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Full text of "The Doctrine of original sin defended, evidences of its truth produced, and arguments to the contrary answered : containing in particular, a reply to the objections and arguings of Dr. John taylor, in his book, intitled, The Scripture doctrine of original sin proposed to free and candid examination"



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By the late Reverend and Learned 


President of the College in Xewjersey. 

Matth. ix. 1 2. They that be whole, need not a Physician ; but they that are sick. 

Et hxc non tantum ad Peccatores referenda est ; quia in omnibus Maledic- 
tionibus primi Hominis, cmncs ejus Geneistiones conveniunt.... 

R, Sal. Jarchi. 

Propter Concupiscentiam, innatam Cordi humano, dicitur, In Iniquitate geni- 
Lus sum ; atque Sensus est, quod a Nativitate implantatum sit Cordi hu- 
jTinno Jcfzcr harung Yigmcntum malum.... Aben Ezra. 

....Ad Mores Natuia recurrit 
Damnatos, fixa et mutari nescia.,.. 

....Dociles, imitandis 
Turpibus et pravis omnes sumus.... ]vv. 



T<;,1AC SfURlT.rANr, PlflNTEH. 



followmg Discourse is intended^ not merely as 
an answer to any particular Book ivritten against the Doctrine 
o/* Original Sin, but as a general Defence of that great imfiort' 
ant Doctrine, JVevertheless^ I have in this Defence taken no- 
tice of the wain things said against this Doctrine^ by such of the 
more noted opfiosers of it, as I have had o/i/iortunity to read ; 
particularly those t%vo late Writers, Dr. Turnbull and Dr. 
Taylor of Norwich ; but esfiecially the latter, in what he has 
fiublishedin those two Books of his, the fir^st intitled, The Scrip- 
ture Doctrine of Original Sin proposed to free and candid 
Examination ; the other, his Key to the Apostolic Writings, 
with a Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistle to the Romans. 
I have closely attended to Dr. Taylor's Piece on Original Sin, 
in all its Parts^ and have endeavored that no one thing there 
said, of any consequence in this Controversy, should pass imnO' 
ticed, or that any thiyig which has the appearance of an Argu- 
tnent, in opposition to this Doctrine, should be left unanswered, 
I look on the Doctrine as of great Importance; which every 
Body will doubtless own it is, if it be true. For, if the case be 
such indeed, that all Mankind are by Nature in a State 0/ total 
Ruin, both with respect to the moral Evil they are the subjects 
•f, and the afflictive Evil they are exposed to, the one as the con- 
sequence and punishment of the other, then doubtless the great 
Salvation by Christ stands in direct Relation to this Ruin, as 
the remedy to the disease ; and the whole Gospel, or Doctrine of 
Salvation, must suppose it ; and all real belief or true notion of 
that Gospel, must be built upon^it. Therefore, us I think the. 
Doctrine is most certainly both true and important, I hope, my 
attempting a Yiw^lCdiiiQn of it, will be candidly interpreted; 
and that what I have done towards its defence^ will be impartial- 
ly considered, by all that will give themselves the trouble to read 
the ensuing Discourse ; in which it is designed to examine every 


t/iing 7natcrial throughout the Doctor's whole Booky and ?na>ii/ 
things in that other Book of Dr. Taylor's, containing his Key 
and expositioTi en Romans ; as also inanij things ivritten in op.- 
position to this Doctrine by some other modem Authors* And 
moreover, my discourse being not only intended for an Answer to 
Dr. Taylor, a7id other op/iosers of the Doctrine of Original 
Siuy but (as was observed above) for a general defence of that 
Doctrine ; producing the evidence of the truth of the Doctrine, 
as well as answering objections made against it. ...considering 
these things, I say, I hope this attempt of mine will not be 
thought needless, nor be altogether useless, notwithstanding oth-' 
er publications on this subject. 

I would also hope, that the extetisiveness of the plan of the 
following treatise will excuse the length of it. And that when 
it is considered, honu much was absolutely requisite to the full 
executing of a design formed on such a plan ; how much has 
been written against the Doctrine of Original Sin, and with what 
plausibility ; and how strong the prejudices of many are in fa- 
vor of what is said in opposition to this Doctrine ; and that it 
cannot be expected, any thing short of a full consideration of al- 
most every argument advanced by the main opposers, especially 
by this late and specious Writer, Dr. Taylor, will satisfy many 
readers ; and also, how much must unavoidably be said in order 
to a full handling of the arguments in defence of the Doctrine ; 
and hovj important the Doctrine must be, if true ; 1 6ay, when 
such circumstances as these are considered, I trust, the length 
of the following discourse will not be thought to exceed what the 
case really required. However, this 7nust be left to the Judg* 
■ment of the intelligent and candid Reader. 

Stockbridge, May 2G, IToT. 




SOME Evidences of Original Sin from Facts and Events, as 
found by observation and experience, Considered. 


The Evidence of (^rf^iW 5m from v^hat appears in Fact of the Sinfulness cC 


Universal Mortality ^royt^ Original Sin ; particularly the Death of Infants, 
■with its various Circunistances. 


Observations on particular Parts of the Holy Scrifiture, .vhich 
prove the Doctrine of Original Sm. 


Observations relating to things contained in the three first Chapter, of G.t..- 
SIS, with reference to the Doctrine of Original Sm. 


Observations on other Parts of the Holy Scripfures,c\.\t^y in the Old Testament, 
that prove Original Sin. 


Observations on various other plates of Scripture, principally of the i^.a- 
Testament, proving the Doctrine of Original Sin. 



Containing Observat'ons on Rom, v. 12, to the end. 


Observing the Evidence given us, relative to the Doctrine of 
Original Sin, in what the Scriptures reveal concerning the 
Redemption by Christ. 


The Evidence of Original Sin from the Nature of Redemption, in the Pro^ 
curiminto{'\\.'. Which is superceded by Dr. Taylor's Scheme, 


The Evidence of the Doctrine of Original Sin from what the Scripture teach- 
es concerning the Application of Redemption. 


Containing Ansiuers to Objections* 

Concerning that Objection, That to suppose Men to be born in Sin, without 
their Choice, or any previous act of their own, is to suppose what is j'ti- 
consistent with the Nature of Siu. And reflections, shewing the inconsist- 
ence of Dr. Taylor's Argaings from this Topic. 


Concerning that Objection against the Doctrine of native Corruption, That to 
suppose, Men receive their first Existence in Sin, is to make Him who is 
the Author of their Being, also the Author of their Depravity. 


That great Objection against the Imputation of Adani's Sin to his Posterity con- 
sidered, That such Imputation is unjust and unreasonable, inasmuch as 
^dam and his Posterity are not one and the same : With a brief Reflec- 


don subjoined, on what some have supposed, of God's imputing the 
guilt of Adam's Sin to his Posterity, but in an infinitely less Degree thaa 
to Adam himself. 


Wherein several other Objections are considered. 


Containing some brief Observations on certain artful Methods, used by Writ- 
ers who are Adversaries to this Doctrine, in order to /^rtyW/cc their Readers 
against it. 






Wherein are considered some Evidences of Origin- 
al Sin from Facts and Events, as found by Ob- 
servation and Experience^ together with Repre- 
sentations and Testimonies of Holy Scripture^ 
and the Confession and Assertions of Opposers. 


The Evidence of Original Sin from what appear^ 
in Fact of the Sinfulness of Mankind, 


jiU Mankind do constantly^ in oil ^gesj without Fail in any out 
Instance^ run into that moral Evil, ivhich is, in Effect, their 
oitm utter and eternal Perdition, in a total Privation of 
God's Favor, and Suffering of his Vengeance and Wrath, 

x3y Original Sin, as the phrase has been most 
commonly used by divines, is meant the innate, sinful dejiravity 
*f the heart. But yet, when the doctrine of Original Sin is spok- 
en of, it is vulgarly understood in that latitude, as to includt^ 


not only the defiravity of nature^ but the imfiutation of AdanCs 
first Sin ; or in other words, the liableness or exposedness of 
jidam*8 posterity, in the divine judgment, to partake of the 
punishment of that Sin. So far as 1 know, most of those 
who have held one of these, have maintained the other ; and 
ipost of those who have opposed one^ have opposed the other ; 
bo h are opposed by the author chiefly attended to in the fol- 
lowing discourse, in his book against Original Sin : And it 
may perhaps appear in our future consideration of the subjecti 
that they are closely connected, and that the arguments which 
prove the one, establish the other, and that there are no more 
difficulties attending the allowing of one than the other. 

I shall, in the first place, consider this doctrine more es- 
pecially with regard to the corruption of nature ; and as we 
treat of this, the other will naturally come into consideration, 
in the prosecution of the discourse, as connected with it. 

As all moral qualities, all principles either of virtue or 
vice, lie in the disposition of the heart, I shall consider wheth- 
er we have any evidence, that the heart of man is naturally 
of a corrupt and evil disposition. This is strenuously denied 
by many late writers, who are enemies to the doctrine of 
Original Sin ; and particularly by Dr. Taylor. 

The way we come by the idea of any such thing as dis- 
position or tendency, is by observing what is constant or gen- 
eral in event ; especially under a great variety of circumstan- 
ces ; and above all, when the effect or event continues the 
same through great and various opposition, much arid mani- 
fold force and means used to the contrary not prevailing to 
hinder the effect. I do not know, that such a prevalence of 
effects is denied to be an evidence of prevaiUng tendency in 
causes and agents ; or that it is expressly denied by the op- 
posers of the doctrine of Original Sin, that if, in the course of 
events, it universally or generally proves that mankind are 
actually corrupt, this would be an evidence of a prior, corrupt 
propensity in the woi id of mankind ; whatever may be said 
by some, which, if taken with its plain consequences, may 
seem toimjily a dei/ial of this ; which may be considered afier- 
wards....But by many the fact is denied ; that is, it is denied, 


that corruption and moral evil arc commonly prevalent in the 
world : On the contrary, it is insisted on, that good prepon- 
derates, and that virtue has the ascendant. 

To this purpose Dr. TurnbuU says,t " Wi'.h regard to the 
prevalence of vice in the world, men are apt to let their im- 
agination run out upon all the robheries, pyracies, murders, 
perjuries, frauds, massacres, assassinations they have either 
heard of, or read in history ; thence concluding all mankind 
to be very wicked. As if a court of justice was a prop<ir 
place to make an estimate of the morals of mankind, or an 
hospital of the healthfulness of a climate. But ought they 
not to consider, that the number of honest citizens and farm- 
ers far surpasses that of all sorts of criminals in any state, 
and that the innocent and kind actions of even criminals them- 
selves surpass their crimes in numbers ; that it is the rarity 
of crimes, in comparison of innocent or good actions, which 
engages our attention to them, and makes them to be record- 
ed in history ; while honest, generous, domestic actions are 
overlooked, only because they are so common ? As one great 
danger, or one month's sickness shall become a frequently 
repeated story during a long life of health and safety.. ..Let 
not the vices of mankind be multiplied or magnified. Let us 
make a fair estimate of human life, and set over against the 
shocking, the astonishing instances of barbarity and wicked- 
ness that have been perpetrated in any age, not only the ex- 
ceeding generous and brave actions with which history shines, 
but the prevailing innocency, good nature, industry, felicity, 
and cheerfulness of the greater part of mankind at all times ; 
and we shall not find reason to cry out, as objectors against 
providence do on this occasion, that all men are vastly corrupt, 
and that there is hardly any such thing as virtiie in the world. 
Upon a fair computation, the fact does indeed ••me out, that 
very great villanies have been very uncommon m v.W ages, 
and looked upon as monstrous ; so general is ijie sense and 
esteem of virtue." It seems to be with a like view that Dr. 
Taylor says, « We must not take the measure of our ^lefllth 

t Moral Philosophy, p, 289, 290. 


nnd enjoym«nts from a lazar house, nor ol" our understanding 
I'rom bedlam, nor of our morals from a gaol." 

With respecl to the propriety and pertinence of such a 
representation of Ihinpfs, and its force as to the consequence 
desit^ned, I hope we shall he better able to judi;e, and in some 
measure to determine, whether the natural disposition of the 
hearts of mankind be corrupt or not, when the things which 
follow have been considered. 

But for the greater clearness, it may be proper here to 
premise one consideration, that is of great importance in this 
controversy? and is very much overlooked by the opposers of 
the doctrine of Original Sin in their disputing against it ; 
which is this...... 

That is to be looked upon as the true tendency of the 
natural or innate disposition of man's heart, which appears to 
be its tendency, when we consider things as they are in them- 
selves, or in their own nature, without the inter fiosition of di- 
-:<me grace. Thus, that slate of man's nature, that disposition 
of the mind, is to be looked upon as evil and pernicious, 
which, as it is in itst-lf, tends to extremely penicious conse- 
quences, and would certainly end therein, were it not that the 
free mercy and kindness of God interposes to prevent that is- 
sue. It would be very strange if any should argue^ that there 
is no evil tendency in the case, because the mere favor and 
compassion of the Most High may step in and oppose the 
tendency, and prevent the sad effect tended to. Particularly, if 
there be any thing in the nature of man, whereby he has an 
universal, unfailing tendency to that moral evil, which, ac- 
cording to the real nature and true demerit of tilings, as they 
arc in themselves, implies his utter ruin, that must be looked 
upon as an evil tendency or propensity ; hov,cver divine grace 
Tnay interpose, to save him from deserved ruin, and to over- 
rule things to an issue contrary to that which they tend to of 
themselves. Grace is a sovereign thing, exercised according 
to the good plcas\irc of Cod- bringing good out of evil. The 
effect of it belongs not to the nature of things themselves, 
that otherwise have an ill tendency, any more than the rem- 
rdv belongs to the di'-v3?e ; btit i« sfi.'ViCthinr: aitoo-rthcr inde-. 


pendent on it, inlroduced to oppose the natural tendency, and 
reverse the course of things. But the event that things tend 
to, according to their own demerit, and according to divine 
justice, that is the event which they tend to in their own na- 
ture, as Dr. Taylor's own words fully imply. " God alone,(says 
he) can declare whether he will pardon or punish the ungod- 
liness and unrighteousness of mankind, which is in its oivn 
nature punishable." Notlung is more precisely according to 
the truth of things, than divine justice : It weighs things in 
an even balance : It views and estimates things no other- 
wise than they are truly in their own nature. Therefore un- 
doubtedly that which implies a tendency to ruin, according to 
the estimate oi dw'mt justice^ does indeed imply such a ten- 
dency in its oron nature. 

And then it must be remembered that it is a v.ioral de- 
firavity we are speaking of; and therefore when we arc con- 
sidering whether such depravity do not appear by a tendency 
to a bad effect or issue, it is a moral tendency to such an issue, 
that is the thing to be taken into the account. A moral ten- 
dency or influence is by dencrt. Then may it be said, man'* 
nature or state is attended with a pernicious or destructive 
tendency, in a moral sense, when it tends to that which dc' 
serves misery and destruction. And therefore it equally 
shews the moral depravity of the nature of mankind in their 
present state, whether that nature be universally attended 
Avith an effectual tendency to destructive vengeance actually 
executed^ or to their deserving misery and ruin, or their ju&t 
exposedness to destruction, however that fatal consequence 
may be prevented by grace, or w.hatever the actual event be. 
One thing more is to be observed here, viz. that the topic 
mainly insisted on by the opposers of the doctrine of Original 
Sin, is the justice of God ; both in their objections against 
the imputation of Adam's sin, and also against its being so 
ordered, that men should come into the world with a corrupt 
and ruined nature, without having merited the displeasure of 
their Creator by any personal fault. But the latter is not re- 
pugnant to God's justice, if men can be, and actually are, 
bom into the world with a tcn(lenv':y to sin, and to misery and 


ruin for their sin, which actually will be the consequence, 
unless mere grace steps in and prevents it. If this be allow- 
ed, the argument from justice is given up ; for it is to sup- 
pose that their liableness to misery and ruin comes in a way 
of justice ; otherwise there would be no need of the interpo- 
sition of divine grace to save them. Justice alone would be 
sufficient security, if exercised, without grace. It is all one 
in this dispute about what is just and rig*hteous, whether men 
are born in a miserable state, by a tendency to rijin, which 
actually follonvsy and \\\2X justly ; or whether they are born in 
such a state as tends to a desert of ruin, which might justly 
follow, and ivould actually folloivy did not grace prevent. For 
the controversy is not, what grace v/ill do, but what justice 
might do. 

I have been the more particular on this head, because it 
enervates many of the reasonings and conclusions by which Dr. 
Taylor makes out his scheme ; in which he argues from that 
state which mankind are in by divine grace^ yea, which he him- 
self supposes to be by divine grace, and yet not making any 
allowance for this, he from hence draws conclusions against 
what others suppose of the deplorable and ruined state man- 
kind are in by the fall. He often speaks of death and afflic- 
tion as coming on Adam's posterity in consequence of his 
sin ; and in pages 20, 21, and many olher places, he supposes 
that these things come in consequence of his sin, not as a 
punishment or a calamity, but as a benefit. But in page 23, 
he supposes these things would be a great calamity and mis- 
ery, if it were not for the resurrection ; which resurrection 
he there, and in the following pages, and in many other pla- 
ces, speaks of as being by Christ ; and often speaks of it as 
being Inj the grace of God in Christ. 

In pages 63, 64, speaking of our being subjected to sor- 
row, labor and death, in consequence of Adam's sin, he repre- 
sents these as evils that arc reversed and turned into advan- 
tages, and that we are delivered from through graxein Cnrist. 
And in pages 65.. ..67, he speaks of God's thus himing death 
into an advantage through grace in Christ, as what vindicates 
the justice of God in bringing death by Adam. 


In pages 152, 156, it is one thing which he alleges against 
this propobiiion of the assembly of divines, that we are by na- 
ture bondslaves to Satan ; That God hath been firoviding^from. 
the beginning of the world to this day, variouft means and dia- 
fiensations, to jiresvrx^c and rescue mankiiidfrom the devil. 

In pages 168.... 170, one thing alleged in answer to that 
objection against his doctrine, that we are in worse cu'cum- 
stances than Adam, is, the happy circumstances we arc under 
by the provision and means furnished through free grace in 

In page 228, among other things which he says, in an- 
swering that argument against his doctrine, and brought to 
shew men have corruption by nature, viz. that there is a law 
in our members. ...bringing us into captivity to the law of sin 
and death, spoken of in Rom. vii. he allows that the case of 
those who are under a law threatening death for every sin 
(which law he elsewhere says, ^Aews us the natural and firofier 
demerit of sin, and is p.erfectly consonant to everlasting truth 
and righteousness) must be quite defilorable, if they have no re-' 
hef from the mercy of the lawgiver. 

In pages 90. ...9 3, S. in opposition to what is supposed of 
the miserable state mankind are brought into by Adam*s sin, 
one thing he alleges, is. The noble designs of love, manifested 
by advancing a new and hafifiy disfiensation, founded on the obe- 
dieiice and Hghteousness of the Son of God ; and that although 
by 'Adam we are subjected to death, yet in this dispensation 
a resurrection is provided ; and that Adam's posterity are 
under a mild dispensation of ^rac^, kc. 

In page 112, S. he vindicates God's dealings with Adam, in 
placing him at first under the rigor of law, transgress and die, 
(which, as he expresses it, was putting his ha/i/iiness on afoot 
extremely dangerous) by saying, that as God had before de- 
termined in his own breast, so he immediately established his cov 
enant ujion a guite di^erent bottom, namely, ufion grace. 

In pages 122, 123, 5. against what R. R. says, that God 
forsook man when he fell, and that mankind after Adam's sin 
were born without the divine favor. Sec. he alleges among oth- 
er things, Christ^ coming to be the firofiitiation for the aina of 


tlie ivhok world. .,ind the riches of God's mercy i7i giving the 
Jiromise ay a Redeemer to destroy the work's of the devil. TJmt 
he caught his sinvdng^ f<illing creature in the arms of his grace. 
In his note on Rom. v. 20, p. 297, 298, he says as follows : 
'» The law, I conceive, is not a dispensation suitable to the 
infirmiiy of the human nature in our present state ; or it doth 
not seem congruous lo tlie goodness of God, to afford us no 
other way of salvation but by law, which, if we once trans- 
gress, we arc ruined forever. For who then from the begin- 
ning of the world could be saved ? And therefore it seems 
to me that the law was not absolutely intended to be a rule for 
obtaining life, even to Adam in Paradise. Grace was the 
dispensation God intended mankind should be under ; and 
therefore Christ was foreordained before the foundation of 
the world." 

There are various other passages in this author*s writings 
of the like kind. Some of his arguments and conclusions to 
this eiTect, in order to be made good, must depend on such a 
supposition as this : That God's dispensations of grace are 
rectifications or amendments of his foregoing constitutions 
and proceedings, which were merely legal ; as though the dis- 
pensations of grace, which succeed those of mere law, implied 
an acknowledgment, that the preceding, legal constitution 
would be unjust, if left as it was, or at least, very hard dealing 
with mankind ; and that the other were of the nature of a 
satisfaction to his creatures, for former injuries or hard treat- 
ment ; so that put together, the injury with the satisfaction, 
the lei^al and injurious dispensation, taken with the following 
good dispensation, which our author calls grace, and the un- 
fairness or improper Sfiverity of the former, amended by the 
goodness of the latter, both together made up one righteous 

The reader is desired to bear in mind that which I have 
said concerning the interposition of divine grace, its not alter- 
ing the nature of things, as they are in themselves ; and ac- 
cordingly, when I speak of such and such an evil tendency of 
things, belonging to the present nature and state of mankind, 
understand me to mean their tendency as they are in them- 


^dves^ abstracted from any consideration of that remedy the 
sovereign and infinite grace of God has provided. 

Having premised these things, I now proceed to say* 

That mankind are all naturally in such a state, as is at- 
tended, without fail, with this consequence or issue ; that 
they universally run themselves into that which is, in effect, 
their own utter, eternal perdition, as being finally accursed of 
God, and the subjects of his remediless wrath through siu. 

From which I infer that the natural state of the mind of 
man, is attended with a propensity of nature, which is preva- 
lent and effectual, to such an issue ; and that therefore their 
nature is corrupt and depraved with a moral depravity, that 
amounts to and implies their utter undoing. 

Here I would first consider \\\e truth of the proposition ; 
and then would shew the certain'y of the consequences which 
I infer from it. If both can be clearly and certair.ly proved, 
then, I trust, none will deny but that the doctrine of original 
depravity is evident, and so the falseness of Dr. Taylor's 
scheme demonstrated ; the greatest part of whose book, call- 
ed The Scripture Doctrine of Original 5m, &c. is against the 
doctrine of i7inate depravity. In page i07, 5, he speaks of 
the conveyance of a corrupt and sinful nature to Adam's pos- 
terity as ^/;e ^rawc;?/20zW to be proved by the maintainors of 
the doctrine of (Original Sin. 

In order to demonstrate what is asserted in the proposi- 
tion laid down, there is need only that these two things should 
be made manifest : Ojie is this fact, that all mankind come 
into the world in such a stale, as without fail comes to this 
issue, namely, the universal commission of sin ; or that eve- 
ry one who comes to act in the world as a moral agent, is, in 
a greater or less degree, guilty of sin. The other is, that all 
sin deserves ar.d exposes to utter and eternal destruction, un- 
der God's -wrath and curse ; and would end in it, were it not 
for the interposition of divine grace to prevent the effect. 
Both which can be abundantly demonstrated to be agreeable 
to the word of God, and to Dr. Taylor's own doctrine. 

That every one of mankind, at least of them that are ca- 
pable of acting as moral agents, are guihy of sin (not now 



taking it for granted that they come guilty into the worW) m 
a thing most clearly and abundantly evident from the holy 
scriptures. 1 Kings viii. 46. *' If any man sin against thee ; 
for there is no man that sinneth not." Eccl. vii. 20. '' There 
is noi a just man upon earth that doeth good, and sinneth not." 
Job 'X. 2, 3. " I know it is so of a truth, (i. e. as Bildad had 
just before said, tlia't God would not cast away a fierfect wariy 
life.) but how should man be just with God? If he will contend 
with Mm, he cannot answer him one of a thousand." To the 
like purpose, Psalm cxliii. 2. " Enter v-it into judgment 
with thy servan* ; for in thy sight shall no man living be jus- 
tified.*' So the words of the apostle (in which he has appar- 
ent reference to those of the Psalmist) Rom. iii. 19, 20. 
" That every mouth may be stopped, and all the world be- 
come guilty before God. Therefore by the deeds of lh6 law 
there shall no flesh be justified in his sight ; for by the law 
is the knowledge of sin." So Gal. ii. 16, and 1 John i. 7.... 10. 
"If we walk in the light, the blood of Christ cleanseth us 
from all sin. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive our- 
selves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he 
is faiihful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us 
from ail unrighteousness. If we say that we have not sin- 
ned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us." As in 
this place, so in innumerable other places, confession and. re- 
pentance of sin are spoken of, as duties proper for all ; as al- 
so prayer to God for pardon of sin ; and forgiveness of those 
that injure us, from that motive, that we hope to be forgiven 
of God. Universal guilt of sin might also be demonstrated 
from the appointment, and the declared use and end of the 
ancient sacrifices ; and also from the ransom, which every 
one that was numbered in Israel, was directed to pay, to make 
atonement for his soul; Exod. xxx. 11. ...16. All are repre- 
sented, not oi^iy as being sinful, but as having great and man- 
ifold iniquity, Job ix. 2, fi, James iii. 1, 2. 

There are many scriptures which both declare the univer- 
sal sinfulness of mankind, and also that all sin deserves and 
justly exj-io es to everlasting destruction, under the wrath . 
and curse of God ; and so demonstrate both parts of the 


|)roposition I have laid down. To which purpose that in 
Gill. iii. 10, is exceeding full. "For as many as are of the 
works of the law are under the curse ; for it is written, Curs- 
ed is every one that continueth not in all ihini!:s which are 
written in the book of the law, to do them." How manifestly 
is it implied in the apostle's meaning here, tb.at there is r.o 
man but what fails in some instances of doing all things that 
are written in the book of the law, and therefore as many as 
have their dependence on their fulfilling the law, are under 
that curse which is pronounced on them that do fail of it ? 
And hence the apostle infers in the next verse, that no man is 
justijied by the law in the sight of God ; as he had said before 
in the preceding chapter, verse 16, '^ -By the ^vorks of the 
law shall no Jiesh be justiHedP The apostle shews us that he 
understands, that by this place which he cites from Beulcr- 
onomy, the scripture hath concluded, or shut up, all under 
sin, as in chap. iii. 22. So that here we are plainly taught, 
both that every one of mankind is a sinner, and that every 
sinner is under the curse of God. 

To the like purpose is that, Rom. iv. 14, and also 2 Cor. 
iii. 6, 7, 9, where the law is called the letter that kills-, the min' 
istratio7i of deaths and the ministration of condemnation. The 
wrath, condemnation and death, which is threatened in the 
law to all its transgressors, is final perdition, the second death, 
eternal ruin, as is very plain, and is confessed. And this 
punishment which the law threatens for every sin, is a just 
punishment, being what every sin truly deserves ; God's law 
being a righteous law, and the sentence of it a righteous 

All these things are what Dr. Taylor himself confesses 
and asserts. He says that the law of God requires perfect 
obedience. (Note on Rom. vii. 6, p. 308 j " God can never 
require imperfect obedience, or by his ho^y law allow us to 
be guilty of any one sin, how small soever. And if the law, 
as a rule of duty, were in any respect abolished, then we 
might in some respects transgress the law, and yet not be 
guilty of sin. The moral law, or law of nature, is the truth, 
everlasting, unchangeable, and therefore, as such, can never 


be abrogated. On the contrary, our Lord Jesus Christ has 
promulgated it anew under the gospel, fuller and clearer than 
it was in the Mosaical constitution, or any where else ; having 
added to its precepts the sanction of his own divine authority." 
And many things which he says, imply that all mankind do 
in some degree transgress the laWo In page 228, speaking 
of what may be gathered from Rom. vii. and viii, he says, 
" We are very apt, in a world full of temptation, to be deceiv- 
ed, and drawn into sin by bodily appetites, Sec. And the case 
of those who are under a law threatening death to every sin, 
must be quite deplorable, if they have no relief from the mer- 
cy of the lawgiver.*' 

But this is very fully declared in what he says in his note 
on Rom. v. 20, page 297. His v/ords are as follows : " In- 
deed, as a rule of action prescribing our duty, it (the law) al- 
v.'ays was, and always must be a rule ordained for obtaining 
life ; but not as a rule of justification, not as it subjects to 
death for every transgression. For if it could in its utmost 
rigor have given us life, then, as the apostle argues, it would 
have been against the promises of God. For if there had 
been a law, in the strict and rigorous sense of law, which 
could have viadc us live, verily justification should have been 
by the law. But he supposes, no such law was ever given ; 
and therefore there is need and room enough for the promi- 
ses of grace ; or as he argues. Gal, ii. 21, it would have frus- 
trated, or rendered useless the grace of God. For if justifi- 
cation can\e by the law, then truly Christ is dead in vain, 
then he died to accomplish what was, or might have been effect- 
ed by law itself without his death. Certainly the law was not 
brouirht in among the Jews to be a rule of justification, or t6 
recover them out of a state of death, and to procure life by 
their sinless obedience to it ; for in this, as well as in another 
respect, it was weak^ not in itself, but through the weakness 
of our flesh, Rom. viii. 3, The law, I conceive, is not a dis* 
pensation .sz«Va/Vr /o the injlnmty of the human nature in our 
present state ; or it doth not seem congruous to the goodness 
of God to alTord us no other way of salvation, but h\ law, 
which, if we once transgress, wc are ruined forever. For who 


then, from the beginning of the nvorld, could be saved .?".... 
How clear and express are these things, that no one of 
mankind, from the beiijinning of the world, can ever be justi- 
fied by law, because every one transgresses it ?* 

And here also we see. Dr. Taylor declare:i, that by the 
law, n^en are sentenced to everlasting ruin for one transgres- 
sion. To the like purpose he often expresses himself. So 
p. 207. " The law' requireth the most extensive obedience, 
discovering sin in all its branches. It gives sin a deadly 
force, subjecting every transgression to the penalty of death ; 
and yet supplieth neither help nor hope to the sinner, but 
leaveth him under the power of sin and sentence of death." 
In p. 213, he speaks of the law as " extending to lust and ir- 
regular desires, and lo every branch and principle of sin ; 
and even to its latent principles, and minutest branches." 
Again (Note on Rom. vii. 6. p. 308) " to every sin, hov/ 
small soever." And when he speaks of the law subjecting 
every transgression to the penalty of death, he means eternal 
death, as he from time to time explains the matter. In p. 
212, he speaks of the law " in the condemning power of it, 
as binding us in everlasting chains.** In p. 120. S. he says, 
« that death which is the wages of sin, is the second death ;'* 
and this p. 78, he explains of final perdition.'* In his Key, 
p. 107, § 296, he says, " The curse of the law subjected men 
for every transgression to eternal death.^* So in A'^ote on Rom. 
r. 20, p. 291. " The law of Moses subjected those who were 
under it to death, meaning by death eternal death." These 
are his words. 

He also supposes, that this sentence of the law, thus sub- 
jecting men for every, even the least sin, and every minutest 
branch and latent firincifile of sin, to so dreadful a punishment, 
is just and righteous, agreeable to truth and the nature of things, 
or to the natural 3j\d firo/ier demerits of sin. This he is very 

* I am sensible, these things are quite inconsistent with what he says else- 
■where, of ♦' sufficient power in all mankind constantly to do the whole duty 
which God requires of them," without a necessity of breaking God's law in 
any degree, (p. 63, ...68. S.) But, I hope, the reader will not think me ac- 
countable for his inconsistences^ 


full in. Tlius in p. 186. P. " It was sin (says he) whicfe 
subjected us to death by thp. law, justly threatening sin 
with death. Which law was given us, that shi miti;ht appear ; 
■might be set forth in its proper colors ; when we saw 
it subjected us to death by a law fierfcctly holy^ just and 
good ; that sin by the commandment, by the law, might be 
represented 'what ic really is^ an exceedinf^ ereat and deadly 
evil." So in note on Rom. v. 20, p. 299. " The law or rpin- 
istration of death, as it subjects to death for every transgres- 
sion, is still of use to shew the natural and firoper demerit of 
^in" Ibid. ^. 202. " The language pf the law, dying thou 
shalt die, is to be understood of the demerit of the transgres- 
sion, that which it deserves** Ibid. p. 298. *' The law wa? 
added, saith Mr. Locke, on the place, because the Israelite^, 
the posterity of Abraham, were transgressors as well as oth- 
er men, to shew them their sips, and the punishmpnt ^nd 
death, which in strict justice they incurred by them. And 
this appears to be a true comment on Rom. vii. 13. ...Sin, by 
virtue of the law, subjected you to death for this end, that 
sin, working death in us, by that which is holy., just., and good, 
perfectly consonant to everlasting truth and righteousness. ...Con' 
sequently every sin is in strict justice deserving of wrath apd 
punishment ; and the law in its rigor was given to the Je\ys, 
to set home this awful truth upon their consciences, to she>^ 
them the evil and pernicious nature of sin ; and that, being 
conscious they had broke the law of God, this might convince 
them of the great need they had of the favor of th? lawgiv* 
er, and oblige them, by faith in his goodness^ to fly to his mer^ 
ry, for pardon and salvation." 

If the la\v be holy, just, and good, a constitution perfectly 
agreeable to God's holiness, justice, and goodness ; then he 
might have put it exactly in execution, agreeably to all these 
his perfections. Our author himself says, p. 133. S. " How 
that constitution, which establishes a law, the making of 
which is inconsistent with the justice and goodness of God, 
and the executing of it inconsistent with his holiness, can be 
a righteous constitution, I confess, is quite beyond my coq^i- 


Now the reader is left to judG:c, whetlier it be not most 
plainly and fully agreeable to Dr. Taylor's own doctrine, that 
there never was any one person from the beginning of the 
world, who came to act in the world as a moral agent, and 
that it is not to be hoped there ever will be any, but what is a 
sinner or transgressor of the law of God ; and that therefore 
this proves to be the issue and event of things, with respect to 
all mankind in all aj^es, that, by the natural ancK prop'er de- 
merit of their own sinfulness, and in the judgment of the law 
of God, which is perfectly consonant to truth, and exhibits 
things in their true colors, they are the proper subjects of the 
Curse of God, eternal death, and everlasting ruin ; which 
must be the actual consequence, unless the grace or favor 
of the lawgiver interpose, and mercy prevail for their pardon 
and salvation. The reader has seen also how agreeable this 
is to the doctrine of the holy scripture. 

And if so, and what has been observed concerning Ihfe iri- 
terposiiion of divine grace be remembered, namely, that this 
alters not the nature of things as they are in themselves, and 
that it does not in the least affect the state of the controversy 
we are upon, concerning the true nature and tendency of the 
state that mankind come into the world in, whether grace pre- 
vents the fatal effect or no ; I say, if these things are consid- 
ered, I trust, none will deny, that the proposition that was laid 
down, is fully proved, as agreeable to the word of God, and 
Dr. Taylor's own words ; viz. that mankind are all naturally 
in such a state, as is attended, without fail, with this conse- 
quence or issue, that they universally are the subjects of that 
guilt and sinfulness, which is, in effect, their utter and eternal 
ruin, being cast wholly out of the favor of God, and subjecte'^ 
!• his everlasting wrath and curs*- 



It foUoivs from the Profiosition proved in the foregoing Sec- 
tion, that all Mankind are under the influence of a prevail- 
ing effectual Tendecy in their Nature, to that Sin and 
Wickedness, nvhich implies their utter and eternal ruin. 

THE proposition laid clown beinp: proved, the conse- 
quence of it remains to be made out, viz. that the mind of man 
has a natural tendency or propensity to that event, which has 
been shewn universally and infallibly to take place (if this be 
not sufficiently evident of itself, without proof) and that this is 
a corrupt or depraved propensity. 

I shall here consider the former part of this consequence, 
namely, whether such an universal, constant, infallible event 
is truly a proof of the being of any tendency or propensity^ to 
that event ; leaving the evil and corrupt nature of such a pro- 
pensity to be considered afterwards. 

If any should say, they do not think that its being a thing 
universal and infallible in event, that mankind commit some 
sin, is a proof of a prevailing tendency to sin ; because they 
do not only sin, but also do good, and perhaps more good than 
evil ; let them remember, that the question at present is not, 
how much sin there is a tendency to ; but, whether there be 
a prevailing propensity to that issue, which it isallowed all 
men do actually come to, that all fail of keeping the law per- 
fectly ; whether there be not a tendency to such imperfection 
of obedience, as ahvays without fail comes to pass; to ihat 
degree of sinfulness, at least, which all fall into ; and so to 
that utter ruin, which that sinfulness implies and infers. 
Whether an effectual propensity to this be worth the name 
of depravity, because of the good that may be supposed to bal- 
ance it, shall be considered by and by. If it were so, that all 
mankind, in all nations and ages, were at least one day in their 
lives deprived of the use of their reason, and run ravin.; mad j 
or that all, even every individual person, once cut their own 


throats, or put out their own eyes ; it might be an evidence 
of some tendency in ihe nature or natural state of mankind 
to such an event ; though they mis^ht exercise reason many 
more days than they were distracted, and were kind to, and 
tender of themselves oficner than they mortally and cruelly 
wounded themselves. 

To determine whether the unfailing' constancy of the: above 
named event be an evidence of tendency, let it be considered, 
what can be meant by tendency^ but a prevailing liableness or 
exposedness to such or such an event. Wherein consists the 
notion of any such thing, but some stated prevalence or pre- 
ponderation in the nature or state of causes or occasions, that 
is followed ^y, and so proves to be effectual /o, a stated preva- 
lence or commonness of any particular kind of effect ? Or, 
something in the permanent state of things, concerned in 
bringing a certain sort of event to pass, which is a foundation 
for the constancy, or strongly prevailing probability of such 
an event ? If we mean this by tendency (as I know not what 
else can be meant by it, but this, or something like this) then 
it is manifest, that where we see a stated prevalence of any- 
kind of effect or event, there is a tendency to that effect in the 
nature and state of its causes. A common and steady effect 
shews, that there is somewhere a preponderation, a prevail- 
ing exposedness or liableness in the state of things, to what 
^omes so steadily to pass. The natural dictate of reason 
shews, that where there is an effect, there is a cause, and a 
'cause sufficient for the effect ; because, if it were not suffi- 
cient, it would not be effectual ; and that therefore, where 
there is a stated prevalence of the effect, there is a stated 
prevalence in the cause : A steady effect argues a steady 
eause. We obtain a notion of such a thing as tendency, no 
other way than by observation ; and we can observe nothing 
but events ; and it is the commonness or constancy of events 
that gives us a notion of tendency in all cases. Thus we 
judge of tendencies in the natural world. Thus we judge of 
the tendencies or -propensities of nature in minerals, vegeta- 
bles, animals, rational and irrational creatures. A notion of a 
stated tendency, or fixed propensity, is not obtained by observ* 


ing only a single event. A stated preponderation in the cause 
or occasion, is argned only by a staled prevalence of the cffeot. 
If a die be once thrown, and it falls on a particular side, we do 
not argue from hence, that that side is the heaviest ; but if it 
be thrown without skill or care, many thousands or millions 
of times goine:, and constantly falls on the same side, we have 
not the least doubt in our minds, but that there is something 
of propensity in the case, by superior weight of that side, or 
in some other respect. How ridiculous would he make him- 
self, who should earnestly dispute against any tendency in the 
state of things to cold in the winter, or heat in the summer ; 
or should stand to it, that although it often happened that wa- 
ter quenched fire, yet there was no tendency in it to such ari 

In the case we are upon, the human nature, as existing in 
such an immense diversity of persons and circumstances, and 
never failing in any one instance, of coming to that issue, viz« 
that sinfulness, which implies extreme misery and eternal ru- 
in, is as the die often cast. For it altets not the case in the 
least, as to the evidence of tendency, whether the subject of 
the constant event be an individual, or a nature and kind. 
Thus, if there be a succession of trees of the same sort, pro- 
ceeding one from another, from the beginning of the world, 
growing in all countries, soils, and climates, and otherwise ii% 
(a^s it were) an infinite variety of circumstances, all bearing ill 
fruit ; it as much proves the nature and tendency of the kind^ 
as if it were only one individuul tree, that had remained from 
the beginning of the world, had often been transplanted \n\9 
different soils, &;c. and had continued to bear only bad fruit. 
So, if there were a particular family, which, from generation 
to generation, and through every remove to innumerable dif- 
ferent countries, and places of abode, all died of a consump- 
tion, or all run distracted, or all murdered themselves, it would 
be as much an evidence of the tendency of something in the 
nature or constitution of that race, as it would be of the ten- 
dency of something in the nature or state of an individual, if 
some one person had lived all that time, and some remarka- 
ble event had often appci\red in hina, which he had been the 


agent or subject of from year to year, and fr om ogeto age, 
•ontinually and without fail. 

Here may be observed the weakness of that objeclion, 
made ai^ainst the validity of the argument for a fixed propensi- 
ty to sin» from the constancy and universality of the event, 
that Adam sinned in one instance, without a fixed piijpensity. 
without doubt a single event is an evidence, Ihat there was 
some cause or occasion of that event ; but the thing we are 
speaking of, is 2^ fixed cause. Propensity is a stated^ continu- 
ed thing. We justly argne, that a stated effect must have a 
ttated cause ; and truly observe, that we obtain the notion of 
tendency, or stated fire/ionderation in causes, no other way than 
by observing a stated prevalence of a particular kind of effect. 
But who ever argues a fixed propensity from a single event ? 
And is i. not strange arguing, that because an event which once 
comes TO pass, does not prove any stated tendency, therefore 
the iinfuiiing constancy of an event is an evidence of no such 
thinf>; ? But because Dr. Taylor makes so much of this ob- 
jection, from Adam's sinning without a propensity, I shall 
hereafter mnsider it more particularly, in the beginning of 
the 9th Sec:io7i of this Chapter ; where will also be consider- 
ed what is objected from the fall of the angels. 

Thus a propensity, attending the present nature or natur- 
al state of mankind, eternally to ruin themselves by sin, may 
certainly be inferred from apparent and acknoAvIedged fact. 
And I would now observe further, that not only does this fol- 
low from facts that are acknowledged by Dr. Taylor but the 
things he asserts, the expressions and words which he uses, 
do plainly imply that all mankind have such a propensity ; 
yea, one of the highest kind, a propensity that is invincible^ or 
a tendency which really amounts to a fixed, constant, unfail- 
ing necessity. There is a plain confession of a propensity or 
proneness to sin, p. 143. "Man, who drinkelh in iniquity 
like water, who is attended with so many sensuid appetites, 
and so afit to indulge them." And again, p. 228, " we arc 
-very afit^ in a world full of temptation, to be deceived, and 
drawn into sin by bodily appetites." If we are very afit or 
prone to be drawn into sin by bodily appetites, and sinfully to 


indulge thetn^ and very apt or pror.c to yield to ttmjitaticyn to &in, 
then wc arc firone to i^h:; for to yield to tcinpialion lo sin i& 
sinful. In the same page he represents, that on this account, 
and on account of the consequences of this, t/ie case of those 
':vho are under a laiu^ threatening death for every sin, must be 
quite deplorable, if they have no relief from the mercxf of the 
lavj'giver. Whicii implies, that their case is hopeless, as to 
an escape from death, the punishment of sin, by any other 
means than God*s mercy. And that implies, that there is 
such an aptness to yield to temptation to sin, that il is hope- 
less that any of mankind should wholly avoid it. But he 
speaks of it elsewhere, over and over, as truly imfiosfiible, or 
xvhat cannot be ; as in the words which were cited in the last 
Section, from his note on Rom. v. CO, where he repeatedly 
speaks of the law, which subjects us to death for every trans- 
^^ression, as what cannot give life ; and represents that if God 
offered us no other way of salvation, no man from the begin- 
aing of the world could be saved.** In the same place he, 
with approbation, cites Mr. Locke's words, in which, speak- 
ing of the Israelites, he says, "All endeavors after right- 
eousness were lost lalior, since any one slip forfeited life, and 
It was impossible for them to expect ought but death.'* Our 
nuthor speaks of it as impossible for the law requiring sinless 
obedience, to c^ive life, not that the law was weak in itself but 
through the weakness of our fiesh. Therefore he says, he con- 
c-eives the J.aw not to be a disfiensation statable to the infirmity 
nfthc human nature in its present state. These things amount 
fo a full confession, that the proneness in men to sin, and to a 
demerit of, and just exposedness to eternal ruin by sin, is uni- 
versally invincible, or, which is the same thing, amounts to 
ribsolute, invinci'.-Ie necessity; which surely is the highest 
kind of tendency nr propensity ; and that not the less for his 
laying this propensity to our infirmity or weakness, wiiich 
may seem to intimate some defect, rather than any thing pos- 
itive : And it is agreeable to the sentiments of the best di- 
vines, thut all sin criginally comes from a defective or priva- 
tive cause. But sin docs not cease to be sin, or a thing not 
justly expowng to eternal ruin (as inipl'.eid in Dr. Taylor's owf) 


words) for arising from infirmity or defect ; Kor does any in- 
vincible propensity to sin, cease to be a propensity to such 
demerit of eternal ruin, because ihe proneness arises from 
such a cause. 

It is manifest, that this tendency which has been proved, 
does not consist in any particular external circumstances, that 
some or many are in, peculiarly tempting or influencing their 
minds ; but is inherent^ and is seated in that nature which is 
common to all mankind, which they carry with them wherev- 
er they go, and still remains the same, however circumstances 
may differ. For it is implied in what has been proved, and 
shewn to be confessed, that the same event comes to pass in 
all circumstances, that any of mankind ever are, or can be un- 
der in the world. In God's sight no man living can be justi- 
Jied ; but all are sinners, and exposed to condemnation. This 
is true of persons of all constitutions, capacities, conditions^ 
manners, opinions and educations ; in all countries, climates^ 
nations and ages ; and through all the mighty changes an<i 
revolutions, which have come to pass in the habitable world. 
We have the same evidence, that the propensity in this 
case lies in the nature of the subject, and does not arise from 
any particular circumstances, as we have in any case whatso- 
ever ; which is only by the effects appearing to be the same 
in all changes of time and place, and under all varieties of 
circumstances. It is in this way only we judge, that any pro* 
pensities, which we observe in mankind, are such as are seat- 
ed in their nature, in all other cases. It is thus we judge of 
the mutual propensity betwixt the sexes, or of the disposi- 
tions which are exercised in any of the natural passions or ap- 
petites, that they truly belong to the nature of man ; because 
they are observed in mankind in general, through all coun- 
tries, nations, and ages, and in all conditions. 

If any should say, though it be evident that there is a ten- 
dency in the state of things to this general event, that all 
mankind should fail of perfect obedience, and should sin, and 
incur a demerit of eternal ruin ; and also that this tendency 
does not lie in any distinguishing circumstances of any par- 
ticular people, person, or age ; yet it may not lie in man's 


nature, but in the general constitution and frame of this world, 
into -which men are born ; thouj^h the nature of man may be 
good, without any evil propensity inherent in it ; yet the na- 
ture and universal stale of this earthly world may be such as 
to be full of so many and strong temptations every where, and 
©f such a powerful influence on such a creature as man, dwell- 
ing in so infirm a body? &c. that the result of the whole may 
be a strong and infallible tendency in such a state of things, to 
the sin and eternal ruin of every one of mankind. 

To this I would reply, that such an evasion will not at all 
avail to the purpose of those whom I oppose in this con- 
troversy. It alters not the case as to thi» question, whether 
man is not a creature that in his present state is depraved and 
ruined by propensities to sin. If any creature be of such a 
nature that it proves evil in its proper place, or in the situa- 
tion which God has assigned it in the universe, it is of an evil 
nature. That part of the system is not good, which is not 
good in its place in the system ; and those inherent qualities 
of that part of the system, which are not good, but corrupt, in 
that place, are justly looked upon as evil inherent qualities. 
That propensity is truly esteemed to belong to the nature of 
any being, or to be inherent in it, that is the necessary conse- 
quence of its nature, considered together with its proper situ- 
ation in the universal system of existence, whether that pro- 
pensity be good or bad. It is the iiature of a stone to be heavy ; 
but yet, if ic were placed, as it might be, at a distance from 
this world, it would have no such quality. But seeing a stone 
is of such a nature, that it will have this quality or tendency, 
in its proper place, here in this world, where God has made 
it, it is properly looked upon as a propensity belonging to its 
nature: And if it be a good propensity here in its proper 
place, then it is a good quality of its nature ; but if it be con- 
trariv. isc, it is an evil natural quality. So, if mankind are of 
such a nature, that they have an universal, effectual tendency 
to fain and ruin m this world, wher« God has made and placed 
them, this is to be looked upon as a pernicious tendency be- 
longing to their nature. There is, perhaps, scarce any such 
thing in beings not independent and selfcxistent, as any pow- 


er or tendency, but what has some dependence on other be- 
ings, which they stand in some connexion with, in the iiniver» 
sal. system of existence : Propensities are no propensities, any 
otherwise, than as taken with their objects. Thus it is with 
the tendencies oi)served in natural bodies, such us j^ravity. 
ma^jnetism, electricity, he. And thus it is with the propen* 
sities observed in the various kinds of animals ; and thus it is 
with most of the propensities in created spirits. 

It may further be observed, that it is exactly the same 
thing, as to the controversy concerning an ar^recableness with 
God's moral perfections of such a disposal of things, that man 
should come iiito the world in a depraved, ruined state, by a 
propensity to sin and ruin ; whether God has so ordered it, 
that this propensiy should lie in his nature considered alone, 
or with relation to its situation in the universe, and its con- 
nexion with other parts of the system to which the Creator 
has united it ; which is as much of God's ordeiing, as man's 
nature itself, most simply considered. 

Dr. Taylor, (p. 188, 189) speaking of the attempt of some 
to solve the difficulty of God's being the author of our nature,- 
and yet that our nature is polluted, by supposing that God- 
makes the soul pure, but unites it to a polluted body, (or a 
body so made, as tends to pollute the soul) he cries out of it 
as weak and insufficient, and too gross Co be admitted. « For, 
(says he) who infused the soul into the body ? And if it is 
polluted by being infiised into the body, who is the author 
and cause of its pollution ? And who created tlie bodv," Sec. 
But is not the case jast the same, as to those who suppose 
that God made the soul pure, and places it in a polluted 
world, or a world tending by its natural state in which it is 
made, to pollute the soul, or to have such an influence upoii 
it, that it shall without fail be polluted with sin, and eternally 
ruined ? Here, may not I also ci y out, on as good grounds 
as Dr. Taylor, who placed the soul here in this world ? 
And if the world be polluted, or so constituted as niturallv 
and infallibly to pollute the soul with sin, who is the cause of 
•his pollution ? And who created the world ? 


Though in the place now cited, Dr. Taylor so insists up-* 
on it, that God must be answerable for the pollution of the 
soul, if he has infused or put the soul into a body that tends 
%o pollute it ; yet this is the very thintj which he himself sup- 
poses lo be fact, with respect to the sours being created by 
God, in such a body as it is, and in such a v/orld as it is ; in 
a place which I have already had occasion to observe, where 
he says, " Wc are a/il, in a world full of temptation, to be 
drawn into sin by bodily appetites." And if so, according to 
his way ot* reason, God must be the author and cause of this 
aptness to be drawn into sin. Again, page 143, we have these 
words, " Who drinUeth in inquity like water ? Who is at- 
tended with so many sensual appetites, and so apt to indulge 
them ?** In these words our author in effect says the indi- 
vidual thing that he cries out of as so ifross^ viz. the tendency 
of the body, as God has made it, to pollute the soul which he 
has infused into it. These sensual appetites, which incline 
the soul, or make it a/it to a sinful indulgence^ are cither from 
the body which God hath made, or otherwise a proneness to 
sinful indulgence is immediately and originally seated in the 
soul itself, which will not mend the matter for Dr. Taylor. 

I would here lastly observe, that our author insists upon 
it, page 42, S. that this lower world where we dwell, in its 
present state, " is as it was, when, upon a review, God pro- 
nounced it, and all its furniture, very good. And that the 
present form and furniture of the earth is full of God*s riches, 
mercy, and goodness, and of the most evident tokens of his 
love and bounty to the inhabitants." If so, there can be no 
room for such an evasion of the evidences from fact, of the 
universal, infallible tendency of man's nature to sin and eter- 
nal perdition, as that the tendency there is to this issue, does 
not lie in man's nature, but in the general constitution and 
frame of this earthly world, which God hath made to be the 
habitation of mankind. 

OiitGINAl si^. f?S 


Fhat Profiensityy nvhich has been proved to be in the nature of 
all mankind^ must be a very evil, depraved and pernicious 
Propensity ; iiiaklng it manifest, that the soul ofman^ as it 
is by nature, is in a corrupt, fallen, and ruined st^ite ; 
which is the other part of the consequence, draivn from 
the proposition laid clown in the first Section. 

THE question to be considered, in order to determine 
whether man*s nature is not depraved and ruined, is not, 
whether he is not inclined to perform as many good deeds as 
bad ones ; but \Thich of these two he preponderates lo, in the 
frame of his heart, and state of his nature, a state of innocence 
'ind righteous7iess, and favor with God ; or a state of fin, gidlt" 
iness, and abhorrence in the sight- of God. Persevering sinless 
righteousness, or else the guilt of sin, is the alternative, on 
the decision of which depends, (as is confessed) according to 
the nature and truth of things, as they(are in themselves, and 
according to the rule of right, and of. perfect justice, man's 
being approved and accepted of his Maker, and eternally 
blessejd as good ; or his being rejected, thrown away, and 
cursed as bad- And therefore the determination of the ten- 
dency of man's heart and nature, with respect to these terms, 
is that which is to' be looked at, in order to determine wheth- 
er his nature is good or evil, pure or corrupt, sound or ruined. 
If such be man's natOre, and state of his heart, that he has an 
infallibly eift ctual propensity to the latter of those terms ; 
then it is wholly impertinent to talk of the innocent and kind 
actions, even of criminals themselves, surpassing their crimes in 
numbers, and of the prevailing innocence, good nature^ industry, 
felicity y and cheerfulness of the greater part of mankind. Let 
never so many thousands or millions of acts of honesty, good 
nature, &(;, be supposed ; yet, by the supposition, there is an 
unfailing propensity to such moral evil, as in its dreadful 


consequences infinitely outweighs all effects or consequencJes 
of any supposed good. Surely that tendency, which, in ef- 
fect, is an infallible tendency to elernal destruction, is an infi- 
nitely dreadful and pernicious tendency ; and that nature and 
frame of mind, which implies such a tendency, must be an 
infinitely dreadful and pernicious frame of mind. It would 
be much more absurd to suppose that such a state of nature is 
good, or not bad, under a notion of men's doing more honest 
and kind things than evil ones ; than to say, the state of that 
ship i& good to cross the Atlantic Ocean in, that is such as 
cannot hold togelher through the voyage, but will infallibly 
founder and sink by the way ; under a notion that it may 
probably go great part of the way before it sinks, or that it 
will proceed and sail above water more hours than it will be 
in sinking : Or to pronounce that road a good road to go to 
such a place, the greater part of which is plain and safe, 
though some parts of it are dangerous, and certainly fatal to 
them that travel in it ; or to call that a good propensity, which 
is an inflexible inclination to travel in such a way. 

A propensity to that sin which brings God's eternal wrath 
and curse (which has been proved to belong to the nature of 
man) is evil, not only as it is calamitous and sorroiuful^ ending 
in great natural evil, but as it is odious and detestable : For 
by the supposition, it tends to that moral evil, by which the 
subject becomes odious in the sight of God, and liable, as 
such, to be condemned, and utterly rejected, and cursed by 
him. This also makes it evident, that the state wjiich it has 
been proved mankind are in, is a corrupt state in amoral sense^ 
that it is inconsistent with the fulfilment of the law of God, 
which is the rule of moral rectitude and goodness. That 
tendency which is opposite to that which the moral law re« 
quires and insists upon, and prone to that which the moral 
law utterly forbids, and eternally condemns the subject for, 
is doubtless a corrupt tendency, in a moral sense. 

So that this depravity is both odious, and also fiernicioua. 
fatal and destructive, in the highest sense, as inevitably tend- 
ing to that which ijnpiies man's eternal ruin ; it shews that 
man, as he is by nature, is in a deplorable and undone state? 


!n the highest sense. And this proves that men do not come 
into the world perfectly innocent in the sight of God, and 
without any just exposedncss to his displeasure. For the be» 
inf^ by nature in a lost and ruined state, in the highest sense, 
is not consistent with being by nature in a state of favor with 

But if any should still insist on a notion of men's good 
deeds exceeding their bad ones, and that, seeing the good 
that is in men is more than countervails the evil, they cannot 
be properly denominated evil ; ail persons and things being 
most properly denominated from that which prevails, and has 
the ascendant in them, I would say further, that, 

I presume it will be allowed, that if there is in man's na- 
ture a tendency to guilt and ill desert, in a vast overbalance 
to virtue and merit ; or a propensity to that sin, the evil and 
demerit of which is so great, that the value and merit that is 
in him, or in all the virtuous acts that ever he performs, are 
as nothing to it ; then truly the nature of mgn may be said tg 
be corrupt and evil. 

That this is the true case, may be demonstrated by what 
is evident of the infinite heinousness of sin against God, from 
the nature of things. The heinousness of this must rise in 
some proportion to the obligation we are under to regard the 
Divine Being; and that must be in some proportion to his 
worthiness of regard ; which doubtless is infinitely beyond 
the worthiness of any of our fellow creatures. But the merit 
of our respect or obedience to God is not infinite. The merit 
of respect to any being does not increase, but is rather dimin- 
ished, in proportion to the obligations we are under in strict 
justice to pay him that respect. There is no great merit in 
paying a debt we owe, and by the highest possible obligations 
in strict justice are obliged to pay, but there is great demerit 
in refusing to pay it. Thai on such accounts as these there 
is an infinite demerit in all sin against God, which must there- 
fore immensely outweigh all the merit which can be suppos- 
ed to be in our virtue, 1 think, is capable of full demonstra- 
tion ; and that the futility of the objections which some have 
made against the argument, might most plainly be demon- 


strated. But I shall omit a particular consideration of the 
evidence of this matter from the nature of tliinj^s, as I study 
brevity, and lest any should cry oirt, Metafihudcs ! as the 
manner of some is, when any argument is hanciied against any 
tenet they are fond of, ^yith a close and exact consideration of 
the nature of things. And this is not so necessary in the pres- 
ent case, inasmuch as the point asserted, namely, that he ^vho 
commits any ©ne sin, has guilt and ill desert, which is so 
great, that the value and merit of all the good which it is 
possible he should do in his whole life, is as nothing to it ; 
I say this point is not only evident by meta/ihysics,h[i\. is plain- 
ly demonstrated by what has been shewn to he facty with res- 
pect to God's own constitutions and dispensations towards 
mankind ; as particularly by this, that whatever acts of virtue 
and obedience a man performs, yet if he trespasses in one 
point, is guilty of any the least sin, he, according to the law 
of God, and so according to the exact truth of things, and 
the proper demerit of sin, is exposed to be wholly cast out of 
favor with God, and subjected to his curse, to be utterly and 
eternally destroyed. This has been proved, and shewn to be 
the doctrine which Dr. Taylor abundantly teaches. But how 
can it be ap:reeable to the nature of things, and exactly conso- 
nant to everlastinp: truth and righteousness, thus to deal with 
a creature for the least sinful act, though he should performi 
ever so many thousands of honest and virtuous acts, to coun- 
tervail the rjvil of that sin ? Or how can it be agreeable to 
the exact truth and real demerit of things, thus- wholly to 
cast off the deficient creature, without any regard to the 
merit of all his good deeds, unless that be in truth the case, 
that the value and merit of all those good actions, bear no 
proportion to the hcinousness of the least sin ? If it were 
not so, one would think, that however the oftending person 
mi2;ht have some proper punishment, yet, seeing there is so 
much virtue to lay in the balance against the guilt, it would 
be agreeable to the nature of things, that he should find some 
favor, and not be altogether rejected, and made the subject 
of perfect and eternal destruction ; and thus no account at all 
)je made of all his virtue, so much as to procure him the 


least relief or hope. How can such a consiiiuiion 7-c/irc sent 
zin in its profier colors^ and according to its true nature mid dc' 
sert, (as Dr. Taylor says it does) unless this be its true na- 
ture, that it is so bad, that even in the least instance it perfect- 
ly swallows up all the value of the sinner's supposed good 
deeds, let them be ever so many. So that this matter is not 
left to our metaphysics or philosophy ; the s^reat Lawgiver, 
and infallible Judge of the universe, has clearly decided it, in 
the revelation he has made of what is agreeable to exact truth, 
justice, and the nature of things, in his revealed law, or rule of 

He that in any respect or degree is a transgressor of God's 
law, is a wicked man, yea, wholly wicked in the eye of the 
law ; all his goodness being esteemed nothing, having no ac- 
count made of it, when taken together with his wickedness. 
And therefore, without any regard to his righteousness, he is, 
by the sentence of the law, and so by the voice of truth and 
justice, to be treated as worthy to be rejected, abhorred, and 
cursed for ever; and must be so, unless grace interposes, to 
cover his transgression. But men are really, in themselves, 
. what they are in the eye of the law, and by the voice of strict 
equity and justice ; however they may be looked upon, and 
treated by infinite and unmerited mercy. 

So that, on the whole, it appears, all mankind have an in- 
fallibly effectual propensity to that moral evil, which infinite- 
ly outweighs the value of all the good that can be in them ; 
and have such a disposition of heart, th^it the certain conse- 
quence of it is, their being, in the eye of perfect truth and 
• righteousness, wicked men. And 1 leave all to judge, wheth- 
er such a disposition be not in the eye of truth a depraved 
disposition ? 

Agreeably to these things, the scripture represents all 
mankind, not only as having guilt, but immense guilt, which 
they can have no merit or worthiness to countervail. Such 
is the representation we have in Matth. xviii. 21, to the end. 
There, on Peter's inquiring, How often his brotfier should trcs' 
fiass against him^ and he forgive him^ ivhethcr until seven times ; 
Christ replies, /^ffv not unto thee ^ until seven timcsy but until 


seventy timef} arven ; apparently meaning, that he should es*- 
teem no number of offences too m.any, and no degree of inju^ 
ry it is possible our neighbor should be guilty of towards us, 
too great to be forgiven. For which this reason is given in 
the parable there foIIov»ing, tlial if ever we obtain forgiveness 
and favor with God, he must pardon that guilt and injury to- 
wards his majesty, which is immenst^ly greater than the great- 
est injuries that ever men are guilty of one towards another, 
yea, than the sum of all their injuries put together, let them 
be ever so many, and ever so great ; so that the latter would 
be but as an hundred pence to ten thousand talents, which im- 
mense debt we owe to God, and have nothing to pay ; which 
implii's, that we have no merit to countervail any part of our 
guilt. And this must be, because if all that may be called 
virtue in us, be compared with our ill desert, it is in the sight 
of God as nothing to it. The parable is not to represent Pe- 
ter's case in particular, but that of all who then were, or ever 
should be, Christ*s disciples. It appears by the conclusion oi 
the discourse, So likcivise shall my heavenly 'leather do^ if ye, 
from your hearts^ forgive not every one his brother their tres» 

Therefovj hov; absurd must it be for Christians to object 
against the depravity of man's nature, a greater number of in- 
nocent and kind actions, than of crimes ; and to talk of a 
prevailing innocency, good nature, industry and cheerfulness 
of the greater part of mankind ? Infinitely more absurd, than 
it would be to insist, that the domestic of a princewas not a 
bad servant, because though sometimes he contemned and 
affronted his master to a great degree, yet he did not spit in 
}\is master*s face so often as he performed acts of service ; or, 
than it would he to affirm, that his spouse was a good wife to 
Kim, because, although she committed adultery, and that with 
the davt's and scoundrels sometimes, yet she did not do this 
so often as she did the duties of a wife. These notions would 
be absurd, because the crimes are too heinous to be atoned 
for, by m^ny honest actions of the servant or spouse of the 
prince ; there being a vast disproportion between the merit 
of the one, and the ill desert of the other ; but in no measuro 


so great, nay infinitely less, than that between the demerit of 
our offences against God, and the value of our acts of obe- 

Thus I have gone through with my first argument ; hav- 
ing shewn the evidence of the truth of the proposition I laid 
down at first, and proved its consequence. But there are ma- 
ny other thing!-, that manifest a very corrupt tendency or dis- 
position in man's nature, in his present state, which I shall 
t:«ke notice of in the following Sections. 


The de/iravity of A^ature apfiears by a firojienaity in all to Sin 
immediately, as soon as they are capable of ity and to Sin 
continually and progressively ; aiid also by the remains of 
iSm /;2 //le best of Men. 

THE great depravity of man's nature appears, not on- 
ly in that they univetlfelly commit sin, who spend any long 
time in the world, but in that men are naturally so prone to 
sin, that none ever fail o^ immediately transgressing God*s law, 
and so of bringing infinite guilt on themselves, and exposing 
themselves to eternal perdition, as soon as they are capable 
of it. 

The scriptures are so very express in it, that all mankind, 
all feshy all the ivorld^ every man livings are guilty of sin ; 
that it must at least be understood, every one that is come to 
be capable of being active in duty to God, or sin against him, 
is guilty of sin. There are multitudes in the world who have 
but very lately begun to exert their faculties, as moral agents ; 
and so are but just entered on their state of trial, as acting for 
themselves. There are many thousands constantly in the 
world, who have not lived one month, or week, or day since 
they have arrived to any period that can be assigned from 
their birth to twenty years of age. And if there be not a 


strong propensity in man's nature to sin, that should, as i! 
\vere, hnrry them on to speedy transp^ression, and they hav6 
no f^uilt previous to their personal sinning, what should hinder' 
but that there might always be a great number of such as act 
for themselves on the stage of the world, and are answerable 
for themselves to GoJ, who have hitherto kept themselves 
free from sin, and have perfectly obeyed God*s law, and so 
are righteous in God's sight, with the righteousness of the 
law ; and if they should be called out of the world without any 
longer trial (as great numbers die at all periods of life) would 
be justified by the deeds of the law ? And how then can it be 
true, thai in God's sight no man living can be justijied^ -that no 
man can be just with God^ and that by the deeds of the law no 
Jlesh can be jiistijied^ because by the law. is the knoivledge of Sin ? 
And what should hinder but that there may always be many 
in the world, who are capLible subjects of instruction and coun- 
sel, and of prayer to God, for whom th6 calls of God*s word to 
repentance, and to seek pardon through the blood of Christ, 
and to forgive others their injuries, because they need that 
God should forgive them, would not be proper ; and for whom 
the Lord's prayer is not suitable, whe||fein ChristMirects all 
his followers to pray, that God woulo^orgive their sins, as 
'they forgive those that trespass against them ? 

If there are any in the world, though but lately become 
capable of acting for themselves, as subjects of the law of God, 
who are perfectly free from sin, such are most likely to be 
found among the children of Christian parents, whtf give them 
the most pious education, and set them the best examples ; 
and therefore such would never be so likely to be found in 
any part or age of the world, as in the primitive Christian 
church, in the first age of Christianity, (the age of the church- 
es greatest purity) so long after Christianity had been estab- 
lished, that there, had been time for great numbers of child- 
ren to be born, and educated by those primitive Christians. 
It was in that age, and in such a part of that age, that the 
Apostle John wrote his first epistle to the Christians that then 
were. But if there was then a number of them come to un- 
derstanding, who were perfectly free from sin, why does he 


vo^te as he does? 1 John i. 8 10. "If we say that we 

have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and tlie truth is not in us. 
If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us 
our sins, and to cleanse us from all unritvhteousness. If we 
say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and the truth 
is not in us." 

If any should object, that this is an overstraining of things ; 
and that it supposes a greater niceness and exactness than is 
observed in scripture representations and expressions, to mfer 
from these expressions, that all men sin immediately as soon 
as ever they are capable of it. To this 1 would say, that I 
think the arguments used are truly solid, and do really and 
justly conclude, either that men are born guilty, and so are 
chargeable with sin before they come to act for themselves, or 
else commit sin immediately, without the least time interven- 
ing, after they are capable of undersiandmg their obligation to 
God, and reflecting on themselves ; and that the scripture 
clearly determines, there is not one such person in the world, 
free from sin. But whether this be a straining things up to 
too great an exactness, or not ; yet I suppose, none that do 
not entirely set aside the sense of such scriptures as have 
been men;ioned, and deny those propositions which Dr. Tay* 
lor himself allows to be contained in some of them, will deny 
they prove, that no conmderahle time passes after men are ca- 
pable of acting for themselves, as the subjects of God's 
law, before they are guilty of sin ; because if the time were 
eonsldcrable, it would be great enough to deserve to be taken 
liotire of, as an exception to ^uch universal propositions, as, 
In thy sight shall no man living dejustijied^ &c. And if this be 
allowed, that men are so prone to sin, that in fact all mankind 
do sin, as it werpy immefliately, after they come to be CL^pable 
ef it, or fail not to sin so soon, that no considerable time passes 
before they run into transgression against God ; it does not 
much alter the case, as to the present argument. If the time 
of freedom from sin be so small, as not lo be worthy of notice 
in the forementioned universal piopositions of scripture, it 
Is alHo so small, as not to be worthy of notice in the prtseoJ 



Aj^ain, the reality and greatness of the depravity of man*s 
nature appears in this, that he has a prevailing propensity to 
be continually sinnins^ against God. What has been observ- 
ed above, will clearly prove this. That same disposition of 
nature, which is an effectual propensity to immediate sin, 
amounts to a propensity to continual sin. For a being prone 
to continual sinning, is nothing but a proneness to immediate 
sin continued. Such appears to be the tendency of nature to 
sin, that as soon as ever man is capable, it causes him imme- 
diately to sin, williout suffering any considerable time to pass 
without sin. And therefore, if the same propensity be con- 
tin lied ndimnished, there will be an equal tendency to im- 
niediate sinning again, without any considerable time passing. 
And so the same will always be a disposition still immediate- 
ly to sin, with as little time passing v/ithout sin afterwards, as 
at first. The only reason that can be given why sinning must 
be immediate at first, is that the disposition is so great, that 
it will not suffer any considerable time to pass without sin ; 
and therefore, the same disposition being continued in equal 
degree, without some new restraint, or contrary tendency, it 
will still equally tend to the same effect. And though it is 
true, the propensity may be diminished, or have restraints 
laid upon it, by gracious disposals of providence, or merciful 
influences of God's spirit ; yet this is not owing to nature. 
That strong propensity of nature, by which men are so prone 
to immediate sinning at first, has no tendency in itself to a 
diminution ; but rather to an increase ; as the continued ex- 
ercise of an evil disposition, in repeated actual sins, tends to 
strengthen it more and more ; agreeable to that observation 
of Dr. Taylor's, p. 228. "We are apt to be drawn into sia 
by bodily appetites, and when once we are under the govern- 
ment of these appetites, it is at least exceeding difficult, if 
not impracticable, to recover ourselves, by the mere force of 
reason." The increase of strength of disposition in such a 
case, is as in a falling body, the f:trength of its tendency to de- 
scend is continually increased, so long as its motion is contin- 
ued. Not only a constant commission of sin, but a constant 
increase in the habits and practice of wickedness, is the true 


tendency of man's depraved nature, if unrestrained by divine 
grace ; as the true tendency of the nature of an heavy body, 
if obstacles arc removed, is not only to fall with a continued 
motion, but with a constantly increaslnj^- motion. And we 
see, that increasing iniquity is actually the consequence of 
natural depravity, in most men, nolwithstandinj; all the res- 
traints they have. Dispositions to evil arc commonly much 
stronger in adult persons, than in children, when they first 
begin to act in the world as rational creatures. 

If sin be such a thing as Dr. Taylor lumself represents it, 
p. 69. " A thing of an odious and destructive nature, the 
corruption and ruin of our nature, and infinitely hateful to 
God ;'* then such a propensity to continual and increasing 
sin, must be a very evil disposition. And if wc may judge of 
the perniciousness of an inclination of nature, by the evil of 
the effect it naturally tends to, the propensity pf man's nature 
must be evil indeed ; for the soul being immortal, Dr. Tay- 
lor acknowledges, p. 94. S. it will follow from what has been 
observed above, that man has a natural disposition to one of 
these two things ; either to an increase of wickedness with- 
out end, or till wickedness comes to be so great, that the ca- 
pacity of his nature will not allow it to be greater. This be- 
ing what his wickedness will come to by its natural tendency, 
if divine grace does not prevent, it may as truly be said to be 
the effect which man's natural corruption tends to, as that an 
acorn in a proper soil, truly tends by its nature to become a 
great tree. 

Again, that sin which is remaining in the hearts of the 
best men on earth, makes it evident, that man's nature is cor- 
rupt, as he comes into the world. A remaining depravity of 
heart in the greatest saints, may be argued from t!ie sins of 
most of those who are set forth in scripture as the most emi- 
nent instances and examples of virtue and piety ; and is also 
manifest from this. That the scripture represents all God's 
children as standing in need of chastisement. Heb. xii. 6.. ..8. 
" For whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth ; and scourgeth 
every Son whom he receiveth. What Son is he, whom the 
Father chasteneth net ? If ye re without chastisement, then 


are ye bastards, and not sons." But this is directly and fully 
asserted in some places ; as in that forementioned, Eccles viio 
20. «' There is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and 
sinneth not." Which is as much as to say, there is no man 
on earth, that is so just, as to have attained to such a dej^ree 
of righteousness, as not to commit any sin. Yea, the Apos- 
tle James speaks of all Christians as often sinning, or com- 
mitting many sins ; even in that primitive age of the Christ* 
ian church, an age distinguished from all others by eminent 
attainments in holiness ; James iii. 2. " In many things we 
all offend." And that there is pollution in the hearts of all> 
as the remainder of moral filth that v^as there antecedent to 
all attempts or means for purification, is very plainly declar- 
ed, in Prov. xx. 9. << Who can say, I have made my heart 
clean, I am pure from my sin ?** 

According to Dr. Taylor men come into the world whol- 
ly free from sinful propensities. And if so, it appears from 
what has been already said, there would be nothing to hinderj 
but that many, without being better than they arc by nature, 
might perfectly avoid the commission of sin. But much 
more might this be the case with men after they had, by care, 
diligence, and good practice> attained those positive habits of 
virtue, whereby they are at a much greater distance from sin, 
than they were naturally ; which this writer supposes to be 
the case with many good men. But since the scripture 
teaches us, that the best men in the world do often commit 
sin, and have remaining pollution of heart, this makes it 
abundantly evident, that men, when they are no otherwise 
than they were by nature, without any of those virtuous at- 
tainments, have a sinful depravity ; yea, must have great 
corruption of nature. 



J^e dcfiravity of J\*dture afifiearsy in that the general Conae-, 
gucnce of the State mid Tejidency of Man's JVature is a muck 
greater Degree of Sin, than Righteousness ; not only nuith 
feafiect to Value and Demerit, but Matter and Quantity. 

I HAVE before shewn, that there is a propensity in man's 
nature to that sin, which in heinousness and ill desert im- 
jnensely outweighs all the value and merit of any supposed 
good, that may be in him, or that he can do. I now proceed 
to say further, that such is man's nature, in his present state, 
that it tends to this lamentable effect ; that there should at 
all times, through the course of his life, be at least much 
more sin than righteousness, not only as to iveight and value^ 
but as to matter and measure ; more disagreement of heart 
and practice from the law of God, and from the law of nature 
l&nd reason, than agreement and conformity. 

The law of God is the rule of right, as Dr. Taylor often 
calls it : It is the measure of virtue and sin : So much 
agreement as there is with this rule> so much is there of rec- 
titude, righteousness, or true virtue, and no more ; and so 
jnuch disagreement as there is with this rule, so much sin 
is there. 

Having premised this, the follov/ir.g things may be here 

I. The degree of disagreement from this rule of right is 
to be determined, not only by the degree of distance from it 
in excess, but also in defect ; or in other words, not only in 
positive transgression, or doing what i?, forbidden, but also in 
>vithholding what is required. The Divine Lawgiver does as 
much prohibit the one as the other, and does as much charge 
the latter as a sinful breach of his law, exposing to his eternal 
wrath and curse, as the former. Thus at the day of judg- 
ment, as described Mallh. xxv. The wicked are condemned 


as cursed to everlasting Jire^ for their sin in defect and omis- 
sion : I ii>as an himgrcd^ and yc gave ?nc no meaty he. And 
the case is thus, not only when the defect is in word or behav- 
ior, but in the inward temper and exercise of the mind. 1 
Cor. xvi. 22, "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, 
let him be Anathema Maranatha.** Dr. Taylor, speaking of 
the sentence and punishment of the wicked, (Matth. xxv. 4!, 
46) says, p. 159, " It was manifestly for n^ant of benevolence, 
love, and compassion to their fellow creatures, that they were 
condemned." And elsewhere, as was cbseived before, he 
says, that the law of God extends to the latent firinci/Ues of 
sin lo forbid them, and to condenm to eternal destruction for 
them. And if so, it doubtless also extends to the inward 
principles of holiness; to require them, and in like manner to 
condemn for the want of them. 

II. The sum of our duty to God, required in his law, is 
love to God; taking love in a large sense, for the true regard 
of our hearts to God, implying esteem, honor, benevolence, 
gratitude, complacence, Sec. This is not only very plain by 
the scripture, but it is evident in itself. The sum of what the 
law of God requires, is doubtless obedience to that law : No 
law can require more than that it be obeyed. But it is man- 
ifest, that obedience to God is nothing, any otherwise than as 
a testimony of the respect of our hearts to God : Without 
the heart, man*s external acts are no more than the motions 
of the limbs of a wooden image, have no more of the nature 
of either sin or righteousness. It must therefore needs be 
so, that love to God, or the respect of the heart, must be the 
sum of the duly required towards God in his law. 

III. It therefore appears from the premises, that whoso- 
ever withholds more of tliai love or respect of heart from 
God, which his law requires, than he affords, has more sin 
than righteousness. >sot only he that has less divine love, 
than passions and affcclions which are opposite ; l)ut also ho 
that d'jes not love God half so much as he ought, or has rea- 
son to do, has justly more wrong than right imputed to him, 
according to the law of God, and the law of reason, he ha§ 


^ore irreG^ulnrity th?.n rectitude, with re^^ard to the law of 
love. The sinful disrespect or unrespectfulness of his heart 
to God, is greater than his respect to him. 

But what considerate person is there, even among the 
more virtuous part of mankind, but what would be ashamed 
to say» and profess before God or men, that he loves God half 
so much as he ought to do ; or that he exercises one half of 
that esteem, honor and gratitude towards God, which would be 
altogether becoming him ; considering what God is, and what 
great m nifestations he lias made of his transcendent excel- 
lency and goodness, and what benefits he receives from him ? 
And if few or none of the best of men can with reason and 
truth make even such a profession, how far from it must the 
generality of mankind be ? 

The chief and most fundamental of all the commands of 
the moral law, requires us " io love the Lord our God 'toith all 
our hearts', and tuith all our sozcls, rdth all our strength^ and all 
our mind ;"* that is plainly, with all that is within us, or to the 
utmost capacity of our nature ; all that belongs to^ or is com- 
prehended within the utmost extent or capacity of our heart 
and soul, and mind and strength, is required. God is in 
himself worthy of infinitely greater love, than any creature 
can exercise towards him : He is Avorthy of love equal to 
his perfections, which are infinite : God loves himself with 
no greater love than he is worthy of, when he loves himself 
infinitely ; but we can give God no more than we have. 
Therefore, if we give him so much, if we love him to the ut- 
most extent of the faculties of our nature^ we are excused ; 
but when what is proposed, is only that we should love him 
as much as our capacity will allow, this excuse of want of ca- 
pacity ceases, and obligation takes hold of us ; and we arc 
doubtless obliged to love God to the utmost of what is possi- 
ble for us, with such faculties, and such opportunities and 
adv[\ntages to know God, as wc have. And it is evidently 
implied in this great commandment of the law, that our love 
to God should be so great, as to have the most absolute pos- 
sesrAon of all the soul, and the perfect government of all the 
principles and springs of action that are in ©ur r>atnrc. 

41 ORIGINAL sm. 

Thoiij^h it is not easy, precisely to fix the limits of man's 
capacity, as to love to God ; yet in general we raay deter- 
mine, that his capacity of love is coextended with his capacity 
of knowledge ; the exercise of the understanding opens the 
way for the exercise of the other faculty. Now, though we 
cannot have any proper positive understanding of God*s infi- 
nite excellency ; yet the capacity of the human understand- 
ing is very great, and may be extended far. It is needless to 
dispute, how far man's knov/ledge may be said to be strictly 
comprehensive of things that are very great, as of the extent 
of the expanse of the heavens, or of the dimensions of thp 
globe of the earth, and of such a great number, as of the 
Ujany millions of its inhabitants. The word comfirehen&ive 
seems to be ambiguous. But doubtless we are capable of 
some proper positive understanding of the greatness of these 
things, in comparison of other things that we know, as un- 
speakably exceeding them. We are capable of some clear 
understanding of the greatness or considerableness of a whole 
nation ; or of the whole world of mankind, as vastly exceed- 
ing that of a particular person or family. We can positively 
underfjtand that the whole cjobe of the earth is vastly greater 
than a particular hill or mountain. And can have some good 
positive apprehension of the starry heavens, as so greatly ex- 
ceeding the globe of the earth, than the latter is as it were 
nothing to it. So the human faculties are capable of a real 
and clear understanding of the greatness, glory and goodness 
of God, and of our dependence upon him, from the manifes- 
tations which God has made of himself to mankind, as being 
beyond all expression above that of the most excellent human 
friend, or earthly object. And so we are capable of an esteem 
and love to God, which shall be proportionable, and as much 
exceeding that which we have to any creature. 

Thtse things may help us to form some judgment, how 
vastly the generality of mankind foil below their duty, with 
respect to love to God ; yea, how far they a^-e from coming 
halfway to that hei.urht of love, ^r'-ich is agree j')lc lo the rule 
of right. Suitly if our • ^ oem of Ciorl, desires alter him, and 
delight in him, were sucli us become us, consiUering the 


things forementioned, they would exceed our regard to oth- 
er things as ihe heavens arc high above the earth, and would 
swallow up all other affections like a dclut^c. But how far, 
how exceedinj^; far, are the generality of ilic world from any 
appearance of being inllucnced and governed by such a de- 
gree of divine love as this ! 

If we consider tlie love of God, with respect to that one 
kind of exercise of it, namely, gratitude^ how far indeed do 
the generality of mankind come short of the rule of right and 
reason in this ! If we consider how various, innumerable, 
and vast the benefits are wc receive from God, and how in- 
finitely great and wonderful that grace of his is, which is re- 
vealed and offered to them that live under the gospel, in that 
eternal salvation which is procured by God*s giving his only 
begotten Son to die for sinners ; and also- how unworthy we 
arc all, deserving (as Dr. Taylor confesses) eternal perdition 
under God's wrath and curse ; how great is the gratitude 
that would become us, who are the subjects of so many and 
great benefits, and have such grace towards poor, sinful, lost 
mankind set before us in so affecting a manner, as in the ex- 
treme sufferings of the Son of God, being carried through 
those pains by a love stronger than death, a love that conquer- 
ed those mighty agonies, a love whose length, and breadth, 
and depth, and height, passes knowledge ? But oh I What 
poor returns ! How little the gratitude ! How low, how 
«old and inconstant the affection in the best, compared with 
the obligation ! And what then shall be said of the gratitude 
of the generality ? Or rather, who can express the ingrati- 
tude ? 

If it were so, that the greater part of them that are called 
Christians, were no enemies to Christ in heart and practice, 
were not governed by principles opposite to him and his gos- 
pel, but had some real love and gratitude ; yet if their love 
falls vastly short of the obligation or occasion given, they are 
guilty of shameful and odious ingratitude. As when a man 
has been the subject of some instance of transcendent gene- 
rosity, whereby he has been relieved from the most extreme 
calamity, and brought into very opulent, honorable, and hap- 


py circumstances, by a benefactor of excellent character j 
and yet expresses no more gratitude on such an occasion than 
would be requisite for some kindness comparatively infinitely 
small, he may justly fall under the imputation of vile un- 
thank fulness, and of much more ingratitude than gratitude ; 
though he may have no ill will to his benefactor, or no posi- 
tive affection of mind contrary to thankfulness and benevo- 
lence. What is odious in him is his defect, whereby he falls 
so vastly below his duty. 

Dr. Turnbnll abundantly insists, that the forces of the af- 
fections naturally in man are well proportioned ; and often 
puts a question to this purpose :....Row man*snaturc could 
have been better constituted in this respect ? How the affec- 
tions of his heart could have been better proportioned ? I 
v,'ill no-Nv mention one instance, out of many that might be 
mentioned : 

Man, if his heart were not depraved, might have had a dis- 
position to gratitude to God for Ills good7iess^ in proportion to 
his disposition to cuiger towards men for their injuries. When 
I say in proportion, I mean considering the greatness and 
number of favors and injuries, and the degree in which the 
one and the other are unmerited, and the benefit received by 
the former, and the damage sustained by the latter. Is there 
not an apparent and vast difference and inequality in the dis- 
positions to these two kinds of affection, in the generality of 
both old snd young, adult persons and little children ? How 
ready is resentment for injuries received from men ? And 
how easily is it raised in most, at least to an equality with the 
desert ? And is it so with respect to gratitude for benefits 
received from God, in any degree of comparison ? Dr. Turn- 
bull pleads for the natural disposition to anger for injuries, as 
being good and useful ; but surely gratitude to God, if we 
were incliiu d to it, would be at least as good and useful as 
the other. 

How far the generality of mankind are from their duty 
with respect to love to God, will further appear, if we consid- 
er that we are obliged not only to love him with a love of 
gratitude for benefits received ; but true love to God primarl' 

oniGINAL SIN. 51. 

ly consists in a supreme regard to him for what he is in 
himself. The tendency of true virtue is to treat every thing 
as it is, and according to iis nature. And if \vc regard the 
Most High according to the infinite dignity and glory of his 
nature, we shall esteem and love him w'nh all our heart and 
soul, and to the utmost.of the capacity of our nature, en this 
account ; and not primarily because he has promoied our in- 
terest. If God be infinitely excellent in himself, thcr. lie is 
infinitely lovely on that account, or in other words, infinitely 
worthy to be loved. And doubtless, if he be v/orthy to be 
loved for this, then he ought to be loved for this. And it is 
manifest there can be no true love to him, if he be not loved 
for what he is in himself. For if we love him not for his 
own sake, but for something else, then our love is not termi- 
nated on him, but on something else, as its ultimate object. 
That is no true value for infinite worth, which implies no 
value for that worthiness in itself considered, but only on the 
account of something foreign. Our esteem of God is funela- 
mentally defective, if it be not primarily for the excellency of 
his nature, which is the foundation of all that \s valuable ip 
him in any respect. If we love not God because he is what 
he is, but only because he is profitable to us, in truth we loyje 
him not at all ; if we seem to love him, our love is not to 
him, but to something else. 

And now I must leave it to every one to judge for him* 
self, from his own opportunities of observation and informa- 
tion concerning mankind, how little there is of this disinter- 
ested love to God, this pure divine affectior., in the world. 
How very little indeed in comparison of other affections alto- 
gether diverse, which perpetually urge, actuate and govern 
mankind, and keep the world, through all nations and ages, 
in a continual agitation and commotion ! This is an evidence 
of an horrid contempt of God, reigning in the world of man- 
kind. It would justly be esteemed a great instance of disres- 
pect and contempt of a prince, if one of his subjects, when 
he came into his house, should set him below his meanest 
slave. But in setting the Infinite Jehovah below earthly ob- 
jects and enjoyments, men degrade him belov/ those things, 


between which and him there ia an infinitely greater distance, 
than between the highest earthly potentate, and the most ab- 
ject of mortals. Such a conduct as the generality of men arc 
guilty of towards God, continually and through all ages? in 
innumerable respects, would be accounted the most vile, con- 
temptuous treatment of a fellow creature of distinguished 
dignity. Particularly men's treatment of the offers God 
makes of himself to them as their Friend, their Father, their 
God, and everlasting portion ; their treatment of the exhibi- 
tions he has made of his unmeasurabie love, and the bound- 
less riches of his grace in Christ, attended with earnest re- 
pealed calls, counsels, expostulations and intreaties, as also of 
the most dreadful threatenings of his eternal displeasure and 

Before I finish this Section, it may be proper to say some- 
thing in reply to an objection, some may be ready to make 
against the force of that argument, which has been used to 
prove that men in general have more sin than righteousness, 
namely, that they do not come half way to that degree of 
love to God, which becomes them, and is their duty. 

The objection is this : That the argument seems to prove 
too much, in that it will prove, that even good men themselves 
have more sin than holiness, which also has been supposed. 
But if this were true, it would follow that sin is the prevalent 
principle even in good men, and that it is the principle which 
has the predominancy in the heart and practice of the truly 
pious, which is plainly contrary to the word of God. 

I answer, if it be indeed so, that there is more sin, consist- 
ing in defect of required holiness, than there is of holiness in 
good men in this world ; yet it will ndt follow that sin has 
the chief government of their heart and practice, for two rea- 

1. They may love God more than other things, and yet 
there may not be so much love, as there is want of due love ; 
or in other words, they may love God more than the world, 
and therefore the love of God may be predominant, and yet 
may not love God near half so much as they ought to do. 
This need not be esteemed a paradox : A person may love a 


father, or some great friend and benefactor, of a very excel- 
lent character, more than some other object, a thousand times 
less worthy of his esteem and affection, and yet love him ten 
times less than he ought ; and so be chargeable, all things 
considered, with a deficiency in respect and f^ralilude, that is 
very unbecoming and hateful. If love to God prevails above 
the love of other things, then virtue will prevail above evil 
affections, or positive principles of sin ; by which principles 
it is, that sin has a positive power and influence. For evil 
affections radically consist in inordinate love to other tilings 
besides God ; and therefore, virtue prevailing beyond these, 
will have the governing influence. The predominance of the 
love of God in the hearts of good men, is more from the na- 
ture of the object loved, and the nature of the principle of true 
love, than the degree of the principle. The object is one of 
supreme loveliness ; immensely above all other objects in 
v/orthiness of regard ; and it is by such a transcendent excel- 
lency, that he is God, and worthy to be regarded and adored 
as God ; and he that truly loves God, loves him as God : 
True love acknowledges him to be God, or to be divinely and, 
supremely excellent ; and must arise from some knowledge, 
sense, and conviction of his worthiness of supreme respect ; 
and though the sense and view of it may be very imperfect, 
and the love that arises from it in like manner imperfect ; yet 
if there be any realising view of such divine excellency, it 
must cause the heart to respect God above all. 

2. Another reason, why a principle of holiness maintains 
the dominion in the hearts of good men, is the nature of the 
covenant of grace, and the promises of that covenant, on 
which true Christian virtue relies, and which engage God's 
strength and assistance to be on its side, and to help it against 
enemy, that it may not be overcome. The just live by faith. 
Holiness in the Christian, or his spiritual life, is maintained, 
as it has respect by faith to its author and finisher ; and de- 
rives strength and efficacy from the divine fountain, and by 
this means overcomes. For, as the apostle says. This is the 
victory that overcomes the worlds even our faith. It is our 
faith in him who has promised, never to leave nor forsake his 


people, and not to forsake the work of his own bands, nor sul- 
fer iils people to be tempted above their ability, and that his 
grace s'lall be sufficient for them, and that his strength shall 
be mad*^ perfect in weakness, and that where he ha3 begun .71 
good work lie will carry it on to the day of Christ. 


The CorrufiHon of Man's J^ature afijiectrs by its Tendency^ z"?? 
its firesent State, try an extreme degree of Folly awr/ Stupid- 
ity in Matters of Religion. 

IT appears, that man's nature is greatly depraved, by 
an apparent proneness to an exceeding stupidity and sottish- 
Tjess in those things wherein his duty and main interest are 
chiefly concerned. 

I shall instance in two things, viz. men's proneness to 
idolatry ; and so general and great a disregard of eternal 
things, as appears in them that live under the light of the 

It is manifest, that man's nature in its present state is at- 
tended with a great propensity to forsake the acknowledg- 
ment and worship of the true Cod, and to fall into the most 
stupid idolatry. This has been sufficiently proved by known 
fact, on abundant trial : Inasmuch as the world of mankind 
in general (excepting one small people> miraculously deliver- 
ed and persevered) through all nations, in all pans of the 
vorld, ages after ages, continued without the knowledge and 
worship of the true God, and overwhelmed in gross idolatry, 
without the least appearance or prospect of its recovering it- 
self from so great blindness, or returning from its brutish 
principles and customs, till delivered by divine grace. 


In order to the most just arguing from fact, concerning 
the tendency of man's nature, as that is in itself, it should be 
inquired what the event has been, where nature has been left 
to itself, to operate according to its own tendency, with least 
opposition made to it by any thing supernatural ; rather than 
in exempt places, where the infinite power and grace of God 
have interposed, and extraordinary means have been used to 
stem the current, and bring men to true religion and virtue. 
As to the means by which God's people of old, in the line of 
Abraham, were delivered and preserved from idolatry, they 
were miraculous, and of mere grace : Notwilhslanding which, 
they were often . relapsing into the notions and ways of the 
heathen ; and when they had backslidden, never were recov- 
ered, but by divine gracious interposition. And as to the 
means by vrhich many Gentile nations have been delivefed 
since the days of the gospel, they are such as have been 
wholy owing to most \vonderful, miraculous, and infinite grace. 
God was under no obligation to bestow on the heathen world 
greater advantages than th^y h?.d in the ages of their gross 
darkness ; as appears by the fact, that God actually did not, 
for so long a time, bestow greater advantages. 

Dr. Taylor himself observes, (Key^ p. I.) " That in about 
four hundred years after the flood, the generality of mankind 
were fiillen into idolatry." And thus it was every where 
through the world, excepting among tliat people that was 
saved and preserved by a constant series of miracles, through 
a variety of countries, nations, and climates, great enough ; 
and through successive changes, revolutions, and ages, nume- 
rous enough^ to be a sufficient trial of what mankind are prone 
to, if there be any such thing as a sufficient trial. 

That rnen should forsake the true God for idols, is an evi- 
dence of the most astonishing folly and stupidity, by God's 
own testimony, Jer. ii. 12, 13. " Be astonished, O yc heav- 
ens, at this, and be ye horribly afraid, be ye very desolate, 
saith the Lord : For my people have committed tv.o evils ; 
they have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and 
have hev/ed out to themselves cisterns, broken cisterns, that 
c<\n hold no water." And th.at m?.nkind in general did thus. 


so soon after the flood, was from the evil propensity of their 
hearts, and because they did not like to retain God in their 
knonvledge ; as is evident by Rom. i. 28. And the universal- 
ity of the effect shews that the cause was universal, and not 
any thing bclons^inej to 'he paiticiilar circumstances of one, or 
only some nations or ages, but something belonging to that 
nature that is common to all nations, and that remains the 
same throuc:h all ages. And what other cause could this great 
effect possibly arise from, but a depraved disposition, natural 
to all mankind ? It could not arise from want of a sufficient 
capacity or means of knowlcdf^e. This is in effect confessed 
on all l^ands. Dr. Turnbull (Christian Philosophy^ p. 21.) 
says as follows : " The existence of one infinitely powerful, 
wise, and good mind, the author, creator, upholder, and gov- 
ernor of all things, is a truth that lies plain and obvious to all 
that will but think." And (ibid, p. 245.) » Moral knowledge, 
which is the most important of all knowledge, may easily be 
acquired by all men." And again, (ibid, p. 292.) " Every 
man by himself, if he would duly employ his mind in the 
contemplation of the works of God about him, or in the exam- 
ination of his own frame migh^ make very great progress ia 
the knowledge of the wisdom and goodness of God. This all 
men, generally speaking, might do, with very little assist- 
ance ; for they have all sufficient abilities for thus employing 
their minds, and have all sufficient time for it.** Mr. Locke says 
f Hitman Understanding, p. iv. Chap. iv. p. 242, Edit. 11.) 
" Our own existence, and the sensible parts of the universe, 
offer the proofs of a deity so clearly and cogently to our 
thoughts, that I deem it impossible for a considerate man to 
withstand them. For I judge it as certain and clear a truth, 
as can any where be delivered, that the invisible things of 
God are clearly seen from the creation of the world, being 
understood by the things that are made, even his eternal pow- 
er and godhead." And Dr. Taylor him-eli, (in p. 78) says, 
" The light given to all ages and nations of the world, is suf- 
ficient for the knowledge and practice of their duty." And in 
p. Ill, 112, citing those words of the apostle, Rom. ii. 14, 
15, saySj « This clearly supposes that the Gentiles, who were 

Original sin. 57 

then in the world, might have clone the things contained in 
the law by nature, or their natural power." And in one of the 

next sentences, he says, " The apostle, in Rom. i. 19 21, 

affirms that the Gentiles had lip^ht sufficient to have seen God*s 
eternal power and godhead, in the works of creation ; and 
that the reason why they did not j^Iorify him as God, wis be- 
cause they became vain in their imaojinations, and hud dark- 
ened their foolish heart ; so that they were without excuse." 
And in his paraphrase on those verses in the 1st of Romans 
he speaks of the " very heathens, that were wiihout a written 
revelation, as havinj^ that clear and evident discovery of God's 
being and perfections, that they are inexcusable in not glori- 
fyin.o: him suitably to his excellent nature, and as the author 
of their being and enjoyments." And in p. 146, 5'. he says, 
'< God affords every man sufficient light to know his duty." 
If all ages and nations of the world have sufficient light for the 
knowledge of God, and their duty to him, then even such na- 
tions and ages, in which the most brutish ignorance and bar- 
barity prevailed, had sufficient light, if they had had but a 
disposition to improve it ; and then much more those of the 
heathen, which were more knowing and polished, and in ages 
wherein arts and learning had made greatest advances. But 
even in such nations and ages, there was no advance made to- 
wards true religion ; as Dr. Winder observes (History of 
Knonvledge^ Vol. ii. p. 336) in the following words : " The 
Pagan religion degenerated into greater absurdity, the further 
it proceeded ; and it prevailed in all its height of absurdity, 
■when the Pagan nations were polished to the height. Though 
they set out with the talents of reason, and had solid founda- 
tions of information to build upon, it in fact proved, that with 
all their strengthened faculties, and growing powers of reason, 
the edifice of religion rose in the most absurd deformities and 
dispositions, and gradually <vcnt on in the most irrational, dis- 
proportioned, incongruous systems, of which the most easy 
dictates of reason would have demonstrated the absurdity. 
They were contrary to all just calculations in moral mathe- 
matics." He observes, '' That their grossest abominations 
first began in Egypt, where was an ostentation of the greatest 


progress in learning and science ; and they never renounced 
clearly any of their abominations, or openly returned to the 
worship of the one true God, the Creator of all things, and tc 
the original, genuine sentiments of the highest and most ven- 
erable andquity. The Pagan religion continued in this deep 
state ofcorruption to the last. The Pagan Philosophers, and 
inquisitive men, made great improvements in many sciences, 
and even in morality itself ; yet the inveterate absurdities of 
Pagan idolatry remained without remedy. Every temple 
smoked with increase to the sun and moon, and other inani- 
jnate material luminaries, and earthly elements, to Jupiter, 
Juno, Mars and Venus, Sec. the patrons and examples of al- 
most every vice. Hecatombs bled on the altars of a thous- 
and gods ; as mad superstitions inspired. And this was not 
the disgrace of our ignorant, untaught northern countries on- 
ly ; but even at Athens itself, the infamy reigned, and circu- 
lated through all Greece; and finally prevailed, amidst all 
their learning and politeness, under the Ptolemijs in Egyfit^ 
and the Cesars at Rome, Now if the knowledge of the Pagan 
world, in reliu;ion, proceeded no further than this ; if they re- 
tained all their deities, even the most absurd of them their de* 
ified beasts, and deified men, even to the last breath of Pagan 
power ; we may justly ascribe the great improvements in the 
world, on the subject of religion, to divine revelation, either 
vouchsafed in the beginning when this knowledge was com- 
petently clear and copious ; or at the death of Paganism, 
when this light shone forth in its consummate lustre at the 
coming of Christ." 

Dr. Taylor often speaks of the idolatry of the heathen 
world, as great ivickeclness^ in which they were wholly inex- 
cusable ; and yet often speaks of their case as remediless, and 
of them as being dead in sin, and unable to recover them- 
selves. And if so, and yet, according to his own doctrine, 
every age, and every nation, and every man, had sufficient 
light afforded) to know God, and to know and do their whole 
duty to him ; then their inability to deliver themselves must 
be a moral inability, consisting in a desperate depravityi and 
most evil disposition of heart. 


And if there had not betn sufficient trial of the propensity 
of the hearts of mankind, through all those ages that passed 
from Abraham to Christ, the trial has been continued down 
to this day, in all those vast regions of ihe face of the earth, 
that have remained without any effects of the light of the 
gospel ; and the disinal effect continues every where unvari- 
ed. How was it with that multitude of nations inhabiting 
^outh and north America ? What appearance was there, when 
the F.uropeans first came hithtr, of their being recovered, or 
recoveringr in any degree, from the grossest ignorance, dehu 
3ions, and most stupid Paganism ? And how is it at this day, 
in those parts of Africa and Asia, into which the hght of the 
gospel has not penetrated ? 

This strong and universally prevalent disposition of man- 
kind to idolalry, of which there has been such great trial, and 
so notorious a»>d vast proof, in fact, is a most glaring evidence 
of the exceeding depravity of the human nature; as it is a 
propensity, in the utmost degree, contrary to the highest end, 
the main business, and chief happiness of mankind, consist- 
ing in the knowledge, service, and enjoyment of ilic living 
God, the Creator and Governor of the world ; in the highest 
degree contrary to that for which mainly God gave mankind 
more understanding than the beasts of the earth, and made 
ihem wiser than the fowls of heaven ; wl.ich was, that lliey 
might be capable of the knowledge of God ; and in the high- 
est degree contrary to the first and greatest commandment 
of the moral law, that "jjc should have ni otl;er gods before 
Jehovah^ and that we should love and adore him with all our 
heart, soul, mind, and strength. The scriptures are abundant 
in representing the idolatry of the heathen world, as their ex- 
ceeding wickedness, and their most brutish stupidity. Tliey 
v/orship and trust in idols, are said to be like the lifeless stat- 
ues they worship, like mere senseless stocks and stones, 
Psalm cxv. 4 8, and cxxxv. 15. .....18. 

A second instance of the natural stufiidity of the minds of 
mankind, that I shall observe, is, that great disregard of their 
nivn eternal interest^ which appears so remarkablv, so gener- 
ajly among them that live under the gosne^. 


As Mr. Locke observes (Human Understandings Vol. I. ji. 
207.) " Were the will rletcrmined by the views of good, as it 
appears in contemplation, greater or less to the understand- 
ing, it could never get loose from the infinite, eternal joys of 
heaven, once proposed, and considered as possible ; the eter- 
nal condition of a future state infinitely outweighing the ex- 
pectation of riches or honor, or any other worldly pleasure; 
which we can propose to ourselves ; though we should grant 
these the more probable to be obtained." Again (p. 228, 229.) 
^' He that will not be so far a rational creature, as to reflect se- 
riously upon infinite happiness and mise'-y, must needs con- 
demn himself, as not tnaking that use of his understanding 
he should. The rewards and punishments of another life, 
which the almighty has established, as the enforcements of 
his laws, are of weiecht enough to determine the choice, 
against whatsoever pleasure or pain this life can shew. When 
the eternal state is considered but in its bare possibility, which 
nobody can make any doubt of, he that will allow exquisite 
and endless happiness to be but the possible consequence of a 
good life here, and the contrary state the possible reward of a 
bad one, must own himself to judge very much amiss, if he 
does not Conclude that a virtuous life, with the certain expect- 
ation of everlasting bliss, which may come, is to be preferred 
to a vicious one, with the fear of that dreadful state of misery, 
which it is very possible may overtake the guilty, or at least 
the terrible, uncertain hope of annihilation. This is evident- 
ly so ; though the virtuous life here had nothing but pain, 
'and the vicious continual pleasure ; which yet is for the most 
part quite otherwise, and wicked men have not much the 
odds to brag of, even in their present possession : Nay, al! 
things rightly considered, have I think even the worst part 
here. But when infinite happiness is put in one scale, against 
infinite misery in the other ; if the worst that comes to the 
pious man, if he mistakes, be the best that the wicked man 
can attain to, if he be in the right ; who can, without madness, 
run the venture ? Who in his wits would choose to come with" 
in a possibility of infi lite misery ? Which if he miss, there 
is yet nothing to be got by that haz.u'd : Whereas, on the 


other side, the sober man ventures nothing, against infinite 
happiness to be got, if his expectation comes to pass. 

That disposition of mind which is a propensity to act 
contrary to reason, is a depraved disposition. It is not be- 
cause the faculty of reason, which God has given to mankind, 
is not sufficient fully to discover to them, thai forty, sixty, or 
an hundred years, is as nothing in comparison of eternity, in- 
finitely less than a second of time to an hundred years, that 
the greatest worldly prosperity and pleasure is not treated 
with most perfect disregard, in all cases where there is any 
degree of competition of earthly things, with salvation from 
exquisite, eternal misery, and the enjoyment of everlasung 
glory and felicity ; as certainly it would be, if men acted ac- 
cording to reason. But is it a matter of doubt or controver- 
sy, whether men in general do not shew a strong disposition 
to act far otherwise, from their infancy, till death is in a sen- 
sible approach ? In things that concern men's temporal in- 
terest, they easily discern the difference between things of a 
long and short continuance. It is no hard matter to convince 
men of the difference between a being admitted to the accom- 
modations and entertainments of a convenient, beautiful, well 
furnished habitation, and to partake of the provisions and 
produce of a plentiful estate for a day or a night, and having 
all given to them, and settled upon them as their own, to 
possess as long as they live, and to be their's, and their heirs 
forever. There would be no need of men's preaching ser- 
mons, and spending their strength and life, to convince men 
of the difference. Men know how to adjust things in their 
dealings and contracts one with anotlier, according to the 
length of time in which any thing agreed for is to be used or 
enjoyed. In temporal affairs, men arc sensible that it con- 
cerns them to provide for future time, as well as for the pres- 
ent. Thus common prudence teaches them to take care in 
summer to lay up for winter ; yea, to provide a fund, and 
get a solid estate, whence they may be supplied for a long 
time to come. And not only so, but they are willing and for- 
ward to spend and be spent, to provide that which will stand 
iheir children in stead, after they are dead ; l!)ough it be 


^uite \in certain, \vhD shall use and enjoy what tliey lay w^^ 
after they have left the world ; and if their children should 
have the comfort of it, as they desire, they will not partake 
with them in that comfort, or have any more a portion in any 
thinj^ under the sun. In things which relate to men's tcnipo- 
ral interest, they seem very sensible of the uncertainty of 
life, especially of the lives of others ; and to make answerable 
provision for the security of their worldly interest, that no 
considerable part of it may rest only on so uncertain a foun- 
dation, as the life of a neighbor or friend. Common discre- 
tion leads men to take good care that their outward posses- 
sions be well secured by a good and firm title. In worldly 
concerns men are discerning of their opportunities, and care- 
ful to improve them before they are past. The husbandman 
is careful to plow his ground and sow his seed in the proper 
season, otherwise he knows he cannot expect a crop ; and 
when the harvest is come, he will not sleep away the time ; 
for he knows, if he does so, the crop will soon be lost. How 
careful and eagle eyed is the merchant to observe and im- 
prove his opportunities and advantages to enrich himself ? 
How apt are men to be al rmed at the appearance of danger 
to their worldly estate, or any thing that remarkably threatens 
great loss or damage to their outward interest ? And how 
will they bestir themselves in such a case, if possible to avoid 
the threatened calamity ? In things purely secular, and not 
of a moral or spiritual nature, naen easily receive conviction 
by past experience, when any thing, on repeated trial, proves 
unprofitable or prejudicial, and are ready to take warning by 
what they have found themselves, and also by the experience 
«f their neighbors and forefathers. 

But if we consider how men generally conduct themselves 
in things on wiiich their well being does infinitely more de- 
pend, liow vast is the diversity ? In these things how cold, 
lifeless and dilatory ? With what difficulty are a few of mul- 
titudes excited to any tolerable degree of care and diligence^ 
by the innumerable means used with men to make them wise 
for themselves ? And when some vigilance and activity is 
excited, how apt is it to die away, like a mere force against 

OltlGINAL Sm. 63 

a natural tendency ? What need of a constant repetition of 
admonitions and counsels, to keep the heart from fulling 
asleep ? How many objections are made ? And how are 
difficulties maj^nified ? And how soon is the mind discour- 
aged ? How many arguments, and often renewed, and vari- 
ously and elaborately enforced, do men stand in need of, tO' 
convince them of things that are selfevident ? As that things 
which are eternal, are infinitely more important than things 
temporal, and the like. And after all, how very few are con- 
vinced effectually, or in such a manner as to induce to a prac- 
tical preference of eternal things ? How senseless are men 
of the necessity of improving their time to provide for futuri- 
ty, as to their ^iritual interest, and their welfare in another 
v/orld 1 Thouu,h it be an endless futurity, and though it be 
their own personal, infinitely important good, after they are 
dead, that is to be cared for, and not the good of their child- 
ren) which they sliali have no share in. Though men are so 
sensible of the uncertain-.y of their neighbors' lives, when any 
considerable part of their estates depends on the continuance 
of them ; how stupidly senseless da they seem to be of the 
uncertainty of their own lives, when their preservation from 
immensely great, remediless, and endless misery, is risqued 
by a present delay, through a dependence on future opportu- 
nity ? What a dreadful venture will men carelessly and bold- 
ly run, and repeat and multiply, with regard to their eternal 
salvation, who are very careful to have every thing in a deed '*^ 
or bond firm, and without a flaw ? How negligent are they 
of their special advantages and opportunities for their souFs 
good ? How hardly awakened by the most evident and im- 
minent dangers, threatening eternal destruction, yea, though 
put in mind of them, and much pains taken to point tliem 
forth, shev/ them plainly, and fully to represent them, if pos- 
sible to engage their attention to them ? How are they like 
the horse, that boldly rushes into the battle ? How hard 1 7 
are men convinced by their own frequent and abundant expe* 
rience, of the unsatisfactory nature of earthly things, and the 
instability of their own hearts in their good frames and intcU' 
tions ? And how hardly convinced by their ov-n observation, 


and the experience of all past generations, of the uncertainty 
of life, and its enjoyments ? Psalm xlix. 11, Sec. "Their 
inward thon.u;ht is, that their houses shall continue forever. 
....Nevertheless, man being in honor, abideth not : He is 
like the beasts that perish. This their way is tlieir foilv, yet 
their posterity approve their sayings. Like sheep are they 
laid in the s^rave." 

In these things, men that are prudent fcr their temporal 
interest, act as if they were bereft of reason : " They have 
eyes, and see not ; ears, and hear not ; neither do they un- 
derstand : They are like the horse and mule, that have no 
understanding." Jer. viii. 7. " The stork in the heaven 
knovveth her appointed times ; and the turtle, and the 
crane, and the swallov/, observe the time of their coming ; 
but my people know not the judgment of the Lord." 

These things are often mentioned in scripture, as eviden- 
ces of extreme folly and stupidity, wherein men act the part 
of enemies to themselves, as though they loved their own ru- 
in ; Prov. viii. 36. " Laying wait for their own blood." Prov, 
i. 18. And how can these things he accounted for, but by 
supposing a most wretched depravity of nature ? Why oth- 
erwise should not men be as wise for themselves in spiritual 
and eternal things, as in temporal ? All Christians will con* 
fess that man*s faculty of reason was given him chiefly to ena- 
ble him to undei stand the former, wherein his main interest, 
and true happiness consists-. This faculty would therefore 
undoubtedly be every way as fit for the understanding of 
them, as the latter, if not depraved. The reason why these 
are understood, and not the other, is not that such things as 
have been mentioned, belonging to men's spiritual eternal in- 
terest, are more obscure and abstruse in their Own nature. 
For instance, the difference between long and short, the need 
of providing for fuiurity, the importance of improving proper 
opportunities, and of having good security, and a sure foun- 
dation, in aifairs wherein our inteiest is greatly concerned, &c. 
these things are as plain in themselves in religious matters, 
as in other matters. And we have far greater means to as- 
sist us to be wise for ourselves in eiernal, than in temporal 


things. We have the abundant instruction of perfect and 
infinite wisdom itself, to lead ^nd conduct us in the paths of 
righteousness, so that we may not err. And the reasons of 
things are most clearly, variously, and abundantly set before 
\is in the word of God ; which is adapted to the faculties of 
mankind, tendin(^ greatly to enlij^hien and convince the 
iTiind : Whereas we have no such excellent and perfect 
rules to instruct and direct us in things pertainiii.£^ to our tem- 
poral interest, nor any thing to be compared to it. 

If any should say, it is true, if men gave full credit to what 
they are told concerning eternal things, and these appeared 
to them as real and certain things, it 'would be an evidence 
of a sort of maciness in them, that they shew no greater re- 
gard to them in practice ; but there is reason to think, this 
is not the case, the things of another world being unseen 
things, appear to men as things of a very doubtful nature, and 
attended with great uncertainty. In answer, I would observe, 
agreeably to what has been cited from Mr. Locke, though 
eternal things were considered in their bare possibility, if 
inen acted rationally, they would infinitely outweigh all tem- 
poral things in their influence on their hearts. And I would 
also observe, that the supposing eternal things not to be fully 
Relieved, at least by them who enjoy the light of the gospel, 
does not weaken, but rather strengthen the argument for the 
depravity of nature. For the eternal world being what God 
had chiefly in view in the creation of men, and the things of 
this world being made to be wholly subordinate to the other, 
man's state here being only a state of probation, prepara- 
tion, and progression, with respect to the fuiure state, 
and so eternal things being in effect men's all, their whole 
concern ; to understand and know which, it chiefly was, that 
they had understanding given them ; and it concerning them 
infinitely more to know the truth of eternal things than any- 
other, as ail that are not infidels will own ; therefore we may 
undoubtedly conclude, that if men have not respect to thcra 
as real and certain things, it cannot be for want of sufficient 
evidence of their truth, to induce them so to regard them ; 
especially as to them that live under that light, which God 


- \ 

has appointed as the most proper exhibition of the nature and 
evidence of these things ; but it must be from a dreadful stu- 
pidity of mind, occasioning a sottish insensibility of their truth* 
and importance, when manifested by the clearest evidence. 


TTiat Man*8 nature is corrupt^ afifiears in that vastly the greater 
part ofmajikindj in all ages^ have been ivicked Men. 

THE depravity of man's nature appears, not only in it» 
propensity to sin in some degree^ which renders a man an 
evil or wicked man in the eye of the ktw^ and strict justice, as 
was before shewn ; but it is so corrupt, that its depravity ei- 
ther shews that men are^ or tends to make them to be^ of 
such an evil character, as shall denominate them wicked men, 
according to the tenor of the covenant of grace. 

This may be argued from several things which have beett 
already observed ; as from a tendency to continual sin, a 
tendency to much greater degrees of sin than righteousness, 
and from the general extreme stupidity of mankind. But 
yet the present state of man's nature, as implying or tending 
to a wicked character, may be worthy to be more psu'ticularly 
considered, and directly proved. And in general, this ap- 
pears in that there have been so very few in the world, from 
age to age, ever since the world has stood, that have been of 
any other character. 

It is abundantly evident in scripture, and is what I sup- 
pose none that call themselves Christians will deny, that the 
whole world is divided into good and bad, and that all mankind 
at the day of judgment will either be approved as righteous, 
or condemned as wicked ; either glorified as children of the 
kingdom, or cast into a furnace of fire, as children of the ivicked 


I need not stand to shew what things belong to the char- 
acter of such as shall hereafter be accepted as righteous, ac- 
cording to the word of God. It n>ay be sufficient for my 
present purpose, to observe what Dr. Taylor himself speaks 
of as belonging essentially to the character of such. In p. 
2');>, he says, " This is inialUbly the character of true Christ- 
ians, and what is essential to such, that they have really mor- 
tified the flesh with its lusis ; they are dead to sin, and live no 
looger therein ; the old man is crucified, and the body of sin 
destroyed ; they yield themselves to God, as those that are 
alive from the dead, and their members as instruments of 
ri}>jhleousness to God, and as servants of righteoiisness to ho- 
liness." There is more to the like purpose in the two next 
pages. In p. 228, he says, " Whatsoever is evil and corrupt 
in us, we ought to condemn ; not so, as it shall still remain 
in us, ihat we may always be condemning it, but that we may 
speedily reform, and he effectually delivered from it ; other- 
wise certainly we do not come up to the character of the true 
disciples of Christ." 

In page 248, he says, " Unless God*s favor be preferred 
b&fore all other enjoyments whatsoever, unless there be a de- 
light in the worship of God, and in converse v/uh him, unless 
every appetite be brought into subjection to reason and truth, 
and unless there be a kind and benevolent disposition towards 
our fellow creatures, how can the mind be fit to dwell with 
God, in his house and family, to do him service in his king- 
dom, and to promote the happiness of any part of his crea- 
tion." And in his Key, § 286, page 101, 102, £cc. shewing 
there, Kvhat it is to be a true Christian^ he says among other 
things, " That he is one who has such a sense and persuasion 
of the love of God in Christ, that he devotes his life to the 
vhonor and service of God, in hope of eternal glory. iVnd 
that to the character of a true Christian, it is absolutely neces- 
sary that he diligently study the things that are fretly given 
him of God, viz. his election, regeneration, Sec. that he may 
gain a just knowledge of those inestimable privileges, may 
taste that the Lord is gracious, and rejoice in the gospel sal- 
vation, as his greatest happiness and glory. It is necessary 


that he work these blessins^s on his heart, till they become a 
vital principle, producing in him the love of God, enj/aging 
him to all cheerful obedience to his will, givinj^ him a proper 
dignity and elevation of soul, raising him above the best and 
worst of this world, carrying his heart into heaven, and fixing 
his affections and regards upon his everlasting inheritance, 
and the crown of glory laid up for him there. Thus he is 
armed against all the templaiions and trials resulting from 
any pleasure or pain, hopes or fears, gain or loss, in the 
present world. None of these things move him from a 
faithful discharge of any part of his duty, or from a firm at- 
tachment to triith and righteousness ; neither counts he his 
very life dear to him, that he may do the will of God, and 
finish bis course with joy. In a sense of the love of God in 
Christ, he maintains daily communion with God, by reading 
and meditating on his word. In a sense of his own infirmity, 
and the readiness of the divine favor to succor him, he daily 
addresses the throne of grace, for the renewal of spiritual 
strength, in assurance of obtaining it, through the one Media- 
tor Christ Jesus. Enlightened and directed by the heavenly 
doc'-rine of the gospel," &c.* 

Now I leave it to be judged by every one that has any de- 
gree of impartiality, whether there be not sufficient grounds 
to think, from what appears every where, that it is but a very 
small part indeed, of the many myriads and millions which 
overspread this globe, who are of a character that in any wise 
answers these descriptions. However, Dr. TayJor insists 
ihat all nations, and every man on the face of the earth, have 
light and means sufficient to do the whole will of God, even 
they that live in the grossest darkness of paganism. 

Dr. Taylor in answer to arguments of this kind, very im- 
pertmenily from time to time objects, that we are no judges 
of the viciousness of men's characters, nor are able to decide 
in what degree they are virtuous or vicious. As though we 

* What Dr. Tiirnbull says of the character of a good man, is also worthy 
to be observed, i/iriitian Philosophy, p. SG, 258, 2^,9, 288, 37»i, 376, 409, 
4 10. 


could have no gooJ grounds to judge, that any thinp; apper- 
taining to the qualities or properties of the mind, which is in- 
visible, is i^eneral or prevailing among i\ niullitude or collec- 
tive body, unless we can determine how it is with each indi- 
vidual. I think I have sufficient reason, from what I know 
and have heard of the American Indians^ to judge, that there 
are not many good philosophers among them ; though the 
thoughts of their hearts, and the ideas and knowledge they 
have in their minds, are things invisible ; and though I have 
never seen so much as a thousandth part of the Indians ; and 
with respect to most of them, should not be able to pronounce 
peremptorily concerning any one, that he was not very know- 
ing in the nature of things, if all should singly pass before me. 
And Dr. Taylor himself seems to be sensible of the false- 
ness of his own conclusions, that he so. often urges against 
others ; if we may judge by his practice, and the liberties he 
takes, in judging of a multitude himself. He, it seems, is 
sensible that a man may have good grounds to judge, that 
wickedness of character is general in a collective body ; be- 
cause he openly does it himself. (I^ey, p. 102.) After declar- 
ing the things which belong to the character of a true Christ- 
ian, he judges of the generality of Christians, that they have 
cast off these things, that they are a fieople that do err in their 
heartSf and have not knoiun God*s -ways. P. 259, he judges that 
the generality of Christians are the most ivicked of all mankind ; 
when he thinks it will throw some disgrace on the opinion of 
such as he opposes. The like we have from time to time in 
other places, as p. 168, p. 258. AW, p. 127, 128. 

But if men are not sufficient judges, whether there are 
few of the world of mankind but what are wicked, yet doubt- 
less God is sufficient, and his judgment, often declared in his 
•vvord, determines the matter. Matth. vii. 13, 14, *' Enter ye 
in at the strait gate j for wide is the gate, and broad is the 
way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be that go in 
thereat : Because strait is the gate, and narrov/ is the way 
that leadeth to life, and few there be that find it." It is man- 
ifest, that here Christ is not only describing the state of things, 
as it was at that day, and doe?: not mention t'le comparative 


smallness of the number of them that are saved, as a couse' 
quence of the peculiar perverseness of that people, and of 
that generation ; but as a consequence of the general circum- 
stances of the way to life, and the way to destruction, the 
broadness of the one, and the narrowness of t!ic other. In 
the straitness of the gate, Sec. I suppose none will deny, that 
Christ has respect to the strictness of those rules, which he 
had insisted on in the preceding sermon, and which render 
the Vv'ay to life very difficult to mankind. But cerlainly these 
amiable rules would not be difficuii, were they not contrary to 
the natural inclinations of men's hearts ; and they would not 
be contrary to those inclinations, were these not depraved. 
Consequently the wideness of the gate, and broadness of the 
way, that leads to destruction, !n consequence of which many 
go in thereat, must imply the agreeableness of this way to 
Dien's natural inclinations. The like reason is given by- 
Christ, why few are saved. Luke xiii. 23, 24. " Then said 
cne unto him, Lord, are there few saved ? And he said unto 
them, strive to enter in at the strait gate : For many i say 
imto you, shall seek to enter in, and shall not be able.'* That 
there are generally but fev/ good men in the world, even 
among them that have those most distinguishing and glori- 
ous advantages for it, which they are favored with, that live 
under the gospel, is evident by that saying of our Lord, from 
time to time in his mouth, many are called^ but few arc chosen. 
Anil if there are but few among these, how few, how very 
few indeed, must persons of this character be, compared with 
the whole world of mankind ? The exceeding smallness of 
the number of true saints, compared with the whole world, 
appears by the representations often made of them as distin- 
guished from the world ; in which they arc spoken of as call- 
ed and chosen out of the world, redeemed from the earth, 
yedecmed from aiDong men ; as being those that are of God, 
while ;l.c whole world lieth in wickedness, and tlie like. And 
if we look into the Old Testament, we shall find the same 
testimony given. Prov. xx. 6. " Most men will proclaim 
every man his own goodness : But a faithful man who can 
tu'.d ?" By a faithful man, as the phrase is used in scripture, 


.- . '^ - 

i» intended mnch the same as a sincere, iipric^ht, or truly 

jjjood man ; as in Psal. xii. I, and xxni. 23, and ci. 6, and oth- 
er places. Again, Eccl. vii. 25. ...29. '* I applied mine heart 
to know, and to search, and to- find out wisdom, and the rea* 
son of thinp^s, and to know the wickedness of folly, even of 
foolishness and madness : And I find more biiter than death, 
the woman wliose heart is snares, kc... Behold, this have I 
found, saith the preacher, countinj^ one by one, to find out 
the account, Avhich yet my soul seeketh, but I find not; Ono 
B>an among a thousand have I found ; but a woman among 
all these have I not found. Lo, this only have I found, that 
God made man uprijjht ; but they have sought out many in-* 
ventions." Solomon here signifies, that when be set him- 
self diligently to find out the account or proportio-n of true 
wisdom, or thorough uprightness among men, the result was, 
that he found it to be but as one to a thousand, &c. Dr. Tay- 
lor on this place, p. 184, says, *' The wise man in the context, 
19 inquiring into the corruption and depravity of mankind, of 
the men and women, that lived in his timt^.'* As though what 
be said represen-ted nothing of the state of things in the world 
in general, but only in his time. But does Dr. Taylor or any 
body else, suppose this only to be the design of that book, to 
represent the vanity and evil of the world in that time, and to 
shew that all was vanity and vexation of spirit in Solomon's 
day ? (Which day truly we have reason to think, was a day of 
the greaiest smiles of heaven on that nation, that ever had 
l>een on any nation from the foundation of the world.) Not only 
d©es the subject and argument of the whole book shew it to 
be otherwise ; but also the declared design of the book in the 
first chapter ; where the world is rep'esented as very much 
the same, as to the vanity and eNil it is full of, from age to 
age, making litile or no progress, after all its revokuions and 
restless motions, labors and pursuits, like the sea, that has all 
the m'ers constantly emptying themselves into it, from age 
to age, and yet is never the fuller. As to that place, Prov, 
XX. 6. " A faithful man, who can find r" There is no more 
reason to suppose that the wise man has respect only to his 
lime, in thesewords, than in those immediately preceding, 


counsel in the heart of a man is like deefi waters ; but a man of 
understanding will drazv it out. Or in the words next follow- 
ing, The jufit man lualketh in his iritegrity : His children arc 
blessed after him, 0»" in any other Proverb in the whole book. 
And if it were so, that Solomon in these thinp:s meant only to 
describe is own times, it would not at all weaken the argu- 
ment. For, if we observe the history of the Old Testament, 
there is reason to think there never was any lime from Josh- 
ua to the captivity, wherein wickedness was more restrained, 
and virtue and religion more encouraged and promoted, than 
in David's and Solomon's times. And if there was so little 
true piety in that nation tliat was the oiily people of God un- 
der heaven, even in their very best times, what may we sup- 
pose concerning the world in general, take one time with 
another ? 

Notwithstanding what some authors advance concerning 
the prevalence of virtue, honesty, good neighborhood, cheer- 
fulness, Sec. in the world ; Solomon, whom we may justly 
esteem as wise and just an observer of human nature, and 
the state of the world of mankind, as most in these days (be- 
sides. Christians ought to remember, that he wrote by divine 
inspiratior) judged the world to be so full of wickedness, that 
it was better never to be born, than to be born to live only in 
such a world. Fxcles. iv. at the beginning. " So I returned 
and considered all the oppressions that are done under the 
"sun ; and behold, the tears of such as were oppressed, and 
they had no comforter : And on the side of their, oppressors 
there was power ; but they had no comforter. Wherefore, I 
praised the dead, which were already dead, more than the liv- 
ing, which are yet alive. Yea, better is he than both they, 
which hath not yet been ; who hath not seen the evil work 
thai is done under the sun." Surely it will not be said that 
Solomon has only respect to his times here too, when he 
speaks of the oppressions of them that were in power ; since 
he himself, and others appointed by him, and wholly under 
his control, were the men that were in power in that land, and 
in almost all the neighboring countries. 


The same inspired writer says, Eccles. ix. 3." The heart 
of the sons of men is full of evil ; and madness is in their 
heart while they live ; and after that they go to the dead.*' 
If these general expressions are lobe understood only of some, 
and those the less part, \vhen in general, truths honesty^ good 
no:turcy &c. govern the woild, why are such general express- 
ions from time to time used ? Why does not this wise and 
noble, and great soul'd Prince express himself in a more gen- 
erous and benevolent strain, as well as more agreeable to 
truth, and say, IVisdoiyi is in the hearts of the sons of ?Ken ivhilc 
they live^ Sec.. ..instead of leaving in his writings so many sly, 
illnatured suggestions, which pour such contempt on the hu- 
man nature, and tend so much to excite mutual jealousy and 
malevolence, to taint the minds of mankind through all gene- 
rations after him ? 

If we consider the various successive parts and periods of 
the duration of the world, it will, if possible, be yet more evi- 
dent, that vastly the greater part of mankind have, in all ages, 
been of a wicked character. The short accounts we have of 
Adam and his family are such as lead us to suppose, that far 
the greatest part of his posterity in his life time, yea, in the 
former part of his life were wicked. It appears, that his eld- 
est son, Cain, was a very wicked man, who slew his right- 
eous brother Abel. And Adam lived an hundred and thirty 
years before Seth was born ; and by that time, we may sup- 
pose, his posterity began to be considerably numerous : 
iVhen he was born, his mother called his name Seth ; for God, 
^aid she, hath a/ifiointed me another seed instead of KhtX. Which 
naturally suggests this to our thoughts ; that of all her seed 
then existing, none were of any such note for religion and 
virtue, as that their parents could have any great comfort in 
them, or expectation from them on that account. And by 
the brief history we have, it looks as if (however there might 
be some intervals of a revival of religion, yet) in the general, 
mankind grew more and more corrupt till the flood. It is 
signified, that ivhen men began to multifily on the face of the 
earthy wickedness prevailed exceedingly, Gen. vi. at the be- 
ginning. And that before God appeared to Noah^ to coni- 


mand him to build the Ark, one hundred and twenty years be* 
ibre the flood, the world had long continued obstinate in p;reat 
and general wickedness, and the disease was become invete- 
rate. The expressions we have in the 3, 5, and 6 verses of 
that chapter sugp^est as much : " And the Lord said, my 
Spirit sliall not always strive with man ; and God saw, that 
the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every 
iningination of the thought of his heart was evil, only evil 
continually ; and it repented the Lord, that he had made man 
on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart." And by that 
iAmtt all flesh had corrupted his ivay ufion the earthy v. 12. 
And as Dr. Taylor himself observes, p. 122. "Mankind 
were universally debauched into lust, sensuality, rapine, and 

And with respect to the period after the flood, to the call- 
ing of Abraham ; Dr. Taylor says, as has been already ob- 
served, that in about four hundred years after the flood, the 
generality of mankind were fallen into idolatry ; which was 
before the passing away of one generation ; or before all they 
were dead, that came out of the Ark. And it cannot be 
thought, the world sunk into tliat so general and extreme de- 
gree of corruption, all at once ; but that they had been grad- 
ually growin!'; more and more corrupt ; though it is true, it 
must be by very swift degrees, (however soon we may sup- 
pose they began) to get to that pass in one age. 

And as to the period from the calling of Abraham to the 
coming of Christ, Dr. Taylor justly observes as follows : 
(Kty^ p. 13.'>.) "If we reckon from the call of Abraham t« 
the coming of Christ, the Jewish dispensation continued one. 
thousand nine hundred and twentyone years ; during which 
period, the other families and nations of the earth, not only 
lay out of God's peculiar kingdom, but also lived in idolatry, 
great ignorance, and wickedness." And with regard to that 
one only exempt family or nation of the Israelites, it is evi- 
dent that wickedness was the generally prevailing character 
among them, from age to age. If we consider how it was 
with Jacob*6 family, the behavior of Reuben with his father's 
concubine, the behavior of Judah with Tamar, the conduct of 


Jocob*s sons in general (though $imcon and Levi were lead- 
ing) towards the Shechemites, the behavior of Joseph's icn 
brethren in their cruel treatment of him; we cannot think, 
that the character of true piety belonged to many of them, ac- 
^ccording to Dr. Taylor's own notion of such a character ; 
though it be true, they might afterwards repent. And with 
respect to the time the children of Israel were in Egypt ; the 
scripture, speaking of them in general, or as a collective 
body, often represents them as complying with the abomina- 
ble idolatries of the country.* And as to that generation 
which went out of Egypt, and wandered in the wilderness, 
they are abundantly represented as extremely and almost uni- 
versally wicked, perverse, and children of divine wrath. And 
after Joshua's death, the scripture is very express, that wick- 
edness was the prevailing character in the nation, from age to 
age. So it was till Samuel's time. 1 Sam. viii. 7, 8. " They 
have rejected me, that I should not reign over them ; accord- 
ing to all their works which they have done, since the day 
that I brought them out of Egypt, unto this day." Yea, so if 
was till Jeremiah and Ezekiel's time. Jer. xxxii. 30, ol. 
" For the children of Israel, and the children of Judah, have 
only done evil before me from their youth ; for the children 
of Israel have only provoked me to anger, with the work of 
their hands, saith the Lord : For this city hath been to me a 
provocation of mine anger, and of my fury, from the day they 
built it, even unto this day." (Compare chap. v. 21, 23, and 
chap. vii. 25....27.) So Ezek. ii. 3, 4. « I send thee to the 
children of Israel, to a rebellious nation, that haLli rebelled 
against me, they and their fathers have transgressed against 
me, even unto this very day : For they are impudent children, 
and stifFhearted.'* And it appears by the discourse of Ste- 
phen (Acts vii.) that this was generally the case with that na- 
tion, from their first rise, even to the days of the apostles. Af- 
ter his summary rehearsal of the instances of their perverse- 
ness from the very time of their selling Joseph into Egypt, 
he concludes (Verse 51. ...53.) " Ye stiffnecked, and uncir- 

• Levit. xvil, 7. Josh. v. 9, and xxiv. 14. Ezek. xx. 7, 8, and xxiii. 3. 


cumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Hol^^ 
Ghost. As your Fathers did, so do ye. Which of the Proph- 
ets have not your Fathers persecuted ? And they have slaia 
them ^vhich shewed before of the coming of that just one, of 
whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers : 
Who have received the law by the disposition of angels, and 
have not kept it.** 

Thus it appears, that wickedness was the generally pre- 
vailing character in all the nations of mankind, till Christ 
came. And so also it appears to have been since his coming 
to this day. So in the age of the apostles ; though then> 
among those that were converted to Christianity, were great 
numbers of persons eminent for piety ; yet this was not the 
case with the greater part of the world, or the greater part of 
any one nation io it. There was a great number of persons 
of a truly pious character in the latter part of the apostolic 
age, when multitudes of converts had been made, and Christ- 
ianity was as yet in its primitive purity. But what says the 
Apobtle John of the church of God at that time, as compared 
with the rest of the world ? 1 John v. 19. « We know that 
we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness." 
And after Christianity came to prevail, to that degree, that 
Christians had the upper hand in nations and civil communi- 
ties, still the greater part of mankind remained in their old 
heathen state ; which Dr. Taylor speaks of as a state of great 
ignorance and wickedness. And besides, this is noted in all 
ecclesiastical history, that as the Christians gaisied in power 
and secular advantages, true piety declined, and corruption 
and wickedness prevailed among them. And as to the state 
of the Christian world, since Christianity began to be estab- 
lished by human laws, wickedness for the most part has 
j;reatly prevailed ; a> is very notorious, and is implied in 
^vhat Dr. Taylor himself says : He, in giving an account how 
the doctrine of Original Sin came to prevail among Christians, 
says, p. 167. 'V. <' That th.c Christian religion was very early 
and grievously corrupted, by dreaming, ignorant, supersti- 
tious monks." In p. 259, he s-\ys, " The generality of Christ- 
Jnns have embraced this persiiat^ion concerning Original Sin ; 


and the consequence has been, that the genei'ality of Christ- 
ians have been the most wicked, lewd, bloody, and treacher- 
ous of all mankind.** 

Thus, a view of the several successive periods of the past 
duration of the world, from the bej^innint^ to this day, shews, 
((hat wickedness has ever been exceedins^ prevalent, and has 
had vastly the superiority in the world. And Dr.Taylor him- 
self in effect owns That it has been so ever since Adam fiisi turn- 
ed into the way of transgression, p. 168. " It is certain (says he) 
the moral circumstances of mankind, since the time Adam first 
turned into the way of transgression, have been very different 
from a state of innocence. So far as we can judge from his- 
tory, or what we know at presentithe greatest part of mankind 
have been, and still are very corrupt, though not equally so 
in every age and place." And lower in the same page, he 
speaks of Adam's posterity^ as haviiig simk themselves into the 
most lamentable decrees of ignorance^ superstition'^ idolatry^ in' 
jits f ice ^ debauchery^ &c. 

These things clearly determine the point, concerning the 
tendency of man's nature to wickedness, if we may be allow- 
ed to proceed according to such rules and methods of reason- 
ing, as are pniversally made use of, and never denied, or 
doubted to be good and sure, in experimental philosophy ;* 
or may reason from experience and facts, in that manner 
which common sense leads all mankind to in other cases. If 
experience and trial will evince any thing at all concerning 
the natural disposition of the hearts of mankind, one would 
think the experience of so many ages, as have elapsed since 
the beginning of the world, and the trial as it were made by 
hundreds of different nations together, for so long a time, 
should be sufficient to convince all, that wickedness is agree- 
able to the nature of mankind in its present state. 

• Dr. Turnbul!, though so great an enemy to the doctrine of the Depravi- 
ity ot Nature, yet greatly insists upon it, that the experimental method 
of rcaso-^iing ought to be gone into in moral matters, and things pcitaining 
to the human nature, and should chiefly be relied upon, in moral, as well 3"^ 
natural philosophy. See Introd, to AUr. PhiL 


Here, to strengthen the argument, if there were any need 
of it, I might observe some furthei' evidences than those 
ivhich have been already mentioned, not only of the extent 
and generality of the prevalence of wickedness in the world, 
but of the height to v/hich it has risen, and the de^'rce in 
which it has reigned. Among innumerable things which 
shew this, I shall now only observe this, viz. the degree in 
which mankind have from age to age been hurtful one to 
another. Many kinds of brute animals are esteemed very- 
noxious and destructive, many of them very fierce, voracious, 
and many very poisonous, and the destroying of them has al- 
ways been looked upon as a public benefit ; but have not 
mankind been a thousand times as hurtful and destructive as 
any one of them? yea, as all the noxious beasts, birds, fishes, 
and reptiles in the earth, air, and water, put together, at least 
of all kinds of animals that are visible.? And no creature can 
be found any where so destructive of its own kind as mankind 
are. AH others for the most part are harmless and peacea- 
ble, .with regard to their own species. Where one wolf is 
destroyed by another wolf, one viper by another, probably a 
thousand of mankind are destroyed by those of their own spe- 
cies. Well, therefore, might o:jr blessed Lord say, when send- 
ing forth his disciples into the world, Maith. x. 16, 17, Be- 
hold^ I send you forth as sheep, in the widst oj" wolves ;....hl!T 
BEWARE OF MEN. As much as to say, 1 send you forth as 
sh^cp among wolves. But why do I say, wolves ? I send you 
forth into the wide world of incn^xhs^i are far more, hurtful and 
pernicious, and that you had much more need to beware of, 
than wolves. 

It would be strange indeed, that this should be the state 
of the woild of mankind, the chief of the lower creation, dis- 
tinguished above all by reason, to that end that they might be 
capable of religion, which summarily consists in love, if men, 
as they come into the world, are in their nature innocent and 
harmlebSj undepravcd, and perfectly free from all evil propen- 


SECTION viir. 

The nntive Dcfiravity of Mankind afifieam^ in that there ha» 
been so little ^qood effect of so manifold and great means 
used to /ir<,mote Virtue in the World. 

THE evidence of the native corruption of mankind, ap-^ 
pears much more glaring^, vi'hen it is considered that the 
world has been so generally, so constantly, and so exceed- 
ingly corrupt, notwithstanding the various, g-reat and co?itinu' 
al meansy that have been used to restrain men from sin, and 
promote virtue and true religion among them. 

Dr. Taylor supposes ail that sorrow and death, which 
came on mankind, in consequence of Adam's sin, was brought 
on them by God, in great favor to them ; as a benevolent 
Father^ exercising an ivholesome discipline towards his child- 
ren, to restrain them from sin, by increasing the vanity of all 
earthly things, to abate their force to tempt and delude ; ' to 
induce them to be moderate in gratifying the afifietites of 
the body ; to mortify pride aiid ambition ; and that men 
might always have before their eyes a striking demon- 
stration, that sin is infnitely hateful to God, by a si^ht of 
that, than ivhich nothiiig is more proper to give them the 
utmost abhorrence of inicjuity, and to fix in their minds a 
sense of the dreadful consequences of sin, S:c. Sec. And in 
general, that they do not come as punishments, but purely as 
•means to keep men from vice, and to make them better. If 
it be so, surely they are great means indeed. Here is a 
mighty alteration : Mankind, once so easy and liappy, health- 
ful, vigorous and beautiful, rich in all the pleasant and abund- 
ant blessings of Paraclise, now turned out, destitute, weak, 
and decaying, into a wide, barren world, yielding briars and 
thorns, instead of the delightful growth and sweet fruit of the 
garden of Eden, to wear out life in sorrow and toil, on the 


ground cursed for his sake ; and at last, either through long 
lanf^uishtnent and linp;ering decay, or severe pain and acute 
disease, to expire and turn to putrefaction and dust. If these 
are only used as medicines, to prevent and to cure the diseases 
of the mind, they are sharp medicines indeed, especially 
death ; which, to use Hezekiah's representation, is, as it 
were, breaking all his bones : And one would think, should 
be very effectual, if the subject had no depravity, no evil and 
contrary hias, to resist and hinder a proper effect ; especially 
in the old world, when the thing which was the first occasion 
of this terrible alteration, this severity of means, was fresh in 
memory, Adam continuing alive near two thirds of the time 
that passed before the flood ; so that a very great part of 
those that were alive till the flood, might have opportunity 
of seeing and conversing with him, and hearing from his 
mouth, not only an account of his fall, and the introduction of 
the awful consequences of it, but also of his first finding him- 
self in existence in the nev/ created world, and of the creation 
of Eve, and the things w^iich passed between him and his 
Creator in Paradise. 

But what was the success of these great means, to restrain 
men from sin, and to induce them to virtue ? Did they prove 
sufficient ? Instead of this, the world soon grew exceeding 
corrupt, till it came to that, to use our author's own words, 
that mankind were universally debauched into lust^ sensuality,, 
'rapine^ and injustice^ 

Then God used further means : He sent Moah, a preach- 
er of righteousness, to warn the world of the universal de- 
struction which would come upon them by a flood of waters, 
if they went on in sin. Which warning he delivered with 
these circumstances, tending to strike their minds, and com- 
mand their attention ; that he immediately went about build- 
ing that vast structure of the ark, in which he must employ 
a great number of hands, and probably spent all he had in 
the world, to save himself and his family. And under these 
uncommon means God waited upon them one hundred and 
twenty years ; but all to no effect. The whole world, for 
ought appears, continued obstinate, and absolutely incorrigi* 


tile ; so that nothing remained to be done with them, but ut- 
terly to destroy the inhabitants of the earth, and to be^in a 
new world from that single family who had distinguished 
themselves by their virtue, that from them might be propaga- 
ted a new and purer race. Accordinp:ly this \vas done ; and 
the inhabitants of this new world, of Noah's posteriiy, had 
these new and extraordinary means to restrain sin, and excite 
to virtue, in addition to the toil, sorrow, and common moriylity, 
which the world had been subjected to before, in consequence 
of Adam's sin, viz. that God had newly testified his dreadful 
displeasure for sin, in destroying the many millions of man- 
kind, all at one blow, old and young, men, women and child- 
ren, without pity on any for all the dismal shrieks and cries 
which the world was filled with ; when they themselves, the 
remaining family, were so wonderfully distinguished by God*s 
preserving goodness, that they might be a holy seed, being 
delivered from the corrupting examples of the old world, and 
being ail the offspring of a living parent, whose pious instruc- 
tions and counsels they had, to enforce these things upon 
them, to prevent sin, and engage them to their duty. And 
these inhabitants of the new earih, must for a long time, have 
before their eyes many evident, and as it were, fresh and 
striking effects and signs of that universal destruction, to be a 
continual, affecting admonition to them. And besides all this, 
God now shortened the life of man, to about one half of what 
it used to bCw The shortening man*s life. Dr. Taylor says, 
page 68, *' was, that the wild range of ambition and lust might 
be brought into narrower bounds, and have less opportunity 
of doing mischief ; and that death, being still nearer to our 
view, might be a more powerful motive to regard less the 
things of a transitory world, and to attend more to the rules 
of truth and wisdom." 

And now let us observe the consequence. These new 
and extraordinary means, in adduion to the former, were so 
far from provmg sufficient, that the new world degenerated, 
and became corrupt by such swift degrees, that, as Dr. Taylor 
observes, mankind in genertil were sunk into idolatry in about 


four hundred years after the flood, and so in about fifty yeaitf 
after Noah's death. They became so wicked and brutish, as 
to forsake the true God, and turn to the worship of inanimate 

When things were come to this dreadful pass, God was 
pleased, for a remedy, to introduce a new and wonderful dis- 
pensation ; separating a particular family and people from all 
the rest of the world, by a series of most astonishing miracles, 
done in the open view of the world, and fixing their dwelling, 
as it were in the midst of the earth, between Asia, Europe and 
Africa, and in the midst of those nations which were most 
considerable and famous for power, knowledge, and arts, that 
God might, in an extraordinary manner, dwell among that 
people, in visible tokens of his presence, manifesting himself 
there, and from thence to the world, by a course of great and 
miraculous operations and effects for many ages ; that that 
people might be holy to God, and as a kingdom of priests, 
and might stand as a city on an hill, to be a light to the 
world ; withal, gradually shortening man*s life, till it was 
brought to be but about one twelfth part of what it used to be 
before the flood ; and so, according to Dr. Taylor, vastly cut- 
ting off and diminishing his temptations to sin, and increasing 
his excitements to holiness. And now let us consider what 
the success of these means was, both as to the Gentile world, 
and the nation of Israel. 

Dr. Taylor justly observes, (Keyy p. 24, § 75) « The 
Jewish dispensation had respect to the nations of the 
world, to spread the knowledge and obedience of Go4 
in the earth ; and was established for the benefit of aH 
mankind." But how unsuccessful were these means, and 
all other means used with the heathen nations, so long as this 
dispensation lasted ? Abraham was a person noted in all the 
principal nations that were then in the world ; as in Egypt, 
and the eastern monarchies : God made his name famous, by 
his wonderful, distinguishing dispensations towards him, par- 
ticularly by so miraculously subduing before him and hisr 
trained servants, those armies of the four eastern kings. 
I'his great work of the most high God, Possesser of heaven 


and earth, was jijreatly taken .notice of by Melchizedeck, and 
one would think, should have been sufficient to have awaken- 
td the attention and consideration of all tbe nations in that 
part of the world, and to have led them to the knowledge and 
•worship of the only true God; especially if considered in con- 
junction with that miraculous and most terrible destruction 
of Sodom, and all the cities of the plain, for their wickedness, 
with Lot's miraculous deliverance, which doubtless were facts, 
that in their day were much famed abroad in the world. But 
there is not the least appearance, in any accounts v/e have, of 
any considerable good effect. On the contrary, those nations 
which were most in the way of observing and being affected 
with these things, even the nations of Canaan, grew worse 
and worse, till their iniquity came to the full, in Joshua's 
time. And the posterity oi Lot, that saint so wonderfully 
distinguished, soon became some of the most gross idolaters ; 
as they appear to have been in Moses' time. See Numb. xxv. 
Yea, and the far greater part even of Abraham's posterity, 
the children of Ishmael, Ziman, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, 
Ishbak and Shuah, and Esau, soon forgot the true God, and 
fell off to Heathenism, 

Great things were done in the sight of the nations of the 
world, tending to awaken them, and lead them to the knowl- 
edge and obedience of the true God, in Jacob's and Joseph's 
time ; in that God did miraculously, by the hand of Joseph, 
preserve from perishing by famine, as it were the whole 
world, as appears by Gen. xji. 56, 57. Agreeably to which, 
the name that Pharaoh gave to Joseph, Zafmath Paaneah^ as 
is said, in the Egyptian language, signifies Saviour of the 
World, But there does not appear to have been any good 
abiding effect of this ; po, not so much as in the nation of 
the Egyptians, (which seems to have been the chief of all 
the heathen nations at that day) who had these great works 
of Jehovah in their most immediate view ; on the contrary, 
they grew worse and worse, and seem to be far more gross 
in their idolatries and ignorance of the true God, and every 
way more wicked, and ripe for rw/n, when Moae^ was sent to 
J'haraoh, tlmn they were in Josejih^ lime. 


After this, in Moses' and Joshua's time, the great God 
■was pleased to manifest himself in a series of the most aston- 
ishing miracles, for about fifty years together, wrought in the 
most public manner, in Egypt, in the wilderness, and in Ca- 
raan, in the view, as it were, of the whole -world ; miracles 
by which the world was shaken, the whole frame of the visi- 
ble creation, earth, seas and rivers, the atmosphere, the clouds, 
sun, moon and §tars were affected ; miracles, greatly tending 
to convince the nations of the world, of the vanity of their 
false gods, shewing Jehovah to be infinitely above them, in 
the thing wherein they dealt most proudly, and exhibiting 
God's awful displeasure at the wickedness of the Heathen 
world. And these things are expressly spoken of as one end 
of these great miracles, in Exod. ix. 14) Numb. xiv. 21, Josh. 
iv. 23, 24, and other places. However, no reformation fol- 
lowed these things ; but, by the scripture account, the nations 
which had them most in view, were dreadfully hardened, stu- 
pidly refusing all conviction and reformation, and obstinate- 
ly went on in an opposition to the living God, to their own 

After this, God did from time to time very publicly mam« 
fest himself to the nations of the world, by wonderful works, 
wrought in the time of the Judges^, of a like tendency with 
those already mentioned. Particularly in so miraculously 
destroying, by the hand of Gideon, almost the whole of that 
vast army of the Midianites, Amalekites, and all the Children 
oftheEasty consisting of about 135,000 men, Ju<lges vii. 12, 
and vili. 10. But no reformation followed this, or the other 
great works of God, wrought in the times of Deborah and Ba- 
rak, Jephtha and Sampson. 

After these things, God used new, and in some respects 
much greater means with the heathen world, to bring them 
to the knowledge and service of the true God, in the days of 
David and Solomon. He raised up David, a man after his 
own heart, a most fervent worshipper of the true God, and 
zealous hater of idols, and subdued before him almost all the 
nations between Egypt and Euphrates ; often miraculously 
assisting him in his battles with his enemies j and he con« 


firmed Solomon, his son, in the full and quiet possession of 
that great empire, for about forty years ; and made him the 
wisest, richest, most magnificent, and every way the great- 
est monarch that ever had been in the world ; and by far the 
most famous, and of greatest name among the nations ; espe- 
cially for his wisdom? and things concerning the name of hi^t 
.God; particularly the temple he built, which was exce^rf/;?^ 
Tnagnificent, that it might be of fame and glory throughout all 
'lands; 1 Chron. xxii. 5. And we are told, that there came of all 
people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the 
earth ; 1 Kings iv. 34, and x. 24. And the scripture informs 
us, that these great things were done, that the " Nations in far 
countries might hear of God*s great name, and of his out- 
stretched arm ; that all the people of the earth might fear 
him, as well as his people Israel : And that all the people of 
the earth might know, that the Lord was God, and that there 
was none else.'* 1 Kings viii. 41. ...43, 60. But still there is 
no appearance of any considerable abiding effect, with regard 
to any one heathen nation. 

After this, before the captivity in Babylon, many great 
things were done in the sight of the Gentile nations, very 
much tending to enlighten, affect, and persuade them : As, 
God's destroying the army of the Ethiofiians of a thousand 
thousand, before Asa ; Elijah's and Elisha'a miracles ; espe- 
cially Elijah's miraculously confounding Baal's prophets and 
worshippers; Elisha's healing Naaman, the king of Syr- 
ia's prime minister, and the miraculous victories obtained 
through Elisha's prayers, over the Syrians, Moabites and 
Edomites ; the miraculous destruction of the vast united ar- 
my of the children of Moab, Amon and Edom, at Jehosha- 
phat's prayer. (2 Chron. xx.) Jonah's preaching at Nineveh, 
together with the miracle of his deliverance from the whale's 
belly ; which was published and well attested, as a sign to 
confirm his preaching ; but more especially that great work 
of God, in destroying Sennacherib's army by an angel, for 
his contempt of the God of Israel, as if he had been no more 
than the gods of the heathen. 


When all these things proved ineffectual, God took a new 
method with the heathen world, and used, in some respects, 
much greater means to convince and reclaim them, than ever 
before. In the first place, his people the Jews were remov- 
ed to Babylon, the head and heart of the heathen world 
(Chaldea having been very much the fountain of idolatry) to 
carry thither the revelations which God had made of himself, 
contained in the sacred writings ; and there to bear their tes- 
timony against idolatry ; as some of them, particularly Dan^ 
iel, Shadrach, Mcshack and Abednego, did, in a very open 
manner before the king and the greatest men of the empire, 
with such circumstances as made their testimony very famous 
in the world ; God confirming it with great miracles, whieii 
were published through the empire, by order of its monarch? 
as the mighty works of the God of Israel, shewing him to be 
above all gods : Daniel, that great prophet, at the same time 
being exalted to be governor of all the wise men of Babylon, 
and one of the chief officers of Nebuchadnezzar's court. 

After this, God raised up Cyrus to destroy Babylon, for 
its obstinate contempt of t])e true God, and injuriousness to- 
wards his people ; according to the prophecies of Isaiah, 
speaking of him by name, instructing him concerning the na- 
ture and dominion of the true God. (Isa. xlv.) which proph- 
ecies were probably shewn to him, whereby he was induced 
to publish his testimony concerning the God of Israel, as the 
God. (Ezra i. 2, S.) Daniel, about the same time, being ad- 
vanced to be prime minister of state in the new empire, erect- 
ed under Darius, did in that place appear openly as a worship- 
per of the God of Israel, and iiim alone ; God confirming his 
testimony for him, before the king and all the grandees of his 
kingdom, by preserving him in the den of lions ; whereby 
Darius v/as induced to publisli to all people, nations and lan- 
guages, that dwelt in all the earth, his testimony, that the 
God of hrael luas the living God, and steadfast for ever, &c. 

When, after the destruction of Babylon, some of the Jews 
returned to their Ovvn land, multitudes never returned, but 
were dispersed abroad throiigh many parts of the vast Persian 
empire ; as appears by the book of Esther. And many of 


ihem afterwards, as good histories inform, were removed into 
the more western parts of the world ; and so were dispersed 
as it were all over the heathen world, having the Holy Scrip- 
tures with them, and Synagogues every where, for the wor- 
ship of the true God. And so it continued to be, to the days 
of Christ and his apostles ; as appears by the acts of the afiost' 
ks. Thus that light, which God had given them, was in the 
providence of God carried abroad into all parts of the world : 
So that now they had far greater advantages, to come to the 
knowledge of the truth, in matters of religion, if they had 
been disposed to improve their advantages. 

And besides all these things, from about Cyrus's time, 
learning and philosophy increased, and was carried to a great 
height. God raised up a number of men of prodigious geni- 
us, to instruct others, and improve their reason and under- 
standing in the nature of things ; and philosophic knowledge, 
having gone on to increase for several ages, seemed to be got 
to its height before Christ came, or about that time. 

And now let it be considered what was the effect of all 
these things ; instead of a reformation, or any appearance or 
prospect of it, the heathen world in general rather grew 
worse. As Dr. Winder observes, " The inveterate absurdi- 
ties of Pagan idolatry continued without remedy, and increas- 
ed, as arts and learning increased ; aod paganism prevailed 
in all its height of absurdity, when Pagan nations were polish- 
ed to the height, and in the most polite cities and countries ; 
and thus continued to the last breath of Pagan power.'* And 
solt was with respect to wickedness in general, as well as 
idolatry ; as appears by what the Apostle Paul observes in 
Rom. i. Dr. Taylor, speaking of the time when the gospel 
scheme was introduced, (K(^y-, § 289.) says, " The moral and 
religious state of the heathen was very deplorable, being gen- 
erally sunk into great ignorance, gross idolatry, and abomina- 
ble vice." Abominable vices prevailed, not only among the 
common people, but even among their philosophers them- 
selves, yea, some of the chief of them, and of greatest genius ; 
so Dr. Taylor himself observes, as to that detestable vice of 


Sodomy, which they commonly and openly allowed and prac* 
tased without shame. See Dr. Taylor's note on Rom. i. 27. 

Having thus considered the state of the heathen world, 
with rej^ard to the effect of means used for its reforma* 
lion, during the Jewish dispensation, from the first founda- 
tion of it in Abraham's time ; let us now consider how it 
was with that peoj)le themselves, that were distinguished with 
the peculiar privileges of that dispensation. The means used 
with the heathen nations were great ; but they were small, if 
compared with those used with the Israelites. The advanta- 
ges by which that people were distinguished, are represent- 
ed in scripture as vastly above all parallel, in passages which 
Dr. Taylor takes notice of. (Key^ § 54.) And he reckons 
these privileges among those which he calls antecedent bless- 
ings^ consisting in motives to virtue and obedience ; and says, 
(Key^ § 66.J " That this was the very end and design of the 
dispensation of God's extraordinary favors to the Jews, viz. 
to engage them to duty and obedience, or that it was a scheme 
for promonng virtue, is clear beyond dispute, from every 
part of the Old Testament." Nevertheless, as has been al- 
ready shewn, the generality of that people, through all the 
successive periods of that dispensation, were men of a wicked 
character. But it will be more abundantly manifest, how 
strong the natural bias to iniquity appeared to be among that 
people, by considering more particularly how things were 
with them from time to time. 

Notwithstanding the great things God had done in the 
times of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, to separate them and 
their posterity from the idolatrous world, that they might be a 
holy people to himself ; yei in about two hundred years after 
Jacob's death, and in less than one hundred and fifty years af- 
ter the death of Joseph, and while some were alive that had 
seen Joseph, the people had in a great measure lost the true 
religion, and were apace conforming to the heathen world : 
When, for a remedy, and the more effectually to alienate 
them from idols, and engage them to the God of their fathers, 
God appeared to bring them out from among the Egyptians, 
and separate them from the heathen world, and to reveal him* 


self in his glory and majesty, in so affectinf^ and astonishing 
a manner, as tended most deeply and durably to impress 
their minds ; that they might never forsake him more. But 
so perverse were they, that they murmured even in the 
midst of the miracles that Ciod wrought for them in Egypt, 
and murmured at the red sea, in a few days after God had 
brouq;httheni out with such a mighty hand. When he had 
led them throupjh the sea, thexj mng his praise-^ but soon forgat 
his works. Before they got to mount Sinai, they openly man- 
ifested their perverseness from time to lime ; so that God 
says of them, Exod. xvi. 28. '• How long refuse ye to keep 
my commandments, and my laws ?" Afterwards they mur~ 
mured again at Rephidini. 

In about two months after they came out of Egypt, they 
came to Mount Sinai, where God entered into a most solemn 
covenant with the people, that they should be an holy people 
unto him, with such astonishing manife-stations of his power, 
majesty and holiness, as were altogether unparalleled ; as 
God puts the people in mind, Deut. iv- 32. ...34. " For ask 
noAV of the days that are pa^t, which were before thee, since 
. the day that God created man upon the earth ; and ask from 
one side of heaven unto the other, whether there has been 
any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like 
it. Did ever people hear the voice of God, speaking out of 
the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard, and live ? Or hath 
God assayed to take him a nation from the midst of another 
nation," Sec. And these great things were to that end, to im- 
press their minds with such a conviction and sense of divine 
truth, and their obligations to their duty, that they might nev- 
er forget them ; As God says, Exod. xix. 9. " Lo, I come 
unto thee in a thick cloud, that the i>eople may hear when 
i speak with thee, and believe thee for ever." But what waf, 
the effect of all ? Why, it was not more th^ two or three 
months, before that people, there, under ihEnBtry mountain, 
returned to their old Egyptian idolatry, and were singing and 
dancing bet'ore a golden calf, which they had set up to wor- 
ship. And after such awful manifestations as there were of 
God's displeasure for that sin, and so much donr to bring 


thetn to repentance, and confirm them in obedience, it wa8 
but a few months before they came to that violence of spirit, 
in open rebellion aj^ainst God, that with the utmost vehe- 
mence they declared their resolution to follow God no lon- 
ger, but to make them a captain to return into Egypt. And 
thus they went on in ways of perverse opposition to the most 
high, from time to time, rrpeatinp; their open acts of rebel- 
lion, in the midst of continued, astonishing miracles till that 
generation was destroyed. And though the followinc; gene- 
ration seems to have been the best that ever was in Israelj 
yetj notwithstanding their good example, and notwithstanding 
all the wonders of God's power and love to that people in 
Joshur.'s time, how soor, did that people degenerate, and be* 
gin to forsake God, an^l join with the heathen in their idola- 
tries, till God, by severe means, and by sending prophets and 
judges, extraordinarily influenced from above, reclaimed 
them ? But when they were brought to some reformation by- 
such means, they soon fell away again into the practice of 
idolatrv ; and so from time to time, from one age to anoth- 
er ; and nothing proved effectual for any abiding reformation. 
After thin«:s had gone on thus for several hundred yearsj 
God used new methods with his people, in two respects; 
Firsts He raised up a great prophet, under whom a number 
of young men were trained up in schools, that from among, 
them there might hn a constant succession of great prophets 
in Israel, of such as God should choose ; which seems to have 
been continued for more than five hundred years. , Secondly^ 
God raised up a great king, David, one eminent for wisdom, 
piety, and fortitude, to subdue all their heathen neighbors, 
'vho used to be such a snare to them ; and to confirm, adorn 
and perfect the institutions of his public worship ; and by 
him to make a more full revelation of the great salvation, 
and future glorious kingdom of the Messiah. And after him, 
raised up his s^ Solomon, the wisest and greatest prince 
that ever was on earth, more fully to settle and establish those 
things which his father David had begun, concerning the 
public worship of (iod in Israel, and to build a glorious tem- 
ple for the honor of Jehovah, and the institutions of his wor- 


ihip) and to instruct the neighbor nations in true "wisdom and 
jreligion. But as to the success of these new and exlraordi- 
Hary means ; if \\e take Dr. Taylor for our expositor of sciJp- 
ture, the nation must be extremely corrupt in David's time ; 
for he supposes, he has respect to his own times, in those 
words, Psal. xiv. 2, 3. " The Lord looked down from heav- 
en, to see if there were any that did undcrs'and, and seek 
God ; they are all gone aside ; thoy are toi^ether become 
filthy; there is none that doeth f^':o(jd ; no, not one." Uut 
whether Dr. Taylor be in the right in this, or not, yet if we 
consider what appeared in Israel, in Absalom's and Shcba's 
rebellion, we shall not see cause to think, that the greater 
part of the nation at that day were men of true wisdom and 
piety. As to Solomon's time, Dr. T.iylor supposes, as has 
been already observed, thai Solomon speaks of his own times, 
when he says, he had found but one in a thousand that was a 
thoroughly upright man. Hov/ever, it appears, that all those 
great means used to promote and eslLiblish virtue and true 
religion, in Samuel's, David's and Solomon's times, were so 
far from having any general, abidmg good effect in Israel, 
. that Solomon himself, with all his wisdom, and notwithstanding 
the unparalleled favors of God to him, had his mind corrupt- 
ed, so as openly to tolerate idolatry in the land, ar;d greatly to 
provoke God against him. And as soon as he was dead, ten 
tribes of the twelve forsook the true woibhip of God, and in- 
stead of it, openly established the like idolatry, that the people 
fell into at mount Sinai, when they Uiude the golden calf ; 
and continued finally obstinate in this apostasy, notwithstand- 
ing all means that could be used with ihcm by the prophets, 
whom God sent, one after another, to reprove, counsel and 
warn them, for about two hundred and fifty years ; espe- 
cially those two great prophets, Elijah uid Elisha. Of all 
the kings that reigned over them, there \\\.s not so much as 
one but what was of a wicked character. And at last it came 
to that, that their case seemed utterly despc^i^ite ; so that noth- 
ing remained to be done with them, but to remove them out 
of God's bight. Thus the scripture represents the matter; 
3 Kings xvii. 


And as to the other two tribes ; though theif kings were 
always of the family of David, and they were favored in many 
respects far beyond their brethren, yet they were generally 
very corrupt ; their kings were most of them wicked men, and 
their other magistrates, and priests and people, were generally 
agreed in the corniptioTi. Thus the matter is represented 
in the scripture history, and the books of the prophets. And 
when they had seen how God had cast off the ten tribes, in- 
stead of taking warning, they made themselves vastly more 
vile than ever the others had done ; as appears by 2 Kings 
xvii. 18, 19. Ezek. Xvi. 46, 47, 51. God indeed waited lon- 
ger upon them, for his servant David's sake, and for Jerusa- 
lem's sake, that he had chosen ; and used more extraordina- 
ry means with them ; especially by those great prophets, 
Isaiah and Jeremiah, but to no effect : So that at last it came 
io this, as the prophets represent the matter, that they were 
like a body universally and desperately diseased and corrupt- 
ed, that would admit of no cure, the whole head sick, and the 
^vhole heart faint, 8cc. 

Things being come to that pass, God took this method 
uith them : He utterly destroyed their city and land, and the 
temple which he had among them, made thorough work in 
purging the land of them ; as when a man empties a dish, 
Kvi/ies zV, and turns it ufisidc down ; or when a vessel is cast into 
a Jiercejire, till its Jilthiness is thoroughly burnt oiU. 2 Kings 
xxi. 13. Ezek. Chap. xxiv. They were carried into captiv- 
Uy, and there left till that wicked generation wa« dead, and 
those old rebels were purged out ; that afterwards the land 
might be resettled with a more pure generation. 

After the return from the captivity, and God had built the 
Jewish church again in their own land, by a series of wonder- 
ful providences ; yet they corrupted themselves again, to so 
great a degree, that the transgressors were come to the full 
again in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes ; as the matter is 
represented in the prophecy of Daniel, Dan. viii. 23. And 
then God made them the the subjects of a dispensation, little, 
if any thinp:, le^'S terrible than liiat v/hich had been in Ne- 
buchadnezzar's days. And after God had again delivered 


them, and restored the slate of religion among them* by 
the instrumentality of the Maccabees, they degenerated 
again ; so that when Christ came, they were arrived to that 
extreme degree of corruption, which is represented in the ac- 
counts given by the evangelists. 

It may be observed here in general, that the Jews, though 
so vastly distinguished with advantages, means and motives 
to holiness, yet are represented as coming, from time to time, 
to that degree of corruption and guilt, that they were more 
■wicked in the sight of God, than the very worst of the Heath- 
en. As, of old, God sware by his life, that the wickedness of 
Sodom was small, compared with that of the Jews. Ezek. 
xvi. 47, 48, he. also chap. v. 5..., 10. So Christ, speaking of 
the Jews in his time, represents them as having mucii greats 
er guilt than the inhabiiants of Tyre and Sidon, or even Sod- 
om and Gomorrah. 

But we are now come to the time when the grandest 
scene was displayed, that ever was opened on earth. After 
all other schemes had been so long and so thoroughly tried, 
and had so greatly failed of success, both among Jews and 
Gentiles ; that wonderful dispensation was at length intro- 
duced, which was the greatest scheme tor the suppressing 
and restraining iniquity among mankind, that ever infinite 
■wisdom and mercy contrived, even the glorious gospel of Je- 
sus Christ. " A new dispensation of grace was erected (to 
use Dr. Taylor's own words, p. 239, 240) for the more cer- 
tain and effectual sanctification of mankind, into the image of 
God ; the delivering them from the sin anxl wickedness, into 
■which they might fall, or were already fallen ; to redeem 
them from all iniquity, and bring them to the knowledge and 
obedience of God." In -whatever higii and exalted terms the 
scripture speaks of the means and motives which the Jews 
enjoyed of old ; yet their pri^^ileges ara represented as hav- 
ing no glory, in comparison of the advantages of the gospel. 
Dr. Taylor's words in p. 233, are worthy to be here repealed. 
'' Even the Heathen (says he) knew God, and might have 
glorified him as God ; but under the glorious light of the 
gospel, "we have "very clear ideas of th.'"^ divine perfections, 


and particularly of the love of God as our Father, and as the 
God and Father of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. We 
see our duty in tlie utnaost txtenr, and the most cogent rea^ 
sons to perform it : We have eternity opened to us, even 
an endless state of honor and felicity, the reward of virtuoui^ 
actions, and the Spirit of God promised for our direction and 
assistance. And all this may and ought to be applied to the 
purifyinc: our minds, and the perfecting of holiness. And to 
those happy advantages we are born, for whjch we are bound 
for ever to praise and magnify the rich grace of God in the 
Redeemer." And he elsewhere says,* " The gospel consti- 
tution is a scheme the most perfect and effectual for restoring 
true religion, and promoting virtue and happiness, that ever 
the world has yet seen." Andf admirably adajited to enlight- 
en our mindSi and sanctify our hearts ; And\ never were mo* 
lives so divine and poiveyful prcjiosed, to induce us to the firaC' 
tice of all virtue a7id goodness. 

And yet even these means have been ineffectual upon the 
far greater part ©f ihem with whom they have been used ; of 
the many that have been calledyfeiv have been chosen. 

As to the Jews, God*s ancient people, with whom they 
were used in the first place, and used long by Christ and his 
apostles, the generality of them rejected Christ and his gos- 
pel, with extreme pcrtinaciousness of spirit. They not only 
went on still in that career of corruption which had been in- 
creasing from the time of the Maccabees ; but Christ's com- 
ing, and his doctrine and miracles, and the preaching of his 
followers, and the glorious things that attended the same, 
were the occasion, through their pervei-se misimprovement, 
of an infinite increase of their wickedness. They crucified 
the Lord of (ilory with the utmost malice and cruelty, and 
persecuted his followers ; they pleased not God, and were 
contraty to all men i and went on to t;row worse and worse, 
till tl ey fii'cd up the measure of their sin, and wrath came 
upon liicin to the utleronust ; and tlicy ">ierc desiroyed> and 

* A'a. ^167. + N(.'U von Rom. i. 16. % ^^'^if- ^" ^<"'' on Rom. page* 
H5. 47. 


fiast out of God*s sight, with unspeakably {^reater tokens of 
the divine abhorrence and indignation, than in the days of Ne- 
buchadnezzar. The bigger part of tb.e whole nutio'i were 
slain, and the rest were scattered abroad throupjh the earth, 
in the most abject and forlorn circumstances. And in ihe 
same spirit of unbelief and malice ae^ainst Chi-ist and the 
gospel, and in their miserable, dispersed circumstances, do 
they remain to this day. 

And as to the Gentile nations, though there was a i^lorious 
success of the gospel amongst them in the apostles* days, yet 
probably not one in ten of those that had the erospel preached 
to them, embraced it. The powers of the world were set 
against it, and persecuted it with insatiable malignity. And 
among the professors of Christianity, there presently appear- 
ed in many a disposition to corruption, and to abuse the gos- 
pel unto the service of pride and licentiousness. And the 
apostles, in their days, foretold a grand apostasy of the Christ- 
ian world, which should continue many ages, and observed 
that there appeared a disposition to such an apostasy, among 
professing Christians, even in that day, 2 Thess. ii. 7. And 
the greater part of the ages which have now elapsed, have 
been spent in the duration of that grand and general aposta- 
sy, under which the Christian world, as it is called, has been 
transformed into that which has been vastly more deformed, 
more dishonorable and hateful to God, and repugnant to true 
virtue, than the state of the Heathen world before ; which is 
agreeable to the prophetical descriptions given of it by the 
Holy Spirit. 

In these latter ages of the Christian church, God has 
raised up a great number of great and good men, to bear 
testimony against the corruptions of the church of Kon>e, 
and by their means introduced that light into the world, 
by which, in a short time, at least one third part of Eu- 
rope was delivered from the more gross enormities of An- 
tichrist ; which was attended ai first with a great reformation 
as to vital and practical religion. But liow is the gold soon 
become dim ! To what a pass are things come in Prottstant 
countries at this day. and in oMr nation in particular ! To 


what a prodigious height has a dekige of infidelity, profand- 
ness, luxury, debauchery and wickedness of every kind, arisen 1 
The poor savage Americans are mere babes and fools, (if I 
may so speak) as to proficiency in wickedness, in comparison of 
multitudes that tlie Christian world throngs with. Dr. Tay- 
lor himself, as was before observed, represents that the gene- 
rality of Christians hwuc been the most nvicked, leivdy bloodi/y and 
treacherous of all mankind; and says, f Key, ^ S88) ** The 
wickedness of the Christian world renders it so much like the 
Heathen, that the good effects of our change to Christianity 
are but little seen." 

And with respect to the dreadful corruption of the present 
day, it is to be considered, besides the advantages already 
mentioned, that great advances in learning and philosophic 
knowledge have been made in the present and past century, 
giving great advantage for a proper and enlarged exercise of 
our rational powers, and for our seeing the bright manifesta- 
tion of God*s perfections in his works. And it is to be ob- 
served, that the means and inducements to virtue, which this 
age enjoys, are in addition to most of those which were men- 
tioned before as given of old, and among other thingSjin addi- 
tion to the shortening of man's life to seventy or eighty years, 
from near a thousand. And with reg. rd to this, I would observe, 
that as the case now is in Christendom, take one with another 
of them that ever come to years of discretion, their life is not 
more than forty or fortyfive years; which is but about the 
twentieth part of what it once was ; and not so much in great 
cities, places where profaneness, sensuality and debauchery 
commonly prevail to the greatest degree. 

Dr. Taylor, (Key^ § 1) truly observes, that God has, from 
the beginning, exercised wonderful and infinite wisdom, in the 
methods he has, from age to age, made use of to oppose vice, 
cure corruption, and promote virtue in the world, and intro- 
duced several schemes to that end. It is indeed remarkable, 
how many schemes and methods were tried of old, both be- 
fore and after the flood ; how many were used in the times 
of the Old Testament, both with Jews and Heathens, and how 
ineflfcctual all these ancient methods proved for four hundred 



j^ears together, till God introduced that grand dispensation 
for the redeeming men from all iniquity, and purifying them 
to himself, a people zealous of good works, which the scrip- 
ture represents as the subject of the admiration of angels. 
But even this has now so long proved ineffectual with respect 
to the generality, that Dr. Taylor thinks there is need of a nciv 
dis-pensation ; the present light of the gosfiel being insufficient 
for the full reformation of the Christian worlds by reason of 
its corruptions ; (Note on Rom. i. 27j and yet all these things, 
according lo him, without any natural bias to the contrary ; 
110 stream of natural inclmation or propensity at all, to oppose 
inducements to goodness ; no native opposition of heart, to 
"withstand those gracious means, which God has ever used 
•with mankind, from the beginning of the world to this day, 
any more than there was in the heart of Adam, the moment 
God created him in perfect innocence. 

Surely Dr. Taylor's scheme is attended with strange par- 
adoxes ! And that his mysterious tenets may appear in a 
true light, it must be observed, at the same time while he 
supposes these means, even the very greatest and best of 
them, to have proved so ineffectual, that help from them, as 
to any general reformation, is to be despaired of ; yet he 
Tnaintains that all mankind, even the Heathen in all parts of 
the world, yea, every single person in it, (which must include 
every Indian in America, before the Europeans came hit'aer ; 
and every inhabitant of tlie unknown parts of Africa and Ter- 
ra Australis) has ability, light and mean-s sufficient to do their 
"whole duty ; yea, (as many passages in his writings plainly 
suppose) to perform perfect obedience to God's law, without, 
the least degree of vice or iniquity.* 

But I must not omit to observe... .Dr. Taylor supposes that 
the reason why the gospel dispensation has been so ineffec- 
tual, is, that it has been greatly misunderstood and perverted. 
In A>y, § 389, he says, "Wrong representations of the 
scheme of the gospel have greatly obscured the glory of di- 
vine grace, and contributed much to the corruption of its pro- 

*Sccp. 259, 63, 64, 72,5. 


99 ORIGINAL sm. 

fessors. Such doctrines have been almost universally taught 
and receiveci, as quite subvert it. Mistaken notions about 
nature, grace, election and reprobation, justification,* reyjenef- 
ation, redemption, calling, adoption, &c. have quite taken 
away the very ground of the Christian life" 

But bow came the gospel to be so universally and exceed- 
ingly misunderstood ? Is it because it is in itself so very 
dark and unintelligible, and not adapted to the apprehension 
of the human faculties ? If so, how is the possession of such 
an obscure and unintelligible thing, so unspeakable and glori- 
ous an advantage ? Or is it because of the native blindness, 
corruption and superstition of mankind ? But this is giving. 
up the thing in question, and allowing a great depravity of 
nature. And Dr. Taylor speaks of the gospel as far other- 
wise than dark and unintelligible ; he represents it as exhib- 
iting the clearest and most glorious light, to deliver the world 
from darkness, and bring them into marvellous light. He 
speaks of the light which the Jews had, under the Mosaic 
dispensation, as vastly exceeding the light of nature, which 
the Heathen enjoyed : And yet he supposes that even the 
latter was so clear as to be sufficient to lead men to the knowl- 
edge of God, and their whole duty to him. And he speaks of 
the light of the gospel as vastly exceeding the light of the Old 
Testan;ent. He says of the ApestlePaul in particular, ^»That he 
wrote with gveat perspicuity ; that he takes great care to ex- 
plain every part of his subject ; that he has left no part of it 
unexplained and unguarded, and that never was an auihoT 
more exact and cautious in this."* Is it not strange, therefore, 
thut the Christian world, without any native depravity to prej- 
udice and darken their minds, should be so blind in the midst 
of such glaring light, as to be all, or the generality, agree<^ 
from age to age, so essentially to misunderstand \\idil which is 
made so very plain ? 

Dr. Taylor says, p. 167, S. »« It is my persuasion that the 
Christian religion was very early and grievously corrupted^ 

*^rtj. U Par, oa Rom, p. 146, 48. 


by (^reaminj3f, ignorant, superstitious monks^ too conceited to 
be satisfied with plain f^jospel, and has long remained in that 
deplorable state." But how came the whole Christian 
world, without any blinding depravity, to hearken to these ig- 
norant, foolish men, rather than unto wiser and better teach- 
ers ? Especially, when the latter had filam gosful on their 
«ide, and the doctrines of the other were (as our author sup- 
poses) so very contrary, not only to the plain gospel, but to 
inen*3 reason and common sense 1 Or were all tl^e teachers of 
thje Christian church nothing but a parcel of ignorant dream' 
ef9 ? K so, this is very strange indeed, unless manHind natural- 
ly love darknessy rather than light, seeing in all parts of the 
Christian world there was so great a multit,ude of those in 
the work of the ministry, who had the gospel in their hands, 
and whose whole businesj» it was to study and teach it, and 
therefore had infinitely greater advantages to become truly 
wise, than the Heathen philosophers, 13ut if it did happen 
so, by some strange and inconceivable means, that notwith- 
standing all these glorious advantages, all the teachers of the 
Christian church through the world, without any native evil 
propensity, very early became silly dreamers^ and aho in their 
dfeaming, generally stumbled on the mme .individual, mon- 
strous opinions, and so the world w»ight, be bljnded for a 
while ; yet why did they not hearken to that wise and great 
man, Pelagius, and others like him, when he plainly held 
forth the truth to the Christian world ^ Especially seeing 
his instructions were so agreeable to the plain doctrines, and 
the bright and ^^ll^f iJgi^t of the gospel of Christ, and also so 
agreeable to the plainest dictates of the common sense and 
Tunderstanding of all mankind ; but the other so repugnant to 
it, that (according to our author) if they were true, it would 
prove understanding to be no -understanding^ and the IVord of 
God to be no ride of truth', nor at all to be relied nfihu^ and 
Cod to be a Being worthy of no regard I 

And besides, if the iniefrectualnessof the gospel to restrain 
sin and promote virtue, be owing to the general prevalence 
of these doctrines, which are supposed to be so absurd and 
contrary to the gospel, here is this further to be accounted 


for, namely, why, since there has been so great an increase of 
lit^ht in religious matters (as must be supposed on Dr. Tay* 
lor's scheme) in this and the hist at^e, and these monstrous 
doctrines of Original Sin, Election, Reprobation, Justification, 
Regeneration, &c. have been so much exploded, especially in 
our nation, there has been no reformation attending this great 
advancement of light and truth ; but on the contrary, vice, 
and every thing that is opposite to practical Christianity, has 
gone on to increase, with such a prodigious celerity, as to be- 
come like an overflowing deluge, threatening, vmless God 
mercifully interpose, speedily to swallow up all that is left of 
what is virtuous and praiseworthy. 

Many other things might have been mentioned under this 
head, of the means which mankind have had to restrain viccj 
and promote virtue ; such as wickedness being many ways 
contrary to men's temporal interest and comfort in this world, 
and their having continually before their eyes so many instan- 
ces of persons made miserable by their vices ; the restraints 
of human laws, without which men cannot live in society ; 
the judgments of God brought on men for their wickedness, 
with which history abounds, and the providential rewards of 
virtue, and innumerable particular means that God has used 
from age to age to curb the wickedness of mankind, which I 
have omitted. But there would be no end of a particular 
• enumeration of such things. Enou?;h ha^ been said. They 
that' will not be convinced by the instances which have been 
mentioned, probably would not convincedj^ the world had 
stood a thousand times so long, and we hs^HI most authen- 
tic and certain accounts of means having OT^ used from the 
beginning, in a thousand times greater variety, and new dis- 
pensations had been introduced, after others had been tr?ed 
in vain, ever so often, and still to little effect. He that will 
not be convinced by a thousand good witnesses, it is not like- 
ly that he would be convinced by a thousand thousand. The 
proofs that have been extant in the world, from trial and fact, 
of the depravity of man*s nature, are inexpressible, and as it 
were infinite, beyond the representation of all comparison 
ind similitude. 11' there were a piece of ground? wl^ich 


abounded with briars and thorns, or some poisonous plant, 
and all mankind had used their endeavors, for a thousand 
years together, to suppress that evil j^jrowth, and lo bring that 
ground by manure and cultivation, planting and sowing, to 
produce better fruit, but all in vain, it would still be overrun 
with the same noxious growth ; it would not be a proof, that 
such a produce was agreeable to the nature of that soil, ir. any 
wise to be compared to that which is given in divine provi- 
dence, that wickedness is a produce agreeable to the nature of 
the field of the world of mankind ; which has had means used 
"with it, that have been so various, great and vv'onderful, con- 
trived by the unsearchable and boundless wisdom of God ; 
medicines procured with infinite ex pence, exhibited with so 
vast an apparatus ; so marvellous a succession of dispensa- 
tions, introduced one after another, displaying an incompre- 
hensible length and breadth, depth and height, of divine wis- 
dom, love, and power, and every perfection of the godhead, 
to the eternal admiration of the principiilities and powers in 
heavenly places. 


Seiyeral Evasions of the Arguments for the Defiraxdty of Xa^ 
ture, from trial and events, considered. 

Evasion 1. DR. TAYLOR says, p. 231, 232. Adam's 
nature, it is allowed, was very far from being sinful ; yet he 
sinned. And therefore, the common doctrine of Original 
Sin, is no moi>e necessary to account for the sin that has been> 
or is in the world, than it is to account for Adam's sin." 
Again, p. 52.. ..54. S, &c. " If we allow mankind to be as 
wicked as R. R. has represented them to be ; and suppose 
that there is not one upon earth that is truly righteous, and 
without sin, and that some are very enorraous sinners, yet k 


will not tlicnce follow, that they are naturally corrupt. For, 
if sinful action infers a natrire oripjinally corrupt, then, ^vhere• 
as Adam (according to them that hold the doctrine of Origin* 
al Sin) committed the most heinous and aj^ejravated sin, that 
ever was committed in the world ; for, accordinijj to them, he 
had greater light than any other n^an in tlie world, to know 
his duty, and greater power than any other man to fulfil it, 
and was under greater obligations than any other man to obe- 
dience ; he sinned, when he knew he was the representative 
of millions, and that the happy or miserable state of all man- 
kind, depended on his conduct ; which never was. nor can be, 
the case of any other man in the world : Then, I. say, it will 
follow, that his nature was originally corrupt. Sec. Thus their 
argument from the wickedness of mankind, to prove a sinful 
and corrupt nature, must inevitably and irrecoverably fall to 
the ground ; which wiil appear more abundantly, if we take 
in the case of the angels, vv'ho in nr.mbers sinned, and kept 
not their first estate, though created with a nature superior 
to Adam's.** Again, p. 145. S. " When it is inquired, how 
it comes to pass that our appetites and pas/ions are now so 
irregular and strong, as that not one person has resisted them, 
so as to keep himself pure and innocent ? If this be the case, 
if such as make the inquiry will tell the world, how it came 
to pass that Adam*s appetites and passions were so irregular 
and strong, that he did not resist them, so as to keep himself 
pure and innocent, when, upon their principles, he was far 
more able to have resisted them ; I also will tell them how it 
comes to pass, that his posterity docs not resist them. Sin 
dotli not alter its nature, by its being general ; and therefore 
how far soever it spreads, it must come upon all just as it 
came upon Adam.'* 

These things are delivered with much assurance. But is 
there any reason in such a way of talking ? One thing impli- 
ed in it, and the main thing, if any thing at all to the purpose, 
is, that because an effect's being general, does not alter the 
nature of the effect, therefore nothing more can be argued 
concerning the cause, from its happening constantly, and in 
the most steady manner, than from its happening but once. 


But how contrary is this to reason ? If such a case should 
happen, that a person, throu^^h the dcccilful persuasions of a 
pretended friend, once takes an unwholesome and poisonous 
draught, of a liquor he had no inclination to before ; but 
after he has once taken of it, he be observed to act as one 
that has an insatiable, incurable thirst after more of the same, 
in hi"s conslunt practice, and acts often repeated, and obstinate- 
ly continued, in as long as he lives, against all possible argu- 
ments and endeavors used to dissuade him from it ; and we 
should from hence argue a fixed inclination, and begin to sus- 
pect that this is the nature and operation of the poison, to 
produce such an inclination, or that this strong propensity is 
some way the consequence of the first draught in such a case, 
could it be said with good reason, thai a fixed propensity can 
no more be argued from his consequent constant practice, 
than from his firs-t draught ? Or, if we suppose a young man, 
no otherwise than soberly inclined, and enticed,by wicked 
companions, should drink to excess, until he had got a habit 
of excessive drinking, and should come under the power of a 
greedy appetite after strong drink, so that drunkenness should 
become a common and constant practice wiih him ; and some 
observer, arguing from this his general practice, should say, 
" It must needs be that this young man has a fixed inclination 
to that sin ; otherwise, how should it come to pass that he 
should make such a trade of it ?'* And another, ridiculing 
the weakness of his arguing, should reply, " Do you tell me 
how it came to pass, that he was guilty of that sin the first 
time, without a fixed inclination, and I will tell you how he is 
guilty of it so generally without a fixed inclination. Sin does 
not alter its nature by being general ; and therefore, how com- 
mon soever it becomes, it must come at all times by the same 
means that it came at first." I leave it to every one to judge, 
who would be chargeable with weak arguing in such a case. 
It is true, as was observed before, there is no effect with- 
out some cause, occasion, ground or reason of that effect, 
and some cause answerable to the effect. But ceriairdy it 
will not follow from thence, that a transient effect requires a 
permanent cause, or a fixed influence or propensity. An ef- 


feet's happening once, though the effect may be great, yea/ 
thouj>h it may come to pass on the same occasion in many sub- 
jects at the same lime, will not prove any fixed propensity, or 
permanent influence. It is true, it proves an influence great 
and extensive, answerable to the effect, once exerted, or once 
effectual ; but it proves nothing in the cause fixed or constant. 
If a particular tree, or a great number of trees standing to- 
gether, have blasted fruit on tlieir branches at a particular sea- 
son, yea, if the fruit be very much blasted, apd entirely spoil- 
ed, it is evident that something was the occasion of such an 
effect at that time ; but this aione docs not prove the nature 
of the tree to be bad. But if it be observed, that those trees* 
and all other trees of the kind, wherever planted, and in all 
soils, countries, climates and seasons, and however cultivated 
and managed, still bear ill fruii, from year to year, and in all 
ages, it is a good evidence of the evil nature of the tree ; and 
if the fruit, at all these times, and in all these cases, be very 
bad, it proves the nature of the tree to be very bad ; and if 
we argue in like manner from what appears among men, it is 
easy to determine, whether the universal sinfulness of man- 
kind, and their all sinning immediately, as soon as capable of 
it, and all sinning continually, and generally being of a wick- 
ed character, at all times, in all ages, and all places, and un- 
der all possible circumstances, against means and motives 
Inexpressibly manifold and great, and in the utmost conceiva- 
"ble variety, be from a permaiie nt, internal, great cause. 

If the voice of common sense w'ere attended to, and heard, 
there would be no occasion for labor in multiplying argu- 
ments and instances to shew, that one act does not prove a 
fixed inclination ; but that constant practice and pursuit do. 
"VVe see that it is in fact agreeable to the reason of all man- 
kmd, to argue fixed principles, tempers, and prevailing in- 
clinations, from repeated ar.d continued actions, though the 
actions are voluntary, and performed of choice; and thus to 
judge of the tempers and inclinations of persons, ages, sexes, 
tribes and nations. But is it the manner of men to conclude, 
that whatever they see others once do, they have a fixed, abid- 
ing inclination to do ? Yea, iliere may be several acts seenj 


and yet they not taken as t^ood evidence of an established pro- 
pensity ; nay, though attended \vi»h that circumstance, that 
one act, or those several acts, are followed with such constant 
practice, as afterwards evidences fixed disposition. As for 
example, there may be several instances of a man's drinking; 
some spirituous liquor, and they be no sip^n of a fixed incli- 
aation to that liquor ; hut these acts may be introductory to a 
settled habit or propensity, which may be made very manifest 
afterwards by constant practice. 

From these lhinp;s it is plain, that what is alleged concern- 
mg the first sin of Adam, and of the angels, without a previ- 
ous, fixed disposition to sin, cannot in the least injure or weak- 
en the arguments, which have been brought to prove a fixed 
propensity to sin in mankind in their present state. The 
thing which the permanence of the cause has been argued 
^from, is the permanence of the effect. And that the perma- 
nent cause consists in an internal, fixed propensity, and not 
any particular, external circumstances, has been argued from 
the effects being the same, through a vast variety and change 
of circumstances. Which things do not take place with res- 
pect to the first act of sin that Adam or the angels were guilty 
of ; which first acts, considered in themselves, were no per- 
luanent, continued effects. And though a great number of 
the angels sipncd, and the effect on that account was the 
greater, and more extensive ; yet this extent of the effect is a 
very dificvent thing from Xhzx permanence^ or settled continu- 
ance of the effect, which is supposed to shew a permanent 
cause, or fixed influence or propensity. Neither was there 
any trial of a vast variety of circumstances attending a perma- 
nent effect, to shew the fixed cause to be internal, consisting 
in a settled disposition of nature, in the instances objected. 
And however great the sin of Adam, or of the angels was, 
and however great means, motives, and obligations they sin- 
ned against ; whatever may be thence argued concerning the 
transient cause, occasion, or temptation, as being very subtle, 
remarkably tending to deceive and seduce, or otherwi::e great y 
yet it argues nothing of any settled disposition, ovjlxed cause 
at all; either great or small ; the effect both in the angels and 


our first parents, bein^ in itself transiency and for ou^ht ap» 
pears, h;lppenin?2; in each of (hem under one system or coin 
cidence of influenlial circumstances. 

The general, continued wickedness of mankind, against 
such means and motives, proves each of these things, viz. 
that the cause is fixed^ and that the fixed cause is internal^ in 
nian's nature, and also that if is very fiotverfuL It proves the 
./??'sf, namely, that the cause is fixed, because the effect is so 
abiding:!:, through so many changes. It proves the second^ tha?. 
is, that the fixed cause is internal, because the circumstances 
are so various : The variety of means and motives is one 
thing that is to be referred to the head of variety of circum- 
stances ; and tiicy are that kind of circumstances, which above 
all others proves this ; for they are such circumstances as 
cannot possibly cause the effect, being most opposite to the 
effect in their tendency. And it proves the thirds, viz. the 
greatness of the internal cause, or the powcrfulness of the 
propensity ; because the, means which have opposed its influ- 
ence, have been so great, and yet have been statedly over- 

But here I may observe by the way, that v/ith regard to 
the motives and obligations which our first father sinned a- 
gainst, it is not reasonably alleged, that he sinned when he 
knew his sin would have destructive consequences to all his 
posterity, and inight.^ in Jirocess of time ^ pave the whole globe 
luith skulls &c. Seeint^ it is so evident, by the plain account 
the scripture c;ives us of the temptation which prevailed with 
our first parents to commit, that sin, that it was so contrived 
by the sublilty of the tempter, as first to blind and deceive 
them as to that matter, and to make them believe that their 
disobedience should be followed with no destruction or calamity 
at all to themselves (and therefore not to their posterity) but 
on the contrary, with a great increase and advancement oi 
dignity and happiness. 

Evasion 2. Let t'le wickedness of the world be ever so 
general and great, there is no necessity of supposing any de- 
pravity of nature to be the cause : Man's own free will is cause 
sufficient. Let mankind be more or less corrupt, they makf- 


v'hcmselvcs corrtrpt by their own free choice. This, Dr. Tay- 
lor abundantly insists upon, in many parts of his book.» 

But I would ask, how it comes to pass that mankind so 
universally agree in this evil exercise of iheir free will ? If 
their wills are in the first place as free to i^'ood as evil, whaL is 
it to be ascri!>ed to, that the world of mankiiul, consisting of 
so many millions, in so many successive j^enerutions, without* 
cousultalion, all a^vtc to exercise their freedom in favor of 
evil? If there be no natural tendency or preponderation in 
the case, then there is as good a chance for the will's beiny- 
determined to p;ood as evil. If the cause is indiRerent, why 
is no! the effect in some measure indifferent ? If the balance 
be no heavier at one end than the other, why does it perpetu- 
ally, and, as it were, infinitely, preponderate one way r How 
comes U to pass, that the free will of mankind has been de- 
termined to evil, in like manner before the flood, and after 
the flood ; under the law, and under the gospel ; among- both 
Jews and Gentiles, under the Old Testament ; and since that,^ 
anionic Christians^ Jewsy^ Mahoinetans ; among Papists and 
Protestants; in those nations where civility, politeness, arts, 
and learning most prevail, and ar>-iong the Negroes and Hot- 
tentots in x\fiica, the Tartars in Asia, and Indians in Ameri- 
ca, towards both the poles, and on every side of the globe ; 
in greatest cities and obscurest villages ; in palaces and in 
liiits, wigwams and cells under ground ? Is it enough to reply, 
it happens so, that men every where, and at all times, choose 
thus to determine their own wills, and so to make themselves 
sinful, as soon as ever they are capable of it, and to sin con- 
stantly as long as they live, and universally to choose never to- 
come up half way to their duty ? 

As has been often observed, a steady effect requires a 
steady cause ; but free will, without a.iy previous propensity 
to influence its determina'ions, is no permanent cause ; noth- 
ing can be conceived of, further from it : For the verv no- 
tion of freedom of will, consisting in selfdetermining power, 
i-TipUes contingence : And if the will is free in that sense. 

• Page 257, 258, 52, 53, 5, and many other places. 


that it is perfectly free from any government of previous in- 
clination, its freedom must imply the mos\. absolute t\r\(\ per- 
fect contingence ; and surely nothing can be conceived of, 
more unfixed than that. The notion of liberty of will, in this 
sense-, implies perfect freedom from every thing that should 
previously fix, bind or determine it ; that it may be left to be 
fixed and determined wholly by itself: Therefore its deter- 
roinations must be previously altogether imfixed. And can 
that which is so unfixed, so contingent, be a cause sufficient 
to account for an effect, in such a manner, and to such a de- 
gree, permanent, fixed and constant ? 

When men see only one particular person, going on in a 
certain course with great constancy, against all manner of 
means to dissuade him, do they judge this to be no argument 
of any fixed disposition of mind, because he, being free, may 
determine to do so, if he will, without any such disposition ? 
Or if they see a nation or people that differ greatly from oth- 
er nations, in such and such instances of their constant con- 
duct, as though their tempers and inclinations were very di- 
verse, and any should deny it to be from any such cause, and 
should say, we cannot judge at all of the temper cr disposi- 
tion of any nation or people, by any thing observable in their 
constant practice or behavior, because they have all free 
will, and therefore may all choose to act so, if they please, 
without any thing in their temper or inclination to bias them ; 
would such an account of such effects be satisfying to the rea- 
son of mankind ? But infinitely further would it be from satis- 
fying a considerate mind, to account for the constant and uni- 
versal sinfulness of mankind, by saying, that the will of all 
mankind is free, and therefore all mankind may, if they 
please, make themselves wicked : They are free when they 
first begin to act as moral agents, and therefore all may, if 
they please, begin to sin as soon as they begin to act : They 
are free as long as they con'inue to act in the world, and 
therefore they may nli commit sin continually, if they will .♦ 
yicn of all nations are free, and therefore all nations may act 
alike in these respects, if they please (though some do not 
kn(5w how other nations do act.) Men of high and low condi' 


tion, learned and ignorant, are free, and therefore they may 
agree in acting wickedly, if they please (thouj>h lliey do not 
consult together.) Men in all ages are free, and therefore 
men in one age may all agree with men in every other age in 
wickedness, if they please, (though they do not know how 
men in other ages have acted) Sec. &c. Let every one judge 
whether such an account of things can satisfy reason. 

Evasion 3. It is said by many of the opposcrs of the doc 
trine of Original Sin, that the corruption of the world of man- 
kind may be owing, not to a depraved nature, but to bad ex- 
ample. And I think we must understand Dr. Taylor as hav- 
ing respect to the powerful influence of bad instruction and 
example, when he says, p. 118. <' The Gentiles, in their 
heathen state, when incorporated into the body of the Gentile 
world, were without strength, unable to help or recover them- 
selves.'* And in several other places to the like purpose. 
If there was no depravity of nature, what else could there be 
but bad instruction and example to hinder the heathen world, 
as a collective body, (for as such Dr. Taylor speaks of them, as 
may be seen p. i 17, 118) from emerging out of their corrup- 
tion, on the rise of each new creneration ? As to their bad in- 
struction, our author insists upon it, that the heathen, not- 
withstanding all their disadvantages, had sufficient light to 
know God, and do their whole duty to him, as we have ob- 
served from time to time. Therefore it mwjt be chiefly bad 
example, that we must suppose, according to him, rendered 
their case helpless. 

Now concerning this way of accouniinv:; for the corruption 
of the world, by the influence of bad example, I would observe 
the following things : 

1. It is accounting for the thing by the thing itself. It is 
accounting for the corruption of the world by the corruption 
of the world. For, that bad examples arc general all over 
the world to be followed by others, and have been so from 
the beginning, is only an instance, or ratljcr a description of 
that corruption of the world which is to be accounted for. If 
mankind are naturally no rioi^ inclined to evil than good, 
then how comes there to be so many niore bad exam 


pies than ^ood ones, in all aj^es ? And if there are not, how 
come the bad exaniples that are set, to be so much more fol- 
lowed than tlie good? If the propensity of man's nature be 
not to evil, hov/ comes the current of t^cneral example, eve- 
ry where, and at all limes, to be so much lo evil ? And when 
opposition has been made by j;ood examples, how comes it to 
pass that it has had so little effect to stem the stream of gen- 
eral, wicked practice ? 

I think from the brief account the scripture gives us of 
the behavior of the first parents of mankind, the expressions 
of their faith and hope in God's mercy revealed to them, we 
have reason to suppose, that before ever they had any childrenj 
they repented, and were pardoned, and became truly pious. 
So that God phnted the world at first with a noble vine ; and 
at the beginning of the g-enerations of mankind, he set the 
stream of example the right way. And we see, that children 
are more apt to fol'ov/ the example of their parents, than of 
any others ; especially in early youth, their forming time, 
when those habits are generally coritracted, which abide by 
them all their days. And besides, Adam's children Iiad no 
other examples to follow, birt those of their parents. How 
therefore came the stream so soon to turn, ami to proceed the 
contrary way, with so violent a current ? Then, when man- 
kind became so universally and desperately corrupt, as not to 
be fit lo live on earth any longer, and the world was every- 
where full of bad examples, God destroyed them all at once, 
but only righteous Noaii, and his family, to remove those bad 
examples, and that the world of mankind might be planted a- 
gain with gotid example, and the stream again turned the right 
way : Kow therefore came it to pass, that Noah's posterity did 
not follow his good example, especially' when they had such 
extraordinary things to enforce his example, but so general- 
ly, even in his life time, became so exceeding corrupt ? One 
would think, the first generations at least, while all lived to- 
gether as one family, under Noah, their venerable Father, 
might have followed his good example ; and if they had done 
so, then, wh.cn the earth came lo be divided in Peleg's time, 
the heads of tJie several families would have set out their par- 


ticular colonies "wiih oood examples, and the stream would 
have been turned the lii^ht way in all the various divisions, 
colonies, and nations of the woi Id. liut we see verily the 
fact was, that in about fifty years afier Noah's death, the world 
in general was overrun with dreadful corsuption ; so that all 
virtue and j;^oodncss were like soon to perish from among 
mankind, unless something extraordinary should be done to 
prevent it. 

Then, for a remedy, God separated Abraham and his 
family from all the rest of the world, thut they might be de- 
livered from the influence of bad example, that, in his poster- 
ity, he might have an holy seed. Thus God again planted a 
noble vine ; Abraham, Isaac and Jacob being eminently pious. 
But how soon did their posterity de;^enerate, till true religion 
was like to be swallowed up ? VVe see how desperately, and 
almost universally corrupt they were, when God brought 
them out of Egypt, and led them in the wilderness. 

71ien God was pleased, before he planted his people in 
Canaan, to destroy that perverse generation in the wilderness, 
that he might plant them there a noble vine, ivholly a right 
. seed-, and set them out with good example, in the land where 
they were to have their settled abode. Jer. ii. 21, It is ev- 
ident, that the generation which came with Joshua into Ca- 
naan, was an excellent generation, by innumerable things 
said of them.* But how soon did that people, nevertheless, 
become the degenerate filant of a strange vine ? 

And when the nation had a long lime proved themseh'cs 
desperately and incurably corrupt, God destroyed them, and 
sent them into captivity, till the old rebels were dead and 
purged out, to deliver their children from their evil example ; 
and when the following generation were purified as in a fur- 
nace, God planted them again, in the land of Israel, a nobh 
vin<', and set them o\U with good example ; which yet was 
not followed by their posterity. 

* See Jer. ii. 2, 3. Psal. Ixviii. 14. Josh, xxii 2, and xxili. 8. Deui. 
iy. 3, 4, Hos. xi. s, and ix. 10. Judges ii, 7, 17^ 22, and irany otht" 


When again the corruption was become inveterate and 
desperate, the Christian church was planted by a glorious 
outpouring of the Spirit of God, causing true virtue and piety 
to be exemplified in the first age of the church of Christ, far 
beyond whatever had been on earth before ; and the Christ- 
ian church was planted a noble vine. But that primitive good 
example has not prevailed, to cause virtue to be generally and 
steadfastly maintained in the Christian world ; To how great 
a degree it has been otherwise, has already been observed. 

After many ages of general and dreadful apostasy, God 
was pleased to erect tlve Protestant church, as separated from 
the more corrupt part of Christendom ; and true piety flour- 
ished very much in it at first ; God planted it a noble vine : 
But, notwithstanding the good examples of the first reform- 
ers, what a melancholy pass is the Protestant world come to 
at this day ? 

When England grew very corrupt, God brought over a 
number of pious persons, and planted them in Newenglanel, 
and this land v/as planted with ^ noble vine. But how is the 
gold become dim ! How greatly have we forsaken the pious 
examples of our fathers ! 

So prone have mankind always proved themselves to de- 
generacy, and bent to backsliding. Which shews plainly 
their natural propensity ; and that when good has revived, 
and been promoted among men, it has been by some divine 
interposition, to oppose the natural current ; the fruit of some 
extraordinary means, the efficacy of which has soon been 
overcome by constant, natural bias, and the effect of good ex- 
ample presently lost, and evil has regained and maintained 
the dominion : Like an heavy body, which may by some 
great power be caused to ascend, cgainst its nature, a little 
while, but soon goes back again towards the centre, to which 
it naturally and constantly tends. 

So thi.t evil exan'ple will in no wise account for the cor- 
ruption of mankind, v/ilhout supposing a natural proneness to 
sin. The tendency of example alone will not account for 
general wicked practice, as consequent on good example 
And if the influence of bad example is a reason of some ol 


the wickedness that is in the world, that alone will not ac- 
count for mer/s becoming wors.e than the example set, and de- 
generating more and more, and growing worse and worse, 
which has been the manner of mankind. 

2. There has been given lo the world an example of 
virtue, which, were ii not for a dreadful depravity of nature, 
would have influence on them that live under the gospel, far 
beyond all other examples ; and that is, the example of Jesus 

God, who knew the hliman nature, and how apt men are to 
be influenced by example, has made answerable provision. 
His infinite wisdom has contrived that we should have set be- 
fore us the most amiaMe and perfect example, in such circum- 
stances, as should have the greatest tendency to influence all 
the principles of man's nature, but his corruption. Men are 
apt to be moved by the example of others like thetnsel-jes^ or in 
their own nature ; therefore this example Was given in our 
nature. Men are ready to follow the example of the great 
and honorable ; and this example, though it was of one in 
our nature, yet it was of one inlinitely higher and more hon- 
orable than kings or angels. A people are apt to follow the 
example of their prince : This is the example of that glori- 
ous person, who stands in a peculiar relation to Chrie;lians, as 
their Lord and King, the Supreme Head of the church ; and 
not only so, but the King of kings, Supreme Head of the Uni- 
'V'erse, and head over all things to the church. Children arc 
apt to follow the example of their parents : This is the ex- 
ample of the i\uthor of our Being, and one who is in a pecu- 
liar and extraordinary manner our Faiho*-, as he is the Auihor 
of our Holy and happy Being ; besides his being the Creator 
of the world, and everlasting Father of the Universe. Men 
are very apt to follow the example of their friends : The ex- 
ample of Christ is of one that is infinitely our greatest friend, 
standing, in the most endearing relations of our Brolhei-, Re- 
deemer, Spiritual Head and Husband ; whose grace and love 
expressed to us, transcends all nther love and Iriendship, as 
much as heaven is higher than the earth. And then the vir- 
tues and acts of his example were exhibited to us in tlie mast 


endearing and engaging circumstances that can possibly b'f 
conceived of : His obedience and submission to God, his hu* 
mility, meekness, patience, charity, selfdcnial, Sec. being ex* 
crcised and expressed in a work of infinite grace, love, con- 
descension, and beneficence to us ; and had all their highest 
expressions in his laying down his life for us, and meekly> 
patiently, and' cheerfully undergoing such extreme and unut- 
terable suffering, for our eternal salvation. Men are peculiar- 
ly apt lo follow the example of such as they have great bene- 
fits from : But it is utterly impossible to conceive of greater 
benefits, that we could have by the virtues of any person, than 
we have by the virtuous acts of Christ ; who depend upon be- 
ing thereby saved from eternal destruction, and brought to 
inconceivable, immortal glory at God's right hand. Surely 
if it were not for an extreme corruption of the heart of men, 
such an example would have that strong influence on the heart, 
that would as it were swaliov/ up the power of all the evil and 
hateful examples of a generation of vipers. 

S. The influence of bad example, without corruption of 
nature, will not account for children's universally committing 
r/m as soon as capable of it ; which, I think, is a fact that has 
been made evident by the scripture. It will not account for 
this, in the children of eminently piou-s parents ; the first ex- 
amples that are set in their view, being very good ; which, as 
has been observed, was especially the case of many children 
in Christian families in the apostles' days, when the Apostle 
John supposes that every individual person had sin to repent 
of, and confess to God. 

4. Wlvat Dr. Taylor supposes to have been fact, with 
respect to a great part of mankind, cannot consistently be ac- 
counted for from the influence of bad example, viz. the stale 
of the heathen world, which he supposes, considered as a col- 
lective body, was helpless, dead in sin, and unable to recover 
itself. Not evil example alone, no, nor as united with evil 
instruction, can be supposed a sufficient reason why every 
new generation ihat arose among them, should 'Ot be able t* 
emerge from the idolatry and wickedness of li. . ^ ancestors, 
in any consistence witii his scheme. The ill example of an- 


■«;estors could hnve no power to oblige ihcm to sin, any oihcr 
rWay than as a strone; temptation. But Dr. Taylor himseli" 
.says, p. 72. 5. " To suppose men's temptations to be su-pe- 
rior to their powers, will impeach the goodness i\nd justice of 
God, who appoints every man's trial.'* And as to bad in- 
•struclions, as was observed. before, he supposes that they all, 
.yea every individual person, had Uglit suITiciciit ip know God. 
and do their whole duty. And if each one could do this tor 
.himself, then surely they might all be agreed in it through 
the power of free will, as well as the whole v/orld be agreed 
in corruption by the same power. 

Evasion 4. Some modern opposers of the doctrine o*' 
Original Sin, do thus account for the general prevahnce oi 
wickedness, viz. that in a course of nature our senses grow 
Up first, and the animal passions get the start of reason. So 
pr. Turnbull says,* " Sensitive objects first aftcct us, and in- 
asmuch as reason is a principle, which, in the nature of things, 
must be advanced to strength and vigor, by gradual cultiva- 
tion, and these pbjects are continually assailing and soliciting 
us; SO} unless a very happy education prevents, our sensitive 
appetites must have become very strong, before reason can 
have force enough to call them to an account, and assume au- 
thority over them." From hence Dr. Turnbull supposes it 
comes to pass,! " Th^t though some few may, through the 
influence of virtuous example, be said to be sanctified from 
the womb, so liberal, so generous, so virtuous, so truly r.oble 
is their cast of mind ; yet, generally speaking, the whole 
world lieth in such wickedness, that, vrith respect to the far 
greater part of mankind, the study of virtue is beginning to 
reform, and is a severe struggle against bad habits, early con- 
tracted, and deeply rooted ; it is therefore putting off aii old, 
inveterate, corrupt nature, and putting on a new form and 
temper; it is moulding ourselves anev,- ; it is a being born 
again, and becoming as children. And how few are there in 
the world who escape its pollutions, so as not to he early in 
that class, or to be among the righteous that need no repent- 

ince : 


• See Moral ThiL>sophj, p. 279, and Christian Philosophy, p. ?74.. 
+ Christian Philcjophy, p, «8a, 2B3. 


Dr. Taylor, thov.i^h he is not so explicit, seems to hint at 
the same thing, p. 1 92. '' It is by slow degrees (says he) that 
children come to the use of unclerstandintj ; the animal pas- 
sions beinj^ for some years the governing part of their con- 
stitution. And therefore, thougl) they may be froward and 
apt to displease us, yet how far this is sin in them, we are not 
capal/le of judging. But it may suffice to say, that it is the 
•will of God that children should hr,ve appetites and passions 
to regulate and restrain, that he hath given parents instruc- 
tions and commands to discipline and inform their minds, that 
if parents first learned true wisdom for tliemselves, and then 
endeavored to bring up their children in the way of virtue, 
there \vould be less wickedness. in the world." 

Concerning these things I would observe, that such a 
scheme is attended wiih the very same difficulties, which they 
that advance it would avoid ; liable to the same objections, 
which they make against God's ordering it so that men 
should be brought into being with a prevailing propensity to 
sin. For this scheme supposes, the author of nature has so 
ordered things, that men should come into being as moral 
agents, that is, should first have existence in a state and ca- 
pacity of moral agency, under a prevailing propensity to sin. 
For that strength, which 'sensitive appetites and animal pas- 
sions come to by their habitual exercise, before persons come 
to the exercise of their rational powers, amounts to a strong 
propensity to sin, when they first come to the exercise of 
those rational powers, by the supposition ; because this is 
given as a reason why liie scale is turned for sin among man- 
kind, and why, gcnerclhj f.fieakingy the nuhole world lies in wick' 
cdness-i and the study of virtue is a severe struggle against had 
habits, early coiitracted, and deejily rooted. These deeply 
rooted habits must imply a tendency to sin ; otherwise they 
could not account for that which they are brouglit to ac- 
count for, namely, prevailing wickedness in the world ; 
for that ca\!se cannot account for an elTcct, whicw is sup- 
posed to have no tendency to that effect. And this ten- 
dency which is supposed, is altogetiier tciuivalent to a natur- 
al tendency : It is as necessary to the subject. For it is sup- 
posed to be brought on the person who is the subject of it^ 


when he has no power to withstand or oppose it : The habit, 
as Dr. Turnbull says, becomincj very strong, Ijefore reason 
can have force enough to call the passions to account, or as- 
sume authority over thein. And it is supposed, ttiat thib 
necessity, by which men become subject to this propensity to 
sin, is from the orderine^ and disposal of the autlior of nature ; 
and therefore must be as much from his hand, and as much 
without ilie hand of the person himself, as if he were first 
brought into being with such a propensity. Moreover, it is 
supposed that the effvjct, which the tendency is to^ is trulv 
wickedness. For it is alleged as a cause or reason wiiy the 
whole world lies in wickedness, and why all but a very few 
are first in the class of the wicked, and not among the right- 
eous, that need no repentance. If they need repentance, what 
they are guilty of is truly and properly wickedness, or mor- 
al evil ; for certainly men need no repentance for that which 
is no sin, or blamable evil. If it be so, that, as a consequence 
of this propensity, the world lies in wickedness, and t'^.e far 
greater part are of a wicked character, without doubt, the far 
greater part go to eternal perdition ; for death docs not pick 
and choose for men of a righteous character only. And cer- 
tainly that is an evil, corrupt state of things, which Tnjturally 
tends to, and issues in that consequence, that as it were the 
whole world lies and lives in wickedness, and dies in wicked- 
ness, and perishes eternally. And this, by the supposition, is 
a state of things, wholly of the ordering of the author of na- 
ture, before mankind are capable of having any hand in the 
affair. And is this any relief to the difficulties, which these 
writers object against the doctrine of nalut al depravity ? 

And 1 might here also observe, that this way of account- 
ing for the wickedness of the world, amounts to jast the same 
thing with that solutioa of man's depravity, which was men- 
tioned before, that Ur. Taylor cries out of as too gross to be 
admitted (p. 188, 189.) viz. God's creating the soul pure, and 
putting it into such a body, as naturally tends lo pollute it 
For this scheme supposes, that God creates the soul pure, and 
puts it into a body, and into such a state in that body, that the 
natural consequence is a strong propensity to sin, as soon as 
♦he sou] is capable of sinning. 


Dr. Turnbull seems to suppose, that the matter could not 
have been ordered otherwise, consistent with the nature 04 
things, than that animal passions shauld be so atbrehand with 
reason, as that the consequence should be that which has been 
mentioned ; because reason is a faculty ©f such a nature, that 
it can have strenc^th and vigor no otherwise than by exercise 
and culture.* But can there be any force in this ? Is there 
any thin^ in nature, to make it impossll:le, but that the supe- 
rior principles of man's nature should be so proportioned to 
the inferior, as to prevent such a dreadful consequence, as the 
moral and natural ruin, and eternal perdition of the far great- 
er part of mankind ? Could not those superior principles Ue 
in vastly greater strength at first, and yet be capable of end- 
less improvement ? And what should hinder its being so or- 
dered by the Creator, that they should improve by vastly 
swifter dec^^rees than they do ? If we are Christians we must 
be forced to allow it to be possible in the nature of things, 
that the piinciples of hurpan nature should be so balanqed, 
that the consequence should be no propensity to sin, in the 
first beginning of a capacity of moral agency ; because vfc 
must own, that it was so in fact in Adam, when first created, 
and also in the man Christ Jesus ; though the faculties of the 
latter v/ere such as grew by culture and improvement, so thaj 
he increased in wisdom as he grew in stature. 

Evasion' 5. Seeing men in this world are in a state of 
trial, it is fit that their virtue should meet with trials, and con- 
sequently that it should have opposition and temptation to 
overcome ; not only from without, but from within, in the 
animal passions and appetites we have to struggle with ; that 
by the conflict and victory our virtue may be refined and es- 
tablished. Agreeably to this, Dr. Taylor (p. 253.) says, 
"Without aright use and application of our powers, were 
they naturally ever so perfect, we could not be judged fit to 
enter into the kingdom of God. This gi^es a good reason 
why we are now in a state of trial and temptation, viz. to prove 
and discipline our minds, to season our virtue, and to fit us 

♦ Mor. Phil, p. 3;i. 


for the kingdom of God ; foi^vhich, in the judgment of inii- 
nite wisdom, we cannot be qualified, but by overcoming our 
present temptarlons.'* And in p. 78. .V. he says, " We are 
upon trial, and it is the will of our Father that our constitu- 
tion should be attended with various passions and appetites, 
as well as our outward condition with various temptations." 
He s?.y3 the like in several other places. To the same pur- 
pose very often Dr. Turnbull, particularly Christian Philoso- 
phy, p. 310. " What merit (says he) except from combat? 
W^iat virtue without the encounter of such enemies, such 
temptations as arise both from within and from abroad ? To be 
virtuous, is to prefer the pleasures of virtue, to those which 
come into competition with it, and vice holds forth to tempt 
us ; and to dare to adhere to truth and goodness, whatever 
pains and hardships it may cost. There must tlierefore, in 
order to the formation and trial, in order to the very being of 
virtue, be pleasures of a certain kind to make temptations to 

In reply to these things I would say, either the state of 
temptation, which is supposed to be ordered for men's trial, 
amounts on the whole to a prevailing tendency to that state of 
general wickedness and ruin, which has been proved to take 
place, or it does not. If it does not amount to a tendency to 
such an effect, then how does it account for it ? When it is 
inquired, by what cause such an effect should come to pass, 
is it not absurd to allege a cause, which is owned at the same, 
time to have no tendency to such an effect ? Which is as much 
as to confess, that it will not account for it. I think it has 
been demonstrated, that this effect must be owing to some 
prevailing tendency. If the other part of the dilemma be 
taken, and it be said, that this state of things does imply a pre- 
vailing tendency to that effect, which has been proved, viz. 
that all mankind, without the exception of so much as one, 
sin against God, to their own deserved and just, eternal ruin ; 
and not only so, but sin thus immediately, as soon as capable 
of it, and sin continually, and have more sin than \irtuc, and 
Lave guilt that infinitely outweighs the value of all the good- 
ness any ever have, and that the p-encralitv of the world in 


all at^cs are extremely stupid and foolish, and of a wicked 
character, and actually perish for ever ; I say, if the state of 
temptation implies a natural tendency to siich an effect as 
this, it is a very evil, corrupt, and dreadful state of things, as 
has been already lar^^ely shewn. 

Besides, such a state. has a tendency to defeat its own sup- 
posed end, which is to refine, ripen, and perfect virtue in man- 
kind, and so to fit men for the greater eternal happiness and 
glory : Whereas, the effect it tends to, is the reverse of this, 
viz. general, eternal infamy and ruin, in all generations. It 
is supposed, that men's virtue must have passions and appe> 
tites to strugi^le with, in order to have the glory and reward 
of victory ; but the consequence is, a prevailing, continual 
and generally efiectuar tendency, not to men's victory over 
evil appetites and passions, and the glorious reward of that 
victory, but to the victory of evil appetites and lusts over men, 
and utterly and eternally destroying them. If a trial of vir- 
tue be requisite, yet the question is, v/hence comes so gener- 
al a failing in the trial, if there be no depraviiy of nature ? If 
conflict and war be necessary, yet surely there is no necessity 
that there should be more cowards than good soldiers ; unless 
it be necessary that men should be overcome and destroyed : 
Especially it is not necessary that the whole world as it 
were should lie in wickedness, and so lie and die in cowardice. 

I might also here observe, that Dr. TurnbuU is hot very 
consistent-, in supposing, that combat with temptation is req- 
uisite to the very bei7ig of virtue. For I think it clearly fol- 
lows from his own notion of virtue, that virtue must have a. 
being prior to any virtuous or praiseworthy combat with 
temptation. For, by his prmciples, all virtue lies in good af- 
fection, and no actions can be virtuous, but Avhat proceed from 
good affection.* Therefore, surely the combat itself can 
have no virtue in it, unless it proceeds from virtuous affec-. 
tion ; and therefore virtue must have an existence before tb? 
combat, and be the cause of it. 

* Lhristian Fhilosophyy^. 113 115. 

ORIGINAL $m. 131 


'Universal Mertality proves Original Sin; par- 
ticularly the Death of Infants^ with its vari- 
ous circumstances. 

THE universal reign of deaths over persons of all age* 
'indiscriminately, with the awful circumstances and attend- 
ants of death, proves that men come sinful into the world. 

It is needless here particularly to inquire, whether God 
has not a sovereign right to set bounds to the lives of his own 
creatures, be they sinful or not ; and as he gives life, so to 
take it away when he pleases ? Or how far God has a right 
to bring extreme suffering and calamity on an innocent mor- 
al agent ? For death, with the pains and agonies with which 
it is usually brought on, is not merely a limiting of existence, 
but is a most terrible calamity ; and to such a creature as 
man, capable of conceiving of immortality, and made with so 
earnest a desire after it, and capable of foresight and of re- 
flection on approaching death, and that has such an extreme 
dread of it, is a calamity above all others terrible, to such as 
are able to reflect upon it. I say, it is needless, elaborately 
to consider, whether God may not, consistent with his perfect 
lions, by absolute sovereignty, bring so great a calamity on 
mankind when perfectly innocent. It is sufficient, if we have 
good evidence from scripture, that it is not agreeable to God's 
manner of dealing with mankind so to do. 

It is manifest, that mankind were not originally subject* 
cd to this calamity : God brought it on them afterwards, on 
occasion of man's sin, at a time of the manifestation of God's 
great displeasure for sin, and by ft denunciation and senicnco 
pronounced by him, as acting the part of a judge, «s Dr. XajTf 



lor often confesses. Sin entered into the "world, and death 
by sin, as the apostle says. Which certainly l^ads us to sup- 
pose, that this affair was ordered of,- God, not merely by the 
sovereignty of a Creator, but by the righteousness of a judge. 
And the sciipvure every where speaks of all great afflictions 
and calamities, which God in his providence brings on man- 
ic nc1, as testimonies of his displeasure for sin, in the subject 
of those calamities- } excepting those sufferings which are to 
atone for the sins of others. He ever taught his people to 
look on such calamities as" his vod^ the rod of his anger, his 
fror.-rs^ the hidings of his face in displeasure. Hence such 
'calamities are in scripture so often called by the name of 
judgment sy being what God brings on men as 2i judge, execut- 
ing a righteous sentewce for transgression : Yea, they are 
often called by the name of nvrath^ especially calamities con- 
sisting or issuing in death.* And hence also is that which 
Tjr. Taylor would have us take so much notice of, that some- 
times, in the scripture, calamiry and suffering is called by 
such names as sm, inicfuity, being guilty^ &c. which is evident- 
ly by a metonymy of the cause for the effect. It is not like- 
ly, that in the language in use of old among God's people, 
calamity or suffering would have been called even by the 
names of sin and guilt, if it had been so far from having any 
connexion with sin, that even death itself, which is always 
^ spoken of as the most terrible of calamities, is not so much 
as any sign of the sinfulness of the subject, or any testi;- ony 
of God's displeasure for any guilt of his, as Dr. Taylor sup- 

Death is spoken of in scripture as the chief of calamities^ 
the most extreme and terrible of all those natural evils, which 
come on mankind in this world. Deadly destruction is spok- 
en of as the most terrible destruction. 1 Sam. v. 11. Dead" 
ly sorroiVi as the most extreme sorrow. Isa. xvii. 11. Matth. 
xxvi. 38, and deadly enemicsy as the most bitter and terrible 

• Sec Lcvit. X. 6. Numb. i. 53, and xvlii. 5. Josh. ix. 20. 2 ChroBi 
xxlv. 18, and xix. 2, lO, and xxviil, 13, and xxxii. 25. Ezra vii. 2g. 
Neh". xitir-t6. Zech.vii. la, and many other places. 


fcnemles. Psal. xvii. 9. The extremity of Christ's suffer- 
ings is represented by his suffering vnto death. Thilip. ii. 8, 
and other places. Hence the 'greatest testimonies of God*s 
anger for the sins of men in this world, have been by inflict- 
inj^ death : As on the sinners of the old ^\ orld, en the inhab- 
itants of Sodom and Gonio. rah, on Onan, Phaiaoh, and the 
Egyptians, Nadab and Abihu, Korah and hii company, and 
the rest of the rebels in the wilderness, on the wicked ii, hab- 
itants of Canaan, on Hophni and Phinehas, Ananias and Sap- 
phira, the unbelieving Jews, upon whom wrath came to the 
uttermost, in the time of the last destruction of Jerusalem. 
This calamity is often spoken of as in a peculiar manner the 
fruit of the guilt of sin. Exod. xxviii. 43. " That they bear 
not iniquity and die." Levit. xxii. 9. '* Lest they bear sin 
for it and die.** So Numb, xviii. 22, compared with Levit. x. 
I, 2. The very light of nature, or tradition from ancient rev- 
elation, led the heathen to conceive of death as in a peculiar 
manner an evidence of divine vengeance. Thus we have an 
account, Acts xxviii. 4. That ivhen the Barbarians aaw the 
venomous beast hang en Paul's hand, they said among" thciw 
selves^ no doubt this man is a murderer, ivhom, ihough he hath 
escaped the seas^ yet vengeance suffereth ivU to live. 

Calamities that are very small in comparison of the uni- 
versal, temporal destruction of the whole world of mankind 
by death, are spoken of as manifest indications of God's great 
displeasure for the sinfulness of the subject ; such as the des- 
truction of particular ciiies, countries, or numbers of men, by 
war or pesiilence. Deut. xxix. 24. " All iiaiiuns shall sayi 
wherefore hath the Lord done thus unto this lund ? Wiiat 
meaneth the heat of this great anger ?** Here compare Deut. 
xxxii, SO. 1 Kings ix- 8, and Jer. xxii. 8, 9. TjK'se calam- 
ities, thus spoken of as plain testimonies of God's great an- 
ger, consisted only in hastening on that death, which other- 
wise, by God's disposal, would most certainly have come in a 
short time. Now the taking off of thirty or forty years from 
seventy or eighty, (if we should suppose it to be so much, 
one with another, in the time of these extraordinary judg- 
^nents) is but a small matter, in comparison of God's first 


making man tnorta!, cutting off his hoped for immortality^ 
subjecting him to inevitable death, which his nature so ex* 
ceedingly dreads ; and afterwards shortening his life further^ 
by cutting off more than eight hundred years of it ; so bring- 
ing it to be less than a twelfth part of what it was in the first 
ages of the world. Besides that innumerable multitudes in 
the common course of things, without tiny extraordinary 
judgment, die in youth, in childhood, and infancy. There- 
fore how inconsiderable a thing is the additional or hastened 
destruction, that is sometimes brought on a particular city or 
country by war, compared with that universal havoc which 
death makes of the whole race of mankind, from generatior> 
to generation, without distinction of sex, age, quality, or con* 
dition, with all the infinitely various, dismal circumstances, 
torments, and agonies, which attend the death of old and 
young, adult persons and little infants ? If those particular 
and comparatively trivial calamities, extending perhaps not to 
more than the thousandth part of the men of one generaiionj 
are clear evidences of God's great anger ; certainly this uni- 
versal, vast destruction, by which the whole world in all gen* 
crations is swallowed up, as by a flood, that nothing can re- 
sist, must be a most glaring manifestation of God's anger for 
the sinfulness of mankind. Yea, the scripture is express in 
it, that it is so. Psal. xc. 3, Sec. «' Thou turnest man to des- 
truction, and sayest, return, ye children of men... .Thou carri- 
cst them away as with a flood : They are as a sleep : In the 
morning they are like grass, which groweth up ; in the morn- 
ing it flourisheth and groweth up ; in the evening it is cut 
down and withereth. For we are consumed by thine anger, 
and by thy wrath are we troubled. Thou hast set our iniqui- 
ties before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy counte- 
nance. For all our days are passed away in thy wrath : We 
spend our years as a tale that is told. The days of our years 
are threescore years and ten ; and if by reason of strength 
they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labor and sor* 
row ; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away. Who knowcth 
the power of thine anger ? According to thy fear, so is thy 
v/rath. So teach vs to number, ouv days thnt we may apply 


ptir hearts unto wisdom." How plain and full is this testlmo- 
|iy, that the general mortalitj- of mankind is an evidence of 
Ood*s anger for the sin of those who are tlie subjects of such 
d dispensation ? 

Abimelcch sp«aks of it as a thinr^ which he had reason to 
conclude from God*s nature and perfection, that he nvouldnot 
slay a righteous nation. Gen. xx. 4. By righteous evidently 
meaning innocent. And if so, much less ivill God slay a right- 
cous worlds (consisting of so many nations., ..rep'^ating the 
great slaughter in every generation) or- subject the whole 
world of mankind to death, when they are considered as inno- 
cent, as Dr. Taylor supposes. We have from time to time 
3n scripture such phrases as ivcrthy of death, and guilty nf 
death ; but certainly the righteous Judge of all the earth wiU 
not bring death on thousands of millions, not only that are not 
worthy of death, but are worthy of no punishment. 

Dr. Taylor from time to time speaks of afPJction and 
death as a great benefit, as they increase the vanity of all 
earthly things, and tend, to excite sober reflections, and to in- 
duce us to be moderate in gratifying the appetites of the brwiy, 
and to mortify pride and ambition, &c.* To this I would 

I. It is not denied but God may see it needful for man- 
kind in their present state, that they should be mortal, and 
subject to outward afHictions, to restrain their lusts, and m.or- 
tify their piide and ambition. T-c. But then is it not an evi- 
dence of man*s depravity, that it is so ? Is it not an evidence 
of distemper of mind, yea, strong disease, when man stands 
in need of such sharp medicines, such severe and terrible 
Tneans to restrain his lusts, keep down his pride, and make 
him willing to be obedient to God ? It must be because of 
a corrupt and ungrateful heart, if the riches of Go<rs bounty, 
in bestowing life and prosperity, and things comfortable and 
pleasant, will not engage the heart to God, and to virtue, and 
childlike love and obedience, bn': that he must always have 
fbe rod held over him, and bcofien chastised, and held under 

• Pages ci, 67, and of>rr places. 


the apprehensions of deaihi to keep him froin ninnint^ w^ld 
in pride, contempt and rebellion, ungratefully using the bless- 
ings dealt forth froiji God's hand, in sir.ning ajjainst him, 
and serving his enemies. If man has no natural disingenuity 
of heart, it must be a mysti-rious thing indeed, that the sweet 
blessings of God*s bounty have not as powerful an influence ^ 
to restrain him from sinning against God, as tenible afTrictions. 
If any thing can be a proof of a perverse and vile di'^position, 
this must be a proof of ii, that men should be most apt to 
forpet and despise God, when his providence is most kind ; 
and that they should need to have God chastise them with 
great seventy, and even to kill them, to keep them in order.. 
3f we were as mtich disposed to gratitude to God for his bene- 
fits, as we are to anger at our fellow creatures for injuries, as 
-we must be (so far as 1 can see) if we are not of a depraved - 
heart, the sweetness of the divine bounty, if continued in life, 
and the height of every enjoyment that is pleasant to innocent 
liuman nature, would be as powerful incentives to a proper re- 
gard to God, tending as much to promote religion and viriue, 
as to have the world lilled with calamity, and to have God (to 
use the language of Hezekiah, Isaiah xxxviii. 13, describing 
death and its agonies) as a lion^ breaking all our boiics^ and 
from day euen to night, 7naking an end of us. 

Dr. Taylor himself, p. 252, says, " That our first parents 
■ before the fail were placed in a condition proper to engage 
their gratitude, love and obedience.'* Which is as much as 
to say, proper to engage them to the exercise and practice of 
allreligion» And if the paradisaical stale was proper to en- 
gage to all religion and- duty, and men sill come into the 
world with hearts as good as the two first of the species, why 
is it not proper to engage them -to it still ? What need of 
so vastly changing man*s state, depriving him of all tjjose 
blessings, and instead of them allotting to him a world full of 
briai's and thorns, afHiclion, calamity and death, to engage 
him to it ? The taking away of life, and all those pleasant 
enjoyments man had at first, by a permanent constitution,, 
would be no stated benefit to mankind, unless there was a 
slated disposition in them to abuse buch blessings. The tak- 


jjlg^ them away is supposed to be a benefit under the notion of 
tbeir being things that tend to lead men to sin ; but they 
would have no such tendency, at least in a stated mannn', un- 
less there v.'as in men a fixed tendency to make that unrea- 
sonable misimprovemcnt of thcn\. Such a temper of mind as 
amounts. to a disposilion to make such a miiimprovemcnl of 
blessinp^s of that kind, is often spoken of in scripture, as most 
astonishingly vile and perverse. So concerning Israel's abus- 
ing the blessings of Canaan, that land flowing with milk and. 
honey ; their ini^raiitude in it is spoken of by the prophets, as 
enough to astonish all hcayen and earth, and as more tnan 
brutish stupidity and vileness. Jer. il, 7. " I brought thenit 
into a plentiful country, to eat the fruit thereof, and the good- 
ness thereof But when ye entered, ye defiled my land," Sec. 
See the following verses, especially verse 12. *' Be astonish- 
ed, O ye heavens, at this." 80 Isaiah i. 2. ...4. '' Hear, O 
heavens, and give ear, O earth ; I have nourished and brought 
up children, and they have rebelled against me. The ox 
knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib, but my peo- 
ple doth not know, Israel doth not consider. Ah, sinful na- 
tion ! A people laden with iniquity, a seed of evil doers, child-^ 
ren that are corruptors.'* Compare Deut. xxxii. 6... .19. If 
it shewed so great depravity, to be disposed thus to abuse tlie 
blessings of so fruitful and pleasant a land as Canaan, surely it 
"would be an evidence of a no less astonishing corruption, to 
be inclined to abuse the blessings of Eden, and the garden of 
God there. 

2. If death be brought on mankind only as a benefit, and 
in that manner which Dr. Taylor mentions, viz. to mortify or 
moderate their carnal appetites and aifections, wean them 
from the world, excite them to sober reflections, and lead 
them to the fear and obedience of God, &c. is it not strange 
that it should fall so heavy on infants, who arc not capable of 
making any such improvement of it ; so that many more of 
mankind suffer death in infancy, than in any other equal part 
of the age of man ? Our author someiimcs hints, that the 
death of infants may be for the good of parents, and those that 
are <j|dult, and may be for the correction and punishment of 

1.28 Ol[lIGINAL SIN. 

:he sins of parents : But hath God any need of such methods 
(o add to parents' afflictions ? Are there not ways enough 
that he might increase their trouble, without destroying thd 
lives of such multitudes of those that are perfectly innocent, 
and have in no respect any sin belonging to them ; on whom 
death comes at an age, when not only the subjects are not ca- 
pctble of any reflection or making any improvement of it, eith- 
er in the suffering or expectation of it ; but also at an age, 
vhen parents and friends, who alone can make a good im- 
provement, and whom Dr. Taylor supposes alone to be pun- 
ished by it, suffer least by being bereaved of them ; though 
the infants themselves sometimes suffer to great extremity ? 

3. To suppose, as Dr. Taylor does, that death is brought 
on mankind in consequence of Adam's sin, not at all as a ca- 
lamity, but only as a favor and benefit, is contrary to the doc* 
trine of the gospel, which teaches that when Christ, as the 
second Adam, comes to remove and destroy that death which 
came by the first Adam, he finds it not as a friend, but an 
enemy. 1 Cor. xv. 22. " For as in Adam all die, so in 
Christ shall all be made alive s" with verses 25 and 26. " For 
he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his fect^ 
The last aieimj that shall be destroyed, is death.'* 

Dr. Taylor urges that the afflictions which mankind are 
subjected to, and particularly their common mortality, are 
represented in scripture as the chastisements of our heavenly 
Father ; and therefore are designed for our spiritual good, 
and consequently are not of the nature of punishments. So 
in p. 68, 69, 38, 39, S. 

Though I think the thing asserted far from being true, 
viz. that the scripture represents the afflictions of mankind in 
general, and particularly their common mortality, as the chas-^ 
tisements of an heavenly father, yet it is needless to stand to 
dispute that matter ; for if it be so, it will be no argument 
that the afflictions and death of mankind are not evidences of 
their sinfulness. Those would be strange chastisements from 
the hand of a wise and good Father, which are wholly for 
nothing ; especially such severe chastisements as to break 
the child's bones, when at the same time the Father docs wi. 


fcvjppose any Cfullt, fault or offence in any respect belonj^ing to 
ihe child; but it is chastised in this terrible manner, only 
lor fear that it will be faulty hereafter. I say, these would be 
a strange sort of chastisements ; yea, thcucjh he should be 
able to make it up to the child afterwards. Dr. Tavlor tells 
of representations made by the whole current of scripture : 
i am cerrain it is not ai^reeable to the current of scripture, to 
represent divine, fatherly cha-oliscmenls after this manner. It 
is true, that the scripture supposes such chastcnlncfs to be the 
fruit of God's goodness ; yet at the same time it evermore 
represents them as bcini^ for the sin of the subject, and as 
evidences of the divine displeasure for its sinfulness. Thus 
the apostle in I Cor. xi. 30.. ..32, speaks of God's chastenin:^ 
his people by mortal sickness, for their s^ood, that they might 
not be condanned with the ivorld^ and yet signifies that it was 
Jo?' their sin ; for this cause many are iveak and sickly amor.^ 
you^ atid many sleefi ': That is, lor the prfofaneness and bin?i;l 
disorder before mentioned. So Elihu, Job xxxiii. 16, £cc. 
speaks of the same cfidstcning by fickness, as for men's good, 
to withdravj man from his sinful /mr/iOse> a7id to hid ^ firide frovi 
man, and keep back his soul from the fiit ; that therefore God 
chastens man ivithpain on his bcd^ and the multitude of his bone a 
ivith strong pain. But these chastenings are for his sins, as 
appears by what follows, verse 28, where it is observed, that 
•ivhen God by this means has brought men to repent^ and hum- 
bly confess their sins, he delivers them. Again, the same E- 
Uhu, speaking of the unfailing love of God to the righteous, 
even when he chastens them^, and they are bound in fetters^ and 
holden in cords of affiiction^ chap, xxxvi. 7, 8cc. yet speaks of 
these chasteiiings as being for their sins, verse 9. '' Then he 
sheweth ihem their work, and their transgressions, that they 
have exceeded." So David, Psalm xxx speaks of God's 
chastening by sore afflictions, as bemg for his good, and issuing 
joyfully ; and yet being the fiuit of God's anger for his sin, 
verse 5. " God's anger endureth but for a moment," &&- 
Compare Psalm cxix. 67, 71, 75. God's fathcly chastise- 
ments are spoken of as being for sin. 2 Sam. vii. 14, 15. 
'* I vail be his Taiher, and he shall be my Son. If he com- 


init inkjuity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with 
the stripes of the children of men, but my mercy shall not de- 
part away from him." So the prophet Jeremiah speaks o€ 
the great affliction that God's people of the young generation 
suffered in the time of the captivity, as being for their good. 
Lam. iii. 25, &c. But yet these chastisements are spoken of 
as being for their sin, see especially verses 39, 40. So Christ 
says, Rev. iii. 19. "As many as I love, 1 rebuke and chas- 
ten." But the words following shew that these chastening* 
from love, are for sin that should be repented, of ; "Be zeal- 
ous, therefore, and repent.'* And though Christ tells us, they 
are blessed that are persecuted for righteousness' sake, and 
have reason to rejoice and be exceeding glad ; yet even tho 
persecutions of God's people, as ordered in divine Providence^ 
are spoken of as divine chastenings for sin, like the just cor- 
rections of a Father, when the children deserve them, Heb. 
xii. The apostle, there speaking to the Christians concern- 
ing the persecutions which they suffered, calls their sufferings 
by the name of divine rebukes^ which implies testifying against 
a fault ; and that they may not be discouraged, puts them in 
mind, that tvhovi the Lord loves he chaste?iS) and scourgeth ev.-> 
ery son that he receiveth. It is also very plain, that the per- 
secutions of God's people, as they are from the disposing 
hand of God, are chastisements for shi, from I Pet. iv. \7, 18, 
compared with Prov. xi. 31. See also Psalm Ixix. 4. ...9. 

If divine chastisements in general are certain evidences 
that the subjects are not wholly without sin, some way be-» 
longing to them, then in a peculiar manner is death so, for 
these reasons : 

I. Because slaying, or delivering to death, is often spok- 
en of as in general a more awful thing than the chastisements 
that are endured in this life. So Psalm cxviii. 17, 18. "I 
shall not die, but live, and declare the works of the Lord. 
The Lord hath chastened me sore, but he hath not given me 
over unto death." So the Psalmist, in Psalm Ixxxviii, 15, 
setting forth the extremity of his affliction, represents it by 
this, that it was next to death. " I am afflicted, and ready 
^0 die : While I suffer thy terrors, I am distracted." S© 


©avid, 1 Sam. xx. 3. So God's tenderness towards persons 
tinder chastisement, is from time to time set forth by that, 
that he did not proceed so far as to make an end of them by 
death, as in Psalm Ixxviii. 38, 39, Psalm ciii. 9, with verses 
14, 15, Psalm XXX 2, 3, 9, and Job xxxiii. 22, 23, 24. So we 
have God's people often praying, when under great afiliction, 
that God would not proceed to this, as being the greatest ex- 
Iramlty. Psalrn xiii. 3. " Consider, and hear me, O Lord 
my God : Lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death.'*' 
So Job X, 9, Psalm vi. 1....5, Ixxxviii. 9, 10, 1 1, and cxliii. 7. 
Especially may death be looked upon as the most extreme 
of all temporal sufferings, when attended with such dreadful 
circumstances, and extreme pains, as those with which Provi- 
dence sometimes brings it on infants, as on the children that 
were offered up to Moloch, and some other idols, who were 
tormented to death in burning brass, Dr. Taylor says, p. 83, 
12S, S. « The Lord of all being can never want time, and 
place, and power, to compensate abundantly any sufferings 
infants now undergo in subserviency to his good>^providence." 
But there are no bounds to such a license, in evading eviden- 
ces from fact. It might as well be said, that there is not and 
cannot be any such thing as evidence, from events of God's 
displeasure, which is most contrary to the whole current of 
scripture, as may appear in part from things which have been 
observed. This gentleman might as well go further still, and 
say that God may cast guiltless persons into hellfirc, to re- 
main there in the most unutterable torments for agesof ages^. 
(which bear no greater i)roportion to eternity than a quarter 
of an hour) and if he does so, it is no evidence of God's dis- 
pleasure, because he can ne\'er want time, place, and power, 
abundantly to compensate their sufferings afterwards. If it 
be so, it is not to the purpose, as long as the scripture docs so 
abundantly teach us to look on great calamities and sufferings 
•which God brings on men, especially death, as marks of his 
displeasure for sin, and for sin belonging to tliem that suffer. 
2. Another thing which may well lead us to suppose death, 
in a peculiar manner, above other temporal sufferings, in- 
tended as a testimony of God's displeasure for sin, is, tlTTT*: 


<kath is a tliin.s^ altended uith that awful appearance, that 
gloomy and terrible aspect, that naturally suggests to our 
minds God's awful displeasure Which is a thing that Dr. 
Taylor himself takes particular notice of- page 69, speaking 
of death, "Herein," says he, "have we before our eyes a 
striking demonstration that sin is infinitely hateful to God, 
and the corruption and ruin of our nature. Nothing is more 
proper than such a sight to give us the utmost abhorrence of 
all iniquity, SsC." Now if death be no testimony of God's 
displeasure for sin, no evidence that the subject is looked 
upon, by him who inflicts it, as any other than perfectly inno- 
cent, free from all manner of imputation of guilt, and treated* 
only as an object of favor, is it not strange, that God should 
annex to it such aifecting appearances of his hatred and anger 
for sin, more than to other chastisements ? Which yet the 
scripture teaches us are always for sin. These gloomy and 
striking manifestations of God's hatred of sin attending death, 
are equivalent to awful frowns of God attending the stroke of 
Lis hand. If we should see a wise and just father chastising 
his child, mixing terrible frowns with severe strokes, we 
should justly argue, that the father considered his child as 
having something in him displeasing to him, and that he did 
not thus treat his child only under a notion of mortifying him, 
and preventing his being faulty hereafter, and making it up 
to him afterwards, when he had been perfectly innocent, and 
without fault, either of action or disposition thereto. 

We may well argue from these things, that infants are 
not looked upon by God as sinless, but that they are by na- 
ture children of wrath, seeing this terrible evil comes so heav- 
ily on mankind in infancy. But besides these things, which 
are observable concerning the mortality of infants in general, 
there arc some particular cases of the death of infants, which 
the sciip'urc sets before us, that are attended with circum- 
stance?, in a peculiar manner giving evidences of the sinfuli 
ness of such, and their just exposedness to divine wrath. As 

The destroying of the infants in Sodom, and the neigh- 
boring cities; which cities, destroyed in so extraordinary, 


xjiiraculous, and awful a manner, are set fortli as a signal ex- 
ample, of God's dreadful venji^cance for sin, to the world in 
all gencralions ; agreeable to that of the aposilc, Jude, verse 
7. God did not reprove, but manifestly countenanced Abra- 
ham, when he said, with respect to the destruction of 3ouom> 
(Gen. xviii. 25, 25.) " Wilt thou destroy the righteous with 
the wicked ?....That be far from thee to do after this manner, 
to slay the righteous with the wicked, and that the righieous 
should be as the wicked, that be far from thee. Shall not the 
judge of all the earth do right V* Abraham's words imply that 
God would not destroy the innocent with the guilty. We 
may well understand innocent as included in the word right' 
eous, according to the language usual in scripture, in speak- 
ing of such cases of judgment and punishment ; as is plain ia 
Gen. XX. 4. Exod. xxiii. 7. Deut. xxv. 1. 2Sam.iv.il. 
2 Chron. vi. 23, and Prov. xviii. 5. Eliphaz says. Job iv. 7. 
" Who ever perished, being innocent? Or where were the 
righteous cut off?'* We see wliat great care God took that 
Lot should not be involved, in that destruction. He was mi- 
raculously rescued by angels, sent on purpose ; who* laid hold 
on him, and brought him, and set him without the gates of 
the city ; and told him that they could do nothing till he was 
out of the way. Gen. xix. 22. And not only was he thus 
miraculously delivered, but his two wicked daughters for hi^ 
sake. The whole affair, both the de^itruc'ion, and tlic rescue 
of them that escaped, was miraculous ; and God could as ea- 
sily have delivered the infants which were in those cities. 
And if they had been without sin, th.cir perfect innocency, one 
should think, would have pleaded njiich more strongly for 
them, than those lewd women's re]auon to Lot pleaded for 
them. When in such a case, we must suppose these infants 
much further from deserving to be involved in that destruc- 
tion, than even Lot himself. To say here, that God could 
make it up to those infants in another world, must he an in- 
sufficient reply. For so he could as easily have made it up 
to Lot, or to ten or fifty righteous, if they had been destroyed 
in the same fire : Nevertheless it is plainly signified, that this 


^vollIcl not have been aj^rceable to the wise and holy pro(|Bed» 
ings of the judge of all the earth. 

Since God dechired, that if there had been found but tci]- 
TJ.G:hteous in Sodom, he would lir.ve spared the whole city for 
their sake, may we not well suppose, if infants are perfectly 
innocent, that he would liavo spared tlie old nvorku in which 
there were, without doubt, many hundred thousand infants, 
and in general one in every family, whose perfect innocence 
pleaded for its preservation ? l.>,peciaiiy when such vast care 
was taken to save Noah and his family, (some of whom, one 
at lerist, seem to have been none of the best) that they might 
not be involved in that destruction. If the perfect sinlessness 
of infants had been u notion entert^iincd among the people cf 
God of old, in the ages next following the fiood, handed down 
horn Noah and his children, who well knev/ that vast multi- 
tudes of infants perished in the fiood, is it likely that Eliphaz, 
who lived wi'hin a fcM- generations of Sheni and Noah, would 
have said to Job, as he does in that forementioned, Job iv. 7. 
«•' Who ever perished, being innocent? And when were the 
Tighteous cut off"?" Especially since in the same discourse 
(Chap. V. !.) he appeals to the tradition of the ancients for a 
confirmation of this very point ; as he also does in Chap. xv. 
r....lO, and xxii. 15, 16. In which last place he mentions 
that very thing, the destruction of the wicked by the flood, 
as an instance of that perishing of the Avlcked, which he sup- 
poses to be peculiar to them, for Job's conviction ; in which 
the wicked nvere cut donvn out of time, their foundation being 
orverfin'xn ivith a Jiood, Where it is also observable, that he 
speaks of such an untimeliness of death as they suffered by 
the flood, as one evidence of guilt ; as he also does, Chap. xv. 
52, 53. " It shall be accomplished before his time ; and his 
])ranch shall not be green.'* But those that were destroyed 
by the flood in infancy, above all the rest were cut doivn out 
of time J when instead of living above nine hundred years, ac- 
cording to the common period of man's life, many were cut 
down before ihcy were one year old. 

And when God executed vengeance on the ancient inhab- 
itants of Canaan, not only did he not spare their cities and 


^milies for the sake of the infants that were therein, nor tako 
any care that tliey should not be involved in the destruction ; 
but often with particular care repeated his express commands, 
that their infants should not be spared, but should be utterly 
destroyed, without any pity; while Uahab the /iar/or (wh^ 
had been far from innocence, though she expressed her faith 
in entertaining, and safely dismissing the spies) was prcserv-. 
ed, and all her friends for her sake. And when God execut- 
ed his wrath on the Egyptians, by slaying their first born, 
though the children of Israel, who were most of thera wicked 
men, as was before shewn, were wonderfully spared by the; 
destroying angel, yet such first born of the Egyptians as were 
infants, were not spared. They not only were not rescued 
by the angel, and no miracle wrought to save them (as wa^i 
observed in the case of the infants of Sodom) but the angel 
destroyed them by his own immediate hand, and a miracle 
was wrought to kill them. 

Here, not to stay to be particular concerning the command 
by Moses, respecting the - destruction of the infants of the 
Midianites, Num. xxxi. 17. And that given to Saul to des- 
troy all the infants of the Amalekites, 1 Sam. xv. 3, and what 
is said concerning Edom, Psalm cxxxvii. 9. " Happy shall he 
be that takcth, and dasheth tliy little ones against the stones. 
I proceed to take notice of something remarkable concern- 
ing the destruction of Jerusalem, represented in Ezek. ix. 
when command was given to them, that had charge over the 
city, to destroy the inhabitants, verse 1....8 And this rea^ 
son is given for it, that their iniquity required it, and it was u 
just recompense of their sin, verse 9, 10. And Cod at the 
same time was most particular and exact in his care that such 
Sihould by no means be involved in the slaughter, as had prov- 
ed by their behavior, that they were not partakers in the 
abominations of the city. Command was given to the angel 
to go through the city, and set a mark upon their foreheaclsr 
and the destroying angel had a strict charge not to come near 
any man, on whom was the mark ; yet the infants were not 
marked, nor a word said of sparing them : On the contrary, 
^fants were exprcsisly mentioned as tho^e that should be utter- 


ly destro> cdj without pity, verse 5, 6. « Go through the cftyy 
and smite : Let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity. 
Slay utterly old r.nd young^, both maids and little children ; 
but come not near any man upon whom is the mark. 

And if any should suspect that such instances as these 
were peculiar to a more severe dispensation, under the Old 
Testament, let us consider a remarkable instance in the days 
ulthe glorious t^ospel of the grace of God ; even the last des- 
truction of Jerusalem ; which was iar more terrible, and with 
greater testimonies of God's wrath and indignation, than the 
destruction of Sodom, or of Jerusalem in Nebuchadnezzar's 
lime, or any thing that ever had happened to any city or peo- 
ple, from the beginning of the world to that time : Agreea- 
ble to Matth. xxiv. 21, and Luke xxi. 22, 23. Cut at that 
time particular care was taken to distinguish and deliver God's 
people, as was foretold Dan. xii. 1. And we have in the New 
Testament a particular account of the care Christ took for the 
preservation of his followers : He gave them a sign, by which 
ihcy might know when the desolation of the city was nigh, 
iliat they that were in Jerusalem might flee to the mountains, 
and escape. And as history gives account, the Christians 
followed the directions given, and escaped to a place in the 
mountains called Pella, and were preserved. Yet no care was 
taken to preserve the infants of the city, in general ; but, ac- 
cording to the predictions of that event, they were involved 
with others in that great destruction : So heavily did the ca- 
lamity fall upon them, that those words were verified, Luke 
xxiii. 29. *' Behold the days are coming, in which they shall 
say. Blessed are the barren, and the womb that never bare, 
and the paps which never gave suck. And that prophecy in 
Deut. xxxii. 2 1. ...25, Mhich has undoubtedly special respect 
lo this very lime, and is so applied by the best Commentators. 
•' I will provoke them to jealousy, with those that are not a 
people ; for a fire is kindled in miiie anger ; and it shall bum 
to the lowest hell. 1 will heap mischiefs upon them : 1 will 
spend mine arrows upon them. They bhall be burnt with 
hunger, and devoured with burning heat, and bitter destruc- 
tion. The sword withuut, and terror within, shall destroy 


both the young man, and the virgin, the suckling also, with 
the man of grey hairs." And it appears by the history of that 
destruction, that at that time was a remarkable fulfilment of 
that in Deut. xxviii. 5 3.... 57 , conQtrmne; fiar en t a* eating their 
children in the siege ; and the tender and delicate woman eating 
her newborn child. And here it must be remembered, that 
these very destructions of that city and land are spoken of in 
those places foremenlioncd, as clear evidences of God*s wrath, 
to all nations which shall behold them. And if so, they were 
evidences of God's wrath towards infants ; who, equally with 
the rest, were the subjects of the destruction. If a particular 
kind or rank of persons, which made a very considerable 
part of the inhabitants, were from time to time partakers of 
the overthrow, without any distinction made in divine provi- 
dence, and yet this was no evidetice at all of God*s displeasure 
with any of them ; then a being the subjects of such a calam- 
ity could not be an evidence of God*s wrath against any of the 
inhabitants, to the reason of all nations, or any nation^ or so 
tnuch as one person. 




Containing observations on particular farts oj the' 
Holy Scripture, -which prove the Doetrine oJ 
- Original Sin, 


Observations relating to things contained in the 
three first Chapters of Genesis, toith refers- 
ence to the Doctri?ie of Original Sin. 


Concerning Original Righteousness ; and whether our Jirst 
Parents were created ^ith Righteousness^ or moral recti-' 
tude of Heart ? 

THE doctrine of Original Righteousness^ or the crea" 
tion of our first parents with holy principles and dispositions, 
has a close connexion, in several respects, with the doctrine 
of Original Sin. Dr Taylor was sensible of this ; and ac- 
cordingly he strenuously opposes this doctrine, in his book 
against Original sin. And therefore in handling the subject, 
I would in the first place remove this authoi's main objection 
against this doctrine, and then shew how the doctrine may be 
inferred from the account which Moses gives us, in the three 
Jirst chapters oJ" Genesis. 


Dr. Taylor's grand objection ftp^ainst this doctrine, ^vhicU 
Bfe abundantly insists on, is this : That it is utterly inconsist- 
ent with the nature of virtue, that it should be concreated 
with any person ; because, if so, it must be by an act of Cod's 
absolute power, without our knowledge or concurrence ; and 
that moral virtue, in its very nature implieth the choice and 
consent of the moral agent, without which it cannot be virtue 
and holiness : That a necessary holiness is no holiness. So 
p. 180, where he observes, "That Adam must exist, 
he must be created, yea he must exercise thought and 
reflection, before he was righteous.*' See also p. 250, 
*25l. In p. 161. o- he says, "To say, that God not only 
endowed Adam with a capacity of being righteous, but more- 
over that righteousness and true holiness were created with 
him, or wrought into his nature, at the same time he was 
made, is to affirm a contradiction, or what is inconsistent with 
the very nature of righteousness." And in like manner Dr. 
Turnbull in many places insists upon it, that it is necessary 
to the very being of virtue^ that it' be owing to our own choice, 
and diligent cuUare. 

'' "VVith respect to this, I wou!d observe, that it consists in a 
notion of virtue quite inconsistent with the nature of things, 
and the common notions of mankind ; and also inconsistent 
with Dr. Taylor's own notions of virtue. Therefore if it be 
truly so, that to affirm that to be virtue or holiness, which is 
not the fruit of preceding thought, reflection and choice, is to 
affirm a contradiction, I shall shew plainly, that for him to af- 
iirm otherwise, is a contradiction to himself. 

In the first place, I think it a coni.radlction to the nature 
of things, as judged of by the common sense of mankind. It 
is agreeable to the sense of the minds of men in all nations 
and ages, not only that the fruit or eflcct of a good choice is 
virtuous, but the good choice itself, from whence that effect 
proceeds ; yea, and not only so, but also the antecedent good 
disposition, temper, or affection of mind, from whence pro- 
ceeds that good choice, is virtuous. This is the general no- 
tion, not that principles derive their goodness from actions, 
but that acUons derive their goodness from the principl<5**^ 


iFhencc they proceed ; and so that the act of choosing that whidi 
is t^ood, is no further virtuous than it proceeds from a good 
principle, or virtuous disposition of mind. Which supposes, 
that a virtuous disposition pf mind may be before a virtuous 
act of choice ; and that therefore it is not necessary that there 
should first be thought, reflection and choice, before there 
can be any virtuous disposition. If the choice be first, before 
the existence of a good disposition of heart, what signi- 
fies that choice ? There can, according lo our natural notions, 
be no virtue in a choice which proceeds frqm no virtuous 
principle, but from mere selflove, ambition, or some animal 
appeiite ; and therefore a virtuous temper of mind may be 
before a good act of choice, as a tree may be before the fruity 
and the fountain before the stream which proceeds from it. 
The following things in Mr. Hutcheson*s inquiry con* 
cerning moral good and evil, are evidently agreeable to th^ 
nature of things, aud the voice of human sense and reason,. 
Section II. p. 132, 133. " Every action which we apprehend 
as either morally good or evil, is always supposed to fiow 
from some affections towards sensitiye natures. And whatev- 
er we call virtue or vice, is either soi^e such affection, or 
some action cor.sequent ujion it. All the actions counted re- 
ligious in any country, are supposed by those who count them 
so, to Jlow from some afiections towards the Deity ; and 
whatever we call social virtue, we stjU suppose to Jlow from 
affections towards our fellow creatures. Prudence, if it is 
only employed in promoting private interest, is never imag- 
ined to be a virtUjB.** In these things Pr. Turnbull express- 
ly agrees with Mr. Hutcheson, who is his admired author.* 
If a virtuous disposition or affection is before acts that pro- 
ceed from it, then they are before those virtuous acts of choice 
which proceed from it. And therefore there is no necessity 
that all virtuous dispositions or affections should be the effect 
of choice : And so no such supposed necessity can be a good 
objection against such a disposition's being natural, or from 
^ kind of instinct, implanted in the mind in its creation. Ar 

<* Moral rkilosophy p, n2 115, p. 142, et alibi passiv}. 


greeaMe to -Nvhat Mr. Hutcheson says, (Jb'id, Section III. p. 
196, 197.) " I know not, says he, for what reason some will 
not allow that to be virtue, which flows from instinct or pas- 
sions. But how do they help themselves? They say, virtue 
arises from reason. What is reason, but the sagacity we 
Jiave in prosccutinij any end ? The ultimate end proposed 
|)y common moralists, is the happiness of the a^ent himself. 
And this certainly he is determined to pursue from instinct, 
^ow may not another instinct towards the public, or the good 
©f others, be as proper a principle of viiiue, as the instinct to- 
vards private happiness ? If it be said, that actions from in- 
stinct are not the effect of prudence and choice, this objec- 
tion will hold full as strongly against the actions which flow 
from sclflove.*' 

And if we consider what Dr. Taylor declares as his own 
notion of the essence of virtue, we shall find, what he so con- 
fidently and often affirms, of its being essential to all virtue., 
that it should follow choice, and proceed from it, is no less 
repugnant to that, than it is to the nature of things, and the 
general notions of mankind. For it is his notion, as well as 
Mr. Hutcheson's, that the essence of virtue lies in good affec- 
tion,, and particularly in benevolence or love ; as he very fully 
declares in these words in his Key,* ^' That the word that sig- 
nifies goodness and mercy should also signify moral rectitude 
in general, will not seem strange, ii we consider that love is 
the fulfilling of the law. Goodness, according to the sense of 
scripture, and the nature of things, includes all moral rectitude^ 
which, I reckon, may every part of it, where it is true and 
genuine, be resolved into this single firincifileJ* If it be so 
indeed, then certainly no act whatsoever can have moral rec 
titude, but what proceeds from this firiiicifile. And conse- 
quently no act of volition or choice can b.ave any moral rec- 
titude, that takes place before this principle exists. And yet 
he most confidently affirms, that thought, reflection and 
choice must go before virtue, and that all virtue or righteous- 
ness must be the fruit of preceding choice. This brings his 

• Marginal Note annexed to.§ 358. 


scheme to an evident contradiction. For no act of choice can 
be viriuous but what proceeds from a principle of benevolence 
or ijve ; for he insists that all genuine, moral rectitude, in 
every part of it, is resolved into this single principle ; and 
yet the principle of benevolence itself cannot be virtuous, un- 
less it proceeds from choice* for he aflpirms, that nothing can 
have the nature of virtue but what comes from choice. So 
that virtuous love, as the principle of ail virtue, must go before 
virtuous choice, and be the principle or spring of it ; and yet 
virtuous choice must go before viriuous benevolence, and be 
the spring of that. If a virtuous act of choice goes before a 
principle of benevolence, and produces it, then this virtuous 
act is something distinct from that principle which follows it, 
and is its effect. So that here is at least one part of virtue, 
yea, the spring and source of all virtue, viz. a virtuous choice, 
that cannot be resolved into that single principle of love. 

Here also it is worthy to be observed, that Dr. Taylor, p. 
128, says, "The cause of every eifect is alone chargeable 
with the effect it produceth ; or which proccedeth from it -y 
And so he argues, thai if the effect be bad, the cause alone is 
sinful. According to which reasoning, when the effect is 
good, the cause alone is righteous or virtuous ; To the 
caase is to be ascribed all the praise of the good eifect it pro- 
duceth. And by the same reasoning it will follow, that if, as 
Dr. Taylor says, Adam must choose to be righteous, before 
"he was righteous, and if it be essential to the nature of right- 
eousness or moral rectitude, that it be the effect of choicej 
and hence a principle of benevolence cannot have moral rec- 
titude, unless it proceeds from clioice ; then not to the prin- 
ciple of benevolence, which is the effect, but to the foregoing 
choice alone is to be ascribed all the virtue or righteousness 
that is in the case. And so, instead of all moral rectitude in 
every part of it, being resolved mto that single principle of 
benevolence, no moral rectitude, in any part of it, is to be re- 
solved into that principle ; but all is to be resolved into the 
foregoing choice, which is the cause. 

But yet it follows from these inconsistent principles, that 
:hcre is no moral rectitude or virtue in that first act of choice, 


tKat la the cause oF all consequent virtue. This follows two 
"Ways : 1. Because every part of virtue lies in tlie benevolent 
principle, which is th» effect, and therefore no part of it can 
lie in the cause. 2. The choice of virtue, as to the first act 
at least, can have no virtue or righteousness at all, because it 
does not proceed from any forec^oing choice. For Dr. Taylor 
insists that a man must first have reflection and choice, Ixjfore 
he can have righteousness, and that it is essential to holines*; 
that it proceed from choice. So that the first choice of holi- 
ness, uhich holiness proceeds from, can have no virtue at all, 
because by the supposition it does not proceed from choice, 
being the first choice. Hence if it be essential to holiness, 
that it proceeds from choice, it must proceed from an unholy 
choice ; unless the first holy choice can be before itself, or 
there be a virtuous act of choice before that which is first of 

And with respect to Adam, let us consider how, upon Dr. 
Taylor's principles, it was not possible he ever should have 
any such thing as righteousness, by any means at all. In the 
state wherein God created him, he could have no such thing 
as love to God, or any love or benevolence in his heart. For 
if so, there would have been original righteousness; there 
would have been ge^iuine moral rectitude : Nothing would 
have been wanting ; for our author says, True^ genuine, morat 
rectitude, in every part of it, is to be resolved into this singl'j 
firinciple. But if he were wholly without any such thing as 
love to God, or any virtuous love, how should he come by 
virtue ? The answer doubtless will be, by act of choice : He 
must first choose to be virtuous. But what if he did choose 
to be virtuous ? It could not be from love to God, or any vir- 
tuous principle, that he chose it ; for, by the supposition, he 
has no such principle in his heart : And if he chooses it 
without such a principle, still, according to this author, there 
is no virtue in his choice ; for all virtue, he says, is to be re- 
solved into that single pr nciple of love. Or will he say, 
there may be produced in the heart a virtuous benevolence 
by an act or acts of choice, that are not virtuous ? But this 
does not consist with what he implicitly asserts, that to the 


cause alone is to be ascribed vrhat is in the effect. So ihfii 
there is no way that can possibly be devised, in consistence 
with Dr. Taylor's scheme, in which Arfam ever could have 
any righteousness, or could ever either obtain any principle 
of virtue, or perform any one virtuous act. 

These confused, inconsistent assertion^, concerning virtue 
and iporal reciitude, arise from the absurd notions in vogue, 
concerning Freedom of Will, as if it consisted in the will's self- 
deter?7:im7igpo-wei\ su])]iosed to be necessary to moral agency, 
virtue and vice. The absurdities of which, with the grounds 
of these errors, and what the truth is respecting these matters, 
with the evidences of it, I have, according to my ability, fully 
and largely considered, in my Inquiry on that subject; to 
which I must refer the reader, who desires further satisfac- 
tidn, and is willing to give himself the trouble of reading that 

Having considered this great argument, and pretended 
demonstration of Dr. Taylor's against original righteousness ? 
1 proceed to the firoofs of the doctrine. And in the first place, 
I v;ould consider, whether there be not evidence of it in the 
three first chapters of Genesis : Or, whether the history 
there delivered, does not lead us to suppose, that our Jirst 
fiarents were created in a state of moral rectitude and ho* 

I. This history leads us to suppose, Adam's sin, with re- 
lation to the forbidden fruit, was the first sin he committed. 
Which could not have been, had he not always; till then, 
been perfectly righteous, righteous from the first moment 
of his existence, and consequently, created, or brought into 
existence righteous. In a moral agent, subject to moral 
obligations, it is the same thing to be perfectly mnotenty 
as to be perfectly righteous. It must be the same, be- 
cause there can no more be any medium between sin 
and righteousness, or between a being right and being 
wrong, in amoral sense, than there can be a medium between 
straight and crooked, in a natural sense. Adam was brought 
into existence capable of acting immediately, as a moral agent, 
and therefore he was immediately under a rule of right ac- 


taon : He ^vas ©bfiged as soon as he existed to acc right. And 
if he was obliged to act lii^ht as soon as he existed, he was 
Gbliged even then to be incliritd to act ri^ht. Dr. Taylor says, 
p. 166, 6\ '^ Adam could not sin without a sinful inclination ;"* 
And just for the same reason he could not do right <t without 
an inclination to light action. And as he was obliged to act 
ri^ht frcra the first moment of his existence, and did do so 
till he sinned in the affair of the forbidden fruit, he must have 
aa inclination or disposition of heart to do right the first mo- 
inent of his existence ; and that is the same as to be created 
or brought into existence, with an inclination to right action, 
or, which is the same thing, a virtuous and holy disposition of 

Here it will be in vain to say, it is true that it was Adam's 
duty to have a good disposition or inclination, as soon as ii 
was possible to be obtained, in the nature of things , but as 
it could not be without time to establish such an habit, which 
r^squires antecedent thought, refieclion, and repeated right 
afetion ; therefore all that Adam could be obliged to in the 
Srst place, was to reflect and consider things in a right man- 
ner, and apply himself to right action, in order to obtain a 
right disposition. For this supposes, that even this rcflec^ 
lion and consideration, which he was obliged to, was right 
action. Surely he was obliged to it no otherwise than as 
a thing that was right ; and therefore he must have an viclL^ 
nation to this right action immediately, before he could per-f 
form those first right actions. And as the inclination to them 
should be right, the principle or disposition from which be 
performed even these actions, must be good ; otherwise the 
actions would not be right m the sight ef him who looks at 
the heart ; nor would they answer the man's obligations, or 
be a doing his duty, if he had done them for some sinister 
end, and not from a regard to God and his duty. Therefore 

• This is doubtless true ; for although there was no natural, sinful incli- 
pation in Adam, yet an inclination to that sin of eating the forbidden fruit, 
was begotten in him by the delusion and err .r he was led into» and this icir 
dination to eat the forbidden fruit, must precede his actual •ating, 


there must be a regard to God and his duty implanted in hir& 
at hii first existence ; otherwise it is certain he would have 
done nothing from a regard to God and his duty ; no, nor so- 
much as to rtilcct and consider, and try to obtain such a dis- 
position. The Tery supposition of a disposition to rit^ht ac- 
tion being first obtained by repeated right action^ is grossly 
inconsistent with itself ; for it supposes a course of right ac- 
tion, brfore. there is a disposition to perform any right action. 
These are no invented quibbles or sophisms. If God ex- 
pected of Adam any obedience or duty to him at all, when he 
first made him, whether it Avas in reflecting, considering, or 
any way exerting the faculties he had given him, then God 
expec'ed he should immediately exercise love and regard ta 
bim. For how could it be expected, that Adam should have a 
stiict and perfect regard to God*s commands and authority, 
and his duty to him, when he had no love nor regard to him 
in his hearty nor could it be expected he should have any ? 
If Adam from the beginning did his duty to God, and had 
more respect to the will of his Creator than to other things, 
and as much respect to him as he ought tt> have ; then fronv 
the beginning he had a supreme and perfect respect and love 
to God ; and if so, he was created with such a principle. 
There is no avoiding the consequence. Not only external 
duties, but internal duties-, such as summarily consist iiv 
love, must be immediately required of Adam, as soon as ho 
existed, if any duty at all was required. For it is most^ ap- 
parently absurd, to talk of a spiritual being, with the faculties 
of understanding and will, being required to perform external 
duties, without internal. Dr. Taylor himself observes, that 
iove is the fulfilling of the law, and that all moral rectitude^ 
even every pari of it^ must be rcsoh^ed bito that single firinciple. 
Therefore, if any morally right act at all, reflection, consider- 
ation, or any thing else, was required of Adam immediately, 
on his first existence, and was performed as required ; then he 
must, the first moment of his existence, have his heart pos- 
sessed of that principle of divine love ; which implies the 
whole of moral rectitude in every part of it, according to our 
aulhor'6 own docu ine ; and so the whole of moral rectitude 


or ri^^bteousness must begin with his existence ; "which is the 
thing taught iu the doctrine of Oiiginal Ris^hteousness. 

And let us consider hovv it could be otherwise, than that 
Adam was always, in every itioment of his existence, obliged 
to exercise such regard or respect of heart towards every ob- 
ject or thin^, as was aj^reeable to the apparent nieiit of that 
object. For instance, would it not at any time have been a 
bf oominp: thin^; in Adam, on the exhibition to his mind of God's 
infinite goodness to him, for him to haflft exercised answer- 
able graiitude, and the contrary have been unbecoming and 
odiou^ ? And if some^hinn: hinl been presented to Adam*s 
view, transcendently amiabl© -in i;seif, as for instance, the 
glorious perfection of the divine nature, would it not have 
become him to love, relish and delight in it I Would not 
such an object have merited this ? And if the view of an ob- 
ject so amiable in itself did not affect his mind with compla- 
cence, would it not, according to the plain dictates of our un- 
derstanding, have shewn an unbecoming temper of mind ? 

To say that he had not had time, by culture, to form and 
establish a good disposition or i^elish, is not what would have 
taken off the disagreeableness and odiousness of the temper. 
And if there had been never so much time, I do not see how 
it could be expected be should improve it aright, ifl order to 
obtain a good disposition, if he had not ah'eady some good 
dibposition to engage him to it. 

That belonging to the will and disposiiion of the heart, 
which is in itself either odious or amiable, unbecoming or de- 
cent, always would have been Adam's virtue or sin, in any 
momtnt of his existence ; if there be any sucii thing as vir- 
tue or vice, by which nothing can be meant, but that in our 
moral disposition and behavior, which is becoming or unbe- 
coming, amiable or odious. 
• Human nature must be created with some dispositions ; a 
disposiiion to relish some things as good and amiable, and to 
be averse to otiier things as odious and disagreeable ; other- 
wise it must be without any such thing as inclination or will : 
It must be perfectly indifferent, without preference, without 
choice or aversion towards atiy thing as agreeable or disa- 


greeable. But if it had any concreated dispositions at aij^ 
they must be either right or wrong, either agreeable or disa- 
trreeable to the nature of things. It man had at first the 
highest relish of those things that were m6st excellent and 
beautiful, a disposition to have the quickest and highest de- 
light in those things that were most worthy of it, then his dis* 
positions were morally right and amiable, and never can be de« 
cent and excellent in a higher sense. But if he had a dispo- 
sition to love most tlltese things that were inferior and less 
worthy, then his dispositions were vicious. And it is evident 
there can be no medium between these. 

II. This notion of Adam's being crested without a prin- 
eiple of holiness in his heart, taken with the rest of Dr. Tay- 
lor's scheme, is inconsistent wuh what the history, in the be- 
ginning of Genesis, leads us to suppose of the great favors 
and smiles of heaven, which Adam enjoyed while he remain- 
ed in innocency. The Mosaic account suggests to us that 
till Adam sinned he was in happy circumstances, surrounded 
with testimonies and fruits of God's favor. This is implicitly 
owned by Dr. Taylor, when he says, page 252. ''That in 
the dispen'^ation our first parents were under before the fall, 
they were placed in a condition proper to engage their grati- 
tude, love and obedience." But it will follow on our author's 
principles, that Adam, while in innocency, was placed in far 
-Arorse circumstances than he was in after his disobedience, 
and infinitely worse than his posterity are in ; under unspeak- 
ably greater disadvantages for the avoiding of sin, and the per- 
formance of duty. For by his doctrine, Adam's posterity 
come into the world with their hearts as free from any pro- 
pensity to sin as he, and he was made as destitute of any pro- 
pensity to righteousness as they ; and yet God, in favor to 
them, does great things to restrain them from sin, and excite 
them to virtue, which ho never did for Adam in innocency, 
but li«id him, in the highest degree, under contrary disadvan- 

God, as an instance of his great favor, and fatherly love to 
man, since the fall, has denied him the ease and pleasures of 
t^ctradise, which gratified and allured his senses, and bodilv 


Bkjipetites ; that he might diminish his temptations to sin* 
And as a still greater means to restrain from sin, and promote 
virtue, has subjected him to lubor, toil and sorrow in the 
world ; and not only so, but as a means to promote his spirit- 
ual and eternal good far beyond this, has doomed him to 
death : And \tfticn all this was found insufficient, he, in fur- 
ther prosecution of the designs of his love, shortened men's 
lives exceedingly, made them twelve or thirteen tinr;es short- 
er than in the first ages. And yet this, with ali the innume- 
rable calamities, which God in great fa^or to mankind has 
brought on the world, whereby their temptations are so vast- 
Jy cut short, and the means and inducements to virtue heap- 
ed one upon another, to so great a degree, all have proved 
insufficient, now for so many thousand years together, to res- 
train from wickedness in any considerable degree ; innocent 
human nature, all along, coming into the world with the same 
purity and harmless dispositions that our first parents had in 
Paradise. What vast disadvantages indeed then must Adam 
and Eve have been in, that had no more in their nature to keep 
them from sin, or incline them to virtue, than their posterity, and 
yet were without all those additional and extraordinary means 1 
Not only without such exceeding great means as we now 
have, when our lives are made so very short, but having vast- 
ly less advantages than their antedilnvian posterity, who to 
prevent their being wicked, and to make them good, had so 
much labor and toil, sweat and sorrow, briers and thorns, with 
a body gradually decaying and returning to the dust ; when 
our first parents had the extreme disadvantage d^ being 
placed in the midst of so many and exceeding great tempta-- 
tions, not only without toil or sorrow, p:iin or disease, to hum- 
ble and mortify them, and a sentence of death to wean them 
from the world, but in the midst of the most exquisite and al- 
luring sensitive delights, the reverse in every respect, and to 
the highest degree, of that most gracious state of requisite 
means, and great advantages, which mankind now enjoy 1 If 
mankind now under these vast restraint*, and great advanta- 
ges, are not restrained from gcr.eral, and as it were universal 
''>icl;Gc]ness, how could it be expected that Adam and Eve, 


created wih no better hearts than men bring into the world 
now, and destitute of all these advantages, and in the midst 
of all contrary disadvantages, should escape it ? 

These things are not agreeable to Moses* account ; -which 
represents an happy state of peculiar favors and blessings be- 
fore the fall, and the curse coming aiterwards* but accord- 
ing to this scheme, the curse was before the fall, and the 
great favors and testimonies of love followed the apostacy. 
And the curse before the fall must be a curse with a witness, 
being to so high a degree the reverse of such means, meang 
so necessary for such a creature as innocent man, and in all 
their multitude and fulness proving too little* Paradise there- 
fore must be a mere delusion ! There was indeed a great 
shew of favor, in placing man in the midst of such dclights- 
But this delightful garden, it seems, with all its »beauty and 
sweetness, was in its real tendency worse than the apples 
of Sodom : It was but a mere buit (God forbid the blasphe- 
my) the more clTectually enticing by its beauty and delicious- 
ness, to Adam's eternal ruin ; which might be the more ex- 
pected to be fatal to him, seeing that he was the first man 
that ever existed, having no superiority of capacity to his 
posterity, and wholly without the advantage ot the observa- 
tions, experiences, and improvements of preceding genera- 
tions ; which his posterity have. 

I proceed now to take notice of an additional proof of the 
doctrine we are upon, from another part of the holy scripture. 
A very clear text for original righteousness is that -in F.ccles. 
vii. 29. ^ Lo, this only have I found, that God made man 
upright ; but they have sought out many inventions.'* 

It is an observation of no weight which Dr. Taylor makes 
on this text, that the word man is commonly used to signify 
mankind in general, or mankind collectively taken. It is true, 
it often signifies the species of mankind ; but then it is used 
to signify the species, with regard to its duration and succes- 
sion from its beginning, as well as with regard to its extent. 
The English word mankind is used to signify the species : 
liut what if it be so ? Would it be an improper or unintelligi- 
ble way of speaking, to s-^y, that when God first made man- 


"kind, he placed them in a pleasar.t paradise, (moaning; irt their 
first parents) hut now they live in the mi-lsi of briers and 
thorns ? And it is certain, that to speuk of God*3 making man- 
kind in such a meaning* viz. his giving the species ait exist- 
ence in their first parents, at the creation of the world, is 
at^reeablc to the scripture use of such an expression. As ift 
Deut. iv. 32. *' Since the diiy ihjt God created man upon thtf 
ea'*tb.'* Job xx. 4. " Knowest thou not this of old, since 
man was placed upon the earth." Isa. xlv. 12. " I have 
made the earth, and created man upon it : I, even my hands, 
have stretched out the heavens." Jcr. xxvii. 5. " I have 
made the earth, the man and the beast that are upon the 
ground, by my great power " All these texts speak of God's 
making man, by the word 7«a7i, signifying the species of man- 
kind ; and yet they all plainly have respect to God*s makio?^ 
man at Jirst^ when God made the earth, and stretched out the 
heavenst and created tiic first parents of mankind. In all these 
places the same word Adam is iised, as here in Ecclesiastes ; 
and in the last of them, used with he emfihaticum^ as it is here ; 
though Dr. Taylor omits it, when he tells us, he gives us a 
catalogue of all the places in scripture where the word is 
used. And it argues nothing to the doctor's purpose, that 
the pronoun they is used. They have sought out many inven* 
tions. Which is properly applied to the species, which God 
made at first upright : God having begun the species with 
more than one, and it being continued in a muUitnde. A% 
Christ speaks of the two sexes, in the relation of man and 
wife, as conti'iu^ha successive generations. Matth. xix. 4. 
« He that made them at the beginning, made them male and 
female ;" bavins; reference to Adam and Eve. 

No less impertinent, and also very unfair, is his criticism 
on the word jashar^ translated iLfiright. Because the word 
sometimes signifies rights he would from thence infer, that it 
does not properly signify a moral rectitude, even when used 
to express the character of moral agents. He might as well 
insist, that the English viardufiright^ sometimes, and in its 
most original meaning, signifies right %ifi^ or in an erect pos- 
ture, therefoi'e it does not properly signify any moral cJiarac- 


ter, -when applied to moral agents ; and indeed less unreasoii-' 
ably ; lor it is known, that in the Hebrew language, in a pe- 
culiar manner, most words used to signify moral and spiritu- 
al thin's, arc taken from lhin^!;s external and natural. The 
word jaskar is used, as applied to moral agents, or to the words 
and actions of such, (if i have not misreckoned*) about an 
hundred and ten times in scripture ; and about an hundred of 
them, without all dispute, to signify virtue, or moral recti- 
tude, though Dr. Taylor is pleased to say, the word does not 
generally signify a moral character) and for the most part it 
signifies true virtue^ or virtue in such a sense, as distinguish- 
es it from all false appearances of virtue, or what is only vir- 
tue in some respects, but not truly so in the sight of God. It 
is used at least eighty times in this sense : And scarce any 
word can be found in the Hebrew language more significant 
of this. It is thus used constantly in Solomon's writings, 
(where it is often found) when used to express a character or 
property of moral agents. And it is beyond all controversy, 
that he uses it in this place, in the 7th of Ecclesiastes to sig- 
nify a moral rectitude, or character of real virtue and integri- 
ty. For the wise man, in this context, is speaking of men 
with respect to their moral character, inquiring into the cor- 
ruption and depravity of mankind (as is confessed p. 184) and 
he here declares, he had not found more than one among a 
thousand of the right stamp, truly and thoroughly virtuour> 
and upright ; which appeared a strange thing ! But in ihis 
text he clears God, and lays the blame on man : Man was noi 
made thus at first. He was made of the right stamp, alto- 
gether good in his kind, (as all other things were) truly and 
thoroughly virtuous, as he ought to be ; but they have sought 
out many inventions. Which last expression signifies things 
sinful, or morally evil ; as is confessed, p. 185. And this ex- 
pression, used to signify those moral evils he found in man, 
which he sets in opposition to the uprightness roan was made 
in, shews, that by uprightness he means the most true and 

♦ Making use of Buxtorf's Concordance, which, according to the au- 
thor's professed design, directs to all the plaecs where the word is used. 


smcere goodness. The word rendered inventions, roost nat- 
urally and aptly sij^nifies the subtle devices, and crooked, de- 
ceitful ways of hypocrites, wherein they are of a character 
contrary to men of simplicity and godly sincerity ; wh«>i 
though wise in that which is good, are simple concerning evil. 
Thus the same wise man, in Prov. xii. 2, sets a t»'uly good 
man in opposition to a man of nvicked devices^ whom God will 
condemn. Solomon had occasion to observe many who put 
on an artful disguise and fair shew of goodness ; but on search* 
ing thoroughly, he found very few truly upright. As he says, 
Prov. XX. 6. ** Most met\ will proclaim every one his own 
goodness : But a faithful man who can find ?" So that it is 
exceeding plain, that by uprightness, in this place in Ecclesi- 
astes, Solomon means true n»ral goodness. 

What our author urges concerning many inventions being 
spoken of, whereas Adam's eating the forbidden fruit was but 
one invention, is of as little weight as the resrof wliat he says 
on this text. For the many lusts and corruptions of mankind, 
appearing in innumerable ways of sinning, are all the conse- 
quence of that sin. The great corruption men are fallen in» 
to by the original apostasy^ appears in the multitude of wick- 
ed ways they are inclined to. And therefore these are property 
tnentioned as the fruits and evidences of the greatness of tha;; 
apostasy and corruption. 



Concerning the kind of Death, threatened to our Jirst ParerHa^ 
if they should eat of the Forbidden Fruit. 

BR. TAYLOR, in his observations on the three first 
chapters of Genesis, says, p. 7. " The threatening to man, 
in case cf transgression was, that he should surely die. Death 


is the losing of IH'e. Death is opposed to life, and must be 
mklei.stood accoidinii^ to the nature of that life, to which it is 
opposed. Now the death here threatened can, with any cer- 
v;iinty, be opposed only to the life God gave Adam, when he 
created him, verse 7. Any thing besides this iiiust be pure 
conjecture, without solid foundation." 

, To this 1 vould say, It is true, dea(/i is ofifioscd to l[fe^ and 
must be vndcrstcod according to the nature of that life^ to which 
it is ofifioscd : But doet* it therefore follow, that nothing can 
be meant by it but the loss of life ? Misery is opposed to hap- 
piness, and sorrow is in scripture often opposed to joy ; but 
can we conclude from thence, that nothing is meant in scrip- 
ture by sorrow, but the loss of joy ? Or that there is no more 
in misery, than the loss or absence of happiness ? And if it be 
so, that the death threatened to Adam can, with certainty, be 
opposed pnly to the life given to ^da?n, ivheji God created him; 
3 think, a state of perfect, perpetual and hopeless misery i« 
properly opposed to that state Mum ivas in, when God created 
him. For I suppose it will not be denied,, that the life Adaiii 
Jiad, was truly a hapfiij life ; happy in perfect innocency, in 
the favor of his maker, surrounded with the happy fruits and 
testiinouics of his love ; And I think it has been proved, that 
l}e also was happy in a state of perfect righteousness. And 
nothing is more manifest, than that it is agreeable to a very 
common acceptation of the word life^ in scripture, that it be 
■ understood as signifying a stale of excellent and happy exist- 
ence. jNow that which is most opposite to that life and state 
Adam nv'.is created in, is a state of total, confirmed wickedness, 
and perfect hopeless misery, under the divine displeasure and 
curse ; not excluding temporal death, or the destruction of 
the body, as an introduction to it. 

And besides, that which is much more evident, than any- 
thing Dr. Taylor says on this head, is this, viz. that the 
death, which was to come on Adam, as the punishment of his 
disobedivncey was opposed to that life, which he would have 
had as the reward of his obedience in case he had not sinned. 
Obedience and dinobcdicncc are contraries : And the threaten^ 
ings and fij'omiscs, that are sanctions of a law, arc set in direct 


opposition ; and the firoiniscd rewards and threatened fiunish- 
7nfntny are what are most properly taken as each other's oppo- 
sites. But none will deny, that the life which would have 
been Adam's reward, if he had persisted in obedience, wa» 
eternal life. And therefore we ari^ue justly, that the death 
which stands ofi/ioscd to that life (Dr. Taylor himself being 
jud^, p. 120. S.) is manifestly eternal deaths a death ividcly 
different from the death ive now dic....{o use his own words. 
It**Adam, for his persevering obedience y vf^% to have had ever- 
lasting life a?id hap/iiness, in perfect holiness^ union witii his 
tnaker, and enjoyment of his favor^ and this was the life which 
>yas to be confirmed by the tree of life ; then doubtless the 
death threatened in case ot disol^edience, which stands in di- 
rect opposition to this, was a being given over to everlasting 
Kuickedness and 77iigeru', in sefyaration finym God^ and in ■endur'. 
ing his nvratk. 

And it may with the ^-reatest reason be supposed, that when 
God first made mankind, and made known to them the meth- 
ods of his moral government towards them, in the revelation 
he madeof himself to the natural head of the whole species ; 
and let him know, that obedience to him was expected as his 
duty ; and enforced this duty with the sanction of a threaten- 
ed punishment, called by the name -o^ death ; I say, we may 
with the greatest reason suppose in such a case; that by death 
was meant that same death which God esteem >^d to be the 
most proper punishment of the sin of mankind, and which he 
speaks of under that name, throughout the scripture, as the 
proper wages of the sin of man, and was always ftom tlie be- 
ginning understood to be so in the chuvch of God. It would 
be strange indeed, if it should be otherwise. It would have 
been strange, if when the law of God was first given, and en- 
forced by the threatening of a punishment, nothing at all 
had been mentioned of that great punisl>ment, ever spoken of 
under the name of death, (in the revelations which he has 
given to mankind from age to age) as ihe proper punishinent 
of the sin of mankind. And it would be no less strange, if 
"When the punishment which was mentioned and threatened 
on that occasion, was called by the same name, even deaths 


yet wc tnupt not understand it to mean the same thing, but 
something infinitely diverse, and infinitely more inconsider- 


But now let us consider what that death ia, which the 
scripture ever speaks of as the proper wages of the sin of 
mankind, and is spoken of as such by God's saints in all ages 
of the church, from the first beginning of a written revelation, 
to the conclusion of it. I will begin with the New Testa- 
ment. When the Apostle Paul says, Rom. vi. 23. the ludgts 
of sin is death, Dr. Taylor tells us, p. 120. S. that " this means 
eternal death, the second death, a death widely different from 
the death we now die." The same apostle speaks of death 
as the proper punishment due for sin, in Rom. vii. «. and 
chap. viii. 13. 2 Cor. iii. 7. 1 Cor. xv. 56. In all which places, 
Dr. Taylor himself supposes the apostle to intend eternal 
death.* And when the Apostle Jarnes speaks of death as the 
proper reward, fruit, and end of sin. Jam. i. 15. ** Sin when 
it is finished bringeth forth death." It is manifest that our 
author supposes eternal destruction to be meant.f And the 
Apostle John, agreeable to Dr. Taylor's sense, speaks of the 
second death as that which sin unrepented of will bring all 
men to at last. Rev. ii. ll.xx. 6. 14. and xxi. 8. In the 
same sense the Apostle John uses the word in his 1st epistle, 
chap. iii. 14. " We know, that we have passed from deaCh to 
life, because we love the brethren : He that hateth his brother, 
abldeth in death. 

In the same manner Christ used the word from time to 
time when he was on earth, and spake concerning the punish- 
ment and issue of sin. John v. 24. " He that heareth my 
-word, and believeth, &c. hath everlasting life ; and shall not 
come into condemnation ; but is passed from death to life." 
Where, according to Dr. Taylor's own way of arguing, it 

♦ 5w p. 78. Note on Rom. vii. 5. and Note on verse 6. Note on Rom, 
▼ , 20, Note on Rom. vii. 8. 

+ By comparing what he says. p. 126, with what he often stys of that 
death and destruction which is the demerit and end of personal sin which 

he cays is the jtronJ death^ or eternal dcstrucUen^ 


tannot be the death which we now die, that Christ speaks of, 
but eternal death, because it is set in opposition to everlastinp^ 
Hfe. John vi. 50. This is the bread which comcth down 
from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die." Chap, 
viii. 51. "Verily, verily, I say unto you, if a man keep my 
saying, he shall never see death.** Chap. xi. 26. *' And who- 
soever liveth and believeth in me, shall never die." In which 
places it is plain Christ does not mean that believers shall 
never see temporal death. See also Matth. x. 28, and Luke 
X. 28. In like manner, the word was commonly used by the 
prophets of old, when they spake of death as the proper end 
and recompense-of sin. So, abundantly by the Prophet fc^zo^ 
kiel. Ezek. iii. 18. "When I say unto the wicked man, 
thou shalt surely die.** In the original it is, Dyi/jg- thou s/ialf 
die. The same form of expression, which God used in the 
threatening to Adam. We have the same words again, chap. 
xxxiii. 18. In chap, xviii. 4, it is said, The noul that sinnethy 
it shall iWe. To the like purpose are chap. iii. 19,20, and 
xviii. 4, 9, 13, 17. ...2 I, 24,:^6, 28, chap, xxxiii. 8, 9, 12, 14, 
19. And that temporal death is not meant in these places is 
plain, because it is promised most absolutely, that the right- 
eous sh^ll not die the death spoken of. Chap, xviii. 21. Ne 
ehatl surely live, he shall not die. So verses 9, 17, 1 9, and 22, 
and chap. iii. 21. And it is evident the Prophet Jeremiah 
uses the word in the same sense. Jer. xxxi. 30. Every one 
shall die/or his own iniquity. And the same death is spoken of 
by the Prophet Isaiah. Isai. xi. 4. IVith the breath of his lifin 
shall he slay the luicked. See also chap. Ixvi. 16, with verse 
24. Solomon, who we must suppose was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the sense in which the word was used by the 
wise, and by the ancients, continually speaks of death as the 
proper fruit, issue, and recompense of sin, using the word 
only in this sense. Prov. xi. 19. Js righteoumess tcndcth to 
life, 80 he tliat fmrsueth evil^ fiursueth it to his ovm death. So 
chap. V. 5, 6, 23, vii. 27, viii. 36, ix. 18, x. 21, xf. 19, xiv. 12, 
XV. 10, xviii. 21, xix. 16, xxi. 16, and xxiii. 13, 14. In these 
places he cannot mean temporal death, for he often speaks of 
it as a punishment of the wicked, wbciein the righteous shall 


certainly be distinguished from them ; as in Prov. xii. 28. In 
the ivaxj of righteousness is Ufe^ and in the pathway thereof is no 
death. So in chap. x. 2, xi. 4, xiii. 14, xiv. 27, and many- 
other places. But we find th?s same wise man observes, that 
as to temporal death, and temporal events in general, there is 
TiO distinction, but that they happen alike to i^ood and bad. 
Eccl.ii. 14, 15, 16, viii. 14, and ix.2,3. His words are remark* 
able in Eccl. vii. 15. " There is a just man ihut fierisheth in 
his I'i.^hleousness, and there is a wicked man thdii firolong-eth 
his life in his wickedness." So we find David, in the Book of 
Psalms, uses the v»-ord death in the same sense,'vvhen he speaks 
of it as the proper wages and issue of sin. Psal. xxxiv. 21. 
"Evil shall s/az/ the wicked." He speaks of it as a certain 
thing, Psal. cxxxix. 19. « Surely thou wilt «/ay the wicked, 

God." And he speaks of it as a thing wherein the^wicked 
are distinguished from the righteous. Psalm Ixix. 28. « Let 
them be blotted out of the book of the living, and not be writ- 
\en with the righteous." And thus we find the word death 
used in the Pentateuch, or Books of Moses ; in which part 
of the Scripture it is, that we have the account of the threat- 
ening of death to Adam. When death, in these books, is 
spoken ot" as the proper fruit, and appointed reward of sin, it 
is to be understood of eternal death. So Deut. xxx. 15. " See, 

1 have set before thee this dav life and good, and death and 
evil." Verse 19. "1 call heaven and earth to record this 
day against you, that I have set before you life and deathy 
blessing and cursing." The life that is spoken of here, is 
doubtless the same that is spoken of in Levit. xviii. 5. " Ye 
shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments, which if 
a man do, he shall live in them." Tliis the apostle under- 
stands n{ eternal ///<?, as is plain by Rom. x. 5, and Gal. iii. 12. 
But that the death threatened for sm in the law of Moses, 
meant eternal death, is what Dr. Taylor abundantly declares. 
So in his Note on Rom. v. 20, Par. p. 291. *' Such a consti- 
tution the law of Moses was, subjecting those who were un- 
der it to deaih for every transgression ; meaning by death 
eternal death.'* These are his words. I'he like he asserts in 
n»any other places. When it is said, in the place row men- 


tioned, I have set before thee life and death, blccsinff and cursing, 
without doubt, the same blea»i7ig and cursing' is meant which 
God had aheady set before them with such solemnity, in the 
27th and 28ih chapters, where we have the sum of the curses 
in those last words of the 27ih chapter," Cur-ied is every one, 
which confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them.'* 
Which the apostle speaks of as a threat eninir of eternal death, 
and with him Dr. Taylor himself.* In this sense also Job 
and his friends, spake of death, as the wages and end of sin, 
who lived before any written revelation, and had their rclii:^ion 
and their phraseology about the things of religion from the 

If any should insist upon it as an objection against sup- 
posing that death was intended to signify eternal death in the 
threatening to Adam, that this use of the word is figurative ; 
I reply, that though this should be allowed, yet it is by no 
means so figurative as many other phrases used in the history 
contained in these three chapters ; as when it is said, God 
mid J Let there be light : God said, Let there be a firmament, 
&c. as though God spake such words with a voice. So when 
it is said, God called the light, day : God called the firma- 
ment, heaven, Sec. : God rested on the seventh day ; as 
though he had been weary, and then rested. And when it is 
said. They heard the i/o/c<? of God walking ; as tho-jgh the: 
Deity had two feet, and took steps on the ground. Dr. Tay- 
lor supposes, that when it is said of Adam and Eve, "* Their 
eyes were opened, and they saw that they were naked ;" by 
the word naked is meaui a state of guilt ; page 12. Which 
sense of the word naked^ is much further from the common 
use of the word, than the supposed sense of the word death. 
So this author supposes the promise concerning the seed oT 
the woman's bruisi?ig the serfient's head^ while the serpent 
should bruise his heel, is to be understood of " the Messiah's 
destroying the power and sovereignty of the Devil, and rc- 
receiving some slight hurt from him ;" pages 15, 16. Which 
makes the sentence full of figures, vastly more beside the 
common use of words. And why might not God deliver 

• Note on Rom. v. 20. Par. p. 291 — 299. 


ihre:ateniTi|;s to cur first parents in figurative cxpressionsi aft 
well as promises ? Many otlier strong figures are used in 
these chapters. 

But indeed, there is no necessity of supposing the vford 
death, or the Hebrew word so iranshtted, if used in the man- 
ner that lias been supposed, to have been figurative at all. It 
does not appear but that this word, in its true and propei' 
meaning, might signiiy perfect misery, and sensible destruc- 
tion, though the word was also applied to signify something 
more external and visible. There are many words in our 
language, such as hearty .ferisft view, discovery^ c one efition flight., 
and many ethers, which are applied to signify external things, 
as that muscular part of llie body called heart ; external feel- 
ing, culled sense ; the sight of the bodily eye, called -uienv ; 
the finding of a thing by its being uncovered, called discovery ^ 
the first beginning of the foetus in the womb, called ronc^:"^- 
tion ; and the rays of the sun, called light : Yet these words 
do as truly and properly signify other things of a more spir- 
itual, internal nature, as those : Such as the disposition, af- 
fection, perception, and thought of the mind, and manifesta- 
tion and evidence to the soul. Common use, which governs 
the propiiety of language, makes the latter things to be as 
rfiuch signified by those words, in their proper meaning, as 
the former. It is especially common in the Hebrew, and I 
»nppo?c, other oriental languages, that the same word that 
signifies something external, does no less properly and usually 
signify something more spiritual. So the Hebrew words 
\!sed for breath, have such a double signification ; jVe^hama 
signifies both breaih and the noul, and the latter as commonly 
as the former. Ruach is used for breath or wmrf,but yet more 
commonly signifies sfiint. Xcfihesh is used for breath., but 
yet more commonly signifies safuL So the word Icbh^ hearty 
no kbs properly signifies I'ne aoiil, especially with regard 
to the will and afl'ections, than that part of the body so called. 
The word .s7ia/o7n, which we render /?i?ace, no less properly 
signifies prosperity and happiness, than mutual agreement. 
The word translated Itfe, signifies the natural life of the body, 
and :i:-o the perfect and happy stale of sensible, active being* 

bttrciNAL Sim wj: 

fjtld the latter as properly as the forTner. So the word f/carA 
fei?i»ifies deslruclion, as to outward sensibility^ activity and en- 
joyment ; but it has most evidently another si 'unification, 
Which, in the Hebrew tongue, is no less proper, \\z* iierfect^ 
se?i.ubky hoficless ruin and misery, 

I" is therefore wholly without reason uri^ed, that death 
properly signifies only the loss of this present life ; and that 
therefore nothinp: else was meant by that death which was 
threatened for eatini< the forbidden fruit. Nor does it at all 
appear but that Adam, who, from what God said concerning 
the seed of the woman, that was so very fi<j;urative, could un- 
derstand, that relief was promised as to the death which was • 
threatened, (as Dr. Taylor himself supposes) understood the 
death that was threatened in the more important sense ; es- 
pecially seein^;^ temporal death, as it is ori8;mally, and in it- 
self- is evermore, excepting as changed by divine grace, an 
introduction or entrance into that gloomy, dismal state of mia- 
ery, winch is shadowed forth by the dark and awful circum- 
stances of this death, naturally sugc^esiing to the mind the 
most dreadful state of hopeless, sensible ruin. 

As to that objection which some have made, that the 
phrase, dying thou shalt die^ is several times used in the Books 
of Moses, to signify temporal death, it can be of no force ; 
For it has been shewn already, that the same phrase is some- 
times used in scripture to signify eternal death, in instances 
much more parallel with this. But indeed nothing can be 
certainly argued concerning the nature of the thing intended, 
from its being expressed in such a manner. For it is evident 
that such repetitions of a v/ord in the Hebrew language, are. <' 
no more than an emphasis upon a word in the more modern 
languages, to signify the great degree of a thing, the import- 
ance of it, or the certainty of it, &c. When we would sig- 
nify and impress these, we commonly put an emphasi ^^n 
ouF words : Instead of this, the Hebrews, when they wo^.d 
express a thing strongly, repeated or doubled the word, the 
more to impress the mind of the hearer ; as may be plain to 
every one in the least conversant with the Hebrew Bible. 
The repetition in the threatening to Adam, therefore only 


implies the solemnity and importance of the threatemTigi 
But God may denounce either etemal or temporal death with 
pcrcmplorincss and solemnity, and nothing can certainly be 
inferred concerning the nature of the thing threatened, be- 
cause it is threatened with emphasis, more than this, that the 
ihrca'ening is much to be regarded. Though it be true, 
that it might in an especial manner be expected that a threat* 
cning of eternal death^would be denounced with great empha- 
sis, such a threattniiig being infmitely important, and to be 
J egardcd above all others. 


UVierein it ia inquired^ %vhether there be any thing in the hist or '^ 
of the three first cliajUers of Geiusis^ which should lead us to 
iiUfifiose that Godj in his constitution with Adam.^ dealt with, 
mankind in general, as included in their hrst father, and 
that the thrtatcriing ofdeath^ in case he should eat the for" 
bidden fruit, had resjiect not only to him, but his pos- 
terity ? 

DR. TAYLOR, rehearsing that threatening to Adam, 
Thou shall nurely dic^ and giving us his paraphrase of it, p. T, 
8, concludes thus : " Observe, here is not one word relating 
to Adam's posterity." But it may be observed in opposition 
to this, that there is scarcely one word that we have an ac- 
count of, which God ever said to Adam or Lve, but what does 
manifestly include their posterity in the meaning and design 
of it. There is as much of a word said about Adam's pos- 
terity in that threatening, as there is in those werds of God to 
Adam and Eve, Gen. i. 28 ; " Be fruitful, and multiply, and 
replenish the earth, and subdue it ;" and as much in events* 


to lead us to suppose Adam's posterity to be included. There 
fe as much of a luord of his posterity in that threat eninj;, as ir\ 
those words, verse 29. " Behold, I have given you every 
herb beaiint^ seed. ...and every tree in which is the fruit of a 
tree yielding seed," &c. Even when (iod was about to create 
Adam, what he said on that occasion, had not respect only to 
Adam, but to his posterity. Gen. i. 26. *' Let us make man 
in our image, and let them have dominion over the fish of the 
sea,'* Sec. And, what is more remarkable, there is as much 
of a word said about Adam'^s posterity in the threatening of 
^eath, ns there is in that sentence, Gen- iii. 19. " Unto dust 
shaltthou return." Which Dr. Taylor himself supposes to 
fee a sent-ence pronounced for the execution of that very 
threatening, " Thou shalt surely die ;" and which sentence 
\iC himself also oft-en speaks of as including Adam's posterity j 
and what is much more remarkable still, is a sentence which 
Dr. Taylor himself often speaks of, as including his posterity^ 
€s a sentence of condemnation^ as a judicial sentence, and a 
sentence which God proiwunced with regard to Adam's /ios- 
terity^ aciing the part ofaJudge^ and as such condemning 
them to temporal death. Though he is therein utterly incon- 
sistent with himself, inasmuch as he at the same time abund- 
antly insists, that death is not brought on Adam's posterity 
in consequence of his sin, at all as a punishment ; but merely 
by the gracious disposal of a Father, bestowing a be7i('Jit of the 
liighest nature upon them.* 

But I shall shew that I do not in any of these things false- 
ly charge, or misrepresent Dr. Taylor. He speaks of the 
sentence in chap. iii. 19, as pronounced in pursuance of the 
threatening in the former chapter, in these words, pages 17, 
18. « The sentence upon man, verses ir, 18, 19, first affects 
the earth, upon which he was to subsist : The ground should 
be incumbered with many noxious weeds, and the tillage of 
it more toilsome ; which would oblige the man to procure a 
sustenance by hard labor, till he should die, and drop into the 
ground, from whence he was taken. Thus death entered by 

♦Page 27,5, 


sin into t^e world, anci pian became mortal,** qccording tc fhs^ 
Mveaiening in the former chapter ^ Now, if mankind becomes 
inoria!, and must die, according to the ihreaieninj; in the foi> 
Hicr chapter, then doubtless the threatenintj: in the former 
chapter, Thnu shult llifj had respect not only to 7\(lam, but tq 
jnankind, and included Adam's posterity. Yea, and Dr. Tay- 
lor is express in it, and very often so, 'hat the sentence con- 
cerning droppino^ into the i^round, or returning to the dustj 
did include Adam's posterity. So, page 20, speaking there 
of that sentence, *' Observe, (says he) that we their posterity 
arc in fact sybjected to the same affliction and mortality, here 
by sentence inflicted upon cur first parents. Page 42, Note, 
But yet men through that long tract, were all subject to 
death, therefore they must be included in the semesnce.'^ 
The. same he affirms in innumerable other places, some of 
which I shall have occasion to mention presently. 

The sentence wliich is founded on the threatening, and^ 
fts Dr. Taylor says, according! to (he threcitening, extends to a5 
many as were included in the threatening, and to no more, 
Ifihe sentence be upon a collective subject, infinitely, (as it 
-were) the greatest part of which were not included in the 
threatening, nor were ever threatened at all by any threaten- 
ing whatsoever, then certainly this sentence is not according 
tc the threatening^ nor built upon ir. If the sentence be ac" 
cording to the threatening, then we may justly explain the 
threatening by the sentence ; and if we find the sentenca 
spoken to the same person, to whom the threatening was 
spoken, and spoken in the second person singular, in like 
manner with the tlireatening, nm\ founded on the threatening, 
and according to the threatening ; and if we find the sentence 
includes Adam's posterity, then we may certainly infer, that 
so did the threatening ; and hence, that both. the threatening 
and sentence were delivered to Adam as the public head and 
peprescntativc of his posterity. 

• Tlx •uhscqufnt part of the quotation, the rooaer will not meet with io 
Cx Ihird edition of Dr. Taylor, but in the fccood of 1741, 


' And we may also further infer from it, in [inother respect 
iireclly contrary to Dr. Taylor's tloctrine, tliat the sentence 
"Virhich included .4dam-s posterity, was to deaih^as apunUhiyumi 
to that posterity, as well as to Adam hinyielf. For a sentcnc» 
pronounced in execution of a thrcjjtening. is to a punish -nentw 
Threatenings are of punishments. ^Jeither (iod nor man aro 
vont to threaten others ^vith favors and benefits. 

But lest any of this author's admirers should stand toity 
that it may very properly, be said, God threatened mr.'.nkind 
with bestowina; great kindness upon them, I would observe^* 
^at Dr. Taylor often speaks of this sentence as prononnced 
by God on all mankind as condemning- them, speaks of it as 
tL sentence of condemnation judicially fti^onouricedii or a sentence 
■which God pronounced ,on ail mankind acting as their judgcp 
and in a judicial firoceeding. Which he affirms in multitudes 
of places. In p. 20. speaking; of this sentence, which he there 
says, subjects us, Adam's and Eve's posterity, to afBiction and 
mortality, he calls it a judicial act of condemnation. « The 
judicial act of condenmation (says he) clearly implies, a tak- 
ing him to pieces, and turning him to the ground fsonn 
'whence he was taken." And p. 28, 29, Note. " in all the 
scripture froni one end to the other, there is recorded but one 
judifment to condemnation^ Vk^hich came upon all me?i, and that 
is, Gen. iii. 17... 19. Dust thou art," Sec. P. 40, speakino- of ihe 
same, he says, ^^ all men 2iVQ brought under condemnation." 
In p. 27, 28. " By judgment, judgment to condemnation, it ap- 
pearcth evidently to me? he (Paul) means the being adj^idged to 
the forementioned death ; he mc'^ns the sentence of death, of 
a general mortality, pro?iounced ujion mankind^ in consequence 
Qf Adam's first transgression. And the condemnation inflict- 
ed by \hejudg^nent of God, answeveth to, and is in effect the 
same thing with being dead." P. 50. " The many, that is 
mankinds were subject to death by the judicial act of God.'* 
P. 31. "Being made dinners, may very well signifj'', being 
adjudged^ or condenmed to death. For the Hebrew word &c. 
signifies to make one a sinner by 2i judicial se?itence, or to con- 
demn.** P. 178. Par. on Rom. v. 19. " Upon the account of 
<aijie man's disobedience, mankind were judicially constituted 


ainmrs ; that is, subiected to death, by the sentence of iGo3 
t^e judge" And there are many other places where he re- 
peats ihe same thing. And it is pretty remarkable, that in p. 
48,49, immediately after citinc^ Prov. xvii. 15. "He that 
justifii th the vicked, and he that condemneth the ju5t, are 
both an ahominntion to the Lord ;" and v/hen he is careful in 
citing these words to pr.t us in mind, that it is meant of ayw- 
dicial act ; yet in the very next words he supposes that God 
himself does so, since he constantly supposes that Adam's 
posterity, whom God condemns, are innocent His words are 
these, " From all this it followeth, that as the judgment, that 
passed upon all men to condsmnatiofi^ is death's coming upon 
alliven^ by the judicial act of God^ upon occasion of Adam's 
transgression : So, S?.c." And it is very remarkable, that in 
p. 3, 4,7. «S, he insists, " That in scripture no action is said 
to be imputed, reckoned, or accounted to any person for right** 
eousness or CONDEMNATION, but the proper act and 
deed of that person." And yet he thus continually affirms, 
that all mankind are made sinners by a judicial act of God 
the Jiidgc<f even to condomiation, &xid judicially constituted sin- 
ners, and so subjected to 2^ judicial sentence of covdemr,ation^ on 
occasion of Adam's sin ; and all according to the threatening 
denounced to Adam, thou shall surely die : Though he suppos- 
es Adam's posterity were not included in the threatening, and 
are looked upon as perfectly innocent, and treated wholly ag 

I am sensible Dr. Taylor does not run into all this incon« 
slstencc, only through oversight and blundering ; but that he 
is driven to it, to make out his matters in his evasion of that 
noted paragraph in the 5th chapter of Romans ; especially 
those three sentences, ver. 16. '* The judgment was by one 
to condemnation." Ver. 18 " By the offence of one, judgment 
came upon all men to condemnation ;" and ver. 19. " By one 
man's disobedience many v/erc made sinners." And I am 
ulso sensible of what he offers to salve the inconvenience, viz. 
«' That if the threatening had immediately been executed on 
Adam, he would have had no posterity ; and that so far the 
possible existence of Adam's posterity fell under the threaten- 

ORIGINAL SI!<»/ i(ff 

!ng6f the Taw, and into the hands of the judpjc, to be dispos- 
ed of as he should tliink fit : And that this is the ground of 
the judgment-to condemnation, cominj> upon all men."* But 
this is trifling, to a great degree : For, 

1 . Suffering deaih, and failing of possible existence, are en- 
tirely different things. If there had never been any sucb 
thing as sin committed, there would have been infinite num- 
bers of possible beings, which would have failed of existence, 
by God*s appointment. God has appointed not to bring into 
existence numberless possible worlds, each replenished with, 
innumerable possible inhabitants. But is this equivalent to 
God*s appointing them all to suffer death ? 

2. Our author represents, that dy Jdam's ^in, the possible 
existence of his fiostcrityfell into the hands of the judge^ to b: 
disfiosed of as he should think ft. But there was no need of any 
sin of Adam's, or anybody's else, in order to their being 
brought into God's hands in this respect. The future possi- 
ble existence of all created beings, is in God*s hands, antece- 
dently to the existence of any sin. And therefore by God's 
sovereign appointment, infinite numbers of possible beings, 
"without any relation to Adam, or any other sinning being, do 
fail of their possible existence. And if Adam had never sin- 
Tied, yet it would be unreasonable to suppose, but that innu- 
merable multitudes of his possible posterity, would have fail- 
ed of existence by God's disposal. For will any be so un^ 
reasonable as to imagine, that God would, and must have 
brought into existence as many of his posterity as it was pos- 
sible should be, if he had not sinned ? Or that in that case, it 
"would not have been possible, that any other persons of his 
posterity should ever have existed, than those individual per- 
sons, who now actually fall under that sentence of suffering 
death, and returning to the dust ? 

3. We have many accounts in scripture, which imply the 
actual failing of the possible existence of innumerable multi- 
tudes of Adam's posterity, yea, of many more than ever come 
into existence. As of the possible posterity of Abel, the 

* Page go, gi 95. 

Ui OtllGlNAL SIJ?. 

possible posterity of nil them that were destroyed by the^oo^^ 
and the possible postcuiy of the innumerable nniliitudes which 
we read of in scripture, destroyed l)v sword, pestilence, &C. 
And if the threatening to Ad.im reached his posterity in no 
other respect than this, that they were liable to be deprived by 
it of il'.cir possible existence, ihen these instances are niuch 
more properly a fulfilment of that threatenine^, than the suf- 
fering of death by siich as actually come into e:%istence ; and 
so is that which is most properly the judgment to condem- 
rotion, executed by the sentence of the judge, proceeding on 
the foot of that threatening. But where do we ever find thifi 
so represented in scripture ? We read of multitudes cut off 
for their personal sins, who thereby failed of their possible pos- 
terity. And these arc mentioned as God's judgments on 
them, and effects of God's condemnation of them : But when 
arc they ever spoken of as God'sjudicially proceeding against, 
and ccndcmnine; their possible posterity ? 

4. Dr. Taylor, in what he says concerning- this matterj 
speaks of the threatening of the law delivered to Adam, which 
the possible existence of his posterity fell under, cs the ground 
flf the judgment to condemnation coming upon all men. But 
herein he is exceedins; inconsistent with himself; for he af- 
lirms in a place forecited, that the scripture never speaks of 
any sentence of condemnation coming upon all men, but that 
sentence in the third of Genesis, concerning man's turning to 
dust. But according to him, the threatening of the law deliv- 
ered to Adam, could not be the ground of that sentence ; for 
he greatly insists upon it, that that law was entirely abrogated 
before that sentence was pronounced, that this law at that 
time was not in beings had no existence to have any such influ- 
ence, as might procure a sentence of death ; and that there- 
fore this sentence was introduced entirely «n another foot, 
viz. on the foot of a new dispensation of grace. The reader 
mny see this matter strenuously urged, and particularly ar- 
gued by hini,p. 113. ..220. 8. So that this sentence could 
not, according to him, have the threatening of that law for its 
ground, as he supposes ; for it never stood upon that ground. 
It could not be called a judgment of condemnation imder any 

DftlGINAt StN. m 

auch view ; for it could not be viewed under circumstances 
\inder which it never existed. 

5. If it be as our author supposes, that the sentence of 
death on all mon comes under the notion of a judgttient to 
condemnation by this means, viz. that the threatening to Ad- 
am was in some respect the ground of it ; then it also comes 
under the notion of a punishment : For threatenings annexed 
to breaches of laws, are to punishments ; and a judgment of 
condemnation to the thing threatened, must be to punishment ; 
and the thing condemned to, must have as much the notion of 
a punishment, as the sentence has the notion of a judgment 
to condemnation. I^ut this, Dr. Taylor wholly denies : He 
denies that the death sentenced to, comes as any punishment 
at all, but insists that it comes only as afavor and benefit, and 
a fruit of fatherly love to Adam's posterity, respected, not as 
guilty, but wholly innocent. So that his scheme will not admit 
of its coming under the notion of a sentence to condemnation 
in any respect Whatsoever. Our author's supposition, that the 
possible existence of Adam's posterity comes under the 
threatening of the law, and into the hands of the judge, and 
is the ground of the condemnation of all men to death, im- 
plies, that death, by this sentence, is appointed to mankind as 
an evil, at least negatively so ; as it is a privation of good r 
For he manifestly speaks of a nonexistence as a negative evil. 
But herein he is inconsistent with himself: For he continu- 
ally insists, that mankind are subjected to death only as a beji' 
efit^ as has been before shewn. According to him, death is 
not appointed to mankind as a negative evil, as any cessa- 
tion of existence, as any cessation or even diminution of good ; 
but on the contrary, as a means of a more hafifiy existence^ 
and a great increase of good. 

So that thio evasion, or salvo of Dr. Taylor's, is so far 
from helping the matter, or salving the inconsistence, that it 
increases it. 

And that the constitution or law, with the threatening of 

death annexed, which was given to Adan>, was to him as the 

head of mankind, and to his posterity as included in him, not 

only follows from some of our author's own assertions^ and 


170 ORIGINAL sin: 

the plain and full declarations of the apostle, in the fifth of 
Romans (of which more afterwards) which drove Dr. Taylof 
into such gross inconsistencies : But the account given in the 
three first chapters of Genesis, directly and inevitably leads 
U3 to such a conclusion. 

Though the sentence, Gen. iii. 19. Unto dust thou shaU 
rcttim^ be not of equal extent with the threatening in the fore- 
going chapter, or an execution of the main curse of the law 
therein denounced ; for, that it should have been so, would 
have been inconsistent with the intimations of mercy just be- 
fore given : Yet it is plain, this sentence is in pursuance of 
that threatening, being to something that was included in it. 
The words of the sentence were delivered to the same per- 
bon, with the words of the threatening, and in the same man- 
lier, in like singular terms, as much without any express men- 
tion of his posterity ; And yet it manifestly appears by the 
consequence, as well as all circumstances, that his posterity 
were included in the words of the sentence ; as is confessed 
on all hands. And as the words were apparently delivered in 
the form of the sentence of a judge, condemning for some- 
thing that he was displeased with, and ought to be condemn- 
ed, viz. sin ; and as the sentence to him and his posterity was 
but one, dooming to the same suffering, under the same cir- 
cumstances, both the one and the other sentenced in the same 
v'ords, spoken but once, and immediately to but one person^ 
we hence justly infer, that it was the same thing to both ; and 
not as Dr. Taylor suggests, p. 67, a sentence to a proper 
punishment to Adam, but a mere promise of favor tp his pos- 

Indeed, sometimes our author seems to suppose, that God 
meant the thing denounced in this sentence, as a favor both 
to Adam and his posterity.* But to his posterity, or man- 
kind in general, who are the main subject, he ever insists, 
that it was purely intended as a favor. And therefore, one 
would have thought the sentence should have been delivered, 
with manifestations and appearances of favor, and not of an- 

* Page £5, 45, ^6. S, 


^er. How could Adam understand it as a promise of great 
favor, considering the manner and circumstances of the de- 
nunciation ? How could he think, that God would go about to 
delude him, by clothing himself with garments of vengeance, 
.using words of displeasure and rebuke, setting forth the hci- 
iiousness of his crime, attended with cherubimsand a flaming 
sword ; when all that he meant was only higher testimonies 
of favor, than he had before in a state of innocence, and to 
manifest fatherly love and kindness, in promises of great 
blessings ? If this was the case, God's words to Adam must 
be understood thus : " Because thou hast done so wickedly, 
bast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of 
the tree of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not 
eat of it ; therefore I will be more kind to thee than I was in 
thy state of innocence, and do now appoint for thee the fol- 
lowing great favors : Cursed be the ground for thy sake^" &c. 
And thus Adam must understand what was said, unless any 
will say (and God forbid. that any should be so blasphemous) 
that God clothed himself with appearances of displeasure, to 
deceive Adam, and make him believe the contrary of what he 
intended, and lead him to expect a dismal train of evils on his 
posterity, contrary to all reason and justice, implying the most 
horribly unrighteous treatment of millions of perfectly inno- 
cent creatures. It is certain there is not the least appearance 
in what God said, or the manner of it, as Moses gives us the 
account, of any other, than that God was now testifying dis- 
pleasure, condemning the subject of the sentence he was pro- 
nouncing, as justly exposed to punishment for sin, and for 
that sin which he mentions. 

When God was pronouncing this sentence, Adam doubt- 
less understood, that God had respect to his posterity, as well 
as himself, though God spake wholly in ihc second person 
singular, << Because thou hast eaten. ...In sorrow shalt thou eat 
....Unto the dust shalt thou return." But he had as much 
reason to understand God as having respect to his posterity, 
when he directed his speech to him in like manner in the 
threatening. Thou shalt surely die. The sentence plainly re- 
fers to the threatening, and results from it. The threatening 


says, Jf thou caty thou shalt die : The sentence says, Be^ 
cause thou hast eaten^ thou shalt die. And Moses, who wrote 
the account, had no reason to doubt but that the affair would 
be thus understood by his readers ; for such a way oi speak- 
ing; was well understood in those days : The history he gives 
us of the origin of things, abounds with it. Such a manner of 
speaking to the first of the kind, or heads pf the race, having 
respect to the progeny, is not only used in almost every thing 
that God said to Adam and Eve, but even in what he said to 
ihc very birds and fishes, Gen. i, 22 ; and also in what he said 
afterwards to Noah, Gen. ix. and to Shem, Ham and Japhelh, 
and Canaan, Gen. ix. 25. ...27. So in promises made to Abra- 
ham, in which God directed his speech to him, and spake in 
the second person singular, from time to tinie, but meant 
chiefly his posterity : *< To thee will I give this land. In 
thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed," &c. See. 
And in what is said of Ishmael, as of his person, but m.eant 
chiefly of his posterity. Gen. xvi. 12, and xvii. 20. And so 
in what Isaac said to Esau and Jacob, in his blessing ; in which 
he spake to them in the second person singular, but meant 
chiefly their posterity. And so for the most part in the proni- 
ises made to Isaac and Jacob, and in Jacob's blessing of Eph-^ 
raim and Manasseh, and of his twelve sons. 

But I shall take notice of one or two things further, shew- 
ing that Adam's posterity were included in God's establish- 
ment with him, and the threatening denounced for his sin ; 
and that the calamines which come upon them in consequence 
of his sin, are brought on thcra as punishments. 

This is evident from the curse on the ground ; which, if it 
be any curse at all, comes equally on Adam's posterity with 
Ijimsclf. And if it be a curse, then against whomsoever it is 
desigfied and on whomsoever it terminates, it comes as a pun- 
ishment, and not as a blesiing, so far as it comes in conse* 
quence of that sentence. 

Dr Taylor, page 19, says, " A curse is pronounced upon 
the gror.j.d, but no curse upon the woman and the man." 
And in pages 45, 46, 6'. he in^isls that the ground only was 
cursed, and not the man ; just as though a curse oould ter^ 


Xninate on lifeless, senseless earth I To understand this curse 
otherwise than as terminating upon man through the ground, 
would be as senseless as to suppose the meaning to be, The 
ground shall be fiunishetU a^^d shall be mifierable for thy sake. 
Our author interprets the curse on the ground, of its being 
incumbered with noxious weeds ; but would these weeds 
have been any curse on the ground, if there had been no in- 
habitants, or if the inhabitants had been of s\ich a nature, that 
these weeds would not have been noxious, but useful to 
them ? It is said, Deut. xxviii. 17, « Cursed shall be thy 
gasket, and thy store ;" and would he not be thought to talk 
very ridiculously, who should say, " Here is a curse upon the 
basket, but not a word of any curse upon the owner ; and 
therefore we have no reason at all to look upon it, as any pun- 
ishment upon him, or any testimony of God's displeasure to- 
wards him." How plain is it, that when lifeless things, 
which are not capable of either benefit or suffering, are said 
to be cursed or blessed with regard to sensible beings, that 
Vse or possess these things or have connexion with them, the 
meaning must be, that these sensible beings are cursed or 
blessed in the other, or with respect to them ! In Exod. xxiii. 
35, it is said, " He shall bless thy bread and thy water." 
And I suppose, never any body yet proceeded to such a de- 
gree of Bubtilty in distinguishing, as to say, " Here is a bless- 
ing on the bread and the water, which went into the posses- 
sors* mouths, but no blessing on them." To make such a 
distinction with regard to the curse God pronounced on the 
ground, would in some respects be more unreasonable, be- 
jcause God is express in explaining the matter, declaring that 
it was /or 7nan*s sake, expressly referring this curse to hifn^ as 
being with respect to him, and for the sake of his guilt, and as 
consisting in the sorrow and suffering he should have from it. 
♦' In sorrow shalt thou eat of it. Thorns and thistles shall it 
bring forth to thee." So that God*s own words tell us where 
the curse terminates. The words are parallel with those in 
Deut. xxviii. 16, but only more plain and explicit, "Cursed 
ishalt thou be in the field," or in the ground. 


If this part of the sentence was pronounced under no no* 
tion of any curse or punishment at all upon mankind, but on 
the contrary, as making an alteration in the ground, that 
should be for the better^ as to them ; that instead of the sweet, 
but tempting, pernicious fruits of paradise, it might produce 
wholesome fruits, more for the health of the soul ; that it 
might bring forth thorns and thistles, as excellent medicines, 
to prevent or cure moral distempers, diseases which would 
issue in eternal death ; 1 say, if what was pronounced was 
under this notion, then it was a blessing on the ground, and 
not a curse ; and it might more properly have been said, 
" Blessed shall the ground be for thy sake. I will make a 
happy change in it, that it may be a habitation more fit for a 
creature so infirm, and so apt to be overcome with tempta- 
tion, as thou art." ' ' 

The event makes it evident, that in pronouncing this curse, 
God had as much respect to Adam's posterity, as to himself: 
And so it was understood by his pious posterity before the 
ilood ; as appears by what Lamech, the father of Noah, says, 
Gen. V. 29. « And he called his name Aba/z, saying, This 
same shall comfort us concerning our'work, and the toil of 
our hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed,^^ 

Another thing Which argues, that Adam's posterity were 
included in the threatening of death, and that our first parents 
tinderstood, when fallen, that the tempter, jn persuading them 
to eat the forbidden fruit, had aimed at the punishment and 
ruin of both them and their posterity, and had procured it, is 
Adam's immediately giving his wife that new name. Eve, or 
X//"f, on the promise or intimation of the disappointment and 
overthrow of the tempter in that matter, by her seed, which' 
Adam understood to be by his procuring life, not only for 
themselves, but for many of their posterity, and thereby de- 
livering them from that death and ruin which the serpent had 
brought upon them. Those that should be thus delivered, 
and obtain life, Adam calls the livhig ; and because he ob- 
served, by what God had said, that deliverance and life were 
10 be by the seed of the woman, he therefore remarks tha^ 


ih is the mother of all living; and thereupon gives her a new 
name, calls her Chavahy life, Gen. iii. 20. 

There is a great deal of evidence, that this is the occasion 
of Adam's giving his wife her new name. This was her 
new honor, and the greatest honor, at least in her present 
state, that the lledeemer was to be of her seed. New names 
were wont to be given for something that v/as the person's 
peculiar honor. So it was with regard to the new names of 
Abraham, Sarah, and Israel. Dr. Taylor himself observes,* 
that they who are saved by Christ, are called the livers, o» ^uvreci^ 
2 Cor. iv. 11, the living, or they that live. So we find in the 
Old Testament, the righteous are called by the name of Mc 
livingy Psalm Ixix. 28. " Let them be blotted out of the book 
of tfie livings and not be written with the righteous.? If what 
Adam meant by her being the ?nother of all livingy was only 
her being the mother of mankind, and gave her the name 
life upon that account ; it were much the most likely that 
he would have given her this name at first, when God first 
united them, under that blessing, " Be fruitful and multiply," 
and when he had a prospect of her being the mother of man- 
kind in a state of immortality ^ living indeed, livings and never 
dying. But that Adam should at that time give her only the 
name of Isha, and then immediately on that melancholy 
change, by their coming under the sentence of deaths with all 
their posterity, having now a new, awful prospect of her being 
the mother of nothing but a dying race, all from gen-eralion to 
generation turning to dust, through her folly ; I sav, that 
immediately on this, he should change her name into life, call- 
ing her now the mother o[ all living is perfectly unaccounta- 
ble. Besides, it is manifest that it was not her being the 
mother of all mankind, or her relation as a mother, which 
she stood in to her posterity, but the quality of those she 
was to be the mother of, which was the thing Adam had 
in view, in giving his wife this new name ; as appears 
by the name itself, which signifies life. And if it had been 
only a natural and mortal life which he had in view, this v;as 

• Note annexed to ^ 287. 


hothing distinguishing of her posterity from the brutes ; fof 
the very same name oUiving ones, or /m?7^ things, is given 
from time to time in this liooh of Genesis to them ; as in 
chap. i. 21, 24, 28, ii. 19, vi. 19, vii. 23, viii. I, and many oth- 
er places in the Bible. And besides, if by life the quality of 
her posterity was not meant, there was nothing in it to dis- 
tini^uish her from Adam ; for thus she was no more the 
•mother of all living, than he was the father of all living ; and 
she could no more properly be called by the name bnife oil 
any such account, than he ; but names are f^iven for distinc- 
tion. Doubtless Adam took notice of something distinguish- 
m^ concerning her, that occasioned his giving her this new 
rame. And I think it is exceeding natural to suppose, that 
as Adam had given her htv^/irst name from the manner of her 
creation^ so he gave her her new name from redcmfiiioriy and 
as it were, neiv creation, through a Redeemer, of her seed ; 
and that he should give her this name from that v.'hich com- 
forted him, with respect to the curse thai God had pronounc- 
ed on him and the earth, as Lamech named Noah, Gen. v. 29, 
« Saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work, 
and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord 
hath cursed.'* Accordingly he gave her this new name, not 
at her first creation, but immediately after the promise of a 
Redeemer, of her seed. See Gen. iii. 15.. ..20. 

No^v as to the consequence which I infer from Adam's 
"•iving his wife this name, on the intimation which God had 
given, that Satan should by her seed be overthrown and dis- 
appointed, as to his malicious design, in that deed'of his which 
God then spake of, viz. his tempting the woman. Adam in- 
fers from it, that great numbers of mankind should be saved, 
■whom he calls the living ; they should be saved from the ef- 
fects of tliis malicious design of the old serpent, and from 
that ruin which he had brought upon them by tempting their 
first parents to sin ; and so the serpent would be, with res- 
pect to them, disappointed and overthrown in his design- 
But how is any death or ruin, or indeed any calamity at alJ, 
brought upon their posterity by Satan's malice in that tempt- 
ation, if instead of that, all the death and sorrow that was con- 


^equent, >vas the Crult of God's fatherly love, ard.not Satan's 
malice, and was an instance of God's free and sovereign favor', 
such favor as Satan could not possibly foresee ? And if mul- 
titudes of Eve's posterity arc saved, from either spiiiuial or 
temporal death, by a Redeemer, of her seed, how is that any 
disappointment ofSatan's desip;n in tempting our first parents ? 
How came he to have any such thing in view, as the death of 
Adam's and Eve's posterity, by tempting them to sin, or any 
expectation that their death would be tlie consequence, unless 
he knew that they were included in the threatening ? 

Some have objected against Adam's posterity's being in- 
cluded in the threatening delivered to Adam, that the threat- 
ening itself was inconsistent with his having any posterity ; 
it being that he should die on the day that hr sinned. 

To this I answer, that the threatening was not inconsist- 
ent with his having posterity, on two accounts. 

Those words, " In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalC 
surely die," according to the use of such like expressions a- 
mong the Hebrews, do not signify immediate death, or that 
the^txecution shall be within twentyfour hours from the 
commission of the fact ; nor did God, by those words, limit 
himself as to the time of executing the threatened punish- 
ment, but that was still left to God's pleasure. Such a 
phrase, according to the idiom of the Hebrew tongue, signi- 
fies no more than these two things : 

1. A real connexion between the sin and the punishmeni. 
So Ezek. xxxiii. 12, 13. "The righteousness of the right- 
eous shall not deliver him in the day of his transgression. 
As for the wickedness of the wicked, he shall not fall there- 
by in the day that he turneth from his ^Vickedness ; neither 
shall the righteous be able to live in the day that he sinneth ; 
But for his iniquity that he hath commi'ted, he shall die for it." 
Here it is said, that in the day he sinneth, he shall not be able 
to live, but he shall die ; not signifying ihc time v, hen death 
shall be executed upon him, but the connexion between his 
sin and death ; such a connexion as in ou'' present common 
use of language is signified by the adverb of time, when / 


as if one should say, « According to the laws of our natioft*- 
so long as a man behaves himself as a good subject, he may 
live ; but when he turns rebel, he must die :" Not signifying 
the hour, day or month in \vhich he must be executed, but 
only the connexion between his crime and death. 

'2. Another thing which seems to be signified by such 
an expression, is, that Adam should be exposed to death for o7ie 
transgrcssioTiy without waiting on him to try him the second 
time. If he eat ©f that tree, he should immediately fall under 
condemnation, though afterwards he might abstain ever so 
strictly. In this respect the words are much of the same force 
with those words of Solomon to Shimei, 1 Kings ii. ^7. " For 
it shall be that on the day that thou goest out, and passest over 
the brook Kidron, thou shalt know for certaiuy that thou shalt 
fiurelij die." Not meaning that he should certainly be execut- 
ed on that day, but that he should be assuredly liable to death 
for the first ofTence, and that he should not have another trial 
to see whether he would go over the brook Kidron a second 

And then besides, 

II. If the words had implied that Adam should' die that 
very day, within twentyfour or twelve hours, or that moment 
that he transgressed, yet it will by no means follow, that God 
obliged himself to execute the punishment in its utmost ex- 
tefit on that day. The sentence was in great part executed 
immediately : He then died spiritually : He lost his inno- 
cence and original righteousness, arid the favor of God ; a 
dismal alteration was made in his soul, by the loss of that ho- 
ly, divine principle, which was in the highest sense the life 
of the soul. In this he was truly ruined and undone that very 
day, becoming cc^^rrupt, miserable and helpless. And I thinh 
it has been shewn /that such a spiritual death v/as one great 
thing implied in the threatening. And the alteration then 
made in his body and external state, was the beginning of 
temporal death. Grievous, external calamity is called by the 
name of dcofh in scripture, Exod. x. 17. " Intreat the Lord 
that he may take away this death.'* Not only was Adam's 
soul ruined that day, but his body was ruined : It lost its 


r'pcauty Jind vigor, and became a poor, dull, decaying, dying 
thing. And besides all this, Adam was that day undone in 
a more dreadful sense : He immediately fell under the curse 
of the law, and condemnation to eternal perdition. In the 
language of scripture, he is dead, that is, in a state of condem- 
nation to death ; even as our author often explains this lan- 
guage in his exposition upon Komans. In scripture lan- 
guage, he that believes in Christ, immediately receives life. 
He passes at that time from death to life, and thenceforward 
{to use the Apostle .Tohn's phrase) " has eternal life abiding 
in him," But yet he does not then receive eternal life in its 
highest completion ; he has but th-e beginning of it, and re- 
ceives it in a vastly greater degree at death ; but the proper 
time for the complete fulness is not till the day of judgment. 
When the angels sinned? their punishment was immediately 
executed in a degree ; but their full punishment is not until 
the end of the world. And there is nothing in God^s threat- 
ening to Adam that bound him to execute his full punishment 
at once, nor any thing which deterrnines that he should have 
no posterity. The law or constitution which God established 
and declared, determined that if he sinned, and had poster- 
ity, he and they should die ; but there was no constitution de- 
termining concerning the actual being of his posterity in this 
case ; what posterity he should have, how many, or whether 
any at all. All these things God had reserved in his own 
power : The law and its sanction intermeddled not with the 

It may be proper in this place also to take some no- 
tice of that objection of Dr. Taylor's, against Adam's being 
supposed to be a federal head for his posterity, that it gives 
him greater honor than Christ, as it supposes that all his 
posterity would have had eternaMife by his obedience, if he 
had stood ; and so a greater number would have had the ben- 
efit of his obedience, than are saved by Christ.* I think a 
very little consideration is sufficient to shew that there is no 

»Page 120, &c,S. 


weight in this objection ; for the benefit ofChribL'b mciivi 
may nevertheless be vastly beyond that which would have 
been by the obedience of Adam. For those that arc saved by- 
Christ, are not merely advanced to happiness by his merits, 
but arc saved from the infinitely dreadful efiects of Adam's 
sin, and many from immense guilt, pollution and misery, by 
personal sins ; also brought to a holy and happy state, as it 
wtre through infinite obstacles, and are exalted to a far great- 
er degree of dignity, felicity and glory, than would have been 
due for Adam's obedience, for aught I know, many thousand 
limes so great. And there is enough in the gospel dispensa- 
tion, clearly to manifest the sufficiency of Christ's merits for 
buch tftects in all mankind. And how great the number will 
be, that shall actually be the subjects of them, or how great 
a proportion of the whole race, considering the vast succesti 
of the gospel, that shall be in that future, extraordinary and 
glorious season, often spoken of, none can telL And the hon- 
or of these two federal heads arises not yo much from what 
was proposed to each for his trial, as from their success, and 
the good actually obtained, and also the manner of obtaining. 
Christ obtains the benefits men have through him by proper 
jntrit of condigniiy.-and a true purchase by an equivalent ; 
which would not have been the case wjth Adam, if he ha4 

I have now particularly considered the account which Mo- 
bes gives us in the bei^-inning of the Bible, of our first parents, 
and Go(J*s dealings with them, the constitution he established 
with them, their transgression, and What followed. And on 
the whole, if we consider the manner in which God apparent- 
ly speaks to Adam from time to time j and particularly, if We 
consider how plairdy and undeniably his posterity are includ- 
ed in the sentence of death pronounced on Adam after his fall, 
founded on the foregoing threatening ; and consider the curse 
denounced on the ground for liis sake, and for his and his pos- 
terity's sorrow : And also consider what is evidently the occa- 
bion of his giving his wife the new name of Eve, and his mean- 
ing in it, and withal consider apparent fact in constant and 
^nivei'sal events, with relation to the state of our first parents, 


fcnd their posterity from that time forward, through all ages of 
the world ; I cannot but think, it must appear to every im- 
partial person, that Mosps* account docs, with sufficient evi- 
dence, lead all mankind, to whom his account is communicat- 
ed, to understand, that God, in his constitution with Adam, 
dealt with him as a public person, and as the head of the hu- 
man species, and had respect to his posterity, as included in 
liim : And that this history is given by divine dii'ection, in the 
beginning of the first written revelation, to exhibit to our view 
the origin of the present, sinful, miserable state of mankind, 
that we might see what that was, which first gave occasion 
for all those consequent, wonderful dispensations of divine 
mercy and grace towards mankind, which are the great sub- 
ject of the scriptures, both'of the Old and New Testament: 
And that these things are not obscurely and doubtfully point- 
ed forth, but delivered in a plain account of things, which ea- 
sily and naturally exhibits them to our understandings. 

And by what follows in this discourse, we may have, in 
some measure, opportunity to see how other things in the 
Holy Scripture agree with what has been now observed from 
.the three first chapters of Genesis, 


Observations on other parts of the Holy Scriptures^ 
chiejly in the Old Testament, that prove the 
doctrine of Original Sin. 

ORIGINAL depravity may well be argued, from wick- 
edness being often spoken of in scripture, as a thing belonr^in;^ 
to the race of mankind, and as if it i^cre a firojiertij of the n/ic- 
cics. So in Psal. xiv. 2, 3. « The Lord looked down from 


Iicavcn upon the children ofmcn^ to see if iher^ vere any tJift 
did undcrsiaiul, and seek God. They are all gone aside; 
thty arc together become filthy : There is none that doeth 
good ; no, not one." TUe like ve have again, Psal. liii. 2, S. 
Dr. Tavlor says, p. J04, 105. <' The Holy Spirit does not 
jpean this of every individual ; because in the very same 
psalm, he speaks of some that were righteous, ver. 5, Goi is 
in the generation of the rii^'hteous." But how little is this ob- 
servation to the purpose ? For who ever supposed, that no 
unrighteous men were ever cUanp^ed .by divine grace, and af- 
terwards made righteous ? The Psalmist is speaking of what 
men are as they are the d^iildren of men, born of tlie corrupt 
human race ; and not as born of God, whereby they come to 
be the children of God, and of the generation of the righteous. 
The Apostle Paul cites" this place in Rom. iii. 10, 11, 12, tb 
prove the universal corruption of mankind ; but yet in tjie 
same chapter he supposes these same persons here spoken 
of as wicked, may become righteous, through the righteous- 
ness and grace of God, 

So wickedness is spoken of in other places in the Book of 
Psalms, as a thing that belongs to men, as of the human race-, 
as so7isof7nen. Thus in Psal. iv. 2. " O ye sons ofmcn^ how 
long will ye turn my glory into shame ? How long will yc 
love vanity ?" &c. Psal. Ivii. 4. " I lie among them that are 
set on fire, even the soils ofmen^ whose teeth are spears and ar- 
rovrs, and their tongue a sharp sword.*^' Psal. Iviii. 1,2. « Do 
ye indeed speak righteousness, O congregation ? Do ye judge 
uprightly, O ye sons of men ? Yea, in heart ye wdrk wicked- 
ness ; ye weigh out the violence of your hands in the earth.'* 
Our author, mentioning these places, says p. 105, Note, 
<< There was a strong party in Israel disaffected to David*s 
person and government, and sometimes he chooselh to de- 
note them by the sons or children of men." But it would 
have been worth his while to have inquired, Why the Psalm- 
ist fihould choose to denote the wickedest and worst men in Is- 
rael by this name ? Why he should choose thus to disgrace 
the human race, us if the compellation of sons of men most 
properly belonged to such as were of the vilest character, 


aUc! as if all the sons of men, even every one of them, were 
of such a character, and none of ihem did good ; no, not one ? 
Is it not strange, that the righteous should not be thought 
worthy to be called so7is ofjnen, and ranked with that noble 
race of beings, who are born into the world wholly right and 
innocent ! It is a good, easy, and natural reason, why he 
chooscth to call the wicketl, so?is of men, as a proper name for 
them, that by being of the sons of men, or of the corrupt, ru- 
ined race of mankind, they come by their depravity. And 
the Psalmist himself leads us to this very reason, Psal. Iviii, at 
the beginning. " Do ye judge uprightly, O ye sons ofw.cn ■■ 
Yea, in heart ye work wickedness, ye weigh out the violence 
of your hands. The wicked are estranged from the womb,'* 
3cc. of which I shall speak more by and by. 

Agreeable to these places is Prov. xxi. S, " The way of 
manis froward and strange ; but as for the pure, his work is 
right." He that is perverse in his walk, is here called by the 
name of man, as distinguished from the pure : Which I think 
is absolutely unaccountable, if all mankind by nature are pure-, 
and perfectly innocent, and all such as are froward and strange 
in their ways, therein depart from the native purity of all 
mankind. The words naturally lead us to suppose the con- 
trary ; that depravity and perverseness properly belong t» 
mankind as they are naturally, and that a being made pure, is 
by an afterwork, by which some are delivered from nativ'e 
pollution, and distinguished from mankind in general ; which 
is perfectly agreeable to the -i^presentation in Rev. xiv. 4, 
where we have an account of a number that iver-e riot clfjilrd, 
but were pure, and foUoived the Lamb ; of whom it is said, 
These were redeemed from among men. 

To these things agree Jer. xvii. 5, 9. In ver. 5, it is said, 
" Cursed is he that trusteth in man** And in ver. 9, this rea- 
son is given, " The heart is deceitful above all things, and 
desperately wicked ; who can know it ?" What heart is this 
so wicked and deceitful ? Why, evidently the heart ofhim^ 
whom, it nvas said before, nve must not trust ; and that is man. 
It alters not the case, as to the present argument, whether the 
deceitfulness of the heart here spoken of, be its deceitfuiness 


to the man himself, or to others. So Eccl. ix. 3. " Maclne^S 
IS in tljc heart of the .<^0725 ofvien^ while they live." And those 
words of Christ to Peter, Malth. xvi. 23. " Get thee behind 
me» Satan, for thou savorest not the things that 1x5 of God, 
but the things that bcof?"e/z." Signifying plainly, that to be 
carnal and vain, and opposite to what is spiritual and divine, is 
what properly belongs to mm in their present state. The 
same thing is supposed in that of the apostle, 1 Cor. iii. 3. 
«' For ye are yet. carnal. For whereas there is among you 
envying and strife, are ye not carnal, and walk as men P" And 
that in Hos. \i. 7. <' But they like mcvy have transgressed the 
covenant.'* To these places may be added Matth. vii. 1 1, 
*' If ye, being evil, know how to give good gifts." Jam. iv. 5. 
« Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that 
dnvelleth iv. ns^ Im^tcth to C72vy ?'^ 1 Pet. iv. 2. "That he no 
longer should live the rest of his time in the lusts of men^ but 
to-the will of God." Yet above all, that in Job xv. 16. « How 
much more abominable and filthy is -maji^rjlio drinkcth iniqid-^ 
ty like ti-ctcr ? Of which more presently. 

Now what account can be given of these things, on Dr. 
Taylor's scheme ? How strange is it, that we should have 
such descriptions, all over the Bible, of man^ and the soris of 
men ' Why should man be so continually spoken of as evil, 
carnal, perverse, deceitful, and desperately wicked, if all men 
are by nature as perfectly innocent, and free from any propen- 
sity to evil, as Adam was the first moment of his creation, all 
made rit^/it^ as our author would have us understand, Eccl. vii. 
29 ? Why, on the contrary, is it not said, at least as often, and 
with equal reason, that the heart of man ts right and pure ; that 
the ivay of man ist innoeent and holy ; and that /ic nvho savors 
true virtue and nvisdom^ savor/i the things that be of men ? Yea, 
and why might itnot as well have been said, The Lord looked 
doii'nfrom I, raven on the stonn rf men^ to see if there ivere any 
that did vndrrstand, and did feek after God ; and they were all 
right, altogether pure y there ivas jwne inclined to do ivickednessy 
no, not one ? 

Of the like import wit1i the texts mentioned are those 
which represent wickedness as what properly belongs to tbc 


W&rld; and that they who arc other\Visc, are \taved frorh the 
fvorldy and callrd one of it. As John vii. 7. '* The world can- 
not hate you ; but me it hateth ; because I testify of it, that 
the works thereof are evil." Chap. viii. 23. *» Ye are of this 
ivorld : I am not of this ivorld." Chap. xiv. 17. « The spirit 
of truth, whom the ivoHd cannot receive; because it seeth 
him not, neither knoAveth him : But ye know him." Chap.' 
XV. 18, 19. " If the world hate you, ye know that it hated 
me before it hatedyou. If ye were of the world, the vjorld 
•would love its o^Vn : But because ye are not of the world, but 
I liave chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth 
you." Rev. xiv. 3, 4. " These are they which were redeem- 
ed from the «°a7*/'A... .redeemed from amoni^ men." Jolm xvii. 
9. « I pray not for the world, but for them whicli ihon hast 
given me." Ver. 14. " I have p^iven them tiiy word ; and the 
world hath hated them, because they are not of the worldy 
even as I am not of the world.*' I John iii. 13. " Marvel 
not, my brethren, if the world hate you." Chap. iv. 5 " Thej' 
are of the lOorld, therefore speak they of ihe world, and ihe 
world heareth them." Chap. v. 19« " We are of God, and 
the whole world lieth in wickednes-j." It is evident, that in 
these places, by the world is meant the world of mankind ; 
not the habitation, but the inhabitants : For it is the world 
spoken of as loving, hating, doing evil worksy afieaking, hearm 
inffj See. 

It shews the same thin£»;» that wickedness is often spoken 
«f as heinp^ man's own, in contradistinction from virtue and ho- 
liness So men's lusts are ofien called their own heart's lusts, 
and their practisinf^ wickedness is called walking in their own 
"ways, walking in their own counsels, in the imagination of 
their own heart, and in the sight of their own eyes, accordinij 
to their 07172 devices, &c. These things denote wickedness 
to be a quality belonging properly to the character and nature 
of mankind in their present state : As, when Christ would 
represent that lying is remarkably the character and the very 
nature of the devil in his present state, he expresses it thus, 
John viii. 44. " When lic speaketh rx lie, he speaketh of hift 
own : For he is a liar, and the father of it." 


, And that wickedness belongs to ihe nature of mankind jnF 
their present state, may be argued from those places which 
ftp^ak of mankind as being wicked in their childhood^ or from 
their childhood. So, that in Prov. xxii. 15. " Foolishness is 
bound in the heart of a child ; but the rod of correction shall 
drive it far from him.'* Nothing is more manifest, than that 
the wise man in this book continually uses the word folly, or 
foolishness, for wickedness : And that this is what he means 
in this place, the words themselves do she^v : For the rod of 
correction is proper to drive away no other foolishness, than 
that which is of a moral nature. The word rendered bounds 
•jignifics, as is observed in PooVs ^ynofisis^ a close and firm 
union. The' same word is used in chap. vi. 21. " BindK\i^vs\ 
continually upon thy heart." And chap. vii. S. « Bind them 
upon thy fingers, write them upon the table of thine heart.*" 
To the like purpose is qhap. iii. 3, and Deut, xi. 18, where 
this word is used. The same verb is used, 1 Sam. xviii. 1. 
« The soul al Jonathan was knit {pxhoTmd), to the soul oi Da* 
t/J, idwd Jonathan loved him as his own soul." But how 
comes wickedness to be so firmly bound, and strongly fixed, 
in the hearts of children, if it be not there naturally ? Thejr 
having had no time firmly to fix habits of sin, by long custom 
in actual wickedness, as those that have lived many years in 
the world. ' 

The same thing is signified in that noted place, Gen. viih 
1\. «' For the imagin'ation of man's heart is evil, yrom Ae> 
youth^^ It alters not the case, w^hethcr it be translated ybr 
or thoufrh the imagination of man*s heart is evil from his 
youth, as Dr; Taylb^ would have it ; Still the words suppose 
it to be so as is said. 'The word translated youths signifies 
Ihe whole of the former part of the age of man, which com- 
Vncrccs from the beginning of life. The word, in its deriva- 
tion, has reference to the birth or beginning of existence. . It 
coTPCs from J^'a^nar^ which signifies to shake off, as a tree 
shupve'.s off its ripe fruit, or a plant its seed : The birth of 
thi'drcn beino; commonly represented by a tree's yielding 
1tu!% or'fl pHmt's yielding seed. So that the word here trans- 
lated youth, comprehends not* dnlj'^what we in English most 


commonly call the lime of" youth, but also childhood and in- 
fancyj and is very often used to signify these latter. A word 
of the same root is used to signify a yoz:;/^ c////^, or a littk 
child^ in the following places ; 1 Sam. i. 24, 25, 27 ; 1 Kings 
iii. 7, and xi. 17 ; 2 Kings ii. 23 ; Job xxxiii. 25 ; Prov. xxii. 
€, xxiii. 13, and xxix. 21 ; Isai. x. 19, xi. 6, and lxv.20 ; llos. 
xi. 1. The same word is used to signify an infant^ in Exod. 
ii. 6, and x. 9 ; Judg. xiii. 5, 7, 8, 24 ;. 1 Sam. i. 22, and iv. 
21 ; 2 Kings v. 14 ; Isai. vii. 16, and viii. 4. 

Dr. Taylor says, p. 124, Note, that he " conceives, from 
the youths is a phrase signifying the greatness^ or long dura- 
tion of a thing." But if by long duration he means any thing 
else than y/hat is literally expressed, viz. from the beginning 
of life, he has no reason to conceive so ; neither has what he 
offers, so much as the shadow of a reason for his conception. 
There is no appearance in the words of the two or three texts 
he mentions, of their meaning any thing else than what is 
most literally signified. And it is certain, that what he sug- 
gests is not the ordinary import of such a phrase among the 
Hebrews : But that thereby is meant from the beginning, or 
early time of life, or existence ; as may be seen in the places 
following, where the same word in the Hebrew is used, as in 
this place in the 8th of Genesis. I vSam. xii. 2. '* I am old, 
and gray headed. ..and I have walked before you from my child- 
hood unto this day ;'* where the original word is the same. 
Psal. Ixxi. 5, 6. « Thou art my trust /rom my youth : By thee 
have I been holden up from the womb. Thou art he that 
took me out of my mother's bowels." Ver. 17, 18. " O God, 
thou hast taught me from my youth ; and hitherto have I de- 
clared thy wondrous works : Now also, when 1 am old and 
gray headed, forsake me not," Psal. cxxix. 1, 2. '• Many a 
time have they afflicted me from my youchy may Israel now 
say : Many a time have they afflicted mcfrom my youth ; yet 
have they not prevailed against me." Isai. xlvii. 12. « Stand 
now with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein, thou hast 
labored, /rom My yowr//." So ver. 15, and 2 Sam. xix. 7. 
" That will be worse unto thee, than all the evil that bcfef 
'.YitC: from thy youth Mx\\i\ now." Jer. iii. 24, 25, « Sham© 


hath devoured the labor of onr fathers, /rom our youth, Wd 
have sinned against the- Lord our God/ro7n our zjouth, even t© 
this day." So Gen. xlvi. 34 ; Job xxxi. 18 ; Jer, xxxii. 30, 
and xlviii. 11 ; Ezek. iv. 14 ; Zech. xiii. 5. 

And it is to be observed, that according to the manner of 
the Hebrew lant^iiage, when it is said, such a thing has been 

from youths or the first part of existence, the phrase is to be 
understood as including that first time of existence. So, Josh. 
vi. 21. " They utterly destroyed all, from the young to the 
old,** (so it is in the Hebrew) i. e. including both. So Gen. 
xix. 4, and Esther ill. 13. 

And as mankind are represented in scripture, as being of 
a wicked heart from their youths so in other places they are 
spoken of as being thusy7*om the womb. Psal. Iviii. 3. " The 
wicked are estranged yro77z the nvomb : They go astray as soon 
as they be born, speaking lies." It is observable, that the 
Psalmist mentions this as what belongs to the wicked, as the 
iions of men : For, these are the preceding M'ords : " Do ye 
judge uprightly, O t/e" 50«6" o/"7/2en.? Yea, in heart ye work 
wickedness." (A phrase of the like import wiih that in Gen. 
viii. 21. The imagination, or operation, as it might have been 
rendered, of his heart is evil.) Then it follows, The nvicked 
are estrani^ed from the womb, kc. The next verse is, Their 

jioison is like the poisoji of a serficnt. It is so remarkably, as 

-the very nature of a serpent is poison : Serpents are poison^ 
ous as soon as they come into the world : They derive a poi- 
sonous nature by their generation. Dr. Taylor, p. 134, 135, 
says, " It is evident that this is a scriptural figurative way of 
aggravating wickedness on the one hand, and of signifying 
early and settled habits of virtue on the other, to speak of it as 
beingyVowi the nvomh** And as a probable instance of the lat- 
ter, he cites that in Isai. xlix. I. " The Lord hath called me 

from the tvomb ; from the bowels of my mother he made 
mention of my name.'* But I apprehend, that in order to 

. seeing thib to be either evident or probable, a man must have 
eyes peculiuriy affected. I humbly conceive that such phra- 

•bes as that in the 49th of Isaiah, of God's calling the prophet 

/rD?n the vj.ombf are evidently not of the import, which he sup^ 


^ses ; but mean truly from the bcginninp; of existence, and 
are manifestly of like sii^nification with that which is said of 
the prophet Jeremiah, Jer. i. 5. « Before I formed thee in 
the belly, I knew thee : Before thou earnest out of the 
womb, I sanctified thee, and ordained thee a prophet unto 
the nations." Which surely means something else besides 
a high degree of virtue : It plainly signifies that he was, 
from his first existence, set apart by God for a prophet. And 
it would be as unreasonable to understand it otlierwise, as to 
suppose the angel meant any other than that Samson was 
set apart to be a Nazarite from the beginning of his life, 
when he says to his mother, " Behold, thou shalt conceive 
and bear a son : And now drink no wine, nor strong drink, 
&c. For the child shall be a Nazarite to God,./7-om the luomb^ 
to the day of his death." By these instances it is plain, that 
the phrase, frovt the ivomby as the other, frc7n the youths as 
used in scripture, properly signifies from the beginning of 

Very remarkable is that place, Job xv. 14, 15, 16. " What 
js man, that he should be clean ? And he that is born of a 
ttDoman^ that he should be righteous ? Behold, he putteth no 
trust in his saints ; Yea, the heavens are not clean in his 
sight ? How much more abominable and filthy is man, 
which drinkelh iniquity like water i" And no less remark- 
able is our author's method of managing it. The sixteenth 
verse expresses an exceeding degree of wickedness, in as 
plain and emphalical terms, almost, as can be invented ; ev- 
ery word representing this in the strongest manner : '» How 
much more abominable and filthy is man, that drinketh iniqui- 
ty like water ?" I cannot now rec oliect where we have a 
sentence equal to it in the whole Bible, for an emphatical, 
lively and strong representation of great wickedness of heart. 
Any one of the words, as such words are used in scripture, 
would represent great wickedness : If it had been only said, 
"* How much more abominable is man ?" Or, " How much 
more filthy is man ?" Or, " Man that drinketh iniq\jity." 
But all these are accumulated with the addition o{..,.Ukc water 
.,.JLht further to represent the boldness or greediness of men 


men in wickedness ; though iniquity be the most deaclly poij^ 
on, yet men drink it c's boldly as the^' drink water, are as fa- 
miliar with it as with their common drink, and djink it with 
like greediness, as he that is thirsty drinks water. That 
boldness and eagerness in persecuting the saints, by wliich 
the gi-eal degree of the depravity of man's heart often appears, 
is represented thus, Psal. xiv. 4. " Have the workers of in- 
iquity no knowledge, who eat up my people as they eat bread?** 
And the greatest eagerness of thirst is represented by thirst- 
ing as an animal thirsts after water, Psalm xlii. 1. 

Now let us see the soft, easy, light manner, in which Dr« 
Taylor treats this place, p. 143. « How much more abomin- 
able and filthy is man, in coni^iarison of the divine /lurity, who 
drinketh iniquity like water ? Who is attended with so 
many sensual appetites, and so apt to indulge them. You see 
the argument, man, in his present weak and fleshly state, can- 
not be clean before God. Why so ? Because he is conceiv- 
ed and born in sin, by reason of Adam's sin : No such thing. 
But because, if the purest creatures are not pure, in compart" 
son of God, much less a being subject to so many i7i^r?miie&^ 
as a mortal man. Which is a demonstration to me, not only 
that Job and his friends did not intend to establish the doc- 
trine we are now examining, but that they were wholly stran- 
gers to it." Thus this author endeavors to reconcile ' this 
text with his doctrine of the perfect, native innocence of man- 
'liinU ; in which we have a notable specimen of his demon- 
strations, as well as of that great impartiality and, fairness in 
examining and expounding the scripture, which he makes so 
often a profession of. 

In t])is place we are not only told how wicked man's heart 
is, but also how men come by such wickedness ; even by be- 
ing of the race of mankind, by ordinary generation* " What 
is man, that he should be clean ? And he that is born of a 
woman, that he should be rii;hteous :" Our author, pages 
141, .42, represents man's being born of a woman, as a pe- 
riphrasis, to signify man ; and that there is no design in the 
words to give a reason, why man is not clean and righteous. 
But the case is most evidently otherwise, if wc may interpret 


the Book of Job by itself : It is most plain, that man's be- 
ing born of a woman is given as a reason of his not being 
clean, chap. xiv. 14. « Who can bring a clean thing out of 
an unclean ?'* Job is speaking there expressly of man's be- 
ing born of a woman, as appears in verse 1. And here how 
plain is it, that tliis is given as a reason of man's not being 
clean ? Concerning this Dr. Taylor says, « That this has no 
respect to any moral uncleanness, but only common frailty,'* 
Sec. But how evidently is this also otherwise? When 
that uncleanness, which a man has by being born of a woman, 
is expressly explained of unrighteousness, in the next chapter 
at verse 14. " What is man that he should be clean ? And 
he that is born of a woman, that he should be righteous ?'* 
And also in chap. xxv. 4. <' How then can man be justified 
with God ? And how can he be clean that is born of a wo- 
man ?" It is a moral cleanness Bildad is speaking of, which 
a man needs in order to being justified. His design is, to 
convince Job of his moral impurity, and from thence of God's 
righteousness in his severe judgrnents upon him ; and not of 
his natural frailty. 

And without doubt, David has respect to this same way 
of derivation of wiclujdness of heart, when he says, Psalm li. 
5. *' Behold, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my 
mother conceive me." It alters net the case as to the argu- 
ment we are upon, whether the word translated conceive, sig- 
nifies conceive, or nurse ; which latter our author takes 
so much pains to prove : For when he has done all, he 
speaks of it as a just translation of the words to render them 
thus : " I was born in iniquity, and in sin did my mother 
nurse me," page 135. If it is owned that man is born in 
sin, it is not worth the while to dispute whether it is express- 
ly asserted that he is conceived in sin. But Dr. Taylor af- 
ter his manner insists, that such expressions, as being born 
in sin, being transgressors from the 'ufomb, and the like, are 
only phrases figuratively to denote aggravation and high de- 
gree of wickedness. But the contrary has been already de- 
monstrated, from many plain scripture instances. Nor is 
one instance produced, in which there is any evidence that 


such a phrase is used in such a manner. A poetical seh^ 
tence out of Virgil's iEneids, has here been produced, and 
made much of by some, as parallel with this, in what Dido 
fcays to uEneas in these lines : 

Nee tlbi diva parens, generis nee Dardanus auetor, 
Perfide : Sed duris genuit te cauubus horrens 
Caueasus, hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera tygres. 

In which she tells JEneas, that not a goddess was his mother:* 
Dor Anchises his father ; but that he had been brought forth 
by a horrid, rocky mountain, and nursed at the dugs of ty- 
gers, to represent the greatness of his cruelty to her. But 
how unlike and unparallel is this ? Nothing could be more 
natural than for a woman, overpowered with the passion of 
love, and distracted v/ith raging jealousy and disappointment, 
ihinking herself treated with brutish perfidy and cruelly, by 
a lover, whose highest fame had been his being the son of 
a p;oddess, to aggravate his inhumanity and hardheartedness 
with this, that iiis behavior was not worthy the son of a god- 
dess, nor becoming one v.hose father was an illustrious prince; 
and that he acted more as if he had been brought forth by 
hard, unrelenting rocks, and had sucked the dugs of tygers. 
But what is there in the case of David parallel, or at all in 
like njanner leading him to speak of himself as born in sin, 
in any such sense ? He is not speaking himself, nor anjjr 
one else speaking to him, of any excellent and divine father 
and mother, that he was born of; nor is there any appear- 
;ince of his aggravating his sin by its being unworthy of his 
high birth. There is nothing else visible in David's case, 
to lead him to take notice of his being born in sin, but only 
his having such experience of the continuance and power of 
indwelling sin, after so long a lime, and so many great means 
to engage him to holiness ; which shewed that sin was inbred, 
and in his very nature. 

Dr. Taylor r)ften objects to these and other texts, brought 
by divines to pi ove Oiginal Sin, tj-iat xhc.vc is no mention 
made in them of Adam, nor of his sin. He cries out, " Here 

ORIGINAL sin; l^s 

Js not the least tncntlon or intimation of Adam, or any ill eC« 

iccts of his sin upon us Here is not one word, nor the least 

hint of Adam, or any consequences of his sin, Sec. Sec.* He 
saysjt " If -Tob apd his fiiends had known and believed the. 
doctrine of a corrupt nature, derived Irom Adam's sin only, 
tlley oup;ht ifi reason and truth to have given this as the true 
and only reason of the human imperfection and unclcanncss 
they mention." But these ol)jeclions and exclamations arc 
made no less impertinently, than they are frequently. It is 
ijo.more a proof, that corruption of nature did not come by 
Adam's sin, because many limejs when it is mentioned, Ad- 
am's sin is not expr&ssly mentioned as the cause of it, than 
that death did not come by Adam's sin (as Dr. Taylor says ic 
did) because though death, as incident to mankind, is men- 
tioned so often in the Old Testament, and by our Saviour in 
his discnurses, yet Adam's sin is not once expressly nlenlion- 
ed, after the three first chapters of Genesis, any where in all 
the Old Testament, or the four evanijelists, as the occasion 
of it. 

What Christian has there ever been, that believed the 
moral corruption of the nature of mankind, whoever doubted 
that it carae tha» way, which the apostle speaks of, when he- 
says, << Bij one wan sin entered into the world, and death by 
sin" ? Nor indeed have they any more reason to doubt of it, 
than to doubt of the whole history of our first parents, be- 
cause Adam's name is so rarely mentioned, on any occasiort 
in scripture, after that first account of him, and Eve's never at 
jftU ; ai d because we have no more any express mention of 
the particular manner, in which mankind were first brought 
into beinp", either with respect to the creation of Adam or 
Eve. Tt is sufficient, that the abiding, most visible effects of 
these thine^, remain in the view of mankind in all ages, and 
ire often spoken of in scripture ; and that the particular man- 
ner of iheir being introduced, is once plainly set forth in the 
beginning of the Bible, in that history which gives us an ac- 

♦ Pa?e 5; S4, gfi 97 98, 10a »o8. H2, i\8, xaO, xtB, IB7, ia8, 13^ 
i4«, X43, 149, i5», 155, 229. t 142. 



CGunt of the origin oT all things. And doubtless it was ex- 
pected, by the great author of the Bible, that the account in 
the three first chapters of Genesis should be taken as a plain 
ncceunt of the introduction of both natural and moral evil into 
the world, as it has been shewn to be so indeed. The histo- 
ry of Adam's sin, with its circumstances, God's threatening, 
and the sentence pronounced upon him after his transgres- 
sion, and the iirimediate consequences, consisting in so vast an 
alteration in his state, and the state of the world, which abides 
still, with respect to all his posterity, do most directly and suf- 
ficiently lead to an understanding of the rise of calamity, sin 
and death, in this sinful, miserable world. 

It is fit we all should know, that it does not became us t6 
tell the Most High, how often he shall particularly explain 
and give the reason of any doctrine which he teaches, in or- 
der to our believing what he says. If he has at all given us 
evidence that it is a doctrine agreeable to his mind, it be* 
comes us to receive it with full credit and submission ; and 
not sullenly to reject it, because our notions and humors are 
not suited in the manner, and number of times, of his partic- 
uln;ly explainin?]^ it to us. How often is pardon of sins prom* 
ised in the Old Testament to repenting and returning' sin- 
ners ? How many hundred times is God's special favor there 
promised to the sincerely righteous, without any express 
mention of these benefits being through Christ ? Would it 
thererorc be becoming us to say, that, inasmuch as our de- 
pendence on Christ: for these benefits, is a doctrin*, which, if 
true, is of such importance, God ought expressly to have 
mentioned Christ's merits as the reason and ground of the 
benefits, if he knew they were the ground of them, and should 
have plainly declared it sooner, and more frequently, if ever 
he expected we should believe him, when he did tell us of it t 
How often is vengeance and misery threatened in the Old 
Testament to the wicked, without any clear and express sig- 
nification of any such thing intended, as that everlasting fire, 
where there is v.ailintj and gnashing of teeth, in another 
world, which C'hrist so often speaks of as the punishment ap- 
.pointed for all the wicked ? Would it now become a Christ- 


■Jan, to object and say, that if God really meant any such 
thing, he ought in reason and truth lo have declared it plainly 
and fully ; and not to have been so silent about a matter of 
•such vast importance to all mankind, lor four thousand years 

.CHAPTER lli; 

^hservaliens on various^othtr Places of Scripture^ 
principally of the New Testament, j5rot;z??^ the 
Dectrine ^Original Sin. 


Observations on John iii. 6, in connexion with some other fias- 
sages in the .A''cw Testament, 

THOSE words of Christ, giviijg a reason to Nicode- 
'snus, why we mubt be born again, John iii. 0, " That which 
is born of the flesh, is fiesh ; and that which is born of the 
spirit, is spirit ; have not, without f;ood reason, been produc- 
ed by divines, as a proof of the doctrine of original sin ; sup- 
posing, that by Jiesh here is meant ihe human nature in a de- 
based and corrufit state. Yet Dr. Taylor, p. 144, thus ex- 
plains these words, That ivhich is born of the Jleshf is ftth : 
^' That which is born by natural descent and propagation, is a 
man, consisting of body and soul, or the mere constitution 
and powers of a man in their natural state." But the con- 
stant use of these terms, Jesh and sfiirit, in other parts of the 
New Testament, when thus set in opposition one to another, 


mnd the latter said to be produced by the Spirit of God, 39 
hcr^» and when speaking oiT the same thing, which Christ is 
)iere speakings of to Nicodemus, viz. the requisite qualifica- 
tions to salvation, will fully vindicate the sense of our divines. 
Thus in the 7th and Sth chapters of Romans, where these 
termsjlfsh and spirit (cap^ and mnvfAot) are abundantly repeat- 
ed, and set in o])po'^ii.in, as here So, chap. vii. 14. The law 
is spirinial (xpnv(ji»rix^) but I am carnal {capiHK'^) sold under 
sin. He catinoi only n>€an, *' I am a man, consisting of body 
and soul, and havinp: the powers of a man." Vcr. 18. <' I 
Icnow that in mc, that is in my f-esh^ dwelleth no good thing." 
He does not mean to condemn his frame, as consisting of body 
and soul ; and to assert, that in his human constitution^ nvith the 
^lonvcrs of a nmn, dwells no good thing. And when he sjys 
in the last verse of the chapter, " Wi'h the mind, I myself 
serve the law of God, but with the^e.?^, the law of siri ;** he 
cannot mean, " J myself serve the law of God ; but with iny 
innocent human constitution, as having the powers of a man, / 
nerve the law o/sin.** And when he says in the next words 
in the beginning of the 8th chapter, '• There is no condemna- 
tion to them, that walk not after ihejlesh, but after the s/iirit ;" 
and ver. 4, " The righteousness of the law is fulfilled in us, 
\vho walk not after the flesh ;" he cannot mean, " There is 
no condemnation to them that walk not according to the pow- 
ers of a man^^ Sec. And v/hen he says, ver, 5 and 6, " They 
that are after \\\^ flesh.) do mind the things of ihc flesh ; and 
to be carnally minded is death ;" he docs not intend, " They 
tha* are according to the human constitution, and ihe powers 
of a man, do mind the things of the human constitution and 
jiowtrs ; and to mind these, is death." And when he says, 
Ver. 7 and 8, " The carnal (or fcshlu) mind is enmity against 
God, and is not sul^ject to the law of God, neither indeed can 
be ; so that they that arc in \\\tjlcsh, cannot please Gcd ;" he 
cannot mean, that, " to mind the things which arc agreeal^le 
Xc^Wg powers and constitution of a man,'*- (who, a^ our author 
say, is constituted or made right) " is enmity against God ; 
and that a mind which is agreeable to thi;* right human con- 
stitution, as God hath r;iade it, is not siil)jcct to Iho lav; at 


pod, nor indeed can be ; and that they who are according to 
such a constitution, cannot please God.'* And when it is said, 
ver. 9, t^ Ye are not in ihc Jlrsh, but in the .s-/iirit ;" the apos- 
tle cannqt mean, « Ye arc not in the hmnaii nature^ an connti' 
■tuted of body and soul, and luith the fwvjrrn of a inayi" It is 
most manifest, that by ihefcsh here, the apostle means some 
nature that is corrupt, and of an evil tendency, and directly- 
opposite to the law, and holy nature of God ; so that to be* 
and walk according to it, and to have a mind conformed lo it, 
is to be an utter enemy to God and his law, in a perfect in- 
consistence with being subject to God, and pleasing God ; and 
in a sure and infallible tendency to death, and utter destruc- 
tion. And it is plain, that here by bchig and wolHing after, oi 
according to ihe flesh, is meant the same thing as being and 
walking according to a corrupt and sinful nature ; and to be 
and walk according to the sfiirit, is to be and walk according 
to a holy and divine nature, or principle : And to be carnallu 
minded, is the same as bcjng viciously and corruptly minded ; 
and to be spiritually minded, is to be of a virtuous and holy- 

When Christ says, John iii. 6. " That which is born of 
the fesh, is fcsh,'* he represents the frsh not merely as a 
quality ; for it would be incongruous, to speak of a quality as 
A thing born : It is a person, or man, that is born. There- 
fore man, as in his whole nature corrupt, is called fesh: 
Which is agreeable to other scripture. representations, where 
the corrupt nature is called the old man, the body of sin, and 
the body of death. Agreeable to this are those representa- 
tions in the 7th and 8th chapters of Romans : There J^c'.sA is 
figuratively represented as a person, according to the apos- 
tle's manner, observed by Mr. Locke, and after him by Dr. 
Taylor, who takes notice, that the apostle, in the 6th and 7ih 
of Romans, represents sin as a person ; and that he fit;ura- 
tively distinguishes in himself two persons, speaking of flesh 
as his person. For I knoiu that in me, that is in 7ny flesh, 
dwclleth no good tldng. And it may be observed, that in liie 
8th chapter he still continues this representation, speaking ot* 
fh(^ flc&h ar. a person : And accordingly in the 6th and 7lli 


verses, speaks of the mind of the Jicshy C>go»»3^« o-apn^j and di 
the mind of the spirit^ <J>^oj}/*a tenvyucix^ ; as if the flesh and 
epirit were two opposite persons, each having a mind contra- 
ry to the mind of the oth^r. Dr. Taylor interprets this mind 
of the feshj and mi^id of the sfiirit^ as though ihejleah and the 
spirit were here spoken of as the dilTerent object^., about which 
the mind spoken of is conversant. Which is plainly beside 
the apostle *s sense ; who speaks of the flesh and spirit as the 
subjects and agents, in which the mind spoken of is ; and not 
the objects about which it acts. We have the same phrase 
again, ver. 27. He that searcheth the heart q^ knoweth what is 
the mind of the spirit^ ^^\ir,yM. 'c:^yiv{ixr^ ; the mind of the spir- 
itual nature in the saints being the same with the mind of the 
Spirit of God himself, who imparts and actuates that spiritual 
nature ; here the spirit is the subject ^nd agent, and not the 
object. The same apostle in like manner uses the word, »«••, 
in Col. ii. 18. Vainiy puffed up by hia fieshly mind, awo tw m®- 
T>}{ aet^n^ uvrti, by the mind of his fes/i. And this agent so 
often called fleshy represented by the apostle, as altogether 
evil, without any good thing dwelling in it, or belonging 1^ 
it ; yea, perfectly contrary to God and his law, and tending 
only to death and ruin, and directly opposite to the spirit, is 
•what Christ speaks of to Nicodemus as born in the first birth, 
as giving a reason M'hy there is a necessity of a new birth, in 
order to a better production. 

. One thing is particularly observable in that discourse olT 
the apostle, in the 7th and 8th of Romans, in which he so 
often uses the ieriufesh, as opposite to spirit^ which, as well 
as many other things in his discourse, makes it plain, that by 
flesh he means something in itsclf^orrupt and sinful, and tliat 
is, that he expressly calls it sinful fcsh, Rom. viii. 3. It is 
manifest, that by smful fesh he means the same thing with 
that flesh spoken of in the immediately foregoing and follow- 
ing words, and in all the context : And that when it is said, 
Christ was made in the likeness oi sinfd fleshy the expression 
is equipollent v/iih those that speak of Christ as vmde siriy and 
'^lade a curse for us. 


Flesh and sfilrit are opposed to one another in Gal. v. in the 
same manner as in the 8th of Romans : And there, by ^flesh 
cannot be meant only the human nature of body and soul^ or the 
mere constitution and powers of a man^ aa in its natural state, 
innocent and right. In the 1 6th ver. the apostle says, " Walk 
in the s/iirit^ and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the fesh :'* 
Where the flesh is spoken of as a thing of an evil inclination, 
desire or lust. But this is more strongly signified in the next 
words : " For Xhcfesh histeth against the spirit, and the spiric 
against ihe^/ksk ; and these are contrary the one to the oth- 
er." What could have been said more plainly, to shew that 
-what the apostle means by fcsh, is something very evil in its 
nature, and an irreconcileable enemy to all goodness ? And it 
may be observed, that in these words, and those that follow, 
the apostle still figuratively represents ihejlesh as a person or 
agent, desiring, acting, having lusts, and performing works. 
And by works o^ the Jlesh, and fruits of the s/iirit, which are 
opposed to each other, from ver. 19, to the end, are plainly 
meant the same as works of a sinful nature, and fruits of a 
holy, renewed nature. Now the works of the fesh arc man- 
ifest, which are these : Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, 
lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, wrath, 
strife, seditions, heresies, &c. But the fruit of the spirit is 
love, joy, peace, long suffering, gentleness, goodness, See. 
The apostle, by fleshy does not mean any thing that is inno- 
cent and good in itself, that only needs to be restrained, and 
kept in proper bounds ; but something altogelhq|r evil, which 
is to be destroyed, and not merely restrained. I Cor. v. 5. 
"To deliver such an one to Satan, for the destruction of the 
Jleah, We must have no mercy on it ; we cannot be too cruel 
to it ; it must even be crucified** Gal, v. 24. " They that 
are Christ's, have crucified the flesh, with the affections and 

The Apostle John, the same apostle that writes the ac- 
count of what Christ said tn Nicodemus, by the spirit means 
the same thing as a new, divine, and holy nature, exerting it- 
self in a principle of divine love, which is the sum of all 
Christian holiness. 1 John iii. 23, 24. « And that we should 


love one another, as he gave us commandinent ; and h'Stha^ 
kcepcth his cornvnaDdnienls, dwelleth in him, and he in him :: 
And herehy we know that he abideth in us, by the spirit that 
he hath given us." With clVap. iv. 12, 13. *' If we love one 
another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us t 
Hereby know we, that we dwell in him, because he hath giv- 
en us of his s/iij-rt." The spiritual principle in us being as it 
>vere a communication of the spirit of God to us. 

And as by nunvucc is meant a holy nature, so by the epi- 
thet, c7ViV[Ji.aru<^, {-pirituaU is meant the same as truly virtuous 
and holy. Gal. vi. 1. " Ye that are spiritual^ restore such an 
one in the spirit of meekness." The apostle refers to what 
he had just said, in the end of the foregoing chapter, where 
he had mentioned meekness^ as a fruit of the spirit^ And so 
by carval^ or f.e^hly^ ra^xjx©', is meant the same as sinfuK 
Rom. vii. 14. " The law is spiritual (i, e. holy) but I am car-^ 
nal, sold under sin." 

And it is evident, that by ,^€slh as the word is used in the 
New Testament, and opposed to spirit, when speaking of the 
qualifications for eternal salvation, is not meant only what is 
•now vulpiarly called the sins of the fiesh, consisting in inordi- 
nate appetites of the body, and their indulgence ; but the 
•whole body of sin, implying those lusts that are most subtle, 
and furthest from any relation to the body ; such as pride, 
rnaiice, envy, &c. When the nvorks ofthe^flesh are enumerat- 
ed, Gal. V. 19, 20, 21, they are vices of the latter kind chiefly,' 
that are mlpitioned ; idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance; 
emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings. Sci 
pride of heart is the effect or operation of the j9<".9/;. Col. ii. 
18. *' Vainly puffed up by hhjfcrh/y ?nind :** }n the Greek, 
by the mind ofihefesh. So, pride, envyiTJg, strife and divis- 
ion, are spoken of as works of \\\e flesh. 1 Cor. iii. 3. 4. " For 
ye are yet carnal (era^xixct^ fleshly J For whereas there is en-' 
vyingj and strife, and division, arc ye net caryiaU and walk as 
men ? For while one saith, 1 am of Paw/, and another, I am 
of yJfifJlos, are ye not ccn^ial P" Such kind of lusts do not dc"' 
pend on the bodv, or external senses ; for the devil himself 


lias them in the highest degree, who has not, nor ever had, 
any body or external senses to gratify. 

Here, if it should be inquired, how corruption or deprav- 
ity in general, or the nature of man as corrupt and sinful, 
came to be cSiUcdJifsh ; and not only that corruption \vhich 
consists in inordinate bodily appetites, I think, Nthat the apos- 
t)e says in the last cited place, *^7-e ye not carnal^ and 'xalk as 
7)icn? Loads us to the true reason. It is because a corrupt 
and sinful nature is v/hat properly belongs to mankind, or the 
race of Adam, as they are in themselves, and as they are by 
■mature. The wov^fcsh is often used in both Old Testament 
and New, to signify mankind in their present state. To enu- 
merate all the places, would be very tedious ; I shall there- 
fore only mention a few places in the New Testament. Matth, 
xxiv. 22. <' Except those days should be shortened, no Jlesh 
should be saved.'* Luke iii. 6. « A\\ Jlesh shall see the salva- 
tion of God." John xvii. 2. " Thou hast given him power 
over all fiesh:* See also Acts ii. 17, Rom. iii. 20, 1 Cor. i. 
29, Gal. ii. 16. Man's nature, being left to itself, forsaken 
of the Spirit of God, as it was when man fell, and consequent- 
ly forsaken of divine and holy principles, of itself became ex- 
ceeding corrupt, utterly depraved and ruined : And so the 
word ,/fes/if which signifies man, came to be used to signifv 
man as he is in himself, in his natural state, debased, corrupt 
and ruined : And on the other hand, the v/ord s/urit came to 
be used to signify a divine and holy principle, or new nature ; 
because that is not ofman^ but of God., by the indwelling and 
vital influence of his Spirit. And thus to be corruiit, and to 
be carnal^ ovjleshly, and to walk as men, are the same thing 
with the apostle. And so in other parts of the scripture, to 
savor the things that be of men, and to savor things which arc 
corrufit^ are the same ; and sons of men, and wicked men, also 
are the same, as was observed before. And on the other 
hand, Xo savor the things that be of God, and to receive the 
things of the S/iirit of God, are phrases that signify as much as 
relishing and embracing true holiness or divine virtue. 

All these things confirm what we have supposed to be 
Christ's meaning, in saying, " That which is born Qf the 


flesh, is flesh ; and that which is born of the spirit, is spirit.*^ 
His speech implies, that what is born in the first birth of man, 
is nothing but man as he is of himself, without any thing di- 
\ine in him ; depraved, debased, sinful, ruined man, utterly- 
unfit to enter into the kingdom of God, and incapable of the 
spiritual, divine happiness of that kingdom : But that which 
is born in the new birth, of the Spirit of God, is a spiritual 
principle, and holy and divine nature, meet for the divine and 
heavenly kingdom. It is a confirmation that this is the true 
meaning, that it is not only evidently agreeable to the con- 
stant language of the Spirit of Christ in the New Testament ; 
hut the words understood in this sense, contain the proper 
and true reason, why a man must be born again, in order to 
enter into the kingdom of God ; the reason that is given ev- 
ery where in other parts of the scripture for the necessity of 
a renovation, a change of mind, a new heart, &c. in order to 
salvation : To give a reason of which to Nicodemus, is plain- 
ly Christ's design in the words which have been insisted on. 

Before I proceed, I would observe one thing as a corolla-- 
ry from what has been said. 

CoROLL. If by flesh and spirit, vVheft spoken 6f in the 
New Testament, and opposed to each other, in discourses on' 
the necessary qualifications for salvation, we are to under- 
stand what has been now supposed, it will not only follow^ 
that men by nature are corrupt, but Kvholly corrupt^ without 
any good thing. If by flesh is meant man's nature, as he re- 
ceives it in his first birth, then therein dwelleth no-good thing ; 
as appears by Rom. vii. 18. It is wholly opposite to God, 
•and to subjecliou to his law, as appears by Rom. viii, 7, 8. It 
is directly contrary to true holiness, and wholly opposes it, 
and holiness is opposite to that ; as appears by Gal. v. 17. 
So long as men are in their natural state, they not only have 
no good thing, but it is impossible they should have or do any 
good thing ; as appears by Rom. viii. 8. There is nothing; 
in their nature, as they have it by the first birth, whence 
should arise any true subjection to God ; as appears by Rom. 
viii, 7. If there were any thing truly good in xhtjlesh^ or in 
7nan*8 nature^ or natural disposition, under a moral view, then 


5t should only be amended ; but the scripture represents as 
though we were to be enemies lo It, and were to seek nothing 
short of its entire destruction, as lias been observed. And 
elsewhere the apostle directs not to the amending of the old 
man^ but. fiutting it off^ and putting on the neix) man ; and seeks 
not to have the body of death made belter, but to he delivered 
from it, and says, " That if any man be in Christ, he is a new- 
creature (which doubtless means the same as a man neiv born) 
old things are (not amended) but passed away, and all things 
^re become new." 

But this will.be further evident, if we ])articularly consider 
the apostle's discourse in the latter part of tbe second chapter 
of 1 Cor. and the beginning of the third. There the apostle 
speaks of the natural many and the spiritual man ; where nat- 
ural and sfiiritiuU are opposed just in the same manner, as I 
liave observed carnal ^nd spiritual oiiGW are." In chap. ii. 14, 
15, he says, " The natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God: For they are foolishness unto him ; neither 
can he know them, because they are spiriuially discerned. 
But he that is spiritual, judgeth all things." And not onlv 
.does the apostle here oppose natural ond s/dritualy just as he 
elsewhere does carnal and spiritual^ but his following dis- 
course evidently shews, that he means the very same distinc- 
tion, the same two distinct and opposite tilings. For imme- 
diately on his thus speaking of the dKTerence between the 
natural and the spiritual man, he turns to the Corinthians, in 
the first words of the next chapter, connected with this, and 
says, " And I, brethren, could not si^eak nnto you as unto 
spiritual^ but as unto carnal" Referring manifestly to what 
he had been saying, in the immediately preceding discourse, 
about spiritual and natural men, and evidently using the word 
carnal, as synonymous with natural. By whicii it is put out 
of all reasonable dispute, that the apostle by natural men 
jneans the same as men in that cariial, sinful state, that they 
are in by their first birth ; notwithstanding all the glosses 
and criticisms, by which modern writers have endeavored to 
palm upon us another sense of this phrase ; and so to deprive 
us of the clear instruction the apostle gives in that 14th verse, 


concerning the sinful, miserable state of man by nature. Df. 
Tavlor saysj by ^vxi>t^t is meant the animal man^ the man 
vho maketh sense and appetite the law of his action. If he 
aims to limit the meanint,' of the v.ord to external sense, and 
bodily appetite, his meaning is certainly not the apostle's. 
For the apostle in his sense includes the more spiritual vices 
of envy, strife, Sec. as appears by the four first verses of the 
next chapter ; where, as I have observed, he substitutes the 
word carnal in the place of •4/y;^4it(^. So the Apostle Jude 
uses the word in like manner, opposing it to spiritual^ or liav* 
ing the sfiira, ver. 19. '' These are they that separate them- 
selves, sensual, (^uxiy-oi) not having the spirit." The vices 
he had been just speaking of, were chiefly of the more spirit- 
ual kind. Ver. 16. '< These are murmurers, complainers, 
walking after their own lusts ; and their mouth speaketh great 
swelling words, having men's persons in admiration, because 
of advantage." The vices mentioned are much of the same 
kind with those of the Corinthians, for which he calls them 
carnal, envying^ strife and divisions^ and saying, Ia7n of Paul^ 
and / ofAfioitos ; and being jiufftd ufifor one against another. 
We have the same word again, Jam. iii. 14, 15. " If ye have 
bitter envying and strife, glory not, and lie not against the 
truth : This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earth- 
ly, sensual (4'«%»«»») and devilish ;" where also the vices tho 
apostle speaks of are of the more spiritual kind. 

^o that on the whole, there is sufficient reason to under- 
atand the apostle, when he speaks of the natural-man in that 
1 Cor. ii. 14, as meaning man in his native, corrupt state. 
And his words represent him as totally corrupt, wholly a 
btranger and enemy to true virtue or holiness, and things ap- 
pertaining to it, which it appears are commonly intended in 
the New Testament by things Kfiiritual, and are doubtless 
here meant by things of the Spirit of God. These words also 
represent that it is impoRsiblc man should be otherwise, while 
in his natural state. The expressions are very strong : The 
natural man rcceivcth not the things of the Spirit of God, is not 
gusceplible of things of that kind, neither can he know them, 
can have no true sense or relish of theni> or notion of their 


Iftai nature and true excellency, because thnj are sfiirituaUy 
discerned : They arc not discerned by means of any princi- 
ple in nature, but altogether by a principle that is divine, 
tomething introduced by the grace oi" God's Holy Spirit, 
vhich is above all that is natural. The words are in a con^ 
siderable de|>rec parallel with those of our Saviour, John xiv. 
16, 17. "He shall give you the Spirit of Truth, whom the 
world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither know- 
€th him ; but ye know him, for he dwellcth with you, and 
{Shall be in you." 


Observations on Romans iii. 9. ...24. 

IF the scriptures represent all mankind as wicked in their 
first state, before they are made partakers of the benefits 
of Christ's redemption, then they are wicked by nature ; for 
doubtless men's first state is their native slate, or the state 
they come into the world in. But the scriptures do thus rep- 
resent all mankind. 

Before I mention particular texts to this purpose, I would 
observe that it alters not the case as to the argument in hand, 
whether we suppose these texts speak directly of infants, or 
only of such as are capable of some understanding, so as to 
understand something of their own duty and state. For if it 
be so with all mankind, thai as soon as ever they are capable 
of reflecting and knowing their own moral state, they find 
themselves wicked, this proves that they are wicked by na- 
ture ; either born wicked, or born with an infallible disposi- 
lon to be wicked as soon as possible, if there be any differ- 


cnce between these, and either of them will prove men tp be 
born exceedingly depraved. I have before proved, that a nar 
tive propensity to sin certainly follows from many things 
said in the scripture of mankind ; but what I intend now, is 
something more direct, to prove by direct scripture testimo- 
ny, that all mankind, in their first state, are really of a wick- 
ed character. 

To this purpose is exceeding full, express, and abundant 
that passage of the apostle, in Rom. iii. beginning with the 
9th verse to the end of the 24th ; which I shall set down at 
large, distinguishing the universal terms which are here so 
often repeated, by a distinct cliaracter. The apostle, having 
in the first chapter, verse 16, 17, laid down his proposition, 
that none can be save4 in any other way than through the 
righteousness of God, by faith in Jesus Christ, proceeds to 
prove this point, by shewing particularly rhat all are in them- 
selves wicked, and without rny righteousness of their own. 
First, he insists on the wickedneiss of the Gentiles, in the 
first chapter, and next, on the wickedness of the Jews, in the 
second chapter. And then in this place, he comes to sum 
lip the matter, and draw the conclusion in the words follow- 
ing : " What then, are we better than they ? No, in no 
•wise ; for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, 
that they are all under sin ; as it is written, There is nor\e 
righteous, no, not one ; there is 7ione that understandeth ; 
there is none that seeketh after God ; they are all gone out 
of the way ; they are together become unprofitable ; there js 
-AQjie that doth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open 
sepulchre ; with their tongues they have used deceit ; the 
poison of asps is under their lips ; whose ixiouth is full of 
cursing and bitterness ; their feet are swift to shed blood ; 
destruction and misery are in their ways, and the way of 
peace they have not known ; there is no fear of God before 
their eyes. Now we know that whatsoever things the law 
sailh, it sailh to them thr.t are under the law, that every 
mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty 
before God. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall 
ao fiesh be justified in his sight ; for by the law is the knowl- 


^flge of sin. But now the rij^hteoiisness of God without the 
law, is manifest, being witnessed by the law and the proph- 
ets ; even the ripihteousness of God, which is by faith of Je* 
sus Christ, unto all, and upon a// them that believe ; for there 
is no difference. For all have sinned, and come short of the 
glory of God. Being justified freely by his grace, through 
the redemption which is in Jesus Christ." 

Here the thing which I would prove, viz. that mankind in 
their first state, before they are interested in the benefits of 
Christ's redemption, are universally wicked, is declared with 
tile utmost possible fulness and precision. So that if herc^ 
<his matter be not set forth plainly, expressly, and fully, it 
must be because no words can do it, and it is not in the power 
of language, or any manner of terms and phrases, however 
contrived and heaped up one upon another, determinately to 
signify any such thing. 

Dr. Taylor, to take off the force of the v/hole, would have 
us to understand, pages 104... 107, that these passages, quoted 
from the I^salms, and other parts of the Old Testament, do 
not speak of all mankind, nor of all the Jews ; but only of 
■ theryi of whom they were true. He observes, there were 
many that were innocent and righteous ; though there were 
also many, a strong party, that were wicked, corrupt, &c. 
of whom these texts were to be understood. Concerning 
which I would observe the following things ; 

1. According to this, the universality of the terms that 
are found in these places, which the apostle cites from the 
Old Testament, to prove that all the world, both Jews and 
Gentiles, are under sin, is nothing to his purpose. The 
apostle uses universal terms in his proposition, and in his 
conclusion, that all are under sin, that every mouth is stopped, 
all the world guilty... .that by the deeds of the law no f.esh can 
be justified. And he chooses out a number of universal say- 
ings or clauses out of the Old Testarrent, to confirm this uni- 
versality ; as, " There is none righteous, no, not one : They 
are all gone out of the way : There is none that undcrstand- 
eth," &c. But yet the universality of these expressions is 
nothing to this purpose, because the universal terms found 


in them have indeed no reference to any such universality aii^ 
this the apostle speaks of, nor any thing akin to it ; they 
mean no universality, either in the collective sense, or per- 
sonal sense ; no universality of the nations of the world, or of 
particular persons in those nations, or in any one nation in 
the world : " But only of those of whom they are true/' 
That is, there are none of them righteous, of whom it is true 
that they arc not righteous, no, not one : There are none 
that understand, of whom it is tri-c, that they understand not : 
They are all gone out of the way, of whom it is h^ue, that 
they arc gone out of the way, Sec. Or if these expressions are 
to be understood concerning that strong party in Israel, in 
David's and Solomon's days, and in the prophets' days, they 
are to be understood of them universally. And what is that 
to the apostle*s purpose ? How does such an universality of 
wickedness as this.. ..that all were wicked in Israel, who were 
wicked ; or that there was a particular evil party, all of 
which were v.ickcd, confirm that universality which the apos- 
tle would prove, viz. that all Jews and Gentiles, and the whole 
world, were wicked, and every mouth stopped, and that no 
fi^sh could be justified by their own righteousness. 

Here nothing can be said to abate the nonsense but this, 
that the apostle would convince the Jews that they were capa- 
ble of being wicked, as well as other nations ; and to prove 
it, he mentions some texts, which shew that there was a 
wicked party in Israel a thousand years ago ; and that as to 
the universal terms which happened to be in these texts, the 
apostle had no respect to these ; but his reciting them is as 
it were accidental, they happened to be in some texts which 
speak of an evil party in Israel, and the apostle cites them 
as they are, not because they are any more to his purpose for 
the universal terms, which happen to be in them* But let 
the reader look on the words of the apostle, and observe the 
violence of such a supposition. Particularly let the words of 
the 9th and 10th verses, and their connexion, be observed. 
" All are under, sin : As it is written, There is .none right- 
eous ; no, not one." How plain is it, that the apostle cites 
that latter universal clause out of the 1 4th Psalm, to confirm 


the preceding tiniversal words of his own propositioo ? And 
yet it will follow from the thinj^s which Dr. Taylor supposes, 
that the universality of the terms in the last words, There is 
none righteous ; no, not one, hath no relation at all to that uni- 
versality he speaks of in the pi'ecedini; clause, to which they 
are joined, all are under sin ; and is no more a confirmation 
of it, than if the words were thus : " There arc some, or 
there are many in Israel, that are not righteous." 

2. To suppose the apostle's design in citing these pas- 
sages, was only to prove to the Jews, that of old there was a 
considerable number of their nation that were wicked men, is 
to suppose him to have gone about to prove what none of the 
Jews denied, or made the least doubt of. Even the Phari- 
sees, the most selfrighteous sect of them, who went furth- 
est in glorying in the dijiiinction of their nation from oth- 
er nations, as a holy people, knew it and owned it : They 
openly confessed that their forefathers killed the firofihets, 
Matth. xxiii. 29. ...31. And if the apostle's desi^jn had been 
only to refresh their memojies, to put them in mind of the 
ancient wickedness of their nation, to lead to reflection on 
themselves as guilty of the like wickedness, (as Stephen does, 
Acts vii) what need had the apostle to go so fur about to prove 
this ; gathering up many sentences here and there, which 
prove that their scriptures did speak of some as wicked men, 
and then, in the next place, to prove that the wicked men 
spoken of must be of the naiion of the Jews, by this argu- 
ment, "That v/hat things soever the law saith, it saith to 
them that are under the law," or that whatsoever the books 
of the Old Testament said, it must be understood of that 
people that had the Old Testament ? What need had the 
apostle of such an ambages or fetch as this, to prove to the 
Jews, that tjiere had been many of their nation in some of 
the ancient ages, which were wicked men ; when the Old 
Testament was full of passages that asscited ihio cxprcs ,ly, 
not only of a strong party, but of the nation in general ? 
How much more would it have been to such a purpose, 
to have put them in mind of the wickedness of the people 
in general, in worshipping the golden calf, and the unbi- 
2 C 


lief, murmurinp:, and pervei seness of the whole congrega- 
tion in the wilderness, for forty years, as Stephen does I 
^Vhich things he had no need to prove to be spoken of their 
nation, by any such indirect argument, as that, « Whatsoever 
things the law saith, it saith to thena that are under the 

3. It would have been impertinent to the apostle's pur- 
pose, even as our author understands his purpose, for him to 
have gone about to convince the Jews that there had been a 
strong party of bad men in David*s, Solomon's, and the proph- 
et's times. For Dr. Taylor supposes, the apostle's aim is to 
prove the great corruption of both Jews and Gentiles at that 
day, when Christ came into the world.* 

In order the more fully to evade the clear and abundant 
testimonies to the doctrine of Original Sin, contained in this 
part of the holy scripture, our author says, "The apostle is 
here speaking of bodies of people, of Jews and Gentiles in a 
collective sense, as two great bodies into which mankind arc 
divided ; speaking of them in their collective capacity, and 
not with respect to particular persons ; that the apostle's 
design is to prove, neither of these two great collective bod- 
ies, in their collective sense, can be justified by law, because 
both were corrupt ; and so that no more is implied, than that 
the generality of both were wicked."! 

On liiis I observe, 
. (I.) That this supposed sense disagrees extremely with 
the terms and language which the apostle here makes use of. 
For according to this, we must understand, either, 

First, That the apostle means no universality at all, but 
only the far greater part. But if the words which the apostle 
uses, do not most fully and detcrminately signify an univer- 
sality., no words ever used in the Bible are sufficient to do it. 
I mighi ciiallcngc any man to produce any one paragraph in 
the scripture, from the beginning to the end, where there is 
such a repetition and accumulation of terms, so strongly and 

» Spc Key, ^ 307, 310. + Pa^e 102, 104, 117, 119, 120, and Note on 
Rom, iii. 10. ...19, 


emphatically and carefully, lo express the most perfect and 
absolute universality, or any place to be compared to it. What 
instance is there in the scripture, or indeed any olhcr writing, 
when the mcanintr is only the much greater pari, where this 
leaning is signified in such a manner, by repeating such ex- 
pressions, "They are all.. ..they are all. ...they arc all.. .togeth- 
er.. ..every one. ...all the world,'* joined to mulii[)liL'd negative 
terms, to shew the uiiiversality to be without exception, say- 
ing, "There is no flesh... .there is none. ...there is none.... 
there is none... .there is none, four times over ; besides the 
addition of" No, not one.. ..no, not one," once and again ! 

Or, secondly, if any universality at all be allowed, it is only 
of the collective bodies spoken of; and these collective bod- 
ies but two, as Dr. Taylor reckons them, viz. the Jewish na- 
tion, and the Gentile world ; supposing the aposlle is here 
representing each of these parts of mankind as being wicked. 
But is this the way of men's using language, when speaking 
of but two things, to express themselves in universal terms of 
such a sort, and in such annanncr, and when they mean no 
more than that the thing affirmed is predicated of both of 
them ? If a man, speaking of his two feet as both lame, 
should say, " All my feet are lame, they are t.ll lame, all to- 
gether are become weak : None of my feet are strong, none 
of them are sound, no, not one ;" would not he be thought 
to be lame in his understanding, as well as his feet ? When 
the apostle says, that every mouth may be sto/i/ied, must we 
suppose, that he speaks only of these two great collective 
bodies, figuratively ascribing to each of them a mouth, and 
means that these two mouths are stoi)ped ! 

And besides, according to our author's own interpretation, 
the universal terms used in these texts cited from the Old 
Testament, have no respect to those two great collective bod- 
ies, nor indeed lo either of them, but to .^■o?ne in Israel, a par- 
ticular disaffected p rly in that one nation, which was made 
up of wicked men. So that his interpretation is every way 
absurd and inconsistent. 

(2.) If the aposlle is speaking only of the wickedness 
or guilt of great collective bodies, then it will follow, thai al- 

219 ORIGINAL sin; 

so Ihe justification he here treats of, is no other than the jus- 
tification of such collective bodies. For they are the same 
he speaks of as p:uilty and wicked, that he argues cannot be 
jtiatijird by the works of the law, by reason of their being 
nvickcd. Otherwise his argument is wholly disannulled. If 
the guilt he speaks of be only of collective bodies, then what 
he argues from that truilt, must be only that collective bod- 
ies cannot be justified by the works of the law, having no 
respect to the justification of particular persons. And in- 
deed, this is Dr. Taylor's declared opinion. He supposes 
the apostle here, and in other parts of this epistle, is speak- 
ing of men's justification considered only as in their collective 
cafjacity* But the contrary is most manifest. The 26th 
and 28th verses of this third chapter cannot, without the ut- 
most violence, be understood otherwise than of the justifica- 
tion of particular persons. " That he might be just, and the 
justificr of him that believeth in Jesus. Therefore we con- 
clude that a man is justified by faith, without the deeds of 
the law." So chap. iv. 5. " But to him that worketh not, 
but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is 
counted for righteousness." And what the apostle cites in 
the 61 h, 7th and 8th verses from the Book ot Psalms, evi- 
dently shews that he is speaking of the justification of par- 
ticular persons. *' Even as David also describeth the bles- 
sedness of the man unto whom God imputeih righteousness 
without works, saying. Blessed are they whose iniquities are 
forgiven, and whose sins are covered." David says these 
things in the 32d Psalin, with a special respect to his own 
particular case ; there expressing the great distress he was 
in, while under a sense of the guilt of his personal sin, and 
the great joy he had when God forgave him. 

And then, it is very plain in that paragraph of the 3d 
chapter, which we have been upon, that it is the justification 
of piw'ticular persons that the apostle speaks of by that place 
in the Old Testament, wliich he refers to in ver. 20. '' There- 
fore by the deeds of the law, there shall no flesh be justified 

* Sec Note on Rom. iii. iO.,..i9, chap, v, ii, and ix. 30, 31. 

Original sin. 213 

in his sight." He refers to that in Psal. cxliii. 2. « Enter not 
into judgment with thy ser\ani ; for in thy si.^Mit shall no man 
llvi7ig be justified." Here the Psalmist \^ not speaking of the 
justification of a nation, as a colleciive body, or of one of the 
two parts of the world, but of a panicular man. And it is 
further manifest, that the apostle is here speaking of pergonal 
justification, inasmuch as this place is evidently parallel with 
that. Gal. iii. 10, 11, " For as many as are of the woiks of 
the law, are under the curse : For it is wiiuen. Cursed is rv- 
ery one that continueth not in all things that are written in the 
book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by 
the works of the law, is evident ; for the just shall live bv 
faith." It is plain, that this place is parallel with that in the 
3d of Romans, not only as the thing asserted is the same, and 
the argument by which it is proved here, is the same as 
there, viz. that all are guilty, and exposed to be condemned by 
the law : But the same saying of the Old Testament is cited 
here in the be{2;inning of this discourse in Galatians; chap, ii, 
16. And many other thing.s demonstrate, that the apostle is 
speaking of the same justification in both places, which I 
. omit for brevity's sake. 

And besides all these things, our author's interpretation 
makes the apostle's argument wholly void another way. The 
apostle is speaking of a certain subject, which cannot be just- 
ified by the works of the law ; and his argument is, that that 
same subject is guilty, and is condemned by the law. If he 
means, that one subject, suppose a collective body or bodies, 
cannot be justified by the law, because another subject, an- 
other collective body, is condemned by the law, it is plain, the 
argument would be quite vain and impertinent. Yet thus the 
argument must s'and according to Dr. Taylor's interpreta- 
tion. The collective bodies, wl.ich he supposes are spoken 
of as wicked, and condemned by the law, cowsidcreil as in 
their colleciive capacity, are those two, the .Tewish nation, 
and the Heathen woild : But the c<illective body which he 
supposes the :ipusile speaks of as justified wiiliout the deeds 
of the law, is neither of these, but tlie Christian chuich, or 
body of believers ; which is a new collective body, a new 


creature, and a new man ("according to our author*s under- 
standing of such phrases) which never had any existence be- 
fore it was justified, and therefore never was wicked or con- 
demned, unless it was with regard to the individuals of M'hich 
it was constituted ; and it does not appear, according to our 
author's scheme, that thc?e individuals had before been gen- 
erally wicked. For according to him, there was a number 
both among the Jews and Gentiles, that were righteous be- 
fore. And how does it appear, but that the comparatively 
few Jews and Gentiles, of which this new created collective 
body was constituted, were chiefly of the best of each ? 

So that in every view, this author's way of explaining this 
passage in the third of Romans, appears vain and absurd. 
And so clearly and fully has the apostle expressed himself, 
that it is doubtless impossible to invent any other sense to 
put upon his words, than that which will imply, that all man- 
kiiid, even every individual of the whole race, but their Re- 
deemer himself, are in their first original state, corrupt and 

Before I leave this passage of the apostle, it may be prop- 
er to observe, that it not only is a most clear and full testi- 
mony to the native depravity of mankind, but also plainly de- 
clares that natural depravity to be total and exceeding great. 
It is the apostle's manifest design in these citations from the 
Old Testament, to shew these three things. 1. That alt 
viankind are by nature corrufit. 2. That every one is alto- 
gether corrufit^ and, as it were, depraved in every part. S. 
That they are in every part corrtifu in an exceeding degree. 
With respect to the second of these, that every one is wholly, 
and, as it were, in every part corrupt, it is plain the apostle 
chooses out, and puts together those particular passages of 
the Old Testament, wherein most of those members of the 
body are mentioned, that are the soul's chief instruments or 
organs of external action. The hands (implicitly) in those 
expressions, TV/q/ are together become unfirofitahky There is 
r.one that doth good. The throat, tongue, lips and moutli, the 
organs of speech ; in those words, " Their throat is an open 
sepulchre : With their tongues they have used deceit ; The 


poison of asps is under their lifm ; \vhose mouth is full of curs- 
ing and bitterness." The feet in those words, ver. 15, " Their 
feet are swift to shed blood.'* The^e thinf^s together signify, 
that man is, as it were, all over corrupt in every part. And not 
only is the total corruption thus intimated, by enumerating 
the several parts, but by denyin.y:of all good ; any true under- 
standing or spiritual knowledge, any virtuous action, or so 
much as truly virtuous desire, or seeking after God. There 
is none that understandeth : There is none that secketh after 
God : There is none that doth good : The way of peace have 
they not known. And in general, by denying all true piety or 
religion in men in tlieir first state, ver. 18. " There is no fair 
of God before their eyes." The expressions also are evident- 
ly chosen to denote a most extreme and desperate wicked- 
ness of heart. An exceeding depravity is ascribed to every 
part: To the throat, the scent of an ofien scjiulchrc ; to the 
tongue and lips, deceit^ and the pcisoii ofasjis ; to the mouth, 
cursing and bitterness ; of their feet it is said, they arc sivift ta 
shed blood : And with regard- to the whole man, it is said, dc 
structio7i ^ud misery are in their ways. The representation 
.is very strong of each of these things, viz. That all mankind 
are corrupt ; that every one is rjholly and altogether corrupt ; 
and also extremely and desperately corrupt. And it is plain, 
it is not accidental, that wc have here such a collection of such 
strong exprcssioiis, so emphatically signifying these things ; 
but that they are chosen of the apostle on design, as being di- 
rectly and fully to his purpose ; which purpose appears in all 
his discourse in the whole of this chapter, and indeed from 
the beginning of the epistle. 



Observations on "Rom^ins V. 6.. ..10^ and Ephesians li. 3, with 
the Context^ and Romans vii. 

ANOTHER passage of this apostle in the same epistle to 
the Romans, which shews that all that are made partakers of 
the benefits of Christ's redemption, are in their first state 
wicked, and desperately wicked, is that, chap. v. 6 ...10. " For 
■when we were yet without strength^ in due time Christ died 
for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one 
die ; yet peradventnre fbi* a good man, some would even dare 
to die. But God commendeth his love towards us, in that 
while we were yet sinners^ Christ died for us. Much more 
then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from 
nvrath through him. For if while we were enemies^ we were 
reconciled to God through the dea h of his Son ; much more, 
being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life." 

Here all that Christ died for, and that are saved by him, 
are spoken of as being in their first state sinners^ ungodly^ ene- 
mies to God, exposed to divine nvrath^ and without strength-^ 
without ability to help themselves, or deliver their souls from 
this miserable state. 

Dr. Taylor says. The apostle here speaks of the Gentiles 
only in their heathen state^ in contradistinction to the Jews ; 
and that not of particular persons among the heathen Gentiles, 
or as to the state they were in personally ; but only of the 
Gentiles collectively taken, or of the miserable stale of that 
great collective body, the heathen world : And that these ap- 
pellations, sinncrsi ungodly^ enemies, &c. were names by which 
the apostles in their writings were wont to sigTiify and distin- 
tinguish the heathen world, in opposition to the Jews ; and 
that in this sense these appellations are to be taken in tiieir 
epistles, and in this place in particular.* And it is observa- 

• Page 114.. ..120. Set- also Dv. Taylor's Paraph, and Notes o» the placr. 


ble, that this way of interpreting tliese phrases in the apostol- 
ic writings, is become tashicnublc with many late wiiteis ; 
■whereby they not only evade several clear testimonies to the 
doctrine of orip;inal '.in, but make void ^rcai pan of ihc New 
Testament ; on which account it deserves the more particu- 
lar consideration. 

It is allowed to have been long common and cu«itomary 
among the Jews, in Christ's and the apostle's days, ebpcrially 
those of the sect of the Pharisees, in their pride and confidence 
in their privileges, as the peculiar people of God, to exalt 
themselves exceedingly above other nations, and greatly to 
despise the Gentiles, and call them by such names as sinnera^ 
enemies^ doga^ Sec. as notes of distinction from themselves, 
whom they accounted in general (excepting the publicans, 
and the notoriously proHigute) as xhafritnds^ special yw-zi/onVr*, 
and childrtn of God ; because they were the children of Abra- 
ham, were circumcised, and had the law of Moses, as their 
peculiar privilege, and as a wall of partition between them and 
the Gentiles. 

But it is very remarkable, that a Christian divine, who has 
studied the New Testament, and the epistle to the Romans 
in particular, so diligently as Dr. Taylor, should be strong in 
an imagination, that the apostles of Jesus Christ should so far 
countenance, and do so much to cherish these selfexalting, 
uncharitable dispositions and notions of the Jews, which gave 
rise to such a custom, as to fall in with that custom, and adopt 
that language of their pride and contempt ; and especially 
that the Apostle Paul should do it. It is a most unreasona- 
ble imagination on many accounts. 

1. The whole gospel dispensation is calculated entiicly to 
overthrow and abolish every thing to which this seifdisiin- 
guishing, selfexalting language of t'^e Je^'s was owing. It 
was calculate ' wholly to exchide sucli boasiing, and \o des- 
troy that pride and self righteousness that were the causes of 
it : It was calculated to tibolish the enmity, and break vvri 
the partition wall between Jews and Gentiles, and oftrj;ain to 
make one new man^ ao makinic ficace ; to destroy al' di- position* 
in nations and particular persons to dcipise one au')thcr^ wf 


say one to another, Stand by thyself^ come not near to inc ; foi* 
I am holier than thou ; and to establish the contrary principles 
of humility, mutual esteemj honor and love, and universal 
union, in the most firm and perfect manner. 

2. Christ, when on earth, set himself, throuj^h the course 
of his ministry, to militate against this pharisaical spirit, prac- 
tice, and language of the Jews ; appearing in such represent- 
ations, names, and epithets, so customary among them ; by 
M'hich they shewed so much contempt of the Gentiles, publi- 
cans, and such as were openly lewd and vicious, and so exalt- 
ed themselves above them ; calling them n'mners and enemies^ 
and themselves holy and God*s children ; not allowing the 
Gentile to be their neighbor, Sec. He condemned the Phari- 
sees for not esteeming themselves si?iners^ as well as the pub- 
licans ; trusting in themselves that they were righteous, and 
despising others. He militated against these things in his 
own treatment of some Gentiles, publicans, and others, 
whom they called sinnersy and in what he said on those oc- 

He opposed these notions and manners of the Jews in his 
parables,t and in his instructions to his disciples how to treat 
the unbelieving Jev/s \\ and in what he says to Nicodemus 
about the necessity of a new birth, even for the Jews, as well 
as the unclean Gentiles, wit^ regard to their proselytism, 
w hich some of the Jews looked upon as a ncrj birth : And in 
opposition to their notions of their being the children of God, 
because the children of Abraham, but the Gentiles by nature 
sinners and children of wrath, he tells ihem that even they 
were children of the deviL\\ 

♦ Matth. viu.5...i3. Chap. ix. 9... 13. Chap. xi. 19 ..24. Chap, xv« 
ii...28. Luke vii. 37, to the end. Chap, xvii 1 2, .19. Chap. xix. i.,.xo. 
lohn iv. 9, &:c. ver. 39, &c. Compare Luke x. 29, &c. 
'* + Matth. xxi. 28.. .32, Chap. xxii. 1...10. Luke xiv. 16., ,24. Com- 
pare Luke xiii. 28, 29, 30. % Matth. x. 14, 15 |1 John viii. 33 ..44. 

U may lilso be observed, that John the Baptist greatly contradicted the 
Tews' opinion of themselves, as being a holy people, and accepted of God» 
because they ■were the children of Abraham, and on that account better thau 
thchcaihcn, whom they called kinutrs, tncmies, unclean, 5cc. in baptizing iIk' 


3. Though we should suppose the aposlles not to have 
been thoroughly brought ofF from such notions, manners and 
language of the Jews, till after Christ's ascension ; yet after 
the pouring out of the Spirit on the day of pentecost, or ut 
least, after the calling of the Gentiles, l>cgun in the conver- 
sion of Cornelius, ihcy were fully indoctrinated in ihis matter, 
and effectually taught no longer to call the Geniilcs unclean, 
as a note of distinction from the Jews, Acts x. 28, which was 
before any of the apostolic epistles were written. 

4. Of all the apostles, none were more perfectly instruct- 
ed in this matter, and none so abundant in instruciing others in 
it, as Paul, the great Apostle of the Gentiles. He had abund- 
ance to do in this matter «• None of the apostles had so much 
occasion to exert themselves against the fore mentioned no- 
tions and languap:^; of the Jews, in opposition to Jewish teach- 
ers, and judaizing Christians, that strove to keep up tiie sepa- 
ration wall between Jews and Gentiles, and to exalt the form- 
er, and set the latter a* nought. 

5. This apostle does especially strive in this matter in 
his epistle to.the Romans, above all his other writings ; ex- 
erting himself in a most elaborate manner, and with his ut- 
most skill and power, to bring the Jewish Christians off from 
every thing of this kind ; endeavoring by all means that there 
might no longer be in them any remains of these old notions 
they had been educated in, of such a great distinction between 
Jews and Gentiles, as were expressed in the names they used 
to dislhiguish them by, calling the Jews holy, chilJren of 
Abraham, friends and children of God ; but the Gentiles sin- 
ners, unclean, enemies, and the like. He makes it almost 
his whole business, from the beginning of the epistle, to this 
passage in the 5th chapter, whicli we are upon, to convince 
them that there was no ground for any such distinction, and 

Jews as a polluted ^to^\t, and sinntrs, as the Jews used to baptize proselytes 
from among the heathen ; calling them to repentance as sinners, saying, " Think 
not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father; for 1 say un- 
to >ou, that God is able, of these stones, to raise up children unto Abiaham ;" 
and teaching the Pharisees, that instead of their being a holy generation, a«d 
children of God, as they called thcmsclvcj, they were a gemrjtion o( lif'rrf. 


to prove Ihat in common, both Jews and Gentiles, all wert 
desperately wicked, and none rigiUeous ; no, not one. He 
tells them, chap. iii. 9, that the Jews were by no means bet- 
ter than the Gentiles ; and (in what follows in that chapter) 
that there was no difTercncc between Jews and Gentiles ; and 
represents all as without strength, or any sufficiency of their 
own in the affair of justification and redemption : And in the 
continuation of the same discourse, in the 4th chapter, teach- 
es that all that were justified by Christ, were in themselves 
ungodly ; and that being the children of Abraham was not pe- 
culiar to the jews. In this 5th chapter, siill in continuation 
of the same discourse, on the same subject and argument of 
justification through Christ, and by faith in him, he speaks of 
Christ's dying for the uyigodly and sinners, and those that 
were without strength or sufficiency for their own salvation, 
&s he had done all along before. But now, it seems, the apos* 
tie by sinners and wigodly must not be understood according 
as he used these words before ; hut must be supposed to 
mean only the Gentiles as distinguished from the Jews ; 
adopting the language of those selfrighteous, selfexalting, 
disdainful, judaizing teachers, whom he was with all his might 
opposing ; countenancing the Very same thing in them, which 
he had been from the beginning of the epistle discountenanc- 
ing and endeavoring to discourage, and utterly to abolish, with 
all his art and strength. 

• One reason why the Jews looked on themselves better 
than the Gentiles, and called themselves holy^ andjhe Gen- 
tiles ainners^ was, that they had the law of Moses. They made 
thcf)- boast of the laiv. But the apostle shews them, that this 
was so far from making them better, thi^t it condemned them, 
and was an occasion of their being sinners, in a higher de- 
gree, and more aggravated manner, and more effect;rally and 
dreadfully dmd in, and by sin, chap. vii. 4... 13, agreeable to 
those words of Christ, John v. 45. 

It cannot be justly objected here, that this apostle did in- 
deed use this language, and call the Gentiles sinners, in con- 
tradistinction to the Jews, in what he said to Peter, which he 
himself gives an account of in Gal. ii. l5, 16. " We who 


are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, knowing 
that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by 
feith in Jesus Christ " II is true that the apostle here refers 
k) this distinction, as what was usually made by the selfripht- 
IBOUS Jews, between themselves and the Gentiles, but not i^ 
such a manner as to adopt or favor it ; but on the contrary, 
so as plainly to shew his disapprobation of it ; 7. d. " Though 
we were born' Jews, and by nature are of that people which 
are wont to make their boasi of the law, expecting to be justi- 
fied by it, and trust in themselves that they are righteous, 
despising others, calling the Gentiles ainnera^ in distinction 
from themselves ; yet we, being now instructed in the gospel 
of Christ, know better. We now know that a man is not 
justified by the works of the law ; that we are all justified only 
by faith in Christ, in whom there is no difference, no distinc- 
tion of Greek or Gentile and Jew, but all are one in Christ 
Jesus.'* And this is the very thing he there speaks of, 
■which he blamed Peter for ; that by his withdrawing and 
separating himself from the Gentiles, refusing to eat with 
them, fee. he had countenanced this selfexalting, seitdistin- 
guishing, separating spirit and custom of the Jews, whereby 
they treated the Gentiles, as in a distinguishing manner, 5m- 
ners and unclean^ and not fit to come near them who were a 
holy people. 

6. The words themselves of the apostle in this place, 
shew plainly, that he here uses the word minersy not as sig- 
nifying Gentiles, in opposition to Jews, but as denoting the 
morally evil, in opposition to such as are righteous or good : 
Because this latter opposition or distinction between sinners 
and righteous is here expressed in plain terms. " Scarcely 
for a righteous man will one die ; yet peradveuture for a good 
man some would even dare to die ; but God commended his 
!ove towards us, in that while we were yei sinners, Christ died 
for us.** By righteous men are doubtless meant the same tiiat are 
meant by such a phrase, throughout this apostle's writings, and 
throughout the New Testament, and throughout the Bible. 
Will any one pretend, that by the righteous man, whom 
rnen would scarcely die for, and by the good man, ♦hat per* 


haps some might even dare to die for, is meant a Jew ? Dr. 
Taylor himself does not explain it so, in his exposition of 
this epistle, and therefore is not very consistent with himself, 
in supposing; that in the other part of the distinction the apos- 
tle means Gentiles, as distine^uished from the Jews. The 
apostle himself had been laboring abundantly, in the preced- 
ing part of the epistle, to prove that the Jews were sinners 
in this sense, namely, in opposition to righteous ; that all had 
mnned, that all were under sin, and therefore could not be 
justified, could not be accepted as righteous by their own 

7. Another thing which makes it evident that the apostle, 
when he speaks in this place of the sinners and enemies 
which Christ died for, does not mean only the Gentiles, is 
that he includes himself amon^ them, saying, while ive were 
sinners, and when xve were enemies. 

Our author from time to time says, « The apostle, though 
lie speaks only of the Gentiles in their Heathen state, yet 
puts himaplf ivith therriy because he 'was the afiostle of the Geti- 
tiles** But this is very violent and unreasonable. There is 
no more sense in it than there would be in a father's ranking 
himself among his children, when speaking to his children 
of the benefits they have by being begotten by himself, and 
saying, We children. ...ox in a physician's ranking himself 
v.ith his patients, when talking to them of their diseases 

and cure, saying, IVe sick folks Paul being the apostle of 

the Gentiles, to save them from their Heathenism, is so far 
from being a reason for him to reckon himself among the 
Heathen, that on the contrary, it^ is the very thing that 
would render it in a peculiar manner unnatural and absurd 
for him so to do. Because, as the apostle of the Gentiles, he 
appears as their healer and deliverer from Heathenism ; and 
therefore in that capacity does in a peculiar manner ap- 
pear in his distinction from the Heathen, and in opposition 
to the state of Heathenism. For it is by the most opposite 
qualities only, that he is fitted to be an apostle of the Heathen, 
and recovcrcr from Hcathcnisn;. As the clear light of the 
sun is the thing which makes i: a proper restorative from 


darkness; and therefore the sun's bcinp; spoken of as such 
a remedy, none would suppose to be a good reason why it 
should he ranked wi-h darkness, or amont; dark thin;rs. And 
besides (whici' luakts this supposition of Dr. Taylor's appear 
more violent) the apostle in this epistle, docs expressly rank 
himself with the Jews, when he speaks of them as distin- 
guished from the Cientiles, as in chapter iii. 9. *' What 
then ? Are -nr better than they ?'* Tliat is, arc w<- Jcivs 
better than the Gentilea ? 

It cannot justly be allej^ed in opposition to this, thai^ the 
Apostle P^er puts himself with the heathen, I Pet. iv. 3. 
" For'the time past of our life may sufiice us to have wroui'-ht 
the will of the Gentiles; when w^ walked in lascivioiisness, 
lusts, excess of wine, rcvcllings, banquctint^js, and abomina- 
ble idolatries. For the Apostle Peter, (who by tlie wav was 
not an apostle of the Gentiles) here does not speak of him- 
self as (Uie of the Heathen, but as one of the church of Christ 
in general, made up of those that had been Jews, Proselytes, 
and Heathens, who were now all one body, of which bodv he 
was a metr.ber. It is thisi society therefore, and no; ;!ie 
Gentiles, that he refers to in the pronoun us. He is speaking 
of the wickedness that the members of this body or society 
had lived in before their conversion ; not that every member 
had lived in all those vices here mentioned, but some in one, 
others in another. Very parallel with that of the Apostle 
Paul to Titus, chap. iii. 3. " For ivc ourselves also (i. e. we of 
the Christian church) were sonjetimes foolish, disobedient, 
deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, (some one lust 
and pleasure, others another) living in malice, envy, hateful 
and hating one another,*' Sec. There is nothing in this, but 
what is very natural. That the apostle, speaking to the 
Christian church, and cf that church, confessing its former 
sins, should speak ol himself as one of that society, and yet 
mention some sins that he personally had not been v,'^ui!ty of, 
and among others. Heathenish idolatry, is quite a different 
ihiui;' from wluit it would iiave been for the apostle, express- 
ly distinguishing those of the Christians which had bceu 


Heathen, from those which had been Jews, to have ranked 
biniiielf with the formei, though he was truly of the lattei*. 

If a minister in some congregation in England, speaking 
in a sermon of the sins of the nation, being himself of the 
nation, shoiald say, " JVe have greatly corrupted ourselvesj 
and provoked God by our deism, blasphemy, profane swear- 
ing, lasciviousness, venality,** See. speaking in the first person 
plural, though he himself never had been a deist, and per- 
haps none of his hearers, and they might also have been 
generally free from other sins he mentioned ; yet there 
"would be nothing unnatural in his thus expressing himself. 
But it would be a quite different thing, if one part of the Brit- 
ish dominions, suppose our king's American dominions, had 
universally apostatised from Christianity to deism, and had 
long been in such a state, and if one that had been born and 
brought up in England among Christians, the country being 
universally Christian, should be sent among them to shew 
them the folly and great evil of deism, and convert them to 
Christianity ; and this missionary, when making a distinc- 
tion between Enp:lish Christians, and these deists, shoul4 
rank himself with the latter, and say, »' JVe American deists, 
<ive foolish, blind infidels,'* Sec. this indeed would be very 
unnatural and absurd. 

Another passage of the apostle, to the like purpose v^ith 
that which we have been considering in the 5th of Romans, 
is that in Eph. ii. 3. " And were by nature children of 
^vrath, even as others." This remains a plain testimony to 
the doctrine of Original Sin, as held by those that used tQ 
be called orthodox Christians, after all the pains and art used 
to torture and pervert it. This doctrine is here not only plain- 
ly and fully taught, but abundantly so, il we take the words 
with the cf)ntext, where Christians are once and again repre- 
sented as being, in their first state, dead in .sm, and as quick- 
ened -dmX rained uji from such a state of death, in a most 
marvellous display of free and rich grace and lo-vcy and exceed-* 
ing greatness of the power of God,, Sec. 

With respect to those words, jj^asv TJKta (pyc-ci o§y>};, We were 
hy tiature children ofivra'.h.^ Dr. Taylor says, pages 1 12..,.1 14. 


^'< The apostle means no more by this, than truly or 
really children of wrath ; nainej a inctaphorical expression, 
borrowed fiom ihci word that is used to si>i;nify a trne and 
genuine child of a family, in dislincuon from one that is a 
child only by adoption.'* In which il is owned, that the prop, 
er sense of the phrase is, beinj;; a child by naiure, in the same 
sense as a chrld by birth or natural generation ; but only he 
supposes that here the word is used mrtafihorically Tlie in- 
stance he produces as parallel, to contnm liis supposed nieta- 
'phorical sense of the phrase, as meaning only tridu- really ., or 
firoperly children of wrath, viz. the Apostle Paul's calling 
Timothy his oivn son in the faiths jtriamt texw», is so far from 
confirming his sense, that it is rather «Jirectly agiiinst it. For 
doubtless the apostle uses the word y»)<7»o> in its original sig. 
nification here, meaninc; his btgotien son^ ymr*©* being the 
adjective from yoj-tj, oftspring, or the verb ymau-i to beget ; as 
much as to say, Timothy^ my bt gotten son in the faith ; only 
allowing for the two ways of being begotten, spoken of in 
the New Testament, one natural, and the other spiritual ; one 
being the first generation, the other regeneration ; the one a 
being begotten as to the human nature, the other a being begot- 
ten in the faith, begotten in Christ, or as to onc*8 Christianity. 
The apostle expressly signifies which of theae he means in this 
place, Timothy my begotten son in the faitij, in the same manner 
as he says to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. iv. 15. '' In Christ Je^usI 
have begotten you through the gospel." To say the apostle 
uses the word (pv7H, in Eph. ii. 3, only as signifying reel, true, 
and proper, is a most arbitrary interpretation, having nothing 
to warrant it in the whole Bible. The word (py<7K is no where 
used in this sense in the New Testament.* 

Another thing which our author alleges to evade the force 
of this, is that the word rendered nature^ sometimes signifies 
habit contracted by custom^ or an acquired nature. But this 
is not the proper meaning of the v/ord. And it is plain the 

'* The following are ail ihe other places whcic ihe word is usc<i, Ri-m i. 
i6, ii. 14, 27, xi. 21, 24, tKrice in that verse, i Cor. xi. 14. G 
V. 8. y.'nie<i ill. 7, twice in thjt v r -• ^^.A " P *. i 4, 

5> F. 



M'ovd in its common use, in the New Testament, signifief 
what we properly express in English by the word nature*- 
'J'hpre is but one place wiiere tliere can be the least pretext 
for supposing- it can be used otherwise ; and that is 1 Cor. 
xi. 14. " Doth not even rza^z/rr itself teach you, that if a man 
liavc loni; hair, it is a shame unto him ?" And even here 
there is, I think, no manner of reason for understanding na- 
/?/rr otherwise than in the proper sense. The emphasis used 
avrv n <pv(Ti;, nature itself^ shews that the apostle does not 
ihcan custom^ but nature in the proper sense. It is true, it 
was long custom, that made having the head covered a token 
of subjection, and a feminine habit or appearance ; as it is 
custom that makes any outward action or word a sign or sig- 
nification of any tlung ; but nature itself^ nature in its proper 
sense, leaches that it is a shame for a man to appear with the 
established signs of the female 6ex, and with significations of 
inferiority, &:c. As nature itself shews it to be a shame for a 
father to bow down or kneel to his own child or servant, or 
for men to bow to an idol, because bowing down is by custom 
an established token or sign of subjection and submission ; 
such a sight, therefore, would be unnatural, shocking to a 
man's very nature. So nature would teach that it is a shame 
for a woman to use such and such lascivious words or ges- 
tures, though it be custom, that establishes the unclean sig- 
nification of those gestures and sounds. 

It is pariicularly unnatural and unreasonable, to under- 
stand the phrase, Tjjcva (pvcet, in this place, any otherwise than 
in the proper sense, on the following accounts. 

1. It may be observed that both the words rsxyat and (pvcri^^ 
in their original signification, have refererlce to the birth or 
jjeneration. So the word <pyo-»j, which comes from Ovw, 
which signifies to beget, or bring forth young, or to put 
forth, or bud forth as a plant that brings forth young buds 
and branches. And so the word Tmvov comes from tiKtu^ 
which signifies to bring forth children. 

'2. As though the apostle took care by the word used 
here, to signify what we arc by birih, he changes the word 
he used before for children. In the preceding vcMse lie used 


uot, speakinp: of the children of disobedience ; but hci'c 
TSK»a, which is a word derived, as was now ohscivcd, from 
T»xTw, to brinLi^ forth a chikl, and more propcily signilics a 
begotten or born child. 

3. It is natural to suppose that the uposile here speaks 
in opposition to the pride of some, especially the Jews, (for 
the church in Kphesus was made up partly of Jews, as well 
as the church in Rome) who exalted themselves in the privi- 
leges they had by birth, because they were bow t'ne chiicireu 
of Abraham, and were Jews by vaiurr^ <pv(T$i IbJaiot, as the 
phrase is, Gal. ii. 15. In opposition to this proud conceit, 
he teaches the Jews, that notwithstanding this^ they were by 
nature children of wrath, even as others^ i. c. as well as the 
Gentiles, which the Jews had been lau'^ht to look upon as 
fiinners^ and out of favor with God by ?iaturry and b'jim c/iiidrer 
•f wrath. 

4. It is more plain, that the apostle uses the word natnrt 
in its proper sense here, because he sets what they were by 
nature, in opposition to what they are by grace. In this 
verse, the apostle shews what they are by nature, viz. child- 
ren of wrath ; and in the following verses he shews how 
very different their state is by grace, saying, verse 5, By grace 
ye are saved, repeating it again, verse 8, By grace ye are saved. 
But if by being children of wrath by nature, were meant no 
more than only their being really and truly children of 
wrath, as Dr. Taylor supposes, there would be no opposition 
in the signilicalion of these phrases ; for in this sense they 
were by nature in a state of salvation, as much as by naturr 
thildrcn of nvrath ; for they were truly, really, and firofurlij in 
a state of salvation. 

If we take these words with the context, the whole a- 
bundantly proves that by nature wc are totally corrupt, with- 
out any good thing in us. I'or if we allow the plain scope of 
the place, without attempting to hide it, by extreme violence 
used with the apostle's words and expressions, the de«>ign 
here is strongly to establish thii point ; that what Christians 
have that is good in them, or in their state, is in no ftart of 
it naturallv in ihemsclves, or from themselves, hut is t^Vvc//.; 


from dhnne grace, all the f^fi of God^ and his ivorkmanshifi^ih^ 
effect of his power, and free and wonderful love : None of 
our j>^ood works are prinaarilv from ourselves, but with res* 
peel to thein all, 'we are God's ivorkmanshifi^ created unto good 
tvorks^ as it were out of nothinej : Not so much 2i% faith itself 
the fiist principle of t^ood works in Christians, is of them- 
selves, but that is the gift of God. 

Therefore the apostle compares the work of God, in form- 
ing Christians to true virtue anrl holiness, not only to a near 
creation ^hvit 2k resurrection^ ov rAHiTi^ from the dead, ver. I. 
** You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and 
sins." And again, ver. 5. " Even when we were dead in sins, 
hath quickened us together with Christ." In speaking of 
Christians being quickened with Christ, the apostle has refer- 
ence to what he had said before, in the latter part of the fore- 
going chapter, of God's manifesting the exceeding greatness of 
his flower towards Christian converts in their conversion, 
agreeable to the operation of his mighty fio'iver^ when he raised 
Christ from the dead. So that it is plain by every thing in 
this discourse, the apostle would signify, that by nature we 
have no goodness ; but are as destitute oi it as a dead corpse is 
of life : And that all goodness, all good works, and faith the 
principle of all, are perfectly the gift of God's grace, and the 
work of his great, almighty, and exceeding excellent power. 
I think, there can be vi^.^A of nothing but reading tiie chapter^ 
and minding what is read, 'o convince all who have common 
\inderstanding, of this; whatever any of the most subtle crit- 
ics have done, w ever can do, to twist, rack, perplex, and per- 
vert the words and phrai>es here used. 

Dr. Tayh^r here again insists, that the apostle speaks only _ 
of tiie Gentiles in their heathen stale, when he speaks of 
those that were dead in sin, and by nature children of wrath; 
and that though he seems to include himself among these, 
saying, " We were by nauire ciiildren of wrath, we were dead 
in sins ;" yet he only puis himself among them because he 
wa:^ the apostle ol the (it.niilos. The gross absurdity of which 
may appear from what was said before. But besides the 
things which have been alrea^ly observed, there arc some 


thin^ which make it peculhrly unreasonable to understand 
it so here. It is true, the greater part of the church of £ph©- 
sus had been heathens, and therefore the aposile often has 
reference to their heathen state, in this epistle. But the 
\»ords in this chap. ii. 3, plainly shew, that he means himself 
«Uid other Jews in distinction from the Gentiles ; for the dis- 
tinction is fully expressed- After he had told the Ephcsiani, 
■who had been generally heathen, that they had l>cen dead in 
sin, and had walked according to the course of thia world, 8cc. 
ver. 1 and 2, he makes a distinction, and says, " Among whom 
life also had our conversation, &c. and were by nature children 
of wrath, even as others,** Here first he changes the per(k>n ; 
whereas, before he had spoken in the second person, " Ye 
were dead....y"e in time past walked,'* &c. Now he changes 
?<lile, and uses the first person, in a most manifest distinction, 
*» Among whom lue also** that is, lue Jeivs, as well as yc Gen^ 
4iles : Not only changing the person, but adding a particle of 
distinction, also ; which would be nonsense, if he meant the 
same without distinction. And besides all this, more fully to 
express the distinction, the apostle further adds a pronoun of 
distinction : " IVe also, even as others** or, we as well as oth- 
ers : Most evidently having respect to the notions, so gene- 
rally entertained by the Jews, of their being much better than 
the Gentiles, in being Jews by nature, children of Abraham, 
and children of God ; when they supposed the Gentiles to be 
utterly cast off, as born aliens, and by nature children ofii^rath : 
In opposition to this, the apostle says, " We Jews, after all 
our glorying in our distinction, luere by riature children of 
v>rath, as luell as the rest of the ivorld.'* And a yet further ev- 
idence, that the apostle here means to include the Jews, and 
even himself, is the universal term he uses, " Among whom 
also we all had our conversation," €cc. Though wickedness 
was supposed by the Jews to be the course of this ^voorlcl, as to 
the generality of mankind, yet they supposed themselves an 
exempt people, at least the Pharisees, and the devout observ- 
ers of the law of Moses, and traditions of the elders ; whatev- 
er might be thought of publicans and harlots. But in oppo* 
sition to this, the apostle asserts, that they rU were no belter 


by nature than others, but were to be reckoned among the 

children of disobedience, and children of ivrath. 

And then besides, if the apostle chooses to put himself 
among the Gentiles, because he was the apostle of the Gen- 
tiles, I would ask, why does he not do so in the 1 1th verse of 
the same chapter, where he speaks of their Gentile state ex- 
pressly ? Remember that ye being in time past Gentiles in the 
flesh. Why does he here make a distinction between the 
Gentiles and himself? Why did he not say, Let us remem- 
ber, that we being in times past Gentiles ? And why does the 
same apostle, even universally, make the same distinction, 
speaking either in the second or third person, and never in 
the first, where he expressly speaks of the Gentilism of those 
that he wrote to ; or speaks of them with reference to their 
distinction from the Jews ? So every where in this same epis- 
tle ; as in chap. i. 12, 13, where the distinction is made just 
in the same manner as here, by the change of the person, 
and by the distinguishing particle, also. " That ive should be 
to the praise of his glory who first trusted in Christ (the first 
believers in Christ being of the Jews, before the Gentile* 
were called) in whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the 
word of truth, the gospel of your salvation," And in all the 
following part of this second chapter, as ver. 11, 17, 19, and 
22, in which last verse the same distinguishing particle again 
is used : " In whom ye also are buikled together for an habit- 
ation of God through the Spirit." See also thefollowing 
chapters : Chap. iii. 6, and iv. 17. And not only in this epis- 
tle, but constantly in other epistles ; as Rom. i. 12, 13 ; chap, 
xi. 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22,23,24, 25, 28, 30, 31 ; chap, 
XV. 15, 16 ; 1 Cor. xii. 2 ; Gal. iv. 8 ; Col. i. 27 ; chap. ii. 
13 ; 1 Thess. i. 5, 6, 9 ; chap. ii. 13, 14, i5, 16, 

Thoiigh I am far from thinking our author's exposition 
of the 7lh chapter of Romans to be in any wise agreeable to 
the true sense of the apostle, yet it is needless here to stand 
particularly to examine it ; because the doctrine of Original 
Sin may be argued not the less strongly, though we should 
allow the thing wherein he mainly differs from such as he op- 
pose* in his interpretation, viz. That the apostle does not 


speak in his own name, or to represent the state of a true 
Christian, but as representing the state of the Jews under the 
law. For even on this supposition, the drift of the place will 
prove, that every one who is under the law, and with equal 
reason everyone of mankind, L» carnal, sold under ain, in his 
first state, and till delivered by Christ. For it is plain, that 
the apostle's design is (o shew the insufficiency of the law t« 
give life to any one whatsoever. This appears by what he 
says when he comes to draw his conclusion, in the continua- 
tion of this discourse ; chap. viii. 3.* " For what the law 
could not do, in that it was weak ihrouc^h the flesh ; God 
sending his own Son," &c. Our author supposes this here 
spoken of, viz. " That the law cannot give life, because it is 
weak through the flesh," is true with respect to every one of 
mankind.^ And when the apostle gives this reason, In that it 
is -ivcak throng/} the Jlesh, it is plain, that by the ,flesh, which 
here he opposes to the Sfiirit, he means the same thing which, 
in the preceding part of the same discourse, in the foregoing 
chapter, he had called by t+ie nameT^e*/;, ver. 5, 1 4, 18 ; and 
the Imv of the viembers, ver. 23 ; and the body of death, ver. 24. 
Which is the thing that through this chapter he insists on as 
the grand hindrance and reason why the law could not give 
life, just as he does in his conclusion, chap. viii. S. Which 
in this last place, is given as a reason why the law cannot 
give life to any of mankind. And it being the same reanon of 
the same thing, spoken of in the same discourse, in the former 
part of it; as appears, because this last place is the conclu- 
sion, of which that former part is the premises : And inas- 
much as ihe reason there given is being in the flesh, and a be^ 
ing carnal, sold under sin : Therefore taking the whole of the 
apostle's discourse, this is justly understood to be a reason 
why the law cannot give life to any of mankind ; and conse- 
quently, that all mankind are in the fesh, and are carnal, sold 
-under sin, and so remain till delivered by Ghrist : And con- 
sequently, all mankind in their first or original state arc very 
sinful ; which was the thing to be proved. 

♦ Dr. Taylor himself reckons this a part of the siine disrour^c or par^ 
graph, in the division he makes of liie epis'.K-, iu iiis painpliras- and notes 
:iP0D it. + See Note on Rom. v. ^^■ 



Containing Observations on Romans v. 12, to th. 



Remarkt on Dr. Taylor'^s way ofexfilatning this Text. 

THE following things are worthy to be taken notice of, 
concerning our author's exposition of this remarkable passage 
of the Apostle Paul, 

I. He greatly insists, that by death in this place no moro 
is meant, than that death which wc all die, when this present 
life is extinguished, and the body returns to the dust ; that 
DO more is meant in the 12th, 14th, 15th, and 17,th verses. 
Page 27, he speaks of it as evideiitly^ clearly^ and infallibly «o, 
because the apostle is still discoursing on the same subject ; 
plainly implying, that it must most infallibly be so, that the 
aposile means no more by death, throughout this paragraph 
on the subject. But as infallible as this is, if we believe what 
Dr. Taylor elsewhere says, it must needs be otherwise. lie, 
in p. 120, -S', tpeaking of those words in the last verse of the 
next chapter, " The wages of sin is death, but the gift of God 
is eternal life^ through Jesus Christ our Lord,** says, ," Death 
in this place is widely different from the death we novj die ; 
9?i if stands there vpfioscd to eternal ///<?, v/liich is the gift of 


(icd through Jesus Christ, it manifestly signifies eternal deaths 
the second deaths or then death which they 5hi»ll hereafter die, 
who live after the flesh." But death (in the conclu>,ion of the 
paragraph we are upon in the 5th chapter, concerninj; the 
death that comes by Adam) and the hfe that comes by Chi ist, 
in the last verse of the chapter, is o/i/ioscd to eternal life jusi 
in the same manner as it is in the last verse of the next chap- 
ter : " That as sin has reigned unto deaths even so might 
^race reign, through righteousness, un\.o eter?ial life, by Jesus 
Christ our Lord." So that by our author's own argument, 
death in this place also is manifestly ividely dijfcrent from the 
death we noio die^ as it stands here ofifiosed to eternal lifCf 
through Jesus ChrL-it ; end s:g7vfies eternal deaths the second 
death. And yet this is a part of the same discourse or para- 
graph with that begun in the 12ih verse, as reckoned by Dr. 
Taylor himself in his division of paragraphs, in his para- 
phrase and notes on the epistle. So that if we will follow 
him, and admit his reasonings in the various parts of his book, 
hero is manifest proof against infallible evidence ! So that it is 
true, the aposile throughout this whole passage on the same 
subject, by death, evidently^ clearly^ and iifalUbhj mean-t no 
more than that death we noiv die-, ii;hen this life is extinguished ; 
and yet by death, in some part of this passage, is meant some- 
thing -svidely different from the death wc now die, and is man- 
ifestly intended eternal deaths the second death. 

5ut had our author been more consistent with hinaselfin 
his laying of it down as so certain and i^ fallible^ that because 
the apostle has a special respect to temporal death, in the 
14th verse, Death reigned from jldarn to Alosesy therefore he 
means no more in the severi.l consequent puns of this pas- 
sage, yet he is doubtless too confident and positive in this 
matter. This is no more evident^ clear, and infullible^ ihi^n 
that Christ meant no more by /lerish/ng, m Luke xiii. 5, vvlicn 
he siiys, '- I tell you. Nay, but except yc repent, ye shall all 
Tikcwisc periih ;" than sorb a temporal death, as came o.i 
those ihui died by the full of the lowt-r of Siloam, vpoken of 
in the preceding words of 'he same ^ptcch ; and no more in- 
i'ullibic, i^ian that by life j Ci*rist nic^ais no moi- • - '''ifc. 


temporal lite, in each part of that one sentence, INIatth, x. 5?, 
" He iliat findeth his life shall lose it ; and he that loseth Ma 
///*£? for my sake, shall findzV;'* because in the first part of 
each clauf^e, he has respect especially to temporal life.* 

The truth of the case, with respect to what the apostle 
interifls by the word death in this place, is this, viz. That the 
same ihinpr is meant, that is meant by death in the foregoing 
and followinc: parts of *his epistle, and other writings of this 
apostle, where he speaks of death as the consequence of sin, 
viz. the whole of that death, which he, and the scripture ev- 
ery where, speaks of as the proper wages and punishment of 
sin, including death, temporal, spiritual, and eternal ; though 
in some parts of this discourse he has a more special respect 
10 one part of this whole, in others to another, as his argu- 
ment leads him ; without any more variation thai^ is common 
in the same discourse. That life, which the scripture speaks 
of as the reward of righteousness, is a whole, containing sev- 
eral partf^, viz. The life of the body, union of soul and body, 
and the most perfect sensibility, activity, and felicity of both, 
which is the chief thing. In like manner the death, which 
the scripture speaks of as the punishment of sin, is a whole, 
including the death of the body, and the death of the soul, and 
the eternal, sensible, perfect destruction and misery of both. 
It is this latter whole, that the apostle speaks of by the name 

* There are many places parallel with these, as John xi. 25, 26. *' I an\ 
ihe resurrection and the life : He that bdieveth in me, though*he were dead, 
vet he shall live : And whosoever liveth, and believeih in me. shall never die" 
Here both the words, life and death, are used with this variation : " I am 
the resurrection and the lite," meaning spiritual and eternal life : " He that; 
belicveih in mc, though he were dead," having rrsptct to lemporal death, 
*' yet shall he live,*' with respect to spiritual life, and ihs restoration of the 
life of the body. " And whosoever liveth and hclieveth in me, shall never 
die,'' meaning a spiritu -1 and eternal death. So in John vi. 49. 50. *''Your 
fathers did cat manna in the wilderness, and are dead," having respect" chiefly 
to temporal death. " This is the bread which cometrh down from heaven, that 
a man may cat thereof, and not die," i c. by the loss of spiritual life, and by 
eternal dea'h. (See also ver 58) And in the next vcise, " If any man eat 
of this bread, he shall live forever," have eternal life. So vor, 54. See an- 
cihcr like instance, John v. 24. ,..29. 


of death in this cUscoursc, in ]U)ni. v. ll»oun;h in some sen- 
tences he has a more special respect lo one j)art, in others to 
another: And this, without chantrintj; lUc sijrnificalion of the 
word. For an havin^^ respect lo several ihin^-s included in 
the extensive sii^niricauoa of tlie word, is noi the same thing 
as using the word in several distinct sijjjnific.-.tioi,s. As lor 
instance, the appellative, man^ or the proper name of any par- 
ticular man, is tlie name of a whole, including the dificrcr.t 
parts of soul and hody. And if any one in speakini; of James 
or John, should say, he was a wise wmw, and a beautiful man i ^ 
in the former part of the sentence, respect would he had more 
especially to his soul, in the latter to his body, in the word 
7na7i : But yei without any proper change of the signification 
of the name to distinct senses. In John xxi. 7, it is said, 
Peter was nakcd^ and in the following part of the same story 
it is said, Peter was grieved. In the former proposition, res- 
pect is had especially to his body, in the latter to his soul : 
But yet here is no proper change of the meaning of the name, 
Peter. And as to the apostle's use of the word rfv;//;, in the 
passage now under consideration, on the supposition that he 
in general means the whole of that death, v hich is the wages 
of sin, there is nothing but what is perfectly natural in sup- 
posing that he, in order to evince, that death, the proper \)uu- 
ishment of sin, comes on all mankind, in consequence of Ad- 
am's sin, should take notice of that part of this punishment, 
which is visible in this world, and which every hotly thciefore 
sees, does in fact come on all mankind (as in vcr. 14) and 
from thence should infer, tlr.it all mankind are exposed to the 
whole of that death which is the proper punishment of sin^ 
whereof that temporal death which is visible, is a part, and a 
visible im.agc of the whole, and (unless changed by divine 
grace) an introduction to tlic principal, and infmitely the mo^t 
dreadful part. 

II. Dr. Taylor's explanation of this passage makes wholly 
insignificant those first words. " Hy one man sin entered into 
the world," and leavca this proposition without ar,y sense or 
signification at all. The apostle had been largely and elabo- 
rately representing, how the whole world was full of sin. in all 


parts of it. both among Jews and Gentiles, and all exposed tc? 
dtaih and condemnation. It is plain, that in these words he 
v-oiild tell us how this came to pass, viz. that this sorrowful 
fcvcnt came by one ?nan, even the first man. That the world 
-was full of sin, and ftiU of death, were two great and notorious 
facts, deeply affecting the interests of mankind ; and they 
seemed very wonderful fi\cts, drawing the attention of the 
more thinking part of mankind every Where, who often a&ked 
this question, Whence comes evil, moral and natural evil ? (the 
latter chiefly visible in death.) It is manifest the apostle 
here means to tell us, how these came into the world, and 
came to prevail in it as they do. But all that is meant, ac- 
cording to Dr. Taylor's interpretation, is, " ffe begun trans" 
gres.sion"* As if all that the apostle meant, was, to tell us 
who happened to sin first ; tiot how such a malady came upon 
the world, or how any one in the world, be&ides Adam him- 
self, came by such a distemper. The words of the apostle, 
« By one man sjn entered into the nvorld^ and death by sin,*' 
shew the design to be, to tell us how these evils came, as af- 
fcciing the state of //if -zyor/rf; and not only as reaching one 
man in the world. If this were not plain enough in itself, 
the words immediately follov/ing demonstrate it : " And so 
dea'h passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." By sin^s 
being in the nvorld, the apostle does not mean being in the 
.world only in that one instance of Adam's first transgression, 
b\U being abroad in the nvorld, among the inhabitants of the 
earth, in a wide extent, and continued series of wickedness J 
as is plain in the first words of the next verse, *' For until the 
law , sin was in the ivorld.*^ And therefore when he gives us 
an account how it came to be in the world, or, which is the 
game thing, how it entered into the ivorld^ he does not mean 
only romiiig in-, in one instance. 

If the case were as Dr. Taylor represents, that the sin.oi" 
Adam, either in its pollution or punishment, reached none 
but himself, any more than the sin of any other man, it would 
%Q no more proper to say, that by one man .tin entered into thf 

• Page 56.. 

Ol^lIGlNAL SIN. 237 

world, than if it should be inquired, how mankind came into 
America, and there had anciently been a ship of the Pheni- 
«ians wrecked at sea, and a single man of the crew was driv- 
en ashore on this continent, and here died as soon an he 
reached the shore, it should be said, By thut one man mankind 
came into ^w erica. 

And besides, it is not true, that by one man, or by Adam, 
sin entered into the world, in Dr. Taylor's sense ; for ii was 
not he, but Eve, thut begun transgrccsicn. By one man Dr. 
Taylor understands Adum, as the figure of Christ. And it 
is plain that it was for his transgression, and not Eve's, that 
the sentence of death was pronounced on mankind after the 
fall. Gen. iii. 19. It appears unreasonable to suppose the 
apostle means to include Eve, when he speaks of Adam ; for 
he lays great stress on it, that it was by one, repeating it sev- 
eral times. 

III. In like manner this author brings to nothing the 
sense of the causal particles, in such phrases as these, so 
often repeated ; »' Death by sin," verse 12. " U through the 
offence of one, many be dead," verse 15. " ^y one that 
sinned. ...Judgment was by one to condemnation," verse 16. 
**ji5i/one man's offence, death reigned by one," verse i7. 
" By the offence of one, judgment came upon all," 8cc. verse 
18. '■''By one man's disobedience," verse 19. These causal 
particits, so dwelt upon, and so variously repeated, unless 
we make mere nonsense of the discourse, signify some con- 
nexion and dependence, by so.me sort of influence of that sin 
of one man, or some tendency to that effect, which is so often 
said to come by it. But according to Dr. Taylor, there can 
be no real dependence or influence in the case of any sort 
whatsoever. There is no connexion by any natural influence 
of that one act to make all mankind mortal. Our author 
does not pretend to account for this effect in any such man- 
ner, but in another most diverse, viz. A gracious act of 
God, laying mankind under aflliction, toil and death, from 
special favor and kindness. Nor can there be any dependence 
,of this effect on that transgression of Adam, by any moral in- 
^uence, as deserving such a consequence, or rxpoiing to it on 


any moral account^ for he supposes that mankind are not in this 
way exposed to the least degree of evil. Nor has this effect 
any /c?^^ dependence on that sin, or any connexion by virtue of 
anv antecedent constitution, which God had established with 
Adam ; for he insists that in that threatening, In the day 
thou cutest thou shalt die, there is not a word said of his pos- 
terity, page 8. And death on mankind, according to him, 
cannot come by virtue of that legal constitution with Adam ; 
because the sentence by which it came, was after the annull- 
ing and abolishing that constitution, page 113, 5. And it is 
manifest that this consequence cannot be through any kind of 
tcndaicij of that sin to such an effect, because the effect comes 
only as a benefit, and is the fruit of mere favor ; but sin has 
no tendency, either natural or moral, to benefits and divine fa- 
vors. And thus that sin of Adam could neither be the effi- 
cient c. use nor the procuring cause, neither the natural, mo- 
ral, nor lei^al cause, nor an exciting and moving cause, any 
more than Adam's eating of any other tree of the garden. 
And the only real relation that the effect can have to that 
sin, is a relation as to time, viz. that it is after it. And when 
the matter is closely examined, the whole amounts to no 
more than this, That God is pleased, of his mere good will 
and pleasure, to bestow a greater favor upon us, than he did 
iipon Adam in innoccncy, after that sin of his eating the for- 
bidden fruit ; which sin we are no more concerned in, than 
in the sin of the king of Pegu, or emperor of China. 

IV. It is altogether inconsistent with the apostje*s scope, 
and the import of what he says, to suppose thai the death 
wliich he here speaks of, as coming on mankind by Adam's 
ein, comes not as a punishment, but only as a favor. It quite 
makes void tiie opposition, in which the apostle sets the 
r.onsequenccs of Adam's sin, and the consequences of the 
f^race and righteousness of Christ. They are set in opposi- 
tion to each other, as opposite effects, arising from opposite 
causes, lhro\ighout tlie paragrapli : One as the juat conse- 
quence cf an ojftncc, the other ^ free gift^ verse 15. ...18. 
Whereas, according to this scheme, there is no sucli oppo^j- 
•ion in the case ; both ave bencfi'.s, and both are free gifts. 


A very wholesome medicine to save from perisliinji;, ordered 
by a kind father, or a shield to preserve from an enemy, be- 
stowed by a friend, is as much a free gift as pU^sant food. 
The death that comes by Adam, is set in opposition to the 
life and happiness that comes by Christ, as being the fruit of 
sin, 2iV\^ judgment for sin ; when the latter is the fruit of di- 
vine grace^ verses 15, 17, 20, 21. Whereas, according to 
our author, both came by grace : Death comes on mhnkind 
by the free kindness and love of God, much more truly and 
properly than by Adam's sin. Dr. Taylor speaks ot it as 
coming by occasion of Adam*s sin. (But as I have observed, 
it is an occasion without any hiflucnce.) Yet the prope*- cau.^c 
is God*s grace ; so that the true cause is wholly good. Which 
by the way, is directly repugnant to the apostle's doctrine in 
Rom. vii. 13. " Was then that which is good, made death 
unto me ? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, 
working death in me by that which is good." Where the 
apostle utterly rejects any such suggestion, as though that 
whit:h is good were the proper cause of death ; and signifies 
that sin is the proper ca^ise^ and that which is good^ only the 
nccaaion. But according to this author, the reverse is true : 
That which is good in the highest sense, even the love of 
God, and a divine, gracious constitution, is the proper cause 
of death, and sin only the occasion. 

But to return, it is plain, that death by Adam, and life 
and hnppincss bij Christy are here set in opposition ; the latter 
being spoken of as good^ the other as cril ; one as the effect 
oVrii^htcousness^ the other of an offence ; one the fruit o{ obc- 
dience, the other of disobedience ; one as the fruit of God's 
favory in consequence of what was pleasing and acceptaft"!e to 
him, but the other the fruit of his dis/ilrasnre, lu consequence 
of what was displeasing and hateful to him ; the Jailer ctim- 
inv^ by justif CO :ion^ the former by the cchdrmvariori of the 
subject. But according to the scheme of our author, there 
can be no opposition in any of liiese resptc's ; the ditath here 
spoken o1", neither comes as an er//, noi fioni an ^t/7 raiwr, 
either an evil efficient cause, or procuring cause ; not at all 
as any testimony of Cod's displeafiure to the bul)ject, ?jut us 


properly the effect of Goers favor, no less than that which r* 
spoken of as coming by Christ ; yea, and as much as to that 
appointed by an act of justification of the subject, as he un- 
derstands and explains the word justijication ; for both arc 
by a grant of favor ^ and are instances of merqy and good- 
ness. And he does abundantly insist upon it, that " any 
grant of favor, any instance of mercy and goodness, whereby 
God delivers and exempts from any kind of danger, suffering 
or calamity, or confers any favor, blessing, or privilege, is 
called justifcationy in the scripture sense and use of the 

And over and above all these things, cur author makes 
void, and destroys the grand and fundamental opposition of all, 
to illustrate which is the chief scope of this whole passage, 
viz. That between the first and second Adam, in the deat/j. 
that comes by one, and the life and happiness by the ot/ier. 
For, according to his doctrine, doth come by Christ, the second 
Adam ; both by his grace, righteousness, and obedience : 
The death that God sentenced mankind to in Gen. iii. 19, ber 
ing a great deal more properly and truly by Christ, than by 
Adam. For, according to him, tliat sentence v/as not pro- 
nounced on the foot of the covenant with Adam, because that 
was abrogated, and entirely set aside, as what was to have no 
more effect, before it was pronounced ; as he largely insists 
.for many pages together, pages 1 13..,.lli), 5. He says, page 
113, S. " Tills covenant with Adam was disannulled immedi- 
ately after Adam sinned. Even before God passed sentence 
upon Adam, grace was introduced." And in p. 119, 5". he 
says, *' The death that mankind are the subjects of now, stands 
under the covenant of grace." And in p. 120, iS\ " In the 
counsel and appointment of God, it stood in this very litiht, 
even before the sentence of death was pronounced upon 
Adam ; and consequently, death is no proper and legal pun- 

• Key, \ 374, v'liere it is to be observed, ibat lie liiwisclf puts the 'vord 
ANY in c^p'tal letters. The same thing in subaaiice is often asserted else- 
where. Ard this, indeed, is his main poit.t in what he calls <' the true goj • 
Del tcheme." , 


islimcnt of sin." And h« often insists, iliai it comes only as 
a favor and benefit ; and siandinp;, as he says, under the cov- 
rnant of grace, ^vhich is by Christ, thrrelbrc is tiuly one of 
the benefits of the new covenant, which comes by Chiifit, 
the second Adam. For he himself is full in it, to ube his 
own words,* <' That all the j^race of the j^ospel ia dispensed 
to us, 777, Av, or throiigh the Son of (iod." '' JSothinj^ is 
clearer (says hef) from the whole current of scripture, than 
that all the mercy and love of God, and all the blessinv^s of 
the gospel, from first to last, are in, iy^ and through Christ, 
and particularly by his blood, by the redempiion that is in 
him. This (says hcj can bear no dispute among Christians." 
What then becomes of all this discourse of ihe apostle, a- 
bout the great difference and opposition between Adam and 
Christ ; as death is by one, and eternal life and happinasc 
by the other ? This grand distinction between the two Ad- 
ams, and all the other instances of opposition and difference 
here insisted on, as between the effects of sin and ri^liteous- 
ness^Xhe. consequences of o"^f6//ewc<? and disobedience^ of the 
offence and \.hc free gift, judgment and grace^ condemrmfion and 
justification, they all come to nothinp: ; and this whole dis- 
course of the apostle, wherein he seems to labor much, as 
if it were to set forth some very grand and most imfjortant 
distinctions and ofifiodtions in the state of things, as derived 
from the two grer.t lieads of mankind, proves nothing but st 
•multitude of words without meaning, or rather an heap oi 

V. Our author's own doctrine entirely t??^^^.? Toft/ what 
he suppose:5 to be the apostle*^ argument in the 13ih and 1 4th 
verses, in these words : '' For until the law, sin was in the 
world ; but sin is not imputed where there is no law. Nev- 
ertheless death reicjned from Adam to Moses, even over rhem 
that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgres- 

What he supposes the aposMe would prove here, is, hat 
death, or the mortaliiy of mankind, comes only by Ad.»lT.'^ 

♦ K-y, thap viii. Title, p 44. + Key, f, 145. 

5 G 


ain, and not by mtn*s fiersotial sins ; and that it is here pro?'- 
ed by this argument, viz, because there was 7io law threaten- 
ing; death to Adam*s posterity for fiersonal sinsy before the 
law of Moses ; but death, or the mortality of Adam's poster- 
ity, took place many ages before the law was given ; therefore 
death could not be by any law threatening death for fiersonal 
sins, and consequently could be by nothing but Adam's sin * 

On this I would observe, 

1. That which he supposes the apostle to lake for a 

truth in this argument, viz. That there was 720 law of God in 

being, by which men were exposed to death iov fiersonal 

ehi, during the time from Adam to Moses, is neither true, 

Tior agreeable to this apostle's ovrn doctrine. 

First, It is 7ioi true. For the law of nature, written in 
men's hearts, was then in being, and was a law by which 
wen were exposed to death for fiersonal sin. That there 
was a divine establishment, fixing the death and destruction 
of the sinner, as the consequence of personal sin, which was 
well known before the giving of Moses' law, is plain by 
many passages in the Book of Job, as fully and clearly imply- 
ing a connexion between such sin and such a punishment, as 
any passage in the law of Moses ; such as that in Job xxiv, 
19. "Drought and heat consume the snow waters: S® 
doth the grave them that have sinned." (Compare verse 
20 and 24.) Also chap, xxxvi 6. '' He preserveth not the 
life of the wicked." Chap. xxi. 29.... 32. " Have ye not 
asked them that go by the way ? And do ye not know their 
tokens ? That the wicked is reserved to the day of destruc- 
tion ; they shall be brought forth to tlie day of wrath." Ver. 
32. " He shall be brought to the grave."t 

Secondly, to suppose that there is no law in being, by 
which men are exposed to death {qy fiersonal sins, where or 
when a revealed law of God, before, in, or after Moses* 
lime is not in being, is contrary to this afiostle^s own doctrine 

* Page 40, 41, 42, 57, and often elsewhere. + See also Job iv. 7, 8, 9. 
Chap. XV, i7....35« Chap, xviii. 5... .21, xix. 29, and xx. 4. .,8, and tnaoy 
other places. 


in this epistle. Rom. ii. 12, 14, 15. « For as many as have 
sinned without law, (i. e. the revealed law) shall perish with- 
•ut law." But how they can be exposed to die and perish, 
who have not the law of Moses, nor any revealed law, the 
apostle shews us in the 14th and 15th verses, viz. in that they 
have the law of nature, by which they fall under sentence to 
this punishment. " For when the Gentiles, which have not 
the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, 
having not the law, are a law to themselves ; which shew 
the work of the law written in their hearts ; their conscience 
also bearing witness," Their conscience not only bore 
witness to the duty prescribed by this law, but also to 
the punishment before spoken of, as that which they who 
sinned without law, were liable to suffer, viz. that they 
should perish. In which the apostle is yet more express, 
chap. i. 32, speaking more especially of the Heathen, " Who 
knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such 
things are worthy of death." Dr. Taylor often calls the law 
the rule of right ; and this rule of right sentenced those sin- 
ners to death, who were not under the law of Moses, accord- 
ing to this auiJior*s own paraphrase of this verse, in these 
■words, " The Heathen were not ignorant of the rule of rights 
which God has implanted in the human nature ; and which 
shews that they which commit such crimes, are deserving of 
death." And he himself supposes Abraham^ who lived be- 
tween Adam and Moses, to be U7idtr la-iu^ by which he, would 
have been exfiosed to fiunishment without hofie^ were it not for 
the promise of grace. ...in his paraphrase on Rom. iv. 15. 

So that in our author's way of explaining the passage be- 
fore us, the grand argument, which the apostle insists upon 
here, t© prove his main point, viz. that death does not come 
by men*s fiersoJial sinsj but by Adam's sin, because it came 
btfjre the law was given, that threatened death for personal 
sin : I say, this argument which Dr. Taylor supposes so clear 
and strong,* is brought to nothing more than a mere shadow 
without substance ; the very foundation of the argument hav- 
ing no truth. To say, there was no such hnv actually c\- 
• Page U7. S. 


pressed in any standing revelation, Avould be mere trifling i 
For it no more appears, that God would not biiiie^ temporal 
death for personal sins, without a standinc^ revealed law threat- 
ening it, than that he would not bring eternal death before 
there was a revealed law threatening that : Which yet wick- 
ed men that lived in Noah's time, were exposed to, as appears 
by i Pet. iii. 19, 20, and which Dr. Taylor supposes all man- 
kind are exposed to by their personal sins ; :^nd he himself 
says,* " Sin, in its own unalterable nature, leads to death.'* 
Yea, it might be argued with as much strength ol reason, that 
God could bring on men no punishment at all for any sin, that 
%vas committed from Adam to Moses, because there was no 
standing revealed law then extant, threatening any punish- 
ment. It may here be properly observed, that our author sup- 
poses the shortening of man's days, and hastening of death, 
entered viio the ivorld by the sin of the antediluvians, in the 
same sense as death and mortality entered into the world by 
Adam's sin.f But where was there any standing revealed 
law for that, though the event was so universal ? If God 
might bring this on all mankind, on occasion ot other men's 
sins, for which they deserved nothing, without a revealed law, 
what could there be to hinder God's bringing death on men 
for their personal sins, for which their own consciences tell 
them they do deserve death without a revealed law ? 

2. If it had been so, that from Adam to Moses there had 
been no law in being, of any kind, revealed or natural, by 
which men could be properly exposed to temporal death for 
personal sin, yet the mention of Moses' law would have been 
wholly impertinent, and of no signification in the argument, 
according to our author's understanding of it. He supposes, 
what the apostle would prove, is, that temporal ^tstxh, or the 
death we now die, comes by Adam ; and not by any law threat- 
ening such a punishment foi- personal sin ; because this death 
prevailed before the law of Moses Was in being, which is the 
D!ily law threatening death for personal sin. And yet he him- 
iBfell supposes, that the law of Moses, nvhcn it ivas in bein^^ 

• Page 77, 78. + Page 68. 


threatened no such death for personal sin. For he abundantly 
asserts, that the death which the law of Moses threatened for 
personal sin, was etertml death, as has been alrcarly noted : 
And he says in express terms, that eternal d-aih is of a na- 
ture ividcly different from the death ive now die ;• as was also 
observed before. 

How impertinently therefore does Dr. Taylor make an 
inspired writer ar^ue, when, acconling to him, the upoMle 
would prove, that this kind of death did not come by any law 
threatening this kind of death, because it came before the ex- 
istence of a law threatening another kind of death, of a nature 
^ndely different ? How is it to the apostle's purpose, to fix on 
that period, the time of giving Moses* law, as if that had been 
the period wherein men began to be threatened with this fiun* 
ishment for their personal sins, when in truth it was no such 
thing ? And therefore it was no more to his purpose, to fix on 
that period, from Adam to Meses, than from Adam to David, 
«r any other period whatsoever. Dr. Taylor holds, that even 
«ow, since the law of Moses has been given, the mortality oi" 
mankind, or the death we now die, does not come by that 
law; but that it always comes only by Adam-t And if it 
never cornea by that law, we may be sure it riever was threat' 
ened in that law. 

3. If we should allow the argument in Dr. Taylor's sense 
of it, to prove that death does not come by ficrsonal sin, yet it 
will be wholly without force to prove the main point, even 
that it must come by Adam's sin : For it might come by 
God's sovereign and gracious pleasure ; as innumerable oth- 
er divine benefits do. If it be ordered, agreeably to our au- 
thor's supposition, not as a punishment, nor as a calamity, but 
only as 2i favor, what necessity of any settled constitution, or 
revealed sentence, in order to the bestowing such a favor, 
more than other favors ; and particularly more than that 
great benefit, which he says entered into the world by the sin 
of the antediluvians, the shortening men's lives so much af- 

• Page 120. 5. He says to the like purpose in his Note on Rom, v. ij 
i This is plain by what be says, p. 38, 40, 53, 117, S. 


ter the flood ? Thus the apostle's arguing, by Dr. Taylor's 
explanation of it, is turned into mere trifling, and a vain and 
impertinent use of words, without any real force or sigriifi^ 

VI. The apostle here speaks of that great benefit which 
we have by Christ, as the antitype of Adam, under the notion 
of a fruit of grace, I do not mean only that sufieraboiinding 
of grace, wherein the benefit we have by Christ goes beyond 
the damage sustained by Adam ; but that benefit, with re- 
gard to which Adam nvas the figure of him that was to comcy 
and which is, as it were, the counterpart of the suffering by 
Adam, and which repairs the loss we have by him. This is 
here spoken of as the fruit of the free grace of God ; as ap- 
pears by ver. 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21. This, according to our 
author, is the restoring of mankind to that life which they 
lost in Adam : And he himself supposes this restoration of 
life by Christ to be what grace does for us, and calls it the 
free gift, of God., and the grace and favor of the lawgiver * And 
speaking of this restoration, he breaks out in admiration of 
the unsfieakable riches of this grace. ^ 

But it follows from his doctrine, that there is no grace at 
all in this benefit, and it is no more than a mere act of justice, 
being only a removing of what mankind suffer, being innocent. 
Death, as it commonjy comes on mankind, and even on in- 
fants (as has been observed) is an extreme positive calamity ; 
to bring which on the perfectly innocent^ unremedied, and 
without any thing to countervail it, we arc sufficiently taught, 
is not consistent with the righteousness of the Judge of all the 
earth. What grace^ therefore, worthy of being so celebrated, 
would there be in affording remedy and relief, after there had 
been brought on innocent mankind that which is (as Dr. Tay- 
lor himself represents)! the dreadful and universal destruc- 
tion of their nature ; being a striking demonstration how in- 
finitely liateful sin is to God ! What grace in delivering from 

* P^gc 39. 70 148, 27, S. Sec also contents of this paragraph in Ronn. v. 
.n his notes on the epistle, and his note on ver. 15, 16, 17. + Page 119, S. 
; Pjgc 69. 


such shocking ruin, them that did not deserve the least ca- 
lamity ! Our author says, *' Wc could i»ot jundy lose com- 
munion with God by Adam's sin."* If so, tlien wc could 
not justly lose our lives, and be annihilated, after a course of 
extreme pains and agonies of body and mind, wilhout any 
restoration ; whicli would be an eternal loss of communion 
with God, and all other good, besides the positive suffc-iing. 
The apostle, throupjhout this passage, represents the dcaiht 
which is the consequence of Adam's transgression, as coming 
in a way of judgment and co7idcmnation for sin ; but deliver- 
ance and life through Christ, as by gracc^ and the free gift of 
God. Whereas, on the contrary, by Dr. Taylor's scheme, 
the death that comes by Adam, comes by grace, great grace ; 
it being a great benefit, ordered in fatherly love and kindness, 
and on the foot of a covenant of grace : . But in the deliver- 
ance and restoration by Christ, there is wo grace at all. So 
things are turned tofmj turxnj, the apostle's scope and scheme 
entirely inverted and confounded. 

VII. Dr. Taylor explains the words, Judgment, condemna- 
tion, justification^ and righteousness, as used in this place, in a 
very unreasonable manner. 

I will first consider the sense he puts upon the two former, 
judgment and condemnatio?/. He often calls tlii» condenma- 
tion a judicial act, and a sentence ofconde?n7iation. But, ac- 
cording to his scheme, it is a judicial sentence of condemna- 
tion passed upon them that are perfectly innocent, and viewed 
by the Judge, even in his passing the sentence, and condemn- 
ing them, as having no guilt of sin, or fault at all chargeable 
upon them; and a judicial firocccding, passing sentence arbi- 
trarily, without any law or rule of right before established : 
For there was no preceding law or rule threatening death, 
that he, or any one else, ever pretended to have been estab- 
lished, but only this, " In the day that ihog eatcst thereof, 
thou shalt surely die." And concerning tins, he insists, that 
there is not a word said in it of Adam's posterity. So that the 
condemnation spoken of, is a sentence of condemnation to 

♦Page 148. 


death, for, or in consequence of the sin of Adam, without an^ 
law, by which that sin could be imputed to brinsj any such 
consequence ; contrary to the apostle's plain scope. And 
not only so, but over and above all this, it is -a judicial sentence 
oi condemnation to that which is nocalaiYiity, nor is considered 
as such in the sentence ; but it is condemnation to a great 
favor ! 

The apostle uses the words judgment and condemnation in 
other places ; they are no strange and unusual terms with 
him : But never are they used by him in ihis sense, or any 
like it ; nor are they ever used thus any where else in the 
New Testament. This apostle elsewhere in this epistle to 
the Romans is often speaking of condemnation^ using the same, 
or similar terms and phrases as here, but never in the above- 
said sense. Chap. ii. 1, 2, 3, six times in these verses ; also- 
ver. 12 and 27, and chap. iii. 7 ; chap. viii. 1 and 3 ; chap. xiv. 
3, 4, and ver. 10, 13, 22 and 23. This will be plain to every 
one that casts his eye on these places : And if we look intd. 
the former part of this chapter, the apostle's discourse here 
makes it evident, that he is here speaking of a condemnation, 
that is no testimony of favor to the innocent ; but of God*3 
displeasure towards those that he is not reconciled to, but 
looks on as offenders, sinners, and enemies, and holds as the 
objects of his wrath, which we are delivered from by Christ; 
as may be seen in verses 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. 

And viewing this discourse itself, in the very paragraph 
we are upon, if we may judge any thing by language and 
manner of speaking, there is every thing to lead us to sup- 
pose, that the apostle uses these words here, as he does else- 
where, properly, and as implying a supposition of sin, charge- 
able on the sul)ject, and exposing to punishment. He speaks 
of condemnation with reference to sin, as what comes by sin, 
and as a condemnation to death, which seems to be a most 
terrible evil, and capital punishment, even in what is temporal 
and visible ; and this in the way of judgment and execution 
of justice, in opposition to grace or favor, and gift or a benefit 
coming by favor. And sin and offence, transgression avid 
disobedience, are over and over again spoken of as the ground. 


©f the condemnation, and of the capital suffering condemned 
to, for ten verses success vely, that is, in every verse in the 
whole paiagraph, without missing one. 

The words, jiutijication and rightcousTicsay are explained 
by Dr. Taylor, in a no less unreasonable manner, lie un- 
derstands y^s/jAca/iow, in ver. 18, and rightcouancnH^ in ver. 19, 
in such a sense, as to suppose them to belonu; to all, and act- 
ually to be applied to all mankind, good and bad, believers 
and unbelievers ; to the worst enemies of God, remaining 
SKch, as well as his peculiar favorites, and many that never 
had any sin iniputed to them ; meaning thereby no more 
than what is fulfilled in an universal resurrection from the 
dead, at the last day.* Now this is a most arbitrary forced 
sense. Though these terms are used every where, all over 
the New Testament, yet nothing like snch an use of them is 
to be found in any one instance, through all the writings of 
the apostles and evangelists. The words Justify Juaf(/icafiony 
and righteousness^ as from God to men, are never used but to 
signify a privilege belonging only to some, and that which is 
peculiar to distinguished favorites. This apostle in particular, 
above all the other writers of the New Testament, abounds in 
the use of these terms ; so that we have all imaginable op- 
portunity to understand his language, and know the sense in 
which he uses tl.ese words : But he never elsewhere uses 
them in the sense supposed here, nor is there any pretence 
that he does. Above all, does this apostle abound in the use 
of thrse terms in this epistle. Justifcation is the subject he 
had been upon throjjgh all the preceding part of the epistle. 
It was the giand subject of all the foregoing chapters, and the 
preceding part of this chapter, where these terms are contin- 
ually repeated. And the y,ovA^ justification, is constantly used 
to signify something j)eculiar to believers, who had been sin- 
ners ; implying some reconciliation arnl forgiveness of sin, 
and special privilege in nearness to God, above the vcA of 
the world. Yea, the word is constantly used thus, accoidintj 
to Dr. Taylor's own explanations, in liis paraphrase and i.otcs 

• So, page 47, 49, bo, 6i, 6e>3Md fv.hcr p'acj 


on this epistle. And there is not the least reason to suppose 
but that he is still speaking q( the Sdunc jus fi^caciori vlU(] right' 
eousnes'i^ which he had dwelt upon from the beginning to this 
place. He speaks of justijication and righteousness here, just 
in the same manner as he had done in the precedmg part of 
the epistle. He had all along spoken of justification as stand- 
ing in relation to sin^ disobedience to God, and offence against 
God, and so he does here : He had before been speaking of 
justification through free grace^ and so he does here : He 
before had been speaking of justification through righteowi" 
ness^ as in Christ Jesusj and so he does here. 

And if we look into the former part of this very chapter, 
there we shall find justijicatioii spoken of just in the same 
sense as in the rest of the epistle ; which is also supposed by 
our author in his exposition : It is still justijication by faith, 
justijication of them that had been si7mers, justijication attend- 
ed with reconciliation, justijication peculiar to them that had 
the love of God shed abroad in their hearts. The apostle's fore- 
going discourse on justification by grace through faith, and 
what he had sp greatly insisted on as the evidence of the 
truth of this doctrine, even the universal sinfulness of man- 
kind in their original state, is plainly what introduces this dis- 
course in the latter part of this 5th chapter ; where he shews 
how all mankind came to be sinful and miserable, and so to 
. need this grace of God, and righteousness of Christ. And 
therefore we cannot, without the most absurd violence, sup- 
pose any other than that he is still speaking of the same yz^s//- 

And as to the universal expression used in the 18th verse, 
" By the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men 
to jusiification of life ;" it is needless here to go into the con- 
trovtvsv between the rev<onstrants and anti rr?7ionstrantSy con- 
cerning universal redemption, and their different interpreta- 
tions of this place. If we take the words even as the Armin- 
ians do ; yet, in tlicir sense of them, the free gift comes on 
all men to justification only conditionalij ; i. e. provided they 
believe, repent, See. But in uur autI)or's sense, it actiiallu 
comes on all, whether they believe and repent, or not ; which 


certainly cannot be inferred from the universal expression, a* 
here used. Dr. Taylor himself supposes, the main design of 
the apostle in this universal phrase, all mni^ is te sif^nify that 
the hencfils of Christ shall come on Cicntilcs as well as Jews.* 
And he supposes that the many^ and the all^ here signify the 
same : But it is quite certain, that all the benefits here spok- 
en of, which the apostle says are to the inainj^ does not actual- 
ly come upon ail mankind ; as particularly the aboundm^ of 
graccy spoken of ver. 15. The grace of God, and the t^ift 6y 
grace^ hath ahoKiided unto the many^ m( t8? 'wo^^tf4. 

This aboundinp; of grace our author explains thus : " A 
rich overplus of grace, in erecting^ a new dispensation, fur- 
nished wiih a glorious fund of light, means and motives," 
p. 44. But will any pretend, that all mankind have actually 
been partakers of this new fund ofli^ht, &tc. How were the 
many millions of Indians, on the American side of the globe, 
partakers of it, before the Europeans came hither ? Yea, Dr. 
Taylor himself supposes, all that is meant is, that it is free 
for all that are ivilling to acce/it ofit.i The agreement be- 
tween Adam, as the type or figure of him that was to come, 
and Christ as the antitype, appears as full and clear, if we 
suppose all which are in Christ (to use the common scripture 
phrase) have the benefit of his obedience, as all that are in 
Adam have the sorrowful fruit of his disobedience. The 
scripture speaks of believers as the seed or posterity of Christ. 
(Gai. iii. 29.) They are in Christ by grace, as Adam's pos- 
terity are in him by nature : The one arc in the first Adam 
naturally y as the other are in the second Adam sfiirituallu : Ex- 
actly agreeable to the representation this apostle makes of the 
matter, 1 Cor. xv. 45. ...49. The spiritual seed are those 
which this apostle often represents as Christ's body : And the 
CI 'cjQ>^9t here spoken of as made righteous by Christ's obedi- 
ence are doubtless the same with the ol oroXXo* which he speaks 
of in chap. xii. 5. We, beivci many, an ouc body ; or, ive, the 
many, c^ -crcWvc* iv cu^», ta-yitt. And again, 1 Cor. x. IT, ir aviA» 

♦ Page 6o, 6i, See also contcnt<: of this parsgraph, In hv< notes on the 
ccistle. + Notes on the epistle, p, 284. 


f( noX>.ot triAtw, And the same which the apostle had spoken 
*of in the preceding chapter, Rom. iv. 18, compared with 
Gen. XV. 5. 

Dr. Taylor much insists on that place, I Cor. xv, 21, 22, 
" For since hy man came death, by man came also the resur- 
rection of the dead : For as in Adam all die, so in Christ 
shall all be made alive ;'* to confirm his suppositions, that the 
apostle here in the 5th of Romans, speaking of the death and 
condemnation which come by Adam, has respect only to the 
death ive all dicy when this life ends : And that by the justifi- 
cation and life which come by Christ, he has respect only to 
the general resurrection at the last day. But it is observable, 
that his argument is wholly built on these two suppositions, 
viz. Firsts That the resurrection meant by the apostle, in 
that place in the 1 Cor. xv. is the resurrection of all mankind, 
both just and unjust. Secondly, That the opposite conse- 
quences of Adam's sin, and Christ's obedience, spoken of here 
in Rom. v. are the very same, neither more nor less, than are 
spoken of there. But there are no grounds for supposing 
cither of these things to be true. 

1. There is no evidence, that the resurrection there spok- 
en of, is the resurrection both of the 7*ws; and unjust; but 
abundant evidence of the contrary. The resurrection of the 
wicked is seldom mentioned in the New Testament, and rare- 
ly included in the meaning of the word ; it being esteemed 
not worthy to be called a rising to life, being only for a great 
increase of the misery and darkness of eternal death ; And 
therefore by the resurrection is most commonly meant a rising 
to life and happiness ; as may be observed in Matth. xxii. 30 
....Luke XX. 35, 36.. .John vi. 39, 40, 54....PhiUp. iii. 11, and 
other places. The saints are called the children of the resur- 
rection. as Ur. Taylor observes in his note on Rom. viii. 11, 
And it i?i exceeding evident, thai it is the resurrection to life 
and happiness, the apostle is speaking of in tliis 1 Cor. xv. 21, 
22. It appears by each of the three foregoing verses, ver. 18, 
« Then they v/hich are fallen asleep in Christ (i. e. the saints) 
are perished." Ver. 19. *' If in this life only we (Christians 
or apostles) have hope in Christ (and have no resurrection 


aiid eternal life to hope for) wc are of all men most misera- 
ble." Ver. 20. " But now is Christ risc!i from the dead, and 
is become Xheji rat fruits of them that slept." He is the fore- 
runner and first fruits only with respect to them ll»at are his ; 
"Who are to follow him, and partake with him in the glory and 
happiness of his resurrection : But he is not the first iruiis of 
them that shall come forth to the resurrection o'i dammition. 
It also appears by the verse immediately following, ver. 23. 
♦* But every man in his own order ; Christ the first fruits, and 
.•ifterward ihey that are Christ's, at his coming." The same 
is plain by what is said in verse 29, 30, 51 and "2, and by all 
that is said from the 35th verse to the end of the chapter, for 
twentythree verses together : It there expressly appears, that 
the apostle is spealyng only of a rising to f^lorijy with a t^lori- 
cus body, as the little' grain that is sown, being (inickened, 
rises a beautiful flourishing plant. He there speaks of the 
different degrees of glory among them that shall rise, and 
compares it to the different degrees of glory among the ce- 
lestial luminaries. The resurrection which he treats of, i» 
expressly a being raised in incorrupfio?i, in glory, in flower^ 
nvith a sfiiritual body, having the image of the second man, the 
spiritual and heavenly Adam ; a resurrection wherein //;/> 
corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal put on ini' 
mortality, and death be swalloiued up in victory, and the saints 
shall gloriously triunnph over that last enemy. Dr. Taylor 
himself says, that which is in effect owning the resurrection 
here spoken of is only of the righteous ; for it is expressly 
a resurrection, tt a^amaici, and a^c&a^o-iot, ver. 53 and 42. But 
Dr. Taylor says, " These are never attributed ts the wicked 
in scripture.* So that when the apostle says here, " As in 
Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive ;" it is as 
much as if he had said, As in yldam we all die, and our bodies 
are sown in corruption, in dishonor, and in weakness ; so in 
Christ we all (we Christians, whom I have all along been 
speaking of) shall be raised in power, glory, and incorruplion, 
spiritual and heavenly, conformed to the second Adam. " For 

• Mote on Rom, viii. £7. 


as we have borne the imagje of the earthy, we shall also bear 
the image of the heavenly,'* ver. 49. Which clearly explains* 
and determines his meaning in verse 21, 22. 

2. There is no evidence that the benefit by the second 
Adam, spoken of in Rom. v. is the very same (containing 
neither more nor less) as the resurrection spoken of in 1 Cor. 
XV. It is no evidence of it, that the benefit is opposed to ther 
death that comes by the first Adam, in like manner in both 
places. The resurrection to eternal life, though it be not 
the whole of that salvation and happiness which comes by the 
second Adam, yet it is that wherein this salvation is princi- 
pally obtained. The time of the saints* glorious resurrection 
is often spoken of as the proper time of the saints' salvation, 
the day of their redemfition^ the time of their adofition^ glory, 
and recompense. (As in Luke xiv. 14, and xxi. 28, Rom. 
viii. 23, Eph. iv. 30, Coloss. iii. 4, 2 Thess. i. 7, 2 Tim. iv. 
8, 1 Pet. i. 13, and v. 4, 1 John iii. 2, and other places.) All 
that salvation and happiness which is given before, is only a 
prelibation and earnest of their great reward. Well therefore 
may that consummate salvation bestowed on them, be set in 
opposition to the death and ruin which comes by the first 
Adam, in like manner as the whole of their salvation is op- 
posed to the same in Rom. v. Dr. Taylor himself observes,* 
" That the revival and resurrection of the body, is frequently 
put for our advancement to eternal life." It being the high- 
est part, it is often put for the whole. 

This notion, as if the justification, righteousness, and life 
spoken of in Rom. v. implied the resurrection to damnation, 
is not only without ground from scripture, but contrary to 
reason. For those things are there spoken of as great bene- 
fits, by the grace and free gift of God ; but this is the con- 
trary, in the highest degree possible, being the most con- 
summate and infinite calamity. To obviate this, our author 
supposes the resurrection of all to be a great benefit in itself , 
though turned into a calamity by the sin and folly of obstinate 
Binners, who abuse God's goodness. But the far greater part 

* Note on Rom. viii. ii. 


of mankind, since Adam, have never hud opportunity to abuse 
this goodness, it havint; never been made K?u)vvm lo them. 
Men cannot abuse a kindness, which ihcy never had either 
in possession, promise, offer, or some intimation ; but a res- 
urrection is made known only by divine revelation, which few 
comparatively have enjoyed. So that as to such wicked men 
as die in lands of darkness, if their resurreciioii conies at all 
by Christ, it comes from him, and to them, only as a curse, 
and not as a blessing ; for it never comes to them at all by 
any conveyance^ grant, promise, or ojffr^or any thini^ by which 
they can claim it, or know any thing Jf it, till it conies as an 
infinite calamity, past all remedy. 

VIII. In a peculiar manner is there an unreasonable vi- 
olence used in our author's explanation of the words sinners 
and sinned, in the paragraph before us. He says, " These 
words, By one man^s disobedience many ivcre made sinners, 
mean neither more nor less, than that by one man's disobe- 
dience, the many were made subject to death, by the judi- 
cial act of God.*'* And he says in the same place, " By 
death most certainly is meant no other than the death and 
mortality common to all mankind.'* And those words, verse 
12, For that all have tinned, he thtts explains, " All men 
became sinners as all mankind are biuught into a state of suf- 
ferin g."t 

Here I observe, 

1. The main thing, by which he justifies such interpreta- 
tions, is, that sin, in various instances, is used for sujff'ering, 
in the Old Testament.^ To which I reply, though it be 
true that the word C^crrcaA, signifies both sin, and a sin offer- 
ing ; and this, and some other Hebrew words, which signify 
sin, iniquity, and wickedness, are sometimes put for the ef- 
fect or punishment of iniquity, by a metonymy of the cause 
for the effect ; yet it does not appear, that these words are 
ever used for enduring suffering, where the suffering is not 
spoken of under any notion of a punishment of sin, or a fruif 
of God's anger for sin, or of any imputation of guilf, or under 

• Page 30. + Pa-e 54, and c!:cwhcrc. * Pa^c 34. 


any notion of sin*s being at all laid to the charge cf the suffer- 
er, or the suffering's being at all of the nuture of any recom- 
pense, compensation, or satisfaction for sin. And therefore 
none of the instances he mentions, come up to his purpose. 
When Lot is commanded to leave Sodom, that he might not 
be consumed in the im<jnity of , the cily, meaning in that fire, 
which was the effect and punishment of the iniquity of the 
city ; this is quite another thing, than if that fire came on the 
city in general, as no punishment at all, nor as any fruit of a 
charge of iniquity on ll^q city> ©r of God's displeasure for 
their sin, but as a token of God's favor to the inhabitants; 
which is what is supposed with respect to the death of man- 
kind ; it being introduced only as a benefit, on the foot of a 
covenant of grace. And especially is this quite another thing, 
than if, in the expression used, the iniquity had been ascribed 
to Lot ; and God, instead of saying, Lest thou be consumed 
in the iniqidty of the city, had said, Lest thou be consumed in 
thine iniquity , or, Lest thou sin^ or be made a sinner. Whereas 
the expression is such, as does expressly remove the iniquity 
spoken of from Lot, and fix it on, another subject, viz. the 
city. The place cited by our author in Jer. li, is exactly par- 
allel. And as to what Abimelech says to Abraham, " What 
have I offended thee, that thou hast brought on me, and on 
my kingdom, a great sin ? It is manifest, Abimelech was 
afraid that God was angry, for what he had ^one to Sarah ; 
or, would have been angry with him, if he had done what he 
was about to do, as imi)uting si7i to him for it '. ' Which is a 
quite different thing from calling some calamity, sin, under 
no notion of its being any punishment of sin, nor in the least 
degree from God's displeasure. And so with regard to every 
place our author cites in the margin, it is plain, that what is 
nieant in each of them, is the jmnishment of sin, and not some 
suffering which is no punishment at all. And as to the in- 
stances he mentions in his Supfilement, p. 8, the two that look 
most favorable to his design, are those in Gen, xxxi. 39, and 
2 Kings vii. 9. With respect to the former, where Jacob 
says, That ivhich ivas torn rf bcaats, Anochi-achattenah, Dr. 
Taylor is pleased *.o translate it, I nvas the sinner ; but prop* 


criy rendered, it is, I expiated it ; the verb in Pihcl properly 
sipjnifyin^ to fx/ua/c ; and the plain meaning is, I bore the 
blame of it, and was obliged to pay for it, as bcin}^ supposed to 
be lost through my fault or neglect : Which is a quite differ- 
ent thinj^ from suffering without any supposition of fault. 
And as to the latter place, where the lepers say, " This day 
is a day of good tidini:;s, and wo, hold our peace : If we tarry 
till morning some mischief will befal us :*' In the Ilcbrevr 
it is Umctzaami ,^navon^ '"• Iniquity will find us," that is, somo 
punishment of our fault will come upon us. Elsewhere such 
phrases are used, as, Yoitr iniquity ivillfind you out, and the 
like. But certainly this is a different thing from suffering 
without fault, or supposition of fault. And it does not appear, 
that the verb in Hiphil, hirsMang, is ever put for condemn, in 
any other sense than condemning for sin, or guilt, or suppos- 
ed guilt belonging to the subject condemned. This word is 
wsed in the participle of Hiphil, to signify condemning, in 
Prov, xvii. 15. " He that justifieth the wicked, and he that 
condemneth the just, even both are an abomination to the 
Lord." This Dr. Taylor observes, as if it were to his pur- 
pose, when he is endeavoring to shew, that in this place, in 
t-he 5th of Romans, the apostle speaks of God himself as con- 
demning iht, just, or perfectly innocent, in a parallel significa- 
tion of terms. Nor is any instance produced, wherein tho 
veib, sin, which is used by the apostle when he says, Ml have 
Hinned, is any where used in our author's sense, for being 
brought into a state of suffering, and that not as a punishment 
for sin, or as any thing arising from God's displeasure ; much 
less for being the subject of what comes only as the fruit of 
divine love, and as a benefit of the highest nature,^ Nor can 
any thing like this sense of the verb be found in the whole 

2. If there had been any thing like such an use of the 
words, sin and sinner, as our author suppoiies, in the 0\^ 
Testament, it is evident that such an use of them is fpiito 
alien from the language of the New Testament. Where caa- 

• Page 17, 5. 


an instance be produced of any thing like it, in any one place, 
besides what is pretended in this ? And particularly, ' where 
else shall we find these words and phrases used in such a 
sense in any of this apostle's writings ? We have enough of 
his writings, by which to learn his language and way of speak- 
ing about aiuj condemnation, punishment, death, and suffering. 
He wrote much more of the New Testament than any othet 
person. He very often has occasion to speak of coiidemnationy 
but where does he express it by being made sinners ? Espe- 
cially how far is he elsewhere from using such a phrase, to 
signify a being condemned without guilt, or any imputation 
or supposition of guilt ? Vastly more still is it remote from 
his language, so to use the verb sin, and to say, man sinneth, 
or has sinned, though hereby meaning nothing more nor less, 
than that he, by a judicial act, is condemned, on the foot of a 
dispensation of grace, to receive a great favor ! He abund- 
antly uses the words sin and sinner ; his writings are full o£ 
such terms ; but where else does he use them in such a 
sense ? He has much occasion in his epistles to speak of 
death, temporal and eternal ; he has much occasion to speak 
oi suffering, of all kinds, in this world, and the world to come ; 
but where does he call these things sin, and denominate in- 
nocent men sinners^ or say, they have sinned, meaning that 
they are brought into a state of suffering ? If the apostle, 
-because he was a Jew, was so addicted to the Hebrew idiom, 
as thus in one paragraph to repeat this particular Hebraism^ 
which, at most, is comparatively rare even m the Old Testa- 
ment, it is strange that never any thing like it should appear 
any where else in his writings ; and especially that he should 
never fall into such a way of speakmg in his epistle to ihe 
Hebrews, written to Jews only, who were most used to the 
Hebrew idiom. And why does Christ never use such lan- 
guage in any of his speeches, though he was born and brought 
up amongst the Jews, and delivered almost all his speeches 
only to Jews ? And why do none of the rest of the writers 
of ihe New Testament ever use it, who were all born and ed- 
ucated Jews, (at least all excepiintr LukeJ and some of them 
wrote especially for the benefit of the Jews I 


It is worthy to be observed, what liberty is taken, and bold- 
ness used with this apostle ; such words as a^xo^To^^-, a^agT«»4f, 
Kftueiy xaraxftfAot^ StKciiou. chKaiuan;. and words ol the same root 
and signification, are woub abundantly used by him clae- 
•where in this and other epistles, and also when spcakiny, at 
he is here, of Christ's redemption and atonement, and of the 
general sinfulness of mankind, and of the condemnation of 
sinners, and of justification by Christ, and of death as the 
consequence of sin, and of life and rcsioraion to life by 
Christ, as here ; yet no where are any ot these words used, 
but in a sense very remote from what is supposed here. 
However in this place, these terms niust have a disti?i^uis/i< dy 
singular sense found out for them, and annexed to them ! 
A new language must be coined for the apostle, which he is 
evidently quite unused to, and put into his mouth on this oc- 
casion, for the sake of evading this clear, precise, and abund- 
ant testimony of his, to the doctrine ot Original Sin. 

3. The putting such a sense on the word *z>i, in this placci 
is not only to make the apostle greatly to disagree with uim* 
self in the language he uses every where else, but also to 
disagree with himself no less in the language he uses 
in this very passage. He often here uses the word sm, 
and other words plainly of the same design and import, such 
as transgreasion^ disobedience, offence. Nothing can be more 
evident, than that these are here used as several names of 
the same thing ; for they arc used interchangeably, and put 
one for another, as will be manifest only on the cast of an 
eye on the place. And these words are used no less than, 
seventeen times in this one paragraph. Perhaps we shall 
find no place in the whole Bible, in which the word dn, and 
other words synonymous, are used so often in so little com- 
pass ; and in all the instances, in the proper sense, as signi- 
fying moral evil, and even so understood by Dr. Taylor him- 
self (as appears by his own exposition) but only in these two 
places ; where in the midst of all, to evade a clear endence 
of the doctrine of Original Sin, another meaning must be 
found out, and it must be supposed that the apostle uses the 


word in a sense entirely different, signifying sonnething that 
neither imfilies nor su/ifioses any moral evil at all in the sub- 

Here it is very remarkable, the gentleman who so greatly 
insisted upon it, that the word dea^A must needs be under- 
stood in the same sense throughout this paragraph ; yea, 
that it is evidently, clearly-, and infallibly so, inasmuch as the 
apostle is still discoursing on the same subject ; yet can, 
without the least difficulty, suppose the word #m, to be used 
so differently in the very same passage, wherein the apostle 
is discoursing on the same thing. Let us take that one in- 
stance in veise 12. " Wherefore as by one man sin entered 
into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon all 
men, for that all have sinned'* Here by sin, implied in the 
word sinned, in the end of the sentence, our author under- 
star, ds something perfectly and altogether diverse from what 
is meant by the word sin, not only in the same discourse ou 
the same subject, but twice in the former part of the very 
same sentence, of which this latter part is not only the con- 
clusion, but the explication ; and also entirely different from 
the use of the word twice in the next sentence* wherein the 
apostle is still most plainly discoursing on the same subject, 
as is not denied : And in the next sentence to that (verse 
14) the apostle uses the very same verb sinned, and as signi- 
fying the committing of moral evil, as our author himself un- 
derstands it. Afterwards (vcse 19) the apostle uses the 
word sinners, which our author supposes to be in somewhat 
ol a different sense still. So that here is the utmost violence 
of the kind that c«n be conceived of, to make out a scheme 
againr>t the plainest evidence, in changing the meaning of a 
word backward and forward, in one paragraph, all about one 
thing, and in different parts of the same sentences, coming 
over and over in quick repetitions, with a variety of other 
synonymous words to fix its signification ; besides the con- 
tinued use of the word in the former part of this chapter, 
flnd in all the preceding part of this epistle, and the continu- 
ed use of it in the next chapter, and in the next to that,and 
the 8ih chapter following that, and to the end of the epistle ( 


i» none of which places it is pretended, but tl\at tite word is 
used in the proper senbe, by our author in his paraphrase and 
notes on the whole epistle.* 

But indeed we need vi;o no finther thun that one, vcr-^e 12. 
What the apostle mean', by sin, in the latter part of the vt rsc, 
is evident with the utmost plainness, by comparing it with 
the former part ; ono part answering to another, and the last 
clause exe^etical of the former. ^' Wherefore as by one man 
sin entered into the world, and death by sin ; and so death 
passed upon all men, for that (or, unto which) all have sin- 
ned." Here sin and death are spoken of in the former part, 
and sin and death are spoken of in the latter part ; the two 
parts of the sentence so answering one another, tha: the same 
things are apparently meant by sin and death in both parts. 

And besides, to interpret sinning^ here, of falling under 
the suffering o^ death, is yet the more violent and unreasona- 
ble, because the apostle m this very place does once and again 
distinguish between sin and death ; plainly speaking of one as 
the effect, and the other the cause. So in the 21 si verse, 
" That Qssin hath reigned unto death ;** and in the I2th verse, 
« 6'm entered into the world, and death by sm." And thia 
plain distinction holds through all the discourse, as between 
death aiVid ihe o^ence, \ev, 15, and ver, 17, and between the 
offence and condemnation, ver. 18. 

4. Though we should omit the consideration of the man- 
ner in which the apostle uses the words, «///, sinned, 8cc. in 

• Agreeably to Ais manner, our author, in explaining the 7th chapter of 
Jlomans, understands the pronoun /, or mt, us- d by the apostle in that one 
tontinued discourse, in no less than six different senses. He takes it in ths 
jst verse to signify the Apostle Paul himself. In the 8th, 9th, toth and 1 tth 
verses, for the people ,of the Jews, through all ages, both before and after 
Moses, especially the carnal, unpodly part of them. In ihe 13th verse tor an 
objecting Jev^^, entering into a dialogue with the apostle. In tlic i^ih, i6ih, 
J7th, «oth, and latter part of the 25rh verse, it is understood in two diflcrcnC 
senses, for two /'s in the same person ; one, a man's reason ; and the other, 
his passions an-i carnal appetites. And in the 7th and former part f)f the last 
verse, for us Christians in general ; or, for all that enjoy the word of God, 
the law and the gospel : And these different senses, the most of them strange. 
ly iutermixed and interchanged backwards and forwards. 


other places, and in other parts of this discourse, yet Dr. Tay«» 

lor's interpretation of them would be very absurd. 

The case stands thus : According to his exposition, we 
are said to have sinned by an active verb, as though we had 
actively sinned ; yet this is not spoken truly and properly, 
but it is pui iicvuratively for our becoming ^m\ie.T& fiasaively^ 
our being made or constituted sinners. Yet ai;ain, not that we 
do truly become %mv\zr% fiassively, or are really 7nade sinners^ 
by any thini^ that God does ; this also is only a figurative or 
tropical representation ; and the meaning is only, we are con^ 
demnedj and treated as ifvfe were sinners^ Not indeed that 
"we are properly condemned^ for God never truly connemns 
the innocent : But this also is only a figurative representation, 
of the thing. It is but as it were condemning ; because it is 
appointing to death, a terrible evil, as if it were a punishment. 
But then, in reality, here is no appointment to a terrible evil, 
or any evil at all ; but truly to a benefit^ a great benefit : And 
so, in representing death as a punishment or calamity con- 
demned to, another figure or trope is made use of, and an ex- 
ceeding bold one ; for, as we are appointed to it, it is so far 
from being an evil or punishment, that it is really a favor, and 
that of the highest nature, appointed by mere grace and love> 
though it seems to be a calamity. Thus we have tropes and 
figures multiplied, one upon the back of another ; and all in 
that one word, simied ; according to the manner, as it is sup- 
posed, the apostle uses it. We have itfiguratinfe representa- 
tiouy not of a reality, but of a fgurative representation. Nei- 
ther is this a representation of a reality, but of another thing 
that still is but ^figurative representation of something else i' 
Yea, even this mmcthing else is still but a figure, and one that 
is very harsh and far fetched. So that here we have a^^wr<? 
to represent a figure, even 3. figure of a figure, representing 
some very remote figure, which most obscurely represents 
the thing intended ; if the most terrible evil can indeed be 
said at all to represent the contrary good of the highest kind. 
And now, what cannot be made of any place of scripture, in 
such a way of managing it, as this ? And is there any hope of 
e^er deciding any controversy by the Bcripture, in the way of 


usinj* such a licence wiih the scripture, in order to force it to 
a compliance with our own schemes ? If the aposile indeed 
uses language af er so strange a manner in this place, it is 
perhaps such an instance, as not only there is not the lite of 
it in all the Bible besides, but perhaps in no writing whatso- 
ever. And this, not in any parabolical, viMonary, or orr.phct- 
ic description, in which difficult and obscure represenian ns 
are wont to be made use of; nor in a dramatic or poeticai 
representation, in which a great licence is often taken, and 
bold figures are commonly to be expected : But it is in a fa- 
miliar letter, wherein the apostle is delivering gospel instruc- 
tion, as a minister of the New Testament ; and wherein, as 
he professes, he delivers divine truth withput the vail of an- 
cient figures and similitudes, and uses great plainness of 
speech : And in a discourse that is wholly didactic, narrative, 
and argumentative ; evidently setting himself to explain the 
doctrine he is upon, in the reason and nature of it, with a 
great variety of expressions, turning it as it were on every 
side, to make his meaning plain, and to fix in his readers the 
exact notion of what he intends. Dr. Taylor himself ob* 
Serves,* *' This apostle takes great cave to guard and explain 
every part of his subject : And I may venture to say, he has 
left no part of it unexplained or unguarded. Never was an 
author more exact and cautious in this than he. Sometimes 
he writes notes on a sentence liable to exception, and waning 
explanation." Now 1 think, this care and exactness of tl.c 
apostle no where appears more than in the place we are upon. 
Nyy, I scarcely know another instance equal to this, of the 
apostle's care to be well understood, by being very particulars 
explicit, and precise, setting the matter forth in every lightf 
going over and over again with his doctrine, clearly to ex- 
hibit, and fully to settle and determine the thing which he 
aims at. 

• Preface to Paraph, on Rom. p. i ^6, 48. 



Some Obften^atimis on the Connexion, Scope, and Sense of this 
remarkable paragraph i7i Rom. v. With some Ref.ections 
on the Evidence ivhich we here have of the Doctrine o/'Orig- 
INAL Sin. , 

THE connexion of this remarkable parag^raph with the 
foregoing discourse in this epistle, is not obscure and diffi- 
cwlt, nor to be sought for at a distance. It may be plainly- 
seen, only by a general glance on things ^vhich went before, 
from the beginning of the epistle : And indeed what is said 
immediately before in the same chapter, leads directly to it. 
The apostle in the preceding part of this epistle had large- 
ly treated of the sinfulness and misery of all mankind, Jews 
as well as Gentiles. He had particularly spoken of the de- 
pravity and ruin of mankind in their natural state, in the fore^ 
going part of this chapter ; representing them as being sm- 
ners. ungodly^ enemiesy exposed to divine wrtt;'//, auc\ without 
strength. No wonder now, this leads him to observe, ho'jt^ 
this so great and deplorable an event came to pass ; ho'iu this 
universal sin and ruin came into the world. And with regard 
to the Jews in particular, who, thoug;h they might allow thtf 
doctrine of Original Sin in their own profession, yet were 
strongly prejudiced against what was implied in it, or evident- 
ly followed from it, with regard to themselves ; in this res- 
pect they were prejudiced against the doctrine of universal 
sinfulness, and exposedness to wrath by nature, looking on 
themselves as by nature holy, and favorites of God, because 
they were the children of Abraham ; and with them the apos- 
tle had labored most in the foregoing part ol the epistle, to 
convince t)»cm of thtir being by nature as sinful, and as much 


;tie childpcn of wralh, as the Gentiles :.... I say, with ret^ard 
to them, it was cxccediiij^ proper, and what the apostle's de- 
sign most naturally led him to, to take off their eyes from 
their father Abraham, who was their father in distinction 
from other nations, and direct them to their father Adam 
who was the common father of mankind, and equally of Jews 
and Gentiles. And when he was entered on this doctrine of 
the derivation of sin and ruin, or death, to all mankind from 
Adam, no wonder if he thought it needful to be soniuwhat 
particular in it, seeing he wrote to Jews and Gentiles • the 
former of which had been brought up under the prejudices of 
a proud opinion of themselves, as a holy people by nature, 
and the latter had been educated in total ignorance of all 
things of this kind. 

Again, the apostle had, from the beginning of the epistle, 
been endeavoring to evince the absolute dependence of ai! 
mankind on the free c-race of God for salvation, and the great- 
ness of this grace ; and particularly in the former part of this 
chapter. The greatness of this grace he shews especially by- 
two things. (1.) The universal corruption §nd- misery of 
mankind ; as in all the foregoing chapters, and in the 6th, 7th, 
8th, 9ih and 10th verses of this chapter. (2.) The greatness 
of the benefits which believers receive, and the greatness of 
the glory they have hope of. So especially in verse i, 2, J, 
4, 5, and llih of this chapter. And here, in ihis place we 
are upon, from verse 12 to the end, he is still on the same 
design of magnifying the grace of God, in the same thing, 
viz. the favor, life, and happiness which believers in Christ 
receive ; speaking here of the grace of God^ the gft by grace^ 
the ahomiding of grace^ and the reign of grace. And he still 
bets forth the freedom and riches of grace by the same two 
arguments, viz. The universal sinfulness and ruin of man- 
kind, all having sinned, all being naturally exposed to death, 
judgment and condemnation ; and the exceeding greatness 
of the benefit received, being far greater than the misery 
which C'>me3 by the first Adam, and abounding beyond it. 
And it is by no means consistent with the apostle's scope, to 
jppo-ie, th.4t tliC benefit which wc have by Chrial, an the ttii* 
2 K 


lilype of Adam, here mainly insisted on, is without any ?:raco 
at all, being only a restoration to life ol such' as never deserv- 
ed death. 

Another thin?: observable in the apost]e*s scope from the 
be£^innin§: of the epistle, is, i,e endeavors to shew the t^reat- 
ness and absoluteness of the dependence of all mankind on 
the redemption and righteaftsness of Christ* for justification 
and life, that he mis^ht magnify and exalt the Redeemer ; 
which desis2;n his whole heart was swallowed up in, and may 
be looked upon as the main desipjn of the whole epistle. And 
this is what he had been upon in ihe preceding part of this 
chapter ; inferrinyj it from the same argument, the utter sin- 
fulness and ruin of all men. And he is evidently still on the 
same thing in this place, from the 12th verse to the end 2 
speaking of the same justification and righteousness, which 
be had dwelt on before, and not another totally diverse. No 
wonder, when the apostle is treating so fully and largely of 
our restoration, rigbteousness, and life by Christ, that he is 
led by it to consider our fall, sin, death, and ruin by Adam ; 
and to observe wherein these two opposite heads of mankind 
agree, and wherein they differ, in the manner of conveyance 
of opposite influences and communications from each. 

Thus, if the place be understood, as it used to be under- 
stood by orthodox divines, the whole stands in a natural, easy, 
and clear connexion with the preceding part of the chapter, 
and all the former part of the epistle ; and in a plain agree- 
ment with the express design of all that the apoStlc had been 
saying ; and also in connexion with the words last before 
spoken, as introduced by the two immediately preceding 
verses, where he is sptaking of our justificaiion, reconcilia- 
tion, and salvation by Christ ; whicu leads the apostle directly 
to observe, how, on the contrary, we have sin and death by 
Adam. Taking this discourse of the apostle in its true and 
plain sense, there is no need of great extent of learning^ or 
depth of criticism, to find out the connexion : But if it be un- 
derstood in Di\ Taylor's sense, the plain scope anil connex- 
ion are wholly lost, and there was truly need of a skill in crit- 
fcism> and art ol disctnung, beyond or at least diifcrent from 


that of former divines, and a faculty of sceinir snnicthini? afar 
off. which other men's sight could not rcarh, in order to find 
out the connexion. 

What has been already observed, may suffice to !»hcw liic 
apc-tle's ^cnernl scope in thii place, lint yet there seem to 
be some other thiny^s, which he has his eye to, in several ex- 
pressions ; some particular things in the then present slate, 
temper and notions of ihe Jews, which he also had before 
spoken of, or had reference to, in certain places of the fore- 
going part of the epistle. As particularly, the Jews had a 
very superstitious and extravagant notion of their law, deliv- 
ered by Moses ; as if it were the prime, grand, and indeed 
only rule of God's proceeding with mankind as their judge, 
both in men's justification and condemnation, or from whence 
all, both sin and ri^-^hteousncss, were imputed ; and had no 
consideration of the law of nature, written m the licarts oi the 
Gentiles, and of all mankind. Herein they ascribed infinite- 
ly too much to their particular law, beyond the true design of 
it. They made their board of the law ,' as if their being distin- 
guished trom all other nations by that great privilege, the giv 
ing of thelaiv^ sufficiently made them a holy people, and God's 
children. This notion of theirs the apostle evidently refers to, 
chap.ii. 13, 17, 18. 19, and itideed through that whole chapter. 
They looked on the law of Moses as intended to be the only 
rule and means of justification ; and as sucIj, trusted in the 
v/orks of the law, especially circumcision ; whicli appears by 
the ZCi chapter. But as for the Gentiles, they looked on tlicm 
as by nature sinners, and children of wrath ; because born of 
uncircumcised parents, and aliens from their law, and who 
tbemselves did not know, profess and submit to the law of 
Moses, become proselytes, and receive circumcision. \\'hat 
they esteemed the sum of their wickedness and condemna- 
tion, was, that they did not turn Jews, and act as Jews.* This 
notion of theirs the apostle has a plain respect to, and cndcav- 

♦ Here arc worthy t'^ be observed the things which Dr. Taylor Jiimscif 
iays to the same purpose, Key, ^ 302, 303, and Preface to Paraph, on £pUt 
•oKora. p, 144, 43, 


ors to convince them of the falseness of, in chapter ii. 12.... 16. 
And he has a manifest regard ap:ain to the same thing herci 
in the 1 2th, 13th, and 14th verses of chapter v. Which may 
lead us the more clearly to see the true sense of those verses ; 
about the sense of which is the main controversy, and the 
meaning of which being determined, it will settle the mean- 
ing of every other controverted expression through the whole 

Dr. Taylor misrepresents the apostle*s argument in these 
verses. (Which as has been demonstrated, is in his sense al- 
together vain antl impertinent.) He supposes, the thing 
which the aposlle mainly intends to prove, is, that death or 
mortality does not come on mankind hy personal sin ; and that 
he would prove it by this medium, that death reigned when 
there was 7io law in being which threatened personal sin with 
death. It is acknowledged, that this is implied, even that 
death came into the vt'orld by Adam's sin : Yet this is not the 
main thing the apostle designs to prove. But his main point 
evidently is, that sin and guilty and just exfiosedness to death 
and ruin^ came into the world by Adam's sin ; as righteous- 
ness^ justification^ and a title to eternal life come by Christ, 
Which point he confirms by this consideration, that from the 
very time when Adam sinned, these things, viz. sin, guilt, 
and desert of ruin, became ww^er&o/ in the world, long before 
the law given by Moses to the Jewish nation had any being.^ 

The apostle's remark, that sin entered into the world by 
one many who was the father of the whole human race, was an 
observation which afforded proper instruction for the Jews, 
who looked on themselves as an holy people, because they 
had the law of Moses, and were the children of Abraham, an 
holy father ; while they looked on other nations as by nature 
unholy and sinners, because they were not Abraham's child- 
dren. He leads them up to an higher ancestor than this pa- 
triarch, even to Adan), who being equally the father of Jews 
aiul Gentiles, both alike come from a sinful father; from 
whom guilt and polluiion were derived alike to all mankind. 
And this llie aposlle proves by an argument, which of all that 
could possibly be invented, tended the most briefly and direct- 


\y to convince the Jews ; even by this reflect! in, that death 
had come equally on all mankind from Adam's lime, and that 
the posterity of Abraham were cquallv subject to it with the rest 
of the world. This was apparent in fact, a thin^ they all knew. 
And the Jews had always been taut^ht that dcat/i (which began 
in the destruction of the body, and of this present lilc) was 
the proper punishment of sin. This they were taught in 
Moses* history of Adam, and God's first threatening; of pun- 
ishment for sin, and by the constant doctrine ot the luw and 
the prophets, as has been already observed. 

And the apostle's observation, that fti?i was in the wor/d 
lon(^ before the law was given, and was as universal in the 
woild from the times of Adam, as it had been amonpf the 
Heathen since the law of Moses, this shewed plainly that 
the Jews were quite mistaken in their notion of their particu- 
lar law, and that the law which is the original and universal 
rule of righteousness and judgment for all mankind, was 
another law, of far more ancient date, even the law of nature, 
which began as early as the human nature began, and was 
established with the first father of mankind, and in him with 
the whole race : The positive precept of abstaining from 
the forbidden fruit, being given for the trial of his compliance 
with this law of nature ; of which the main rule is supreme 
regard to God and his will. And the apostle proves that it 
roust be thus, because, if the law of Moses had been the 
highest rule of judgment, and if there had not been a superi- 
or, prior, divine rule established, mankind in general would 
Dot have been judged and condemned as sinners, before that 
was given, (for " sin is not imputed, wlien there is no law") 
as it is apparent in fact they were, because death reigned be- 
fore that time, even from the limes of Adam. 

It may be observed, the apostle in this episile, and that 
to the Galatians, endeavors to convince the Jews of these two 
things, in opposition to the notions and prejudices they had 
entertained concerning their law. 1. That it never was in- 
tended to be the covenant, or method by which they should 
ac'naUy bejuftti/icd. 2. That it was not tljc highest and uni- 


venal nile or hw, by which mankind in general, and particu-* 
larly the Heathen woi'ld, were condeiniied. And he proves 
both by similar arguments. . He proves that the law of Mo- 
ses was not the covenant^ by which any of mankind were to ob- 
tain yw.'?''{/?ra''/o7z, because that covenant wasof older date, being 
expressly estahlis. cd in tne time of Abraham, and Abraham 
himself was justijied by it. This argument the apostle par- 
ticularly handles in the 3d chapter of Galatians, especially in 
verses 17", 18, 19. And this ari!;ument is also made use of 
in the apostle's reasonmgs in the 4th chapter of this epistle 
to the Romans, especially verses 13, 14, 15. He proves also 
that the law of Moses was not Xht firime rule of judgment, by 
tphich mankind in general, and particularly the Heathen 
world, were cor,demned. And this he proves also the same 
•way, viz. by shewing this to be of older date than that law* 
and that it was established with Jdam. Now these things 
tended to lead the Jews to right notions of their law, not as 
the intended method of justification, nor as the original and 
universal rule of condemnation, but something sttpcradded to 
both, both being of older date, superadded to the latter^ to il- 
lustrate and confirm it, that the offence might abound ; and 
superadded to the former, to be as a schoolmaster, to prepare 
men for the benefits of it, and to magnify divine grace in it, 
that this might much more abound. 

The chief occasion of the obscurity nnd difficulty which 
seems to attend the scope and connexion of the various clauses 
in the three first verses of this discourse, particularly the loth 
and j4ih verses, is, that there are two things (although things 
closely connected) which the apostle has in his eye at oncef 
in which he aims to enlighten them he writes to ; which 
will not be thought at all strange by them that have been con- 
versant with, and have attended to this apostle's writings. 
He would illustrate the grand point he had been upon from 
the beginning, t\tn justification through Christ's righteousness 
alone^ by shewing how we are originally in a sinful, miserable 
state, and how we derive this sin and misery from Adam, 
and how we are delivered and justified by Christ as a second 
Adam. At the same time he would confute those foolish 


and corrupt notions of the Jews, about their naiion and lUcir 
&7i', that were very inconsistent with these doctrines. And 
be here endeavors to establish, at once, these two ihinj^s in 
opposition to those Jewish notions. 

1. That it is our natural relation to Adam, and not to 
Abraham, which determines our native, moral state ; and 
that therefore the bein^ natural children of Abraham, will 
not make us by nature holy in the sit^ht of Cio 1, since we 
are the natural seed of sinful Adam ; nor does the (icntiics* 
bein^ not descended from Abraham, denominate them siymcrs^ 
any more than the Jews, seeing both alike arc descended 
from Adam. 

3. That the law of Moses is not the prime and genci^l 
law and rule of judtjjment for mankind, to condemn them, and 
denominate them sinners ; but that the state they are in with 
re£j:ard to a hii^her, more ancient and universal law, deter- 
mines mankind in t;encral to be sinners in the sight of God> 
and liable to be condemned as such. Which observation is, 
in many respects, to the apostle's purpose ; particularly ux 
this respect, that if the Jews were convinced, that the law, 
which was the prime rule of condemnation, was ghen to ally 
was common to all mai\kind, and that all fell under condem- 
nation lhiouf!;h the violation of that law by the common father 
of all, both Jews and Gentiles, then they would be led more 
easily and naturally to believe, that the method of justification 
which God had established, also epctended equally to aii man- 
kind ; and that the Messiah, by whom Ave have this justifi- 
cation, is appointed, as Adam was, for a common head to all, 
both Jews and Gentiles. 

The apostle's aiming; to confute the Jewish notion, is the 
principal occasion of those words in the 13tl) verse : *♦ Tor 
until the law, sin was in the world ; but sin is not imputed, 
when iheie is no law." 

As to the import of that eNpresr>ion, « Kven over thcro 
that had not sinned after the simil'tude of Adam's transiM'cS- 
sion,'* not only is the thini; sit;niiicd by it, in Dr. Tay- 
lor's sense of it, not tmr ; or ii it i»ad been true, would 
have been imperiinttit; as has been shewn ; but his inttrpre? 


tation is, otherwise, very much strained and unnatural. Ac- 
cording to him, by " sinning after the similitude of Adam's 
transgression,** is not meant any similitude of the act of sin- 
ning, nor of the command ginned against, nor properly any 
circumstance of the sin; but only the similitude of a circum- 
stance of the commandy viz. the threatening it is attended with. 
A far fetched thing, to be called a similitude ofsiiviing t Be- 
sides this expression in such a meaning, is only a needless, 
impertinent, and awkward repeating over again the same thing, 
which it is supposed the apostle had observed in the forego- 
ing verse, even after he had left it, and had proceeded another 
step in the series of his discourse, or chain of arguing. As 
thus, in the foregoing verse the apostle had plainly laid down 
his argument, (as our author understands it) by which he 
would prove, death did not come by personal siny viz. that 
death reigned before any law, threatening death for personal 
sin, was in being ; so that the sin then committed was against 
no latv, threatening death for personal sin. Having laid this 
down, the apostle leaves this part of his argument, and pro- 
ceeds another step, Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to 
Moses; and then returns, in a strange, unnatural manner, 
and repeats that argument or assertion again, but only more 
obscurely than before, in these words. Even over them thai 
had not sinned after the similitude of Adam* s transgression ^ i. e. 
over them that had not sinned against a law threatening death 
for personal sin. Which is just the same thing as if the 
apostle had said, " They that sinned before the laiv^ did not sin 
against a law threatening death for personal sin ; for there 
was no such law for any to sin against at that time : Never- 
theless death reigned at that time, even over such as did 7iot 
sin against a law threatening death for personal sin.** Which 
lutter clause adds nothing to the premises, and tends nothing 
to illustrate what was said before, but rather to obscure and 
darken it. The par icle k»», eve?iy when prefixed in this man- 
,ner used to signify something additional, some advance in the 
sense or argument ; implying that the word* following ex- 
press somelliing more, or express the same thing more fully, 
plainly, or forcibly. But to unite two clauses by such a par* 


ticle, in such a manner, when there is nolliinj* besides a flat 
fepelilion, with no superadded sense or forcc> but rather a 
greater uncertainty and obscurity, would be very unusual, and 
indeed very absurd. 

I can see no reason why we should bf dissatisfied MrltH 
that explanation of this clause, which has more commonly 
bct-n L:ivenj viz. That by t/irm ivho have not sinned after ihe 
similitude of Adarri'a trans^resision^ arc meant irifauta ; who, 
thouc:h they have indeed sinned in Adam, yet never sinned as 
Adam did, by actually transii^ressing in their own persons ; 
unless it be tliat this interpretation is too old, and too ccnivjon. 
It was well known by those the apostle wrote to, that vast 
numbers had died in infancy, whhin that period which the 
apostle speaks of, particularly in ihe time of the delup;e ; and 
it would be strange the aposile should not have the case of 
such infants in his mind ; even supposinj^ his scope were 
what our author supposes, and he had only intended to prove 
that death did not come on mankind for their personal sin. 
How directly would it have served the ptirpose of proving- 
this, to have mentioned so great a part of mankind that are 
subject to death, who, all know, never committed any sin ii» 
their otvn ficrsons ? How much more plain and easy the 
proof of the point by that, than to go round about, as Dr. 
Taylor supposes, and bring in a thing so dark and uncertain 
as this, That God never would bring death on all mankind 
for personal sin, (though they had personal sin) without an 
express, revealed constitution ; and then to observe that 
there was no revealed constitution of this nature fiom Adam 
to Moses ; which also seems a tiling without any plain evi- 
dence ; and then to infer that if must needs be so. that it 
could come only on occasion of Adam*s sin, though not fhr 
his sin, or a«i any pimishment of it ; which inference also is 
very dark and unintelligible. 

If the apostle in this place meant t.hn^e v ho ncvrv si-ined 

by their peison:.l act. it is not strange that he should express' 

This by their not sinning after the siviilititde of .idan*9 nann- 

:rrrs<iion. \Ve read of two ways of mtn*s being lik^- Adam, 

' IP vvliich a sin)il;tude to him is astribvd to mtn •• t^nc l'^ 



a bein^ becrotten or born in his i7na^e or likeness, Gen. v. S^ 
Another is a transg:ressing God's covenant or law, like him^ 
fios vi 7. " They, like Adam, (so in the Heb. and Vulg. 
Lat) have transo^ressed the covenant." infants have the 
forrrer similitude, but not the latter. And it was very- 
natural, when the apostle would infer that infants become 
sinners by that one act and offence of Adam, to observe 
that they had not renewed the act of sin themselves, by 
any second instance of a like sort. And such might be the 
state oflanguage among Jews and Christians at that day, that 
the apostle might have no phrase more aptly to express this 
meaning. The manner in which the epithets, personal and 
actual^ are used and applied now in this case, is probably of 
later date and more modern use. 

And then this supposition of the apostle's having the case 
of infants in view, in this expression, makes it more to his 
purpose, to mention death reigning before the law of Moses 
•was given. For the Jews looked on all nations, besides 
themselves, as sinners, by virtue of their law ; being made so 
especially by the laiv of circumcision^ given first to Abraham, 
and completed by Moses, making the want of circumcision 
a legal /2o//wrzo?z, utterly disqualifying for the privileges of the 
sanctuary. This law, the Jews supposed, made the very in- 
fants of the Gentiles sinners, polluted and hateful to Cod; 
they being uncircumcised, and born of uncircumcised parents. 
But the apostle proves against these notions of the Jews, that 
the nations of the world do not become sinners by nature, 
and sinners from infancy, by virtue of their laiU', in this man- 
ner, but by Adam's sin ; inasmuch as infants were treated 
as sinners long before the law of circumcision was given, as 
well as before they had commiaed actual i^in. 

What has been said, may, as I humbly conceive, lead us 
to that which is the true scope and sense of the apostle in 
these t^jrec verses ; uhuh I will endeavor more briefly to 
represent in the foilowintr paraphrase. 

" The things which I have 12. Wherefore, as by one 
largely insisted on, viz. the niov sin filtered into the luorldf 
evil that is in the world, tiui ana death by sin ; and so death 


general wickedness, j;uilt and fiaaaed u/ion alt men^ for thmt 
turn of mankind, and the op- all have sinned. 
posite good, even justification 
and life, as only by Christ, 
lead me to observe tlie likeness 
of the manner in which ihejr 
are each of them introduced. 
For it was by one man, that 
the general corrupiion and 
guilt wiiich I have spoken of, 
came into the world, and con- 
demnation and death by sin : 
And this dreadful punishment 
hnd ruin came on all man- 
kind by the great law o/iuorksj 
originally established with man- 
kind in their first father, and 
by his one offence^ or breach 
of that law ; all thereby be- 
coming sinners in God*s sight, 
and exposed to final destruc- 

<' It is manifest that it was 13. For until the la70,sin tvai 
in this way the world became in the ivorld ; hut sin is not 
sinful and guilty ; and not in imfiutedy vihen there is no laH. 
that way which the Jews sup- 
pose, viz. That their law, 
given by Moses, is the grand, 
universal rule of righteous- 
ness and judgment for man- 
kind, and.tliat it is by being 
Geniiles, uncircumcised, and 
aliens from that law, that the 
nations ot the world are con- 
stituted 8innersy'AV\A unclean. 
For before the law of Moses 
was iMveii, mankind were all 
looked upon by the grcatJudge 


as sinners, by corruption and 
guilt derived from Adam's 
violation of the orii^inal law 
of works ; which shews that 

the original, universal rule of ' 

righteousness is not the law 
of Moses ; for if so, there 
would have been no sin imput- 
ed before that was given, be- 
cause sin is not imputed when 
there is no law. 

" But that at that time sin • 14, JVevertheless^ death 
was imfiuted, and men were reigned from Adam to Moses^ 
by their Judge reckoned as even over them that had not sin^ 
sinners, through guilt and ned after the similitude of A<S>' 
corruption derived from Ad- amU transgression. 
am, and condemned for sin to 
dmth^ the proper punishment 
of sin, we have a plain proof; 
in that it appears in fact, all 
mankind, during that whole 
time which preceded the law 
of Moses, were subjected tft 
that temporal death, which is 
the visible introduction and 
image of that utter destruc- 
tion which sin deserves, not 
crcppiing ieven infants^ who 
couid be sinners no other way 
than by virtue of Adam*s 
transgression, h iving never in 

their own persons actually sin- I 

ned as Adam did ; nor could 
at \hat time be made polluted 
by the law of Moses, as being 
uncircu'ncised, or born of un 
circumuised parents^** 

ORKilNAL SIN. 27r 

Now, by way of rellcction on the whole, I would observe* 
\-hat though there are two or three expressions in this para- 
graph, Rom. V. 12, Sec. the design of which is attended with 
some difficuhy and obscurity, as particularly in the l.Tth and 
14th verses, yet the scope and sense of the discourse in gen* 
eral is not obscure, but on the contrary very clear and mani- 
fest ; and so is the particular doctrine mainly taui^lkt in it. 
The apostle sets himself with great care and pains to make it 
plain, and precisely to fix and settle the point he ii upon. 
And the discourse is so framed, that one pan of it does great- 
ly clear and fix the meaning of other parts ; and the whole is 
determined by tlie clear connexion it stands' in with other 
parts of the epistle, and by the manifest drift of all the pre- 
ceding part of it. 

The doctrine of Original Sin is not only here taught, but 
most plainly, explicitly, and abundantly taught. This doc- 
trine is asserted, expressly or implicitly, in almost every 
verse, and in some of the verses several times. It is fully 
implied in that first expression in the 12th verse, *' By one 
roan sin entered into the world." The passage implies, that 
Sin became universal in the world ; as the apostle had before 
largely shewn it was ; and not merely (which would be a tri- 
fling, insignificant observation) that one man, who was made 
first, sinned first, before other men sinned ; or, that it did not 
50 happen that many men began to sin just together at the 
same moment. The latter part of the verse, " And death by 
sin, and so death passed upon all men, for that (or, if you will) 
unio ivhich) all have sinned," shews, that in the eye of the 
Judg« of the world, in Adam's first sin, all sinned ; not only 
in some sort, but all sinned so as to be exposed to tliat death, 
and final destruction, which is the proper ivagcs of sin. Tht 
Same doctrine is taught again twice over in the 14th verse. 
It is there observed, as a proof of this doctrine, that '• Death 
reigned over them which had not sinned after the similitude 
of Adam's transgression ;" i. e. by their personal act ; and 
therefore could be exposed to death, only by deriving guilt 
and pollution from Adam, in consequence of his sin. And it 
U taught ag<\in in those 'vords, '• Who is tlif* figure of hirn 


that was to come.'* The resemblance lies very much in tins 
circiimstunce, viz. bur deriving sin, guilt, and punishment by 
Adam's sin, as we do righteousness, justification, and the re- 
ward of life by Christ's obedience ; for so the apostle explains 
himself. The same doctrine is expressly taught again, verse 
15. " Through the offence of one, many be dead." And again 
twice in the :6th verse. " It was by one that sinned ;'* i. e. it 
-Was by Adam, that guilt and punishment (before spoken of) 
came on mankind : And in these words, '* Judgment was by 
one to condemnation." It is again plainly and fully laid 
down in the 17th verse, '' By one man's offence, death reign- 
fed by one." So again in the 18th verse, " By the offence of 
one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation." Again 
yeryj>Iainly in the i9th verse, " By one man's disobedience, 
ttt^v.y were made sinners " 

And here is every thing to determine and fix the meayiin^ 
of all important terms, that the apostle makes use of: As, 
the abundant use of them in all parts of the New Testament ; 
and especially in this apostle's writings, which iriake up a 
very great part of the New Testament : And his repealed 
\ise of them in this epistle in particular, especially in the 
preceding part of the epistle, which leads to and introduces 
this discourse, and in the former part of this very chapter j 
and also the light, that one sentence in this paragraph casts 
' on another, which fully settles their meaning : As, with res- 
pect to the woY^s justi/caiwn, righteousness and Condemnation ; 
and above all, in regard of the word sin, which is the most 
important of all, with relation to the doctrine and controversy 
ve are upon. Besides the constant use of this term every 
vhere else through the New Testament, through the epistles 
of this apostle, this epistle in particular, and even the former 
part of this chapter, it is often repeated in this very para- 
graph, and evidently used in the very sense that is denied to 
btlong to it in the end of verse 12, and verse 19, though owned 
every where else : And its meaning is fully determined by 
the apostle's varying the term ; using together with it, to sig- 
nify t!ie same thing, such a variety of other synonymous 
•words, such as offence, transi^rcssion^ disobedience. And fur-* 


ther, to put the matter out of all controversy, it is parilcul a\f 
and expressly and ic-pLatedly disiin;;uishcd from that which 
our opposers would ex/Uain it by, viz. ccndemnali(,n ai.d d.affu 
And what is n^eunt by «n*« eutt'ving into the lonrld, in vtr«« 
12, is determined by a like phrase of «/>/*« brint; in thr wor/d, 
in the next verse. And that by the ofmcc of our^ so often 
Spoken of here, as brinpjinr: dealh and condemnation on all, 
the apostle means the sin of one, derived in its jriiilf and pol- 
lulion to mankind in j>;eneral, is a t\\'i\n; which (over and alwvc 
all that has been already oh<served) is settled and determined 
by those words in the conclusion of this discourse, vtrse 20. 
" Moreover, ihe law entered, that the offence might ah'nin.l : 
But where sin a'.omukd, j^race did mu(5h more abound." 
These words plainly shew, that the ofence spoken of so often, 
and evidently spoken of siill in these words, which was the 
ofTenc^ o^ one man, became the sin of c/A I'or when lie says, 
" The law entered, that the offence mit^ht abound," his mean* 
inp: cannot be, that the offence of Adam, niertiv as hit prr- 
sonally, should rti.'wr?^ ; but, as it exists in its c^rr/rrr^ g;, jilt, 
corrupt influence, and evil fruits, in the sin of mankind in 
generid, even as a tree in its root and branches.* 

It is a thinp; that confirms the certainty of the/jroo/'of tho 
doctrine of Oiii^inal Sin, which this place affords, that the ut- 
most art cannot pervert it to another sense. What a vari^.ijr 
of the most artful methods have been used by the rnemies of 
this doctrine, to wrest and darkm this paragraph of holy writ, 
Vi'hich sta!ul> so tnuch in their way. as it were to force the 
Bible to speak a lani^uage that is afrreeable to their mind ! 
How have expressions been strained, words and phrasps rack- 

* The offence, according to Dr Taylor's cxpianalion, <3o« not ahoiiiWi 
by the law at ill really and traly, in any sense ; neither the «in, !«or the pun- 
ishment. For \\2 savs, " The meaning '\s not, that men shouJd br maoe move 
wicked ; but, that men should br liable to death for cvi-ry iransj{re*»i«>o." 
But after all, they arc liable to no more deaths, nor to any worse death*, if 
they are not more sinful : For they were to hsve puni$hm'-nt» arcoid.njj to 
their desert, before. Such as died, and went into another world, before th% 
hw of Moses was given, were punuhed according to fhcir c!'-«eru ; and t^ 
Aw, when *t came, tUrcdU-ned no mo--'.. 


cd ! AVhat strange figures of speech have been invented, ahcf 
with violent hands thrust into the apostle's mouth ; and theijf 
•with a bold countenance and magisterial airs obtruded on the 
world, as from him l....But, blessed be God, we have his words 
as he delivered them^ and the rest of the same epistle, and his 
other writings to compare with them ; by which his meaning- 
stands in TOO strong and glaring a light to be hid by any of 
the artificial mists which they labor to throw upon it. 

It is really no less than abusing the scripture and its read* 
ers, to represent this paragraph as the most cbacure {j{ ?i\\ the 
places of scripture, that speak of the consequences of Adam's 
sin ; and to treat it as if there was need first to consider other 
places as more/?/om. Whereas, it is most manifestly a placa 
in Avhich these things are declared, beyond all, the most plain- 
ly, particularly, precisely, and of set purpose, by that great 
apostle, who has most fully explained to us those doctrines' 
in general, which relate to the redemption by Christ, and the 
sin and misery we are redeemed from. And it must be now 
left to the reader's judgment, whether the Christain church 
has not proceeded reasonably, in looking on this as a place of 
scripture most clearly and fully treating of these things, and 
in using its determinate sense as an help to settle the meaning 
of many other passages of sacred writ. 

As this place in general is very full and plain, so the doc- 
trine of the corruption of nature, as derived from Adam, and 
also the imputation of his first sin, are both clearly taught in 
it. The imputation of Adam's one transgression, is indeed 
most directly and frequently asserted. We are here assured 
thai by out 7nan^s sin^ dtath passed on all ; all being adjudged 
to this punishment, as having smwerf (so it is implied) in that 
one man's sin. And it is repeated over and over, that all are 
condevmcd, many are dead^ many made sinntrs^ kc. by one man's 
offmce^ by the disobedience ofone^ and by 07ie offence. And the 
doctrine of original depravity is ahio here taught, when the 
apostle says, By one 7j:an sin entered into the ivorld ; having a 
plain respect (us hath been she^vn; to that v.iiivetsal coriup- 
lion and wickedness, as well as guilt, which he had before. 
larRclv treated cf- 



Observing the Evidence given us, relative to the 
Doctrine 0/ Original Sin, in what-the Scr^p. 
tures reveal concerning' the Redemption b'p 


The Evidence o/Original Sin, /rom the Miture o/Rfdem/i- 
tion in the firocurement of it. 

ACCORDING to Dr. Taylor's scheme, a very great part 
of mankind are the subjects of Clnist's redemption, who live 
and die perfectly innocent^ who never have had, and never will 
have any sin charged to their account, and never are cither the 
subjects of, or exposed to ?^ny fiunishment whatsoever, via. all 
that die in infancy. They are the subjects of Chnst*8 re- 
dewfition^ as he redeems them from dcatli^ or as they by his 
righteousness Xwxsi:, juatijicalion^ and by his obedience are madv 
rif^htcoiiSy in the resurrection of the body, in liie sense of Rom. 
V. 18, 19. A":d cU mankind arc thus ihe subjects of Clwisl's 
redemption, while they are perfectly guiltless, and ex|)Oscd 
to no punishment, as by Christ '.liey arc intilled to a resurrec- 
tion. Though, wiih respect to such persons as have sii rd, 
he allows it hin name sort by Chiist ai»d his riea'.h. ;hai ihcf 
;-»ve saved from sin, and the punishmr-'*' oi'l- 
r. M 


Now let us see whether such a scheme well consists with 
the scripture account of the redemption by Jesus Christ. 

I. The representations of the redemption by Christ, everj|- 
where in scripture, lead us to suppose, that all whom he came 
to redeem, are sinners; that his salvation, as to the term 
fro77i nvhicJi (or the evil to be redeemed from) in all is sin^ and 
the deserved fiwiishment of sin. It is natural to suppose, that 
when he had his name Jesus, or Saviour, jj^iven him by Gbd*s 
special and immediate appointment, the salvation meant by 
that name should be his salvation in general ; and not only a 
part of his salvation, and with regard only to some of them 
that he came to save. But this name was given him to sig- 
nify his savi72g Ms fieofile from their sins^ Matth. i. 21. And 
the great doctrine of Christ's salvation is, that he cajne into 
the world to save sinners, 1 Tim. i. 15. And that Christ hath 
once suffered, the just for the unjust, 1 Pet. iii. 18. Iri this was 
manifested the love of God towards us (towards such in general 
as have the benefit of God's love in giving Christ) that God 
sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live 
through him. Herein is love, that he sent his son to be the prO' 
pitiation for our sins, 1 John iv, 9, 10. Many other texts 
might be mentioned, which seem evidently to suppose, that 
all who are redeemed by Christ, are saved from sin. We are 
led by what Christ himself said, to suppose, that if any are 
- not sinners, they have no need of him as a redeemer, any 
Tiiore than a well man of a physician, Mark ii. 17. And that 
men, in order to being the proper subjects of the mercy of 
God through Christ, must first be in a state of sm, is implied 
in Cal. iii. 3^^' " But the scripture hath concludcu all uurier 
sin, that the promir,p by faith of Jesus Christ mii^ht be given 
to tliem thai believe." To the same effect is Rom. xi. 32. 

These things are greatly confirmed liy the scripture doc- 
trine ot hacrifces. It is abunduntly plain, by both old and 
New Testament, that they were typc:i of Christ's death, and 
were for sin, and supposed sin in ihose for whom thty were 
offered. The apostle supposes, that in order to any having 
\li£ benefit of the eternal inhcr'nance by Christ, there mu&t of 
y.ecessity be the death of the fruator^ and gives tliat ■•■i*$on Ic 


it, that ivithout shcddiiir ofbtood there is no rfmhuion^ Hch. ix. 
15, Sec. And Chrisi himself, in rcpitst-nlin^; the benefit of 
his blood, in ilic insiituiion of the Lord's supper, under the 
notion of liic blood of a testament^ calls ii, Thr blood of the 
AVfy Testament^ shed for the remi'tision of sinny Mut'h. xxvi. 28. 
But accordinpj lo the scheme of our author, many have the 
eternal inheritance by tlic death of the testaloi, who nercr 
had any need of remission. 

II. The scripture represents the redemplion by Christ as 
a redemption from deserved destruction ; and that, not merely 
as it respects some particulars, but as the fruit of God'^ love 
to mankind. John iii. 16. " God so loved the ivorldy that he 
gave his only bep;otten son, that whosoever bcheveih in him 
should not fierish, but have everlasting^ life :" Implying;, that 
otherwise they must perish, or be destroyed : But what ne- 
cessity of this, if they did not deserve to be destroyed ? Now, 
that the destruction here spoken of, is deserved destruction, 
is manifest, because it is there compared to the perishing of 
such of the children of Israel as died by the bite of the fiery 
serpents, which God, in his wrath, for their rebellion^ sent 
amongst them. And the same thini^ clearly appears by the 
last verse of the same chapter, <' He that believeth en the 
Son, hath everlasting life ; and he that believeth not the Son, 
ihall not see life, but the wrath of God abideHi on him," or, 
is left remaining on him : Implying, that all in general are 
found under the wrath of God, and that they only of all man- 
kind, who are interested in Christ, have this wrath removed^ 
and eternal life bestowed ; the rest are lift with the nvrath of 
God still remaining on them. The same is clearly illustrated 
and confirmed by John v. 24. " He that believeth, hath ever- 
lasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, but is 
passed from death to life.** In being passed from death to 
life is implied, that before, they were all in a state of death ; 
and they are spoken gf as being so by a sentence o( condenmo' 
fion ; and if it be a just condemnation, it is a dcsci^cd con- 

HI. It will follow on Dr. Taylor's scheme, that Christ's 
redemption, with regard to a great part of them who arc the 


subjects of it, is not only a rede/nption from no siriy but from 
710 calaviity^ and so frcm no evil of any kind. For as to deaths 
which infants are redeemed from, they neVer were subjected 
to it as a calamity, but purely as a benefit. It cume by no 
threatening or curse denounced upon or through Adam ; the 
covenant with him being utterly abolished^ as to all its force 
and power on mankind (according to our author) before the 
pronouncinij of the sentence of mortality. Therefore trouble 
and death could be appointed to innocent mankind no other 
way than on the foot of another covenant, the covenant of 
grace ; and in this channel they come only as favors^ not as 
evils. Therefore they could need no medicine or remedy, 
for they had no disease. Even death itself, which it is sup- 
posed Christ saves them from, is only a medicine ; it is pre- 
venting physic, and one of the greatest of benefits. It is ri- 
diculous to talk of persons needing a medicine, or a physician 
to save them from an excellent medicine ; or of a remedy 
from a happy remedy ! If it be 5aid, though death be a ben- 
efit, yet it is so because Christ changes it, and turns it into a 
benefit, by procuring a resurrection : I would here ask, What 
can be meant by turnvig or changing it into a benefit, when it 
never was otherwise, nor could ever justly be otherwise ? In^ 
fants could not be brought under death as a calamity ; fo? 
they never deserved it. And it would be only an abuse (be it 
far froni us, to ascribe such a tiling to God) in any being, to 
naake the offer to any poor sufferers, of a redeemer fiom 
some calamliy, which he had brought upon them* without the 
least d'^^.v^r^ of it on their part. 

But it is plain, that death or mortality was not at first 
bi ought on mankind as a blessing, on the foot of the cove- 
nantof grace through Christ ; and that Christ and grace do not 
bring mankind under death, hwi find them under it. 2 Cor. v, 
14. " We thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all 
dead." Luke xix. 10. " The Son of man is come to seek 
and to save that whicli was lost." The grace which appears 
in providing a deliverer from any slate, supposes the subject 
to be in that stale iirior to that grace and deliverance ; and 
pot that such a state is first introduced by that grace. In ouP 

ORIGINAL Slisr. 386 

%"uthor*s scheme, there never could be any sentence of dca'.l^ 
or condemnaiion that requiics a Saviour from it ; btcause 
the very sentence itself, accordinfij to ilie tiuc mi-aniii^ of if, 
implies and makes sure all that good uhich is requisite to 
abolish and make void the seen>int«; evil to the innocent sub- 
ject. So thai tlie scnience itself ia in eficct the deliverer, and 
there is no need of another deliverer to deliver from that sen- 
tence. Dr. Taylor insists upon it, that »< Nothing comes up- 
on us in consequence of Adam's sin, in any sensf^ kind or 
drc^ree, inconsistent with the on'i;inal blcasinir pronounced on 
Adam at his creation ; and noihini^ hut what is perfectly 
consistent with God's blessinp;, love and ijoodness, declared 
to Adam as soon as he came out of his Maker's hands."* If 
the case be so, it is certain there is no evil or cabniiiy at all 
for Christ to redeem us from ; unless things agreeahlr to the 
divine goodnetis^ love and blcsaing^ are thiiigs which wc n^ed 
redemption from. 

IV. It will follow, on our author's principles, not only 
with respect to inu.nis, but e\en adult persons, that redemp- 
tion is needless, and Christ is dead in vain. Not only is there 
no need of Christ's redemption in order to deliverance froni 
any consequences of Adam's sin, but also in ordet to peifect 
/reedom from personal sin, and all its evil consequences. 
For God has made other surTicient provision fo\^ tiiat, viz. a 
sufficient fiQivtr and ability^ in all 7nankind, to do c:.'! fhf:r duty^ 
■and ivhollij to avoid sin. Yea, this aullvor insisi^ ujjon it, 
that " when men have not sufficient fwioer to do their duty, 
they have no duty to do. We may safely and assuredly con- 
clude, (says he) that mankind in ail parts of the world, have 
iufficcient power to do the duty which (iod requires of them ; 
jnd that he requires of them tio more than they have suffi^^ 
xient powers to do."t And in another place. J •' God has 
^iven powers equal to the duty which he expects." And he 
expresses a great dislike at R. R's supposinc; " that our pro- 
j)CBsiiies to evil, and temptation?, are too strong to be cffcciw- 
itUy and confitantiy resisted, or that wc a:c unavoidably sintul ia 

•i». 88,89, S. + P. Ill, 63, 6.1, S. ;p. ti7,S' 


a degree ; that our appetites and passions will be breaking out, 
notwitiistanding our everlasting watchfulness."* These things 
fully imply that men have in their own natural ability suffi-^ 
cient means to avoid sii), and to be perfectly free from it ; 
and so, from all the bad consequences of it. And if the 
means are svfficimt, then thcie is no need of more; and 
therefore there is no need of Christ's dying, in Order to it. 
What Dr. Taylor says, in p. 72, ^S, fully implies that it would 
be unjust in God to give mankind being in such circumstan- 
ces, as that they would be more likely to sin, so as to be ex- 
posed to final misery, than otherwise. Hence then, without 
Christ and his redemption, and without any grace at all, mere 
justice makes sufficient firovision for our being free from sin 
and misery, by our otvn power. 

If all mankind, in all parts of the world, have such sufficient 
power to do their whole duty, without being sinful in any de» 
gree, then they have sufficient power to obtain righteousness 
by the law ; and then, according to the Apostle Paul, C/irist 
is dead in vain. Gal. ii. 21. " If righteousness come by the 
law, Christ is dead in vain ;*\...h» »o/^8, without the article, bij 
laip, or the rule of right action, as our author explains the 
phrase. t And according to the sense in v/hich he explains 
this very place, " It would have frustrated or rendered useless 
the grace of God, if Christ died to accomplish what was or 
mig/it have been effected by law itself, without his death."| 
So that it most clearly follows from his own doctrine, that 
Christ is dtad in vain^ and the grace of God is nselesst The 
same apostle says, *' If there had been a"4aw which could have 
given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law," 
Gal. iii. 21 ; i. e. (still according to Dr. Taylor's own sense) 
iftherewasa law that man, in his present slate, had sijffi- 
citnt p(nver perfectly to fulfil. For Dr. Taylor supposes 
the reason why the law could not give life, to be, " not because 
it was weak in itself, but through the weakness of our flesh, 
and the infirmity of the human nature in the present stale. "§ 

♦ P. 68, S. + Pref. to Par. on Rom p. 143, 38. % Note on Rom, 
V, 20, p. 297. ^ Ibid. 


But he says, " We are under a. mild dispcnsalion of (frorr, 
makini^ allowance for our infirniilics."* By our irifirniiUcHy 
viQ may upon good grounds suppose hu means ihni iuGrmity 
of human nature which he gives as the reason why the law 
cannot give life. But what grace is there in miking that al- 
lowance for our infirmities, which justice itself faccordinjj; to 
his doctrine) most absf>lutcly requires, as he supposes divine 
justice exactly proportions our duly to our ability ? 

Again, If it be said, that although Christ's redemption 
was not necessary to preserve men from hcgimiinr^ to sin, and 
getting into a course of sin, becuuse they have suflkient pow- 
er in themselves to avoid it ; yet it may 1)6 necessary to de- 
liver men, after they have by their own Ojlly brouglu them- 
selves under the domimon of evil appetites and passions. f I 
answer, if it be so, that men need deliverance fiom ihoso 
habits and passions, which are become too strong for them, 
yet that deliverance, on our author's principles, would be no 
salvation from sin. For, the exercise of passions which are 
too strong for us, and which we cannot overcome, is necessary y 
and he strongly urges that a ucccssaiy evil can be no moral 
evil. It is true, it is the eject of evil, as it is the ejjrct of a 
bad practice, while the man remained at liberty, and had pow- 
er to have avoided it. But then, according to Dr. Taylor, 
that evil cau.^c alone is sin ; and hot so, the necessary ej'tcf g 
Tov he says expressly, « T/ie cause cf every eflect is ahne 
chargeable with the effect it pioduceih, or which proceedeth 
from it. "I And as to thnt sin which was the causr^ the man 
needed no Saviour from that, having had sufficient fiovjrr in 
himself to have avoided it. So that it follows, by our author's 
scheme, that none of mankind, nr ixlier infants nor adult per- 
sons, neither the more nor less vicious, neither Jews nor Gen- 
tiles, neither Heathens nor Christians, ever did or ever could 
stand in any need of a Saviour ; and that, whh res()cci to ally 
the truth is, Christ is dead in vain. 

• Po^ 92, S. t See p. 228, ami als.> what he says of the hclpleM itatc 

of the Heatheo, in Par. and Note* on Rom. vii. and beginning ol Ciiap. vl;:. 


If any should say, Although all mankind in all ages have 
sufficient ability to do their ^vhole duly, and so may by their 
own power enjoy perfect freedom from sin, yet God for esaif 
that they ivould siriy and that after they had sinned, they 
Mould need Christ's death ; I answer, it is plain by what the 
apostle says in those places which were just now men- 
tioned, Gal. ii. 21, and iii. 21, that God would have esteemed 
it needless to i^ive his Son to die for men, unless there had 
been a prior impossibility of their having righteousness by 
law ; and that, if there had been a law which could have giv- 
en life, this other way by the death of Christ would not have 
been provided. And this appears to be agreeable to our 
author's own sense of things, by his words which have been 
cited, wherein he says, " It would h&vefrusti-ated or render- 
ed useless the grace of God, if Christ died to accomplish what, 
was or might have been effected by law itself, without his 

V. It will follow on Dr. Taylor's scheme, not only that 
Christ's redemption is needless for the saving from sin, or its 
consequences, but also that it does no good that way, has no 
tendency to any diminution of sin in the world. For as to any 
infusion of virtue or holiness into the heart, by divine power 
through Christ or his redemption, it is altogether inconsistent 
with this author's notions. With him, hiivrought virtue, if 
there were any such thing, would be no virtue ; not being 
the effect of our own will, choice and design, but only of a 
sovereign act of God's power.* And therefore, all that 
Christ does to increase virtue, is only increasing our talents, 
our light, advantages, means and motives, as lie often explains 
the niatter.f But sin is not at all diminished. For he says, 
Our duty must be measured by cur taUmts ; as, a child that has 
lehs talents, lias less duty, and therefore must be no more ex- 
posed to commit sin, than he that has greater talents, because 
he that has greater talents, has moie duty required, in exact 
proportion, t If so, he that has but one talent, has as much 

• See p3p;es i8o, 245, 250. + In p. 44, 50, and innumerable other 

places. % See p. 834, 61, 64... 70, S. 


itdvantage to perform that one degree of duty which is requir- 
ed of him, as he that has^vr talents, to perform \\\%five de- 
grees of duly, and is no more exposed lo fail of it. And that 
man's guilty who sins against greater advanta^^es, means and 
motives, is greater in proportion to his talents, t And there- 
fore it will follow, on Dr. Taylor's principles, that men stand 
no b«tter chance^ have no more eligible or valuable probabili- 
ty of freedom from sin and punishment, or of contracting but 
little guilt, or of performing required dui^, with the great 
advantages and talents implied in Christ's redemption, than 
without them ; when all things are computed, and put into 
the balances together, the numbers, degrees and aggravations 
of sin exposed to, degrees of duty required, 8cc So that men 
have no redemption from sin, and no new means of perform- 
ing duty, that arc valuable or worth any thing at all. And 
thus the great redemption by Christ in every respect comes 
tfy nothing, with regard both to infants and adult persons. 


T/ie Evidence of the Doctrine of Original Sin fmm ivhat 
the Scripture teaches of the Application of Rede m fit ion. 

THE truth of the doctrine of Original Sin is very clear- 
ly manifest from what the scripture says of that change of 
s(at€ which it represents as necessary to an actual interest in 
the spiritual and eternal blessings of the Redeemer's king- 

In order to this, it speaks of it as absolutely necessary for 
every one, that he be rcg^cnerated, or dom again, John iii. S 

* See Paraph, oo Ronn. ii. 9, also on vcrtc 1 e. 
2 N 


"Verily, verily, I say unto thee, except a man ysmi% atuBn^f, 
be begotten again, or born again, he cannot see the Ivingdom 
of God." Dr. Taylor, though he will not allow that this sig- 
nifies any change from a state of ?iatural /ii'o/ie7isity to sin, yet- 
supposes that the new birth here spoken of means a nvan*s be- 
ing brought to a divine life^ in a right use and aiifilication ofths 
natural fioivers, in a life of true holiness ;* and that it is the at" 
tainment of those habits of virtue and religion^ nvhich gives us 
the real character of true Christians, and the children of God ;t 
and that it is fiutting on the new nature of right action.^ 

But in order to proceed in the most sure and safe manner, 
in our understanding what is meant in scripture by being born 
again^ and so in the inferences we draw from what is said of 
the necessity of it, let us compare scripture with scripture, 
and consider what other terms or phrases are used in other 
places, where respect is evidently had to the same change. 

And here I would observe the following things : 

I. If we compare one scripture with another, it will be 
sufficiently manifest, that by regeneration, or being begotten^ 
or born again^ the same change in the state of the mind is sig- 
nified with that which the scripture speaks of as effected in 
true rejientance and co?iversion. I put repentance and con- 
version together, because the scripture puts them together, 
Acts iii. 19, and because they plainly signify much the same 
thing. The word, fAsravota, (repentance) signifies a change of 
the mind ; as the word conversion means a change or turning 
from sin to God. And that this is the same change with that 
which is called regeneration, (excepting that this latter terrn 
especially signifies the change, as the mind is passive in it) 
the following things do shew. 

In the change which the mind passes under in refientance 
and conversion, is attained that character of true Christians, 
which is necessary to the eternal privileges of such. Acts iii. 
19. " Be/ienf ye therefore, and be converted, that yOur sins 
ijioy be blotted out, when the times of refieshin;.; siiall come 
from the presence of the Lord." And so it is with regenera* 

* Page 144. i Page 246,248. * PaS'" ^ 5 ' 


lion ; as is evident from what Christ says to Nicodemus, and 
&s is allowed by Dr. Taylor. 

The chani^'c ihe mind passes under in repentance and con- 
version, is that in which savinp;/a/V/j is attained. Mark i. 4 5. 
" The kingdom of Cod is at hand : Repent ye, and believe 
the p;ospf^l.'* And so it is with a beinj^ l)oi n again, or born ot 
God ; as appears by John i. 12, 13. '• But as many as re- 
ceived him, to them pjave he power to become the sons of 
God,«ven to them that brlicvc on his rramc, which were ^>or^, 
not of blood, E<c. but of God,'* 

Just as Christ says concerning conversion, Malth. xviii. 3. 
*< Verily, vcvily, I say unto you, except ye be converted and 
become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kin^donl 
of heaven ;*' so does he say concerning bein^^ born again, in 
what he spake to Nicodemus. 

By the cliange men pass under in conversion, they become 
as little children^ which appears in the place last cited ; and 
so they do by regeneration, 1 Pet, i. at the end; and chap, ii, 
at the beginning. Being born again.... Wherefore^ as neiuborn 
babes, dedrc, Sec. It is no objection that the disciples, whom 
-Christ spake to in Mallh. xviii. 3, were converted already : 
This makes it not less proper for Christ to declare the neces- 
sity of conversion to them, leaving it with them to try them- 
selves, and to make sure their conversion ; in like manner as 
he declared to them the necessity o( re/ientanccy in Luke xiii. 
3, 5. " Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish." 

The change that men pass under at their rc/u.itancc, is 
expressed and exhibited by baptism. Hence it is called the 
baptism of rclicnlancc, from time to time, Mallh. iii. 1 1, Luke 
iii. 3, Acts xiii. 24, and xix. 4. And so is regeneration, or being 
born again, expressed by baptism ; as is evident by such rep- 
resentations of regeneration as those, Joiiu iii. 5. "Except 
a man be born of water, and of the vSpirii".... Titus iii. 5. " He 
saved us by the washing of rejrcneration." Many other things 
might be observed, to shew that the change men pass under 
in their repentance and convcrj>ion, is the same with that which 
'.hey arc the subjects of in rcgcncraiion. But these obscrva- 
dons may be sufiiciciu. 


II. The change which a man passes under when kain 
again, and in his repentance and conversion, is the same that 
the scripture calls the circumcision of the heart* This may 
easily appear by considering, 

That as regeneration is that in which are attained the hab* 
its of true virtue and holiness, as has been shewn, and as is 
confessed ; so is circumcidon of heart. Deut. xxx. 6. « And 
the Lord thy God will circumcise thine hearty and the heart of 
thy seed, to love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and 
with all thy soul.** 

Regeneration is that whereby men come to have the char- 
acter of true Christians ; as is evident, and as is confessed ; 
and so is circumcision of heart ; for by this men become Jews 
inwardly^ or Jews in the spiritual and Christian sense (and that 
is the same as being true Christians) as of old firoselytes were 
made Jews by circumcision of the flesh. Rom. ii. 28, 29. 
"For he is not a/<?w,which is one outwardly ; neither is that 
circumcision^ which is outward in the flesh : But he is a J^w, 
which is one inwardly ; and circumcision is that of the hearty 
in the spirit and not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, 
but of God." 

That circumcision of the heart is the same with conversion, 
or turning from sin to God, is evident by Jer. iv. 1....4. « If 
thou wilt return, O Israel, return (or, convert unto me)....aV- 
cumcise yourselves to the Lord, and put away the foreskins of 
your heart.'' And Deut. x. 16. " Circumcise therefore the 
foreskin of your hearty and be no more stiffneclted." 

Circumcision of the heart is the same change of the heart 
that men pass under in their repentance ; as is evident by Le- 
vit. xxvi. 41. "If their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, 
and they accept the punishment of their iniquity." 

The change men pass under in regeneration, repentance, 
and conversion, is signified by baptism, as has been shewn; 
and so is circumcision of the heart signified by the same thing. 
None will deny that it was this internal circumcision, which 
of old was signified by exlernul circumcision ; nor will any 
deny, now under the New Testament, that inward and spirit- 
ual baptism, or the cleansing of the heart, is signified by ex* 


temal wasliin^ or baptism. Hut s|>iritual circumcision and 
Bpirilual baptism arc the same Ihinj? ; bolh being the fxuttiu^ 
riff the body of the sins of the flesh ; as ifc vtry plain by Col. ii. 
11, 12, 13. " In whom also ye ar« circumcised wiih ihc cir* 
aimcisio7i marie without hands, in fiutti-nf^ off the bvfi/ of th$ 
^ins of the fleshy by ihe circumcision of Christ, buried with 
him in bafitism. wherein also yc arc risen wilh him," kc. 

III. This inward chani;c, called regeneration and circum- 
i^ision of the hearty which is wrought in re/ientance and convert 
won, is the same wilh that spiritual resurrection so often tpok- 
en of, and represented as a dying' unfa sin, and liinng unto 

This appears with great plainness in that last cited place, 
Col ii. '<■ In whom also ye arc circumcised, wiih the circum- 
ci:iion made without hands. ...buried wilh him in baptism, 
wiierein also ye are risen with him, throu5^h the faith of the 
operation of God, Sec. And you, being; dead in your sins, 
and the uncircumcision ofyourHcah hath he <juickencd togeth' 
er luith him ; havinj^ forgiven you all trespasses. 

The same appears by Rom. vi. 5, 4, 5. *' Know ye not, 
that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Cnrist, wcr© 
baptized mio his death ? Theref<jre we are buried wiih hira 
by baptism into death ; that, like as Christ was raised ufi from 
the deady by the glory of the Father, even so ive also fthoiild 
nvalk in newness of life ** h:c. Verse 11. '* Likewise reckon 
ye also yourselves to be dead unto sin^ out alive unto God^ 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

In which place also it is evident, by the words recited, 
and by the whole context, that iliis spiritual resurrection is 
that change, in which persons arc brouri:ht to habits of holi- 
ness and to the divine life, by which Dr. Taylor describes the 
thinc!^ obtained in being born again. 

That a sfiiritual resurrection to a new divine life, should 
be called a being born agaiuy is agreeable to the lanj^uage of 
scripture, in which we find a resurrection is called a b.-ing 
bortiy or begotten. So those words in the 2d Psalm, " Thou 
art my Son, this day have I begotten thee," arc applied to 
Christ's resurrection, Ac's xiii. 33. So in Col. i. 18, Chri^il ij 


called {he ^/irsi borfi from the dead ; and in Rev. i. 5, Thejint 
begotten of the dead. The saints, in their conversion or sfiirit- 
ual resurrection^ are risen nvith Christy and are begotten and 
born loith him. I Pet. i. 3. " Which hath begotten us again to 
a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the deady 
to an inheritance incorruptible." This inheritance is the 
same thing with that kingdom of heaven^ which men obtain by 
being born again, according to Christ's words to Nicodemus ; 
and that sanne inheritance of them that are sanctified^ spoken of 
as what is obtained in true conversion. Acts xxvi. 18. " To 
turn them (or convert them) from darkness to light, and from 
the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgive- 
ness of sins, and inheritance aynong them that are sanctified^ 
through faith that is in me.'* Dr. Taylor's own words, in his 
note on Rom. i. 4, speaking of that place in the 2d Psalm* just 
now mentioned, are very worthy to be here recited. He ob- 
serves how this is applied to Christ's resurrection and exalta- 
tion, in the New Testament, and then has this remark, " Note, 
Begetting is conferring a new and happy state : A son is a 
person put into it. Agreeably to this, good men are said to 
be the sons of God, as they are the sons of the resurrection ta 
eternal life^ which is represented as a itcuK\YY^n9\%, a being be* 
gotten^ or born again^ regenerated." 

So that I think it is abundantly plain, that the spiritual 
resurrection sipokcn of in scripture, by which the saints are 
brought to a new divine life, is the same with that being born 
again, which Christ says is necessary for every one, in order 
to his seeing the kingdom of God. 

1\'. This change, which men are the subjects of, when 
they are bor7i again^ and circumcised in hearty w\\ex\ they re- 
fienty and are converted^ and spiritually raised from the deadj is 
the same change which is meant when the scripture speaks 
of making the heart and s/iirit neiv^ or giving a new heart and 

It is needless here to stand to observe, how evidently this 
is spoken of as necessary to salvation, and as the change in 
which are att.uncd th.e habits of true virtue and holiness, and 
the character of a true saint ; as has been observed oi regent 


itation, conversio77, 8cc. and how apparent it is from thence, 
that the change is the same. For it is as it were selfevident ; 
It is apparent by the phrases themselves, that they arc diflc-- 
cnt expressions of the same ihinir. Thus repentance (^iraroia) 
or the chani^e of the mind, is the same asbcinj; changed to a 
77fw mind, or a netv heart and spirit. Conversion is the turn- 
ing of the heart ; which is the same thing as changing it so, 
that there shall be another heart, or a new heart, or a new 
spirit. To be born again, is to be born aneno ; which implies 
a becoming wew, and is represented as becoming new bom 
babes : But none supposes it is the bodt/, that is immediately 
and properly new, but the mindj hearty or s/iin't. Antl so a 
sfiiritual resurrection is the resurrection of the spirit, or rising 
to begin a neiv existence and life, as to the nwid^ hearty oP 
fpirit. So that all these phrases imply an having ^neiu hearty 
and being renewed in the spirit y according to their plain sig- 

When Nicodemus expressed his wonder at Christ's de- 
claring it necessary, that a man should be born at^aiTi in order 
to see the kingdom of God, or enjoy the privileges of the 
kingdom of the Messiah, Christ says to him, ♦* Art thou a 
master of Israel, and knowest not these things ?" i. e. " Art 
thou one set to teach others the things wriiten in the law 
and the prophets, and knowest not a doctrine so plainly 
taught in your scriptures, that such a change as I speak of. 
Is necessary to a partaking of the blessings of the kingdom of 
the Messiah ?'*... But what can Christ have respect to in this, 
unless such prophecies as that in Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26, 27 ? 
Where God, by the prophet, speaking of the days of the Mes- 
siah's kini^dom, Siiys, " Then will I sprinkle clean wntcr upon 

you, and yc shall be clean i new heart also will I j.Jvc you, 

and a new spirit will I put within you. ...and I will put my spir- 
it within you." Here God speaks of hiving a neio hear; and 
spirit^ by being iva-hrd with water, and recci\ing the Spirit nf 
God, as the q\ialificiition of God's people, that shall enjoy the 
privileges of the kingdom of the Messiah. How much is (his 
rtke the doctrine of Christ to Nicodemus, of being born a^ain 


ofvjater^ and of the spirit ? \Vc have anoiher like prophecy m 
Ezek. xi. 19. 

Add to these things, that ree:eneration, or a being borfi 
again^ and the renenviiig (or niakin?: new) by the Holy Ghostj 
are spoken of as the same thing. Titus iii. 5. " By the wash- 
ing of regerieration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.** 

V. It is abundantly manifest, that being born again^ a spir- 
itually rising from the dead to newness oflife^ receiving a neto 
hearty and being renewed in the spirit of the mind» these are the 
same thing with that which is called putting off the old ?na?i) 
and pulling on the new man. 

The expressions arc equivalent ; and the representations 
are plainly of the same thing. "When Christ speaks of being 
born again, two births are supposed ; afrst and a second; an 
old birthj and a new one : And the thing born is called man. 
So what is born in the first birth, is the old man; and what is 
brought forth in the second birth, is the Jiew inan. That which 
is born in the first birth (says Christ) is fesh : It is the carnal 
man, wherein we have borne the image of the earthly Adantt 
whom the apostle calls ih^ first man. That which is born in 
the new birth, is spii-it, or the spiritual and heavenly man : 
"Wherein Ave proceed from Christ iht second ma7i, Xhtnew 
man, who is made a quickening spirit, and is the Lord from 
heaven, and the head of the neiQ creation. In the new birth, 
men are represented as becoming new born babes (as was ob- 
served before) which is the same thing as becoming new men. 

And how apparently is what the scripture says of the spir- 
itual resurrection of the Christian convert, equivalent and of 
the very same import with putting off the old man, and put- 
ting on the new man ? So in Rom. vi, the convert is spoken of 
ns dying, and being buried with Christ ; which is explained in 
the 6th verse, by this, that " the old man is crucified-; that the 
body of sin might bcjestroyed." And in the 4th verse, con- 
verts in this change are spoken of as rising to newness of life. 
Are not these things plain enough ? The apostle does in ef- 
fect tell us, that when he speaks of that spiritual death and 
resurrection which is in conversion, he means the same thing 
as cr'dcifying and burying the old man^ and rising a new man. 


And it is most apparent, tliat spiritual circinncision^ and 
spiritual bafitivny and the spiritual rcnurrcciiony arc all the 
same wiih fiuttinj; off" the old nan, and fiuttint; on the nevs man. 
This appears by Col. ii. 11, 12. " In whom also yc arc cir- 
cumcised with ihe circiancifticn made without hands, in /tutting 
q^the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcihion of 
Christ, buried with him in tafit:\sm ; wherein also yc arc risen 
with him." Here it is manifest, that the spiritual circumcis- 
ion, baptism, and resurrection, all sij^nify that ch:m;^c wherein 
men fiut off the body of the sins of the fesh : But that is the 
same thing, in this apostle's language, as fiuttini; off the old 
man ; as appears by Rom. vi. 6. ♦* Our old man is crucified, 
that the body of sin may be destroyed." And that putiinj^ oiT 
the old man is the same with putting off the body of sins^ ap- 
pears further by Ephes. iv. 22, 23, 24-... .and Col. iii. 8, 9, 10. 

As Dr. Taylor confesses, that a being b'-.rn again is *• that 
wherein are obtained tiie habits of viituc, reliijion, and true 
holiness ;" so how evidently is the same thing predicated of 
[hat change, which is called /iutiinc^ off the old wan^ and fmt- 
\ing on the ne-\j man? Ep'n. iv. 22, 23, 24. "That yc put 
AfF the old man, which is corrupt, Sec. and put on the new 
man, which after God is created in righteousness and true 

And it is most plain, that ihi.^ putting ofLihe old man, Stc 
is the very same thing with making the heart and sfiirit nctv. 
It is apparent in iisell : The spirit is called t?ic man^ in t!»e 
language of lliC aposUc ^ it is called the inivard many and the 
hidde7i jnan^ Rom. vii. 22... .2 Cor. iv. 16....1 Pet, iii. 4. And 
therefore putting off the old man^ is the same ihi.Mg with the 
removal of the old hiart ; and the pulling on the Jieiu man^ 15 
the receiving a new heart and a Jiciv n/:irit. Yea, putting on 
. the new nian is expressly spoken of as ike same thing with're- 
ceiving a nenv s/iirity or being rcnehoed in s/urit, Eph. iv. 22, 
25, 24. »' That ye put off the old man, and be renewed in the 
spirit of your mind, and thni ye put on the new man." 

From these things it appears, how unreason. .ble, and co »• 
tnry to the u!ino-»i degree ot scripuiiul e%idcnce; J ^ Dr. Tay- 

r O 


lor*s way of explaining the old man^ and the new man)* as" 
though thereby was meant nothing personal ; but that by the. 
old man was meant the heathen state, and by the new man the 
Christian disfiensation, or state of professini^ Christians, or the 
whole collective bodij of professors of Christianity, made up of 
Jews and Gentiles ; when all the color he has for it is, that 
the apostle once calls the Christian church a neiv man, Eph, 
ii. 15. It is very true, in the scriptures often, both in the 
Old Testament and New, collective bodies, nations, peoples, 
cities, are figuratively represented by persons ; particularly 
the church of Christ is represented as one holy person, and 
has the same appellatives as a particular saint or believer ;. 
and so is called a child and a son of God, Exod. iv. 22. ...Gal. 
iv. 1,2; and iiservanl of God, Isai. xli. 8, 9, and xliv. 1. IVic 
daughter of God, and sftouae of Christ, Psal. xlv. 10, 13, 14.... 
Rev. xix, 7, Nevertheless, l^uld it be reasonable to argue 
from hence, that such appellations, as a servant of God, a child 
of God, &c. are always or commonly to be taken as signifying 
only the church of God in general, or great collective bodies ; 
and not to be understood in a personal sense ? But certainly' 
this would not be more unreasonable, than to urge, that by the 
old and the nev) man, as the phrases are mostly used in scrip- 
ture, is to be understood nothing but the great collective bodies 
of Pagans and of Christians, or the Heathen and the Christian 
world, as to their ow?'rwz?Y/ profession, and tfie dispensation 
they are under. It might have been proper, in this case, to 
have cen.sidered the unreasonableness of that practice which 
our author charges on others, and finds so much fault with in 
them,t " That they content themselves with a /t'7y scra/is of 
scripture, which, though wrong understood, they make the 
test of truth, and the ground of their principles, in contradic' 
tion to the nvhole tenor of revelation** 

VI. I observe once more, it is very apparent, that a being 
bom again, and spirituaUy raised from death to a state of ncAV 
existence ami life, having a nerj lieart created in us, being re- 
newed in the spirit of our mhid, and being the subjects of that 

« rage X49, ...133, S. t Page 224, 


^change by Vvhich wc/?i/r q/fr/jc old many and fiut on the new 
man, is the same thing with that which, in scripturc; is called 
a beinif created anrii', or made neii; creatures. 

Here, to pass over many other evidences of this, which 
might be mentioned, I would only observe, that the repre- 
sentations arc exactly equivalent. These several phrases nat- 
urally and most plainly signify the same effect. In the fust 
hirt/:^ or generation, we are creatcd^or brought into existence ; 
it is then the ivhole man first receivea being : The soul is then 
formed, and then our bodies avefearjitily and wonderfully made, 
being curiously ivrought bij our Creator : So that a new born 
child is a neiv creature. So, v/hen a man is born again, he is 
created again ; in that nciv birth, there is a nc-^ creation ; and 
therein he biicomes as a new born babe, or a new creature. Soj 
In a resurrection, there is ^ficiv creation. When a man is 
dead, that which was created or made in the first birth or cre- 
ation is destroyed : When that which was dead is raised to 
life, the mighty power of the Creator or Author of life, is ex- 
erted the second time, and the subject restored to new exist- 
ence, and new life, as by a new creation. So giving a new 
heart is called creating a clean heart, Psal li. 10. Where the 
word translated, create, is the same that is used in liic fust 
verse in Genesis. And when we read in scripture of the new 
creature, the creature that is called new, is via?: ; not angel, or 
beast, or any other sort of creature ; and therefore the phrase, 
new 7nan, is evidently equippolent with 7:er.' creature; and a 
putting off the old man, and putting on the new man, is spoken 
of expressly as brought to pass by a work of creation. Col, 
iii. 9, 10. " Ye have put off the old man, and have put on the 
new man, which is renewed in knowledge, after the ^magc of 
him that created him." So Eph. iv. 22, 23, 21, «• That ye 
put off the old man, which is corrupt, 5cc. and be renewed in 
the spirit of your mind, and that ye put on the new man, 
which after God is created in righteousness and true holi- 
ness." These things absolutely fix the meaning of that in 
2 Cor. V. 17. " If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature : 
Old things arc passed away; behold, all things are become 


On the whole, the following reflections may be made ; 

1. That it is a truth of the utmost cer'ainty, with respect 
to everij man, born of the race of Adam, by ordinary genera- 
tion, that unless he be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of 
God. This is true, not only of the Heathen, but of them that 
are born of the professing people of God, as Nicodemus, and 
the Jews, and every man born of the Jlesh. This is most man- 
ifest by Christ's discourse in John iii. 3. ...11. So it is plain 
by 2 Cor. v. 17, That every man ivho is in Christy is a nep 

2. It appears from this, together with what has been prov- 
ed above, that it is most certain with respect to every one of 
the human race, that he can never have any interest in Christ, 
or see the kingdom of God, unless he be the subject of that 
change in the temper and disposition of his heart, which is 
made in refimtance and conversion^ circumcision of heart, sfiir- 
itual boptisiiiy dying to siny and rising to a neno and holy life ; 
and unless he has the old heart taken away, and a neiv heart 
and spirit given, and puts off the old man, and puts on the new 
772077, and o/jrf things are passed away, and all things. ?nade new. 

3. From what is j)lainly implied in these things, and from 
what the scripture most clearly teaches of the nature of them, 
it is certain, that evc7'y man is bo7m into the world in a state of 
moral pollution : For spiritual baptism is a cleansing from mor- 
al filthiness. Ezck. xxxvi. 25, compared with Acts ii. 16, 
and John iii. 5. So the washing of regeneration, or the neiv 
birth, is a change from a state of wickedness. Tit. iii. 3^ 
4, 5. IMcn are spoken of as purified in their regeneration. 
1 Pet. i. 22, 23. See also 1 John ii. 29, and iii. 1, 3. And 
it appears that every man, in his first or natural state, is a sin- 
ner ; for otherwise he woUld then need no repentance, no con- 
version, no turnini;- from sin to God. And it appears, that ev 
ery man in his original slate has a heart of stone 5 for thus the 
scripture calls that old heart, which is taken away, when a 
new hi art 2^\(\ntw spirit is given. Ezek. xi. 19, and xxxvi, 
26, And it appears, that men's nature, as in his native state, 
is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and of its own mo- 
tion exerts itself in nothing but wicked deed.9. F^r thus thR 


scripture characterizes the old man, which is put off, when 
men are renewed in the spirit of their minds, and put on the 
neno many Eph. iv. 22, 23, 24. ...Col. iii. 8, 9, 10. In a word, it 
appears, that man's nature, as in its native state, is a body of 
9iny which must be destroyed, must die, he buried, and ncx^er 
rise more. For thus the old man is represented, which is crw 
cifiedy when men are the subjects of a spiritual resurrection, 
Rom. vi. 4, 5, 6. Such a naiure, such a body of sin as this, 
is put off in the spiritual renovation, wherein we put on the 
71^71' many and are the subjects of the spiritual circumcision, 
Eph.iv. 21,22,23. 

It must now be left with the reader to judge for himself, 
•whether what the scripture teaches of the ap/iUcation of 
Christ's redemption, and the change of state and nature neces- 
sary to true and final happiness, does not afford clear and 
abundant evidence to the truth of the doctrine of Original 



Containing Answers to Objections, 


Conceriiing that Objection^ That to sufifiose men*s being born in 
siny ivithcut their choice.^ or ayiy previous act of their own^ is 
to supjiose ivhat is inconsistent ivith the nature of sin. 

SOME of the objections made against the doctrine of 
Original Sin, which have reference to particular arguments 
used in defence of it, have been ah-eady considered in the 
handling of those arguments. What I shall therefore now 
consider, arc such objections as I have not yet had occasion to 
take any special notice of. 

There is no argument Dr. Taylor insists more upon, than 
tliat which is taken from the Arnainian and Pelagian notion of 
freedom of will, consisting in the will's selfdeterminationy as 
necessary to the being of moral good or evil. He oficn urges, 
Ihat if we come into the world infected with sinful and deprav- 
ed dispositions, then sin must be natural to us ; and if natural, 
then necessary ; and if necessary, then 7?o sin, nor any thing 
we are blameablc for, or that can in any respect be our fault, 
being what we cannot help : And he urges, that sin must pro- 
ceed from our own choice.^ Sec* 

* Page 125, 128, 129, 130, 186, 187. 188, 190. 230, 245, 246, 953, 
«i8, 63, 64, 161, S. and other places. 


Here I would observe in p;cncri\l, that ihc forcmcntioncrt 
notion of Freedom of \\ ill, as essential to moral agency, and 
necessary to the very existence of virtue and sin, secmi to he 
a grand fHvoritc point with Pelagi.ins and Armini.ins, an.) all 
divines of such characters, in their controversies v\ilh llie or- 
thodox. There is no one thing more fundamental in their 
schemes of relij^ion ; on the determination of this one leading 
point depends the issue of almost ail controversies wc have 
with such divines. Nevertheless, it seems a ?ircdi<s.'i ta?k for 
me particu'tA'-l;, to consider that matter in this place ; having 
already Juigely discussed it, with all the main grounds of ihi«i 
notion, and the arpjumcn's used to defend it7 in a hie book 
ou this subject, to which I ask leave 'o refer th.e reader. It 
is very necessary, that the modern prevailinr; doctrine con- 
ccrnine^ ihi-.; point, should be well understood, and tht^reforn 
thoroughly considered and examined : For witliout it tiicro 
is no hope of puttinc^ an end to the controversy about Orifinal 
Sin, and innumerable other controversies that subsist, about 
many of the main points of religion, I stand ready to confess 
to the forementioned modern divines, if they can mairtain 
their peculiar notion o{ freedom^ con u'^tinr in the sclfdctc^ •.n* 
ing power of the "xiH, as necessary to ri^jral at^cTicy^ and ; ja 
tlioroughly establish it in opposition to the arrjuments Ijin^ 
against it, then they have an impi cgnable rasilc, to which 
they may repair, and remain invincible, in all the controver- 
sies they have with the reformed divines, concerning Oiijjinal 
Sin, the sovereignty of grace, election, redemption, conversion, 
the efficatious operation of the Holy Spirit, the nature of sav- 
ing faith, perseverance of ihe saints, and other principles of 
the like kind. Howcivcr at the same time I tliink this sanv 
thin:^ will be as strong a fortress for the dcUts,, in commo;» 
■vvith them, as the great doctrines, subverted by their notion of 
freedom^ are so plainly and abundantly taught in the «;ciip'.urc. 
But I am under no apprehensions of ar»y danger, the cause of 
Christianity, or the religion of the reformed is in. fron anjr 
possibility of ///«' r.otio?i\- being ever established, or ot its be- 
ing ever cvi;r mI that there is not proper, perfect, and r.Mni- 
fcld demomtrauon lyinjj a^^'ain^t it. Bat as I said, it wouM 1^ 


needless for me to enter into a particuhir disquisition of this 
point here ; from which I shall easily be excused by any 
reader who is willing to give himself the trouble of consulting" 
what I have already written : And as to others, probably they 
will scarce be at ihe pains of reading the present discourse ; 
or at least would not, if it should be enlarged by a full consid- 
eralion of that controversy. 

I shall at this time therefore only take notice of some gross 
inconsistencies that Dr. Taylor has been guilty of, in his hand- 
ling this objection against the doctrine of Ori2;inal Sin. 

In places which have been cited, he says, that " Sin must 
proceed from our own choice : And that if it does not, it be- 
ing necessary to us, it cannot be sin, it cannot be our faulty or 
-what \vc are to blame for :'* And therefore all our sin must 
be chargeable on our choice, which is the cause of sin : For 
he says, " The cause of every effect is alone chargeable with 
the effect it produceth, and which proceedeth from it."* 
Now here are implied several gross contradictions. He great- 
ly insists that nothing can be siiiful^ or have the nature of sin, 
but what proceeds from cup choice. Nevertheless he says, 
"....Not the effect^ \xn\. the cause alone is chargeable with 
blayne." Therefore the choice^ which is the cause, is alojif- 
blamable, or has the natu'e of sin ; and not the effect of that 
choice. Thus nothing can be sinful, but the effect of choice ; 
and yet the effect of choice never can be sinful, but only the 
cause, which alone is chargeable wiih all the blame. 

Again, the choice which chooses and produces sin, or from 
which sin proceeds, is itscU" sinful. Not oi^ly is this implied 
m his saying, " the cause alone is chargeable with ail the 
blame" but he expressly speaks of the choice n^Jauiti/.-f and 
calls that ciioicc ivickcd, from which depravity and corruption 
proceeds. \ Now if the choice itself be sin, and there be no 
sin but what proceeds from a sinful choice, then the sinful 
choice must piocccd from another antecedent clioice ; it must 
be chosen by a foregoing act of will, determining itself to that 
sinful choice, that so it may have that wliich he i;pcaks of as 

* I'age 128. + Pa^e 190. | Fa^^c POO. Scealfo page eiG. 



absolutely essential to the nature of ainy nami-ly, that it firo^ 
ceedafrom our choice^ and docs not happen to us nccc4»a- 
rily. But if the sinful ch(.ice itself proceeds from a fore v^o- 
in.e; choice, then also that forc^^oiii'^ choice must be sinful ; 
it being the cause of sin^ and so alone chars;cablc with the 
blavie. Vet if that foret^oinp: choice be sinful, then neither 
must that happen to us necessarily, but must likewise proceed 
from choice, another act of cl'.oicc prcredini; that : I'or wc 
must remember, that " nolhint; is sinful but what proceeds 
from our c/iozrc." And then, for the same reason, even this 
prior choice, last mentioned, must also be sinful, being char«^e- 
able with all the blame of that consequeni evil choice, which 
was its effect. And so wd must go back till we come to the 
\€xy first volition, the prime or original act of choice in the 
whole chain. And this^ to be sure, must be a sinful ciioicc, 
because this is the origin or primitive cause of all the train of 
evils which follow ; and according to our author, must there- 
fore be " alone chart;eable with all the blame" And yet so 
it is, accordinsj to him, this " cannot be sinful," !)ecause it does 
not '' proceed from our own choice,'* or any foregoing act of 
oiir will ; it being, by the supposition, thp very first act of 
will iti the case. And therefore it must be necc^sari/y as to 
us, having no choice of ours to be the cau^e of it. 

In page 2S2, he says, " Adam's sin was from his own dis" 
abcdicnt will; and so must every man's sin, and all the sin in 
the world be, as well as his." By this, it seems, lie must have 
a '^ disobedient will" before he sins ; for the cause must be 
before the effect : And yet that disobedient will itself is sin- 
ful ; otherwise it could not be called disobedient. But the 
question is, How do men come by the disobedient t:///, this 
cause of all the sin in the world ? It must not come ?ifccesa' 
rily, without men's choice ; for if so, it is not sin, nor is there 
a'ny disobedience in it, 'i'hercfore that disobedient will mujt 
also come from a disobedient will ; and so on, in irfritiun. 
Otherwise it must be supposed, that there is some ain m the 
world, which dccu not come from a di'^l-c'- •• ' - " ' • -' •: — 
to our authoi's dogmaiical as-crlions. 
Q P 


In page 166, 6'. be says, " Adaiyi could not sin %vUhout a 
sivfulincUnation.'* Here he calls thi\t inclination ilself sm/t^A 
which is the principle from whence sinful acts proceed ; as 
elsewhere he speaks of the disobedient wilt from whence all 
sin comes ; and he allows,* that " the lavj reaches to all the 
latent fir inciples of sin ;" meaning plainly, that it forbids-, and 
threatens ftimishmcnt for, those latent principles. Now these 
latent principles of sin, these sinful inclinations, without 
which, according to our author, there can be no sinful act, 
cannot all proceed from a sinful choice ; because that would 
imply great contradiction. For, by the supposition, they are 
the principles from whence a sinful choice comes, and whence 
all sinful acts of will proceed ; and there can be no sinful act 
without them. So that ihefirst latent principles and inclina- 
tions, from whence all sinful acts proceed, are sinful ; and yet 
they are not sinful, because they do not proceed from a ivick' 
ed choice, without which, according to him, " nothing can be 

Dr. Taylor, speaking of that proposition of the Assembly 
of Divines, wherein they assert, that Man is by nature bitterly 
corrupt^ Sect thinks himself well warranted by the supposed 
great evidence of these his contradictory notions, to say, 
" Therefore sin is not natural to us ; and therefore I shall not 
scruple to say, this proposition in the Assembly of Divines is 
Jhlse.** But it may be worthy to be considered, whether it 
would not have greatly become him, before he had clothed 
himself with so nvuch assurance, and proceeded, on the foun- 
chtion of these his notions, so magisterially to ciiarge the As- 
sembly's proposition with falsehood, to have taken care that 
his own propositions, which he has set "in opposition to them, 
should be a little more consistent ; that he might not have 
contradicted himself while contradicting them ; lest some im- 
partial judpcs, observing his inconsistence, should think they 
had warrant to declare with equal assurance, that «' They 
shall not scruple to say. Dr. Taylor's doctrine is false." 

> Contents of Roro. chsp. vlii. in Notos en i^c FMivt> r Pa-rc i'?r. 



\^oncerning that objection again&t the doctrine ofnatioc conu/. 
tiofij That to su/i/iose men receive their Jirat existence in sin 
is to make hini luho is the author of their hein^^ thr o'-r...... r. 

their dejiravity. 

ONE art^ument a[>ftmst men's bcir supposed to be born 
^vith sinful depravity, which Dr. Taylor p;reatly insists upon, 
is, *< That this does in effect charge him, who is the author of 
cur nature^ who formed us in the ivombi with beini^ the author 
qfa sinful corrufition of nature ; and that it is hii;hhj injurious 
to the God of our nature, nvhosc hands have formed and fash' 
ioned us, to believe our nature to be originally corrufited, and 
that in the worst sense of corruption"* 

With respect to this, I would observe in llie fast place 
that this writer, in his handling this t-^raud objection, supposes 
something to belong to the doctrine objected against, as main- 
tained by the divines whom he is opposing, which docs not 
belong to it, nor does fallow from it : As particularly, he sup- 
poses the doctrine of Original 3in to imply, that nature must 
be corrupted by some positive infuence ; "something, by 
some means or other, ijfused into the human nature ; some 
quality or other, not from the choice of our minds, but like a 
taint^ tincture, or infection, altering the natural constitution, 
faculties, and dispositions of our souls. f That sin and evil dis- 
-positions are imfdantcd in the fcclus in the womb."t Whereas 
truly our doctrine neither implies nor infers any sucli thing. 
In order to account for a sinful corruption of nature, yea, a 

♦ rage 137, 187, 188, 189, 256, 258, 260, 141, S. and other p'.aco 
r Vi%o 187. X Pjtijc 146, 148, 1/.9, S, and the like in many o'.lu-r plac 


total native depravity of the heart of man, there is not Ihb 
least need of siipposui?^ any evil quality, infused^ imfilantcdyov 
nvrought into the nature of man, by any positive cause, or in- 
fluence whatsoever, cither from God, or the creature ; or of 
supposing, that man is conceived and born with a fountain of 
evil in his heart, such as is any thing properly positive. I 
think, a liitlc attention to the nature of things will be sufficient 
to satisfy any impartial, considerate inquirer, that the absence 
of positive good principles, and so the withholding of a spe- 
cial divine influence to impart and maintain those good prin- 
ciples, leaving the common natural principles of selflove, nat- 
ural appetite, See. (which were in man in innocence) leaving 
these, 1 say, to themselves, without the government of supe- 
rior divine principles, will certainly be followed with the cor- 
ruption, yea, the total corruption of the heart, without occa- 
sion for any positive influence at all : And, that it was thus 
indeed that corruption of nature came on Adam, immediately 
on his fall, and comes on all his posterity, as sinning in him, 
and falling with him. 

The case with man was plainly this : When God made 
man at first, he implanted in him two kinds of principles- 
There was an inferior kind, which may be called naiiiral, be- 
ing the principles of mere human nature ; such as selflove, 
with those natural appetites and passions, which be'ong to the 
' nature ofman^ in which his love to his own liberty, honor, and 
pleasure, were e"xercised : These, when alone,, and left to 
themselves, are what the scriptures sometimes cz\\ flesh. lie- 
sides these, there were supericr principles, that were spiritual, 
holy, and divine, summarily comprehended in divine love ; 
wherein consisted the spiritual image of God. and man's 
righteousness and true holiness ; which are calkd in scrip- 
ture the (Uvinc r,a!ure. These principles may, in some sense, 
be called supervaluraL^ being (however ccncrealed or con- 

* To prevent all cavil:-, the reader is dcsiicd particulaily lo observe, i:: 
what sense I here use the words natural and ivperna'utal : Not as epithets of 
distinction between that which is concrca ed or connate, and that which is 
extraordinarily introduced aftciwards, besides ihc first state of things, or the 


nnte, yet; such as are above those principles that arc essen- 
tially implied in, or necessarily rcs^ulrinj; from, uiul insepara- 
bly connected wilh, 7ncrc hurmni iiuture ; and bciiii; siicli as 
immediately depend on man's union and communion wilh 
God, or divine communicaticnsand influences of (;od's Spirit : 
Which, thoui^h withdiawn, anrl man*s nature forsaken of ihcso 
principles, human nature would be human nature still ; man's 
nature, as such, being entire, ^vithout these divine /ir'mci/iUA, 
^vhich the scripture sometimes calls ftfr'nt^ in contradistinc- 
tion to ^/fes/i. These superior principles were j^ivcn lo pos- 
sess the throne, and maintain an absolute dominion in the 
heart : The other to be wliolly subordinate and subservient. 
And while thint^s continued thus, all things Nyerc in cxccllL-nt 
order, peace, and beautiful harmony, and in th.eir proper and 
perfect state. 

These divine prhiciples thus reigning, were the digqiiy, 
life, happiness, and glory of man's nature. V/hen man sin- 
ned, and broke God's covenant, and fell under his curse, these 
superior principles left his heart : Tor indeed God then left 
him ; that communion with God, on which these principles 
depended, entirely ceased ; the Holy Spirit, that divint inhab- 
itant, forsook the house. Because it would have been uiterly 
improper in itself, and inconsistent with the covenant and con- 
stitution God had established, that God should still maintain 
communion with man, and continue, by his friendly, gracious, 
vital influences, to dwell with him and in him, after he was 
become a rebel, and had incurred God's wrath and cur.sc. 

order established oiiginaliy, beginning \Ahcn man's nature began ; but as dt»- 
tinguishing between >A('hat belongs to, or flows from, that nature which man 
has, merely as man, and those things which arc ^bovc this, by which one is 
denominated, not only a man, but a truly viituous, holy, and spiritual man ; 
which, though they began in Adam, as soon as humanity began, rnd arc nec- 
essary to tb« peifection and well being of the human nature, yet are not essen- 
tial to the constitution of it, or necessary to its being : Inasmucli as one may 
bave everv thing needful to his being man, exclusively of them. If in thus 
using the words, vatural znl iupernutural, I use them in an uncommon scnw, 
it is not from any atlcctatioH of singularity, but for want of other terras more 
ypt.]y to express my meaning. 


Therefore immediately the superior divine principles wholly 
teased ; so light ceases in a room when the candle is with- 
drawn ; and thus man was left in a slaie of darkness, v/oefiil 
corruption and ruin ; nothing but flesh without spirit. The 
inferior principles of selflove, and natural appetite, which were 
given only to serve, beino; alone, and left to tliemselves, of 
voitrse became reigning principles ; having no superior prin- 
ciples to regulate or control them, they becarne absolute mas- 
ters of the heart. The immediate consequence of which was 
t. fatal catastrophe^ a turning of all things upside down, and the 
succession of a state of the most odious ai^d dreadful confu- 
sion* Man did immediately set up himself and the objects of 
his private affections and appetites, as supreme ; and so they 
took the place of God. These inferior principles are \i\iQfirc 
in an house ; which, we say, is a good servant, but a bad mas- 
ter ; very useful while kept in its place, but if left to take pos- 
session of the whole house, soon brings all to destruction. 
Man's love to his own honor, separate interest, and private 
pleasure, which before was wholly subordinate unto love to 
God, and regard to his authority and glory, now disposes and 
impels him to pursue those objects, without regard to God's 
iionor or !a\v ; because there is no true reg rd to these divine 
things left in him. In consequence of which, he seeks those 
objects as much when against God's honor and law, as when 
agreeable to them. And God, still continuing strictly to re- 
quire supreme regard to himself, and forbidding^ all gratifica- 
tions of these inferior passions, but only in perfect subordina- 
tion to the ends, and agreeabieness to the rules and limits, 
ivhich his holiness, honor, and law prescribe, hence immedi- 
ately arises enmity in the heart, now wholly under the power 
of selflove ; and nothing but nvar ensues, in a constant course, 
against God. As, when a subject has once renounced his 
lawful sovereign, and set up a pretender in his stead, a state 
of enmity and war against his rightful king necessarily en- 
sues. It were easy to shew, how every lust, and depraved 
disposition of man's l^cart would naturally arise from this 
f.rivativc original, if here were room for it. Thus it is easy 
to give an account, how total corruption of heart should follow 


gn man's eatinj^ the forbidden fruit, though ihat was bui on* 
act of sin, nvithout God\s /iittting' any evil into his heart, or im- 
/ilanting any bad principle, or infusinr^ any corrupt taint, and 
so becoming the aufhor of depravity. Only God's ivithdraw 
ing^ as it Avas hip;hly proper and necessary iliat he should, 
from rebel man, being as it were driven away l)y his abomi- 
nable wickedness, and men's natural principles bcin^ left to 
rhcmselves, this is suflicient to account for his becoming en- 
tirely corrupt, and bent on sinning against Go<l. 

And as Adam's nature became corrupt, without God's im- 
planting or infusing any evil thing into his nature ; so doc3 
the nature of his fiosterity. God dealing with Adam as the 
head of his posterity (as has been shcwri) and treating them as 
one, he deals \vith his po^aerity as having a// ^m/zfi-/ m ////y^. 
And therefore, as God withdrew spiritual communion, and 
his vital, gracious influence from the common head, ^^o he 
withholds the same from all the members, as they come into 
existence ; whereby they come into the world mercj^r*//, anti 
entirely under the government of natural and inferior princi- 
ples ; and so become wholly corrupt, as Adam did. 

Now, for God so far to have the disposal of this aflair, as 
to wi l/i hold ihost influences, without which nature will be cor- 
rufit^ is not to be the author of sin. But, concerning this, I 
must refer the reader to what I have said of it in my dis- 
course on the frccdf.mofthe nvill.*' Though, besides what I 
have there said, I may here observe. That if for God so far 
to order and dispose the being of sin, as vo Jicrmit it, by with- 
holding the gracious influences necessary to prevent ii, is for 
him to be the author of ^in, then some things which Dr. Tay** 
lor himself lays down, will equally be att»inded with this very 
consequence. For, from time to lime, he speaks of God's 
giving men up to the vilest lusts and affeclions, by permit- 
ting, or leuvinj: them.f Now, if the ccTUainancc of si'u anci 
its increase and prevalence, may be in consequence orCiod'ir 
disposal, by Ms wiiiiholdiiig that grace, that h needful, tmdci 

♦ Part iv. ^ 9, p 354, &c. f Key., ^j 388, i\'c>tf ; an.l Pjaph, oti Rom, 
z 2^ «6, 


such circumstances, to prevent it, without Gou'b being the 
author of that coyitinuancc atul prevalence of bin ; then, by- 
parity of reason, may the bchi^ of sin ^ in the race of Adanii be 
in consequence of God's disposal, by his withholding that 
grace, that is needful to prevent it, without his being the au- 
thor of that beir.g of sin. 

If here it should be said, that God is not the author of sin, 
in giving men up to sin, who have already made themselves 
sinful, because when men have once made themselves sinful, 
their continuing so, and sin's prevailing in them, and becom- 
ing more and more habitual, will follow in a course of nature : 
I answer. Let that be remembered, which this writer so great- 
ly urges, in opposition to them that suppose original corrup- 
tion comes in a course of nature, viz. That the course of na- 
ture is nothing ivithout God, He utterly rejects the notion of 
the " Course ofnature^^ being a proper active cause, which 
will work, and go on by itself, %vithout God^ if he lets or per- 
mits it." But affirms,^ " That the course of nature, separate 
from the agency of God, is 720 cause^ or Jiothing ; and that the 
course of nature should continue itself, or go on to operate by 
itself, any more than at first produce itself, is absolutely imfios' 
sible" These strong expressions are his. Therefore, to ex- 
plain the continuance of the habits of sin in the same person, 
when once introduced, yea, to explain the very being of any 
such habits, in consequence of repeated acts, our author n^ust 
have recourse to those same principles, which he rejects as 
absurd to the utmost degree, when alleged to explain the cor- 
ruption of nature in the posterity of Adam. For, that habits, 
either good or bad, should co?itini:c, after being once establish- 
edj or that habits should be settled and have existence in con- 
sequence of repeated acts, can be owing only to a course of 
nature, and those laws of nature which God has established. 

That the posterity of Adam should be born without holi- 
ness, and so with a depraved nature, comes to pass as much 
by the established course ofiiature^ as the continuance of a cor- 
rupt disposition in a particular person, after he cnce has it ; 

* FiT^c 134, S, See also with what vehemence this is urged in p, 137, S. 


CT as much as Adam's continuing unholy and corrupt, after 
he liad once lost his holiness. For Adam's posterity arc 
from him, and as it were in l.im, and bclonginj^ to him, ac» 
cordinj; lo an established course of nature^ a-» much as the 
branches of a tree arc> according to a course of nature^ from 
the tree, m the tiee, and belon^inj^ to the tree ; or (to make 
use of the comparison which I^r. Taylor himself chooses and 
makes use of from time to time, as proper to illustrate the 
matter*) just as trie acorn is derivtd from the oak. And I 
think, the acorn is as much derived from the oak, according 
to the course of nature, as the buds and branches. It is true, 
that God, by his own almit^lity power, creates the soui of the 
infant; and it is also true, as Dr. Taylor often insists, that 
God, bv his immediate power, forms and fashions the tody of 
the infant in the wowib ; yet he d(»cs both according to that 
course of nature, which he ha*> been pleased to establish. Tiie 
course of nature is demonstrated, by late improvements in 
philosophy, to be indeed what our author himself says it is, 
viz. Nothing but the established order of the at^ency and ope- 
ration of the author of nature. And though there be the im- 
mediate agency of God in bringing the soul into existence 
in generatiouvyet it is done according to the me'liod and older 
established by the author of nature, as much as his producing 
the bud, or the acorn of the ouk ; and as much as hb contin- 
\3ing a particular prison in being, after he once has existence. 
God's immediate agency in brinijing the soul of a child into 
being, is as much according to an establishid order, as his im- 
mediate agency m any of the wot ks of nature whatsoever. It 
is agreeable to the established order of nature, that the good 
qualities watuing in the tree, should also be wanting in the 
bnu.ches av.d fuit. Ii is a).rreeable to the order of nature. 
thut when a particular person is without good moral qualities! 
in l»is hear', he should continue without them, till some new 
cause or tflicicncy produces then. ; and it is as mucli agreea- 
ble to aii established course and order of nature, that since 
Adam, the iitad of tiie race of mai. kid- ''-• •.»>■ i>-^lh.jl :^ici«t 

TJiciiC, 1S7. 

344 ORIGINAL Sin. 

tree with many branches springing from it, was deprived of ' 
original righteousness, the branches should come forth without 
It. Or if any dislike the word nature^ as used in this la&t casej 
and instead of it choose to call it a constitution or established 
orof^ of successive events, the alteration of the name will not 
in. the least alter the statje of the present argument. Where 
the T)amei vaiurc^ is allowed without dispute, no more is 
meant than an established method and ordpr of events, settled 
and limited by divine wisdom. 

If any should object to this, that if the want of original 
righteousness be thus according to an established course of 
nature^ then why are not principles of holiness, when restored 
by divine grace^ also communicated io fiosterity ? I answer, 
the divine lav.s and establishments of the author of 7?a/wr(?, 
are precisely settled by him as he pleaseth, and limited by 
his wi-dom. Grace is introduced among the race of mankind 
by a ne-jj establishment ; not on the foot of the original estabt 
iishment of God, as the head of the natural world, and author 
of the first creation ; but by a conslitulion of a vastly hii;her 
lUnd ; wherein Christ is made the root of the tree, whose 
branches are his spiritual sefo?, and he is the head of the new 
creation ; of which I need not stand now to speak particu- 

But here I desire it may be noted, that I do not suppose 
-the natural depravity of the posterity of Adam is owing to 
the course of nature only ; it is also owing to the \vi'^X judg- 
ment of God. But yet I think, it is as truly and in the samp 
fanner owing to the course of ;;a/ur<?, that Adam's posterity; 
come into the world without original right^usness, as that 
Adam continued without it, after he had once lost it. That 
Adam continued dcsiitute of holiness, when he bad lost it, 
^nd would always have sp continued, had it not been restored 
by a Rcc'ccmer, was not only a natural consequence, accord- 
ing to the course of things estabiibhed by God, as the Author 
of Nature i but it vr.as also ^i penal consequence, or a punish.- 
^cnt of his sin. God, in \V^\\{€^Q\.\i judgraerd^ continued to 
tb^cnt himself fr( m Adam aficr he became a rebel ; and 
'jfiihheld from him now those influences of the Holy Spiiit,. 


^hich he before had. And just thus I suppose it to be whh 
tevery natural branch of mankind : All arc looked upon as 
simiirig in and v/uh their common root ; and God ri;;htcously 
withholds special influences and spiiiiual communicaiions 
frcm all, for this sin. But of the manner and order of ihcic 
thint^'s, more may be said in the next chapter. 

On the whole, this grand objection aj^ainsi the doctrine 6f 
men's bcin^r horn corrupt, Tliai it makes him who gave U9 
cur bewgy to be the cause of the bthig of corru/Hion, can have 
TJo more force in it, than a like argument has to prove, that if 
men, by a course of nature, continue wicked, or remain wirhout 
goodness, after they have l)y vicious acts coniractcd vicious 
habits, and so made themselves wicked, it makes him, who is 
the cause of their continuance in being, and the cause of the 
continuance of the course of nature, to be the cause oi their 
continued wickedness. Dr. Taylor says,* »' God would ncJt 
•make any thing that is hateful to him ; because, by the very 
terms, he would hate to 77.0^^ such a thing." But if this be 
good arguing in the case to which it is applied, may 1 not aS 
well say, God ivoiild 7iot continue a thing in being, that is 
hateful to iiim, because, by the very tervis^ he would hate to 
continue such a thing in being ? I think the very terms do as 
much (and no nioiej inter one of these jjioposiiions, as the 
other. In like manner the rest that he says on that head may 
be shewn to be unreasonable, by only substituting the word, 
continucy'm the \^\vict 6{ ??mke and /iro/iagatr, I may faiily im- 
itate his way of reasoning thus: '' To say,Ciod continues us ac- 
-eordinj^ to his own original decree, or law of contfnuaiioM, 
Avhich obliges him to continue us in a manner he abhors, is re.d- 
ly to make bad worse ; FtT it is supposing him to be de- 
fective in wisdom, or by his own decree or law to lay such a 
constraint upon his own actions, thai he cannot do what he 
would, but IS continually doing what he would not, what he 
hales to do, and what he condemns in us^ viz, continuing' us 
sinful, when he cOTdemns u^ for continuing nurstlves sinful." 
If the reasoning be tt"-'a^' in the one cube, it is no less so iA 
.the other. _^ 

*Pag" 136,5. 


If any shall still insist, that there is a difference betweei) 
God's so disposing things as that depravity of heart shall be 
continued^ according to the settled course of nature, in the 
same person, who has l)y his own fault introduced it ; and 
his so disposing as that men, according to a course of nature, 
should be born with depravity, in consequence of Adam's in- 
troducing sin, by his act which we had no concern in, and 
cannot be justly charged with. On this I would observe, that 
it is quite going off the objection, which we have been upon, 
from God's agency, and 0ying to another. It is then no 
longer insisted on, that simfity for him, from whose agency 
the course of nature and our existence derive, so to dispose 
things, as that we should have existence in a corrupt statCj 
is for him to be the author of sin ; but the plea now advanc- 
ed is, that it is not proper and just for such an agent so to dis- 
pose, in this case^ and only in consequence of Adam's sin ; it 
pot being just to charge Adam's sin to his posterity. And 
this matter shall be particularly considered, in answer to th.e 
tiext objection, to which 1 now proceed. 


That great Objection againfit the Imputation ofAdam^s dn te 
/lis fiosterity^ corr.ndered, that such Imputation is unjust and 
unreasonable^ inasmuch as Adam and his posterity are not 
one and the saine. With a brief reflection subjoined of what 
^ome have snfi/iosedi of Ood*8 imputing the guilt of Adam* s 
sin to his Posterity, but in an infinitely less degree, thaii tc 
jidam himself. ■ 

THAT we may proceed with the greater clearness in 
considering the main objections agamst supposing the guilt 
of Adam's sin to be imputed to his posterity ; I would pret 


jnise some observaiions with a view to the rleht iiafin:^ of 
the doctrine of 'he imputation of Atlam's fiist sin, and then 
shew the rcasonablencsft of ilm docliinc, in cppo:.uicn to the 
great clamor raised against it on ihia licad. 

I think, it would p;o far towards dircctint^ us to the mort 
dear and distinct conceivinfij and rip;ht slavinjjj of this afT.tir, 
"vvere we steadily to bear ihi* in mind : That God, in each 
step of his proceedini^ with Adam, in relation to the covenant 
or coTistiiuiion established \vith him, l(;(;kcd on his posterity 
as being 072c ujz7// him. (The propriety of his looking upon 
them so, I shall speak to afterwards.) And lhouc:h he dealt 
more immediately with Adam, yet it was as the head of the 
whole body, and the root ol the wliole tree ; and in his pro- 
ceedings with him, he dealt with all the branches, as ii they 
had been then existing; in their root. 

From which it will follow, that both guilt, or cxposcdacss 
Jo punishment, and also depravity of heart, came upon Ad- 
am*s posterity just as they came upon him, as much as if he 
and they had all coexisted, like a tree with many branches ; 
allowing only for the difierence necessarily resulting from 
the place Adam stood in, as head or root of the whole, and 
being first and most immediately dealt with, and mon imme- 
diately acliiig and suffering. Otherwise, it is as if, in every 
step of proceeding, every alteration in the root I)ad been at- 
tended, at the same instant, wiili the same steps and aJiera- 
tions throughout the whole tree, in each individual branclu 
I think this will naturally follow on the supposition of there 
being a constituted oneness or identity of Adam and iiis pos- 
terity in this affair. 

Therefore I am humbly of opinion, that if any Iiave -up- 
posed the children of Adam to come into the world with a 
double guilff one the guilt of Adam's sin, another the guilt 
arising from their having a corrupt heart, ihey liavc not ro 
well conceived of the matter. The /{ui/f a man iias upon his 
soul at his first existence, is one and simple, viz. the guilt of 
the original apostasy, the guilt of the sin by v. hicii the species 
first rebelled against (iod. This, and the guilt arising from 
the first corruption or depraved disposition of the heart, are 

5 If OPvTGTNAL Sl^r. 

iiot to be looked upon as 77yo things, distinctly imputed am! 
charged upon nien in the sight of God. Indeed ihe guilt that 
arises from the corruption of the heart, as it remains a con- 
firmed principle, and appears in its consequent operations, is 
e distinct ^n^ additional guilt : But the guilt arising from the 
first existing of a depraved disposition in Adam's posterity, I 
apprehend, \%vot distinct from their guili of Adam's first sin. 
For so it was not in Adam Irimself. The first evil disposition 
or inclination of the heart €f Adam to sin, was not properly 
distinct from his frrst act of ^in, but was included in it. The 
external act he committed was no otherwise his, than as his 
heart was in it, or as that action proceeded from the wicked 
inclination of his heart. Nor was the guilt he had double, aS 
for two distinct sins : One, the wickedness of his heart and 
TV ill in that affair: another, the wickedness of the external 
act, caused by his heart. His guilt was all truly from the act 
of bis inward man ; exclusive of which the motions of his 
body M'ere no more than the motions of any lifeless instru- 
STient. His sin consisted in wickedness of heart, fully suffi* 
cient/j7-, and entirely amounting to, all that appeared in the 
ect he committed. 

The depraved disposition of Adam's heart is to be consid* 
cred two ways, (-l.) As the first rising of an evil inclinatiofi 
In his heart, exerted in his first act of sin, and the ground ©f 
the complete transgression. (2.) An evil disposition of heart 
continumi; afterwards, as a confirmed principle that came by 
God's forsaking him ; which was a fiuniskment of his first 
transgression. This confirmed corruption, by its remaining 
and continued operation, brought additional guilt on his soul. 

And in like manner, depravity of heart is to be considered 
two ways in Adam's j>osterity. The Jirst existing of a cor- 
rupt disposition in ti^eir hearts, is not to be looked upon as sin 
belonging to them, distinct from their participation of Adam's 
first sin : It is as it were the extended pollution of that sin, 
through the wliole tree, by virtue of the constituted union of 
•the branches with the root ; or the inherence of the sin of that 
Iicudofthe species in the members, in the consent and con- 
currence of the hearts of the members with the head in that 


Skst act. (Which may be, without Gf.cl's bcinj^ tljc author of 
sin, about which I have spoken in the former chapter.) Bit 
the depravity of nature remaininj> an c.stuMis/ied /iririci/i/e ia 
the heart of a child of Adam, and as exhibited in after opera- 
tions, is a consrgurnce and fiunishmcnt of the first apostasy thut 
participated, andbrin^^s new Ruilt.. The Qrsi bcin^ of an evil 
disposition in the heart of a child of Adam, whereby he is 
disposed to aj'.firovc of ihe sin of his first father, as fully a* he 
himself approved of it when lie connnittcd it, or so far as to 
5mp)y a full and perfect consent ol" heart to it, 1 think, is not 
to be looked upon as a consequence of the im'j)Uiation of tba^ 
first sin, ariy more than the full consent of Adam's own heart> 
in the act of sinnintj ; whit h was not consequent on the im- 
putation of his sin to himself, but rattier //r:or to it in the or- 
der of nature. Indeed the derivation of the evil dispo .iiiora 
to the hearts of Adam's posterity, or rather the coexistence of 
the evil disposition, implied in A(iam's first rebellion, in the 
root and branches, is a consequence of the union that the v/'ism 
author of the world has established between Adam and his 
posterity ; but not properly a consequence of the im/iuiattcn of 
his sin ; nay, rather antecedent to it, as it was in Adam him- 
self. The first depravity of heart, and the imputation ol that 
sin, are both the consequences of that est.iblished union ; but 
yet in such order, that the evil disposition is y/Var, and the 
charge of guilt consequents as it was in the case of Adam Mr^- 

♦ My roeaning, in the whole of 'A-bai has been here %nd, may be ilU:st:av 
vd thus : I el us suppose, ihat Adam :nd all I. is posterity had co<-xi>t(d, and 
that his posterity had been, through a law of nature, established by the Crea- 
lor, united to him, something as the branches of a tree are united to the rooi, 
or the members of the body ^o the head, s ) as lo constitute as it vveic onr 
complex person, or one moral whole : "^o that by the law of uriion, ibcfc 
should have been a communion and coexistence in acts and affection? ; *I4 
jointly participating, and all concurring, as one whole, in the dispoiitionand 
action of the head : As wc see in the body natural, the whgle h'^dy i 2|}ccte4 
as the head is affected ; and the whole body concur* when the \:v?.d ?-••. 
Kow, in this case, the hearts of all the brunches of mqtikin4. by lie c 
tion of nature and liw of union, womIJ have been aflcried just as i: 
of Adam, their common root, was aiTcclcd. \Vl en the h^t of thr '• 

320 ORIGINAL SllSr. 

The.first existence of an evil disposition of heart, amoiint* 
ir\^ to a full consent to Adam's sin, no more infers God's be* 
inr; 'he author of that evil disposition in tlie c/«A/, than in the 
father, 'the first arising or existing of that evil disposilion 

a full disposition, committed the first sin. the hearts of all the branches would 
have concurred ; and when the root, in consequence of this, became guilty, 
so would all the branches; and when the heart of the root, as a punishment 
of the sin committed, was forsaken of God, in like manner would it have 
fared with all the branches ; and when the heart of the root, in consequence; 
of this, was confirmed in permanent depravity, the case would have been the 
same with all the branches; and as new guilt oh the soul of A-dam would 
have been consequent on this, so also -would it have been with his moral 
branches. And thus all things, with relation to evil disposition, gi-ilt, pol- • 
lution and depravity, would exist, in the same order and dependence, in 
each branch, as in the root. Now, difTerence of tlie time of existence does 
oot at all hinder things succeeding in the same order, any moie than differ^ 
cnce of place in a coexistence of time. 

Here may be worthy to be observed, as in several respects to the present 
purpose, some things that are said by Stapferus, ?n eminent divine of Zurich, 
in Switzerland, in his ! he Jog;a Polem ca, published about fourteen year$ 
ago ; in English as follovjrs. " Seeing all Adam's posterity are derived from 
their fir.-.t parent, as their roct, the whole of the human kind, with its root, 
may be considered as constituting but one whole, or < ne mass ; so as not to 
be properly a thing d'stinct from its roi t ; the posterity not differing from 
it, any otherwise than the branches from the tree. From which it easily ap* 
pears, how that when the root sinned, all that which is der ved from t, and 
with it constitutes but one whole, may be lookea U( on as also sinning; see- 
ing it is not distinct froirt the root, but i3 one with it." ...Tom. i. cap 3, 

" It is ob'iectei again-s' the im.putation of Adam's sin. that we never com- 
mi'ted the same sin with Adam, neither in number nor in kind. I answer, 
we should distin)t;uish here between the physical act itself, which Adam corn- 
mined, and the morality of the action, and consent to it. Ifwe have respect 
only to the externa act, to be sure it must be > oncssed. that Adam's poster- 
ity did not put forth their hands to the 'orbidden fruit : In which sense, 
that act of transgression, and that fall of Adam cannot be physically one with 
the sin of his po terity But if we consider the morality of the action, and 
wha*. consent here is to it, it is altogether to be maintained, that his posterity 
commi ted the s^mc sin, both in number and in kind, inasmuch as they arc- 
to bz looked upon os rousenting to ii. For where there is consent to a sin, 
there the same .sin is committed. Seeing therefore that .-\dam, with all his 
posterity, constitute but one moral pcrs')n. and are united in the same cove- 


in the heart of Adam, was by God's pcrini.ssion ; who coul4 
have prevented it, if he had pleased, hy ^iuin^tr ^i,cj, mflucijcea 
of his Spirit, us would have been aUsolntely cfTjcfuul lo hi idcr 
it ; which, it is plain in fact, he did ivilhJiolJ : And wluicver 

nant, an^ are trans^rensors of the same 'aw, they arc aho to be looked upoa 
as having, in a moral cllimalion, cam mi ted the same trjns,;re»$ion of the \»w 
both in number and in lund Thrrefora this reasoning avails nothing K^nnti 
the righteous imputation »f the sin of Adam lo all mankind, or to he whoU 
moral peison that is consenting to it. And for the reason menti >ncd, wc may 
rather argue thus : The sin of the posterity, on account «f ihcir con>eMl, and 
the moral view in which they arc to be taken, is the same with the sin of \dam, 
not only in kind, but in number; therefore the sin of Adam is rii'hirully 
imputed to his posterity.".. ..Id. Tom. iv. cap i 6, ^ 6o, 6t. 

'* The iTiputation of Adam's first sin connists in nothing else thin thii 
that his posterity arc viewed as in the same place with their father, and aro 
like him. But seeing, agreeable to what wc have already proTcd, God mi.'ht 
according to his own righteous judgmr-nt, which was founded on his most 
righteous law, give Adam a posterity that y/ ere like himself ; and indeed it 
could not be otherwise, according t'* the very laws of nature ; th«rcfo.r he 
might >lso in righteous judgriien impute Adam':- sin to them ; inasmuch as 
to gi\c Adam a posterity like himselj. and to imputt his sin to thrm, i. one and 
the same thing. And therefore if the former be lot contrary to the divine 
perfections, so nei her is the latter Our advcrs-aries contend with us chiefly 
on this account, That according to our doctrine of Original Sin^ such an m- 
putation of the first sin is main'ained, whereby God, without any legar! to 
universal native corruption, esteems all Adam's posterity as gwlt), aid h.)ldi 
them as liable to condemnation, pweh 0,1 account of thit si lul act o( tncir 
firs': parent ; so that they, without any respec had lo their own si«, and $0, as 
innocent in -hf-mselvcs, are destined to eternal puiiihm<-nt. I 'avf therefore 
ever been careful to shew, thut they do trjuriru^ly supiosc t-ose things to bo 
separate!, in our doctrine, which aie by no means to h« »enarated. 'I he whole 
of tlie controversy they have With us about this matter, evidently arises from 
this, That they suppose the mediate and the immediitc imputation are d>:>tin- 
guished one from the other, not only in the manner of conco^iion, but in rc- 
;ility And so indeed they consider imputation <>nly as immedute and ab* 
stractly from the mediate ; when yet our divi.cs supp sc, hat nciihtr ou^hl 
CO be considered sepurMeh from the other. Therefore I ch se not to use any 
iuch distinction, or to suppose any such thing, in what J h^^e -.-id t.n ll^e 
oiibject ; but only have endeavored to explain the thing iuelf, and lo r. cou- 
cilc it with the divine attributes. And thcicfore I have every where conjoin- 
M both these conceptions concerning the impuiaiiou af Uic *;r»t jiu, a» iiucp- 

2 R 


fnystery mav be supposed in the affair, yet no Christian v>ill' 
presume. to say, it was not in perfect consistence with God*s 
/lo/iness and Hghteonfi?i€ss, notwiihstandinc: Adam had been 
guilty of no offence before. So root and branches beinu: one,* 
according to God's wise constitution, the case in fact is, that 
by virtue of this oneness answerable chanp^es or effects through 
all the brmichcs coexist with the chancres in the root : Conse- 
quently an evil disposition exists in the hearts of Adam's pos- 
terity, equivalent to that which was exerted in his own heart, 
when he ate the forbidden fruit. Which God has no hand in, 
any o"heruise, than in not exerting such an influence, as 
tniRht be effectual to prevent it ; as appears by what was ob- 
served in the former chapter. 

But now the grand objection is aJi:ainst the reasonableness 
of such a constitution^ by which Adam and his posterity should 
be looked upon as one, and dealt with accordingly, in an affair 
of -uch infinite consequence ; so that if Adam sinned, they 
must necessa'ily be made sinners by his disobedience, and 
come into existence with the same depravity of disposition^ 
and he looked upon and treated as though they were partak- 
ers with Adam in his act of sin. I have not room here to re- 
hearse all Dr. TayV.r's vehement exclamations against the 
reasonableness and justice of this. I'he leader may at his 
leisure consult his book, and see them in the places referred 
to below.* Whatever black colors and frightful representa- 
tions are employed on this occasion, all may be summed up 
in this, That Adam and his posterity are not one, but entirely 
distinct airents. But with respt^ct to this mighty outcry made 
against the rcasonabUriess of any such coristitution^ by which 

arable ; and judgcH, that one ought never to be consic'ered without the other. 
While I have been writing this note, I consulted al! the systems of divinity, 
which I have by me, that I mi^ht see what wvs the true and genuine opinion 
of • ur chief divine; in this affair ; and I found that, thty were of the same 
mind with me ; namclv. That these two kinds of imputation are by no means 
to be separated, or to be considered abstiactly one from he other, but that 
one does involve the other.". .H- there particularly ctes t':ose two famoifs 
'clormcd divines, Vitriiiga and Lamp us .. Tom iv. Cap i"}, ^ 78, 

• i'^ge 13, 150, 1.51, 1^6, 261, 108, lOQ, Ml; 5 

^ ORIGINAL SfN. 3a.. 

^6d is siippo«;e(l to treat Adam and his poFt^rity a*; c^?/\ I 
"Woihd make the following; observations 

I. It si{^ujfies noiiung totxclaiin ac:aii)<>t pbiit./afr. Siicli 
isthe.A'c^ most evident and at knowledi^ed /ac^ with respect 
to the state of all mankind, without exception of one in'livid- 
\ial among all the natural descendants of Adam, as makes it 
apparent, that God actu.illy deals wiih Adam and nis posterity 
as onr^ in the affair of his apostasy, and i'^ mfiuit-jly terrible 
consequences. It has been demonstratod, and shewn to be in 
eftect olainlv acknowledgec'., tliat every individual of mankind 
comes into ine world in such circumstances, as that liu-.ie is 
no hope or possibiliiy of a«iy other than their viulaliUL^ (iod's 
holy law (if they ever live to act at all as moral j^enls) and 
beini; thereby justly exposed to eternal ruin.* And it is il.us 
by God's orderinij; and disposing: of thinp% And God either 
thus deals with mankind, because he looks upon them as one 
"wiin their first father, and so tieals thcn» •j^'i sinful auCl guiliy 
by his apostasy; or (which will not mend the matter) he, 
ivithout viewing them as at all concerned in that affair, but as 
in every respect perfectly ifrncccnt, does nevertheless sufjject 
ihem to this infinitely dr( adful calamity. Adam, by his sin, 
was exposed to the calamitiefi and norrowft of this life, to iim- 
floral death and eternal ruin.; as is confessed. And it is also 
in efi'tct confessed, that.all his posterity come into the worl(| 
in such a slcite, as that the certain consequence is. their being 
^j"/205^f/, andy«.s^/// so, to the sorrorjs of this life^Ko tcmfioral 
death and eterncJ nun, unless saved by f^racr. So that we seci 
God in fact deals with them toijelhcr, or as one. If God or- 
ders the c )nsequenrcs of Adam's sin, with rcganl to his pos- 
terity's welfare, even in those thinp;s which are most impor- 
tant, and which do in the hi^^hest decree concern their eternal 
interest, to be the same with the consequences to Adam him» 
self, then he treats Adam and his posterity as one in that af* 
/air. Hence, however the matter be attended with difii .uhy, 
fact oblis:es us to (^ct over the difTicnlty, cither by finclin'^ om 
-^ome solution, or by shutting our n>o iths. and : rlcTio'vlcrlfinr' 

♦ Part I. Chap. I, the thicc (irsl Secuous 


the weakness and scantiness of our v.ndcrstandings ; as wc 
must in inniimeraV)le other casesi where apparent and unde* 
niMcJacry in Clod's works of creation and providence, is at* 
tended with events and circumstances, the manner and rtafiort 
of which are difficult to our under>.tandini?s. But to proceed, 

II. We will consider the r/Z^czi/'/es themselves, insisted 
on in the objections of our opposers. They may be reduced 
to these two : First, That such a constitution is injurious to 
Adam's posterity. Secovdhj, That it is altopjether imfiroper, 
as it implies falsehood^ vie win [^ and treating those as one, 
•'A'hich indeed are not one, hu^ entirely distinct. 

First Difficulty, That the appointing: Adam to stand, 
5n this great affair, as the mor^l hf^ad of his po'-.terity, and so 
treating fhem as one with him, as standing or failing with 
him, is injuricus to tlrem, and tends to thtir hurt. To which 
1 answer, it is demonstrably otherivise ; that such a constitu- 
tion was so far from being injurious and hurtful to Adam*s 
posterity, or tending to their calamiiyi any more than if every 
one had been appointed to stand for himstlf personally, that it 
Vas, in itself considered, very much of a contrary tendency, 
tnd. was attended with a more eligible probability of a kafifiy 
issue than the latter would have been t And so is a constitu- 
tion truly eypressitig the goodness of its author. For, here 
the following things are to be considered, 

1. It is reasonable to suppose, that Adam was as likely^ on 
account of his capacity and natural talents, to jiersevere in 
obedience, as his posterity (taking one with another) iffliey 
had all been put on the trial singly for themselves. And 
supposing that there was a constituted union or oneness of 
him jnd his posterity, and that he stood as a public person, or 
common head, all by this constitution would have been as sure 
to partake of the benefit of his obedience, as of the ill conse- 
quenf e of hi*, disolirdience, in case of his fall. 

2. There was a greater tendency to a happy issue, in such 
an appointment, than if every one had been appointed to stand 
for himi-elf; especially on two accounts. (1.) That Adam 
bad stronger motives to tvatch fulness than his posterity would 
have had » in that not only hie own eternal Xvelfare lay af 


Stake, but also that of all his posterity. (2.) Adam was in a 
state of coniplcte manhood, when his trial began. It was a 
constiiulion very aKrcealilc to the goodness of God, conbid- 
crinp: the state of mankind, which was to he propagated in the 
way of generation, that \\\t\v frtit father should be appointed 
to stand f(;r all. For by reason of the manner of their coming 
into existence in a state of infancy^ and their coming so grad- 
ually to mature slate, and so re.naining for a great while in a 
Slate of childhood and comparative iinpcrfeclion, aficr they 
■were become moral agents, ihcy would be less fit to stand for 
themselves, than their first father to stand for them. 

If any man, notwithstanding these things, shall say, that 
for his own part, if the affair had been proposed to him, he 
should have chosvn to have had his eternal interest trusted in 
his onun hands ; it is sufficient to answer, that no man's vain 
oi>inion of himself, as more Jit to be trusted than otiicrs, al- 
ters the true nature and tendency of things, as they demon- 
strably are in themselves. Nor ib it a just objection, that 
this consli'ution has in evevt proved for the hurt of mankind. 
For it dtes not follow that no ac!vanta:.::c was given for whafifjy 
event, ui such an establishment, because it was not such as to 
TTiake i>. utterly impossible there should be any other event, 

3. The goodness of God in such a constitution with ^Idam 
appears in this : That if tlicrc had been no sovereign, grw 
cious establishment at all, but God had piocecded only on the 
foot of mere ^tt^r/ff, and had gone no further than this re- 
quired, he might have demanded of Adam and all iiis poster- 
ity, that they should perform /ler/'cct, ^icrfietual cbcdicncCf 
without ever failing in the least instance, on pain o{ eternal 
deaths and might have made this demand ivitLout the /iromise 
of any positive rfryrtrrf for their obedience. For perfect obe- 
dience is a debty that every one owes to his Creator, and 
therefore is what his Creator was not obliged to pay him Tor. 
None is obliged to pay his debtor, only for discharging his 
just debt. But such was evidently the constitution with Ad- 
am, that an eternal happy life was to be the consequence of 
his persevering fidelity, to all such as were included within 
that constitution (of which the tree nf ///> wns a sign) as 


well as eternal death to be the consequence of his disobti*' 

I come now to consider t*^e 

Second Difficulty. It bc'nq: thus maniles: *hat this 
consiitiUJon, by wnicli Avlam and hib -^o.-terity are deal yith 
as o72(?, is net unreasonable npon accouni .fits beine; injurious 
vt.r\i\ hurtful to tlie interest of mankind, the oniv thinj^ remain- 
ing in the objection ap;a.nbt such a constitution, is the imfiro- 
priety of it, as implying fan^ehood^ and contradicticr to the 
true nature of thinpjs ; as hereby tnev are viewed and trea ed 
cs one, who are net one, but wholly distinct ; and no arbitraiy 
constitution can ever make that to be true, which in itself 
consiviered is not true. 

This objection, however specious, is really founder, on a 
false hypothesis, and wrong notion of what we call sameness 
or oncness<i amon^* created things ; and the seenfimg ioi ce of 
the objection arises from ignorance or inconsideration of the 
degree^ in which created identity or oneness with past exist- 
ence, in general, depends on the sovereign constitution and 
law of the Supreme Author and Disposer of the Universe. 

Some things, being most simply considered^ are entirely 
distinct f and very diverse, which yet are so united by the es- 
tablished law of tlie Crtator,in some respects, and with regard 
to some purposes and effects, that by virtue of that establish- 
ment it is with them as if they were one. Thus a tree, grown 
-great, and an hundred years old, is one plant with the little 
^rout, that first came out of the ground, Irom whence it 
grew, arid has been continued in constant succession, though 
it is now so exceeding diverse^ many tijousand times bigger, 
and of a very different form, and perhaps not one atom the 
very same ; yet Cod, according to an established law of na- 
ture, has in a constant succession communicated to it many 
of the same qualities and most important properties,^as if it 
were cwr. It has been his pleasure to constitute an union in 
these respects, and for these purposes, naturally leading us 
to look upon all us one. So the bvdy of man at forty years of 
age, is our with th',- ivfunt body which first came into the 
vorld. fioni whence it grew ; th'^ugli now constituted of dif- 

ferent substance, and the pjreater part of the substance proba- 
bly chunfijed scores (if not hundreds) oflinrics; and though 
it be now in so many rcspcris exceeding diverse, yet God, 
according to the course of na'ure, whu li he has been pleased 
to es'ablish, has caused that in a cerliiiu mclho<l it should 
communicate with that itifantilc body, in tl»e same life, the 
same senses, the same features, and many of the same quali- 
ties, and in union widi the same soul, and so, with rej^ard to 
these purposes, it is dealt with l)y him as oyir body. Attaint 
the body and soul of a man are onc^ in a very different man- 
ner, and for different purposes. Considered in themselves, 
they are exceedinf^ different beinpjs, of a nature as diverse as 
can be conceived ; and yet, by a very peculiar divine consti- 
tution or law of nature, which God has been pleacd to estab- 
lish, they are strongly united, and become onc^ in most impor- 
tant respects ; a wonderful mutual communication is estab- 
lished ; so that both become different parts of tlie sarnc maru 
But the union and mutual communication they have, has ex- 
istence, and is entirely rci2;ulated and limited, accordinj^ to 
the sovereign pleasure ot God, and the constitution he has 
been pleased to establish. 

And if we come even to the fiersonal identify of created 
intelligent beings, though this be not allowed to consist whol- 
ly in that which Mr. Locke places il in, i. e. Same comdous" 
ness ; yet I think it cannot be denied, that this is one iliinj 
essential to it. But it is evident that the communication or 
continuance of the same consciousness and memory to any , 
subject, through successive pans of duration, depends wholly 
on a divine establishment. There would be no necessity that 
the remembrance and ideas of what is past should continue 
to exist, but by an arbitrary consii'ulion of t!ic Creator. If 
any should here insist that there is no need of having recourse 
to any such const Itutioji^ in order to account for the co(.;inu- 
ance of the same consclousncua, and shovild say, that the vcry 
naturc of the soul is such as will s'lfficicntly account fur it ; 
and that the scul will reiaiii the icL-.^s and consciousness it 
once had, according to the coumr c.f vaiirc : then let it be ic- 
jneraberedj who il is gives the soul ihis naltae ; aad Ic? that 


be remembered, which Dr. Taylor says of the course of n^ 
ture, before observed ; denyinir, that *< the cour<»e of nature 
is a proper active cause> whicli will work and ^o on by 
itself without God, if he lets and penniis it;" siiyin.c that 
« the course of nature, separate from the agency of God, is 
no c:.use, or nothing ;** and affiiming that " it is absolutely 
impossible the course of nature should continue itself, or go 
on to operate by itself, any more than pmduce its.tif ;"* an<J 
that " Gof', the Orij^inal of all Being, is the OiUy Cause of alj 
natural effects."t Here is worthy also to be observed, whaf: 
Dr. TurnbuU says of the laws of nature^ in words which h^ 
cites from Sir Isaac Newton | " It is the will of the mind 
that is the frst cause, that gives subsistence and efficacy to 
all those laius^ who is the efficient cause that produces the 
phenomena^ which appear in analoe^y, harmony and agreement, 
according to these laws.** And he says, " The same princi- 
ples must take place in things pertaining to moral, as well as 
natural philosophy."§ 

From these thihgs it will clearly follow, that identity of 
consciousness depends wholly on a law of nature, and so, on 
the sovereign will and agency of God ; and therefore, that 
personal identity, and so the derivation of the pollution and 
guilt of past sins in the same person, depends on an arbitra- 
ry divine constitution ; and this, even though we should al- 
low the same consciousness not to be 'he only thing which 
constitutes oneness of person, but should, besides that, sup- 
pose sameness of substance requisite. For, if same con- 
sciousness be one thing necessary to personal identity, and 
this depends on God's sovereign constitution, it will still fol- 
low that personal identity depends on God's sovereign coiistl-, 

And with respect to the identity of created substance it- 
self, in the different moments of its duration, I think, wc 
shall greatly mistake, if we imagine it to be like thai abso- 
lute, independent identity of the liusx Being, whereby he i5 
the naine, yesterday, today, and forever. Nay, on the contrary; 

• Page i34,S. + Page i^o,S. * Mor. Phil. p. 7, ^ Ibid,, p. 9. 


-it may be demonstrated that even this oneness of created sub- 
stance, cxi«tinjj at diirercnl times, is u incnly dc/ieudryit iden- 
tity, dependent on the pleasure and soverci:!;n constilution of 
l\\n\s\\\orjorktth all in all. Tl.is will follow from what i» 
generally allowed, and is « crtainly true, ihat Cod not only 
created all thint^s, and gave them beinir at first, but cominu- 
nlly preserves ihcm, and upholds ihein in brinr. This be- 
ing a mutter of considerable importance, it may be worthy 
here to be considered with a little attention. Let us inquire 
therefore, in the fi"st place, whether it bo not evident that 
God does continually, by his immediate power, ufihold every 
created substance in being ; and then let us sec the co.Tjr- 

That God does, by his immediate power, v/i/ichl cvcTy 
created substance in bcinu;, will be manifest, if we consider 
that tb.eir present existence is a dcficndcjit existence, and 
therefore is an rfj^cct^ and must have some cause ; and the 
cause must be one of these two ; either the antecedent exist- 
ence of thp same substance, or the fioiver of the Creator. But 
it cannot be the antecedent exiatence of the same substance. 
For instance, the existence of the body of the mooji at this 
present moment, cannot, bo the ej^cct of its existence at the 
last foregoing moment. For not only was what existed the 
last moment, no active cause, but wholly a passive thinpj ; but 
this also is to be considered, tliat no cause can produce elTects 
in a time and t-lace in wlsicli itself is noL -It is plain, nothintj 
can exert itself, or operate, when and where it is not exi^iing. 
But the nioon*s pas^ existence wl'>s neither xokere nor ivhcn its 
prc^•ent existence is. In point of liir.e, what is /.-a^r, entirely 
ceases, when firescnt existence begins ; otherwise it would 
notbe/:as/. The past moment is ceased and gone, wheu 
the present moment takes place ; and does no more coexiit 
with it, than does any other moment that hcid ceased twenty 
years ago. Nor could the past existence of the particles of 
this movbiff body produce effects in any other filace than where 
it then was. But its existence at the present moment, in 
cverv noint of it, is in a different fda-e fronr! ".i.^-e I's -xist- 


ence was at the last preceding; moment. From these things - 
Isiippose it "will certainly follow that the present existence, 
cither of this, or any other created substance, cannot be an 
effect of its past existence. The existences (so to speak) of 
an effect, or thing dependent, in different parts of space or 
duration, thrugh ever so 7ieao' one to another, do not at all cO' 
exist one with the other ; and therefore are as truly different 
effects, as if those parts of space and duration were ever so 
far asunder ; and the prior existence can no more be the 
proper cause of the new existence, in the next moment, or 
next part of space, than if it had been in an age before, or 
at a thousand miles distance, without any existence to fill up . 
the intermediate time or space. Therefore the existence of 
created substances, in each successive moment, must be the 
effect of the immediate agency, will, and power of God. 

If any shall say, this reasoning is not good, and shall Insist 
upon it, that there is no need of any immediate divine power 
to produce the present existence of created substances, but 
that their present existence is the effect or consequence of 
past existence, according to the nature of things ; that the 
established course of nature is sufficient to continue existence^ 
where existence is once given ; I allow it : But then it 
should be remembered, nvkat nature is in created things j and 
nvhat the established course of nature is ; that, as has been 
observed already, it is nothing, separate from the agency of 
God ; and that, as Dr. Taylor says, God, the Origiiial of all 
beinc;? is ^^ic <^^^^ rcwse of all natural effects. A father, ac- 
cording to the course of nature, begets a child ; an oak, ac- 
cording to the course of nature, produces an acorn, or a bud ; 
30, according to the course of nature, the former existence 
of the trunk of the tree is followed by its new or present ex- 
istence. In the one case and the other, the new effect is con- 
sequent on the former, only by the established laws and settled 
coun^e of nature, vhich is allowed to be nothing but the con- 
tinued immediate efficiency of God, according to a constitutioii,; 
that he has been pleased to establish. Therefore, according 
to what our cuthor urges, as the child and the acorn, which 
crroe into cxiftcrxc according to the cqutsc ffnaiurc-i i^« cos- 


'sequence oftnc prior existence and slate of the parent and 
the oak, are truly, immediately created or made by God ; ao 
itiust the existence of each created perswn and thing, at each 
moment of it, be from the immediate cmtinucd creation oi 
Cod. It will ceriuinly follow from these things, that GodS 
Jirenerving created things in being is perfectly equivalent to 
a continued creation, or to his creating those thini^s out of no. 
thing at each moment of their existence. If the continued 
existence of created things be wholly dependent on God's 
preservation, then those things would drop into nothing, up- 
on the ceasing of tlie present moment, without a new exer- 
tion of the divine power to cause them to exist in the follow- 
ing moment. If there be any who own, that God preserves 
things in being, and yet hold that they would continue in be- 
ing without any further help from him, after they once have 
existence ; 1 tliink, it is hitrd to know what liiey mean. To 
what purpose can it be> to talk of ^o^*^ fireacrving things in 
being, when there is no need of his preserving them ? Or to 
talk of iheir being deliendcnt on God for continued existence, 
when they would of themselves continue to exist without his 
help ; nay, though he should wholly ^YillKlraw his sustaining 
power and influence ? 

It will follow from what has been observed, that God*o up- 
holding created substance, or causing its existence in each 
successive moment, is altogether equivalent to an immedrcte 
production out of7iothing, at each moment. Because its exist- 
ence at this moment is not merely in part from God^ but 
wholly from him, and not in any part or degree from its en- 
tecedcnt exiatcnce. For the supposing that its antecedent ex- 
istence concurs with God in cjjiciency, to protluce some fiar: 
of the effect, is attended with ail the very same ^absurdities, 
which have been shewn to attend the supposition of its pro- 
ducing it nvholly. Therefore the antecedent existence is no- 
thing, as to any proper infincnce or assistance in the afTair ; 
and consequently God produces the effect as much from wo- 
ihlng^ as if there had been nothing before. So that this cflcct 
differs not at all from the first creation, but only circuntetan^ 
tinlly ; as mfrst creation there hn:l bcrn no such act and cf 


feet of God^) power brforc ; whereas, his giving; cxisteiK^b, 
afterwards, yi//o-Tr.5 preceding acts and cfTccls ot the sairc 
kind, in an cslablishcd order. 

Now, in the next place, let ii". see how the con.iecjjxcncc of 
these th!np:s is to my present purpose. If the existence 6i 
created nubstmice^ in each successive moment, be Vi^holly the 
effect of God's immediate power, in that moment, without 
any dependence on prior existence, as much as the first crea- 
tion out of ^.-dVi/;/^ then what exists at this moment, by this 
powtr, is a ncrj c//rcf, and simply and absolulcly considered, 
rot the same with any past existence, though it be like it, 
nnd fellows it according to a certain established method.* 

• When I suppose that nn effcdt wh cH l* produced every moment, by a 
new action or excriion of power, must be a neio effect in each moment, and 
not absolutely and numerically the 5ame with ibat which existed in preceding 
moments, the ir.ing that I intend, may be illustrated by this example. The 
lucid color or brightness of the moon, as v/e look stcdlastly upon it, seems to 
be ^prrmancnt thing, as though it were perfectly the same brightness continu- 
ed. But indfcd it is an effect produced every moment. It ceases, and is 
renewed, in each successive point of time ; and so becomes altogether a new 
effect at each instant ; and no one thing that belongs to it, is numerically the 
same that existed in the preceding moment. The t^y% of the si^n, impressed 
on that body, and reflected from it, which cause the effect, are none of them 
the same : The impression, made in each moment on our sensory, is by the 
.'.troke of rerc rays; and the sensation, excited by the stroke, is a new effect, 
nn effect of a nero impulse. Therefore the brightness or lucid whiteness of 
this body is no more numerically the same thing with that which existed ia 
the preceding moment, than the sound of the wind that blows now, is indi- 
vidually the .^^me with the sound of the wind tr.at blew just belore, which, 
though it be like it, is not the same, any more than the agitated air^ that makes 
the sound, is the same; or than the water, flowing in a liver, that now pass- 
es by, is indivdually the fame with that which passed a little before. And 
if it be thus v^^ith the brightness or color of the moon, so it must be with its 
sclidify^ and every thing else belonging to its substance, if all be, each moment, 
as miich the immediate effect of a vcic exertion or application of power. 

The matter may pcihaps be in some respects stili more clearly illustrated 
by this. The i?«jjff o( things in z glass, as we keep xjur eye upon them, 
«vcm to remain precis, ly the same, with a continaing, pcrfec. identity. But 
it IS V.nown to be othcrwtse. Philosophers well know that tliese images are 
cOnvtan'ly renczccJ, by the -mpression and reflection of vfic rays of light; so 
tiiiit the ima-^c imprcss'.d by the former rays is conslanliy vanishing, and « 

O'itlGINAL 3I!C. 353 

And ihcrc is no iiicntily or oneness in t!ic case, hut wliai de- 
pciids on ihc arditranj conslitmion of tlic Creator; who by 
his wise sovcrei!>n est;il)rr,him.'ht bo unites these succesbivo 
new cn'ects, that he treats tlwm an ojic, hy communicaiinf^ lo 
Ihcm hkc propciiies, rclalions, an.l circumstances ; and so, 
]cads u.<t to rei^nrd and ircat them as o;/r. When 1 call this 
un arbitrary constiiutiou, \ mean, it is a constitution which de- 
pends on nothin;^ but the dlcinc win ; which div;ne uiil de- 
pends on nol'nini; hut the divine rviAdom. In this sense, the 
•ivholc course of nature, wiih ail that belongs lo it, all its lawn 
and methods, and constancy and regulaiiiy, continuance and 
proceedini;, is ai\ arbitrary coji.^titiition. In this bunsc, the 
coniiniiance of the very beinj^ of the world and ail its parts, a^ 
well as the manner of continued bciii^, depends entirely on 
an arbitrary constitution : For it docs not at all neceaftarily {u\. 
low, lliat because thcr'j was sound, or lieht, or color, or resist- 
ance, or gravity, or thought, or consciousness, or any other 
dependeiit thing- the kist moment, that ihcicforc there sliaU 
be the like at the next. All dependent existence wnatsocvcr 

ino image impressed by neu} rays every momci-!t, both on thi ^ la$4 ant^ on 
the eye. The 1111356 constantly renewed, by new sui tessivc rays, is m more 
numcrcally he same, than if it were by some artist put en anew with a pen- 
cil, and the colois constar.tly vanishintj ns fast as put on. And the new im- 
i^es being put on immediately or instantly, do not make them the same, any 
more than if it were done with the intermission ri4 an hour or a c/rfv. The im- 
.ige that exists this moment, is not at all Merited from the image which existed 
the last preceding moment ; as may be ?ecn, because, it" the succession of new 
rays be inlerccptcd. by som.ething interposed between the objet and the glass, 
the image immediately ce3ses ; \.\\c past existence of ihe ima;;^ has no influence 
Xo Jiphold it, so much as for one moment. Which shews, that the image is 
altogether iricw made every moment ; and strictly spe?king, is if. no part nu- 
merically the snme with that which existed the moment preceding And 
truly so the matter must be with the bodies themselves, as well a* their images t 
They also cannot be the same, with an absolute identity, but must be wholly 
renewed every moment, if ihc case be ns has been proved, that iheir frcjcnl 
existence is not, strictly speaking, at all th- ctlcct of their past existence; but 
is wholly, every instant, the effect of a new agency, orcxmion of the power, 
of the cause of their existence. II »o, the existence caused is every ins-ant n 
new effect, whcth-r thr c^Mse be Ifht. or immediate <iiiin' tc-xcT, or whatever 


is in a constant flux, ever passing and relurnine; ; renewed 
«very moment, as the colors of bodies are every moment re^- 
rewed by the light that bhines upon liiem ; and all is con- 
stantly proceedinj^ from Gody as light from the sun. In hhz 
ive livf^ and Tnove, and have our being. 

Thus it appears, if we consider matters strictly, there is 
no such thing as any identity or oneness in created objects, 
existing at different times, but what depends on God*8 f>ove- 
reign constitution. And so it appears, that the objection we 
are upon, made against a supposed divine constitution, where- 
by Adam and his posterity are viewed and treated as 072^, in 
the manner and for the purposes siipposed, as if it were not 
consistent ii-iih truths because no conbiitution can make those 
to be 07ie<i which are rcot one :. I say, it appears that this objec- 
tion is built on a false hypothesis ; For it appears, that a di- 
vine ccnsututicn h the tiling which makes trut/i, in affairs of 
this nature. The objection supposes, there is a oneness in 
i-reated beings, whence qualities and relations are derived 
-down from past existence, distinct'fvomy and/??7orto any one- 
ness tliat can be supposed to be founded on divine constitution. 
Which is demonstrably false, and sufficiently appears so from 
things conceded l)y the adversaries themselves : And there- 
fore the objection wholly falls to the groundo 

There are various kinds of identity and oneness, found 
among created things, by which they become one m different 
mannersy res/ircts and degrees^ and to various purposes ; sev- 
eral of which differences have been observed ; and every kind 
is ordered, regulated and iimi:ed, in every respect, by divine 
constitution. Some things, existing in different times and 
places, are treated by their Creator as one in 077c respect^ ancj 
others in flTzor/i^r ; some are united for this co7n7}:unication, 
and others for t/iat ; but all according to the sovcrcigji pleasure 
of the founiain of all bi:ing and operation. 

It appears, particularly, from what has been sc?id, th.at all 
oneness, by virtue \vhcvto[ pollution and guilt hom past wick- 
edness are derived, deper.ds eniii tly on a divine ef':tobIi.';hme7lt, 
It is this, and this only, that must account for guilt and an evil 
t:ih.l on any individual tcul, in consequence of a ciime com- 


•milted twenty cr forty years ap;(), rcmaininp; still, and ctc:i to 
the end of the world and forever. It is lhi», that must ac- 
count for the continuance of any such thinji:, any where, as 
conscioufiTif's.t of acts that arc past ; and for the coniinuancc of 
all /lalntsj either good or bad : And on this depends every 
thine; that can belong \o fursoJiat idrntiiij. And a!l communi- 
cations, derivations, or continuation of qualities, piopcriies or 
relations, natural or moral, from what h /las't us if the subject 
Avere otic, depends on no other foimdation. 

And I am persuaded, no solid reason can be given, why 
God, who constitutes all other created iinion or oneness, ac- 
cording to his pleasure, and for what purposes, communica- 
tions, and effects, he pleases, may not esiablis!) a constilutioa 
'.vhereby the natural posterity of Adam, proceeding from him, 
much as the buds and branches from the stock or root of a 
""tree, should be treated as o^-r' with him, for the derivation, 
either of righteousness, and communion in rewards, or of the 
loss of righteousness, and consequent corruption and guilt.* 

♦ I appeal to such as are not wont to content ihemsclves with judging by » 
superficial appearance and view of things, but are habituated to examine 
things strictly and closely, that they may judge righteous judgment, Wheth- 
er on supposition that all mankind bad coexisted, in the manner mentioned 
before, any good reason can be given, why their Creator might not, if he had 
pleased, have established such an union between Adam ?nd the rest of roan^ 
kind, as was in that case supposed. Particularly, if it had been the case, that 
Adam's posterity had actually, according to a law ofnatnrc, some how^roa'* 
out of him, and yet remained contiguous and literally united '.o hvn, as the branch- 
es to a tree, or the mcmbeis of the body to the head ; and had all, before the 
fell, existed together at the sane time, though in dijfeycrt places, ns thehead'and 
members are in different places : In this case, who can determine, that the 
author of nature might not, if it had pleased him, have establi.vhcd such an 
union between the root and branches of this complex bring, as that all should 
constitute one moral whole ; so that by the law of union, there should be a 
ftpmraunion in each moral alteration, and that the heart of every (ranch should 
at the same moment participate with the heart of the r.v/, be conformed to it, 
Rud concurring with it in all its aifections and acts, and so jointly partaking 
in its state, as i purt oi the same thing? Wiiy might not God, it lie had pleas- 
ed, have fixed such a kind of union as this, an union of the various parti ot 
iuch a moral whcfe, as well as many'othcr unions, which he lias actually fixed, 
^ircording.tc hi< overeign plcai'.iic? And if be rv.icht, by his loverei^n con- 


As I said before, all oneness in created things, whenco 
c]\ialiues and relations are derived, depends on a divine consii- 
tuiion that is arbitrary^ in every other respect, excepting that 
it is regulated by divine wisdom. The wisdom, which is ex- 
ercised in these constituiions, appears in these two things. 
Firsts In a beautiful analogy and harjyiony with other laws or 
constitutions, especially relating to the same subject ; and 
accondly^ in the good ends obtained, or useful consequences of 
such a constitution. If therefore there be any objection still 
lying against this constitution with Adarp and his posterity, it 
must be, that it is not sufiicienily toise in these respects. 
But ivhat extreme arrogance would it J3e in us, to take 
upon us to act as judges .of the beauty and wisdom of the 
laws and established constitutions of the supreme Lord ind 
Creator of the universe ? And not only so, but if this consti- 
tution, in particular, be well considered, ii^ wisdom^ in the 
two fcrementioned respects, may easily be made evident. 
There is an apparent manifold a?;alogy to other constitutions 
and laws, established and maintained through the whole sys- 
tem of vital nature in this lower world ; all parts of which, in 
all successions, are derived from the^r^^ oft fie kind^ as from 
their root, or fountain ; each deriving from thence all proper- 
ties and qualities, that are proper to the nature and capacity 
of the kind, or species ^ No derivative hav^ing any one perfec- 
tion (unless it be what h merely circumstantial) but what was 
in its firindcive. And that Adam's posterity should be with- 
out that original righteous7iessy v. hich Adam had lost, is also 
anolagous to other laws and establishments, relating to the na- 
lurc of mankind ; according to which, Adam's posterity have 
no one perfection of nature, in any kind, superior to what w^as 

ititution, have established such an union of the various branches of mankind, 
■when existing in different /i/dcci, I do not see why he might not also do ihc 
same, though ihcy exist in different tinie.\. I know not why succession, or 
diveriity of /JWf, should make any such constituted union more unreasonabl9, 
than diversity oi place. The only reason, why diversity of lime can seem to 
make it unreasonable, is, that difference of time shews, there is no absolute 
identity of the things existing in those different limes: But it shews this, I 
think, not at all more than the difference of \hc place of existence. 


ii\ him, when the human race began to be props^a'cd from 

And as such a constiunion was fiC aim -a-rsr m (;'.i;ri res- 
pe-cts, so it was in this that follows. Sccinj^ tlie divine con- 
stitution concerning the manner of mankind's coming into ex- 
istence in their propagation, was such as did i:o naturally unite 
them, and made them in so many respects owr, naturally 
leading them to a close union in society, and manifold inter- 
course, and mutual dependence. Things were widely so es- 
tablished, that all should naturally be in one and the same 
moral state ; and not in such exceeding different state<\, as that 
some should be perfectly innocent and holy, but others corru/u 
and wicked ; some needing a Saviour, but others ncedini^ 
none; some in a confirmed state of perfect /m/i/iineas^ but 
others in a state of public condemnation to perfect and eter- 
nal 7WiVri/ ; some justly expoi^ed to great calamities in this 
world, but others by their innocence raised above all suffering. 
Such a vast diversity of state would by no means have agreed 
with the natural and necessary constitution and unavoidable 
situation and circumstances of the world of mankind ; a/l made 
of one bioodj to dwell o?i all the face of the earth, to be united 
and blended in society, and lo partake together in the natural 
and common goods and evils of this lower woilcj. 

JDr. Taylor urges,* that sorroiv and &hafne arc only (or /ler- 
sonal sin : And it has cficn been urged, that re/ientance can be 
for no other sin. To w hich I would say, that the use of ■:vords 
is very arbitrary : But that men's hearta should be dceplv af- 
fected wuh giief and humiliation before Cod, for the pollu- 
tion and guilt which they bring into the world with them I 
think, is not in the least unreationable. Nor is it a thing 
strange and unheard of, that men should becAAcwr^ of ihings 
done by others, whom they are nearly concerned in. I am 
sure, it is not unscri/itural ; especially when they are justly 
!ooked upon in the sight of God, who sees the dispoiition cf 
^heir hearts, as fuliy cvnctnti?ig and concurring. 

* Page 14 
2 T 


From what has been observed it may appear, there is no- 
sure ground to conclude, that it must be an absurd and im- 
possible thln'^, for the race of mankind truly to partake of the 
«« of the first apostasy, so as that this, in reality and propri- 
ety, shall become their sin ; by virtue of a real unio7i between 
the root and branches of the world of mankind (truly and prop- 
erly availing to such a consequence) established by the Au- 
thor of the whole system of the universe ; to whose establish- 
ments are owing all propriety and reality Q^Umiou, in any part 
of that system ; and by virtue of the full coment of the hearts 
of Adani'a posterity to that first apostasy. And therefore the 
sin of the apostasy is not theirs, merely because Gnd imiiute.^ 
it to them ; but it is truly and profierly theirs,, and on that 
o-roz^n^, God imputes it to them. 

By reason of the established union between Adam and his 
posterity, the case is far otherwise between him and them, 
than it is between distinct parts or individuals of Adam*s race ; 
betwixt whom is no such constituted union ; as between child- 
ren and other ancestors. Concerning -whom is apparently to 
be understood that place, Ezek. xviii. 1....20.* Where God 
reproves the Jews for the use they made of that pFoverb, Ths 
fathers have eaten sour gra/iesy and the children'' s teeth are set 
on edge; and tells them, that hereafter they shall no mor-? 
have occasion to use this proverb ; and that if a son sees th<3 
^vi■ckedness of his father^ and sincerely disa/i/iroves it and 
avoids it, and he himself is righteous, he shall not die for th^ 
iniquity of his father ; that all souh^ brAh the soul oft he father 
and the son, are /us ; and that therefore the son shall Jict bear 
the iniquity ofhisfather, nor the father bear the iniquity of the 
son • but the soul that sinneth, it shall die ; that the righteous- 
ness of the righteous sliall be ufion him, and the noickedncss of the 
':vicked shall be uftcn him. The thing denied, is communion in 
the guilt and pur/ishment of the sins of others, that are dis- 
tinct parts of Adam's lace ; and cx'pressly, in that case, wher« 
there 13 no consent and concurrence^ but a sincere disapproba- 
tion of the wickedness of ancestors. It is declared, that child 

• WhkH Dr. T.iylor alleges, p. i 9, 1 1, 5. 


re?i ^vho are adu/: rnd come to act for themselves, who arc 
'n\^/tfcouf!, and do not approve of, but sincerely condemn iht. 
'\vickedncss oflhcir yw^/ir;-.?, shall not be punished for //ir/r 
disapproved and avoided Iniquities. The occaaion of what 
is here said, as well as the cfr.-iiffn and plain <rn«r, shews, 
that noihint^ is here intended in the least degree inconjiintcyic 
with what has been supposed concernini^ Adam's posterity's 
sinninj^ and fallinc^ in his afiontasy. The occasion is, the peo- 
ple's murmurinij: at (iod's methods under the Mosaic dispen- 
sation ; ai,'recablc to that in Levil. xxvi. 39, " And they that 
arc left of you, shall pine away in their iniquity in their ene- 
mies lands ; and also in tlie iniquities of their fathers shall thev 
pine away with them :" And other parallel pLices, vespcctii:^ 
external juds^ments, whidi were the punishments most plain- 
ly threatened, and chiefly insisted on, under that dispensation, 
(which was, as it were, an external and carrw.l covenant) ane' 
particularly the people'^ suffering such terrible judgments at 
that day, even in Ezckiel's time, for the sins of Manassch \ 
according to what God says by Jeremiah (Jer. y.v. 4.) and 
agreeable to what is said in that confession, Lam. v. 7. '• Our 
fathers have sinned and are not, and we have borne their ini- 

In what is said here, there is a special respect to the ii;- 
troducing of the gospel dispensation ; as is greatly confirmed 
by comparing this place with Jer. xxxi. 29, 50, 31. Under 
Avhich dispensation, the righteousness cf God's dealings with 
mankind would be more fully manifested, in the clear revela- 
tion then to be made of the method ot the Jud^rnerj of God, 
by which ihe JiTial utatc of wicked men is determined ; which 
is not according to the behavior of their ])articu1ar ancestors ; 
but eVcry one is dealt with according to the sin of /«* o«7i 
wicked heart, or siwful natuie and practice. The affair o\ de- 
rivation of the natural corruption of mankind in general, and 
of their consent re, and participation of, xbc firimitive and com- 
■i.'ion apostasy, is not in the least intermtdclled with, or touched, 
hy any thing meant or almrd at in Vac. true scope and design 
tjf this nlrice in Erekicl. 


On the whole, if any do not like \hs fihilosofihi/y or the 
metcifi/njsics (as some perhaps may choose^bo call il) made use 
of in the foregoing; reasonings ; yet I cann6t4lpubt, but that a 
proper consideration of what is apparent and undeniable in 
fact^ with respect to the defiendence of the state and course of 
thinti;s in this universe on the sovereign constiiutlons of the 
suprerae Author and Lord of all, who gives none account of 
any of his matters^ and nvhose ivays are past finding out ^ will be 
sufficient, with persons of common modesty and sobriety, to 
stop their mouths from making peremptory decisions a>;ainst 
the justice of God, respecting what is so plainly and fully 
taught in his holy word-, concerning the derivation of a deprav- 
ity and guilt from Adam to his posterity ; a thing so abun- 
dantly confirmed by what is found in the f a-// en e wee of all 
mankind in all ages. 

This is enough, one would think, forever to silence such 
bold expressions as these..." If this be just.,. .U the scri/uures 
teach such doctrine. Sec, then the scriptures are of no use.... 
understanding is no understanding. ...and, JVhat a God must 
//c be, that can thus curse innocent creature;^ l....Is ^A/* thy 
Goz>, O Christian .'" S^c. See. 

It may not be improper here to add something (by way 
of supplement to this chapter, in which we have had occasion 
to say so much about the imfiutq.tion of Adam's sin) concern- 
ing the opinions of two divi^tesy of no inconsiderable note 
among the dissf;nters in England, relating to -a /lartialim/iutC' 
tion of Adam's first sin. 

One of ihem supposes that this sin, though truly imputed 
to INFANT'S, so that thereby they are exposed to a proper /2wn- 
ishmr?itj yet is not imputed to them in such a degree^ as that 
upon this account they should !)e liable to e^erwrn' punishment, 
as Adam himself was, but only to tcmfwral death, or annihila' 
tion ; Adam himself, the immediate actor, being made infin- 
itely more guilty by it, than his posterity. On which I would 
observe, that to suppose, God imputes not all the guilt of 
Adam's sin, but only some little part of it, relieves nothing 
but one's imagination. To think of poor little infants bearing; 
i;ueh torments for Adam's sin, as they sometimes do in this 


world, and these torments cmllnj^ in death and annihilation, 
may sit easier on the ima,;inalioiJ, than to conceive ol tiuir 
sufTering eternal misery lor it. Bui it does not at all relieve 
one's reason. There is no rule of reason that can be suppos- 
ed to lie ap:ainst impu'inpj a sin in the whoLy of it, which was 
committed by one, to another who did not personally commit 
it, hnt what will also lie at^ainsi its beinr; so imputed and pun- 
ished in part. For all the reasons (if there arc any) lie 
apainst the ititfiutclion ; not the ijuanlitij or degree of rjhat 10 
imputed. If there be any rule of reason, that is sironj^ and 
good, lyint^ against a proper derivation or communication of 
guilt, from one that acted, to another thai did not act ; then it 
lies ai,^ainst all that is of this nature. The force of the rea- 
sons brought against imputing Adam's sin to his posterity (if 
chere be any force in them) lies in this, That Adam and his 
posterity are not one. But this lies as properly against charg- 
inp^ a part of the guilt, as the whole. For Adam*s posterity, 
by not being the same with him, had no more hand in a little 
of v^hat was done, than in the whole. They were as absolute- 
ly free from being concerned in that act partly^ as they were 
li'/ioHij. And there is no reason to be brought, why one man's 
sin cannot be justly reckoned to another's accouat, who was 
not then in being, in the iv/ioie of it ; but what will as proper- 
ly lie against its being reckoned to him in any /iar/, so as 
that he should be subject to any condemnation or punishment 
on that account. If^those reasons are good, all the difference 
there can be, is this ; that to bring a great punishment on 
infants for Adam's sin, is a great act of injustice, and to 
bring a comparatively small puni:,hmcnt, is a smaller act of 
injustice, but not, that this is not en truly ar.d de!7ionstrabl<i an 
act of injustice, as the oJier. 

To illustrate this by an instance something parallel. It is 
used as an argument wliy I may not exact from one of my 
lieighbors, what was due to me from ariother^ that he and my 
debtor are 7:0/ the same ; and that their concerns, interest? 
and properties are entirely distinct. Now if this argumcn: 
be good, it lies as truly ag.ninst my demanding^ from him a 
j^arr of the deb', as th? •!;oV. Indeed it Is a rrrc/rr act of 


injustice for me to take from him the rjhole of it, than a pai't» 
but not mere truly and certainly an act of injustice. 

Tiie other divine thinks there is truly an imputation of 
Adam's sin, so that vifants cannot be looked upon as innocent 
creatures ; yet seems to think it not agreeable to the perfec- 
tions of God, to make the state of mfantb in another world 
H'Jorjc than a slate of nonexistence. But this to me appears 
plainly A giving tip. that grand point of the vn}mt.ation of Ad- 
4im*K ^inv 1x)lh in w hole and in part. For it supposes it to 
|ye luot'riijhti for God to bring any e-cil on a child of Adam, 
'wblcH-Vs-'ifinocent as to personal sin, without ftaijingfor it, or 
balafrvcinc^ It with good ; eo that still the state of the child 
sbaitbt" 4s ^^oof/, as couid-be demanded in ^'z/5;/c<?, in case of 
>:[ncT(i innocence. ^Vhich plainly supposes that the child is 
iu>t exposed 10 any proper /.z^rz/f/;7;?r/zr at al!, or is not at all in 
tlUi: to divir.r jusiice, on tiie account of Adam's sin. For if 
the child were iru'y u> debt, then surely justice might take 
some: hing from Mm tiithout fmyingfor it^ or Vi'iihoxxi giving 
that which makes its state ^d^ good, as mere inTiocence could in 
justice require. If ]\e owca the suffering of some fiunishwent^ 
then there is wo need that justice should requite the infant 
ibr sufPoring that puni^jhment ; ov make ufifor it, by confer- 
I'm?; some gocd, that tshaU countervail it, and in effect remove 
and disannul it ; so that, on the whole, good and evil shall be 
at an even balance, yea, so that the scale o^ good -shall prepon- 
derate. Ifit is unjust in a judge to or^ler any quantity of 
inoney to Iwi taken f ora another without raying him again, 
•^nd fully making it u<[-) io hini, it must be because he had 
justly ibrfeited none at all. 

It seems to me pretty manifest that none can, in good 
consistence with themselves, own a real imputation of the 
i^uilt of Adam's first sin to his posterity, without owning that 
they 'dve justly viewed and treated as aimiers, truly guilty and 
children of ivratk on that account ; nor unless they allow a 
just imputation of the whole of the evil of that transgres- 
^?ion ; at least all that pertains to the essence of that act, 
as a full and complete violation of the covenant which 


Cod Iwd established ; even as much as if cacli one of man- 
kind had ihc like covenant established wiih him sinj^ly, ana 
had by the like direct and full act cf r» hr!!' i!>. •.■'.! 'f-.J jr 
i^r himself. 


tVhcrein several other Objections are coiuldcrcd. 

DR. TAYLOR objects ac^ainst Adam's posterity's bein**' 
supposed to come into the world under ?k forfeiture of GodN 
blessin^^ and subject to his curse ihmugrh i\is sin. ...Thai at the 
restoration of the world after the ilood, God pronouncet? 
equivalent or greater blessings on Noah and his sons than he 
did on Adam at his creation, when he saiJ, " Be fruitful iind 
inuUiply, and replenish the earth, and have dominion over 
the fish of the sea," Sec* 

To this I answer, i'n the followrnp^ remarks. 

I. As it has been already shewn, that in t!)c threa'emn^^ 
denounced for Adam's sin, tl;ere was nolhin?;; which appears 
inconaialent wilh the co7iti nuance of this /irr^rnr life for a sea- 
son, or with the /iroj':agathij^ his kind ; so for the like reavoa, 
there appears nothii.pj in that threateriinj^, upon the supposi- 
tion thut it reached Adam's posterity, incoveisft-nt with thetr 
enjoying ihe temfioral dlrasintr,^ of the p"escnt life, as lonp^ ax 
this is continued ; even those tcmpcrcl bleAsinj^s whith God 
pronounced on Adam at his first creation. For 1% must be 
observed, that tiic blessinp:s which Gr.d pronounced on Adam^ 
nhcn ! e Ilrst cica'cd him, aiul rfjre the trial -f't^ obrcfieacTp 


•were not the same with the blessinp;s which were susfiendeti 
on /2is obedience. The blessings thus suspendec!, were the 
blessings of eternal life ; which, if he had maintained his in- 
tegrity through his trial, would have been pronounced upon 
him afterwards ; when God, as his judge, should have given 
him his reward. God might, indeed, if he had pleased, imme' 
diately have deprived him oUife^ and of all temfioral blessings 
given him before. But those blessings pronounced on him 
beforehand, were not the things, for the obtaining of which 
his trial was appointed. These were reserved^ till the issue 
of his trial should be seen, and t/ien to be pronounced in the 
blessed sentence, which would have been passed upon him by 
his judge, when God came to decree to him his reward for 
his approved fidelity. The pronouncing these latter bless- 
ings on a degenerate race, that had fallen under the threaten- 
ing denounced, would indeed (without a redemption) have 
been inconsistent with the constitution which had been estab- 
lished. But the giving Ihem the former kind of blessings, 
which were not the things suspended on the trial, or depend- 
ent on his fidelity (and these to be continued for a season) was 
not at all inconsistent therewith. 

2. It is no more an evidence of Adam's posterity's bein^ 
not included in the threatening, denounced for his eating thr. 
forbidden fruit, That they still have the ;ew/2orc/ blessings ot 
fruitfulness and a dominion over the creatures continued to 
them, than it is an evidence of Adam*s being not included m 
that threatening himself, that he had these blessings continu- 
ed to him, was fruitful, and had dominion over the creatures 
after his fall, equally with his posterity. 

3. There is good evidence, that there were blessings im- 
plied in the benedictions God pronounced on Noah and his 
posterity, w hich were granted on a new foundation ; on the 
foot of a dispensation diverse from any grant, promise or rev- 
elation w^iich God gave to Adam, antecedently to his fall, 
even on the foundation of the covenant of grace, established in 
Christ Jesus ; a dispensation, the design of which is to deliv- 
er men from the curse that came upon them by Adam's sin, 
and to bring them to grea'.er blessings than ever he had. 


These Messinrs were pronounced on Noah and his seed,onihc 
same founda Ion whereon afterwurdtjihc blcssinji: 'was pronounc- 
ed on Abrah un and his seed, which incKulcd bolh spiritual and 
temporal benefits. Noah h.ul his name prophetically given 
him by h\< fal her /.amrcA, because by him ai^d bin seed, deliv- 
erance sho'ild be obtained from the curse which came by 
Adam's fall. Gen. v. 29. « And he called his name J^oahj 
(i. e. Rest) sayini;, Tliis same shall comfort us concerninj{ 
our work, and toil of our haiuls. because of the ^^round which 
the Lord hath cursed." Pursuant to the scope and intci\t of 
this prophecy (which indeed seems to respect the same thin{^ 
with the piophecy in Gen. iii. 15) are the bl6ssinf>s pro- 
nounced on Noah after the flood. There is this evidence of 
these blessinu^s beini^ conveyed throuf^h ih.e cliannel of the 
covenant of ^racc, and by the reden)piion throuj^h Jesus 
Christ, that they v\cre obtained by sacrifice ; or were bcsiow- 
ed as the efiect of God's favor to mankind, which was in con- 
sequence of God's smclUni^ a svjtet i^avor \\\ the sacrifice which 
Noah offered. And it is very evident by the epistle to the 
Hebrews, that the ancient sacrifxes never obtained the favor 
of God, bi3t only by virtue of ihe relation thev had to the sac- 
rifice of C'hrist. Now that Noah and his family had been so 
wonderfully saved from the wrath of God, which had destioy- 
ed the res* of the world, and the world Mas as it were restored 
from a ruined sia'c, there was a proper occasion to point to 
the f>reat salvation lo come by Ghrist : As ir was a common 
thinc^ for God, on occasion of some p;rcat temfioral salvation of 
his people, or restoration from a low and miserable state, to 
renew the intimations of the p:reat spiritual restoration of the 
"world by Christ's redemption.* God deals with the j^encral- 
ity of mankind, in their present state, f.r difiercntly, on occa- 
sion of the redemption by Jesus Christ, from what he other- 
wise would do ; for, bcini^ capable subjects of savin,; mcrcvi 
Ihcy ha^ e a day of patience and i^race, and innumerable ten»- 

• It may be n(»tcd that Dr. Taylor liimiclf signifies it m hij minJ, that 
these blessings on Noah wrrc oa th..* foot ot the c>.KenMt of ^racc, p. 8^, o?, 


^oral blessings bestowed on tbcm ; whicb, as the apostle sig- 
nifies (Acts xiv. 17) are testimonies of God's reconcileablenessi 
to sinful men, to put them npon seekhig after God. 

But beside the sense in which the posterity of Noah in 
general partake of these blessings of do7nirdon over tke crea- 
tures^ 8cc. Noah himself, and all such of his posterhy as- 
have obtained like precious faith with that exercised by him 
in offering his sacrifice which made it a sweet savor, and by 
which it procured these blessings, have dominion over the 
creatures, through Christ, in a more excellent sense than 
Adam in innocency ; as they are made kings and priests unto 
God, and reign with Christ, and all things are theirs, by a 
covenant of grace. They partake with Christ in that domin- 
ion " over the beasts of the earth, the fowls of the air, and fish- 
es of the sea," spoken of in^ the 8th Psalm ; which is by the 
apostle interpreted of Christ's dominion over the world. 1 
Cor. XV. 27, and Heb. ii. 7. And the time is coming when 
the greater part of the posterity of Noah, and each of his sons, 
shall partake of this more honorable and excellent dominion 
over the creatures, through him " in whom all the families of 
the earth shall be blessed." Neither is there any need of 
supposing that these blessings have their most complete ac- 
complishment until many ages after they were granted, any 
lYjore than the blessing on Japhet, expressed in those words, 
'i God shall enlarge Japhet, and he shall dwell in the tents of 

But that Noah's posterity have such blessings given them 
through the great Redeemer, who suspends and removes the 
curse which came through Adam*s sin, surely is no argument 
that they originally, and as they be in their natural state, are 
not under the curse. That men have blessings through grace.^ 
is no evidence of their being not justly exposed to the curse 
by nature, but it rather argues the contrary : For if they 
did not deserve the curse, they would not depend on grace and 
redemption for the removal of it, and for bringing them into- 
a state of favor with God. 

Another objection which our author strenuously urges 
against the doctrine of Ong'.nal Sin^ is, that it disparages the 


divine goodness in giving us our beings which we ought to re- 
ceive with thajikfulntss^ as a great gift of God's beneficence, 
a::d look upon as the first, original, and fuf^clamental fruit of 
the divine liberality.* 

To this I answer, in the following observations. 

1. This argument is built on the supposed truth of a 
thing in dis/mtc, and so is a begging the question. It is built 
on this supposition, that we are not properly looked upon as 
one \v\i\i Qw\\first falher^ in the slate wherein God at first 
created him, and in his fall from that state. If we are so, it 
becomes the whole race to acknowledge God's great gjodncsa 
to them, in the state wherein mankind was made atjirst; m 
the hajifiy state they were then in, and the fair opportunity 
Ihey then had of obtaining couj^rmed and eternal happiness, 
and to acknowledge it as an aggravation of their apostasy, and 
to humble themselves, that they were so ungrateful as to re- 
bel against their good Creator. .Certainly, we may all do 
this wiih as much reason, as (yea, much more than) the peo- 
ple of Israel in Daniel's and Nehemiah's times, did with 
thankfulness acknowledge God's great goodness to their fath^ 
ers, many ages before, and in their confessions bewailed, and 
took shame to themselves, for the sins committed by their 
fathers^ notwithstanding such great goodness. See the ixth 
chapter of Daniel, and ixth of Nehemiah. 

2. If Dr. Taylor would imply in his objection, that it doth 
not consist with the goodness of God, to give mankind being 
in a state of misery, what ever was done before by Adam, 
whether he sinned, or did not sin. I reply, if it be justly so 
ordei:ed, that there should be a posterity of Adam, which must 
be looked upon as one with him, then it is no more contrary to 
God*s attribute of goodness to give being to his posterity in a 
state of punisnment, than to continue the being of the ^a/nc 
wicked and guilty person, who has made himself guilty, in a 
state of punishment. The giving being, and the continuing 
being are both alike the work of God's power and will, and 

both are alike fundamental to all blessings of mii's presep/. 

« Page 256, 257, 260, 71,... 74> S. 


and future existence. And if it be said, it cannot fee justly so 
oidcred, iliat there ^^hould be a posterity of Adam, which 
Slould be looked upon as one with him, this is begging the 

3. If our author would have us suppose that it is contrary 
to the attribute oi goodness forGod,in«^7/ case, by an immedi- 
ate act of his power, to cause existence, and to cause new ex- 
istence, which shall be an exceeding miserable existence, by 
reason of cx| osedness to eternal ruii ; then his own sctieme 
must be supposed contrary to the attiibuie of God*s goodness ; 
for he supposes that God vi!l raise midtiiudcs from the dead 
at the last day (which will be giving new existence to their 
bodies, and to bodily life and sense) in oider only to their suf- 
fering eternal dtstruciion, 

4. Notwiihsian(-ing we are so sinful and miserable, as we 
are by nature, yet we may have great reason to bless God, 
that he has given us our being under so glorious a dispensa- 
tion of grace throuiih Jesus Chiist ; by which we have a 
liappy opj ortunity to be c?f/zrfrfr/ frorn this sin and misery, 
and to ( btain U' speakable, e'ernal hapfiincss. And because, 
through our own wicked inclinaticni, we are disposed so to 
TiCglect ai)d abu^e this mercy, as to fail of final benefit by it, 
this is no reason why we ought not to be thankful for it, even 
according to our author's own sentiments. " What (says 
l.c*) if" the nvhole ivorld lies in ivickedncss, and few therefore 
shall be saved, have men no reason to be thankful, because 
they are wicked and ungrateful, and abuse their, being and 
G(.d*s bounty ? Suppose our own rvil inclinations do withhold 
us,** [viz. fiom seeking after happiness, which under the light 
of the gospel we are placed within the nearer and. easier reach 
of] " suppose the wh(Je Ci^.ristian world should lie in wick- 
edness, and but few Christians should be saved ; is it there- 
fore certainly trm-, that we cannot reasonably thank God for 
the gospel V* AVeil, and though the evil iyiclirMtwns^ which 
hinder our seeking and obtaining happiness by so glorious an 
n^vanlage, are what we are born with, yet if iliose inclination^, 


ate our fault of 67/2, that alters not the case ; and to say, they 
are not our sin, is still beggin^^ the qxicstion. Yea, it will fol- 
low from several thinj^s asserted by our author, put together, 
that notwiihstandini^ men are born in such circumstances, as 
that they are under a very great imfirobability of ever becom- 
ing? ri(fh(eou.<;, yet they niay have reason to t-e thankful for their 
beini;. Thus, particularly, those that were born and Jived 
nmong the Heathen, before Ciu'ist came. For Dr. Taylor as- 
serts, that all men have reason of thankfulness for their bc-injj ; 
and yet he supposes, that the Heathen world, taken as a col- 
lective body, were dead in sin, and coukl no' deliver or help 
themselves, and tnerefore stood in necessity of the Christian 
dispensation. And not only so, but he supposes, tiiat the 
Christian world is now at lenj^th brought to the like deplorable 
and helpless circumstances, and needs a new dispensation for 
its relief; as I observed before. According to these things, 
the world in genera), not only formerly, but even at this day, 
are dead in sin, and helpless as to their salvation ; and there- 
fore the generality of them that are born into it, are much 
more likely to perish, than otherwise, till the new dispensation 
comes : And yet he supposes, we all have reason to be thank- 
ful for our being. Yea, further still, I think, according to our 
author's doctrine, men may have great reason to be thanHful 
to God for bringing them into a state, which yet, as the case 
is, is attended with 7ni^ery^ as lis certain consequence. As, 
with respect to God's raising' the wicked to life, at the last 
day ; which, he supposes, is in itself a great ^."nr/?/, procured 
by Christ, and the wonderful grace of God through him : And 
if it be the fruit of God's v/onderful grace, surely men ouo-he 
to be thankful for that grace, and praise Ciod foi- it. Our doc- 
trine of Original Sin, therefore, no more disparages God's 
goodness in man's formation in the womb, than his doctrine 
disparages God's goodness in their resurrection from the 

Another argument which Dr. Taylor makes use of, ao;ainst 
the doctrine of Original Sin, is what the scripture reveals of 
the process of the day o^ judguwyit ; wiiich represents the 
judge as dealing with men singly and separalchjy rendering? to 


every man according to his deeds, and accoriling to the im 
prove nient he has made of the particular powfrs and talents 
God has given him personalty.* 

But this objection will vanish, if we consider what is the 
e?id or design of that public judgment. Now this will not be^ 
that God mikyjind out what men are, or what punishment or 
reward is proper for them, or in order to the passing a right 
judgment of these things within himself, which is the end of 
human trials ; but it is to tnanifest what men are, to their own 
consciences, and to the world. As the day of judgment is 
called the day of the revelation of the righteous judg?nent of 
God; in order to this, God will make use of evidences^ or 
proofs. But the proper evidences of the wickedness of men's 
hearts^ (the true seat of all wickedness) both as to corrup- 
tion of r.ature, and additional pollution and guilt, are men's 

The special end of God's public judgment will be, to make 
a proper, perfect, open distincizGn among men, rightly to state 
and manifest their difference one from another, in order to 
that separation and difference in the eternal retribution, that 
is to follow : And this difference will be made to appear, by 
their personal "joorks. 

There are two things, with regard to which men will be 
tried, and openly distinguished by the perfect judgment oi' 
God at the last clay ; according to the twofold real distinction 
subsisting among mankind, viz. (1.) ThQ difference of state ; 
ih&t firimary and grand distinction, whereby all mankind are 
divided into two sorts, the righteous and the wicked. (2.) 
That secondary distinction, whereiby both sorts differ from oth- 
ers in the sarne general siaicyin '<legrees of additional fruits of 
righteousness and wickedness. Now the judge, in order to 
manifest both these, will judge men according to their per- 
sonal works. But to inquire at the day of judgment, whether 
Adam sinned or no, or whether men are to be looked upon as 
one with him? and so partakers in his sin, is what in no re?- 
T>tct tends to manifest either of these distinctions. 

* Page 65, 66, 111, 5. .' ; ' 


y. Jhejirat ihinc^ to be manifested, will be the sfate, that 
flach man is in, with respect to the grand distinction of th» 
wliole world of mankind into ri,!^^htcous and ivicked ; or, in 
■mctaphoi'icul hxnguage, 'w/:rat i\[\d tared ; or, the children of 
the kingdom of Ghiist, and the children of the ni'icked one ; the 
latter, the head of the apostasy ; but the former, the head of 
the restoration and recovery. The judge, in manifesling this, 
will prove men's hearts by their ivorks, in such as have had 
opportunity to perform any works in the body. The evil 
'ivvrks of tiie children of the ivicked one will be the proper 
Tnanifc station and evidence or proof of whatever belongs to the 
general stale of such ; and particularly they will prove, that 
they belong to the kingdom of the great deceiver, and head 
of the apostasy, as they will demonstrate the exceeding cor- 
ruption of their nature, and full consent of their hearts to the 
common apostasy ; and also that their hearts never relin- 
quished the apostasy, by a cordial adherence to Christ, the 
great restorer. The judge will also make use of the good 
Tjorks of the righteous to shew their interest in the redemp- 
tion of Christ ; as thereby will be manifested the sincerity of 
their hearts in their acceptance of, and adherence to the Re- 
deemer and his righteousness. And in thus proving the state 
of men's hearts by their actions, {he circumstcnces o^ those 
actions must necessarily come into consideration, to manifest 
the true quality of their actions ; as, each one's talents, oppor- 
tunities, advantages, light, motives, &c. 

2. The other thing to be manifested, will be that second- 
ary distinction^ wherein particular persons, both righteous and' 
wicked, differ from one another, in the degree of secondary 
good or evil, tliat is something beside what is common to ail 
in the sa7nc general state : Tne degree of evil fruit, which is 
additional to the guilt and corruption of the whole body of 
apostates and enemies ; and the dtgrce of personal goodness 
and good fiuit, which is a secondary goodness, with respect 
to the righteousness and merits of Christ, which belong to all 
by that sincere faith manifested in all. Of this also each 
one's ivorks,, with their circumstances, oppovtuni'.ics, talents,, 
kc. will be the proper evidence. 


As to the nature and aggravations of the general aipostasy' 
by Adam's sin, and also the nature and sufficiency of the re* 
demption by Jesus Christ, the great restorer, though both 
tliese will have vast influence on the eternal slate, which men 
shall be adjudged to, yet neither of ihem will properly belong 
to the trial men will be the subjects of at that day, in ord; r to 
the manifestation of their state^ wherein they are distingimihed 
one from another. They will belong to the business of that 
day no otherwise, than the manifestation of the great truths 
of religion in general ; as the nature and perfections of God, 
the dependence ot mankind on God, as their creator and pre- 
server. See. Such truths as these will also have great influ- 
ence on the eternal state, which men will then be adjudged 
lo, as they aggravate the guilt of man's wickedness, and must 
be considered in order to a due estimate of Christ's righteous- 
ness, and men's personal virtue ; yet, being of general and 
equal concernment, will not properly belong to the trial of 
particular persons. 

Another thing urged by our author particularly against 
the imputation of Adam's sin, is this : " Though, in scripture, 
action is frequently said to be imfiutedf reckoned-^ accomited to 
a person, it is no other than his own act and deed !"* In the 
same place he cites a number of places of scripuire, where 
these words are used, which he says are all that he can find in 
the Bible. 

. But we are no way concerned with this argument at pres- 
ent, any further than it relates to iinfiutatioii of sin ^ or sinful 
action. Therefore all that is in the argument, which relates 
to the present purpose, is this : That the word is so often ap- 
plied in scripture to signify Cod's imputing personal sin, but 
never once to his imputing Adam's ^\w.... So often !....Yio^ 
often ?....BvU tivice. There are but two of all those places 
which he reckons up, that speak of, or so much as have any 
reference to, God's irn/iuting sm to any person, where there is 
any evidtnce that only personal sin is meant ; and they are 
Lcvit. :Lvii. 3, 4, and 2 Tim. iv. 16. All therefore the argur 


ment comes to, is this : That the word, imfiute, is applied in 
scripture, tivo times, to the case of God's imputing sin, and 
neither of those times to signify the imputing of Adam's sin, 
but both times it has reference to personal sin ; therefore 
Adam's sin is not imputed to his postrnly. And this is to be 
noted, that one of these two places, even that in Lcvit. xvii. 
3, 4, noes not speak of imputing the act committed, but an- 
other not committed. The words are, " What man soever 
there be of the house of Israel, that killcth an ox or lamb or 
goal in the camp, or thai killeth it out of the camp, and bring- 
eth it not unto the door of the labernacle of the congregation, 
to offer an offering unto the Lord, before the tabernacle of 
the Lord, blood shall be imfiuted unto that man ; he hath shed 
blood ; that man shall be cut off from among his people, i. e. 
plainly, viurder shall be imputed to him : He shall be put to 
death for it, and therein punished with the same severity as if 
he had slain a man. It is plain by I^ai. Ixvi. 3, that in some 
cases, a shedding the blood of beasts^ in an unlawful manner, 
was imfiuted io them, as if they sleiv a man. 

But whether it be so or not, alihough in boih these places 
the word, impute^ be applied to personal sin, and to the very 
act done by the person bpoken of, and in ten more places ; or 
although this could be said of all the places, which our author 
reckons up ; yet that the word, imfiute, is never expressly ap- 
plied to Adam's sin, does no more argue, that it is not imput- 
ed to his posterity, than it argues, that pride, unbelief, lying, 
theft, oppression, persecution, fornication, adultery, sodomy, 
perjury, idolatry, and innumerable other paiticular moral 
evils, are never imputed to the persons that committed them, 
•r in whom they are ; because the word, imfiute, though so 
©flen used in scripture, is never applied to any of these kinds 
«f wickedness. 

1 know not what can be said here, except one of these two 
things : That though these sins are not expressly said to be 
imputed^ yet other words are used that do as plainly and cer- 
tainly imply that they are imputed, as if it were said so ex- 
pressly. ; Very well, and so I say with respect to the imputa- 
tion of Adam's sin. The thing meant by the word, imfiut^: 
2 W 


may be as plainly and certainly expressed by using othw 
words, as if that word were expressly used ; and more cer» 
tainlijy because the words used instead of it, may amount to 
an exfilanation of this word. And this, I think, is the very 
case here. Though the word, imfitUe^ is not used with res- 
pect to Adam's sin, yet it is said, All ha-ue sinned ; which, 
respecting infants, can be true only of their sinning by his 
sin. And, it is said. By his disobedience many ivtre made siir- 
Tiers ; and, Judgment and condemnation came u/ion all by that 
sin ; and that, by this means, death) [the wages of sin] passed 
on all men^ &c. Which phrases amount to full and precise 
explanations of the word, impute ; and therefore do more cer- 
tainly determine the point really insisted on. 

Or, perhaps it will be said. With respect to those person- 
al sins forementioned, pride^ unbeliefs &c. it is no argument, 
they are not imputed to those who are guilty of them, that the 
very word, impute^ is not applied to them ; for the loord itself 
is rarf/i/ used ; not one time in a hundred, and perhaps five 
hundred, of those wherein the thing meant is plainly implied, 
or may be certainly inferred. Well, and the same also may 
be replied likewise, with respect to Adam's sin. 

It is probable, Dr. Taylor intends an argument against 
Orif^inal Sin, by that which he says in opposition to what R, 
R. suggests of c/«7c?rew*« discovering the princifdes of iniquity ^ 
and seeds of sin^ before they are capable of moral action^* \iz. 
That little children are made patterns of humility ^^ meekness and 
innocence^ in Malth. xviii. 3....1 Cor. xiv. 20, and Psal. cxxxi. 2. 

But when the utmost is made of this, there can be no 
shadow of reason, to understand more by these texts, than 
that little children are recommended as patterns in regard of 
a negative virtue, innocence with respect to the exercises and 
fruits of sin, harmlessness as to the hurtful effects of it ; and 
that image of meekness and humility arising from this, in con- 
junction with a natural tenderness of mind, fear, selfdifii- 
dence, yieldableness, and confidence in parents and others 
older than themselves. And so, they are recommended ns 

• Pag« 77, 7&, S. 


patterns of virtue no more than cloves^ which are an harmless 
sort of creature, and have an image of the virtues of meekness 
and love. Even according to Dr. Taylor's own doctrine, no 
more can be made of it than this : For his sclicme will not ad- 
mit of any such thing as fiosilive virtue, or virtuous disposi- 
tion, in infants ; he insisting (as was observed before) that 
virtue must be the fruit of thought and rejiection. But there 
can be no thought and reflection, that produces posiiive vir- 
tue, in children, not yet capable of moral action ; and it is 
such children he speaks of. And that little children have a 
negative virtue, or innocence, in relation to the fiositive acts 
and hurtful effects of vice, is no argument that they have not 
a corrujn nature within them : For let their nature be ever so 
corrupt, yet surely it is no wonder that they be not guilty of 
positive wicke<i action, before they are capable of any moral 
action at all. A young viper has a malignant nature^ though 
Incapable of doins: a malignant action, and at present appear- 
ing a harmless creature. 

Another objection, which Dr. Taylpr and some others of- 
fer ap;ainst this doctrine, is, That it fioiira contemfit ufion the 
human nature.^ 

But their declaiming on this topic is like addressing the 
affections and conceits oi children, rather than rational argu- 
ing with men. It seems, this doctrine is not com/ilaisani 
enough. I am sensible, it is not suited to the taste of some, 
who are so very delicate (to say no worse) that they can bear 
iioihinf^: but compliment and flattery. No contempt is by this 
doctrine cast upon the noble faculties and capacities o^ man*s 
nature or the exalted business, and divine and immortal hap- 
piness he is made capable of. And as to speaking ill of man's 
present moral sia*,e^ I presume, it will not be denied, that 
shame helonG:s to them that are truly sinful ; and to suppose, 
■that this is not the native character of mankind, is still but 
meanly begging the question^ If we, as we come into the 
world, are truly sinful, and consequently miserable^ he acts 
but di friendly part to us, who endeavors fully to discover and 

• Page 74> 75' ^ 


manifest our disease. Whereas, on the contrary, he acts an 
unfriendly part, who to his utmost hides it from us ; and so, 
in effect, does what in him lies to prevent our seeking a rem- 
edy from that, which, if not remedied in time, must bring us 
finally to shame and everlasting contempt^ and end in perfect 
and remediless destruction hereafter. 

Another objection^ which some have made against this 
doctrine, much like the former, is, That it tends to beget in 
Us an ill ofiinion of our felloii^ creatures^ and so to promote ill 
nature and mutual hatred. 

To which I would say, If it be truly so, that we all come 
^nful into the world, then our heartily acknowledging it, tends 
to promote fiumility : But our disowning that sin and t:uilt, 
which truly belongs to us, and endeavoring to persuade our- 
selves that we are vastly better than in truth we are, e^is t6 
ft foolish selfexaltation and pride. And it is manifesi, by tea- 
Son, experience, and the word of God, that firide is the chief 
source of all the contention^ mutual hatred^ and /// w/V/, whirh 
are so prevalent in thfe' world ; and that nothing so effeciually 
promotes the contrary tempers and deportments, as humility. 
This doctrine teaches us to think no worse of others, than of 
ourselves : It teaches us, that we ar6 alU as we are by nature, 
tompanions in a miserable, helpkss condition ; which, under 
a revelation of the divine mercy, tends to promote mutual 
tompassiom. And nothing has a greater tendency to promote 
those amiable dispositions of rnercy, forbearance, long suffer- 
ing, gentleness and forgiveness, than a sense of our own ex- 
treme unworthiness and niisery, and the infinite need we have 
of the divine pity, forbearance and iorgiveness, together with 
a hope of obtaining mercy. If the doctrine, which teaches 
that mankind are corrupt by nature, tends to promote ill willf 
"why should not Dr. Taylor's doctrine tend to it as much ? 
For he teaches us, that the generality of mankind are very 
fvickrd^ having made themselves so by their own free choice, 
without any necessity ; which is a way of becoming wicked, 
that renders men truly worthy o^ resentment ; but the other, 
rj}t at ally even according to his own doctrine* 


Another exclamation against this doctrine, Is, That it 
xends to hinder comfort and joi/, and to firomote melancholy and 
gloominess of mind. 

To which I shall briefly say, Doubtless, supposinj^ men 
are really become sinful, and so exposed to the displeasure of 
God, by ivliafever means, if ihey once come to have their eye» 
opened, and are not very stupid, the reflection on their c se 
will tend to make them sorroiuful ; and it is ft, il should. 
Men, with whom this is the case, may well be filled with sor* 
row, till they are sincerely willing to forsake their sins, and 
turn to God. But there is nothing in this doctrine, that in 
the least stands in the way of comfort and exceeding joy, to 
such as find in their hearts a sincere willingness, wholly to 
forsake all sin, and give their hearts and whole selves to 
Christ, and comply with the gospel method of salvation by 


Another thmg objected is, that to make men believe that 
wickedness belongs to their very nature, tends to encourage 
them in 6m, and plainly to lead them to all manner of iniqui- 
ty ; because they are taught, that sin is natural, and therefore 
necessary and unavoidable J* 

But if this doctrine, which teaches that sm is natural to 
us, does also at the same time teach us, that it is never the 
better, or less to be condemned, for its being natural, then it 
does not at all encourage sin, any more than Dr. Taylor's 
doctrine encourages wickedness, when it is become ?m;e/tfrar^; 
who teaches, that such as by custom have contracted strong 
habits of sin, are unable to helix themselves^ And is it reason- 
able to represent it as encouraging a man's boldly neglecting 
^nd wilfully continuing in his disease, without seeking a cure, 
to tell him of his disease, to shew him that his disease is re^ 
and very fatal, and what he can never cure himself of ; yeX 
withal directing him to a great /lAt/sfc/an, who is sufficient for 
his restoration ? But for a more particular answer to what 
is objected against the doctrine of our naturalimyiorewc^ and 

» Page 231, and some other places. + See his exposition of Rooi. vii, 
p. «C5...!«ao. But especially in hi» Paraphra:c and Kciss on the Epistle; 


inability^ as being an encouragement to go on in sin, and a 
discouragement to the use of all means for our help, I must 
for brevity refer the reader to what has been largely written 
on this head in my discourse on the Freedom of the Will. 

Our author is pleased to advance another notion, among 
others, by way of objection against the doctrine of Original 
Sin ; that if this doctrine be true, it would be unlawful to beget 
children. He says,* '^ If natural generation be the means of 
unavoidably conveying all sin and wickedness into the world, 
it must itself be & sinful and tmlawful ih'm^," Now, if there 
be any force of argument here, it lies in this proposition, 
" Wiiatsoever is a means or occasion of the certain, infallible 
existence of sin and wickedness, must itself he sinful." But 
I imagine Dr. Taylor had not thoroughly weighed this prop* 
osilion, nor considered where it would carry him. For God*s 
continuing in being the devil, and others that are finally given 
up to wickedness, will be attended, most certainly and infalli- 
bly, with an eternal series of the most hateful and horrid wick- 
edness. But will any be guilty of such vile blasphemy, as to 
say, therefore God's upholding them in being is itself a sinfjd 
thing ? In the same place our author says, « So far as we 
are generated in sin, it must be a sin to generate." But there 
is no appearance of evidence in that position, any more than 
in this : " So far as any is upheld in existence in sin, it is a 
ain to uphold them in existence.** Yea, if there were any 
rea§on in the case, it would be strongest in the latter position ; 
for parents, as Dr. Taylor himself observes, are not the aU" 
thors of the beginning of existence ; whereas, God is truly 
the author of the continuance of existence. As it is the known 
>vill of God, to continue Satan and vniLions of others in bdng^ 
though the most sure consequence is the continuance of a 
vast infernal world, full of everlasting hellish ivickcdnens ; so 
it is part of the revealed will of God, that this world of man- 
kind should be continued, and the spedes /iro/iagated^ for his 
own wise and holy purposes ; which will is complied with by 
the parents joined in lawful marriage ; whose children, though 

• Page 145. 

GI^TGINAL Sm. 5iJ$' 

they come into the world in sin, yet are capable subjects cff 
eternal holiness and happiness ; which infinite benefits for 
their children, parents ha^e great reason to encourat^e a hope 
of, in the way of giving up ihcir children to*. God in faith, 
through a Redeemer, and bringing them up in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord. I think, this may be answer 
enough to such a cavil. 

Another objection is, that the doctrine of Original Sin is 
no oftener^ and ^o more plainly spoken of in scripture ; it be- 
ing, if true, a very important doctrine. Dr. Taylor, in many- 
parts of his book suggests to his readers, that there are very 
feio texts^ in the whole Bible, wherein there is the least ap- 
pearance of their teaching any such doctrine. 

Of this I took notice before, but would here say further, 
That the reader who has perused the preceding defence of 
this doctrine, must now be left to judge for himself, whether 
there be any ground for such ari allegation ; whether there 
be not texts in sufficient number, both in the Old Testament 
and New, that exhibit undeniable evidence of this great article 
of Christian divinity ; and whether it be not a doctrine taught 
in the scripture with great plainness. I think there are few, 
if any, doctrines of revelation, taught more plainly and ex- 
pressly. Indeed, it is taught in an explicit manner more in 
the New Testament, than m the Old ; which is not to be 
-wondered at ; it being thus with respect to all the most im- 
portant doctrines of revealed religion. 

But if it had been so, that this doctrine were rarely taught 
in scripture ; yet if we find that it is indeed a thing declared 
to us by God, if there be good evidence of its being held 
forth to us by any word of his, then what belongs to us, is, to 
believe his word, and receive the doctrine which he teaches 
us, and not, instead of this, to prescribe to him how often he 
shall speak of it, and to insist upon knowing what reasons he 
has for speaking of it no oftener^ before we will receive what 
he teaches us, or to pretend that he should give us an account, 
why he did not speak of it so plainly as we think he ought to 
have done, soo7ier than he did. In this way of proceeding, if 
it be reasonable, the Sadducees of old, who denied any resur- 


xection or future state, mii^ht have maintained their ciausi; 
against Christ, when he blamed them for " not knowing the 
scriptures, nor the power of God ;" and for not understanding 
by the scripture that there would be a resurrection to spiritual 
enjoyment, and not to animal life, and sensual gratifications ; 
and they might have insisted that these doctrines, if true, 
were very important^ and therefore ought to have been spoken 
of in the scriptures oftener and more exfilicitly^and not that the 
church of God should be left, till that lime, with only a/fw, 
oZ»sc«re intimations of that which so infinitely concerned them. 
And they might w ith disdain have rejected Christ*s argument 
by way of inference^, from God*s calling himself, in the Books 
of Moses, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. For an- 
swer, they might have said, that Moses was sent on purpose 
to teach the people the mind and will of God ; and therefore, 
if these doctrines were true, he ought in reason and in truth to 
have taught them plainly and frequently, and not have left the 
people to spell out so important a doctrine, only from God's 
saying, that he was the God of Abraham, 8cc. 

One great end of the scripture is;, to teach the world what 
wanner of being God is ; about which the world, without reve- 
lation, has been so wofuUy in the dark ; and that God is an 
injinite beings is a doctrine of great imfiortance^ and a doctrine 
sufficiently taught in the scripture. But yet it appears to me, 
this doctrine is not taught there, in any measure, wiih such 
exfilicitness 2^Y\d precisio?!^ as the doctrine of Original Sin ; and 
the Socinians, who deny God*s omnipresence and omniscience, 
have as much room left them for cavil, as the Pelagians, who 
deny Original Sm. 

Dr. Taylor particularly urges, that Christ says not one 
word of this doctrine throughout the four gospels ; which 
doctrine, if true, being so important, and what so nearly con- 
cerned the great woik of redemption, which he came to work 
out (as is supposed) one would think, it should have been em- 
phatically spoken of in every page of the gospels,* 

•Figc 242,843. 


In reply to this, it may be observed, that by the account 
given in the four gospels, Christ was continually saying those 
thini^s which plainly imfiUed^ that all men in their original 
state are sinful and miserable. As, when he declared that 
" they which are whole, need not a physician, but they which 
are sick \* that " he came to seek and to save that which was 
lost ;"t that it was necessary for all to be born again^ and to be 
converted^ and that otherwise they could not enter into the 
kingdom of heaven ;\ and that all were sinntrs^ as well aS 
those whose blood Pilate mingled with their sacrifices, &c. 
and that every one luho did not re/ient, should fierish ;§ withal 
directing every one to firay to God for forgiveness of sin ;\\ 
using our necessity of forgiveness from God, as an ar;^ument 
"with all to forgive the injuries of their neighbors ;^ teaching 
that earthly parents, though kind to their children, are in 
themselves evil ;** and signifying, that things carnal and 
corrufic^ are properly the things ofmen;\\ warning his disci- 
ples rather to beware of men, than of wild be usts \\\ often rep- 
resenting the world as evil^ as wicked in its works, at enmity 
with truth and holiness^ and hating him ;§§ yea, and teaching 
plainly, that all men are extremely and inexpressibly sinful, 
owing ten thousand talents to their divine creditor. (|lj 

And whether Christ did not plainly teach Mcodemus thfc 
doctrine of original total depravity, when he came to him to 
know what his doctrine was, must be I6ft to the reader to 
judge, from what has been already observed on John iii. 1.... 
11. And besides, Christ, in the course of his preaching, 
took the most proper method to convince men of the cor- 
ruption of their nature, and to give them an effectual and 
practical knowledge of it, in application to themselves, in par- 
ticular, by teaching and urging the holy and strict latv of 
God, in its extent and spirituality and dreadful threatenings. 
Which, above all things, tends to search the hearts of men, 

*Matt.ix. 12. f Matt, xviil. ii,Lukexix. lo. | Matt, xviii. 3. ^Lukcxiii. 
i....5. II Matt. vi. 12, Luke Xi. 4 UMatt. vi. 14, i5,and xviii. 35. **MaU. vii. 
11. ft Matt. xvi. 23. XX Matt. x. 16, 17. \^ Joha vU. 7, viii. e^, xr>. 
17, XV. 18, 19. Ijll Matt, xviii. 81, to the end. 



and to teach them their inbred, exceeding depravity ; ne! 
merely as a matter of speculation, but by proper conviction 
of conscience ; vhich is the only knowledge of Original Sitij 
that can avail to prepare the mind for receivine: Christ's re- 
demption ; as a man's sense of his own sickness prepares 
him to apply in crood earnest to the physician. 

And as to Christ's beinp: no more frequent and particular 
in mentioninp: and incukating this point in a doctrinal man- 
ner, it is probable one reason to be given for it, is the same 
that is to be ei^en for his speaking no oftener of God's creat- 
ing the ivcrld ; vhich, though so important a doctrine, is 
scarce ever spoken of in any of Christ's discourses ; and no 
wonder, seeing this was a matter which the Jews, to whom 
he confined hi persona] ministry, had all been instructed in 
from their forefathers, and never was called in question 
am.ong them. And there is a great deal of reason, from the 
ancient Jewish writers, to suppose that the doctrine of Orig- 
Snal sin had ever been allowed in the open profession of that 
people ;* though they were generally, in that corrupt lime, 

• What IS found in the more ancient of the Jewish Rabbies, vho havfr 
vrrotc since the coming of Chr'St. is an argument of this. M^ny things of. 
this sort are taken notice of by Stapferus, in his Theologia PoUmica before men- 
tioned. Some of these things which are there cited by him in Latin, 1 shall- 
here faithfully give in English, for the sake of the English reader. 

**....So Manasseh, concerning Human Frailty, page 129. Gen. viii. 21. 
<♦/ will not ofiy more curse the earth for man*s sake ; for the appetite of man is- 
ivxljrom his youth ;" that is, from the time when he comes forth from his moth* 
er's womb. For at the same time that he sucks the breasts, he followg his 
lust ; and while he is yet an infant, he is under the dominion of anger, envy, 
hatred, and other vices to which that tender age is obnoxious. Prov xxii. 15. 
Solomon says, *' Foolishness is bound to the mnd of a child." Concerning which 
place, R. Levi Ben Gersom ohser-ves thus : ^^ Foolishness^ as it were, grows ta 
him in his very beginning.'" Concerning this sin, which is common and ©rig- 
inal to all men, David said. Psalm Ji. 5. '* Behold, I was begotten in iniquity, 
and in sin did my mother warm me " Upon which place Eben Ezra says thus ; 
*' Behold, because of the concupiscence which is innate in the heart of man, it 
is said, I am begotten in iniquity" And the sense is, that there is implanted ia 
the heart of man, Jetzer harang, an evil figment, from his nativity. 

" And Manasseh Ben Israel, de Fragil. page «. " Behold, I was formed in. 
f«if uifv, and in sin hath my mother warmed m:,** But whether this be undo. 


^very far from a practical conviction of it ; and many notion* 
-were then prevalent, especially amonj^ the Pharisees, which 
were indeed inconsistent with it. And though on account 
of these prejudices they might need to have this doctrine ex- 
plained and applied to them, yet it is well known, by all ac- 
quainted with tiieir Bibles, tliat Christ, for wise reasons, spake 

stood concerning the common mother, which was Eve, or whether David 
spake only of his own mother, he would sijjuify, that sin is as it were natural^ 
and inseparable in this life. For it ia to be observed, that Eve conceived aftet 
the transgression was commiitcd ; and as many as were begotten afterwards,, 
were not brought forth in a conformity to the rule of right reason, but in con- 
formity to disorderly and lustful atfec ions." He adds, " One of the w.se 
men o? the Jews, namely, H. Aha^ rightly observed, David would signify 
that jt is impossible, even for pious men who excel in virtue, never to com> 
mit anv sin *' job also asserts tho same thing with David, chap. xiv. 4, say- 
ing, " Who will givt a clean thing from an unclean ? Truly not one." Concern- 
ing which words Aben Ezra says thus : '* The sense is the same with that, / 
■Siai begotten in iniquity., because man is made out of an unclean thing." Stap" 
ferus^ Theolog. Polem. Tom. iii, p 36, 37, 

Id. Ibid, p 133, &c. '■'■So Sal Jarchi ad Gemaran, Cod. Schabhath, fol. 14a, 
p. a. *' And this is not only to be referred to sinners, because all the pofteri- 
ty of \ht first man are in like manner fubjected to all the curses pronounced ou 
him " And Manasseh Etw Israel, in his Preface to Human Fraiity, says, *' I 
had a mind to shew by what means it came to pass, that when iht first father 
•t all had lost his righteousness, his posterity are begotten liable to ihc same punm 
ishment with him." And Munsterus, on the gos-pel of Matthew, cites the fol- 
lowing words from the bo-k called The Bundle of Myrrh : "The blessed 
Lord laid to the first man, when he cursed him. Thorns and thistles skallit bring 
fo->ih to thee: and thou shdlt eat the herb 0/ ike field. The thing which he 
means, is, that because of his sin oil who should descend from him, should be 
W'cked and perverse, like t^iorns and thistles, according to that word of the 
Lord, speaking to the Prophet : Thorns and iiritaton are with theSy and thou 
dwellest amo^'g scorpions And all thjs is from the serpent, who was the Devil, 
Sam-miel, who emitted a mort lerous and corruptive poison into Eve, and 
became the cause of death to Adam himself, v/hen he ate the fruit. Remark- 
able is the place quoted in Joseph de Fois^n. against Martin Raymund, p. 471, 
of Master Menachcm Hakanatensis, Sect Bereschit, from Midrasch Tehillim, 
which is cited bv Hoornbekius, against the Jews, in these words : ♦« It is no 
wonder that the sin of Adam and Eve is written and sealed with the king's 
ring, and to be propagated to all following generations ; because on the day 
that Adarn was created, al. things were ftnis. ed ; so that he stood forth tlje 
f)crfection and completion of the whole workmanship oi the world ; so whn^ 


more sparingly and obscurely of several of the most important 
doctrines of revealed religion, relating to the necessity, 
grounds, nature, and way of his redemption, and the meth- 
od of the justification of sinners, while he lived here in the 
flesh, and left these doctrines to be more plainly and fully op- 
ened and inculcated by the Holy Spirit, after his ascension. 

fte sinned, the whole world sinned, whose sin we bear and suffer. But the 
matter is not thus with respect to ihff sins of his posterity." Thus far Stap- 

Besides these, 2i& Ainszvort/i on Gen.viii. 21, observes, <« In BereshithRalba^ 
(a Hebrew commentary on this place) a Rabbin is said to be asked, When is 
the evil imagination put into man ? And he answered, From the hour that he is 
formed." And in Pool's Synopsis it is added from Grotius, *'So Rabbi Salomon 
interprets Gen. viii. 21. The imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth^ 
of its being evil from the time thai he is taken out of his mother's bowels '* 
Aben Ezra thus interprets Psalm li. 5. I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did. 
my mother conceive me ; that evil concupiscence is implanted in the heart from 
childhood, as if he v^erc formed in it ; and by my mother, he understands Eve, 
who did not bear children till she had sinned. And so Kafvcnaki says, How 
shall I avoid sinning ? My original is corrupt, and from thence are those sins. 
So Manasseh Ben Israel, from this place (Psalm li. 5) concludes that not only 
David, but all m^akind, ever since sin was introduced into the world, do sin 
from their original. To this purpose is the answer of Rabbi Hakkadosch^ 
which there is an account of in the Talmud. From what time dees concupiscence 
rule over man ? From (he very moment of his frst formation, or from his nativity f- 
Anfw. From his formation." Pool's Synops. in Loc. 

On these things 1 observe, there is the greatest reason to suppose that these 
old Rabbies of the Jewish nation, who gave such heed to the Tradition oj the 
Elders, would never have received this doctrine of Original Sin^ had it not 
been delivered down to them from iht'ir forefathers. For it is a doctrine very 
disagreeable to those practical principles and notions wherein the religion of 
the unbelieving Jews most fundamentally difets from the religion maintained 
among Christians ; particularly their notion oi justifiation by their own right- 
eousness and privileges as the children of Abraham, &c. without standing in 
need of any satisfaction by the sufferings of the Messiah. On which account 
the modern Jews do now uuivcisally reject the doctrine of Original Sin, and 
corruption of nature, as Stapferus observes. And it is not at all likely that 
the ancient Jews, if no such doctrine had been received by tradition from the 
fathers, would have taken it up from the Christians, whom they had in such 
great contempt and enmity ; especially as it is a doctrine so peculiarly agree- 
able to the Christian notion of the spiritual salvation of Jesus and so contrary 
tb their carnal notions of the Messiah, and of his salvation aad kingdom, a^d 


But if after all, Christ did not speak of this doctrine often 
enough to suit Dr. Taylor, he might be asked, Why he sup- 
poses Christ did no oftcner^ and no nxove/ilainly teach some of 
/lis (Dr. Taylor's) doctrines, which lie so mucii insists on ? 
As, That temporal death comes on all mankind by Adam ; 
and, That it comes on them by him, not as a punishment or 

so contrary to their opinion of themselves, and a doctrine, which men in gen- 
eral are so apt to be prejudiced against. And besides, these Rablics do ex- 
pressly refer to the opinion of tht'w forefathers ; as R. Manassek says, " Ac- 
cording to the opinidti of the ancients, none are subject to death, but those 
v/h'ich have sinned : For where there is nosing there is no death.". ...Stzpier, 
Tom. iii. p. 37, 38. 

But we have more direct evidence, that the doctrine of Original Sin ww 
truly a received doctrine among the ancient Jews, even before the coming of 
Christ. This appears by ancient Jewish writings, which were written before 
Christ ; as, in the apocrypha, a Esdras, iii 2j. V For the first Adam, bearing 
a^ wicked heart, transgressed, and was overcome;; and so be all thty that arc 
horn of him. Th\xi infirmity was made permanent ; and the law also in the 
heart of the people, with the malignity of the root ; so that the good departed 
away, and the evil abode still:". ...2 Esdras iv. 30. ♦' For the grain of evil seed 
hath been sown in the heart of Adam, from the beginning ; and how much 
ungodliness hath it brought up unto this time ? And how much shall it yet 
bring forth, till the time of threshing shall coaie ?" And chap. rii. 46. " It 
had been better, not to have given the earth unto Adam ; or else, when it was 
given him, to have restrained him from sinning ; for what, profit is it, for 
men now in this present time, to live in heaviness, and after death, to look for 
punishment ? O thou Adam, what hast thou done ! For though it was thou 
tbat sinned, thou art not fallen alone, but we all that come efthee." And we 
K3d, Eccl. XXV. 24. "Of the woman came the beginning of sin, and through 
her ice all die.*' 

As this doctrine of original corruption was constantly maintained in the 
church of God from the beginning ; so from thence, in all probability, as 
well as from the evidence of it in universal experience, it was, that the wiser 
//Mi/;<;?j maintained the like doctrine Particularly Plato, that great philoso- 
pher, so distinguished for his veneration of ancien traditions, and diligent 
inquiries after them. Gale, in his Court of the Gentiles, observes si follows: 
" Plato says (Gorg. fol. 493.) / have heard from the wise men, that we are now 
dead, and that the body is but our sepulchre. And in his Timceas Locrus (fol. 1C3) 
he says, The cause of vitiosity is from our parents, and frst principles, rather than 
from ourselves. So that we never relinquish those actions, which lead us to follow 
tiuse primitive blemishes of our first parents. P/a/o mentions the corrup, 
tioA 9f the will, and seems to disown ^nyfru will to true good j albeit he al- 


•calamity, but as a great /at^or, being made a rich benefit, and 
Z fruit of God's abundant grace, by Christ's redemfition, v/ho 
came into the world as a second Adam for this end. Surely, 
if this were so, it was of vast imfiortance, that it should be 
<known to the church of God in all ages, who saw death reign- 
ing over infants, as well as others. If infants were indeed 
perfectly zVznocenr, was it not ne-dl\il, that the c/m^-n of that 
which was such a melancholy and awful dispensation towards 
30 many millions of innocent creatures, stiouid be known, in 
order to prevent the worst thoughts of God from arising in 
the minds of the constant spectators of so mysterious and 
gloomy a dispensation ? But why then such a total silence 
about it, for four thousand years together, and not one word 
of it in all the Old Testament ; nor one wofd of it in all the 
four gosfiels ; and indeed not one word of it in the whole Bi" 
hie, but only as forced and wrung out by Dr. Taylor's arts of 
criticism and deduction, against the plainest and strongest 
evidence ! 

As to the arguments, made use of by many late writers, 
from the universal moral sense, and the reasons they offer 
from experience, and observation of the nature of mankind, 
to shew that we are born into the world with principles of vir* 

lows some tvtpvia,^ or natural disposlfeons, to civil good, in some great he- 
roes. Socrates asserted the corruption of human nature, or uttKov efrt^yroir. 
Grotiui afHrms, that the philosophers acknowledged, it was connatural to men, 


Seneca (Benef. v. 14) says, *' Wickedness has not its first beginning io 
VI xzVcd. practice : though by that it is first exercised and made manifest." And 
Plutarch (de Sera vindicta) says, " Man does not first become wicked, when 
•he first manijests hints e!J so : Buc he hath wickedness/rom the beginning ; and he 
skews it as so m as he finds opportunity and ability. As men rightly judge, 
that the sting is not first engendered in scorpions w-hen they strike, or the poi- 
son in vipers when they bite". ...Poors Synops. on Gen. viii. »i. 

To which may be subjoined what Juvenal says, 

....Ad mores miuTi recurrit 

Damnatos.Jixa et maluri nescia." 

Englished thus, in prose ; 

Nature, a thing fixed and not knowing how to change, rcturrj to it« 
vickcd manners, Watti's Ruin and Recovery, 


tue ; vritha natural prevailing: relish, approbation, and love of 
ulg^hteousncss, truth, and p^oodness, and of whatever tends to 
the pub'ic welfare ; with a prevailing natural disposition to 
dislike, to resent and condemn what is selfish, unjust and im- 
moral ; and a native bent in mankind to mutual benevolence, 
tender compassion, &c. those who have had such objections 
flg^ainst the doctrine of Original Sin, thrown in their way, and 
desire to see them particularly considered, I ask leave ta 
refer them to a Treatise on the Miture of true Virtue^ lying by 
me prepared for the press, which may ere long be exhibited 
to public view. 


On the whole, I observe, There are some other things, 
besides arguments, in Dr. Taylor's book, which are calculat- 
ed to influence the minds, and bias the judgments of some 
sorts of readers. Here, not to insist on the taking profession 
he makes, in many places, of sincerity^ humility^ meekness^ 
moi^^ty, charity, &c. in his searching after truth ; and freely 
proposing his thoughts, with the reasons of them, to others ;* 
nor on his magisterial assurance, appearing on many occa- 
sions, and the high contemfit h: sometimes expresses of the 
opinions and arguments of very excellent divines and fathers 
in the church of God, who have thought differently horn. 
him :t Both of which things, it k not unlikely, may have a 
degree of influence on some of his readers. (However, that 
they may have only their jusC influence, these things might 
properly be compared together, and set in contrast, one with 
the other.)....! say, not to dwell on these matters, I would 
take some notice of another thing, observable in the writings 
of Dr. Taylor, and many of the late opposers of the more pe- 
culiar doctrines of Christianuy, tending (especially wiiUjuve^ 
mile and vnivary readers (not a little to abate the force, and 

• See his Preface, and p 6, 237, 265, 267, 175, 5. + Page ii», 185, 
»50i «6»i >59i 161, 183, x8«, 77f •^. 


prevent the due effect, of the clearest scri/iture evidences) id 
favor of those important doctrines; and particularly to make 
void the arguments taken from the writings of the Apostle 
Paul, in which those doctrines are more plainly and fully re- , 
vealed, than in any other part of the Bible. What I mean, is 
this : These gentlemen express a high opinion of this apostle, 
and that very justly, for his eminent genius, hib admirable 
sagacity, strong powers of reasoning, acquired leaitling, Sec. 
They speak of him as a writer... .of masterly address, of ex- 
tensive reach, and deep design, every where in his epistles, 
almost in every word he says. This looks exceeding sfie^ 
cious : It carries a plausible appearance of Christian zcal^ and 
attachment to the Holy Scrijitures^ in such a testimony of 
high veneration for that great apostle, who was not only the 
principal instrument of propagating Christianity, but with his 
own hand wrote so considerable a part of the New Testament. 
And I am far from determining, with respect at least to some 
of these writers, that they are not sincere in their declara- 
tions, or that all is mere artifice^ only to make way for the re- 
ception of their own peculiar sentiments. However, it tends 
greatly to subserve such a purpose ; as much as if it were de- 
signedly contrived, with the utmost subtlety, for that end. 
Hereby their incautious readers are prepared the more easily 
to be drawn into a belief, that they, and others in their way of 
thinking, have not rightly understood many of those things in 
t^iis apostle's writings, which before seemed very filain to 
them ; and they are also prepared, by a prepossession m favor 
oi ihtSQ neiu nur iters i to entertain a favorable thought of the 
intci'Jiretaiions put by them upon the words and phrases of 
this apostle ; and to admit in many passages a meaning which 
before lay entirely out of sight ; quite foreign to all that in 
the view of a common reader seems to be their obvious sense ; 
and most remote from the expositions agreed in, by those 
■which used to be esteemed the greatest divines, and best 
commentators. For they must know, that this apostle, being 
a man of no vulgar undersliinding, it is nothing strange if his 
meaning lies very drc/i ; and no wonder then, if the superfi^ 
cial discerning and observation of vulgar Christians, or indeed 


of the herd of common divines, such as the Westminster As' 
sembliji &c. falls vastly short of the apostle's reach, and fre- 
quently does not enter into the true spirit and design of Paul's 
epistles. They must understand, that the Jirst reformers, 
and preachers and expositors in general, both before and 
since the reformation, for fifteen or sixteen hundred years 
past, were too unlearned and shortsighted^ to be capable of pen- 
etrating into the sense, or fit to undertake the making com- 
ments on the writings of so great a man as this apostle ; or 
else had dwelt in a cave oi bigotry and stufierstition^ too gloomy 
to allow them to use their own uiiderstandings with freedom, 
in reading the scripture. But at the same time, it must be 
understood, that there is risen up, now at length in this happy 
age of light and liberty, a set of men, of a more free and gen- 
erous turn of mind, a more inquisitive genius, and better dis- 
cernment. By such insinuations they seek advantage to their 
cause ; and thus the most unreasonable and extravagant in- 
terpretations of scripture are palliated and recommended : So 
ihat, if the simple reader is not very much on his guard, if he 
<loes not clearly see with his own eyes, or has too much indo- 
lence, or too little leisure, thoroughly to examine for himself 
(as few, alas, are .willing to be at the pains of acquainting 
themselves thoroughly with the apostle's writings, and of 
comparing one part of them with another, so as to be fully 
able to judge of these gentleman's glosses and pretences) in 
this case, he is in danger of being imposed on with delusive 
appearances ; as he is preparer^ by this fair pretext of exalt- 
ing the sagacity of the apostle, and by a parade of learning, 
criticism, exact version, penetration into the new scope, and 
discerning of wonderful connexions, together with the airs 
these writers assume of dictatorial peremptoriness, and con- 
tempt of old opinions and old expositions ; I say, such an one 
is by these thinj^s prepared to swallow strange doctrine, as 
trusting to the superior abilif'es of these modern interpreters* 
But I humbly cor.ceive, their interpretations, particularly 
of the Apostle Paul's writings, though in some things inge- 
nious, yet in many things concerning these great articles of 
religirn, are cxiremtly absurd, and demonstrably disagrees- 
2 Y 


ble, in the highest degree, to his real design, to the language 
he commonly uses, and to the doctrines currently taught in 
his epistles. Their criticisms, wiien examined, appear far 
more subtle, than solid ; and it seems as if nothing can possi- 
bly be strong enough, nothing perspicuous enough, in any 
composure whatever, to stand before such liberties as these 
writers indulge : The plainest and most nervous discourse is 
analyzed and criticised, till it dissolves into nothing, or till it 
becomes a thing of little s'.gnifirance : The holy scripture is 
subtilized into a mere mist ; or made to evaporate into a thin 
cloud, that easily puts on any shape, and is moved in any di- 
rection, with a puff of wind, jvist as the manager pleases. It 
is not in the nature and power of language, to aiford sufficient 
defence against such an art, so abused ; as, I imagine, a due 
consideration of some things I have had occasion in the pre- 
ceding discourse to observe, may abundantly convince us. 

But this, with the rest of what I have offered on this sub^ 
ject of Original Sin, must be left to every candid reader to 
judge of, for himself ; and the success of the whole must now 
be left with God, who knows what is agreeable to his own 
mind, and is able to make his own truths prevail ; however 
mysterious they may seem to the poor, partial, narrow, and 
extremely imperfect views of mortals, while looking through 
a cloudy and delusory medium ; and however disagreeable 
they may be to the innumerable prejudices of men's hearts : 
And who has promised, that the gospel of Christ, such as is 
really his, shall finally be victorious ; and has assured us, that 
the ivord which goeth out of his mouth, shall not return to him 
-voidy but shall accomfilish that which he jileaseth, and shall firos^ 
per in the thing ivhereto he sends it. Let God arise, and plead 
hi* own cause, and glorify his own great name. Amen. 


Edwards's Works. 


Has noti) in Press, aijd will be published and ready for sale in a 
feiv weeks, 

The complete works of the Rev. JONA- 
THAN EDWARDS, Ministerof the Gospelin Northamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, and afterwards President of the College in 
Newjersey....In Eight Volumes, Octavo. 



THE Editor, in offerinj^ to the religious public? the 
Works oi Preddent EDWARDS, in what may, perhaps for 
this country, without impropriety, be called a standard edition, 
has {^ratified his personal attachment to this excellent man- 
He has sought also the advancement of the great doctrines of 
the cross, particularly among the younger clergy, and the ex- 
citement of their zeal by a persuasive example. Here they 
will have truth, accompanied not with evidence only, but with 
demonstration. Here they will learn that conclusive arguing 
is as applicable to morals as to mathematics. Here they will 
see sophistry stript of Its disguises, and systems of learned 
error frittered to nothing. Here they will have before them 
an example of research, the force of which they will not be 
able to resist. Modern times scarce furnish a more irnitable 

President EDWARDS began his career of virtuous exer- 
tion at an early period of life, and pursued it with a zeal and 
steadiness which could not but be successful. He had an ob- 
ject worthy of his pursuit, and he never lost sight of it. If 
much is to be ascribed to his talents, no less is to be attributed 
to his industry. And his industry is particularly imitable as 
it sprung from the best motives. Founded in the supreme 
love of God, and an ardent desire to do as much good as pos- 
sible, it could not be conversant with trifles or degenerate into 
pastime. These writings are in part the fruit ot it. They 
are f. aught with instruction, and are entitled to a diligent and 
repealed perusal. The honorary declaration made in the 

Preface lo the English edition of these works, as it is entitled 
to full approbation, may properly have a place here. " Al- 
thouj^h we do not consider ourselves responsible for every 
sentiment of the Author, whose works we publish, we will 
nevertheless freely acknowledge, that were we to assume any 
such responsibility, or were we disposed to hold up the writ- 
ing's of any fallible man, as forming our standard of faith, we 
should not hesitate to give our most decided preference to 
F.DWARUS and OWJEN. In these authors we see the 
F.oundest principles united wjlh the most fervent charity." In 
similar terms another respectable English divine writes to his 
friend in America (March 25, 1808.)...." JONATHAN ED- 
WARDS is, in my esteem, the Conj/ihaus of modern divines, 
as Dr. OWEN was of the preceding century. EDWARDS 
is every day rising in esteem among dissenters, so that his 
works sell very fast.'* 

It has been the Ediior'^s aim to meet the expectations 
which the proposals warranted the patrons of the work to 
form. He has used his best discretion in the arrangement, 
and as far as his attention would go, in the midst of many and 
pressing avocations, has labored to have the typography cor- 
rect, li was found necessary to use a smailer type than was 
6rst intended. This is a material advantage to the subscriber, 
as he has proportionably a greater quantity of matter in each 
page. The pages have also swelled to a greater number than 
was promised. After all, a few posthumous, unfinished dis- 
courses of the author, and some of his miscellanies, consisting 
principally of quotation, we have been necessitated to omit. 
The multiplying of notes, upon the plan of elucidating and 
correcting ihe sentiments oj so sagacious a divine, was, after 
reflection, and after obaerving with some carefulness how oth- 
ers have done in this matter, thought too adventurous. An 
index to assist the reader in recurring to particular subjects, 
will be an acceptable substitute for these. That the work 
may be extensively useful, is the hope and prayer of the Ed- 

WoRCESTEii, (Mass.) Jsi'ovember 1, 1808. 

Lathrop's Sermoiu 

I. THOMAS, fun. is now preparing for the 
j'rcss, the Firsts 6'fco7Zif and 7'/?ir(f Volumes of LATHROP's 
SERMONS, corrected and enlarged, with many vahiablc ad- 
ditional Sermons, by the Author.. ..The whole of his Sermons 
will be for sale in Six Octavo Volumes. 





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