shepherd, or keeping sheep, Hosea xii. 12. 

The two wives of Jacob, Rachel and Leah, are mentioned as 
those that did build the house of Israel, Ruth iv. 11. 

Jacob by his strength having power with God, and having 
power over the angel, Hos. xii. 3, 4. 

The names of the twelve sons of Jacob are mentioned in Ezek. 
xlviii. and very often elsewhere. 

Esau's having mount Seir given to him. Josh. xxiv. 4, agree* 
ably to Gen. xxvi. 8. 

And the name of Ishmacl, and his posterity, and of the sons of 
Abraham by Keturah, and the sons of Lot, and the sons of Esao, 
are often mentioned, agreeably to the account we have of them in 

Joseph's being sold into Egypt, and being a servant there, Pi. 
cv. 17. j 

Joseph's being by Providence sold into Egypt before the house j 
of Israel, to preserve life, Ps. cv. 16, 17, agreeable to Gen. xk J 
5, and I. 20. 

Tamar's bearing Pharez to Judah, Ruth iv. 12. 

Joseph's being bound in prison in Egypt, Ps. cv. 18, as Gen. 
xxxix. 2. 

Joseph's having divine revelations in prison, and his thereby 
foretelling future events, and those predictions coming to pass, 
and that being the occasion of Pharaoh's taking him out of pri- 
son and setting him at liberty, Ps. cv. 19, 20. 

And Joseph being upon this exalted over all the land of Egypt, 
and being made Lord of Pharaoh's house, and ruler of his sub- 
stance, and being next to the king himself in power and dignitVi 
and being Pharaoh's vicegerent, and so having power and authority 
over all the princes and nobles of Egypt, Ps. cv. 21, 22. 

The famine that was at that time in the land of Canaan, that 
obliged Israel and his family to seek elsewhere for bread, is men* 
tioned, Ps. cv. 16. 

Jacob's going down into Egypt with his family, Josh. xxiv. 7- 
1 Sam. xii. 8, and Ps. cv. 24. 

Their multiplying exceedingly in Egypt, till they were become 
more and mightier than the Egyptians, and the Egyptians deal- 
ing subtilly with them to diminish them, Ps. cv. 24, 35, agree- 
able to Exod. i. 9, 10. 


The Egyptians first loving the Israelites, and then afterwards 
being turned to hate them, Ps. cv. 25. 

Their being slaves in Egypt, Mic. vi. 4, Jer. ii. 20, Judg. vi. 8. 

The cruelty of their bondage, its being as it were an iron fur- 
nace, (as it is called Deut. iv. 20,) is mentioned 1 Kings viii. 51, 
Jen xi« 4, and Judg. vi. 9. 

The particular kind of their service in handling pots wherein 
they carried their mortar, and working in furnaces, in which they 
burnt their brick, is referred to 1 Kings viii. 51, and Jer. xi. 4, 
and Ps. Ixviii. 13, and Ixxxi. 6. 

God's taking notice of their cruel bondage and great affliction 
with compassion, and a fellow-feeling of their calamity, Isai. 
Ixiii. 9, agreeably to Exod. ii. 23, 24, 25, and chap. iii. 7. 9. 16. 

God's making known himself to them in Egypt, Ezek. xx. 5, 
agreeable to Exod. iii. 1 — 6, and ver. 13 — 16. 29, 30, 31 1 and 
chap. vi. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

God's making himself known to them by the name of the Je- 
hovah your God. Ezek. xx. 5, agreeable to Exod. vi. 2, 3. 6, 
eqiecially verse 7. 

God's promising 'and securing to them in Egypt to bring them 
forth out of the land of Egypt into a land flowing with milk and 
boney. Esek. xx. 6, agreeable to Exod. iii. 8. 10. 12. 14. 17, 
and chap. vL 2 — 8, where we have an account of his swearing by 
his great name JEHOVAH, and I AM THAT I AM. 

God's making use of Moses, a great prophet, as the main in- 
strument of bringing the people outof Egppt, &c. Isai. Ixiii. 11, 

12. Hos. xii. 13. 

Aaron's being joined with Moses in this affair. Josh. xxiv. 5. 
1 Sam. xii. 6, 7, 8. Ps. Ixxvii. 20, and cv. 26. Miriam's also be- 
ing joined, Micah vi. 4. 

God's working very great wonders for his people in the time of 
Hoses and Aaron, Ps. Ixxvii. 11, 12, 13, 14. 

Hit working great wonders in Egypt, Ps. Ixxviii. 12. 43, and 
Ixxxi. 5, and cv. 27, and cxxxv. 9, and cvi. 9. Josh. xxiv. 5. 
Great tokens and wonders upon Pharaoh and all his servants, 
Ps. cxxxv. 9. 

God's redeeming the people out of Egypt, Judg. vi. 8, 9, and 
xi. 16. 1 Sam. xii. 6, 7, 8. Ps. Ixxxi. 10, and Ixxiv. 2, and 
Ixxvii. 15, and Ixxviii. 42, and cxiv. 1, and cxi. 9. Jer. ii. 6. 20, 
xodxL 4. 1 Kings viii. 51. Jer. xvi. 4. Ezek. xx. 10. Hos. xii. 

13. Amos ix. 7. Micah vi. 4, and many other places. 

God's turning the rivers and pools of Egypt into blood, so that 
the Egyptians could not drink the waters, and als^ thereby killing 
lb«ir fish, Ps. Ixxviii. 44, and cv. 29. 

The land's bringing forth frogs in abundance, to fill even the 
chambers of Pharaoh, Ps. Ixxviii. 45, andcv. 31. 

VOL. IX. 18 



The plague of lice is mentioned, Ps. cv. 31. 

The plague or the divers sorts of flies, Ps. cv. 31, and Ixxviii. 

God's sending hail, and thunder, and lightning,' and flamiog 
fire with hail, to the breaking of the trees of* the field, and de- 
stroying thair cattle, Ps. Ixxviii. 47, 48, and cv. 32, agreeably to 
£xod. ix. 22, be. 

God's sending locusts to eat up all the growth of the field, Ps. 
Ixxviii. 46, and cv. 34, 35. 

The plague of darkness, Ps. cv. 28. 

God's smiting and destroying all the first born of Egypt with 
the pestilence, the first born, both of men and beasts, Ps. Ixxviil 
50, 51, and cv. 36, and cxxxv. 8, and cxxxvi. 10. 

The children of Israel's going out of Egypt upon this last 
plague, Ps. Ixxviii. 52, and cxxxvi. 11. Josh. xxiv. 5. 

Their going out with silver and with gold, Psa. cv. 37. 

The Egyptians' being glad to be rid of them, Ps. cv. 38, 
agreeably to Exod. xii. 33. 

Their being brought out with a strong hand, and an outstretched 
arm, Ps. cxxxvi. 12. 

Their being led by a pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar of 
fire to give them light by night, Ps, Ixxviii. 14, and cv. 39. Isai. 
IV. 5. 

Their being led into the wilderness, Ps. Ixviii. 7, and Ixxviii* 
40. 52, and xcv. 8, and cvi. 9. 14, and cxxxvi. 16. Jer. ii. 2.6* 
Esek. XX. 10. Judg. ix. 16. 

The people going to the Red sea, Judg. ix. 6. 

The Egyptians pursuing after the people with chariots and 
horsemen unto the Red sea, Josh. xxiv. 6. 

The people crying unto the Lord at the Red sea. Josh, xxiv* 7. 

The perverseness of that generation, Ps. cvi. 6, 7, xcv. 8, and 
Ixxviii. 8, &c. Isai. Ixiii. 10. Ps. Ixxxi. 11. 

Their provoking God at the Red sea, Ps. cvi. 7, agreeable to 
Exod. xiv. 11, 12. 

God's putting darkness between Israel and the EgyptianSy 
Josh. xxiv. 7. 

God's dividing the Red sea, and causing the people to pass 
through, and causing the waters to stand as an heap ; his turning 
the sea into dry land, so that the people went through on foot dry 
shod, Ps. Ixxviii. 13, Ixvi. 6, and Ixxiv. 13, Ixxvii. 16. 19, 20, 
cxiv. 3, 4, cxxxvi. 13, 14, cvi. 8, 9. Isai. x. 26, li. 10, Ixiii. 11, 
12, 13- Hah. iii. 8—10. 15. Ps. Ixxvii. 10—20. 

God's destroying Pharaoh and his hosts, his chariots and hi» 
horses by the Red sea, by bringing the waters upon them to co- 
ver them, so that there was not one of them left, Ps. ixxiv. 13, 
14,'lxxvi. 5, 6, Ixxviii. 53, cxxxvi. 15, cvi. 10, 11, Isai. x. 26, 
li. 9, 10, and Josh. xxiv. 7. 


God's doing these things at the Red sea by the lifting up of 
Moses's rod, Isat. x. 26. 

God's conquering and crushing Egypt in a forcible manner, and 
iritb mighty power, Ps. txxxix. 10. Isai. li. 9. 

God's doing such great things for to preserve a people for the 
glory of his own name, and to show his mighty power, Ps. cvi. 
8, agreeable to Exod. viii. 16. 

The |)eople's singing praises at the Red sea, Ps. cvi. 12, Hos. 
ii. 15. Ps. Ixvi. 6, cv. 43. agreeable to Exod. ix. 16. 

This destruction of the Egyptians being reported and famed 
through the earth, Isai. xxiii. 5. 

The people's murmuring in. the wilderness for want of bread, Ps. 
Ixxviii. 17, be. and cvi. 14. 

Their soon transgressing, and provoking, after singing praises 
at the Red sea, by lusting and tempting God, Ps. cvi. 13, 14, 15. 

The people's dwelling in tents in the wilderness, Ps. cvi. 25. 

The people's being encamped in the wilderness, like an army, 
Ps. Ixxviii. 28, and cvi. 16. 

God's sending the people manna, and feeding them with bread 
from heaven that was rained down npon them, Ps. Ixxviii. 23, 24, 
25, and cv. 10. 

God's revealing his holy sabbath to the people, as we have 
an account in the xvi. of Exod., Ezek. xx. 12. Neh. ix. 14. 

God's giving the people waters plentifully to supply the whole 
congregation out of the rock at Meribah, by striking the rock 
and causing the waters to gush out, Ps. Ixwiii. 15, 16, 20. Ixxxi. 
7, and cv. 4, and cxiv. 8. 

Amalek's coming forth in a hostile manner against Israel in 
the way when he came up from Egypt, 1 Sam. xv. 2. 

What Jethro the priest of Midian said and did, that we have an 
account of Exod. xviii., is referred to, 1 Sam. xv. 6. 

God's entering into covenant with the people at mount Sinai, 
or Horeb, ader they came out of Egypt, and giving the law and 
statutes, and judgments there, 1 Kings viii. 9. Ps. Ixxvi. 8. 
Ijek. XX. 10, 11. Mai. iv. 4. 

God's giving the law by a Very terrible and awful voice from 
heaven. Psalm Ixxvi. 8. 

God's appearing there with extraordinary manifestations of his 
majesty and glory in the heavens and in the earth, with an exceed- 
ing shining brightness and beams of glory, attended with the ut- 
most danger of being struck dead in a moment, as by a pestilence, 
to those that transgressed, Uab. iii. 3, 4, 5. 

The earth trembling, and the mountaius quaking exceedingly 
iitthattime, Judg. v. 4, 5. Hab. iii. 6, 7. 10. Ps. cxiv. 4, and 
liviii. 8. 

And particularly mount Sinai shaking, Judges v. 5. Psalm 

ilviii. 8. 


The people's making a molten calf at mount Sinai, and wor- 
shipping that as the representation of the God of Iftrael, Ps. cvi« 
19,20. Ezek.xx. 8. 

God's saying on that occasion that he would destroy the people, 
but Moses standing before him as an intercessor for them^ to turn 
away God's anger, on which God spared them, Ps. cvi. 23. 

Moses's putting the two tables of stone into the ark at mount 
Sinai, when he made a covenant with the children of Israel, when 
they came out of the land of Egypt, 1 Kings viii. 9. 

The people lusting for flesh, and tempting God by asking meat 
for their lust, Ps. Ixxviii. 17, 18, 19. 

God's wrath on that occasion, Ps. xxviii. 21, Sic. 

God's giving the people quails in answer to their desire, in vast 
abundance, which were brought by a wind which God caused to 
blow, and let fall in the midst of their camp, round about their 
habitations, Ps. Ixxviii. 26, be. and cv. 4, cvi. 15. i 

The wrath of God's coming upon them while the|meat wasyet [ 
in their mouths, and suddenly slaying them with a great plague, j 
Ps. Ixxviii. 30, 31, and cvi. 15. i 

The people not believing, for all God's wondrous works that 
they had seen, despising the pleasant land, and not believing his ^ 
promise, that be would bring them into it, and murmuring at the 
report of the spies, and being for turning back again into Egyptt 
Ps. Ixxviii. 32; be, ver. 41, and cvi. 24, 25. 

God appearing on that occasion as though he would pour out 
his fury and consume the whole congregation, but yet spared them ^ 
for his mercies' sake, lest the Egyptians and other heathen na- j 
tions should hear of it, and should take occasion from thence to 
reproach the name of God, Ezek. xx. 13, 14. 17. 

God's swearing in wrath on that occasion concerning that fro- 
ward and perverse generation, that they should not enter into his 
rest, but that he would destroy them in the wilderness, because 
they had seen God's miracles, but yet exceedingly provoked him, 
and often tempted him, Ps. xcv. 8 — 11, and cvi. 26. Ezek. xx. 
15, 16. 

God's promising Caleb the land whereunto he went, Judges 
i. 20. 

Korah and his company envying Moses and Aaron in the camp, 
and the earth's opening her mouth and swallowing up Dathaa 
and Abiram, and their company, and a fire from the Lord con- 
suming others of them, Ps. cvi. 16, Slc. 

What Moses said to the Levites about their inheritance. Num. 
xviii. 20, &c., referred to, Joshua xiii. 33, '* But unto the tribe 
of Levi Moses gave not any inheritance ; the Lord God of Is- 
rael was tlieir inheritance, as he said unto them." 



people's angering Moses at the water of strife, provoking 
t, so that he spake unadvisedly with his lips, so that it 
with Moses for their sakes, Ps* cvi. 32, 33, 
's sending messengers to the king of Edoro, saying, *^ Let 
ay thee, pass through thy land,'' and the king of Edom's 

to hearken thereto, Judg. xi. 17. 

>eople's compassing, or going round the land of Edom, 
long through the wilderness, Judg. xi. 18, agreeable to 
u. 4, and Deut. ii. 1 — 8. 

people's passing through a great and terrible wilderness, a 
pits, and of great drought, a waste and desolate country, 
L 6. Hos. xiii. 5, 
)eople compassing the land of Moab, and coming by the 

of the land of Moab, and pitching on the other side of 
because Arnon was the border of Moab, Judg. xi. 18, ex- 
reeable to the history of the Pentateuch, Num. xxi. 11. 
xxii. 36. 

people not being suffered to pass through the land of 
^udg. xi. 17, 18. 

's sending messengers from their camp in the borders of 
» Sihon, king of the Amorites, saying, ** Let as pass, we 
^, through thy land," and Sihon refusing, but upon this, 
ig all his people together, and coming to Jahaz to fight 
Israel, Judg. xi. 18, 19, 20. 

; delivering Sihon and all his people into the band of Is- 
d Israel's possessing their land from Arnon, even unto 

and from the wilderness even unto Jordan, dwelling in 
A and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all 
s that belonged to Sihon, exactly agreeable to the histo- 
^. xi. 21 — 26. Josh. xxiv. 8. Ps. cxxv. 10, 11, cxxxvi. 

ifterwards smiting Og, the king of Bashan, and possess* 
land. Josh. xxiv. 8. Psalm cxxxv. 10, 11, and cxxxvi. 

bat Balak, the king of Moab, durst not venture, after he 
n this, to go out against Israel, and never engaged them 
3, until Israel went against them, Judg. xi. 25, 26, agreea- 
f um. xxii. 2, and the consequent history. 
ii's stirring Balaam, the son of Beor, to curse the people, 
i's turning the curse into a blessing, while Israel abode in 
t Josh. xxiv. 9, 10. Micah vi. 5. 

I's sinning by joining themselves to Baal Peor, and eat- 
sacrifices of their gods, and God's being provoked, and 
ig wrath on the congregation for this sin, and Phineas's 
ig judgment on this occasion, that was counted to him 
teo.usness unto all generations for evermore, Psalm cvi. 


The war of Israel with Balak, and their victory, Josh. xxiv. 
9, 10. 

The people's long sojourning in the wilderness, Josh. xziv. 7, 
and Isai. Ixiii. 9. 

God's speaking from time to time to Moses and Aaron froa 
a pillar of cloud, Ps. xcix. 6, 7. 

Moses's faithfulness in his office, Ps. xcix. 7, agreeable to Norn, 
xii. 7. Their great perverseness, hardness of heart of that geoe* 
ration, and their frequent rebellions, and provoking, and veziag 
God's Spirit, and tempting of him in the wilderness, even for 
forty years, Ps. Ixxviii. throughout, especially ver. 40, 41, aid 
Ixxxi. 11, 12, and xcv. 8 — 11. Isai. Ixiii. 10. Esek. xz. 1% 

God's repeated and continual judgments against them, wast- 
ing them by a great mortality that pursued and destroyed with 
great manifestations of divine wrath. Ps. xc. Isai. Ixiii. 10. 

God's often pardoning and sparing the people, so as to forbetf 
to destroy the whole congregation at Moses's intercession, but jct 
not without giving great manifestations of his wrath towards their 
sins, taking vengeance of their inventions, as Moses ground their 
calf to powder, Ps. Ixxviii. 38, &c., and xcix. 

The people's promising time after time to repent when soul* 
ten with terrible judgments, but yet turning again quickly tosiiy 
not being steadfast in God's covenant, Ps. Ixxviii. 31 — 37. 

God's showing great favour to the young generation, Jeremiah 
:ixxi. 2. 

God's entering into covenant a second time with that yoong 
generation, Jer. ii. 2, 3. Ezek. xx. 18, 19,20. 

He that can observe the facts of the history of the Pentateodi 
after this manner mentioned and referred to in the writings of the 
several ages of the Israelitish nation, and not believe that they had 
all along a great and standing record of these things, and this 
very history, can swallow the greatest absurdity. If they had not 
had this history among them, or one that exactly agrees with it, 
it would have been morally impossible, but that amongst this vast 
number of citations and references, with so great a multitude of 
particularities and circumstances mentioned by so many different 
writers in different ages, there must have been a great many incoiH 
sisteucies with the history, and a great many inconsistencies one 
with another; and it would have puzzled and confounded the skill 
of any writer who should have attempted to form an history after- 
wards that should every where without jarring so harmonise with 
such various manifold citations, and rehearsals, and references so 
interspersed in, and dispersed through, all those writings of seve* 
ral ages ; and unless these writers had such a record to be their 
common guide, it could not have been otherwise than utterly im- 

NOt£S ON THE B1BL£. 143 

It was impossible that this vast number of events, with so many 
camstanceSy with names of persons and places, and minute in-^ 
tents, should be so particularly and exactly known, and the know- 
Ige of them so fully, and distinctly, and without confusion or 
», kept up for so many ages, and be so often mentioned in so 
rticolar pi manner, without error or inconsistency through so 
uiy ages, without a written record. How soon does an oral 
iditioD committed to a multitude vary, and put on a thousand 
ipes, and mix, and jumble, and grow into confusion ! Here 
(pears in fact to have been an exact consistent knowledge and 
smory of things kept up, and that shows that there was in fact 
itanding record ; and the comparing of the records of the Pen- 
tench with these innumerable citations and references, shows that 
b was in fact that identical record. 

The facts of this history are very often rehearsed just in the 
me order and manner as they are in the history of the Penta- 
■cb; and in many places there is a rehearsal of the facts of very 
*eat parts, and sometimes a kind of abridgment of the big- 
sr part of the history, as Josh, xxiv., Ps. Ixxviii., and cv., 
id cvi., and cxxxvi., Ezek. xx. 5-r23. And we sometimes 
id the facts of former parts of the histoi^ of Genesis joined with 
le story of the children of Israel's redemption out of Egypt, 
id travels in the wilderness, as introductory to it, and sometimes 
ren beginning with the story of the creation^ in like manner as 
is in the Pentateuch, and after the captivity, in Nehem. ix. 
These events are commonly mentioned after such a manner as 
binly supposes that a full account of them was already in be- 
^, and well known and established, as in those words, Though 
boA, Danidi and Job stood before me. It supposes the history 
f those men extant and well known among the people, and so in 
Me words, We shotdd have been like Sodom and like unto Gomo- 
iL It is supposed that the history of the destruction of those 
ties was what the people were well acquainted with. So those 
ords, Ps. Ixxviii. 40, How oft did they provoke him in the wilder- 
m^ and grieve him in the desert j plainly supposes an history ex- 
nt, that gives a particular account of thqse things. It is after 
le manner of a reference to a history. So it is very often else- 
here, as Ruth iv. 11. ** The Lord make this woman that is come 
ito thine house like Rachel, and like Leah, which two did build 
le hoose of Israel." So Josh. xiii. 33. *' But unto the tribe of 
evi Moses gave not any inheritance, the Lord God of Israel was 
leir inheritance, as he said unto them;^* the words are mentioned 
lainly after the manner of a citation. So Judg. i. 20. '* A.nd 
ley gave Hebron unto Caleb, as Moses said. Ps. ex. ** Thou art a 
4esC for ever after the order of Melchiiedek :" it supposes an ex- 
nt account of Melchizedek. See also 2 Sam. viii. 3. Isai. xiii. 
K Jer. xlix. 18, and 1. 40. Ezek. xvi. 46 — 56. Amos iv\i U 


Zecb. ii. 9. Isai. xli. 1—8, and li. 1» 2. 9» 10. llicab vh 
and very many other places there are that show the same thia| 
which it would be tedious to mention. 

And sometimes these historical events are mentioned so warn 
in the words of the history of the Pentateuch, as could not I 
without a' written history;to be a guide ; as particularly Jephthak 
rehearsal, Judges xi. 15 — 2B. 

That the children of Israel bad a great standing record amoa 
ibem of those facts that they looked upon sacred and holy, is ev 
dent from Ps« cxi. 4« The psamlist, speaking of these work 
says that God had made his tocmderfiUworkiioberemeHib^ The 
are those works of which we have an account in the Pentateacl 
as is manifest from ver. 7. 9. The words in the original that ii 
translated, he hath made to be remembered^ are rxttp xn kehat 

• ▼ ▼ vv 

made a record. The word signifies memorial or record. Th 
word recorder J 2 Sam. viiL 16, 1 Kings iv. 3, 2 King^ xviii. It 
Isai. xxxvi. 3. 22, and other places is "^'^td which is a word c 

» ^ 

the same root; the words Zeker and Mazkirt are just in th 
same manner akin to one another, as the English words recordi 
and record. 

So the history of these facts is called ChxPi report^ (as it is i 
the original,) Hab. iii. 2. ** I have heard thy report, and «i 
afraid." What that report was, appears from what follows: i 
was the report of those works there mentioned ; which works be 
in this verse, prays God to revive. But in the 15th and 16(1 
verses the prophet more plainly tells us what that report was tb 
made him afraid, viz., the accountof God's marching through tb 
Red sea, with the other great works of God, mentioned in Ih 
foregoing part of the chapter. 

And that this great record that the writers of the Old Testa 
mcnt cited so often, was contained in the book of the law, may b 
argued from the manner in which these facts are sometimes meo 
tioned. The psalmist, in the introduction which he makes to hi 
rehearsal of the story of the Pentateuch in the Ixxviii. Psahi 
calls that [story by the name of law, ven 1 ; aud the pre 
cepts and history are united in the notice he here takes of ihea 
and mentions the history as what God had commanded the me 
mory of to be carefully kept up as the proper enforcement of tb 
precepts, ver. 7, with the foregoing verse. And being given c 
God as an enforcement of the precepts of the law, is as properl; 
looked upon as a part of the law, as the prophecies and other ar 
guments made use of in Deuteronomy, aud other parts of the law 
So the history is introduced in such a manner in the cv. Psala 
speaking in the introduction of the covenant and law which Got 
established with the people, ver. 5. 8, 0, 10, that makes it natural 
ly to be supposed that the history he rehearses is taken out of th 


the law. The wonderful works and precepts of the law 
ien of together, as in like manner to be remembered ; ver. 
^member his marvellous works that he hatb done, his won- 
lid. the judgments of his mouth." So these wonderful 
ire repeatedly mentioned or referred to together, Pg. cxi. 
again they are in the introduction to the rehearsal we have 
listory in the cvi. Psalm, as in ver. 2,-3. So the law and 
orical facts are mentioned together, Ps. ciii. 7, as being 
ke of divine revelation. " He made known his ways un- 
?s, his acts unto the children of Israel. '^ We find the pre- 
id history cited together, mixed, and blended in the Ixxxi. 
as thev are in the Pentateuch, 
pears from profane history to have been the manner of the 

of old to keep the ancient histories of their nation, and 
nealogies, and the genealogies and acts of their gods in 
mples, where they were committed to the care of their 
IS sacred things. This, in all probability, was in imita- 
the example of the Israelites in keeping the Mosaic his- 
ich Moses committed to the care of the priests, to be laid 
e sanctuary as a sacred thing, and the ancient records of 
hbouring heathens, particularly of the Phoenicians, show 
sts of the Jews had such a history in keeping, giving an 

of the creation of the world, &lc., even so long ago as the 
' the Judges. This appears from Sanchoniathon's histo- 
rein he mentions many of the same facts, and confesses 
had them from a certain priest of the god lao. The an- 
?athcn writers do make mention of Moses as the writer of 
gs contained in the former part of the book of Genesis, 
tances, Miscoll. No. 1012 andM014, at the place mark- 
(II) in the margin. See also ff. No. 429, at the same mark, 

n : Another argument that will invincibly prove that the 
3f the Pentateuch, as well as the precepts, was of old, from 
inning, contained in the book of the law, that sacred book 
be children of Israel had among them laid up in the sane* 
om the days of Moses, is this, viz. that it is certain that 
>k which the Jews had among them, when they first re- 
rom the Babylonish captivity, which they called the booh 
lie, and i/ie law of Moses^ and made use of as their law, as 
e book of the law that their nation had all along as their 
id standing record and rule, and as such had kept in the 
ry of old, was that very Pentateuch which we now have, 
ing both the history and the precepts. This was the book 
aw that Ezra made use of, and that Ezra and the Levites 
re with him did so publicly and solemnly read and explain 
people, as we have account, Nehem. viii., and whi^h was 
IX. 19 


laid op in the secood temple in the same manner as the book of tlie 
law of Moses had been in the first. That this book was the same 
with the Pentateuch that we now have, is exceeding manifest from 
the genealogies and historical references in the first book of Chro- 
nicles, that was written on occasion of all Israel being reckoned bj 
genealogies after they came out of the captivity. See 1 Chron. ix« 1. 
None that read those genealogies and historical references will 
make himself so ridiculous as to question whether these were not 
taken from the very history that we have in the Pentateuch, sod 
an history that the Jews had among them as the ancient, great, and 
established records of their nation. 

And again : If they had any other book of the law when they 
first came out of the captivity, it is impossible but that it mast be 
preserved, for they must have a high regard to it as being the 
same with that sacred book that had been regarded in all former 
ages as the great and holy rule of their nation, and accordingly 
kept as most sacred by the priests in the sanctuary of God, in tbe 
holy of holies, beside the ark of God. We find the writings of the 
prophet Jeremiah were preserved, Dan. ix. 2 ; how much more 
would they preserve the law of Moses ! But tbe Jews had do 
books of the law preserved, they have none other now, and ban 
had no other in all ages since'; they had no other in Christ's time, 
and we have no account of any other in all the accounts we have 
of the nation, from Christ's time to the captivity; though in these 
accounts there be yery much said about the book of the law, and 
though there were many controversies about it from time to timei 
and innumerable copies of it, and many that made it their basi* 
ness to study, to write, and to teach it, though there were syna- 
gogues established through Palestine, and through the world 
wherever the Jews were dispersed. The custom of synagogues 
in every city began near the first return from the captivity. See 
Prideaux, part I. p. 534, Slc. Yet there is no mention made in 
any accounts we have of the Jews of any other book of the lav 
that was among them in any of those times, nor of any knowledge 
or thought that any of them had that there had ever been any other 
book of the law in any former times. It is evident that the book 
of the law that the Jews had in Ezra's time, was very publicly 
known among the people by the great pains that Esra and others 
took thoroughly to acquaint them with it, and therefore it wouU 
have been impossible to make so great an alteration in that sacred 
book to which they were taught to pay such a regard, and whicli 
was laid up in the holy of holies in the temple, and in their regard 
to which the people soon aAer the captivity became, in some n* 
spects, even superstitious. I say it would have been impossible to 
have made so great an alteration in it, that whereas formerly it 
bad only a body of precepts, now it was turned into a large nil* 


ofy, with precepts here and there mixed and blended, withoat 
lome notice being taken of it, and some notable disputes, and 
M»ntroversies, and some remaining traces at least of the alteration, 
lod some remaining knowledge of the former purer volume. It 
irould be endless to reckon up the absurdities of such a suppo- 

There were many sects among the Jews in Palestine, hjaving 
many disputes and differences of opinion about the law of Moses; 
bat there was no such dispute or difference as this, whether this 
iras the genuine book of the law. And not only the Jews in Pa- 
lestine, but all the Jews through the world, which were so vastly 
dispersed even in Esther's time, yet without controversy or any dif- 
ference of opinion, all acknowledged this same book as the only 
book of the law, and this was the book of the law that was read 
ID all the synagogues through the world, and was owned by the 
Samaritans also; (of which more aflerwards;) which would have 
been impossible, if this was so different from that book of the law 
that the Jews had, and was so publicly known in Ezra's time. 
The Saducees, many of whom were learned men, and boasted of 
tbeir freedom of thought, and taking liberty to differ from the 
Jews, and were a kind of infidels, and rejected most other writ* 
lags that the Jews accounted sacred, yet acknowledged without 
dispute the book of the Pentateuch, as we now have it, as the ge- 
■nine book of the law of Moses, and as the record of God. So 
did the Samaritans, though they hated the Jews, and exceedingly 
differed from them in other things, and were such enemies to them 
lAer the captivity, that they would rather reject a thing for being 
one of their customs or principles ; yet they owned this Penta- 
teuch as the genuine law of Moses, which it is exceeding absurd 
to suppose they would have done if the book had been new 
made with all the history foisted in sometime after Ezra ; so that 
andoabtedly this was the book of the law that the Jews owned 
nd made use of, and regarded as the true law of Moses in Ezra's 

Now, as to the consequence, if the Pentateuch, as we now have 
It with its history, was the book that the Jews had and nsed as the 
book of the law soon after the captivity, then it will follow that it 
MS also the same book that was their book of the law before the 
captivity; for if such a great alteration was made in the book of 
the law, it was either done by Ezra, or by some of the Jews, be- 
bre be came up to Jerusalem. It was not done by Ezra, for the 

Ets in Jerusalem had the book of the law among them before 
came, even when they first came out of the captivity, as ap* 
ptars from Hag. ii. 11, 12, 13. ''Thus saith the Lordof bosU, 
Ask now the priests concerning the law, saying, If one bear holy 
flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch br^« 


or pottage, or wioe, or oil, or any meat, shall it be boly f Aod 
the priests answered, aod said, No. Then said Haggai, If ont 
that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be un- 
clean ? And the priests answered and said. It shall be unclean/' 
See also Ezra ii. 62, 63, iii. 2 — 8, vi. 18. Hence, if Ezra had 
made such an alteration, the Jews would all have known it, and 
could not have been imposed upon, and made to believe that this 
book was the same with the book of the law. Neither the priests, 
nor the Levites, nor any of the people, make the least oppositioo 
to Ezra's copy of the law, but all allow it, receiving it as an on- 
doubted copy of the law of Moses. See Neh. viii. And then it 
it most apparent that the style of the history of the Pentateuch 
is very different from Ezra's style in the two books of Chroni- 
cles and the book of Ezra, whose style in history is very distin- 
guishable from all the preceding histories of the Old Testament 
Besides, it is manifest, that at the time that Ezra went up from 
Babylon to teach the Jews the law, the book of the law of Mosei 
was not a thing of which the Jews, who were then abroad in the 
world, were destitute, as] of a book which was lost or secreted, of 
which they were in quest, but of which they had not the possei* 
sion, but it was a book well known by multitudes, and this fact 
was a thing at that time notorious and known to the heathen. It 
• is manifest from the copy of Artaxerxes's letter, Ezra vii. 25. 
** And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine 
hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people 
thai are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; 
and teach ye them that know them not.'^ This made it impossible 
for Ezra to palm upon the people a book of his own contriving 
and writing, instead of the book of the law of Moses, the grand 
and ancient law of their God, which was the grand rule of their 
nation, and the foundation both of their civil and sacred constitu- 
tion, and of all their privileges, and of their very being as a na- 
tion, separated from other nations. 

It is very manifest, that soon after Ezra's coming first to Jeru- 
salem, as it is thought about ten or a dozen years after that event, 
Nehemiah, the king's cup-bearer in Shushan, in Persia, was well 
acquainted with the book of the law of Moses, Neh. i. 7| 8,9; 
which clearly proves the falsity of the supposition that the nation 
of the Jews had at that time no other book of the law of Moses 
but that which was of Ezra's forging and publishing, as nothing 
would be more absurd than to suppose his new forged book 
would in so short a time be published, and well known, and re- 
ceived, and established, not only at Jerusalem and Judea, bat 
among the Jews dispersed over the world as far as Shushan, in so 
short a time. . 


And it could not be that any of the Jews in Judea should forge 
this book after the captivity, and impose it on the priests and the 
people before Ezra came, for this would have made no less jar 
between Ezra and the rest of the people than the other ; for then 
Ezra would have known that this was not the true book of the 
law, for he was well acquainted with the law before he came out 
of the land of the captivity to Jerusalem. He was a noted scribe 
ID the law of Moses in Babylon, Ezra vii. 6, insomuch that be 
was famed for it among the heathen, and was noted for it by the 
kiDg of Persia, who over and over gives him that as a name that 
be was known by, ^^ Ezra the scribe of the law of the God of 
heatjen.^' Ezra vii. 11, 12, 13. And Ezra went up with a design 
to teach the people in Jeruaslem this law of Moses ; this was his 
main errand, as appears from Ezra vii. 6. 10. 14. 21. 23. 25. 26. 
and the book of ihe law that he taught the people he did not re- 
ceive at Jerusalem of any of the priests, or others there, but car- 
ried it up with him in his hand, as appears from Exra vii. 14. 25, 
and Neh. viii. 1, 2. 

This great forgery, or fraudulent substitution of such a book 
as the Pentateuch for the book of law of Moses could not be done 
and imposed on the Jews at any time soon after the return from 
the captivity, for from what has been said already, it appears that 
there was the same book of the law well known by many, and re« 
ceived by all at that time, both by the Jews in Judea, and also 
by those who still remained in the land of their captivity ; which 
coold not possibly arise from any other cause than the tradition 
of this book from their forefathers who lived before the captivity. 
It is impossible that such a forgery should so quickly, so easily, 
and universally, without dispute or difference of parties, obtain 
through so great a nation, so disunited in the places of their 
abode. It could not have been so difficult to introduce and give 
currency to a forgery in any thing, as in the book of the law of 
Bloses, their grand and sacred rule, and constitution and founda- 
tion : so much so that never did any people so much, and in so 
many respects, depend on any body of laws, as the Jewish nation 
depended on this book. It was for the sake of the laws com- 
manded them, and the privileges given them in this book, that 
they forsook their habitations, and all their possessions in the land 
of their captivity, and bore the loss and trouble of their journey 
to Palestine, and the great difficulties of rebuilding their city and 
temple, and re-settling again in the land, and re-establishing their 
state there. And therefore we may be sure they would he above 
all things, careful with regard to that book. In Haggai's and 
Zecbariab's time, before the temple was finished, they had this 
book among them, as I observed before, but then many were li- 
ving that had seen the former temple, and must know what kind 


of book that was that was called the law of Moses, ibmt wn 
amongst the people before the captivity, and was kept io tbeir fini 
temple. The highest ambition of the Jews that returned fromtiN 
captivity, was to be like their forefathers in their religions privi* 
leges; and therefore they were for building a temple as near is 
they could like the former, and those that had seen the former 
temple wept bitterly that this new temple was no more like itf 
and doubtless they would be for having the same book of thelair« 
The people that remembered the former temple must needs know 
what book that was, that was then called the book of the lav, 
being so much and so severely reproved and threatened from tioM 
to time, by the prophet Jeremiah, for not conforming themselves to 
it, Jer. ii. 8. '* The priests said not, Where is the Lord ? And 
they that handle the law knew me not : the pastors also traa»* 
gressed against me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, md 
walked afier things that do not profit." Jer. zviii. 18. *' Come 
and let us devise devices against Jeremiah, for the law tball not 
perish from the priests.'^ Jer. xlii. 23, and viii. 8. ~'* How do 
ye say. We are wise, and the law of the Lord is with ns ? Lo, cer> 
tainly in vain made he it, the pen of the scribes is in vain.'' 
Chap. vi. 19, and zvi. 11, xliv. 10, and xxvi. 4, and xxxii«2Si 
See also Lam. ii. 9, Ezek. vii. 26, and xxii. 26 ; and indeed 
the whole book of Jeremiah, seems to suppose the book of 
the law extant, and visible among the people ; the people there- 
fore, that returned from the captivity, would not easily^ have 
received any other book, as the book of the law, to be their sacred 
rule, and to be laid up in the sanctuary, difierent* from that' 
which their forefathers had, and which had been laid up in the 
holy of holies in the former temple. 

The book of the law of Moses was not lost in the time of tbo 

captivity, but was well known among the Jews in Babylon, Dan. 

ix. 10, 11, 12, 13; and that this was a fact very publicly and 

openly known among the heathen, that they had the law of tbeir 

God among them in the time of the captivity is a thing manifest 

from Dan. vi. 5, and Ezra. vii. 12. 21. 25 ; yea it was extaot 

among them just before their return, as appears from Dan. ix. 

10, 11, 12, 13. '' Yea all Israel have transgressed thy law, even 

by departing, that they might not obey thy voice ; therefore the 

curse is poured out upon us, and the oath that is written in the 

law of Moses, the servant of God." And several of the prophecies 

of Daniel suppose the book of the covenant to be extent, Dan. 

xi. 22. 28. 30. 32. which shows more plainly how impossible it 

was for another book so different to be universally imposed on 

the nation in Babylon and Jndea instead of this book. so iodn 

mfter the captivity. It appears that the Jews in the capitivitf 

kept the writings of the prophet Jeremiah among them, from 


Dao. ix* 2. How much more would ttiey keep copies of the law 
if Moses, which they esteemed as the foundation of all! 

Again : It is most manifest that the Jews in their first re-settle- 
ment ID Palestine, had those very records that we now have in 
the Pentateuch, as the records that had been constantly upheld in 
their nation, as the ancient, established, and undoubted sacred re- 
cords of their nation, insomuch that when they on that occasion 
reckoned the people by their genealogies they founded their 
reckoning on these records, and ran up their genealogies to tie 
toconnts g^ven of their forefathers, and the first original of their 
fiunilies in them, making this record their standard, and grand 
ralei by which to judge who were true Israelites, and who were 
not, and who were true priests and who not. So that they re- 
fiMed so much as to admit those that could not prove themselves 
to be of the seed of the priests, or of the seed of Israel according 
to the rule of this record, as appears by the genealogies in the 
first book of Chronicles, and particularly chap, ix, 1, and Ezra 
ii. 59. 62, 63. It was necessary for any one in order to prove 
bimself to be of the genuine seed of the priests, that he should be 
able to run up his genealogy to Aaron ; for his proving that he 
Wis of the seed of some other person that lived since did not prove 
it, onlesft he also proved that that person was a descendant of 
JUron. And so for any one to prove that he was of the seed of 
Iiraiel, he must be able to run up his genealogy to Israel himself. 
So that this very record at that time was of such established re- 
pntatton among them, that they all with one consent made it the 
very foundation of their re-establishment ; they founded their na- 
tion and church in this its restoration wholly on this foundation, 
aod by this rule, which shows that this record was no new thing 
among them, just then devised with which before they had never 
been acquainted. It was a notorious fact, that in Esther's time, 
known to the heathen, that the Jews who remained dispersed all 
over the Persian empire, from Judea to Ethiopia, agreed in one 
established law, which was very diverse from those of all other 
nations ; Esther iii. 8. 

Again : The Zcndavesta, or book that Zoroastes wrote, showa 
that the history of the Pentateuch was extant either iu or before 
the time of the captivity of the Jews into Babylon, and was of 
great reputation then, because many things in that book of hia 
are taken out of the history of the Pentateuch. He speaks of 
Adam and Eve as the first parents of mankind, and gives in a 
manner the same history of the creation and deluge that Moses 
dotbi and speaks therein of Abraham, Joseph, and Moses in the 
same manner as the scriptures do, and out of a particular venera* 
tion for Abraham, he called his book the book of Abraham. (See 
Prid. parti, p. 318.) These things must have been taken from 


the Jews eitiier at or before the time of the captivity. (See lb< 
preceding pages in Prideaux.) 

Again, another argument, that the Pentateuch with its bittorji 
was the book that the Israelites anciently had among them as tbc 
book of the law of Moses, even before the captivity, is, that tk 
Samaritans had this Pentateuch as it is with its history, under tfaii 
name of the book of the law of Moses. One argument that the 
Samaritan Pentateuch was written before the captivity, is, that it 
is written in the ancient Phanician or i/(^&retr character ; wbereaSi 
the Jewish copy is written in Chaldee letters ; those letters becom- 
ing natural to them in their captivity ; and therefore if they had 
taken their Pentateuch from the Jews after the captivity, they wooM 
have doubtless taken it in the same characters in which they bad 
it; but in that it is found among them not in their characters, bat 
in the characters that the Jews used before the captivity. It is a 
strong argument that they took it from the Jews before the capti- 
vity, and not afterwards. Whence should the Samaritans take 
those old Hebrew characters, if not from the Jews before the cap- 
tivity ? They were characters to which they were not used it 
their own country, but were much more likely to be used to tbe 
Chaldean characters then, from their living in the neighbourhood 
of Chaldea. And if they took the Pentateuch from the Jews af* 
ter the captivity, whence should they take those characters, which 
were neither natural to themselves, nor in use among the Jews at 
that time f 

Again : It is not at all likely that the Samaritans would be fo 
fond of a conformity to the Jews after the captivity, as to adopt their 
laws and make the Jewish constitution their own, seeing there was 
always, even from the first return from the captivity, such a pecu- 
liar and inveterate enmity between them and the Jews. 

And as such an alteration of the book of the law could not be 
made after the captivity without notice being taken of it, so nei- 
ther could it at any time before, even in the most degenerate and 
ignorant times in Israel. Yet there must be so much knowledge 
of this book, as must render such a cheat impracticable, for the 
whole nation, in all its constitution, both civil and sacred, and in 
the title they had to their inheritance, and in all their usages, and 
innumerable peculiar customs, was so founded on this law, thatit 
must unavoidably lead at least many in the nation to such a de- 
gree of knowledge of it, as to enable ihem to distinguish between 
that which is supposed to be so different from it as such a book as 
the Pentateuch, and only the body of the Mosaic precepts. 
Though the law was commanded to be laid up in the sanctuaryi 
and kept there, yet it was not kept from the common use of the 
priests. The priests are called those that handle the law, Jer. ii* 
8. See also Jer. xviii. 18, Ezek. vii. 26, Hag. ii. 1 1, MaL ii. ?• 


It was required of the priests tliat they should be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the law, for they in the law of Moses are appointed 
to teach it to the people. The great number of ceremonies and 
minute circumstances with which their business was attended, and 
also the multitude of observances which they were to teach the 
people out of the law, made it necessary in the nature of things 
that they should be thoroughly acquainted with the law, even to 
the having it as it were by heart. Hence the priests and Levites 
ID all their cities and dwellings through the land, must be supposed 
to have copies of the law in their hands. This being also the ju- 
dicial or political law of their nation, the rule of the civil magis- 
trates and judges in all civil and criminal matters, and the rule by 
which every man held his possessions, and was defended in his ci- 
vil and common rights ; this made it necessary that civil magis- 
U'ates, and those who sat to judge in their gates, should have co- 
pies of the law in their hands. The king was, by an express sta- 
tute of the law, required to write him out a copy of the law 
irith his own hand, and the law was commanded to be read 
to the whole congregation of Israel once in seven years. And 
particularly pious and devout persons were wont to have by them 
copies of the law, for it is mentioned as the character of the godly 
man, Ps. i. and xxxvii. 31, " That he meditate on God's law day 
and night." And all were commanded in the law to be continual- 
ly meditating on the law, and make it as it were their constant 
companion day and night, that it might be for a sign on their hand, 
aod as frontlets between their eyes, and that they should make it 
the continual subject of their conversation one with another, as 
they sat in the house, and as they walked by the way, &c. It 
wat not to be shut up only in the holy of holies, and in any re- 
spect so disposed of as to be out of the reach of any, but to be 
nigh to every one, in every one's heart and mouth, as appears from 
Deut XXX. II — 14. See also Deut. vi. 6, 7, 8, 9, and chap. xi. 
18, 19, 20, and chap. iv. 9. It is true the law, in times of great 
degeneracy, was much more neglected, and less known ; and co- 
pies of it were more rare than at other times, as in the reign of 
Hanasseh. The original that Moses laid up in the sanctuary had 
been neglected and lost, being buried up in rubbish, as the temple 
of God itself was neglected, and the finding of it^ by the priest 
was a thing greatly taken notice of, and excited the observation 
and inquiry of the king and people into the nature of things con- 
tained in this book, and the Spirit of God set in on that occasion 
greatly to impress the king's mind with the things contained in 
that book, and the finding and reading that very book, as written 
by Moses's own hand, had a natural tendency greatly to engage 
the attention of the king, and to affect him in the reading of it. 
Boi we are not to suppose, that during that degenerate time, there 
Vol. IX. 20 


was no copy of the law extant and in use among any of the peo- 
ple. If in the roost degenerate times in Israel, there were seven 
thousand devout worshippers of the true God left, though but lit- 
tle known, so undoubtedly in Manasseh's reign there were many 
of the priests and Levites, and others that were devout worship* 
pers of the true God, enough to keep many copies of the law (or 
their use to direct them in God's service. 

As to the passages in the Pentateuch, wherein a later hand than 
that of Moses is evident, they are very few : as Witsins, in his 
Miscel. Sac. observes. Two of them are onlv a kind of translation 
of the names of places, as of the city of Hebron, and the place 
to which Abraham pursued the kings, where it is said he pursued 
them unto Dan. The history is exactly the same that Moses mast 
be supposed to write, and the place mentioned the same that Moiei 
mentioned ; but the alteration that is made by some later hand if 
rendering the name of the place by a word whose significatkw 
was known to the people, and those two are the only instance! 
that appear manifest to me of all that Le Clerk mentions, excefA- 
ing only the account of Moses's death and burial. As to tbe 
name IJebron, so often used in the Pentateuch, it is very probabk 
that there is in it no later hand than that of Moses ; for, tboogh 
it was called Arbah at first, yet it seems to have been named &' 
brofif which signifies feUaicshipf from his there entering into so 
association or covenant-fellowship with Mamre, Eshcol, and Aoer. 
Compare Gen. xiii. 18 with chap. xiv. 13. It is likely that Abra- 
ham might give a name to this place from his entering into thisfel* 
lowship with those men here, as that he should name the place 
where he entered into covenant with Abimelech, Beer-sheba, from 
that covenant, as Gen. xxi. 31, 32; or possibly this name Hebron, 
or fellowship, might be given to the place from that wonderfol 
communion and fellowship which Abraham there had with angeU, 
with whom he ate, and drank, and conversed most familiarly under 
ap oak, and where at* the same time he familiarly conversed with 
God about the destruction of Sodom, which is much remarked by 
Abraham and God himself, Gen. xviii. ver. 17. 27. 37. Or it 
might have been named so first from Abraham's fellowship with 
Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, and afterwards confirmed from this hii 
communion with God and the angels, as Beer-sheba was first so 
named from Abraham's covenant with Abimelech, and afterwards 
confirmed from Isaac's covenant in the same place. Gen. xxvi* 
30 — 33. It seems that after this when the posterity of Abraham 
left the land and sojourned in Egypt, this place went no more by 
that name of Hebron in the land of Canaan, but when the children 
of Israel returned, and Caleb took possession of the place, he 
stored the name which Abraham gave it. 


Dupin, at the begiooing of the first volume of his Eccle- 
al History. See concerning places inserted after Moses's 

^^^ Num. xxi. 14. 

to the account of Moses's death and burial, it was not Ezra 
aade this addition; for the Samaritan Pentateuch, which 
ken from the Jews before Ezra, has this addition, and all 
passages that have been supposed to be additions. This ad» 

of Moses's death in all probability was made by Joshua^ 
i is evident, was a divine writer, and a writer of divine re- 

and was Moses's successor, who alone was in the mount 
lim forty days and forty nights, and who succeeded to Mo- 
lUthority, and to most of his divine privileges and intercourse 
eaven, on whom Moses laid his hand, and committed the 
f the whole congregation, and of the law and tabernacle 
is bands. He succeeded Moses as the head of the congre- 
, and as their judge, and as the person by whom they were 
isact with God, as it was with Moses. He had the care of 
I up the tabernacle, and therefore he took care to set it up 
loh, and he took the care of the settlement of the church of 
, and the establishment of the worship of God in Canaan, 
3 was looked upon as having the care of the book of the 
' Moses, even so as to have power to add words to it, as ap« 
from Josh, xxi v. 26. 

ces in the New Testament, which suppose Moses to be the 
in of the Pentateuch, John v. 46, 47. Mark xii. 26, com- 

with Exod. iii. 6. Acts xv. 21. 2 Cor. iii. 14, 15. Heb. 

:2] Gen. i. 2. *< The earth was without form and void.* 
irst state of the earth, or this lower world, shows what it was 
eUlerwards, viz., a world of confusion and emptiness, full of 
canity of vanities. So in the first state of man in his infan- 
an image of what man always is in himself, a poor, polluted, 
iss worm. 

VT\ <* And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the 
5.'' The word translated movedf in toe original is nomd 

V V • , 

I, as Buxtorf says, the Hebrew note properly signifies to 
as a birdf or to brood as a bird over her youngs or her eggs 
sitting an them ; and both Grotius and Buxtorf observe from 
riters of the Talmud, properly signifies the brooding of a dove 
her eggs. See Buxtorf on the Radix Dn*i and Grotius de 

ate, B. 1, sec. 1 6, Notes ; where Grotius also asserts more than 

that the word merachepheth signifies love. Hence the ma- 

bles among the heathen about the world's being formed by 


love, and by tlie breeding of a dove, Slc. Macrobias retemblef 
the world to an egg, in the vii. book and 16 chap, of his Satama- 
lia. And hence the Syrian gods are called by Amobins the off- 
spring of eggs, by which gods he means the stars. Orpheus had 
his opinion from the Phoenicians* one of which was this in Atfae- 
nagarasy that mud proceeded from water ^ after which he mentions 
a great egg split into two parts, heaven and earth. 

In the Argonauticks, ascribed to Orpheus, we have these Hoes, 

" In verse he sung the origin of things — 

" How Love, the cause of all thinfrs, by his power 

** Creating every Uiing, gave each his place." i 

And Aristophanes, in his play called the Birds, in a passage pre- | 
served by Lucien, in his Philopatris and Suidas, j 

** First of all was Chaos and Night, dark Erebus and gloomy 
Tartarus. There was neither earth, nor air, nor heaven, till 
dusky night, by the wind's power on the wide bosom of Erebus, 
brought forth an egg, of which was hatched the god of love; 
(when time began,) who with his golden wings fixed to bis shoul- 
ders flew like a mighty whirlwind, and mixing with black Chaos in 
Tartarus' dark shades, produced mankind, and brought them into 
light. For before love joined all things, the very gods them- 
selves had no existence. But upon this conjunction all things be- , 
ing mixed and blended, sether arose, and sea, and earth, and the 
blessed abodes of the immortal gods." Grotius* Ibid. 

[448] Gen. i. 2. <* And the earth was without form and void.'* 
ToAtf, iBohUf which last are words signifying vanity and empti- 
ness. Thus God was pleased in the first state of the creation to 
show what the creature is in itself; that in itself it is wholly 
empty and vain, that its fulness or goodness is not in itself, but iu 
him, and in the communications of his Spirit, animating, quickening, 
adorning, replenishing, and blessing all things. The emptiness 
and vanity here spoken of is set in opposition to that goodness 
spoken of afterwards. Through the incubation of the Spirit of 
God, (as the word translated movedy signifies,) the Spirit of God if 
here represented as giving form, and life, and perfection to this 
empty void and unformed mass, as a dove that sits infuses life, 
and brings to form and perfection the unformed mass of the egg. 
Thus the fulness of the creature is from God's Spirit. If God 
withdraws from the creature, it immediately becomes empty and 
void of all good. The creature as it is in itself is a vessel, and 
has a capacity, but is empty, but that which fills that emptiness is 
the Spirit of God. 

As the Spirit of God here is represented as hovering or brood- 
ing as a dove, so it is probable when the Spirit of God appeared 


M>dily shape, descending on Christ like a dove ; it was with 
vering motion on his head, signifying the manner in which 
nly he personally was filled with the fulness of God, but also 
individual member of his mystical body. So that this that 
ive an account of is one instance wherein the old creation was 
al of the new* (See note on Eph. iii. 19.) 

98] Gen. i. 27, 28, 29, 30. Covenant with Adam. " So God 
ed man in his own image, in the image of God created he 
male and female created he them ; and God blessed them, and 
said unto them. Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the 
, and subdue it : and have dominion over the fish of the sea, 
over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that 
:th upon the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you 
r herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all the earth, 
svery tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed ; to 
it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to 
y fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the 
1, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for 
; and it was so." 

ere is described the sum of the blessedness that man had in 
irst estate. Here is first his inherent spiritual good, which 
in his being created in God's image. Here is the happiness 
be had in the favour of God ; his blessing of him is a testi- 
y of it. Here is the happiness he had in his intercou rse with 
; for his thus talking with him in this friendly man ner is an 
mceof it. Here is all his external good, which consisted in two 
^: first, in having society, implied in that expression, Male 
female created he them, and in those words. Be fruitful and 
iply. Here is the sum of their outward good in the enjoyment 
rthly good. Here is the possession of the earth, and the enjoy* 
t of the produce of it, and dominion over the inferior creatures 
. These things were evidently given to Adam as the public 
[ of mankind. God in blessing them^ evidently speaks to them 
16 head of mankind. The blessings he pronounces are given 
in the name of the whole race, and therefore the favour mani- 
d in blessing them is implicitly given to him as the head of 
race. God's making them in his own image, and then bless- 
them, implies bis bestowing those blessings pronounced on 
subject blessed, on the condition of its continuing such an ex- 
*nt subject as he had made it, and as it now stood forth to 
iv^ his blessing, or continued in such an happy capacity to 
y the blessings as it now was. Otherwise the blessing would 
1 a great measure made void ; for in order tomen's being happy 
le blessing, two things were needful : first, that the enjoyments 
ited should be good ; and secondly, that the subject should be 


good, or in a good capacity to receive aod enjoy them ; thereibrf 
both these are doubtless implied in the blessing here pronoonced 
on Adam, which is plainly pronounced on him in the name of 
the whole race. And therefore, in like manner when Adam u 
threatened with being deprived of all these in case of his disobe- 
dience, Adam must understand it in like manner as a calamity to 
come on the whole race, and consequently the implicit promise of 
life, as the confirmation and increase of the blessing, respects also j 
the whole race. Hence the covenant must be made with Adam, | 

not only for himself, but all his posterity. j 


[450] Gen. ii. 2. <' And on the seventh day God ended all bii ] 
works." The word translated iDork^ is irOK^D, which conies from \ 

X - 

^Sn, angel or messenger ^ and therefore most properly signifies a 

T :- 4 

work done in t/ie execution of some function to which the ucrkmm^ I 
is appointed J as the angel^ messenger^ officer, or workman of an- t 
other; and so is fitly used concerning the work of creation ; which 1 
was performed by the Son of God, who is often called the OMgd 
of the Lord: He being the Father's great officer, and artificer, 
through whom he performs all his work, and executes bis etemil 
counsels and purposes. 

[451] Gen. ii. 5. <' And every plant of the field before itwai 
in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew ; for the 
Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there wtp 
not a man to till the ground." I'his seems to be observed to teach 
that all the life that is in the creation is immediately from God, 
and not from the creature itself: that in itself is wholly lifeless and 
void, and empty of all perfection. The vegetable life that is ii 
this lower world was immediately from God. Of all the innumera' 
ble kinds of principles of life that now are manifest, every one was 
immediately from God. Though the earth, and the rain, and die 
cultivation, and husbandry of men be now made use of, yet tbeie 
living principles were not first owing to them, for they were be- 
fore them. So it is as to all principles of spiritual life in the 
spiritual creation. 

[397] Gen. ii. 9, and iii. 22, 23, 24. Concerning the Tree of 
Life* This tree seems manifestly to have been designed for a 
seal of Adam's confirmation in life, in case he had stood, for two 
reasons: 1st, because its distinguishing name is the tree of life; 
and 2d, because by what is said in the latter end of the iii. chapter, 
there appears to have been a connection by divine appointment, 
between eating of that tree and living for ever, or enjoying a con- 
tinued, certuin, and everlasting life. But yet here are these dif- 


leDding tach a supposition. If it was so that this fruit 
led as a seal of Adam's confirmation in life, and was by 
istitution connected with confirmed life, then it should 

it was something kept in store, reserved by God to be 

as a reward of his obedience and his overcoming all 
as, when his time of probation was ended. There seems 
llusion to this iti Rev. xxii. 14. *' Blessed are they that 
mmandments, that they may have right to the tree of 
d chap. ii. 7. *^ To him that overcometh will I give to 
tree of life.^' So that it was not to be come at until the 
s trial was ended, for if he had eat of the tree before his 

was ended, confirmed life would doubtless have been as 
inected with it as after he fell, and that would have de^ 
d's design, which was that he should not have confirmed 
s obedience was tried ; and if so, why was there not need 
im and a flaming sword before, to keep Adam from the 
re he fell, as well as afterwards f Whereas there seems 
leen nothing to keep him from this tree. The tree was 
Iden him ; for he had leave to eat of every tree, but only 
f knowledge of good and evil. And as there was no 
iderance, so there seems to have been no natural force to 

ofl': it does not seem to have been out of his reach ; for, 
it occasion was there for placing cherubim and a flaming 
er he fell. The tree does not seem to be bidden from 
r, if it was sufliciently secured from him by this means, 

fell, so it was afterwards, and so what need of the cheru- 
flaming sword ? From the account, which Moses gives 
ce of this tree, that it was in the midH of the garden^ it 
3robable that it was in the most conspicuous place in the 
rden ; as the tree of life is said to grow in the midst of the 

the lieavenly paradise. Rev. xxii. 2. The street of a 
e most public place in itj and that Adam might have 
' to put him in mind of the glorious reward promised to 
ience, to engage him to the greater care and watchful- 
t he might not fail. 

lost probable account that is to be given of this matter 
ihat the fruit of the tree of life was not yet produced ; but 
as revealed to Adam, that after a while the tree should 
fruit, of which whosoever eat should live for ever ; that 
teat of it if he persisted in his obedience ; and that if he 
lersevere in obedience he would expose himself to death 
lat time, and so cut himself ofi* from ever tasting of it. 
? probably made a most lovely and excellent appearance, 
L forth a sweet fragrance, and perhaps was gay in the 

promising most excellent fruit. 

160 NOTES 'on the bible. 

This tree, as it grew in the midst of the garden, so probably it 
grew by the river, that ran through fhe midst of this Paradise, 
See Rev. xx. 2. Ezek. xlvii. 12. 

[469] Gen. ii. 9. and iii. 22—24. On the Tree of Life. 

There is not the least probability that every fruit-tree in the 
garden of Eden was then loaded with ripe fruit all at one tiffle^ 
If so, there would have been no provision made for Adam's sub- 
sistence through the year, according to those laws which God had 
establislied concerning the trees when he created them ; for, 
according to those laws, the same fruit was not to be perpetually 
hanging ; but when the fruit was ripe, the fruit was to be shed, 
otherwise the seed would not be shed upon the earth in order to > 
a new production, according to Gen, i. 11, 12. *' God said, Let 
the earth bring forth grass ; the herb yielding seed after his kiad, 
and the tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself 
upon the earth, and it was so." It is much more probable that it 
was with the trees of paradise as is represented of the trees tbtt 
grew on the banks of EzekiePs river of living waters. It isrepre- t 
sented as though there were all sorts of fruit treeS) and some - 
yielding their fruit one month, and others another ; so that there 
were ripe fruits newly produced every month of the year, and sot 
perpetual summer, and also a perpetual spring: some trees were 
hung with ripe fruit, and others in the blossom, in each month io |v 
the year. St. John's vision, Rev. xxii. may be so nndentood 
that each single tree bore twelve manner of fruits on different 
branches; and yet perhaps there is no necessity of so understand- 
ing it ; and so one sort bore ripe fruit in one month, and another 
in another; so that the same tree was always in blossom is 
some part, while some other part was loaded with ripe fruit. Bot 
in Ezekiel's vision the variety of fruits seems to be on different 
trees, because it is said there shall grow all tr^s for meat. 

Carol. This is a confirmation of the supposition, that the an- ' 
gels were not confirmed till Christ had ended his humiliation, and 
until he ascended into glory. For Christ is the tree of life in the 
heavenly' paradise, in the native country of the angels ; just as 
the tree of which we have been speaking was the tree of life 
on earth, the native country of men ; and the scriptures give us to 
understand that this person, who is the tree of life in this heavenly 
paradise, is '* angel's food." Hence wc may infer, that the fruit 
of this tree was the food, by which the angels have their eternal 
life, or their confirmed lifb. But as man, who was made under t 
like covenant of works with the angels, would not have been con- 
firmed, if he had persevered in his obedience, till the tree had 
brought forth its fruit, and till the fruit of the tree was ripe ; so it 
is not probable that the angels were confirmed, until Christ, the 


'ree of life in the heavenly paradise, had brouglit forth his fruit. 
tut what is the fruit that grows on this heavenly tree, the second Per- 
on of the Trinity, but the fruit of the Virgm Mary's womb, and that 
niit of the earth spoken of Isai. iv. 2, and ix. 6 f ** In that day 
hall the branch of the Lord be beautiful and glorious, and the 
•uit of the earth shall be excellent and comely ,-for them that are 
leaped <^f Israel." — " For unto us a son is born, and unto us a 
bild is given,'' tic. (how often are the children that are born in a 
ioiily, compared in scripture to the fruit that grows on a tree !) 
rben this holy child had gone through all his labours and suffer- 
igpi, and had ful61led all righteousness, and was perfected, as 'tis 
zpressed in Luke, xiii. 32, Heb. ii. 10, and v. 9 : then he was 
?en of angels, and received up into glory, then the fruit was ga- 
lered : Chrii^t, as full ripe fruit, was gathered into the garner 
if God, into heaven, the country ofangels, and so became angels' 
»od : then the angels fed upon the full ripe fruit of the tree of 
ife, and received of the Father the reward of everlasting life, 
yhrist did not become the author of eternal Salvatiod to man, till 
le was thus made perfect, neither did he become the author of 
ionfirmed eternal life to the angels, till he was made perfect. 
Pbos the fruit of this tree of life did not become the food of life 
o either men or angels till it was ripe. 

This tree of life did as it were blossom in the sight of the angels, 
vhen man was first created in an innocent, holy, pleasant, and 
lappy state, and was that creature from whence this future fruit of 
be tree of life was to spring, the blossom out of which the fruit 
rat to come. It was a fair and pleasant blossom, though weak 
ind feeble, and proved a fading thing like a flower. When man 
bll, then the blossom faded and fell off; man came forth like a 
lower, and was cut down, but the blossom fell in order to the 
acceeding fruit. The fall of man made way for the incarnation 
»f Christ, It gave occasion to the production and ripening of that 
ifuit, and to its blessed consequences. 

Thus, though Christ God man be not the Saviour of the an- 
;cl8, as he is of men, vet he is the tree of life to the angels, and 
be bread of life as truly as to men. 

[77] Gen. ii. 17. " In the day that thou eatest thereof, dying 
boo shalt die." This expression denotes hot only the ceVtainty 
if death, but the extremity of it. Thou shalt die, in the superla- 
ivO) and to the utmost degree ; and so it properly extends to the 
econd death, the death of the soul, for damnation is nothing' bnt 
xtreme death, and I am ready to think that God, by mentioning 
lying twice over, had respect to two deaths, the first and the se- 
ood, and that it is to those words the apostle John refers in Reve- 
itioa XX. 14, when he says, ** This is the second death." It is 

VOL. IX. 21 


much such a reference as he made in the 2d verse of that chapter. 
There he explains to us who the serpent was that begailed Eve, 
vn., the dragon, that old serpent who is the devil and Satan : to 
here he explains what the second of those deaths, that was threat- 
ened to Adam, was. See notes on Rev. xx. 14. 

[325] Gen. ii. 17. <' Dying thou*shalt die." If we sometimes find 
such kind of doubled expressions, and also this very expression, dy- 
ing thou shalt die, as in Solomon's threatening to Shimei, when do 
more is intended than only the certainty of the event, yet this is do 
argument that this does not signify more than the certainty, even 
the extremity as well as certainty of it. Because such a repetitiouor 
doubling of a word, according to the idiom of the Hebrew tongue, 
is as much as our speaking a word once with a very extraordinary 
emphasis. But such a great emphasis, as we often use, signifies 
variously; it sometimes signifies certainty, at other times extremi- 
ty, and sometimes both. 

[320] Gen. ii. 17. <'In the day that thou eatest thereof, tboa 
shalt surely die.'' This, in addition to notes in blank bible, and 
besides Adam died that day, for he was ruined and undone that 
day, his nature was ruined — the nature of his soul — which ruin ii 
called death in scripture, Eph. ii. 1. 5. Colos. ii. 13. Mattb. viii. 
22. John V. 25. The nature of his body was ruined that day, 
and became mortal, began to die, his whole man became subJ€M:t 
to condemnation, to death ; he was guilty of death, and yet that all 
was not executed ; that day was a token of his deliverance ; and 
bis not dying that day a natural death, is no more diflicult to re- 
concile with truth, than his never suffering at all that death that 
was principally intended, viz., eternal damnation ; and probably 
there were beasts slain the same day by God's appointment in their ' 
stead, of which God made them coats of skins, for it is probable 
God's thus clothing them was not long delayed after that they saw 
that they were naked. 

[110] Gen. ii. 21. '* Adam received Eve as he awaked out of 
a deep sleep ;" so Christ receives his church as he rises from the 
dead. Dr. Goodwin speaks of this deep sleep of Adam as a type 
of Christ's death, 1st vol. of his works, partiii. p. 53. 

[251] Gen. iii., at the beginning. " Now the serpent was mart 
subtle^^^ fyc. * What is an argument ex posteriori of the devil's having 
assumed the form of a serpent in his temptation of our first pa- 
rents, is the pride he has ever since taken of being worshipped un- 
der that form, to insult as it were, and trample upon fallen man. 
To this purpose we may observe that the serpent has all along 


•een the common symbol and representation of the heathen 
eities, Jul Firmic de errors Profan. Relig. p. 15. That the Ba- 
bylonians worshipped a dragon, we may learn from the Apo- 
irypha, and that they had images of serpents in the temple of 
Selusy Didodorus Siculus, lib. ii. chap« 4, informs us. Grotius 
lut of several ancient authors, has made it appear that in the 
Ad Greek mysteries they used to carry about a serpent, and 
;ry £i>a the devil, thereby expressing his triumph in the unhap- 
ly deception of our first mother. The story of Ophis among 
he heathen was taken from the devil's assuming the body of a 
lerpent in his tempting of Eve. Orig. contra Cekusy lib. vi. 
Lnd to name no more what Philip Melancton tells us of some 
NTiests in Asia, is very wonderful, viz. that they carry about a 
lerpent in a brazen vessel, which they attend with a great deal 
>f music, and many choruses in verse, while the serpent every 
low and then lifts up himself, opens his mouth, and thrusts out 
he head of a beautiful virgin,' (as having swallowed her,) 'to 
ihow the devil's triumph in this miscarriage among those poor 
leluded idolaters.' NicoPs Conference with a Theistf vol. I. 

[452] Gen. iii. 14. '* Upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust 
sbaltthou eat all the days of thy life." This doubtless has re- 
ipect not only to the beast that the devil made use of as his in- 
itniment, but to the devil, that old serpent, to whom God is 
ipeaking, chiefly as is evident by the words immediately follow* 
ing. The words. On thy belly shalt thou go, as they respect the 
levil, refer to the low and mean exercises and employments, 
that the devil shall pursue ; and signify that he should be de- 
based to the lowest and most sordid measures to compass his 
Bnds, so that nothing should be too mean and vile for him to 
io to reach his aims. The words. Dust shalt thou eat all the 
iays of thy life^ have respect to the mean gratifications that 
Satan should henceforth have for his greatest good, instead of 
the high and glorious enjoyments of which heretofore he was 
the subject in heaven ; and that even in those gratifications he 
should find himself sorely disappointed, and so his gratifications 
should from time to time in all that he obtained as long as he 
lived, turn to his grief and vexation, agreeably to the use of a 
parallel phrase, Prov. xx. 17, '^ Rread of deceit is sweet to a 
man, but afterwards his mouth shall be filled with gravel." 
When a man has eagerly taken into his mouth that which he 
accounted a sweet morsel, but finds it full of dirt, it moves him 
immediately to spit it out, and so to endeavour to clear his 
mouth of what he had taken as eagerly as he took it in. So 
Satan is from time to time made sick of his own morsels, and 
to spit them out again, and vomit up what he had swallowed 


down, as the whale vomited up Jonah, and as the devil vomited 
up Christ, when he saw that he had swallowed down that which 
when within him, gave him a mortal wound at his vitals. 

[456] Gen. iii. 14, 13. '* And the Lord said unto the ser- 
pent," &;c. In this first prophecy ever uttered on earth', we 
have a very plain instance of what is common iff divine pro- 
phecies through the scripture, viz. that one thing is more im- 
mediately respected in the words, and another that is the anti- 
type principally intended, and so of some of the words being 
applicable only to the former, and others only to the latter, and 
of God^s beginning to speak in language accommodated to the i 
former, but then ns it were presently forgetting the type, and 
being taken up wholly about the anlitype. Here in the 14th 
verse, the words that are used are properly applicable only to 
that serpent that was one of the beasts of the field; so here it 
is said, thou art cursed above all cattle ; which shows that this 
prophecy has some respect to that beast that is a type of Satan. 
But, in the things s|)oken in the next verse, the beast called a 
serpent seems to be almost wholly forgotten, and the speech to 
be only about the devil ; for the enmity that is there spoken of, 
18 between the Seed of the man, and that Seed a particular per- 
son; for the words in the original are, *^ He shall bruise thy 
head, and thous halt bruise his heel ;" it is K^n (Ht) in the He- 
brew, and auro; in the Septuagint ; as is observed in Shuckford, 
vol. I. p. 286. 

[322] Gen. iii. 20. '* And Adam called his wife's name Eve, 
because she was the mother of all living." What Adam in 
this has respect to, doubtless is that which God had signified in 
the 15th verse, viz. that Eve was to be the mother of that Seed 
that was to bruise the head of the servient, the grand enemy of 
mankind, that had brought death on them, and had the power 
of death, and so was to be the author of life to all that should 
live, i. e. all that should escape that death. So Eve was the 
mother of all living, as all that have spiritual and eternal life 
are Christ's, and so the woman's seed, because Christ was of 
the woman. Adam, when he had eaten the forbidden fruit, and 
his conscience smote him, had a terrible remembrance of the 
awful threatening, '* Dying, thou shalt die;" and therefore 
took great notice of those words which God spake concerning 
the seed of Eve bruising the Serpent's head ; which seem to af- 
ford some relief from his terror, and therefore he thought it 
worthy to give Eve her name from it, as the most remarkable 
thing that he had observed concerning Eve, and the thing that 
bethought more worthy to be remembered, and could think of 
with greater delight and pleasure than any thing else concern- 


iBg her, and therefore he thought it above all things worthy that 
her uame should be a continual memorial of it. 

That the thing of which Adam took special notice in giving 
his wife this name, was not her being the universal mother of 
mankind, or the universality of her maternity, but the quality 
of those that she was to be the mother of, viz. living ones, is 
evident from the name itself, which expresses the latter, and 
not the former : the word nm Chavah^ which we render Evt^ 

T — 

expresses Ldfe^ the quality of those that she was to be the mother 
of, and not the universality of her maternity. And it is not 
likely this would have been if there was nothing in this quality 
I of her posterity that did at all distinguish her from any other 
mother ; which would have been if all that was intended by her 
being the mother of those that were living, was that she was to 
be the mother of such as were to live in the world ; for so all 
other mothers might be called Chavah as well as she, or by 
some name that expressed that quality of life. A name is 
given for distinction ; and therefore doubtless Adam gave her 
a name that expressed something that was distinguishing ; but 
if what was meant was only that she was the mother of all 
mankind, then the thing that was distinguishing of her, was 
merely the universality of her maternity, and not at all the 
quality of her posterity. Why, then, was not the universality, 
the distinguishing thing, expressed in the name, rather than 
the quality, which was not at all distinguishing? 

Again : It is not likely that Adam would give her a name 
from that which did not at all distinguish her from him. If per- 
sons have not names that shall distinguish them from all others, 
yet doubtless they ought to have names to distinguish them 
from those with whom they always live, and from whom there 
is most occasion to distinguish them. But if it was not the 
quality of her posterity, but only the universality of her proge- 
niture of mankind, to which he had respect, that was what was 
common to her with himself. 

If it had been only her being the mother of all mankind to 
which Adam had respect, it would have been more likely that 
he would have given her this name on her first creation, and on 
her being brought to him ; which was after that benediction, 
'* Be fruitful and multiply ;" but we find that this name was 
not given on that occasion, but then Adam gave her another 
name, Gen. ii. 23, '^ He called her Ishah^ from her being taken 
out of man ; but the name of Chavahy as the mother of all liv- 
ing, is given on another occasion, viz. just after God had pro- 
mised that the Seed of the woman should bruise the serpent'a 
head, and immediately after God had pronounced the threaten- 


iDg of death on Adam, as in the verse immediately foregoing, 
** till thou return to the ground, for dust thou art, and unto dost 
thou shah return ;" while Adam is under the terror of this sentence 
of death, he comforts himself with the promise of life couched in 
what God had said to the serpent. Adam gave Eve a new name 
on this occasion, from that new thing that appeared concerning 
her after the fall : as she had her first name from the manner of 
her creation, so she had her new name given her from Christ's re- 
demption, and Adam gave her her name from that which comfort- 
ed him, with respect to the curse that God had pronounced on him 
and the earth ; as Lamech named Noah, Gen. v. 29. ** And he 
called his name Noah, saying. This same shall comfort us concern- 
ing our work, and the toil of our hands, because of the ground 
which the Lord hath cursed." 

It was a common thing for the progenitors of Christ to have 
names given them from something that had respect to him or his 
redemption, or some of his benefits : so were Seth, and Noah, 
and Abraham, and Sarah, and Israel, and Judah, and others 

And besides, we have no parallel place in the Bible to justify 
our understanding this expression, aU livings of all mankind that 
shall hereafter live upon the earth, or including them with those 
that are now living. 

[399] Gen. iii. 20. There are also these further arguments to 
confirm that Adam does not give his wife the name of JEJoe, which 
signifies lAfe^ because she was the mother of all mankind, but be- 
cause she was the mother of Christ, and of his living seed, who 
are the seed of the woman of whom God had just spoken. 1st. 
This name is exceedingly proper and suitable to signify the latter, 
because, *' in Adam all die, but in Christ shall all be made alive ; 
by man came death, so by man also came the resurrection of the 
dead ;" '* the second Adam is made a quickening Spirit ;" *' in 
him was /i/e, and he is the life.^* All mankind by the first Adam 
are in a state of death, dead in trespasses and sins, but Christ is 
the bread of life, of which he that eats should live for ever ; and 
he is thus the fountain of life to the children of men, by bruising 
the head of the serpent, or destroying him that has the power of 
death, even the devil ; which God had just before promised should 
be by the Seed o( Isha, the name that Adam gave his wife at first. 

2. It is not likely that Adam would give this name, viz. Living 
One^ as a distinguishing name for mankind, to distinguish them 
from other creatures; for the same name is, from time to time in 
the preceding chapters, given to other creatures, as chap. i. 21. 
24. 28, and chap. ii. 19, where the word is radically the same; 
and so afterwards the name is often given to other animals, chap. 


it. 4. 23, viii. i, and in many other passages of scripture. 
»ecially it is unlikely that he would give this as a distin- 
: name to mankind immediately upon roan's fall, whereby 
uined, and bad brought that threatening on himself, in 
that thou eatest thereof ^ thou shalt surely die; and imme- 
fter he had been told by God that he was dead, (i. e. in ef- 
dust thou arty and unto dust thou shalt return. Adam 
»t mean by the phrase ail living, what indeed we sometimes 
expression to signify, viz. mankind; but yet we do not 
y it, all that have had, and now have, the human nature, 
^h life was a distinguishing property of that nature, but we 
mean by it those that are now alive, to distinguish them 
ise that are dead, or are not yet born. And it is exceed- 
kely that Adam would now first find out this name to dis- 
mankind, even those that yet had no life or being, as 
life was a distinguishing property and dignity of human 
on the occasion of so great, awful, and afiecting an event, 
rst entrance of any such thing as death into the world, to 
nd destroy, and make fearful havock of all mankind, all Eve's 
f, and that originally by her means. If Adam had meant 
ving, all mankind that then had a being in this world, the 
as very improper for her ; for he that was living of man- 
is the only person of all mankind that she was not the mo- 
he was rather the father of her. But in the other sense 
e. Eve was the mother of all living universally, of every 
ne, as it is in the original. There is not one that has spi- 
id eternal life of all mankind, who in this sense is excepted, 
im, nor Christ, no, nor herself, for in this sense, as she was 
her of Christ, she was her own mother. 
is remarkable that Adam had before given his wife an- 
ame, viz. Islui, when she was first created and brought to 
ut now, that on the occasion of the fall, and what God 
d upon it, he changes her name, and gives her a new name, 
fe, because she was to be the mother of every one that has 
hich would be exceeding strange and unaccountable if all 
meant was, that she was to be the mother of mankind. If 
s all that he intended, it would have been much more likely 
iven to her at first, when God gave them that blessing, viz. 
ruitful and multiply," by virtue of which she became the 
of mankind ; and when mankind was hitherto in a state of 
d death had not yet entered into the world. But that 
should not give her this name then, but call her Isha, and 
fter that, change her name, and call her name Life, imme- 
upon their losing their life and glory, and coming under a 
:e of death, with all their posterity, and the awful, melan- 
ihadow and darkness which death has brought on the whole 


world, occasioned by Eve's folly, is ftltogether unaccountable, if 
be had only meant, that she was the mother of mankind. 

4. That Adam should change her name, and call her name 
Liife^ after he had given her another name, doubtless was from 
something new that appeared, that was very remarkable concern- 
ing Eve ; and doubtless we have an account of what that remark- 
able thing was. The scriptural history is not so imperfect as to 
give us an account of such an event as a person's name being 
changed, without mentioning the occasion of that change. lYc 
have several times elsewhere an account of the change of persons' 
names in scripture, but always have an account of the reason why, 
but we have no account of any thing new concerning Eve, that 
could give Adam occasion thus to change her name, and call her 
Ldjcy but only what God said concerning her and her seed after 
her fall. We have an account of this change of her name imme- 
diately upon it, and therefore must understand that as the occa- 
sion of it. This was an exceeding proper occasion for such a 
name, and it is natural to suppose that Adam's mind might now 
be so affected by the curse of death just pronunced by God, and 
the promise of life by Eve, as to -induce him to change her name 
firom hha to LAfe. 

It is most probable, that Adam would give Eve her name from 
that which was her greatest honour, since it is evident that he had 
respect to her honour in giving her this name. The name itself, 
Lifay is honourable ; and that which he mentions concerning her 
being the mother of every living onCy is doubtless something he 
had respect to as honourable to her. Since he changed her name 
from regard to her honour, it is most likely he would signify in it 
that which was her peculiar honour ; but that was the most honour- 
able of any thing, that had ever happened, or that ever would 
happen concerning her — that God said that she should be the mother 
of that SEED, that should bruise the Serpent's head. This was the 
greatest honour that God had conferred on her ; and we find per- 
sons' names changed elsewhere to signify something that is their 
peculiar honour, as the new names of Abraham, Sarah, and Israel. 

6. All new names, of which we have an account in scripture, 
as given prophetically, are given with respect to some great pri- 
vilege persons have by some special relation to Christ, or interest 
in him, and his redemption. So Abraham's and Sarah's new 
names were given them of God, on occasion of the promise made 
Co them, that in their seed all the families of the earth should be 
blessed ; and Jacob's new name of Israel is given because as a 
prince he had prevailed with Christ in wrestling with him, and 
had obtained the confirmation of Abraham and Isaac's blessing 
to him and his seed, when he and bis posterity were in danger of 
being cut off by Esau. 


[466] Geo. iii. 20. «' And Adam called his wife's name Eve, 
because she is the mother of all living." To suppose the living 
here to mean those that are restored to spiritaal life, and shall 
be saved from death, and have everlasting life, is agreeable to the 
denomination the apostle gives true Christians, 2 Cor. iv. 11. 
•Of J^wvrt^, the livings or the liven ; and again chap. v. 15. 

[82] Gen. iv. I. <' And Adam knew his wife, and she conceived 
and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the Lord.'* In 
Eve's expressing herself thus, it is probable she had an eye to 
what God said, that her seed should bruise the Serpent's head: 
and now seeing she had a son, her faith and hope was strength* 
sned that the promise should be fulfilled. 

[453] Gen. iv. 3, 4. CaMs and AbePs Sacrifice. Abel when 
be comes before God is sensible of his own unworthiness and 
unfulness like the publican, and so is sensible of his need of an 
stonement, and therefore comes with bloody sacrifices, hereby 
testifying his faith in the promised great Sacrifice. Cain comes 
with his own righteousness like the pharisce, who put God in 
mind that he paid tythes of all that he possessed. He comes with- 
out any propitiation, with the fruit of his ground, and produce of 
tiis own labours, as though he could add something to the Most 
High) by gifts of his own substance; and therefore he was inter- 
ested in no atonement, for he was not sensible of bis need of any, 
Dor did he trust in any, and so being a sinner, and not having 
perfectly kept God's commandments, sin lay at his door nnre- 
moved, and so his oflfering could not be accepted, for guilt re- 
mained to hinder. This reason God intimates, why his ofiering 
was not accepted, in what he says to him, verse 7th, *' If thou 
doest well — if thou keepeist my commandments, thou and thine 
offerings shall be accepted, but seeing thou doest not well, as 
thine own conscience witnesses that in many things thou hast of- 
fended, the guilt of sin remains to hinder thy being accepted 
without an atonement, thy righteousness cannot be accepted, 
ivhatever offering thou mayest bring to me. See Bp. Sherlock's Use 
and Intent of Prophesy , p. 74, 75, and Owen on Heb. xi. 4, p. 18. 

[344] Gen. iv. 7. " If thou doest well, shalt not thou be ac- 
cepted ? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door." Cain 
was not accepted in his offering, because he did not well— Bf- 
canse, 1. He was a wicked man, led an ill life under the reigniiig 
power of the world and the flesh, and therefo re his sacrifice waf 
ao abomination to the I^ord, Prov. xv. 8, a vain oblation Isai. 
i. 13. God had no respect to Cain himself, and therefore no te- 
spect to his offering, as the manner of the expression (v. 5.) int^r 

VOL. IX. 32 


matei. Bat Abel was a righteous maD : he is called righleom 
Abel, Matt, xxiii. 35. His heart was opright, and his life was 
pious ; he was one of those whom God's coaoteoance beholds, Ps« 
xi. 7, and whose prayer is therefore his delight, Prov« xv. & 
God had respect to him as a holy man, and therefore to his oflbr- 
ing as a holy offering. The tree must be good, else tbe frait 
cannot be pleasing to the heart-searching God* 

2. There was a difference in the offerings they brought. It is 
expressly said, Heb. xi. 4, AbePs was a more excellent sacrifice 
than Cain's : either, 1. In the nature of it. Cain's was only a sa« 
crifice of acknowledgment offered to the Creator; the meat ofler- 
inga of the first of the ground were no more, and for ought I knoa 
might have been offered in innocency. But Abel brought a sa- 
crifice of atonement, the blood whereof was shed in order to re- 
mission, thereby owning himself a sinner, deprecating God's 
wrath, and imploring his favour in a Mediator : or, 2. In the qua- 
Utiei of the offering. Cain brought of the fruit of the g^und, 
any thing that came next to hand, what he had not occasion for 
himself, or was not more charitable. But Abel was curious in the 
choice of his offering, not the lame or the lean, or the refuse, bat 
tbe firstling of the flock, the best he had, and the fat thereof 
the best of those best. 3. The great difference was this, that 
Abe) oflered in faith, and Cain did not — '* Abel was a penitent, 
Kke the publican that went away justified ; Cain was unhumbled, 
and his confidence was in himself, like the pharisee who glorified 
himself, but he was not so much justified before God." Henry 
on verses 3, 4, 5. 

[<* If thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door."] Not at CaM$ 
door, but at Qod^s door. His wicked doings lay, as it were, at 
the door of God's temple, to prevent his admittance and accep- 
tance with God : they stood as a partition wall between God and 
him. Wicked men's sins are a cloud which their prayers cannot 
pass through, and which hinders their offerings from being 
brought into the holy place : they are a thick veil before the door 
of the holiest of all, to hinder their access to God. 1 John iii. 21, 
22. ^^ Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then have we confi- 
dence towards God, and whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, 
because we keep his commandments, and do those things that 
are pleasing in his sight.'' 

^51] Gen. iv. 14. It seems to me no way improbable that 
Cain's house was intended, and by him understood, not only of 
bim personally, but of his posterity. Such he might learn from 
bis father Adam, seeing the covenant that was made with him was 
made not only for himself, but for his posterity. If Cain uoder- 
^d it only of himself personally, it seems somewhat strange 
that be should express himself after such a manner. The iohabiud 


earth was not broad enough for such expressions. The expreS' 
sion, from thy face, may be in the same sense as David was shut out 
from the face of God when he dwelt in Ziklag, from his altar 
where* his people sacrificed and worshipped him, and where he 
especially manifested himself. Doubtless there were then such 
things as well as afterwards. 

[323] Gen. v. 29. '< And he called his name Noah, saying. 
This same shall comfort us concerning our work, and the toil of 
oor hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed." 
Noah comforted God's people concerning their labour and fatigue, 
that was the fruit of God's curse on the ground. 

1. And chiefiy as the Redeemer was to be of him, who should 
deliver his people from all their labours and sorrows, and should 
procure them everlasting life in the heavenly Canaan, a better 
paradise than that which was lost, where the ground is not curs- 
ed, and shall spontaneously yield her rich fruit every month, where 
there remains a rest to the people of God, who shall rest from their 
labours, and their works shall follow them. 

2. He first invented wine, which is to comfort him that is faint 
and weary with fatigue, and the toil of his hands, and which makes 
glad man's heart, a remarkable type of the blood of Christ, and 
bis spiritual benefits. 

3. To him was given leave to eat flesh, as a relief from the fruit 
of the curse on the ground, which rendered the fruits of it less pleas- 
ant and wholesome. God gave Noah leave to feed on the flesh of 
other animals, to comfort him under his toil of his hands in tilling 
the ground. And this is another type of our feeding on Christ, 
and having spiritual life and refreshment in him : for, in feeding 
on the flesh of animals, our food and the nourishment of our lives 
is obtuned at the expense of their lives and shedding their blood, 
at we come to feed on Christ by his layin^^ down his life. And 
these things in Noah that should be matter of comfort under 
God's curse, are the rather taken notice of in him, because in his 
time the curse on the ground was to be more fully executed than 
ever it had been before — the good constitution of the earth was 
to be overthrown by a flood, and its wholesomeness and fertility 
greatly diminished, and so the toil of his hands would be greatly 
increased, were it not for this relief given that has been men- 

4. Before Noah, God's people did not know how far this curse 
would proceed ; they probably foresaw that God intended to exe- 
cute the curse on the ground in a much further degree than ever 
yet he had done. God had not comforted his people by any limits 
set in any promise made to them, but to Noah God made a gra- 
cious promise, setting limits to the curse, promising in some respects 


m certain measure of suecess to the labour of their handsy promit- 
log that seed-time, and harvest, &c. should not cease. 

[5] Gen. vi. 4. The monstrous births that arose from the con- 
junction of the sons of God with the daughters of men, typify on- 
to us what an odious monster results from the conjoining of holy 
things with wicked, as of a holy profession with a wicked life in 
hypocrites, and what powerful enemies against religion sacb are, 
whether they are particular persons or churches, as the church of 
Rome, that monstrous beast, in whom are joined the profession of 
the name of Christ and many of his doctrines with the most odious 
devilism, who has horns as a Iamb, but speaks as a dragon : and 
their bulk and huge stature denotes their pride, as none are so 

proud as hypocrites. Vid. 257. 


[257] Gen. vi. 4. And their great bulk, and strength, and re- 
nown, besides the pride of such persons and churches as join the 
religion, doctrines, and worship, and profession of his church with 
the deluding glories and bewitching pleasures of this world, and 
of the heathenish and other human and carnal churches and socie- 
ties of it, here typified by the beauty of the daughters of men. I 
say, besides the pride of such churches, these things seem to de- 
note the earthly pomp and splendour, and worldly renown, sod 
glory, and great temporal power that such churches aflfect, and l^ 
are commonly in Providence suffered to arrive to, as the church 
of Rome and others. 

[428] Gen. vi. 4. '' And there were giants in the earth in those 
days,'' &c. Pausanias, in his Laconics, mentions the bones of 
men of a more than ordinary bigness, which were shown in ibe 
temple of Esculapius, at the city of Asepus : and in the first of 
bisEliacks, he speaks of a bone taken out of the sea, which afore- 
time was kept at Piso, and thought to have been one of Pelops. 
Pbilastratus, in the beginning of his Heroicks, informs us that 
many bodies of giants were discovered in Pallei^e, by showers of 
rain and earthquakes. Pliny, b. vii. ch. 16, says, *' That upon 
the bursting of a mountain in Crete, there was found a body 
standing upright, which was reported by some to have been the 
body of Orion, b> others, the body of Eetion. Orestes's body, 
when it was commanded by the oracle to be digged up, is report- 
ed to have been seven cubits long. And almost a thousand years 
ago, the poet Homer continually complained, " that men's bo- 
^ dies were less than of old." And Solinus, chap. i. inquires, 

•« Were not all that were blorn in that age less than their parents ?" 
And the story of Orestes's funeral testifies the bigness of the an- 
cients ; whose bones when they were digged up in the 5Sth Oly m- 


piad at Yegea, by the advice of the oracle, are related to have 
been seven cubits in length. Other writings, which give a credi- 
ble relation of ancient matters, affirm this, that in the war of 
Crete, when the rivers had been so high as to overflow and break 
down their banks, after the flood was abated, upon the clearing of 
the earth, there was found a human body of three and thirty feei 
long: which L. Flaccus, the legate, and Metellus himself being 
very desirous of seeing, were much surprised to have the satisfac- 
tion of seeing what they did not believe when they heard." Gro- 
tias deVerit. b. i. sect. lU, Notes. 

Josephus, b. v. chap. 2, of his ancient history: ** There re- 
mains to this day some of the race of the giants, who by reason 
of the bulk and figure of their bodies, so difierent from other 
men, are wonderful to see or hear of. Their bones are now shown 
far exceeding the belief of the vulgar.'^ Gabinius, in his history 
of Mauritania, said that Antseus's bones were found by Sertorius, 
which, joined together, were sixty cubits long. Phlegon Tral- 
lianns, in his 9th chap, of Wonders, mentions the digging up the 
bead of Ida, which was three times as big as that of an ordinary 
woman. And he adds also that there were many bodies found in 
Dalmatia, whose arms exceeded sixteen cubits. And the same 
man relates out of Theopompus, that there were found in the 
Cimmerian Bosphorus a company of human bones twenty-four 
cubits in length. Le Clerk's Notes on Grotius de Veritat. b. i. 
sect 16. 

We almost every where in the Greek and Latin historians meet 
with the savage life of the giants mentioned by Moses. In the 
Greek, as Homer, Iliad 9th, and Hesiod, in his VVorks and Days. 
To this may be referred the Wars of the Gods mentioned by Pla- 
to io his Second Republic, and those distinct and separate govern- 
ffleots taken notice of by the same Plato, in his third book of 
Laws. And as to the Latin historians, see the first book of Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, and the fourth book of Lucan, and Seneca's third 
book of Natural Questions, Quest. 30, where he says concerning 
the Deloge, *' that the beasts also perished, into whose nature 
men were degenerated." Grotius de Verit. b. i. sect. 16. 

[199] Gen. vi. 14. "Make thee an ark of gopher wood.** 
The word in the Hebrew language seems to imply that the wood 
was of a bituminous or pitchy nature, and consequently more ca- 
pable of resisting wet or moisture, and St. Chrysostom particu- 
larly calls it ?wXa TSTjaywva a(r^^ra, square wood not liable to rot. 
The learned Fuller rightly concludes it to be the cypress, from the 
affinity of the word for cypress in Greek, which is KunrafMfo'of ; 
firom whence, if the termination is taken away, Cuphar, or Gopher^ 


consists of such letters as are often changed into each other ; nei- 
ther is there any wood less subject to rottenness and womM thaa 
this is, as all writers do allow. * Pliny saith that the cjrpress wood 
is not sensible of rottenness or age, that it will never split nor 
cleave asunder except by force, and that no worm will touch it, 
because it hath a peculiar bitter taste ; and therefore Plato advis- 
ed that all records that are to be preserved for the benefit of future 
generations, should be written upon tables of cypress, liartial 
says that it will last for an hundred ages and never decay. Tho- 
cydides saith that the chests were made of cypress in which the 
Athenians carried away the bones of those who died in war for 
their country, and the Scholiast gives this reason for it, because it 
would never decay, and the Pythagoreans abstained from making 
coffins of cypress, because they certainly concluded that the scep- 
ter of Jupiter was made of this tree, and no reason can be assign- 
ed for such a fiction among the poets, but because it was the fittest 
resemblance of that eternal power and authority which they at- 
tribute to him. Theophrastus, speaking of those trees which are 
least subject to decay, adds this as a conclusion, that the cypress 
tree seems to be the most durable of all, and that the folding 
doors of the temple of Ephesus being made thereof, had lasted 
without damage for four generations. In this Pliny is morepai^ 
ticular, and saith that those doors were made of cypress, and they 
had lasted till his time, which he saith was near four hundred 
years, and still looked as if they were new. And Vitruvius speaki 
both of the cypress and of the pine tree, that they kept for a long 
time without the least defect, because the sap, which is in every 
part of the wood, hath a peculiar bitter taste, as is so very ofieo- 
sive that no worm or other consuming animal will touch it. He 
also tells us that such works as are made of such wood will last 
for ever. And therefore he advises that the beams of all churches 
should especially be made of cypress wood, because such as were 
made of fir were soon consumed by the worm and rottenness ; and 
as it was such a lasting wood, so it was also very fit for the building 
of ships. Peter Martyr, as cited by the learned Fuller, saith that 
the inhabitants of Crete had their cypress-trees so common, that 
they made the beams of their houses, their rafters, their rooms, 
and floors, and also their ships of this wood. Plutarch saith that 
the shipcarpenter in the first place useth the pine from Isthmos, 
and the cypress from Crete ; and Vegetius adds, that the galleys 
are built chiefly of the cypress, and of the pine-trees, or of the 
larch and fir; and in the epistle of Theodoricus to Abundantios, 
the Prefect, in which he gives him a commission to build a thou- 
sand barks for fetching provisions, or bread-corn ; he commands 
him to inquire throughout all Italy, for proper artists, for wood 


ir f uch work ; and wherever he should find the cypress or pine- 
rees near the shore, that he should buy them at a reasonable 
irice* Neither was it thus only in Crete and Italy, but Diodorus 
iroves that in Phoenicia there was timber sufficient to build ships, 
lecaase Libanus, near Tripoli, and Biblus, and Sidon were full 
»f cedar-trees, and larch-trees, and cypress-trees, which were very 
idmirable for show and greatness ; and Plato, among the trees that 
rere fit for shipcarpenters to use, places the cypress next to the 
Hoe and the larch-trees. And even in latter years, we are told 
hat the Saracens did hasten from Alexandria to Phoenicia to cut 
lown the cypress-wood, and fit it for the use of the ships. And 
IS the cypress-tree was very fit for this use, so it grew in great 
ikuty in Assyria and Babylonia, and therefore Arrian and Strabo 
ipeak particularly of it, and that the numerous fleet which Alex- 
inder the Great built in those parts, was made of the cypress which 
le cot down, and which grew in Babylonia. For there was, as 
Lb^y 8ay» ^ great plenty of these trees in Assyria, and that they 
liad no other wood in the country which was fit for such a pur^ 

Bedford's Scripture Chronology, p. 1 1 1 , 1 12, notes that the rea- 
son why they needed a sort of wood not subject to decay or rotten- 
ness, was chiefly because the ark was so long in building. Had it 
Bot been a kind of wood of extraordinary durableness, it would 
kave decayed and spoiled in much less than in 120 years, being 
exposed to the weather. 

[259] The country where Noah built the ark, was probably in 
Babylonia, or the region thereabout, which abounds with cypress 
Mr gopher-trees. The Gordyean mountains in Armenia seem to 
be at a proportional distance, and since they are allowed to be the 
ligbest in the world, there is no reason for receding from the com- 
Booiy received opinion, viz. that those were the hills whereon the 
irk stopped. Here it is that the generality of geographers place 
he ark. Here it is that almost all travellers have found the re- 
>ort of it. And lastly, here it is that the inhabitants of the coun- 
ty show aome relics of it, and call places after its name to this 
rery day. Complete Body of Divin. p. 324. 

" In Armenia est altior molis quam sit in toto orbe terrarum, 
|ai Araih vulgariter nuncupatur; et in cacumine montis illius 
irca Noe post diluvium primo sedit ; et licet propter abundan- 
iaoe nivium, quae semper in illo monte reperiuntur, nemo valet 
llom ascendere ; semper tamen apparet in ejus cacumine quod- 
Imm nigrom, quod ab hominibus dicitur esse Area." Hist. Orient. 
. 9. 

The mount Gordion, called by the Turks Ardagh^ is the high- 
st in the world ; the Jews, the Armenians, and the Mussulmans 


affirm that the ark of Noah stopped at this mountain after the de- 
luge. La Boulaye^s Voyages, They tell us likewise that the city 
Nahsivan, which is about three leagues from the mountain Ararat, 
is the oldest in the world ; that Noah dwelt therein when be camt 
out of the ark ; that the word Nahsivan is derived from JVoi, 
which signifies a ship^ and sivan^ which signifies to stop or stag; 
and that this name was given to it because the ark stopped at this 
same mountain. Tavernier's Travels, tom. iv. 

[297] Gen. vii. 1 — 7. The company in Noah^s Ark was up- 
on many accounts a type of the church of Christ* The ark did 
literally contain in it the church of God, for all flesh had co^ 
rupted their way before God, and true religion and piety seemed 
to be confined to Noah and his family. The ark was made for 
the salvation of the church, and for the saving the church from 
the destruction which the world was to undergo, and to which it 
was doomed, and of which all the rest of mankind were to be 
the subjects in an overflowing deluge of God's wrath. So Christ, 
God-man, mediator was made for the salvation of his church, to 
save it from that destruction and wo that is denounced against 
this wicked world, and that deluge of wrath that will overwhelm 
all others. The way in which persons were saved by the ark, was 
by taking warning from Noah the preacher of righteoosness to 
fly from the wrath to come, and hearkening to the call, and flying 
for refuge to the ark, and getting into the ark. So the way by 
which we are saved by Christ, is by flying from the deluge of 
God's wrath, and taking refuge in Christ, and being in him. 

The ark was a refuge, from storm, and from wind, the rain 
that poured down out of heaven in a very dreadful manner, it 
did not hurt those that were in the ark ; so Christ is an hiding 
place from the wind, a covert from the tempest. Isai. xxxii. !• 
He is a place of refuge, and acovert from storm and from wind. 
Isai. iv. 6. '' He is to his church a refuge from the storm, when tbe 
blast of the terrible ones is as a storm against the wall." Isai. zxv. 
4. '' He that is built in Christ, when the wind blows, the rain 
descends, and the floods come and beat upon his house, it will 
not fall.'' 

The company in the ark was safe in the greatest catastrophe, 
when the world was as it were dissolved. So they that have 
Christ for their refuge and strength, need not fear, though tbe 
earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the 
midst of the sea, (as they in fact were in the flood, they were in 
the midst of the sea, the sea surrounded them and overwhelmed 
them,) though the waters thereof roar and are troubled, though 
the mountains shake with the swelling thereof, Ps. xlvi. 1, 2,3. 
Though the waters were so exceeding great and overwhelming, 


yet those that were in ihe ark did not sink in them. Though the 
waters overtopped the highest mountains, yet they could not over- 
whelm them ; though the ark when it stood on the ground was a 
Idw thing, iu comparison of other things that the waters over- 
whelmed, yet the waters could not get above them, but let the 
the waters rise ne\'er so high, yet the ark kept above them, which 
evidently represents the safety of the church in Christ in the 
greatest danger, so that *• when thou passest through the waters, 
1 will be with thee ; and through the rivers, they shall not over- 
flow thee," Isai. xliii. 2. Concerning those that belong to the 
cbarch of Christ, it is promised in Ps. xxxii.6, ** For this shall every 
one that is godly pray unto thee in a time when thou mayest be 
found ; surely in the floods of great waters they shall not come 
Dlgb onto him.'' And though the church often appears as a low 
thing, as though the mighty waters that come against it could 
immediately overflow it, yet the church is kept above water, let 
them come in ever so fiercely, and rise never so high. If it was not 
the Lord that is on their side, oftentimes her enemies would swal- 
low her up quick. This also represents to us bow Christ was 
kept from sinking under his suflVrtngs. It was impossible that 
Christ should fail in the great work that he undertook, and 
though his suflferings were so great, though the deluge that came 
Qpon him was so very great, the billows of wrath so mighty, 
enough to overwhelm a whole world, and to overwhelm the high- 
est mountains, to overtop the stoutest and mightiest, yet Christ 
did not sink and fail, but was kept above water, he kept above 
all, and in the issue triumphed over all, as his church also in him 
shall obtain the victory over all her enemies, and shall appear 
finally above them, let them rise never so high, and deal never 
so proudly, as the ark kept still above the water, when the wa- 
ters were mounted up even to heaven. The ship wherein Christ 
was could not sink. Mat. viii. 24, 25,26. '* And behold, there 
arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was co- 
vved with the waves ; but he was asleep, and his disciples came to 
Um, and awoke him, saying, Lord,^save us ; we perish. And he said 
onto them. Why are ye fearful ? O'ye of little faith ! Then he arose 
and rebuked the winds and the sea, and there was a great caln^/' 
They that went into the ark were saved, when thousands and 
millions of others were destroyed, so they that dwell in the se- 
cret place of the Most High, that make Christ their refuge, and 
the Most High their habitation ; thousands shall fall at their side, 
and ten thousands at their right hand ; only with their eyes shall 
they behold and see the reward of the wicked, but no evil shall 
befal them, nor any plague come nigh their dwelling, Ps. xci. 

There was but one ark that any could resort to for refuge in 
the whole world. So there is no other name, but the name of 
VOL. IX. 23 


Christ given under tieaven among men whereby we must be 
saved. There was no other refuge but the arlc. Iftheywenl 
up to the tops of their houses, or to the tops of the highest moun- 
tains, it was in vain ; the waters overtopped them : so if men tmsl 
in their carnal confidences, in their own strength, their own works, 
and mount high in a towering conceit of their own righteousness, 
it is in vain. In vain is salvation looked for from the hills, and 
the multitude of the mountains, for there is no safety but in the 
Lord. Other refuges did they then probably look for, more likely 
to save them than the ark, for they could scarce conceive of such 
a way of safety by the floating of such a building on the waters, 
the art of making ships having not been discovered before that 
time. So men's own righteousness looks more likely to men to 
save (them, than Christ. They are ready of say to the Lord's 
Anointed, How shall this man save us ? 

There were but a few saved, when all the rest of the world was 
destroyed ; so the church of Christ is but a little flock. 

The door of the ark was open to receive all sorts of creatures, 
tigers, wolves, bears, lions, leopards, serpents, vipers, dragons, 
such as men would not by any means admit into the doors of their 
bouses, but if they came they would soon have beat them out 
again. So Qhrist stands ready to receive all, even the vilest and 
and worst : he came to save the chief of sinners. There were all 
kinds of creatures in the ark, so in the Christian church are ga- 
thered together persons of all nations, kindreds, tongues, and 
Kople, persons of all degrees, all kinds of tempers and manners, 
the ark the wolf dwelt with the lamb, the leopard lay down with 
the kid, all were peaceable together in the ark, even those that 
were the greatest enemies, and were wont to devour one another 
before, as it is prophecied that it should be in the Christian church, 
Isai. xi. 6, &c., Ixv. 25. 

All in the ark was subject to Noah, as the church is subject to 
Christ; all was saved by his righteousness. Gen. vii. 1, " And the 
Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark : 
for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation." As 
the church is saved by Christ's righteousness, there is no rest 
any where for God's people but and in Christ, as the dove that 
Noah sent forth found no rest for the sole of her foot but in the 
ark ; when she wandered from the ark, she found no rest till she 
returned again. The dove therein was a type of a true saint, as 
the raven was a type of a false professor, who separates from Christ, 
and returns to him no more. 

The ark was taken up from the earth, and ader being long 
tossed to and fro in the waters, when it was not steered by the 
wisdom of Noah, but was only under the care of Providence, is 
rested on the top of an exceeding high mountain, as it were io 


heaven, and was brought into a new world ; so the church of 
Christ in this world is tossed to and fro like a bark on the water, 
passes through great tribulation, and appears to be overwhelmed. 
Isai. liv. 11. *^ O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not com- 
forted ! behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours, and will 
lay thy foundations with sapphires." At last, through God's care 
of it and mercy to it, it rests in heaven. The ark, in the midst of 
the flood, rested on a mountain strong and high; so the churcby 
when ready to be overwhelmed, rests on a rock higher than she. 

[354] Gen. vii. 8, 9, and 14, 15, 16. Concerning the resorting of 
afl kinds ofbinU^ and beasts^ and creeping things to the ark before the 
fiooj. The particular animals that were gathered together to the ark 
aod saved there, when all the rest of their kind were destroyed, 
were those that God had pitched on, and in his sovereign pleasure 
chosen out of the many thousands and millions that were of their 
kind, and yet they were of every kind, as it were of every nation 
of birds and beasts. So that here was a lively image of that ga- 
thering together of the elect from the four winds, from one end of 
heaven to the other, that there was before the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, and before the terrible judgments of God that came on the 
earth at and before Constantine's time, and that will be before the 
great destruction of God's enemies that will be about the time of 
the destruction of Antichrist, when the harvest of the earth shall 
be gathered in before the vintage, and the gathering together there 
will be to Christ before the great, and general, and last destruction 
of the wicked by the general conflagration, when the world shall 
be destroyed by a deluge of fire. There are elect of every na- 
tion that shall be gathered in before the final destruction of the 
wicked world, as is often said in scripture, especially in the book 
of Revelation. The doves and other birds then flocked to the 
windows of the ark, representing that flocking of souls to Christ 
which shall be as doves to their windows. They flocked together, 
the eagle, the vulture, and other rapacious birds, together with 
doves and other such birds, without preying upon them ; repre-^ 
senting times of great ingathering of souls to Christ, wherein 
the wolf dwells wit^ the lamb, and the leopard lies down with the 
kid, be. 

[346] Gen. viii. 7, 8, &ic. Concerning the raven and tlie dove^ 
thai Noah sent forth. The dove is an emblem of a gracious soul, 
which, finding no rest for its foot, no solid peace or satisfaction in 
this world, this deluged, defiling world, returns to Christ as to its 
ark, as to its Noah. The carnal heart, like the raven, takes up 
with the world, and feeds on the carrions it finds there. But re- 
turn thou to thy rest, O my soul, to thy Noah^ so the word is, Ps. 


Gzvi. 7. <' O that I had wings (ike a dove to flee -Co hinh'' Ps. Iv« 
6. The olive branch, which was an emblem of peace, was broughti 
not by a raven, a bird of prey, nor by a gay and proud peacock, 
but by a mild, patient, humble dove. It is a dove-like disposiiioD 
that brings in to the soul earnests of rest and joy. 

[166] Gen. viii. 21. '' And the Lord smelt a sweet savour, and 
the Lord said in his heart, I will not," &c. It was not for the 
acceptableness of that sacrifice that made God promise that he 
would no more curse the ground, but the acceptableness of the 
sacrifice of Christ represented by it. 

[347] Gen. ix. 5, S^c. ^* And surely your blood of your livei 

will I require it whoso sheddeth man's blood„by man shall hii 

blood be shed." We have an account of murders before the flood, 
but nothin«; that looks as though murder was wont then to be re- 
venged with death by men, in an established course of public jas- 
tice. Lamech, when he had been guilty of murder, seems not to 
have been executed for it by men. And by the story of Cain, it 
should seom that God took the punishment of murder then into 
his own hands. In all probability, a little before the flood, wbes 
we read that the earth was filled with violence, the earth was filled 
with murders, and that those giants who then became such mighty 
men, and men of renown, were guilty of .many murders, and that 
it was in the earth as it was in corrupt times in Israel, and the had 
was filled with oppression and violence, in other respects tbetr 
bands were full of blood, Isai. i« 15, Jer. ii. 34, ** And the land 
was full of blood," Ezek. ix. 9. By swearing, and lying, and 
killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they broke out, and 
blood toucheth blood : tho like in many other places. And there 
being no human laws for putting murderers to death, therefore 
God did in a remarkable manner take that work into his ovn 
hands in the destruction of those murderers by the waters of the de- 
luge ; but now establishes it as a rule henceforward to be observed, 
that murder shall be revenged in a course of public justice. 

Another reason why God now does expressly establish and pa^ 
ticularly insist on this rule is, that God had now first given then 
leave to shed the blood of beasts for food, which had not been 
granted till now, which liberty they would have been in danger of 
abusing, to make shedding of blood appear a less terrible thing to 
them, and so taking encouragement the more lightly to shed men*! 
blood, had not God set up this fence. 

[238] Gen. ix. 12, 13, 14, 15. Concerning (he rainbow tkat 
God gave for a token of the covenant to Noah. The author of 
Revelation examined with Candour, supposes that the rainbow was 


ten before Noab saw it, on occasioB of his revealing his 
It to him, and says, ^^ The tradiiioo of antiquity concern- 
rainbow, seems strongly to confirm this opinion ; for /m, 
s the name of the rainbow with the Greeks, is said to be 
ghter of TkaunuMy i. e. Wonder, and the messenger of Ju- 
I carry his great oath to the other gods when they had of- 
Now this seems to be a fable plnihly founded upon the 
covenant now mentioned, which God made with men after 
ige, the covenant of God on this occasion plainly implies 
b of God, as you may learn from Isai. liv. 9, where God 
ig his resolution of mercy to the Gentiles, useth these 
' Far this is as (he waters of Noah unto meyfor as I have 
hat the waters of Noah shoidd no more go over the earthy so 
)wom that I would not be wroth with ihee^ nor rebuke thee.^^ ' 

] Gen. ix. 12, &c. Concerning the rainbow^ the token of 
nant. This is on many accounts a token of God's cove- 
grace, and his special promise of no more overthrowing 
ih with a flood in particular. 

IS a most fit token of the covenant of grace of which this 
lar covenant was a part, and also an image, as appears by 
/• 8, 9, 10. Tokens of things that appertain to the cove- 
God do as fitly confifm this promise, as they did the pro- 
entioned in the vii. chap, of Isaiah, ver. 14. It is light 
s the symbol of God's favour and blessed communications 
I that are the objects of his favour, and a symbol of hope, 
t and joy, excellency and glory. It is a very pleasant 
xcellently representing that grace and love that is manifest- 
be covenant of grace, and that sweet comfort and peace, 
It excellent grace and glory that is the fruit of that love, 
light manifested in all the variety of its beautiful colours, 
represent^ as has been elsewhere shown, the beauty and 
3ss of the divine Spirit of love, and those amiable sweet 
and happy influences that are from that Spirit. 
a pleasant sweet light in a cloud, which is the symbol of 
rine presence, and especially of God manifest in the flesh, 
le human nature of Christ, and therefore fitly represents 
lasant grace and sweet love of God as appearing in Christ 
an. The light of the sun is more beautiful and pleasant to 
akeyes appearing thus in a cloud where the dazzling bright- 
it is removed, and its pleasantness retained and illustrated, 
hen we behold it in the sun directly. So the divine perfec- 
ts appearing in Christ God man, are brought down to our 
r of conception, and are represented to the greatest advan- 
) such' weak creatures as we are, and appear not glaring and 
ng, but easy, sweet, and inviting. The light of the rainbow 


ID a cloud, teaches the like mystery witii the light of 6re in a pil- 
lar of cloud in the wilderness, even the uuiouof the divine aatore, 
or God dwelling in flesh. 

It is a pleasant light in the bosom of a dissolving cloud, that is 
wearied with watering, and is spending itself for the sake of men, 
and in order to shed down its fatness, its nourishing, benign, re- 
freshing influences on the earth, and so fitly represents the beauty 
and love, and excellent fulness of Christ, as it is manifested in bis 
dying for men. The drops of rain fitly represent Christ's blood, 
and also his word, and the blessed communications of bis Spirit, 
which come by his death, and are compared to the rain in the 

As the cloud fitly represents the human nature of Christ's 
person, so also it doth Christ mystical, or the human nature of 
the church. In the rainbow the light of the sun is imparted to, 
and sweetly reflected from a cloud, that is but a vapour that con- 
tinues for a little while, and then vanishes away in an empty, on- 
substantial, vanishing thing, driven to and fro with the wind, that 
is far from having any light or beauty of its own, being io its 
own nature dark. 

The multitude of drops from which the light of the sun is so 
beautifully reflected, signify the same with the multitude of the 
drops of dew that reflect the light of the sun in the morning, spo- 
ken of, Ps. ex. 3. (See notes in the place.) They are all 6od*s 
jewels, and, as they are all in heaven, each one by its reflectioo, 
is a little star, and so do more fitly represent the saints ihao the 
drops of dew. These drops are all from heaven, as the sanits are 
born from above ; they are all from the dissolving cloud, so the 
saints are the children of Christ, they receive their new nature 
from him, and by his death they are from the womb of the cloud, 
the church: Jerusalem which is above, is the mother of us all ; the 
saints are born of the church that is in travail with them, endur- 
ing great labours, and suflering, and carnal persecutions, so those 
jewels of God are out of the dissolving cloud. These drops re- 
ceive and reflect the light of the sun just breaking forth, and shin- 
ing out of the cloud that had been till now darkened and hid, and 
covered with thick clouds, so the saints receive grace and com- 
fort from Christ's rising from his state of humiliation, suflfering, 
and death* wherein his glory was veiled, and he that is the bright- 
ness of God's glory was as it were extinguished, as was signified 
in the time of it, by that eclipse of the sun. The light which iu 
the sun, its fountain, is one and unvaried as it is reflected from 
the cloud, appears with great variety, so the glory of God, that is 
simple, is reflected from the saints in various graces. The whole 
rainbow, composed of innumerable shining beautiful drops, all 
uaited in one, ranged in such excellent order, some parts higher 


mnd others lower, the different colours, one above another in 
SQch exact order, beautifully represents the church of saints 
of different degrees, gifts, and offices, each with its proper place, 
and each with its peculiar beaiily : each drop may be beautiful in 
itself, but the whole as united together, much more beautiful. 
Numb* xxiv. 5, 6. " How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob ! and thy 
tabernacles, O Israel ! as the valleys are they spread forth, as the 
gardens by the river's side ; as the trees of lign-aloes which the 
Lord hath planted, and as the cedar-trees beside the waters." Ps. 
xlviii. 2. *^ Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth is 
mount Zion." Ps. I. 2. '* Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, 
God hath shined." Ps. cxxii. 3. '^ Jerusalem is builded as a city 
compact together. Part of this bow is on earth, and part in hea- 
ven, so it is with the church. The bow gradually rises higher 
and higher from the earth towards heaven, so the saints from their 
first conversion are travelling in the way towards heaven, and 
gradually climb the hill, till they arrive at the top. So this bow 
in this respect is a like token of the covenant with Jacob's ladder, 
which represented the way to heaven by the covenant of grace, in 
which the saints go from step to step, and from strength to 
strength, till they arrive at the heavenly Zion ; so in this bow the 
ascent is gradual towards the top in the way to heaven ; the begin- 
ning of the ascent is sharpest and most difficult ; the. higher you 
ascend the easier the ascent becomes. On earth this bow is divided, 
the parts of it that are here below are at a distance from one 
another, but in heaven it is united, and perfectly joined together. 
So different parts of the church on earth may be divided, sepa- 
rated as to distance of place, have no acquaintance one part with 
another, and separated in manner of worship and many opinions, 
and separted in affection, but will he perfectly united in heaven. 
The parts of the rainbow, the higher you ascend, the nearer and 
nearer do they come together, so the more eminent saints are in 
knowledge and holiness, the nearer they are to a anion in opinion 
and affection, but perfect union is not to be expected but in 

This beautiful, pleasant light, appears after the heavens have 
been covered with blackness, and have poured out rain on the 
earth, seeming to threaten its destruction by a deluge ; so it is a 
fit sirobol of his mercy after his anger, the turning away of his 
anger, his mercy appearing in the forgiveness of sins. So the 
glorious gospel follows the law, and Christ's glory follows his 
sufferings, and comfort in the hearts of the saints follows sorrows 
of conscience ; yea this light is light in darkness, it is a beautifnl 
light reflected from the dark cloud, showing God's love in his an- 
ger, his love appearing in his frowns. God's love never so great- 
ly appeared as in the sufferings of Christ, the greatest manifesta- 


tion of his anger against sinners, and his love when the shower 
is over in past threateniogs, and convictions, and terrors of con- 
science, which the saints have been the subjects of. 

The rainbow, if completed, would be a perfect circle, the 
most perfect figure in every part united, fitly representing the 
most excellent order and perfect union that there shall be in the 
church of Christ. The rainbow is sometimes in scripture re- 
presented as a circle, Rev. x. 1, << And a rainbow was upon his 
head.*' The reason why the circle is not now complete, is be- 
cause a part of it is as it were under the earth*; but if we by 
standing on an high mountain, or otherwise see tt all raised 
above the earth, we should see it a complete circle. So the 
church of Christ is now incomplete, while a ]iart of the eleU 
church is buried under the earth, and a part has never yet re- 
ceived being, but after the general resurrection, when that part 
of the church that is now under the earth shall be raised above 
it, then the church of Christ would be in its complete state. If 
we could view the resurrection church from an high mountain, 
as the apostle John viewed it, and saw it in the colours of the 
rainbow, reflected from these precious stones, we should see 
the circle completed without any part wanting, all disposed Id 
the most perfect union and beautiful order. The order of the 
drops of the rainbow, supposing them to represent saints, and 
the sun to represent Christ, is the most apt, commodious, and 
beautiful, both with respect to the sun and each other. They 
are in the most apt order with respect to the sun, all opposite to 
him, and so placed in a fit posture to view the sun, and to re- 
ceive and reflect his rays, all at an equal distance from the sun, 
and all in a sense round about him to testify their respect to 
him, and yet none behind him, but all before his face, and all 
in the most apt order to behold and reflect light on, and con- 
verse together, and assist and rejoice one another. On the 
whole, here is an image of the most pleasant and perfect har- 
mony, of a great and blessed society dependent on, blessed in, 
and showing respect to, the fountain of all light and love. 

The sun is as it were in the centre of this beautiful circle of 
little jewels or stars, as the sun is in the centre of the orbits of 
the planets, and as the ark, and mercy-seat, and the seven lamps 
were in the midst of the tabernacle of blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, those colours of the rainbow, and as Christ is in the 
midst of the seven golden candlesticks, and as the throne of the 
Lamb is in the midst of the saints of heaven, who are round 
about that throne, and also a -rainbow round about the throne, 
Rev. iv. 3, 4 ; and as the Lamb, who is the light of the new 
Jerusalem, has that city adorned with the colours of the rainbow 
round about him. 



Each drop contains in itself a beatitifnl imasre of the sun re- 
.ected after its manner according to that part of the sun's glory 
rhich is most conspicuous in it : one contains a red image of the 
un, another a yellow one, another a green one, and another a 
ilue one, &c. : so each saint reflects the image of Christi though 
sach one has his particular gift, and there he some particular 
;raee or spiritual beauty that is most conspicuous in him. The 
vrhole bow, when completed into the form of a circle, or all that 
multitude of shining jewels or stars to^^ether united into that 
excellent form and order, do together constitute one complete 
iiDiige of the sun. Though the image differs from the sun it- 
self in the following things : 1. That whereas the disk of the 
lun is full within its own circumference, the image is empty, it 
is a circle not filled, but left empty to be filled with the sun, so 
Christ hasall fulness in himself, but the church is in itself an 
empty vessel, and Christ is her fulness. 2. Whereas the light 
n single in the sun, in the bow it is diversified, reflected in a 
great variety, the distinct glories of the sun as it were divided, 
sod separately reflected each beauty by itself, as it is in Christ 
and his church. 3. Though there be so many that each one re- 
flects a little image of the sun, and the whole bow or circle be 
of so great extent, and be so beautiful, yet the sun infinitely ex- 
ceeds the whole in light, the whole reflects but a little of the 
brightness of the fountain. 

A drop of rain fitly represents man. It is a very small thing, of 
little value and significancy ; a drop of the bucket, and light dust 
of the balance, are mentioned together as small and worthy of 
DO consideration. It is very weak, very mutable, and unstable, 
exceeding liable to perish, soon falls and is dissipated, and can- 
not be made up again. The continuance of a drop of rain is 
bat short, it is a thing of a very posting nature, its course is 
iwift, and in a moment it sinks into the earth, and is no more, 
which fitly represents the frailty and mortality of man, whose 
days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle, who is but a momeo* 
tary thing, and hastens with a swift course to the grave. Man's 
dying and sinking into the grave is compared to this very thing, 
of .water's being spilt on the ground, sinking into the earth, and 
BO being irrecoverably gone, 2 Sam. xiv. 14. 

The drops of rain reflecting the light of the sun in the rain- 
bow fitly represent the saints, for in them fire and water are 
mixed together, which fitly represents the contrary principles 
that are in the saints' flesh and spirit. In those drops are a 
brighter spark of heavenly fire in the midst of water, and yet it 
it Dot quenched, it is kept alive by the influence of the sun, as 
the heavenly seed and divine spark is kept alive in the saints in 
the midst of corruption and temptation, that seem often nfl if 
VOL. IX. 24 


they would overwhelm and extinguish it. So God suffers oot 
the smoking flax to be quenched. The drop io itself is wbollj 
water, as the nature of nmn in itself is wholly corrupt ; in the 
saints, that is, in their flesh, dwells no good thing; they hare 
no light or brightness in them, but only what is immediately 
from heaven, from the Sun of Righteousness. In the drops of 
the rainbow is represented both the saints descending to the 
grave by the flesh, and also their ascending to heaven by the spi- 
rit of holiness, for the water descends swiftly to be buried iothe 
earth, but by the fire a beautiful light, in them is represented 
an ascent as it were up an hill from the earth to heaven. 

These drops fitly represent the saints on another account, as 
Mary's alabaster box of precious ointment represented the heart 
of a saint ; this drop, though itself is weak and frail, yet is 
clear and pure as alabaster, and contains as it were a spark or 
show of beautiful heavenly light in it, which represents the 
same divine grace that Mary's precious ointment did. 

[419] Gen. x. and xi. The dispersion and first setthment of 
the nations. By the descendents of Jophat were the isles of the 
Gentiles divided. Gen. x. 5. By the Isles^ the Hebrews denoted 
not only such countries as were on all sides encompassed by sea* 
but also such countries as were so divided by the sea from theni 
as that they could not be well come unto, or at least used not to 
be gone unto, but by sea : in brief, they called islands^ all beyond 
sea-countries^ and all people islanders, which were wont to come 
by the sea to them and to the Egyptians, among whom the Jews 
lived a long time, and so called things by the same names, at 
least in Moses's time, when the people were lately come out of 
Egypt. Now such are not only the island of Cypress, Crete, 
and other islands of the Mediterranean, but also the country of 
the Lesser Asia, and the countries of Europe ; and indeed those 
countries, so many of them as were then inhabited and known 
to the Jews, were not only beyond the sea, but peninsulas mostly 
encompassed by the sea, as the Lesser Asia, Greece, Italy, and 
Spain. And that not only Europe, but the countries of the 
Lesser Asia were called isles^ seems manifest by Isai. x. 10, LI, 
*' The Lord shall recover the remnant of his people from Assy- 
ria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, and from 
the islands of the sea." Lesser Asia is either here included 
under the term, islands of the sea, or wholly left out : but it is 
not likely the countries of Asia would be mentioned so many of 
them to the south-east and north of Judea, far and near, and the 
countries of Europe beyond the Lesser Asia, and all countries 
of the Lesser Asia wholly passed over. 


The fK>ns of Japhet were seven, Gomer, Magog, Madai, Ja- 
▼an. Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. The sons of Gomer were 
Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. The sons of Javan were 
Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodenim, Gen. x. 2. 4. 

To begin with Gomer and his sons, to whom we maj assign 
the greatest part of the northern tract of the Lesser Asia for 
their first plantations. Josephus tells us expressly that the Ga- 
latians who lived in this tract were called Gomeritesy and Hero- 
dotus tells us that a people called Cimmerii dwelt in those parts; 
and Pliny speaks of a town in Troas, a part of Phrygia, called 
Cimmeris. All the northern part of Lesser Asia was anciently 
called Phrygia by the Greeks, which is a word that in the Greek 
language signifies torrid or burnt country, as Gomer in Hebrew 
is from the Radix Gamar, which signifies to consume; and its 
derivation Griimra, or Gumro, signifies a coal, and it is certain 
there was a part of this country which was specially called by 
the Greeks, *fu7ia Ksxaufxsvr], Burnt Phrygian 

Asbkenaz, who of the three sons of Gomer is first named by 

Moses, was seated in the western part of the nation of Gomer, 

i. e. in the north*west part of the Lesser Asia ; as it is hardly to 

be questioned, there being so plain footsteps of his name to be 

found in those parts ; for in Bythinia there is a bay formerly 

called the Ascanian bay, together with a river and lake of the 

tame name, and in the lesser Phrygia, or Troas, there was both 

a city and province anciently known by the name of Ascania, 

and there was isles lying on the coast called the Ascanian isles ; 

nor is it any way unlikely but that in honour of this Ashkenaz, 

the king and great men of those pacts took the name of Asca- 

oias, of which name besides, Ascanius, (he son of Eneas, we 

Sod a king mentioned in the second book of Homer's Iliads, 

which came to the aid of Priamus at the siege of Troy, arid 

from hence probably came name that the Greeks gave to the 

lea, the Euxine sea. From the family of Ashkenaz, upon the 

eoasts along which lies the entrance into this sea, with some 

variation of the sound, which length of time might naturally 

introduce. And the prophet Jeremiah foretelling the taking of 

Babylon by Cyrus, has this expression, chap. li. ver. 27. ^' Call 

together against her the kingdom of Ararat, and Miseni, and 

Ashkenaz ;" where, by the kingdom of Ashkenaz, may very well 

be understood the inhabitants of those parts we are speaking 

of, for Xenophon, as Bochart has well observed, tells us that 

Cyrus having taken Sardes, sent Hystaspes with an army into 

Phrygia, that lies on the Hellespont, and that Hystaspes having 

made himself master of the country, brought along with him 

from thence a great many of the horse and other soldiers of the 


Pbrygianty whom Cyrus took along with the rest of bis ar 

Riphath, the second son of Gonier, is probably suppo^ 
have seated his family in the parts adjoining eastward t 
plantation of his brother Ashkenaz. This opinion is conii 
by the testimony of Josephus, who expressly says that the] 
lagonians, a people inhabiting some portion of this tract, 
originally called Riphatenns^ from Riphat. There are also 
remainders of his name to be found here among the wr 
of the ancient Greeks and Latins. For in Appalloniues's . 
nauticksy there is mention made of the river called lih( 
which rising in this tract, empties itself into the Euxin( 
The same is called by Dionysius Periegetes, and others Rl 
Stephanus does not only acquaint us with the river, but U 
also of a region of the same name, and whose inhabitants 
called Rhebcei ; and Pliny places here a people called Ri 
and another called Arimphcei. 

The third and last son of Gomer named by Moses, is 2 
mahy whose family was seated in the remaining, and consec 
ly in the most easterly part of the nation of Gomer, an< 
situation of the family of Togarmah is agreeable both to s 
and common writers ; for as to sacred scripture, Ezekiel 
speaks, chap, xxzviii. ver. 6. '* Gomer, and all his band 
house of Togarmah, of the north quarters, and all his bai 
and again, chap, xxvii. ver. 14. '' They of the house o 
garmah traded in thy fairs, (i. e. the fairs of Tyre,) with h 
and horsemen, and mules." Now the situation that we f 
to Togarmah makes it in a manner lie true north from . 
and Cappadocia, by which name a considerable part of t 
of Togarmah was in process of time known to the Greeks 
very well stocked with an excellent breed of horses and n 
and that the inhabitants were esteemed good horsemen, 
well attested by several ancient heathen writers, as Solin 
Cappadocia, Dionysius Periegates, Claudian, and Strabo 
there are to be found footsteps of the very name of Tog 
in some of those names, whereby some of the inhabitai 
this tract were known to old writers. Thus Strabo tells u 
the Trochmi dwelt in the confines of Pontus and Cnppa< 
And several towns lying on the east of the river Halys, a 
in Cappadocia, are assigned to them by Ptolomy. They a 
Cicero called Trogmij and Trachmcni by Stephanus; and 
council of Chalccdon ihey are called Trocmadesy or Trogm 
there being frequent mention made in that council of Cyri 
Bishop of the Trogmades, 

We next proceed to say something of the colonies v 
coming from the nation of Gomer, in process of time s 


IhemselTea in several parts of Europe. Herodotus tells us that 
a people called Cimmerii formerly dwelt in that tract of Lesser 
Asia, which we assign to Gomer. So he telU uh withal that 
these people put out a colony to Pains Maeotis, on the north of 
tthe Euxine sea, and so gave the name of Bosphorus Cimmerius 
lothe strait betwixt the Euxine sea and the Maeolick lake, now 
iommonly called the strait of Caffa. 

This colony of the Cimmerii increasing in process of time, 
•ad so spreading themselves still by new colonies further west- 
ward, came along the Danube, and settled themselves in the 
•country which from them has been called Germany. For as to 
tlie testimony of the ancients, Diodorus Siculus, (as Mr. Mede 
observes) affirm that the Germans had their original from the 
Cimmerians, and the Jews to this day (as the same learned per- 
[lon remarks) call them Ashkenazim of Ashkenaz. Indeed 
they themselves retain plain marks enough of their descent both 
in the name Cimbri and also in their common name Germans, or 
ts tbey call themselves, Germen^ which is but a small variation 
from Gemren, or Gomren, and this last is easily contracted from 
Gfamertn, that is, Gomereans; for the termination en is a plural 
termination of the German language, and from the singular 
number, Gomer, is formed Gemren by the same analogy that from 
hrother is formed brethren. The other name Cimbri, is easily 
framed from Cimmeriiy and by that name the inhabitants of the 
northwest peninsula of old Germany, now called Jutland, were 
known not only to the ancient, but latter writers, and from this 
name of the inhabitants, the said peninsula is called Cimbrica 
Chersonesusj and that frequently by modern authors.^ 

Out of Germany, the descendants of Gomer spread them- 
selves into Gaul, or France. To prove this, Mr. Camden quotes 
the testimony of Josephus, when he says that those called by the 
Greeks Golatae were originally called Gomeritcs, which words 
may be understood either of the Asiatick Golatce, commonly 
called by us Galatians, or the European Galatce, commonly 
called by us Gauls. If it be taken in the former sense, then 
it is a testimony for the first seating of Gomer in the tract of 
the Lesser Asia we have assigned him, and on this account it 
is before taken notice of by us. Mr. Camden also produces the 
testimony of other writers to prove the Gauls to be from Gomer, 
as of Appian, who in his Illyricks, says expressly that the Ccltae, 
or Gauls, were otherwise called Cimbri, Those barbarians whom 
Marius defeated, Cicero plainly terms Gauls, and all historians 
agree that these were the Cimbri, And the coat-armour of 
1)eleus, their king, digged up at Aix, in Provence, where Ma- 
rius routed them, does evince the same, for the words Beleos 
Cimbros were engraven upon it in a strange character. Again : 


Lucan calls that ruffian that was hired to' kill MariaSi a Gm- 
brian^ whereas Livy and others affirm him to have been a Cimd; 
and by Plutarch the Cimbri are called CroUo^Seytkians. 

Hence we conclude that the ancient inhabitants of Britain weit 
descended from Gomar, for il is not to be questioned but that tbe 
isle was 6rst peopled from those countries of the European conti- 
nent, which lie next to it, and consequently from Germany or 
Gaul. The name by which the offspring of those ancient Bri« 
tons, the Welch, call themselves to this very day, is Kumro, or 
CimrOf and Kumrif and in like manner they call a Welsh wo- 
man KumraeSt and their language, Humeraeg; and since the j 
Saxons and Angles were Germans, who as was before observed, | 
were descendants of Gomer, and were near neighbours to the peo- : 
pie that were more especially called Cimbri^ hence it follows thit 1 
our ancestors, who succeeded the old Britons, were also de- i 
scended from Gomer ] 

But now to proceed to the other sons of Japhet, as the natioi j 
of Gomer first seated itself in the northern tract of the Lesser Asia, | 
so the nation of Javan seated itself in the southern tract of the \ 
•ame. And this appears not only from the name of a coantfy ia 
this tract called Ionia, but also from the situation of the four fih 
milies of Javan's sons within this tract, which are mentioned ia 
thia order by Moses, Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodaoin^ 
Gren. X. 4. 

Tarshish seated himself on the eastern part of this tract, u 
is probable, on several considerations. For Tarsus is a chief 
town of Cilicia, and Josephus expressly affirms that Cilicia, and 
the country round it, was originally known by the name of Tarsh' 
ish. It is scarcely to be doubted, but this was the Tarshish^ to 
which the prophet Jonas thought to flee from the presence of the 
Lord, as also that this principally was the Tarshish mentioned so 
often by the prophets, on account of its trading with Tyre. 

To the west of Tarshish, adjoining the portion appertaining 
to Kiitimj or CUlinij which word having a plural termination, 
does, in all probability, imply the descendants of Keih^ or the 
Ketians. Ptolomy tells us of a country here called Cetis^ and 
Homer in Odys. 4, mentions a people called Cetii^ who were 
thought to take their name from a river, CetiuSy in the same quar- 
ter. But it is remarkable that this is agreeable to the name 
mentioned by Homer. Josephus will have the isle of Cyprus to 
have been the seat of the Cittim^ because therein was a town called 
Citium^ of good note, but it is not to be questioned, but the con- 
tinent was peopled before the island, and consequently that the 
Cittim first seated themselves on the continent, from which they 
might, probably enough, send in process of time, some colony 
over into the neighbouring island of Cyprus* 


The two remaining families ofJavan, viz. Elishah^ nnd Dodanim, 
imted themselves on the western coast of the southern tract of 
le Lesser Asia. Here upwards, or northwards, were anciently 
itnated the ^oles, who as they carry som^ marks of their pedi- 
gree in their name, so are expressly affirmed hy Josephas to have 
Ken descended from Elishah, and from him to have taken their 
lame. And since the country, peculiarly called in after ages, 
hmta, joined to the sonth, of what was in said ages peculiarly 
called JGolia, it is probable that the said Ionia, (so peculiarly call- 
ed perhaps, from Javan*s living there with his son Elishah,) was 
possessed originally by the sons of Elishah, or else partly by them 
lod partly by the Dodanim — of whom next. < 

On the same western coast, south of the family of Elishah, may 
tbe family of Dodanim be supposed to have first planted itself, 
ibr there we find in ancient writers a country called Doris, which 
may not improbably be derived from Dodanim, especially if this 
be plural, as the termination seems to import, and so the singular 
WM Dodan ; which being softened into Doran, the Greeks might 
eisily frame from thence Dorus, whom they assert to be the fa- 
ther of the Dorians. Certain it is from the Greek writers them- 
•elves, that the Dores or Dorians were a considerable body of the 
Greeks, insomuch that Dorico Casira is taken by Virgil to de- 
note the whole Grecian camp, wherefore it is very probable that 
tbey bad their extraction from one of the sons of Javan, the father 
of the Greek nation, and distinguished themselves from the other fa- 
milies of Javan, by assuming to themselves the name of the father 
of their family, as the others did, and consequently called them- 
lehres Dodanim, which the Greeks in time moulded into Dores, 
The Greeks say of Dorus, the father of the Dorians, that he was 
die son of Neptune, who evidently was the same with Japhet ; 
((ce No. 405 ;) and though Dodanim was the grandson of Ja- 
phet, yet according to the usual way of speaking among the 
Hebrews, he was called the son of Japhet. The change of Do- 
Am into Dorus is the more likely, by reason of the great like- 
■Kis there is between the Hebrew D and R. Hence, (viz. from 
DeriSf) some might pass over to the isle of Rhodes, which might 
tke its name from those Dodanim, which by reason of the like- 
lest of letters is sometimes writ Rodanim, which seems to have 
>een the opinion of the seventy interpreters, by their rendering 
be Hebrew word Dodanim by Po^ioi, fihodii. 

I proceed now to speak of the colonies of the posterity of Ja- 
ui, that in process of time were made from their first settle- 
leots, and I shall begin with the two last mentioned, Elishah 
nd Dodanim ; for those lying on the western coast of the Lesser 
kSia, as they increased, peopled by degrees the many isles that 
e on the adjoining sea, and so at length spread themselves into 


tbe European continent. The family of Elishah seems to bare 
possessed themselves of most, or at least the roost considerable 
isles lying in the sea between F'urope and Asia, forasmocb as 
they are called by the prophet Ezekiel, xxvii. I^^he Isles of EH- 
shah. What the prophet there says of the blue and the purple from 
the isles of Elishah, is very applicable to the isles of this sea, for- 
asmuch as they did abound in this commodity, and are on that 
account celebrated by common authors, and some .of them took 
their names from it. And the sea itself on which these isles were, 
seems originally to have been called the Sea of Elishah; which 
name, though it wore away in process of time in other parts, yet 
seems to have been all along preserved in that part, which to this 
day is frequently called the Hellespont, as if one should say 
Elisce Pontos, the Sea of Elishah. And this derivation of the 
word Hellespont will appear yet more likely, when we consider 
that the descendants of Elisha, passing over into Europe, came 
afterwards to be termed Hellenes^ and their country Hellas, a 
name which in process of time became common to all Greece; 
in which there were other footsteps of Elishah*s name to be foand 
formerly, as in the city and province of jE//>, in the Peloponesus, in 
the city of Eleusis, in Attica ; and in the river Elissus^ and /Jtf- 
sus, in the same province. Some think the Camjn EUsiiy so much 
celebrated among the Greeks, to have been so called from Elisba. 

As to DMlenim^ or the Dorians, the Spartans or the Lacede- 
monians, looked on themselves to be of Dorick extraction, and 
there were formerly remainders of the name to be found in those 
parts of Greece. In the province of Messena, in the Peloponesus, 
there was a town called Dorion, and of the other tract of Greece, 
lying above the isthmus of the Peloponesus, there was a con- 
siderable part called Doria, Dorica, or Doris ; to say nothing of 
Dodona : and ail the Greek nation is sometimes called Dotes, as 
was before observed, out of Virgil. 

As to Kittim, or the Cittim, they probably sent their first colony 
to the neighbouring isle of Cyprus, which seems to be called the 
land of Chiitim. Isai. xxiii. 1 — 12. But in process of time want- 
ing more room, and therefore seeking out further, and finding 
the lower parts of Greece already inhabited by the descendants 
of Elishah and Dodanim, they still proceeded on, coasting along 
the western shores of Greece, until they came to the upper, and 
northern parts of it, which not being yet inhabited, some of theffl 
planted themselves there, whilst some others of them descryingtbe 
coast of Italy, went and settled themselves in that country. Hence 
it comes to pass, in probability, that both Macedonia in Greece, 
and also Italy, are denoted in scripture by the names of CiUim^ 
or Kittim. The author of the book of Maccabees plainly denote! 
Macedonia, by the land of ChetUm, when he says that Alexaa- 


fy tlie son of Philip the Macedonian, came out of the land of 
keHinij I Mac. i. 1 ; so also chap. viii. 5, the said author calls 
srseus king of Macedonia, king of (he CUims. The more an- 
val name of this country was Maceiia^ and the Macedonians 
smselves are otherwise termed MacelcR. 

The place of scripture where C/ntiim, by the consent of almost 
I expositors, denotes the Romans, is Dan. xi. 29, 30 ; for by the 
ips of Chiitim^ there mentioned, is understood the Roman fleet; 
' the coming whereof, Antiochus was obliged to desist from his 
signs against Egypt. There are also several footsteps of the 
ime Chittim, or Cheth, to be found in Italy, among eminent 
'iters ; as a city of Latium, called Cetia^ mentioned by Diony- 
is Melicarnasseus : another city among the Volsci, called Eche- 
I, mentioned by Stephanus ; also a river near Eumae, called 
?tu^. Nay, there are not wanting authors who e>pressly assert 
e Romans and Latins, to have had their extraction from the 
ilii, or Cetii, as Eusebius, Cadrenus, Suidas ; whose testimonies 
e produced by Bochart ; and this learned person observes fur* 
er, that the word Chetim, does, in the Arabick tongue, denote 
thing hid, so that the name Latins, might be originally only a 
anslation of the old eastern name Chetim. 
There remains now only the colonies of Tarshish to be spoken 
\ and wheresoever else they seated themselves it is highly 
t>bable that Tariessiis, a city and adjoining country in Spain, 
id much celebrated by the ancients for its wealth, was a^ colony 
' Tarshish. Bochart has observed that Polybius, reciting the 
^rds of a league between the Romans and Carthaginians, men- 
>n8 a place under the name of Tarscium ; and Stephanus ex- 
essly says, that Tarscium was a city near Hercules's Pillars : 
e situation whereof agrees well enough with that of Tartessus. 
gain, what is said by Kzekiel, chap, xxvii. ver. 12, agrees very 
^11 with this Tarshish ; for the words of the prophet run thus, 
Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all 
nds of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy 
irs ;*' i. e. in the fairs of Tyre. JMow, as has been before ob- 
rved, Tartessus was celebrated among tlie ancients for its multi- 
de of riches, and the metals mentioned by the prophet were such 
• SiKiin did formerly abound with. Some also are of opinion 
at the Eirusci of Italy, otherwise called Tyrrheni snd Tusci, 
&re a colony of Tarshish. 'f'he word Eirusci, without the ini- 
il E, (which was frequently added to derivatives) contains the 
dicais of Tarshish. 

The descendants of Tarshish were the most expert seamen, and 

insequently the chief merchants of the early ages of the world. 

ence the whole Mediterranean sea seems to have been at length 

►mprehended under the name of the sea of Tarshish. And be- 

voi^ IX. 25 


canse the descendants of Tarshish were wont to make longer 
voyages and to adventure farther into the open sea than othere 
did in those days, it is not unlikely that they had ships bailt for 
this purpose, and so of somewhat different make both as to sixe 
and shape from the vessels commonly used by others : and heoce 
it is probable that all vessels built for longer voyages and greater 
burdens came to be called ships of Tarshish^ because they were 
built like the ships of Tarshish properly so.called. 

Having observed these things concerning the settlements and 
colonies of the four families of Javan, i would here add something 
with respect to Javan himself, the father of this whole nation; 
and I would observe that it is probable that the colonies that passed 
over in process of time into Europe, though they were distin- 
guished in reference to their distinct families by their distinct 
names, yet were all at first comprehended under the name of Jo- 
nians. Indeed the Scholiast in Aristophanes (as Bochart hath ob- 
served) expressly says that all the Greeks were by the Barbarians 
called iaones, i. e. lonians. Hence the Ionian sea came to be 
extended anciently to the western coast of Greece, and that north- 
wards up as far as the western coast of Macedonia. Now it is 
plain that the name lonians was derived from the founder of this 
nation, Javan. For the Hebrew word, setting aside the vowels 
which are of disputable authority, may be read Ion, or Jaon. 
But supposing the word to be all along pronounced with the same 
vowels it has in the Hebrew text at present, it is granted by the 
learned in the same language, thnt the true pronunciation of the 
Hebrew vowel, Kamets, carries in it a mixture of our vowel o as 
well as (7, so that the Hebrew Jr is very regularly turned into the 
Greek lawv, whence by contraction may be made*Iwv. Since there- 
fore not only the forementioned Scholiast, but also Homer, styles 
those who were commonly called lones, by the name of Jaones, 
it is not to be doubted but the lonians were so called from Javan, 
the founder of their nation. Agreeably to what has been said, 
we find the country of Greece denoted in the book of Daniel 
from time to time, the country of Javan, Dan. viii. 21, x. 20, xi. 
2 ; and also in Joel iii. 6. And though the Athenians affirm that 
the Asiatic lonians were a colony of theirs, yet Hecateus in Strabo 
affirms, that the Athenians, or lonians of Europe, came from those 
of Asia. 

Having spoken somewhat largely of the posterity of Gomer 
and Javan, because Europe appears to be chiefly peopled by them, 
we now proceed to take notice of the other sons of Japhet, among 
whom I shall speak next of Tubal and Menhech, which are so 
mentioned together from time to time in scripture, that it is evi- 
dent that their settlements were adjoining one to the other. 


Meshech joined on to the nation of Gomer eastward, and so set- 
ig at first in part of Cappadocia and Armenia, what according 
the present vowels in the Hebrew is Meshech, was by the 
venty Interpreters, and others, read Mosoch, and hence it it 
y probable that they are the same called by the Greeks Moo^oi, 
iMTi, who were seated in those parts, and from whom no qaes- 
Q but the neighbouring ridge of hills took the name of Mon" 
Moschiciy mentioned by the old geographers. 
To the north of Meshech, adjoined the first plantation of Tubal, 
o, by Josephus, is expressly affirmed to be the father of the 
iatick Iberians. The same historian asserting that when the 
eeks called Iberi, were originally called Thecbeli from Tvhalj 
Is hereunto that Ptolemy places in those parts a city called 
abilica. Mr. Bochart supposes the Tibareni^ a people men- 
ned by old authors in this tract, to -have been so called, from 
ibal, by the change of L into R, which is very frequent. But that 
fshech and Tubal seated themselves in those parts is in a man* 
' put beyond dispute, by what is said of those two nations in 
ek. xxvii. 13, " Tubal and Meshech were thy merchants ; they 
ded in slaves and vessels of brass in thy market." For it 
evident from the testimonise of heathen writers that the Pontick 
;ion, especially Cappadocia, was remarkable formerly for 
ves, as also that in the country of the Tibareni, and Iberia, 
re was the best sort of brass. Mr. Bochart observes that the 
brew word translated in this place brass^ is sometimes rendered 
;/ ; and hence he remarks that as a piece of iron or brass is 
the Arabick tongue, called Tubals probably from its coming 
: of the country of Tubaly so it is likely that from the excellent 
^1 that was made in their country, some of the inhabitants 
reof were denominated by the name of Chalybes among the 
^ks : the word Chalyha^ in the Greek language, signifying 

That the Muscovites^ or MoscoviteSf in Europe, were a colony 
finally of Meshech, or Mosoch, called by the Greeks, Moschi, 
irery probable. 

tfagog is, by the testimony of Josephus, Eustathius, St. Je- 
le, Theodoret, and (as Mr. Mede expresses it,) by the con- 
t of all men, placed north of Tubal, and esteemed the father 
he Scythians that dwell in the east, and northeast, oftheEux- 
sea. This situation is confirmed by scripture itself, Ezek. 
Lviii. 2, ^^ Set thy face against Chg, in, or of the land of Ma- 
% the chief prince of Meshech and TubaV^ Bochart conjec- 
?s that the mountain called by the Greeks Caucasus, took 
name from Gog. But the name of Gog was entirely preserved 
the name Gogarene, whereby was formerly denoted a coun- 
in those parts, as we learn both from Strabo and Stephanas, 
d from hence perhaps in time was fashioned the name Georgia, 


Gurgi^tan^ whereby at this very day is denoted a considerable 
tract io this quarter. That Gog, denotes the Sq^thians in Uie 
prophecy of Ezekiel, may be rationally inferred from £iek. xixii. 
3, where God speaks of Gog thus, " I will smite thy bow oat of 
thy left hand, and will cause thine arrows to fall out of thy right 
hand." Now it is too well known to the learned to need proof, 
that the Scythians were remarkably famous of old for their skill 
in the use of the bow and arrow, insomuch that some amongtbem 
for their winking with one eye when they shot, are said to have 
given them the name of arimaspi^ one-eyed. Nay, it is thought 
by some, and not without ground, that the very name of Scythi- 
ans was derived from shooting, foiasmuch as in the German 
tongue shooters are called Scut ten. 

To say something of the colonies o( Magog, In the panegyrick 
of Tibullus to Messala, we find mention made by the poet of a peo- 
ple about the river Tanais, called Maginij which probably came 
from Magog. Yea, it is not improbable that the Hseotick lake 
into which the Tanais runs, took its name from the descendants 
of Magog ; for Magogitis^ or Magotis, the Greeks might naturally 
after their manner soften into Maiotis^ which the Latins and we 
render Mcdotis. We read in Pliny, that the city in Syria, called , 
UierapoUsj was by the Syrians called Magogs which name it ii 
thought most likely to have taken from the Scythians, when they 
roade*an excursion into Syria, and took this city. On the like ac- 
count it is that the city in Judea, called Bethsan, was also called 
in after ages, Scythopolii. Now Hierapolis being thus called Ms- 
gog, it is not improbable but the adjoining part of Syria might be 
from thence called M^igagene ; which afterwards might be moul- 
ded into Gomageney and so into Comagene ; by which the north- 
ern part of Syria was denoted among the Greeks and Latins. 

The next son of Japhat is Madai^ who is almost universally 
looked upon to be the father of the Medes, who are all along de- 
noted by the name of Madai in the Hebrew text. Bochart thinks 
the Samaritans a colony from those ; he conjectures that the name 
of the Samaritans was originally Senr-Madai, which in the origi- 
nal language denotes the remnant, or posterity of the Medes. See 
> objections against this and another region allotted to Madai, io 
Pool's Synops. vol. i. col. 117, 118. 

Tirai, or Thirai, the last son of Japhet, is by universal agree- 
ment esteemed the father of the Thracians. The name whereby 
the country of Thrace is called in oriental writers, plainly shows 
that the Greek name Thrace was originally derived from Thi- 
ras, the founder ol* the nation. Ancient writers also tell us, that here 
was a river, a bay, and an haven, each called by the name o{ Aihef' 
raty and they mention a city in the peninsula of Thrace calledTy- 
ristasis, and a tract in this country called Thrasus^ and a peo» 
pie called TrausL We learn also from them that one of the names 


ifMarSy tbegodofthe Tliraciang, wasdoufo^. Hence Homer calls 
Miars by an epithet eoufo^ A^^, Mars Thurus, We read also in old au- 
thors of Ter^tf, the son of Mars, and first king ofthe Thracians, and 
of one Teres kingof O^try^d?, a people in Thrace : aiid the Odrysae 
Ihemselvea are said to take their name from one Odrysus^ a great 
pertoa among them, insomuch that in after ages he was worshipped 
by the Thracians as a god. As for the colonies of Tiras, it is 
hardly to be doubted but some of them planted themselves in the 
country over against Thrace, on the north side ofthe Euxine sea, 
For there is a considerable river in those parts, called in both 
Greek and Latin writers Tiras. The very same as the name of 
the father of the Thracian nation, which river is now called the 
Niester. There was also a city of the name of Tiras j standing 
oo this river. The inhabitants of these parts were also formerly 
koowD by tlie name of TyrittB^ or Tyragette. Though probably 
the Tyrita might denote the true descendants of Tyras ; and the 
Tyragetae might denote a mixed race, that arose out of the Ty- 
riUt mixing with the Getm^ a bordering people, descendants of 
the Ceiimy who settled in Macedonia. 

It is not unlikely that Tyras might first sit down with his fa- 
mily in the Lesser Asia, in the country of Troy^ which had no- 
thing to part it from Thrace but the narrow strait of the Heles- 
poDt, and the ancient king named Tros^ whence the country is 
denominated, was probably no other than Tyras. It is the com- 
Bion opinion and tradition among Greek writers, that the inhabi- 
tants on the east side of the Hellespont and Propontis, were ori- 
ginally, or anciently Thracians. 

We proceed next to the first plantations of the sons of Shem. 
There are five sons of Shem mentioned by Moses, viz. Elam, 
and Ashnr, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. 

I shall begin with the settlement of Aram, as being the first 
■atioD of the branch of Shem, adjoining to the nations of the 
branch of Japhet, already spoken of. For the portion that fell 
to the nation of Aram, lay in the countries called by the Greeks 
Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Syria. It is probable that Arme* 
ma took its present name from Aram. Mesopotamia^ as it was 
so called by the Greeks, from its situation between the rivers Ku- 
pbrates and Tygris, so it was called by the Hebrews Aram 
Naharaim^ \. e. Aram of^ or between, the two rivers. And where- 
as one part of this country, viz. that lying next to Armenia, was 
very fruitful, and the other to the south very barren, and so of 
the like sort with Arabia Deserta, to which it adjoined, hence 
the former is in scripture distinguished by the name of Padan- 
amm, which is equivalent to. Fruitful Aram. 

Aram's sons are four, viz. Uz and Hul, Gether and Mash. 
Ai for Uzf he is by a great agreement of the ancients said to be 


the builder of the city of Damascus, aod bis posterity are sap 
posed to have settled the country about it« Here see PooPi 
Synopsis on Gen. x. 23. 

The family of /fir/, or as it is in the original, CAk/, may^ witk 
great probability be placed in Armenia, particularly the Greatn 
Armenia, for there we find the names of several places beginoing 
with the radicals of Chul, as Cholva^ Cholvaia^ Cholimna^ Coins, 
CcUura ; and to mention but one more, Cholcbaiatef which hut 
seems to have been formed from the oriental Ckolbeiky which de- 
notes the same as the house or dweUing of Choi. Now this Ci^ 
lobatene being the name of a province in Armenia, from this et-' 
pecially we may gather with good probability that Chul with Ui 
family seated himself in those parts. 

Between Hul to the north, and Uz to the south, their brother 
Mash seated himself, vix. about the mountain Mating. From this 
mountain issues out a river of Mesopotamia, called by Xenophoi 
Masca^ which probably comes from the name of this son of Arao, 
who otherwise is called in scripture Meshech^ the radicals whereof 
are plainly contained in the name Masca. The inhabitants of tbi 
tract adjoining to the M. Masius, are by Stephanus called Maskm^ 
or Masiani. 

Gether probably seated himself east of his brother Hal, on thi 
eastern borders of Armenia; where some in Ptolemy observes 
city called formerly Getane^ and a river of the same country call- 
ed Getras. 

We now pass on to the nation of Ashur^ which is eastward of the 
nation of Aram, in the country called Ashur in the eastern tongues, 
which is Assyria, properly and originally so called, lying east of 
the Tigris, and wherein stood the city of Nineveh, which was sA 
terwards called Acetabene, and also was sometimes by a change of 
S into T formerly called Attyria. The most ancient king of As- 
syria was said to be the son of Zameg, i. e. Shem, and is styled in 
Suidas, and some others, Thuras, corruptly for Atthuras, i. e« 
Ashur; for Ashur in the Chaldee tongue is Atthur^ or Aiiker, 
This Thuras, the son of Zames, was worshipped by the Assyri- 
ans as their Mars, or god of wan 

That Elam seated himself in the southern tract beyond the ri* 
ver Euphrates, is beyond dispute, not only from the authority of 
the scriptures, wherein the inhabitants of the said tract are plainly 
and frequently denoted by the name of Elam^ but also from hea* 
then writers, wherein we read of a country here called Elymms^ 
and a city of the same name. 

To the lot of Arphaxad is assigned by learned men the more 
southern part of Mesopotamia, where the plain or vale of Shinar 
lay, on the river Tigris, together with the country of Eden, and 
the tract on the east side of the same river, called Arapachitis^ t 


me plainly derived from Arpachshad, which is the name of Ar- 
iMxad in the Hebrew text. That the vale of Shiiinr with the 
antry of Eden, was part of the first plantation of Arphaxadf 
lopposed on these probabilities : 1. That Noah, after the flood, 
turned and settled himself again in these parts, as well knowing 
t goodness of the soil and pleasantness of the country, which is 
n6rmed by a town here called Zama from them. 2. That upon 
e dispersion of mankind and confusion of tongues, as the pri- 
itive Hebrew toiigue was preserved in the family of Arphaxad, 
agreeably hereunto this family still continued in the same parts 
bere they then were, together with their grandsires, Noah and 
hein. 3. This opinion may be confirmed from Gen. x. 30, 
And their dwelling was from Mesha^ as you go unto SephaVj 
mount of the east ;'' for the Mesha here mentioned is probably 
(teemed to be the same mountain as is before mentioned under 
le name of Mashy or MesiuSy in the western parts of Mesopota- 
lia ; so that if the forecited text is to be understood of the de- 
:endants of Arphaxad, (as is thought by several learned men, 
od also by the historian Josephus,) it will import thus much, that 
le soathern part of Mesopotamia, lying on the east of the mount 
teshay or Mesius, was first peopled by the descendants of Ar- 
iaxad; (and accordingly we here find Phals^aj a town probably 
amed from Peleg^ or Fhuleg, settling there ;) and so on eastward 
I fat as to Sephar^ a mount in the east. Now this mount Sephar 
I probably thought to be the mountain adjoining to Siphare, a 
ity in Aria^ and which lies directly east from Mesha; and though 
his be a long tract of ground, yet it will be but proportional to 
be numerous descendants of Arphaxad, especially by Joktan^ of 
rbom more by and by. 4. It is the tradition of the ancients, 
Sastathius, Antiochenus, and Eusebius, that Salah, the son of 
krphaxad, seated himself in Smiana ; and agreeably hereto, we 
ead in old writers of a town called Sela. But now SusianaAxA 
«>Dtain part of the country of Edcn^ which adjoined to, or in aH 
HTobability was part of, the vale of Shinar, largely taken. 5. It 
i farther confirmed that Arphaxad seated himself in the vale of 
Shinar, because we find that Terah, and Abraham his son, came 
»ut of those parts. Gen. xi. 31. '* And Terah took Abram his 
(on, and went forth with them from Vr of the Chaldees, to go into 
be land of Canaan." Now it is confessed, I think by all, that 
Ckaldea comprehended at least a great part of the vale of Shinar, 
lod it is certain that it comprehended as much of the country of 
Sdenas la^ west of the common channel of the Euphrates and Ti- 
p'is. On this text of scripture seems to be grounded what Jose- 
ihus saitb of the Chaldeans being called the Arphaxadeans. 

Having thus seen the first settlements of the descendants of Ar- 
ibaxad, let us turn our eyes a little upon their after colonies, par- 


ticularly those that sprung frooi Joktatij of whom Moses reckons 
tip no fewer than thirteen sons; and as Moses assigns their habi- 
tation from Mesha to mount Saphar, so in this tract learned meo 
have observed the names of several places, which by their likeneii 
to the names of Joktan's sons, seem to tell their respective sitoa- 

There is nothing certain concerning Ludj the remaining son of 
Shem, but that he did not seat himself in the country of Lesser 
Asia, called Lydia. 

Ham was the youngest of the thr^e sons of Noah. He bid 
four sons, Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. We find Egypt 
twice or thrice in the book of Psalms called the land of Uaon, 
whence it seems probable that Ham went thither himself, and there 
settled with his son Mizraim. And it is scarce to be doubted but 
the person denoted by the Greeks uuder the name of Jupiter Jtt 
mon (in honour to whom there was a temple erected in the parts 
of Lybia adjoining to Egypt, much celebrated (or its oracles) 
was no other than Ham. 

It is well known that the nation of Canaan settled itself in the 
country so often called in scripture the land of Canaan. Upoi 
the dispersion of mankind, the country lying on the east asd 
south-east of the Mediterranean sea fell to the share of Canoaii, 
so that he was seated between the nation of Aram to the nortk 
and east, and the nation of Cush^ his brother, to the sooth sod 
southeast, and Mizraim^ another of his brothers, to the sooth- 
west : his western boundary was the Mediterranean sea. His de- 
scendants are thus reckoned up by Moses, Gen. x. 16. 18. " Cfl* 
naan begat Sidon his first born, and Heth^ and the JebuHie^ sod 
the Amorite^ and the Girga^itey and the Hivite^ and the Arldte^ 
and the Sinite, and the Arvadite^ and the Zemarite^ and the Bi- 

Of Sidon were the inhabitants of the city of Sidon, and the 
<^ountry about ; which city, as is apparent both from sacred and 
ancient profane writers, was in the more early ages of the world 
much more considerable than Tyre. iSt^/ont is called Chreat Sidea^t 
Josh. xix. 29; but Ti/rc does not seem to have become considera- 
ble until about David's time. Homer never so much as once 
mentions Tyre, but often makes mention of the Sidonians^ and 
Tyre is expressly called fhe duvghter of Sidon, Isai. v. 12. 

The second family of Canaan mentioned by Moses, is that of 
Heth, whose posterity placed themselves f'n the southern paru4. 
Canaan, about Hebron, as appears from Abraham's concern with 
them there, Gen. xxiii. We also read that during Isaac's dwell- 
ing at Beersheba, Esau took him wives of the daughters of HeA, 
Gen. xxvj. 


iTheJebusiies were seated about Jerusalem, which was originally 
called Jebus^ 1 Chron. xi. 4; so that the Jebusiies joined on to 
the Hittites in the mountains towards the north. As the Hittites 
and Jebusiies^ so also the Amorites^ dwelt in tlie mountainous or 
kiUy part of the land of Canaan^ as appears from Josh. zi. 3. 
And the spies gave this account, Num. xiii. 29, '^ And the JJfY- 
iites^ and the Jebusites^ and the Amoriies dwell in the mountains, 
and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and the coast of Jordan." 
Now as the Hittites seem to have possessed the hill country to the 
nest and southwest of Hebron, and the Jebusiies to the north, so 
the Amorites might settle themselves at first in the hill country to 
the east and southeast of Hebron. This seems probable, because 
the mountainous tract lying next to Kadesh-Barnea, is called the 
mauni of the Amorites^ Deut. i. 7 ; and we are told, Gen. xiv, 7, 
that Chedorlaomer smote the Amorites that dwelt in Hazezon-ta- 
mar^ which was the same place with Engedi, 2 Chron. xx. 2, and 
so was seated in the hilly part of the land of Canaan to the east, 
or towards Jordan. And their neghbourhood to the country be- 
yond Jordan might be the occasion that the Moabites were in pro- 
cess of time dispossessed thereof by the Amorites ; whence that 
tract beyond Jordan is called the land of the Amoriies ; and Si- 
boD, the king thereof, is always called Mng of the Amorites, 

The Girgasite is the next family mentioned by Moses, who 
probably seated themselves at first alonf^ the upper part of the ri- 
ver of Jordan. Here, on the eastern side of the sea of Tiberias, or 
Galilee, we find in our Saviour's time a city called Gergesa. 

The Hivite we find was seated in the ujyper or northern parts 
of Canaan^ and so adjoining to his brother Sidon. For we 
read, Judg. iii. 3, that *' the Hivites dwelt in mount Lebanon 
from mount Baal-Hermon unto the entering in of Hamath." 

In process of time, these families intermixed one with the other ; 
whence we read of some Hivites^ Amorites^ and Hittites in some 
other places than those we have assigned them for their first 
settlements, and also the Amorites becoming the most potent na- 
tion in process of time. Hence they are put to denote, frequent- 
ly» Any <>BC ^^ more of the other nations of Canaan. 

Many of the posterity of Canaan of difierent families, either 
originally or afterwards, (possibly by being dispossessed of their 
original settlements by the Philistines, or by other means,) appear 
to have settled confusedly together, and to have become so inter- 
mixed that the names of their distinct families were not kept up, 
but they were called by the general name of Canaanites. Hence 
we read in the forecited passage. Numb. xiii. 29, the Canaanites 
dwelt by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan. 

As to the remaining families of Canaan mentioned by Moses, 
the first of them that occurs is the Arlcite; which is probably 

VOL. IX. 26 


thought to have settled himself about that part of mount Libanos, 
where is placed by Ptolemy and others a city called Arce. Not 
far from this settlement of the Arkite, did the Sifdle likewise set- 
tle himself; for in the parts adjoining, St. Jerome tells as, wu 
once a city called Sin. As for the Arvadite, the little isle of ^r- 
duSy lying up more north, on the coast of Syria, is supposed to 
have taken its name from the founder of this family. In tbe 
neighbourhood on the continent did the Zemarite probably fix, 
forasmuch as on the coast there we find a town called Symyra, 
not far from Orthosia. And Eusebius does expressly deduce tbe 
origin of the Orthosians from the Samareans. 

The only remaining family is the Hamaihite^ or the inhabitants 
of the land of Hamathy often mentioned in sacred writ, and whose 
chief city was called Hamath. This country lay to the north of 
all the rest of the posterity of Canaan. 

The nation of Cush had its first settlement in the country ad- 
joining to his brother Canaan on the south, that is in Arabia. 
That by Cush in scripture, is denoted Arabia^ and not Ethiopia 
in Africa, is manifest every where in scripture, particularly from 
Num. xxi. 1, compared with Exod. ii. 15 — 21, and Hab. iii. 7, 
2 Kings xix. 9, 2 Chron. xiv. 9, and Ezek. xxix. 10. *' I will 
make the land of Egypt desolate, from the tower of Syene even 
unto the borders of Cush.'' Now all that have any knowledge 
of old geography, know that Syene was the border of Egypt to- 
wards Ethiopia in Africa. There Cush being the opposite boon- 
dary cannot be Ethiopia in Africa, but must be Arabia. 

The sons of Cush are Seba, Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamab, 
and Sabtecha ; to which Moses subjoins the two sons of Raamab, 
Sheba, and Dedan ; and then adds lastly that Cush begat Nimrod, 
who began to be a mighty one upon earth, Gen. x. 7, 8, &c. Now 
we shall find all these but the last seated in Arabia. As for Se- 
bay the first son of Cush, he probably seated himself in the south' 
west of Arahiay where we find a city called Sabe. On the south- 
east side we find another city called Sabanay where we may there- 
fore place Shebay the grandson of Cush, by Raamab ; and tbe 
reason why we choose this to be his situation, rather than tbe 
other side of the country is, because it is on the eastern side of 
Arabia that we find his father and his brother situated ; and it is 
likely he seated himself in their neighbourhood. On this ac- 
count we find him always mentioned with his father and brother, 
as Ezek. xxvii. 22. *' The merchants of Sheba and Raamab were 
thy merchants," and chap, xxxviii. " Sheba and Dedan, and the 
merchants of Tarshish," he. Now these two names, Sheba and 
Sebahy being so much alike, the two different families were con- 
fotinded by the Greeks, and called promiscuously Sabeans. Hence 
Pliny says that the Sabean nation inhabited those parts spread- 


ng themselves to both seas, i. e. from the Red sea to the gulf of 
Persia. But the sacred writers exactly distinguish them, Ps. 
xxii. 10. '< The kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts." 

On the same side of Arabia with Sheba was seated, as has been 
nentioned, both his father Raamah and his brother Dedan. For, 
IS to the former, we find on this shore of the Persian gulf a city 
:alled Rhegma by Ptolemy ; which it is not to be doubted was so 
railed from this reason, for the Hebrew name, which in our trans- 
lation is rendered Raamah^ is in other translations, particularly 
the Septuagint, rendered (agreeably enough, to the radicals) 
Rhegma. Not far from Rhegma, mentioned by Ptolemy, we find 
>n the same coast eastward another city called DedaUj now-a-days 
Dadaefif from which the neighbouring country also takes its 
lame, as Bochart has observed, from Barboza, an Italian writer, 
in his description of the kingdom of Ormuz. 

On the same shore of the Persian gulf, but higher northward, 
we find in Ptolemy the situation of a city called Saphtha^ Whence 
t is probable that Sabta^ the son of Cush, seated himself here. 

Higher still to the northward was seated Havilah^ or Chavilah^ 
ilong the river Pison, on the western channel of the two, into 
vhich the common channel of the Tigris and Euphrates again is 
Hvided, before the waters thereof empty themselves into the Per- 
sian gulf. That Havilah was seated here, is confirmed in that 
ffoses tells us it was seated on a branch of that common channel 
>f which Euphrates and Hiddekel were a part ; and in this coun- 
ry, where we have placed Havilah^ there was, agreeably to what 
kf OSes says of Havilah^ plenty of gold, and that good gold ; 
fhich is agreeable to what ancient authors tell us of Arabia. 
Hoses adds, that in Havilah was Belodachy which some take to 
ignify pearhf others the Bdellium gum. It is much the most 
ikely, however, that pearls are what are intended ; for Moses, in 
[escribing the manna, says it was like coriander seed, and the co- 
9ur thereof as the colour of Belodach. Now it is evident from 
nother description that the colour of manna was white, Exod. 
iv. 31, which is apposite to pearls^ as also is the roundness of the 
laona, but in no wise to the Bdellium gum. Hence the Tal- 
ludists, mentioning this description of manna, instead of saying 
: is like the colour of Bdellium gum, say it is like the colour of 
earls ; and it is certain that there is no place in the world that 
roduceth so fine pearls, and in so great plenty, as the sea next to 
le shore of this country, where we place Havilah^ as is evident 
t>m the testimony of marcbus, one of Alexander's captains ; of 
lidorus ; of Chorax, who lived a little after ; of Pliny ; and iElian, 
od Origen ; of Benjamin, a Navarian ; of Tudela, who lived five 
nndred and fifty years ago ; of Texcira, a Portuguese ; of Balby , 
.inscot, Vincent, Le Blanc, Tavernier, and Thevenot. And if 


we understood the Belodach of the Bdellium gwn^ this alio 
abounded in Arabia, and particularly near the Fersian gnlf» as 
appears from the testimony of many ancient writers. And as to 
the Schohaniy which Moses says was to be found in Havilak^ which 
we render the onyx-stone^ it is doubtless some precious stotie that 
is meant by this ; and it is evident from ancient wriiers, both sa- 
cred and profane, that Arabia formerly abounded with precious 
stones. See Ezek. xxvii. 22, 23. 

And that this very country was the country of Uamlah^ is ma- 
nifest from Gen. XXV. IS, where we are told that the Ishmaelites 
dwelt /ro^n Havilah unto Shur^ that is before Egypt; and from 1 
Sam. XV. 7, where we are told that Saul smote the Amalekites 
from Havilah until thou contest to Shur that is before Egypt. 
In both which passages, by this expression, from Havilah unto 
Shur^ is probably meant the whole extent of that part of Arabia 
from east to west ; and it is evident that Shur was the western 
boundary of Arabia, from those passages, and also from Exod. 
XV. 22, where we read that Moses brought Israel from the Red 
sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur ; and therefore 
it seems no less evident that Havilah was in the eastern extremitj 
of Arabia, over against it, and consequently where we have placed 
it. Where we find in common authors a people placed, whose 
name retains the visible footsteps of the name of their forefathers, 
Havilah^ or Chavilah, as it is in the original ; thus, by Eratos- 
thenes, are placed on these parts the Chavlothi; by Tresans, Anic- 
nas, the Chaulosii ; by Dionysius Periegetes, the ChaUasii; and 
by Pliny, the Chaveleai. 

There remains now Sabteca, who, we must not doubt, placed 
himself among the rest of his brethren, especially since there is 
room enough left for him in the northern part of Arabia. His de- 
scendants might from him regularly enough be styled at first by 
the Greeks Gabsaceui, which name might afterwards be softened 
into Saraceni, by which name it is well known that the people 
of this tract were formerly denominated ; and this is the more 
probable, because Stephanus mentions a country in those parts 
called Saruca, 

The reason why no mention is made in the scriptures of the 
Sdbtaceanst may be this, that those parts of Arabia lying next to 
the Koly land, ure by the sacred writers denoted by the name of 
the whole land of Cush^ or Arabia^ it being to them as it were 
instar totius ; being the only part of the land of Cush they were 
usually concerned with ; and they probably learnt it first in Egypt 
of the Egyptians ; who, after their father Mizraim, called the 
country the land of Cush^ it being natural to him to call it from 
the name of his brethren, rather than from one of his children. 


Moses having named the other sons and grandsons of Cush, 
inbjoins, Gen. x. 8, << And Cush begat Nimrod.'^ By this distinct 
nention o( Nimrod after the rest of his brethren, the sacred his- 
;oriaii is supposed to intimate that Nimrod was indeed the young- 
est of the sons of Cush, but however the most remarkable of 
:hero : and accordingly it immediately follows in the text, '* He 
segaD to be a mighty one upon the earth." 

By what method Nimrod became thus mighty, Moses seems to 
intimate by these words, " He was a mighty hunter before the 
Lord.*' He probably applied himself to hunting, to destroy the 
wild beasts that began to grow very numerous, and very much to 
infest the parts adjoining to the nation of Cush ; and by his great 
art and valour in destroying wild beasts, he inured himself and 
his companions to undergo fatigue and hardship, and withal to 
manage dexterously several sorts of offensive weapons. Being 
thas occasionally trained up to the art of war, and perceiving at 
length his skill and strength sufficient, he began to act offensively 
against men. 

The country at first assigned to Nimrod^ the youngest son of 
Cash, was probably the country on the east ofGihoUy the eastern 
branch of the common channel of Euphrates and Tigris, after its 
second division, before it emptied itself into the Persian gulf, 
next to his brother Havilah, his brethren having possessed Ara- 
bia. This part next to Arabia was assigned to him, and so being 
the portion of one of the sons of Cush, was called the land ofCush^ 
as it is by Moses when speaking of the river Gihon, ** The same is 
it which compasses the whole land of Cush;'' which country was 
formerly, by the Greeks and Latins, called by the name of Susi- 
0na, and is now called Chuzestan. The Nubian geographer, and 
some other Arabians, call it Churesfan, The inhabitants of the 
land call it absolutely and plainly Chus, if we will believe Ma- 
rias Niger. The same region is called Cuthah, 2 Kings, xvii. 
24, speaking of the people transported thence into Samaria, by 
Salmanezer. The word Cuthah, or CtUh, undoubtedly came 
from the word Cush, or CuSj the last letter of which is often 
changed by the Chaldeans into a T, or Th, as Dion hath observed ; 
so they called Theor^ for Sor, and Attyria^ for Assyria, There 
are yet many marks of the word Cush found in the same province. 
We find there the Cassians^ neighbours of the Uxians, according 
to the position of Pliny, Ptolemy, and Arrian. There is also a 
little province of Susiana, viz. Cissia, and the people CissiaWt. 
The poet Eschylus takes notice of a city of that name, situated in 
the same land, and what is remarkable, he does distinguish it by 
its antiquity. 

This country was probably named Cush before Nimrod was 
born, or at least, when he was young, before he distinguished him* 


self in the world, from 'Cusb bis father living here, in that par 
the face of the earth, that fell to the lot of him and his poster! 
that was nearest to the original settlement of Noah and his sc 
and was the pleasantest and most beautiful, like £den, on wh 
it bordered. While Cush sent forth his elder sons to settle A 
ita, it is likely that he staid here himself with his youngest » 
who was probably very young when the earth was divided. 

But Nimrod, when he found his strength and ability for w 

and being grown famous for his extraordinary valour in destroy! 

wild beasts, was not contented with the lot assigned him ; but 

vades first the neighbouring part of the nation of Shem, wh 

upon the division of the earth fell to the lot of the family of j 

phaxad, and so makes himself master of the lower part of theli 

of Shinar, being a most pleasant and fruitful country, s 

pitching on that very place where the city and tower of Babel 1 

been, began to build the capital city of his kingdom. Moses sa 

^' The beginning of his kingdom was Babels and Erechf and j 

cady and Calneh, in the land or Shinar." As to Erech^ it 

probably the same that occurs in Ptolemy under the name 

Arecca^ and which is placed by him at the last, or most soutlx 

turning of the common channel of the Tigris and Euphrates. T 

fields hereof are mentioned by Tibullus, on account of its sprin 

of Naphtha. The Arckevites^ mentioned Ezra iv. 9, are thoof 

to be some that were removed from Erech to Samaraia. What 

the Hebrew is Acchad, is by the Seventy Interpreters, writ i 

chady whence some footsteps of this name are probably thoug 

to be preserved in the river Argada mentioned by Ctesias, a< 

river near Sittace, lying at some distance from the river Tigr 

and giving name formerly to Sittacene, a country lying betwe 

Babylon and Susa, and because it was very usual, particularly 

those parts, to have rivers take their name from some consideral 

city they run by ; hence it is not improbably conjectured, that ( 

city Sitioce was formerly called Argad, or Acehad, and took t 

name of Stitoce from the the plenty of Psitlacias, or Pistacias 

sort of nut, that grew in the country. Strabo mentions a regi 

in those parts under the name of Ariacene^ which might be fi 

roed from Archcul. As to the other city belonging to the begi 

ning of Nimrod's kingdom, viz. CaZ/i^A, andwhich is called, Is: 

X. d^CalnOf andEzek. xxvii. 23, Cauneh. It is mentioned as 

considerable place, Amos vi. 2. ^' Pass ye op into Calueh ai 

•ee." It is said by the Chaldee interpreters, as also by Eusebi 

and Jerome, to be the same with Ctesiphon, standing upon t 

Tigris, about three miles distant from Seleucia, and for some tii 

the capital city of the Parthians. That this opinion conceroii 

the titnation of Calneh is true, is mightily confirmed from t 

country aboat Ctesiphon being by the Greeks called Chalnoiti 


tid since we are expressly told by Ammianus MarceHinus, that 
i^acuus, a king of the Parthians, changed the name of the city 
I!tesiphon, when he gave it that name, we may reasonably sup- 
H>se that its old name was Calneh^ or Cholone^ and that from it 
the adjacent country took the name of Cholomtii. 

And whereas it is said, Gen. x. 11, 12, in our translation, ** Out 
of this land went forth Ashur and built Nineveh, and the city of 
Rehoboth, and Colali, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah, 
the same is a great city." It might have been rendered as agree- 
ably to the original, and much more agreeably to the preceding 
verses and the driftof the historian, Out of that land he wentforth 
into Ashurj and built Nineveh, fyc. ; for Moses in the preceding 
Verse having told us what was the beginning of Nimrod's king- 
dom in the land of Shinar, then goes on to tell us how he extended 
it further afterwards to other cities beyond the land of Shinar 
into the land of Ashur. 

Nineveh was a city that lay on the river Tigris, sometwhat 
above the mouth of the river Lycus, where it runs into the Ti- 

Rehoboth is a word in the Hebrew tongue that signifies s/re^; 
and there being a city or town called Birtha by Ptolemy, and the 
said name denoting in the Chaldee tongue the same as Rehoboth 
does in the Hebrew, hence it is thought to be the same city, and 
it is not to be doubted but the Birtha mentioned by Ptolemy is 
the same which Ammianus Marcellinus calls Virta. It was seat- 
ed on the river Tigris about the mouth of the river Lycus. 

As for Calah, or Calach, since we find in Strabo a country 
about the head of the river Lycus called Calachene, it is very 
probable the said country took this name from Calach which was 
once its capital city. Ptolemy also mentions a country called 
Calacine in those parts ; and whereas Pliny mentions a people cal- 
led C/am^a, through whose country the Lycus runs, it is likely 
that Classita is a corruption for Chalachita, To this city and 
coantry in all probability it was that Salmanezar translated some 
of the ten tribes 2 Kings xvii. 6. He placed them in Chalach^ 
as it is in the original. 

Resin, the other city mentioned by Moses, is supposed to be 
the same with a city mentioned by Xenophon under the name of 
harissa, lying on the Tigris, and being as Moses says between 
Nineveh and Calah, and was also said by Xenophon to have been 
strong and great, (but then in ruins,) being two parasangs, that 
is, eight miles in compass, and its walls a hundred feet high and 
twenty five feet broad, which agrees with what Moses says of 
Heien, *^ The same was a great cityy Larissa was a Greek name, 
we find a city so called in Teessaly. There was another which the 
Greeks called by the same name in Syria, which the Syrians 



themselves called Sizora. It is therefore easy to suppose thj 
Greeks might change Reten into Larissa. It is likely tba 
Greeks asking, What city those were the rains of? the Ass} 
might answer, Laresen, i. e. of Resen, which word Xeoopho 
pressed by Larusa^ like the names of several Greek cities. 

We proceed now to Mizraim, who by Moses is named u 
among the sons of Ham. And where he at first settled bii 
we need not doubt, since the Hebrew text generally denotes 1 
by the name of the laud of Mizraim^ or simply Mizraim. I 
ceed therefore to the descendants of Mizraim. The names wIm 
these are denoted by Moses, are plurals. They are thus enume 
by Moses : " Mizraim begat Ludim and Anamim, and Ijck 
and Naphiuhimj and Pathrusimy and Casluhim (out of whom 
Philutim) and Caphtorim. 

To begin with Ludimj whereby are denoted the Ethiopia 
Africa, and who alone are commonly so called both in an 
and modern writers. That these Eihiopians are denoted in s 
ture by the name of Luditn^ and their country Ethiopia bj 
name of Ludf the learned Bochart has proved at large, bj 
fewer than ten distinct arguments. I shall mention only t 
that are drawn from the sacred scriptures, as from Isai. Ixvi. 
and Jer. xlvi. 9, where Eud^ or Ludim are said to be very sk 
in drawing their bow, which agrees punctually with the cban 
given of the Ethiopians by many ancient writers. 

As to Anamim^ Bochart thinks the inhabitants of the coo 
about Jupiter Ammon's temple might be denoted from this j 
num. The same learned person thinks the Nasamones took i 
rise and name, as also the Amantes, and Garamantes, and L 
momantesy mentioned by old writers, on the adjacent parts. 

The Lehabim came next both in the text and in situation ; J 
is very probable that Lehabim and Lvhim are one, and that I 
hence was derived originally the name of Lybia^ which, the 
at length extended to the whole African continent, yet at firs 
longed only to the country Cyrenaica. Now this country 1 
next over against Greece, hence the name of Lehab^ or Luh^ 
ginally belonging to this tract only, was moulded into Lybia^ 
given to the whole continent over against them on the other 
of the Mediterranean sea, just as the name of Africa^ prop 
pertaining only to that part of this continent which lies < 
against Italy, was therefore by the Latins extended to all the i 
tinent ; or, to come to our own times, much after the same mai 
as we extend the name of Holland to all the Dutch provinces, 
the name of Flanders to all the Spanish provinces in the Net 
lands, whereas they properly denote only the two particular | 
vinces in the Spanish and Dutch Netherlands that lie next < 
against the island of Great Britain. 


The Naphtuhim are probably enough placed by Bochart tn the 
x^untry adjoinmg to Cyrenaica^ or Lybia^ properly so Called, to* 
irards Egypt, vit. in Marmarica; for here we find in Ptolemy 
lome remainder of the name in a place called Aftuchi Fanwru 
knd in the heathen fables, Aptuchusy or AphtuchuSf or Autuchus^ 
4 said to be the son of Cyrene^ from whom the city and country 
it Cyrene took its name* 

The Pathrusim^ or descendants of Pathrosj are mentioned 
next by Moses, whereby are to be understood the inhabitants of 
the Upper Egypty or Thebaisy where Ptolemy places Paihyrisy an 
ioland town not far from Thebes ; and agreeably hereto, the Sep 
toagint translation renders the Hebrew Pathros by the Greek 

The Casluhim are thought to have first settled in the country 
on the other side of Egypt, called Casioti, where also is a moun- 
tain called Casiut ; and this situation of them is confirmed by 
what Moses says concerning them, viz. that from them sprang the 
Philistines^ who in process of time made themselves masters of the 
adjoining tract of the land of Canaan. 

That the Caphtorim were situated near to the Casluhim, it 
inferred not only from Moses's putting them next one to another 
in the forecited place of Gen. x., but also from this, that the Phi* 
listines, who are, in Gen. x. 13, said to be descended of the Casld-* 
him, are elsewhere denoted by the name of Caphtorim^ as Deut. 
iL 23, Jer. xlvii. 4, and Amos ix. 7 ; which perhaps cannot be beU 
ler accounted for than by supposing the Caduhim and Caphtorim 
to be neighbours, and so in time to have been mutually intermix- 
ed, or to be looked upon as one and the same people* Now the 
name Caphtor seems to be preserved in an old city of Egypt 
called CaptuSy from which, as the name of Captetes is still given 
to the Christians of Egypt, (whence the translation of the Bible 
used by' them is called also the Cop/t^X: translation,) so it is not 
anlikely that the common name of l^gypt was derived from it, it 
being called JEgypiuSj for JEgoptus^ as if one should say in 
Greek *Aia K<Mrrs, the land of Koptus. And it is a good remark 
of the learned Mede, that the Greek *Aia, or^a, is likely derived 
from the Hebrew 'k, ai, or Ei ; to which may be very pertinently 
subjoined this remark, that in Jer. xlvii. 4, what we render the 
country of Caphtor^ is in the Hebrew text termed Ai Caphtori 
which are the two words which we suppose the Greeks to have 
moulded into the name^Ai/ihrro^. Our translators observe on the 
forementioned place in Jeremy, that the Hebrew word translated 
ike country in the text denotes also an isle^ As it is rendered in tbr 
aargin, agreeably to which it is observable that the city of Cop-' 
tut stood on a small island, so that upon the whole we need not 
doubt thereabout to fix the first settlement of the Caphtorim, 
VOL. IX. 27 


or the four original nations descended from Ham, there' i^ 
mains now only thai of Phut to be spoken of; and the first settle- 
ment of this is wkb good reason supposed to be in the parts of the 
Lybian or African continent, which join on next to those possess- 
ed by the descendants of Mizraim. For in Africa, properly so 
called, below Adrumentum, was a city named Putea^ mentioned 
by Pliny ; and in Mauritania there is a river mentioned by Ptole- 
my called Phut. St. Jerome is very full to the point, telling as 
that there is a river in Mauritania which was until his own time 
called Phuty and from which the adjacent country was called 
Regio Phyien^iist the country of Phut, Mr. Bedford supposes 
rt was the river Niger that was called by this name, and that the 
^posterity of Phut settled themselves chiefly on that river, (as the 
first inhabitants of the earth were wont to choose the neighbour- 
hood of rivers (or their settlements,) and from iheace spread 
themselves into other parts^ 

£415] Gen. x. 1. These things are evidences that all mao* 
kind are originally from one head or fountain, and of one bloody 
viz. 1. That all agreed in the same custom of sacrifices^ which 
could be from nothing else than tradition from their progeiuton» 
2. Their all agreeing in counting by decads^ or stopping at ieiL 
in their numerical computations, which Aristotle says, all men, 
both Barbarians and Greeks did use. 3. Their having eveiy 
where anciently the same number of letters^ and the same fumts 
(or little varied) of them. 4. The remarkable affinity of all an- 
cient languages. 5. Their dividing time into weekSj or systems 
of seven days, of which practice to have been general there are 
many plain testimonies. 6. Their beginning the day or revola- 
tioD of twenty-four hours with the night. Tea, perhaps if one 
consider it, the whole business concerning matrimony, Thns^ 
Dr. Barrow, vol. ii. of his works, p.. 93» 

[405] Gen. x. 1,2. Concerning Japhet^ the son of Nook. 
Neptune is the same with Japhetj who is called the god of the Mfl, 
because daountains, places, islands, and the great peninsulas of 
Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, and Spain, were peopled by his pos- 
terity. The name Neptune is derived from the same radix that 
Japhet is, even from nnd, to enlarge, whence nQ\ Japhet^ and nnsi, 
Nephta, in niphal, according to the allusion of Noah, JaphtEh- 
him Japhetf Gen. ix. 27, '' God shall enlarge Japhet .-" propor- 
tionably whereunto Neptune was called by the Greek Ilotfsi^ 
which grammarians in vain attempt to deduce from the Greek 
tongue, seeing, as Herodotus in Euterpe asserts, the name Poseir 
don was at first used by none but the Lybiaus or Africans, who I 
always honoured this god. Poseidon is the same with the Punick ' 
word JO'tSTD, PesitaUj which signifies expanse^ or broadf from £N79, 


atj to dilate or expand* Japhet's name, and what is said of 
, God shall enlarge Japhet, well suits with Neptune's charac- 
among the heathen, who is styled. Late imperant and Late- 
mSf as also one that hat a large breatt. The genealogy of 
vtune confirms that he is Japhet: he is the son of Saturn^ 
Noah, See note on Gem i. 27. Gale's Court of the Gen* 
, b. 2, c. 6, p. 73, 74U 

400] Gen^ x. 6. Now what the heathen said of Jupiter is 
lently taken from Ham, the son of Noah. Noah is the Sa- 
1 of the heathen, as is evident hy note on Gen. i. 27. It is 
ed that Saturn had three sons, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, 
) divided the world between them. Sanchoniathon saySj 
'he son of Saturn was Zeus BeliiSj or Baal^ the chief god 
)ng the Phoenicians. It was a name assumed by Jehovah, 
God of Israel, before abused to superstition, as appears by 
iea ii. 16. It is elsewhere written B€s\ Beel, or BscXCafwv, 
ch answers to the Hebrew Banl Shamaiim, the Lord of hea^ 
, Zsvs is derived from^£<«J> which signifies to be hot^ and an- 
jreth exactly to the Hebrew Cham, from the radix Chamam^ 
7ax hot. Herodotus tells us that the Egyptians called Jupi- 

Aminon^ from their progenitor Ham; whence Egypt is call- 
•' the land of Ham," Ps. cv. 23. 27. Also Plutarch testifies 
t Egypt in the Sacreds of Isis, was termed Xy^iua : whence 
I, but from Cham? And Africa of old was colled Hammonia» 
e Africans were wont to worship Ham under the name of 
mmon. These things are more largely treated of by Cud- 
^th, p. 337, 338, 339. 

kgain : Sanchoniathon terms Jupiter, Sydyk, or, as Damas- 
} in Photius, SadyJc. Now this name is evidently taken from 

Hebrew Saddiky the just, which is a name given to God, as 
> Co the first patriarchs, whence Melchizedeck, The name 
liter is evidently the same with la Pater, or Isu Ilaojf, that is, 
ther Jahf or Jeu. That God's name, Jah, was well known 
he Phoenicians, who communicated the same to the Gre- 
as, is evident by what Porphyry says of Sanchoniathon's de- 
mg the materials of his history from Jerombatus, the priest of 

god leu^. So Diodorus tells us that Moses inscribed his law 
the god called Jao. So the oblique cases of Jupiter are 
m God's name, Jehovah, as Jovi, Jove, &c. The same name, 
', in the oracle of Clarius Apollo, is given to Bacchus again. 
>iter was Sabasitis, from that title of God^ Jehovah, Sabaoth. 
his Cudworth also notices, p. 259, 260.) The fable of Ju- 
st's cutting off his father's genitalia^ seems to arise from 
m's seeing his father's nakedness. Again, in the metamor- 
>8is of the gods of Egypt, it is said that Jupiter was turned 


into a ram ; which fable Bochart supposes to haye had its rii 
from the lognation between the Hebrew words bic, or £/, and Vi 
AiHf a ram^ the plural number of both which is the same. Elm 
The tradition of Bacchus being produced out of Jupiter's tbigi 
seems to come from that known expression to signify the natu 
ral proceeding of posterity from a father, their coming out of hi 
loins. Calebs Court of the Gen. p. 1, b. ii. I. 1, p. 10, 11 
12, 13. 

[410] Gen. xi. 3, 4, he. Concerning the building of BaU 
and confusion of tongues. Bochart, in his preface to hi 
Phalegf about the middle, says, *' What follows concerning tb 
tower of Babel, its structure, and the confusion of tongues eo 
suing thereon, also of its builders being dispersed throughou 
various parts of the earth, is related in express words by Abj 
dehus, and Eupolemus in Cyrillus and Eusebius." Bochart, ii 
bit Phaleg, gives us a description of the tower of Babel, outo 
Herodotus, parallel to that of the scripture, and where it is said 
Gen. xi. 9, that it teas called Babels because the Lord confounda 
their language. Hence Pagan writers called those of this dii 
persion, and their successors, f^fov-e^, men of divided tongues 
So Homer, in the Iliad, &t yiveou f«p<Mr«v av^guytuxv, generations q 
men, having divided tongues. Abydenus affirms, that it wasi 
common opinion, that the men whom the earth brought fortt 
gathered themselves together, and builded a great tower, whici 
was Babel, and the gods being angry with it, threw it down.' 
Gfa/e'f Court of Gen,, p. 1, b. 3, c. 8, p. 83. 

[430] Gen. xi. 3, 4, be. Concerning the tower of Babel 
Cyril, b. 1, against Julian, quotes these words out of Abydenui 
" Some say that the first men that sprang out of the earth 
grew proud upon their great strength and bulk, and boastei 
they could do more than the gods, and attempted to build i 
tower where Babylon now stands ; but when it came nigh tb 
heavens, it was overthrown upon them by the gods with tb 
help of the winds ; and the ruins are called Babylon. Met 
until then, had but one language, but the gods divided it, an 
then began the war between Saturn and Titan." Grotius i 
Yerit. b. i. sect* 16. Notes. 

Dr. Winder supposes that the crime of the builders of Bi 
bel was an obstinate renouncing the orders before given b 
Noah, and agreed to b}* his sons, under the divine direction fc 
a general dispersion and division of the earth among the var 
ous families of mankind, and that the builders of Babel wer 
not the whole body of mankind, but that part of them whid 
according to the forementioned orders and regulations, were i 


settled io parts that were to be westward of the original set- 
nent where Noah dwelt ; and that, after they had dwelt in 
inar, ambition might inspire some of their leaders^ with the 
ughts of setting up a great empire. But that this supposes 
It there were at that time other tribes elsewhere, against 
ich they might direct their ambitious projects. There appears 
ys he) to have been something of ambition either for power 
fame, or both, in their design ; for they said, Let us make us 

** There is" (says Dr. Winder, p. 127,) " a most noble au- 
snticated confirmation of the Mosaic history, by this city or 
mtry, retaining the name Babelj or Confusion^ by which every 
d and nation called this great city the supposed seat of the 
It empire, even according to heathen writers, which seems to 

a name of infamy and reproach, which its own princes or 
labitants would not have given it without some such notorious 
deniable circumstances obliging them to it. What a signal 
feat (says he) was here given by providence to this ambitious 
in — *' l4et us make us a name;^^ for what they aimed to erect 
a monument of their grandeur and glory, God indeed sufier- 

to stand long, but then it was as a monument of their own 
hmy and folly, the impotency of their rebellion, and their de- 
live defeat." 

[240] Gen. xi. 7. Concerning the confusion of languages* 
he state of the world of mankind, with respect to variety of 
Dguage, now and in all past ages that we can learn any thing 
from history, does exceedingly confirm this account of the 
ofusion of languages. Without this, it is very unaccountable 
m there should be so great a variety of language in so little 
time, or indeed ever at all. Concerning this, the author of 
Revelation Examined with Candour," observes as follows: 
It is true that the English and all living languages are in a 
irpetual flux ; new words are added, and others die, and grow 
leolete. But whence does this arise? Not at all from the 
leessary mutability of human things, but most evidently from 
e mixture of other tongues. Scholars add new words or ter- 
inations from the learned languages, either through afiecta;* 
>D of learning or desire of adorning their native tongue with 
me words of more elegance or significance, and others from 
commerce with other countries of different languageSi natu- 
lily adopt some of their phrases and expositions into their own. 
nd so our language varies; and what then f How does this 
Feet the question concerning the continuance of the same Ian* 
aage, whore no other was ever taught or heard f The Jews 


spoke the same language from Moses to the Babjlonisb capti- 
vity : if their polity had continued, would they not speak the 
same language fo this day ?*' [And here I would insert what 
Bedford in his Scripture Chronology observes, viz. that ** the 
Arabic continued the same from the time of Job till later ages. 
The Arabic spoken by Christians in Asia at this day, is tbe 
same with that spoken by Mahomet, the impostor, which was 
much the same with that used in Job's time ; and tbe Chaldee 
remained the same from the time of Jaco till the date of the 
Babylonish Talmud ; and the Greek continued the same from 
the days of Homer to St. Chrysostom." See Bedford, p. 291 
and 512.] The author of Revelation Examined with Can- 
dour, goes on. *' Some of the inland inhabitants of Africa 
are found to speak the same language now which they spoke 
two thousand years ago ; (and in all probability thfe same ob- 
servation i?. true of our neighbours, the Welch.) Could they 
keep to one language for two thousand years, and could not 
the descendants of Noah keep to one language two hundred 
years? Could they keep their language amidst a variety of 
80 many others about them, and when it is scarcely possible 
that they should be clear of all commerce with people of differ- 
ent tongues.; and could not these keep their language, when it 
was impossible that they should have any commerce but with ! 
one another ? Those Africans, to say nothing of the Welch, 
now keep their own tongue, though there are so many others 
in the world to taint, and by degrees to abolish it. If there 
were no other language in the world but theirs, does any man 
believe they would not continue to speak it for two thousand or 
ten thousand years more, if the world lasted so longf It is 
true, as arts increased, and customs changed, new terms and 
phrases might be added ; when then new words would increase 
and adorn the tongue; but sure no man would say it would de- 
stroy it, unless it be believed that new branches, or fruit, or 
flowers, do daily destroy the tree they shoot out from." 

" The learned author of the letter to Dr. Waterland, seems 
to think that all other languages sprang as naturally from the 
Hebrew, as many shoots from the same root, or many branches 
from the same stock : but I am confident, whoever carefully 
considers the genius of each of the ancient languages now ex- 
tant, will find as little reason to believe that they all had their 
original from the Hebrew, as that all the variety of forest and 
fruit-trees in the world were originally but so many shoots and 
branches from the palm-tree of Judea. 

'* Besides all this, if we consider that the language of Adam 
(if we could suppose it imperfect in him, when it was demon- 
strably inspired by God, yet) had time enough to arrive at full 


leifection in 1656 years; and that Noah and his sons had time 
isough to learn it in perfection before the flood ; the youngest of 
tttsons being about 100 years old at that time, and himself 600 ; 
ire cannot with any colour of reason imagine that there could 
leany necessity of adding so much as one word to it before the 
milding of Babel." Thus lar the author of Religion Examined 
vitb Candour. 

And besides all this, the greater excellency and regularity of 
lome of the ancient languages so early, when arts were in their 
Srst beginning, as the Latin and Greek, the latter of which 
rras in great perfection in the days of Homer, seems to argue 
wmethiug divine in it. If the arts and learning of the nation had 
10 early brought their language to such a pitch of perfection, they 
bad made infinitely greater progress in this than in other things 
that pertain to human life. 

The manner in which God confounded the languages of the 
posterity of Noah, seems to be by confounding their memory 
irith respect to their former language, but not utterly destroy- 
ing it; so that they still retained some notion of many of the 
irords and phrases of their former language ; hence it is found 
that other languages have in many words affinity to tl>e He- 

[275] Gen. xiii. 10. '* And Lot lifted up his eyes and beheld 
ill the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where, be- 
Ibre the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the gar- 
Jen of the Lord, like the land of Egypt as thou comest unto 
Zoar." Zoar here, probably is the same city which was else- 
where called Zoatif which was of old the chief city of Egypt. 
[See No. 254.) The Hebrew letter '^, iVtiw, seems easily converti- 
ble into J, Resch, as in Achon^ Achor. Nebuchadnezzar, NebU" 
JUidrezzar. Zoan was probably at this time the most famous, 
ind tlie royal city in Egypt. It stood in the Delta of Egypt, 
>r that part of it that was near the sea, through which the river 
Nile ran in many branches, so that it was well watered every 
vbere, as the land about Sodom is here said to be ; for '^ it had 
]Ot*on]y the river Jordan running through it, but the river Ar- 
non from the east, the brook Zered (Num. xxi. 12,) and the fa- 
inoas fountain Callirhoe (Pliny, lib. 5, c. 16.) from the south, 
falling into it." (Complete Body of Divinity, p. 350.) Proba- 
bly this fountain is the same with the well, which the princes of 
[sraei digged with their staves, Num. xxi. 16, 17, 18. And pro- 
bably being a low flat country, which is sometimes called a plain, 
sometimes a valley, Gen. xiv. 10, was in the time of the swelling 
>f Jordan overflowed, as Egypt was with the Nilus. 


[302] Gen. xiv. 15, 16, &c. Abraham, in tbos conqueriiig 
the great kings and princes of the earth, and their anited hotfi, 
is a type of Christ and of the church. God seems to have granted 
this great victory to Abraham, as some earnest of ihose greit 
blessings he had promised to him ; the belief of which promisetwu 
attended with so much difficulty. Here was given some tpeci* 
men of what Abraham's promised seed should do, which incladei 
Christ and his church. Abraham might well represent ChrisC« 
for Christ is Abraham's seed, and he might well represent the 
church, for he was the father of the church, the father of all thil 
believe, as the apostle testifies. And besides, Abraham and hb 
household was then as it were God's visible church ; God had i^ 
parted Abraham from the rest of the world* to that end that kb 
church might be continued in his family. And though there were ii 
yet some other true worshippers of God, who were not of his family, 
yet soon after the church was confined to his posterity. This vic- 
tory of Abraham was doubtless intended as a sign and earnest of 
the victory that Christ and his church should obtain over their 
enemies, and over the nations of the world ; because God himself 
makes use of it to this purpose in the xli. chap« of Isaiah : ** Keep 
silence before me, O islands, and let the people renew their 
strength ; let them come near, then let them speak ; let us come 
near together in judgment : Who raised up the righteons mao 
from the east, called him to his foot, gave the nations before him, 
and made him rule over kings ? He gave them as the dust to hit 
sword, and as driven stubble to his bow. He pursued them and 
passed safely ; even by the way that he had not gone with his 
feet." It is not probable that this victory of Abraham would be 
spoken of in such lofty language, and in expressions so much like 
those that are elsewhere made use of to represent Christ's glorious 
victories over the powers of earth and hell, if the one were not s 
type of the other. This victory of Abraham is in this place mea- 
tioned to that end, that the church, the seed of Abraham, might 
take it as a sign and evidence that they should not be subdued, 
but should subdue and conquer the world, as appears from what 
follows, ver. 8, " But thou, Israel, art my servant, Jacob whom I 
have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend." Ver. 10. 11, ** Fear 
thou not, for I am with thee ; be not dismayed, for I am thy God : I 
will strengthen thee ; yea, I will help thee ; yea, I will uphold 
thee with the right hand of my righteousness. Behold, all they that 
were insensed against thee shall be ashamed and confounded: 
they shall be as nothing, and they that strive with thee shall pe- 
rish." Ver. 15, '< Behold, I will make thee a|new sharp threshing in- 
strument, having teeth : thou shalt thresh the mountains, and 
beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff." 


Abraham conqaered the chief nations and princes of the world, 
which was a seal of what God promised him, that he should be 
the heir of the world Rom. iv. 13. **For the promise that he 
•faould be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham or to his 
seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith." He 
conquered them not with an hired army, but only with the armed 
loldiers of his own household. So the armies that go forth with 
Christ unto battle to subdue the world, (Rev. xix. 14. '* And the 
armies which were in heaveu followed him upon white horses, 
clothed in fine linen, white and clean,) they are his church, which 
it bit household. Abraham conquers the kings of the earth and 
their armies united, and joining all their force together, and 
therein his victory was a type of Christ's victory, as in the xli. 
Isai* 6, 7, speaking of this victory, ^' They helped every one his 
neighbour ; and every one said to his brother, Be of good cou* 
rage. So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, and he that 
smootheth with the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying, It 
is ready for the soldering : and he fastened it with nails that it 
should not be moved." Abraham by his conquest rescued Lot 
bis kinsman ; so Christ our near kinsman by his victory over our 
enemies, who had taken us captive, delivers us. Abraham re- 
deemed Lot and the other captives freely, and would take nothing 
of them for his pains: so Christ freely redeems us. Abral ^nrx 
redeemed the people of Sodom and Gomorrah, that wicked peo 
pie ; which is a type of Christ's redeeming sinners. 

[129] Gen. xv. 17. '' Behold a smoking furnace, and a burn- 
ing lamp passes between those pieces." The smoking furnace 
I am ready to think, signified the same as fire from heaven to 
contnme the sacrifices, that is the wrath of God in the midst of 
JesQS Christ. The furnace passed between the pieces, that is, 
as it were, through the midst of them. The burning lamp which 
followed was a fire of another nature ; it was a clear bright light ; 
whereat the other, though exceeding hot like a furnace, was all 
MDokiDg. This signified the Holy Ghost, who is often compared 
to fire ; and the lamp signified that light, glory, and blessedness 
which followed Christ's enduring wrath, and was purchased by 
it, both for himself and for his people. And doubtless this also has 
respect to the church in Egypt of Abraham's seed, and signified 
those things that God was now telling Abraham in his deep sleep. 
The tmoking furnace signified their sufiering grievous persecu- 
tions and afflictions in Egypt, which is called the iron furnace ; and 
the shining lamp signified their glorious deliverance in the fourth 
generation, and being brought into the land of Canaan. Isai. Ixii. 
1. *' And the salvation thereof shall be as a lamp that burneth." 
The birds coming down, that Abraham frayed away, were €b ty- 

VOL. ix. 2d 


pify the devils, and their endeavours to devoar Jesus Christ tod 
the church ; this thing may also signify the terrors and consola- 
tions that attend the wish of conversion and deliverance cot of 
spiritual Egypt. 

[363] Gen. xv. 17. *' And it came to pass, when the sun went 
down, and it was dark, behold, a smoking furnace, and a burning 
lamp that passed between those pieces." Here were four things 
that were significant of the death and last sufierings of Christ, all 
at the same time. 

1. There were the sacrifices that were slain, and lay there 
dead and divided. Christ feared when his last passion approach- 
ed, lest Satan should utterly devour him, and swallow him up io 
that trial, and cried to God, and was heard in that he feared; and 
those fowls were frayed away that sought to devour that sacrifice, 
as Abraham frayed away the fowls that attempted to devour this 
sacrifice while it lay upon the altar. 

2. The smoking furnace that passed through the midst of the 

3. The deep sleep that fell upon Abraham, and the horror of 
great darkness that fell upon him. 

4. The sun, that greatest of all natural types of Christ, went 
down, and descended under the earth, and it was dark. 

*^ It is probable this furnace and lamp which passed between the 
pieces, burned and consumed them, and so completed the sacri- 
fice, and testified God's acceptance of it, Judg. vi. 21, xiii. 19, 
20, and 2 Chron. vii. 7. This was of old God's manner of 
manifesting his acceptance of sacrifices, viz. kindling a fire from 
heaven upon them ; ' and by this we may know that he accepts 
our sacrifices, if we kindle in our souls a lively fire of divine af- 
fections in them.' " Henry. 

[241] Gen. xvi. 10, 11, 12. " I will multiply thy seed exceed- 
ingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude And shall 

call his name Ishmael, because the Lord hath heard thy affliction. 
And he will be a wild man ; his hand will be against every man, 
and every man's band against him ; and he shall dwell in the pre- 
sence of all his brethren." The jfoUoioing observations are taken 
principally out of a book eniilkd Revelation Examined toith Can- 
dour. This prophecy is remarkably verified in the Arabs. The 
Arabs are the undoubted descendants of Hagar and Ishmael. 
Ishmael was circumcised at thirteen years of age ; so have all 
those his sons from him until thf establishment of Mahometanisro, 
and many of them to this day, though some of them circumcise 
indifferently in any year from the 8th to the 13th, but all profess- 
ing to derive the practice Orom their father Ishmael. He was an 


archer in the wilderness ; his sons, the Arabs, have been the most 
remarkable archers in the world, and are so to this day, and in the 
wilderness too, where cultare is not known. Hagar was a concu- 
bine and an hireling, and while she dwelt with Abraham, Abra- 
braham dwelt in tents, and was continually moving from place to 
place. Ammianus Marcellinus observes of the Arabs, that they 
had mercenary wives hired for a time. The learned Dr. Jack- 
son makes it exceeding evident that the Arabs and the Saracens 
were descended from Ishmael, and also the writers of the life of 
Mahomet, and the writers of travels and voyages without number. 
In short, it is a point universally agreed upon all over the east 
and south. As the Ishmaelites lived under twelve princes by 
Moses's account, so these principalities remained till later times 
bearing the names of the twelve sons of Ishmael, as Le Clerc 
makes very evident. 

The first part of the prophecy, viz : I will multiply thy seed 
exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered, for multitude, is fulfil- 
led in them. The Hagarenes spoken of in scripture, and the 
Arabs, especially the Scaenitae, were very numerous, and the Sara- 
cens were more numerous than either. But this prophecy is 
roost evidently fulfilled in that vast empire that the Saracens 
have set up in the world. 

The next part of the prophecy is that he should be a wild man. 
The word which is translated witdj in this place, signifies a wild 
an: the literal construction of the phrase in Latin is erit Onager 
Homo: He shall be a mid ass man. The Arabs are above all 
nations a wild people, and have been so through all ages through- 
out so many hundred generations. They vary no more from their 
progenitors' wild and fierce qualities than the wild plants of the 
forest, never accustomed to human culture do, from the trees 
whence they are propagated. The dwelling of those Arabs and 
the wild ass is alike, and indeed the same. See Job xxxix. 6. 

The next part of the prophecy : His hand shall be against 
every man, and every man*s hand against him. He shall dwell 
in the presence of all his brethren. The meaning of which words 
seems to be that they should be in perpetual enmity with all man- 
kind, and yet should subsist in the face of the world. And such 
a sense of this prophecy seems to be agreeable to the idiom of 
scripture phrase. Thus when the scripture speaks of brethren 
with respect to nations, sometimes nothing is intended but only 
other nations that are round about. So when it is said concern- 
ing Canaan, Gen. ix. 25, '* A servant of servants shall he be unto 
his brethren,'' it is not intended only, nor chiefly, and it may be not 
at all, that he should be a servant of servants to his literal breth- 
ren, CttsA, Mizraim^ and Phut, the other sons of Ham ; but that 
be should be a servant to other nations ; and it was fulfilled espe- 


cially Iq his posterity's being subdaed by the posterity of Sliea 
and Japheth. — When it is said " He shall dwell," the meaniogii, 
that they shall remaia a natioiii and still retain their habitatioa 
and possession without being cut off, or carried captive from ibeir 
own land. In such a sense the word is ased, Ps. xxxvii. 27, 
*' Depart from evil and do good, and dwell for evermore*'' This 
expression is explained by other passages in the Psalm, as ver. 3, 
*< Trust in the Lord and do good, so shalt thou dwell in the land." 
Verse 9. << Evil doers shall be cut off, but those that nait on the 
Lord shall inherit the earth." Ver. 10, 11. <« Yeta little while and 
the wicked shall not be^ yea, thou shalt diligently consider hk 
pUicey and it shall not be, but the meek shall inherit the earth." Ver. 
18. '' The Lord knoweth the days of the upright, and their inherit 
ance shall be forever ;" and ver. 22. *^ For such as be blessed of him 
shall inherit the earth, and they that be cursed of him shall be cat 
off." Ver. 29. << The righteous shall inherit the land, and dwdl 
therein for ever." Ver. 34. ** And he shall exalt thee to inherit the 
land; when the wicked are cut off thou shalt seeit. It is also agreeable 
to the scriptural way of speaking, when it is said, ** He shall dwell 
in the presence of all his brethren," to understand it, that they after 
all their opposition to it shall see him still subsisting and retainiog' 
his own habitation in spite of them : so the expression in thepr^ 
sence of, seems evidently to signify, Ps. xxiii. 5. " Thou preparest 
a table before me in the presence of mine etiemies." This is also 
remarkably fulfilled in the Arabs, for they have ever lived in pro- 
fessed enmity with all mankind, and all mankind in enmity with 
them ; they have continued in a state of perpetual hostility with 
the rest of their brethren, and yet have subsisted perpetually under 
it before their faces, and in spite of them all ; they have neither 
been destroyed nor lost by mingling with other nations ; they 
marry only in their own nation, disdaining alliances with all 
others. Their language continued so much the same through all 
ages (as Bedford in his Scripture Chronology observes, that it cod- 
tinued much the same from the days of Job until latter ages] 
shows that this nation has never been much mixed with other na- 
tions. They and the Jews only have subsisted from the remotest 
accounts of antiquity as a distinct people from all the rest of man- 
kind, and the undoubted descendants of one man. And the Arabs 
never were subdued and carried captive, as the Jews have been. 
Alexander the Great intended an expedition against them, but was 
prevented by death. What Alexander intended, Antigonus, the 
greatest of his successors, attempted, but without success ; being 
repulsed with disgrace, and the loss of above eight thotisand men, 
he made a second and greater attempt, but witliout success. 

They had wars afterwards with the Romans and Parthians, but 
were never either subdued or tamed : resembling in this (the only 


comparison in nature that suits them) the wild ass in the desert, 
and sent out by the same hand free, as he whose house is also the 
wilderness, and the barren land his dwelling, alike disdainful of 
bondage, scorning alike the multitude of the city and the cry of 
the driver. Pompey made war with them, and some part of them 
seemingly submitted, but never remained at all in subjection to 
bim — after this they misled and deluded Crassus to his destruc- 
tion. Anthony after this sent his horse to ravage Palmyra, but the 
city was defended from them by archers, who were probably Arabs* 
Afterwards their chief city was besieged by Trajan, one of the 
most warlike and powerful of all the Roman emperors. He went 
in person with his army against them with great resolution to 
subdue them, but his soldiers were strangely annoyed with light- 
nings, thunders, whirlwinds, and hail, and affrighted, and dazzled 
with the apparition of rainbows, and so were forced to give up the 
siege. After this, Severus, a great conqueror, after he had subdued all 
his enemies, marched in person against them with great resolution 
to subdue them with his greatest force, and warlike preparations, 
besieged the city twice, but it twice repulsed him with great loss, 
and when they had actually made a breach in the wall of the chief 
city, they were strangely prevented from entering by unaccounta- 
ble discontents arising among the soldiers, and so they went away 
baffled and confounded. These Ishmaelites, when their wall was 
broke down, being invited to a treaty with the emperor, disdained 
to enter into any treaty with him. After this the Saracens set up 
a vast empire, and so the prophecy of their becoming a great na- 
tion that could not be numbered was most eminently fulfilled. 

They also have dwelt in the presence of all their brethren, in 
another sense, viz. that all their brethren, the posterity of all the 
other sons of Abraham, and even the posterity of Isaac, have seen 
them remaining and unsubdued, and holding their own dwelling, 
when they all of them, and even the posterity of Isaac and Jacob 
themselves, were conquered and carried away out of their own 
dwellings. * 

[301] Gen. xvii. 10. CircumciHan signified or represented that 
mortification or the denying of our lusts, that is the condition of ob- 
taining the blessings of the Covenant. Totally denying any lust, 
is represented in scripture by cutting off. Thus, cutting off a 
right band, or right foot, is put for the denying of some very dear 
lost ; %o cutting off the flesh of a member so prone to violent lust, 
iigoifiesa total denying of our lusts. A main reason why lust, or 
our natural corruption, is represented by the instrument of genera- 
tion, is because we have all our natural corruption or lust by gene- 
ration, i. e. by being the natural offspring of the corrupt parents 
of mankind. Therefore when God would signify that our origi- 


oal or natural corruption should be mortified, be appoints tbattlie 
flesh of the part specified should be cut off. 

Another reason why the seal of the covenant that God made 
with Abraham was appointed to be affixed to this part of the body, 
seems to be that God made this covenant not only with Abraham 
and for him, but him and his seed. It mainly respected bis seed, 
as abundantly appears by the tenor of the words, in which the 
covenant was revealed from time to time ; and therefore the seal 
was to be affixed to that part of the body whence came his seed. 
The covenant was made not with a man, but with a race of men 
ordinarily to be continued by natural generation ; and therefore 
the sign of the covenant was a sign affixed to the instrument of' 
generation. The sign was a pungation of the member of the body, 
by which offspring was procured, and was to be a sign of the pa- 
rification of the offspring. God seeks a godly «eed, and children 
that are holy* 

Carol. Hence we learn that seeing the Gentiles now in the days 
of the gospel are admitted to the seal of Abraham as the Jews 
were, and are admitted to an interest in Abraham's covenant, and 
to the blessing of Abraham, so that Abraham is become the father 
DOW, not of one nation, but of many nations in the way of that co- 
venant, as the apostle Paul abundantly teaches ; then the posterity 
of Christians by natural generation, are now God's people, and 
are a holy seed by Abraham's covenant, as the Israelites were of 
old. There are but two ways in which persons can become of 
Abraham's covenant, race, or generation : one is by generation by 
the natural instruments of generation to which the seal of the co- 
venant was affixed, and so continued from the root to the branch- 
es ; the other is by ingrafting a new branch into that stock, that 
shall after ingrafting grow and bring forth branches, and bear 
fruit upon-tbai stock, as the other branches did that were cut off to 
make room for them. In this way now many nations or genera- 
tions are of Abraham's race, instead of one nation or family. 

[355] Gen. xviii. Isaac, the interpretation of whose name is Laugh- 
ter, was conceived about the same time that Sodom and the other 
cities of the plain were destroyed, and he was born soon after their 
destruction. So the accomplishment of the terrible destruction of 
God's enemies, and the glorious prosperity of his church, usually 
go together, as in Isai. Ixvi. 13, 14, ** As one whom his mother com- 
forteth, so will I comfort you ; and ye shall be comforted in Jeru- 
salem — and when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your 
bones shall flourish like an herb; and the hand of the Lord shall 
be known toward his servant, and his indignation toward his ene- 
mies." First the enemies of the church are destroyed and tlien 
Isaac is born, as that prosperous state of the church is brought 


mboutt wherein their mouths are filled with laughter, and their 
tongue with singing. So the Egyptians were first overthrown in 
the Red sea, and then Moses and the children of Israel rejoiced in 
peace, and liberty, and sung that glorious song of triumph. So 
first Babylon is destroyed, and then the captivity of Israel is re- 
turned, and Jerusalem rebuilt. So when the heathen Roman em- 
pire was overthrown, then commenced that prosperous and Joyful 
state of the church that was in the days of Constantine. So when 
Antichrist is destroyed, there will follow that joyful glorious state 
of the church we are looking for. Isaac was the promised seed 
of Abraham, the father of all the faithful, the blessing he had long 
waited for, and when Sarah brought him forth, it represented the 
same thing as the woman in the xii. chap, of Rev. ''And there ap- 
peared a great wonder in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun, 
and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve 
stars : and she, being with child, cried, travailing in birth, and 
pained to be delivered." The accomplishment of the prosperous 
state of the church is in scripture often compared to a woman's 
bringing forth a child with which she had been in travail. It is 
so in particular by our Saviour, John xvi. 19, 20, 21, 22. '' Now 
Jesus knew that they were desirous to ask him, and said unto 
them. Do ye inquire among yourselves of that I said, A lit- 
tle while, and ye shall not see me; and again a little while, and 
ye shall see me f Verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye shall weep 
and lament, but the world shall rejoice, and ye shall be sorrowful, 
but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. A woman when she is 
in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come, but as soon as 
she is delivered of the child she remembereth no more the anguish, 
for joy that a man is born into the world. And ye now, therefore, 
have sorrow : but I will see you again, and your heart shall re- 
joice, and your joy no man taketh from you." Hereby is espe- 
cially represented the accomplishment of the church's glory, joy, 
and laughter, after the destruction of Antichrist, or the throne of 
Rome, that is spiritually called Sodom. 

[431] Gen. xviii. Concerning the burning of Sodom, &lc. 
Diodorus Siculus, b. 19. Where he describes the lake Asphal- 
tites, says, '* The neighbouring country burns with fire, the ill 
smell of which makes the bodies of the inhabitants sickly, and 
not very long lived." Strabo, b. 16, after the description of the 
lake Asphaltites, says, ** There are many signs of this country 
being on fire, for about Mastada they show many cragged and 
burnt rocks, and in many places caverns eaten in, and the ground 
turned into ashes, drops of pitch falling from the rocks, and run- 
ning waters stinking to a great distance, and their habitations 
overthrown ; which give credit to a report amongst the inhabit- 


ants that formerly there were thirteen cities inhabited there, the 
chiefof which was Sodom, so large as to be sixty farlongs roond; 
but by earthquakes and fire breaking out, and by hot waters mix- 
ed with bitumen and brimstone, it became a lake, as we now see 
it. The rocks took fire, some of the cities were swallowed 
up, and others forsaken by those inhabitants that could flee." 
Tacitus, in the fifth book of his history, has these words : " Not 
far from thence are those fields which are reported to have been 
formerly very fruitful, and inhabited by a large city, but were 
burnt by lightning, the marks of which remain, in that the land 
is of a burning nature, and has lost its fruitfulness ; for every 
thing that is planted or grows of itself, as soon as it comes to to 
herb or flower, or grown to its proper bigness, vanishes like dost 
into nothing." Solinus, in the xxxvi. chap, of Salmasias's edi- 
tion, has these words : '* At a good distance from Jerusalem, a 
dismal lake extends itself, which was struck by lightning, as ap- 
pears from the black earth burnt to ashes. There were two towns 
there, one called Sodom, the other Gomorrah ; the apples tbtt 
grow there cannot be eaten, though they look as if they were 
ripe, for the outward skin incloses a kind of sooty ashes, which, 
pressed by the least touch, flies out into smoke, and vanishes into 
fine dust." Grotiusde Verit. b. i. sect. 16. Notes. 

[359] Gen. xix. 23, 24. '' The sun was risen upon the earth 
when Lot entered in Zoar. Then the Lord rained upon Sodom 


and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of hea- 
ven." This signified that the terrible destruction of the wicked 
is at the beginning of the glorious day wherein the Sun of Right- 
eousness rises on the earth, and at the coming of Christ, Lot's 
antitype, and visiting his church, the little city, the antitype of the 
church. So it was in the days of the apostles, in the morning 
of the gospel day, when Judea and Jerusalem were so terribly 
destroyed. So it was in the days of Constantine, and so it will 
be at the fall of Antichrist; and so it will be at the end of the 
world. See Job xxxviii. 13. Note. 

[336] So Dagon fell once and again before the ark early in the 
morning ; so after the disciples had toiled all night and caught 
nothing, yet in the morning Christ came to them, and they had a 
great draught of fishes ; so Christ rose from the dead early in the 
morning. It is said concerning God's church, that " weeping 
may continue for a night, but joy will come in the morning." 

The children of Israel were ail night pursued by their enemies 
at the Red sea ; in the night they were in the sea, in a great and ter- 
rible east wind, but in the morning watch the Lord looked through 
the pillar of cloud and fire, and troubled the hosts of the Egyp- 
tians ; and in the morning the children of Israel came op oot of 


3 sea* ant] the host of the Egyptians was destroyed, and the 
ildren of Israel rejoiced and sang. Jacob, after wrestling 
tb the angel in the night, obtained the blessing in the 
»rning. ** Ho that rulctb over men shall be as the light of 
) morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without 
kiidd : and as the tender grass springing out of the earth by 
tar shining after rain." 2 8am. xxiii. 4. Psalm xlix. 14. 
The upright shall have dominion over them in the morning, 
d their beauty shall con9ume in the grave from their dwell- 
r. In the morning, when the Sun of Righteousness shall rise 
th healing in his wings, the day comes that shall burn as an 
en, (as that day burnt in which Lot entered into Zoar,) and 
the proud, yea, all that do wickedly, shall be stubble, and 
3 righteous shall tread down the wicked, and they shall be as 
hes under the soles of their feet." Mai. iv. at the beginning, 
lie Church in the lix. Psalm, after expressing her great tren- 
ds from her enemies, and declaring how God should destroy 
3m, says, verse 16, *' But 1 will sing of thy power; yea, I 
II sing aloud of thy mercy in the morning, for thou hast been 
f defence and refuge in the day of my trouble." So likewise 
B church, in speaking of her troubles, in Psalm cxiiii. 8, 
Dause mb to hear thy loving kindness in the morning, for in 
ee do I trust ; en use me to know the way wherein I should 
ilk, for I lift up my soul unto thee." It is said of the Church, 
»lm xlvi. 5, *'God is in the midst of her, she shall not be 
)ved ; God shall help her, and that right early." And then 
the 8th verse, it is said, '* Come, behold the works of the 
>rd, what desolations he hath made in the earth." Hosea vi. 
2, 3. '* Come, and let us return unto the Lord, for he hath 
rn, and he will heal us ; he hath smitten, and he will bind up. 
\er two days will he revive us ; in the third day he will raise 
up, and we shall live in his sight. Then shall we know if we 
low on to know the Lord : his going forth is prepared as the 
>rning, and ho shall come unto us as the rain, as the latter 
in and the former rain unto the earth." 

[276] Gen. xix. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Concerning the dettruc- 
m of Sodom and the parts adjacent. The very ground of that 
gion, great part of it, seems to have been burnt up. For it 
as in great measure made up of bitumen, or what the scrip- 
re calls slime. Gen. xiv. 10. '* And the vale of Siddim was 
II of slime pits ; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, 
id fell there ; and they that remained fled to the mountain.*' 
nd because of the abundance of bitumen in the lake of Sodom, 
was called of old, and is still called Lacus AshpalHtes. It is 
II of bitumen, which at certain seasons boilsupfrom the bottom 
VOL. IX. 29 


in bubbles like hot water. This bitumen ir a very conibustibk 
matter. It is in some places liquid, and in others firm ; and not 
only lies near the surface of the earth, but lies sometimes verj 
deep, audit is du^^ out of the bowels of it. So that thestreamsof 
fire that came from heaven set the very ground on fire; aid 
therefore it is here, in the 28th verse, that L«>t looked towardi 
Sodom and Gomorrah, and towards all the land of the plain* and 
beheld, and In, the sinoke of the country went up as the smokecf 
a furnace. So that the country burning was a very lively re- 
presentation of the general conflagration ; and by the melting 
of the bituminous ground in many places was probably a burn- 
ing lake, and so was a lively image of hell, which is often called 
the lake of fire, and the lake that burns with fire and brimstone. 
Note, that bitumen is a sulphurous substance, (see Bailey's Dic- 
tionary,) and therefore is fitly compared to hell fire in scripture, 
Jude 7ib ver. ** Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities 
about them ; in like manner giving themselves over to forni- 
cation, and going after strange fiesh, nre set forth for an ex- 
ample, sufTering the vengeance of eternal fire." There seenu 
to be an evident allusion to the manner of the destruction of 
this country in Isai. xxxiv. 9, 10. ''And the streams thereof 
shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, 
and the land thereof shall become burning pitch. It shall not 
be quenched night nor day : the smoke thereof shall go up for 
ever ; from generation to generation it shall lie waste ; none 
shall pass through it for ever and ever. Deut. zxix. 23. ''And 
the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burningi that 
it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like 
the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, 
which the Lord overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath;" 
where we are expressly taught that the very ground of this 
country was burnt. The ground burning up sunk the land, and 
made this valley dec[)er, so that after that the waters of Jordan 
perpetually overflowed it ; and besides, there was probably an 
earthquake at the same time, by which the ground subsided, as 
the tradition of the heathen was. It is probable that the same 
time as the meteors of their air were inflamed, the bitumen 
and other combustible matter that was in the bowels of their 
earth was also enkindled, or the fire that was first kindled on 
the top of the ground might run down in the bituminous and 
sulphurous veins deep into the earth, and being there pent up, 
might cause earthquakes, after those cities and inhabitants were 
all consumed, which might make the country to sink, and turn it 
into a bituminous and exceeding salt lake. The ground there 
was doubtless very likely to sink by an earthquake, being hol- 
low, as it is evident it is still, in that since the surface of the 


earth hath been broken to let down the water at the river Jor* 
dan and other streams, there is no outlet out of the lake above 
ground, but they have a secret passage under the earth. The 
bitunnen there is mixed with abundance of nitre and salt, which 
by their repugnant quality might cause a more violent struggle 
in the fire that burnt down into the caverns of the earth to 
raase an earthquake. See many of these things in Complete 
Body of Divinity, p. 351, 353. 

[239] Gen. xix. 26. Concerning Lot^s wife. Revelation 
Examined with Candour. *'The unreasonable delay of Lot's 
wife was without question occasioned by her solicitude for her 
children, which she left behind her. The story of Niobe weep- 
ing for her children, and being stiffened into stone with grief, is 
doubtless founded upon this history. Possibly, too, the fable of 
Orpheus being pcrniitted to redeem his wife from hell, and 
lofling her afterwards by lookiiic: niiseasonably back, contrary 
to the express command ^iven him, and then through grief de- 
serting the society of mankind and dwelling in deserts, might 
be derived from some obscure tradition of this history. Sodom 
was now the liveliest eniblcm of hell that can be imagined* 
It was granted to Lot by a peculiar privilege to deliver his 
wife thence. He was expressly commanded, Gen. xix. 17, 
*'Look not behind thee, neither slny thou in all the plain; es- 
cape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed.*' By her look- 
ing back, contrary to this command, his wife was lost; after 
which he quits the city, and dwells alone in the mountains. 
Here are all the main circumstances of the fable, and the 
poets had nothing to do but to vary and embellish as they liked 

[380] But his wife looked back from behind her, and she 
became a pillar of salt. What happened to Lot's wife when 
she looked back as she was flying out of Sodom, is typical of 
what commonly happens to men that are guilty of backsliding 
when they have begun to seek deliverance out of a state of sin 
and misery, and an escape from the wrath to come. The wo- 
man was there stiffened iVito a hard substance; which signifies 
the tendency that hHckslirling has to harden the heart. She 
became a sen^>eles8 statno ; which signifies the senselessness 
which persons bring on them by backsliding. There she was 
fixed, and never got any further; which typifies the tendency 
that backsliding has to binder persons from ever escaping eter- 
nal wrath. 

[361] Gen. xxi. 10, 11. ** Wherefore she said unto Abra- 
ham, Cast out this bond woman and her son ; for the son of this 


bond woman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac" 
The son of the bond woman is men's own righteousness ; which 
is the son of the first covenant, given at mount Sinai, which is 
Hagar ; and Isaac, the son of the free woman, is Christ, as 
applied to the soul by faith : he is the child of promise, and the 
son of the free woman : at least this is |>art of the signification. 
It is Sarah, the mother of Isaac, that urges the casting out 
the son of the bond woman ; so it is the church in its ministry 
and ordinances, which is the mother of Christ in the souls of 
believers, that urges the casting out our own legal righteous- 
ness. It is Christ that is the heir of the blessings of the cove- 
nant; it is by his merits only that we have a right or title to 
those blessings ; we must cast out our own righteousness, and 
not have any manner of regard to that, as though that had a 
right, or as though a right came by that. [** And the thing 
was very grievous in Abraham's sight, because of bis son.*'] 
This signifies how very hard and grievous it seems to persons 
wholly to cast out their own righteousness, the son of the legal 
covenant, from mount Sinai, because they are our own works, 
our own ofispring, that are dear to us, as Ishniael was to lib 
father Abraham. 

[138] Gen. xxi. 8. ''And Abraham made a great feast ths 
same day that Isaac was weaned." This tj/pifies the weaning 
of the church from its milk of carnal ordinances, ceremo- 
nies, and shadows, and beggarly elements, ('pcm the cuui- 
ing of Christ, the church under the Old Testament is repre- 
sented as being in its minority ; and the apostle tells us that 
babes must be fcul with milk, and not strong meat. Chriitt 
therefore dealt with his disciples just as a tender mother does 
with her child, when she would wean it from the breast. 
There was a great fea^t provided, which represents the glo- 
rious gospel feast provided for souls when the legal dispensation 
ceased by the coming of Christ. It may also signify the wean- 
ing of souls from the enjoyments of the world at conversion, 
and the spiritual feast which they find instead of them. 

[362] Gen. xxii. Conrermng Abraham* $ ^ff^^^g ^P *** '<^ 
Isaac. God's command to .Abraham to oflTer up his son Isaac, 
considered with all its circumstances, was an exceeding great 
trial. Abraham had left his own country and his father's 
house, and all that was denr to him, and followed God, not 
knowing whither he went. First, he left Vr of the Chaldeei 
with his father. This was a great trial, but this was not 
enough. After this he was required also to leave Haran and 
bis father's house there, after he had been there settled in 


168 of a blessing which God encouraged him that he would 
e him in a jiosterity. When he came there ho found a fa- 
le in the land, and was forced to fly the country and go down 
) Egypt for sustenance ; and God appeared to him time after 
e, promising great things concerning his posterity. * Abra-> 
n waited a long time, and saw no appearunce of the fulfil- 
nt of the promise, foi his wife continued barren, and he 
de his complaint of it to God. God then renewed and very 
3mn]y confirmed his promise; but did not tell him that it 
uld be a child bv his wife, and therefore after he bad waited 
36 time longer, he went in to his maid ; but God rejected her 
, and he waited thirteen years longer, till he was an huu- 
d years old, before he obtained the sou promised ; and then 
i gave him but one, without any hopes of his having any 
er. After this, at God's command, he cast out his son Ish- 
ei, though it was exceedingly grievous to him, on encourage- 
nt of great blessings in Isaac and his posterity. And now, 
last, God commands him to take him and offer him up for a 
nt offering. lie does not merely call to see him die, though 
t would have been a great trial under such circumstances; 

he is to cut his throat with his own handp, and when he has 
le so, to burn his flesh on the altar, an offering to God — to 
t God that carnal reason would have said had dealt so ill 
h him, after he had lived long enough to get fast hold of his 
actions ; after he was wenned from Ishmael, and had set all 

heart on Isaac; and after there began to be a most hopeful 
stpcct of God's fulfilling his |H*oniises concerning him. And 
d gave him no reason for it. When Ishmael was to be cast 
, the reason assi^rned was, that in Isaac, his seed should be 
^td. But now, in seeming inconsistency with that reason, 
ac must die, and Abraham must kill him ; and neither one 
' the other must know why, nor wherefore ; and, as Mr. 
nry observes, how would he ever look Sarah in the face 
lin i with what face could he return to her and his family, 
h the blood of Isaac sprinkled on his garments? " Surely 
locMly husband hast thou been to me," would Sarah say to 
n, as Zipfwrah said to Moses, Kxod. iv. 25, 36. 

]7] Gen* xxii. 8. *' My son, God will provide a lamb for a 
-nt offering." This was fulfilled in Christ. 

[350] Gen. xxiii. Concerning Abraham^s buying^ in Canaan^ 
possession of a burying placr. Canaan is the' land that God 
.de over to Abraham by covenant ; and yet he gave him none 
^ritance in it to live up<in, as Stephen observes ; no, not to 
ich as to set his foot on, Acts vii. 5. But the first possession 


he bad in it was the possession of a burying place, or a poiieatMNi 
for him to be in after be and his were dead ; which signifiea this, 
that the heavenly Canaan, the land of promise, the rest that remaiM 
for the people of God, is a land for them to possets, and abide and 
rest in, after they are dead : they do nut enter opon the postessioa 
of it, until after they are dead, and then they are gathened to their 
possession in Canaan. Therefore it was so ordered that Jacob 
and Joseph so much insisted on it to be buried in that land. 

[161] Gen. xxiv. 15. Rebekah, and Rachel, and Zipporab, 
Moses's wife, those types of the church, all found their hnsbandi. 
who were types of Christ, when coming out to fountains to draw 
water ; which typifies this, that Christ is found by believers l§. 
a way of the use uf the moans of grace. The woman of Sa- 
maria found Christ ^hen coming to draw water. 

[71] Gen. xxv. 22. *' And the children straggled together in 
the womh." 1 believe this had reference to the spiritual war that 
is in the soul of the believer, Christ's spouse, between the flesh 
and spirit: the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit 
against the flesh, and these two are contrary one to another. 

[35] Gen. xxvii. 29. '* Let the people serve thee, and nations 
bow down to thee ; be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's 
sons bow down to thee. Cursed be every one that curteth thee, 
and l)lessed be he that blesseth thee." Hence we learn that the 
prophets themselves may not understand their prophecies, for 
Jacob thougiitthnt this should be accomplished of Esau. 

[406] Gen. xxvii. 18, 19. *< And Jacob rose op early in tlie 
rooming, and took the stone that he had put for his pillow, and 
set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it, and he 
called the nnme of that place Bethel,*' &lc. So, chap xxxi. 
13. 45, and x\xv. 14. From hence the heathen BcUylia, men- 
tioned by Philo Biblius out of Sancboniaihon. The god Uramii 
excogitated B<Jttylia^ having fashioned them into living stones. 
Bochart conceives that Sanchoniathon, instead of living stooet, 
wrote amnuted stones, D'i:^3 (from the radix DW, Skuph^ which, 
among the Syrians, signifies to anoint) which Philo Biblius read 
U^iffDi; whence he changed a/iri/zi/r//, into //n'n^ stones. SoDa- 
m-iScius tells ns, / saw a B(Bti/lns mm'^d in the air. The PhcBni- 
cians, imitating Jacob at Bethel, first worshipped the very stone 
which the patriarch anointed. So Scaliger, in Eiiaeb. tells os 
that *' the Jews relate so much, that although thai Cippys^ or 
stone, was at first beloved of God, in the times of the Patriarclm, 
yet afterwards he hated it, because the Caoaanites turned it into 


aa idol.*' Neither did the Phoenicians worship only this stoue at 
Belhtsl ; but also, io imitation of this rite, erected several other 
Boetyliai on the like occasion as Jacob erected his pillar of stone 
M a raemorial of God's apparition to him. So in like manner 
both the Phoenicians and the Grecians, upon some imaginary 
apparition of some god, (or dust, rather,) would erect their Boe- 
tylia, or pillars, in commemoration of snrh an apparition. So 
Photias, oot ofDamascius, tells us that near Holiopolis, in Syria, 
Asclepiades ascended the mountain Libauus, and saw many Boe- 
tylia, or Boetyli ; concerning which he relates many miracles. 
He relates also that these Boetylia were consecrated, some to Sa- 
tarn» some to Jupiter, and some to others. So Phnvorimus says, 
BtBtybu is a stone which stands at Heliojwlis, near Libanus. 
This stone some also called S^-yiXtjv, which is the same word by 
a hich the Seventy render Jacob's pillar. Gale's Court of the 
Geo. p. I4 b. 2, c. 7, p. 89, 90. 

[169] Gen. xxviii. 18 — 22. '* And he took the stone that he 
had set for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil 
opon the top of it — And this stone which I have set up for a pil- 
lar shall be God's house." This anointed pillar is a type of the 
Messiah, or Anointed, who is often called a stone or a rock, and 
is the house of God, wherein the Godhead dwells and taberna- 
cles. He was signified by the tabernacle and temple, as Christ 
tells us, when he says, '^ Destroy this temple," &z,r. And he, we 
are told, is the temple of the new Jerusalem. This is the stone 
that was Jacob's pillow ; it signified the dependence ilie saints 
have upon Christ, and that it is in him they have reU and repose, 
as Christ invites those that are weary to come to him, and they 
shall find rest. The Psalmist says he will lay him down and 
sleep, and awake, the Lord sustaining him. And as the stones of 
the temple rested on the foundation, so the saints, the living stones, 
rest upon Christ, building and resting upon that rock. This 
•tone ligpniiied the same with the other that he built there when he 
returned: chap. xxxv. 7: *' And he built there an altar, and call- 
ed the place El-beth-eU because there God appeared unto him, 
when he fled from the face of his brother." Ver. 14, " And Ja- 
cob set up a pillar in the place wliere he talked with him, even a 
pillar of stone; and he poured a drink-ofTering thereon, and he 
poured oil thereon." 

[417] Gen. xxxiii. 1 — 7. As Jacob's family returned to the 
land of Canaan, after Jacob had been long banished from thence, 
so it is probable will be the return of the spiritual hrael (o God, 
its resting place, and as it were to the promised land, to the land 
flowing with milk and honey, to a state of glorious rest, plenty, 


prosperity, and spiritual joy, and delights, in the latter days, which 
is often represented by the prophets as bringing God^s people 
into the land of Israel, and recovering them from foreign lands, 
where he had driven them. Jacob, at his first entrance, meets 
with great opposition from those professors who are often in scrip- 
ture represented by the elder brother, as Cain, and Ishmael, and 
Zarali, the son of Judah, who first put forth his hand, and Da- 
vid's eldest brother, and the ehler brother of the prodigal. Bot 
Jacob's meek and humble behaviour towards his opposing brother, 
to soften and turn his heart, teat hes the duty of Christians. Ja- 
cob's family was divided into several companies, one going before 
another with a space between ; so the return of the chnrcb of 
God will be by several companies that will come in one after an- 
other in successive seasons of the pouring out of the Spirit of 
God, with a space between. In Jacob's family, the lowest and 
meanest went first, and afterwards the more honourable and most 
amiable, and best beloved ; so, in the spiritual return of the church 
of Christ, God will first bring in the inferior sort of people ; he 
will save the tents of Jndah first, agreeable to the prophecy, 
Zech. xii. 7. '* The Lord also shall save the tents of Judah first, 
that the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inha- 
bitants of Jerusalem, do not magnify themselves against Judah." 
And the first outpouring of the Spirit will be the least glorioas, 
and they that are first brought in arc not only inferior among 
men, but the least pure, beautiful, and amiable as Christians in 
their experiences and practice. In Jacob's family went first the 
hand-maids and their children, so this is the blemish of the first 
children of Christ that shall be brought in at the glorious day of 
the church, that thou<;h thev will be true children of Jacob, vet 
shall they be as it were children of the hand-maids, with much of 
a legal spirit, i. e. spiritual pride and self-confidence. After these 
comes Leah and her children, who were more honourable and 
better beloved than the former; she was a true wife, but yet less 
beautiful, and less beloved than his other wile ; so after the first 
outpouring of the Spirit there will be a work of God that will 
break forth, that will be more glorious and more pure than the 
first. In Jacob's family came last of all the beautiful Rachel and 
Joseph, Jacob's best beloved and dearest child of all the family; 
so will it be in the church of God in days approaching. Jacob 
goes before them all, leads them all, and defends them all ; so 
doth Christ go before his church as their leader and defence. 

[126] Gen. xxxvii. 28. *' And they lift up Joseph out of the 
pit" Joseph was here a type of Christ; he was designed death 
by his own brethren, as Christ was ; he was cast into a pit, where- 
by his death and burial was signified. He was lifted out again, 


is resurrection was an occasion of their salvation from famine 

n] Gen. xxxviii. 28, &c. <* Zarah put his hand out first, 
^barez, from whom came Christ, broke forth before him.*' 
imports much the same thing as Isaac's casting out Ishmael, 
cob's taking hold of Esau's heel when they were born, and 
yards getting his birth- right of him, and as David's getting 
ingdom from Saul. 

)7] Gen. xli. The history of Joseph^s advancement in 
4f &fc. ** The Apis and Serapis of the Egyptians seems to 
y Joseph, because,* 1. It was the mode of the Egyptians to 
rve the memories of their noble benefactors by some signifi- 
! hieroglyphics, or symbols ; and the great benefits which 
gyptians received from Joseph in supplying them with bread- 
is aptly represented under the form of an ox, the symbol of 
isbandman. Thus Suidas (in Serapis) tells us, '^ that Apis, 
dead, had a temple built for him, wherein was nourished a 
:k, the symbol of an husbandman." According to which 
blance also, Minutius, a Roman tribune, was in very like 
er honoured with the form of a golden ox, or bull. 2. Jo- 
is compared to a bullock in scripture, Deut. xxxiii. 1 7, ** His 
is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the 
of unicorns : with them he shall push the people together to 
ids of the earth ; and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, 
3ey are the thousands of Manasseh." 3. The same may be 
*d from the names Apis and Serapis, for Apis seems evidently 
vativefrom ^k, Father^ as Joseph styles himself, Gen. xlv. 

^o now, it was not you that sent me hither, but God ; and 
th made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, 
ruler throughout all the land of Egypt." As for Serapis^ 
; the same with Apis, and also a symbol of Joseph, which 
IS collects from this: 1. It had a bushel on its head, as a 
)1 of Joseph's providing corn for the Egyptians. 2. From 
'man of Serapis, which is derived either from "^iB^, an ox, or 
w, a prince, and Apis, both of which are applicable to Jo- 

'" Gale'8 Court of Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 7, p. 93, 94. 

8] Gen. xli. 14. " And they brought Joseph out of the 
on." By Joseph's being cast into the dungeon, is signified 
ath of Christ; by his being delivered, his resurrection ; and 
5uiug great advancement of Joseph, to be next to the king, 
es the exaltation of Christ at the right hand of the Father. 
h rose from the dungeon, and was thus exalted to give salva- 
L. IX. 30 


tion to the land of Egypt and to his brethren, at Christ to sart 

his people. 

[103] Gen. xliv. 32, 33. " For ihy servant became sorely for 
the lad unto my father, saying, If 1 bring him not onto thee, thea 
I shall bear the blame to my father for ever. Now, therefore, I 
pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad, a bond man to 
my lord ; and let the lad go up with his brethren." Jndah is herein 
a type of his offspring, Jesus Christ. 

[382] Gen. xlviii. 21. '* And Israel said to Joseph, Behold, I 
die, but God shall be with you." So Joseph, when be was near 
his death, said to his brethren after the like manner* Gen. I. 24, 
'< And Joseph said unto his brethren. I die; and God will sorely 
visit you, and bring you out of this land unto the land which he | 
sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob." Thus the blessing ' 
of the presence of God with the children of Israel, and his favonr 
and salvation, is consequent on the death nf their Father, and 
their Brother, and SSaviour : shadowing this forth, that the favoar 
of God, and his presence, and salvation is by the death of Christ 
He, when near death, said to his disciples, John zvi. 7, ** It is ex- 
pedient for you that I go away ; for, if I go not away, the Coia- 
forter will not come unto you, but if I depart, I will send bin 
unto you." And elsewhere he promises that the Father and the 
Son will come to them,, and make their abode with them. Isaac's 
and Jacob's blessing their children before their death, and as it 
were making over to them their future inheritance, may probably 
be typical of our receiving the blessings of the cevenant of grace 
from Christ, as by his last will and testament. We find the cove- 
nant of grace represented as his testament. Christ, in thefxiv., 
XV., and xvi. chapters of John, does as it were make his will, and 
conveys to his people their inheritance before his death, particu- 
larly the Comforter, or the Holy Spirit, which is the sum of the 
purchased inheritance. 

[403] Gen. xlix. 10. " Until Shiloh come." " Silenus, so 
famous among the poets, whom they place in the order of their 
gods, is derived from hence. Diodorus, lib. 3, says the first that 
ruled at Nisa was Silenus, whose genealogy is unknown to all, by 
reason of his antiquity, which is afj^reeable to what the scriptures 
say of the Messiah, Isai. liii. *< Who shall declare his generation f" 
And elsewhere, ** To us a Child is born, to us a Son is given, 
and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the everlast- 
ing Father," and other passages. As for Nisa^ where Silenos 
reigned, it seems to be the same with Sina^ (as was showed else- 
where. See No. 401.) The Messiah dwelt there. It was be that 


welt there in the bush. And there he manifested himself and 
pake with Moses and the children of Israel. This is represented 
.s bis dwelling-place several times in scripture ; and therefore, when 
Sod redeemed the children of Israel from Egypt, and brought 
bem there, he is repressnted as bringins^ them to himself. Near 
bis mountain was the altar called Jehovah- Nissi, which is a 
lame Moses gave the Messiah. Of Shiloh it is said, and to him 
ball the nnp', the gathering y or the obedience^ (as the word signi- 

ies,) of the people be. Thus Silenus is made by the poets to be 
be greatest doctor of his age, and he is called Bacchus's precep- 
tor, i. e. according to Vossins's account, Bacchus was Moses, (see 
Vo. 401,) and Silenus, or Shilo, or Christ, instructed Moses on 
Doont Sina, or Nysa, the place where Bacchus and Silenus were 
aid to be. Bacchus and Silenus are made by the poets to be in- 
leparable companions. Another attribute given to Silenus is, 
that he was carried for the most part on an ass, which Bochart re- 
fers to that of Genesis xlix. 11, ** Binding his foal 0nto the vine, 
ind bis ass's colt unto the choice vine ; he washed his garments 
IB wine and his clothes in the blood of grapes." The mytholo- 
psts fable Silenus as a comrade of Bacchus, to be employed in 
treading out grapes ; this Bochart refers to, Gen. xlix. '^ He wash- 
ri his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes ;" 
ind is agreeable to what is said of the Messiah elsewhere in the 
icriptnre, '' I have trodden the wine-press alone, and of the peo- 
ple was none with me." They characterize Silenus as one that 
iras always drunk, as it is supposed from what follows, Gen. xlix. 
18, *^ His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with 
nilk,^ which Solomon makes the character of one overcome with 
wine. Prov. xxiii. 29, 30, '* Who hath woe ? who hath sorrow f 
irho bath contentions? who hath babbling? who hath wounds 
irithout cause ? who hath redness of eyes ? They that tarry long 
St the wine ; they that go to seek mixed wine." They ascribe to 
Silenus for his meat cow's milk, which Bochart makes to be tra- 
duced from Gen. xlix. 12. '^And bis teeth white with milk." 
That Silanus is the same with Shilo, further appears from that of 
Pausanius Cliacon 2. Evyotf r»i''E^fou6jvXwfa 2iXt)vou |xv»ifi,a, the 
monument of Sitenus remains in the country of the Hebrews.^^ See 
Gale's Court of Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 6, p. 67, 68, 69. 

[383] Exod. i. 6, 7. <' And Joseph, and all his brethren, and 
all that generation, and the children of Israel were fruitful, and 
increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding 
mighty, and the land was filled with them." After the death of 
Christ, our Joseph, his spiritual Israel began abundantly to in* 
crease, and his death had an influence upon it. It was like the 


sowing of a corn of wheat, which, if it die, bringeth forth nmcb 
frait. John xii. 24, " Verily, verily, I say nnto jroo, except a 
com of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abidetfa alone; hot if 
it die, it bringeth forth mach fruit.'* From the call of Abraham, 
when God first told him he would make of him a great nation^ to 
the deliverance of his seed out of Egypt, was 430 years, during 
the first 215 of which they were increased but to 70, bat in the 
latter half, those 70 multiplied to 600,000 fighting men ; so some- 
times God's providence may seem for a great while to thwart ik 
promises, and go counter to them, that his people's faith may be 
tried, and his own power the more magnified; and though the per- 
formance of God's promises is sometimes slow, yet it is alwayi 
sure ; at the end it shall speak, and not lie, Heb. ii. 3; ** How 
shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation, which at the 
first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed onto oi 
by them that heard him i^ 

[432] Exod. ii. Concerning Moses. Clennus AlexandrioiiSy 
Strom, l.y report;:, out of the books of the Egyptian priests, that ao 
Egyptian was slain by the words of Moses ; and Strom. V., he relates 
some things belonging to Moses, out of Artapanus, though oot 
very truly. Justin, out of Tragus Pompeius, says of Moses, ** He 
was leader of those that were banished, and took away the sacred 
things of the Egyptians; which they, endeavouring to recover 
with arms, were forced by a tempest to return home; and Moses 
being entered into his own country of Damascus, he took posses- 
sion of mount Sinai." And what follows is a mixture of truth and 
falsehood, where we find Arvas written in him, it should be read 
ArnaSf who is Aaron, not tlie son of Moses, as he imagines, but 
the brother, and a priest. The Orphic verses expressly mention 
his being taken out of the water, and the two tables that were gi- 
ven him by God. The verses are thus — 

So was it said of old, so h'l commands. 
Who's born of waten who received of God 
The double Tables ofthe Law. 

The great Scaliger, in these verses, instead of htdogenes^ wilb a 
very little variation of the shape of a letter, reads hudogenes, bom 
of the water. 

The ancient vriter ofthe Orphic verses, whoever he was, added 
those lines after he had said, that there was but one God to be 
worshipped, who was the Creator and Governor of the world. 

Palemon, who seems to have lived in the time of Antiochas 
EpiphaneSy has these words: *'In the reign of Apis the son of 
Phoroneus, part of the Egyptian army, went out of Egypt and 



dwelt in Syria, called PalestiDe, not far from Arabia." Several 
things are related about his coming out of Egypt, from the Egyp- 
tian writers, Monethro, Lysimachus, Choeremon. The places are 
in Josephus against Apion, with abundance of falsities, as coming 
Grom people who hated the Jews ; and from hence, Tacitus took his 
account of them. Bnt it appears from all these compared toge* 
ibcr, that the Hebrews descended from the Assyrians, and pos- 
sessing a great part of Egypt, led the life of shepherds, but after* 
Rrards being burdened with hard labour, they came out of Egypt 
jnder the command of Moses, some of the Egyptians accompany- 
ng them, and went through the country of the Arabians unto Pa- 
estine, Syria, and there set up rites contrary to those of the 

Diodorus Siculus, in his first book, where he treats of those who 
nade the gods to be the authors of their laws, says, '' Amongst the 
Fews was Moses, who called God by the name lau, i. e. Jeho- 
krah,'' which was so pronounced by the oracles, and in the Orphic 
verses mentioned by the ancients, and by the Syrians. 

Strabo, in his sixteenth book, speaking of Moses as an Egyptian 
priest, (which he had from the Egyptian writers, as appears in Jo- 
sephus) says, " many who worship the Deity agreed with him, 
(Moses,) for he hath said that the Egyptians did not rightfully 
conceive of God, when they likened him to wild beasts and cattle ; 
Dor the Lybians, nor the Greeks, in resembling him to a human 
shape ; for God is no other than the Universe which surrounds us, 
the earth and the sea, and the heaven, and the world, and the 
nature of things, as they are called by us. Who, says he, (i. e. Mo- 
ses,) that has any understanding, would presume to form any image 
like to those things that are about us ? Wherefore we ought to lay 
aside all carved images, and worship him in the innermost part of 
a temple worthy of him, without any ^gure." He adds that this 
was the opinion of good men — He adds also that sacred rites were 
instituted by him, which were not burdensome for their costliness, 
nor hateful as proceeding from madness. He mentions circum- 
cision, the meats that were forbidden, and the like ; and after be 
had shown that man was naturally desirous of civil society, he 
tells us, it is promoted by divine and human precepts, but more 
effectually by divine. 

Pliny, book xxx. ch. 1, says, "There is another party of ma- 
gicians which sprung from Moses." Juvenal, has these lines — 

They learn, and keep, and fear the Jewish laii', 
Which Moses in his secret volume gave. 

Tacitus, Hist. V., according to the Egyptian fables, calls Moses 
one of them that were banished. 


Dionysias Longinus, (who lived in the time of Aurelian the em- 
peror, and favourite of Zenobia, queen of the PalmyrianSy) io his 
book of the Sublime, after he had said that they who speak of God, 
ought to take care to represent him as great and pure, and with- 
out mixture, adds, *' Thus does he, who gave laws to the Jews, 
who was an extraordinary man, who conceived and spake worthy 
of the power of God, where he writes in the beginning of his laws, 
Gad ipake, — fV/uit ? — £061 there be light; and there was light, hd 
there be earth; and it was so.^^ 

Chalcidius took many things out of Moses, of whom he speaks 
thus, ** Moses was the wisest of men ; who, as they say, was enli- 
vened, not by human eloquence, but by divine inspiration.** 

Numenius, as Eusebius quotes his words, book viii. ch. 8, says, 
'* Afterwards Jamnes and Maubres, Egyptian scribes, were 
thought to be famous for magical arts, about the time that the 
Jews were driven out of Egypt, for those were they that were cho- 
sen out of the multitude of the Egyptians, to contend with Musoeus 
the leader of the Jews, a man very powerful with God by prayers, 
and they seemed to be able to repel those sore calamities which 
were brought upon Egypt by Musoeus." Origen against Celsus 
refers us to the same place of Numenius. 

Artapanus, in the same Eusebius, b. ix. ch. 27, calls them the 
priests of Memphis, who were commanded by the king to be pat to 
death, if they did not do things equal to Moses. 

Strabo, in his xiv. book, after the history of MoseSj says, " that 
his followers for a considerable time kept his precepts, and were 
truly righteous and godly/' And a little after he says, ^Mhat 
those who believed in Moses, worshipped God and were lovers of 

These things concerning Moses are taken from Grotius, de Ve- 
fit. b. 1, sect. 16. 

[154] Exod. ii. Moses in the ark upon the waters is a type of 
the church. The church of God is like a babe, in infirmity and 
weakness, in helplessness of itself, and dependence upon a superior 
help, and in that the members of it are all in a spiritual sense be- 
come as little children. And it is like a babe upon the waters 
floating through all manner of changes, dangers, and troubles, 
and yet upheld and preserved in Christ the ark. He was especially 
a type of the church of the Jews in their oppressed condition in 
Egypt. It was a wonder they were not swallowed up by their 
enemies, and drowned and lost in their afflictions and the multitude 
of their adversaries. Moses in the water and not drowned, is much 
sncb another type as the bush all in a flame and not burnt. He 
was also herein a type of every elect soul who is naturally all ove^ 


Imed in sin and misery and danger, and if redeemed or deri- 
de as Moses was taken out of the water. 

108] Ezod. ii. Moses is the same with the Egyptian Osiris; for, 
loses is the same with Bacchus, as has been shown before, No. 
; and Diodorus tells us that Osiris was called by the Greeks 
nysus, the name of Bacchus. 

Diodorus tells us that.Hercules was the chief captain of Osi- 
irroy, who was Joshua, as has been shown, No. 402. 3. Dio- 
is tells us that Osiris had in his army Anubis covered over with 
»g's skin, which thence was pictured .with a dog's head, and 
;d the dog keeper, be. ; all which seems to refer to CaleVs 
e, which signifies a dog. 4. Pan is said to war under Osiris, 
rh is the same with Christ, whom God promises should go with 
les when he says, OB ^^ my presence shall go with him." See 

. Osiris is said to have horns from the mistake of Moses's cha- 
er, who is thence pictured with horns, because of his beams of 
t— the Hord in Hebrew for horns and beams being the 

• Moses with the princes of the tribes carried up the bones of 
?ph into Canaan : hence the poets fable of Osiris^ bones, &c. 
Gale's Court of Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 7, p. 94, 95. 

159] Exod. ii. 5. Pharaoh's daughter became the mother of 
ses, which typified the calling fif the Gentile church, that is 
jrally the daughter of Satan, the spiritual Pharaoh, which 
omes the church of Christ, and so his mother ; and also is to 
resent that all the saints of which the whole church consists, are 
iirally the children of the devil, that by conversion become the 
itual mother of Christ, as Christ says that whosoever shall do 
will of his Father which is in heaven, the same is his mother. 
The whole church, which is often represented as the mother 
Christ, is in her constituent parts naturally an Egyptian, and 
daughter of Pharaoh. She found Moses when she came 
rn to wash herself in the river. The river here represents the 
ly Ghost, and the washing is the washing of regeneration, by 
ich souls are brought to Christ, which is signified by baptism, 
which their admission into the Christian church is declared and 
led. Pharaoh's daughter is more than once made use of in 
ipture to signify the church, especially the Gentile. So was 
araoh's daughter that became Solomon's wife, for the church 
iguratively both the wife and mother of Christ. 

[384] Exod. ii. 5. Pharaoh's daughter came to Moses her- 
r, into the same river into which Moses was cast. So, if wt 

240 hOTEB on THE DIBLE. 

would find Christ, and be the spiritual mother of Christ, we must 
die with Christ, be made conformable to his death, be buried with 
him by baptsm ; must die to sin ; must be crucified to the world, 
and die to the law, and be willing to suffer affliction and perse- 
cution with him. By such mortification and humiliatioo is the 
soul washed in the river into which Christ was cast. 

[439] Exod. ii. 6. '' And behold, the babe wepL" As Mo- 
ses, in the water, was a type of the chorch in afflicliony so his 
weeping a little before he is 'taken out of the water, seems to be 
typical of the spirit ol .repentance, mourning and supplications | 
often spoken of in the prophets, given to the church a little before 
her deliverance from adversity. 

[412] Exod. lit. 14. <'I am that I am," &c. Some of the 
heathen philosophers seem to have derived notions that they bad 
of the Deity from hence. Plato and Pythagoras make the great 
object of philosophy to be To^Ov, that which is; T'j ovrc^? *Ov, Mot 
y>hich truly is ; and also To ajVo "Ov, being itself. The Seventy 
render this place in Exodus thus: K/cj sifAio&jv, that the philoso- 
phers by their To'Ov, To ovrw^ "Ov, and Ti awo*0», meant God^ ap- 
pears by what Jamblicus saiib of Pythagoras, '' by Twv'Ovrbiv, 
BeingSy he understood sole and self agents^ immaterials^ and eter- \ 
nals. Other beings indeed are not beings, but yet are equivocally 
called such by a participation with these eternals." So Plato, 
in his Parmenides, (who was a Pythagorean) treating of To "Ovxeu 
*£v, which he makes the first principle of all things, thereby un- 
derstands God. So, in his Timoeus Locrus, he says To *Ov, Being 
is always; neither hath it beginning. So again in his Timceus, 
folios 37, 38, he proves nothing properly />, but God, the eternal 
essence, " to which," says he, •* we do very improperly attribute 
those distinctions of time, was, and shall 2^." Plutarch says To 
Ivrejf "Ov, «< The true Being, is eternal, ingenerable, and incorrupt- 
ible, unto which no time ever brings mutation." Hence in the 
Delphic temple there was engraved "E*» Thou art. Gale's Court 
of Gen. p. 2, b. 2, ch. 8, p. 173, 174, 175. 

That Plato by To ov-gj^ *()v, meant God, appears by his own 
words in his Epist. 6 fol. 323. '* Let there," says he, *^ be a law 
constituted and confirmed by oath, calling to witness the God of 
all things, the Governor of Bein<rs present, and things to come, 
the Father of that governing cause whom, according to our phi- 
losophy, we mnke to be the tnte Being, "Ov oWw^, &,c." This is 
the same with him that revealed himself to Moses by the name / 
am that I am, out of the bush, that was tlie Son of God. G. C. 
of Gen. p. 1, b. 3, c. 5, p. 64. Plato seems evidently to have 


?ard of this revelation that God made of himself to Moses by 
e name of I am, &c. out of the burning bush in mount Sinai, 
id to have a»plain reference to it in his Philebus, fol. 17 ; he 
mfesseth, "The knowledge of the To "Ov," &c. was from the 
)ds, who communicated this knowledge to us, by a certain Prdmi- 
eus, together with a brigiit fire. G. C. of G. p. 2, b. 3, c. 2, 

[457] Exod. iii. 14. " And God said unto Moses, I am that I 
a ; and he said, Thus shah thou say to the children of Israel, 
AM hath sent me unto you." " We are informed that there was 
I ancient inscription in the temple at Delphos, over the place 
bere the image of Apollo was erected, consisting of these let- 
rs^^El; and Pluturch introduces his disputants querying what 
ight be the trne signification of it. At length Ammonius, to 
[lom he assigns the whole strength of the argumentation, con- 
ddes that " the word'El, was the most perfect title they could 
ve the Deity, that it signifies thou art, and expresses the di- 
ne essential being, importing that, though our being is precari* 
IS, fluctuating, dependent, subject to mutation, and temporary ; 

that it would be improper to say to any of us, iii the strict and 
»8olute sense, thou art; yet we may with great propriety give the 
eity this appellation, because God is independent, uncreated, 
imutable, eternal, always, and every where tbe same, and there- 
re he only can be said absolutely To Be. Plutarch would have 
lied this Being To ovtoj^ *Ov. Plato would have named him To 5v, 
lich he would have explained to signify Ou^ia, implying TO BE 
sentially, or self-existent." Shuckford's Connections, voU 2, 

385, 386. 

[5051 Exod. iii. 18. '* And you shall say unto him. The 
3rd God of the Hebrews hath met with us, and now let us go, 
) beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we 
ly sacrifice to the Lord our God." That is, inform Pharaoh 
at your God that hath met with you, has instructed you to ask 
is of him. In this Pharaoh was not treated with any falsehood 
unjust deceit. The utmost that can be supposed by any objec- 
r is, that here is an implicit promise, that if he would let them 
» three days* journey into the wilderness, they would return 
ain after they had there served their God, and received the re- 
lation of his will, which he should there make to them. But if 
^re had been, not only an implicit, but an express, promise of 
is, it might have been consistent with God's real design, and 
3 revelations of It that he had made to Moses, and by him to the 
ople, without any false or unjust dealing. God knew that Pha- 
VOL. IX. 31 


raoh would not comply with the proposal, and that bis refusal 
would be the very occasion of their final deliverance. He knew 
be would order it so, and therefore might reveal this as the event 
that should finally be brought to pass, and promise it to his people, 
though he revealed not to them the exact time and particular 
means and way of i(s accomplishment. Conditional promises or 
threatenings of that which God knows will never come to pais, 
and which he has revealed will not come to pass, are not inconsist- 
ent with God's perfect justice and truth, as when God promised 
the prince and people of the Jews in Jeremiairs time, that the city 
should surely be preserved, and never should be destroyed by its 
enemies, if they would repent and turn to God, and cleave to him, 
though it had been often most expressly and absolutely foretold 
that Jerusalem should be destroyed by the Chaldeans, and as tbe 
apostle Paul denounced unto the mariners that were about to flee 
out of the ship, that if they did, the ship's crew must perish; 
though he had before in the name of God foretold and promised 
that there should be the loss of no man's life, bat only of the ship. 

[443] Ezod. iv. 6, 7. ** And the Lord said furthermore unto 
him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom ; and he put his hand into 
bis bosom, and when he took it out, behold, his hand was lepcoos 
as snow ; and he said. Put thine hand into thy bosom again; and 
be put his hand into his bosom again, and plucked it out of his 
bosom, and behold, it was turned again as the other flesh." This 
sign is much like the foregoing, of casting the rod on the ground, 
and its becoming a serpent; and much the same thing is signifi- 
ed, but only more is signified in this latter sign than in the former. 
By Moses's hand is represented the hand or arm of the Lord, 
which often in the Old Testament signifies the Messiah. By 
God's plucking his hand out of his bosom, is meant his appearing 
for the salvation of his people. While God long forbears to ap- 
pear for his church's salvation, while they are longing and wait- 
ing for him, he as it were hides his hand in his bosom ; Ps. Izxiv. 
11. *< Why withdrawest thou thy hand, even thy right band? 
Pluck it out of thy bosom." There are remarkable appearances 
of God in the world for the salvation of his people, which are 
both by the coming of the Messiah, both of which are long wish- 
ed and waited for before they are accomplished. The first is 
God's appearing in th^ world for the redemption of the church, 
by laying the foundation of her salvation in the first coming of 
the Messiah, after the church had long waited for him, while God 
bad hid his hand in his bosom. At length tbe arm of the Lord 
is made bare, the Messiah appears, but in such a manner that it 
was to the surprise and astonishment of those that saw bim — ma- 
ny were astonished at him, his visage was so marred more than 


ly maoy and bis form more than the sons of men. They were 
fended in him. He had no form nor comeliness, and when they 
iw him, there was no beauty that they should desire bim. He 
3pears in the form of sinful flesh. He was as it were diseased 
itb the leprosy, because himself took our infirmities, and bore 
ir sicknesses. He was made sin for us, as though he had been all 
/er leprous or sinful. God's second remarkable appearance will 
? in the Messiab^s second coming for the actual salvation of bis 
?ople, when he will appear without sin unto salvation, without 
le leprosy of our sin, and will appear in that glory that he had 
ith the Father before his humiliation, which he emptied himself 
r at his first coming. God having answered his prayer in glori- 
ing him with his own self, with the glory he had with him before 
le world was : as Moses's hand, the second time he plucked it 
at of his bosom, was restored as it was at first. This type of 
le redemption of the Messiah was fitly given on this occasion, 
(id as a sign of the redemption of the children of Israel out of 
Igypt, and the carrying them through the Ked sea, the wilder- 
ess, and Jordan, into Canaan, because the redemption of the 
[essiah, both fundamental and actual, was variously represented 
dd presignified in that great work of God. 

[1951 Exod. iv. 20. Moses's Rod. '' And Moses took the 
)d of God in his hand." This rod typified the Word, both the 
ersonal Word and the word of Revelation. The word of God 
; called the rod of God's strength, Ps. ex. 2. It is called the rod 
f Christ's mouth, Isai. xi. 4. It is expressly represented by the 
>d of an almond-tree, Jer. i. 11. Moses's rod was the rod of 
n almond-tree. Jesus Christ is also called a rod. *' There 
lali come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall 
row out of his roots." He is frequently called a branch, or 
3rout, a tender plant, &c. 

If we consider this rod as representing the revealed word of 
rod, then Mosej» or Aaron, who kept and used the rod, represent 
!hrist. A rod is the instrument of a shepherd, by which he go- 
erns, directs, defends, and orders his flock, and this rod was that 
lat Moses kept sheep with, which he was found with when he was 
^ding bis father-in-law's sheep, when God appeared to him in the 
ush. The same that a rod or staflf is to a shepherd and his flock, 
le same is the word of God to Christ and his spiritual flock. As 
loses used it in leading Jethro's flock of sheep, so he used it in 
wading God's people Israel. As the word of God is the instru- 
lent Christ uses to save his people, and to destroy their enemies, 
nd work those wonders that are wrought in bringing them to 
alvation, and which belong to the application of redemption, so 
loses used this rod in the temporal deliverance of his people. It 
; the word of God that is used to remove all obstacles, and over- 


come all opposition in the way of a sinnerU conversion and pro- 
gress in holiness ; as Moses's rod was made use of to divide the 
Red sea. 

If the rod be considered as representing Christ, then Moses or 
Aaron represent God. Moses cast his rod on the gronndi and it 
became a serpent, and he took it up, and it became a rod again, 
signifying how that Christ, when he was sent down by God to the 
earth, and was made sin for us, became guilty for our sakes, wis 
accursed, and appeared in the form of sinful flesh : he appeared 
in our stead, having our guilt imputed to him, who are a genera- 
tion of vipers. Thus, when the children of Israel were bitten 
with fiery serpents, Christ was represented by the brazen serpent 
The rod being become a serpent, swallowed the magicians* rods 
or serpents, so Christ, by his being made sin for us, destroyed sia 
and Satan. When Moses took up his rod from the ground, it 
was no longer a serpent, but became a rod again, so when God 
took up Christ from his stroke of humiliation, be was acquitted, 
justified, he had no longer the guilt of sin imputed to him, he no 
longer appeared in the form of sinful flesh. Rulers and princes 
are compared to rods, Ezek. xix. 11, 12. 14, and to branches, Ps» 
Ixxx. 15. 17; so Christ himself is often called a rod, and branch. 

It is by the word of God, or by Christ, that God works all bis 
wonders in and for the church ; and Moses wrought wonders by 
bis rod. It is by Christ that all obstacles and difficalties are re- 
moved in order to our salvation. As the Red sea was divided by 
Moses's rod, it is by Christ, and in his name only, that God's peo- 
ple prevail over their enemies. The children of Israel prevailed, 
while Moses held up his rod, and when he let it down, Amaiek 
prevailed ; Moses held up the rod in that battle as the banner or 
ensign of the armies of Israel, as is evident from Exod. xvii. 15 ; 
so Christ is lifted up a& an ensign, Isai. xi. 10. 

When this rod budded, and blossomed, and bare fruit, that 
which it brought forth was almonds, intimating this, that the 
spreading of the word of God in producing its eflfectsin the world 
will be rapid. The almond-tree is a tree of a very sudden 
growth, and speedily brings its fruit to perfection. Jer. i. 11, 12. 
So the word of God is quick and powerful ; this is the way which 
the powerfulness of it is shown in the suddenness of its producing 
its great eflects, Isai. Ixvi. 7, 8, *' Before she travailed she brought 
forth ; before her pain came, she was delivered of a man child ; 
who hath heard such a thing ? who hath seen such things f shall 
the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be 
born at once f for as soon as Zion travailed she brought forth her 

As Moses and Aaron represent God, the rod represents Christ: 
as Moses and Aaron represent Christ, the rod represents the word : 


18 tbey represent ministers, the rod represents two things, vh, the 
word of God which they preach, and their faith; and this rod was 
Moses's staff, and this staff represents the same as Jacob's and 
Elisha's staves. See note on Numb. xxi. 18. 

[442] Exod. iv. 20. Moseses Rod. One tiling at least typified 
by this rod is faith, the same that was signified by Jacob's staff 
with which he passed over Jordan, and that he leaned upon in his 
last sickness, that the Apostle speaks of in Heb. xi.; and Elisha's 
staff that he bid the servant lay on tlio dead child, and the staves of 
die princes with which they digged the well, and David's staff he 
took ID his hand when he went against Goliath. The word pro- 
perly signifies a staff as well as rodj such a staff as persons walk 
with, or lean upon : the word comes from a root, one signification 
of which is, to lean. 

The word translated bed, Gen. xlvii. 31, (Jacob bowed himself 
upon the bed^s head) comes from the same root, and therefore the 
Apostle renders it staff, in Heb. xi. The word is not the same in 
the original with that used to signify Elisha's staff that was laid on 
the child, but it is a word of the same signification, and therefore 
both words are used to signify the stay of bread, the latter in Isai. 
ill. 1, and the former in Levit. xxvi. 23. This word is used to sig- 
nify Judah's staff, that he gave to Tamar as a pledge, Gen. 
zxxviii. 19. 

[390] Exod. v. to xiv, inclusive. Conceiving PharaoVs hard- 
neu of heart and obstinacy in refusing to let the children of Israel 

S>, and the manner of God's dealing mth him. In Pharaoh's 
havioiir is very lively represented the behaviour of impenitent 
sinners when the subjects of reproofs and corrections for their sins, 
and under convictions of conscience and warnings, and fears of 
future wrath, with respect to parting with their sins, or letting go 
the objects of their lusts. Indeed it is an instance of this very con- 
duct; for Pharaoh in refusing to let the people go, refused to let 
go the objects of his lusts: in keeping them in bondage, he kept 
bis sins. His pride was gratified in his dominion over that peo- 
ple. He was loth to let them go, because he was loth to part with 
bis pride. His covetousness was also gratified by the profits he 
bad by their slavery ; he would not let them go because he would 
not part with the object of his covetousness. 

God commanded him to let the people go, he sent his commands 
from time to time by the hand of Moses and Aaron, and warned 
bim of the ill consequence if he refused : so God counsels and 
warns sinners by his word, by his ministers. God first made 
known his will to Pharaoh in a mild and gentle manner, chap. v. 
at the beginning ; but that was so far from being effectual, that 


he was only the worse for it. Instead of letting the people go, he 
only increased their burdens : so God is wont in the first place to 
use gentle means with sinners. But impenitent sinners are not 
the better, but the worse, for the gracious calls and counsels of the 
word of God ; they sin with the greater contempt for it : as Pha- 
raoh took God's command in disdain. He said, *^ Who is the 
Lord, that I should obey his voice f " Then God proceeded to lay 
greater matter of conviction before Pliaraoh, and to warn hini it 
the mischief that would come upon him by his refusal, by tamiog 
the rod into a serpent ; (see notes on that miracle, Exod* vii.;) and 
when he still hardened his heart, then God began to chastise hioBi 
by turning the water into blood, which was not only a chastise- 
ment but also a clear and loud warning of the future destruction 
he would bring upon himself by his obstinacy. (See notes on tbtt 
plague) So God is wont to give sinners fair warning of the misery 
and the danger of their sins before he destroys them. After this, 
when God's hand pressed Pharaoh, and he was exercised with 
fears ofGod'sfuture wrath, he entertained some thoughts of leitiog 
the people go, and promised he would do it; but from time to 
time he broke his promises when he saw there was respite. So 
sinners are often wont to do under convictions of conscience and 
fears of wrath ; they have many thoughts of parting with their sins; 
but there is never a divorce actually made between them and their 
lusts ; it is common for sinners when under affliction and threaten- 
ing dispensations of providence to make promises of amendment, 
as in timesof sore sickness, and when in danger of death and dam* 
nation, but soon to forget them when God's hand is removed and 
future damnation more out of sight. In such cases sinners are 
wont to beg the prayers of ministers, that God would remove his j 
hand and restore them again, as Pharaoh begs the prayers of 
Moses and Asiron, Exod. viii, 8. ^^ Then Pharaoh called for Mo- 
ses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the Lord that he may takeaway 
the frogs from me, and from my people, and I will let the people 
go that they may sacrifice unto the Lord ;" and so ver. 28 ; so ch. 
ix. 27, 28, and x. 16, 17. Pharaoh was brought by God's judg- 
ments and terrors to confess his sin with seeming humility, as 
Exod. ix. 27. ^' And Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron 
and said unto them, I have sinned this time, the Lord is right- 
eous, and I and my people are wicked." This was when there 
were mighty thunderings ; and it follows in the next verse, ** En- 
treat the Lord that there may be no more mighty thunderings." 
So chap. X. 16, 17. *' And lie said, 1 have sinned against the Lord 
your God and against you ; now therefore forgive, I pray thee, 
my sin only this once.*' So sinners oftentimes under affliction 
and danger of future wrath, and when God thunders upon their 
consciences, seem very penitent and humble, and are much in con- 


ffrssing their sins, but yet have not their lusts divorced from them, 
have DO thorough disposition to forsake them. Pharaoh, in the 
struggle that was between his conscience and his lusts, was con- 
triving that God might be served, and he enjoy his lusts, that were 
gratified by the slavery of the children of Israel. Moses kept in- 
sisting upon it that God should be served, and sacrificed to ; Pha- 
raoh was willing to consent to that, but he would have it done 
withoat his parting with the children of Israel. Exod. viii. 25. 
'* And Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron and said, Go ye, 
sacrifice to your God in the land." So it is oftentimes with sinners 
under fear of divine wrath ; they are for contriving to serve God 
and enjoy their lusts too ; they are willing to be very devout in 
many duties of religion, but without parting with their beloved 
sins* How do some wicked men amongst the papists and else- 
where seem to abound in acts of devotion ! how much pains do 
they take, how much trouble and loss are they at ! they are like 
the Samaritans that worshipped the God of Israel, and served 
their own gods too. So did the Jews, Jer. vii. 9, 10. "Will ye 
steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn 
incenselinto Baal ; and come and stund before me in this house?" 
And Eiek. xxiii. 39. " For when they had slain their children to 
their idols, then they came the same day into my sanctuary to 

Erufane it, and lo, thus have they done in the midst of mine 
ouse." Moses objected against complying with Pharaoh's con- 
science, and proposed in this matter that serving God and con- 
tinuing in the land of Kgypt among the Egyptians in slavery to 
them, did not agree together, and were inconsistent one with ano- 
ther. The Egyptians, their task masters, would abhor that ser- 
vice that God required, and would not tolerate it, but would kill 
Gods worshippers; and therefore there was a necessity of a sepa- 
ration to be made between Israelites and Egyptians, in order to 
God's being served. So the service of God and our still continu- 
ing in the service of our lusts, are inconsistent one with another, 
as Christ says, '*ye cannot serve God and Mammon." There is 
a necessity of forsaking one in order to cleave to the other. If we 
retain our sins, if we do not part from them, they will kill those du- 
ties wherewith God is served. 

When Pharaoh saw that it would not be consented to that 
the people should only sacrifice to their God in the land, then 
he consented to let them go, provided they would not go far 
away. Ho was not willing to part with them finally, and 
therefore would not let them go clear, but would have them 
within reach, that he might bring them back again. So it is 
often with sinners, with respect to their sing ; they will refrain 
a while from them, but will not wholly part with them, taking 
an everlasting leave of them, quitting all hopes or expectations 


of erer having any thing more to do whh them. Afterwanb, 
when God^s plagues came si ill harder upon Pharaoh, he con- 
sented to let the men go, if they would leave the women and chil- 
dren, Exod. x. >^, 9, 10 ; and then after that, when God's hand 
pressed him 9tili more sorely, he consented that they should go, 
even women and children, provided that they would leave thof 
cattle hehind them ; but he was not willing to let them go ami 
all that thejf had, Exod. x. 24. So it oftentimes is with sin- 
ners, 'when pressed with God's judgments, or fears of future 
wrath ; they are brought to be willing to part with some of 
their sins, but not all ; they are brought to part with the more 
gross acts, but not so to part with their lusts in lesser iodulgen- 
cies of them ; whereas we must part with all our sins, little and 
great, and all that belongs to them, even women and children, 
and cattle ; they must all be let go, with their young and wilk 
their old, with their sons and with their daughters, with their 
flocks and with their herds. There must not be an hoof left 
behind. At last, when it came to extremity, Pharaoh consented 
to let the people all go, and all that they had ; but be was not 
steadfastly of that mind ; he soon repented and pursued after 
them again ; and then, when he was guilty of such backsliding, 
be was destroyed without remedy, which is often the case with 
sinners. Note, when there is only a forced parting with sin, 
though it be universal, yet it is not sincere, nor is it like to be 

God exercised abundance of patience with Pharaoh before he 
destroyed him, and the warnings that were given him were louder 
and louder, and God's judgments upon him greater and greater, 
and God's hand and design in them became more and more 
manifest. First, God only sends a command from him, direct- 
ing Moses to deliver it, and let it be accompanied with humble 
entreaties, paying him the honour due to a king, Exod. iii. IS, 
and V. 3. After that, Moses spake with more authority ; God 
made hirn a god to Pharaoh, and lie no more besought him as a 
subject, Exod. vii. 1 ; and his word was confirmed by miracles* 
But in the first place, the miracles were such as did not hurt 
them, but only warn them, as that turning the lod into a serpent; 
and then God proceeded to mirncles that were hurtful, whirh 
yet were imitated by the magicians ; but then God proceeded 
further, to do things that the magicians could not imitate, but 
themselves confessed manifested the finger of God. And then 
that the evidence might be still clearer, and God's meaning in 
those plagues plainer, God proceeded to sever between the land 
of Goshen, where the children of Israel dwelt, and the rest of 
Egypt, and then in the next plague God severed even between 
the cattlo of Israel and the cattle of Kgypt ; and then in the 


it plague, the plague of boils and blains, was not only beyond 
at the magicians could do, but the magicians themselves 
re the subjects of the plague, and were grievously tormented, 
that they could not stand before Moses. And this plague 
B brought upon them by the ashes of the furnace, wherein 
sy employed the children of Israel in their slavery in burning 
I brick they made, that Pharaoh might see wherefore God 
a angry, and did so chastise him. After this, Pharaoh was 
>re particularly and fully warned of God by his word than ever 
lore, and was forewarned what those plagues would at last 
ne to if he continued still obstinate, Exod. ix. 13, &c. And 
m after this God brought the plague of hail and thunder, 
It was more terrifying and threatening than any heretofore ; 
d then to complete the destruction caused by the hail, the la- 
sts were sent to eat up what the hail had left. Then came 
) plague of darkness, with frightful apparitions of evil angels, 
le Note) which was more terrifying still than any that had 
oe before, and the distinction made in it between the children 
Israel and the Egyptians was more remarkable, for they had 
ht in their dwellings where they dwelt mingled with the 
Qrptians. And then before that great destruction by the last 
igue, Pharaoh was again particularly warned of what was 
ming, and when, and in what manner it would come, much 
>re fully and particularly than ever, Exod. xi. 4, &c. And 
3D came the last and greatest plague that preceded Pharaoh's 
nn destruction, attended with the greatest tokens of God's 
Bth, and a remarkable distinction between the Israelites and 
9 Egyptians ; and last of all, Pharaoh himself, with all the 
ime of Egypt, was destroyed in the Red sea. 

[385] Exod. vii. 9, 10, 11, 12. Moses's rod, when cast unto 
B earth, became a serpent. So Christ, when sent down to 
9 earth, appeared in the form of sinful flesh ; he was made 
I for us. So Christ was represented by the brazen serpent 
Bit was made in the form of the fiery serpents that bit the 
ople. Moses's rod, when on the ground in the form of a ser- 
Dt, swallowed up the serpents of the magicians. So Christ, 

being made sin, he swallowed up the devils, the parents of 
I, when he appeared in the form of sinful flesh, and for sin 

condemned sin in the flesh ; by being made a curse he de- 
"oyed the curse ; by suffering the punishment of sin he abo- 
bed the punishment of sin ; and at the same time that, being 
Side sin, he destroyed sin and the devil, and so swallowed the 
rpents in that sense. So he received and embraced sinners, 
lat are in themselves serpents) by his love and grace, so that 
ej became as it were his pleasant food, and so he swallowed 
VOL. IX. 32 


down serpents. In this sense God^s people are repr e sented n 
his pleasant food ; they are represented as the whoift in oppon- 
tion to tares, and as his good grain in opposition to chaflT. See 
Isai. Ti. 13. '* But jet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall reton 
and shall be eaten ; as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose sub- 
stance is in them when they cast their leayes, so the holy seed 
shall be the substance thereof.'' 

[385] Exod. vii. 9, 10. Moses's Rod, that had been a shep- 
herd's staiF, to lead, protect, and comfort a flock of sheep, and 
by which Moses led and comforted Israel as a flock when cast 
upon the land of Egypt, became a serpent, a terrible, hurtfid 
and destructive creature. So Christ, that is a shepherd to Ui 
people, their protection and comfort, is destructiTe to anbe- 
licvers, a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence : his sal- 
vation is poison to them through their rejection of it. Thef 
have a greater fall by the second Adam than by the first, and 
Christ will at last be a lion to destroy them, as that pillar of 
cloud of fire that gave light to the Israelites was a cloud aid 
darkness to the Egyptians. So the word of God (which isaoe- 
ther thing signified by the rod,) which is a means of the salvar 
tion of Israel, is a sword to destroy the Egyptians. 

Christ was represented by a serpent in the wilderness, be- 
cause he was made sin for believers, but he will be made sia 
to unbelievers ; he was made a curse for Israel, a serpent for 
them, but he will be the greatest curse to sinners, a terrible 
serpent to the Egyptians. So the Saviour of Israel proved the 
most dreadful destroyer of the Egyptians ; and the word of God 
by Moses, which proved the salvation of his people, was their 
destruction. This seems to be one thing intended by this mi- 
racle, for there seems to be something threatening to the Egyp- 
tians, for the serpent had a very terrible appearance and mo- 
tion, as appears by Moses's fleeing before it, when he first tried 
the experiment at mount Sinai. It was something threatening 
of the plagues that were coming. God was pleased first to 
threaten the Egyptians, and give them warning of approaching 
judgments, before he began to execute them. 

[471] Exod. xii. 2. ** This month shall be unto you the be- 
ginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year unto 
you." Because in this month God wrought out for them that 
great typical redemption out of Egypt, representing the re- 
demption of Jesus Christ, and also because he intended at tbe 
same time of year actually to complete the work of spiritual 
and eternal redemption of his church by the death, resurrectioOi 


and ascension of the great Redeemer. It is probable that the 
luraelitcsy as well as other nations, had till now begun the year 
in autumn, about the autumnal equinox, about which time of 
year there is reason to think the world was created. But as 
now God at the time of the redemption changed the day of 
tlieir sabbath, (as Mr. Bedford in his Scripture Chronology 
makes probable) so he changed the beginning of this year from 
the autumnal equinox, the time when the old creation was 
wrought to the spring about the vernal equinox, the time of the 
new creation. The old creation was wrought in the fall of the 
year, the time when things are just going to decay, and to a 
kind of ruin, and winter approaching, that shuts up the whole 
face of the earth as it were in a state of death ; the Ordcrer 
of all things probably thus signifying that the old creation was 
not to continue, the heavens and the earth that then were 
should be shaken, and soon begin to decay, as it did by the Son 
of man ; the curse which that brought, which was in efTect its 
ruinj as it were, brought all to its chaotic state again, and laid 
a foundation for its actual total destruction. But the work of 
redemption was wrought in the spring, signifying that as in the 
spring the world as it were revives from a state of death, and 
all things are renewed, and all nature appears in blooming 
beauty, and as it were in a state of joy ; so, by the redemption 
of Christ, a new world should be created, and the spiritual 
world, the elect creation, should be restored from death, and 
brought to a new, glorious, and happy life. 

[280] Exod. xii. 15. Concerning Leaven. It was a most fit 
tjrpe of the corruption of the heart by reason of its sourness, and 
because of its infecting spreading nature, so that a little leaven 
leavens the whole lump, (in which respect also it is a fit type of 
fiilse doctrine, as Matth. xvi. 6. 11, 12,) and because of its swell- 
ing nature, for the nature of corruption is to swell self, it radical- 
ly consists in inordinate self-love, and primarily is manifest in 
pride and self-exaltation. The swelling nature of leaven repre- 
sents the nature of corruption with respect to its principle, viz. 
inordinate self-love ; and the sourness of it represents its nature 
with respect to its tendency, which is enmity. 

But especially is leaven a fit type of original sin, by reason of 
the manner of its propagation ; for as original sin is 'propagated 
from father to son, and so from generation to generation, so it is 
with leaven, one lump leavens the next, and that the next, and so 
leaven is propagated from lump to lump, for ever. The old lump 
leavens the new, and therefore is called the old leaven. 

JSa;^ E&cpd. liL ^, 3{>. " Am ffej ii w i awed of the Egyp 
lJ4tAi» }4ri»^l( </ hijv^f ztAyrvfii of ^^Dod, aad noKiiC, and tke 
ty/r4 y^y^^ uk: f^</ph f-dx^iiT is tl« trf^ cf the Egrpuans, so that 
iij^Y >rtit oi;itx> (t;#rtt; ^^j. VLib^i » ibfT reiqnired, and tbey spoiled 
ii^ KvyfAi^itsn/^ Tu^ ire-^uree ih'H iLe cfaildren of Israel by tfak 
»^4iii tun'itd forifj o'jt of E^'pi were rerj great, even so as b t 
lif^stt ffl^^ttire to kave Egypt emptj oT iu wealth, and so uto 
tiitiut U;<^ hr^diU;^. P<»« cv. 33. ^- He brcagbt them forth also vrith 
ikilv<:r atod Huh ^ol'i/' Gen. xv. 14. " Thev shall come oat with 
^/ttui «iil>ti2»tic«;.'' When a person is redeemed by Christ out of 
%\Hf\vu'n\ hitwhutfi »t the same time they are set at liberty ,^they tre 
fiUo f-tirich';'], thfrv ha\c great substance given, as it were gold 
uU:t\ III iti': firCy and those riches are the spoils of their enemies, all 
llttit kpiiitiial wralih, qlory, and blessedness, and even heaven it- 
kt\f, \k ill some sort the spoils of Satan ; that which God has de- 
|>riv<:d him of to ^^ive to the saints, as the earthly Canaan was 
inUvu away from the Canaanites and giants of the land, theeoe- 
nunu of tin; liiractitcs, and given to them. So heaven was takea 
from the (iilh:n an/^ols ; they were driven out thence by the spiri- 
liiiil Jorkhiiii, to make room for the saints. The devils left heaven, 
in all prohiihiliiy, hy their opposition and envy towards the saiots, 
iihd rihin^ np in open hostility against Christ as their head, re- 
veiih*d to ho such in God's decrees, and so their hostility against 
iIm* fipirituul IVIosos, and Joshua, and their seed, and seeking to 
kiM'p iluMii down ; these spiritual Egyptians and Canaanites left 
thrir K|iiniunl and heavenly possessions, riches, and honours, and 
inluTiiuiuM*, iind God took it from them and gave it to them that 
they (ip|Hixrd and sou<;ht to impoverish and destroy, and impover- 
i^hrd thiMU to make thoic they hated rich with their riches. Yea, 
thrv thrmsi'lvrs, thouj^h their enemies, are made in some sense to 
^ivo tluMu tlu !r own riches to enrich them and impoverish them- 
Ki'lxo^t tor thoy uro made by divine providence the occasions of 
llu'lr hrini; brought to thoir spiritual and eternal riches and glory. 
S;UiU> hus beon the occasion of the saints' heavenly riches and 
^lory in tempting' man to fail, and so giving occasion for the work 
\\( rt domption, and then in procuring the death of Christ, and 
olWntiiues is mude the occasion of particular advantages that the 
church obtains at one age and another, and bis opposition to the 
naiiuv of particular elect $ouh« is ahva\s turned to be an occasion 
of lh«^tr riches and tullness; so thai all the wealth and glory that 
the church ha:^« is in u $en>e« and indeed iu many wavs,yrDfli SaiaXj 
lhv»Ui;h he seeks nothing: but her destruction. 

Auoiiur ihin^ siiiiiilicd, it is ilrat the church of Christ, when 
redvvmcd iVom her ciioiuics umd oppressors* especially tromRome, 
boalhen atid auilcbri>iiait» ibai is spiriiualiy called Egypt, should 
ba>^ their vhv^Uh and ^lory s^iveu into their haads, as is fofetold 


by the prophetB, Ps. Ixviii. 30, '* Rebuke the company of spear- 
men, the multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till 
every one submits himself with pieces of silver." Zecb. xiv. 14. 
^ And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem, and the wealth of the 
heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, 
and apparel in great abundance." Isai. Ix. 5, 6. 9, 10. 13. 16, 17, 
and chap. Ixi. 6, which was fulfilled in the days of Constantine 
the Great, and will be more gloriously fulfilled at the fall of Anti- 
christ. Thus the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the just, and 
Christ shall have a portion divided to him with the great, and shall 
divide the spoil with the strong. 

It is to be noted that the tabernacle in the wilderness was made 
of these spoils the children of Israel took from the Egyptians. 
It was made of those jewels of silver, and gold, and raiment ; so 
all the utensils and holy vessels of the tabernacle, the ark, and 
the mercy-seat, and the cherubim, and the candlestick, and table 
of shew-bread, and altar of incense and laver, and his seat, and 
also the priests' vestments, the twelve precious stones of the breast- 
plate, as afterwards the temple, was built chiefly of these vast 
treasures that David took from his enemies, whereby is signified 
several things. 

1. That God's church, that in scripture is represented as 
Ohrist's house or temple, and as his raiment and ornament, 
and as a golden candlestick, &;c., is wholly constituted of those 
saints that are his jewels, that are the spoils of his enemies, 
that were once his enemies' possession, but that he has redeemed 
out of their hands. Those precious gems that are near his heart, 
and are as it were his breast-plate. 

2. That Christ himself, that is the antitype of the tabernacle 
and temple, and especially of the ark and the altar, is one that has 
been rescued out of Satan's hands, and comes to be an ark and 
altar, no other ways than by his resurrection and ascension, where- 
by he was delivered from captivity to Satan. 

3. Hereby is signified that the church of Christ, when it shall 
be fully redeemed from the tyranny of Rome, that is spiritnally 
called Egypt, shall be adorned and beautified with the wealth of 
her enemies ; that vast wealth that has hitherto been improved to 
gratify the avarice and pride of the church's enemies, shall then 
be improved to holy purposes, to build up the church of Christ, 
to beautify the place of God's sanctuary, and to make the place 
of his feet glorious, and the kings of the earth shall bring their 
glory and honour into the church. Thus Satan shall be spoiled 
oil his wealth and glory, and that which used to be improved in 
his service, shall be taken from him, and shall be improved in the 
service of Christ, so that what be hath swallowed down he shall 
vomit up again. 


[4831 Exod. ziii. 2. Cmcendng the pillar of dostf amd JKn^ 
or the omul of glory. This pillar of cload and fire, and abo tht 
dood of glory on moant Sinai, and in the tabernacle and temple, 
was a type of Christ in the human natare. The cload was a ft 
representation of the human nature, being in itself a dark body, 
a vapour, a weak light thing, easily driven hither and thither by 
every wbid, or the least breath of air, while it continues, ii| a 
most mutable thing, sometimes bigger, and sometimes lets, con- 
stantly changing its form, puts on a thousand shapes, and it quick- 
ly vanishes away, is easily dispersed and brought to nought ; a 
little change in the air destroys it, a little cold condenses it, and 
canses it to fall and sink into the earth. See 2 Sanu ziv. 14. A 
little increase of heat rarifies and causes it wholly to disappear. 
A cloud is a most fit representation of the human nature of Christ, 
because it is derived from the earth, but yet is an heavenly thing. 

The bright, glorious, and inimitable fire or light that was io 
the midst of the cloud, represented the divine nature united to the 
bnman. The cloud was as it were a veil to this fire, as Christ's 
flesh was a vest to the glory of the divinity. When Christ took 
the human nature upon him he vailed his glory, the bright and 
strong Jight of the glory within, which otherwise would have been 
too strong for the feeble sight and frail eyes of men, was moder- 
ated, and as it were allayed and softened, to make it tolerable for 
mortals to behold. Thus the glory of God is exhibited in soch a 
mann^ in our incarnate Saviour, so as it were to moderate, tofien, 
and sweeten the rays of divine glory, to give us a greater ad- 
vantage for firee access to God, and the full enjoyment of him. 

[456] Another thing signified by God*s glorious appearing io 
a cloud, was probably the mysteriousness of the divine essence 
and subsistence, and of the person of Christ, and of *the divine 
operations. Thus it is said, Ps. xcvii. 2, ** Clouds and darkness 
are round about him, righteousness and judgment are the habita- 
tion of his throne.'' 1 Kings viii. 12. *' The Lord said that he 
would dwell in the thick darkness." Ps. xviii. 11. << He made 
darkness his secret place. His pavilion round about him were 
dark waters and thick clouds of the skies." Prov.xsx. 4. *^ What 
is his name, and what is his Son's name, if thou canst tell ?" IsaL 
is. 6. *' His name shall be called Wonderful." Judg. xiii. 18. 
** Why asketh thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret?" God's 
nature is unsearchable, 'tis high as heaven ; what can we do ? 'Tis 
deeper than hell ; what can we know ? His judgments are a great 
deep, which we cannot fathom, and a cloud that we cannot see 
through ; we cannot order our speech by reason of darkness." 
Job xxxvii. 19. In the cloud of glory there was an excellent 


lustre, bat it was vailed with a cloud ; there was a darting forth 
3f glorious light, and an inimitable brightness. But if any over- 
carious eye pried into it, it would find it just lost in a cloud. God 
elothes himself with light as with a garment, but yet he makes 
darkness his pavilion. Thus the blessed and only potentate 
dwells in the light which no man can approach unto, and is he 
whom no eye hath seen nor can see, 1 Tim. vi. 16. 

[130] Exod. XV. 25, 26. ** And the Lord showed him a tree, 
which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made 
sweet,'' be. '* I am the Lord that healeth thee." This tree is 
the tree of life, and signified Jesus Christ ; it signifies God him- 
self, and the waters are God's people, as it is here explained in the 
26th verse ; the trees being cut down, represented the death of 
Christ, and being cast into the water, his uniting himself to his 
people by coming down from heaven, by taking our nature, and 
by his Spirit. 

[172] Exod. XV. 27. '' And they came to Elim, where were 
twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm-trees ; and 
they encamped there by the waters." These twelve wells of wa- 
ter, and threescore and ten palm-trees, are a representation of the 
church. The twelve wells of water answer to the twelve tribes, 
twelve patriarchs, twelve heads of the tribes, and twelve apostles. 
They signify the church itself, and then they answer to the twelve 
tribes. The church is compared to a fountain or spring of water, 
Cant. iv. 12. The hearts of believers are like wells of living wa- 
ter, the water being the grace of the Spirit. Or they signify the 
ministry of the church, and so they answer to the twelve patriarchs, 
and twelve apostles ; the twelve patriarchs were the fathers and 
fountains of Israel, according to the flesh ; and the twelve apos- 
tles, and gospel ministers, are the fathers of Israel, spiritually. 
Through the twelve apostles, Christ delivered his pure doctrine 
to the world, as through so many fountains of pure water, and 
through gospel ministers in general, Christ communicates the liv- 
ing water of his Spirit to the church, as through so many springs, 
or pipes, or conveyancers, Zech. iv. 12. The twelve fountains 
signify Christ himself; he is represented by twelve fountains, as 
the Holy Ghost is represented by seven lamps. Rev. iv. And be is 
called twelve wells, according to the number of the instruments by 
which he communicates himself. However, in which sense soever 
we take it, the water represents the Holy Spirit. Christ communi- 
cates himself to his church only by his Spirit ; he dwells io their 
hearts by his Spirit, the ministers of the gospel are instruments of 
the conveyance of the Spirit, the hearts of particular believers 
are fountains of living water, that is of the Spirit. 


The seventy palm-trees signify the church, which is coropareef 
to a palm-tree, Cant. vii. 7, 8. Deborah, the type of the chureb, 
dwells under the palm tree. Believers are compared to palm 
trees, 1 Kings, vi* 29. '* And he carved all the walls of the 
house round about with carved figures of cherubims, and paloH 
trees, and open flowers, within and without ;*' which represent* 
ed saints and angels ; the number seventy answers to the seventy 
elders which were representatives of the whole congregation of 
Israel, and are called the congregation ; Numb, xxxii. 12, Josh. 
zx. 6 ; or church, which is a word of the same signification. 

It is probable the palm-trees grew so about these twel?e 
fountains, that their roots were watered and received nourish- 
ment from them. 

[59] Exod xvi. 19, 20. '' Let no man leave of it tilt the monr- 
ing," &£c. Hereby perhaps we are designed to be taught our 
absolute dependence every day upon God, for the supplies of 
his grace and spiritual food. We not only depend on him for 
the first conversion of the soul, but daily depend on him for 
grace afterwards. This manna must be given us every day, or 
we should be without food. We are taught not to rest in and 
live upon past attainments, but to be continually looking to 
God, and by faith fetching from him fresh supplies- We must 
not lay up in store the grace of this day for to-morrow, to sare 
us the trouble of seeking and gathering more. We never have 
any to spare ; hereby we shall make a righteousness of what 
we receive and do ; and when we make that use of it, it is like 
manna that breeds worms and stinks. 

[473] Exodv xvii. 9. <' I will stand on the top of the hill, 
with the rod of God in my hand." Moses's rod, as has else- 
where been observed, signifies three things, each of which it 
signifies in this case. 1. It signifies Faith, by which God's peo- 
ple overcome their enemies : '* for this is the victory that over-* 
comes even our faith." 

Mr. Henry says this rod was held up to God by way of ap- 
peal to him. Is not the battle the Lord's f Is not he able to 
help, and engaged to help ? Witness this rod, the voice of 
which thus held up was that of Isaiah li. 9, 10. Put on thy 
Btrength, O arm of the Lord ; Art thou not it that hath cut 
Rahab ? 

2. It represents the word of God, the rod of his strength, 
which is the weapon by which Christ, the antitype of Moses, 
overcomes his church's enemies. This is the sword which 
proceeds out of his mouth. 


3. Christ himBelf lifted up as the banner of his militant 
lurch. Christ is prophecied of in Isai. xi. as a Rod^ '* a rod 
lit of the stem of Jessq ;" and in the same place it is said, 
He shall stand for an ensign of the people, and their ensign 
3 an army brought out of K^gypt, and fighting and conquering 
leir enemies; the children of £dom, in particular, are mention- 
d, ver. 1 — 10, 11, 12. 14, 15, 16. This ensign andbanneris 
thovah-Nissif Jehovah our banner, agreeable to the name of 
le altar Mo^es built on this occasion, ver. 15. Moses stood on 
le top of an hill, and there lift up this ensign, the wonder- 
working rod, which had brought such plagues on their enemies, 
nd such marvellous deliverance for them before, that the people 
t the sight of it might be animated in the battle. Christ him- 
3lf, when he was lifted up on the cross, that he might draw all 
len to him, was lifted up on an hill. He stood and cried on the 
ip of an hill, even the mountain of the temple at the feast of 
ibernacles. God hath ejcalted him to heaven, set him on his 
oly hill of Zion ; hath caused him to ascend an high hill, as 
le hill of Bashan; hath set this rod in the mountain of the 
eight of Israel, and from thence his glory is manifested to ga- 
ler men to him, and to animate his church to fight his battles, 
'rom thence his glory was manifested on the day of Pentecost 
fler his ascension, and from thence it will be manifested to his 
burch, when they shall go forth to their victory over Antichrist 
nd all their enemies. He will shine forth on that mountain of 
le house of the Lord, from behind the veil, from between the 
berubim ; and all flesh shall behold it, and so all nations shall 
ow together to the mountain of the Lord — shall be gathered 
»this ensign; and then shall time be fulfilled in Isai. xi. 10. 
At that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand 
»r an ensign of the people ; to it shall the Gentiles seek'* ; 
er. 12; "And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and 
lall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the 
ispcrsed of Judah, from the four corners of the earth." 

[205] Cxod. xvii. 15. " And Moses built an altar, and called 
16 name of it JeAorflrA-JVw«t," (i. e. The Lord my banner.) AI- 
irs were types of Christ, and therefore were sometimes called 
f the name of God, as Jacob called the altar he built in 
bethel, El Bethel, or the God of Bethel. The special reason of 
[oses's calling this altar, that he built on occasion of their 
ictory over Amaiek, the Lord my Banner, was that Christ in 
lat battle was in a s|>ecial type represented as the banner of 
is people, under which they fought against their enemief, to 
hich they should look, and by which they should be conducted 

VOL. IX. 33 


as an army were by their banner or ensign, vix. in Motes holding 
up the rod of God in his hand on the top of the hilly as verses 9, 
10, 1 i, 12. That rod was a type of Christ, as has been sbowo, 
No. 195. Moses, while the people were fighting with Amakk, 
held up this rod as the banner under which the people should fight; 
while Moses held up this rod, Israel prevailed, and when he let it 
down, Amaiek prevailed* 

This is agreeable to what God commanded when the children of 
Israel were bitten with fiery serpents. Num. xxi. 8. ** Make thee 
a fiery serpent* and set it upon a pole;*' in the original it is, '< set 
h for a banner," or ** ensign," or " upon an ensign." In all 
likelihood, the brazen serpent was set op on one oi the poles of 
the standards or ensigns of the camp, and probably on the stand- 
ard of the tribe of Judah, which was a lion, and was a tjrpe of 
Christ, who is the lion of the tribe of Jodah : so it is prophecied 
that Christ should stand for an ensign. Isai. xi. 10. 12, *' And 
in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an 
ensign of the people ; to it shall the Gentiles seek And be 
shall set np an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the oot- 
casts of Israel." 

[474] Exod. n. 24, 25, 26. *« An altar of earth thon sbak 

make nolo me And if thou wilt make an altar of stone, tboo 

shah not build it of hewn stone ; for if thon lift np thy tool opon 
it, thou hast polluted it ; neither shalt ihon go op by steps onto 
Biioe altar." These rules have respect to what was to be done 
BOW immediatelv, the altars thev were to erect, and the sacrifices 
diat were to be oflered in the wilderness before the building of the 
tabernacle. God*s altar was to be very plain and very low, so that 
they might have no occasion to go np to it by steps. The heathen 
greatly adorned their altars with the curioos works of their own 
hands^ and worshipped in high places, and built their altars very 
high, thinking hereby to put great honoars on their gods, and 
made their services very acceptable to them. But God lets bii 
people know that their seeming adorning, by their own art and 
handy work, will he hot polluting, and their recommending them- 
sdves by their high altars will be dishonouring themselves, and 
showing their own nakedness: perhaps typitying this that wheo- 
ever men ascend high and exalt themselves in ther own works or 
righteoosoess in God^s service, they show their own nakedness, 
and pollute his worship, and render the services they ofer abomi- 
nable to God. Mr. Henry has this note on this rule for plain af- 
fiurs : ** This rule being prescribed before the ceremoDial law was 
giveo, which appointed alurs much more costly, intimates that 
■Aer the period of that law, plainness should he accepted as the 
best oraament of the external services of religion, and that gos- 


pel worship should not be performed with exteroal pomp and 

[63] Exod. xxiii. 20. '* Behold, I send an angei before thee/' 
&ۥ This does not seem to be the same angel spoken of in the 
xixiii* chap., which was a created angel, but the Son of God ; 
for what was spoken here before was in the name of the Father. 

[112] Exod. xxiv. 18. *' And Moses was in the mount forty 
days and forty nights." Moses being so long in the mount with 
God when he received his mind and will to reveal to Israel, re- 
presents Christ's being in heaven with his Father to receive his 
mind and will to reveal to his church — his being from all eternity 
10 the bosom of the Father ; and it may be particularly forty days, 
because Christ came down from heaven, signified by this mount ; 
it was four thousand years from the beginning of time, and from 
the creation and fall of man, and since the covenant of grace first 
took place, and Christ actually became the Mediator between God 
and man ; which, putting ten for a thousand, and every age or 
century for a day, answers to forty days. That mount, when Mo- 
ses was in it with God, typified heaven, as the apostle teaches, 
Heb. viii. 5. 

[285] Exod. XXV. 10, be. ** And they shall make an ark of 
8htttim-wood," be. The ark was upon many accounts a lively 
type of Jesus Christ. The ark was united to the Godhead, it 
had the cloud of glory over it and upon it, which was the symbol 
of God's immediate presence. The ark was the throne of God ; 
Jer. iii. 17; i. e. it was that that was his immediate seat, and where 
be was present in an higher manner than he was in any other place, 
or to which his presence was united in a more immediate manner 
than to any thing else. God was present in the land of Canaan, 
or the holy land, more than in any other part of the face of the 
earth. God was present in Jerusalem, the holy city, or city of 
God, above all other places of the land of Canaan, and he was 
present in his temple above all other places in that city, as a king 
is more immediately present in his own house than in any other 
part of the royal city. But God was present with the ark, which 
was his throne more than in any other part of his house. So the 
human nature of Christ is as it were the throne of God, where 
God is present, more than in any other part of the whole universe. 
It is of all created things the highest and most immediate seat of 
the divine presence ; that in which God resides in a higher and 
more eminent manner than in any other part of the highest hea- 
ven itself, that is his temple. The ark, in itself, was in some re- 
spects a mean thing for the throne of God and for the symbol of 


God's most immediate presence. It was only a wooden cbest; it 
appeared without that form and pomp which the heatbeo inagei li 
had, on which account the heathens despised it, and the childreo 
of Israel were often ashamed of it, and had a mind to have imagei 
in the stead of it, as the heathen had. So the hnman nature of 
Christ is in itself a mean thing; roan is bnt a worm; the bumu 
nature has no glory in itself; it is but a vessel that must receive its 
fullness from something else. As this chest in itself was empty, 
its fullness was what was put into it. Christ, when he was on the 
earth, appeared without form or comeliness, without external pomp 
and glory. The Jews, when they saw him, saw no beauty where- 
fore they should desire him, and he was despised by the Gentiles; 
he was to the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Greeks foolish- 
ness. Though the ark was in some respect mean, yet it was ex- 
ceeding precious ; though it was made of wood, yet it was over- 
laid with gold. So the man Jesds Christ was exceeding excel- 
lent ; though he was a man, one of the mean race of mankind, yet 
be was an holy man, perfectly holy, endowed with excellent graces 
and virtues. Christ God man. Mediator, is wonderful ; his name 
is secret, his person and offices are full of unfathomable mysteries. 
Hence Christ's name is called Wonderful, as the prophet Isaiah 
says, and the angel that wrestled with Jacob says, ^* V\'by askest 
tboQ after my name, seeing it is secret, or wonderful ?" and Isai. 
chap. liii. says, '* Who shall declare his generation?" and again, 
in Prov. xxx. *' What is his Son's name, if thou canst tell ?" As 
an ark is a thing shut up, what is in it is secret ; hence secret 
things are called arcana. The mercy-seat was upon the ark, and 
never was separated from it, which shows that God's mercy is only 
in and through Jesus Christ. The ark was God's chest, or cabi- 
net. Men's cabinets contain their most precious treasure, which 
denotes the infinite dignity and preciousness of Christ in the sigbt 
of God the Father, and the infinite love the Father hath to him, 
and delight he hath in him. The beloved Son of God is his most 
precious treasure, in which God's infinite riches and infinite hap- 
piness and joy, from eternity to eternity, does consist. Cabinets 
are made to contain a treasure, so the ark contained the precious 
treasure of the law of God, and the pot of manna: the one sig- 
nifying divine holiness, of which the law of God is an emanation 
and expression ; and the other signifying divine happiness, for 
manna was spiritual and heavenly bread, or food ; but food is the 
common figure in scripture to represent happiness, delight, and 
satisfaction ; or in one word, those two things that were^contained 
in this cabinet, signified the Holy Spirit, which is the same with 
the divine good or fullness'of God, his infinite 4ioliness and joy. 
Christ is the person in whom is tlie Spirit of God, and therefore 
he is called the Anointed. In him dwells this fullness of the 


Godhead: he is the cabinet of God the Father, in which is cou- 
Uiined all bis treasure. In him the Father beholds infinite beauty, 
(or holiness, which is the beauty of the divine nature:) and in 
bim the Father has his food, or infinite delight and satisfaction. 

The ark in the temple was not only God's cabinet, containing 
his treasure, but it was also Israel's cabinet ; it contained the 
greatest treasure of the children of Israel. (See Note on Isai. iv. 
5.) So Christ is the greatest treasure of his church ; he is their 
pearl of great price ; he is the church's portion and chief good ; 
in him is contained all the church's fullness ; of his fullness she re- 
ceives, and grace for grace ; all her happiness, all the covenant 
blessings that she hath, are bound up in Christ. The church 
bath the Holy Spirit, which is the sum of all her good, no other- 
wise than through Christ and in Christ. God hath given the Spi- 
rit not by measure unto him and from him ; it flows to his mem- 
bers as the oil on Aaron's head went down to the skirts of his 
garments : particularly it is only in and through Christ that the 
church hath holiness expressed in the law of God, and happiness 
expressed by the pot of manna. 

The ark itself, considered separately from the things it contain- 
ed, was (inly a repository and vehicle to contain other things more 
precious than itself. So the human nature of Christ is only a 
repository or vehicle to contain and convey that which is infinitely 
excellent and precious. In this human nature of Christ dwelt 
God himself. The divine Logos dwelt in it by his Spirit, signi- 
fied by the law and manna. The Spirit of God never dwelt in 
any other creature in anywise as it dwells in the man Christ Je- 
sus; for in him he dwells without measure, on which account also 
be is called Christy or Anointed. By the Spirit of God dwelling 
in so high and transcendent a manner, the human nature is united 
to the divine in the same person. And as that human nature of 
Christ is as it were the container or repository of the Deity, a 
vessel full of the divine nature, so is it as it were the vehicle of 
it| by which it is conveyed to us in and through which it might be 
as it were ours in possession ; for it is by the Godhead being unit-r 
ed to the nature of man, that it becomes the portion of men, as 
the ark of old was as it were the vehicle of the Deity to the chil- 
dren of Israel. It was that by which they had the Deity, whose 
dwelling-place is heaven, dwelling among them as their God, 
and by which God maintained a gracious communication with 

The human nature of Christ had the Logos, or the Word of 
God, dwelling in it, as the divine eternal person of the Son is of- 
ten called. This was typified by the ark's containing the word of 
God in it, written in tables of stone, and in the book of the law. 
Christ is the Light of the world, as that law contained in the ark 


18 represented as the light of the congregation of Israel, Dent 
xxxiii. 2. From his right hand went a fiery law for them. Chriit 
is the bread of life that came down from heaven ; he is that tbit 
was signified by the manna in the wilderness, as Christ teaches 
in the vi. chap, of John ; and he is so by the Spirit that dwelk 
in him, and that he communicates, which was typified by the ark'i 
containing manna, the bread from heaven* 

The law that was put into the ark signified the righteoasnefi 
of Christ, including both his propitiation and obedience. Christ's 
preparedness for both, is signified in the xl. Psalm by that lav, 
Thy law is within mine heart. God's law was put within Christ's 
heart, as the law was put within the ark. Hence he satisfied the 
law by his sufierings ; for it was out of regard to the honour of 
God's law, that when he would save them that had broken it, be 
had rather himself sufier the penalty of the law, than that their 
salvation should be inconsistent with the honour of it ; and it was 
also because God's law was within his heart that he perfectly 
obeyed it. 

God was wont to manifest his glory from above the ark in the 
holy of holies, so it is only by Christ that God manifests his glory 
to his church ; they see the glory of God in the face of Jesos 
Christ; he is the efiulgence or the shining forth of his Father's 
glory. So God was wont to meet with the children of Israel over 
the ark, and there speak with them, and give forth his oracles 
and answers ; so it is by Christ only that God reveals himself to 
his church. '* No man hath seen God at any time ; the only be- 
gotten Son that is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared 

The ark is called the ark of the covenant ; the covenant that 
God made with the people was contained in it. I'he covenant 
that God hath made with mankind, is made in Christ. The cove- 
nant was made with him from eternity ; the covenant was then 
committed to him for us. The promises were given us in Christ; 
it is he that reveals the covenant, and he is the Mediator and 
surety of the covenant. The book of the covenant was shut op 
in the ark, which denotes the mysteriousuess of the things con- 
tained in this covenant, as was said before ; things shut up in an 
ark are secret, or arcana, and especially hereby seems to be signi- 
fied that the great things of the covenant were in a great measure 
hidden under the Old Testament, they were covered as with a 
veil. As Moses put a veil over his face, so he hid the covenant in 
an ark. The ark itself was hidden by the veil of the temple, 
and the book of the covenant was hid by the cover of the ark, 
i. e. they were as it were hidden under Christ's flesh : the carnal 
typical ordinances of the Old Testament are in scripture repre- 
sented as Christ's flesh, Rom. ii. 1,2, 3, 4. Colos. ii. 14. The 


veil signified the flesh of Christ ; Heb. x. 20 ; and so doth the co- 
ver of the ark, or the ark considered as distinct from what was 
contained in it. The covenant of grace was, and the glorious 
things of the gospel were, contained in that book that was laid 
up in the ark ; but it was as it were shut up in a cabinet, hid un- 
der types and dark representations. Christ rent the veil from the 
top to the bottom ; so he opened the cabinet of the ark. The 
faces of the cherubims were towards this ark, and the mercy-seat 
upon it, to pry into the mysteries of the person of Christ and of 
this covenant of grace ; for '' these things," as the apostle Peter 
says, ** the angels desire to look into." 

The ark was carried on staves, on the Levites' shoulders ; so 
Christ is brought to his church and people in the labours of the 
- ministers of the gospel. 

It seems, by Jer. iii. 16, 17, as if the ark were a type of the 
charch as well as of Christ ; but no wonder : the church hath 
•ach a union and communion with Christ, that almost all the same 
things that are predicated of Christ, are also in some sense predi- 
cated of the church. Christ is the temple of God, and so is the 
church ; believers are said to be his temple, and they together are 
said to be built up a spiritual house, Slc. The law is in Christ's 
heart, Ps. xl. As the law was in the ark, so God promises to put 
his law into the hearts of his people. Christ is the pearl of great 
price ; he is the Father's treasure, his chief delight ; so the church 
is his cabinet, and believers are his jewels. The ark represents 
the human nature of Christ especially, or the body of Christ, 
and the church is called the body of Christ. 

[475] Exod. XXV. 23, to the end. Concerning the shetD-breadf 
iaUe^ and the golden candlestick. These both were to stand con- 
tinually in the holy place, before the veil of the holy of holies, 
one on the north side and the other on the south. Each of these 
seems to represent both a divine person and also the church. Each 
represents a divine person; the shew-bread represents Christ, 
and was set on the south side at God's right hand, as Christ is of- 
ten represented as being set at God's right hand in heaven, being 
next to God the Father in his ofiice, and above the Holy Spirit in 
the economy of the persons of the Trinity. The candlestick, or 
at least the oil and lamp of it, represent the Holy Spirit, and is 
set at the left hand of God's throne. Christ is as it were the 
bread of God. He is so called, John vi. 33. He is the portion 
of God the Father, in whom is his infinite delight and happiness, 
« and as our Mediator and sacrifice. He is as it were the bread of 
God : as the ancient sacrifices, that were only typical of Christ, 
are often called the bread of God. This bread is called the shew- 
bread y in the Hebrew Lechem Plannim^ the bread of God* s face ^ 





or pretence. So Clirist, in Isai. Ixiii. 9, is called Malakfkammm^ At 
angel of God's face^ or presence. This bread had pure fraiijuo- 
cense set on it, which undoubtedly signifies the merits of Cbriil, 
and so proves the bread, that had this pure frankincense on it, io 
be a type of Christ. And besides this, the bread and frankioceow 
are called an offering made by fire unto the Lord, Levit. zxi?. 7. 
9, which is another proof that this bread and incense were a type 
of Christ ofiered in sacrifice to God ; the bread was prepared to 
be as it were the food of God, by being baked in the fire, and tk 
frankincense, when removed for new to be set on, was probaUy 
burnt in the fire on the altar of incense* There were twelve cakei 
of shew-bread, according to the number of the tribes of Israel, to 
signify that Christ, as ofiered up in sacrifice to God, is offered n 
representing his people and church, and presenting himself to 
God in their name. This bread represents Christ not only ii 
presented in the presence of God as the bread of the saints, ior 
this bread was eaten by the priests in the temple, Levit. xu?. 9. 
So Christ is often spoken of as the bread of the saints. Heii 
the bread they will feed upon in heaven, which is the holy tempb 
of God, where the saints are all kings and priests* 

This bread also represents the church, who are spoken of not 
only as partaking of Christ, the divine bread, but as being dies- 
selves the bread of God, 1 Cor. x. 17. GodU people are vffj 
often, in both the Old Testament and the New, spoken of asGotTi 
food, his fruit, his harvest, his good grain, his portion, be. Tbil 
seems to be one reason why the shew-bread was to be in twelve 
cakes, representing the twelve tribes of Israel, because the bread 
represented the church, as the twelve precious stones in the breast- 
plate did. These loaves had frankincense set on them to repr^ 
sent that God's people are not acceptable food to God, any otbe^ 
wise than as rendered so by the incense of Christ^s merits; the 
loaves of shew-bread were to be set on the table anew every sab- 
bath, representing these several things. 

1. That in God's finishing the work of redemption, or in 
Christ's finishing of it, when he rested from it, Christ especiallj 
became the bread or sweet food of Gnd, wherein he was refresh- 
ed; as God is said to have rested, and to have been refreshed, 
when he finished the work of creation, so much more when Christ 
finished the work of redemption. 

2. As the sabbath day especially is the day of the worship of 
Christ's church, so on that day especially does Christ present 
himself as their Mediator, and present his merits as the sweet food 
and incense of God to recommend them and their worship to tlie 

3. Christ is, on the sabbath-day, especially set forth as the 
bread of his church in the preaching of the word, and admiois- 



ration of the sacrament. On the sabbath day, the disciples came 
ogether to break bread, and it is then especially that his saints 
lo feed upon him, in meditation, hearing his word, and partaking 
ftf the sacrament of the Lord's supper, as the priests ate the shew- 
bread on the sabbath. 

4. The sabbath is that time wherein especially God's people do 
present themselves to God as liis portion through Christ. 

5. The time wherein in a most eminent manner they shall be 
piresented by Christ, and will present themselves to God as his por- 
tion, is on the time of their eternal rest (tiic antitype of the sab- 
bath) in heaven. 

6. This is also the time wherein they will in the highest degree 
feed and feast on Christ as their bread, as the priests ate the shew- 
bread in the temple on the sabbath. 

In the golden candlestick that stood before the throne, on the 
leftside was a representation both of the Holy Spirit and of the 
Church. The pure oil olive that fed the lamps is indisputably a 
type of the Holy Ghost; and it is evident, from Rev. iv. 5, com- 

5ared with chap. i. 4, and v. 6, and Zech. iii. 9, and iv. 2. 6. 10. 
*he burning of the lamp represents that divine, infinite, pure ener- 
gy and ardour wherein the Holy Spirit consists. The light of 
the lamps filling the tabernacle with light which had no windows, 
■nd no light but of those lamps, represents the divine, blessed com- 
munication and influence of the Spirit of God, replenishing the 
church and filling heaven with the light of divine knowledge in 
opposition to the darkness of ignorance and delusion, with the 
Hghtof holiness in opposition to the darkness of sin, and with the 
light of comfort and joy in opposition to the darkness of sorrow 
^nd misery. This light being communicated from a candlestick, 
t^presents the way in which these benefits are communicated to 
Ibe church, viz. the way of God's ordinances, which are called a 
candlestick. Rev. ii. 5. 

It is evident that the candlestick represents the church from the 
iv. chap, of Zech. and the i. of Rev., and Mallh. v. 13, 14, 15, 
and 1 Tim. iii. 15. The matter was gold, as the church is consti- 
tuted of saints, God's precious ones. The candlestick was like a 
tree of many branches, and bearing flowers and fruit, agreeable 
to the very frequent representations of the church by a tree, an 
olive-tree, a vine, a grain of mustard-seed that becomes a tree, 
the branch of the Lord, a tree whose substance is in it, &c. The 
continaance and propagation of the church is compared to the 
propagation of branches from a common stock and root, and of 
plants from the seed. In this candlestick, every flower is attend- 
ed with a knop, apple, or pomegranate, representing a good pro- 
fession attended with corresponding fruit in the true saints. Here 
were rows of knops and flowers one after another, beautifully re^ 
TOLt JX, 34 


presenting the saints' progress in religions attainmeDts, tlieir go- 
ing from strength to strength. Such is the nature of true grace 
and holy fruit, that it bears flowers that promise a farther degree 
of fruit, the flower having in it the principles of new fmit, and by 
this progress in holiness, the saint comes to shine as alight in the 
world, the fruit that succeeds the uppermost flower, is the burning 
and shining lamp, representing several things : 

1. That the fruit of a true saint, or his good works and holy 
life, is as it were a light by which he shines before men, Matlh. v. 
13, 14, 15. 

2. That in a way of holy practice, and by progress in holinesf, 
the saints obtain the light of spiritual comfort. 

3. That in the way of going from strength to strength, and 
making progress in holiness, tliey come at last to the light of 

The lamps were fed wholly by oil constantly supplied from the 
olive-tree, representing that the saints* holiness, good fruits, and 
comfort are wholly by the Spirit of God, constantly flowing from 
Christ. The oil that was burnt in the lamps bdbre God, was an 
oflTering to God, so God is the prime object of the grace and holi- 
ness of the saints, their divine love flows out chiefly to him, as 
Mary's precious ointment was poured on the head of Christ, hot 
ran down to the skirts of his garments. Their good works are 
acceptable sacrifices to God through Christ, and are not of the 
nature of Christian works, if not oflered to God, as if there he 
nothing of a gracious respect to God in them. The saints' light 
shines before God, their gracious and holy practices are pleasant 
to him, aud of great price in his sight, as the light is sweet ; and 
the light shone around and filled the temple, as the odour of Ma- 
ry's box of ointment filled the house. The inhabitants of the 
temple had the benefit of the light of the candlestick, as the 
saints of God have especially the benefit of the good works of 
the saints. 

The propagation of the church through successive genera- 
tions is sometimes represented in scripture by the gradual growing 
of a tree, and shooting forth its branches. And when the church 
is represented as bringing forth fruit as a tree, by her fruit 
is sometimes meant her children, or converts; and therefore one 
thing that may be intended by fruit and flowers succeeding one 
another in this candlestick, may be the continuance of the church 
and gradual increase, her bringing forth fruit, and that in order 
to the bringing forth more fruit, until she hath reached the latter 
day glory when God shall bring forth her righteousness as the 
light, and her salvation as a lamp that burneth, then shall she 
come to a state of glorious light of truth, knowledge, holiness, 
and joy. 


[143] Exod. xxviii. 30. '* And tbou shah put io the breast- 
ate of judgment, the Urim," &c. Called the breast-plate of 
idgmeut, because in matters of judgment that were too hard for 
le judges, they were lo come to the priest, who was to inquire of 
od by Urim and Thummim, in the breast-plate, for a determina- 
on, according to Deut. xvii. 8, 9. 

[476] Exod. XXX. 7, 8. When the high priest lighted and 
ressed the lamp, then was he to burn incense on the golden al- 
r of incense; signifying that the sweet and infinitely accepta- 
e incense of Christ's merits was by the Holy Spirit signified 
Y the lamp, (see No. 475.) It was by the eternal Spirit that 
hrist offered up himself without spot to God. It was by the 
^oly Spirit many ways. It was by the Holy Spirit that the hu- 
an nature of Ctirist was united to the divine Logos, from which 
aion arises the infinite value of his blood and righteousness. It 
as by the Eternal Spirit that Christ performed righteousness. 

was by the Spirit of God that Christ was perfectly holy, and 
^rformed perfect righteousness. It was by the Holy Spirit not 
ily that his obedience was perfect, but performed witli such tran- 
lendent love. It was by this Spirit that his sacrifice of himself 
as sanctified, being an offering to God in the pure and fervent 
ime of divine love which burnt in his heart, as well as in the 
ime of God's vindictive justice and wrath into which he was cast, 
nd it was this that his obedience and sacrifice were offered with 
ich a love to his people, for whom he died, as implied a perfect 
Dion with them, whereby it was accepted for them. 

[441] Exod. xxxii. xxxiii. xxxiv. There are many things in 
le circumstances of this Second giving of the law that we have 
n account of in these chapters that are arguments that these two 
ansactions did represent the two great transactions of God with 
lankind in the covenant of works and covenant of grace. 

It was in this last covenanting of God with the people, espe- 
ially, that Moses appeared as a Mediator, to which the apostle 
as respect. Gal. iii. 19. It was ordained by angels in the hand 
f a Mediator, when the people had broken the covenant given at 
rst with thunder and lightning, the law then was made use of as 

school-master to convince tliem of sin. God threatened to leave 
lem, and not go up with them, and when the people were over- 
whelmed by it, and mourned when they heard the evil tidings, 
lod then further awakened them and terrified them, sending such 

message as this to them, " Ye are a stiff-necked people ; I will 
ome up into the midst of thee in a moment, and consume thee ; 
lerefore now put off thy ornaments from them, tiiat I may know 
^bat to do unto thee.** Thus this awful threatening was given 


forth with some hope and encouragement that peradventare the/ 
might live, given in that last clause, ihat I may know what to ^ 
unto thee* By thus applying the terrors of the law^ God brought 
the people to put o/T their ornaments, which were typical of their 
own righteousness. Chap, xxxiii. 5, 6. 

Moses now acted as a Mediator, and not merely as an intemiei- 
senger, as he did in the first givuig of the law. He ofTers his life 
for theirs ; he offers up himself to be accursed and blotted out of 
God's book for them, after he had told the people that they bad 
sinned a great sin, and peradventure he should make atonemeit 
for their sin, which is to do the part of a Mediator. See cbap. ^ 
xxxii. 30, 31, 32. 

On this occasion, the Lord speaks to Moses face to face as a 
man speaketh unto his friend, when he came to speak to God io 
behalf of the people ; well representing the intercourse of oor 
Mediator with the Father, chnp. xxxiii. 11. And on this occa- 
sion God made all his goodness pass before Moses, and pro- 
claimed himself '' the Lord, the Lord God, gracious and merci- 
ful, forgiving iniquity," &c. Chap, xxxiii. 19, and xxxix. 5,6,7. 
The covenant the first time was written on tables that were the 
workmanship of God, as the soul and heart of man in innocency 
was ; which workmanship of God was destroyed by man's apostary : 
so, upon the children of Israel's apo>tncy, Moses brake the tables 
that were the workmanship of God. The covenant now was 
written in tables that were the workmanship of Moses, the Media- 
tor, as the law of God after the fall is written in the fleshly tables 
of the heart renewed by Christ. 

God promises, that in fulfilment of the covenant he now the 
last time enters into with his people, ho will do wonders, sucb as 
have not been done in all the earth, and that all the people should 
see the work of the Lord. So God in the wnv of the new cove- 
nant that he entered into with Clirist, did those great things by 
Christ in the work of redemption which are so often spoken of io 
scripture as being so exceeding wonderful. 

God made this covenant with Moses, the typical Mediator, as 
the head and representative of the people, and with the people in 
him or under him as his people, that he showed mercy to for hts 
sake. Chap, xxxiv. 27. *' And the Lord said unto Moses, Write 
these words, for after the tenour of these words I have made a 
covenant with Thee vlxmI with Israel;" and verse 10. ''Behold, 
I make a covenant before all Thy people ; I will do marvellous- 

Before Moses came down from the mount in wrath with theta- 
bles broken, so Christ comes as God's Messenger to execute 
wrath for the breaking of the covenant of works. Now be comet 
down with the tables of the testimony in his hand, with his face 


iniog. This being typical of the light of grace with which 
hrist's face shines in God's IsraeL See Note on Exod, xxxii. 
I, and xzxiii. 1. 

[4041 Exod.xxxiii. 14, 15. " And he said, My presence shall 
with thee, (in the originaPJS.) And he said, If thy presence go 

ot with us, carry us not up hence/' Hence probably the hea- 
ven Pan and Faunus, the god of shepherds — the shepherds were 
le Israelites that were by the Egyptians called the shepherds, 
ecause a shepherd was a strange thing in their country. Hence 
^an is supposed to be one of Bacchus's principal commanders, 
ecause God^s presence is here promised to be with Moses and 
lie people, to help them in their wars. And Pan going with 
{acchus to war, is said to have put astonishing fears on all their 
nemies, which arises from the great terrors with which the God 
f Israel (whose shepherd) brought up the children of Israel out 
f Egypt, with which he terrified the Egyptians and Israel them- 
elves, and all nations, by what appeared when God gave the law ; 
nd so the great terrors sent into the hearts of their enemies in Ca- 
aan, so very often spoken of. See Gen. xxxv. 5, Exod. xv. 14, 
5, 16. Deut. ii. 25, and xi. 25, xxxiv. 12, and Josh. ii. 9, and 
Ixod. xxxiv, 10, and Ps. cvi. 22. Deut. vii. 27, and x. 17. 21. 
xvi. 6. Exod. xxiii. 27. God never manifested himself so much 
> the heathen nation in his awful terrors as he did in the affair of 
^ading Israel as their shepherd out of Egypt through the wilder- 
ess into Canaan, and settling them there. Those fears and ter- 
^rs are spoken of as from the presence of the Lord. Ps. Ixviii. 
,8. " O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people, when 
lou didst march through the wilderness ; Sclah : The earth shook, 
le heavens also dropped at the presence, D'Ji}, of the Lord, (the 

an or Faunus of the heathen) even Sinai itself was moved at 
le presence of the God of Israel," (the shepherds,) and Ps. xcvii. 

5. ^' His lightnings enlightened the world ;' the earth saw and 
?mbled. The hills melted like wax at the presence of the Lord, 

the presence of the Lord of the whole earth." For terror and 
Hnbling is often spoken of as what properly arises from the 
esence of the Lord. Isai. Ixiv. 1 — 3. '' O that thou wouldest 
nt the heavens, that thou wouldest come down, that the moun- 
1118 might flow down at thy presence, as when the melting fire 
troeth, the fire causeth the waters to boil, to make thy name 
lOWD to thine adversaries, that the nations might tremble at thy 
esence. When thou didst terrible things which we looked not 
% tbou earnest down, the mountains flowed down at thy pre- 
ice.'' So Isai. xix. 1. Jer. v. 22, Ezek. xxxviii. 20. Whence 
It proverbial expression, |Mink: fears^ Bochart says that Fan- 


nus among the Latins is the same god, and of the same origiiial 
with Pan. Pan is said to be an Egyptian god, to come up witb 
Bacchus (i. e. Moses) to fight against the giants. That which 
God promised Noses when he said, '' My presence shall go with 
thee," was Aw Son ; the same with the angel of his presence, spa- j 
ken of Isai. Ixiii., and therefore when Christ was crucified. Hence 1 
the relation of Plutarch touching the mourning of the demoniac J 
spirits for the death of their great god, Pan, and the ceasing of I 
their oracles thereupon. Bochart says, ** The Hebrew Jfi, PiUff 

one that is struck, or strikes with astonishing fears.^^ See Court 
of Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 6, 7. 70, 71. 

[266] Exod. xxxiii. 18 — 23. Moses, when be beseeches Go! 
to show him his glory, seems to have respect to a visible glory; 
something to be seen with bis bodily eyes, yet not exclusive of u 
inward sweet sense of those glorious perfections, of which the ex* 
ternal glory by which God manifests himself is a semblance, whid 
was wont to accompany the external discoveries of divine glory 
that God made to the prophets, the external glory being made by 
the Spirit of God accompanying being made a means of a sense 
of the spiritual glory, as the music of a song of praise is the 
means of a sense of the excellency of diving things. But by 
the context it is manifest that it was a visible glory that Moses bid 
a most immediate respect to. Moses seems to have apprehended 
from what he had seen of the visible manifestations which God 
had made of himself to him ; and it may be from the apprehen- 
sions which other holy men before him bad entertained concern- 
ing God, from what God had revealed to them ; that there was 
some transcendent external majesty and beauty, some immensely 
sweet and ravishing brightness, the sight of which would exceed- 
ingly fill the soul with delight that was immensely above all that 
he had yet seen. And God, in his answer to Moses, and in what 
he did in compliance with his request, seems to allow Moses's ap- 
prehension to be just, which probably was because it was God's 
design to all eternity to appear to the bodily eyes of his saints in 
such an external glory in the person of Christ God roan ; and 
Moses's acquired right from the visible manifestations of an cxter 
Dal glory which God had often made. These were indeed an in- 
timation that there was such a transcendent external glory in some 
sort belonging to God, even to the second person of the Trinity, 
in that it was established in God's gracious decree and eternal 
agreement of the persons of the Trinity ; on the foot of which 
establishment were all God's proceedings with the church of Is- 
rael, that Christ should everlastingly be united to an external na- 
turCi and in that be manifested to bis church in an external glorj. 


The extenial manifestations which he had made of himself to 
Moses and other holy men, were presages and prelibations of 
this. Moses longed to see and enjoy that of which they were 
specimens and prelibations. Christ is the glory of God in his 
image, and no man hath seen God at any time, but it is he that 
always manifested himself by visible appearances. God grant- 
ed to Moses to see something of this glorious brightness, as he 
passed by, so much from a view as it were of his back, but not 
of his face. Probably this, as he passed by in a visible form, 
ahone with an ineffably sweet and glorious brightness, far ex- 
ceeding all the brightness that is ever seen in the world, fur 
£lory and delightfulness. (Vid. No. 2G5.) But God tells him 
that he cannot see his face, for no man should see him and live ; 
L e. not only could they not see that spiritual glory in which he 
manifests himself in heaven ; but there is evidently a respect to 
an externa] glory : no man sliould see that external glory of 
6od*s face, in which God intended to manifest himself to his 
saints in heaven to all eternirv, in the face of Jesus Christ* 

CoroL Hence the glory of Christ at his transfiguration was 
Dot that glory in which the human nature of Christ appears in 
heaven, and especially that in which it will appear after the 
day of judgment; only a shadow and faint resemblance of it; 
for that glory, God says, is such as no man can see and live; and 
so, of the appearances of Christ's visible glory that Isaiah, 
Ezekiel, Daniel, and the apostle Paul, and the apostle John 

[267] Exod. xxxiii. 18, 19. ** And he said, I beseech thee, 
show me thy glory. And he said, I will make all my goodness 
pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of the Lord be- 
fore thee, and will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and 
will show mercy on whom I will show mercy." Moses, from 
his finding his great acceptance and favour with God in the 
power that his prayers and intercessions had with him, so as it 
were to appease God's wrath against the congregation of Is- 
rael, which was so great for their making the golden calf; and 
from his obtaining by prayer, the promise of so great a favour 
as that God's presence should go with them, which promise was 
made with this gracious declaration made of God's favour to 
him ; '* For thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee 
by name;" and from God having in all this*spoken to Moses, as 
a man speaks to his friend ; this great mercy of God to him has 
two effects on Moses. 

1. It gives him a sense of God's excellency and glory^ espe-* 
dally the excellency of his mercy and free goodness from this 
manifestation of it to him and his people after their great 3in^ 


and makes him long for a full sight of the glory of w> exeelieot 
and good a being. 

2. It encourages him to ask for this exceeding great meref 
of seeing God's glory. God's mercy and favour beings sovetj I 
grent in past instances, encourages him to ask yet farther and 
more e.\ceedin<; favour ; and \vc do not find that Crod rebukes 
Moses as being too forward and presumptuous in such a re- 
quest, or as not being content with so great mercy as he had 
received already, hut on the contrary seems to manifest an ap- 
probation of his making such an improvement of mercy already 
received, for he granrs iils request so far as is consistent with 
his present state. Several things are observable, concerning 
the manner of God's showing 3Iose3 his glory, wherein, thoogfa 
it was extraordinarv, it is agreeable to the manner of God'i 
discovering himself to the souls of his people in this world. 

1. It was not face to face, which is reserved for the heavenly 
state ; 1 Cor. xiii. 12 ; but it was as it were a view of the bade 
instead of the face. 

2. It was as passing by. Herein is a great difference in the 
manner in which the saints have the discoveries of God*s glory, 
and that wherein they shall sec him hereafter. Hereafter tbey 
shall dwell in his presence, they shall be fixed in an everlasting 
view of the glory of God, their eye shall be perpetually feasted 
with a full vision of his face : hut here, when the saints have ex- 
traordinary discoveries of the glory of God, they are transient 
and short ; sometimes it is onlva irlance'; Christ stands behind 
the wall for the most part, and when he shows himself it is 
through the lattice as passing by a window, but hereafter they 
shall be in his presence-chamber with him. Here the saints 
see God as passing by before them, and then he is gone. 

3. Hereby is properly represented how imperfect are the spi- 
ritual discoveries which the saints have of God here. They see 
God as it were when he is gone by, they have somewhat of a 
si::ht of him, Lut vet verv inincrfoct. as of the back of one that 
15 just gone by, giving of them a sense that he is indeed an in- 
finitelv glorious beinj if iliev could but have a full siffht of him: 
thev can see so much as to :rirc an idea of what mii^ht be seen, 
if they could but come at it. They seem to be as it were on 
the borders of seeing it, and their appetite is excited to see it; 
but while thev are aJmirin:: and lon:;in?, andreachinz after it, 
It IS gone and passed away. 

4- The discovery of Gixi's spiritual glory is not by immediate 
intuition, but the word of Goil is ihe medium by which it is dis- 
covered : it is by God*s proclaiming his name. So God reveals 
kunself to the saints in this world, by proclaiming his name in 
tWjoTfiil sound of the gospel. 


5. It 19 by cfiusing his goodness to pass before him, which is 
igreeable to the way in which God discovers himself to his 
taints by the gospel, which in a peculiar manner is a manifesta- 
ion of the glory of divine grace or goodness. Divine grace la 
:he leading attribute in that discovery, which God makes of his 
^lory by the gospel, wherein God's goodness is revealed more 
than any ; wherein, and wherein especially it is revealed as free 
ftnd sovereign ; and which is another thing that is a peculiar 
^loryof the gospel, it is a mutation of free and infinite grace, as 
consistent with strict justice in punishing the Son, and therefore 
both aie mentioned together in that proclamation God makes 
of his name to Moses, as in the 5th, 6th, and 7th verses of the 
following chapter. 

6- While God draws nigh to Mosos, and he is in God's pre- 
i^ence, Moses is commanded to hide himself in the clefts of the 
rocks, that God may not be a consuming fire to him, and that he 
may be secured from destruction, while the burning blaze of 
God's glory passes by, (as Watts expresses himself,) which typi- 
fies the same Kedeenier who is as the munition of rocks, and as 
a strong rock, and the hiding place of his people, who is com- 
pared to n great rock to secure from the burning heat of the 
Btiii by its shadow, and was typified by the rock out of which 
water was fetched for the children of Israel. God's people can 
be secured from destruction when they are in the presence of 
God, and in his approaches and converse, no other way than by 
being in Christ, and sheltered by him from being consumed by 
the flames of God's pure and spotless holiness. 

7. God covered him with his band while he passed by, not 
only that he might not see more of tbe glery of God than he 
could bear, but also that his deformity and pollution might not 
be discovered, to bring on him destruction from the presence of 
that infinitely^ pure and holy God, and from the glory of that 
power that passed by. So in Jesus, God covers our deformity 
and pollution, he beholds not iniquity in Jacob, nor sees pol- 
lution in Israel ; he turns away his eye from beholding our trans- 
gression; therefore it is that we are not consumed in our inter- 
course with God. 

8. Moses beholds God's glory through a crevice of the rock, 
as through a window at which he looked out ; which represents 
tbe manner of God's discovering himself to his people in this 
world, which is as standing behind a wall and showing himself 
through the lattice/ 

Another reason why God makes all his goodness to pass be- 
fore Moses, seems to be, that this was the attribute that God 
had wonderfully been exercising towards Moses, and tbe con- 
gregation of Israel, whereby Moses was now especially affected 

VOL. IX. 35 


with that attributey and especiallj longed to see the glorj of 
ity as was before observed. And at the same^time God tells Mo- 
ses that he will be gracious to whom he will be gracious, and 
will show mercy on whom he will show mercy, because he bad 
wonderfully manifested the sovereignty of his mercy in forgiv* 
ing as he had done, a people that had so exceedingly trans- 
gressed as the congregation of Israel had done in making the 
golden calf, and also that Moses might not be lifted up by God's 
bestowing such unspeakable favours on him as he had done, 
and now promised to do in answer to bis request, but might be 
sensible that it was not for his worthiness, but his own sovereign 
pleasure. And another reason is, that the glory of God's good- 
ness is that part of God's glory > of which such a poor, feeble, 
corrupt creature as man is can best bear the sight, while he 
lives and remains such; for it is the most mild and gentle attri- 
bute, and the manifestation of it affords a cordial and support 
to enable him to bear it. 

[88] Levit. xii. 6. ''She shall bring a young pigeon or a tnr- 
tledove;" which typifies repentance as well as love. Ezek. 
vii. 16. " They shall be as doves in the valleys, each one 
mourning for his iniquity." This is a proper r^crifice for ori- 
ginal sin that the child brought in the world with it by the pa- 
rents' means, a sacrifice both for the parents and children's sin. 

[204] Levit. xxiii. 34, 35. 36. Matth: i. Luke ii. The Feast 
of Tabernacles — T/te Birth of Christ — Lor(Vs Day. Bedford, 
in his Scripture Chronology, makes it appear exceeding proba- 
ble that Christ was born on the feast of tabernacles; as also 
Mather on the Types. And besides what Mr. Mather on the 
Types observes of this feast, and of the time of Christ's birth, 
there are the following things observed by Mr. Bedford. 

1. He shows that in this month, about the same time of the 
year that Christ was born, the world was created ;thus the be- 
ginning of the new creation and the old, the creation of the first 
Adam and the secotid, are at the same time of year. 

2. That Moses, this type of Christ, came down from mount 
Sinai, which was a type of heaven, on the first day of this month, 
and declared that God was appeased, and the people pardoned, 
and his face shone as if the divinity had inhabited the manhood, so 
that the Israelites could not look upon him, and he then gave di- 
rections that they should immediately set about building the ta- 
bernacle, (which was hitherto hindered by, and because of, the 
golden calf,) seeing that God would now dwell among them, and 
forsake them no more : upon this the people bring their offer- 
ings, which were viewed and found to be sufiicient. And then 

NOTES ON tll£ BIBLE. 175 

immediately they pitch their tents, knowing that they were not 
to depart frdm that place before the divine tabernacle was 
finished. And thus they set about this great work with all their 
might, at this time of the year. Hence the fifteenth day of 
this month, and seven days after, were appointed for the feast 
of tabernacles, in commemoration of their dwelling in tents in 
the wilderness, when God dwelt in the midst of them. 

3. That Christ was not only born at the feast of tabernacles, 
and so circumcised on the last day, or eighth day of that feast, 
which was a great day, and probably appointed out of respect 
to the circumcision of Christ that was to be on that day ; but 
also that the feast of tabernacles in which Christ was born fell 
out on the first day of the week, and so the eighth day of the 
feast on which he was circumcised, also fell on the same day of 
the week. 

4. That the feast of the dedication of the temple of Solomon, 
(which was a type of the body of Christ, as well as the taberna- 
cle,) was not only held on the feast of tabernacles, the feast on 
which Christ was born ; but also that that feast happened to be 
on a Sunday, as the day of Christ's birth was, and so the last 
and great day of the feast was also held on a Sunday. Vide 
Scripture Chronology, book iv. chap. iv. 

5. I would further observe, that on that day the Godhead 
did, in a sensible manner, descend in a pillar of cloud, to 
inherit the temple, as in the incarnation of Christ, the Godhead 
descended to dwell in flesh. See No. 396, Note on Zech. xiv. 
16, &c. 

[315] Numb. x. 10. Concerning the Festival of the New Moon. 
The change of the moon at her conjunction with the sun, seems 
to be a type of three things. 

1. Of the resurrection of the church from the dead by virtue 
of her union with Christ, and at the coming of Christ; for the 
moon at her change, that lost all her light, and was extinct, 
and seemed to die, revives again after her conjunction with the 

2. Of the conversion of every believing soul, which is its 
spiritual resurrection. The soul in its conversion comes to 
Christ, and closes with Christ as the moon comes to the sun 
into a conjunction with him. The soul in conversion dies to 
sin, and to the world, crucifies the flesh with the affections and 
lusts, dies as to its own worthiness, or righteousness whereby it 
is said in scripture to be dead to the law, that it may receive 
new life, as the former light of the moon is extinct at its con- 
junction with the sun that it may receive new light. In order 
to our coming to Christ aright, we must not come with our owti 


brightness and glory* with any of our own fullness, strengthy 
light| or righteousness, or happiness, but as stripped of all 
our glory, empty of all good, wholly dark, sinful, desti- 
tute, and miserable. As the moon is wholly divested of 
of all her light at her conjunction with the sun, we must oonie 
to Christ as wholly sinful and miserable, as the moon comes to 
the sun in total darkness. The moon as it comes nearer the 
sun grows darker and darker; so the soul the more it is fitted 
for Christ, is more and more emptied of itself that it maybe 
filled with Christ. The moon grows darker and darker in her 
approach to the sun ; so the soul sees more and more of iu 
own sinfulness, and vileness, and misery* that it may be swal- 
lowed up in the rays of the Sun of Righteousness. 

3. The change of the moon at her conjunction with the r 
sun, signifies the change of the state and administration of the 
church at the coming of Christ. 

The sun is sometimes eclipsed in his conjunction with tin 
moon, which signifies two things : viz. 

1. The veiling of his glory by his incarnation ; for as the sun 
has his light veiled by his conjunction with the moon in its dark- 
ness, so Christ had his glory veiled by his conjunction or union 
with our nature in its low and broken state : as the moon proves 
a veil to hide the glory of the sun, so the flesh of Christ was a 
veil that hid his divine glory. 

2. It signifies his death. The sun is sometimes totally 
eclipsed by the moon at her change ; so Christ died at the time 
of the change of the church, from the Old dispensation to the 
New. The sun is eclipsed at his conjunction with the moon in 
her darkness; so Christ taking our nature upon him in his low 
and broken state died in it. Chriat assumed his church and 
people, in their guilt and misery, and in their condemned, cursed, 
dying state, into a very close union with him, so as to become 
one with him ; and hereby betakes their guilt on himself, and 
becomes subject to their sin, their curse, their death, yea, is 
made a curse for them ; as the sun as it were assumes the 
moon in her total darkness into a close union with himself, so 
as to become one with her, they become concentered, and be- 
come as it were one body circumscribed by the same circumfe- 
rence, and thereby he takes her darkness on himself, and be- 
comes himself dark with her darkness, and is extinct in bis 
union with her. The moon that receives all her light from the 
sun eclipses the sun, and takes away his li^ht; so Christ was 
put to death by those that he came to save ; he is put to ; death 
by the iniquities of those that he came to give life to, and ho 
was immediately crucified by the hands of some of them, and 
all of them have pierced him in the disposition and tendency of 
ihat sin that they have been guihy of; for all have manifested 


tad expressed a mortal enmity against him. It is an argument 
that the eelipse of the sun is a type of Christ's death, because 
the sun suffered a total eclipse miraculously at that time that 
Christ died. 

The sun can be in a total eclipse, but a very little while, 
much lepsthan the moon, though neither of them can always 
be in an eclipse; so Christ could not, by reason of his divine 
glory and worthiness, be long held of death, in no measure so 
long as the saints may be, though it is not possible that either 
of them should always be held of it. 

The sun's coming out of his eclipse is a figure of Christ's re- 
surrection from the dead. As the sun is restored to light, so 
the moon that eclipsed him begins to receive light from him, 
and so to partake of his restored light. So the church for 
ivhose sins Christ died, and who has pierced Christ, rises with 
Christ, is begotten again to a living hope by the resurrection of 
Christ from the dead, is made partaker of the life and power 
of his resurrection, and of the glory of his exaltation, is raised 
up together, and made to sit together in heavenly places in 
him. They live; yet not they ; but Christ lives in them, and 
they are married to him that is r'tfen from the dead. God 
having raised Christ, Christ quickens them who were totally 
dark and dead in trespasses and sins, and they are revived by 
God's power, according to the exceeding greatness of his power 
that wrought in Christ Jesus, when he raised him from the 

The moon is eclipsed when at its full in its greatest glory, 
Vrhich may signify several things. 

1. That God is wont to bring some great calamity on his visi- 
ble church, when in its greatest glory and prosperity, as he did 
in the Old Testament church, in the height of its glory in Da- 
Tid and Solomon's times, by David's adultery and murder, and 
those sore calamities that followed in his familv, and to all Is- 
rael in the affairs of Amnon, and especially Absalom, and in 
the idolntry of Solomon, and the sore calamities that followed, 
and particularly the dividing the kingdom of Israel. So he did 
also on the church of the New Testament after Cnnstantinc, by 
the Arian heresy, &c. God doth thus to stain the pride of all 
glory, and that his people may not lift up themselves against 
him, that he alone may be exalted. 

2. That it is often God's manner to brincr some <;rievous ca- 
lamity on his saints, at limes when they have received the great- 
est light and joys, and have been most exalted with smiles of 
heaven upon them ; as Jacob was made lame at the same time 
that he was admitted to so extraordinary a privilege as wrest- 
ling with God, and overcoming him, and so obtaining the bless- 


ing. And so Paul, when he was received up to the third be 
received a thorn in the flesh, lest he should be exalted above 
sure, he had a messenger of Satan to buffet him ; so grievoo 
lamity it was that he laboured under, that he besought the 
thrice that it might be taken from him. Sometimes extraord 
light and comfort is given to fit for great calamities, and i 
times for death, which God brings soon after such thing 
when God gives liis own people great temporal prosperity, 
wont to bring with it some calamity to eclipse it, to keep 
from being exalted in their prosperity, and trusting in it. 

[337] Num. xi. 10, 11, 12, &c. ««Then Moses heard tlu 

pie weep throughout their families, every man in the door < 

tent, and the anger of the Lord was kindled greatly. Mose 

was displeased ; and Moses said unto the Lord, Wherefon 

thou afflicted thy servant, and wherefore have I not found f 

in thy sight, that thou layest the burden of this people upoi: 

Have I conceived all this people ; have I begotten them 

thou shouldest say unto me. Carry them in thy bosom, as a 

ing father beareth the sucking child, unto the land which 

swearest unto their fathers ^" Ver. 15. 'Mf thou deal thus 

me, kill me out of hand, and let me not see my wretchedo 

Moses, though God gives this testimony concerning him, th 

was very meek above all men upon the face of the earth, yet i 

not bear the perverseness of the congregation of God's pe 

How much therefore docs Christ's meekness go beyond th 

Moses ! Moses was not willing to bear the burden of all that 

pie upon him ; but Christ, the angel of God's presence, is wi 

to bear them all with all their frowardness and perverseness. 

ses said, '' Have I conceived this people, have I begotten t 

that thou shouldest say, Carry them in thy bbsom, as a nu 

father beareth a sucking child, unto the land which thou s\v€ 

unto their fathers?" But Christ willingly thus carries his p 

in his bosom unto the promised land, for they are his childrei 

has begotten them, and he never casts them off for their frov 

ness ; he willingly obeys his Father when he commands him, 

ing, Carry this people, &c. Isai. Ixiii. 8, 9. " For he 

Surely they are my people, children that will not lie ; so he 

their Saviour. In all their affliction, he was afflicted ; anc 

angel of his presence saved them : in his love and in his pii 

redeemed them, and he bare them, and carried them all the 

of old." Deut. i. 31. " And in the wilderness, where thou 

seen how that the Lord thy God bare thee, as a man doth bei 

son in all the way that he went, until ye came into this ph 

Isai. xl. 11. << He shall feed his flock like a shepherd ; he 

gather the lambs with his arms, and carry them in his bosom, 


iball gently lead those that are with young/' Moses said, Where- 
fere hast thou afflicted thy servant? but Christ was willingly af- 
Bicted and tormented for the sake of a perverse people, his ene- 
nies. Moses desired to be killed, to be delivered from the bur- 
den of bearing the people to the land of promise, rather than 
bear it. But such was Christ's love to them, that he desired to 
be killed that he might bear them to the land of promise. 

[118] Num. xii. 6, 7, 8. " If there be a prophet among you, 
the Lord will make known myself to him in a vision, and will 
speak to him in a dream ; my servant Moses is not so ; with him 
will 1 speak apparently, and not in dark speeches." It is evident 
from this that it was God's common manner to speak to the pro- 
phets in words that they did not understand themselves. There- 
fore, in reading the prophets, we read not such an interpretation 
as would be natural for the prophets themselves to put upon the 
prophecy ; for the Holy Ghost spake in what words he pleased to 
employ, and meant what he pleased, without revealing his mean- 
ing to the prophets. The prophecy of scripture is not of a pri- 
vate interpretation, but they spake as they were moved by the 
Holy Ghost. 

• [307] Num. xix. The ashes of the red heifer of which was 
made the water of separation for the purification of those that 
were legally unclean. This heifer, being a female, doubtless 
does more directly signify the church of Christ, than Christ him- 
self. She was an heifer without spot, having no blemish, because 
it was the church of saints that are pure and upright ones, those 
that are not defiled with any pollution, showing hypocrisy, or 
want of evangelical perfection ; they are Israelites indeed in whom 
18 no guile, and those in whom God does not behold iniquity or 
see perverseness. The slaying and burning of this heifer signi- 
fies the sufferings and persecutions of the church of Christ, and 
the fiery trial which she was to undergo. The persecutions of 
the church of Christ have mainly been carried on by burning. 
The purifying with the ashes of this heifer, signifies that the church 
and people of God should be purified by her sufferings, and as it 
were by the ashes of the martyrs. The purifying of God's peo- 
ple, and taking away their sins, and refining them as silver, and 
making them white, is ofien declared to be the end of the suffer- 
ing and persecutions of God's people, and it is the way in which 
it pleased God to lay the foundation of the purity of his church, 
ra. by continuing it for many ages under extreme persecutions, 
first under the tyranny of Rome, heathen, and nexily under Anti- 
christ, and so to fill up, as the apostle expresses himself, what is 
lacking in the sufferings of Christ; for Christ does as it were 
;ufler in his members, in all their affliction he is afflicted, the 


charch is bis body, and in this sense tbe slaying and burning tbii 
heifer represents the sufferings of Christ, as they represent tbe 
sufferings of bis people, whereby they are made couformable to 
Christ's death, and partakers of his sufferings. It pleases God 
to lay the foundation of the spiritual purity and prosperity of hii 
church, in the first place, in his eldest Son, even Jesus Christ, aod 
secondarily in the blood of the martyrs, Christ's younger bit- f^ 
thren, that are as it were God's youngest Son. See Notes ob 
Joshua's prophecy concerning the rebuilding of Jericho. 

This was not to be a cow, but an heifer, and also without spot 
or blemish, which is very agreeable to the description that is gives 
of the church of Christ in Revelation, in the time of their pe^s^ 
cution. Rev. xiv. 4, 5. ** These are they which were not defiled ^ 

with women, for they are virgins And in their mouth wii *^ 

found no guile, for they are without fault before the throne of 

And it must be a red heifer, which signifies the militant sttte 
the church is in under those sufferings, conflicting with her en^ 
mies. The colour red. is often so used in scripture. So Christ, 
while he is warring with his enemies, is represented as being red 
in his apparel, Isai. ixiii., and as being clothed with a vestare dip- 
ped in blood, Rev. xix. 3. So God's saints are clothed in red 
until they have got through their sufferings, and are in atriunipb- 
ant state ; then they are represented as having washed their robes 
and made them white in the blood of the Lamb, Rev. vii. 14. 

It was to be an heifer on which never had come yoke ; which 
most fitly represents the Spirit and practice of God's true church 
in the time of persecution from her enemies which refuses to snb 
mit to the yoke, that they would oppose whatever cruelties they 
exercise them with. She will not call any man on earth master 
or lord — will not be subject to their impositions — will not forsake 
the commands of God, nor be subject to the commandments of 
men — will follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth — will net 
worship the beast, nor his imacre, nor receive his mark in thctf 
forehead, nor in their hand. They stand fast in the liberty where- 
with Christ hath made them free, not submitting to the yoke of 
bondage, Gal. v. I. 

This h:ifer was sacrificed to God; so are the martyrs repre- 
sented as sacrificed. They offer up themselves a sacrifice to God 
through the I'oly Spirit, and the souls of the martyrs are repr^ 
sented as somIs under the altar. She was to be burnt wiihont 
the camp, as the martyrs, especially those suffefing under Aoti- 
Christ, are njecied and cast out of the communion of their perse- 
cutors as not being of the church of Christ. 

Her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with the dung, were to 
be burnt : the suffering of the martyrs burns up their carnality and 
ccfrruption, and cleanses all their filihiness. 


The peculiar use of the a^hes of the red heifer was to purge 
from pollutions by dead bodies. So the use for which God 
designs the suffering and persecutions of his church, is to 
rouse his people from coldness and doadness in religion, and 
from carnality, and worldly or fleshly mindedness, whereby 
some become as dead carcasses; for he or she that liveth in 
pleasure, is dead while he liveth. Carnal things are well com- 
pared to dead carcasses, for they are fleshly, and they are filthy 
and loathsome like stinking flesh. 

[73] Numb, xxiii. 23. " According to this time shall it bo 
said of Jacob, and of Israel, What hath God wrought ?" 
That is, God shall do a very strange and wonderful thing for 
Jacob and for Israel. Such interrogations denote the won- 
derfulness of the thing about which the interrogation is, as 
Isai. Ixiii. ** Who is this that cometh from Edora .'^" &c. And 
Ps. XXV. *' Who is this King of glory ?" See notes on that 
Psalm. '* According to this time;" that is, what he hath 
done at this time, is a shadow and representation of it. He 
hath now redeemed out of Egypt, with the strength of an uni- 
corn, and there is no enchantment against him, as in the words 
immediately foregoing ; and hereafter he shall send Jesus 
Christ to redeem them out of spiritual Egypt ; with a greater 
strength shall he redeem them from the power of the devil. 

[418] Numb. xxiv. 17. ** And shall smite the corners of 
Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth." It Would be 
unreasonable on many accounts to suppose that this Sheth is 
the same with Seth the son of Adam, and so that by the chil- 
dren of Sheth is meant all mankind. But the Sheth here 
mentioned is a founder of one of the chief families of the 
M oabites ; probably one of the sons of Moab. The father of 
the people called from him Shittim, as the posterity of Htth^ 
are in scripture from him called Hittim^ which we translate 
Hittites ; whence that part of the land where those people 
dwelt was called Shiifim, which was the part of that land in 
which the people now were, where Halaam beheld them when 
he blessed them ; he beheld them in the inheritance of the 
people of Sheth f or the land of the Shitti7n, or Shitdtes, as ajh- 
pears by the first verse of the next chapter, and Josh. ii. 1, and 
iii. 1, and Mic. vi. 1. All that renders this doubtful is, that 
the radical letters in Seth and Shittim are not the same, as in 
one is n, and the other c. 

[468] Deut. vi. 13. " Thou shalt fear the LoYd thy God, 
and serve him, and swear by his name." It might have been 
VOL. IX. 36 



rendered swearing in the name, or into the namey tn the origi- 
nal Bishmo. And the thing chiefly intended here by it Beems to 
be, the making that public, solemn profession of faith in tiie 
name of God, of being the Lord's, and being dedicated to his 
honour and glory, and that covenanting and avowing to be the 
Lord's, and serve him, that is very often in scripture called bj 
the name of swearing. A public profession of religion has 
respect to two things. 

It has respect to something present, viz : their belief, or 
faith : this is the profession God's people make of their faitb. 
It has respect also to something future, viz : their future be- 
haviour in the promises or vows that are made in a public 

It is evident that the profession that is made in the latter, 
viz : in the promises and vows of the covenant, is often called 
swearing ; but the profession that is made in the former 
which relates to their faith, is a no less solemn profession. la 
the public profession they make of religion, they profess what 
is present with the same solemnity as they promise what is 
future. They declare what their faith is with the fame solem- 
nity with which they declare their intentions. Both are de- 
clared with an oath — one an assertory oath, and the other a 
promissory oath ; and the whole profession is called swearing 
in, or into the name of the I^rd. In the former part of it, 
they swear their faith in the name of the Lord, and swear that 
they are God's; that their hearts are his, and for him. In the 
latter part they swear to live to his honour and glory, which is 
often called his name. And by the whole they appear by their 
profession to be God's people, which in scripture is often ex- 
pressed by being called by God's name; and so by this swear- 
ing they come into the name of God, as persons when thrv 
make profession of religion by baptism, are said to be baptized 
into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

The former part of this profession of religion, viz : the pro- 
fession of faith in God, is called saying, or swearing the Lord 
liveth. Jer. v. 2. "And though they say the Lord liveth, sure- 
ly they swear falsely." They have sworn by them that are no 
God, i. e. had openly professed idol worship. Chap. iv. 2. 
"And thou shalt swear the Lord liveth in truth, in judgment, 
and in righteousness, and the nations shall bless themselves iii 
him, and in him shall they glory." That this saying that the 
Lord liveth was in their profession of faith in the true God in 
the public profession thoy made of his name, is confirmed b? 
Jer. xliv. 26. " Behold I have sworn by my great name, sailh 
the Lord, that my name shall no more be named in the month 
of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, The Lord 


liveth :" i. e. they shall never any more make any profession 
of the trbe God, and true religion, but shall be wholly given up 
to heathenism* And Jer. xii. 16. *' And it shall come to pass 
if they will diligently learn the way of my people, to swear by 
tny name, The Lord liveth, as they taught my people to swear 
by Baal, then shall they be built in the midst of my people." 
Here is a promise to the heathen, that if they would forsake 
their heathenism and turn to the true God, and the true reli- 
gion, and make an open and good profession of that, they 
should be received into the visible church of God. Jer. xvi. 
14, 15. ^'Therefore, behold the days come, saith the Lord, 
that it shall no more be said. The Lord liveth that brought up 
the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt ; but. The Lord 
liveth that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of 
the north :'' i. e. God's people, in their public profession of their 
faith, shall not so much insist on the redemption out of Egypt, 
as on a much greater redemption that shall hereafter be ac- 
complished. We have the same again, Jer. xxiii. 7. 8. Hos. 
iv. 15. " Though thou, Israel, play the harlot, yet let not Judah 
offend ; and come not ye into Gilgal, neither go ye up to Beth- 
aveo, nor swear. The Lord liveth." 

This has respect to that public profession of religion which 
the ten tribes made at Bethel, (here called Beth-aven) the place 
of their public worship before the calf that was set up there, 
by which they pretended to worship Jehovah. Amos viii. 14. 
** They that swear by the sin of Samaria, and say. Thy god, 
O Dan, liveth, and the manner of Bcersheba liveth." They 
had also places of public worship at Dan (where was one of 
their calves,) and at Beersheba. See chap. v. 5. 

The words, Jehovah liveth^ summarily comprehended that 
which they professed in their public profession of religion. 
They signified hereby their belief of a dependence upon that 
all-sufficiency and faithfulness that is implied in the name Je- 
hovah, which will appear by the consideration of the following 
places, Josh. iii. 10. *• Hereby ye shall know that the living God 
18 among you." 1 Sam. xvii. 26. " Who is this uncircumcis- 
ed Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God.''" 
Ver. 36. ** Seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God." 
2 Kings xix. 4. ** It may be the Lord thy God will hear all the ' 
words of Rab-shakeh, whom the king of Assyria hath sent to 
reproach the living God." Also ver. 16, and Isai. xxxvii. 4. 

Jer. X. 8, 9, 10. ** The stock is a doctrine of vanities But 

the Lord is the true God (Heb. the God of truth.) He is the 
living God." Dan. vi. 26. " He is the living God, and stead- 
fast for ever." Ps. xviii. 46. '* The Lord liveth, and blessed 
be my Rock ; and let the God of my salvation be exalted." So 


2 Sam. xxii. 47. Other places showing that by Jehorah*8 lir- 
ing and being the living God, is meant his being all sufficient, 
and immutable, and faithful. Gen. xvi. 49. Deut. f. 26. 
Josh. iii. 10, compared with Exod. iii. 14, and vi. 3, with the 
context. 1 Sam. xvii. 26. 36. 2 Kings xix. 4. 16. Ps. xlii. 
2, and Ixxxiv. 2. Isai. xxxvii. 4. Jer. x. 10, with the context. 
Jer. xxiii. 36. Hos. i. 10. 2 Sam* xxii. 47* Ps. xviii. 46. 
Job xix. 25. Matth. xvi. 16. John vi. 69. Acts xiv. 15. 
Rom. ix. 26. 2 Cor. iii. 3, and vi. 16. 1 Tim. iii* 15, andir. 
10, and vi. 17. lleb. x. 31, and xii. 22. 

The things professed in a public profession of religion are 
two, fnith and obedience. The faith that was professed, was 
called believing in God and believing in the name of God, 
(Beshem^ with the prefix Beth.) Gen. xv. 6. " And he bclier- 
ed in the Lord, and he counted it to him for righteousness." 
Exod. xiv. 31. '' And the people believed the Lord," (in the 
original* believed in the Lord.) 2 Kings xvii. 14. ^^ Did not 
believe in the Lord their God." 2 Chron. xx. 20. *' Believe in 
the Lord your God, so shall ye be established." Ps. Ixxviii. 
22. *< They believe not in God." Dan. vi. 23. '' Because he 
believed in his God." The other thing is a believing obe- 
dience. This is called a walking in the name of God, (still 
with the same prefix Beth.) Mic iv. 5. '* All people will walk 
every one in the name of his God, and we will walk in the nam 
(Beshcm) of the Lord our God for ever and ever." And that 
solemn professing or swearing wherein both these were pro- 
fessed by a like idiom of speech, was called a swearing in the 
name (Beshem) of the Lord. 

Agreeably to this way of speaking, in the New Testament, 
when persons solemnly profess the name of God the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, and are devoted to them in their bap- 
tism, they are said to be baptized in the name of the Father, 
and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

Making a public profession of religion or of faith in God, is 
often called making mention (Zakar) of the Lord, or of the 
name of the Lord ; and this in[the original commonly is making 
mention in the Lord, or in the name of the Lord, with the pre- 
fix Bethf as they are said to swear in the name of the Lord. 
Thus, Amos vi. 10. " Hold thy tongue, for we may not make 
mention of the name of the Lord," (in the original Beshem, in 
the name,) i. e. we may not make profession of our God, being 
under the dominion of the heathen. Ps. xx. 7. •* Some trust 
in chariots, and some in horses, but we will remember the name 
of the Lord our God;" in the original, we will remember or 
make mention (for the word is the same as before) in the name 
of the Lord our God, with the prefix Beth^ i. e. wo will openly 


profess and declare our faith, and trust in the Lord, he. Isai. 
xxvi. 13. ** O Lord, other lords besides thee have had domi- 
nion over us, but by thee (Bcka^ in thee) only will we make 
mention of thy name," i. e. we will forsake all other lords, and 
renounce our profession of idolatry, and profess and worship 
thee alone. They that professed the worship of false gods, 
are said to make mention in their name. Hos. ii. 17. <' 1 will 
take aWfiy the names of BaRlim out of her mouth, and they 
sball no more be remembered (or mentioned, for still the word 
is the same) by their name," (Bishmain, in their name^) i. e. their 
name and worship, shall no more be professed. So Josh, xxiii. 
7, neither make mention of the name (in the original, in the 
name) of their gods, nor swear by them. 

This abundantly confirms that swearing by or in a God, sig- 
nifies what was done in the public profession of his name and 
urorship, which is signified by making mention in his>iiame. 
This also may evidently appear in Isai. xlviii. 1, 2. *' Hear ye 
this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Isra- 
el, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear 
hy the name (Beshem, in the name) of the Lord, and make men- 
iion of the God (Beloheiy in the God) of Israel, but not in truth 
and in righteousness, for they call themselves of the holy city." 
By their profession they were visibly of the church of God, 
were called by the name of Israel, and called themselves of 
the church. 

That profession which in the law of Moses and many other 
places, is called swearing by the name or in the name of the 
Lord, with the prefix a, is evidently the same with swearing to 
the Lord, with the prefix b. Isai. xix 18. " In that day shall 
five cities in the land of Egypt speak the language of Canaan, 
eind swear to the hard of hosts. ''^ (Laihovah.) In 1 Kings xviii. 
32, it is said that Elijah built an altar in the name of the Lord, 
Beshem, that is, to the name of the Lord. Here the prefix Beth 
is evidently of the same force with Lamed in 1 Kings viii. 44. 
^* The house that I have built /or thy name," or to thy name. 
Here Leshem is plainly of the same signification, in speaking 
;>f building a house to God, with Beshem in the other place, that 
speaks of building an altar to God. 

In and to, or the prefixes Beth and Lamedj are manifestly 
used as of the same signification in the case of swearing to a 
Grod, or an object of religious worship, in the same sentence in 
Zeph. i. 5. " That swear by the Lord, and that swear by Mal- 
cham." The words are thus, that swear to the Lord, (Laiho- 
vah^) and that swear in Malcam (Bemalcam.) In Gen. xxiii. 8, 
* Entreat for me to Ephron, the son of Zoar. To Ephron, in 
the original, is Be Ephron^ with the prefix Beth. 


What is meant by swearing to the Lord^ (Laihovah,) we 
learn by 2Chron. xv. 12, 13, 14, with the context, Fiz: pubiiclj 
and solemnly acknowledging God, and devoting themselyes to 
God by covenant. '' And they entered into a covenant to seek 
the Lord God of their fathers with all their heart and with all 

their soul and they sware unto the Lord with a loud voice." 

Deut. xxix. 10 — 15. We also may learn what is meant by 
swearing to the Lord, by Isai. xlv. ** Unto me every knee shall 
bow, and every tongue shall swear. Surely, shall one say, In 
the Lord have I righteousness and strength ;" together with the 
apostle's citation and explication of this place, which instead 
of the word swears uses confess, in Rom. xiv. 11, and Phil. ii. 
10, which, in the apostle's language, signifies the same as mak- 
ing open and solemn profession of Christianity. Rom. x. 9, 10. 
*' If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall 
believe with thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, 
thou shalt be saved ; for with the heart man believeth unto right- 
eousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salva- 
tion." In that place in the xlv. of Isaiah, ver. 23, it is said, 
*' Surely, shall one say, In the Lord have I righteousness and 
strength." This is the profession of their faith in Christ, and 
is the same with what is called making mention of God's right- 
eousness. Ps. Ixxi. 16. '* I will go in the strength of the Lord 
God, I will make mention of thy righteousness, even of thine 
only." The phrase make mention, as was observed before, is 
used for making a public profession ; and here in this place in 
Isaiah glorying in God, and blesssing themselves in him, (or in 
his righteousness and strength) are joined with swearing to him, 
as they are in Jer. iv. 2. *' And thou shalt swear. The Lord liv- 
eth in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness, and the nations 
shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory ;" and 
Isai. Ixiii. 11. '' The King shall rejoice in God, every one that 
sweareth by Him shall glory." 

The prefix Beth is put for into as well as in. See innumera- 
ble instances of this in places referred to in the Concordance, 
under these words, enter ^ put, brought^ Judg. ix. 26, went overdo 
Shechem, in the Hebrew Beshechem* To choose other gods, is 
in Judg. X. 14, expressed by choosing in them, with a prefix Beth* 
Agreeably to the manner of speaking among the Hebrews, 
confessing Christ before men, Matth. x. 32, is, in the original, con- 
fessing in him. '* He that shall confess in me, of^Xo^i^a'si $v sfMi, lie- 
fore men, 1 will confess in him, before my Father, and before bb 

Judg. xvii. *< Ask counsel now of God," Belohim, with the 
prefix Beth. 


[144] Deut. xii. 20. "When ihe Lord thy God shall enlarge 

thy borders and ihou shalt say, I will eat flesh, because thy 

soul longeth to eat flesh, thou mayest eat flesh, whatsoever thy 
soul histeth after." That is, thou mayest so eat it at home, without 
carrying it to be sacrificed ; as appears from the context. 

[121] Deut xxi. 23. "For he that is hanged is accursed by 
God." The instances we have of those that were hanged, are 
agreeable to this. Thus the heads of the people that joined them- 
selves to Baalpeor were hung up l)efore the sun, that the fierce 
anger of God might cease. Numb. xxv. 3, 4. So the seven sons 
of Saul were hanged, to remove God's wrath from the land. 
Achitaphel, who was cursed by David in God's name, hanged 
himself. Absalom was hanged in an oak for his rebellion against 
bis father ; " For it is written, Cursed is every one that setteth light 
by father or by mother." The kings of the cursed cities of Ca- 
naan were hanged. Haman was hanged, for he was a type of An- 
tichrist. Judas hanged himself, having been declared accursed 
by Christ before* 

[113] Deut. xxxii. 50. " And die in the mount whither thou 
goest up, and be gathered unto thy people ; as Aaron thy bro- 
ther died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people." God 
ordered that Aaron and Moses should go up to the tops of 
mooutains to die, to signify that the death of godly men is but 
an entrance into an heavenly state. It is evident that heaven is 
sometimes typified by the tops of the mount by Heb. viii. 5, com- 
pared with V. 23. So Christ was transfigured in the mount, and 
appeared in glory with both Old Testament and New Testament 
saints, and the glory of God in a cloud to be a type of the hea- 
venly state. Vide Note on Exod. xxiv. 18. No. 71. 

[173] Josh. vi. 26, and 1 Kings xvi. 34. " And Joshua adjur- 
ed them at that time, saying, Cursed be the man before the Lord 
that riseth up and buildeth this city Jericho : he shall lay the 
foundation thereof in his first-born, and in his youngest son shall 
be set up the gates of it." Jericho herein was a remarkable type 
of the church of the elect. Jericho was a devoted cursed city, it 
was devoted to perfect and to eternal destruction. To perfect des- 
truction, in that every man, woman, and child, ox, rheep, and ass, 
were destroyed by God's command, and it was forbidden ever to be 
bnilt again. So the elect are naturally under the curse of the law, 
which devotes those that have broke it to perfect and eternal des- 
truction. However, this city was one very capable of being re- 
deemed from that curse ; but that was only by the curse being 
transferred upon him that built it. So the church of ibe elect 


could have the curse removed no other way but by its -beiDg laid 
upon Christ, who undertook to restore it. So Hiel the Bethelite 
represented Christ, who is from the time Bethel, or boose of 
God, even heaven. He was to lay the foundation of it in his 
first-born, and in his youngest Kt)n to set up the gates of it. So 
his eldest son represented Christ who is the first-born of every 
creature, and is our elder brother. The foundation of the re- 
deemed and restored church is laid in the blood of the first sod 
only begotten Son of God. The gates of it were to be set up in 
his youngest son ; so after the church is redeemed by Christ, the 
gates ofitare tobe set up in the blood of the martyrs. It is io 
that way the church is to be erected and finished, and brought to 
its determined glory and prosperity in the world, even through 
the sufierings and persecutions of believers. Jericho, thougli 
once an accursed city of the Canaanites ; yet, after it was thus re- 
deemed from the curse, became a school of the prophets. 2 Kings 
ii., andiv. 38, vi. 1, 2. 

[209] Josh. X. 12, 13, 14. Concerning the sun and mooifCs Hani' 
ing stilL This great event was doubtless typical ; and as the son 
was made to be a type of Christ, and is the most eminent type of 
him in all the inanimate creation, and is used as a type of Cbriit 
in scripture, for he is the '* Sun of Righteousness," and "the 
light of the world," &c. ; — so doubtless the sun here, when it 
stands still to give the children of Israel light to help them against 
their enemies, is a type of Christ. The sun did as it were fight 
for the Israelites by his light; so Christ fights for his people; 
and the way that he docs it, is chiefly by giving them light 
Hereby he helps them against the powers of darkness, and ove^ 
throws the kingdom of darkness. Christ was at that time ac- 
tually fighting for Israel as the Captain of the host ; he had a lit- 
tle before appeared in a visible shape with a sword drawn in his 
hand, and told Joshua that as the Captain of the Host of the 
Lord he was come. Josh. v. 13, 14. And there was now a doa- 
ble type of Christ's fighting for his people against their spiritual 
enemies ; Joshua was then fighting as the Captain of the host of 
Israel, who bore the name of Christ ; for Joshua is the same with 
Jesus, and he was an eminent type of him ; and at the same time 
the sun stood over Joshua fighting for Israel against their ene- 
mies. While Joshua or Jesus thus fought, the sun appeared also 
fighting in the same battle, being a type of the true Joshua or 
Jesus. It was a great thing for the sun to stand still to fight for 
Israel, and to help them to obtain the possession of Canaan, bnt 
not so great a thing as for Christ, who is the brightness of God*i 
glory, and the express image of his person, the Creator and Up- 
holder of the sun, to appear as he did, to deliver his people from 

NOTES ON THE lillSLE. 269 

iheir spiritual euemies, and to make way for their obtainiui^ the 
heaveoly iDaiiaan. The sun, though so great and gh)rious au 
heavenly body, and though so high above the earth, yet did fore- 
go its natural course — was greatly put out of the way, and de- 
prived of that which naturally belonged to it, for the sake of Is- 
rael, laid aside its glory as the king of heaven, was as it were di- 
irested of the glory of its dominion over heaven and earth, which 
it lias by its course through all heaven and round the earth. For 
it is by its course that nothing is hid from its light and heat, by 
which it has influence over all, and as it were rules over all. Ps. 
six. 6. The influence of the heavenly bodies is called in scripture 
their dominion. Job xxxviii. 32, 33. But this glory as king of 
heaven and earth was laid aside to serve and minister unto Israel. 
Sut this was not so great a thing as for the eternal Son of God, 
the infinite fountain of all light, who is infinitely above all creatures, 
che Sun of Righteousness, in comparison of whose brightness the 
sun is but darkness, and therefore will be turned into darkness when 
he appears. I say it was not so great a thing as for him to lay 
aside his glory as king of heaven and earth, and appear in the 
form of a servant to serve men, and came not to be ministered un- 
to, but to minister, and should even give his life to destroy and 
confound our enemies, and obtain for us the possession of the 
heavenly Canaan. The sun, who by his course was wont to fill 
heaven and earth, now confined itself to the land of Canaan, for 
the sake of Israel, so Christ, who, being in heaven filled all things, 
£ph. iv. 10, by his incarnation confined himself to the land of 
Canaan, and to a tabernacle of flesh. Hence it is nut any way 
incredible, not at all to be wondered at, that God should caus>e 
such a miracle for the sake of the Israelites, or that nature in so 
great an instance should be made to yield and give place to Is- 
rael's interest, when the God of nature did as it were deprive him- 
self of the glory that he had from the beginning of the world, yea, 
before the world was, even from all eternity, (John xvii. 5,) the 
glory that naturally belonged to him, and as it were give up all 
for man, that he should become incarnate and deliver up himself 
to death for the spiritual Israel. 

The moon, which is a type of the church, also stood still at that 
time to fight against the Amorites for the church ; for the church 
fights with Christ against the spiritual Amorites. The church 
miliunt is Christ's army, they go forth with Christ, and under 
Christ, to fight the good fight of faith, and are soldiers of Jesus 
Christ. Christ and the church are represented going forth to- 
gether in battle. Rev. xix. 11, he. Both the sun and moon stood 
itillat that time, that there might there be a representation of the 
same thing in heaven that there was on the earth: there was 
Joshua and Israel fighting God's enemies on earth, and there the 

VOL. IX. 37 


son and moon fighting against them in heaven, and both rppre- 
sented Jesus and bis church fighting against their spiritual cue- 


[209] Josh. X. 12, 13, 14. Concerning the sun's standing 9iiL 
This is supposed to give occasion to the story of Phaeton the ion 
of Sol and Clymenc, who, desiring his father to let him guide tbc 
chariot of the sun for one day, set the world on fire. So we reil 
that it was about the space of one day that the sun stood still, 
and this in all probability caused an extraordinary scorching and 
distressing heat in many parts of the world. And Mr. Bedford, 
in his Scripture Chronology, observes that mention is made of it 
in the Chinese history that in the reign of their seventh Empeiof 
Yao, the sun did not set for ten days together, and that the inhabit- 
ants of the earth were afraid that the earth would be burnt, for 
there were great fires at that time. This happened in the siz^- 
seventh year of that emperor's reign, and so the time of it Mr. 
Bedford observes, according to their account, exactly agrees with 
scripture history. Scripture Chronology, p. 489. And be obserm 
that it is natural for men in things of great antiquity to enlarge 
beyond the truth. And what the Chinese history mentions aboot 
great fires in many places, agrees with the story of Phaeton's set* 
ting the world on fire. And indeed to have the day more thu 
twenty-four hours, for besides the twelve hours that the sun stood 
still, the time of the sun's course above the horizon was probabtj 
more than twelve hours, for it was probably later in the 3'ear thao 
the vernal equinox : I say to have the sun so long above the hori- 
zon, and twelve hours of it together, so extraordinarily near the 
meridian, shining down with a perpendicular ray all that tiDe, 
must needs cause exceeding heat in many places. 

[169] Josh. x. 13. *' And the sun stood still and the moon 
stayed." God thereby showed that all things were for bis church, 
all was theirs, the whole earth, and the sun, moon, and stan 
were made for them. 

[1 1 7] Josh. X. 13. " The sun stood still and the moon stayed.** 
The mwn stayed; not that the moon's staying helped them, bi( 
it was because the earth was stopped, and so all the heavenly bo- 
dies were stopped, that is, they kept their position with respect to 
the horizon. 

[224] Josh. xi. 8. *<And the Lord delivered them into the 
hand of Israel, who smote them, and chased them even unto great 
Zidon." Bedford, in his Scripture Chronology, p. 195 and 
493, supposes that great numbers of them made their escape 


Groin tbence, and from neighbouring sea-ports, by shipping, to ail 
the shores which lay round the Mediterranean and Egean seas, 
and even to other parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, of whicli, 
says he, the learned Bochart hath given us a large account, in 
his incomparable Canaan, and particularly shown that the names 
of most places are of Phoenician or Hebrew extraction. About 
ibis time they set up their two pillars at Tangier, with this in- 
icription in the Phoenician language, " We are iliey who fled 
from ike face ofJoshva the robber^ the son of Nun.^^ About this 
lime they built the city of Carthage, which at first they called 
Cnrihada^ which in the Chaldee and Syriac languages signifies 
The New City. This building of Carthage, says he, p. 195, not 
only appears from the common consent of all historians, but also 
Grom the remains of the Carthaginian language, which we have 
in Plautus, where he brings in a youth from thence, speaking in 
soch a manner that many learned men have proved it to be the 
Hebrew, or language of Canaan, and the Carthaginians are fre- 
quently called Phoenicians and Tyrians, because they came from 
this country. Being thus used to sailing and merchandise, they 
•oon carried on a larger trade, and settled other colonies near 
Gibraltar, both in Europe and Africa. The learned Bochart 
ihns tells us, that these expeditions were computed to be in the 
times of the heroes. And Bedford says, p. 493, that hence the 
story of Dido and Eneas, as mentioned in Virgil, must be false 
and groundless. Neither is it probable, says he, that the widow 
of A priest flying the country unknown to the king, could carry 
with her so great a number of men to a new colony, as should un- 
dertake to build so great a city. So she brought not inhabitants 
there, but found them there, and did not so properly build, as re- 
pair and enlarge the town to which she came. She built the tower 
which was called Bozrahy or A Fort^ in Hebrew, and from thence 
called Syria, or A Hide^ in Greek, and so occasioned the fabulous 
story that Dido bought the place to build the city on with little 
bits of leather marked, which was anciently used instead of money. 
Bnt (others tell ns that when she arrived on the [coast of Africa 
she was forbidden to tarry there by Hiarbas, king of the country, 
lest she, with her company, might seize on a great part of his do- 
asinion, and therefore she craftily desired of him only to buy so 
moch ground as might be compassed with an oxhide; which, 
when she had obtained, she cut it into small thongs and therewith 
compassed two and twenty furlongs, on which she built the city 
afterward named Carthage^ and called the castle Byrsa^ or Hide. 
All this we owe to the fertile invention of the Greeks, to make 
every thing derived from them: whereas Dido, coming from 
Tyre, knew nothing of that language; and besides, the old Car- 


tbagin'ian language was the Ph(rnician or Hebrew, as appears by 
the old remains thereof, which we have in Plaatns's Pcenalos. 

It looks exceedingly probable, that when Joshua had smitten 
the vast army of Hazor, and the kings that were with him, and 
chased them into Zidon, that all that could, wouM flee by ship; 
for that was a great sea-port, and therefore they had opportonity 
to escape this way, and they had enough to terrify them to it, for 
they had heard how Jehovah, the God of Israel, with a strong 
hand had brought o/Fthe people from Egypt, and had divided the 
Red sea, and drowned the Egyptians there, and fear aud dread 
had fallen upon them, and their hearts had melted at the newi, 
Kxod. XV. 14, 15, IG. And thev had heard how that God was 
amoni< the people in the wilderness, and how be was seen face to 
face, and how that his cloud stood over them, and how he went 
before them in a pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar of fire bj 
night. Numb. xiv. 14. And their dread and astonishment was re- 
newed by hearing how they had destroyed Sihon, kinc^ of the 
Amorites, and Og, the king of Baslian ; they had trembled, and 
anguish had taken hold on them at the news. Deut. ii. 25. As 
Rabab told the spies that terror was fallen upon them, and all the 
iniiabitants of the land did faint, and even melt, neither was there 
any more courage left in any man because of them- Josh. ii. 9, 10, 
11. God did as he promised. Exod. xxiii. 27. *'Iwill send my 
fear before thee, and I will destroy all the people to whom thoi 
slialt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto 
ibeo." Their terror was greatly increased by God's drying np 
the Jordan, Josh. v. 1 ; and then causing the walls of Jericho to 
fall down Hat, and after that his causing the sun to stand still, and 
so miraculously destroying the five kings of the Amorites in a 
storm of thunder, and lightning, and hail, and their utterly de- 
stroying their cities in all the southern parts of Canaan, and they 
bad board bow that Joshua was positively commanded to smite 
them, and utlorly destroy them, and make no covenant with them, 
nor show merry unto them, and how that Joshua had given no 
r|nartors to their neighbours. And now when the king and peo- 
ple in all the northern parts of Canaan liad gathered together 
sMcii a vast strencrtb of people, as the sands upon the sea shore 
with innumerable horses and chariots, as Josh. xi. 4. And yet 
lb«»y were suddenly vanrjuisbcd. Joshua was still pursuing with 
a design utterly to destroy them according to his order, and had 
pursued them even to great Zidon. When they therefore came there, 
they must needs be in the utmost consternation, and if there were 
any ships there it could be no otherwise, but that all that could 
fled in them, and thai they would not trust to the walls of Zidon, 
for they did not know but they would Hill down flat, as the walls of 
Jericho had done; and that not only multitudes should be slain, 


but many of them driven away to the ends of the earth, agrees best 
%ith the expression so often used of God's driving them oat be- 
fore the children of Israel. 

And besides there could he no room for such multitudes in Zi- 
don, and a few neighbouring cities ; for they, with those that Jo- 

; shua had slain of them, had before filled all the land of Canaan, 
north of the tribe of Ephraim, even to monnt Herrapn, and to Zi- 
don, and they were under a necessity to seek new seats abroad 
where thev could find them. 

[360] Joshua vii. Concerning Achan^ the troubler of Israel. 
Achan was that to the congregation of Israel, that some lust or 
way of iniquity indulged and allowed, is to particular professors. 
Sinful enjoyments are accursed things : wherever they are enter- 
tained God's curse attends them. The cursed things that Achan 

\ took were a goodly Babylonish garment and two hundred shekels 
of silver, and a wedge fifty shekels weight, that when he saw, he 

• coveted. So the objects of men's lusts, which they take and in- 
dulge themselves in the enjoyment of, are very tempting and al- 
luring, appearing very beautiful, and seeming yery precious. 
Achan took those and hid them in his tent under ground, so that 
there was no sign or appearance of them above ground, they were 
concealed with the utmost secrecy. So very commonly the sins 
that chiefly trouble professors, and provoke God's displeasure, 
atid bring both spiritual and temporal calamities upon them, are 
secret sins, as David calls them, hidden by some lust, as Achan's, 
as it were under ground. Lust is exceedingly deceitful, and will 
hide iniquity, and cover it over with such fair pretences and ex- 
cuses, that it is exceedingly difficult for persons to discover them, 
and to be brought fully to see and own their fault in them. The 
silver and gold was covered over with the goodly Babylonish 
garment ; (as It is said the silver was under it ;) so persons are 
wont to cover their secret wickedness with a very fair hypocritical 
profession : an hypocritical profession is a Babylonish or anti- 
christian garment. It is the robe of the false church. God 
charges Israel not only with stealing, but dissembling, when Israel 
had transgressed in the accursed thing; and God was not among 
them ; they were carnally secure and self-confident, they thought 
a few of them enough to subdue the inhabitants of Ai ; which 
represents the frame that professors are commonly in when they 
indulge some secret iniquity. But they could not stand before 
their enemies, they were smitten down before them ; so, when pro- 
fessors secretly indulge some one lust, it makes them universally 
weak — they lie dreadfully exposed to their spiritual enemies, and 
easily fall before them. The congregation seem to wonder what 
is the matter that God hides himself from them ; so Christians 
oftentimes, when they are going on in some evil way that the de- 


ceiifulness of sin hides from them, wonder what is the reason tbit 
God hides himself from them. They lay long upon their faceii 
crying to God without receiving any answer. So when person 
harbour any iniquity, it is wont to prevent any gracious answer to 
their prayers : their prayers are hindered, their iniquity isacioad 
through which their prayers cannot pass. When they woe 
troubled and destroyed, they took a wrong course — they betook 
themselves to prayer and crying to God, as though they had 
nothing else to do, whereas their first and principal work ought to 
have been diligently to have inquired whether there was not soor 
iniquity to be found among them, as is implied, v. 10. So Chris- 
tians, when God greatly afflicts them, and hides his face from then^ 
and manifests his anger towards them, are commonly wont to do: 
they cry, and cry to God, as if they had nothing else to do, bfll 
still secretly entertain the troubler, and it never comes into thrif 
hearts to inquire, Ami not greatly guilty with respect to sock 
a practice or way that I allow myself in, in my covetoasness, or 
in my .proud, or contentious, or sensual, or peevish and frowarl 
behaviour.'^ God mentions it as an aggravation of the sin of the 
congregation in Achan that they had even put the accursed thing 
amongtheir own stuff; so, when professors allow themselves, it 
any unlawful gain, or enjoyment, they commonly put it amoog 
those things that are tlieirs, that they may lawfully enjoy or nsko 
ase of. If men continue in such evil ways, and do not depart froa 
them, they are ruinous to the soul, however they may plead that- 
tbey think there is no hurt in them. There is a way that seeoi 
right to a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death. So 
God says to Israel, ver. 12, *' Neither will I be with you any more, 
except ye destroy the accursed thing from among you.** God 
directed the congregation of Israel to make diligent search ii 
order to find out the troubler: all were to be examined, tribe bj 
tribe, and family by family, and man by man. So when Godhidci 
his face from us and frowns upon us, we ought diligently and 
thoroughly to examine all our ways, and to take effectual care 
that none escape thorough examination ; to examine them first ia 
their several kinds, as they may be classed with respect to their 
objects, views, and otherwise, and then to proceed to a more special 
examination and inquiry, and never leave until we have thoroogb- 
ly examined every particular way and practice ; yea, to examine 
act by act, and to bring all before God, to be tried by him, bjr 
bis word and Spirit, as all Israel was brought before the Lord to 
be tried by him. By this means Achan was thoroughly dia* 
covered, and brought to confess his wickedness ; so, if we be 
thorough in trying our ways, and bringing all to the test of God's 
word, seeking the direction of his spirit also with his word, it il 
the way to discover the sin that troubles us, and thorougiily to 


oTivince the conscience, and make it plainly to confess the iiii- 
iuity. The congregation ^fter they had found out the accursed 
hing, they brought it out of the earth and out of the tent, 
ind spread it before the Lord. So persons, when they have 
bund out the sin that has troubled them, should confess 
heir sins and spread them before the Lord. And we must not 
xmtent ourselves only with confessing the sin to God, but must 
leal with it as the children of Israel did with Achan ; we must 
treat it as a mortal, and most hateful, and pernicious enemy ; 
ire must turn inveterate, implacable enemies to it ; must have 
BO mercy on it; must not spare it at all, or be afraid of being 
loo cruel to it ; must aim at nothing short of the life of it, and 
iittst resolve utterly to destroy and extirpate it ; we must as it 
irere stone it with stones, and burn it with fire. So Samuel 
liewed Agag in pieces before the Lord. (See Notes on 1 Sam. 
kf. 32, 33. See also 2 Cor. vii. 11.) And we must not only 
destroy that sin, but all its offspring, its whole family, and its 
iixen and asses, and all that belongs to it, every thing that 
■prings from it, every evil that has attended or sprung from it ; 
ire must serve them all alike, and as this was done to Achan, 
Hot only by a particular individual, but by all Israel, so we must 
fto it with all our hearts and souls ; we must be full in it ; there 
must be nothing in our hearts that is favourable to the trou- 
bler, or that has not a hand in its death. Israel, after they had 
itius slain the tr#ubler, raised over him a great heap of stones, 
iii a monument of what had been. So when we have slain the 
iroubler, we must keep a record of the mischief we received 
by the sin, to be a constant, everlasting warning to us, to avoid 
It, and every thing of that nature, for the future. This is the 
way to have the Lord turn from the fierceness of his anger. 

[116.] Josh. XX. 6. " And he shall dwell in that city until he 
Stand before the congregation." The Seventy elders are here 
called the congregation or church, which are words of the same 
signification. So the Elders of the church, they are called the 
Church in the New Testament. 

[352] Judg. i. 12, 13, 14, 15. Concerning Othniel and Ca^ 
Z^&'f daughter* Othniel in this story is a type of Christ, as 
Othniel, Caleb's nephew, obtained Caleb's daughter, his first 
eousin, to wife, by war, and the victory he obtained over Car 
leb's enemies, and taking a city from them to be a possession 
for Caleb and his heirs ; so Christ, who, as nearly related to 
both God and us, is fit to be a Mediator between God and us, 
has obtained the church, God's daughter, by war with God's 
enemiesi and. the victory be has obtained over them, and bjr 


his redeeming a city, the spiriliiul Jerusalem, or Zion, out of 
their hands, to be a pessession for God and his heirs. Achsah, 
OthnipPd wife, moves her husband to ask for her father a bless* 
ing, and an inheritance. So it is by the intercession of Ciiri^t 
that the church obtains of God the blessings and the iidierit- 
ance she needs. She complains to her father that she iniierit- 
ed a south, i. e. a dry, desert land ; she asks of him spriii(;^uf 
water, and Caleb granted her request ; he gave her freely 
and abundantly ; he gave her the upper spiings, and the nether 
springs. And if men, being evil, know how to give good gifrs 
to their children, how much more shall our heavenly Father 
give good things to them that ask him ! When Caleb's dau;!h- 
ter inhabited a south land, and dwelt in the quenched places of 
the wilderness, she asked springs of water, bot-h the up|)€r 
and the nether springs. So, when the souls of God's poujiie 
arc in a droughty, pining, languishing condition, it is not a ntw 
thing for them to go to their heavenly Father through the ntc- 
diation of Christ, for all such supplies as they need ; he will 
give them springs of water like the ujipcr and the neiher 
springs. Godliness hath the promise of the things of tbii 
life, and that which is to come. God will give grace aiul 
glory, and no good thing will he withhold from those that walk 
uprightly. Achsah imjiroved that time to move her husband to 
intercede for her, when she came to him ; which should teach 
us, when we are brought especially nigh to Christ, and liare 
special seasons of comnmnion with him, to be careful then to 
improve our interest in him, and to seek his intercession fur us 
with the Father for such blessings as we need. 

But this probably has a special respect to some particular 
seasons of God's blessings on the church, aild the uccomplisb- 
ing a glorious alteration in the state of things for her sake; 
and particularly two seasons. 

1. That glorious change that was made at and after Chris^t's 
first coming. The church before that did as it were inhabit a 
south land, was held under weak and beggarly elements, was 
under the ministration of death, the letter and not the spirit 
But when Christ came nigh to the church, he took her nature 
upon him ; he came and dwelt with us, and received his church 
into a much greater nearness to himself; and through his nic* 
diation was obtained of God, a far more glorious dispensatioD, 
springs of water in abundance, a ministration of tho spirit, the 
spirit was abundantly poured out upon her, and her inherit- 
ance was greatly enlarged. Instead of being confined only to 
the land of Canaan, she had tho Roman empire given with all 
its wealth and gloryi and so had the nether springs, as well as 
the upper* 


2* That glorious change that will be accomplished in favour 
f the church at the fall of Anticli«ist. Now the church of 
!hrist does as it were inherit a dry laud, and has so done for 
. long time — dry both upon spiritual and temporal accounts; 
loth as to the upper and nother springs, and is much straitened 
n her inheritance. But the days will soon come wherein 
/brist will come in a spiritual sense, aud the church shall for- 
ake worldly vanities, and her own righteousness, and shall 
ome to Christ, and then God will gloriously enlarge her inher- 
itance, and will bestow both spiritual and temporal blessings 
ipon her, in abundance. 

[211] Judg. V, 20. ** They fou«^ht from heaven, the stars 
I their courses fought against Sisera." The learned Bed- 
ird, in his Scripture Chronology, p. 510, supposes that Sisera, 
rith his army, had passed the river Kishon, and that when 
tarak came to cngai>:e hini, God H[>peared against Sisera, in a 
readful storm of thunder and li<^htiiiug, and the battle conti- 
uing all day, and Sisera and his host being at last put to 
ight, the Israelites pursued in the night, and that the way 
lat the stars fought for them was by shining with an cxtraor- 
inary brightness to help the Israelites in their pursuing the 
netny, who, when they came to the river Kishon, went in; 
lit the storm having swelled the river, the swift stream carried 
lem away, and that there was thunder and lightning. Then 
B argues from the 15th verse of the foregoing chapter, where 

18 said that the Lord discomfited Sisera and all his chariots^ 
lid all his hosts. Ho says the word in the original signifies 
» strike a terror by the noise of thunder and lightning, and the 
uth is, it is no where said that God discomfited the enemies 
r God's people where this word was used, but that it appears 
lat God fought against them with thunder and lightning. 

1. Sam. vii. 10, and Joshua x. IO9 (vide Notes on Heb. iii. 
I9) and 2 Sam. xxii. 15. Ps. xviii. 4. 

There are several things that make this opinion of Mr. Bed- 
>rd probable. This was an instance wherein God had extra- 
'dinarily appeared against the enemies of Israel, as appears 
jr this song ; and this verse of this sonir seems to intimate some- 
ling miraculous of God's appearing in it, and it was the more 
'obable that there was something miraculous for a prophetess 
sing at the head of the army of Israel, and then God had in 
lis manner appealed from time to time fighting against the 
lemies of his people. So he fought against the Egyptians at 
e Red sea ; so he terrified his enemies in all the neighbouring 
>untries with amazing thunders and lightning, when he enter- 

1 into covenant with his people at Sinai. So God foagbt against 
VOL. IX. 38 


the Amoriles before Joshua. So God fought against the Phi- 
listines in Sainuers tim* 1 Sam. vii. 10. So God fought 
for David. (See Notes on Ps. xviii. 7, &,c.) SoGikI seems to 
have fought against Sennacherib's army in Hezekiah'ti time, 
Isai. XXX. 30. '* An<l so Hezekiab prophecied that God woald 
appear against the enemies of his people." 1 Sam. ii. 10. 
And the reason why Deborah begins this song with taking no- 
tice that God appeare<i with thunder and rain for his people in 
the wilderness, ver. 4, 5, as he had done at the Red sea and at 
Mount Sinai, probably is because God never had so appeared 
for them in the deliverance that she celebrates in this song. 
God appeared so for his pco|)le when he took them first into 
covenant and made them his people ; and now he had appear- 
ed in like manner again, and so appears to be still the same 
God; she therefore mentions it as celebrating his covenant, 
faithfulness : and then it is in no wise to be supposed that the 
river Kishon, that is elsewhere called a brook, Ps. Ixxxiii. 9, 
was by any means sufficient to sweep away and drown an army, 
unless extraordinarily swelled by rain. Again it is probable, 
because the great battle in which the enemies of the church 
shall be destroyed, and that shall usher in the glorious timei 
of the church that we read of in the xvi. chap, of Rev. is 
represented as being accompanied with thunder, and lim- 
ning, and hail ; but it is compared to this battle at Alegiddo, 
and therefore the place where it is fought, is said to he in the 
Hebrew tongue, Ar-Megeddon, i. e. the mount of Megiddo, 
and it is pri)l)able that the way Mr. Bedford mentions was the 
way in wiiich the stars fought against Siscra : it is most like!? 
that the stars fought against Sisera the same way that the sun 
fought against the Amorites, viz. by giving light to Israel, that 
they mi(;ht be avenged of their enemies, Josh. x. 1.3. Aslhii 
that God wrought now was parallel with thai in Joshua^s time, I 
in that God fought against the enemies of Israel in a storm of | 
thunder and lightning, so if we suppose the stars shone at ^ 
night with miraculous brightness to help Israel against their . 
enemies, it will in a good degree be parallel to another instance, 
for then the day was lengthened for them by the sun's stand- j 
ing still, and now the day is as it were lengthened by causing 
the stars in a miraculous manner to supply in a great measure 
the want of daylight; the sun fought then, and the stars now, 
and both by giving light, but only there is this difference, the 
sun fought standing still, but the stars fought in their courses or , 
paths, as it is in the original. This instance is also very paral* 
lei, also with that at the Red sea ; for there God fought against 
their enemies with thunder and lightning, and drowned them 
in the Red sea ; and here God fought against them with thun- 
der and lightning, and drowned them with their horses and 


;hariots in the river Kishon. Hence we may possibly see a rea- 
4>n why the great destruction of God's enemies before the glori- 
ms times of the church is compared to this influence, rather than 
o either of those two great influences of God's wonderfully de- 
stroying bis enemies, viz. because this is parallel to both, and what 
s peculiar to both, is here comprised, viz. the drowning of the 
Egyptians in the Red sea, which is peculiar to the first, has here 
in eqoivalent in the drowning of the host of Sisera in Kishon ; 
ind the sun's standing still and fighting, is here answered by the 
stars -fighting in their courses, and the Holy Ghost might rather 
dioose to compare it to this, because the sun's standing still was a 
representation of Christ's humiliation. (Vide Note on Josh. x.. 
12, 13, 14.) But Christ will be for them fighting as in a state of 
humiliation at that time when introducing the glorious times of 
the church, and Christ will not then personally appear fighting as 
be did in his state of humiliation, but he will fight by his Spirit in 
bis saints, which are called the stars of Iieaven. 

Christ will fight by increasing their light, and so their enemies 
ibail be destroyed, and they shall fight in their courses, and in 
ronning the race that God hath appointed them, and it is compar- 
sd to this rather than the instance at the Red sea, for the children 
»f Israel, and Moses, and the pillar of cloud being in the Red 
lea, was a type of Christ's humiliation. 

That there should be such things at the battle with Sisera, and 
fet not mentioned particularly in the history, is not strange; for 
M> there was thunder and lightning at the Red sea, and in the day 
when the sun and moon stood still, and at Baal-Perazim, and yet 
1 18 not mentioned in the history. 

£364] Judg. vi. 37, 38, 39, 40. Concerning Gideon's fleece. 
rbere being first dew on the fleece, when it was dry upon all the 
mrth besides, and then dew on all the ground, but dry upon the 
leece, was a type of the Jews being in the first place the peculiar 
leople of Godf and favoured with spiritual blessings alone when 
ill the world besides were destitute, and then the Jews being re- 
ected, and remaining destitute of spiritual blessings when the 
SenCile nations all around them were favoured with them. Gi- 
leon was a typo of Christ; his overcoming that innumerable 
Dultitude of Gentile nations with trumpets, and lamps, and earthen 
ressels, typifies Christ's conquering the Gentile world by the 
(onnd of the trumpet of the gospel, and by carrying the light of 
lie gospel to them by ministers that are as earthen vessels; thii 
rvenC was accompanied with what was typified by the fleece. A 
ibeep is a creature often used to typify Christ. The Jewish na- 
loo was as it were Christ's clothing; they are sometimes repre- 
tented as such ; first they only had the word and ordinances, and 


the blessing of ihe Holy Spirit. It was remarkably poored oat 
on them in the day of Pentecost: there was that plentiful of deir, 
that was a bow] full of water, when the Gentile nations were des- 
titute ; but afterwards the Gentile nations received the gospel, and 
God's Spirit was poured out on them, and tlie Jews were rejected, 
and have now remained dry for many ages. 

[223] Judg. xi. 30, to the end. Concerning JephihakUxm 
and his offering up his daughter. That Jephthah did not put hit 
daughter to death and burn her in sacrifice, the following tbinp 

I. The tenor of his vow, if we suppose it to be a lawful vow, 
did not oblige him to it ; he promised that whatsoever came forth 
of the doors of his house to meet him, should surely be the Lord's, 
and he would offer it up for a burnt offering. He was obliged 
no more by this vow than only to dc«i1 with whatsoever cane 
forth of the doors of his house to meet him, as those things thit 
were holy to the Lord ; and by right burnt offerings to God, were 
to be dealt with by God's own law, and the rules that he hid 
given. Supposing it had been an ass^ or some undeanbeaH thai 
had come forth to meet him, as Jephthah did not know but it 
would, his vow would not have obliged him to have offered it in 
sacrifice, or actually to have made a burnt offering of it, bathe 
must have dealt with it as the law of God directed to deal with 
an unclean beast that was not holy to the Lord, and that othe^ 
wise must have been actually a burnt offering to the Lord, had it 
not been for that legal incapacity of the impurity of its nature. 
All living things that were consecrated were to be as it were barnt 
offerings to God, i. e. they were actually to be offered up a burni 
sacrifice, if not of. a nature that rendered it incapable of this, and 
then in that case something else was to be done that God woold 
accept instead of offering it up a burnt sacrifice. The directioo 
we have in Levit. xxvii. 11, 12, 13. " And if it be any unclean 
beast of which they do not ofler a sacrifice unto the Lord, then he 
shall present the beast before the priest, and the priest shall value 
it whether it be good or bad ; as thou valuest it who art the priest, 
so shall it be. But if he will at all redeem it, then he shall adda 
fifth part thereunto of the estimation," i. e. it should be valued hy 
the priest, and the man should, after it was valued, determine whe- 
ther he would redeem it, or no, and if not he was to break hii 
neck, if an ass. Exod. xiv. 12, 13, or if other unclean beast, it 
must be sold according lo the priest's estimation. Levit. xrvii. 
27, (as is elsewhere directed to be done to unclean beasts that were 
holy lo the Lord, Exod. xxxiv. 20,) but if he would redeem it, if 
it were an ass, he was to redeem it with a lamb. Exod. xiv. 12, 
13; if other unclean beast he was to add the fifth part to the priest's 
estimation, that is, he was to give the value of the beast, and ^ 


fifth part more. And if Jephthah had done this in case an unclean 
beast bad met him, he would have done according to his vow. If 
he had in such a case gone about to have offered an unclean beast 
a burnt sacrifice, he would dreadfully have provoked God, his vow 
could be supposed to oblige him to no other than only to deal with 
the unclean beast that was consecrated as the law of God directed 
to deal with it instead of ofl*eriog it a burnt offering. And so 
when it was his daughter that met him, he might do to her according 
to bis vow without making her a burnt sacrifice, if he did that to 
her which the law of God directed to be done to a dedicated per- 
son, instead of actually making them a burnt sacrifice, by reason 
of the incapacity which, by the mercy of God, attends a human 
person to be a burnt sacrifice. For to offer either a man or an 
unclean beast in sacrifice to God, are both mentioned as a great 
abomination to God, and as what were universally known so to be. 
Isai. Ixvi. 3. ** He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man ; he 
that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut ofi* a dog's neck ; he that of- 
fereth an oblation, as if he ofiered swine's blood." But the more 
fally to clear up the difficulties that attend this matter I will par- 
ticularly observe some things concerning the laws that related to 
persons that were consecrated, so as to become holy to the Lord. 

1. Every living thing that was holy to the Lord, whether of 
men or beasts, was by right a burnt ofiering to God, and must be 
either actually made a burnt sacrifice, or something else must be 
done to it that God appointed to be in lien of burning it in sacri- 
fice. Thus the first born of men and beasts, they were all holy 
to the Lord, and must either be offered up a burnt sacrifice, or be 
redeemed, the first born of men and of unclean beasts were to be 

2. Persons that were devoted to God by a singular vow, unless 
they were those that were devoted to be accursed, (of which Levit. 
zxvii. 28, 29) were to be brought and presented before the Lord, 
that the priest might estimate them, and they were to redeem ac- 
cording to the priest's estimation. But beasts that might be sa- 
crificed were to be sacrificed. Levit. xxvii. 7 — 9. (See <^§§ 
onv. 2.) i' 

3. Persons that were thus devoted to God by the vow of their 
parents, were yet to remain persons separate, and set apart for 
God after they were redeemed. This may appear from several 

First, The redemption was only to redeem them from being slain 
in sacrifice ; it was not to redeem them from being holy to the 
Lord, or persons set apart, and sanctified to him. 

Secondly. The first-born were appointed to be given or con- 
secrated to God. Fixod. xiii. 2, and xxii. 19. And ilicy were by 
God's law holy to the Lord, in the very same manner as persons 


devoted to him by a siDgnlar vow, as is evident, because they 
were to be redeemed in the same mauner, and at the same price, 
as is evident by comparing the beginning of the xxvii. chapter 
of Levit. with Numb, xviii. 15, 16. God, in giving the rule for 
the redemption of the first-born in the latter place, evidently re- 
fers to what he had before appointed in the former place, con- 
cerning persons devoted by a singular vow, and so likewise the 
firstlings of unclean beasts were to be redeemed in the same man- 
ner as unclean beasts that were devoted, as appears by comparing 
Levit. xxvii. 11, 12, 13. with v. 27; but yet the first-born still re- 
mained separated to God as his special possession, after they were 
redeemed. Hence the Levites were accepted for the first-born to 
a tribfe separated to God after the first-born were thus redeemed. 

Thirdly. Persons that were dedicated to God by the vow of 
their parents, were Nazarites, as well as those that were separated 
by their own vows ; the word Nazarite, signifies one that is sepi- 
rated ; they might be separated by their parents' vows or their 
own. This is very evident in instances that we have in scripture. 
Thus Samuel was a Nazarite by the vow of his mother. 1 Sam. 
i. 11. " And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if tboa 
wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and re- 
member me and not forget thine handmaid, but will give unto 
thine handmaid a man child, then I will give unto the Lord all the 
days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head." And 
so it was with respect to Samson, Judg. xiii. 5. But the Nan- 
rite was to continue separated to God, as long as he remained 
under the vow by which he was devoted. 

4. Those that were thus devoted to God to be Nazarites, were 
to the utmost of their power to abstain from all legal pollutions. 
Lam. iv. 7. With respect to defilements by dead bodies, they 
were required to keep themselves pure with greater strictness than 
the very priests, except the high priest alone, and were obliged 
to as great strictness as the high priest himself. Numb. vi. 6, 7. 
compared with Levit. xxi. 10, 11. And though only some legal 
impurities are expressly mentioned, as what the Nazarite was to 
avoid, yet it is to be understood, that he is to his utmost to sepa- 
rate himself from all legal defilements, agreeable to his name, a 
Nazarite, or a separate person. The Nazarite was to abstam 
froni all legal impurities in like manner as the priests, and even 
as the high priest ; there are like directions given to one as to the 
pther ; the high priest was on no account to defile himself with the 
dead, and was forbidden to drink wine, or strong drink when he 
went into the tabernacle of the congregation. Levit. x. 9. The 
priests were to abstain from all manner of legal defilement as far 
as in them lay. Levit. xxii., at the beginning. 


If it be objected against this, that the Levites who were ac- 
cepted to be the Lord's, instead of the first-born that were holy 
to the Lord, were not obliged to such strictness, I answer, that 
this may be one reason why God did not look on the first-born as 
being fully redeemed by the Levites being substituted in their 
stead, but there were still extraordinary charges required of them 
for the maintenance of the Levites, much more than in propor- 
tion to the bigness of the bribe; and God might accept this as an 
equivalent for their not being so strictly separated, as he accept- 
ed extraordinary redemption money for the odd number of the 
first-born, that were more than the Levites. Numb. iii. 46, 47, 
and xviii. 15, 16. 

5. Those that were devoted to God to be Nazarites by a sin- 
gular vow, were to devote themselves wholly to religious exer- 
cises, and to spend their lives in the most immediate service of 
God ; for though this is not particularly expressed, but only 
some things are expressed that they should abstain from, yet this 
18 implied in their being God's, his being separated to the Lord, 
Numb. vi. 11, his being holy to the Lord, Numb. vi. 6. All 
the days that he separateth himself unto the Lord, he shall be 
holy ; and ver. 8, all the days of his separation he shall be holy un- 
to the Lord. In like manner as in the second commandment, 
there are only some things particularly mentioned, that we should 
abstain from on the sabbath, but it is only expressly said that the 
day should be spent in religious exercises, yet it is implied in that, 
that the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord our God, and 
that we are commanded to keep it holy. This was evidently 
Hannah's intention in her vow, whereby she devoted Samuel to 
be a Nazarite, as was explained by her own words and practice. 
1 Sara. i. 28. " Therefore also I have lent him to the Lord, as long 
as he liveth he shall be lent to the Lord ;" and accordingly she 
brought him and left him in the sanctuary, to dwell continually 
there, and there to spend his time in sacred business. 1 Sam. ii. 
11. '* And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house, and the child did 
minister unto the Lord before Eli the priest." Ver. 18. **ButSamutI 
ministered before the Lord, being a child girded with a linen 

6. It was necessary that a woman that was devoted to be a 
Nazarite (for a woman might be a Nazarite, Numb. vi. 2.) should 
thenceforward avoid marrying, and refrain from all carnal inter- 
course with men. If she was a virgin when she was devoted, it 
was necessary that she should continue a virgin until her vow was 
ended ; and if she was devoted for her whole life, she must con- 
tinue a virgin forever; and if she was a widow, she must conti- 
nue in her widowhood, and that on two accounts. 


Firgt* Marrying would be contrary to the obligation that has 
been taken notice of, that the Nazarite was under, with the utmost 
strictness to avoid all legal defilements, for marrying unavoidably 
exposed the great legal impurities, and of long continuance. (See 
Levit. xii.) There were scarcely any legal impurities to whicb 
the children of Israel were exposed, except the leprosy, that were 
so great as those that marriage brought women into. Being 
therefore devoted to God to be holy to the Lord, in the utmost 
possible legal purity, she must avoid marrying, and then these 
legal impurities rendered her incapable of those sacred officei 
and services that she was devoted to. It incapacitated her from 
conversing on holy things, or drawing near to God in ordinances, 
as much as being defiled by the dead body of a man incapaci- 
tated a priest from his work and office. Levk. xii. 4. '* And sbe 
shall then continue in the blood of her purifying three and thirty 
days : she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanc- 
tuary until the days of her purifying be. fulfilled ;" which, in all, 
for a son made up forty days, and for a daughter fourscore days, 
which must needs be very inconsistent with the circumstances of 
the Nazarite that was devoted wholly to attend on God, and 
holy exercises in the way of the Jewish ordinances. If the Na- 
zarite were a male, his marryingdid not expose him to such legal 
impurities. The Nazarite was to observe as strict a l^gal purity, 
as the high priest himself, as has been observed ; but he for the 
greater purity was allowed to marry none but a virgin : therefore 
doubtless the woman herself that was a Nazarite was obliged to 
continue a virgin. 

Secomllt/. Marrying would utterly destroy the main design of 
her being dedicated in the vow of a Nazarite, which was, that she 
might be wholly devoted to the more immediate service of God 
in sacred things. If she was married, her time must unavoidably 
be exceedingly taken up in secular business and cares, in tending 
and bringing up children, and in providing for, and taking care 
of a family, which exceedingly fills married women's hands and 
hearts, and is as inconsistent as possible with the design of the 
vow of the Nazarite. Hence the woman that was devotid to the 
special service of God's house in the primitive church (though not 
devoted to God so solemnly, nor in so great a degree as the Na- 
zarite) must be one that was not married, and never like to mar- 
ry, and it was looked upon and spoken of by the apostles as sin- 
ful in such to many. 1 Tim. v. 1. ** But the younger widows 
refuse, for when they have begun to wax wanton against Christ, 
they will marry ;" and the reason that is given why they should 
be widows that were like ever to continue so, and free from all 
worldly care, was that they might be the more entirely at lil>erty 
for religious duties. Ver. 3, 4, 5, *' Honour widows, that are wi- 


dows indeed, but if any \^do\v have children, or nephews, let them 
learn first to show piety at home, and to requite their parents ; for 
that^is good and acceptable before God. Now she that is a wi- 
dow indeed, and desolate, trustethin God, and continueth in sup- 
plications and prayers, night and day." Those widows in the 
primitive chUrch, seem to be in some degree in imitation of the 
Nazarites in the Jewish church. Anna the Prophetess was in 
all probability a Nazanie, or one that after her husband's death, 
bad devoted herself to the service of God, by such a vow as that 
we have been speaking of, and therefore continued in widowhood 
to so great an age, because her vow obliged her to it, and there- 
fore^she, throwing by all worldly care, devoted herself wholly to 
the immediate service of God. Luke ii. 36, 37. " And there w^as 
one Anna a prophetess, the daughter of Plianuel, of the tribe of 
Aser, she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband se- 
ven years from her virginity, and she was a widow of about four- 
score and four years, which departed not from the temple, but 
served God with fastings and prayers night and day." The like 
expression with that the apostle uses, concerning widows, 1 Tira. 
V. 5. 

And therefore when we have an account that after Jephthath's 
daughter had been let alone two months, to go up and down the 
mountains with her companions to bewail her virginity, we are 
told that she retiflhned to her father, who did lo her according to 
Lis vow. That which Jephthah did was, that he took her up to the 
sanctuary before the Lord, and presented her before the priest, 
that he might estimate her, then paid according to her estimation* 
Thus the Jews that came out of the captivity vowed that they 
would offer the first-born of iheir sons. Neh. x. 35. Whereby 
she was redeemed from being made a burnt sacrifice, according 
to the law ; and by thus presenting her in the sanctuary, and of- 
fering up that which is accepted instead of her blood, she was ac- 
tually separated according to the vow ; her separation began from 
that time, and thenceforward, she was to begin her strict absti- 
nence from all legal impurities, and to spend her time in sacred 
offices ; and it is probable that Jephthah thenceforward left her in 
the sanctuary, to dwell there as long as she lived, as Hannah did 
to her son Samuel, whom she had devoted to be a Nazarite. . 1 
Sam. i. 22. " I will nfot go up till the child be weaned, and then I 
will bring him, that he may appear before the Lord, and there 
abide for ever, and as the other Hannah, or Anna, did with her- 
self after she had devoted herself to perpetual widowhood as a 
Nazarite,'of whom we read, Luke ii. 37, " That she was a widow 
of fourscore years old, and departed not from the temple.*' And 
there^'probably Jephtliah's daughter continued in supplications 
and prayers, night and day, for she was eminently disposed} and 

VOL. IX. ' 39 


prepared for such duties by that remarkable spirit of piety that 
appeared in her resignation, with respect to the vow her father 
had made concerning her, and what time she did not spend in 
duties of immediate devotion, she might spend in making of 
priests' garments. Exod. xxxv. 25, 2G, in other business subse- 
quent to the work of the sanctuary, as there might be enough 
found that a woman might do. 

II. The nature of the case will not allow us to suppose thai 
that was done that was so horrid and so contrary to the miud and 
will of God, as putting of her to death, and offering her as a burnt 
sacrifice. God took great care that never any human sacrifice 
should be offered to him ; liiough he commanded Abraham to of- 
fer up his son, yet he would by no means suffer it to be actually 
done, but appointed something else with which he should be re- 
deemed ; and though God challenged the first-born of all living 
things to be his, yet he appointed ihat the first-born of mea 
should be redeemed, and so in all cases wherein persons were holy 
to the Lord, the law makes provision that they should not he slain 
but redeemed. It is particularly forbidden in the law of Moses 
in the strictest manner, that the children of Israel should not 
worship God by offering up their children in sacrifice to him. 
Deut, xii. 30, 31. There God charges them not to worship hira 
in the manner that the inhabitants of Canaan had worshipped 
their gods, and then mentions, as the most abominable thing in 
their worship, that they had offered up their children for burnt 
offerings. And God, by the prophet Isaiah, declares such sacri- 
fices to be abominable to him in the foremcntioncd, Isai. Ixvi. 3. 
See also, Jer. vii. 31, with my note on that text. It would have 
been symbolizing with the abominable customs of the heathen na- 
tions around, especially that offering human sacrifices to the idol, 
Moloch, which God ever manifested a peculiar detestation of. 
Here particularly observe, Deut. xii. 29, to the end ; and the na- 
ture of the case will not allow us to think that Jcphthah in tiiis in- 
stance committed such abomination. It is not likely but that he, 
being a pious person, as he is spoken of by the apostle, would 
have been restrained from it by God, and then what was done was 
doubtless agreeable to the mind and will of God, for God other- 
wise would not in so extraordinary a manner have assisted her so 
quickly and readily to resign herself to it ; there seems most evi- 
dently an extraordinary divine influence on lier mind in the af- 
fair, for her resignation did not arise from insensibility, or indif- 
ference of spirit, as is evident, because she desired time so to be- 
wail what was to be done to her; and upon the supposition that 
she was to be slain, it would be impossible, without an extraordi- 
nary influence on her mind, for her to be so resigned. He^ re- 
signation was from pious considerations, and holy, and excellent 


principles ; as is evident from what she soys to her father, when 
she sees him passionately lamenting tlie issue of his vow, of 
n'hich we have an account in the 3t3ih verse. *' And she said unto 
him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the Lord, do 
to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth, 
for as much as the Lord hath taken vengeance for thee of thine- 
enemies, even of tlie children of Ammon." 

If wliat ho had vowed to do was so abominable a thing as to kill 
Iirr in riiciifice, it would not have been her duty to say as she does, 
do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy 
nouth, but she seemed to be influenced to express herself as she 
iid, by the Spirit of God, and her resignation is recorded of her, 
IS a very excellent thing in her. 

ill. llcr being to be slain in sacrifice seems inconsistent with 
ler request; to go up and down the mountains to bewail hervir- 
finity : it would have been rather to bewail her untimely end, 

IV. It seems evident that she was not slain, by the 39th verse, 
^here it is said that it came to pass, that at the end of two months, 
he returned unto her father, who did with her according to his 
ow, which he had vowed, and the consequence of it is imme- 
iately added, and she knew no man. This clause seems evidently 
3 be exegetical of the foregoing, viz. that he did to her accord- 
ig to his vow, or to explain what that was that he did, viz. de- 
ote her to God in a perpetual virginity. 

If she had been slain it is not at all likely that it would have 
een mentioned that she knew no man, for that she had known no 
lan before this, had been already expressed in her going up and 
own the mountains to bewail her virginity; and nobody would 
ippose that she would marry and have children after she was de- 
oted to death, and it had been determined both by herself and 
er father that it should be put in execution ; and besides, there 
ould have been no occasion to mention her not knowing man as 
3on as the two months was out wherein she bewailed her virgini- 
/, and she had returned from going up and down the mountainsi 
le vow was immediately executed. 

V. It is no argument that Jephthah thought himself obliged 
) put her to death, that he so lamented when his daughter met 
im, as in verse 35. '* And it came to pass when he saw her, that 
e rent his clothes, and said, Alas ! my daughter, thou hast brought 
le very low, and thou art one of them that trouble mc, for I have 
pened my mouth unto the Lord, and I cannot go back ;'' for she be- 
ig his only child, by her being devoted to be a Nazarite, his 
imily was entirely extinct, he had no issue to inherit his estate 
r keep his name in remembrance, which in those days was 
(oked upon as an exceedingly great calamity. Thou has tbrought 
le very low, i. e. thou bast quenched my coal, and brought per** 


petaal barrenness on thyself. (See Pool's Synopsis, at the end of 
Jadg. chap, xi.) 

[139] Judj^. xiii. 20. " For it came to pass when the flame 
went up toward heaven from ofl' the altar, that the angel of 
the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar. Christ, by thus 
goin;^ into the flame in which the kid was sacrificed, and as- 
cending in it, signified that he was the great sacrifice that was 
to be oflTered up to God, and was to ascend as a sweet savour 
to God from ofi'thc altar in the flame of his holy wrath. That 
was the substance represented bv tliese shadows, the sacrifices 
of kids and lambs, Sec, 

[377] Judg. xiii. xiv. xv. The Ilistonj of Samson. Sam- 
eon was charmed with the danc:hters of the uncircunicised 
Philistines, and, as it were, bewitched with them. These 
daughters represent those lusts, or objects of their lusts, with 
which men are charmed and infatuated. Samson's uniting 
himself with these daughters of the Philistines, proved his 
ruin. He had warninn: enouirh to beware of them before he 
was utterly destroyed by them. First, he was deceived by one 
of them, and suffered great damage by her falseness, by the 
woman of Timnath ; though he loved her, she proved an enemy 
to hira, and treachcrou>ly deprived him of thirty sheets and 
thirty change of garments, and then she was taken from him; 
she proved false to him, and left him. i:?o she served him as 
the objects of mon's lusts often serve them : ihcy promise them 
a ffreatdcal, but never aliord them anv thiniir; thev are like a 
pleasing shadow at a distance, that does us a great deal of 
damage in the pursuit, and when we come nigh ihem and hope 
to embrace them, and to be paid for our damages, they afl'ord 
US nothing but disappointment. Samson's being thus served 
by a dauiriiter of the Piiilistincs, mi::ht be a warnin;? to him not 
to be concerned with them any more. But after this Sampsoa 
was ensnared again, and went in to an harlot at Gaza, wlmh 
suddenly brought him into eminent danger of his life, so that 
he very narrowly escaped, as in the beginning of chap. xvi. 
But yet after this he unites himseif v»ith Delilah, and had sufli- 
cient from her to make hiju sensible that slie was his enemy 
time after time, had he not been utterly infatuated and he- 
witched ; but yet he would not take warning, and at last she de- 
prived him of the seven locks of his head, in which signified 
the consideration and sense of the mind ; and bringing a person 
to a stupid and senseless state. (Sec Notes on Numb. vi. 5, 
concerning the Nazarite's not shaving his head.) AVhen per- 
sons* sense, consideration, and watchfulness is gone, their 
strength will soon be gone. And then God departed from 


Samson, and he became the miserable condemned captive and 
slave of the Philistines, who tormented him, and insulted over 
liim, and made themselves sport in his misery, and at last it 
proved his death. 

[80] Judg. xvi. 25. " When the Philistines had prevailed 
ever Samson, and were makiiii^ sport with him, he overthrew 
tbem. The devils thought to have had fine sport with God's 
people when he had got him their captive, but this captivity to 
Jhim was the occasion of one of them who represented the rest 
of his brethren, even Christ, giving of them a most dreadful 
overthrow; and when they had Christ their captive, and thought 
to have triumphed and made themselves merry over him, for 
tie was for a time in a sort their captive, being the captive of 
fcis ministers, and being more especially delivered to his power 
to tempt and afflict, as the Philistines did Samson. Luke xxii. 
53. " This is your time, and the power of darkness:" I say 
tvhile iheythought to have had sport wiih him, yea, when they 
bad actually brought him forth, and were making themselves 
sport with him as his instruments did, and doubtless the devil 
joined with them ; he gave them a most dreadful overthrow at 
bid death, as Samson did ; he destroyed Satan's kingdom, and 
overthrew Dagon^s temple. 

[125] Ruth. The story of Ruth's forsaking her own people 
Tor the land and people of Israel, typifies the calling of the 
jlentiie church. Naomi is a type of the Jewish church, that 
^ the mother of the Gentile church ; not the Jewish nation 
.hat was rejected, but the true church of God in Israel, to 
irhoon Ruth says, in the l6th verse, " Whither thou goest, I 
fl^ill go, and whither thou lodgest, I will lodge. Thy people 
shall be my people, and thy God my God." JNaomi sets before 
3er daughters the case of going with her, and the advantages 
)f staying in her own land. So did Christ set before men the 
sase of being his disciples, and so do his ministers in the church. 
. It typifies the universal church, and the conversion of every 
reliever. We are all born in sin, as Ruth was born in Moab, 
isd was born a Moabitess ; a state of sin is, as it were, our 
Tatber's house, and sinners are our own people ; when we are 
M>nverted we forsake our own people and father's house, as the 
:hurch in the xlv. Psalm. 

[92] 1 Sam. i. and ii. chapters. By Hannah's song after the 
^irth of Samuel, I am ready to think that Peninnah and Ilan- 
lah were designed for types of the church of the Jews, and the 
shurch of the Gentiles. The expressions are much like those 
iiat are used in the Prophets, when speaking of the calling of the 

petaal barrenness on '"' 

j»d6.chap.xi.> •'•.">23i^Kl?!!;:"s 


went lir :J-..»^.»*.j.i'I 

IhcLr >fl,'' ::.>'':„1. >!'« ■■1'"™" any tins llii 

■"'in- ■^»";;;j;.'':,»,««a>«af*orwa!illino> 

these exprei 
tb, and fiinl 


0» ''T.rj"''' "/,ffi. "as no flu^ aesign then on foot. 

fi^f"^ ,/. !-(. " And the cart came into tlie field 

1*4} i^^iiii'^' nnd 8loo(i there, where there was a 

^» ^'^tiinf "HJjf^' tgoU down the ark' of llic Lor 

^^pr^'''^MMi iImI* Tbecart seems purposely to b 

ffiit^^^S,tt$tMioC Ibe name of ihc owner beiitpr ih 

f^f^H'i) '''^'iVM >igBiIicd by the aik, an[l bccaufc 

1^ ^g^iAlch^^ represented Christ, 

gi**' . 

mgi I Sam* tvil. 25. David won the kinc^'s daughter 

1 orer Goliath, so Christ wins the church by viclur 

J 94] I Sam. zxii. 2. " And every one ihat was in d 
rvery one that was in debt, and every one ihnt was b' 
ioal| gathered themselves to him, and he became Captai 
tbem." Herein be was a type of Christ. 

[72] 1 Sam. x\v, 41, " And she arose, tind bowed her 
her face to the canit, and said, ItchoM, let thine Ii!in<lijini 
servant to wasli the feet of the servants of my t.nril." S 
■ type of the church, and herein spenks that w hitli represe 
disposition of a true Christian, according lu Christ's coi 
and example. Josh. xiii. 

[198] 2 Sam. sii. It may be worth Ihe while to oli?c 
aualogy there was between David's sin in the mniicr of 
and the judgments after. He was guiliy of ^^iioildincr of 
and he was punished with (his in his own family, one of h 
chihlron shedding the blood of another. Absalom's shi 
Amnon''s blood, and nftcnvards he, though his o»n son. s 
to shed his blood, and with Ahialom the grcatciit piirt of h 
jccts that used to he loyal and have a good atreciiuii for hi 
their hearts turned against him, and bcenmc his cnoniii 
sought to shed liis blood, and af[er»nrds Absalom's blot 
shed greatly to tlie grief of llavid his father. 

He was guilty of most aggravated nnclennnoss in his ar 
with BathshebD, and he was punisheil with nncleanne>s in h 
family in a most aggravated manner, by the horrid incc 
rape of his own son upon his own daughter, and alYerwards 



bis son, that was very dear lo him, going in to bis own con- 

ittnes many of llicm, and that on llie top of llie house in llie 

It of the sun, and in the sight of all Israel, on purpose to 

ler his father as odious and contempliblo as possibly .could be. 

p: [216] 2 Sam. xxiii. 1,2, 3, 4, 5. These last words of Da- 
fid seem to be wholly a prophecy of the Messiah ; he begins as 
lie prophets were wont to begin their mystical speeches about 
Uags to come. ** The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his 
VOrd was in my tongue ; the God of Israel, the Rock of Israel 
^ke to me." He begins much after the manner that Balaam 
legan his two last prophecies. Numb. xxiv. wherein he prophe- 
aed of Israel's future happiness, and spake particularly of 
Bfarist. What is here rendered, ** he that ruleth over 7ncn must 
iejiistj^^ might belter be translated, ** he that shall rule overmen 
Aall bejustJ^^ The words in the original are p'l:^ dhxd Hviu 

The two first words are literally translated, the ruler over men^ or 
%e person ruling over mm, reserved to time present, past, or to 
U)me, indifferently ; 7nust he, is supplied in our translation, the 
word Just only, is expressed in ihe original, and we may as well 
md better supply shall be Just, than must be, for the verb is, or be, 
s more frequently understood in either of the tenses than must 
He, or ought to be. That he should rule in the fear of the Lord, 
s agreeable to the character of the Messiah given in Isai. xi. 1, 
I, where he is prophccied of, as he is licre, as the branch of the 
lock or house of David, and that prophecy is very parallel to 
his, " And tliere shall come forth a rod out of t!ie stem of Jesse, 
nd a branch shall grow out of his roots. And the Spirit of the 
jord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understand- 
iig, the spirit of counsel and mif^ht, the spirit of knowledge, and 
f the fear of the Lord, and shall make him of quick under- 
tanding in the fear of the liord." He is called lie that is to rule 
ver men^ rather than He that is to rule over Israel, because when 
e comes, his kingdom should not be confnied to that one peopfle, 
•at he should reign over all nation?, and to the utmost ends of 
lie earth ; to him the gathering of the people should be, and 
len should be blessed in him ; all nations should call him blessed. 
It is the Messiah that is intended that shall be ns the light of 
be morning when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds, 
nd as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shin- 
ig* after rain. Christ is both as the rain and the sun that cans- 
th the grass to grow, and also as the grass itself that flourishes 
nder the benign influence of those. The person of Christ as 
ead of the church, is as the morning sun arising after a night of 
arkness, or as the clear sun breaking out of a thick cloud, show- 
ig ia the tender grass Christ mystical ; or Christ in his members 


is as the tender grass itself springing out of the earth by clear 
shining after rain. This signifies both the glory and biessedness 
of his reign. 

1. It signifies his prosperity and glf^ry as a king; the spring- 
in/^ and flouribhing of grass is a simile elsewhere used to express 
glory and prosperity. Ps. xlii. 7. " Though the wicked do grow 
as the grass, and all the workers of iniquity do flourish," &c. So 
Job V. 15. ^' Thou shalt know that thy seed shall be great, and 
liiinc oiiVpring as the grass of the earth." So here the same is pro- 
mised of the seed, or offspring of David. Christ in his state of 
humiliation was a tender plant, and a root out of a dry ground, 
having no form nor comeiines, but when he rose from the earth 
God made him to spring as the grass out of the earth, and after 
his resurrection he was a glorious and flourishing, and mostfrait- 
ful branch, as is prophecied of the branch of the stock of David. 
Isai. iv. 2. *< In that day shall the branch oftlie Lord be beautiful 
and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and 
comely." Jer. xxiii. 5. " Behold, the d.ays come, saith the Lord, that 
I will raise unto David a righteous branch, and a King shall reign 
and prosper.'^ And so in many other places wherein Christ is 
prophecied of, under the appellation of the branch, he seems to 
be spoken of as a flourishing branch. David here in his lasCwords 
comforts himself in the respect of the glorious prosperity of his 

2. Hereby is signified the happiness of his kingdom, not only 
the glory of the King, but the happiness of those that enjoy the 
blessings of his reign, which is still the prosperity of Christ's mys- 
tical. Ps. Ixxii. 6.7. " He shall tome down like rain upon the 
mown grass, as showers that water the earth. In his days shall 
the righteous flourish." 

Verse 5. " Although my house be not so with God, 3'et he halb 
made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and 
sure, for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he 
made it not to grow." My house, that is my oflspring, my posterity, 
those of my family that are to succeed me in the throne. We often 
find the posterity of David called the house of David, though my 
successors and ofl'spring be not just, and do not rule in the fear of 
God (as David by the Spirit foresaw that they would not,) though 
they are not as the light of the morning and as the tender grass 
springing out of the earth, though he made it not to grow, i. e. roy 
house, for that he was speaking of. It is the same in other words 
that was expressed in the first clause of the verse, though my 
house be not so with God ; and there is special reference had to 
the last clause of the preceding verse, where it was foretold that 
the Messiah should be as the tender grass springing out of the 
earth. Though my house or oflspring be not so, be not made to 


grow as the grass, the house or lineage of David seems to 
have to be spoken of under the figure of the root or shoot 
of a plant, as a family or race is often so called in scripture. 
Judge V. 14. " Out of Ephraim was there a root of them against 
Amalek." Isai. xiv. 29. " Out of the serpent's root shall come 
forth a cockatrice," i. e. the serpent's race or offspring ; and so 
verse 30. *' I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay the 
remnant.*' Dan. xi. 7. " Out of a branch of her root shall one 
stand up," i. e. out of her posterity ; and so Hosea ix. 16. 
** Ephraim is smitten, their root is drted up ; they shall bear no 
fruit ; yea, though they bring forth, yet will I slay even the beloved 
fruit of the womb." The family or lineage of Jesse, or David, 
is particularly in the prophecies of the Messiah compared to the 
root, or stem of a plant, as in the forementioned, Isai. si. 1, 2. 
** There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a 
Branch shall grow out of his roots." 

And to these last words of David, all the prophets seem to refer 
vhen they prophecy of Christ under the name of the Branch, for 
he is here prophecied of, not as the tender grass springing out of 
the earth, and the lineage of David seems to be spoken of under 
the figure of a root or stock ; and when it is said though he make 
it not to grow, the word signifies to grow as a branch, it might 
have been translated. Though he make it not to branch forth : the 
word here used is of the same radix as the word used when 
Christ is prophecied of as the Branch ; the word that is translated 
branch is nov, and the word that signifies to grow, isHDV, which is 

— V - T 

the verb here used. David here foresaw that God would not make 
bis root or stock to grow in his successors that should reign in the 
kingdom of Judah, and therefore, with reference to this, the 
prophet Jeremiah foretelling of Christ, says, chap, xxxiii. 15, 
*' In those days, and at that time I will cause the Branch of 
righteousness to grow up unto David, and he shall execute judg- 
ment and righteousness in the land." His being called a righte- 
ous branch, and his executing judgment and justice in the land, 
seems to be with reference to David's last words, where it is said, 
He shall be just, ruling in the fear of the Lord. So chap, xxiii. 
5. ^' Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise up 
unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and pros- 
per, and shall execute judgment and justice on the earth." 

[191] 2 Sam. xxiii. 4, 5. " As the tender grass springing out 
of the earth by clear shining after rain — although he make it not 
to grow." It is probable from this that David speaks of the Mes- 
siah, that Christ is called the branch or the sprout ; he is compared 
in Isaiah to a tender plant. 

VOL. IX. 40 


[44] 2 Sam. sxiii. 16. " And the three mighty men brake 
through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the 
well of Bethlehem, that was by the gates, and took it and brought 
it to David ; nevertheless he would not drink thereof, but poured 
it out before the Lord." No doubt but this was ordered ibr atype 
of something evangelical ; otherwise it is wonderful how and why 
it should happen that he should long for the water of that parti- 
cular well, and for what reason he should esteem it unlawful for 
him to drink it. Bethlehem being the place of Christ's birth, the 
waters of it may signify the same as the water of the sanctuary, 
the water of the New Jerusalem, or the water of life. This was the 
price of the blood of those three mighty men, so is the water of 
life of the blood of the mighty Son of God. They obtained it 
by conquering Israel's enemies ; so doth Christ by the conquest of 
the enemies of his spiritual Israel. David would not drink it, 
but poured it out before the Lord ; so we ought to give all the 
glory of our salvation unto God, as God gives it unto us by the 
blood of Christ, we ought to give it all back again unto God in 

[215] 2 Sam. xxiv. 9. Concerning the seeming difference io 
the account of the number of Israel when David numbered them 
in Samuel, and in Chronicles : See Bedford, p. 559, Scripture 

The number of all Israel in the book of Chronicles, were 
eleven hundred thousand men. 1 Chron. xxi. 5. And the book of 
Samuel saith that they were only eight hundred thousand. 2 
Sam. xxiv. 9. So that here are three hundred thousand difference. 
On the other hand the book of Samuel saith that the men of Ju- 
dah were five hundred thousand. 2 Sam. xxiv. 9. And the book 
of Chronicles saith that they were only four hundred and seventy 
thousand. So that here also is thirty thousand difference. For 
the reconciling this great and double diversity, it is to be ob- 
served that there were four and twenty thousand soldiers and of- 
ficers that attended David monthly, so many every month. 1 
Chron. xxvii. 1 — 16. And these make in all, two hundred aud 
eighty-eight thousand. These were like a standing guard aboot 
the king every month, and ready for any sudden expedition. 
There were besides these, the rulers of the tribes and the officers 
under them, and therefore allowing a thousand officers to every 
twenty-four thousand, (as we cannot well allow less,) there will 
be the twelve thousand wanting, which added to the two hundred 
and eighty-eight thousand, make just three hundred thousand, 
and these were not put into the account in Samuel. Thus in the 
tribe of Judah, if twenty-four thousand legionary soldiers, and a 
thousand officers over them, be added to the four hundred and 



seventy thousand, there will be but five thousand wanting in the 
number ; and as this was David's own tribe, which was faithful to 
him in all difficulties and troubles, it is no wonder if so many of 
ihem were employed in some other extraordinary offices. These 
Joab put into the account, because their number and list had been 
long known, and because the king would not put a tax upon his 
own servants. 

[217] 2 Sam. xxiv. 18, to the end, and 1 Chron. xxu 18, to 
the end, and xxii. 1. The temple and altar where those sacrifices 
were to be offered that were typical of (he sacrifice of Christ, 
were by God's orders erected on a threshing floor, a place where 
wheat was wont to be threshed, that it might become bread to sup- 
port men's lives. The wheat that was here threshed, or the bread 
that was made of it, seems to be typical of Christ, that bread 
which came down from heaven, who is often typically represented 
by bread, by flour, and wheat. Vide Note on 2 Kings iv. 45. And 
the threshing of this wheat to prepare it for our food, seems to 
represent the sufllerings of Christ, by which he was prepared to 
be our spiritual food, and therefore this very wheat that was 
threshed on this floor was the first meat-offering that was cfffered 
to God on the altar that was built in this place. And the thresh- 
ing instruments that were typical of the instruments of Christ's 
snflferings, in being the instruments wherewith the corn was 
threshed, is made use of as the fuel for the fire, in which David of- 
fers sacrifice in this place, and the fire in which that very wheat 
that they had threshed was burnt, and the same oxen that in that 
3lace were used to labour in treading out the corn, were the 
Irst sacrifice that was there offered, so that before they were 
tacrificed on the altar, they in their labours in that place were ty- 
3ical of Christ, who underwent such great labours to procure 
iread for our souls, and they were sacrificed for men, there, in 
hat very place, where they were used to labour for the good of 
nen, as Christ was crucified in that very land where he had la- 
boriously spent his life for the good of men, and where his good- 
less had been so distinguishingly manifested for so many ages, 
ind in that very city, Jerusalem, where he had especially la- 
boured, and which city had been for many ages distinguished by 
lis goodness above all others in the world. Those oven were sa- 
:rificed on a fire that was made of their own instruments, their 
)wn yokes and other instruments that they had borne; 2 Sam. 
Lxiv. 22 ; as Christ carried his own cross. 

[231] 1 Kings iii.l. Solomon's marrying Pharaoh's daughter 
leems to. be a type of two things. 


1. or the calling oftlie Gentile church. The Egyptians were 
aliens from the nation of Israel, but now she that was an Egyp- 
tian is not only mnde an Israelite, but she is made the qneenin 
Israel : so the Gentile church, when she was called, was not only 
received to like privileges that the Jewish church were used toea- 
joy, but to vastly greater privileges. 

2. The union of Christ with his whole church in all ages is ty- 
pified ; for the church is made up altogether of those that were 
sinners by nature, aliens from God and Christ, and the childrenoT 
the devil. Pharaoh is often used in scripture as a type of the d^ 
vil. She that is made the church and spouse of Christ, is nata- 
rally the daughter of the spiritual Pharaoh. 

But especially does this seem to typify what shall come to pass 
in the last and most glorious times of the church, for the reigo of 
Solomon is especially a type of those times. At that time e5p^ 
cially will there be a great gathering of the Gentiles unto Christ; 
multitudes of nations, that until then were gross heathens, will 
be espoused unto Christ, and then will the grace and love of 
Christ be in a most remarkable manner exercised towards sin- 
ners, and great sinners, and those that were distinguished as the 
children of the devil ; then will many nations be brought to the 
church that before were the church's greatest enemies, as Pharaoh 
was a grand enemy of God's church and people, but yet now bis 
daughter is married to the prince of Israel. And particularly the 
nations that have been subject to Antichrist, who is spiritually 
called Pharaoh, shall then be espoused by Christ ; this type is 
ful6lled at the same time with those prophecies, Isai. xix. 24, 
25. "In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt, and with 
Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land, whom the Lord 
of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and 
Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance.'* 
Egypt and Assyria were remarkable enemies of Israel, and both 
in their turns held them in bondage and slavery. See also other 
prophecies of the calling of Egypt. 

[6] 1 Kings vi. It appears that the temple was a type of Christ, 
inasmuch as Christ is said to be the temple of the new Jerusalem, 
in the Revelation, and because he calls himself this temple. So the 
tabernacle before. Hence the reason why they were commanded 
to sacrifice no where else ; why they were commanded to look to 
it in their prayers, &ic. 

[148] 1 Kings vi. 7. ** And the house, when it was in buildincr, 
was built of stone made ready before it was brought thither; so 
that there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any too! of iron, 


beard in the bouse while it was in building." This temple re- 
presents the church of God, who are called God's temple, or 
spiritual house ; Jesus Christ being the chief corner stone, and 
all the saints as so many stones. Particularly, by Solomon's 
temple is meant the church triumphant, as by the tabernacle, 
the church militant, by the exact finishing, squaring, and 
smoothing of these stones before they were brought thither, 
represents the perfection of the saints in glory ; heaven is not 
a place to prepare them, they are all prepared before they 
come there ; they come perfectly sinless and holy into hea- 
▼en; this world is the place where God hews them, and 
squares them by his prophets and ministers, by the re- 
proofs and warnings of his word, which God compares to a 
hammer, and by persecutions and afflictions. There shall be 
no noise of those tools heard in heaven, but all the lively strains 
of this spiritual and glorious building are exactly fitted, fram- 
ed, and polished before they come there. 

[273] 1 Kings vrt. 15, Stc. Concerning the brazen pillars 
Jachin and Boaz. These pillars were set in the porch of the 
temple, or at the entry into the temple, which was a type of 
heaven, to show how strongly the entrance of God's elect an^ 
covenant people into heaven, is secured by God's immutable 
establishment and almighty power ; and also how certain 
their happiness, shall be, when once they are entered, and that 
theiF happiness, which is supported by]those pillars, shall be as 
perpetual and immoveable as the pillars, as Rev. iii. 12. *^ Him 
that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, 
and he shall go no more out." Jachin, he shall establish^ signi- 
fies both God's decree and promise, for they, by the covenant 
of redemption, become the same: God's decree of election is 
in Christ, an eternal promise and oath, and the promise made 
in time, -is but an expression of that for the dependence and 
comfort of the saints ; it is as it were a temporal decree — a pro- 
mise is but an expression of a purpose, it is that in words that 
a purpose is in heart. The chapiters were made of lilies and 
pomegranates — the lilies especially denoting the honour, 
glory, and beauty of the saints. Lilies and flowers are used 
for a representation of honour, glory, and beauty, in scripture. 
Isai. xxvii. 1. " Wo to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of 
Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower, which are 
on the head of the fat valleys," &c. Cant. ii. 1, 2. " I am the 
rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valley ; as the lily among 
thorns, so is my love among the daughters." The pomegra- 
nates signify the sweet fruit they shall bring forth and enjoy, 
the fruit of holiness that they shall bring foith, and the fruits of 


happiness, or that pleasure and satisfaction they shall enj 
These spiritual fruits are often compared to pomegranates 
Solomon's Song,^and more frequently than to any other sort 
fruit, as chapter iv. 3. 13, and vi. 7. 11, and vii. 12, 
viii. 2. 

There was a very great number of those pomegranates 
those chapiters to signify the abundant happiness that is lai^ 
up for the saints. The fruits were hung on net work and chai 
work, to show how the graces of God's Spirit, and the spirit 
fruits of holiness and happiness ate interwoven one wiih an 
ther, and are connected together, and depend one on anot 
as it were by a concatenation. 

[249] 1 Kings xi. 3. '^ And he had seven hundred wiveu 
princes.ses, and thine hundred concubines." Solomon couM 
not but know the law of Mo.«<es, in which it is prescribed con^ 
corning the king, Dent. xvii. 16, '* But he shall not multiplj| 
horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, t^ 
the end that he should mnltinlv horses, forasmuch as the LonC 
hath said unto you. Ye shall henceforth return no more that 
way, neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heai€ 
turn not away, neither shall he greatly multiply to himself sit* 
\'er and gold." But without doubt Solomon either put some 
wrong interpretation upon this law, or on some account or 
mother, thought himself exempt from the obligation of it : pof- 
fiibly because when God had appeared to him, and asked him 
what he should give him, and he requested a wise and under- 
standing heart, and did not ask that earthly glory that other 
kings set their hearts upon ; God told him that he would give 
him riches and honour, so that there should not beany among 
the living like unto him nil his days, i. e. that God would give 
liim outward slate and "^lorv aI)ove all that other kin^fs valued 
themselves upon, but in thor?e days it was looked upon among 
the kings of the earth as great part of the state and grandeur 
of a king, to have a great nmnber of wives and concubines, and 
horses, as woll as to have a great deal of silver and gold. Sol- 
omon might look on this promise of God, to him as a dispensa- 
tion from the obligation of the whole law of Moses, which was 
given to restrain the amiiition, and set boimds to the earthly 
grandeur of the king of Israel. 

[154] I Kings xvii. 6. " And the ravens brought him brea<! 
and flesh in the morniriir," &:c. ; which typified the same thing 
ns Samson getting honey out of the lion. ** Out of the eater came 
forth meat." It was also more miraculous that such a ravenous 
bird should biing him meal and not eat it himself. 


[283] 2 Kings iL 11» 12, 13. C^ncemtng^ ElyoA^s translation. 

Ijafa^j ascension ioto bearen seems to be at^pe of the ascen- 

of Christ. Before he ascendeilf he askt^d his disciple Eli- 

what he should :;ive him ; so Christ \vhen he ascended sa\e 

onto men. When £iijah ascended, his mantle felt from 

which is a type of the righteousness of Christ, as righteous- 

is often in scripture represented hy a garment. Christ, 

'h be himself v?ent awav, vet let\ his riohteousness for his 

ireh and people here below. The efficacy of what he did 

suffered, still remained for the justification of sinners here 

»w, though he himself was gone, and the saving fruits and 

IIS of it were communicated more abundantly after his as- 

(ion than before. God exalted him with his own right hand 

be a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance unto Israel, 

remission of sins. Elisha received a double portion of his 

rit when he ascended ; so when Christ ascended, he sent down 

idant measures of his holy spirit on his disciples and foU 

rers. The condition of Elisha's receiving a double |)ortion 

Elijah's spirit, was his seeing him when he ascended, so it is 

faith in the ascended Saviour, that we receive the holy 

irit from him. We can receive no spiritual benefits from 

any otherwise than as we see him in his glorious exaltation 

an eye of faith. 

[472] 2 Kings v. 19. *' And he said unto him. Go in peace." 
lese words do not ut all imply that the prophet approved of 
Jtbe design Naaman had just before declared of bowing in the 
[Aouse of Rimmon. There indeed seems here to be some dif- 
Cculty ; at first view, it looks as if these words of the prophet 
idanifested an approbation of what he had expressed. But a 
particular consideration of the circumstances of the affair may 
Serve wholly to remove the difficulty, and to nmke it manifest 
that they implied no such approbation. For it is to be consi- 
liered that the Syrians were now at war with Israel. W^e have 
an account but a little before this, 1 Kings xxii., of a great bat- 
tle of the king of Syria of his thirty- two captains with both the 
kings of Israel, and we have no account of any peace made after 
this; but, on the contrary, it appears by the 2d and 3d verses of 
this chapter, and by what we have an account of in the next chap- 
ter, that the war still continued, and Naaman was the chief 
actor in the war, and had been the chief instrument of the 
mischief that the Syrians had done Israel, for he was the Cap- 
tain of the host of the king of Syria, or General of his army, 
and a very valiant, successful general, and ho by whom the chief 
exploits had been done, that had been accomiiiished by the 
Syrians in war, as is signified in the first verse of this chapter^ 


and was probably under the king, the chief general that led 
the Syrians in the battle forementioned, wherein Israel receiT- 
ed that great defeat, wherqin their king was slain, which seems 
to be the thing aimed at in the first verse of this chapter, 
when it is said that by him he had given deliverance in victofj 
(as it is in the margin) unto Syria. And those things were now 
fresh in memory, being but two or three years before ; so that 
Naaman must needs know that it would be a remarkable thing if 
so great and terrible an enemy to Israel as he had been, and one 
that Israel had sufiered so much from, and an enemy that thej 
had now cause to fear above all enemies on earth, (the war be- 
tween the two nations yet continuing.) I say he must be sen- 
sible that it would be a remarkable thing if he came into the 
midst of the land of Israel, and to that great prophet that wu 
as it were the father of that people, and should be suffered to 
return again to his own country in peace ; and there is reason to 
think that he did not come and go without a trembling fear, lest 
he should be troubled on this score. It was the manner aroon* 
the heathen nations at that day, as the Syrians knew for their 
augurs, diviners, magicians, and those who had immediate in- 
tercourse with theii gods, which were their prophets, to inter- 
est themselves in affairs of their respective nations, and for the 
nations to have great dependence upon them in time of war. 
And they doubtless had heard the great things the prophets of 
Israel had done for them against their enemies, Moses, Samuel, 
and others, and how the prophets had assisted the Israelites 
againsttheir nation, even in that generation. (See 1 Kings xi.) 
And the Assyrians appear apt enough to discern how this very 
prophet Elisha assisted the king of Israel in war. (See the neU 
chapter.) And doubtless Naaman now looked u|>on this pro- 
phet who had healed him of his leprosy as a man of great 
}>ower, and judged that he could easily destroy him, and though 
as yet he had received no hurt from his |>ower, but great good, 
yet he seems to be full of fear and jealousy, as appears by this, 
that although Elisha had bid him go in peace, thereby signify- 
ing that no harm should be done him on account of the war 
with Syria, and for his being so great an enemy to Israel, ye* 
when he sees Gchazi coming after him, his fears arc excited 
anew. He was afraid that the prophet had a reckoning to re- 
quire of him, and therefore, as soon as Naaman sees biin, he 
immediately lighted down from his chariot to meet him, and 
his first question is, Is there peace 7 (for so it is in the Hebrew, 
\er3e 21.) 'i'he prophet was sensible what Naamaifs fears 
were, and probably knew that he made him the offer of a large 
present, partly for that end to secure his favour and friendship, 
that he might not hurt him, and that his fears were increased 


by his refusing his pfesent. He was afraid that this wai 
a sign that he would not be friends with him ; for accept- 
ing of presents was looked upon as » token and seal of friend* 
ship and peace. And therefore Mauoah's wife says, "If 
the Lord had been pleased to kill us, he would not have 
accepted an offering at our hands." And therefore Jacob urges 
Esau to accept his present, because he desired a seal of peace 
and friendship with Esau. And when after the prophet had 
utterly refused Naaman's present, Naaman professes a design 
of changing his religion. I'his probably still is one thing he 
has in view, thoroughly to reconcile this great prophet to him. 
The prophet fully knowing Naaman's circumstances and appre- 
hensions, it is with respect to. these things that he says to him, 
Go in peace, signifying no more than that he bid him farewell, 
and that though he had refused his present, yet he need not 
fear his troubling him, or taking the opportunity, now he was 
in the land of Israel, to do him any mischief on account of the 
war between Israel and Syria, or for his having been so terri- 
ble and destructive an enemy to his country, designedly avoid- 
ing making any reply at all to those things he had been saying 
ID him, as his request that he would give him two mules' bur- 
then of earth, that he might offer sacrifice to God, or his design 
which he had taken occasion to signify to him of bowing in the 
bouse of Rimmon. He neither answers his request by com- 
manding that any earth should be given him, or giving him 
leave^to take it. He says nothing at all about it, nor does he 
make any observation on his intimated design, but only takes 
leave of him, and lets him understand that he may go in peace, 
without fear of any such mischief as he seemed to be guarding 
against. And Naaman seems to understand him. When the 
prophet spake of peace, there is reason to think that he under- 
stood him to mean what he himself means, when presently af- 
ter he speaks of peace, saying to Gehazi, " Is there peaceT^ 
fearing that the prophet now intended to molest him as an ene- 
my. And the words themselves, according to the common use 
of such phrases, did not carry any more in them. Thus, when 
Judah, after the cup had been found ii^Benjamin's sack, says 
to Joseph, •' Behold, we aie my lord's servants, both we and 
he also with whom the cup is found," Joseph answers, Gen. 
xliv. 17, ''God forbid that I should do so; but the man in whose 
band the cup is found, he shall be my servant, and as for you, 
get you up in peace unto your father ;" as much as to say, I 
liave no quarrel with you for your brother's crime, but will dis- 
miss you without doing you any harm. So Gen. xxvi. 28, 29, 
•« Let us make a covenant with thee, that thou wilt do us no 
harm, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done thee 
VOL. IX. 41 


nothing but good, anil have sent thee away in peaee ;" and rer. 
Sly '* And Isaac sent them away, and tliey departed in peace." 
So it is noted of Abner, 2 Sam. iii. 21, after he had been car- 
rying on a war against David in favour of Ishbosheth, that he 
came and conversed with David, and David sent him away, 
and he went in peace, i. e. David did not do him any hurt for 
his having acted before as his enemy. So Josh. x. 20, 21, it 
is noted of the people of Israel, that after they had been carry- 
ing on a successful war against the Amorites, and had slaia 
them with a great slaughter, the people returned to the camp 
in peace, and that none moved his tongue against the children 
of Israel. Many other places might be mentioned where such 
phrases are used in the same manner. But I shall now mea« 
tion but one more in 2 Chron. xix. at the beginning. We are 
informed, that after Jehoshaphat had been to war with the 
Syrians, to assist Ahab, he returned to his house in fierce ; the 
meaning is only, that he^was not slain, as Ahab was, and re- 
turned without receiving any hurt in the war ; not that he re- 
turned under the divine smiles, ond with his favour and appro- 
bation, for he did not so return, but, on the contrary, he in hii 
return met with a severe rebuke from God, and denunciation tf 
his wrath for the business he had been about. 

Here, perhaps, it may be objected, that it is hardly credible 
that the prophet should make no reply to what Naaman bad 
said, the occasion so naturally leading him to it, and duty 
obliging him to manifest his disapprobation of it, if it was 

As to his not replying when the occasion naturally led to it, 
it may be observed, that the former part of Naaman's speech 
seemed much more to lead to and require some reply, whercio 
he desires of the prophet that he would give him two mules' 
burthen of earth ; what he there proposes, is in the form of a 
request to Elisha. " Shall there not then, I pray thee, be giv- 
en unto thy servant two mules' burden of earth?" &c. As to 
what he says concerning bowing in the house of Ilimmon, he 
therein indeed expresses his intention, but asks no request of 
the prophet. He does not ask his leave, or his opinion, or ad- 
vice, nor does he ask him any question, or projiose any thin^to 
him for his opinion, or as though he expected any reply. But 
yet it is evident, in fact, that he makes no reply at all to the 
former part of his speech, that was evidently proposed to him 
for that end, that he might have a reply- He consecrates no 
earth for an altar for ^aaman, he gives no orders to his ser- 
vant to give him his two mules' burthen of earth, nor does he 
say a word signifying that he consents he should take it, ap- 
proving of his design of building an altar with, but bids bim 


fiirewell, without any reply at all. And therefore it is not incre- 
dible that he should make nu reply to that part of his speech 
which comes in incidentally, that did in nowise so naturally lead 
the prophet to answer. 

As to the latter part of the forementioned objection which re- 
lates to the prophet's being bound in duty to forbid what Naaman 
declared to be his intention, or to have manifested his disapproba- 
tion of it, if it were unlawful, when so fair occasion was given 
him to express his mind concerning it : To this 1 would say, 

1. The prophets spake under the immediate direction of hea- 
ven ; they were to deliver God*s messages, and were only the 
agents to utter his words. In this whole affair of Naaman he 
acted in his character of a prophet, and Naaman is now address- 
ing him as such, and God was not pleased to put any reply into 
his mouth. 

2. God herein dealt with Naaman, as he commonly does with 
such hypocrites that pretend to be his servants, but are joined to 
idols. Hos. iv. 17. *' Epliraim is joined to idols, let him alone." 
Matth. XV. 14. " Let them alone, they be blind leaders of the 
blind.'^ It was just so with Naaman as it was with the elders of 
Israel in Chaldea, they pretend to worship the God of Israel alone, 
but yet living among idolaters, and in subjection to them, they 
thought they might comply with the people of the land, who now 
were their masters, in some of their idolatrous customs, seeing they 
must render themselves very obnoxious by refusing, and they came 
to the prophet Ezekiel to inquire of him something concerning 
this affair ; but God replies by the prophet, Ezek. xiv. 3, '* Son 
of man, these men have set up their idols in their heart, and put the 
stumbling block of their iniquity before their face, should 1 be 
inquired of at all by them .^" Again, chap. xx. 1, certain of the 
elders of Israel came to inquire of the Lord, and sat before me. 
Ver. 3, '' Thus saith the Lord God, Are ye come to inquire of me? 
as I live, saith the Lord, I will not be inquired^of by you," with ver. 
31. *' For when ye offer your gifts, when ye make your sons to 
pass through the fire, ye pollute yourselves with all your idols, 
even unto this day ; and shall I be inquired of by you, O house of 
Israel ? as I live, saith the Lord God, 1 will not be inquired of by 
you." That what was the especial reason of God's treating them 
^ith such manifestations of abhorrence, and refusing any inter- 
course with them, was, that they joined idolatry with a profession 
of bis name under a pretence of worshipping him, or had a dis- 
position so to do, is manifest by ver. 39, *' As for you, O house of 
Israel, thus saith the Lord God, Go ye, serve every one his idols, 
and hereafter also, if ye will not hearken unto me: but pollute ye 
my holy name no more with your gifts and your idols." And 
that the thing that was in their mind about which they came to Ese- 


kiel to inquire, was, whether they might not comply with the people 
they dwell among in some of their idolatrous customs, though 
they professed in heart to serve the true God only, is plain fron 
ver. 32. ^' And that which cometh into your mind shall not be at all 
that ye say, We will be as the heathen, as the families of the 
countries, to serve wood and stone." 

3. Though Elisha made no reply to what Naaman had said of 
bowing in the house of Rimmon, and so did not directly declare 
his dislike of it, yet his manner of treating Naaman on this occa- 
sion (though no other than friendly) if duly weighed, and ration- 
ally reflected upon by Naaman, would sufficiently show him tlie 
prophet's disapprobation of it, and in a manner tending more to 
convince and affect him than if he had dirertly forbid it. Naa- 
man made a proposal to Elisha of taking two mules' burthen of 
earth of the land of Canaan (as though he highly valued the very 
dust of that land) to build an altar to Elisha's God, doubtless ex- 
pecting that Elisha woulJ show himself much pleased with it, and 
desires to have this earth as given and consecrated by Elisha. 
But Elisha does not grant his request, he takes no notice of it, in- 
timating that he looked on his pretences not worthy of any regard, 
and immediately, without saying one word to what he had said, 
sends him away, and lakes his leave of him, as not thinking it worth 
his while to enter into any conversation with him about such a 
mongrel worship as he proposed, nor desiring any unnecessary 
communion with such an idolator. 

[170] 2 Kings vi. 6. " And be cut down a stick and ca>t it 
in thither, and the iron did swim." The iron that sunk in the 
water represents the soul of man that is like iron, excef*ding heavy 
with sin and guilt, and prone to sink down into destruction, and lie 
overwhelmed with misery, which is often compared to deep waters. 
The stick of wood that was cast in, represents Christ, that was of 
a contrary nature, li^ht, and tended not to sink, but to ascend in 
the water and swim ; ns Christ's being of a divine and perfectly holy 
nature, though he might be plunged into affliction and misery and 
death, yet he naturally tended to ascend out of it, it was impossi- 
ble he should be holden of it. Christ was plunged into wo and 
misery, and the death that he had deserved for ourselves to bring 
us out of it. The stick when that rose brought up the iron with it; 
So Christ when he rose brings up believers with him ; they are risen 
with Chrii't, that they may walk in newness of life. Christ is ihe 
first fruits, afterwards lliey that are Christ's ; he rose agnin for our 
justification, and hath thereby begotten us again to a lively hope. 

[222] 2 Chron. xxii. 1, 2. «*So Ahaziah, the son of Jehoram, 
king of Judaii, reigned; forty and two years old was Ahasiab 


'hen he began to reign." Here a great difficulty arises, for 
'hereas Joram was thirty and two years old when he began to 
eign, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem, and so he died 
rhen he was forty years old ; and immediately the inhabitants of 
erusalem set Ahaziah upon the throne, who was his youngest 
on, yet this Ahaziah was furty-two years old when he began to 
eign, and so he will prove to be two years older than his father. 

Anstcer. The book of Chronicles doth not mean in this place 
bat Ahaziah was so old when he began to reign, for the book of 
Gngs tells us plainly that he was twenty-two at that time, so that 
bose forty-two years have reference to another thing, particularly 
o the house of Omri, and not the age of Ahaziah, for if we count 
rum the beginning of the reign of Omri, we shall find that Aha- 
iah entered into his reign in the two and fortieth year from thence. 
The original words therefore are not to be translated as we render 
hero. Ahaziah was two and forty years old, but Ahaziah was the 
on of the two and forty years, and this was anciently observed in 
bat history among the Jews, called Soder Olam, or the order of 
he world. Now the reason why his reign is dated differently 
rem all the rest of the kings of Judah, is because he did according 
o all the wickedness of the house of Omri, for Athaliah his mo- 
her was Ahab's daughter, and she both perverted her husband 
'oram, and brought up this her son, Ahaziah, in all the idolatry 
if that wicked house, and therefore Ahaziah is not thought fit to 
te reckoned by the line of the kings of Judah, (and of the house 
»f David, and the ancestors of Christ,) but by ^the house of Oin- 
i and Ahab. Thus a particular mark is set upon Joram by the 
vangelist Matthew, who leaves out the three succeeding genera- 
ions, viz. Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah, and mentions Uzziah as 
he next. Here the three descents are omitted, according to what 
he Psalmist saith, Ps. xxxvii. 28, *' The seed of the wicked shall 
>e cut off." See the letter y which is the last letter of i^'^sc, the seed^ 
ind ofyjir^^ tlie wicked. But out of that acrostical and alphabetical 
i^salm, in that very place. Dr. Lightfoot, vol. 1, p. 417, saith that 
his omission is most divinely done from the threatening of the se- 
:ond commandment, *'Thou shalt not commit idolatry, for 1 will 
4sit the sins of the fathers on the children unto the third and 
burth generation." It is the manner of scripture very often to 
eave out men's names from certain stories and records, to show a 
listaste at some evil in them. Thus all Cain's posterity is blotted 
lut of the book of Chronicles, as it was out of the world by the 
lood. So Simeon is omitted in Moses's blessings, Deut. xxxiii. 
or his cruelty at Shechem, and to Joseph. So Dan and Ephraim, 
It the sealing of the Lord's people, Rev. chap. vii. because of 
dolalry, which began in the tribe of Dan. Judg. xviii. (and after- 
wards had its principal seat in the tribe of Ephraim.) So Joab, 


firom among David's worthies, 2SaiD.xxiii. because of his blfKHfi- 
ness to Abner and Amasa. And such another close iuiimatioo of 
God's displeasure at the wickedness of Joram, is to be seeo, 2 
Chron. xxii. 1, 2, where the reign of his son Ahaziah, is not dated 
according to the custom and- manner of the other kings of Judah, 
but by the style of the continuance of the house of Omri. 

And Ahaziah alone, among all the kings of Israel, might be 
reckoned in this manner, because in his time the whole house of 
Ahab was cut off by Jehu, after the battle at the field of Naboth, 
the Jezreelite, where Joram, the last king of Israel, of the house of 
Ahab, or Omri, was slain, and Ahaziah was slain with him, and 
two and forty of his brethren perished with the house of Ahab. 
(This I suppose is from Bedford.) It is not unasual in scripture 
to mention a number of years as a certain date, without express- 
ing the epocha. So in Ezek. i. l,and viii. 1, xx. 1, xxiv. l,xxvL 
1, xxix. 1, xxxi. 1, xxxii. 1. Chnp. xxix. 17, xxx. 20. That He- 
brew phrase, The son of (so fnany)yeHrt does not always signify 
the person's being so old. As for instance, xiii. 1, Saul retjgntd 
one year; in the original it is, Saul nas tlie son qf one year. It 
may be noted further, that the scriptures, in dating kings' reigns, 
do not always make the person's birth that epoch (torn whence the 
date is taken, as concerning Absalom, 2 Sam. xv. 7. See also 
Notes on 2 Kings xxiv. 8. 

[278] 2 Chron. xxv. 9. '< And Araaziah said to the man of 
God, But what shall we do for the hundred talents which I have 
given to the army of Israel .'* And the man of God answered, The 
Lord is able to give thee much more than this." Amaziah 
seemed to look upon it an hard thing to part with so great a sum. 
But the words that the prophet spake to him were not vain word^ 
God plentifully rewarded Amaziah for obeying God's command 
in this particular, for God gave him success against his enemies, 
that he was going to war with, and he obtained a victory over the 
children of Edom, as in verses 1 1, 12, so that he obtained the same 
end without the help of the army of Israel that he aimed at, bj 
paying the one hundred talents to hire their help, and therefore 
lost nothing by not taking them with him; and probably Ama- 
ziah was much more than paid for his hundred talents by the spoils 
of his enemies. But yet this was not all that God did in reward 
for his obeying his command by the prophet, for though he car- 
ried himself very wickedly after this, so as to bring God's judg- 
ments on himself during his life, yet God seems to have remem- 
bered what he had done in his son Uzziah's days ; and Amaziah's 
success in this very expedition against the Edomites was the occa- 
sion of vastly enriching his son LFzziah. For that which seems in 
times past to have been the principal source of the wealth of tlie 


kings of Judah, was the trade that they had by the Red sea to 
Ophir for gold, which was carried on from two seaport towns 
opon the Red sea, viz. Elath, and Ezion-gnber, which places 
were in the land of Edom, as appears by 1 Kings ix. 26, 27. 
** And king Solomon made a navy of ijiips in Ezion-geber, which 
IS beside Elalh, onjthe shore of the Red sen, in the land of Edom ;" 
and by means of this trade, very much it was in all probability 
that Solomon so enriched the country in his time, so as to make 
silver as plenty as stones there. The principal sea-port, that was 
made use of until Jehoshaphat's time, was Ezion-geber ; but Je- 
boshaphat having there left his fleet that he had prepared to send 
from thence to Ophir, his ships being broken to pieces on the 
rocks there, as 1 Kings xxii. 48, they seem after that to have made 
use of Elath instead of Ezion-geber, as being a safer harbour. 
The kings of Judah continued in the possession of this trade to 
Ophir, as long as they continued in the possession of the land of 
£dom, where those sea-ports were, which was until the days of 
Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat ; but in his days Edom revolted 
from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves, 
m8 2 Kings viii. 20. And so the kings of Judah from that time 
lost Elath and their trade to Ophir, until the days of Amaziah, 
who conquered them, and brought them into subjection again in 
that expedition spoken of in the context, to assist in which he had 
given the one hundred talents to the army of Israel. But God 
gave him such success without this hired army, that he brought 
the country under, and so recovered Elath ; and his son Uzziah 
rebuilt it, and so renewed the trade to Ophir from thence, as in 
the next chapter, verses 1, 2. <* Then all the people of Judah took 
Uzxiah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the 
room of his father, Amaziah. He built Elath, and restored it to 
Jadah, and by this means he became an exceeding wealthy prince, 
and filled the land with riches; and therefore Isaiah, who in the 
beginning of his prophecy, prophecied in the days of Uzziah, says, 
Isai. ii. 7, *' The land also is full of silver, and there is no end of 
their treasures." 

<* This king lost one hundred talents by his obedience, and we 
find just that sum given to his grandson, Jotham, as a present, 
chap, xxvii. 5. Then the principal was repaid, and for interest, 
ten thousand measures of wheat, and as many of barley.'' Henry. 

[132] Nchem. ix. 14. *' And madest known unto them the 
hdly Sabbath." It seems that before they had lost the Sab- 
bath, that is, they had lost the beginning and ending of the 
week, reckoning from the creation, until God made it known 
to them, upon occasion of their being brought out of Egypt 


on tho same day of the week, and there was thereby new occa- 
sion given for this sanctifying fhat duy. 

[46] Esther — The Book of Esther, It appears to me vciy 
probable, that this book of Esther is an history that is a shadow 
of gospel things and times, by the agreement of it with events, 
and the agrccableness to the names of other typical histories 
of the Old Testament. The great feast that Ahasuerus made, 
is the gospel feast. Christ's incarnation, life, and death, and 
the benefits thereof, arc frequently represented both in the Old 
Testament and New, by the making of a feast ; the feast is 
made both unto great and small, chap. v. agreeing with the 
universality of the gospel offer. It was made in the king*s pa- 
lace, as the gospel feast is made in the house of God ; it was 
a rich and glorious feast, verses 6 and 7, answering to the ex- 
cellency of gospel benefits. None was compelled, but every 
man ate and drank according to his pleasure; so the gospel 
benefits are offered to all, but every one is left to his own choice, 
none are compelled. Yashti, the queen, is the church, or God's 
people, who is called the queen in gold of Ophir. Vashti is 
sent for to this feast to appear before the king; so when the 
gospel feast was made, the call was made more especially to 
the Jews that had hitherto been God's people ; they were a 
long while urged to come, and earnestly invited, before God 
left them and turned to the Gentiles. Vashti, though she was 
the king's own wife, refused to come, for she had a feast of her 
own ; so the Jews, though God's peculiar people, refused to 
come to the glorious feast he made through their pride and 
vanity, trusting in their own righteousness, in their own wis- 
dom, being foolishly fond and proud of their own ceremonies, 
temple, and superstitions, being lifted up that they were Abra- 
ham's seed and God's peculiar peo|>le, as queen Vashti*s hij^h 
station made her too proud to obey the king. Upon this, Aha- 
suerus repudiates Vashti, and gives the royal estate to another. 
So we find the rejection of the Jews and calling of the Gen- 
tiles compared to God's repudiating his ancient church, and 
taking another better than she. Esther was exceedingly fair 
and beautiful, and the king delighted in her. So Christ's 
heart is ravished with the beauty of the church. Mordecai is 
the gospel ministry ; he nourished and brought up Esthei, and 
was as a father to her; chap. ii. ver. 7; andso the church is nour- 
ished by God's ministers. He brought her to Ahasuerus ; so 
the gospel ministers present the church as a chaste virgin to 
Christ, 2 Cor. xi. 2. Esther must be purified before she is 
married to the king, six months with oil of rayrrh, and six 


months with sweet odour^i, so God's people must be prepared, and 
purified, and sanctified with the sweet graces of God's Spirit be- 
fore they are admitted to the full enjoyment of God's love. So 
the Christian church was three centuries preparing, before she had 
the royal crown put on her head, as in the house of Constantine 
the Great. When the king set the royal crown upon her head, 
and made her queen instead of Vashti, then the king made a 
great feast unto all his princes and servants, even Esther's feast; 
and he made a release to the provinces, and gave gifts according 
to the state of the king, chap. viii. So when God's people are 
sufficiently prepared, they shall be admitted to that glory which 
is compared to a feast, and shall receive gifts according to the 
state of the King of kings. Likewise in Constantine's time, it 
was a time of joy and rejoicing to Christians, as the time of a 
feast, and a time of glorious liberty. Mordecai used to sit in 
the gate of the king's palace ; the place of God's ministers is in 
bis house, which is the gate of heaven, which is God's palace. 

AAer these things God promoted Haman the grand enemy of 
God's people above all others (chap, iii.) who seems to typify An- 
tichrist (as will appear probably by the agreement in many things) 
whom God in his providence advanced above all, and gave him 
dominion over all the world. Haman was exceeding proud and 
haughty ; so Antichrist is the most remarkable son of pride that 
ever was, exalting himself above all that is called Ood, or is wor^ 
shipped, showing himself that he is God, having 9 mouth speak- 
ing great things. Haman, like Antichrist, loved to have every 
body else bow to him, and could not bear it that Mordecai did 
not bow, nor do him reverence, as the true ministers of God will 
not submit to do obeisance to the Pope and his haughty clergy, 
which has always filled them with the greatest rage. Haman, 
like Antichrist, was of a most malicious, persecuting spirit, and 
persecuted and sought the destruction of all the people of God. 
Chap. iii. verse 6. *' And he thought scorn to lay hands on Morde- 
cai alone ; for they had showed him the people of Mordecai : 
Wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that were 
throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of 
Mordecai." The king gave him power to do as he would with 
this people. Chap. iii. 11. *' And the king said unto Haman, The 
silver is given unto thee, the people.also, to do with them as seem- 
eth good to thee ;'• so God gave Antichrist power over his people. 
Rev. xiii. 8. " And it was given unto him to make war with the 
saints, and to overcome them ; and power was given him over all 
kindreds, and tongues, and nations;" and chap. xvii. 17. "For 
God hath put it into their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree 
and give their kingdom unto the beast." Deliverance is obtain- 
ed for the Jews by Esther's humble prayer ; so it will be by the 

VOL. IX. 42 


emroest prayer of the charch, that God's people shall be deliwrrd 
from Aotichrist, and God will extend the golden scepter of kn 
grace, as the king to Esther. At that time the good vorks of 
God^i people and ministers shall come into remeaibrance to he 
recorded, as Mordecai's were ; and God will not rest until he 
has delivered them, as llordecai's good deeds were found by the 
king in the records. Haman exceedingly aiiected pcNup aid 
sovereignty, he desired to wear the same apparel that the kiig 
wore, and to ride on the king's horse, and to wear the kiag't 
crown, and to be honoured as the king himself; so AntichriK 
would be honoured and obeyed as God himself^ would assise 
the power that belongs to God alone, and is lor wearing the 
crown of Christ himself, and usurping the throne, showing kin- 
self that he is God. But Haman, to his great mortification, seei 
Hordecai exalted to this same honour, and which is more morti- 
fying, he is forced to do it himself, and he is put in subjection to 
him, and made to run before him like a servant ; he brought hiu- 
self to this by the very means by which he intended to advance 
himself. Thus God is wont to do, to order it with respect to the 
enemies of bis people : those same means by « hicb thej proadlf 
seek to advance themselves, God turns to their depression ; and 
thus God has done and will do by Antichrist ; God will exsilt Ui 
people, and make them to reign with Christ, and to sit dom 
with him in his throne, and to be partakers of his glory, and sbail 
be arrayed with holiness, which is Christ's own royal robe, and 
Christ's delight in them to honour them shall be publicly mani- 
fested, and his saints shall reign on earth, and Antichrist and all 
their enemies shall be put under their feet, and they shall gnaw 
their tongues for pain. Haman at last was hanged on the same 
gallows that he prepared for Mordecai. So God is wool to 
bring upon his people*s enemies the very evil they intend for 
them, and they fall into the pit which they have digged, so it will 
be with Antichrist. Rev. xiii. 10. "He that leadeth into cap- 
tivity, shall go into captivity ; he that killeth with the sword, 
must be killed with the sword ;" and Rev. xviii. 6. •* Reward 
her even as she rewardeth you, and double unto her double a^ 
cording to her works; in the cup which she hath filled, fill to her 
double." Haman intended to hang Mordecai — a cursed death; 
so the Pope dispenses God's curses, but at length falls into it. So 
we find, chap, viii., that the house of Haman was given to queen 
Esther, and Mordecai is put in his place ; so shall it be with the 
saints. Europe, which has been the house of Antichrist, shall be 
in the possession of protestaots, and all his power and dominioo 
shall be given to the saints. The Jens' glorious victory over'ail 
their enemies after those things, the growing greatness and ho- 
nour of Mordecai, the gladness and seeking of the Jews, and dicir 


peace and prosperity afterwards, are figures of the glorious peace 
and prosperity of the church after the final overthrow of Anti- 

[145] Book of Job, It seems to have been the custom of those 
ihal were counted their wise men in the early ages of the world, 
when they discoursed upon any head of wisdom, or delivered their 
minds on moral, spiritual, or philosophical subjects, to address 
each other in long set discourses, in a style at once lofty and poeti- 
cal, dark and mysterious, which was their manner of teaching 
and discoursing. Now Job was one of those wise men that exer- 
cised himself very much in contemplation and instruction, and 
it seems that those that answered him were otherwise men that 
were his companions, that he nr?ed to converse with upon matters 
of wisdom before. And therefore we have so many of this kind of 
discourses with Job upon this notable occasion. These discourses 
were called parables. So Balaam took up his parable ; so we 
read that Job continued his parable, chap, xxvii. 1, and xxix. 1. 
We read of this kind of speeches oftentimes in the Old Testa- 
ment, ander the name of parables, as Prov. xxvi. 7.9. "The 
legs of the lame are not equal, so is a parable in the mouth of 
fools. As a thorn goeth into the hand of the drunkard, so is a 
parable in the mouth of fools." It was only they that were, or 
would be accounted wise men, that used to utter their minds in 
such parables. Ps. xlix. 3, 4. '' My mouth shall speak of wisdom, 
and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding. I will 
incline mine ear to a parable, I will open my dark saying upon 
the harp." And Ps. Ixxviii. 2. " I will open my mouth in a pa- 
rable, 1 will utter dark sayings of old." 

[202] The hook of Job — Extract out of Bedford* $ Scripture 
Chronatogyt p. 365, 366. " The place where Job lived is generally 
supposed to be Idumea, because we meet with a person called Uz, 
among the sons of Esau, Gen. xxxvi. 28, from whom a part of 
Idumea was anciently called the land of Uz. Lam. iv. 21. We 
meet also with Eliphaz, the sonof Esau, and Teman his son ; Gen. 
xxxvi. 16 ; and therefore it is probable that Eliphaz, the Tema- 
nite, the friend of Job, might be Johab, one of the kings that 
reigned in the land of Edom. Gen. xxxvi. 33. 

*• But in answer to all this it may be considered that there is an- 
other Uz, the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen. xxii. 20, 21, 
who married M ilcah, of the same family from which Isaac and 
Jacob took wives by the direction of their parents, and conse- 
quently most likely to be a family in which religion might be kept 
np in that purity as we find it to be in Job. 

*« As to the land of Uz, the Septuagint calls it AusitiSj but never 
calls that Uz in the land of Edom by this name. Nahor lived at 


Haran, on the sooth of the Euphrates, and no doubt his sod might 
live with him, and his family give a name to this country ; and we 
find in Ptolemy a people called AUiia, which the learned Bochart 
supposes should be written Ausit^e^ who extended themselves froa 
the river Euphrates southward into Arabia Deserta, and here both 
he and bishop Patrick, our excellent commentator, supposes Job 
to have been born. Besides, Job is said to be one of the greatest 
of all the men of the east. Now the land of Uz, in Idumea, can in 
no respect be called the east. It lay almost north from Egypt, 
and south from Canaan, and southwest from.the country of Ui- 
dtan, where Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, lived. But the 
south part of the country oCAusitis or Uz, lay not only east from 
Canaan, but eastward from all the countries in which the Israel- 
ites travelled whilst they were in the wilderness. As for the name 
of Eliphaz, it is not impossible but two men in different countriei 
might have the same name, and then Eliphaz, the friend of Job, 
might not be the son of Esau from Teman, but the son of Ishmaei 
from Tema, Gen. xxv. 13. 15, whom Abraham in his life-time 
sent eastward to inhabit the east country. Gen. xxv. 6, and 
where we find them in the neighbourhood of Uz. In those parti 
it is probable that Bildad the Shuhiie, a son of Abraham, from 
Shuah byKeturah, (Gen. xxv. 1,2) might Jive, viho was seat 
thither with the rest of his brethren, (as in the formentioned 
Gen. xxv. 6.) And as Duz was the brother of Uz, Gen. xxii.20, 
21, so Elihu the Buzite, being of that family, might well live io 
those parts, especially since he seems to be of a religious family, 
the son of Barachel, that is he blesseth God, or God blesseth. 
Besides this Elihu was of the kindred of Ram, or Aram, that is a 
Syrian, as Labnn was also called. Gen. xxviii. 5, who dwelt 
with his ancestors in Padan-aram, or the country of Aram. (But 
it is more probable that the Ram here mentioned is the Aram men- 
tioned Gen. xxii. 21.) To this may be added that the Sabeans 
who took away Job's oxen, and the Chaldeans who took away his 
cattle, were near neighbours to this part of the country of Uz, the 
son of Nahor; but lay so remote from Uz, in Idumea, that they 
could not make an excursion thither. It is allowed also that Job 
spoke the Arabic language in perfection, whence he is called ike 
Divine of ike Arabians, and the book wliich goes under his name 
is full of Arabic words and phrases ; and we may more ration- 
ally expect this language to be spoken in Arabia itself than in 
Idumea, and therefore there is little reason to think that Moses 
would call him Job in one place, and Jobah in another, where the 
difference of words is not only evident in every translation, but in 
the Hebrew language they do not begin with the same letter. The 
one avK, and the other 33r." Thus far Bedford. It seems likely 
that the land of Uz where Job lived, was the latter Uz, or the 


Aasitis of the Septuagint, upon this account ; it is much more 
probable that we should find so much of religion and piety, 
and of the presence of God in the country of the posterity of 
Nahor, who is spoken of as an holy worshipper of the true 
God, whose covenant God was (Gen. xxxi. 53,) the God of 
Abraham, and the God of Nahor, than in Idumca, among the 
posterity of so wicked a man as Esau, who is branded in scrips 
ture for folly and impiety, of whom and his posterity it is re- 
corded that God hated them, who was undutiful to his parents, 
and a persecutor, who began to struggle with Jacob in the womb, 
to signify that he and his posterity should be the enemies of the 
church, and whose posterity are always spoken of as the 
church's enemies ; so that oftentimes the children of Edom are 
put for all the church's enemies. In general it is much more 
likely to find piety among the posterity of Ishmael, than of 
Esau ; for there is no such promise concerning Esau that he 
should live before God, as there is concerning Ishmael. And 
accordingly we find Eliphaz in this book an holy man, of Ish- 
mael's posterity. Esau's posterity, as they descended from a 
wicked father, so they chiefly descended from mothers of the 
accursed nations of Canaan that were Esau's wives, and were 
the more likely on that account to have wickedness descend to 
them, and God's curse entailed upon them. 

Concerning the penman of the book of Job, Bedford thinks 
that it was written originally by some person that belonged to 
Arabia, the country where the things were transacted and spo- 
ken, because the style is not like the rest of the books of Mo- 
ses, or indeed to any other parts of the Old I'estament, but 
more concise and obscure, and that there are such a vast num- 
ber of Arabic words and phrases to be found in it. It has 
been observed by several that the book of Job abounded with 
Arabisms, so that Job has been called the Arabian divine. And 
he thinks that the substance of this book was written originally 
by Elihu, one of the speakers in it, first because when Job's 
friends who came to lament with him, and to comfort him, are 
mentioned, Elihu is not named among the number, because he 
himself was the historian and penman, who gave this account, 
and therefore he named not himself when he named the rest ; 
and secondly, because he thought that he seems to speak of 
himself as the historian. Chap, xxxii. 15, 16, 17. •* They 
were amazed, they answered no more, they left ofiT speaking 
when I had waited, for they spake not, but stood still, and an- 
swered no more. I said, I will answer also ; 1 also will show 
mine opinion." 

It looks to me probable, chiefly on the former of these rea- 
sons, and if it was written originally by an inhabitant of the 


country, as the fercmentioned reason of the Arabic style a^ 
gues strongly that it was, no person seems to be so likely u 
Elihu ; for as it was doubtless at first written by an inspired 
person, and probably, therefore, by some person in that coun- 
try of eminent piety and wisdom, for such were the persooi 
that were wont to l)e inspired, and to be improved as the pen- 
man of holy inspired writings ; and it probably also was some 
person that lived near the time when the things were transact- 
ed, for true religion vanished away out of Arabia not long af- 
ter, and such men therefore were not there to be found; and it 
is not probable that there were any other persons of such emi- 
nent piety and wisdom as those mentioned in that book; but 
of them, bcsure, no one was so likely to be the penman as Eli- 
hu, who stood must indifferent in the affair, and was most ap- 
proved of by God in what he said and acted in it, of any of 
them. Bedford also thinks it probable tbtkt Moses, when he 
kept the flock of Jethro, the priest of Midian, might meet with 
this book, which seems the more probable, because priests, 
even in all nations, and in the most ancient times, used to be 
the keepers of books and records, especially those that were 
looked upon sacred ; and it is very likely that a priest of Mi- 
dian should have this book, for the Midianites were related to 
the people that dwelt in Job's country, and particularly to odo 
of the speakers in the affair, viz. Bildad, the Shuhite, for 
Shuah and Midian were brothers, being both the childrea of 
Abraham, by Kcturah, Gen. xxv. 1, 2. And it was so early 
then that the relation was more fresh in their memory, and it 
is more likely still that Jethro should have such a book, he be- 
ing a priest of the true God, like Mclchizcdeck. And Moses 
might probably take the more notice of the book, for its being 
so adapted to his own improvement in the banished, afflicted 
circumstances he was then in, and also the circumstances of 
his brethren, the children of Israel in their great affliction in 
^?yp^» ^^^ whose sake Bedford supposes he translated it into 
Hebrew, to teach them patience under their afflictions, and 
added the historical part, or he might alter the phrasing of 
the historical part, and add such expressions as would make 
it more intelligible to his own people, which were needless in 
the country where the things were transacted. 

[Ill] Job viii. 8. "For inquire, I pray thee, of the former 
age, and prepare thyself for the search of ih'3 fathers." The 
people of God that lived before there was any written revela- 
tion, depended very much u|K)n the teaching and tradition of 
their fathers ; those that lived near the flood were but a few 
removes from Adam, they might have Adam's own instruc- 


tioDfl, without having them through many hands, and those 
that lived in Job's time they had doubtless abundance of tra- 
ditions from the antediluvians, who might be instructed from 
Adam himself, and who, through their vast age, had abundant 
opportunity to acquire great knowledge and experience* It is 
Tery probable that much of the learning that was in the hea* 
then world was the corrupted remains of what wap declared to 
mankind by those that came out of the ark. Job lived in early 
days after the flood, and there is abundance of philosophy in 
this book, which in all probability they derived by tradition 
from their fathers, quoted in this book, as here in this place, 
and XV. chap. 10. 18, 19 verses, there is a plain referring to 
tradition from the beginning of the world, or from the second 
beginning after the flood, it is evident, by the 19th vejse, they 
quoted the fathers then as we do the scriptures now, 

[101] Job xxvi. 7. ** He stretcheth out the north over the 
empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing." By 
stretching out the north over the empty place in the former 
part of the verse, seems to be meant the extending the north- 
ern parts of the wide plain of the earth, as they took it to be, 
ever an empty abyss of space, much the same as hanging the 
earth upon nothing in the latter part of the verse. 

[115] Jobxxxiii. 14, 15, 16. 'Tor God speaketh once, yea, 
twice In a dream, in a vision of the night." Also, chap* 
ir. 12, 13, &c. It was a common thing, before there was any 
written revelation, for God to reveal himself to holy men in 
Tiaions and dreams. See Numb. xii. 6, Gen. xv. 1, and ver. 12 
to the end. Gen. xlvi. 2. 16. '* Then he opencth the ears of 
men, and sealeth their instruction." By affliction, that is, 
when men will not hearken to God's instructions and warnings 
ID bis word, (that in those days was wont to be given after this 
manner, and delivered from father to son,) then he chastens 
them in his providence to make them hear. 

[149] Job xxxvi. 30. *< Behold, he spreadeth his light upon 
it, and covereth the bottom of the sea." In the original, the 
roots of the sea, by which he means the extreme parts of the 
sea, where the clouds and the sea meet in the horizon, and 
those parts of the sea that are below the horizon, which they 
conceived to be drawn down, which is agreeable to the meta-* 
phor used in the foregoing, wherein the clouds that overspread 
the skies are represented by the curtains of a tabernacle ; he 
spreadeth his light upon it, that is, upon his tabernacle, upon 


those curtains, the clouds, which are like a bright covering on 
the inside of it. 

[434] Concerning the Book of Psalms. That the pennio 
of the Psalms did pretend to speak and write by the inspira- 
tion of the Spirit of God as much as the prophets when tliej 
wrote their prophecies, the following things do confirm : 

1. Singing divine songs was of old one noted effect of the 
inspiration of the Spirit of God in the prophets, insomuch that 
such singing was called by the name of prophesying. 1 San. 
X. 5, 6. '' Thou shalt meet a company of prophets comiag 
down from the high place, with a psaltery, and a tabret, and 
a pipe, and a harp before them, and they shall prophesyi and 
the Spirit of the Lord will come upon thee, and thou shalt pro- 
phesy with them." See also 1 Chron. xxv. 1, 2, 3.\ TUi 
seems to have been the most ancient way of prophesying, la; 
spired persons of old used to utter themselves in a paiable, at 
sometimes it is called, or a kind of song. Tj^iia it was that 
Miriam uttered herself when she did the part of a proplieten, 
Exod. XV. 20, 21, '' And Miriam, the prophetessi the sister of 
Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went 
out after her, with timbrels and with dances, and Miriam an- 
swered them. Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed glo* 
riously, the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea." 
She in the xii. chap, of Numb. ver. 2, boasts that God had 
spoken by her as well as by Moses. She seems to havie refer- 
ence to this time, for it does not appear that God ever had spo- 
ken by her at any other time, and it is probable that it was 
from her being inspired at that time, (or at least chiefly,) that 
she was called a prophetess. And this was the way that Moses 
delivered his chief and fullest prophecy concerning the future 
state of Israel, and the church of God, and the world of man- 
kind, in that song in the xxxii. of Deut. ; the words were all 
indited by God, as appears by Deut. xxxi. 19, 20, 21. And 
Moses's blessing of the children of Israel, and his prophecy of 
their future state, in Deut. iii., is delivered song-wisCf which es- 
pecially appears in the beginning and ending. And so are 
Balaam's prophecies, or parables. Jacob's blessing and pro- 
phecies concerning the future state of the posterity of his 
twelve sons, Gen. xlix., is delivered in a like style, as maybe 
plain to any one that observes. Zechariah is said to prophesy 
in uttering a song, Luke i. 67. 

2. Singing those very psalms in the sanctuary by the musi- 
cians that David appointed, is called prophesying, 1 Chron* 
xxv. 1, 2, 3. And Asaph is called a seer, or prophet i and re- 



(Presented as speaking as such in uttering those psalms that he 
penned, 2 Cbron. xxix. 30. 

3. We are expressly informed of David in an eminent instance 
wherein he uttered himself in a remarkable manner as the sweet 
psalmist of Israel, that he did profess himself to speak by the im- 
mediate inspiration of the Spirit of God. 2 Sam. xxiii. 1, 2, be* 
'*Now these be the last words of David." (And then in what next 
follows David^s words begin, as may be confirmed by comparing 
them with Num. xxiv. 3, 4. 15, 16.) *^ David, the son of Jesse, 
hath said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of 
the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said : The 
Sprit of the Lord spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. 
The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me." In its 
Jbeiog said that these are the last words of David, it is implied that 
there had been many other words ; that he, as the sweet psalmist 
of Israel, had uttered many things before ; and when David, in 
these bis last words, says, ** The Spirit of the Lord spake by me»" 
it must be understood of all these words spoken of in this place, 
whether mentioned or referred to, all the words that he had utter- 
ed as the sweet psalmist of Israel. And there can, perhaps, no 
other good reason be given why he should be mentioned under 
that character of the sweet psalmist of Israel here in the introduc- 
tion of these his last words, rather than all other places of his 
history, but only because these were the last words that David 
had uttered as the sweet psalmist of Israel, and as it were the sum 
of all those preceding records referred to, expressing the main 
drift and substance of those holy songs he had sung by the inspi- 
ration of the Spirit of God all his life time, and the tdtimumf the 
chief thing he had in view in those psalms. 

4. It is evident that the penman of the Psalms did pretend to 
speak by a spirit of prophecy, because the Psalms are full of pro- 
phecies of future events, as Ps. xi. 6. Ps. zxii. 27, to the end. Ps. 
xxzvii. 9, 10, 11. Ps. Ix. 6, 7, 8. Ps. Ixiv. 7, to the end. Ps. 
lxviii.31. Ps. Ixix. 34, 35, 36. Ps. Ixxii. Ps. hxxvi. 9. Ps. xcvi. 
13. Ps. cii. 13 — 22. Ps. cviii. Ps. cxxxviii. 4, 5. Ps. cxlix. 7, 8, 
9. And many other things in the Psalms are uttered in a pro- 
phetical manner and style. 

5. It is also most manifest that the penman of the Psalms did 
pretend to speak by the Spirit, and in the name of the Lord, as 
the prophets did. By this, that God in the Psalms is very often 
represented as speaking, and the words are evidently represented 
as his words, in like manner as in the prophets, as Ps. xiv. 4. Ps. 1. 

7 14. Ps. Ixxxi. 6— 16. Ps. Ixxxii. Ps. liii. 4. Ps.lxxxi. Ps. 

Ixxxvii. Ps. xci. 14, 15, 16. Ps. xcv. 8, 9, 10, 11. Ps. cxxxii. 14, to 
the end. Ps. xlv. 16, to the end. Ps. li. 6, to the end. Ps. xxxii.8, 

VOL. IX. 43 


to the end. Ps. Ix, 6, 7, 8, Ps. Ixviii. 13. Ps. Ixxxix. 3, 4. 19— 
37. Ps. cviii. 7, 8, 9. Ps. ex. 1. 4. 

[440.] The Book of Psalms. It is a farther confirmatioD of 
these things that we find that David very early was endowed with 
iDe spirit of prophecy and miracles ; he wrought a miracle when 
he slew the lion and the bear, and acted and spake by that spirit of 
prophecy when he went forth against Goliath, as is very apparent 
by the story. 

[506] The Book of Psalms, That this is divinely inspired may 
be further argued from this, tliat it is every way probable that 
what are called the songs of Zion, and the Lord's song in Ps. 
cxxxvii. 3, 4, are songs contained in this book. It appears that 
Zion, or God's church, had sacred songs fancied as such in the 
world, and that they were properly called the Lord's songs, which 
argues that they had God for their author, and were consecrated 
by his authority, as a word being called the trord of the Lordt 
argues it to be a word that came from God, and as a bouse being 
called the house of the Lord, signifies its being an house conse- 
crated to God by divine authority. So of the Lard's day^ ike 
city of God, the altar of God, fyc. tfc. 

When all the utensils of the temple were exactly, and even in 
the most minute circumstances, formed by divine direction, it would 
be strange if the songs of the temple, which are vastly more im- 

Eortantand material in the worship of God, should not be formed 
y divine direction. These were not merely external circnm- 
Btances of divine worship as the other, but the very matter of the 
worship. As David was divinely instructed in all the place, and 
form, and instruments of the temple, and all the new ordinances 
relating to the attendance and orders of the priests, and the Le- 
vites, and the circumstances of their ministration, and particularly 
of the singers, it would be strange if the songs that they were to 
sing, the most material and effectual thing of all, should not be of 
divine appointment, but should be left wholly to human wisdom 
and invention. (See 1 Chron. vi. 31, and xvi/4— 7. xxiii. 6.25, 
to the end, and chap. xzv. and xxvlii. 11, to the end, especially 
ver. 19 and 21. 

We have an account that David and Samuel the seer acted 
jointly in appointing the orders of the porters of the Levitcs, i 
Chron. ix. 22, and much more the orders of the Levites that 
were to be singers. It is noted that some of those Levites them- 
selves that were appointed by David as chief musicians, or singers, 
were seers, or prophets. So of Heman, 1 Chron. xxv. 5. And 
the expressions there lead us in this verse and the context, to sup- 
pose that he acted as a prophet in that matter in assisting David 
in composing psalms, and appointing the order of singers. Yea, 


it is expressly said that the order of the singers was appointed by 
David with the assistance of the prophets, by the coromaDdmeDt 
of the Lord. 2 Chron. xxix. 25. *« And he set the Levites in the 
house of the Lord with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps, 
according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king's 
seer, and of Nathan the prophet : for so was the commandment of 
the Lord by his prophets." And Asaph, another of the chief musi- 
cians, and penman of many of the psalms, is spoken of as acting 
as a seer, or prophet, in this matter. Ver. 30. ** Hezekiah the king 
commanded the Levites to sing praise unto the Lord, with the 
words of David and of Asaph the seer." (See the like of Jedu- 
tbuDy chap. XXXV. 15.) 

[95] Psalmviii. 2. <*Outof the mouth of babes and sucklings 
hast thou ordained strength, because of thine enemies, that thou 
noightest still the enemy and the avenger." It seems to me that 
mankind are principally intended here by babes and sucklings ; 
it is of God's loving kindness to men that the psalmist is speak- 
ing, to the end of the psalm ; by the enemy and the avenger is 
meant the devil. Men are as babes and sucklings in comparison 
of the angelic nature. By so advancing the human nature, the 
devils are disappointed and triumphed over. 

[298] Psalm xvii. 4. " Concerning the works of men, by the 
word of thy lips, I have kept me from the paths o( the detlroyerJ^ 
By the destroyer here is doubtless meant the devil, the same with him 
that is called Abaddon and Apollyon in the Revelations. God's 
people under the Old Testament were sensible that there was an 
evil and malignant spirit, or invisible agent, that sought the ruin 
of man, as even the heathen nations had a notion of evil daemons. 
This evil spirit the Hebrews were wont to call by several names; 
one was Satan, or the adversary. So it is said Satan stood up 
against Israel, and moved David to number the people. So in 
several other places in the Old Testament. Another name was 
the destroyer; so devils are called destroyers in Job xxxiii. 22. 
*« Yea, his soul draweth nigh unto the grave, and his life to the 

[328] Psalm xix. 4, 5, 6. " In them hath he set a tabernacle 
for the sun ; which is as a bridegroom coming out of his cham- 
ber, and rcjoiceth as a strong man to run a race : His going 
forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends 
of it, and nothing is hid from the heat of it." It appears to me 
very likely that the Holy Ghost in these expressions which he 
most immediately uses about the rising of the sun, has an eye to 
the rising of the Sun of Righteousness from the grave, and that 


the expressions that the Holy Ghost here ases are conformed to 
such a view. The times of the Old Testament, are tiroes of 
night in comparison of the gospel day, and are so represented in 
scripture, and therefore the approach of the day of the New Tes- 
tament dispensation in the birth of Christ, is called the day 
spring from on high visiting the earth. Luke i. 73. " Through 
the tender mercy of our God, whereby the day spring from on 
high hath visited us," and the commencing of the gospel dispensa- 
tion as it was introduced by Christ, is called the Sun of Righteoot- 
oess rising. Mai. iv. 2. But this gospel dispensation commen- 
ces with the resurrection of Christ. Therein the Sun of Righte- 
ousness rises from under the earth, as the sun appears to do in 
the morning, and comes forth as a bridegroom. He rose as the 
joyful, glorious bridegroom of his church ; for Christ, especially 
as risen again, is the proper bridegroom, or husband of his 
church, as the apostle teaches. Rom. vii. 4. *' Wherefore, my 
brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of 
Christ, that ye should be married to another, even to him who is 
raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit to God." 

He that was covered with contempt, and overwhelmed in a de- 
luge of sorrow, hath purchased and won his spouse ; (for be loved 
the church and gave himself for it, that he might perfect it to 
himself;) now he comes forth as a bridegroom to bring home bis 
purchased spouse to him in spiritual marriage, as he soon after 
did in the conversion of such multitudes, making his people will- 
ing in the day of his power, and hath also done many times since, 
and will do in a yet more glorious degree. And as the sun when 
it rises comes forth like a bridegroom gloriously adorned, so 
Christ in his resurrection entered on his state of glory. After his 
state of sufferings, he rose to shine forth in ineffable glory as 
the King of Heaven and earth, that he might be a glorious bride- 
groom in whom his church might be unspeakably happy. 

Here the psalmist says that God has placed a tabernacle for 
the sun in the heavens, so God the Father had prepared an abode 
in heaven for Jesus Christ ; he had set a throne for him there, to 
which he ascended after he rose. The sun after it is risen ascends 
up to the midst of heaven, and then at that end of its race, des^- 
cends again to the earth ; so Christ when he rose from the grave 
ascended up to the height of heaven and far above all heavens, 
but at the end of the gospel-day will descend again to the earth. 

It is here said that the risen sun rejoiceth as a strong man to 
run his race. So Christ when he rose, rose as a man of war, as 
the Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle ; he rose 
to conquer his enemies, and to show forth his glorious power in 
subduing all things to himself, during that race which he had to 


ron, which is from his resurrectioD to the end of the world, when 
lie will retnrn to the earth again. 

Here the going forth of the sun is from the end of heaven and 
bis circuit to the end of it, and that nothing is hid from the heat 
thereof; so Christ rose from the grave to send forth his light and 
troth to the utmost ends of the earth, that had hitherto been con* 
fined to one nation, and to rule over all nations in the kingdom 
of his grace. Thus his line goes out through all the earth, and 
his words to the end of the world, so that there is no speech or 
Imnguage where his voice is not heard, as is here said of the line 
and voice of the sun and heavenly bodies in the two foregoing 
yersesy which are by the apostle interpreted of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ. Rom. x. 16, 17. 18. '^ But they have not all obeyed the 
gospel ; for Esaias saith. Lord who hath believed our report.^ so 
then faith comcth by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 
Bat I say, Have they not heard f Yes, verily, their sound went 
into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.'* 

That the Holy Ghost here has a mystical meaning, and has 
respect to the light of the Sun of Righteousness, and not merely 
the light of the natural sun, is confirmed by the verses that fol- 
low, in which the psalmist himself seems to apply them to the 
word of God, which is the light of that sun, even of Jesus Christ, 
who himself revealed the word of God : See the very next words, 
"The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul; the testi- 
mony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple." 

[17i] Psalm xl. 6, 7, 8. ** Sacrifice and offering thou didst 
not desire; mine ears hast thou opened, (or bored:) burnt-oflering 
and sin-oflering hast thou not required. Then said I, Lo, I come: 
in the volume of the book it is written of me ; I delight to do thy 
willy O my God ; yea, thy law is within my heart." God often de- 
clared that willing obedience was better than sacrifice : thr psalm- 
ist is here declaring his giving of it the preference in his practice 
according to God's mind : he did not rest in sacrifices, or look up- 
on his duty as consisting mainly in them, but was willingly obe- 
dient ; he delighted to do God's will ; he loved his service ; God had 
bored his ear, alluding to the law, Exod. xxi. 5, by Hhich it was 
appointed that if the servant loved his master's service, and freely 
chose it, his master should bore his ear with an awl. Bumi-of" 
fering and sin-offering hast thou not required; then said /, Lo, I 
dome, as a willing servant says to bis master when he is called : 
Jn the volume of the book it is written ofme, that is, it is written in 
the public records, that I voluntarily chose my master's service, 
and that my ears were bored, alluding still to that law and cus- 
tom. If the servant loved his master and chose his service, he 
was to be brought unto the judges, and was to declare his choice. 


and his enr was to be bored before tbem, and because the end of 
briri^in^ of him to them, was that they might take notice ofily 
and bcMvitnesses of it, that the servant might afterwards beoblig* 
ed by iiis act. We may conclude that there was a record written 
of it, it was not merely trusted to their memories; for then if tlie 
judges should forget it, or siiould die, the servant might go free; 
or if it was not the custom at first to record it, yet very probaUj 
it was in David's time. It seeems they used to convey lands at 
first without writings ; Ruth iv. 7 ; but not afterwards. Jer. xiu 
10. I subscribed ike evidence^ or as it is in the Hebrew, / unrotem 
ike book. But the psalmist also speaks here prophetically, and 
as representing Christ. Christ freely and willingly became God'i 
servant by becoming incarnate, and therefore, instead of the 
words, '' Mine ear hast thou bored," has these, ** A body hast 
thou prepared me ;" and as the servant that had his ear bored, 
learned obedience by what he suffered ; it was a testimony of his 
real desire to serve him, that he was willing to suffer this io order 
to it. So did Christ learn obedience by the things that he suffer- 
ed by the sacrifice of his body ; so that when it is said, ** Sacri- 
fice and offering thou didst not desire, but a body hast thou prepared 
for me ;*' it is as much as if he had said these sacrifices of beasfi, 
&CC. are insignificant in themselves, but my crucifixion is thetme 
sacrifice that God delights in. 

[507] Psalm xlv. The great agreement between the Book of 
So!o?non''s Sons^, and the xlvth Psalm, and the express and foil 
testimonies of the New Testament for the authority and divine in- 
spiration of that Psalm in particular, and titat that bridegroom 
there spoken of is Christ, whose bride the New Testament aban- 
dantly teaches us is the church : I say this agreement with these 
full testimonies are a great confirmation of the constant traditioa 
of the Jewish church, and the universal and continual suffrage of 
the Christian church for the divine authority, and spiritual signi- 
fication of this song, as representing the union and mutual love of 
Christ and his church, and enervates the main objection against 
it. They agree in all particulars that are considerable, so that 
there is no more reason to object against one than the other. 

They are both songs of love. 

In both the lovers spoken of are compared to a man and a wo- 
man, and their love to that which arises between the sexes among 

Both these songs treat of these lovers with relation to Iheir es- 
pousals one to another, representing their union to that of a bride- 
groom and bride. 

In both the bridegroom is represented as a king, and in both 
the bride is spoken of as a king's daughter. Ps. xliii. 13. " The 


kiog's daaghter is all gloriousJ' &c. Cant. vii. 1. <' How beau- 

tifal are thy feel O prince's daughter !" 

Id both the bridegroom and bride are represented as very fair 
or beautiful. The bridegroom, Ps. xlv. 2. ** Thou art fairer 
ihan the sons of men." Cant. v. 10. '* My beloved is while and 
toddy, the chiefest among ten thousands." 

In both the bridegroom is represented as greatly delighted with 
.the beauty of the bride. Ps. xlv. 11. *^ So shall the king greatly 
^4<nire thy beauty." Cant. iv. 0. *' Thou hast ravished my heart, 
: ay sister, my spouse : Thou hast ravished my heart with one oif 
L tbineeyes, wiih one chain of thy neck." 

In both the speech of the bridegroom is represented as exceed- 
^iog excellent and pleasant. Ps. xlv. 2. *' Grace is poured into 
;thy lips.'' Cant. v. IG. ''His mouth is most sweet." 
^ In both the ornaments of the bride are signified by costly, beau- 
:llfo1, and , splendid attire; and in both she is represented as 
adorned with gold. Ps. xlv. 9. '' Upon tiiy right-hand did stand 
.tbe queen in gold of Ophir. And 13, 14, ''Her clothes are of 
wrought gold. She shall be brought unto the Idng in raiment of 
needlework." Cant. i. 10. "Thy cheeks are comely with rows of 
jewels, and thy neck with chains of gold. We will make thee bor- 
ders of gold with studs of silver." And vii. 1,^" How beautiful 
are thy feet with shoes, O prince's daughter!" 

The excellencies, und amiable, and honourable endowments of 
the bridegroom in both arc represented by perfumed ointment. 
Ps. xlv. 7. "Hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above 
tby fellows." Cant. i. 3. "Because of the savour of thy good 
0|ntmeiitSythy]name is as ointment poured forth ; therefore do the 
virgins love thee." 

In both the excellent gifts or qualifications of these lovers,'by 
which they are recommended to each other, and delighted in one 
- aQOifaer, are compared to such spices as myrrh, aloes, &ic. And 
. in both the sense those lovers have of this amiableness, and that 
~ sense where they have comfort and joy, is represented by the 
' sense of smelling. Ps. xlv. 8. " All thy garments smell of myrrh, 

and aloes, and cassia whereby they have made thee glad." 

Cant. i. 13, 14. "A bundle of myrrh is my well beloved unto 
. me. My beloved is unto me is as a cluster of camphire." And ver. 
12. " While the king siiteth at his table, my spikenard sendeth 
~ forth the smell thereof." Cant. ii. 13. "Let us see whether the 
vines give a good smell." Chap. iii. G. " Who is this that 
cometh up out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke perfumed 
with myrrh and frankincense, with all powders of the merchant?" 
Cant iv. 14. " Spikenard and saffron ; calamus and cinnamon, 
with all trees of frankincense, myrrh, and aloes, with all the chief 


Indeed in some parts of Ps. xlv. the psalmist makes use ot 
more magnificent representations of the bridegroom's excellency, 
Yer. 3. *'Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy 
glory and thy majesty, and in thy majesty ride prosperously." 
So we find it also with respect to the bride. Cant. vi. 10. ''Who 
18 it that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the 
sun, and terrible as an army with banners ?" And in both these 
representations the excellencies of these lovers are represented 
as martial excellency, or the glorious endowments of valiant 

In both these songs the bride is represented as with a number 
of virgins that are her companions in her majestical honours. Ps. 

xlv. 14, 15. ** She shall be brought in unto the king ^The 

virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto 
thee.'* So in many places of Solomon's Song. The spouse is 
represented as conversing with a number of the daughters of Je- 
rusalem that sought the bridegroom with her, and therefore she 
speaks in the plural number. Cant i. 4. *' Draw me, we will 
run after thee, w^will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will re- 
member thy love more than wine." 

The representation in both of the manner of the bride's being 
brought into the king with her companions, with great joy, is ex- 
actly alike. Ps. xlv. 14, 15. *< She shall be brought in unto the 
king in raiment of needlework. The virgins her companions that 
follow her shall be brought unto thee, with gladness, and with re- 
joicing shall they be brought unto thee ; they shall enter into the 
king's palace." Compare this with Cant. i. 4. '' The king hath 
brought me into his chambers, we will be glad and rejoice in 

Those who are the friends of the bridegroom that are united to 
him, and partake of his dear love, are in both these songs repre- 
sented as gracious and holy persons. Ps. xlv. 4. <' In thy majesty 
ride prosfjerously, because of truth, meekness, and righteousness." 
Cant. i. 4. <' We will remember thy love more than wine. The 
upright love thee." 

To represent the excellency of the bridegroom's place of abode, 
in Ps. xlv. 6, the excellent materials that his palace is made of 
are mentioned. It is represented as made of ivory. In like man- 
ner as the excellent materials of his palace is spoken of Cant. i. 17. 
" The beams of our house are cedar, and our rafters of fir." As 
elsewhere, the materials of his chariot are mentioned, vix. the 
wood of Lebanon, gold, silver, and purple. Cant. iii. 9, 10. 

It is objected by some against Solomon's Song that some ex- 
pressions seem to have reference to the conjugal embraces of the 
bridegroom. But perhaps there is nothmg more directly sug- 
gesting this than the 14^ 15, and 16 verses of the xlv. Pialm, 


where seems to be n plain reference to the manner in Tsrael in 
which the bride at night used to be led into the bridegroom's bed 
chamber, her bridemaids attending her : in the 14 and 15 verses, 
and then immediately in the next verse, we are told of the happy 
fruits of this intercourse in the offspring which they have: In- 
stead of thy father's shall be thy children. 

It is supposed by many to be very liable to a bad construction, 
that the beauty of the various parts of the body of the spouse is 
mentioned, and described, in Solomon's Song. But perhaps 
these are no more liable to a bad construction than the 13th verse 
of the xlv. Psalm, where there is mention of the beauty of the 
bride's clothes, and her being glorious within, where setting aside 
the allegory or mystical meaning of the song, what is most na- 
turally understood as the most direct meaning, would seem to be 
that she had not only glorious clothing, but was yet more glorious 
in the parts of her body within her clothing, that were hid by her 

[163] Psalm xlv. 7. ** Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest 
wickedness, therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee,'' &c. 
The manifestation of Christ's loving righteousness, and hating 
wickedness, here spoken of, that was thus rewarded, was his hu- 
miliation and death, whereby he exceedingly manifested his regard 
to God's holiness and law. That when he had a mind that sin- 
ners should be saved he was freely willing "to suffer so much 
rather than it should be done with any injury unto that holiness 
and law. 

[16] Psalm xlviii. 7. " Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish 
With an east wind." It was by the gospel, which was as the light 
that Cometh out of the east and shineth to the west, whereby Sa- 
tan's pagan l^ingdom in Europe was overthrown. 

[17] Psalm xlix. 3, 4. ** My mouth shall speak of wisdom, 
and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding. I 
will incline mine ear to a parable. I will open my dark sayings 
npon the harp." Being about to speak of a future stale and the 
resurrection, which were great mysteries in Old Testament times, 
and perhaps a future state is here more plainly spoken of than 
any where else in the Old Testament, the psalmist really speaks 
right down plain about it, to the 14lh verse, where he speaks 
how impossible it is by strength, riches, or wisdom, to avoid death ; 
Good and bad, and all, die ; and takes notice of the folly of men 
to fix their hearts on riches ; for, says he, like sheep they are laid 
in the grave, &c., and the upright shall have dominion over them 
in the morning, fee. But he says, notwithstanding this certainty 

VOL. IX. 44 

946 KOTBS ore the bible. 

and nnaToIdableness of death, ver. 15, '*God will redeem my 
soul from the power of the grave, for he shall receive me ;'' and 
goes on to the end of the psalm to show the misery of the wicked 
in comparison of the godly. 

[54] Psalm Ixv. 8. <'Thou makestthe outgoings of the moriH 
ing and the evening to rejoice." By the outgoings of the morning 
and evening may be meant the east and the west, and so signily 
the same as the ends of the earth in the fotmer part of the verse. 

[319] Psalm Ixviii. The bringing up of the ark of God cat 
of the house of Obed-edom, the Gittite, into the city of David, 
on the top of Mount Zion, on which occasion this psalm was 
penned, was the most remarkable type of the ascension of Christ 
that we have in the Old Testament. Then Christ rode upon ihe 
heavens by his name J AH. Before, his divinity was veiled ; he 
appeared as a mere man, and as a worm and no man ; he had as 
it were laid aside his glory as a divine person, emptied himself of 
the name and form of God, but now he appears in his ascension as 
God, in the glory of his divinity, in the name and glory of the 
great JAH or JEHOVAH. Ver. 4. " Then he rode upon the 
heaven of heavens, which were of old." Ver. 33. As the aposde 
says, he ascended up far above all heavens. As the inhabitantsof 
the land of Canaan were gathered together to attend the ark in 
this its ascension into Mount Zion ; 2 Sam. vi. 15. 1 Chron. xv. 3, 
25 and 28. 2 Sam. vi. 19. 1 Chron. xvi. 2 ; so without doubt 
the inhabitants of the heavenly Canaan were gathered together 
on occasion of Christ's ascension to attend him into heaven. For 
he ascended into heaven in like manner as lie shall descend at the 
last day, Acts i. 11, with like glory and magnificence, and with 
a like attendance. He shall come at the last day in the glory of 
his Father. So he, without doubt, ascended in that glory after his 
human nature was transformed as it was, as it passed out of our 
atmosphere. That Christ entered heaven with divine glory, is 
manifest by Psalm xxiv. 7, 8, 9, 10. "Lift up your heads, bye 
gates, that the King of glory may come in," &c. Christ will de- 
scend at the last day with the clouds of heaven, and so he as- 
cended into heaven, (Acts i. 9, and Dan. vii. 13, with Notes.) 
Christ will descend to judgment, and so he ascended to judge 
and confirm^ the angels, to give repentence unto Israel, and re- 
mission of sin, and by his knowledge lojustify many, and to judge 
the prince of this world, and to execute judgment on the wicked; 
and as he will descend with all the heavenly hosts of both saints 
and angels, so he ascended. They came forth out of heaven to 
meet the King of glory as he ascended. As the Roman generals 
after a signal battle and victory over their enemies abroad, far 
distant from Rome, when they returned in triumph (which is a 


freat type of Christ's ascension,) had mtiltitudes to attend 
heiiiy so had Christ in his ascension into heaven. See in how 
nany respects the Roman triumphs were like Christ's ascen- 
lion, Mostricht, p. 597, vol. 2. See also the description of a 
Koman triumph, Chambers' Dictionary. As Christ's descent 
n^ill be attended with the general resurrection, so was his as- 
cension with the risen bodies of many of the saints, and was 
*ollowed with a great spiritual resurrection of the world. 

As the ark in its ascension into mount Zion, was attended 
writh the princes of the people; Ps. Ixviii. 27, xlvii. 9, and with 
;lie captains of their hosts, 1 Chron. xv. 25, and with the mt- 
listers of the sanctuary, 1 Chron. xv. 4, &c.; so Christ, in 
iiis ascension, was attended with the angels, who are called the 
principalities and powers of heaven, and are the mighty cham- 
pions in God's armies, and the ministers of the heavenly sano- 
uary, as they arc represented in Revelations. Shall adepart- 
ji^ soul of a saint ascend to heaven with a convoy of angels, 
3eing carried by angels into Abraham's bosom? and shall not 
:he King of saints and angels in his ascension into heaven, be 
Utcnded with myriads of angels ? That Christ was attended 
ovith multitudes of angels in his ascension into heaven, is mani- 
fest by the 17rh and 18th verses of the Ixviii. Psalm. " The 
:;hariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of an- 
gels ; the Lord is among them, as in Sinai the holy place. 
Thou hast ascended on high; thou hast led captivity captive: 
thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, 
that the Lord God might dwell among them." These are the 
chariots in which Christ ascended, as Elijah, in his ascension 
into heaven, did not ascend without chariots and horses of fire 
to convey him. These were a symbol of the convoy of an- 
jels by which he was conducted into heaven ; as those chariots 
and horses of fire were that defended the city where Elijah was 
Trom the Syrians, as appears by 2 Kings vi. 16, 17. Those in 
Christ's triumphant entrance into heaven answer to the tri- 
umphant chariot in which the victor entered the city of Rome, 
and also was attended with the princes,*and rulers, and cap- 
tains of the people, and ministers of his sanctuary, as he was 
attended with the patriarchs, and prophets, and holy princes, 
and martyrs, more eminent first of the Old Testament, as that 
church which was in being before Christ's ascension, and with 
many of them with their prison bodies. 

Though many of the angels attended Christ from the top of 
mount Olivet, yet it appears to me probable that the place 
where he was met by the whole multitude of the heavenly hosts, 
saints and angels, was in the upper parts of the earth's atmos- 
phere, beyond the region of the clouds, at the place where it 



is said a cloud received Christ out of the sight of the disciples, 
as they stood beholding him as he went up, and that that cloud 
that received him was a symbol of that glorious host of sainli 
and angels : an heavenly multitude is called a cloud. See Hdk 
xii. 1, with Notes. An host of angels seems to bejbore repre- 
sented by that cloud of glory in which God appeared in mount 
Sinai, spoken of in this Ixviii. Psalm, in the 17ih verse, where 
the psalmist speaks of the thousands of angels that convoy 
Christ to heaven, it is added, •• The Lord is among them, as 
in Sinai, his holy place." (See the places there cited in the 
margin.) When Christ passed out of sight of earthly inhabit- 
ants, then he joined the heavenly inhabitants. The atmosphere 
belongs to the earthly world : so fur Satan's power extends, 
who is god of this earthly world, and prince of the power of 
the air. When Christ had gotten out of this world, then hea- 
ven met him and received him, and it is probable that Christ's 
human nature there had its transformation into, its glorious 
state ; it was not transformed at his first resurrection, for he 
appeared as he used to, and conversed, and ate, and drank 
with his disciples ; nor was it transformed at his first ascent 
from the surface of the earth, for the disciples beheld him, and 
knew him as he went up, because he appeared as he used 
to do, but the disciples beheld him so long until he was 
transformed, for so long they might behold him ; but when he 
was transformed into his heavenly glory, it was not meet that 
they should behold him any longer while in this mortal state, 
for this state is not the state appointed for us to behold Christ 
in his glory; nor indeed could ihcy sec him so and live, and 
therefore when he was transformed, a cloud hid him from them. 
As long as Christ was within the limits of this earthly worhl, 
it was meet that he should remain in his earthlv state; hut 
when he passed out of this world and met heaven, it was meet 
that he should be transformed into his heavenly state; an 
earthly body might subsist as far as the region of the clouds, 
but it could not subsist farther, i'hrist ascended from thence 
to heaven in his glorified state with all his holy angels ; and at 
the last day he will descend from heaven in the same glorified 
state, with all the holy angels, and no farther ; for there the 
saints on earth shall meet him, being caught up in the clouds, 
or to the region of the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; and 
from thence shall Christ be seen in his glory by all that shall 
remain on this earth. When Christ came to meet the heavenly 
hosts in their glory, and to be in the midst of them, it was not 
meet that he should remain any longer ia his earthly state, for 
flesh and blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God ; so far 
Christ ascended slowly and gradually, as earthly bodies are 


wont to move, so (hat the disciples could see biin as he went 
vp, but from thence, without doubt, he mounted with incon- 
^vahle swiftness, answerable to the activity of an heavenly 
|!glurious body. 

'' As they attended the ark in ils ascension with groat joy and 
with shouts, and the sound of the trumpet, and all kinds of 
- music, singing God's praises, 2 Sam. vi. 15. 2 Chron. xv. 
=Sd, with the context in that and the following chapters ; this 
represents the glorious joy and praise with which the heavenly 
hosts attended (/hrist in his ascension. Ps. xlvii. 5. *' God is 
irone up with a shout, the Lord with the sound of a trumpet :'' 
Ps. xlvii. 5 : the very same as is said concerning the ascension 
of the ark in 2 Sam. vi. 15. That was an exceeding joyful 
day in Israel ; it is said they brought up the ark with joy. 2 
Chron. XV. 2 Sam. vi. 12. ^* David danced before the liord 
Writh all his might." So Christ's ascension is represented as 
sn exceeding joyful occasion. Ps. xlvii. 6, &c. "On that oc- 
casion sing praises to God, sing praises, sing praises to our 
King, sing praises," &.c. And in this Ixviii. Psalm ver. 3. 
'* Let the righteous be glad ; let them rejoice before the Lord; 
^ea, let them exceedingly rejoice;" and ver. 25, "The sing- 
ers went before, and the players on instruments followed after, 
imong them were the damsels playing with timbrels." 

When the ark was ascended and placed on the throne of 
SofPs mercy-seat, David dealt among all the people, even 
iinong the whole multitude of Israel, as well to the women as 
nen, to every one a cake of bread, and a good piece of flesh, 
md a flagon of wine, 2 Sam. vi. 19, and 1 Chron. xvi. 3. So 
i|>CRking of Christ in this psalm, ver. 18, the psalmist says, 
* Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive, 
md received gifts for men, yea, for the lebellious also." 

]>avid brought the ark into the tabernacle in Zion with sa- 
crifices ofl^ered to God, and when he had ofl*ered the sacriflces, 
le blessed the people in the name of the Lord, and gave men 
tifts, 1 Chron. xvi. 1, 2, 3, and 2 Sam. vi. 17, 18, 19. So 
Jbrist, when he ascended, entered into heaven with his own 
>lood, the blood of that sacrifice that he had oflered, and so 
ibtained the blessing for men which he then gave to them, by 
lending down the Holy Spirit upon them. 

David, when the ark was ascended, returned to bless his 
lousehold ; so Christ, when he was ascended, returned by his 
Spirit to bless his church, which is the household of God, 
ind ia Christ's house, as the apostle calls it in the iii. chap. 
>f Hebrews. 

When David thus returned to bless his household, Michal, 
hat had been bia wife before, despised him, because he trou- 


bled himself 00 much, and made himself so vile, and th< 
was Michal rejected ; but of the maid-servants whom '. 
contemned, was he had in honour; so the Jewish churc 
had been Christ's church before his ascension, yet b 
Christ humbled himself so much, and made himself s 
they dcapised and rejected him, and called him king 
Jews in contempt, as Michal calls David king of Israel i 
tempt. .Therefore, when Christ returned by his Spiiit t< 
his household after his ascension, the church of the Jev 
rejected and became barren ; but the Gentile nations, 
the Jewish church used to contemn as poor slaves, whil 
called themselves the children of God and free, of the 
Christ had in honour. Michal was SauPs daughter, I 
persecutor, that was at the head of affairs in Israel befo 
vid ; but David tells Michal that God chose him before I 
ther ; so the priests, and elders, and scribes were the fa 
the Jewish church, were at the head of affairs in God's < 
before Christ, and were Christ's persecutors, but God 
him before them. 

The glorious attendants and consequents of Christ's : 
sion are in a very lively manner represented in this psair 
other divine songs, that seem to be penned on occasion 
removing the ark, as particularly Christ's glorious victor 
his enemies, verses 1, 2. 18. The destruction of Satan't 
dom and bis church's enemies that followed, ver. 12. 1 
23 — 30. A terrible manifestation of wrath against obs 
sinners, ver. 6. 21. The publishing the gospel in the y 
ver 11. 33. A remarkable pouring out of the Spirit, ' 
A great increase of the privileges of the church, and a 
abundant measure of spiritual blessings, ver. 3, 10. 13. 1 
24. 28. 34, 35. The calling of the Gentiles, ver. 6. 2 
32. A glorious salvation from slavery and misery to 
who are sinners and enslaved, ver. 6. 13. 20. 22. Tl 
might be observed of other songs penned on this occ 
as Ps. xlvii. and that which is given us in 1 Chror.. xvi. 

[210] Psalm Ixviii. 8, 9. " The earth shook, the h( 
also dropped at the presence of God, even Sinai itse 
moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel. Th 
Lord, didst send a plentiful rain, whereby thou didst c 
thine inheritance when it was weary." By this place, 
ther with Judg. v. 4, it is manifest that there was a great 
er of rain upon the camp of Israel at mount Sinai, at th 
of the giving the law there. The case seems to have 
thus : on the day when the law was given, which was th 
of Pentecosti there appeared a thick cloud upon mount 


ich was the same cloud that had gone before them and con- 
ted them, now settled upon the mount, but only increased 
I gathered to a great thickness, and there were great thun- 
s and lightnings seen and heard out of that cloud, and the 
ce of the trumpet exceeding loud, so that all the people that 
re in the camp trembled. When God descended on the 
unt, the mount quaked greatly, and this earthquake was of 
at extent, so as to reach to distant countries, Hag. ii. 6, 7, 
I was so great as to move mountains, and throw down rocks, 
I great part of the mountains ; hence we have those expres- 
(18 of the mountains skipping like rams, and the little hills 
I lambs, he. And then mount Sinai appeared altogether 
fire, which burnt to the midst of heaven ; and then the 
nipet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder; and then 
Ten Commandments were given with a voice of awful ma- 
y out of the midst of the fire ; and when this was finished, 
ras followed with the most amazing thunders and lightnings 
n the thick cloud of glory, which was on the mount, which 
id spread wider and wider until it covered the whole hea- 
18, and there was a great shower of rain, with thunder and 
lining out of it ; and the storm spread abroad, so as to 
ch far countries, which, with exceeding thunder and light- 
g, terrified distant nations. Hence the apostle speaks of 
unpest that was at this time, from this place, in Ueb. xii. 18. 
us, when the Lord gave the word, great was the company 
them that published it, ver. 11. When God gave forth bis 
ceat mount Sinai, and thundered there by the ministration 
angels, the report was as it were carried into all nations 
nd about, and there were thunders that uttered their voices 
ill parts of the world, (or at least the adjacent countries,) 
inswer it. Thus the prophet Habakkuk, speaking of this, 
b. iii. 3, says, '* His glory covered the heavens," (i. e. the 
id, that was called the cloud ofglory,^*) and the glory of the 
d ajipeared in the cloud, and covered the heavens in the 
se of lightnings that then streamed forth almost continually ; 
in the next verse, ver. 4, '* And his brightness was as the 
1." And thus it was expressed in the 6th and 7th verses, 
6' stood and measured the earth ; he beheld and drove asun- 
the nations; the everlasting mountains were scattered, the 

petual hills did bow 1 saw the tents of Cushan in afHic- 

9 and the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble;" and 
I in Heb. xii. 18, there is said to be at that time not only fire, 
blackness, and darkness, but also tempest. 
■oroL I. Hereby we may the more fully see how lively a re- 
lentation what was done' on this day was of what was done 
r wards on the same Day of Pentecost io the days of th« 


gospel. Now God descended from heaven on mount Sinai, 
then God descended from heaven on mount Zion, or on hi 
church met together in Jerusalem. Now God revealed the 
law, then God did in an extraordinary manner by hi« Spirit 
make known the niy^^terios of the gospel. Now God's voica 
was uttered from mount Sinai in thuu<icr, and great was the 
com))auy of them that published it, and the voice of his thuo-. 
der went forth into all the woild, and the world was enlightco-l 
ed with lightnings ; then was God's voice in his word and in bii 
glorious gospel uttered in the spiritual mount Zion, and the light 
of the glorious gospel then began to shine forth in Jerusalem, 
of which voice and light, thunder and lightning is a type, for 
the word of God is quick and powerful, sharper than any two- 
edged sword, piercing to the dividing asunder of soul and spi- 
rit, of the joints and marrow, and is as the fire, and as the ham- 
mer that breaketh the rocks in pieces. This thunder and 
lightning was out of the cloud of glory, the symbol of God's 
presence ; so the voice of the gospel is the voice of Christ, ft 
divine person, and. the light is the light of Christ's glory. And 
then, or after that time, was first fulfilled what was typified bj 
God^s voice and light going forth from mount Sinai, and 
spreading abroad into all nations round about ; for then first 
did the powerful voice of God's word, and the powerful and 
glorious light of truth, go forth and spread abroad into Gentile 
nations; then was the coming of Christ in the gospel, as the 
lightning that comet h out of the east, and shiucth even to the 
west. Tlie trumpet of mount Sinai was a type of the trumpet 
of the gospel. As in the day of Sinai there was a great earth- 
quake ; so consequent on the pouring out of the Spirit in the 
day of Zion, was there the greatest change and overturning of 
things on the face of the earth, that ever had been. Earth- 
quakes often denote great revolutions, in Revelations and else- 
where in scripture. God's voice, in the day of Sinai, shook 
the heavens and earth, and shook all nations; see Heb. xii« 
26, 27, compared with the foregoing verses, and Haggai ii. 6, 
7. *' As the earthquake then shook down towers, and palaces, 
and other buildings of the heathen, yea, and threw down rocks 
and mountains ;" so God's voice in the goi^pel, after the gospel 
Pentecost, overturned the heathenish kingdom of Satan, and 
shook down all its magnificence, the mighty fabric that Sa- 
tan had been building up for many ages; and those things were 
overthrown that had been established in the heathen world 
time out of mind, and had remained until now, immoveable, 
like the everlasting hills and mountains. God's enemies abroad 
in the heathen world on the day of Sinai, were greatly terrified 
and scattered, and many of them destroyed ; which is a type 


of the amaxement that Satan and the powers of darkness were put 
ioio, by the sudden and wonderful spreadini;^ of the gospel, and 
hoiv the enemies of God were scattered and destroyed thereby, 
and God's pouring down a great and plentiful rain on the camp 
of Israel, on the day when the law was given. The refreshing 
shower that fell on Israel, did well represent those divine instruc- 
tions God was then giving to them. Deut. xxxii. 1. " My doc- 
trine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew, as 
the small rain upon the tender herb, or the showers upon the 
grass," was a lively type of the great and abundant pouring out 
of the Spirit on the Christian church, on the day of Pentecost, 
and on the world, in consequence of that. The pouring out of 
the Spirit is often compared to showers of rain : this rain was the 
more lively type of the eflusion of the Holy Spirit, because it was 
a very refreshing rain to the congregation of Israel, as it is said 
in the 9th verse of this Psalm, " Thou didst send a plentiful rain, 
w^hereby thou didst confirm thine inheritance when it was weary ;" 
that was a weary land wherein they then were, being an exceed- 
ing dry and parched wilderness, where there is scarcely ever any 
rain. Horeb, one name of mount Sinai, signifies dryness, as it 
is called a land of drought, and it lay far south, and it was now 
an hot time of the year, wherein the sun was just at the summer 
>olstice, being about the end of May, so that the shower by its 
:ooling and sweetening the air was very refreshing to them, and 
therefore was the more lively type of the sweet influences of the 
Spirit of God on their souls ; and this shower was the more lively 
type of the pouring out of the Spirit slill, because it was a shower 
lot of the cloud of glory, or that cloud that was the symbol of 
Bod's presence, so that it was a refreshment from God, as the 6re 
from heaven on the altar proceeded out of a pillar cloud and fire. 
Levit. ix. 24. (Note, manna out of the pillar of cloud and fire.) 
Manna, their daily bread, came down on the camp, out of the pil- 
lar of cloud and fire, and so did more livelily represent the true 
bread from heaven, even Jesus Christ, who is a divine person, 
and dwells in the bosom of the Father, and as their meat, so their 
irater; the refreshing rain, which signified also a divine person, 
viz. the Holy Ghost, was out of the cloud of glory. 

Note, that when mention is here made of God's sending a 
plentiful rain, whereby he did confirm, or strengthen his inherit- 
ance when it was weary, respect is also probably had to the chil- 
dren of Israel's being refreshed by a shower of rain that des- 
cended on them, at the the same time that a destructive hail fell 
on their enemies, on the day that the sun and moon stood still ; 
for as has been observed in Notes on Hab. iii. 11, No. 208, that 
storm of hail did not arise until the end of the twelve hours of 
the sun's standing still; and the sun probably stood still near the 

VOL. IX. 45 


meridiaD, and Joshaa began the battle very early in the momiogf 
after their travelling all the night before ; so that after that night's 
watching and travelling, they had continued in battle and pursuit 
about eighteen hours, and great part of the time under a very 
great and extreme heat of the sun, wliich must necessarily arise 
from its standing still so long at a meridian height, and shining 
down on their heads with a perpendicular ray. So that by that 
time without doubt the army of Israel were exceeding weary and 
faint, and the clouds that covered the heavens, sent forth no hail 
on them, but probably it was rain where they were, and a very 
great shower, which cooled and sweetened the air, and was a 
great refreshment to them after such toil and extreme heat. If 
the rain was frozen in some places, doubtless it was a very cool 
xTain where they were, which was needed to cool the air, after 
such extreme heat. So that it was now with this cloud that 
arose, as it was with the pillar of cloud and fire at the Red sea, as 
that was a cloud and darkness to their enemies, and sent forth 
thunder and lightning to confound them. Psalm Ixxvii. 16, 17, 
18, 19, but gave light to the Israelites ; so now the cloud that 
arose, sent forth destructive hail and thunder on the Amorites, 
but sent a most refreshing rain on Israel, whereby they were 
strengthened, after they had been made faint with the heat of the 
sun, and the toil of battle. 

CoroL II. Hence we may learn what the apostle Paul meant 
by 1 Cor. x. 2, where he says that ** their fathers were all bap- 
tized unto Moses in the cloud, and in the sea," he means tliat 
they were baptized in the cloud, by the cloud's showering down 
water abundantly upon them, as it seems to have done at two 
times, especially; one was while they were passing through the 
Red sea, for there seems to have been a remarkable storm of rain, 
and thunder and lightning, out of the cloud of glory, while il:t 
children of Israel were passing through the Red" sea, Fsuhn 
Ixxvii. IG, 17, 18, 19: And thus God looked through the pillar 
of cloud and fire about the morning watch, and troubled all their 
Iiosts ; he confounded them with perpetual flashes of thunder 
and lightning, which greatly affrighted the horses, and made them 
run wild, and jostle one against another, so as to overturn and 
break the chariots that they drew, and many of them lost their 
wheels; but it was only a plentiful shower on the Israelites. And 
.so they were baptized by the water that came out of the pillar of 
cloiid, representing the blood that came out of Christ, and the 
spirit that comes forth from him ; and so God now at the time 
when they were coming out of Egypt (for the Red sea was the 
bounds of Egypt) baptized them, to wash and cleanse them from 
the pollutions of Egypt, and to consecrate them to himself. 


Another time was at moitnt Sinai, when God had brought them 
to himself there, when he first entered into covenant with them 
there, whereby iliey became his people, and he their God ; he 
consecrated them to him, and sealed that covenant by baptizing 
them by water out of llie cloud. 

Hence we prove an argument for baptism by sprinkling or af- 
fusion, for the apostle calls this a/Tusion or sprinkling, baptism, 
comparing it to Christian baptism ; and when God himself, im- 
mediately baptized his people by a baptism, by which he intend- 
ed to signify the same thing that Christian baptism signifies, he 
baptized by adusion and sprinkling. 

[254] Psalm Ixxviii. 43. " How he had wrought his signs in 
Egypt, and his wonders in the field of Zoan." Wells, in his Sa- 
cred Geography, from hence very probably supposes that Zoan^ 
in the lime when Moses wrought these miracles in Kgypt, was the 
royal city, or the city where the Pharaohs had their seat; for we 
know that Moses wrought those miracles in the presence of Pha- 
raoh, and therefore doubtless near the city where he dwelt, or in 
the fields about that city. Zoan was probably from the begin- 
ning, the seat of tiieir kings, and that it is because it was so noted 
a city, and especially so known to the children of Israel, who had 
been bond-slaves in Egypt under Pharaoh, who dwelt in Zoan, 
that such particular notice is taken of it in Numb. xiii. 22. *'Now 
Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt." And Dr. 
Wells observes, that this seems to have been the royal seat lon^' 
after, even until Isaiah's time, though Noph and llancs were two 
other cities where the kings of Egypt did then sometimes reside. 
Isai. xix. 11. *-*• Surely the princes of Zoan are fools, the counsel 
of the wise counsellors of Pharaoh is become brutish: how say 
ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise, the son of ancient 
kings?" Ver. 13. '* The princes of Zoan are become fools, the 
princes of Noph are deceived ; they have seduced Egypt, even they 
that are the stay of the tribes thereof." Isai. xxx. 4. *' For his prin- 
ces were at Zoan, and his ambassadors came to Hanes.^' Zoan 
is the same with Tunis. By the Seventy interpreters, Noph is 
the same with Memphis^ Ilanes is the same with Tahapanes ; Jer. 
ii. IG; and Tahapanes, where we read that Pharaoh had an 
bouse, Jer. xliii. 9, called in Ezekiel xxx. 18, Tekapknehes, the 
same that was called Daphne by the Greeks. Soon after IsaiahU 
time, Noph, or Memphis, became the capital city. Ezek. xxx. 
13. Wells' Sacred Geography, p. 8, 9, and p. 49, 50. 

[349] Psalm Ixxxiv. 3. " Yea, the sparrow hath found an 
bouse, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her 
young, even thine altars." The expletive even, which is not in 


tR original, hurts the sense. ** Thine altars, O Lord of hosts, 
my king, and my God," seems to be a distinct sentence from the ; 
foregoing, and comes in as an ardent exclamation, expressing the . ' 
longing of David's soul after God's altars, as is rather to be added 
to the foregoing verse, where the psalmist had said, " My soal long- 
eth, yea, even faiutetii for the courts of the Lord; my heart, and 
my flesh cricth out for the living God ;" and then lys thoughts of 
the birds having a nest, and so living distinguished from him, a 
poor exile, that was cast out of house and home, and had not 
where to lay his head, and was banished from God's house, which 
is the worst part of his banishment : this comes in, as it were, in 
a parenthesis, and then follows the exclamation, '* Thine altars, 
O Lord of hosts, my King and my God !" Such an interpreta- 
tion is exceedingly agreeable with the context, and the frame the 
psalmist was in. 

[203] Psalm xc. 10. Bedford's Scripture Chronology, p. 395. 
When God had positively declared that the Israelites should wan- 
der forty years in the wilderness, and that all of them except 
Joshua and Caleb should die there ; and when he did thus cat 
short the age of man, to what it is at this time, then Moses pen- 
ned a melancholy psalm, in which he tells us how they were con- 
sumed by God's anger for their impieties, and how man's age ii 
come to seventy or eighty years, after which there is only labour 
and sorrow, instead of those hundreds that they lived before. 

Here we may observe, that as sin at first brought death into 
the world, so sin did afterwards shorten the age of man, before 
the flood : the patriarchs lived almost to- a thousand years. But 
the sin which brought the flood, took away one half of man's age, 
so that they who were born afiei wards never attained to the age 
of five hundred. At the confusion of Babylon it was shortened 
again in the same manner, so that none born after that time lived 
up to two hundred and fifty, as it is easy to observe by comput- 
ing their ages. After the death of the patriarchs, when the true 
worship of God was very much declined in their families, and the 
rest of mankind were overrun with superstition and idolatry, the 
life of man was shortened again, so that we read of none bom 
since, who exceeded an hundred and five and twenty ; neither did 
the ages of men stand at that measure, but at the frequent murmur- 
ings and provokings of God in the wilderness, a third part more, or 
thereabouts, were cut off from the age of man, and the common 
limit of man's life was brought to seventy or eighty years, or there- 
abouts, or more particularly to eighty-three, or eighty-four years, 
which very few exceeded, and which Moses speaks of in the before- 
mentioned psalm, composed upon that occasion. And though 
the sins of mankind have been very great and universal since that 


, yet the age of roan's life has not been sliortened any DQore, 
use a shorter space would hardly have been sufficient for the 
ng out, and Improvement of arts and sciences, as well as for 
r reasons. 

68] Psalm xci. 11. "He will give his angels charge con- 
ing thee, and they shall bear thee up in their hands, lest at 
.ime thou dash thy foot against a stone." As a father gives the 
• children charge concerning the younger, to lead thera and 
them up, and keep them from falling. 

5] Prov. iv, 23. " Keep thy heart with all diligence, for out 
are the issues of life." It is probable here is an allusion to 
ilood's issuing from the heart. The heart is the fountain of 
»Iood, which is called the life. G^n. ix. 4, and other places* 
men was so great a philosopher, that doubtless he understood 
ihe heart was the fountain of the blood. 

62] Prov. XXX. 27. ** The locusts have no king, yet go they 
all of them by bands." The following is taken from the 
ling Post of January 4lh, 1748. Extract of a letter from 
isylvania, Aug. 23, concerning the locusts that had lately 
a red there. 

These dreadful creatures with which we are afflicted, move in 
rolumns; the first places they invaded were the territories of 
sgisch, and Banoize, where they passed the night ; the next 
ling they directed their flight towards Peekska, Maradick, 
And the day following towards Irriga, where they have eat 
eaves, the grass, the cabbages, the melons and cucumbers, to 
ery roots. Yesterday they were in motion towards Schuliom, 
ling their flight manifestly towards Zealmo and the parts 
^abouts. They continue in the air, or if one may use the 
ession, they march generally two hours and an half at a time, 
y form a close compact column about fifleen yards deep, in 
dth about four musket shot, and in length near four leagues. 
y move with such force, or rather precipitation, that the air 
bles to such a degree as to shake the leaves upon the trees, 
y darken the sky in such a manner, that when they passed 
' ns, I could not see my people at twenty feet distance. 
p. S. At this instant we have notice that two swarms more 
approaching, which after having settled in the neighbourhood 
/^arasch, have returned back by Nerraden and lasack, making 
odigious buzz, or humming noise as they passed." The same 
»unt is also in the Boston Gazette of January 26th, 1748. 

)0] Eccles. i. 6. ** The wind goeth towards the south, and 
letb about unto the north, it wbirleth about continually, and 


the wind returnelh again according to his circoil." Wh 
the wind blows from one quarter for a long time there mus 
be a circulation in the atmosphere. When the wind blow 
the north, there must at the same time be another wind fn 
south, or in some other place, otiierwise h)ng and 8troD| 
would leave some regions empty of air, and it would o 
heap up in otlicrs. Thi:i I take to be what is noieant in tbii 

[91] Eccles. ii. IG. "There is no remembrance of tl 
more than of the fool." Man's reason naturally expects i 
reward, and that all the good, that good and wise men I 
their labour, should not be confined to this short life. 

[316] Eccles. vi. 3. " So that the days of his j-earsh 
and his soul be not fdlcd with good, and also that he , 
bun'al, I say tiiat an untimely birth is better than he." J 
burial^ i. e. is one that God takes no care of in his deal 
him no honour, takes no care of either soul or body, as bav 
value for, or care of, either, or any respect for their meosoi 
it is the wicked that the wise man is here speaking of, tl 
that is spoken of chap. viii. 12, 13, which is a place very 
with this. And it will be further evident by comparing 
the following verse with chap. v. 13 — 17. Burial is the 
which friends show to the memory and remains of those' 
dead. God will show no regard to any thing that remains ol 
men after death. God treats their souls when they die, i 
treat their bodies at the resurrection, with contempt, as m 
the dead bodies of those creatures they have no honour oi 
for, and are abominable to them, as are the carcasses of 
beasts. Jer. xxii. 10. " Ho shall be buried with the buri 
ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem.' 
Isai. xiv. 19, 20. **But thou art cast out of thy grave 
abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that ai 
thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stone 
pit and as a carcass ; trodden under feet, thou shah be joii 
them in burial, because thou hast destroyed th^' land." Gi 
careof the righteous when they die, he linrls a repository 
for their souls, and their dust is precious to him. As Got 
Moses in the mount, tliey arc paihered to their fathers 
ceived into Abraham's bosom, but God treats the soul 
wicked when they die as men treat the dead, putrid carcji 
ass or a dog : they are cast forth out of the city of God's 
lem, and shall be for ever shut out thence. 

[147] SolomorC$ Song. The name bj* which Soloro 
this song, confirms me in it that it is more than an ordin 


f, and that it was designed for a divine song, and of divine 

pity ; for we read, 1 Kings iv. 32, that Solomon's songs 

i thousand and dye ; this he calls the Song of songs, that is, 

lost excellent of all his songs, which it seems very probable 

to be upon that account, because it was a song of the most 

Bent subject, treating of the love, union, and communion be- 

Christ and his church ; of which, marriage and conjugal 

ras but a shadow. These are the most excellent lovers, and 

love the most excellent love. 

p. Henry, in the introduction to his Exp. of this book, says, 
ippears that this book was taken in a spiritual sense by the 
lb church, for whose use it was first composed, as appears by 
Ibaldee paraphrase, and the most ancient Jewish expositors.*' 
same place he says, ** In our belief both of the divine ex- 
ion and spiritual exposition of this book, we are confirmed by 
iDcient, constant, and convincing testimony, both of the 
eh of the Jews, to whom were committed the oracles of God, 
[who never made any doubt of the authority of this book, and 
Christian church, which happily succeeded them in that trust 

d] The Book of Solomon's Song. The divinity of this 
its confirmed from the allusions there seem to be in the New- 
iroent to things iierein contained ; and particularly Christ, 
m iv. 10. 14, speaking of a well of living water, seems to al- 
to the 15th verse of the iv. chapter of this song, *' a foun- 
Fdf gardens, a well of living water." So in Eph. v. IB, there 
to be an eye to chap. v. 1, of this song. See Notes on that 
kge in Ephesiaus. 

I] It is one argument that the Book of Confides is no com- 
love song, that the bridegroom or lover there spoken of so 
calls his beloved, ** My sister, ray spouse." This well 
with Christ's relation to believers, who is become our 
*T and near kinsman by taking upon him our nature, and is 
*otber, and the son of our mother by his incarnation, as 
ly he became a son of the church, and used the ordinances 
Anted in it, and so has sucked the'breasts of our mother, and 
became his brothers also by the adoption of his Father. 
this appellatron would not well suit a common spouse among 
fews, who were so strictly forbidden to marry any that were 
of kio to them, and particularly to marry a sister. Levit. 
[. 9. *' The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, 
ittie daughter of thy mother, whether she be born at home or 
io abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover." It is 
llfcer likely that the Jews would marry such in Solomon's time. 

« • 


nor that it would be the custom to comps^re their spouses t 
especially that they would insist so much on such an app 
as though it was an amiable thing, and a thing to be tho 
and mentioned with delight and pleasure, to have a spou 
was a sister, when God's law* taught them to dread and ab 
thought of it. 

[436] The Book of Caniicles. The following place* 
Psalms are a confirmation that by her, whom the bridegr 
this book calls, " My love," " My dove," '* My sister,' 
spouse," and the like, is meant the church, viz. Ps. xxii. 2( 
17. Ix. 4, 5. cviii. 6. cxxvii. 2. Ixxiv. 19. 

[460] The Book of Solomon^s Song, no common lot 
but a divine song, respecting the union heiiccen the Me9$\ 
the church. It is an argument of it that such figures of 
are made use of from time time in this song, as are elsewbe 
concerning tJMi Messiah and the church. Chap. i. 3. C 
elsewhere cocinlf)ared to ointment. That, chap. i. 3, 4, Dr 
is parallel with Jer. xxxi. 3. There the Lord, speaking 
church of Israel, under the name of the virgin of Israel, sa 
have loved thee with an everlasting love, therefore, with 
kindness have I drawn thee." Ver. 4. "The King hath I 
me into his chambers ;" and elsewhere the saints are repr 
as dwelling in the secret plaice of the Most High. Hos. xi 
draw them — with the bands of love." Representing the 
groom as a shepherd, and the spouse's children as kids and 
chap. i. 7, 8, is agreeable to frequent representations of tl 
siah, and the church in the Old Testament. The ornan 
the spouse are here represented as jewels and chains of sil 
gold, chap. i. 10, 11, and iv. 1 — 9. Compare these wit! 
xvi. 11, 12r 13. The excellencies both of bridegroom an 
are compared to spices, chap. i. 12, 13,14. iv. 6. 10.13, 
V. 5. 13. viii. 2. And ointment perfumed with spices, c 
3. iv. 10. The same spices were made use of to reprcst 
ritual excellencies in the incense, and anointing oil in th< 
naclc and temple, and also in the oil for the light. £x( 
28. Chap. i. 10; ** Our bed is green." This is agrei 
figures of speech often used concerning the church. Tl 
fort the spouse enjoyed in her bridegroom is compared to a 
and the fruit of a tree. Chap. ii. 2, is agreeable to Isai. 3 
2, and Iv. 13, and Hos. xiv. 5. Chap. ii. 3. 5, is agre< 
Prov. iii. 18. ** She is a tree of life to them that lay hoi 
her, and happy is every one that retaineth her ;" and v 
"My fruit is better than gold." So the Messiah, in the ] 
cjcs, is often compared to a tree and branch. The comi 


bridegroom and bride have in each other, are in this book often 
compared to wine. Chap. i. 2. ii. 5. v. 1. So wine was made 
use of in the tabernacle and temple service to represent both the 
comforts the church has in Christ, and also the gracious exercises 
and good works of the saints offered to God. See also Proverbs 
ix. 2, Isai. xxvii. 2, Ilosea xiv. 7, Zech. ix. 15, and x. 7. 
The comforts the bridegroom and bride here enjoy mutually in 
each other are in the song compared to wine and milk, agreeable 
to Isai. Iv. 1 ; and also to the honey and honeycomb, agreeable 
to the frequent representations made of spiritual comforts in the 
scripture. The spouse here is represented feasting with the bride- 
groom. Chap. ii. 4. and v. 1. So the church of God is repre- 
sented as feasting with him in the sacrifices and feasts appointed by 
Moses, and in the prophecies, Isai. xxv. 6, Iv. at the beginning. 
God's saints are all spoken of as the priests of the Lord, Isai. Ixi. 
6 ; but the priests eat the bread of God. What the spouse en- 
tertains her lover with is called fruits, chap. iv. IG, vii. 13, viii. 
2 ; as the good works of the saints abundantly are represented 
elsewhere as fruit which the church brings and offers to God. The 
spouse is here compared to fruitful trees, chap. iv. 13, &^c., vii. 
7, 8. The saints are compared to the same, Ps. i. 3, and Jer. 
xvii. 8, and Isai. xxvii. 6, and other places innumerable. The 
spouse is compared to a flourishing fruitful vine, chap. ii. 13, 
▼ii. 8. So is the church of God often compared to a vine. The 
spouse's excellency is compared to the smell of Lebanon, chap. 
iv. 1 1. So is the excellency of the church, Hos. xiv. 6, 7. " His 
branches shall spread, and his beauty shall be as the olive tree, 
and his gtnell as Lebanon. They that dwell under his shadow shall 
return, they shall revive as the corn, ami grow as the vine^ the 
gceni thereof shall be as the wine of Lebanon.^^ The fruits of the 
spouse are often compared to pomegranates in this song. Chap. 
iv. 3. 13. vi. 7. viii. 2. So the spiritual fruits of the church of 
God are reprerented by pomegranates in the tabernacle and tem- 
ple. The spouse is in this song said to be like the palm-tree. 
Chap. vii. 7, 8. So was the church of Israel, whose rcpresenta- 
. tion were the seventy elders, typified by seventy palm-trees. Exod. 
XV. 27. So the temple was every where covered with cherubims 
and palm-trees, representing saints and angels. 1 Kings vi. 29. 
32. 35, vii. 3G, 2 Chron. iii. 5. So in EAekiel's temple, Ezek. xl. 
16. The spouse in this song is compared to a garden and orchard, 
to a garden of spices, and of aloes, in particular, ch. iv. 12, to the 
end, and v. 1, and vi. 2, which is agreeable to the representations 
made of the church. Num. xxiv. 5, G. " How goodly are thy 
teots, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel. As the valleys are 
they spread forth, as the j;;irdens by the rivers side, as the trees 
offign aloes which the Lv/rd haih plaifted, as the cedar-trees be- 
VOL. IX. 40 


side the waters." The spouse is compared to a fountain, cliap. iv. 
1 2, 1 3 ; so is tlio cluircli, Dey t. xxxiii. 28, Ps. Ixviii. 26. The twelve 
tribes of Israel are represented by twelve fountains of water. 
Exod. XV. 27. The spouse is called a fountain of gardens, chap, 
iv. 15. So the church of God is represented as a fountain io ihe 
midst of a laud of corn and wine. Deut. xxxiii. 28. And a strean 
among all trees of unfading leaves, and living fruit. And asi 
watered gardeu, Isai. Iviii. ] 1, Jer. xxxi. 12. The spouse iscalkd 
a well of living waters, chap. iv. 15. The blessings granted to |k 
the church, and by the church are repiesented by the same ihiog 
Zech. xiv. 8. '^ i Jving waters shall go out of Jerusalem/' So |^i 
Ezck. xlvii., where we read of waters goingout of the temple and 
city of Jerusaleui that gave life to every thing, and flowed io ifac 
midst of the trees of life. Another thing that is a very great evi- 
dence that this song is mystical, and that the spouse signifies not 
a person but a society, and the church of God in particular, istlut 
she is compared to a city, and the city of Jerusalem in pa^ 
ticular. Chap. vi. 4. *' Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Ti^ 
zah, comely as Jerusalem ;^' and (hat particular parts of the sponsc 
are compared to buildings, and strong buildings, as towers and 
walls. Chap. iv. 4. " Thy neck is like the tower of Davidi 
builded for an armory whereon they hang a thousand buckleiii 
all shields of mighty men." Chap. vii. 4. *' Thy neck is like a 

tower of ivory Thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon, whicfc 

looketh towards Damascus. Chap. viii. 10. ** I am a wall, and ^ 
my breasts like towers." We find elsewhere people and societiei 
of men represented by buildings, houses, and cities, but never 
particular persons. And the church of God is a society or peo- 
ple often represented in scripture by such similitudes, and par- 
ticularly is often compared to a city with strong towers and bul- 
warks, and to the city Jerusalem especially, and that on the 
account of her many fortifications and strong bulwarks. 

Again, it greatly confirms that the spouse is a people, and (he 
church of God in particular, that she is compared to an army, u 
army terrible with banners. Chap. vi. 4. 10. <* And as a com- 
pany of two armies, or the company of Mahanaim." So die 
church of God when brought out of Egypt through the wilde^ 
ness to Canaan, was by God's direction in the form of an army 
with banners. So the psalms and prophecies often represent ibe 
church of God as going forth to battle, fighting under an en- 
sign, and gloriously conquering iheir enemies, and conquering 
the nations of the world. And the compauy of Jacob, that was 
as it were the church of Israel, with the host of angels that met 
them and joined them, to assist them against Esau's host, was the 
conipatiy of Mahanaim, or company of two armies, so called by 
Jacob on that account. Gen. xxxii. at the beginning. 


So it is a great evidence of the same tiling that tiie spouse is 
compared to war-horses, chap. i. 9, &r. which it is not in the least 
likely would ever be a comparison used to represent the beauty of 
a bride in a common Epithal.imium or love song. But this is exact- 
ly agreeable to a representation elsewhere made of the church of 
Clod. Zech. X. 3. ** The Lord of hosts hath visited his flock, the 
house of Judah, and hath made them as his goodly horse in the 
battle." And vcr. ^. "And they shall be as mii^hty men which 
tread down their enemies, as the mire of the streets in the battle. 
And they shall fight because the Fjord is with them.'' And ver. 7. 
•• And they of Ephraim shall be like mighty men." 

These expressions show this song to be mystical. Chap. i. 
•• My mother's children were angry with me," &c. If it is sup- 
posed to be used of the church, they are easily accounted for ; they 
are agreeable to accounts in scripture history of Cain's enmity 
aj^ainst Abel, and Esau's against Jacob; nnd their posterities 
enmity against Israel ; and the prophecies that represent the fu- 
ture persecutions of the church, by false brethren. 

Another thing that shows this to be no common love song, is 
that the spouse seeks company in her love to the bridegroom, en- 
deavours to draw other women to join with her in loving him, and 
rejoices in their communion with her in the love and enjoyment of 
her beloved. Chap. i. 3,4. "Therefore the VIRGINS love 
thee." "Draw me; WE will run after thee." " The king hath 
brought me into his chambers; WE will be glad and rejoice in 
tliee." " WE will remember thy love more than wine." " THK 
UPRIGHT love thee." Chap. vi. 1, 2. "Whither is thy be- 
h>ved gone, O thou fairest among women ; whither is thy be- 
loved turned aside that we may seek him with thee.'^ My be- 
loved is gone down into his garden," &.c. Chap. viii. 13. 

** Thou that dwellest in the gardens, the companions hearken to 
thy voice." 

The bridegroom in this song speaks of his.willing people, chap. 
vi. 12, which is agreeable to the language used concerning the 
people of the Messiah. Ps. ex. 2. (See Psalm xlv. No. 507.) 

[86] Cant. i. 5. "As the t^nts of Kedar, as the curtains of 
Solomon." Kedar was a place where shepherds used to seat 
their tents and feed their (locks, a noted place for shepherds, as 
you may see, Isai. Ix. 7. " All the flocks of Kedar shall be 
gathered unto thee.'* And Jer. xlix. 28, 29. Concerning Ke- 
dar. " Their tents and their flocks — they shall take to them- 
selves their curtains." The people of Kedar it seems used to 
dwell in tents, in moveable habitations, and lived by feeding of 
sheep; and therefore the church is very likely represented by 
these, and it is agreeable to many other representations in scrip- 


lure, where (jrod^s people are called liis sheep, his flock, and 
Christ and his ministers shepherds, and the churrh is also coib- 
parcd to a tabernacle or tents : it is fitly compared to moveabie 
tents, for here we are pilgrims and strangers, and have no abiding 
place ; these are the shepherds tents referred lu in the 8lh verse. 

[458] Cant. i. 5. ** As the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of 
Solomon." That the spouse in this song is compared to a tent, 
and to the curtains of the tabernacle and temple, is an evidence 
that this song is no ordinary love song, and that by the spoose ii 
not meant any particular woman, but a society, even that holy so- 
ciety, the church of God. It is common in the writings of the 
Old Testament to represent the church of God by a tent, or tents, 
and an house and temple, but never a particular person. See IsaL 
liv. 2 ; Zech. xii. 7 ; Isai. xxxiii. 20 ; Lam. ii. 4. 6 ; Isai. i.8. 
And the tabernacle and temple were known types of the church, 
and the curtains of both had palm-trees embroidered on tbem, 
which are abundantly made use of to represent the church. The 
church of God is called an house, in places too many to be men- 
tioned. The church used to be called the temple of the Lord, ai 
appears by Jer. vii. 4. 'I'he church is represented by the tempki 
as is evident by Zech. iv- 2 — 9. 

[461] Eccles. i. 9. '' The thing that hath been is that whidi 
shall be, and that which is done is that which shall be done, and 
there is no new thing under the sun," &^c. It appears by the con- 
nection of these words uith what went before, that the design of the 
wise man is here to signify that the world, though it be so full nfl^ 
bour, mankind, from generation to generation, so constantly, la- 
boriously, unweariedly, pursuing after happiness and satisfaction, 
on some perfect good wherein they may rest ; yet they never obtain 
it, normnkeany progress towards it. Particular persons \% bile llNfjf 
live, though they spend their whole lives in pursuit, do but go 
round and round, and never obtain thnt satistying good they seek 
after. '*Tlie eye is not satisfied with ^eei^g, nor the ear with hea^ 
ing," ver. 8. And as one generation passeth away, and anotlHT 
comes, (v. 4.) the successive generations constantly labouring, 
and pursuing alter stnne good whertMu satisfaction and rest may 
be obtaini'd, not being discouraged by the disappointment «f 
former grnrrations, yet ihry mnko no progress, they attain to 
nothing new beyond their forefathers, they only go round in tk 
same circle, as the ^ull restlessly repeats the same course that il 
used to do in fr)nner ages, nnd as the wind and wati*r after tlwir 
running and flowing have got no further liian they were fornieri); 
for to the place from whence they came, they constantly return 
again ; and as the sea is no fuller now than it used to be in fornat 


Iges, thouirh the rivers Imvo all the. while with constant and 
ndefatifrahlc labour and ccmtimial expense of their waters, 
»een striving to fill it up. That which goes round in a link, 
iet it continue moving never so swiftly, and never so long, 
makes no progrc^^^s, conies to nothing new. 

[395] Cant. ii. 7. ** 1 charg(j you, O ye daughters of Jcru- 
lalcm, by the roes, and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir 
not up, nor awake my love till lie pleas<;." In the 2d verse of 
this chapter is represented the church in her state of persecu- 
tion ; in the 3d, 4th, 5th, and Gth verses is represented the com- 
forts and supports Christ gives her in this stale of hers ; in this 
rerse is represented her duty in patience, meekness, and love 
lo her enemies, and humble and patient wailing for Christ's 
deliverance, in Christ's trial while she is in this state of suflTer- 
ing. In tho five following verses is represented Christ's com- 
ing to ber deliverance, to put an end to the suffering state of 
the church, and introduce its properous and glorious day. In 
this 7th verse, it is strictly charged upon all professing Chris- 
tians, that they should not stir up nor awake Christ till he 
please, i. e. that they should not take any indirect courses for 
their own deliverance while the church is in her afllicted state, 
ind Christ seems to neglect her, as though he were asleep, 
but that they should patiently wait on him till his time should 
come, when he would awake for the deliverance of his church. 
He that believeth, shall not make haste. They that lake in- 
direct courses to hasten their own deliverance, by rising up 
Against authority, and resisting their persecutors, are guilty of 
tempting Christ, and not waiting till his time comes, but going 
etlK)ut to stir him up, and force deliverance before his own time. 
They arc charged by the roes and hinds of the field, who are 
of a gentle and harmless nature, and not beasts of prey, do 
not devour one another — do not fight with their enemies, but fly 
from them, and are of a pleasant loving nature, Prov. v. 19. 
So Christians should flee when persecuted, and should not be 
of a fierce nature, to resist and fight, but should be of a gen- 
tle and loving nature, and wait for Christ's awaking. 

The same thing is represented in the iii. chaj). ver. 5. There 
as that chap, in tlie 1st verse, is represented the fruitless seek- 
ing of the church in her slothful, slumbering, dark state that 
precedes the glorious day of the Christian church, and then is 
rcpresenttjd her seeking him more earnestly when more awak- 
ened, ver. 2, and then the; introduction of her state of light 
und comfort by that extraordinary preach'mg of the word of 
God, which will be by the ministers of the gospel, and then, in 
the 5lh verse, is the church to wait patiently for Christ's ap- 


pea ranee, without usinp: undue indirect moans to obtain con- 
fort before his time roincs. And then in the following versa 
is more fully represented the happy state of the church after 
Christ has awaked and come out of the n-iidcrness where he 
had hid himself. The like change we hare again, chap. fill. 
4, which in a like sense rilso agrees well with the context. 

[444] Cant. ii. 14. " O my dove, that art in the clefts of tlic 
rock, in the secret places of the j^tairs, let nic sec thy couiite- 
nance, let me hear thy voice." There is prohably respect here 
to the rock of mount Zion, on which Solomon^s house was liuih, 
or of the mountain of the temple, and to the stairs liy whick 
they ascended that high rock, to go up to Solomon's ptdarei' 
See Nehem. iii. 15, and xii. 37; or the stairs by which tbef 
ascended through the narrow courts into the temple ; it comei 
much to the same thing, whether we suppose the rocks airf 
stairs referred to, to be of the mountain of Solomon^ pnlaee 
or temple, for both were typical of the same thing, and boik 
mountains seemed to have been called by the same naner 
mount Zion. The church, in her low estate, before thatgloti*' 
ous spring sfioken of in the foregoing verses, is not admitted to 
such high privileges, and such nearness to God, and intimtict: 
with him, as she shall be afterwards, is kept at a greater du^ 
tance not only by God's providence, but through her own dark- 
ness and unbelief, and remams of a legal spirit, whereby she 
falls more under the terrors of God's majesty manifested at 
mount Sinai under that legal dis))ensation throui^li which Mo- 
ses, when God passed by, hid himself in the clefts of the rock. 
Her love to the spiritual Solomon causes her to remain near 
his house, about the mountain on which his palace standiii 
watching at his gates, and waiting at the posts of his doorV 
and by the stairs by which he ascends to his house, but yet 
hides herself as if ashamed, and afraid, and unworthy to ap- 
pear before him, like the woman that came behind Christ to 
touch the hem of his garment. She has not yet obtained that 
glorious privilege spoken of, Ps. xlv. 14, 15, and Uev. xix. 7, 
8, which she shall be admitted to in the glorious day approndn 
ing, when she shall enter into the king's palace. She rcinairt 
now waiting at the foot of the stairs that go up to the liousc^as 
Jacob lay at the foot of the Ia<ldor, at the place of which be 
said, this is the house of God, thiT) is the gate of heaven, niiil 
there she hides herself in the secret placets of the stairs, liol 
then she shall be made joyfully to ascend, and with boKlncst^ 
and o|)en face to go to the king in his palace. 


[486] Cant. iv. 3. '' Thy lips arc like a thread of scarlet." 
There is probably a special lespcct to the speech of the saints 
u prayer, which is dyed in the blood of Christ, and by this 
means becomes pleasant and acceptable, and of an attractive 
lufluence, like a scarlet cord to draw down blessings. The 
[iruycrs of saints are lovely and prevalent only through the in- 
i^eusc of Christ's merits. 

[487] Cant. iv. 3. " Thy neck is like the tower of David, 
builded for an armory, whereon there hang a thousand buck- 
lers, all shields of mighty men." This probably represents 
faitli, for it is that by which the church is united to her head. 
For Christ is her head ; or if we look at ministers as a subor- 
dinate head, yet they are so no otherwise than as they repro- 
seiit Christ, and act as his ministers, and the same that is the 
union of believers to Christ in their union to ministers, and in 
receiving them, they receive him. It is by the same faith 
whereby they receive Christ, and obey his word, that they re- 
ceive and obey the instructions of ministers, for their instruc- 
tions are no other than the word of Christ by them. Faith is 
the church's life, and strength, and constant support, and sup- 
ply, as the neck is to the body. Faith is the church's shield ; 
£ph. vi. 16; it is the church's armory furnishing her with 
shields, because it provides them out of Christ's fullness which 
is contained in the promises. 

[488] Cant. iv. 5. ** Thy two breasts arc like two young 
roes that are twins, which feed among the lilies." Like two 
yonng roes, i. e. fair, loving, and pleasant. See Prov. v. 19. 
Roes which feed among the lilies, not in a wilderness, but in a 
good pasture, or a pleasant garden, fair and flourishing. And 
by their being the white unspotted lilies for their nourishment, 
may also represenc her chastity and purity, that her breasts are 
not defiled by an impure love. By the church's breasts arc 
meant means of grace ; see Cant. viii. 1. 8, Isai. Ixvi. 11, 1 
Peter il. 2. These two breasts may signify the same with the 
two olive-trees, with the two golden pipes emptying the golden 
oil out of themselves, and the two anointed ones, Zcch. iv. 3. 
11, 12. 14, and the two witnesses in Revelation, the two tes- 
taments, and two sacraments ; another thing meant is love, 
the two breasts are love to God and love to men. 

[428] Solomoii^s Song, iv. 8. *' Come with nic from liCba- 
non, my spouse, come with me from Lebanon, look from the 
top of Auiana, from the top of Shenir and llerniun, from the 
Jious' dens, from the mountains of the leopards." This cull 


and invitation of Jesus Christ may be looked upon as directoi 
cither to her that is already actually the spouse of Christ, or 
her th.at is called and invited to he his spouse, that is, airead; 
his spouse no otherwise than in liLs gracious election. Sotk 
Gentiles are called a sister in the laH chapter of this soi^, 
even hefore they were in a church estate, before ^he hadaoj, 
breasts. So in the xliii. of Isaiah, where respect is badtotJKJ 
calling of the Gentiles, God calls those his sons and daughters, 
that were so as yet, only in his decree of election. Ver. 6. "I 
will say to the north, Give up ; and to the south. Keep not badi: 
bring my sous from far, and my daughters from the endsef 
the eartli.^' 

Lebanon, Amana, Shenir, and Hermon, were certain no(d 
mountains in the wilderness, in the confines of the land of Gi- 
naan, that were wild and uninhabited. Hence the wonderfil 
work of God in turning barbarous and heathenish countrieil^l 
Christianity, is compared to the turning such a wild forest ■ 
Lebanon into a fruitful field. Isai. xiii. 17. '* Is it not yeti 
very little while, and Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitCil 
field, and the fruitfid field shall be esteemed as a forest ?" Thf 
were mountains that were haunts of wild beasts, and prob«% 
some of them at least very much frequented by lions aodle^ 
pards, those most fierce and terrible of wild beasts; they win 
places where lions had their dens, and either these orsoM 
other noted mountains in the wilderness, were so frequentedlf 
leopards, that they were called the mountains of the leopinlii 
It is from such places as these that the spouse, or she tbatii 
invited to be the spouse, is invited to look to Jesus Cbriitt 
where she was without the limits of the pleasant land of C^ 
naan, wandering and lost in a howling wilderness, where sk 
was in continual dnngcr of being devoured and falling a pr? 
to those terrible creatures. Christ graciously calls andiuTitfl 
her to look to him from the tops of these desolate mountain 
towards the land of Canaan, and towards the holy city Jen* 
lem, where he dwelt, though far ofli'; yea, to come with hi*i 
for Christ is come into this wilderness to seek and to saveitf 
that is lost, to come and leave those horrid places, and cooi 
and dwell with him in the pleasant land, yea, in the city Jemtf* 
lem, that is the perfection of beauty, the joy of the whole cartt' 
Yea, though the lions had actually seized her, and carried h^ 
into their dens, there to be a feast for them, yet Chrisic** 
and encourages her to look to him from the lions' dens. 

David represents his praying to God in a state of exile*" 
ill distressing cir(!uni>taiices, by his renienibering Gud \^^ 
the land of the Htrntonites. Ps. xlii. C '* Christ saves*"* 
out i)( the dens of lions, as he did Dairul, and out uHh*= 



ItoOQths of wild beasts, as David did the lamb from the mouth of 
the lion and the bear. He invites sinners that are naturally un- 
der the dominion of Satan, that roaring lion that goes about seek- 
ing whom he may devour; and invites saints under the greatest 
darkness and distresses, and temptations, and bufletings of Satan, 
Do look to him. 

[435] Cant. iv. 9. *^ Thou hast ravished my heart with one of 
thine eyes, with one chain of thy neck.'' ^^ hat that one chain 
of the spouse's neck is, that does so peculiarly ravish the heart of 
Christ, we may learn by Ps. xlv. 10,11, "Forget thine own 
people, and thy Father's house ; so shall the king greatly desire 
thy beauty." The thing here recommended to the spouse, in or- 
der to the king's greatly desiring, or being ravished with her 
heauty, is poverty of spirit. That this peculiarly delights and 
attracts the heart of Christ, is agreeable to many scriptures. 1 
Peter iii. 2, 3. " Whose adorning, let it not be that outward 
adorning of plaiting the hair, and wearing of gold, and putting 
on of apparel ; but let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that 
which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet 
spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price." This is in a 
peculiar manner a sweet savour to God. Ps. li. 17. This in a pe- 
culiar manner draws the eye of God, Isai. Ix. 2, and 'attracts 
his presence. Tsai. Ivii. 15. Ps. xxxiv. 18. Or perhaps it may be 
the eye of faith that includes poverty of spirit and love. These 
grraces being exercised in faith, are peculiarly acceptable ; faith 
derives beauty from Christ's righteousness, by which all mixture 
of deformity is hid. 

[489] Cant. v. 14. "His belly is as bright ivory, overlaid 
with sapphires." The word is the same in the original, which in 
ver. 4, is rendered bowels, and wherever it is attributed to God, 
it denotes affection, and is rendered bowels, as Isai. Ixiii. 15. Jer. 
zzxi. 20, his affection is said to be like bright ivory overlaid 
with sapphires, representing the justice and mercy which are both 
so perfectly exercised, and manifested in him, in the work of re- 
demption. The bright, or pure white ivory, represents his per- 
fect justice. Solomon's throne of justice was ivory, which sub- 
stance was chosen to be the mother of his throne in all probability, 
because it fitly represented justice; as the throne of Christ at the 
day of judgment, Rev. xx., is represented as a great white throne. 
His belly was overlaid with sapphires, being a precious stone of 
a beautiful azure or sky blue, the softest of all the colours, to re- 
present mercy. Thus the throne of God had the appearance of 
sapphire, Ezek. i. 26, to signiry that he sat on a throne of grace. 

VOL. IX. 47 


[85] Cant. vi. 13. " What will ye see in the Shulamite? Ai 
it were the company of two armies," or, " the company of Maba- 
Daim." The two armies that are the company of Mahanaim are 
the church of God in earth and in heaven; the company of Ja« 
cob and the company of the angels, see Gen. xxxii. 2 ; or the 
church militant, and the church triumphant, for both these armiei 
make one spouse of Jesus Christ. 

[490] Cant. vii. 1. " How beautiful are thy feet with shoes, 
O princess daughter T' This is to signify the amiableness ofbtr 
conversation, and that her conversation is not naturally amiable, 
but that this beauty of conversation is put upon her. Andao* 
other thinp^ implied is, that she was prepared for travel, as the 
people in Egypt were, to have their shoes on their feet. Exod. xii. !!• 
So the apostle directs that Christians should have their feet shod 
with the preparation of the gospel of peace, Eph. vi. 15, i.e. a 
preparation for travel according to the gospel, and by the gospel 
of peace. 

To the same scope is what follows — ** The joints of tliy thigbs 
are like jewels, the work of the hand of a cunning workman.^' 
The joints, the knees, and hips, are especially the seat and means 
of motion in walking. When it is said, The joints of thy thia;lii 
are the work of a cunning workmnn, this may be explained by 
that of the apostle, Eph. i. 10; *' We are his workmanship, cre- 
ated in Christ Jesus unto good worlds, which God hath fore-or- 
dained that they should walk in them." The whole body oflhc 
church is fitly joined together, by joints and bands; the joints 
are kept firm, and fit for their proper motion and operation by 
mutual charity, holy love and union, and communioD of saints. 

[491] Cant. vii. 2. '* Thy navel is like a round goblet, which 
wanteth not liquor." The navel, according to the ancient no- 
tions they had of things, was the seat of health. Prov. iii. 8. "It 
shall be health to thy navel." Job xl. IG. ** His force is in the 
navel of his belly." So that the thing which is here most proba- 
bly represented is the spiritual health of the church: her navel i$ 
compared to a goblet which wanteth not liquor, i. e. full of wine, 
that enlivening, invigorating liquor. The word signifies mix- 
ture or temperament, or wine mixed or tempered ; that is, wiuc 
that is so prepared as to make it the most agreeable and wholc- 
iome ; (see Prov. xxiii. 30. and ix. 2 ;) probably the same may 
be meant that is called spiced wine, in ciiap. viii. 2. 

[492] Cant. vii. 4. " Thine eyes are like the fishpools in 
Heshbon, by the gate of Btith-rabbim." It seems there were tuo 
or more noted fishpools near to the city of Heshbon, the chief 


5ily in the country of Moab, by one of the gates of that city, 
railed the gate of Bath-rabbim, i. e- the gate of the house of the 
Dultitude, probably so called because at that gate was an 
lou^e for the resort of the muliiludcs that resorted to these 
^ools for the sake of the water of that pool, and fish which 
were caught there, and to wash themselves there, and perhaps 
•lese pools might be remarkable for the clearness of the water, 
i.nd their fitness to exhibit a true and distinct image of the multi- 
:midcs that resorted thither, wherein men might see themselves as 
Aey were, and might see the spots and filth which they would 
^ash off, and wherein was a true representation of other things. 
So that the thing signified by the eyes of the spouse may be the 
Spiritual knowledge and understanding of the church, by which 
the has a true knowledge of herself and her own pollutions, and 
^so a true representation or idea of other things. And also 
tiereby may be signified the benevolence and bountifulness of the 
S^yes of a true saint, so that they as it were yield meat and drink 
Lo a multitude, as it is probable these fishpools did. Proverbs 
ii. 9. 

[493] Cant. vii. 4. " Thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon, 
ferbich looketh towards Damascus.'^ The tower of Lebanon, 
looking towards Damascus, was probably some tower built in Le- 
banon, on the frontier ne