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Full text of "The law unsealed, or, a practical exposition of the Ten Commandments. With a resolution of several momentous questions and cases of conscience"



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Ten Commandments. 


A Refolution of Several Momentous 
Queftions and Cafes of Confcience. 

By the Learned, Laborious, and Faithful Servant of Jesus 
Christ, Mr. JAMES DURHAM, late Miniftec 
of the Gofpel at GLASGOW. 

— Thy Commandment is exceeding broad, Pfal. cxix. 96. 

To which are prefixed the Commendatory Epiftles of two 
famous Englifh Divines, Dr. Owen aad Mr. Jenkyn: 

To which is alfo added, an Alphabetical Table of the pr!a* 
ciple matters handled in the whole Book. 



Primed by JOHN BR YC E, and Sold at his Shop, 
oppofite GibfonVwynd, Salt-market. 



* * * * * .* 

To the Right Honourable, truly Noble, 
and reno wnedly Religious LADY, 

My Lady Marquifs of A R G Y L E. 


HAD it fo feemed good to the Sovereign, holy, and 
infinitely wife God, he might at the fir ft moment 
of his peoples converfion, have quite expelled all f 
even in the very leaft remainders of indwelling corruption, 
and perfe&Iy conformed them to his own image in hohnefs ; 
but he hath in the depth of his infearchable wifdom, ether- 
wife difpofed for ends beft known to hirnfelf: concerning 
which (whatever may be, even here, cur ftrongly-probabje, 
and, in a good meafure, quieting conjectures as to forae of 
them) it will be our wifdom to make a reference for full fa- 
tisfadtion to the day of that great fole-mn and celebrious ge~ 
neral aflembly of the fa ft-born, wherein all fuch references 
fhall be called and fatisfyrngly difcufied : And feeing he mth 
thought it fit that fome relinks of fin (but exau&orated of its 
reign and dominion) (hould indwell ; and that thereby the 
fpiritual conftitution of fojourning faints fhould be a mixture 
of grace and corruption (each ofthefe, notwithstanding, re- 
taining ftiil its own natural irreconcileable antipathy with the 
other, and lufting againft the other; fo that in all their ac- 
tings, both gracious and finful, they are (till divided; and 
neither one, as they were before regenerating grace, nor as 
they (hall be in glory its highly congruous and fuitable to .the 
fame infinite wifdom, that there fliould be a proportionable 
and correfpondent mixture in the difpenfations of his provi- 
dence towards them while on this fide heaven, fome more 
fmiling, and fome more crofs : the fiefli and unregenerate 
part requiring ^roffes to whip it up, and drive it foreward ; 
. A z and 

4 The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

and the Spirit and regenerate part calling for them alfo, to 
keep it awake and on its guard, againft the furprizing preju- 
dice and hurt it may fuftain from the reftlefs ill neighbour, 
and troublefbme companion, a body of death that cleaveth 
clofe to them, as a girdle doth to the loins of a man, by rea- 
fon of which they have not many hours, let be days, to 
dwell to an end : When their conftitution comcth to be pure- 
ly grace, perfectly defecat and refined from all the dreggy 
and drofly mixture of indwelling corruption, then will their 
lot be pure folace and joy, even perfection and perpetuity of 
joy, without any the leaft mixture of forrow or trouble of 
whatever fort ; but till then (and bleffed eternally be God, it 
is not long to that, even but a moment) trouble and forrow, 
lefs or more, will wait on them who through much tribulation 
mvjl enter into the kingdom of God : Yet on a juft reckoning 
there will be found no real nor well grounded reafon of dif- 
fatisfaction with this wife difpofal of divine providence, fince 
he never afflicteth, nor are they in heavinefs through one or 
more, or even manifold temptations ; but when there is need, 
and fuch need that a few ferious reflections will conftrain the 
patient to acknowledge it, and to fay, This fame particular 
crofs fo and ib circumftantiated, could not well have been 
wanted without a greater prejudice; nay, confidering the in- 
separable connection that God in his eternal and unalterable 
decree, hath eftablifhed betwixt the end and all the means 
that lead to it j when ever fuch and fuch a crofs is actually 
met with, there is ground to think that it is as neceffary as 
the falvation of the Chriftian is ; that crofs being appointed 
as one mean with others, to bring about the purpofed end, 
to wit, the falvation of fuch a perfon ; which one confedera- 
tion (That they are appointed thereunto ; as the apoftle writ- 
ing to the Theffalonians, afferteth) well pondered, would 
contribute cot a little to reconcile the moft fadly crofled and 
afflicted children of God, a great deal more to their refpec- 
tive crofles ; and would make them to be taken up and bora 
more patiently, pleafantly, and chearfully ; and would wich- 
all, make them to look out on them with a lefs formidable 
and more amiable afpect than ordinarily they do. And fince, 
in the fecond place, all their afflictions are afflictions only of 
this prefent time, for a feafon, and but for a moment, not 
protracted according to defert one minute beyond death, let 
be eternities length ; fince moreover the heavieft loads, and 
greateft meafures of them are but light and moderate afflic- 
tions, and his ievereft correctings of thern are in meamre 
with judgment and difcretion ; Hejiayeih bis rough wind in 
the day if his eaji wind, and doth in great wifdom fuite and 
proportion the trials of his people to their ftrength and ftand : 
ing •, in hisfaithfulnefs, not fuffering' them to he tempted above 

The Epijlle Dedicatory. J 

what they are able y but with the temptation making a way to e- 
fcape that they may be able to bear it : Its not his manner to 
put new wine into old bottles, nor to few a piece of neur 
cloath unto an old garment. He thatteacheth the hufband* 
m*an difcretion, about the fit time and feafon of plowing, 
(owing, harrowing, and reaping of every kind of feed and 
grain, according to its nature; and how to threfli out thefe 
feveral forts of feed and grain by fit means and inftruments, 
can, being vionderful in counfel and excellent in working, with 
infinitely more wifdom, fkill, judgment, difcretion, and ten- 
dernefs, pitch the fitteft feafons, kinds, meafures, and dura- 
tions of his peoples afflictions, according to their feveral ne- 
cefiities, diipofitions, {landings, capacities, and abilities. 
And fince withal, our Sovereign Lord the King, the King 
of faints', out of the abfolutenefs of his dominion, and the 
fuper-aboundanceof his richeft grace hath impofed upon every 
crofs that his people meet with, not expecting (to fay fo) vef- 
fels of the greateft burden of affliction that fail up and down 
the SunJt, as it were, of the troublefome fea of this world, 
the toll and cuftom of fome fpiritual good to be paid to them j 
allowing, warranting, and commanding them by his com- 
miffion granted to them under his great feat for that effect, to 
demand, require, and exact it from every occurring croft 
and affliction : And if there (hall be any demur or delay, let 
be feeming denial to pay this cuftom, to wait and fearch for 
it, and with a piece of holy peremptorinefs, to perfift in the 
exacting of it, as being moft certainly without a pollibility of 
mifgiving, to be got there ; for which the commiffion (more 
and more endeavoured to be really believed and made ufe of 
according to the grantees mind) thould be produced ; where- 
in he hath given the higheft fecurity that all things (having a 
fpecial look at all their afflictions, as the context, in the con* 
feflion of mo ft, if not all judicious commentators putteth 
beyond debate) /hall work together for good to them that iovs 
Gcd, and are the called according to hispurpofe : where he hath, 
to fpeak fo with reverence to his Majefty, condefcended fome 
way, to abridge his own fovereignty and abfolute dominion, 
cngageing himfelf by covenant, that though he may do what 
he will, yet he fhall will to do nothing, but what (hail be for 
his peoples good \ fo that in all his difpenfations towards 
them, his abfolute dominion and his good will fhall be com- 
menfurable, and of equal extent, the one of them never to 
be ftretched one hairs breadth beyond the ether; and even 
in the moft dark, involved, intricate, obftrufe, and myfte- 
rious providences where ip they can read and take up lealfc 
of his mind; and wherein he (feeming to walk either in the 
greateft abfolutenefs of his dominion, or in the fiiarpeft fe- 
verity of his juftice) refufeth to give a particular account of 


6 The EpiftU Dedicatory: 

bis matters and motions, hath wonderfully (looped and con- 
defcended to give this general, fweetly-fatisfa&ory account, 
Trnt ihey /bait work for good, even their fpiritual good and 
profit : The purging of Jin , and their further participation of 
his kclinefs : O ! that all the gracioufly fincere lovers of God, 
and the effectually called according to his purpofe, might 
from the lively faith of this, be perfuaded and prevailed with, 
to fet themfeives down at the receipt of thefe cuftorns from 
the many crofles and affli£lions that come their way with a 
fixed resolution to fuffer none of them to pafs without pay- 
ing the etiftom impofed by the king; the faithful, diligent, 
clofe, and conftant following of this employment would un- 
fpeakably enrich, and more than make up all their lofies, 
infinitely beyond what gathering in the cuftorns of the rareft 
and riche ft commodities of both the Indies could poffibly do, 
were they all engrofied and monopolized to that rnoft honour- 
able fociety of the godly ; and would help them to bear 'out 
a great fpiritual rank and port, fuitable to the ftate of the 
king, and as it becometh them that are privileged to be col- 
lectors of fuch cuftorns under him. 

It is now, noble madam, a long time, not far from to- 
wards thirty years (whatever was before) llnce your Iadythip 
was known by fome to be helped, through grace, ferioufly to 
(it down at the receipt of thefe cuftorns from the crofs and 
afflifting difpenfations which then occured to you, whereby 
you did obfervedly improve, better, and increafe your fpiri- 
tual ftock and ftate* fome way to the admiration of ftanders- 
by ; and fince that time, for moft part of it, you have been 
in che holy providence of God, tried with a traft of tribula- 
tions, each of them more trying than another ; and fome of 
them fuch, that I think (as once thebleft author of this trea- 
ting on occaflon of a fad and furprifing ftroak, the removal 
of the defire of his eyes, his gracious and faithful wjfe, after 
a whiles (ilence, with much gravity and great compofure of 
fpirit, faid, " Who can perfuade me to believe that this is 
" good, if God had not faid it :"} if all the world had faid 
and fworn it, they could very hardly, if at all, have perfuad- 
ed you to believe that they were good : But fince God, that 
cannot lie, hath faid it, there is no raom left to debate or 
doubt of it, let be to deny it: And if your ladyfhip (as I 
hope you have) hath been all this while gathering up the 
cuftorns of fpiritual good and gain, impofed upon thefe ma* 
uy, various, and great tribulations, wherewith the Lord, no 
doubt, on a blefied defign of Angular good to you, hath 
thought £t to exercife you beyond moft perfons living, at 
leaft of your fo noble ftation and extraction : O what a vaft: 
fiock and treafure of rich and foul-enriching preciQus experi- 
ences of the good and profit of all thefe afil ; fticms and tribu- 

The Epijlle Dedicatory. 

Jaticns muft you needs have lying by you ? What humility 
and foft walking, what contrition and tendernefs of heart ; 
what frequency and fervency, what ferioufnefs and f^iritu* 
ality in prayer? What fitting alone and keeping filence, te- 
caufe he hath done it ? What juftifying of God, and afcrib- 
ing rigbteoufnefs to him in all rhat he hath done ? What fwcet 
Soliloquies communings with the heart on the bed, feli : - 
fearchings and examinations ? What dclightfome meditations 
on God, and on his law? What mortification of lufts, what 
deadnefs of deniednefs to, and what weanednefs from all 
creature comforts and delights of the fons of men ? What 
folicitous fecuring of the grand intereft amidft thefe fhak- 
ings-loofe of all other interefts ? What coveting of, and com- 
placency in fellowfhip with God the Father, and with his 
Son Jefus Chrift, while your other fellowfhip is made defo- 
late ? What accounting of all things, fo much in account 
amongft men, to be but lofs and dung in comparifon of the 
excellency of the knowledge of Jefus Chrift the Lord ? What 
growing difconformity to the world, by the renewing of your 
mind ? What transforming into the image of God from glo- 
ry to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord ? What exampiary 
holinefs in all manner of converfation ? What poftponing of 
all particular and felf-interefts to the public interefts of his 
glory ? What waitings and longings- for the comiag of his 
kingdom ? What defires and defigns faithfully to ferve your 
generatiftn according to his will ; and when that is done* 
what groanings to be unclothed and clothed upon with your 
houfe from above ? and what lively longings, with !v/ef'r 
fubmiffions to his will to be difolved, and to be with Jefus 
Chrift, which is beft of all ? How much uq the mean time of 
a ftranger's and pilgrim's deportment with publifhed practi- 
cal plain declarations to the world that this is not your coun- 
try ? but that you are in expectation of one, even a heaven- 
ly country, fo that God is not aftiamed to be called your God? 
Finally, what practical and experimental knowledge' of, and 
clear infight in, that notable and none fuch art of making 
out of God, and making up in him what is miffing amongft 
the creatures ? a little of whom can go far, inconceivably 
far, to fill up much empty and void room, through the re- 
moval of many and moft choice creature comforts? What 
poflible lofs or want is it that cannot be made up in him ? who 
is God all-fufficient, and in whom, whatever is defirable and 
excellent amongft them all, is to be found in an eminently 
tranfeendent, and infinitely more excellent way; and from 
whom, as the exhauftibly full fountain, and incomprehensi- 
bly vaft, immenfe, fhorelefs, boundiefs, and bottomlefc 
ocean of all delightful, defirable, imaginable, and poflible 
perfections, the froali drop** and liule malts of fceming and 


3 The Epxjlle Dedicatory. 

painted perfections fcattered amongft the creatures, iiTue 
forth: O! beautiful and bleft fruits of afflictions, yet not 
brought forth by affltdtions of themfelves, but by his own 
grace working together with, and by them ; a part of whofe 
royal and incommunicable prerogative, it is (not communi- 
cate nor given out of his own hand to any difpenfation, whe- 
ther of ordinances, or of providences more imiling or more 
crofs, abrtradtly from hisbleffing and grace) to teach to pro- 
fit. If your ladyfhip be not thug enriched, and if your 
flock and revenue be not thus bettered, I take it for granted 
that it is your burden, and more afflidting to you than all 
your other afflictions ; and that it is with-all fingly aimed at 
by you, and diligently driven as your greateit defign in the 
world. I could from my own particular certain knowledge 
and obfervation, long ago, and of late (having had the ho- 
nour and happinefs to be often in your company, and at 
fome of the loweft ebbs of your outward profperity) and 
from the knowledge of others more knowing and oblerving 
than I, fay more of your rich in-comes of gain and advan- 
tage, of your improvements, of the countervailings of your 
damage, and the up-makings of all your loffes this way, 
than either my fear of incurring the conflrudtion of a flatter- 
er with fuch as do not know you as I do, will permit; or 
your Chriftian modefty, fobriety, and felf-denial will admit ; 
and to undertake to fay all that might truly, and without 
complementing (too ordinary in epiftles didicatory) be faid 
to this purpofe, would be thought by your ladyfliip as far 
below you to crave, or expert, as it would be above me 
fuitably to perform- 
Now madam, being fully perfuaded that this favoury, 
found, folid, foul-fearching, and foul fettling treatife, will 
be acceptable to, and improved by your ladyfliip, for fur- 
therance of this your fpiritual good and advantage, beyond 
what it will be to, and by moft others : I find no need of a- 
ny long confultation with myfelf, to whom to addrefs its de- 
dication, you having in my poor efteem on many accounts, 
the deferved preference of many (to fay no more) ladies of 
honour now living; and fince with-all I aothing doubt, had 
the precious, and now perfected author been alive, and mind- 
ed the publication of it with a dedication to any noble lady f 
your felf would have been the perfon, of whom, I know, he 
had a high efteem, having himfelf, before his death, fignifi- 
ed his purpofe of dedicating his piece on the Canticles to 
your ladyfhips noble and much noted fifter in law, my Lady 
Vice Countefs of Kenmuire. It needs no epiftles of com- 
mendation to you, who was fo throughly acquainted with 
its author ; the reading of it will abundantly commend itfelf, 
and as a piece, though pofthumous, of his workj commend 


The Epiftle Dedicatory^. 9 

him in the gates. I (hall only now fay, which will much 
endear it to you, and to all the honeft-hearted ftudents o£ 
holinefs, that it is for moft part, very practical (and what 
is polemick in it) at that time much called for (is by a true 
information of the judgement directly levelled at a fuitable 
practice) and your ladyfhip knoweth that the power, yea, 
the very foul and life of religion lyeth in the due practice 
of it ; and indeed we know no more in God's account than 
we do through grace, fingly and ferioufly defign and en- 
deavour to practife ; they all, and they only 4< having a 
Cl good uncterftanding, that do his commandments, and 
" to do and keep them, being his peoples wifdom and under- 
u (landing in the fight of thenations who hear of thefe fta- 
<c tutes," and are conftrained to fay, " Surely this is a wife 
li and underftanding people ;" thegreateft meafureof meer- t 
ly apprehenfiveandfpeculative knowledge of the truths and 
will of God, doth not make truly wife, becaufe not wife, 
to falvation, nor evidenceth the perfons that have it to be 
really happy, the Lord not having pronounced them to be 
fuch that only know, but who knowing thefe things do 
them ; though, alas, many not at all, or but very little con- 
sidering this, feek to know only, or mainly, that they 
themfelves may know, or that they may make it known to 
others that they do know (a notable disappointment of the 
end of all found fcripture-theology, which is as to the whole, 
aad every part, head, and article thereof, practice, and not 
mere fpeculation) the great foul-ruining practical error o£ 
many profeffbrs of this knowing age upon the one hand ; 
as there is an other error in practice, lamentably incident 
to not a few well-meaning fouls, on the other hand, where- 
by defiring and delighting only to hear, read, and know 
what fpeaks to their prefent cafe and fpiritual exerciie, or 
immediately prefleth fomewhat in practice, they much 
weary of, and liften but little to what ferveth for more full 
and clear information of their judgments in the literal 
meaning of the fcriptures, in the doctrinal part of religion, 
and in what may increafe, better, and advance their know- 
ledge in the principles thereof, till they be found in the 
faith, cftablifhed in the prefent truth, and have their loins 
girt about with it ; whereby it comes to pafs, that although 
fome fuch may, through grace, havechofen the better part 
which will not be taken from them ; yet they are not only 
through their ignorance filled with many confufions, and 
with perplexing, and almoft inextricable fears and doubts 
about their own fpiritual ftate and condition, but are alfo 
eminently expofed to the dreadful hazard of being catched 
and carried away as a ready prey, by every error and feet 

B maftcr^ 

to The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

matter, plaufibly pretending but any the leaft refpe<Tk to the: 
practice and power of godlinefs ; which hath been very pre- 
judicial to the church of God in all ages, and moft obferv- 
ably in this, as there is much ground to fear it may yet 
further be, if we be tried with warm andfuitabletentations. 
Happy therefore, yea, thrice happy they, who are by the 
jfkill and conduft of him that is given to be a leader and pi- 
lot to his people, helped to ftemn the port, and to fteer a 
ftraight and fteddy courfe betwixt the fhelves and rocks of 
thefe extreams, on the right and left hand, on which thou- 
lands have fplit and made (hipwreck ; and to make it their 
bufinefs as to feek diligently after knowledge of the truths 
of religion ; to cry and lift up their voice for it as for fiiver 
and for hid treafure ; and to run to and fro thorough the 
ufe of all divinely appointed means that knowledge may be 
increafed ; fo, vigoroufly to drive it as their defign, to 
pra&ife all they know, and to have their practice foot. fide 
with, and marching up, the full length of, their knowledge 
and profeffion. That your ladyfhip may more and more 
(as you, through grace, already in a great meafure do) 
thus ftemn the port, fetching fome more wind to fill your 
fails from God's blefBng on this judgment-inftru&ing and 
afte&ion-moving practical treatife, till you arrive with a 
plerophory of faith with up-fails top and top-gallant, at 
that peaceful port and heavenly harbour of reft, prepared 
for the people of God, is the ferious defire of 

Noble Madam, 

Your Ladyfhip's much obliged, 

and Devouted Servant 

for Ch rift's fake! 

T O 

I 91 3 


R E A D E R. 

TH E fubjeA matter of this treatife muft without ail 
controvefy be paffing excellent, it being not only 
a portion of divinely-infpired Scripture, but fuch a 
portion of it as is the moral law ; the moft Straight infal- 
lible, perfect, and perpetual-binding rule of life and man- 
ners, that fhort fummary and abridgement of all called for 
duties and forbidden iins (whatever Socinians with whom 
Anabaptifts and Arminian-remonftrants on the matter join 
hands) on a woful defign to transform the gofpel into a 
new law or covenant of works, that thereby in place of the 
righteoufnefs of faith, a righteoufnefs of works may be c- 
ftablifhed, by their alledged fupplements and amendments 
of, and additaments to it, to be made in the New Tefta- 
ment ; and papifb by their vainly boafted of works of fu- 
per-erogation and counsels of perfection, whereby they 
would have the law out done, by doing more than it requi- 
reth, audacioufly averr to the contrary;) even thefe ten 
words (afterward contradied by the Lord Chrift into two 
words or commandments) immediately pronounced by God 
himfelf, and twice written with his own finger on tables of 
ftone, comprising 'a great many various matters and pur- 
pofes ; fo that it may without any the leaft hesitation or 
hyperbole be aficrted ; there was never fo much matter and 
marrow, with fo much admirably-holy, cunning, compen- 
ded, couched, and conveyed in fo few words, by the molt 
laconick, concife, fententious and Angularly Significant 
fpokfman in the world: And no wonder, lince it is he 
that gave men tongues, and taught them to fpeak, that 
fpeaketh here, who hath infinitely beyond the moft expert 
of them, (being all but battologifts and bablers, befide him) 
the art of fpeaking much, marvelloufly much in few words ; 
and would even in this have as according to oiir meafure 
humbly to imitate him ; And no doubt it is one of the ma- 
ny moe, and more grofe evidences of the declenfion of this 
generation from the ancient, lovely, and laudible fimplici- 
ty, that many men forgetting that God at firft appointed 
words to be the external figns of the internal conceptions 
of their minds, and foolifhly fancying that becaufe they 
love and admire to hear themfelves talk, others do or are 
obliged to do fo; affctt to multiply words, if not without 

B 2 Lsaw- 

12 To TfiE READER. 

knowledge yet without neceffity, and with vaft difpropor- 
tion to the matter : And whereas a few of their words right- 
ly difpofed, might fufficiently ferve to bring us to the very 
outmoft border and boundary of their conceptions, and al- 
io to make fuitable impreffions of them (all the end of 
words) yet ere we can come that length, we muft needs 
wear away our time, and weary ourfclves in wandering 
through the wafie wildernefs of the unneceffary and fuper- 
fluous remainder of them : And this doth ufher in, or ra- 
ther is ufhered in by, an other piece of neighbour-vanity, 
whereby men wearying of wonted and long-worn words, 
though fufficiently Significant, grow fond upon novel, new- 
coined, and never before heard of ones, ftretching their 
wit (if fuperfluity of words, though but new and neat, be 
worth to be placed araongft the produ&ions of wit ; "for 
thereby we are made never a whit the wifer, nor more 
knowing) and putting their invention on the tenters to find 
out (no new matter) but new words, whereby often old, 
plain and obvious matters are intricatcd and obfeured, at 
Jeaft to more ordinary readers and hearers, a notable per- 
verfion of the end of words, for which the^ inftituter of 
them will call to an account ; neither are they fatisfied with 
fuch curiofity in coarfer and more common matters ; but 
this alien and foreign, yea even romantick and wanton ftile 
of language is introduced into,, and male-partly obtruded 
■upon theologicks and mod fnblimely fpiritual purpofes, 
whether difcourfed by vive voyce, or committed to writing; 
(which ought I grant to be fpoke as becometh the oracles 
of God, with a grave opppfitnefs of phrafe, keeping fome 
proportion with the majefty of the matter, that they may 
not be expofed to contempt by any unbecoming incongruity 
or bafenefs) by which it cometh to pafs to the unfpeakable 
prejudice and obftru&ion of edification, that many in iheir 
nicenefs, nauceating the form of fimple and found words, 
are ready to hifs and hbwtoffthe theatre of the church the 
xnoft precious and profitable points of truth, though abun- 
dantly beautiful, majeftick and powerful in their own native 
fpiritual Simplicity, as unfit to aft their part, and as being 
but dull and blunt things, if not altogether unworthy to be 
owned and received as truths ; if they appear not, whether 
5n the pulpit or prefs, cloathed with this ftrange and gaudy 
attire, with this comedians coat drefled up with the feathers 
of arrogant humane eloquence, 4 and be daubed with this 
rhetorick and affedtedly-belaboured elegancy of fpeech 
(which our truly, manly, and magnanimous Chriftian au- 
thor did undervalue : And no great wonder, fince even the 
heathen moral philofopher Seneca did look at it as fcarce 


To the READER. 13 

worthy of a man ; for writing to his Lucillus, he willethhim 
inftead of being bufied about words, to caufe himfelf have 
a feeling of the futytance thereof ii? his heart ; and to think 
thofe whom he fecth to have an affe&ed and laboured kind 
of fpeech to have their fpirits occupied about vain things ; 
comparing fuch to divers young men well trimmed and 
frizled, who feem as they were newly come out of a box; 
from which kind of men nothing firm or generous is to be 
expe&ed. And further affirmeth that a virtuous man 
fpeaketh more remifly, but more fecurely, and whatever he 
faith hath more confidence in it than curiofity ; that fpeech 
being the image of the mind, if a man difguife and poiifh. 
it too curioufly, it is a token that the fpeaker is an hypo- 
crite and little worth : and that it is no manly ornament to 
fpeak affe&edly) nay, this hath of late with other extrava- 
gances rifen to fuch a prodigiouB height amongft the wifdonn 
of words, or word-wifdom monopolizing men of this age, 
that if the great apoftle Paul who fpoke wifdom (though 
not of this fort, nor of this world) amongft them that were 
perfeft, and did upon defign, not from any defedt, decline 
all wifdom of words, all enticing words of mens wifdom 
and excellency of fpeech, that the crofs of Chrift might 
not be made of none effect, and that the faith of his hear- 
ers might not ftand in the wifdom of men but in the power 
of God, and who loved to fpeak in the demonstration of 
the Spirit and of power, wherein the kingdom of God 
confifteth and not in words: if that great ap^ftle were now 
preaching, he wold probably be looked at by fuch worthy 
and wile heads as but a weak man, and of rude and con- 
temptible fpeech, as he was the big-talking dofrors of the 
church of Corinth,) if not a mere babler, as he was by the 
philosophers and orators at Athens. The fubjt;& matter I 
fay of this treatife muft needs be mod excellent, being the 
fpiritual, holy, juft and good law ; the royal law, binding 
us to the obedience of God our King ; the law which Jefus 
Chrift came not to deftroy but to fulfill whereof he is the 
end of righteoufnefs to every one that believeth r which doth 
as a fchool-mafter lead to him (by difcovering the holy na- 
ture and will of God, an4 men's duty to walk conformly 
to it, by convincing of the moft finful pollution of our na- 
ture, heart, and life, of univerfal difconformity to it ; and 
innumerable tranfgreffions of it, of the obligation to the 
wrath and curfe of God becaufe of the fame, of utter ina- 
bility to keep it and to help ourfeives out of this tinfui and 
wrathful eftate; by humbling under the convifkion and 
fenfe of both, by puttiDg*on to the renounciation of felf- 
rightcoufnefs or righteoufnefs according to this Jav/ : And 


M To the READER. 

linaliy by convincing of the abfolute and indifpenfable necef* 
iity of another righteoufneSs, and fo of this imputed righ- 
reoufnefs; the law that is fo very neceffary to all men ia 
common, and to every regenerate and unregenerate man 
in particular ; from which, ere one jot or title canpafs unful- 
f.iled. Heaven and earth mujl pafs ; and which the prince of 
paftors, infinitely fkilful to pitch pertinent Subjects of preach- 
amonglt many others made choice* of, to be a maia 
iubjeft of that foiemn fermon of his en the mount •, where- 
in he did not, as many would have expected, fore aloft ia 
abftrufe contemplations, but gracioufly (looped and conde- 
scended to our capacity for catching of us, by a plain fa- 
miliar and prsitical expoSnion of the commands (as indeed 
religion liech not in high flown notions and curious Specu- 
lations, nor in great Swellings of words, but in the llnglc 
and Sedulous practice of thefe things that arc generally look- 
ed on as more low and common, as the great art of preach- 
ing liech in the powerful p. effing thereof) infinuating of 
how much moment the right underftandiogof them is, and 
how much religion lies in the Serious ftudy of Suitable obe- 
dience thereto. not in order tojuftificatio^butglorifyingGod, 
ivhojujKjietk freely by his grace thro 1 the redemption that is in 
Jefus ; without which obedience or holinefs no man Jh all fee the 
Lord. And if the treatife bears but any tolerable proporti- 
on to Such a text and theam, it cannot but have its own excel- 
lency ; and that thou may ft be induced to think it doth, I 
Avail need only to tell thee that it is (though, alas, pofthu- 
mus and for any thing I know never by him intended for 
the preSs. otherwise it had been much more full, for he is 
much Shorter on the commands of the fecond table, than 
oo thefe pfthf firft, touching only on Some chief heads* 
not judging it fit belike as that time and in that exerciSe, 
to wit, Sabaih-day-morning-Le<Tfcure5 before Sermon, to 
dwell long on that Subject (which a particular profecution 
would have necefhtated him to) especially iince he was at the 
lame time to the Same auditory preaching Sabbath-after- 
noons on the third chapter of the epiStle to the Coiofians, 
a Subject much of the Same nature, but what he Saith is 
material and excellent) great Mr. Durham ; who had fome 
excellency peculiar to himSelf in what he Spoke or writ ; as 
Sppeareth by his lingular, and Some way Serephick, com- 
ment on the revelation, wherein with AquiUne-fharp fioht- 
€dnefs from the top of the high-mountain of fellowship 
with Gody he hath deeply pryed inio, and (truck up a 
great light in Several mylterious things much hid even from 
id any wife and Sagacious men before ; and by his moft iv/eet 
and favovry, yet molt Solid, expolttion of the §ong of Sok>- 


To the READER. 

mon, fmelling ftrong of more than ordinary acquaintance 
wi'.h, and experience of thofe feveral ioiluxes of the love of 
Tefus Chrift upon the foul, and efluxes of its love (the 
fruit and effeft of his) towards him, wherewith that de- 
lightful difcourfe is richly as it were irnbroidered : The 
greateft realities (though indeed fublime fpiritualiues) raoft 
plainly averted by God, and moft powerfully experienced 
by the godly (whofe fouls are more lively afte&ed with therr* 
than their very external femes are by the rareft and moft 
remarkable objects; and fin ce no wonder every thing the 
more fpiritual it is, hath in it the greater reality, and worketh. 
the more ftrongiy and efficacioufly) however of late, by an 
unparalledly-bold black-mouthed Mafphamous fcribler, ne- 
faricufly nick named, Fine romances of the fecrc* amours 
betwixt he Lord Chrift and the believing foul, told by the 
non-conformifts-preachers What ? are thefeandthe like, 
Let him kifs me with the kijfis of his mouthy for his love is bet- 
ter than wine i Thy name is as an ointment poured forth^ 
therefore the Virgins love thee; We will remember thy love 
more than wine, the upright love thee ; Behold thou art fair my 
beloved* yea plea/ant, alfo our bed is green. A bundle of myrrh 
is my beloved unto me, he [kail tye all night betwixt my breafzs. 

— I fat down under his Jkadoiu iJufik great delight , and 

his fruit was fzueet to my tajlc : He brought me to the ban- 
queting-houfe, and his banner over me was love : Stay me 
withflagonsy comfort me with app/es } f:r I amfick of love / 
His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth cm- 
brace me ; My beloved is mine, and I am his ; 1 am my be- 
loved's, and his defitc is toward me .• 1 fund him whom my foul 
loved, I held him and would not let kirn go ; Set me as a feat 
upon thy heart, and as afeal on thine arm ; Love is ftrong as 

death many waters cannot quench love, neither can the 

floods drown it ; I charge you daughters o[ Jerufalem, if ye 
find my beloved, that ye teil him, I am fick of love. Come my 
beloved, let us go up early to the vineyards, let us fee f the 

vines flourifb : there will I give thee my loves ; make bafte 

tny beloved, and be thou like to a rce % or to a young Hart en 
the mountains offpices. How fair and how pleafant are thou % 

O love for deligts ! my dove He that loveth me (hall be 

loved of my Father, and 1 will love htm and manifefl myfelfto 
kirn. If any man love me he will keep my words, and my Fa- 
ther will love him, and we will come unto him and make our 
abode with him ,• As the Father hath loved me, fo have I loved 
you, continue ye in my love : If ye keep my commandments , ye 
fkall abide in my love^even as I have kept my Fathers command- 
ments and abide in his love. The love ofCbrijl conffraineth us : 
Wt hve him becnufe hefirfl kved us ; the hv$ of Cod isfi?ed a- 


16 To the READER. 

broad in our hearts by the Holy Choft given unto us : whom 
having hot feen y$ love, and whom though now ye fee him not 
yet believing ye rejoice with joy unfpeakable and full of glory* 

That ye may with all faints be able to comprehend what 

is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, and 
to know the love of Chrift that pafleth knowledge. Are 
thefe, I fay romances ? are thefe fancies, fittions, and for- 
geries ? are thefe fables cunningly devifed and told by the 
non-conformifts-preachers ? Did the apoftle thunder the 
great Anathema Maranatha, againft men for their not ha- 
ving a mere romantick and fancied love to the Lord Jefus ? 
(the execution of which dreadful doom will be a folid proof 
of its reality, and a fad reproof for denying it to be fo.) Dare 
the moft proud, petulant, perverfe, and prodigoufly-pro- 
fane prater, pretending but to the name of a Chriftian,Tay 
it ? If thofe moft real love-communications and intercour- 
fes betwixt the Lord Chrift, and the believing foul, be but 
romances ; then the whole Bible (whereof thefe make fo 
confiderable and fo comfortable a part) may be reckoned a 
romance (which be like this romantick divine will not fo 
much demurr making fmall account thereof, audacioufly 
alledging the Englifh Bible to be a book in fome places er- 
roneous, in fome fcarcc fenfe and of dangerous confequen- 
ces; loath would he be to deal fo by grand Cyrus, Cleapa- 
tra, and his other darling romances,} if there be no real 
but romantic and famed love betwixt Chrift and the Chrif- 
tian, then no real Chriftianity, no real Chrift (whom this 
new do&or dreadfully debafeth under the poorly palliated 
pretext of exalting him, affirming, That his unparalelled 
civility, and the obligingnefs of his deportment, (eems to 
be almoft as high an evidence ojF the truth and divinity of 
his dodlrine, as his unparalelled miracles were, otherwife 
he would be a bafe and profligate impoftor ; what would 
this young divine (for old divines and even great Calvin by 
name amongft the re(J, he defpifeth as a company of filly 
fyftematicks) have faid and thought of the divinity of the 
perfon and doftrine of the blefied Jefus, if when on earth 
he had more frequently (as he might and probably would 
have done under the fame circumftances) (poke and dealt 
fo roughly and roundly as he did when he called Herod a 
fox and fcourged the buyers and fellers out of the temple, 
and had feemed to be as uncivil and of as little obliging a 
deportment as his harbinger John Baptift, he would belike 
have doubted of his divinity, and deemed him but a bafe 
impoftor, if not peremptorily pronounced that he had a de- 
vil ; No real redemption, no real redeemer ; no real mifery, 
no real mercy ; no repl heaven, no real hell (but »b ! the 


To the READER. 17 

real a&ing of its ftory will eafily and quickly refute this 
1 omantick conception of it.) And in fine, no real God : 
All is but one intire fine romance fable and figment ; The 
Lord againft whom this mouth is opened thus wickedly, 
wide, and is by another Rabfhakeh railed on at fuch a rate 
rebuke the fpirit which prompteth to the venting this 
damnable and diabolick, nay hyperdiabolick do&rine (for 
the devils believe that there is one God, and tremble, 
and that Jefus Chrift is the Son of God, whom even in 
his ftate of humiliation they acknowledged to be fo, aad, 
from the dread of him, deprecated his tormenting them be- 
fore the time ; but- this defperado would on the matter drive 
us into a difbelief of both, and yet droll us out of all dread 
of being tormented on that or any other account either be- 
fore the time or at it,) becaufe of which its teacher, (of late 
better taught (if he would humble himfelf to receive inflec- 
tion,) by the famous Dr. Owen, by acute matter Marvel, 
and by the grave author of the fulfilling of the fcriptures, 
in his fecond part) deeply deferves not only to be call: out 
of the proteftant churches, but to be hifled and chafed out 
of the Chriftian world. And as appears finally, by that di- 
vinely politick and profoundly wife treatife of fcandal, in 
general, and of fcandalous divifions, in particular: which 
both preachers and profefibrsof the gofpel, fhould read, and 
read again, in thefe fad times ; wherein (alas !) there is (o 
much offence given, and fo great a readinefs to take offence. 
Of none of which treatifes, nor of any other fo brief a trea- 
tife on the commands, this piece will, I humbly fuppofe, 
be found to fall much, if any thing at all fliort ; wherein 
the light of the glory of the Lord, in the face of Jefus 
Chrift, that (hined in upon the hearts of his fervant, hath. 
fo brightly and fo radiantly darted forth its beams, that he 
hath clearly (hewed us the feven abominations of our hearts ; 
and by digging, hath difcovered great abominations, anc * 
greater, and yet, greater than thefe. He that fearcheth Je- 
rufalem with candles, hath by putting the candle of the true 
meaning of the law of the Lord into his hand, made him 
go down and fearch into the very inward parts of the belly 
and bowels of the corruption of our nature, and to ranfack 
the moft retired corners of the clofe cabinet of the deep de- 
ceitfulnefs, and defperate wickednefs, that ;s lodged and 
locked up m our hearts : He hath given to him as it were, 
the end of the clew of fearch, whereby he hath followed 
and found us out, in thofe many turnings, and traverfings, 
windings, and wanderings, of the Labyrinth of this great 
xnyftery of iniquity, that workcth in us. He hath there- 
in atfo, saarvelloufly helped him with exquifitive. fkill, as it 
C were 

1.8 To the READER. 

were antinomically to difieft, even to fome of the very 
fmalleft capilkr veins; a great part of thevaft body, of the 
many and various duties luccinftly fummed up in thefe ten 
words, of this holy law •, a tranfumpt and double whereof, 
was as vively writen, and deeply engraven upon the flefhly 
tables of the author's heart, and on the whole of his vifible 
deportment, as readily hath been on many of the finful fons 
of Adam. Not to detain thee long ; let me for provoking^ 
and perfuading to confider what the bleft author, being now 
dead, ytt fpeaketh in this choice treatife, (and more efpe- 
cially to the inhabitants of Glafgow, now the fecond time) 
only fay, that amongft many other diftempers of this de- 
clined and degenerated generation, there is a great itching 
after fome new and more notional, and a loathing of old 
and more folid and fubftantial things in religion ; whereof 
this is a demonftration, that though there be very few fub* 
jefts morfc neceffary and ufeful than what is treated of here, 
yet there is none more generally flighted, as being a very 
common and ordinary fubjeft, and but the ten commands 
fitter to be read and got by rot by children, or at beft to be 
ftudied by rude and ignorant beginners, by apprentices and 
Chriftians of the loweft form in Chrift's fchool, than by 
profeffbrs of greater knowledge and longer (landing, who 
fuppofe themfelves, and are it may be fuppofed by others, 
to have pafled their apprentifhip, to be grown deacons in 
the trade of religion, and to have commenced matters of 
art therein : Who fome way difdain and account it below 
them to ftay a while and talk with Mofes at the foot of 
mount Sinai, as if they could per faitum, or by one falcon 
flight come at the top of mount-Sion, and there converfe 
with and make ufe of Jefus Chrift ; whence it cometh to 
pafs that not a few are lamentably ignorant of the very let- 
ter of the law, and many more but little infighted in the fpi- 
ritual meaning thereof ; which ignorance is waited with 
tnany unfpeakable great prejudices (that are to be confidered 
with refpeft to the various ftates of men, *s regenerate or 
unregenerate, and to the feveral degrees of their ignorance) 
i . It very much incapacitated for felf-fcarching and exa- 
mination, a confiderable piece, yea a fort of fpring of the 
cxercife of godlinefs ; how I pray, can a perfon to any pur- 
pofe fearch and try his heart and ways, being altogether, 
or in a great meafure ignorant of the rule according to 
which the fearch ought to be accomplished ? 2, It kcepeth 
men much inacquainted with, and great ftrangers to the 
knowledge of themfelves, of their ftate, frame and walk, 
fo that they can feldom, or never be in cafe to make a know- 
ing diftiaft and fcclihg reprefentations of the pofture of 

To the READER. tp 

their fpiritual affairs to God. 3. It is the mother and nurfc 
not of any true devotion (as Papifts ignorantly or impiouf- 
ly averr) but of much carnal fecurity and falfe peace ; the 
uninformed or ill-informed confcience of the (inner being 
mifcoanced from and fadly fecured againft the moft juft and 
beft grounded challanges ; being often ignorant when fin is 
committed, and when duty is omitted or unduely perform- 
ed ; every fin being a tranfgreffion of this law, and every 
duty a piece of conformity to it; how can a man, ignorant 
altogether, or in a great part, of the juft extent and fpiri- 
tual meaning thereof, be as he ought, challenged and accuf- 
ed by his own confcience either for the commiffion of the 
one, or for the omiffion or mif-performance of the other ? 
4. It notably obftrufteth the exercife of humiliation, repen- 
tance and felf-loarthing; for how can the breaches of this 
law in omiffions and commiffions, be diftinftly and particu- 
larly repented of and mourned for, when they are not fo 
much as known to be breaches of the law in general, let be 
of what particular command thereof r and though they 
were fome way confufedly known to be breaches of it in ge- 
neral, if there be not a diftinft knowledge of the command 
that is broken, the conviftion will not readily be fo quick, 
nor the forrow fo pricking ; we have need for our humbling 
to be bound with the convincing and undeniable evidence 
of our being guilty of the breach of fuch and fuch a com- 
mand in particular, that we may not get it fhifted nor ftiak- 
en off. 5. It manifeftly ftandeth in the way of ferious and 
effe&ual endeavours in the ftrength of grace to amend what 
is amifs, and fpeedily without delay to turn our feet un- 
to his commandments; there being no ground to expett 
that men will in good earned think of righting wrongs, 
whereof they are ignorant, or not fo throughly perfuad- 
ed. 6. It hath a mighty tendency to the cherifhing 
of fpiritual pride, and that good opinion and conceit of 
mens own righteoufnefs, which is as natural to us, as ifr is 
for fparks of fire to fly upwards c , and when men know not 
often when they fin ; nor how much they fin, they will be 
the more eafily induced to think they are not fo great fin* 
ncrs, nor have fo muchreafon as is talked of, to be fo very 
far and altogether out of conceit with themfelves ; and what 
may here be death-ill of a natural unrenewed man, may be 
the dangerous diftemper of a child of God. 7. (which as 
the grand prejudice doth natively and necefiarily refult from 
all the fix preceeding prejudices thereof, and maketh it ap- 
pear to be exceedingly and out of meafure prejudicial) It 
keepeth much from the through conviftton and kindly fenfe 
of the abfolute and indifpenfible neceflity, great ufefulnefs 

C 2, and 

lo To the READER. 

and fteadablenefs and matchlefs-worth of precious Jefus 
Chrift the Saviour, and of his imputed righteoufnefs ; from 
having daily recourfe to him, and making ufe of him as 
made of God unto his people both righteoufnefs and fanc- 
tification ; from lying ccniiantly a bleaching as it were, at 
the fountain opened to the houfe of David and to inhabi- 
tants of Jerufalem for fin and for uncleannefs; from foul* 
edifying-refrefhing and fomeway tranfporting-admiration 
at the abfolute perfc&ion of hib righteoufnefs, that can co- 
ver and make as if they had never been, fo very many va- 
rious violations of the holy law of God ; from new and frefli 
convi£lions on all occafions of the unfpeakable obligation the 
people of God lie under, to him who hath pefe&ly fulfilled 
this law, and in their fiead taken onhimfelf the curfe thereof, 
from excitements and provocations to thankfuloefs, and 
from expreiiing the fame in a greater care and follicitude 
to conform thereto as the rule of obedience ; and finally 
from fuitable longings and pantings of foul to be according 
to his gracious undertaking in the covenant of redemption, 
put in cafe to do his will perfectly in our own perfons and 
never any more to tranfgrefs this his law, and to be brought 
under the fall accomplishment of thefe exceeding great and 
precious promises, He Jhall redeem lfraelfrom all his itiiqui* 
ties; and bis fervants foall ferve him. O! that we could by 
what is faid perfuade ail to a more diligent and accurate ftu- 
dy of the law of God, and to the reading and ruminating 
upon this folid and foul fearching tract; and prevail with 
feveral perfons (which in reafon and confeience might be 
prefumed would not be fo very hard a bufinefs to bring to 
pafs, with men and women profeffing themfeives to be 
Chriftians, nay to have immortal fouls that are to be eter- 
nally and unalterably either happy or miferable) to take but 
as much time to the reading, perufing and pondering of it 
and other fuch pieces, as is taken to the reading of amour- 
bus books and romances ; to idle vifits, and to vain and 
empty compliments ; to over-coftly, curious, vaic, and coa- 
ceity drefling, and decking of the body, and fetting of the 
hair now after one mode, n0w after another (wherein (as 
in other vanities) many men fomewhat unmeaning them- 
feives, do now contend with women, partly by their un- 
naturally nourimed long hair, and horrid buihes of vani- 
ty, (as Mr. Bolton calls them) and partly by their varioufly, 
and ftrangely metamorphofing modes and colours of perri- 
wiggc) which made Tertpllian in the feventh chapter of his 
book de cultu mul. to expostulate with the women of his 
time after this manner; ,Sf What doth this cumberfome 
*' drefling of the head contribute to your health ? why will 

11 your 

To the READER. 21 

u you not fufter your hair to be at reft and lie quiet ? which 
c< is fometimes tied up, fometimes relaxed and made to hang 
" down, fometimes frizled and curled, fometimes tiedclofc 
V and preft down ; fometimes put under a ftrick reftraint 
u (of plaits, knots, and otherways ;) and fometimes fuffer- 
" ed to efcape and Aide out from that reftraint, and to flic- 
" ter and fly at random : And ye affix moreover to your 
c< heads I know not what enormities of hair fewed and wo- 
fi ven now this way, now that way if you be not afhamed 
t( of the enormities, be afhamed at leaft of the defilment, 
" left ye be found to adorn and cloath a holy and Chriftian 
€S head with the fpoil and pillage of the hair of an others 
cf head that is a filthy perfon> or it may be of a notorious 
« c offender and condemned to hell. ;> What would he have 
faid of fome women among us, who being difpleafed not 
only with their own, but with all colours of hair that God 
hath made to grow on the heads of reafonable creatures abo- 
minably affe&to affix to their fore-heads the hair of beafts ? 
(High extravagances of this age almoft in all ranks of per- 
sons, and never at a greater height than fince God begaa 
to contend with us, and to call us to lay afide our orna- 
ments, that he might know what to do unto us; many alas, 
take more time in thefe days to buk add drefs, and to look 
in a glafs for that end in one week than they do in a year, 
yea, it may be in many years, to look into this glafs of the 
law of the Lord, to difcover the many fpots and blemiihes 
wherewith their fouls are pitifully deformed, or into fuch 
treatifes as this, whereby the duft of mifappreheniions of 
the meaning'of the law is wiped off, and it made eafily and 
at firft view to give a juft representation of what manner of 
perfons we are ;) to drinking, drunk, and healthing, or 
drinking and pledging healths, prohibited and much con- 
demned in the .ancient church particularly by Bafil, and 
Auguftine, on this very ground, iS that they were the in- 
u vention of the devil, and the obfervations or reiiques of 
f< Infidels and Pagans i" to tipling and four hourling, a con • 
fcience wafting and foul weakening practice, though with 
loo many (and with not a. few from whom better things 
might be expected) but little ftuck at ; to carding and dice- 
log, which dice-playing hath been condemned by many fa- 
thers, by feverai councils, by fome imperial ftatutcs, by al- 
moft all proteftant and by many popifti divines, yea ionic 
councils have appointed dico*playert to be excommunicated ; 
to finging and playing of light and wanton iongsand to laf- 
civious da-ncing, much alfo cried out againft and condem- 
ned by councils, fathers and many divines, at great length 
moft vehemently bv the Waldenfes and Albigences, who 


zi To the READER. 

account it no great fign of a woman's honefty that (he U a 
fkilful and great dancer: the remark likewife that the writ- 
er of magica defpeElris^ lib. i. hift. 287. page 285. hath of 
this prophane, promifcuous dancing which the wantons of 
this age (o much pra&ife, praife and pride themfelves in^ 
is very remakable, u that there was hardly any meeting be - 
41 twixt the devils and witches, wherein there was not dan- 
** cing;'' fuch complacency hath that unclean fpirit in this 
cxercife ; and to bring fpeftators of prophane interludes and 
ftage-plays, which (as the eminently learned and pious Dr. 
Ufher late arch bifhop of Armagh affirmeth) offend againft 
many branches of the feventh command together, in the a- 
bufe of apparel, tongue, eyes, countenance, geftures, and 
alrnoft all parts of the body \ therefore (faith the great 
roan) they that go to fee fuch fights and hear fuch words 
(what would he have faid of the penners or compofers of 
fuch plays and a&ors in them ? whom the ancient church 
appointed to t* excommunicated, and on feveral of both 
which remarkable judgments have lighted (whereof one may 
fpeak for many, affirmed by Ludovicus vives in his notes on 
Auguftine decivit. dei % lib. \% cap, 25. from perfons of good 
credit, that a certain man who having in a ftage play in 
one of the cities of Brabant a£ted the devils part, and going 
home dancing to his houfe, and in that habit accompany- 
ing with his wife, and faying he would beget a devil on her, 
had a child brought forth to him that danced fo foon as e- 
▼er was born, being (haped as men ufc to paint the devil,) 
of builders and doters of houfes for them, called by the fa- 
thers and dodlors of the church, <c the devils temples, chap# 
c< pels, fhops and fchools •," as the plays are called by them, 
fi the devils fpe&acles, lectures, facrifices, recreations/* &c* 
2Dd the players, |C the devils chiefeft factors;" of fuch as 
have them in their own dwelling-houfes (as fome now have) 
which they give away in a manner to be fynagouges to the 
devil to keep his conventicles in ; and of fuch as contribute 
whether to the aciors of their encouragement to follow that 
lewd way of living, or for liberty to look on ? which Au- 
guftine, Vincentius and others call a " heinous fin and an 
€i offering or facrificing to the devil, the firft inventor of 
*' them) (hew their negieft of Chriftian duty and carelefnefs 
€i in finning, whereas they willingly commit themfelves to 
€t the fnare of the devil ;" which hath been often fadly ex- 
amplified, particularly in thefe two Chriftian women fpoken 
of by Tertullian in his book de fpe&aculis, cap. 26. to the 
truth of which, he faith, " God is witnefs." The one 
whereof, was at her returning home from a ftage play, im- 
mediately poffefied with a devil } who being by exorcifm ex- 


To the READER. 23 

poftulated with, how he durft thus afiult, and enter into a 
believing woman I Anfwered boldly, That he had done it 
moft juftly : For, faid he, in meo earn invent^ I found her 
in my own temple, or in my own ground, or in my own 
dominion, or jurifdiftion ; and as if he had faid, about my 
own work and bufinefs. The other who the fame night, 
after hearing a tragedian, had a linning-fhect prefented to 
her, in her fleep : the attor in the play being alfo named, 
with a (harp upbraiding of her, for this deed of hers ; and 
lived not above five days after. And in Alipius, a dear 
friend, and convert of Auguftine's -, who (as that father 
Narrats, in the fixth book of his confeffion, cap. 8.) being 
importuned one day by fome of his friends, and fellow-ftu- 
dents, meeting him on the way, to go along with them to 
fee a fword-play, earneftly at firft withftood them ; and be- 
ing at laft drawn along with them, he refolved to be abfent, 
while he wa9 prefent, and to (hut his eyes all the while he 
was there: and accordingly did, when he took his place: 
but when a great fhout was made, occafioned by fome ac- 
cident in the play, he opened his eyes ; Yet-with a refolu- 
tion to contemn the fight, whatever it fhould be : but forth- 
with he was fmitten with a grievous wound in his foul, and 
was not now the fame man, that he came thither: But a 
true companion of them, that brought him ; he beheld, he 
fliouted, he grew out-ragious, and brought away madneft 
with him ; whereby he was excited to return thither again, 
drawing others along with him, and even out-ftripping thefe, 
by whom he was firft drawn away : Yet after this length ot 
profanity, he was mercifully recovered, but not till a long 
time after, (Perfons that are once mifled by ftage plays, 
though civil or religious, being feldom fpeedily reclaimed 
from them.) This alfo was examplified, in that late Eng- 
lish gentlewoman of good-rank, who fpending much of 
her precious time, in attendance on ftage plays ; *nd fal- 
ling at laft into a dangerous ficknefs, whereof (he died, 
Anno 1 63 1 . Friends in her extremity, fent for a minifter 
to prepare her for death ; who beginning to inftruft and 
exhort her to repent and call on God for mercy, (he made 
him no reply at all; but cried out Hieronimo, Hieronimo; 
O let me fee Hieronimo afted ! And fo calling for a play, 
inftead of calling on God for mercy, clofed her dying eyes, 
and had a fearful end, aafwerable to her miferable life* 
And in thefc feveral perfons, who were diftra&ed with the 
vifible apparition of the devil on the ftage, at the Bell -fa- 
vage play-houfc, in Queen Elizabeth's days, while they 
were there beholding the hiftory of Faftus, prophanely ac- 
ted : To which might be *dded many other lamentable ex- 

14 To the READER, 

arnples and warnings, of fuch, who by little and little, hare 
made defection from the faith, being allured hereto by dan- 
gerous cuftom, of beholding fuch plays, wherein (Tertullian 
faith,) " They communicate with the devil." Will any 
man or woman, dare to appear before the dreadful tribu- 
nal of God, to maintain and make out the warrantablenefs 
of allowing more time to thefe and fuch other practices- 
(feveral of which, are excellently difcourfed by the author 
in the following tract; and mod of them with their refpec- 
tive authorities, by Mr. Prinn in his hijioria mafiix,) than 
to reading of this and other fuch treatifes : If any will, they 
muft anfwer it: I mind not through grace, to take part 
with them, in fo bold and defperate an adventure. 

Now Chriftian reader, without further prefacing, to 
bring thee in upon the treafure of the treatife itfelf : If 
thou wilt read it ferioufly, and confider it fuitably ; I think 
I may humbly in the name of the Lord, bid thee a defi- 
ance, to come away from it, without a bofom full of con- 
victions, of much guilt ; and without crying out with the 
leper under the law, unclean, unclean ; with Job, behold I 
am vile i with David, looking ftedfaftly on theglafs of this 
law, brightly fliined on, by God's light, and reflecting a 
moft clear difcovery, of innumerable trafgrefiions of it, as 
fo many attorns, in a clear fun-fhine : Who can under/land 
his errors ? Cleanfe thou me from fecret faults ; with the 
prophet Ifaiah, We are all as an unclean thing, (as unclean- 
nefs itfelf, in the abftradt, moft unclean,) and all our rigb- 
teoufnejfes are as filthy rags ; with the apoftle James, In ma* 
ny things we offend all ; and finally with the apoftle Paul, 
•we know that the law is fpiritual, but I am carnal, and fold 

under fin wretched man that I am, who /ball deliver me 

from the body of this death ? That thou mayeft alfo with the 
fame apoftle, be in cafe to fay and fing, to the commenda- 
tion of his grace, 1 thank Cod through Jefus Chrifl our Lord, 
is the cordial defire of, 

Thy Servant in the Gofpel 

for Chrift's fake. 


t *5 1 


Chriftian and Candid Reader^ 

THOU feeft that in this epiftle, which for the moll: 
part of it was written above two years ago, I have 
fpoken a word of ftage-plays, prophane interludes, como- 
dies, &c. at that time, and feveral years before, much- in 
ufe amongftus; whereto I would now add, a few words 
more, and deduce a little their infamous, idolatrous, de- 
vilifh, and damnable pedigree and original, and give thee 
a brief account of the judgement of the ancient Chriftian 
church about them ; that the aftors in them, with the pa- 
trons and haunters of them, may with the greater difTatisfac- 
tion refleft on their own by-paft unfuit&ble and difconform, 
practice, and that all others may forever hereafter learn to 
fear, and to do no more fo unchriftianly : To which I am 
the rather induced, that the worthy author of this treatife, 
hath only in paffing made mention of them as a breach of 
the feventh command, they being then utterly in defuetude 
with us, and it having not fo much as once entered into his 
thoughts, that after fo bright and glorious a fun-fhine of 
gofpei light, the generation would ever, let be fo quickly, 
have fo far degenerated, as to fuffer themfelves to be temp- 
ted to have any fellowship with fuch unfruitful works of 
darknefs : I fay then, that ftage-plays, in their feveral forts, 
were prohibited, reprobated and condemned, and the ac- 
tors in them appointed to be excommunicated by the Can- 
ons of feveral more particular, and of fome general coun- 
cils (which canons I forbear for brevities fake, to fet down 
at length) as namely, by the fifth cannon of the firft coun- 
cil at Aries in France, Anno 314. in the time of Conftan- 
tine the great; by the twentieth canon of the fecond coun- 
cil held there, Anno 326 or more probable 389. as Fr. 
Longus a Carioliano reckoneth in his Aim of all the coun- 
cils ; by the fifty feventh, fixty fecond, and fixty feventh 
cannons of the EUberine council in Spain, Anno 305. by 
the eleventh and thirty fifth canons of the third (to wit, 
from Conftantine's time, as Spondanus reckoneth) council 
of Carthage, Anno 397. the very fame with the thirteenth 
and thirty fifth canons of the council of Hippo in Africk, 
teld Anno 35)3, as Longus a Carioliano fheweth j who fets 
D down 


down the fum of the canons framed at Hippo, at the clofe 
of the canons made in this third council of Carthage ; by 
the twelfth canon of the African council held, Anno 408. 
where Auguftioe was prefent ; the canons of both which 
councils, luppofe perfons to have been excommunicated on 
this account, and provide for their reconciliation to the 
church, in cafe of repentance and turning from thefe prac- 
tices to the Lord ; and by the fifty firft fixty fecond can- 
nons of the fixth general council (called by fome the fifth) 
held at Conftantjnople, Anno 6S0. the canons whereof 
were renewed in that council held at Conftantinople, Anno 
692. which is called Qmnifextum ; thefe two canons are 
very exprefs and peremptory in this thing. And can any 
Chriftians warrantably, and without Go, recreate them- 
felves with beholding fuch p'ays, the actors wherein deferve 
to be excommunicated ? what ? is there nobetter, no more 
innocent and inoffenfive way ? or is this the only or the belt 
way to recreate men ; to refine, Sharpen, and polifli their 
wits; to perfwade nnd prevail with them to hate and £et: 
▼ice, 2nd to love and follow virtue •, to acquaint them from 
hiftory with, to imprefs on them the remembrance, and to 
excite them to the imitation of, the noble and truly insta- 
ble actions of illuftrious heroes, and other great men ; to 
breed them to a fuitable confidence 5 to make them eloquent 
and fine fpokfmen ; and to help them to a becoming geft" 
in all aftions, places, and focieties ? the grave Seers, and 
great lights of the church, did never fee any fuch thing in 
them ; but on the contrary, have with common iuffrage 
judged them to be the moft effectual and compendious way 
to make men foft, diffolute, and fenfual •, nay, even in aman- 
fier quite to ecnafculate, if not to brutifie them* and have, 
without any difcord declared, that the lightnefs, lafcivious- 
nefs, and lewdnefs that in thefe players were touched un- 
der, and covered over with fuch (hreds and pieces of learn- 
ing, hiftory, eloquence, invention, wit, and art, were there- 
by only made the more dangerous, and that Satan (hewed 
his pernicious and peftilent policy, not a little in this tinc- 
turing, fugaring, and guilding thefe poifonable pills, that 
they might go the better down, diffuie themfelves the lefs 
fefibly, and operate the more ftrongly. And however 
fome empty and effeminate, vain and vicious, Roman em- 
p ors reduced with fuch plays, yet fome of the graveft and 
fobefreft, manlieft and braveft even heathen emperors, did 
oppofe and exterminate them (Co that Guevara noteth it to 
have been one of the tokens and charafterifticks to know a 
virtuous or vicious prince of Rome by, 10 wit, whether he 
maintat^ed players, jefters, and juglcrs among the people, 



or not) as did alfo many fenators, Chriftian emperors, and 
well regulated republicks, both Pagan and Chriftian; as 
unbefeeming exercifes, and effeminate arts, which did much 
di(honour and corrupt the ftate, and as femin stories of all 
vices and intolerable mifchiefs in the common-wealth : And 
no doubt, whatever good is pretended to be got in a play- 
houfe, or at the itage (hardly without a predominant mix- 
ture of evil) may be learned as well, as ealily, and much 
more fafely, if not more cheap too, elfewhere. As they 
have been thus forbidden and cenfured by councils, fo I fay 
more particularly they have been very unanimoufly condem- 
ned by the fathers, on thefe and other fuch like grounds : 
I. As being a breach of the feventh commandment, where- 
in a multitude of modern divines writing on this command, 
accord with them. 2. As being a conforming to, and par- 
ticipating with Pagans in their idolatrous and fuperftitious 
pra&ices* exprefly forbidden to the people of God in the 
fcripture ; which put Cyprian de fpeft. peremptorily to con- 
elude, li That the fcriptnre hath everlafiingly condemned 
c< all forts of fuch fpe&acles and ftage- plays, when it took 
il away idolatry, the mother of thsm, whence all thefe rnon* 
m iters of vanity, lightnefs and lewdnefs did proceed." 3. As 
being crpfs to, and a practical rencunciation of, the baptif- 
mal vow of Chriftians, wherein they engage to renounce the 
devil and all his pomps and works, of which fort they ac- 
count the acting and beholding popular ftage plays to be* 
4. As being the removal of a diftinguifhing cbara&er o£ 
Chriftians from Heathen Gentiles, " Who (as Tertuilian 
■? fays, lib. de fpect. cap. 24.) did moll of all difcern men 
* f by this; that they abandoned and renounced all ftage- 
41 plays." 5. As being- unfuitable to, if not inconfifter.t 
with the gofpel, which forbiderh Chriftians to make provi- 
flon for the fieth to fulfill the lufts thereof, to be caterers 
for their corruptions, and to be conform to the world $ and 
commandeth them to walk circumfpe&ly, accurately, even 
with fpiritual precifenefs and ftriflnefs, not as fools, but 
as wife, redeeming the time ; wofully wafted away, and 
miferably mifpent this way ; to abftain from all appearance 
of evil -, to rejoice in the Lord ; and when they are merry, 
to fing pfalms, and to vent and exprefs their mirth in fongs 
of praife to God, and not in this wanton way ; and aflur- 
cth them withal, that evil communicartions corrupt good 
manners. 6. As being a corruption of manners, incentives 
tp lightnefs and luft, and feminaries and nurferies of wan- 
tonnefs and uncleannefs. And 7. as holding their pedi- 
gree, original, and inftitution from the devil, the inventor- 
of them ; And being at firft idolatrotffly and fuperftitiouf- 

D % lj 


ly celebrated to the honour, and for many hundreds of 
years together, dedicated, devouted, and appropriated to 
the worfliip and fervice of the heathen devil-gods; (Who 
as Auguftine affirmeth, lib. 4. de civ. Dei, cap. 36. intituled 
De ludis Scenicify &c that is, concerning ftage-plays, which, 
the gods required to be celebrated to them by their worfhip- 
pers) did themfelves importunately demand thefe plays to 
be exhibited to them for their honour, fiercely and cruelly 
command them, denounce calamities if they were not ex- 
hibited, avenge moft feverely, if any thing about them was 
regle&ed, and if they amended what was formerly omitted 
or negledlcd in them, fhew themfelves pacified and well 
pleafed. Which may further appear by thefe few inftances 
taken out of famous writers, whereof the firft may be that 
which is mentioned by Pol. Virg. de invent, rerum, lib. 4, 
cap. 14. page 375. where he fays, <c That plays were chief- 
€S ly celebrated for the health and fafety of men with lee- 
u tifternes ; (that is, b^ds that were dreffed up in their 
€i temples for lulling and rocking (as it were) their gods a- 
gi fieep when they raged with anger) the beginning of which 
€t playes (fays he) it is manifeft was the work of the devil; 
«' For fays he there was one Velefius a wealthy Roman 
« f (fometime before the inftitution of the confular office) 
4t who had three fons defperately fick of the peftilence, for 
4i whom when he prayed to his houfhold gods, he was by 
« c them bidden go to Tarentum, and take, water from be- 
*' fore, or from befide the altar of Pluto and Proferpina, 
*? and give them to drink (or as others, to wafh them in) 
€i which he having done, they were reftored to health ; and 
gl in giatitude commanded by thefe infernal fpirits to cele- 
41 brate night plays to them, which he and they according- 
g( ly did for three nights together. The next may be that 
« f which is reported by Titus Livius, lib. 2. and by Auguf- 
4i tine, lib. 4. de civ. Dei, cap. 26. and by Lud. Vivesinhis 
u notes upon that chapter, concerning one Titus Latinus, 
§t or Larinus, who in the fecond confulfhip of M. Minutius 
u and Aur Sempronius, Ann. ab urb. cond. 263. when the 
u gods were difpleafed, was warned in a dream to go to the 
€t fenate, and tell them they were not fatisfied withe preful- 
u tor or dancer before, or ring-leader in the laft plays, in 
g| which plays they take pleafure, being recreated by them, 
il and that unlefs the plays were renewed by their order 
" with greater ftate and fumptuoufnefs (called by Florus in 
11 his braviary on that book, religious ceremonies) fome 
u great calamity fhould be inflated (or as others, the prd- 
u lent not be removed) which the man not doing was fharp- 


n ly rebuked, and yet delaying out of reverence to the fe- 
u nate, and from fear that himfelf ihould be looked at as 
€i frantick, his fon was taken from him \ and yet ftill de- 
cc ferring, he was feized in all his joints with a tormenting 
• f difeafe, fo that he could not ftir; and at laft telling hi« 
u friends he was by them willed to acquaint the fenate 
" and being carried to them, and having done his errand, 
<c was prefently reftored to his health (fo much power may 
<f the devil in the righteous judgment of God have granted 
u to him, to feduce men unto, and detain them in his wor- 
u fliip and fervice) wherewith the fenate was fo much tak- 
u en, that they forthwith commanded the plays to be ce- 
f< lebrated with greater care, coft, and (hew, than former- 
cc ly. The third that may be fpoke of alfo by Titus Livius, 
c< lib. 7. In the confufhip of C. Sulpitius Peticus, and C, 
<c LuciniusStolo, Annoaburb cond. 390. In the time of 
u the great and raging peftilence wherein Furius Camillus, 
u dictator and deliverer of Rome from the Gaules died j 
is wherein for procuring the mercy of the gods there was a 
<f le&ifterne, but when by no device of man, nor help of the 
€i gods, the violence of the plague could be affwaged, th'cir 
f< minds were fo pofleft with fuperftition, that the ftage- 
** plays were, as men fay, firft invented (that is belike, 
" plays in that pompous, ludicrous, effeminate, and luxu- 
rious mode on the ftage, which had never before beea 
il ufed in the city (for feveral plays they had ere this time) 
" a ftrange device for a martial people, who before time 
cc for moft part at lead) accuftomed to behold games of 
u aftivity and ftrength in the great lift called Circus ; and 
u from this fmall beginning (fays he) in a fecond and whol- 
u fom ftate, this folly grew to fuch a height of madnefs, as 
* ' is untolerable to the moft opulent ftates and empires, and 
u yet thefe plays fo brought in, and fet forth called by Fiorus 
u in his braviary on that book, new and ftrange religions 
,c (employed about a religious bufinefs, did neither rid mens 
€t minds of fcruple and fuperftition, nor eafe their bodies : 
f< Thus they are condemned as fuperftitionand innovarioncf 
u their old religion, by thefe two famous heathen hiftorians, 
u The fourth may be that which is made mention of by Tit. 
u Livius alfo towards the end of his forty book concerning 
u Flavius Flaccus, fellow conful with his own German bro- 
u ther L. Manlius Oecipinus, Ann. ab urb. cond. 575. 
u Who declared that before he would meddle with his of- 
H fice, he would difcharge both himfelf and the city of du- 
u tj towards the gods, in paying the vows that he had made 
" on that fame day, that he had his laft bat le with the 
f * Celtiberiansj anem the celebrating plaves to the honour 

« : of 


u of the mcft mighty and gracious god Jupiter, and ta. 
<c build a temple to Fortuna jEqueflris; and accordingly 
C( levied a great tax for that end, which behoved to be re- 
41 trenched, becaufe of the exorbitency of it. The fifth 
•! and laft (hall be that which is touched by Pol. Virg. 
*' vbi prions p<ig, 377. concerning the Romans, their taking 
u care for Appollo his plays, which were firft dedicated to 
c< him in the time of the fecond punick war for obtaining 
u victory from him, to drive Hanibal out of Italy. To 
€{ thefe may be added what Spondanus in his Ecclef. AnnaL 
€t f-jg. 263. reports from Zozimus concerning Conftantine 
•' the Great, when he returned victorious over the Ger- 
u man.- to Millara, That he quite neglcfted and contem* 
cc ned fuch plays, to the great grief of the heathens, who 
<c alledged that thefe plays were inftituted by the gods for 
c * the cure of the peftilence and other difeafes, and for a- 
€S verting of wars. From all which is manifeft, that the 
cl original of thefe ftage- plays and fuch others, was from 
€i the devil, and celebrated by the heathens to the honour 
6 * and worfhip of their devil-gods in way of religious facri- 
<s fices to them; either as pacificatory or gratificatory j 
€i with whom in their idolatries and fuperftitions, thefcrip- 

" tures forbid all fymbolizing and fellowfhip". Let 

us hear now in the next place feme more of thefe Fa- 
thers fpeak their own and the churches thoughts, a little 
more particularly of ftage- plays, with refpect to fuch grounds, 
having heard fome of them already : Clem. Alex. crat. ad- 
bcrt. adv. Gentes % call ftage-plays and comedies, and amo- 
rous poems, te3chersof adultery, and defilers of mens ears 
with fornications ; and fays, That not only the ufe, the fight 
the hearing, but the very memory of ftage-plays fliould be 
abolifhed : And elfe where (for I do here purpofely forbear 
very particular citations, becaufe ordinary readers will not 
much, if at all fearch after them; and the learned that 
have a mind to it, will eafily find them out) tells Chriftian 
youths, That their pseJagogues muft not lead them to 
plays or theatres that may not unfitly be called the chairs of 
peftilence, becaufe thefe conventicles, where men and wo- 
men meet together promifcuoimy to behold one another, 
are the occafion of Iewdnefs, and there they give or plot 
wicked counM. Cyprian de fpeft. ftiles theatres the ftews 
of public chaftity, the mafterfhipof obfeenity, which teach. 
thefe fins in public, that men may more ufually and eafily 
commit them in private, he iearneth to commit who accuf- 
tometh himfelf to behold the theatrical reprefentations of 
uncleannefs : It is not lawful for faithful Chriftians, yea it 
h altogether unlawful to be prefent at thefe plays: And 



elfewhere he faith, (he that perchance came a chart matron 
to the plays, goes away a ftrumpet from the play-houfe: 
(We may here notice what the fatyrical poet Juvenal fays to 
this purpofe, Sat. 6. That a man in his time could not pick 
one chaft woman, whom he might fafely love as his wife 
out of the whole play-houfe, and that all women, who fre- 
quent ftage plays, are infamous, and forfeit their good 
names. It were good that our women who love and haunt 
fuch phys, would confider this : as alfo what is reported of 
Sempronius Sophus, a noble PvOman, who divorced from 
his wife for this alone caufe, that fhe frequented ftage- 
plays without his knowledge, which might mak€ her an a- 
dulterefs: which divorfe the whole Roman fenate did ap- 
prove (though it was the very firft they did approve) as be- 
ing a mean to keep women chafte: So great an enemy til 
chaftity were thefe plays judged to be ; which is touched by 
Rhodiginus, amongft others, in his antique legions, lib, 
28. cap. 16} Tertuiin calls the play-houfe, the chappel of 
venery, the houfe of letchery, the confiftory of unc-leaancfs : 
And in his i\pol. adv Gent. We renounce your fpeftacles 
and ftage-plays, even as we reject their original, which ws 
knew to have had their conception from fupcrftition ; we have 
nothing at all to do with the fury of your Circus, with the 
difhonefty. of the theatre, we come not at all to your 
plays, Origi a Epift. ad Rom. fays, That Chriftians intra not 
lift up their eyes to ftage-plays, the pleafurable delights or 
polluted eyes, left their lulls be inflamed by them. Ladan* 
tius % cUvero cultu, fays, That thefe interludes with which 
men are delighted, and whereat they are willingly prefent, be* 
caufe they are the greateft inftigations to vice, and the moik 
powerful inftruments to corrupt mens minds, are wholly to 
be abolifhed from anaongft us. Greg. Naz. de rc8. educ* 
calls ftage-players the fervants of lewdnefs, and ftage •;■ 
the difhoneft, unfeemly inftruclions of lalcivious men, 
repute nothing filthy but modefty; and pFay houfes 
lalcivious chops of all filthinefs and impurity. Arnbrofe in 
Pfal. 118. ftiles ftage-plays fpeaacles of vanity, by which 
the devil conveys incentiverof pleafure to mens hearts ; Jet 
us therefore (lays he) turn away our eyes from thefe vani- 
ties and ftage plays. Hiorom. Epi/f, ad Satvinem, Have 
nothing to do with ftage plays, becaufe they are the pleating 
incendaries of mens lulls. Auguftine de Civ. Dei> brands 
ftage-plays with this black mark, That they are the fpe&a- 
cles of filthinefs, the ovenurners of goodnefs and honefty, 
the chafer away of all modefty and chaftity, whorifh flvews 



the art of mifchievous villanies, which even modeft pagans 
did blufh to behold, the inventions to lewdnefs, by which 
the devil ufeth to gain innumerable companies of evil men 
to himfelf. In another place he calls theatres, cages of un- 
cleannefs, the public profeffions of wickednefs ; and ftage- 
plays the public profeffions of wickeefnefs ; and ftage-plays 
the moft petulant, the moft impure, impudent, wicked 
fhameful, and deteftable atonements of filty devil-gods ; 
which to true religion are moft abominable. And elfewhere 
he declares, That when thegofpel came to be fpread abroad 
in the world, ftage-plays and play-houfes, the very caves of 
filthinefs went to ruin almoft in every city, as inconfiftent 
with it; whence the Gentiles (fays he) complained of the 
times of Chriftianity, as evil and unhappy times. Epipha- 
nius contra bare/Jays, That the catholic and apoftolic church 
doth reprobate and forbid all theatres, ftage-plays, andfuch 
like heathenifh fpectacles. Chryfoftom. Horn, in Mattb.fays, 
I wifh the theatres and play, places were all thrown down 
though as to us they did lie defolate and ruined long ago : 
Elfewhere he fays, That nothing brings the oracles and or- 
dinances of God into fo great contempt, as admiring and 
beholding ftage-plays : And that neither facraments nor a- 
ijy other of God's ordinances (pray mark this diligently, 
O i how often is it fadly verified ?) will do a man good fo 
long as he goes to ftage-plays. Bernard ferm. ad miles tern* 
pli,fays } That all the faithful foldiers of Jefus Chrift abo- 
minate and reject all dicing and ftage plays, as vanities and 
falfe frenzies. Let Salvian his weighty words, de gab. Dei 9 
fhut up this fhort account of the judgment of thefe antient 
Fathers anent this matter, who fays, That in ftage-plays 

there is a certain apoftacy from the faith. For what is 

the firft confeffion of Chriftians in their baptifm, but that 
theydoproteft they renounce the devil, his pomps, fpectacles 
and works ; know thou Chriftian, when thou doft wittingly 
and knowingly return to ftage-plays, thou returned to the 
devil, who is in his plays, for thou haft renounced both of 
them together: Wherein many Fathers agree with him, 
they being harmonious in condemning ftage plays, as being 
ordinarily fluffed with the names, hiftories, perfons, fables, 
rites, ceremonies, villanies, incefts, rapes, applaufes, oaths, 
imprecations, and invocations of the idol-gods; as when 
the actors, cry help, Jove, Juno, Appollo, Bacchus, &c. and 
exclaim, O Jove ! O Cupid ! O Vennus, O Apollo ! O 
Mars! O ye gods! &c. and fwearby Jove, Mars, Vennus, 
the cseeleftical gods, £tc. (befides all thefe, they are often 
fraughted in thefe days with wicked and prophane feoffs and 
jefts, abufes of fcripture, and bitter invectives againft piety) 



and as drawing men on to profanity, idolatry and athcifm. 
In fine, to (hew the perfect agreement betwixt the primitive 
and proteftant church anent fuch plays, it will neither be 
impertinent, nor I hope modifying, to fubjoin here the 
judgment of the famous reformed proteftant church of 
France (from which other reformed proteftant churches in 
this do not differ, yea the ftream of proteftant divides run- 
neth this way) declared in a national fynod held at RcJchel, 
Anno 1 571. where this canon was unanimoufly framed; 
congregations fliall be admonifhed by their ministers feriouf- 
ly to reprehend and fupprefs all dances, mumeries and inter- 
ludes, and it ihall not be lawful for any Chriftians to adl cr 
to be prefent (mark well) at any comedies, tragedies, play?, 
interludes or any other fuch fports, either in public or pri- 
vate chambers, confidering that they have always been op- 
pofed, condemned, and fupprefled, in and by the church, 
as bringing along with them the corruptionof good manners, 
efpecially when as the holy fcripture is prophaned which is 
not to be delivered to be acted or played, but only to be 
preached. What ufeth now to be faid in apology for, and 
defence of ftage-plays, and for reforming of them, yet fo as 
to retain them ftill, was long fince objected by the witty and 
voluptuous Pagans, and folidly anfwered, and ftrongly con- 
futed by the fathers ; as it hath been by feveral modern 
writers particularly doctor John Reynolds, Mr. Stubb's, 
and notably by Mr. Pryn (to whofe indefatigable diligence 
in collecting, and great judgment of difpofing of many of 
the particulars, here difcourfed, I profefs myielf much be* 
holden ; and may be in a great part by what hath been here 
hinted concerning the invention and original of them, the 
nature, end and ufe of them ; befide all that hath been, 
and may moft juftly be faid, of the many dangerous and 
dreadful tendencies, attendants, confequents, and fruits of 
them, and the horrid abufes of them, may fufficiently plead 
againft the life of fuch ftage-plays, being neither neceiTary 
nor profitable, and for the utter abolition of them : God is 
jealous and will not be mocked. 

July 20. 1675. 


$ TO 

T O T H E 


TH E decay of religion at this day in the world, is 
come to fuch an height, as that is obferved by all 
who pretend unto any concernment therein, and 
complained of by many. By religion we understand the 
power of it in the hearts and lives of men, and not any 
outward profeffion of it only ; much lefs the general pre- 
tence that is made unto it, in them by whom its power is 
openly denied. Neither is it manifeft only in the fruits of 
finful fecurity, and the flagitious lives of all forts of men, 
but begins to be fo alfo in its effe£b, in the prefent ftate of 
things in the world, filled with mifery and confufion : " For 
•■ the wrath of God is many ways revealed from heaven a- 
u ga<inft the ungodlinefs and unrighteoufnefs of men, who 
€| hold the truth in unrighteoufnels : M and in many nations 
the viiible tokens and demonftrations of it do abound. 
4< For there is in them no peace ; to them that go out, nor 
f ' to them that come in great vexation is upon all their inhabi- 
t{ tants. Nation is deftroyed againft nation, and city of city; 
cc for God doth vex them with all adverfity". For whatever 
may be the thoughts and counfels of men in thefe things, the 
judgments of God are not merely fubfervient unto their Iufts 
and paffions •, it is in his own controverfy with thf world 
for negleft of the gofpel and oppofition unto it that he 
pleadeth in them, neither can our prefent in the enjoyment 
of outward mercies be any evidence unto us that we are not 
the objefts of the fame difplcafure. All men are in the fame 
condition among whom the fame fins and the fame relapfes 
from the power of religion are found ; for God is no ref- 
pefter of perfons, it is indeed an efft£t of divine patience, 
which if abufed unto fecurity, will iflTue in a more fore re- 
venge* In the mean time the voice of God unto us in alt 
the miferiesand defolations we hear of in the world, i?, that 
unlefs we repent, we fhali all likewife perifh. Neither arc 
we altogether left without pregnant warnings among our- 
felves in many fevere difpenfations of divine providence. 
And thofe who are not utterly hardened through the de- 
ceitiulnefs of fin, may eafily fee the hand of God lifted up 
in various intimations of his difpleafure. But hitherto it 
muft.be acknowledged and oa&ht to be bewailed, that the 


To the READER. 3- 

fecurity of the world feems to be unfhaken, and the inun- 
dation of fm not to be ftemmed in the leaft meafure. 

What are the reafons and caufes cf the prefent general 
defection, from the truth, power, holinefs and glory of the 
gofpel or Chriftian religion, I have enquired into and de- 
clared in a peculiar treatife defigned unto that end. Some 
few things fuited into the prefent occafion may be here ob- 
ferved. All decays in religion begin in individual perfons, 
chough it extend itfelf unto families, and Co the infection 
fpreads unto greater focieties f eccleflaftical and national. 
For fuch alfo is the order in the genuine progrefs of the 
power of religion whereunto it is oppofed. The teftimony 
that God gave unto Abraham was, that keeping the way of 
the Lord himfelf, he taught and commanded his children 
and houfhold after him fo to do. And if the living power 
of godlinefs expreffed in the hiftory of Chrift, and the gof- 
pel in an holy converfation, be not preferved in individual 
perfons; the profeiSon of the pureft religion in churches, 
or the higheft pretence unto it in public, national acts are . 
neither uieful to the fouls of men, nor do any way tend to 
the glory of God. And the fole ufe of all outward religious 
order and profeffion is loft, where they are not applied un- 
to the ingenerating and promoting of holiciefe, or evange- 
lical obedience in particular perfons. Wherefore if any re- 
vival of the power of religion in the world may be put un- 
to the fatal declenfion, which it differs under, thtf forming 
and restoring ot the principles of it in the hearts and con- 
fciences of fuch perfons, is the way whereby it mud be at- 
tempted ; from and by them muft it be dtfeufed into families, 
and greater focieties : Here muft all reformation begin, or 
in the ufe of means fuited thereunto. How this may be af; 
fected, we have one inftance among many, propofed unto 
us in the enfuing difcourfe. 

The general and undoubted reafon of all fins and mifcar- 
riages amongft men, is the neglect of the holy and perfect 
rule of obedience, or of the law of God, without a re-- 
courfe unto a diligent conscientious attendance thereunto, 
without a due fenie of the authority of God therein ; and 
of the account which they muft fliortiy give of their regard 
unto it ; there can be no juft expectation of the re-introduc- 
tion of the power and glory of religion. And many ways 
there are, whereby men are diverted from the due condde- 
ration of, and holy compliance with this rule. 

Firft, falfe and corrupt interpretations of the law, do 
countenance many in various lufts \ and the neglect of ma- 
nifold duties. The Pharifees of old reprefenting the defiga 
and fenfe-of theiaw, as regarding outward afts and practices 

E 2 onlf» 

36 To the READER. 

only, laid an axe to the root of all true holinefs and religion 
in the apoftatizing church of the Jews. Under a pretence of 
eftablifhing a falie legal righteoufnefs, they deftroyed the 
true righteoufnefs of the law. And thefe things go toge- 
ther always. Thofc who plead for a righteoufnefs of their 
own, as it were by the works of the law, do conftannly by 
falfe glcffes and interpretations deftroy the fpirituality, and 
all animating principles of the law itfelf. For, rightly to 
underftand the ienfe of the law, and to feek for righteouf- 
nefs by it ; or as it were by its works, are altogether incon- 
fiftent ; whereas therefore, many men, partly by their na- 
tural blindnefs, are not able to difcern the fpiritual fenfe of 
the law, and partly out of their diflike of, and enmity un- 
to it, will not comply with the light which is tendered unto 
them, they have fought by falfe interpretations to accomo- 
date the law itfelf unto their own luft and inclination. So 
evidently was it with the Pharifees of old. Nor are the 
prefent apprehenfions of many about thefe things much 
different from theirs. For fuch expofitions of the law are 
embraced, wherein there is little refpeft unto the fpiritual 
frame of the heart, or the internal actings of the adverfe 
principles of fin and obedience? The extent of the com- 
mandment is alfo by many exceedingly ftraitned, nor will 
any thing fcarcely be allowed to be commanded or forbid- 
den in it, but what the letter doth plainly exprefs. And 
it is evident how fuch apprehenfions will infenfibly weaken 
the fenfe of a neceflity of univerfal mortification, and abate 
the diligence of the mind in endeavouring after a renewed 
fpiritual frame of heart ; by fuch means a declenfion from 
ail true holinefs and piety will be effectually promoted. For, 
when men once begin t.o fatisfy themfelves in the outward 
duties of divine worfhip and righteoufnefs, which if alone, 
are but a dead carcafs of religion, they will not long abide 
in a confcientious obfervation even of them. 

2. The feparation of the duties of the law from the 
grace of the gofpel, will have the like effect. For this will 
iffue in a pretence of morality, fet up it* oppofition unto 
true evangelical obedience. And there is no way whereby 
the whole rule of duty can be rendered more ineffectual and 
tifelefs unto the fouls of men. For take away that recon- 
ciliation which is made in Chrift between the law and the 
gofpel, and it will prove a killing letter only. And fo far 
as this imagination is gone about it quickly manifefts itfelf 
in its fruits. For every attempt of men againft the grace 
of God will iffue in the ruin of morality among themfelves. 

Such apprehenfions as thefe in a coincidence with aboun- 
ding tenuuons iuited unto the lufts of all forts of men, 


To the READER. 37 

cannot but promote the intereft and prevalency of fin and 
Antichrift in the world. However manifefl it is, that this 
is a great neglect and contempt of the holy rule of obedi- 
ence in the moft, with ignorance and mif-underftanding of 
the defign and fenfe of it in many. Wherefore an upright 
endeavour to declare and vindicate the authority and mean- 
ing of it, as alfo to make application of it unto the confci- 
ences of profefled Chriftians, to direfr them in, and prefs 
them unto the conftant performance of all duties of obedi- 
ence, cannot but be efteemed feafonable, and through the 
bleffing of God may be Angularly ufeful. So our Lord Te- 
fus Chrift himfelf obferving the mifchief that had befallen 
the church by the falfe expofition of the law, obtruded on 
the people by the Pharifees, began his prophetical miniftry 
in the vindication of it from their corrupting glofles, re- 
storing its priftine crown of purity and fpirituality, as the 
Tews have yet a tradition, that it (hall be fo in the days of 
the Meffiah. And on the fame confideration it cannot be 
denied, but that the endeavour of this worthy fervant of 
Chrift in the work of the gofpel, the author of theenfuing 
expofition of the decalogue, is both feafonable and worthy 
of acceptation. For as other endeavours alfo are required 
in all them on whom it is incumbent, to take care in their 
refpe&ive ftations for the improvement of holinefs in the 
church, and the obftrudtion of the progrefs of fin, what in 
them lietfc » f° for the reafons before mentioned, that 
this particular way is peculiarly feafonable and ufeful # 

And I am perfuaded, that every pious, humble and 
unprejudiced reader, will judge that much benefit may 
be obtained by his performance. Some may eafily fee how 
fhort that meafure of duties which they have prefcribed un- 
to themfelves doth come, of whit is indi'fpeniibly required 
of them; and others may take a plain profpecr of that 
whole fcheme of obedience in principles, matter, manner, 
and end ; which they fincerely endeavour to come up unto. % 
And fundry things there are which appear to me with a 
notable degree of excellency in the whole difcourfe. 

i. Plainnefs and profpicuity in teaching ; feems to have 
been defigned by the author throughout the whole book. 
Hereby it is accomodated unto the meaneft capacities, 
which is the greateft excellency of difcourfes of this na- 
ture as unto outward form and cr<!cr. For, whereas its 
only end is to direfk the practice of all forts of Chrifti- 
ans, all ornaments of fpeech, everv thing that diverts from 
plainnefs, fobriety, and gravity, is impertinent thereunto. 
Wherefore as the things themfelves treated 0^ are fuch, as 


j8 To the READER. 

the raoft wife, knowing, and learned among believer* 
ought to be exercifed in continually: So, the way and 
of manner their delivery or declaration, is accommo- 
dated unto the underftanding and capacity of the meaneft 
of them that are fo, that benefit may redound unto all. 

2. In particular inftances and cafes relating to daily prac- 
tice are fo diftindUy propofed, ftated and determined, as 
that the whole is a complete Chriftian, directory in our 
walking before God in ail duties of obedience ; let the pious 
reader fingle out any one duty or head of duties to 
make his triaK upon, and if I greatly miftake not, he will 
difcern with vAiat wifdom, and from what deep experience 
his plain direfaons are managed and do proceed. As to 
give a particular inftance, let him confider what he difco- 
vereth concerning pubiick prayer, and the mifcarriages 
therein, which men are liable unto, pages 73, 74, 75. or 
apply hiinfclf unto what he fuppoies himfelf more immedi- 
diately concerned in, unaffected plainnefs, perfpicuous bre- 
vity, with folidity of judgment, will every where reprefent 
themfclves unto him. 

3. Add hereunto, that conftant refpeft which is had in 
the whole difcourfe unto the heart and inward principles of 
obedience, with the contrary actings of the flefh, and temp- 
tations of all forts. And thence it is that thefe difcourfes, 
(though delivered with all plainnefs of frcech) will not be 
well underftood by any, but thofe who in fome meafure 
have their fenfes exercifed to difcern both good and evil. 

In the whole a full teftimony is given, not only againft 
the profligate lives of many, called Chriftians, but that bar- 
ren carelefs profeflion alfo, which too many fatisfy them- 
felves withall; who pretend more unto the truth and pow- 
er of religion. And as thefe who are fincere in their obe- 
dience, may in the examination of themfelves, by the rules 
here laid down, difcern the decays which poffibly they have 
fallen under in this hour of temptation, which is come on 
Ae face of the earth, to try them that dwell therein ; fo alfo 
may they be directed in their Chriftian courfe unto the glo- 
ry of God, and the comfort of their own fouls : Which chat 
all may be, is the hearty deSre of, 

Chriftian Reader, 

Thy fervant in the Work oE 

the L R D, 

T O 

C 39 ] 


vr^^^ ryi"r^T^T r^V *^r*'»^* ;jr ^ ^V T ' ^V" 5 : ^y^ ^V"» ' f ^" , ' ; r^> : 



THE excellent and ufeful labours of this worthy au* 
thor, hath long iincc obtained the beft epiftle of 
commendation, even that which the great apoftle Paul ac- 
counted fo great a teftimony, as made all other commen- 
datory epiftles in his efteem, to appear fupeifluous ; that I 
mean mentioned by him, 2 Cor. iii. Where he tells the 
believing Corinthians, that they were his epiftles j meaning 
that their converfion and the graces wrought in them, by 
his minittry, gave afufficient witnefs to the worth and dig- 
nity thereof: This epiftle of commendation (I fay) God fo 
eminently beftowed upon the minifterial endeavours of this 
holy man Mr. Durham, both in prefs and pulpit ; that the 
prefixing my epiftle of commendation to this excellent ex* 
pofition of the decalogue, was judged by myfelf to be but 
an attempt, to make the fun appear more refplendent by the 
faint and feeble light of a candle -, but fince fome are pleaf- 
ed to put an undeferved value upon my approbation of this 
worthy undertaking •, I could not but upon fuch an occafi- 
on fignify, that in my opinion, the eniuing treatifc in its 
defign and tendency fo advanceth holinefs of heart and life, 
and withall is compiled with that ftrength and clearness of 
judgment, and holy warmth of afFe&ion -, as that by God's 
bleffing, it may preferve and reduce many in this finful age 
from thofe impieties that fo abound therein, and may prove 
an excellent antidote againft them, as by the good provi* 
dence of God, its brought forth in a time coetanious with 
them. In the hopeful expectation whereof, I commit thee 
and this worthy work to the bleffing of God, in whom, I *m 

Thy faithful friend to 

fcrve thy foul. 


London, November > 
szd, 1675. 

A N 

I * ' . * * * I 

* * » ^ 3K 8 

A N 


O F T H E 

Ten Commandments, 



Exodus xx. i, 2. 

(And God /pake all thefe words > faying f lam the Lord thy 
Gody 'which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt t 
out of the hcufe of bondage. J 

BEING (through God's ftrength) refolved to efiay 
the opening of the ten commandments, all that we 
fhall fay, by way of preface, (hall be to give you an 
account of the motives which have engaged us in this work. 
The firft is, the excellency of this fcripture, it being by 
the Lord himfelf intended as a comprehenfive fum of his 
peoples duty, and commended to us from this, that though 
all the fcripture be his word, yet this in a fingular manner 
is fo ; for he fpake all thefe words himfelf, and by a voice 
immediately formed by himfelf he pronounced them firft to 
his people, and afterward twice by his finger (that is, im- 
mediately by himfelf, without making ufe of any pen-man, 
as in other fcriptures) he wrote them for his peoples behoof 
upon two tables of ftone, which were afterwards command- 
ed in a fingular manner to be kept in the ark, Deut, 10. v. 
2, 5» and to be learned, Deut. v. 1. as alfo to be written on 
the pofts of their doors, and diligently prefTed on their 
children, Deut. vi. 7, 8, 9, 10. In opening of which com- 
mandments, cot only the prophets and apoitles/ but our 


Preface. An Exptftion, &c. 41 

blefled Lord in that fermoa of bis upon the mount, Matth. 
v. 6, 7. doth much infift. 

The fecond is, the ufefulnefsof this fcripture, and of the 
knowledge of it to all that would know what is pleafing to 
God, that they may be fitted tor duty to him, and may 
know what is difpleafing to him ; that they may know fin, 
and how to efchew it, and may be itirred up to repentance 
when they have fallen into it : this being the laws property, 
that thereby is the knowledge of fin, Rom. vii. 7. and i'o 
likewife the knowledge of duty; therefore it is fummed in 
fo few words, that it may be the more eafily brought into, 
and retained in the memories and hearts of his people : For 
which caufe alfo of old and late, has it always been recom- 
mended, both in the word, Deut. v. 1. and in all cate- 
chifms to be learned, as a rule of mens walking; and yet 
fo comprehenfive is it, that without pains and diligence to 
come to the underftanding thereof, men cannot but ccv.e 
ihort of the great fcope thereof. 

The third is the great ignorance, that is amongft not a 
few, of the meaning of this ufeful and excellent fcripture > 
and efpecially in this fecure time, many not knowing 
they break the commandments when they break them, ac 
leaft in many material things, and this draweth with it thefe 
fad effects. 1. That there are few convictions of fin. 2- 
Little repentance for fin. 3. Much fecurity, prefumption, 
confidence in felf righteoufnefs, and the like ; upon which 
the ignorance of this fcripture hath great influence, even as 
amongft the Jews, the ignorance of its fpirituality made ma- 
ny negleCt the chief part of holinefs, and proudly fettle on 
felf-righteoufnefs, and flight Chrift the Mediator ; as we 
may fee in Paul's example, Rom. vii. 9. and this was one 
reafon why our Lord expounded it, that by it finners might 
fee more the necefllty of a Mediator, who is the end of the 
law for righteoufneis to all that believe, Rom. x. 4. And 
as thefe effe£b are palpable at this time, fo we conceive it 
ufeful to follow the fame remedy ; this evil being not only 
againft the prophane, but amongft the moft formal and 
civil, who (tumble at this ftone > yea, many believers are 
often fo much taken with cafes and light in dodtrinal truths, 
that they heed not fufficiently the meaning of the law, 
whereby their convictions of fin, tendernefs in practice, 
conftant exercife of repentance, and daily frefh applications 
^jfco the blood of fprinkling are much impeded. 

> And although it may feem not fo to fuite the nature of 
this exercife (for it would be noticed, that the author deli- 
vered this dodtrine of the law in feveral lectures on the Sab* 
bath morning before fermon, in which time he formerly 

F. ufed 

At An Expc/ttion of Preface. 

ufed to read snd expound a chapter of the holy fcriptures, 
or a confiderahle portion thereof; which leftures are not 
now. diftinguiihed, becaufe of the clofe connexion of the 
purpofes) yet considering the forefaid reafon3, and the na- 
ture of this excellent fcripture, which cannot haftiiy be par- 
fed through (it having much in few wo?ds, and therefore 
requiring Tome convenient time for explication) and confi- 
dering the weight of it, and its ufefulnefs for aU forts of 
hearers, we are confident k will agree well with the end of 
this exercife,- (which is the end of opening all fcripture) ta 
wit, peoples inftruftion and edification, to infift a Htilc 

Our pnrpofe is not to aim at any great 2cerars:cy > nor to 
multiply queftions and digrelSons, nor to infift in applica- 
tion and ufe, but plainly and fhortly (as we are able) to give 
you the meaning of the law of God : i. By holding forth 
the native duties required in every commandment. 2. The 
fins which properly oppofe and contradift each command- 
ment, that by thefc we may have fame direftion and help in 
duty, and fome fpt*r to repentance, at Jeaft a furtherance in 
the work of conviftion, that fo by it we may be led to Jefus 
Chrift, who is the end of the law for right ecufnefs to every one 
that believes, Rom. x. 4. which is the principal intent of 
this law, as it was given to Ifraei. 

To make way for the exposition, we fhiil, 1. Lay down 
fome conclufions which arife from the preface. 2. Give 
you fome ordinary diftin&ions. 5 Clear and confirm fome 
rules or observations ufeful for underftarvdrng 01 the whole 

The fiVft conclufioo that we take for grafted is, that this 
law (as it is mora!) doth tie even Chriftians and believers 
now, as well as of old ; which appears from this,, that he 
who is God the law-giver here, Afis vii 38. is the angel 
Chrift, and it is his word, as is clear, ver. 30, 31. as alio 
the matter of it being co-natural to Adam, it did bind be- 
fore the taw was given, and that obligatory force cannot be 
feparated from its nature, (though the exercife of right rea- 
fon in nature be much obliterate ffnee the fall) therefore 
Chrift was fo far from deftroying this law in its authority, 
and Paul fo far from making it void by the do&rine of faith, 
that our Lord tdls, he came to fulfill it, Matth. v. 17. ami 
Paul ihews, that his preaching of faith was to eftablifh it, 
R.om. Hi 31. which truth being confirmed by them both in 
their pradlice and dottrrne, fheweth that the breach of the 
holy law of God, is no lefs finful to us now, than it was to 
them before us. 

The fecond conclufion is> that though this law, and 


Preface. the Ten Commandments. 4$ 

obedience thereto, lie on Cbriftians, and be called For from 
them, yet it is not hid on them as a covenant of works, or 
that by which they arc to feek or expect juftification ; no, 
but on the contrary., to overturn felf-rightcoufcefs, by this 
do&rine which msmifefreth fin, and of itfelf workcth wrath ; 
which is alio clear, in that he is here called, Our GoJ> which 
he cannot be to finners but by grace : And alfo k appears 
from the Lord*s owning of this finful peaple as hk, and 
adjoining to this law fo many ceremonies and facrifc- 
ces which point out and lead to Chrift ; and from his ad* 
ding the law on mount Sinai, as a help to the covenant made 
with Abraham, Gen. xvii. (which was acovenant of gracej 
and was never altered, as to Its fubiiance) in which the peo- 
ple of ifrael, as his feed, v. as comprehended ; therefor* It 
appears that this was never the Lord's intent in covenant- 
ing thus with his people, that they fliould expecl righteouf- 
nefs and life by the adjoined law, but only that it ftiouldbe 
ufeful in the hand of grace to make the former covenant 
with Abraham effectual : So then, though we be bound to 
obey the law, we are uoz to feek righteoufnefs or life by the 
duties therein enjoihede 

The third conclufion is, that both minifters in preach- 
ing, and people in pra£tifing of this law, would cany with 
fubordination ta.Chriih and chat the duties called for here 
are to be performed as a part of the covenant of grace, and 
of the obl'gation that lieth upon us thereby, and ib all our 
obedience to God ought ft-iH to run in th&t channel. 

If we afi: how thde two differ, to wit, the performing 
the duties of the law, as running in the channel of the co- 
venant of grace, and the performing of them as running m 
the channel of the covenant of works, or how we are to go 
about the duties of the law with fubordination to Chrift and 
his grace ? I anfwer, they differ in the fe four things, which 
fliew, that thefe duties are not only to be done, bin to be 
done in a way confiftent with, and flowing from graces 
which alio follows from this, that in the preface to the 
commandments, he flileth and ho!det,h himfelf forth, as 
Redeemer, to be the objefl of our duty, and the motive of it. 

i. They differ, I fay firft, in the end or account upon 
which they are performed ; we are not to perform duties, 
that life, pardon, or enjoying of God may be rncritoricfi? 
obtained by them, but to teftify cur refpeft to him wha 
hath provided thefe freely for us, that we fliouid not reft 
in duties which are engraven on thefe covenant bieififjgs, 

2. They differ in the principle by which we a«Si them, it is 
not in pur own ftrength, as the works of the firft covenant 
were to be performed* but in the lUength of grace, and by 

F z virtue 

44 -An Expojition cf Preface. 

virtue of the promifes of fan&ification, comprehended in 
the fecond covenant, 2 Cor. vii. 1. 

3 They differ as to the manner of their acceptation, du- # 
ties by tne firit covenant are to abide their trial upon the 
account of their own worth, and the inherent perfection 
that is in them, and accordingly will be accepted or rejec- 
ted, as they are conform or difconform to the perfect rule 
of Gcd's law ; but by the fecond covenant, the acceptation 
of our performances, prayers, prai fes, are founded on 
Chrift's righteoufnefs, and Good's mercy in him, in whom 
only they are fweet-fmelling facrifices, and accepted as our 
perions are ; for he hath made us to be accepted as to both, 
only in the beloved, Eph. 1. 4 

4, They differ in refpeft of the motive from which they 
proceed ; for the great motive of our obedience in the co- 
venant of grace, is not fear of threatnings, and wrath in 
cafe of difobedience, which by the covenant of works is tfie 
main thing fwayes men to duties ; nor is it a purchafe of 
heaven to themfelves by their holinefs, which alfo by that 
covenant is a predominant motive of mens obedience $ but 
it is love and gratitude, and that not (imply to God as Cre- 
ator, but as Redeemer, as the text here fheweth, 1 have 
brovgbt thee out cf the houfe of bondage : it is that we may fet 
forth the prai fes of him who called us, and that we may glo- 
rify him that has bought us : where duties have thefe qua* 
lifications, they arc conliftent with grace, and fubfervicnt 
to it ; but when thofe are wanting or excluded, Chrift is 
wronged, and men turn legal, and in fo far, fall from and 
overturn grace. 

Thefe conclufions, as neceflary caveats, being laid down, 
we (hall propofe thefe diftinttions for clearing of them. 

I. We would diflinguifh betwixt a law and a covenant, 
or betwixt this law, confidered as a law, and as a covenant. 
A law doth neceflarily imply no mere than, 1. To dirett. 
2. To command, inforcing that obedience by authority ; a 
covenant doth further nectlTarily imp'y, promifes made u- 
pon fome condition, or threatnings added, if fuch a con- 
dition be not performed. Now this law may be confidered 
without the confideration of a covenant ; for it was free to 
God to have added, or not to have added promifes, and the 
threatnings (upon fuppofition the law had been kept) might 
never have taken effect ; but the firft two are eflcntial to 
the law, the laft two, to believers, are made void through 
Chrift ; in which fenfe it is faid, That by him we are freed 
the law as a covenant, fo the believers life depends not on 
the promifes annexed to the law, nor are they in danger by 
the threatnings adjoined to it ; Hence we are to advert, 


Preface. the Ten Commandments. 4J 

when the covenant of works is fpoken of, that by it is not 
meaned this law limply, but the law propounded as the con- 
edition of obtaining life by the obedience of it ; in which 
refpeft it was only fo formally given to Adam : This thea 
is the firft diftin&ion betwixt the law, and the covenant of 

2 Diftinguifh betwixt thefe ten commandments firaply, 
and ftriftly taken in the matter of them, and more com- 
plexly in their full adminifl ration, with preface, promifes, 
Sacrifices, <bc. In the firft fenfe they are a law having the 
matter, but not the form of the covenant of works : fo 
Mofes by it is faid to defcribe fuch righteoufnefs as the co- 
venant of works doth require, yet he doth not prodound it 
as the righteoufnefs they were to rely on, buthisfcope is put 
to them to a Mediator, by revealing fin through the law, 
Rom. x. 3. In the fecond fenfe, it is a covenant of grace, 
that fame in fubftance with the covenant made with Abra- 
ham, and with the covenant made with believers now, but 
differing in its admiciftration. 

3. Diftinguifh betwixt God's intention in giving, and the 
believers in Ifrael their making ufe of this law ; and the car- 
nal multitude among that people their way of receiving ir> 
and abufing it contrary to the Lord's mind : In the firft 
fenfe, it was a covenant of grace ; in the fecond, it turned 
to be a covenant of works to them ; and therefore it is that 
the Lord rejects, (as we may fee, Ifaiah i. 13. lxvi. 2, 3. 
Jer. vii. 22.) their facrifices and fetvices as not commanded, 
becaufe refted on by them, to the prejudice of grace, and 
contrary to the ftrain and fcope of this law complexly coa- 

4. Diftinguifh betwixt the moral, and ceremonial, and 
judicial law ; the firft concerns manners, and the right or- 
dering of a godly converfation : and becaufe thefe things 
are of perpetual equity and reftitude, the obligation of this 
law, as to that, is perpetual; and therefore in the expoun- 
ding of it, thefe two terms, moral, and of perpetual au- 
thority, are all one, and to be taken fo. 2. The judicial 
law is for regulating outward fociety, and for government, 
and d6th generally (excepting what was peculiar to the peo- 
ple of Ifrael) agree with the moral law ; this, as given to 
them, is not perpetual, their policy bring at an end. 3. 
The ceremonial law is. in ceremonies, types, and fhadou.s 
pointing at a Saviour to come; this is alio abrogate, the 
ftibftance being come: But there is this difference, that the 
judicial law is but mortua, dead; and may where it is 
thought fit, with the foregoing caution, be uled under the 
New-Teftaraent 5 but the ceremonial law is mortifera, deact- 

46 An Exptfition of Preface; 

ly, and cannot without falling from grace, Gal, v. 2, 4. be 

5. When we fpeak of things moral, we are to cliftingu'fh 
between things naturally moral, that is, fuch (as love to 
Gcd and our neighbour, and fuch like) which have an in- 
nate re&itude and holinefs in them, which cannot be fepa- 
rate from them, and things pofitively moral, that have 
their obligation by a fpecial poiitive fuperadded fan£tion ; 
fo that their rectitude flows not from the nature of the 
things themfeives, as in the former. As for inftance, in 
the fourth commandment, it is naturally moral that God 
iliou'd be worshipped, nature teacheth it \ but that he is to 
be worfhipped on fuch a day particularly, that comes to pafs 
by virtue of his pofitive command : The firft cannot be al- 
tered, the fecond by the Lord may ; but till he alter it, the 
authority lies ftill on all, and it is equally fin to fin againft 
any of them, though without the pofitive fanfHon, there 
is no obligation naturally requiring obedience in feme or 

6. The fixth diftin£tion is of the moral law in two tables, 
firft and fecond ; the firft contains our immediate worfhip, 
fervice and obedience to God himfeif, and is comprehended 
in the firft four commandments; the fecond contains our 
mediate obedience to God in all the duties we owe to others, 
in the laft fix ; they were at firft fo divided by the Lord 
himfeif, for there are ten in all, Deut. iv. 13. From this 
diftin£tion take notice. 1. That all the commandments of 
the fecond table are of like authority with the firft, God 
fpake all tbefe -words ; yea, as it appears from A£ts vii. 38. 
it was our Lord Jefus. 2. The fins immediatly againft the 
firft table, are greater than thofe againft the fecond ; for 
this caufe, Matth. xxii. 38. the firft is called the firft and 
great commandment ; therefore, 3. In morals (if they be 
things of the fame nature) the duties of the fecond table 
cede and give place to the duties of the firft table, when 
.they cannot ftand together; as in the cafe of love to God, 
and the exercife of love to our father and neighbour, Luke 
%iv. 26. Matth. x. 37. when obedience to God, and obedi- 
ence to our fuperiors cannot confiit, we are to obey God 
rather than man, Ads iv. 19. and we are to love the Lord, 
and lime father and mother, Luke xiv.26. 4. Yet take no- 
tice, that ceremonies or pofitives of the firft table, for a 
time cede and give place to morals in the fecond ; as for 
relieving or preferving our neighbours life in hazard, we 
may travel on the Sabbath-day, according to that fcripture, 
J will have mercy and not facrifice, and the Sabbath was made 
for man, and not man for tUfabbath, &c f 

7. The 

Preface. the Ten Commandments. 4J 

7. The feventb diftin&ion (which is ordinary) Is of the 
commandments into affirmative and negative, as ye fee ail 
the commandments in the firft table are negatively let dowa 
forbidding fin dire&ly; Thou Jhalt have no other gods* 
&c. only the fourth is both negative and affirmative, for- 
bidding fin, and commanding duty dire&ly ; as alfothe fifth 
only, which is the firft of the fecond table is affirmative, ail 
the reii are negative. 

This diftin&ion is not fo to be underftood, as if nothing 
were commanded or enjoined in negative precepts, or as if 
nothing were forbidden in affirmative precepts (for whatever 
be expreffed as forbidden, the contrary is always implied as 
commanded; and whatfoev?r is exprefty commanded) the 
contrary is always implied as forbidden) but the diftinflioa 
is taken from the manner of fetting them down ; concern- 
ing which, take thefe rules or general obfervauons for your 
better underftanding, many whereof are in the larger cate- 

1. However the commandments be expreSed, affirma- 
tively or negatively, every one of them hath two parts ; one 
affirmative, implied rn negative precepts, requiring the du- 
ties that are contrary to the tins forbidden ; another nega- 
tive, implied in the affirmative precepts, forbidding the fins 
that are contrary to the duties commanded ; as for exam- 
ple, the third commandment, Thcu /bait not take the name of 
the Lord thy Cod in vain ; it implies a command reverently 
to ufe his name : So, to remember to keep holy the Sabbath* 
day i implies a prohibition of prophaning it ; in which fenfe 
all the commandments may in fome refpeci be galled nega- 
tive (and fo a pan of the fourth commandment is negative- 
ly expreffed, Thou Jhaft do no work) or affirmative ; ia 
which refpeft Chrift comprehendeth all the negatives un- 
der thefe two great affirmative commandments, of love to 
God and cur neighbour ; for every commandment doth both 
enjoin and forbid. The like may be fard of promises and 
threacnings, there b^r.g in every promifc a threataing and 
in every threatning a prcmife conditionally implied : And 
this may be a reafon why fome commandments are negative- 
ly expreffed ; fome politively, to (hew us that both are com- 

2. Though the pofitive commandment, cr, (the pofitive 
part of the commandment) be of alike force and authority 
with the negative, as to the obligation it layethon us to du- 
ty, yet it doth not tie us to all occafionsand times, as nega- 
tives do: Hence is that common maxim, that affirmative 
commands tie and oblige femper, ever, that is they never 
want their authority, and we are never abfolved from their 

48 An Expofition of Preface. 

obedience ; but they do not oblige and tie adfemper> that 
is, in all differences of time we are not tied to the exercife 
of the duties enjoined. Negatives again oblige both, fern- 
perznd adfemfer^ that is, always, and in all differences of 
time : For inftance in the third commandment, the affirma- 
tive part is ufe the Lord's name and ordinances holily and 
reverently in prayer, reading and hearing, &c. So in the 
fourth commandment we are required to Tanftify the Sab- 
bath, by waiting on ordinances, &c. This makes thefe ftill 
duties, fo as to pray, hear, &c. are ftill duties : but we are 
not to be, and fhould not be always cxercifed in thefe 
duties ; for wc muft abound in other duties as alfo of 
oeceffity, and mercy, we muft eat, and fleep, <&c. and when 
we fleep, we can neither aft love, nor fear. Again, the 
negative part is, not to prophane the Lord's name in his 
ordinances, this may not be done at any time : The reafon 
of the difference is this, becaufe in affirmatives, we are not 
always tied to the adts of duties and graces, but to the dif- 
pofition and habit. Habits are a fpiritual quality, a (Vis ) 
or power fitting and enabling for bringing forth thefe afts, 
and for the bringing them forth in the due time and feafon 
when they ihall be called for; but in finful things we are 
prohibited, not only the habits, but the atts alfo; the one 
Is always and ever a (in, but the other is not always called 
for as duty. If any defire rules to know when a duty is cal- 
led for ; as for inftance, when we are to pray, hear, 6r. 
it is hardly poffible to be particular in in this, yet we may 
try it by thefe generals. 

1. Any affirmative precept binds to prefent pra&ice, 
when the duty required tends to God's glory, unto which 
every thing fhould be done (as i Cor. x. 31.) and when the 
omiffion of the duty may diihonour him. 

2. When it tends to others edification 5 and omitting will 
fome way ftumble and offend. 

3. When fome fpeciai providences meet and concur, to 
give opportunity to fuch a duty; as for inftance, the giv- 
ing of alms when we have it, and fome indigent perfon of- 
fers, whofe neceflity calls for it, Gal. vi. 10. So when fe- 
crecy of prayer is offered, (and no other more neceffary du- 
ty at that time is called for) which we are to watch unto, 
Col. iv. 2. or when we meet with fome fpeciai occafion or 
difpenfation, pointing out to us this or that as a duty called 
for ; fuch a providence invites us to the praftice of that du- 
ty : For though providences will not make thefe things to 
become duties which are not duties, yet they will ferve to 
time and circumftantiat duties that ly#a us, by virtue of af- 
firmative precepts, 

4. Some 

Preface. the Ten Commandments. 49 

4. Some fpecial occafions and times are fet down in the 
word, as for praying morning and evening, for hearing 
the word on Sabbath-days ; and in thefe, and other the 
like duties, the examples of the faints Co recorded for i- 
mitation in fcripture, would be obferved as a copy and 

5. When they have not fuch inconvsniencies with them, 
as crois and hinder other moral duties of edification, love, 
<bc. for if they do that, they mufi: yield and give place to 
thefe : But if no other duty be called for, then they ought 
to be done; for we fhould be in lome duty. And though 
fuch duties be in themfelves moral, fuppofe praying, hear- 
ing, and fuch others, which might be inftanced, yet the 
timing of them, or going about at fuch a time, and in fuch 
a manner, is not moral limply, but as thefe are by circum- 
flances called for. 

6. When without fin fuch a duty cannot be omitted ; 
and although there be not any inward exercife of mind, or 
frame of fpirit fuitable thereto, yet the confeience calls for 
it, or there is fome one fpecial occafion or other that puts 
us to it. 

3. Obferve, that this rule of negatives, tying ad/emper, 
or obliging in all circumftances of time, is not to beunder- 
ftood, but where the matter is moral ; therefore we would 
diftinguifli again betwixt negative morals, and negative po- 
fitives ; for pofitives, whether negative or affirmative, give 
ftiil place to morals. As for inftance, that part of the 
fourth commandment is negative, In it (that is on the feventh 
day) thou Jhait do no manner of work ; yet fometimes, when 
neceffity calls for it, fome manner of work? is lawful on 
that day, becaufe it is only a negative pofitive, and not a 
negative moral : And fo David's eating of fhijw- bread, was 
againft a negative command, though not againft a negative 
moral, but a negative pofitive. 

4. Take this rule, that in all commands, jointly and feve- 
rally, we would have fpecial refpeft unto the fcope God aims 
at by them all in generator by fuch a command in particular. 
Now the general fcope is (2 Cor. vii. 1. 1 Pet. i. 15. 16.) 
perfect and abfolute holinefs, even as he is holy ; and there- 
fore whatever he requires, he requires that it be abfolirVely 
perfect in its kind, as that our love to him be with the 
whole heart, &c* and fo our love to others be as to our 
felves : our chafiity and purity, all muft be abfolute. (fee 
I Tim. i. 5.) This rule will teach us what we are to aim and 
level at: And whatever expofition of the commandments 
comes not up to this fcope, is no doubt defective ; and by 
this rule only can we be helped to the right meaning of e- 

G very 

5° An Expcfiticn of Preface. 

very commandment ; for each of them has Its peculiar fcopc 
both as to the duties it requires and fins it condemns. And 
by this rule it is, that our Lord Chrilt (whofe exposition 
with that of the prophet is beft) draws in the leaft and fmal- 
left branches of fihhinefs to the feventh commandment, 
which difchargeth ail things contrary to perfeft and com- 
plete purity. 

5. The fifth rule is, that the law is fpiritual, Rom viL 
14. 2nd that not only outward obedience to fuch duties, or 
outward abftinence from fuch finful afts is called for •, but 
the law having a fpiritual meaning, calls for fpiritual fervice, 
and that in thefe three. 1. As it requires fpiritual duties, 
fuch as faith, fear, love to God, and to others ; right ha- 
bits, as well as right affe&ions, and outward actions ; and 
therefore Paul, to prove the fpirituality of the law, inftan- 
ceth in the habit of luft, Rom. vii. as a thing thereby dif- 
charged. 1 The law is fpiritual, in that the obligation- 
thereof reaches to the fpirit, and very inwards of the heart, 
affections and thoughts, as well as to the outward man : 
the love it requires, is love with ail the foul, heart, and 
mind. Hence there is heart-idolatry, murder, and adul- 
tery, as well as outward, therein condemned, 3 It is fpi- 
ritual, rn refpeft of the manner; it requires as to all out- 
ward duties, that they be done to a fpiritual end, froai a 
fpiritual principle, and in a fpiritual way, oppofite to the 
carnal way, to which the unrenewed heart of man k inclin- 
ed ; in which fenfe we are commanded tp walk in the fpirit, 
Gal. v. 16. and fo praying and praifing which this law calls 
for is praying and praifing in the Spirit, 1 Cor. xiv. ver. 14. 
*5> 16. 

6. A fixth rule is, that befide the duty expreffed, there Is 
more implyed in the affirmative commands; and befide ths 
fin pitched on, there is more forbidden in the negative pre* 
cepts, even all duties and fins of thefe kinds, in whatfoever 
degree: As for example, in the affirmative commands; u 
Where the duty is commanded, all the means that may fur- 
ther it are commanded likewife : Hence under care to pre- 
serve our brother, Levit. xix. 1 7, 18. it is commanded that 
we £hould reprove him, 6r. 2. Where any thing is com* 
manded as a duty, all duties of that kind are commanded, 
as keeping holy of the Lord's day, is commanded in the 
fourth commandment; there hearing, praying, watchful- 
nefs all the week over, and all things belonging unto the 
wor/hip of God that day, fuch as tithes, that is, maintenance 
for a miriiftry, calling of fit mjniflers, building churches, 
<bc are required, though they be not all duties of that day. 
3. Where a duty is required, the owning and fuitable a- 


Preface' the Ten Commandments. $t 

vowing of that duty is required alfo : and fo believing ia 
God, and the profeffion of faith are required in the fame 
commandment, Rom. x. 10. Where the duty of one re- 
lation is required (as of childrens fubjecYton) there is re- 
quired the duty of the other relation, (as of parents) yea, 
and alfo of all under that name. 

Again, in negative precepts, obferve : I. Where great 
fins are forbidden, ail the leffer of that fort are forbidden 
alfo; as under adultery, murder, and idolatry, all light 
obfeene, whorilli words, wanton looks, unchafte thoughts, 
revenge, rafh anger, worldly affections, <bc are forbidden ; 
and they are comprehended and prohibited under the grof- 
feft terms, to make them the more deteftable, odious, and 
dreadful. 2. All means that may prevent thefc fins are 
commanded, and all fnares, or occaiions, or incitements 
to them are prohibited. 3. Where any fin is forbidden, 
there the lead (caudal about ir, or the lead appearance of 
the guilt of committing it, is forbidden alfo ; for God will 
have his people holy, and (binning in holinefs, unfpotted, 
and without fcandal, and abftaining not only from all evil ; 
but from all appearance of it, 1 Theff. v. 22. 4. We are 
not only forbidden the committing of fuch fins ourfelves, 
delighting in them, and inclining to them, but accounting 
light or little of them in others ; yea, we are commanded 
and ought to mourn for them, when committed by them. 

The fevemh rule is, whatever duties lies upon others, we 
are commanded in our places to further them in it, asmaf- 
ters are to further their fervants, hufbands their wives, one 
neighbour another, by advice, direction, encouragement, 
prayer, and other helps, as in the fourth commandment is 
clear, where the fervants duty, and the ftrangers, is irn- 
pofed on the mailer; and whatever iin is difcharged ia 
ourfelves, we are difcharged any manner of way to partake 
in the fame with others, whether by advice, example, con- 
nivance, miniftring occalion, or by fporting and laughing 
at it in them; fo the rule is, 1 Tim v. 22. Keep thy fe,f 
pure, partake not cf other mens fins : Men may be free them- 
ielves, as to their own perfonal breaches, and yet highly 
partake of the other breaches of the law. 

8. The breach of one commandment virtually breaks ail : 
there is fuch a connexion and linking together of the com- 
mandments, that if the authority of God be flighted iu 
one, it is fo in all, Jam, ii. 10. 1 John i. 4, 20. 

9. One thing may in divers refpecls (as an end or means) 
be commanded or forbidden in many, yea in all the com- 
mandments, as ignorance and drunkennefs are, becaufe 
they difable for all duties, and difpofe to all fins: Of this 

G z kind 

r $i An Expofoion of Preface, 

kind is idlenefs alfo; and fo knowledge, fobriety, watch- 
fulnefs, foe* are commanded in all the commandments; 
for without thefe men are unfitted and incapacitated for 
performing any commanded duty. 

10, The tenth and hft rule is, The law is holy, juft, and 
good, therefore the leaft motion againft it, or diiconteot- 
ment with it, is fin, Rom vii. 12 In fum, take thefe few 
watch-words concerning the obligation of the law. 

1. That it obligeth to all duties, and to all forts of duties, 
public, private, to God, to others, and to ourfelves •, and 
that words, actions, geftures, yea thoughts, and the lead 
motions of the heart, come under its obligation : His com- 
mandment is exceeding broad, fo that there is nothing fo 
little, but it ought to be ruled by this word, and that in all 
perfons of all ranks, whether as to doing or fuffering. 

2. That it obligeth to the right manner of duties, as well 
as to the matter, and to every thing that belongeth to duties, 
and thus in its true extent it reacheth unto the forbidding 
of all the (ins that are contrary to duties commanded. 

3. That it obligeth the whole man, the outward, in deeds 
words, geftures, and appearances or (hews; the inward, in 
the underftanding, will, affections, memory, confeience; 
and fo it requires that the mind, wilt, and whole nature be 
fanctified, and conform to all thefe commands. 

4. That it obligeth to obedience in all thefe always, and in 
the high eft degree, fo that the lead difconformity in habit 
or aft is a tranfgreffion ; the obedience it requires is perfect 
in all thefe refpedts, that not only there muft be no breach, 
of any of thefe commands directly, much lefs a continuance 
in a breach, but that a'fo, 1. There muft be no ap- 
pearance of breaking them, I Theff. v. 22. 2. There muft 
be no confent to break them, tho* it come not forth to act:, 
Mattb. v. 28. There muft be no cafting ourfelves in the way 
of any temptation or fnare, whereby we may be enticed or 
occafioned (to fpeak fo) to break them; as David was by 
his looking on a woman, 2. Sam. xi. 2. which Job guards 
againft, Job xxxi. verfe 1, 4. there muft be no corrupt mo- 
tion, affection, or inclination to evil, even where it gets not 
afTent, there muft be no tickling of delight in the thing, 
though the heart dare not confent to act it, nor any difcon- 
tentment with the reftraint that keepeth from fuch a 
thing were lawful ; but on the contrary,- we muft account 
every commanded thing right, Pfalm cxix. 128. 

5. The involuntary motions of the mind which never get 
affent to any of thefe evils, nor are delighted in, yet even 
thefe are prohibited by this law; becaufe they flow from a 
corrupt fountain, and are the evidences of difconformity to 


Preface. the Ten Commandments. 53 

God's image in our nature, and they ought not fo much as 
to be in us. Hence doth the apoftle complain of lull, Rom. 
vii. though refifted by him. 

6. It reacheth not only to ftreams of actual corruption, 
but to the fountain of original (in, whereby we entertain 
within us the feed and incentives unto actual evils that con- 
tradict this holy law. By all which we may fee what holi- 
nefs it'calls for, and how often (if we were examined in all 
the commands by thefe rules) we would be found defective 
and faulty : and what matter of humiliation and repentance 
we may have for what is paft, and what challenges we may 
have hereafter from this law; with what need of continual 
applications to the blood of fprinkling, and of wafhing in 
that open fountain, to the houfe of David, and inhabitants 
of Jerufalem, for fin and uncleannefs ; and what need of 
endeavours to have our fteps ordered more exactly accord- 
ing to it. 

Before we clofe the preface, I fhall firft add two diftinc- 
tions more, then two more rules : 3. Give you fome fcriptures 
for your memories caufe. 4 Give fome directions or helps 
to thofe who make confeience to ftudy this law. 5. An- 
fwer and clear a fpecial cafe. 

1. Then, ye would diftinguifh betwixt this law, as given 
to Adam, and as given to Ifrael ; for, as given to him, it 
was a covenant of works 5 but, as given to them, it is a co- 
venant of grace - 9 and fo from us now it calls for gofpel- 
duties, as faith in Chrift, 1 Tim. i. 5. Repentance, hope in 
God, 6r. And although it call for legal duties, yet in a 
gofpel manner •, therefore we are in the fir ft commandment 
commanded to have God for our God, which cannot be by 
finners obeyed, but in Chrift Jefus ; the covenant of works 
being broken, and tie of friendfhip thereby between God 
and man made void ; fo that now men, as to that covenant, 
are without God in the world, and without Chrift and the 
promifes, Ephef. ii. 12, 13. And io our having God for 
our God (which is pointed at in the preface to the command • 
ments) and Chrift for our Saviour, and doling with his 
righteoufnefs, and the promifes of the covenant (which are 
all yea and amen in him) muft go together. 

2. Diftinguifh betwixt the divers adminiftrations of the 
covenant of grace, and of the law. in refpecl of positives, 
falling under the fecond commandment ; for that com- 
mandment tied the Ifraeiites before Chrift to circumciiion, 
facrifices, the feventh day of the week, and other ceremo- 
nies agreeable to the adminiftration of the iaw, and cove- 
nant of grace then \ but now it forbiddeth th^ni to us, arid 
requireth other duties •, for the prkfthood being changed, 


54 An Expofition of Preface. 

there is of neceflity a change alfo of the laws belonging there- 
to ; yet that commandment, as a part of the moral law, 
doth perpetually oblige and tie to worfhip God, and none 
r, and that according to the manner which he prefcribes. 

Next unto the rules already laid down, for the better un«» 
djiitiHiding of the commandments, we add two more. 

The £Lrft is, that the commandments are to be expound- 
ed, as that none of them may contradict another. ; that is, 
there is nothing commanded in one that is forbidden in an- 
other, or contrary; one duty doth juftle not with, northruft 
&\n another, but they differ only ; and then two duties 
coming together, in that cafe one of them ceafeth to be a 
duty for that time, as is faid in that diftinclion of affirma- 
tive and negative commands. 

The fecond rule is, that all thefe commandments bind 
and call for obedience from men, according to their places, 
and other qualifications and circumftances : The fifth com- 
mandment calieth for one thing from a magiftrate, another 
from a (ubjeft ; a magiftrate is to edify one way, a minifter 
another, a private Chriftian another; a fervant is one way 
to reprove his fellow-fervant, a mafter another way; The 
law requires more from a man of parts, power and riches, 
than from another, as to exercife and improvement of thefe 
gifts : The law being juft, has in it a proportionablenefs to 
peaces, parts, <bc. and fets bounds to ftations, but alters 
them not, nor confounds them. 

3. For the help of your memories, and that ye may have 
thefe rules more obvious, ye may draw them all under 
thefe five icriptures. * 

The firft fcripture is, Pfal, cxtx. 96. Thy commandment is 
exceeding broad ; which though it be more extenfive in its 
meaning, yet it doth certainly include this law, which in an 
efpecial way is the commandment, and in the fenfe and com* 
prehenfive meaning Thereof is exceeding broad ; for it takes 
in the fulnefs and extent of the whole law, in its obligation, 
as to all things, perfons and duties of all forts. 

The fecond fcripture is, Rom. vii. 14. which fpeaks to 
the fpirituality of the law in the obedience which it calleth 
for, the law is fpiritual. 

The third fcripture is, Rom. vii. 12. which fpeaks the 
perfection of its nature, the law u juft ; therefore fretting 
againft what it commandeth, or wilhing it were otherwife, 
is a breach thereof: // is huly ; therefore to be difconfor- 
mableunto it, is to be unholy; it is good, and therefore it 
ought to be loved and delighted in. 

The fourth fcripture is, 1 Tim. 5. and it fpeaketh the 
great end of the law \ The end of the commandment is charity 


preface. t : e Ten Commandments* 

cut of a pure heirt> and a good ccnfcicncc, and faith unfeigned: 
which threefold end fpeaketh out the abfolute purity and 
holinefs called for in our love to God and others, (o ns to 
have a good confeience in thin before God; all which mutt 
flow from unfeigned faith without prefumption, reftin-g on 
Jefus Chrift, who is in this fenfe the end of the law. 

The fifth fcripture is, iTim. i. 8. The law is goo-J, if a 
man ufe it lawfully : and this guards againft abufing of the 
law, and puttcth us to the lawful ufe of it: There are ex- 
treams in abufing the law : as i. When it is ufed to I 
righteoufnefs by it. Again, 2. When the authority of U 
is pretended for fomething it warrants not, fuch as the tra- 
ditions of the fathers, Mat A, xv. feeking of falvation by 
the obfervanon of circumcifion, &c. 3. When its autho- 
rity in practice is denied. 4. When it is turned from prac- 
tice to vain fpeculations and quefuons. 5. Whtn it is 10 
ufed as it deters and fcares from Chrift. 6. When it is fa 
made ufe of, as it oppreiTts and difcourages a believer, for 
whofe lake (1 Tim. i. 19.) it was never made or appointed, 
as to its threatnings and condemning power: And Uftiy, 
in a word, when it is not ufed to the ends, and in the man- 
ner exprefied in the former fcriptures. 

Fourthly, Becaufe the fhidy of this law is fo fingulany 
ufeful, we not only prefs and commend it, but add further 
fome few directions, whereby we may be helped rightly to 
ufe it, and to guajrd againft the abufe of it in our hearing 
and reading of it 

1. The firft direction is, Ye would look on it as God** 
word, and take it as if ye heard himfelf from Sinai pro- 
nounce it, that fo ye may tremble, and be more arTected 
with holy fear whenever ye read, tear it, or meditate upoa 
it f for fowas the people affected when it was firft promulgate. 

2. Be much in prayer for grace to take up its meaning; 
David (Pfal cxix. 18. &c) prayed often for this, and 
thought ic not unbecoming a king, yea a believing king, 
and a prophet to ftudy this law ; and pray much for open- 
ed eves to underfand the meaning thereof. 

3. In your reading, feek to underftand, fo as to pratiife 
it \ for that is the end of knowledge, and the end of the 
law itfelf aims at, Deut, v. 1,2. We knowing no more in 
God's account than what we endeavour honeftiy to practife ; 
and not aiming at practice, indifpofeth both for understand- 
ing and practice, and makes men exceeding carelefs. 

4. As ye hear and learn anything to be duty or fin, re- 
flect on yourfelves, and try whether that be fin in you, and 
how far fhort ye are in that duty ; for this is the proper uie 
p£ the lawj to reveal fiu aad tranfgreffioD, R.om. i. 18. 


56 An Expcfitlcn of Preface, 

therefore it is called a glafs, James iii. 12. 24. and ye would 
look into it fo as ye may know what manner of perfons ye 
are, and may know what fpots are upon you. 

5. When the law difcovers fin, ye would open your bo- 
fom to let in convictions; for the law entered that fin might 
abound, not in practice, but in fenfe, feeling, and confci- 
ence, Rom. v. 20. and follow thefe convittions by repent- 
ance, till they neceffitate you to fly to Chrift, and leave 
you there. 

6. Take help from Chrift's fermons, and the prophets, 
to underftand this fcripture, for they are the only canoni- 
cal; and therefore the beft commentary upon the command- 
ments ; yet ye would not defpife the light holden forth in 
human writing, fuch as the larger catechifm, which is ve- 
ry full as to this,, and if confeionably improved, will prove 
exceeding profitable for your inftruttion. 

Laftly, The grave cafe that we would fpeak unto, before 
we enter particularly on the commandments is, Whether 
any of thefe commandments may be broken in our fleep, by 
dreams, imaginations, aftions, &c. which otherwife are 
unlawful ? or whether, when a man is fleeping and dream- 
ing, he be fubjeft to the rule of the law, and if its obliga- 
tion extend to him even then ? This queftion hath its own 
difficulty; and although it be not good to be curious in it, 
yet it wants not its own profit, as to the peace and quiet- 
nefs of God's people, or to their humbling and ftirring up 
unto repentance, if it be rightly decided. I know almoft 
all run on the negative, as if men were not in the leaft guilty 
of fin by fuch dreams, upon this ground, becaufe they are 
not then in a capacity to ufe and exercife their reafon, but 
that they are in this cafe as mad, diftradted, or frantick 
men. I defire to be fober in fpeaking to this; yet I {bull 
adventure to fpeak my mind a little about it, with the rea- 
fons of it. 

And 1. We fay there is a great difference betwixt fleep- 
ing-dreaming men, and mad-men. 1. Becaufe madnefs is 
wholly in itfelf penal, and is a difeafe following finful man 
as other difeafes : but fo it cannot be faid of fuch dreaming ; 
for as fleep was natural (there being before Adam's fail a 
day and a night as well as now, and there being an inftance 
then of Adams fleeping) fo muft dreaming be, being pro- 
cured by the reftlefnefs of the fancy, and the roving of the 
imaginations, which is fome way natural ; but that men 
dream of fuch fubje&s, or that their dreams are of fuch a 
nature (as filthy or prophane) feems clearly to follow fin, 
which dreaming fimply doth not ; and therefore man is not 
fo puflive in this, as 10 madoefs. 2. Becaufe in dreams 


Preface. the Ten Commandments. $j 

men have more ufe of reafon than in madnefs, though (is 
the fchool-men fay) that ufe be imperfect, yet as they grant 
(and experience confVmeth it, and Auguftine, lib. 10, 
ConfefT. acknowledged it in himfelf) men may reafoa and 
debate in deep, yea fometimes rejecl fome motions, and 
though dreaming, yet not give confent unto them ; and 
that upon reafons which at other times poflibly they will 
embrace. Hence is it that there is a fort of fuitablenefs and 
likenefs betwixt men's dreaming, and their rational actings 
when waking ; children and mad-men, or men in a diftem- 
per, having more footifhnefs and lefs reafon in dreams, than 
thefe who have more ufe of reafon •, but wife men in a dif- 
traction, and natural fools, have no fuch difference tljen. 
Befide, we conceive that dreaming is more proper to rea- 
fonable men than bealls, and to men that have exercife of 
reafon than to children, but madnefs may be in all. 3 Be* 
caufe a man's former carriage in moral things hath much 
more influence on his dreams when he has clear ufe of rea- 
fon, than it can be faid to have upon him when in madnefs, 
as to the things committed by him in it. 4. Neither is it 
without fome weight, that under the law, Lev. xv. Deut. 
/Xxiii. 10. Sacrifices and wafhings were appointed for fome 
fins committed in fleep and dreaming (whatever they be in 
themfelves) which were not appointed for the fins of fuch 
as were frantick : All which pyt together, and duely coftfi- 
dered, we cannot look upon iins, I mean things otherwife 
unlawful, in dreaming, and fins in diftra&ion, as equal. 

Yet fecondly, there be fome things that we willingly 
grant in this matter; As i. That we do not comprehend 
under thefe finful dreams every palling tranfient thought or 
motion in fleep, which has merely an idlenefsand unprcfu- 
flblenefs with it, which though it might be pcffibly be fin- 
ful in men waking, (when they fhould aim in the leaft 
thought at fomething edifying) yet we think dreams that 
are meerly (fo to fay) negative, that is, not finful on the 
matter, are not to be accounted fins \ nay, nor yet fins hif- 
torically, as it were, obje&ed to the fancy, or only objec- 
tively propofed ; I fay they are not finful, becaufe man's 
fancy at fuch a. time is open to fuch reprefentations, and 
cannot hold them out, efpecially feeing they may poffibly 
be carried in by the devil \ who certainly waits thefe times ; 
but there are other finful dreams, fuch as that fpokeo of, 
Lev, xv, through occafion of which there iseffufion of feed, 
riling in paffion, delighting in revenge, it may be (as we 
<have heard) to the committing of fome aft; fuch have (as 
it were) a more deliberate confent with them, and fome- 
tia>es delight, yea fometimes external motion of the body 

H en- 

58 An Expofition of Preface. 

endeavouring the accompliftunentsof itsdefires: in all which 
it feems hard to fay, that a man is paffive only ; and when 
the fubje&s of the dreams are fuch things as a natural con- 
fcience will fear and tremble at, it is of thefe we fpeak. 

2. We conceive there is a great difference, as to degrees 
of finfulnefs, betwixt fuch finful motions, defires, delega- 
tions, &tc. that are in a waking man, and the fame in one 
afleep ; the guilt is much lefs by many degrees in the one, 
than in the other. 

3. A difference is to be made betwixt grofs fins obje&ive- 
ly reprefented to the fancy in fleep, and the fame fins which 
are not only fo reprefented, but alfo have more fettled mo- 
tions following thereon. 

4. There is a difference alfo betwixt diftempered men in 
their dreams of this kind, and men who are fober, and well 
at themfelves ; yet we cannot but incline to think, that there 
is fome guilt that may and ought to be repented of in fuch 
dreams, and fo that men may in their fleep fin againft thefe 
holy commandments, feeing that in many dreams^ as in ma- 
ny words, there are diver s (even finful) vanities > Ecclef. v. 7. 

This truth is fomcthing clear from the grounds already 
laid down ; but we (hall for further clearing and confirm* 
ing of it, add thefe following arguments. The firftis this, 

i.Thal tickling delight^ as an evil againft the law of God, 
is a fruit of original fin which fin infefts all our imagina- 
tions, and makes them evil, Gen. vi. 5. yea, they are the 
Sowings out of habitual luft, which is now natural to us ; 
and if they be a fruit of that tree, or a daughter of that mo- 
ther, muft they not be of the fame nature, and fo finful ? 
and that they muft flow from original fin, may thus be made 
out; That none can imagine fuch dreams to have been inci- 
dent to Adam, in the ftate of innocency, while all was pure, 
even though fleep and dreams were natural to him : And 
this may be confirmed from that one maxim of the fchool- 
men r that Adam's innocency was capable of no deception, 
nor of any thing which might make him fad, either fleeping 
or waking ; but fuch dreams. certainly imply both. If it be 
faid, fuch dreads may be from an external caufc, as the de- 
vils objecting fuch and fuch things to men in fleep : I an- 
fwer, I grant in part it may be fo ; but 1. Though he objsft 
them to us fleeping as well as waking, yet it is we that en- 
tertain thefe oDJe&ed reprefentatiqns, it is we that delight 
in them, and move by them, though tempted thereto by 
him; we may fay, he is Father, and as it is, Afts v. 3. A4 
Jilleth the heart, and furniflieth fewel ; but we arc the mo- 
ther (I fay, it is our corruption) that bringeth forth ; and 
can any fay, that if there were oq corruption within us, that 


Prefaced the Ten Commandments. $9 

thefe would be fo entertained ? 2. Though they come from 
hin s sn external caufe, vet confidering that our nature is 
inclined to fuch things, fo that powder of flax taketh no 
fooner v/ith fire caft into them, than our corrupt nature 
dota with thefe temptations: Is it pofiible to imagine that 
a dart of temptation fhould be thrown in, and not at leaft 
awake and ftir the favour of corruptions ? Indeed pure na- 
ture in our bleflcd Lord (who was without original fin) was 
like water prefently to quench all fuch fiery darts 3. If 
they come from the devil, to what end can he object them 
to men ? it muft either be, becaufe they are (Inful, that be- 
ing his aim to defile them thereby, and draw them to fin ; 
or becaufe they are troublefome and heavy to men, he hav- 
ing delight alio in men's mifery ; but fuch dreams are no 
way weighty and troublefome to the moft part of men, that 
therefore is not his aim, nor would be fo much bur- 
denfome to others, were it not from their apprehenfion of 
guilt under them ; and therefore Satan's aim muft be there- 
by to defile men with fin 

2. Argument which confirmeth the former, (and let us 
confider it with reverence) our bieffed Lord Jefus was made 
in all things like unto us, except fin : none of the fruits of 
original fin, which are finful, are to be" found in him ; and 
yet, I fuppofe, none can without horror imagine fuch 
dreams to have been incident to him, or that his abfolute 
holinefs was capable of them. He is the only inftance of 
one free from original fin, yet may he be fuppofed liable to 
any other penal thing, excepting, 1. "What implies fin. 2. 
What implies diftempers and infirmities in the contempera- 
ture and conftitution of his body from inward catifes, be- 
caufe he had no inward caufe, being free of fin, as Adam 
before his fall; and therefore not naturally (I mean from 
inward principles, or nccefiry, as we are) fubject to iick> 
nefs or death. 

3. The third argument is, That men are often acceffbry 
to the finful dreams themfelves, either, 1. *By excels, dif- 
pofing themfelves to fuch inclinations; or 2. By a looie 
mind that delights in following fuch things throughout the 
day in their more reafonable meditations, and more deter- 
minate purpofes ; it being ordinary, that dreams follow 
much the conftitution of the body, or the habitual ftraih 
of our practice: in which refpec~t, men's callings, 02 parti- 
cular employments, will run up and down behcre the fan- 
cy in their fleep, and fo their finful exercifes alio : or, 3. 
By not praying to God to guard againft them, and neglec- 
ting to prefs more after mortification for that end : or, 4. 
By not being fuitably affefted with them after they :.re paft 

H z snd 

60 An Expcfition of Preface. 

and gone : In which cafes, even the fchool-men (who arc 
not the moft rigid and tender cafuifts) will grant (all things 
being confidered) fin to be ex confequenti in dreams; and 
we fuppofe few fall in fuch dreams, who may not in one 
circumftance or other read their acceffion to fin therein : 
and though our frame and conftitution be in itfelf natural, 
ret that it fhould incline usfleeping or waking to anything 
iinful, that is and muft be from corrupt nature, feeing it 
clearly fpeaketh the'mordinatenefsof our natural inclination. 
4 The fourth argument is from the law of wafhings and 
facrificings for the fin of uncleannefs in men's dreams, when 
they pais feed in thtir deep, which feemeth to fay thus much* 
that both deeping and waking men lhould be holy ; and 
although there be facrifices and cleanfings appointed for 
fomc things that are not morally iinful, as the touching of 
a dead body, having leprofy, 6r. yet fimply to fay fo of 
the cafe in hand were hard: For, I. If it be faid, there 
was no mora! finfulnefs in that kind of pollutions, what 
then could thefe facrifices and wafhings fignify ? If any fay, 
as they muft fay, chey looked to fecret attings of original 
fin, ir doth confirm what we have faid : But %. Is there in 
any fuch things as ate not accounted Iinful in themfelves, 
fuch a dependency upon, or likenekto any commandment, 
as there is in that which is mentioned, Levit. xv. to the 
feventh commandment, to which it feemeth to have a di- 
reft reference ? 

5. The fifth argument may he taken from the extent of 
the law, which reacheth to the whole man, outward and 
inward, foul, heart, mind, and if to the whole man, then 
why not to the fancy, memory, imagination-, cr. And 
we are iure when fpirits are made perfe&ly conform to the 
law of God, there will not be found in them any fuch fan- 
cy imaginable as conhftefit with it ; Befides, doth not this 
law oblige and tie always ? even fleeping men (as we con- 
ceive) are under the negative precepts of it ; that is, altho* 
they be not bound to pray and hear in their fleep, yet they 
are bound not to murder, nor commit adultery, <bc. in 
their fleep ; andlhe more renewed and holy Chnftians are 
in their ordinary walk, fo are they in their dreams ; and 
even in this, fanftified perfons differ from unrenewed ones. 

6. The fixth argument is this, we fuppofe thefe grounds 
that prove involuntary luft in the firft motions thereof, and 
before they can come to confent to be fin, will infer thefe 
motions in fleeping men (of which we fpeak) to be iinful 
alfo : For 1. Though thefe motions of luft be involuntary, 
and weaken not the deliberate ufe of reafon more than the 
ether: And 2. Though they be ia the regenerate wreftled 


Prefiici. the Ten Commandments. 61 

againft, and not approved more than the other, yet becaufe 
thefe are not according to reafon, (though not brought 
forth by it) and not anfwerable to that fimple purity aod 
angelick holinefs which fhould be in man, and it is hard to 
imagine the moft paffing motions of luft, running never fo 
fwiftly through us, not to leave behind them fome dreg of 
defilement by reafon of our corruption, that fideth ftill in 
lefs or more with temptation (which cannot be faid of fins 
objected by the tempter to our Lord) and fuch lufts, or 
motions of luft, have ftill by the orthodox, according to 
Paul's do&rine, Rom. vii. been thought iinful upon the 
forefaid reafons ; and we fee not but thefe fame reafons 
will hold here. 

Laftly, we add, that generally the confeiences of the god- 
ly look on this kind of pra&ices, although committed ia 
fkep, with horror, and no reafoning or difputing will tru- 
ly quiet them, till they be humbled before God under them, 
and yet they ufe not to be fo troubled in other things that 
are meerly ceremonial : How doth Auguftine complain of 
this, yea confefs and lament it ? ConfeiT. lib is. c^p. 30. 
(though elfe where he accounts it no fin) yet he cries out 
of it, and that he thought it a mercy, that he had not done 
in deep he confented to adV, Reperimus nos noafeciJfe f dole- 
dmus tamen qitoquo modo in nobis faftmn fuijfe , It grieves him 
that it (hould be any way done in hicn, and he aggregeth it 
thus, that he had not always rejected thefe as fometimes hz 
had done : And do not the godly fometimes in their fleep 
make oppontion to thefe motions ? and how often do chey 
in prayer wreftle againft this evil, and that (as I conceive) 
from another apprehenfion of it than (Imply becaufe of any 
punimment or affli&ioo that is in it ? for many things more 
ajfliiting do not fo efFe£t them ; and yet even thefe know 
the reafons that are made ufe of againft th£ finfulnefs of it, 
which makexh me think there is fonriething dire&ly againft 
confeience and purity in thefe finful aftions or motions. 

To conclude, fure we are, this oginion is not unsuitable 
to the end of the law, and thatabfolute purity and angelical 
holinefs God calleth for in it 5 namely, that not only when 
we are awake we are to be ftill with him, but that our ileep 
fhould not break our communion with him : And certain- 
ly, it is moft fate for man to humble himfelf under the 
fenfe of his Gnful nature ; and the fad necefflty of finning, 
both waking and Seeping, he hath brought on himfelf % 
that thereby he may the better prefs on himfelf the necef- 
flty of a Mediator for righteoufneis ; which arc the gre. t 
ends and ufet; of the law. 

We come now nu>re particularly to the words which the 


6z An Expo/ttion of Prefaced 

Lord himfelf fpokc, concerning the number of thefe com- 
mandments, and general fcope of them (as hath been faid.) 
There is no queftion, but there be four things we would 
fpeak a little to, for further clearing of the text, before we 
come to fpeak particularly to the firft commandment. The 
firft is, whether thefe words, Jam the Lord thy God, &c. be 
a part of the firft commandment, or a preface to all the 
ten ? Anfvt. We think it is a ground laid down for preffing 
and drawing forth our obedience to all the commandments, 
yet it hath relation more efpecially to the firft command- 
ment, as the negative expreffion there cleareth, which is 
Thoujhalt have no other God's before Me ; that is, no other 
than Me ; what Me ? even Me the Lord thy God that brought 
thee out of the /and of Egypt : So then, there is a fpeciai re- 
lation betwixt this commandment and the preface, as inclu- 
ding thepofitive part of this negative commandment, and it 
doth efpecially clear ttefe three things? 

1. What is the right objeft of worfhip? it is Jehovah, 
Ekhim, the Lord, that fheweth the unity of the divine ef- 
fence ; for fo Jehovah, being a word in the Angular num- 
ber, is ordinarily looked on as pointing out this: then Elo- 
him, which is a word in the plural number, fpeaketh the 
plurality of performs in the Godhead ; fo that the Lord com- 
manding and requiring obedience, here is one God, and 
three perfons. 

2. It cleareth what is the right channel in which our fer- 
vicefhould run, it is the channel of the covenant, our obe- 
dience is to be dire&ed, not to God abftra&ly confidered, 
but to God as our God, / am the Lord thy God, faith he, 
and thy God by covenant ; fo the expreffion is, Deuter. 
xxviii. 58. That thou mjy fear this glorious and fearful name, 
THE LORD THY GOD. This maketh our 
fervice and worfhip fweet and kindly; and without this 
relation there can be no acceptable fervice performed by 
finful man to God ; and that relation (that by the cove- 
nant of works once ftood betwixt them) being broken, it 
faith it muft be made up again, which only can be done ia 
Chrift j and it faith alfo, that this relation to God in him, 
and obedience to the law can confift well together. 

3. It cleareth what is the right and great motive of obe- 
dience, to wit, the benefit of redemption, love and thank- 
fulnefs, upon that account, conftraining to the performing 
of thefe duties that are commanded, that they may be done 
willingly and in a chearful manner. 

Secondly, it may be afked,why the fecond commandment, 
and the fourth commandment, have reafons preffing obedi- 
ence annexed to them, which none of the cxhejr Hath, at 


Preface. the Ten Commandments. 63 

leaft exprefly fet down by the Lord ? Anfw. This may be 
a reafon, becaufe all the other commandments are by the 
law of nature determined in men's confeiences, and the fins 
againft them are by natures light feen to be evil; but the 
fubftance of thefe two, to wit, what way he fhall be wor- 
(hipped in externals, and on what day as that folemn time 
of worfhip, being determined by God's pofitive law, they 
are not fo impreffed on men's confeiences as the duties re- 
quired in the other commandments are ; therefore the 
Lord addeth reafons to each of thefe £o perfwade to the o- 
bedience of them. As to the fecond, 1 am a jealous God; 
and therefore will not admit of any the leaft appearance of 
declining from me, even in externals ; and to the fourth, 
keep the Sabbath-day for I have put a difference betwixt it 
and other days, though before there was none, v^hich is 
further amplified in the text : Now by this reafon (which 
is alfo given by the fchool-men) it may appear, that the fe- 
cond commandment concerning outward worfhip accor- 
ding to our way of diftinguifhiog them, is diftin£l from 
the firft, which requireth the inward worfhip due to 
God : for the firft commandment is moral natural, andean 
never be altered, and has as much imprefiion on a natural 
confeience as any; and therefore, according to this ground, 
needed no reafon. 

Thirdly, It may be obferved alfo, that fome command- 
ment have promifes added to them, which others have not, 
not that any implied commandment wants encouragements, 
but in fome they are exprefled, as in the fecond, Hefkeivctb 
mercy to tkoufands, be. and the fifth, That thy days may be 
long, be. The reafon given why promifes are particularly 
exprefled in thefe two, is that obedience to thefe two feemeth 
to bring^oft hurt to men, and is moft contrary to their cor- 
x'upt wills and affections ; it feemeth not fo prejudicial, nor 
is it fo fo obnoxious to the hatred of the world, that mea 
love God, and fear him in their hearts, be, as it is out- 
wardly to confefs him before men, and that by adhering 
clofe to the true manner of worfhipping him : This maketh 
men obnoxious to perfecutions, crofles, lofles, be. to be 
ferioufly taken up in the externals of godlinefs, fometimes, 
bringeth much prejudice with it, and is to many trou- 
blefome, and fo to ht obedience to fuperiors, and tender of 
inferiors,, is not eafily condefcended unto ; therefore God 
to counterbalance the difficulties that accompany the obe- 
dience of thefe two commandments, hath added promifes to 
them, the more to encourage and ftir up to the obedience 
of them. 
The fourth thing we would notice is,that fome command- 

6a An Exptjitkn cf Com. i. 

ments have threatnings exprefTed in them, which others 
have not, as the fecond, and the third, not thdt any com- 
mandment wanteth implied threatnings -, but the reafon is, 
becaufe men ordinarily count light of the breach of thefe 
two commandments, if they be (as they think) honeft at 
if it be to the true God, they think the lefs of it : And 
fo alfo men are given to count very light of the reverent 
the heart, though they be very negligent and carclefy 
in many outward things; and though in the manner 
of worfhip they be very flight and perfun&orious, yet 
ufing God's holy name ; therefore he hath put a threatning 
to both thefe commandments, to make men know, he will 
Dot fo eafily pafs them, as men oft-times imagine ; and that 
all thefe three, reafons, promifes, threatnings, are added to 
*he fecond commandment, it doth very clearly and convin- 
cingly fliew of what concernment that commandment is, 
and how ready men are to break it, and that there is fpecia! 
confideration and regard to be had to it, fo far as it is from 
being to be attempted to be expunged out of the number. 

E X O D U S xx. 3. 

Thou ft alt have no other Godi before me. 

IN this firft eommsnapd we may confider thefe two : 1. 
The thing commanded. 2« The qualification of the com- 

The thing commanded is negatively fet down, Thoufkalt 
hive no other Gcds t directing to the right object of worfhip, 
and differencing the true God from all fuppofed Gods ; for 
though there be but one God, yet are there many who are 
called Gods, 1 Cor. viii. 4, 5, 6. The qualification added, 
is in thefe words, before me, which tend not only to the ag- 
gravation of the fin here difchargcd > as being done in his 
prefence, and done as it were in contempt and defpite of 
God, who always fees ; ha: efpecially to fhew the extent of 
the prohibition, that it tieth \±p not only from outward i- 
dolatry, but even from that which is inward and fecret, and 
that man fee not, an*! is known to God only, and fo this 
commandment requireth not only external worfhip, but 
that which is inward and fpiritual before God. Hence the 
fcope of this Srft commandment lyeth clearly in thefe two 
things, (wherein it differeth from the fecond) to wit, 1. 
That it fheweth wfoo is the right object of worflbip, and 


Com. I.' the Ten Commandments. <5j 

direfteth men thereto. 2. That it regulateth mens internal 
worshipping of God, and calleth for that ; whereas the fe- 
cond commandment fuppofeth both thefe, and dire&cth as 
to the manner of worfhipping the true God, in externals 
and regulateth thefe. 

This commandment, as all the reft, hath a pofitive part 
requiring fomething, and a negative part prohibiting fome- 
thing : We fhall in the firft place, fpeak to what is requir- 
ed here, and we take it up in thefe three things. 

1. And firft, it requircth the right knowledge of Gcd ; 
for there can be no true worihip given to him, there can be 
no right thought or conception of him, or faith in him, 
till he be known : He muft be known to be one God in ef- 
feoce, Deut. vi. 4. and three perfons, 1 John v. 7. He muft 
be known in his attributes and efTential properties, infinite- 
nefs, immenfenefs, unchangeablenenefs, eternity, omnipo- 
tence, omnifcience, wifdom, goodnefs, juftice, and faith- 
fulnefs: He muft alfo be known in his fpecial works, 
whereby his fovereignty and majefty appeareth, as his works 
of creation, providence, redemption and what concerneth. 
it; as the covenant of grace, and its terms ; the Mediator, 
and his offices : no fervice of worflhip can be offered to 
God, nor can we have any ground of faith in him, without 
fome meafure of diilinct knowledge of thefe. 

2. It requireth from a fuitable acknowledging of God in 
all thefe his properties; As 1. That he be highly efteemed 
above all. 2. Loved. 3. Feared. 4. Believed, and truf- 
ted in. 5. Hoped in. 6. Adored. 7. Honoured. 8. Serv- 
ed, and obeyed. And fo, 9 He muft be the fupreme end 
iq all our actions, that fhould mainly be aimed at by us. 

3. It requireth fuch duties as refult from his excellency, 
and our acknowledging him to be fuch a one : As i; De- 
pendance upon him. 2. Submiffion to him, and patience un- 
der crofsdifpenfations from him. 3. Faith refting on him. 
4. Prayers put up to him. 5. Repentance for wronging him. 
6. Communion, and a conftant walking with him. 7. De- 
lighting in him. 8. Meditating on him ; and fuch other as 
necefiarily may be inferred as duties incumbent to creatures 
in fuch a relation to fuch a God, whofe excellency and 
worth calleth and inviteth men to all fuitable duties. 

Next, it is necefTary that we add fome advertifements to 
thefe generals. 

And firft, That the commandment requireth all thefe, 
and in the higheft and moil perfect degree. 

2. That it not only requireth them in ourfelves, but o« 
bligeth us to further them in all others, according to cur 
places and callings, 

I 3, That 

5<S An Expojition of Com. 7. 

3. That it rcquireth the diligent ufe of all means that 
may help and further us in thefe ; as reading, and medita- 
tion, Oudy, hc\ 

4. That thefe things which in fome refpect may be given 
to creatures, as love, fear, <bc % yet when they are required 
as duties to God, they are required in a far more eminent 
way ; fo that creatures muft yield and give place when God 
cometh in competition with them in thefe ; and thefe things 
which arc proper to God, as refting on him, adoriug of him, 
are to be given to no other. 

5. All thefe things are fo required, as none of them 
thruft out another; but that all fo confift, as every duty 
may keep its own place, without prejudice to any other. 

In the next place, we would confider the negative part 
of this commandment, for the extent thereof will be beft 
dilcerned by confidering what is forbidden therein, and 
bow it may be broken : It is indeed the commandment, ia 
reference to which, beyond all the reft, almoft the genera- 
lity of men think themfelves mod innocent; and yet upon 
trial it will be found, that men are moft guilty of the breach 
thereof : We may look upon the breach of this command- 
ment more largely,as God is any way wronged in that which 
is his due.; or more ftridlly, as it relateth to that which is 
more properly idolatry. 

Being more largely confidered it is broken two ways. 

1. When what, is proper and effential to God, is denied 
to him in effect, or practically ; as when he is nat account- 
ed eterna^omnipotent.one bleffed God in three perfons: and 
thus men arc guilty, either in opinion or in practice, when; 
they walk fo before God, as if they thought him not omni- 
potent, omnifcient, <bc. And fo Tit. i. 16. it is faid of fome, 
That they profefs to know God 9 hut in ivtrks they deny him. 

2. It is broken, when any thing unbecoming the holy 
majefty of God is attributed unto him ; as that he changeth 
favoureth prophanity, 6c SoPfal.L 21. It is faid of fome 
prophaae men, that they thought him like unto themfelves. 
Thefe two may be called more general idolatry. We fliall 
fpeak further to them afterward. 

3. The third way it is broken, (confidering the breach of 
this commandment ftri&ly) is by attributing that which is 
due to God,and properly belong to him,to creatures ; as truf- 
tingin them,callingon themby prayer,accounting them om- 
nipotent, omnifcient, or believing that they have influence 
or power to guide the world, which fome do attribute to 
ftars,to the heavens, to fortune, to faints, to angels, to devils ; 
this is properly idolatry : And becaufe it is the chief fcope 
of this cQ&unandmcat, and we are biddea exprefly to keep 

* our 

Com. i. the Ten Commandments* 6j ^ 

ourfelves from idc's, i John v. we (hall infift a little on St« 
And firft, We fhali prernit ibme diftinctions of idolatry. 
2. Shew how men fell in it. 3. What are the fpecia! 
men commit idolatry with. 4. Which are the mod fubtile 
and dangerous idois. 5. Give fotne rule9 whereby ye may 
try this fin of idolatry, even when it is moft fubtile. 

And firft idolatry may be diftinguifhed, 1. Into idolatry 
againft the firft commandment, when worfhip is not direc-, 
ted to the right, bur to the wrong object ; and idolatry a- 
gainft the fecond commandment, which ftriketh againft the 
prefcribed manner of worflbipping God : We are now to 
fp^ak to the firft. 

2. This idolatry is either, I. Doctrinal or idolatry in the 
judgment, when one profefTedly believeth fuch a thing be-^ 
fide Gcd to have fome divinity in it; as heathens do of their 
Mars and Jupiter, and Papifts do of their faints : Or 2. It 
is practical, when believe no fuch things and will not ow.i 
any ftich opinion, yet on the matter they are guilty of the 
fame thing as covetous men, err. The firft taketh in ail 
Heathens, Turks, Hereticks, that by their doctrines and 
Opinions wrong the true God, or his worflrp : The fecond 
taketh in all lelf-feeking, ambitious, covetous, and volup- 
tuous perfons, 6v. who fall in with the former in their 
practice, tho' not in opinion. 

3. It may be diftinguifhed into idolatry that hath fome- 
thing for its object, as the Egyptians worihipped beafts and 
the Perfians the fun or fire, and that which has nothing 
but mens imaginations for its object, as thefe who wprftiip 
feigned gods ; in which refpect the apoftle faith, an idol is 
nothing, 1 Cor. viii. 4 

4. We would diftinguifh betwixt the objects of idolatry; 
and they are either £uch as are in themfelves Amply ilnful, as 
devils, prophane men : or they are fuch as are good in 
themfelves, but abufed and wronged when they are a . 
objects of idolatry, as angels faints, fun, moon, <sc. 

$. Diftinguifh betwixt idolatry that is more grofs and pro- 
feffed, and that which is more latent, fubtile, and denied: 
This diftinction is like that before mentioned into opinion 
and practice, and much concideth with it. 

6. Diftinguifh betwixt heart-idolatry, Ezek. xiv. Exodus 
xiv. 11, 12, and xvi. 2, 3. and external idolatry : The for- 
mer confifteth in an inward heart -re tjpect to fome idol, as 
this tumultuous people were enflaved to their eafe and bel- 
lies in the laft two forecited places 5 the other in fome exter- 
nal idolatrous gefture or action. 

In practical idolatry we are to diftinguifh betwixt the let- 
ting out our affections upon fimply finful obje&s, and the 

1 Z kiting 

68 An Exp r fttion cf Com. I, 

letting them cut excefEvely upon lawful objects. Thus men 
are guilty of idolatry with finful objects, when they love 
and covtt another man's houfe, wife, or goods, when things 
unlawful and forbidden have the heart. Again, men are 
guilty of idolatry in making lawful objects idols ; as when 
by excefs or inordinatenefs of love to their own means, 
wife, houfc, &c. they put them in God's room, as Nebuch- 
adnezzar did with Babylon, Dan. iv. 30. So then, in the 
former fenfe, men make their lufts or fins, whatever they 
be, their idols, gluttons that ferve their appetite, drunkards 
their drunkennefs, make their bellies and appetite their i- 
idol ; for to whatever men yield themfelves to obey, they are 
fervants unto that which they obey, Rom vi. 16. An idol 
is fomething exceffively eiteemed of, and idolatry is the 
transferring of God's due, outwardly or inwardly, to what 
is not God, whether we efteem it God or not. 

We (hall firft fpeak of practical heart idolatry, efpecially 
when lawful things are made idols, which is the moft fub- 
tile kind of idolatry, and that which men moft ordinarily 
fall into : And it may be cleared thefe five ways; by all 
which, men give that which is due to God unto creatures. 
There are five things that are incontrovertible due to God, 
to wit, 1. Eftimation and honour above all. 2. Love with, 
all the heart. 3. Confidence and truft. 4. Fear and re- 
verence. 5. Service and obedience. 

Firft then, men commit idolatry, when any thing, even 
any lawful thing, getteth too much refpect from them ; fo 
that their happinefs is placed in it, and they can lefs abide 
to want it in effect, whatever they may fay in words, than 
communion with God himfelf ; When men have fuch an 
exceffive efteem of wife, children, houfes, lands, great pla- 
ces, (be. and when they are taken from them, they cry as 
IVIicah, Judg. xviii. 24. Ye have taken away my gods from 
me> and -w^at have 1 more ? When all the other content- 
ments a man hath, yea all the promifes, and God himfelf 
alfo, proveth but of little value to him, in refpect of fome 
particular he is deprived of by fome crofs difpenfation ; it is 
a token it had too much of his heart : Try this by two 
things. 1. When any beloved thing is threatned to be re- 
moved, it then appeareth how it is affected, and ftuck in- 
to. 2. What is made ufe of to make up that ; fee a notable 
difference betwixt David and his men, or moft of them, 1 
Sam. xxx. 6. when he wanted as much as they, they know 
no way to make it up, therefore they think of ftoninghim ; 
but he encourageth himfelf in the Lord his God: they had 
no more left at all, it is like ; he hath his God abiding, in 
whom he may yet be comforted. 


Com. I. the Ten Commandments. 69 

The fecond way whereby* men commit idolatry with crea- 
tures, is their love which is due to God with all the heart ; 
but men ordinarily give away their hearts to creatures, in 
being addifted to them in their defires, feeking exceffively 
after them, in their doating on them, or forrowing immo- 
derately for want of them. Hence the covetous man who 
loveth the world, 1 John ii. 15. is called an idolater, Col. 
iii. 5. Ephef. v. 5. Thus it difcovered itfelf in Achab, who 
fo loved Naboth's vineyard, that he could not reft without 
it: So Demas idolized the world, when for love of it he 
forfook his fervice with the apoftle, (though it had been 
but for a time) 2 Tim. iv. 1 o. Men's love to creatures is ex- 
ceffive. 1 . When their contentment fo dependeth upon them, 
as they fret when they cannot come at the enjoyment of 
them, as we may fee in Achab, when he cannot get Na- 
both's vineyard, and in Rachel for want of children. 2. 
When it ftands in competition with God, and duty to him 
is fhuffied out from refpedi and love to the world, or any 
thing in it, as we fee in Demas, 2 Tim. iv. 10. 3. Though 
duty be not altogether thruft out, yet when love to thefc 
things marreth us in that zealous way of performing du- 
ty to God, as it did in Eli, 1 Sam. ii. 24 who is faid to 
honour and love his children above God, ver 29. not that 
he forbore them altogether, but becaufe his fharpnefs was 
not fuch as it fhquld have been, and (as it is like) it would 
would have been, had they not been his own fons whom he 
too much loved ; whereas to the contrary it is fpoken to 
Abraham's commendation, that he loved God, becaufe he 
withheld not his only Son when God called for him. 

3. The third is, when confidence and truft is placed in 
any thing befide God, (10 wit, exceffively, as before we faid 
of love.) Thus when a man's protection is placed in men, 
though princes, Pfal. cxlvi. 3. or in multitudes, or in hor- 
fes and armies, it is idolizing of them. Thus rich men may 
make (as it is Job xxxi. 24 ) gold their confidence, and fine 
gold their hope ; that is, when men account tbemfelves fe- 
cure, not becaufe God hath a providence, but becaufe they 
have fuch means ; as Afa trufted to the pHyficians, and not 
to God, namely in that particular, the cure of his difeafe ; 
or as the rich man, Luke xii. 19. who founded his taking 
reft to his foul on his full barns : and fo fome truft their 
ftanding to fuch a great man who is their friend : And this 
is known, 1. By the means to which men betake them in a 
ftrait, as when they ftand not to make ufe of finful means. 

2. By what noife they make when they are difappointed. 

3, It is known by this, \*hen their leaning on fuch a crea- 
ture marreth their refting en God, and on his providence. 


7^ ^ n Bxfmjkiai of Com. r. 

Hence it is hard for men to be rich, and not to place their 
•'i deuce in riches ; and fo Chrift ipeaketh of the difficulty 
of rich men being faved. 4. Then men truft in their rich- 
er when die having of them maketh them to think them* 
Selves thz more fecure, and maketh them proud and jolly, 
as if they added fome worth to thofe who pofTefs them; 
which could not be, if they were not fomething too much 
thought of. 

4. The fourth way how creatures are idolized by men, is 
in their fear, when men or events are feared more thaa 
God, and fear maketh men (in, or at leaft keepeth them 
b*ck from duty, in lefs or more, iike thofe profefibrs, who 
for fear of the Jews (Job xii. 42) did not confefs Chrift, 
Thus men may idolize their very enemies whom they hate, 
when they fear more him that can kill the body, than him 
that can deftroy both foul and body. Thus great men and 
powerful in the world are often idolized, and good and 
well-qualified men may be made idols aifo, when men be- 
come fo adJi&ed and devoured to them, as to call them 
Rabbi, and to be as it were( fworn to their words and opi- 
nions (as the Sectaries in Corinth were, and fuch at ail 
times, for the moil part, are to their leaders) when it is 
not the matter or reafon that fwayeth but the perfon that 
teacheth fuch doctrine, or holdeth fuch an opinion. 

^. The fifth way of committing this idolatry, is by fervice, 
when a man is brought under the power of any thing ; fo 
whatever a man ferveth this way is an idol, every predo- 
minant, every perfon or humour that a man fetteth himfelf 
thus to pleafe is an idol : in this refpect it is faid, Men can- 
not ferve two matters, Cod and Mammon; and if we yet 
ferve men, we are not the ferv ants of Chriji % Gal. i. 10. 
This may be known, 1. By what men are moft excetfively 
taken up with, and moft careful to fulfill and accomplifh. 
2. By looking to what it is for which they will take moft 
pains that they may attain it. 3. By what getteth moft of 
their time and labour. 4. By what overfwayeth, and over- 
cometh, or overaweth them moft, fo that they cannot refift 
it, though it thruft by duties to God ; and when they are 
never {o taken up with God's fervice, but it indifpofeth 
them whenever they come to immediate worfhipj it is an 
evident token that fuch a thing is the man's idol. 

Theft be the moft ordinary ways how men fall in this fin 
of idolatry : it were hard to fpeak of all the feveral idols 
which may be loved, feared, refted on too much, and fo 
put in God's room : I {hall inftanc^ a few. 

The firft is the world ; this » : the great clay-idol that 
covetous and voluptuous_men hunt after, crying, Who hiill 


Com. i^ the Ten Commandments, ~i 

fhe-w us any good F PfaL lv. 6. By this thoufands are kept :n 
bondage, and turned head-long: An cxceffivc dciiie to 
ha^e the world's goods, and have by thefe a rfaaie in the 
eanh, is many a man's idol. 

A fecond is the belly, Philip, uu 1*9. a fhameful God, 
yet worfhipped by the moftpurt of men, who travel for no 
more but for a portion in this life to fill the beily, Pfal. 
14. to win their living, and provide for their families To 
this fort alio belongeth gluttons, drunkards, palate-pk ii- 
ers, (who are looked upon as the dainty men in the world, 
abounding alas in cur days) being according to Satan's max- 
im, ready to give Jl in for Jk in, and all they have fir their 
life ; and aiming at no more, Job ii. 4. Thus Satan thought 
to have found out Job, when his riches were quite gone; 
thus he tempted the Lord Chrift to provide bread in an an- 
xious way 5 and thus fear of want captivateth many. 

3. The third great idol (which is comprehenffve fome 
way of all) is a man's felf, his honour, credit, reputation, 
good name, and applaufe in the world \ his own will, opi- 
nion, tenets, judgments, whereof men are tenacious, and 
will not quit fometimes (as the proverb is) f< an inch of 
4f their will for a fpan of their thrift 1 '. Thus men are laid 
to live to them/elves, 2 Cor. v. 15. in oppofition to living 
unto God, when felf-refpect fwayeth them to be /overs cf 
them/elves, 2 Tim. iii. 2, 4. and levers of their pleafures mere 
than God y and felf -willed, Tit, i. 7. 2 Pet. ii. 10. Ah who 
are free of this ! 

The fourth is, men of parts, 6c. who have done or m&f 
do fome confiderable good or evil to one, or have fome. 
thing in them eminent beyond others: Thefe oft-times, 1# 
regard of the fear, love, or truft men place ia them, are 
made great idols. 

The fifth is, lawful contentments, as houfe?, wives, cbii? 
dj?en, unto which men are often too much a^difted, 
with which they are often too much taken up, even foi 
times with that which is in itfelf very little, and (6 thef 
prove their idols. 

A fixth is, felf-righteoufnefs: Men's prayers, their re* 
pentance, blamelefs walking, <bc, thefe may get, and often 
get more of their confidence, and weight of their eternal 
peace, than they fliould : So the Jews laid the great ftrefs 
and weight of their faivation upon this idol, Rom. x, 3. 

The feventh may be, outward ordinances in purity, ex- 
ternal forms, and profeffion of religion : when men reft u- 
pon thefe, and prefs not after the power : as the Jews, who 
Oried up the temple of the Lord, the covenant betwixt him 
and them, ahd ;heir externa! gelation iq him, Jer. vit 4 

J2 An Exprfition of Com. £ 

The eighth is, any gift of God, which he hath beftowed 
on men, fuch as beauty, ftrength, wit, learning : when 
men who have them lay too much weight on them, to think 
too much of them •, yea grace itfelf, the fenfe of God's love, 
and inward peace, may be put in Ch rift's room, and more 
fought for fometimes than Chrift himfelf : Now when thefe 
ai*refted on, delighted in, and he flighted •, or when they 
are miffed, and he not del'gJued in, then they are idols. 

Ninthly, Eafe, qnietnefs, and man's own contentment, 
is oft-times a great idol ; and it is fo when a man is fo ad- 
dicted to his eafe, as he cannot abide to be troubled. Thus 
was it with that man, Lukexii. 19. Soul t take thee reft : His 
eafe was his idol, and he refted on it, and made it the end 
of all his buildings, and laying up of goods \ but his riches 
were his idol, as he grounded his expe&ation of reft upon 
that which he poflefied : So many idle men, who frame 
their life fo as they may not be troubled, though they be 
no ways profitable, but fpend what they have, making this 
the drift of all they do, that they may have an eafy life* 
when this overfwayeth them as their laft end, (though 0- 
therwife, if they were not wedded to their eafe, might be 
more profitable) and often with abftaining from, and ne- 
gVetting of many neceflary duties, that they may efchew 
trouble, it is a prevailing idol. 

A tenth is, wandering fancies and chimera's, the mind 
pleafing itfelf with them, and delighting to entertain them, 
and purfuing them from a defign to find fatisfa&ion in them, 
even in fuch things as never had, nor it may be, can have 
a being, except in their own imagination and fancy ; fuch 
are called by Solomon, Ecclef. vi. 9. The wandering of the 
defire (oppofed to the fight of the eyes, which others delight 
in) as when men fpread their wits and inventions on pen- 
ning romances, love-pafiions, ftage-plays, comodies, mafks, 
balls, eSrc. or which is more fubtile, yet much pra&ifed, 
when the minds of men frame imaginary and fidtious re- 
venge, delight, eminency, &c. to themfelves. 

The means and fecond caufes, phyficians, armies, mini- 
fters, (tars, and natural caufes, by which God ufeth to 
work, (by fome called nature) are oft-times fo trufted and 
leaned to, as they are made men's idols ; nay by many in 
thefe days, judiciary aitrology, palmeftry, £jc. are much 
ftudied and doted on, and the fcriptures antiquitated and 
laid afide in a great meafure. 

Next, ifitbealked, what idols are moft fubtile ? Anf. 
I. An idol is then moil fubtile, when it lurketh in the heart, 
and feateth itfelf principally in men's minds, aim, and in- 
ward conteutraerjtj and tfccy inwardly afcribe too much to 


Com. i; the Ten Ccrzmandtxents. 73 

fuch a thing, and yet, it may be, in their external practice, 
there is not much to di (cover this. 

2. Then are idols moft fubtile, when they lye in fu ch 
things to which fome what of fear, love, delight, isc. is al- 
lowable, as in lawful things, which may in fome meafure 
be lawfully loved, feared, and fought for. 

3. When they are in negatives, as in omiffions, eafe, drr. 
then they are more fubtile than when they lye in fomething 
men pofitively feek after, or in the coramiffion of fomething 

4. When they pafs under a lawful name, as when pride 
goeth under the name of henefty. Anxiety under the 
name of lawful care, <bc. then they are hardly difcovered. 

5. When flicking to one idol, the man rejecleth all others, 
(as he conceiveth) out of refpect to God, as may be inftan- 
ced in the cafes of a monafiick life, regular obedience, fome 
lingular opinion fo much fiuck to, and laid weight on by 

6. When it is in means that we have ufed, or are allowed 
by God for attaining fuch an end, as it is hard to keep bounds 
in this cafe, fo it is hard to difcover the idolatry of the 
heart in it. 

In all which it is to be advertifed, that idolatry in thefe 
things confifteth moftiy in the inordinatenefs of the heart 
and affections to them, and that it lieth not fo much in our 
actions about them, as in the manner of our a&ing, and 
the circumftances accompanying us and our actions, anxie- 
ty, eftimation, exceffive care, love, he. 

For clearing the difference betwixt this idolatrous love, 
fear, fervice, and true love, be. take thefe rules. 

1. When our love to creatures drowneth our love to God, 
and rnaketh us to caff off duties we owe to him, as in De- 
rnas. 2. When in part it marreth us in the performance o£ 
duties to God, as in Eli. 3. When it fo taketh us up in 
our practice throughout the day ; that we give not necef- 
fary time to the worfhip of God, in praying, reading, hear- 
ing, <&c. 4. When it indifpofeth for thefe, fo that when 
we are praying or hearing, the heart is carried away after 
creatures, and the mind is taken up with fome other thing 
than God, as Ezek xxxiii. 3. 5. When they too much, 
and very unneceffarily haunt the heart in meditation, or 
when we lye down or raife, and at fuch times when our 
thinking on fuch employments contributeth not to the fur- 
therance of them, it (heweth that they h**e too much of the 
heart when they poffefs it always, and when it is feldoo* 
taken up actually with better things, but thefe fical in eafily 
ind at all times, 

K It 

74 J* Exptfiicn of Com. t. 

It mar appear now, i. How common thi3 fin of idolatry is. 

2. How great guilt and hazard men are lying under there- 
by, becaufe, i. Few are convinced of it. 2 Many years 
idolatry licth together upon the confeiences of many. 3. 
There is little repentance for it, though many ways one may 
infenfibly Aide into it. 

It is not fo very ufeful or needful here particularly to en- 
quire what idol is predominant, and hath chief room, if 
ihefe three things be granted. 1. That there may be, and 
are many idols often at once, as legions diffracting the man, 
and fwarming in his heart. 2 that fucceffively they may 
be changed, according to men's intentions and conditions. 
3. That men fhould fludy the mortification oi all, and the 
giving God his due, fo as none be fpared ; for if any one 
be fpared, none at all are mortified and ftain, 

It would become believers, and it would be their advan- 
tage, to think much upon fuch fcriptures as thefe lfa. xxx. 
22. And ye fljalt be my people , and J will be your God. Luke 
xiv. 8. When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, Jit net 
down in the Ingheft room ; left a more honourable man than thou 
ie bidden of him. 1 Cor. x. from ver. 5. to ver. 15. And 
that they would ftudy conformity to them, and learn to ab- 
hor idols -, yea, all creatures, in fo far as they become idols 
to them. 

We are now further to profecute the branches of this 
commandment, which is a key to all the reft; and becaufe 
God's fovereignty is hold en forth here, there is no .fin that 
may not be reduced to it, as being a difobedience to this fo- 
vereign God : We fhall firft permit fome general ways 
whereby it is broken, then infift in fome particulars. 

More generally, it is broken three ways, as hath been faid 

1. By derogating from God thar which is his due ; (o ail 
contempt of him, difobedience to him, wronging his inG- 
nite^Attributes, as if he were not Omnipotent, Omnifcient, 
Infinite, <bc. denying of his providence in lefs or more, are 
breaches of this commandment. Thus he is wronged, when 
he getteth not every way that which is his due. 

2. By attributing to God what is not confident with his 
abfolute perfection, purity, and holrnefs, as that he doth or 
can do wrong, change, nor keep his promifes, or not guide 
the world wifely; that he hath any bodily ihape, or may 
be comprehended. 

3. When, what is due to God, as faith, hope, love, 
fear, &<:. is given to creatures, whether to idols literally, 
or to men, to faints, angels, ordinances, (as facraments) 
itars, herbs, gold, phyGcians, &e. when too much weight 


Com. t. the Ten C7tnma.ndm€ntu 7-5 

is laid on them, cr any thing not agreeing tothem is afcrihh 
ed to them, by which witch-craft, charming, coverouinc ( 
judicial aftrology, &c. are reproved, as drawing the hearts 
of men away from the living God. 

If it be afked, May not fome things in the tvorld be lov- 
ed ? and may nut fome confidence be placed in men, means, 
isc. I anfwer, love may be given to fome things, and natu- 
rally is called for to fome things; but, 1. Not (imply, but 
with fubordination to God; not for them feives, but out of 
ojbedience to God, and as they may be ufeful to us in help- 
ing us to honour him, and as they are his gifts. 2. We are 
not exceffively to love or reft on thefe, but fo, as from love 
to God, we are ready to quit, yea, to hate them, as Chrift 
fpeakethof father and mother, Luke xiv 26. Again, there 
may be fome kind of confidence given to fome things ; but f 
1. Not (imply. Nor, 2. For themfelves. 3 Nor always. 
4 Nor in ail things ; but, I. This confidence muft be fub- 
ordinante to God's appointment. 2. It muft be with depen- 
dence on his bleffing for making means effe&ual, and fo may 
we expeft health from meat, drink, phyfick, &c. for io 
they are looked on as means conducing to fuch an end ; and 
yet it is the Lord alone that mull be refted on. 3. Tlvere 
may be comparative confidence, whereby men lean more to 
one mean than to another, as more to a fkilfui phyiician 
than to an unfkilful, and more to an army, as to overcoming 
an enemy, than when it is wanting, becaufe that confidence 
is in fome external thing, and concerneth not faivation, and 
but compared means amongft themfelves , as they are ordi- 
narily made ufc of by God for attaining thele ends ', but in 
this cale the means are not limply confided in. 

Next, we are to confider that this command may be broken 
all theie ways in tour refpe&s. 

1. In do&rine; as when men maintain fuch things as dif- 
honour God, or give his due to creatures, and do teach 
them, Match v. 33. to 38. 

2. By opinion or judgment; as fuppofe men (hould not 
vent and publifh fuch things, yet if they in their heart think 
or believe lo, Pfal. xiv. ver. 1. 

3. Though it come not to a fettled judgment, but only 
reacheth the imagination ; fo that loofe, unbecoming 
thoughts of God, or mifapprehenfions derogatory to him, 
are entertained ; as Pfal. 1. 21. Acts xvih 29. 

4. In practice j when men live as if there were no God, 
Pfal. xxxvi. ver. !. as if he were not omniicienr, juft, &c. 
Thefe do indeed deny him, whatever be their profeflion to 
she contrary, Tit, i 16* Thus all prophaue men^ who live 

K z loofeiy 

loofely, are guilty ; as alfo formal hypocrites, who reft on 
the out- fide of duties. 

Therefore, in the third place, we are to confider, that 
this commandment, in the extent thereof, doth condemn, 
i. All grofs idolaters of any fort, who ufually are mention- 
ed under the name of heathens. 2. Jews, who worfhip not 
the true God, in his (on Jefus Chrift. 3. All hereticks, 
that deny the God-head of any of the Perfons ; as Sabelli- 
ans, who make but one perfon ; Arrians, who make Chrift 
a made God ; Photinians, who make him a pure man 5 
and all that make a plurality of gods, or that leiTen the 
divine attributes, and give to faints God's due, in adorati- 
on or invocation ; or in a word, whoever contradift any 
ttuth, or maintain any error : for thereby they fallen it u- 
pon God and his word, and wrong him who owneth no 
fuch thing: And to thefe may be added all ignorant per- 
fons who know not God. 4. All prophane men, whether 
aiheifts in heart or in praftice, difobedient perfons, in dee4 
denying God, and not giving him his due, which is obedi- 
ence, whatever in words they profefs concerning him. 5. 
All hypocrites, who give him but an out-fide fervice, and 
fo are not in their obedience fincere and perfect as before 
him. 6, All compacters with the devil, who confult him, 
or who leave God's way, and feek to come to the knowledge 
of any thing by an unlawful way •, which is, 1. To meddle 
"with God's iecrets when he has not revealed them. 2. It is to 
be beholden to God's enemy, the devil, for revealing fuch 
things, 3. It is a making ufeofan unwarrantable mean, 
which has no bleffing promifed to it ; therefore cannot be 
ufed as a mean with fubordination to God, even tho* the 
matter enquired after by fuch means, or by the devil, be 
fuch as he may know. 7. All charming bjvwords, herbs, 
or fuch means as God hath not appointed for that end, or 
which have no natural and phyfical efficacy for bringing it 
forth ; as in fetking health from witches, when there muft 
be words fo often repeated, or they muft be faid fading or 
going backward, &c. all laying weight on thefe, or the like 
circumftances, without any reafon. 8. All fpells, fearing 
of events, and ufing fuperftitious means to prevent thefe, 
as laying bits of timber at doors, carrying a Bible meerly 
for a charm, without ufing it, efteeming days and times 
unlucky and unfortunate; thefe draw men off from God 
to fome other thing : Of this fort is all divining by lots, ftars, 
rods, or any other way, not having a warrant, to find out 
fome fecret, or to know fomething that is to come 5 (it be- 
ing God's property and prerogative to declare what is to 
come, Ifa xli.) for when there is no efficacy, no reafon in 


Com. iT the Ten Commandments. yy 

the mean ufed, the effect muft be looked for, either from 
God, or from the devil : Now when God has neither put 
it naturally in the mean, nor by his revealed will any way 
warranted it, as fometimes he doth, (as when he appointed 
wafliingin Jordan for curing Naaman's leprofy, and anoint- 
ing in the primitive times for healing the fick) it cannot be 
from him. Hence fometimes one charm or word to one at 
one time, will do what it never doth to another : Thefe 
means have always fome circumftance in word or action im- 
mediately and explicitely, or implicitely flowing from the 
devil, which may be good in itfelf, yet has no force for the 
end, and fo draweth men to own the devils inftitution, 
which is exceeding derogatory to the honour of God. 

4. We gather the breaches of this commandment from 
the duties that are required in it, fuch as faith, love, obe- 
dience, hope, fear, knowledge, <bc. in which we may fail 
thefe ways in the general. 1. When we want thefe graces, 
or perform not thefe duties required. 2. When they are 
counterfeited, and not real; as when our humility is not 
real, our prayers not fincere, but in fhew only. 3 When 
they are defective as to the meafure of knowledge, faith, 
£>c. which we fhould be at. 4. When they degenerate, as 
when knowledge turneth into curiofity, and faith into pre- 
fumption, and hope into vain confidence, fear into unbelief 
and anxiety, by which we may fee how often this command- 
ment is broken. 

1. That we may the better underfland the breaches of 
this commandment, we would firft take a view of God's 
excellency and attributes, and fee how we fin againft all 
thefe, for we fhould walk worthy of God, Col. 1. 10. And 
here ye may obferve, that his infinite wifdom is wronged 
by not fubmitting to him, or not taking direction from 
him; his power, by not employing him ; his grace, by not 
trufting him, or abufing it to wantonnefs ; his omnifcience, 
by wifhing he faw not fome things, hiding them from men, 
and not fearing him, counterfieiting in his fervice, &c. fo 
is his juftice wronged by expecting mercy without making 
ufe of a facrifice, not fearing his threatnings, not fearing 
at fin, but hazarding on his wrath ; and the like may be 
inftanced in all the reft of his attributes, which are all fin- 
ned againft, either by ignorance, or by oroiilion of fome- 
thing they call for, or by the commiiiion of fomething un- 
becoming them. 

2. Confider God in his relations to us, how often is he 
finned againft as a Father ? how is his kindneis abufed, and 
he not reverenced as Creator, of whom we have our being ? 
yea, he is kicking againft, and we live no; to him, from 


?3 An Expofttion of Com. t. 

whom, and by whom we live : He is a hufband and yet we 
go a whoring from him, and prove unfaithful in all our 
ties to him : He is a Redeemer of his people, and a mafter 
and Lord of all, but what fear, love fubjettion getteth he 
from us, notwithftanding of all thefe relations ? 

3. Confider God's works for us, about us, and to us, of 
creation, providence, and redemption, befideshis particular 
difpenfations both of mercies and judgments : A 11 which 
call for fomething fuitable for us, and yet every one of 
them is more ways flighted, by attributing whether good 
or evil, to chance, luck, or fortune, by unthankfulnefs to 
him, and abufe of what he giveth ; and by not ftudying 
thefe works, fo as to admire and love him who is the work- 

4. Confider our obligation to God in all the parts of our 
covenant with him, fealed by baptifm, and the Lord's-fup- 
per : Sure we fhould ftudy to be like all thefe covenant re- 
lations, and to anfwer thefe obligations; but alas, how 
fhamefuily tfnanfwerable are we to them all ? 

5. Confider his will revealed in his word, and fee how far 
fhort we are in performing it. 

Laftly, Confider what care there is of ufing the means 
that may bring us near to, and abftaining from thofe things 
that draw away from God, fuch as finful confederacies, e- 
vil company, light and unfound books, travelling needlefiy 
to ftrange places, <bc. All which, and whatever taketh the 
heart off God, are breaches of this commandment. 

Next, we fhall infill more particularly upon fomemanifeft 
breaches oppofite to the great and principal fcope of this 

1. The firft is, ignorance, which is a direct breach ; for 
the commandment requireth us to know him, 1 Cor. ii. 8, 
9. And if he be not known, there is no ether duty can be 
rightly performed the knowledge of God being the ground 
of all duties. 

For clearing of it, confider that fome things concerning 
God are kept from us, other things are revealed to us. 
Thefe things which are kept from us we cannot know : And 
1. They are either fuch as we cannot fee now, becaufe :hey 
are incomprehenfible in themfelves, as God's infinite nature 
and attributes; which, as they are in themfelves, cannot be 
comprehenfibly conceived, no not in heaven : but while we 
are upon earth, we fee but darkly, as through a giafs, and our 
knowledge of him is rather faith than fight ; or they are fuch 
things which are conceivable, but God has not thought good 
to reveal them unto men ; as whenhewillend the world when 
he will take every man frcin this life, who are particular* 

Com. I. the Ten Commandments. 7p 

ly ele&ed, ire. to be ignorant of thefe is no fin. It is a duty 
nottofeek to know them, yea curiofityin thefe is finful; igno- 
rance here is called rather a nefcience than ignorance, which 
implieth a privation of knowledge which men ought to have ; 
or, 2. Thefe things concerning God are fuch as not only in 
themfeives may be known ; but fuch as we ought to know, 
becaufe they are revealed to us. Ignorance of thefe is finful : 
As, i . Being a difconformity to that knowledge and holinefs 
after which God created us. 2. A fruit of original fin. 
3. A caufe of many fins. 4. A difconformity to the law, 
which rcquireth us fo to know and acknowledge God as he 
has revealed himfelf to us*, and that in his effence, in the 
trinity of perfons, in his attributes, covenants, works of 
creation and redemption, and in his relations to us ; and that 
we fhould fo know him, that we may thereby know our- 
felves alfo : And this is that great duty called for in this 
commandment, that we may know hirn, and his will. 

Again, this ignorance, as to thefe things we ought to 
know, may be looked on as threefold, according to the di- 
versity of its caufes. 

1. There is a natural ignorance that is the fruit of our na- 
tural corruption and blindnefs, which hath feized on mens 
memories and judgments, and, as they think, incapacitat- 
ed them to learn ; and indeed doth fo, as to the fpiritual 
and faving up-taking of the matters of God, till the eyes of 
the mind be opened by the power of grace. 

2. There is a wilful ignorance, when men have parts, 
means, and occafions, whereby they may attain knowledge 
and yet they will not know, but flight and defpife the means 
which draweth often a judicial blindnefs along with it. 

3 There is a lazy ignorance, whereby fome do not wil- 
fully reject the means of knowledge, yet are Co negligent, 
that they do nota&ually ftir themfeives for atr^ining of know- 
ledge. Now though there be difference among thefe, yet 
the leaft of them is finful, and will not wholly excufe, it 
being a fruit of original fin (at the beft) entertained by our 
own negleft of fuch means as might have more removed it : 
And *hus a dull wit, or weak memory, can no more (imply 
txcufe, than other grofs difconformities to the law in our 
natures (appearing in fome more than others) which follow 
upon original fin. 

In fum, men may be three ways guilty of the breach of 
this law, in refpeft of ignorance. 

i. As to the objett matter whereof they are ignorant^ 
which may be lefs or more, according as iefs or more of 
that is known, which wc £hou!d know concerning God, and 


So An Expo fit ion ef Com. i; 

which he hath revealed; and this is efpecially to be under- 
flood of thefe fubftantial things more neceflary to be known 
there being a great difference betwixt thefe, and other things 
which do not fo immediately concern God ; fuch as chro- 
nologic queftions, fome prophecies, cafes, &c> which yet 
are recorded in fcripture. 

2. They may be guilty of lefs or more ignorance, in ref- 
pecl of the degree ; fo fome men are abfolutely ignorant, 
others are doubtful only, and not confirmed in the know- 
ledge of the truths of God, who yet have not contrary im- 
preffions of thefe things, as others have. 

3. There are diverfe kinds of ignorance in men : fome are 
guilty of wilful ignorance, fome are negligent, and fome 
(even the beft) are labouring under the remainder of natur- 
al blindnefs, who yet are not negligent. 

If it be afked, Whether ignorance canexcufe a man, and 
how far it excufeth ? Anfiu. 1. There is no ignorance (pro- 
perly fo called) that excufeth wholly, pro toto, it being of it- 
ifelffinful, and men being obliged to know what is fin, and 
whatnot; neither can ever men do that out of faith, which 
they do in ignorance, and know not if it be in itfelf finful or 
lawful : this is to be underftood in refpect of ignorantiajv 
ris, nonfaEliy of the ignorance of the law, and not of the 
ignorance of the fact, (as they call it ;) for men may fbme- 
times be ignorant of this, and yet be innocent ; as when one 
is cutting with an ax, and it falleth of the helve, fyc. but 
in refpect of the law, there is no invincible ignorance that 
can excufe any for their not knowing God's mind, becaufe 
they are obliged to know it. 

2. Ignorance that is wilfully entertained with neglect of 
means that might help it, is fo far from excufing, that it 
doth aggravate the faults occafioned thereby, becaufe in that 
cafe there are two faults that concur, 1. Ignorance. 2. A- 
oother fin produced thereby. 

3. Ignorance natural, or proceeding from paucity of 
means, or lefs occafion to learn, though it doth not fully 
yet excufeth : Hence it is faid, They that know not the maf- 
ters will, fhall be beaten with few jftripes : But Chorazin, 
and Bethfaida, and other places, having plenty of means, 
ihall not in the lcaft be flickered under that excufe, Matth. 
xi. 22, 23* 24. 

4. In fome things we would diftinguifh betwixt finning 
ex ignorantia>) out of ignorance, and finning ignoranter> 
ignorantly ; one may do a thing out of ignorance (as Paul 
pcrfecuted the church) that would not have done it; it was 
not malice, but ignorance that led Paul to that fin of per* 


Com. i. the Ten Commandments. 81 

fecuting. This excufeth in part ; but to do a thing igno* 
rantly, is when a man is more immediately the caui'e of his 
own ignorance : As when by drunkenefs, paffion, hatred 
malice, <&c. a man is fo blinded and prejudiced, that he can- 
not dilcern what is duty, and what is fin : So fome Phari- 
sees were, who might have fefn that Chrift was God, and 
to be acknowledged as fuch, but prejudice marred it. Thus 
a fin confidered in itfelf may be lefs, which being confidered 
more compleatly, will be found a far greater guilt ; as (up- 
pofe, one in drunkennefs fwear, commit adultery, or in 
paffion commit murder, the murder or adultery confidered 
in themfelves, as done in drunkenness or paffion, are lefs, 
than when done in fobernefs, or deliberately; yet thefe fins 
being compleatly confidered, the perfon is more guilty, be* 
caufe he hath murder and drunkennefs, or murder and paf- 
fion, both to anfwer for; which drunkennefs, or paffion 
he caufed to himfelf by his unwatchfulnefs : and all the ef- 
fects that follow upon thefe, are to be imputed to him, 
both as the actor and procurer of that which is the occafioa 
or rather the caufe of them. Thus you fee how many ways 
ignorance breaketh this commandment. 

2. We fliall inftance the breach of it in what is oppofitc 
to faith, or confidence which floweth from faith ; to wit, 
unbelief, diffidence, temerity, or tempting of God (which 
floweth from unbelief, and is oppofite to faith) the infide- 
lity of Heathens and Jews, and the atheifm of iuch as be- 
lieve not the word : Thus alfo Hereticks, who abufe it, and 
apoftates who fall from the truth thereof, and are opofers 
of it, are guilty of this fin ; as alfo, thofe who receive the 
word in vain, and for all his invitations, reft not on him : 
thefe make God a lier, and defpife him and his offers, be- 
ing unwilling that he fhould reign over them. Here com- 
eth in alfo anxiety, in refpect of his providence and dif- 
truft or diffidence, in refpect of his promifes, which is a fin 
questioning the fulfilling of promifes, from the apprehen- 
fion of fome weaknefs in the promifer, or in means ufed 
by him to bring about the accomplifhment. Temerity or 
tempting of God, is agninft confidence alfo : This is an ef~ 
faying or attempting fomewhat without God's warrant, 
without which none can lawfully undertake any thing : 
That of diffidence wrongeth God's faithfulnefs ; this of te- 
merity wrongeth his wiTdom, in not making ufe of the 
means prefcribed by him *, as if we would attain the end a- 
nother way of our own. Oppofite to faith alfo, and the 
profeffion of it, are dhTembling of the truth, faint»ng in 
the profeffion thereof, efpecially in the cafe of confeffioo, 
by which we dishonour God ; and by our fearful, pttfilani- 

L ous 

$2 yfn Expefnion of Com. ?* 

xnous, and cowardly carriage, fome way tempt others to 
think that indeed we do not indeed believe thefe things, on 
which we feem by our faint deportment to lay little or no 

3. We may inffance the breach of this commandment in 
what is oppofite to hope ; namely, defperation and preemp- 
tion, or vain confidence ; and becauie every grace has ma- 
ny oppofite vices, ye may fee it is the eafier to fail in obedi- 
ence to this commandment. Defperation wrongeth many 
graces ; it is two fold, either total from want of faith ; or 
partial, from weaknefs of faith. There is alfo a defperati- 
on and diffidence that is good, Ecclef. ii. 20. which is, when 
we defpair in ourfelves, or from any thing in ourfelves or 
in the world; to attain happinefs, or what is promifed ; that 
holy felf-defpair is good ; but that is not it which is mean- 
cd here, for it is not abfolute defpairing, but fuch as hath 
ftill a reservation with it, Ij he help me net , which implieth 
hope. Prefumption runneth on the other extreme, look- 
ing for what is promifed, without making God's way to at- 
tain it, and it differeth from native and true confidence, 
which with peace and boldnefs refteth on his word, and in 
his way expecteth the thing promifed ; the fault of prefump- 
tion is not, that it accounteth God's mercy roo great, or 
expe&eth too much from him, but that it accounteth him to 
have no juitice •, nor hath it refpedt to his holinefs and 
greatnefs : Even as defperation faileth not in attributing to 
him too much juiHc'e, but in making it inconfiftent with 
his mercy and promifes, and extending fin, wants, and un- 
worthinefs beyond his mercy and help, as Judas and Cain 

4,. For finding of the breaches of this commandment, ye 
may confider the oppofites to love with the whole heart, 
fuch as luke-warmnefe, Rev. iii. J5. coldnefs of love, Matt. 
xxiv. 12. felf-love exceffive love to creatures, hatred of 
God, not as he is good, but as he is averfe from finful men, 
prohibiting what they love, and punifhing them for com- 
mitting fin ; for it is impoffible for men to ferve two maf- 
ters, asfinand God ; the one mull b-j loved, and the other 
hated: and is their any thing more ordinary than love to 
fin which is evil. And hatred of God which is the great 
good? which appeared* in little zeal for him, and little re- 
verencing of him. 

5. Confider what is oppofite to fear'and reverence, and 
there you will find much carnal' fecurity and vain confi- 
dence in it, obftinacy, ftout-heartednefs, little trembling at 
his word, not being affected with his judgments, rafhnefs 
and irreverence in his fervice > whereas there is a general fear 


Com. u the Ten Commandments. 83 

in all our work called for, Prov. xxili. 17. We ought to 
be id the fear of the Lord all the day lorg ; and there is a 
peculiar fear in our walk called for in the ordinances of his 
worfhip, Ecclef. xii. 23. Mai i. 16. which was commended 
in Levi, Mai. ii. 5. On the other hand, oppollte to this, is 
is that carnal fear and anxiety, which is commonly called 
fervile and flavifh fear, and the fear of man which bringeth 
a fnare, Prov. xxix. 25. 

6 Look after the breaches of this commandment, by 
confidering what is contrary to the obedience we owe to 
him as God, and our God. Now internal and external o- 
bedience may both be comprehended in this, every n;aa 
ought wholly to give away himfelf, and the ufe of all his 
faculties and members, for the glory of God and to him 
only, and to none other: And this reqnireth a practice 
that is complete, both as to the inward bent of the will and 
heart, and alfo as to all the external parts thereof, which 
being ferioufly pondered, G ! how often will we find this 
commandment broken ? as the particular comparing of ouc 
life with the word, and the explication of the reft of the 
commendments, may eafily clear and difcover. 

7. The fin of impatience, which is oppofite to that pati- 
ence and fubmiffion we owe to God in his ways and difpen- 
Cations, is one of the fpecial breaches of this commandment: 
It is very broad, and doth maay ways difcover kfelf : A? 
I. In fretting at events which befal us, 2. In not fuhmit- 
ting chearfully to God's way with us, but repining againft 
it. 3 In wifhing things hail fallen out otherwife than God 
hath difpofed* 4. In limiting God, and prefcribing to him, 
thinking that things might have been better otherwife. 
5. In not behaving himfelf thankfully for what h^ doth, e- 
ven when his dlfpenfanons arecrofs and affiifting. 

8 This commandment is broken by the many fins which 
are oppofite to that adoration and high eireem that we 
fkould have of God in our hearts : Ke ought to have the 
throne and to be fet far up in our minds and affe&ions : but 
oh 1 how many are there that will net have one ferious 
thought of him in many days, and are far from being tak- 
en up with him, or wondering at him and his way with lin- 
gers, <bc ? 

Laftly, When invocation and prayer is flighted, this 
commandment is broken : When he is not by calling upon 
him acknowledged in everything, and particularly, when 
internal prayer in frequent ejaculations to God (as Nthe- 
miah ii. 4.) is neglefted. 

Now if ail thefe were extended to ourfelves, and thefe wc< 
have intereft in, and that in thoughts, words, and deeds, 

L 2 accord- 

84 An Expofition of Com. 2j 

according to all the former general rules, what guilt would 
be found to lye upon every one of us, in reference to his 
a tributes, relations to us, and works for us ? and as thefe 
hold hirn forth to be worfiiipped as fuch, fo when that is 
flighted or neglefted, it cannot but infer great guilt; efpe- 
cially, when his due is not given by fuch as we are, to fuch 
as he is, it make thus exceedingly guilty : and though the 
fame thing be often mentioned, yet it is under a divers con- 
sideration ; for, as one thing may break more command- 
ments than one, fo may ont thing, divers ways, break one 
and the fame commandment, as it oppofeth or marreth di- 
vers graces and duties. 


Exodus xx, 4, 5, 6. 

Ver. 4. Thou /halt not make unto thee any graven image % 
or any likenefs of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is 
in the earth benesth, or that is in the waters under the earth. 

Ver. 5. ThcuJJjalt not bow down thyfelfto them, nor ferve 
them : for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, vifiting the 
iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and 
fourth generation of them that hate me ; 

Ver. 6. And jljewing mercy unto thoufands of them that love 
me % and keep my commandments* 

THIS Commandment is more largely fet down than 
the former, partly to clear the mandatory part of 
it, and partly to prefs it, in which two it may be taken up. 
The preceptive, or commanding part, is expreffed in two 
things, ver. 4. and 5. at the beginning. 1. That no image 
be made : And 2. That it not be worfhipped. 

Next, it isprefled three ways : I. From a reafon. 2. By 
a threatning. 3 By a promife : The wprdsare multiplied, that 
they may the more fully and clearly exprefs what is intended. 

1. That this commandment is againft; all making of ima- 
ges for religious fcrvice, is clear from a three-fold extent 
mentioned in the prohibition. 1. The image of nothing 
in heaven above, or the earth Deneath, or under the earth ; 
that is, the Cmilitude of no creature is allowed for this end. 

2. Men are forbidden to make either fimilitude or lika- 
jieff, that is, no fort of image, whether that which is en- 
graven in, or hewn out of ftone, wood, filver, £tc. or that 
which is made by painting *, all kinds are discharged. 

3. No 

Com. 2; the Ten Commandments'. 85 

3. No fort of worfhip or fcrvice religious is to be given 
to them, whether mediate or immediate, whether primarily 
as to themfelves, or fecondariiy with refpect to that which 
they reprefent. This is underflood under the fecond part 
of the commandment, Then/halt net bow down to them, nor 
ferve or wor/Jjip them : under which two, all external rever- 
ence is discharged, which is clear from the reafon adjoined, 
becaufe God is jealous, and he will not only not endure ido- 
latry, but whatever may look like it -, as a jealous hufband 
will not abide any fufpicious-like carriage ia his wife. 

That we may have the clearer accefs to the meaning and 
ufe of this commandment ; let us fee; 1 . What is the fcope 
of it. 2. Wherein it is different from the former. 

The fcope of this commandment is net meerly and only 
to forbid making and worfhipping of images, which is the 
moft grofs way of abufing the worfhip of God ; but under 
that, to forbid all manner of groflenefs in the external wor- 
fhip of God, and to command exaclnefs and precifenefs in 
it (as well as internal worfhip) according to the rule pref- 
cribed thereanent by the Lord ; and lo this commandment 
includeth all externals commanded in the ceremonial law, 
and doth forbid all wilUworfhip and fuperftition in the wor 
(hip of God, all honouring him by precept taught by men, 
and not by himfelf, Ifa. xxix. 13. and Matth. xv. 9. So 
then, in the firft commandment, the worfhipping of the only 
true God is commanded, and the worfhipping of any idol 
is forbidden : here the true worfhip 01 hat God is prefcrib- 
ed, and the contrary forbidden. The firft commandment 
fheweth who is to be worfhipped the fecond : how he is to 
be worfhipped ; not in the manner that heathens worfhip- 
ped their idols, nor in any other manner that men fhould 
feign and devife to themfelves, but in the manner he him- 
felf prefcribeth. 
In fum, this commandment holdeth forth thefe three things. 
I. That God will not only be ferved inwardly in the heart, 
by good thoughts and intentions (which is prefcribed in the 
firft commandment) but alfo outwardly, in the confeffing 
him before men, in external fervice and worfhip, in words 
and geftures fuitable ; for the forbidding this fort of exter- 
nal gefturesj worfhipping and bowing before idols, cloth 
include the contrary affirmative in all its kinds (according 
to the firft rule before-mentioned for the right underitand- 
ingof all the commandments.) Thus it takerh in all ordi- 
nances of word, prayer, facraments, cereroonu-.s, &c. and 
failing in thefe, breaketh this commandment^ when even 
they are not rightly gone about. 

2. It 

86 An Expofition of Com. t. 

2. It holdeth forth this, that in that external rervice and 
worfhip, God will not have men following their own hu- 
moar, but will have them to walk by the rule given, or to 
be given by him to them, and otherwife it is in vain what- 
ever worfhip men perform to him, Matth. xv. 9. Hence it 
is faid here, Thou jhab not make to tkyjelf, that is, at thy 
own pleafure, without my command, otherwife what is by 
God's command is made to him ; and this is to be extend- 
ed to all ordinances, yea both to the worfhip itfelf, and 
alfo to the manner of that worfhip, all is to be done accord- 
ing to God's command only. 

3 It holdeth forth a fpiritual fervice due to God, or that 
we lhould be fpiritual in all external fervice. There Should 
not be in us any carnal apprehenfions of God, as if he were 
like any thing that we could imagine, Acte xvii. 29 as is 
fully clear from Deut. iv. 15. be. Alfo all rafhnefs and car- 
nality in external performances is here difcharged under 
bowing to images. 

So then, under thefe three, we take up the fum of this 
commandment, whereby it differeth from the former, which 
may alfo be cleared from thefe reafoos. 

1. The firft is, that this commandment looketh to ex- 
ternal worfhip, and the ordering of that; which is clear; 
1. Becaufe the things forbidden in it, as making of images, 
and bowing to them, are external a£Vs. 2. Thefe are men- 
tioned as relating to God's worfhip ; for they are placed in 
the firft table of the law, and for this end images are only 
mentioned, as made ufe of by heathens in all their worfhip, 
Lev. xxvi. u The Lord will not have his people doing fo to 
him, Deut. xii. 3, 4, 5. 6fe. 3. And, that making and wor« 
fhipping of images are but one part of man's abufing of the 
external worfhip of God, which is mentioned for all of that 
kind (as adultery is put for all uncleannefs in the feventh 
commandment) and all kinds of falfe worfhip, or all the 
feveral ways of mens abufing the external worfhip of God, 
are, condemned under it. 1. Becaufe it is moft grofs, and 
this being a moft grofs way of adding to his worfhip, it fer- 
veth to fiiew, how God accounteth every adding to his word, 
or altering of it, to be a grofs and heinous fin, Deut. iv. 
23, 24, 25. 2. Becaufe the nations about, efpecially Egypt, 
ferved their gods fo : and men naturally are bent to it, as 
appeareth almoft by the practice of all nations; and, Rom. 
i 25. be. by the Israelites practice in the golden calf, Exod. 
xxxii. from ver. 1. to ver. 7. and by Jeroboam's practice, 
1 Kings xii. 28. Now the Lord will not be ferved (oj but 
as he commandeth, Deut. xii.- 4 Tejbzll not do fo to the 


Lord> 6c. but contrarily, ver. 5. as the Lord (hall carve 
out unto you. 

A fecond reafon to clear his to be the meaning, may be 
taken from the perfection of the law, which lieth in this, 
that it coodemneth all iin, and commandeth all duties ; 
now it is a fin not only to worfhip falfe gods, but to wor- 
fhip the true God in a falfe way ; and it is a duty alfo to 
worfhip him rightly, according as he hath appointed ?n his 
word : now thefe fins muft be forbidden in the fecond com- 
mandment, or they are forbidden in none at ail , and thefe 
duties muft be commanded in this commandment, or they 
are commanded in none. 

Next, that we may clear, that it is finful to worfhip God 
otherwife than he hath commanded, it would be obferved, 
there was a two-fold idolatry found in Ifrael, and condem- 
ned in the Icripture : The firft was, when groves and images 
were planted, and made to idols; and (o the people of Ifrael 
did often to the heathen gods. The fecond was, when they 
had groves, and worfhipped in high places, but not to i- 
dols, but to the Lord their God, as 2 Chron, xxxvii v 17. (0 
in that place before cited, Deut. xii. 2, 3, 4. &c. you will 
find two things forbidden. 1. Making of images to the 
falfe gods, which the Canaanites worfhipped. 2. Making 
ufe of their manner of worfhip, and turning it unto the 
true God, both are forbidden : the firft, by the firft com- 
mandment ; thelaft, by the fecond 5 compare ver 8. (w?^eh 
holdeth forth this fcope) Te Jhall not do } every man what 
feemeth right in his own eyes, with what followetb, and with 
ver » 3°> Z 1 ' S ee thou enquire not how thefe nations vjorfhipped 
their gods* to wit, by images, <bc. as if ye would do fo to the 
Lord: no, but, ver. 32. Whatfoevcr thing / command you \ 
obferve to do it, thou /halt not add thereto nor diminijh from it : 
which cleareth the fcope of this command, as being pur- 
pofely there opened up, Te Jhall not do fo to the Lord your God > 
wherein more is comprehended than is expreffed, namely* 
not only ye (hall not fervc the Lord, as they do their g, ds, 
but alfo ye fhall ferve him, as he himfelf prefcribeth. 

Hence will it clearly appear, that this command is to be 
reckoned a diftinft command from the former, becaufe, I. 
It containeth diftinft matter, forbiddeth fins of another 
kind, and commandeth duties of another kind. 2. Becaufe 
they are certainly ten in number, and there cannot be fuch 
a reckoning made up if thefe firft two be one, it being clear 
(as after will appear) that the laft is only one, and cannot 
be divided into two. 3. Befide, it is the common reckon- 
ing of the ancient Jews, as may be feen from Jofephus lib. 
iii. 9. Ainfworth, and others. This tkea being laid down- 

88 A;i Expofition cf Com. 2. 

as a truth ; we fhall, i. fhortly put by fome queftions con- 
cerning images for clearing the words. 2. Come particular- 
ly to fhew, what is required and what is forbidden in this 
commandment, and how we break it in our ordinary prac- 
tice : Then, 3. Open thereafons that are annexed. 

Concerning images two things are to be enquired. 1. If 
no image be lawful ? and if any be lawful, what thefe be ? 
2. If any ufe, efpecially religious, of images be lawful ? and 
if adoration of any kind be to be given to them ? We fay 
for anfwer, 

1. That making of pictures of creatures, which are via- 
ble, or may be comprehended, or hiftorical phanfies, (to 
fpeark fo) fuch as the fenfes and elements ufed to be holden 
forth by; (which are rather hieroglyphicks than real pic- 
tures) thefe I fay, are not (Imply unlawful but are fo, when 
they are abufed 1 (fo Solomon made images of lions for his 
ufe ; and thus the gift of engraving and painting, as well as 
others which God hath given to men, may be made ufe of, 
when, as (hath been faid) is not abufed) As, 

1. When fuch pictures are obfcene and filthy, and againft 
Chriftian modefty to behold, fuch break this command- 
ment, but more efpecially the feventh, becaufe as filthy 
communication doth polute the ears, fo do they the eyes. 
2. When men become prodigal in their beftowing either 
too much time, or too much expence on them. 3. When 
they dote too much on them by curiofity, and many other 
ways they may be abufed : but efpecially in the fourth place, 
if they be abufed to any religious ufe, then they became un- 
lawful, as afterward fhall be cleared. 

2. Though making of images limply be not unlawful and 
difcharged by this commandment, yet thereby every repre- 
fentation of God (who is the objeft to be wodhipped) and 
every image religioufly made ufe of in worfh^p is condem- 
ned (though civil and political images and ftatutes, which 
are ufed as ornaments, or badges of honour, or remem- 
brancers of fome fa&, &c. be not condemned,) i. Becaufe 
fuch images cannot but beget carnal thoughts of God, (as 
Adts i. 7. 29.) contrary to this commandment. 2. Becaufe 
God difcovered himfelf, Deut. iv. 15, 16. 6c. by no like- 
nefs, but only by his word, that they might have no ground 
oflikcmng him to any thing, 3. Becaufe it is impoffible 
to get a bodily likenefs to fet him out by, who is a Spirit, 
and an infinite Spirit : fo then every fuch image muft be 
derogatory to God, as turning the glory of the invifible 
God, to fhape of fome viiible and corruptible creature, 
which is condemned, Rom. i. 22, 23. for every image fup* 
pofeth fome likenefs. Now there can be no conceiveable 


Com. a. the Ten Commandments. 69 

or imaginable likcnefs betwixt God and any thing, that we 
can invent : therefore it is faid by the Lord, Ifa. xl. 18. To 
whom will ye liken God, or what likene/s will ye compare unto 
him ? where it feemeth it was no idol, but God they aimed 
to reprefent by their images, which was the fault condem- 
ned, ver. 25. As alfo, when we cannot conceive of God, 
and of the myfteries of the Trinity, and incarnation as we 
ought, what preemption muft it be to paint them ? 

Therefore upon thele grounds, I. We fimply condemn 
any delineating of God, or the God-head, or Trinity ; fuch 
as fome have upon their buildings, or books, like a fun 
fhining with beams, and the Lord's name, Jehovah, in it, 
or any other way. This is moft abominable to fee, and a 
heinous wronging of God's majefty. 

2. All reprefenting of the perions as diflincT:, as to fee 
out the Father (perfonaily confidered) by the image of an old 
nun, as if he were a creature, the fun under the image of a 
Lamb or young man, the Holy Ghoft under the image of 
a dove, all which wrongeth the God-head exceedingly ; 
and although the Son was, and is Man, having taken on 
himthatnature, and united it to his God-head, yet he is not a 
meer man ; therefore that image, which only holdeth forth 
one nature, and looketh like any man in the world, cannotbe 
the reprefentation of that Perfon, which is God and man. 

And if it be faid, man's foul cannot be painted, but his 
body may, and yet that picture reprefenteth a man ; I an- 
fwer, it doth fo, becaufe he has but one nature, and what 
reprefenteth that, reprefenteth the perfon; but it is not fo 
with Chrift : his God-head is not a diftindt part of the hu- 
man nature, as the foul of man, is (which is necefiarily 
fuppofed in every living man) but a diftincl: nature, only 
united with the man-hood in that one perfon Chrift, who 
has no fellow; therefore what reprefenteth him, muft not 
reprefent a man only, but muft reprefent Chrift, Immanu- 
cl, God-man, otherwife it is not his image. Befide, there 
is no warrant for reprefenting him in bis man-hood ; nor 
any colourable poffibility of it, but as men fancy ; and fhail 
that be called Chrift's portraiture ? would that be called a- 
ny other man's portraiture ? which were drawn at men's 
plcafure, without regard to the pattern. Again, there \% 
no ufe of it ; for either that image behoved to have but 
common eftimation with other images, and that would 
wrong Chrift, or a peculiar refpedt and reverence, and fo 
it finneth againft this commandment that forbiddeth all re- 
ligious reverence to images, but he being God, and fo the 
object of worihip, we muft either divide his natures, or fay, 
that image or pi&we reprefenteth not Chrift. 

M Again, 

£3 An Expofition ef Com. i. 

Again, as to what may objected from the Lord's appear- 
ing fometimes in the likenefs of a man, or the Spirits descen- 
ding as a dove, or as cloven tongues of fire: It is anfwered, 

I. There is a great difference betwixt a fign of the Spi- 
rits prefcnce, and a reprefentation of the Spirit. 2. Be- 
twixt what reprefenteth the Spirit, as he is one of the per- 
sons of the blefied Trinity, and what refembleth feme gift 
of his : The fimilitude of a dove defcending upon Chrift, 
was to ftiew his taking up his refidencein him, and furnifh- 
ing him with gifts and graces, and particularly holy fimpli- 
city and meeknefs without meafure ; anci fo hrs appearing 
in cloven tongues Aras to (hew his communicating the gift 
of tongues, to the apoftles* 3. Neither is there any war- 
rant for drawing him in thefe fliapes, more than to look 
on every living dove, as reprelenting him : and the 1'rke 
may be faid of God's appearing fometimes in human like- 
nefs; it was but that men might have fome vifible help to 
difcern fomething of God's prefence, but not to give any 
reprefentation of him : and thefe bodies were but for a time , 
afiumed, as a prelude and fore-runing evidence of the Son's 
being to become man. 

From this ground alio it would Teem, that painting of 
angels might be condemned, as a thing impoffible, they be- 
ing fpirits, which no corporeal thing can reprefenr, befidc 
that the reprcfenting of them has fome hazard with it : and 
for thofe chcrubims that were made by. God's dtreftion un- 
der the Old Teftament, they were rather fome emblem of 
the nature and fervice of angels, as being full of zeal, and 
always (as it were) upon wing ready to obey God's will, 
than any likenefs of themfelves. And its hardly poffible to 
fancy reprefentations of Spirits, good or evil, but thereby 
men will wrong themfelves in the right defcription of them ; 
though we grant, angels being but finite fpirits, there is an- 
other kind of danger and impossibility of reprefenting God, 
who is an infinite Spirit. Alfo fome lay, That thefe Che- 
rubims mentioned did not reprefent the nature of angels, 
but angels appearing under fuch vifibJe fhape ; and we find, 
Ezek. i. There are divers fliapes by which they are pointed 
out, but it is as to their fitnels and readfneis for fervice, 
and not as to their nature. 

3. We fay, that no image what foe ver, made ufe of for 
religious ends, and without the bounds of civil and politick 
ufes, is allowable, but is by this commandment condemned, 
as unf\iitable to the Lord 's nature and revealed will; fo by 
this, images, {otherwife lawful) when abufed to idolatry, 
become unlawful, and are not to be fuffered but orderly to 
be removed. We call that more than a civil or a common 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 9t 

ufe, when religious worfhip or reverence is purpofely in- 
tended to them, or there is, by feme one oceafion or other, 
danger, lead they may be fo abufed: and of this fort (viz* 
dangerous ones) are, i. Images in places of worfhip; but 
it is not idolatry, to have dead mens images on their tombs 
or monuments in churches. 2* Images of fuch angels f 
faints, <bc which has beeo abufed to idolatry by being wor- 
shipped, or moll readily may be fo abufed. 3. Images e- 
recledfor helping our prayers to be accepted, and which 
have altars, lights, or temples appointed for them, (which 
will be clearer, when we come to fpeak of religious worfhip 
and bowing) Thus peregrinations and vows to images, touch- 
ing of them with fome apprehenfion of fruit and advantage 
thereby, efpecially when healing is expected from them ; 
and fo are they abufed alio, though help be expected not 
from the image, but from him whom it is faid to reprefenu 
And thus alio, when any image once lawful cometh to be 
abufed, it ought to be removed, as the brazen ferpent was 
by Hezekiah : and under this prohibition, come in the i- 
mages of falfe gods, as Cupid, Venus, Appollo, Jupi- 
ter, isc. which were once abufed. Beftdes, fome of thefe* 
idols being nothing, the pourtraying of them maketh them 
appear fomething : And if it was the Lord's way to com- 
mand the breaking and deftroying of all idols and images 
of falfe gods ; can it be fuitable to retain them in memory ? 
that a generation following might have that oceafion and 
help to idolatry, {viz. the images of old idols) from Chrif- 
tians: and if it was David's and the faints way, Pfal. xvi. 4. 
not fo much as to mention their names, but with detefta- 
tion, ought God's people for fport or delight to look 011 
thefe images ? Zeal for God would abhor thefe curiofiiies; 
and what edification can be in them ? 

Y* r e are now to clear the fecond quefiion, if any wor/hip 
may be given, and what worfhip is due to images of any 
fort ? aud if it be not a breach of this command to give a- 
ny religious worfhip to any of them ? That we may anfwer. 

1. Confider, there was a twofold wo. flipping of images, 
even amongft heathens. The firft was more grofs, when the 
worfhip was given to the image, as being fome God head of 
itfelf : thus fome think the images of Baal, Afhteroth, 6*c. 
and particular images, that have fpecial names, were wor- 
fhipped ; thus are men faid properly to worfhip the works 
of their hands. This is againft the, firft commandment. 2. 
Their was a worfhipping of images as reprefenting God, 
jand fo the worfhip was gone about as a part of fei vice done 
to the true God, fuch was (in conformity to the heathens 
pra&ice) the worfhip given to the calf, Excd. xxxii, j; 7. 

M 2 and 

gt An Expcfition of Com. 2I 

and fuch were the groves and facrificings in the high places 
2 Chron. xxxiii. 17. 

More particularly, there is an immediate worfhipping of 
images as idols, when they in themfelves, or for themfelves 
are worfhipped : and fecondly, there is a mediate worfhip- 
ping of images for that which they rcprefent, when men 
worfhip fomething in them or fignified by them, 

Thi3 again may be diftinguifhed with refpeft to the ob- 
jeft, when the worfhip is directed either firft to a falfe god f 
orelfe fecondly to the true God. 

2. Confider, that there are divers fort of worfhip given 
to the images of the true God, or of his faints. 1. Some 
religious worfhip which is more than civil, yet not that 
which is due to God, fuch Bellarmine giveth them for 
themfelves properly, and calleth it M?** 2. A divine wor- 
fhip due to what is typified, fuch many give to the images 
of God and Chrift, this they call, >.%y\t*. This Bellarmine 
giveth them not properly^ but per accidens 6" propter aliud % 
though the firft he maketh properly to terminate on the i- 
xnage, yet Aquinas and his followers, part 3. q. 25. 3, 4. 
giveth the images of Chrift, of Mary, and of the crofs, 
xoLy^ux properly fo called. 

3. Confider what this is which i9 called religious worfhip, 
it differeth from civil and politick worfhip (fuch as is given 
to living men, yea from that civil refpedt which one will 
give to the images of a king, or of one they love, which is 
not properly worfhip even civil) and confifteth in other cir- 
cumstances of a religious confideration ; and it may be 
known to differ from what is civil, by thefe things. 1. By 
the thing to which the. worfhip is given, that is, if it be a 
thing which pafTeth not under a civil, but under a religious 
account, as bowing to a living man is one thing, to a faints 
image, a facrament, or fuch like, which have nothing in 
them, calling for civil honour, is another thing; and there- 
fore, if any honour be given them, it muft be on another 
account. 2. By the adlions, wherein we give fuch worfhip, 
as if it be in prayer or worfhipping of God, or in facrificing, 
it is one thing to bow then, to or before an image of man, 
and another thing to do it when occafionally or hiftorically 
Yfc are relating fomething or doing fome civil buflnefs, as 
tying the fhoe or fuch like. 3. By the fort of worfhip that 
has been given to idols or ufed in religious fervice to God, 
and not fuitable for any civil refpedl, to fuch an objeft, as 
bowing the knee, uncovering the head, praying, building 
temples, altars, making vows unto them, or before them, 
(wearing by them, or before them, carrying them about 
with us becaufe of fome religious influence they fuppofed tx> 


Com. il the Ten Commandments] 93 

have, fetting them up for reverence to be giverp to them, 
fetting up lights about them, facrificing, burning incenfe 
to them, 6r. or fomething of that kind, ufed fometime in 
God's fervice, or in the fervice of idols. 

4. Confider, that what is faid of images may be faid of 
all creatures and things to which divine honour, or religi- 
ous worfhip in the fervice of God is attributed ; for if the 
one fail all will by this commandment be over-turned, fuch 
as, 1. Worfhipping of angels or faints by j^i/a or the virgin 
Mary by wcpto'ife* as Mediators and helps in our ferving 
the true God. 2. All adoration of thereliques of martyrs, 
fuch aa their bones, dull, clothes, &c. cfpscially the ado- 
ration of the very crofs (as they fay) whereon Chrift dif- 
fered, which hath by a papifts divine facrifice offered to 
it, and a divine worihip given it in the higheft degree. 3. 
The adoration of fuch things as are ufed in worfhip) as 
temples, altars, bread in the facrament, Agnus Dei^ mafies, 
isc. 4. The images of God, Chrift, faints, angels, yea of 
the crofs, which are faid to be worfhipped with refpeft to 
the true God, and not as derogatory to his fervice. 

For further clearing of this purpofe, we ihall fpeak to a 
queftion which here neceflarily occureth ; namely, Whe- 
ther thefe things mentioned, being worfhipped by any fort 
of religious fervice, whether direftly or indirectly, for them* 
felves, or for fuch things to which they relate, or which 
they fignify, even when men pretend the worihip is not 
given to them, but ultimately referred to the honour of the 
true God, whether, I fay, worfhipping them (0, be not i- 
dolatry, and a breach of this commandment ? 

In anfwering this queftion, 1. We fhali clear that there 
may be, and is idolatry committed with images, and means 
of God's fervice, even in fuch worihip, wherein the images 
which men worihip are not accounted gods, but only re- 
prefentations of God ; and although thefe means of worfhip* 
which they worihip are made uie of in ferving the true God. 
2. We (hall clear, that all fuch fervice, as being idolatry, 
is forbidden by this command, however it be diftinguifhed. 
If it be performed as religious fervice, though fome fervice 
be more grofs, and other fome more fubtile and refined. 

Fipft then, That there is fuch a kind of idolatry in wor- 
fhipping of images, when men reft not on the images, but 
dirett their worfhip to the God reprefented by them •, we 
may clear it divers ways. 

And 1. From the heathens, who though fome did, yet 
all of then did not account their images their gods, but on* 
ly fome reprefemation of them : And firft, we may gather 
this from, Rom. i. 22, 23, where it is laid of them, 1. That 


94 An Expefttidn of Com. 2. 

they knew Wk& ; and yet, 2. That they turned the glory 
erf that inc^Bptible God into the fimiiitude of beafts and 
men, corruJHk creatures. Their fault is not that they 
accounted tl^Pjfeprefentations or images which they made, 
rods •, but that ?Vy declined in their worfhip, in the wor- 
fhipping of the trtte God by fuch images. 

2. It may aifo appear by the frequent changes of their i- 
mages, while they retained their former gods i and by their 
multiplying images of one fort, and divers forts to one 
and thd fame God, and by their giving all thefe images one 
name : And when it is faid, That Solomon and other kings 
fet up images to Afhtoretb, Baal, he. It cannot be thought 
they fuppofed thefe images to be the very gods themfelves 
which they worfhipped, but that they were ouly fet up for 
their honour, 2 Kings xxiii. 13 And when Manafies made 
Ghariots to the fun, he fuppofed them not to be the fun, 
2 Kings xxiii. 1 f . Yea was not this commonly acknowledg- 
ed, that Jupiter was in heaven -, as appeareth, Acts xix. 
39. and that that image came down from him, but was nor 
he, nor yet the feigned goddefs Diana. 

3. It may appear by the Heathens own confeffion, and the 
shifts they ufed, when they were charged with the worship- 
ping the works of their hands : As 1. They ufed to fay, 
They worfhipped but the Numen or god which is in them, 
and which invifibly after their dedication of them (and not 
before) dwelt in them ; yea fome of them would fay, They 
neither worfhipped that image, nor any devil, but by a bodi- 
ly fign they beheld what they fliould worfhip. 3. When 
Chriftians further urged them, that what was fignified by 
their ia-r.ges, was not the true God, but a creature, as by 
Neptune, the fea ; by Vulcan, the fire, 6c. They replied, 
it was not thofe bodies which they worfhipped, but the gods 
which governed them. So Auguftine, Pfal. 113. nobis 1 15. 
concerning the idols of the Gentiles, and Auguftine de Civi- 
tat. Dei, lib. 7. cap. 5. where he fheweth that Varro giveth 
that reafon, why the gods were rather pourtrayed in man's 
picture (though they were invifible) becaufe faith he, man's 
foul is a fpirit, and cometh neareft them ; and the body is 
the vefTel of the foul, and therefore it ufed to reprefent it. 
See Chryfoft. 1. Eph.Hom. 18. Andrews on 2. Command, 
Auguft in Pfal. xcvi. (nobis) 97. 

And it may alfo fourth appear from this, That the 
Heathen gods, for the moft part (even thofe of them that 
were commonly worihipped) were fome famous men, after 
death fuppofed to be deified, to whom they made ftatutes 
and images ; and yet ftill the honour was intended to tbofe 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandants. 05 

to whom they appointed the images, though they fuppofed 
that their gods in an efpecial manner dwelt in thefc images, 
and anfwered from them. 

In the fecond place, this may be made to appear fiOTi 
the command, Deut. xii ji. where the Lord forbiddetli 
not only the worfhipping of idols, but of'himfelf by image?, 
Thou /bait not do fo to the Lord thy God\ that is, thou ilialt 
not worfhip me. by images, as the Heathens do their gods: 
and therefore this is not only poffible, but is alfo, and thit 
moft certainly, a grievous guilt even though they pretended 
it was not idols but God they worshipped \ yet it was not 
fp, they worshipped net him, but the idol. 

3. We fliali clear it yet further, That the true God may 
be worfhipped (by idolaters) as they pretend, and yet ia 
God's account their worfhip is nothing but idolatry com-, 
mitred with their images. 

We (hall give four inftances of this. The firfl: is, from. 
Exodus xxxii. where it is dear, 1. That the image they, 
fet up, was not itfelf acknowledged to be God, but as fame* 
thing to reprefent the true God; for, 1. It cannot be. 
thought their minds were fo foon darkned, as altogether to 
forget what God had done, and to imagine that the thing 
which was new made with hands, was God, though they 
be charged with forgetting God, becaufe they were prac- 
tical forgetters of him, and their fin did fpeak it out indeed. 

2. The image is called Jehovah that brought them out of £- 
gypt, which was a mercy pail before the calf had a being; 
and therefore the reafon why they gave it this name, muff: 
certainly be, becaufe they aimed by it to reprefent Jehovah* 

3. It is not likely that now they would have worfhipped the 
gods of Egypt, or that they would have attributed their de- 
livery from Egypt to them, feeing thefe gods were alfo 
plagued: alfo, that Aaron fhould do fo, is incredible, who 
yet joined with them in this tranfgreffion. 4. Befide, catt 
it be thought, that fo foon they thought it to be God, and 
yet fo eaiily pafied afterward from it? certainly the words, 
T<at it may go before us, that is, not to Egypt, but Ca- 
naan whether God called them ; do clearly imply, that they 
looked on it only as a reprefentation of Jehovah. 

2. It is clear that they facrifked burnt-offerings and peace- 
offerings before this image, and this was the fame fervice 
which was due to the Lord, and fo it was proclaimed, 
Exod xxxii. 5. and therefore it was to the Lord, and not 
to the image (foritfelf) that they facrifked. 

3. It is clear that they are changed for turning out of the 
way, and that becaufe of their making a molten image, 
which feemeth to infer, that their guilt was rather in the 


9<5 'dn Expofition of Com. 2; 

manner of worfhip and making of that image for worfhip, 
than in quitting God altogether ; and thus they grofly fail- 
ed in the manner of worfhipping him, by occafion of Mo- 
fes his abfence ; for now they want that fign of God's pre- 
fence, which formerly they had, and have not fuch a vifible 
commerce (as it were) with God ; it is that they complain 
of, and this want of a vifible fign (and not of God fimply) 
do they tend to make up by this image. 

4. This may be further confirmed from A£te vii 40, 41, 
42. where it is faid, that becaufe of this fin they were given 
up to grofs idolatry ; which could not be, had this been ido- 
latry of the grofleft fort. 

The fecond inftance is, from Judges xvii. where you will 
find that that idol, which Micah made, is not by him or his 
mother accounted God, but is made ufe of by them, as 
they think for furthering them in God's fervice, as appear- 
eth, 1. From this, that it getteth not the name of any 
ftrange god. 2. That he feeketh a Levite for a Prieft to 
it, and promifeth to himfelf God's bleffing from that, not 
that the idol would blefs him, but Jehovah, ver. 13. 3. 
That it is faid the prieft afked counfel of Jehovah, for the 
Danites, Judges xviii. 6. 

The third inftance is, that of Jeroboam, who did fin, and 
made Ifrael to fin, by the calves he fet up at Dan and Be- 
thel ; that they were not intended to be worfhipped as idols, 
for themfelves, but as means, whereby they might be help- 
ed to worfhip the true God, may appear, 1. From Jero- 
boams motive, which was not to divert the people from the 
true God, at lead he fuppofed, or to make them alter their 
God, but to alter their manner of worfhip, and to divert 
them from going up to Jerufalem to worfhip, from which 
his fear of their revolt to Rehoboam arofe. Hence, the 
calves are not provided to prevent worfhipping of God, but 
are put in placej of their going up to Jerufalem ; as the co- 
lour of rcafon, pretended by him for this alteration, fhew- 
eth. And fo, one fervice is put for another, without chang- 
ing their god ; and all the reproofs that his fins meeteth 
with from the prophets run at this, that he altered the 
manner of God's worfhip, in putting up new figns in new 
places, and appointing new facrifices and priefts. 2. It ap- 
peareth from this, that, as it was diftintt from th^t way of 
lerving God, which was in Judah, fo was it from the way of 
the heathens, yea, from the way ufed by fuch idolatrous • 
kings as Achab, who are faid to do worfe, becaufe they did 
let up ftrange gods (which the calves are not called) and 
Baalim \ and Jehu^ when he deftroyed the falfe gods, yet 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 97 

he retained this manner of worfhip ; and there were no 
caufe to difcriminate Jereboa#n's fin from Achabs, or to 
look upon it as any thing leffer, if all the difference had 
been only in the change of worfhipping the image of one 
idol into the worfhipping the image of another : But the 
difference was in this, that the one worfhipped the true God 
in thefe images, the other idols indeed. 3. Hence there 
was flill fome knowledge of God in that land, and prophets 
fometimes fent them by the Lord, yea when they were led 
captive, and others fent into their place, it is faid, 2 Kings 
xvii. 26. isc. They learned the manner of the god of the 
land, that is the true God though they corrupted themfelves 
with ferving their idols alfo ; And thus the Samaritans con- 
tinued worfhipping, they knew not what, tho* they pretend* 
ed to worfhip the true God, John iv. 22. 

The fourth inftance is, that corrupt practice ufed fome- 
times in Judah, of fettingup high places and groves ; when 
yet they did not thereby intend to ferve idols, but the true 
God, and yet they are reproved for this, as a grofs corrup- 
ting of the worfhip of God. 

And it would feem clear fometimes in Judah, and often 
in Ifrael, even when they are charged with idolatzy, that 
yet the knowledge of the true God was not obliterate among 
them, nor they To brutifh in their worfhip, as other nati- 
ons about them : We take it then for a clear truth, that 
they often did worfhip the true God, by images when they 
did not worfhip the images dire&ly. 

The fecond thing may be eafily cleared and made out, to 
wit, that all worfhipping of God by images, tho* the wor- 
fhip be pretended to be given to the true God, and not to 
the image, but to the thing fignified or reprefented by the 
image ; is yet unlawful, and idolatry, forbidden by this 
commandment, whatever fort of worfhip it be, if it be reli- 
gious, as hath been faid : And this we fhall make out by 
thefe arguments. 

The firft is, from the general fcope of this command, 
which is to forbid not only the overturning of God's fervice, 
but alfo all will-worfhip, though mixed Ui with the fervice 
(as it feemeth, that was, which is mentioned, Col. ii. 8. of 
worfhipping angels, which yet was fo fubtile, that they pre- 
tended, they were far from taking from God any thing that 
was his due) that this is the fcope of this command, is clear 
from Deut. xii. 8.. where the Lord forbiddeth men in his 
worfhip, To do what feemeth good to every one in his own. 
tyes : But fo it is, that the worfhipping of God before i- 
xnages, 6c. is will-worfhipi &c. till it to Ihewa tfcat it is 
prescribed by God. 

N Secondly, 

98 An Expsfiticn of Com. 2* 

Secondly, That way of worlhipping God is clearly con- 
demned by the more particular fcope of this command, 
which is firft, to difcharge all thoughts of God or his fer- 
vice : Which fcope, as it faith, God cannot dwell in tem- 
ples •, fo, neither can he be worfliipped by mens hands, 
that is, by images made with mens hands, as thefe in A- 
thens did, A£ts xvii. 24, 25. For they ignorantly worfliip- 
ped the true God. 2. To (hew that he fhould not be ferv- 
t<i as idolaters ferved their gods, by images, Deut. i* r . and 
*2. 30, 31, 32. This binds us to the word for all inftitute 
worihip, but efpecially reftxaineth us from idolaters, their 
way of worihip, as well as from their idols, Tkcujbalt not 
do Jo to the Lord thy God : Note, that fo fet down, verfe 4. 
relateth to groves, images, high places, 6r. mentioned, ver. 
4. which place doth not only difcharge fuch fervice to be 
given to idols, but the giving of any fuch fervice to God 
himfelf, who will hnve no fuch fervice : And if it be clear 
that worlhipping him by groves and high places be condem- 
ned, why not worlhipping him by images alio ? for the pio- 
hibition fo, looketh to all. 

Thirdly, This command hath a general prohibition in it, 
that leaveth no image out, whether of God, faint, or any 
other thing, for any religious ufe, under whatibever ihape : 
For, 1 . It difchaFgeth the making of any image of any thing 
for any religious ufe. 2. It difchargeth all worihip to be 
given them, whether outward by bowing, or inward by fer- 
vice, or whatibever folio weth on thefe ; and therefore no 
diftinftion ufed by idolaters can falve the matter or avoid 
the ftrength of this command, efpecially confidering that it 
diredteth men in the manner how they fhouid fervc the true 
God, and doth not (imply prefcribe who is to be acknow- 
ledged as true God, which is done by the firft command. 

Fourthly, If by this command heat'ienifh idolatry or the 
ferving God by images be condemned ? then the ferving of 
God by images alfo amongft Chriftians is here condemned: 
But the heathens ferving God by images, is here condemned, 
Ergo, &c. 

If it be anfwered, that heathens did reprefent by their r- 
mages that which was not God, and that this was their fault : 
I anfwer, 1. It is not like all did fo, nor that any at firft 
did fo ; but fome had a notion of the invifiblc God-head, 
asPtom. i. 28. though they changed it into an image, like 
to a corruptible creature, 2 Yet here the argument hold- 
eth ; if heathens, who worfhipped fuppofe Jupiter, Vulcan, 
&c. and their images of gold, filver, i?c. were holden for 
idolaters ; not only as worshipping Jupiter and Vulcan, and 
thefe idols which were fo reprcfented, but alfo as worfbip- 


Com. 1. the Ten Commandments. 99 

ping gold and Giver, and fuch images and things as they 
made life of to reprefent thera ; then alfo Chrifiians muft 
be laid not only to worfhip what is reprefented, by thofe i-- 
mages, but the images themfelves, and fo to be guilty of i- 
dolatry on that account. The reafon will hold alike in both ; 
and if their exception, that they worfliipped not the images, 
but what they reprefeated, did not exempt them from being 
found guilty of worfliipping fuch images in particular, nei- 
ther will Chrifiians upon that plea be found exeemed from 
this guilt ; for, a quentenus ad cmne valet confiqaentia. 

lib, Argument, if that idolatry committed by the Ifrae- 
lices in the wildernefs, Exod. xxxii. and that which was fet 
up in Ifrael by Jeroboam, and that of ManalTes, 2 Chron. 
xxxiii. be to be condemned as idolatry ; thc*n that which is 
pra&ifcd amongft the papitts in worfhipping of their images, 
and God by them is condemned as idolatry; But the former 
is condemned in fcripture as grofs idolatry, becaufe it falletH 
off, and declineth from the way of worfhip the Lord hath 
prefcribed, and turned God's people like to idolaters in 
their way \ therefore alfo the latter is to be condemned as i- 

There is no exception which the paplfts give in here a- 
gainft this argument, but the like have been given by the 

For, 1. If they fay, They worshipped net the true God 
before theft images, that f, anfwered already, 

2. If they fay, it was condemned, becaufe they re pre fen t- 
ed him by fuch images, that is not enough : For, 1. The- 
command foibiddeth all images cf any. thing. 2. The op- 
pofition mentioned, Deut iv. Thou faiueji no likenefs or i- 
mage but heircUJi a voice , hath no middle but argueth againft 
all, alike? Hence thefe images, Pfal. cxv. that had nofes 
and mouths, but fmelled not, and fpoke not, were con- 
demned as well as thole complained of, fiocn. i. 

3. If they lay. I: was not lawful then, but is lawful now ; 
this were to fay, that the gofpel admineth of no carnal ordi- 
nances than the law ; whereas its fervke is more fpiritual 
without all doubt. 

From all which, we may clearly conclude, that in fuch 
fervice there is a two-fold idolatry committed ; 1. In that 
becaufe of fome holinefs and venerability that is fuppofed 
to be in fuch images, reliques, <bc. religious worfhip (tho* 
inferior to what is attributed to God) is given to them for 
themfelves, according to the decrees of that fecond coun- 
fel of Nice. 2. In that they pretend, by fuch fervice to 
worfhip the true God, tho' in an idolatrous manner for- 

N 2 bidden 

loc An Expofition of Com. 2« 

bidden by ; him befides what Aquinas and his followers 
maintain, who give to the images of God, Chrift, Mary, 
and the crofs, x*T?«a itfelf, part 13. q. 25. a. i, 2, 3. And 
reafon fayeth, It is a fnare unto them that worfhip them, 
and a fcandal to others : for, as Auguftine (fpeaking a- 
gainft the expreffions ufed by heathens, from Pfal. cxiii. 
and from that of the apoftle, Rom. i. (after he hath rejec- 
ted their images, and their interpretation, and excufes al* 
fo) fayeth, He who worjhippeth and pray eth toward an image , 
is an idolater : for, who, faith he, worjhippeth and prayeth 
towards an image, who is not affefted with it as if it heard him ? 
In fhort then, the idolatry that ftriketh againft this com- 
mand, may be fummed up in thefe particulars. 

1. When by fome vifible fign, reprefentation or image, 
the God-head is wronged, as being thereby made like to it ; 
this is againft Deut. iv. 15, 16, 17. <bc where every image 
made to reprefent the true God, is condemned as unfuit- 
able to him. 

2. When by our worfhip we tie the prefence of the true 
God, to fome place, image, ftatue, or relique, as if they 
had fomething in them, or communicated to them more di- 
vine than any other thing; or, as if God heard our prayers 
better at images, and by them ; or, as if there were a more 
fpecial prefence of God there, or a more fpecial difpenfati- 
on of grace granted by them ; as heathens fuppofed their 

. gods dwelt invifibly in their images, and did anfwer them 
there. Now, the fuppofing that there is in any thing, fome- 
thing venerable and worthy of fuch refpeft, is the ground 
of all idolatry ; the inward leaning to it, and trufting in it, 
is againft the firft command : but the outward expreffing of 
this efteem and truft, is againft the fecond command. Thus 
men fin in praying to things that are (though rational crea- 
tures) as angels and faints -, or to things that are not, as emp- 
ty images that have no deity dwelling in them ; or to life- 
lefs creatures, as the crofs, bread, &c. 

3 It is idolatry, when idolatrous worfhip, ufed in the 
fervice of idols, is given to God contrary to his command : 
fo, Deut. xii. 30, 31. Thou /halt not do fo to the Lord thy Cod; 
and, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 17. their keeping up of groves for 
the worfhip of God, and that invention of Jeroboam's 
calves, are condemned as idolatry. 

4. When any thing of that external worfhip, which is 
due to the true God, is given to any other, even though it 
be with a purpofe not to fhut him out altogether from his 
due, yet when it is in part given to any other thing, as to 
thf crofs, faints, images, <bc. it is called worfhipping of 
them j fee Exod. xxxii. compared with Pfal. cvi. 19, 20. 


Com. 2.' tit Ten Commandments. io! 

there they worfliipped the images of gold and filver, 6r. 
yea, ver. 37. Devils, though they intended to worfhip God 
in thefe images. 

5, When any thing of this worfhip, due to God, is giv- 
en to fervants or means, as if fomcthing adorable, and to 
be worfliipped, were in them, although they be not account- 
ed God himfelf : Thus Cornelius finned in worfhipping Pe- 
ter, Acts x. 25, 26. when he knew he was not God 5 and 
Peter rejecteth it on this ground, that he was a man, and 
not God ; and that therefore it was due to none but God : 
Which reafon, taketh off all that can be faid by men for 
palliating this kind of idolatry : Thus the fcope of the com- 
mand, and the reafon and ground of worfhip being confi- 
dered, it is evident that all thefe are idolatry. 

We would now further confider, £rfr, the pofitive part 
of this command; and next, what is forbidden in it. 

And, 1 . For the pofitive part of this command, we con- 
ceive it doth reach, 1. To all external ordinances, fuch as 
doftrine, worfhip, government, and difcipline : We are 
here enjoyned to keep thefe pure, according to his word : 
Thus any error breaketh this command, when it is vented 
and made public, as fecret errors break the firft. 

2. It reacheth to all external obedience, fuch as, receive 
ing the -ruths of God, fubmitting to the government and 
difcipline of his houfe, entering therein as church-members* 
often hearing the word, not only on the fabbath, which is 
required in the fourth command, but at all occafions, when 
God fhall give the opportunity, it being a fpecial part of 
his worfhip; right ufing of the facraments, and worthy re- 
ceiving of them, praying externally, internal prayer being 
required in the firft command ; outward confeflion of fin, 
when called for ; confeliion of the truth in times of trial, 
<3C and this obedience is to be extended to extraordinary 
duties as well as ordinary : as vowing, fwearing, farting, &£• 
when they fhall be required in providence; external cove- 
nanting with God, an ordinance neceflary for keeping pure 
public fervice, &c+ Alio it is to be extended to lecret du- 
ties, and to private duties in families, and Chriftian fellow- 
ship, as well as public, and to diligence in them all. 

3. It reacheth to the right manner of doing duties; efpe- 
cially, it requireth it, 1 . That they be not done in hypocrify, 
for God will not be fo worfliipped in any duty. 2. That 
all our worfhip and duties be diiecled to God, in, and thro* 
the Mediator, and that none can come to God but by him, 
who is the appointed high prieft, 3 That ail our obedi- 
ence and fervice be fpiritual. 

4. It taketh io all external geftures, and outward rever- 


ro2 An Expofition of Com. 2. 

cnce in praying and hearing, 6r. as, that the eye be fixed, 
and the carriage not light, but decent; that there be no 
laughing, that the looks be ftayed and grave : thefe in a fpe- 
cia! manner, in worfliip, are to be looked unto. 

5. It requireth every mean that may further God's pub- 
lic iervice, as educating and training up men for the mini- 
ftry, entertaining them, providing places and accommoda- 
tions for public worfliip, and every thing of that kind, 
without which the external worfliip of God cannot be per- 

6. It requireth the removing of all letts and impediments 
of God's worfliip, or whatever is contrary thereto, accord- 
ing to our places and flations ; fuch as herefies and here- 
ticks, by condigne cenfuring of them, removing all idola- 
trous worfliip, and whatever may be the occafions of it, or 
whatever hath been, or may be aim fed to it, purging the 
ho'ufe of God from corrupt and infufficient minifters and 
corrupt members. 

But let us fee in the next place what is forbidden in this 
command, and how it is broken. 

In the firft command, what immediately reflccteth upon 
God himfeif, is forbidden \ here, what immediately reflec- 
teth on his ordinances and appointments, contradicting them 
and him in them, is difcharged. There is none of the com- 
mands more frequently broken, and yet men moft readily 
think themfelves free of the breach thereof, and therefore 
ye fhould confider that it is broken, 

j. In doctrine, or doctrinally. 2 In practice. 3. In 
both, when the doctrines vented and published againfi: truth* 
have external practices following on them, as that doctrine ; 
of image-worfliip hath, which we have fpoken to already, 
and is the grofs breach of this command ; and the Lor i in- 
flanceth it as being the greateft, becaufe where this is, all 
forts of idolatry are : for it fuppofeth idolatry againft the 
firft command, and that fome efleem and weight is laid u- 
pon that creature we worfliip, beyond what is its due ; as if 
there were in it fome divinity or ability to help, whereby it 
is thought worthy of fuch honour, whereupon followeth 
that external worfliip which is given to it upon that account : 
and fo, becaufe faints are thought able to hear and help 
men, pray to them : and becaufe the crofs is thought holy, 
men worfliip it, &£. And as this idolatry is manifold a- 
mong the papifts, fo it is palpable when prayer is made to 
faints, rcHques, bread, the crofs, images, &c. 

Now that we may further explain this : confider, that 
this; command is three ways broken dottrinaUy, (ail which 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 103 

have a great influence upon mens breaking of it in their 
practice;) or, the fervice and worfhip of God, is three ways 
wronged by the doctrine of men. 1. When fomething is 
added to his fervice which he hath commanded, and this i$ 
fuperftition and wiil-worfhip largely fo taken : Of this kind 
are, 1. The five popifh facraments added to thofe two the 
Lord appointed. 2. Other and more mediators than the 
one Mediator Chriit. 3. More meritorious caufes of par- 
don and justification, than the blood and merits of Chrift. 
4 More officers in his houfe than he hath appointed, fuch 
as, bifhops, cardinals, drr. 5. More ceremonies in worfhip* 
as fait, fpittle and cream added in baptifm to water, and 
kneeling, &c. to the Lord's (upper. 6. More holy days 
than God hath inftituted. 7. Other things to be acknow- 
ledged for the word of God than the fcripture,. as tradition?, 
apocraphy, err. and many iuch thing?, whereof (for the 
moft part) popery is made up. 

2. It is broken when his ordinances are demintihed, and 
any thing which he hath commanded, is taken away from 
them, as is clear from Doit. iv. 2 Te /hall mi add unto the 
•word which /command you , neither Jhali y e diminijh ought there- 
from : and thus they break this command, by taking away 

the cup from laicks (as they call them) in the Lord's (upper, 
and the ufe of the Bible from the people in their own lan- 
guage. Alfo it is broken by taking away baptiirn from in- 
fants, and difcipline or excommunication from the church, 
and by taking away the fabbath-day, and pubiic tinging of 
pfalms, or fuch like : not to fpeak of that blafphemous, and 
fome-way Pagan-herefy of quakfci ifm, over-turning moft, 
if net all the ordinances of God, deftruclive to all true re- 
ligion and Chriftianity, and introducing, at leaft, having a 
native tendency to introduce, old paganifm and barbarity. 

3. This command is broken by corrupting of God's wor- 
fhip, as when the word is mif-interpretcJ and mif-applied, 
prayers are ufed tn a ftrange tongue, the word is mixed with 
errors, and the church, both left without difcipline and a- 
bufed in civil things, which tendeth to the corrupting o£ 
God's fervice ; unqualified men put into the miniftry and 
kept in it, when facraments are refted on and worshipped, 
even as the brazen ferpent was abufed, and the temple, tho* 
appointed by God at firft for good ends, was afterward reft- 
ed on and idolized. 

Again this command is practically broken four ways : 
Firft, By grofs prophanity and neglect of the practice of 
known duties of worfhip; this way, are guilty of all pro- 
phane contemners of facraments, word, difcipline, 6r. Ml 
cegleclers of them whsn they may have them ; and all thefe 


104 An Expofition of Com. 2. 

that fet not themfdves to go rightly about them, in fecret, 
in families, or in public: and where many opportunities of 
gofpel ordinances are, this fin is the more frequent : and fo 
all athcifts that contemn religion, and thefe that would only 
fcrve Qod with a good heart and intention, as they pretend, 
without any outward worfliip, are condemned here : and 
alfo thofe, who for fear or advantage give not teftimony to 
the truth and ordinances of Chnft, when fuch a teftimony 
is called io\\ 

2. Men fin agalnft this command, when they pra&ife will- 
worfliip and fuperitition in ferving God by duties he never 
required, whether, 1. It be wilUworfliip in refpeft of the 
fervice itfelf, as when that is gone about as duty, which is 
not in itfelf lawful, as when fuch and fuch pilgrimages and 
penances are appointed by men to be done as fervice to God : 
Or, 2. When worfliip, or fervice under the gofpel is aftric- 
ted to fuch a place, as if it were holier to pray in one place 
than in another, and that therefore God did hear prayer 
there more willingly and eafily than in another place. Or, 
3. In refpeft of bodily pofture, as if there were more reli* 
gion in one pofture than in another; as in receiving the 
Lord"s fupper kneeling, or praying in fuch and fuch a pof- 
ture, except in fo far as it is decent, and otherwife rightly re- 
gulate by rules of prudence and nature's light. 4. When it 
is without a divine warrant tied to fuch a time only, as 
Chriftmafs, (commonly called Yool) Eafter, Pafch, &c. 
which is an obferving of times that God hath not appointed, 
5. When it is tied to fuch an occafion or accident, as, to 
pray when the clock ftriketh, or when one neefeth, which 
Plinius marked of Tiberius, who was no religious man, yet 
could not abide one who lifted not his hat when he neefed, 
and faid not ,c God blefs ;* and he obferveth it among thefe 
things he can give no reafon for ; the prayer is good, but 
the timing of it (o f and aftri&ing it to that thing, is fuper- 
ftitious ; fo your light wakes and diriges (as ye call them) 
are upon this account to be condemned, either as fuperftiti- 
ous, or as prophane, or at the beft, as the rcliques and 
caufes or occafions of both: For, 1. Once in times of po* 
pifli darknefs they were fo ufed, or rather abufed. 2. Why 
are your vifits (tainted to fuch a time more than another? 
It profiteth not the defundl, and it hurteth the perfon yoa 
come unto : a multitude not being fit for comforting or in- 
ftrufting ; and yet it cannot be called a meer civil vifit, be- 
ing tryfted with fuch an occafion : but certainly it fuiteth 
not, nor is it a Chriftian carriage toward the dead, and af- 
ter the burial of the dead, to fpend time together in fuch a 
way as is commonly ufed ; Befide, it is fupsrftitious, when 

a thing 

Com. 2 the Ten Commandments. 105 

a thing without reafon is atiricled to fuch a time or occasi- 
on, as. giving and receiving of gifts on New-years-day, too 
too common amongft Chriftiaps, though a heathenifh cuf- 
torn ; which day, as Gratian obferves, was dedicated to 
their devil-god, Janus . He afferts likewife, that fuch Chrif- 
tians, as in his time did obferve it, were excommunicated : 
and Alchuinus, with others write that the whole catholick 
church appointed once a folemn public faft to be kept on a 
New-ycars-day, to bewail thofe heathenifh interludes, fports, 
and lewd idolatrous praflices that had ben ufed on it. 6. 
When fome weight is laid on the number of words, or fee 
repetitions of prayers, Ave Maria's, or pater nofter's, or on 
the reading fo many chapters, or faying fo many prayers. 
7. When any take a word of fcripture at the opening of the 
Bible, or by a thought iuggefted, as more befiting their con- 
dition becaufe of that, without weighing the word itfelf : 
and lay more weight upon that word than upon another 
that hath the fame authority and fuitablenefs to their cafe, 
which is to make a weerd, or fortun-e book of the book o£ 
God, for which end he never appointed. Thus alfo men 
are guilt/, when they account facraments more valid, or 
lay more weight on them, becaufe difpenfed by fome mini- 
frers, than when difpenfed by others, though having the 
the fame warrant, or becaufe of the difference pf perfons 
that partake therein with them. 

However fome of thefe things may be in themfelves good, 
yet they are abufed by fome one circumftance, as in unwar- 
rantable timing them, or in laying that weight on them 
which is not warranted in the word, which 1. Altereth the 
way that God has laid down. 2. Bringeth us to prefer one 
circumftance to another, without any warrant. 3. Maketh 
a neceffity where God has left us free, and fo bringeth us 
into bondage. 

3. We may go wrong in pradlifing lawful duties many 
ways, as to the manner of performing them, when they are 
not fo done as is required : As, 1. When we do not pro- 
pofe to ourfelves the right end we fhould have before us. 

2. When they are not done from a right inward principle. 

3. When they are done in hypocrify and formality, and 
refted on ; all which may go along with men in all duties 
and ordinance ; and generally all our (hort-comings in the 
right manner of commanded duties, ltrikcth againft this 

4. We may alfo confider the breach of this command, 
by taking a view of what is oppofite to every thing required ; 
and fo want of reverence in worfbip, want of zeal againft 
error or faife wcrfliip, noj ftretching ourfelves in all law- 

O firt 

lo6 An Expvfition of Com. 2. 

ful endeavours to entertain and maintain the true woruYip 
of God, are here forbidden -, fo likewife the putting in, and 
keeping in unworthy minifters ; the traducing, holding out, 
and putting out of faithful men ; the withdrawing and fc- 
queAring ther maintenance from them ; the drminifiiing of 
h, or ftraitning them in it. Horrid fins, though little 
thought of, and lightly looked on by men, drawing no lefs 
deep before God than obftrue'ling the free courfe or the gof- 
pel, breaking up the treaty of peace betwixt God and En- 
ters, carried on by faithful minifters, as the arnbafTadors of 
Jefus Chrift; and faying on the matter that he (hall not fee 
of the fruit of the travel of his foul in the falvation of the 
fouls of men-, to his fat is faction, fo far as they can impede it 
by outing and discountenancing his minifters, the inftruments 
made ufe of by hkn for bringing about that ; and thusalfo, 
all facriiedge, fimony, and the like>cometh in as breaches 
©f this command ; and all partiality in church proceedings, 
tolleration of errors, countenancing the fpreaders of tkm, 
flighting of discipline, converfing unneceflfarily snid unwar- 
rantably with fuch as are excommunicate, and all. unwar- 
rantable innovating in the external worQup of God •, and 
when we are not aiming and endeavouring to have our chir- 
dren and fervants, and all under our charge, brought un- 
der fubjedtion and conformity to the ordinances and fervice 
of God, as well as ourfelves. 

But,becaufe this command in an efpecial manner Iooketh 
to public ordinances, let us fee a little more particularly 
how it is broken in thefe : 1. In refpect of preaching and 
hearing. 2. Public prayer. 3. Praifing. 4. Sacraments. 
5. Fafts ; and in all thefe, there are faults of three forts. 
1. Some going before the performance of thefe duties 2. 
Some following after. 3. Some going along in the perfor- 
mance of them. 

And again, 1 . Some are guilty of the breach of this com- 
mand by neglecting thefe duties. 2. Some are guilty in the 
wrong manner of going about them. 

And, r. Before hearing the word, men brerdc this com- 
mand. 1. In net praying fofthe fpeaker 2. In not pray- 
ing for themfelves, in reference to this end, that they may- 
prevfn by the word. 3. In not fetting themfelves to be in a 
Spiritual compofed* frame for fuch a work. 4. In not watch- 
fully preventing what may divert them or diftra^t them, or 
ftraiten their minds when they come to hear, not ordering 
their other affairs, fo as they may not be a hlnderance to 
them in. meeting with the bleffing of the gofpel. 5. In not 
aiming to have the right efteem of the word. 6. In not 
blcSSog God for \t y or -for any good received before by it, 

* 7. la 

Com, 2. the Ten Commandments. 107 

7. In not coming with hunger and thirft, as new born babes, 
having laid afide what may hinder its being received with. 
deGre, 2 Pet ii. 1,2. 8. In not denying our own ftrength, 
as to the right difcharge of that duty, that fo we may make 
ufe of Chrift 9. In not minding, that when we art called 
to hear, it is to tryft with God in his ordinances. 10. la 
going to hear with prejudice. 11. Incoming without ex- 
pectation of, and longing for the prefencc of GoJ, or of 
meeting with him. 12. In not coming from refpeft to the 
honour of God, nor out of conference, but from cuftom, 
and for the fafhion. 

idly. Men fin againft this command, when they are come 
to hear, and while they are about this duty of hearing; 1. 
In not looking to God, or not receiving the word as God's 
word, but as man's. 2. In cxtravaging and wandering ia 
their minds and thoughts, Ezek. xxxiii. 3Y. 3. In flecping 
when they (hould hear. 4. In letting the word flip out of 
their mind, and not retaining and laying up what they hear* 
5. In not yielding their ears and memories, or yielding on- 
ly their cars and memories, but not carting open theirhcaiu 
to the word, to let it fink clown in them. 6. When, tho* 
it be heard, yet it is not underftood, Matth. xiii. 13. 7. 
When, though und^rrtood, it is foon forgotten. 8. Whes 
there is not a peculiar trembling and fear in our waiting u- 
pon the ordinances, Ifa Ixvi. 2. Ecclci. v. 1, 2. and Mai. iu 
5. There is a fpecial fear which we ought to have before 
his name. 9. When there is not faith mixed with hearing, 
giving credit to the word, it muft be a great fault not to be- 
lieve God's word when we hear it, H.eb. iv. r, 2. 10. Whea 
we fret and canker at the reproofs of the word. 11. When 
we needleily (tumble at any expreffion, efpecially, when we 
carry fo lightly as to laugh at what is fpoken to the preju- 
dice of the ordinances. 12. When we arc more for know- 
ing than for doing, more for informing the mind, than for 
reforming the heart and life. 13. When there is carping 
at the word, and cenfuring of it rather than ourfelves. 14. 
When we make no application of it to ourfelvcs, and try 
not whether we have fuch a fault, or if we perform fuch a 
duty, 6r. 1 5. When we are not prefent, as before God, to 
hear, as Cornelius was, A&s x. 33. 16. When we itch af- 
ter novelty of expreffions, or words, or things, rather than 
thirft after the jincere milk of the word, that we may grow 
thereby. 17. When thefe novelties are more entertained 
and laid weight on than known duties or truths. i$, 
When the word is heard with refpeel of perfons, and the 
fame truth, or expreffion, or fcripture cited by one, is not 
forefpefted and received, as when fpoken by another, coa- 

O 2 crarjr 

jo8 An Expofition of Com. 2 '. 

trary to James ii. 9. 19. When there are vain looks as well 
as idle thoughts. 20. When there is a wanton, light, un- 
reverent carriage. 21. When there is imjnodeft and ftrange 
apparel unbecoming that ordinance. 22. When there is 
(peaking or talking, out of the cafe of neceffity, in time of 
fermon, though it were by way of prayer, it is finful, ex- 
cept it were ejaculatory in reference to what is at prefent 
fpoken. 23. When there is reading of femething, (even 
though fcripture) unfeafonably. 24. When there is infill- 
ing en good thoughts, that tend to divert from hearing, 

25. When men are obferving vanities in time of hearing, 
fuch as the apparel that others have on, or the painting that 
3s on the houfe, or the cuplings of the roof, or fuch like. 

26. When there is not an intermixing of ejaculatory prayer 
for ourfelves and others : and the fpeaker, that God would 
help him, and them, and us, to keep fuch a word to the 
time when we may have need of it; and when God is not 
blefTed when a word is rightly fpoken. 27. When there is 
any quenching of convictions, or the motions or ftirrings 
of affection wakened up by the word. 28. When there is 
diverting to a doting love of the fpeaker, or the thing as 
fpoken by fuch a fpeaker : or the manner of expreffion, and 
a delighting in thefe, more than in God, or a reflecting of 
him or our own profiting. 29. When we do not look u- 
pon, and make ufe of the preached word as a means to 
convert, but only as a means to confirm. 30. When we do 
not make ufe of promifes offered in preaching, and direc- 
ted by God to us by an authorized ambaflador, and do not 
fo lay weight on them as from him. 31. When we reject 
the many fweet offers of the gofpel, and come not to the 
marriage of the king's fon. 32. When we do grieve God's 
Spirit who preffeth it upon us, 33. When we tuead under- 
foot Chrift's blood by our little efteem cf it. 34. When we 
give no credit to, nor lay due weight upon thrcatnings. 35. 
When we have not the faith of God's providence, or of the 
judgment to cotae, 36. When there is not an accepting of 
Chrift. 37. When there is not employing of him. 38. 
When there is not reverence in removing from our hearing 
of the word. 

After hearing alfo, there are many ways whereby we are 
guilty of the breach of this command. 1 . Forgetting what 
we have heard. 2. Letting the heart unneceffarify look back 
again to other objefts, and follow other thoughts, and not 
meditating on what have been heard. 3. Not comparing 
what we have heard with the fcriptures. 4. Not following 
the word with prayer for the watering of it. 5. Needlefs 
falling to other difcourfes, immediately after the hearing 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. IC9 

of the word. 6\ Cafting it all afide as to practice, Pfal. !• 
16. to 33. 7. Fretting at fome things that have been fpo- 
ken. 8. Spreading cenfures : Or 9. Commendations of the 
thing preached, or of the inftruments that preached, as 
if that were all. 10. Not following tl^e word with felf- 
fearching prayer, and fruits fuitable, endeavouring to prac- 
tife what is required. 1 1. Not trembling ar its threatnings, 
nor forbearing what was thereby difcharged. 1 2. Not help- 
ing others to make ufe of it. 13. Not repenting of faults, 
commuted in the time of hearing. 14. Little delight in rem- 
embring of it. 15. Finding out fhifts to put by its directi- 
ons or challenges. 16. Applying them to others rather 
than to ourfelves. 17. Mif-conftruing the minifters end in 
preffing of them. 18. Mif-interpreting his words. J9. Mif- 
reporting. or mif-reprefenting them. 20. Not being trou- 
bled for fruitlefnefs in hearing, without any ufe, but being 
as a (lone without fenfe or feeling. 2r. Leaning on hear- 
ing, as if having been in the church were a piece of holi- 
nefs; though no fruit follow on it. 22. Prophane abufing 
words of fcripture, or phrafes ufed in preaching, in mens 
common difcourfe ; much more when they are mixed in 
wanron and prophane (ports, or jefts and gybes. 

All thefe ways men may fin, when they come to hear the 
word j they fin alio by abfence, when they come not, ne- 
glecting the opportunities of the gofpel ; there are alfo 
divers fins which men are often guilty of ?n reference to 
hearing, even on week days : As 1 . Little love to the word, 
or delight in the opportunities of it on fuch days. 2. Too 
much love to other things that procureth luke-warmnefs in 
hearing. 3. Contemning occafions of hearing the word on 
fuch days. 4. Improvidently bringing on a neceffity on our- 
felves that we cannot hear. 5. Caring little to have a mi- 
niftry, whereby we maybe in(truc~ced at ail times, and there- 
fore we want fuch occafions, 6. Setting ourfelves, and uf- 
ing our wits to difcou;age the minifters we have. 7. Not 
being weighted with our ablence from week-d;iys fermenst 
8. Mocking at them who are prefent. 9. Difrefpect the 
ordinance for fome worldly or perfonal refpecls, preferring 
any fmall trifle thereto, <bc. 

2. Let us inftance the breach of this command in public 
prayer, which is a part of worfliip which very nearly con- 
cerns the glory of God ; and certainly when it is wronged 
through the unfuitable, and not right difcharging of this 
duty, this command is in a fpecial way broken. 

We (hall not here look to every thing, but efpecjally to 
what concerneth public prayer, indeed we fail alio in ferret 
prayer, and in giving thanks both alone and in our families. 

1. By 

no An Expofition *f Com. 2- 

x. By contempt of this excellent ordinance, many flight 
prayer in fecret and in their families* Jer. x ult. which is a 
clear breach of this command as well as neglecting it in pub* 
lie ; when men do not countenance fermon or prayer, tho' 
at the fame time walking idly in the ftreets or in the fields. 
2. By cafting up of prayer to others, reproaching it, call- 
ing it hyppcrify, and thofe who ufe it hypocrites* 3. By 
mocking the Spirits work in prayer. 

I. Before we come to prayer, we fin. I. By not watch- 
ing to keep the heart in a frame for praying, always. 2. 
By not watching over every opportunity that we may have 
for prayer, whereby many occafions are loft. 3 In not 
longing for opportunities of prayer. 4. In not ftirring up 
ourlelves to ferioufnefs when we are about to pray. 5. In 
letting the heart run loofe when we are about other things, 
which indifpoieth for prayer. 6. In having a feif particular 
end before us in our prayers. 7. In our little refpsfting 
God for ftiength and fitnefs, and little looking to him for 
his Spirit to ourfelves, or thefe who are to go before us in 
this duty of prayer. 8. In our little examining ourfelves 
that we may know what to pray for, and what diftincily to 
confefs. 9 In our not meditating on what we are to fay, 
that we may, as to the matter of our prayers, fpeak in faith. 

10. In aiming more to find and exercife gifts, than to have 
grace afting in us. 11. In our rufhing raihly on fuch a 
weighty and fpiritual duty. 

iJly, In prayer; and, 1. On the fpeakers part there are 
divers ways whereby this command is broken : As, 1. By 
rafhnefs and fenfelefnefs, not exerciling the fpirit, but the 
mouth*, telling over our prayers as a tale without life. 
2, Praying in our own ftrength, without looking after the 
influence of the Spirit. 3. Not drawing near to God by faith 
in Chrift, but leaning too much on our prayers, from a fe- 
cret falfe opinion of prevailing more with many words well 
put together, than by exerciling faith on Chrift, andrefting 
*on him, as if God were perfuaded w»th words. 4. In-ad- 
vertaat praying, uttering unadvifed petitions and cxpreffi- 
ons without underftanding. 5. Not praying humbly and 
with foul-abafement : Nor 6. Singly to pleafe God, but 
men, feeking expreffions that are pleafant rather than fenfi- 
ble. 7. Saying many things we think not, not being touch- 
ed with the weight of fin when we confefs it, nor with the 
defire of holineis when we mention it : counterfeiting fome- 
rimes reftraints and complaints more than is real. 8. Limi- 
tating God in particular fuits. 9. Cold in what is of great- 
eft concernment. 10. Want of reverence and holy fear. 

11. Want of a right impreffiou of a prefent God, 12 Not 


Com* 2. the Ten Commandments. tit 

praying for others, and little refpecYmg the condition of 
thofe we pray with ; or, what we do of this kind, is either 
but cold, and for the fafhion ; or if there be more apparent 
zeal and ferioufnefs fcr others, it would be adverted that it 
be not upon defign to flatter and pleafe them rather than to 
obtain fpiritual bleffings to them. 13. Defiring things for 
fatisfying ourfelves more than for God's honour. 14 Break- 
ing off before we come to livelinefs and liberty, having be- 
gun lazy and without life. 15. Not infifting to wreftie 
with God when under bands. 16. Precipitating with the 
words before the heart pondered them, or the affection be 
warmed, 17 Porting through it, as duty, only for the 
fafhion, without refpeel to God. or love to theexercife, or 
driving at any profit by ic. 18. Wearying and not delight- 
ing in it. 19. Not aiming at God's prefence or fenfible 
manifeftations in it, or at hearing in that which we pray 
for. 20. Being more defirous of liberty in public than 
in private. 21. Freting when we are put or kept un- 
der bonds. 22. Growing vain and light when it goeth 
well with us, and turning and unwatchful when we get li- 
berty. 23. Impertinent ufe-making of fcripture-words ei- 
ther ignorantly or vainly. 24. A fecret expectation of 
fomcthing for our prayer, and fo refting upon the work 
done, as if there were merit in it. 25. Ufing exprefBons 
not eafily underftood. 26. Ufing undecent geftures, and 
fcurrile expreffions. 27. Not obferving God's difpenfatioa 
to us, nor his dealing with our fouls in the time of prayer, 
that we may conform our fuits accordingly, as we find ma- 
ny of the faints have done, who end in fongs after they had 
begun fadly. 28. Not praying with fervency for Chrift's 
kingdom, and for Jews and Gentries. 29. Exercifing gifts 
rather than grace, when we pray. Thefe are fins upon thr 
fpeaker's part. 

Next, ye fhouid confider the fins of them that join : And 
beiides what is general and common in the duty of praying, 
we fail, often in joining. And, i.inthis, that many think. 
When another prayeth, they neec) not pray, but let the 
fpeaker be doing alone. 2. When we obferve not what is 
fpoken, that we may go alongft in what he prayeth for, and 
be upon our watch that we may join, and that we may do 
it in judgment. 3. The mind wavering or wandering, and 
we hearing, but not praying. 4. Cenfuring the words and 
geftures of the fpeaker. 5. Fixing our eyes or minds on 
fome other things, and giving way to other thoughts that 
may divert from joining. 6. Sleeping in time of prayer. 
7. Confufednefs in that exercife, and not diftin&ly joining 
with what agrceth, to cnarfclves and our owa cafe* nor with 


112 An Expofition of Com. 2. 

what agreeth to others joining with it for them. 8. More 
cold and indifferent in what concerneth others, than in 
whatconcerncth ourfelves. 9 Morecarelefs of being heard 
and aufwered when we fpeak nor, as if we were lefs concern- 
ed, thinking it enough to beprefent, although in our heart 
we join not; and, not being affe&ed with the prayer of a- 
nother, nor adling faith in it, we foon weary when others 
pray. 10. Not being edified by the praying of another, nor 
taking up our fins in his confeffions, nor our duty in his pe- 
titions. 11. Much hypocrify in fuch duties, while we feem 
to be joining, but are doing nothing. 12. Not endeavour- 
ing to have affections, fuitable to what is fpoken, ftirred up 
in us. 13. Not praying that the fpeaker may be fuitably 
guided and helped in bringing forth petitions that may 
anfwer our wants. 14. More indifferent, that another who 
fpeaketh, as mouth for the reft, want liberty, than when 
we are put to fpeak ourfelves, although it be God's ordi- 
nance. 15. Not rightly touched with any expreffion we 
cannot join with, but rather ftumbling at it. 16. Our be- 
ing ignorant of the meaning of many expreffions through 
our own fault, fo that we cannot join in them. 17. Mut- 
tering words of our own, and not joining with what is 
faid. 18. Indiftinclnefs, in confenting or faying Amen at 
the dole. 

3<//y, After prayer, both fpeaker and joiners fail. r. 

That they watch not over their hearts, but foon return to 

other things, as if then they might take liberty. 2. Not 

waiting for an anfwer, nor obferving whether prayers be 

anfwered or not. 3. Not being thankful foranfwers when 

they come. Nor, 4. Intreating and preffing for an anfwer 

if it be delayed. 5. Not reflecting on our failings, whether 

in fpeakicg or joining. 6. Not remembring what we have 

uttered in prayer, but prefently returning to a carriage that 

is very unlike thofe things we have been ipeaking before 

him. 7. Not keeping up a frame for new opportunities of 

prayer. 8. Not preffing after a conftant walk with God 

betwixt occafions of prayer. 9, Refting on prayer after we 

have done, and thinking fomething of it, if we feem to have 

been helped to pray. 10. Carnally heartlefs and difpleafed, 

if it hath been otherwife. 11. Not being humbled for the 

finfulnefs and defects of our prayers. 12. Not having re- 

courfe by faith to the blood of fprinkling for pardon of 

thefe finful defects. 

We are to confider how men break this command in praife 
and thankfgiving : and here there is a failing, in general. 
1. In the utter neglect of this neceifary duty : Alas, what 
of that duty do we in fecret, and yet it is iipgularly for 

~ God* 

Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 113 

God's honour, and as clear a duty as prayer. 2. In mock- 
ing praife often, by prophaning plalms tor our carnal mirth. 
3. In neg'ecting and flighting of it, though not altogether, 
yet by unfrequent going about it. 4. In accounting it to be 
almoft no duty at all, and in being but little challenged for 
flighting of it, or for irreveren-. ufing of it. 

idly, We fin before we go about this duty : 1. In not pre- 
paring for it. 2, In not praying for the fpirit, to fit and 
enable us to praife, 1 Cor. xiv. 1 5. and for a fixed heart 
for that work, Pfal. cviii. 1. 3. In our not aiming at a fpi- 
ritual difpofition for fuch a fpiritual duty. 4. In our not 
endeavouring for a right impreffion c f the majefty of God, 
And, 5. For e'earneis of our inteivft in him. And, 6. For 
an impreffion of the excellency of his way, and meaning o£ 
his word , all which are exceeding nr-ceffary unto the right 
performance of this duty, and without them we cannofc 
praife fuitably. 

^dly y We are guilty of many faults in the time of praif- 
ing. 1. Doing it without refpect to God's glory, and for 
the fafhion only, 2. Hypocrify, not praifing him with the 
whole heart, performing it only with the lips, when the 
heart is away. 3. Ignorance, when we want understanding 
of the words we exprefs. 4. No fuitable impreffion of God's 
greatnefs and goodnefs upon our hearts when we praife. 
5 Not aiming at communion with God in this duty, as de- 
firing, minding, and hoping to praife him for ever. 6. Not 
being taken up with fpiritual and heavenly delight in him, 
and in the work of his praife. 7. Lightnefs, laughing, or 
mainly affecting of, and carnally doting upon, fome tone or 
voice more than being fuitably affected with the matter and 
making melody in the heart to the Lord. 8. Forgetting 
what we do fing, and not knowing or confidering what it 
is we fing, the heart not being prefent nor fixed, 9. Not 
being conftrained by love to praife, but fome cuftom or na- 
tural confeience conftraining to us. 10. Not offering up 
our praifes in and through Chrift Jcfus, Heb. xiii. 15. I r. 
Soon fatisfied in our praifing, as if we were little troubled to 
be fitted for it, and becaufe little of ourfelves lieth in it, we 
are the lefs careful how we difcharge it, but flint and limit 
curfelves to fome cuftomary certain matter which puts us to 
few prayers before, and makes but few challenges after. 12. 
Not intermixing ejaculatory prayers in our praifings. 13. 
Much hypocrify, when we fing the cafes of others, or their 
thoughts and eftimation of God, and fhidy not to be fome- 
thing like their frame and exercife. 14. Not framing our 
affections in praifing to the fubject of our praife ; whether 
it be fome fad cafe or fome chearful cpntfUion, or fome 

P hif- 

1!4 -^ Expcjliion of Com. 2- 

hiftorical or prophetical fubjecV, and when imprecations 
are a part of the fong, we foon fall off, or praife one and 
the fame way in all. 15. Notorious in blefling God for 
former mercies to his fervants, if it be not fo well with us 
hi the mean time, nor chearfully acknowledging his former 
deliverances of his church and people, in which we have 
not perfonally ihared. 16. Not being affected with his keep- 
ing of us free of many fad cafes we fing, and others have 
bcenin, nor bleffinghim fordelivering them. 17. Nor letting 
the word of the Lord which we fing, lick down in us for 
engaging our hearts to, and chearing our fpirits in good. 
18. Not afienting to, and giving his glory in the acknow- 
ledgment of the juftnefs of his fevered threatnings, and the 
mod fearful fcripture imprecations. jo Not rightly observ- 
ing thofe things that are the fubjLct matter of fcripture fongs, 
foas to put a difference between feme things we are to tremble 
jmd fcare at, fuch as the falls of the faints ; and other things 
which we are to imitate and follow for our edification. 20. 
Gadding in idle looks, fo that fome fcarce look on their 
books (although they can read) that they may the better 
have the fenfe of what they fing 21. Not putting ad::: 1 
ence betwixt praying a petition that is in a pfehn, and fing- 
?ng of it, which fhould have a fweetnefs with it that may 
encourage us to pray for, and expect what others before us 
have obtained. 22. Wanting fuch confidcrations about the 
matter long, when it fuits notour prefent cafe, as may 
ably affect us, and fit us to glorify God in that duty : as, 
when we fing of the eminent holinefs of fome of the faint?, 
we are to blefs him that ever any was fo holy, whatever be 
our finfulnefs ; and that we have hope of pardon, though 
under many failings, and much unlikenefs to that cafe we 
fi n g- 2 3' ^» ot figging w i tn tne voice at all, although the 
tongue be given 9s as our glory, that we may therewith glo- 
rify God. 

4tbly % After we have been about this duty of praife, we 
fin. i. By falling immediately into a carnal ' frame. 2. 
Not looking back or examining when we have done, how 
irried it in praifing God. 3. Few challenges for our 
many failings in praife. 4. Little repentance for thofe fail- 
ings. 5 Not keeping the hear: right for a new opportuni- 
. praife. 6 Not keeping a record of his mercies in our 
memories and upon our hearts, to engage us to praife 
him. 7 Not walking in the exercifcof love, which would 
fweetly condrain us to this duty; and make us delight in it. 
iefe are but few of the many iniquities that are to be 
found in our holy things, E;:od. xxviii. 38. It is good we 
have a high pried to bear them. O, what if all our fins 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. n-j 

were reckoned, how heinous would they be ? and what a 
fum will they come to, if our performance of holy duties 
have fo many iins in them ? and when the fins of a fabbath 
are counted, how many will they be ? hundreds of divers 
forts, in praying, hearing, and praifing ; and multiply thefe 
to every lode thought, and every declining or wavering of 
the heart, how many times may they be multiplied ? ah ! 
how many unholy words do we let ilip, and then confider 
all the fabbaths and fermons, prayers and prai its we luvc 
had, how many hundred ihouiands will they amount to ? 
It is fad that men fhould lie under all thefe with few or no 
challenges, or without minding repentance, or thinking of 
neceflity of employing the high prieir. for doing them away, 
therefore we fhould accept thefe challenges, and give him 
employment, who only can bear the iniquity of our holy 
things. If this b/ing not down felf-righteoufnels, and con- 
vince you of the neceffity of a Mediator, what will do it ? 

We (hall proceed in the next place, to confider the fins 
that wait on receiving the facraments, which as they were a 
fpecial part of the worfhip of God under the Old Teftament, 
fo they are yet under the New ; and our fins in reference to 
them, ftrike againit this command, as it prefctibeth and car- 
veth out our external worfhip ; and fo much the rather 
fliould we confider this, becaufe there cannot be a more ex- 
prefs covenanting with God in giving and receiving, pro- 
pofing terms and accepting of them for doling the covenant, 
than is in the facraments. 

Before we enter to fpeak of the faults we are here guilty 
of, we may in general propofe fome things concerning the 
facraments : As 1. For what ends God hath appointed them, 
that fo we may know what is to be expected in them. 2* 
How they effectuate the ends, that we may know how wo 
fhould go about them •, and we (hall fpeak to thefe two joint- 
ly, becaule we cannot fpeak to the one, but we muft fpeak 
to the other. 

But before we fpeak to thefe, fomethings are to be pre- 
mised : As, 1 . That God hath thought good always to add 
facraments to his covenants: Thus the covenant of works 
had its facraments : Adam had the tree of life for a facra- 
ment to confirm him in the faith of that covenant ; fo the 
covenant of grace in all its adminiftrations, had its facra- 
ments alfo for confirmation thereof: As, before ChriiVs 
incarnation it had, circumcifion, the paffover, and divers 
facrifices effectual for that end ; and the fathers, before A- 
braham, had their facrifices for facraments : and fincc his 
incarnation, it hath baptifm and the Lord's fupper ; for as 
the Lord has for man's fake condefcended to deal with hiai 

P z after 

i i6 An Expofition of Com. 2. 

after the manner of men, by covenants and mutual engage- 
ments; fo he keepeth the manner of men in fwearing, deal- 
ing, and confirming thefe covenants for their greater con- 
folation, who are within the fame, Heb. vi. lS. 

2dly, Although the nature of the covenant alter the fa- 
crament in refpecl of our uie making of it ; yet, as all co- 
venants have fome efTentials in which they agree, to wit, a 
promife and a reflipulation ; fo all facraments have fome- 
thing common, to wit, that they fignify, feal, and ftrengthen 
the covenanters in affurance of enjoying what is promifed 
according to the terms of the covenant, to which they are 
feals appended, the tree of life confirmed the promife of 
life to Adam, upon condition of perfect obedience: Cir- 
cumcifion confirmed it to Abraham, upon condition of 
faith, Rom. iv. u. 

3^/y, The facraments of the covenant of grace before and 
after Chrift, differ in circumftantials, as the covenant xtfelf 
tinder the Old and New Teftament doth; but in efTentials 
they agree, for they feal one and the fame thing, and after 
one and the fame manner. 

4th!y 9 There are fome chief things common to all facra- 
ments of the covenant under one adminiftration : As for 
example, baptifm and the Lord's fupper, they agree both 
in this, that they feal the covenant, and reprefent Chrift and 
his benefits, <bc. yet in either of them there are fome peculi- 
ar promifes and benefits efpecially looked unto ; and alio 
they have their peculiar manner of fealing thefe things which 
are common to both ; Believers are alfo confirmed in the 
fame things by the word, but the facraments confirm them 
in another way, more clearly, and fenfibly, and proporti- 
onally to our weaknefs and neceffity. 

$tbty, No facrament is of, and from itfelf valid, but its 
validity and efficacy is from the covenant and promife, 
whereof it is a facrament; and fo it is a feal to none, but 
to fuch as are in the covenant, and keep the condition of 
it ; to them it fealeth the benefits promifed, though absolute- 
ly and fimply it feal the truth of the conditional promifes ; 
tnd fo it may be faid conditionally to feal, to all the mem- 
bers of this church, the truth of what is promifed upon 
fuch a condition: as for example, the tree of life fealedthis 
truth, that who flood in perfect obedience fhould have life, 
but it did not feal to Adam, that he fhould have life, ex- 
cept upon condition of his perfect obedience ; the like may 
be faid of circumcifion, baptifm, &c. 

6tkly, Hence every facrament doth fuppofe a covenant, 
nnd the receivers entry into the covenant, to which the fa- 
crament that he rcceivetb, relateth : So that we come not 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 117 

to the facrament properly to enter into covenant with God : 
But fir ft the covenant is entred, and then the feal is added, 
as Gen. xvii. Firft, God entred into covenant with Abra- 
ham, and then the feal of circumcifion is added as a confir- 
mation thereof. 

qthly, No facrament giveth any new right which the re- 
ceiver had not before 5 only it confirmeth the right he had 
before; he hath accefs to the facraments upon the account 
of his external right. 

Sthfyy Sacraments confirm (till fomething that is future, 
and to come, they being inftituted for the confirmation of 
our faith and hope in thofe things, of which we are moft 
apt to doubt ; as the paffbver ftrengthened the Ifraelites a- 
gainft the fear of being deftroyed : The tree of life confir- 
med what was promifed to Adam and not performed ; and 
fo all facraments help us to believe the making good of fome 
promife not performed, for they ferve as the oath and fea! ; 
and indeed when we preach the gofpel, we offer a fealed 
covenant and a fworn covenant. 

Thefc things being premifed, we come to fpeak to the 
things propofed : and we fay, the facraments of the New 
Teftament (of which only we fpeak purpofely) have in God's 
appointment and our ufe, thefe three ends efpecially: 

The i. is, to reprefent clearly the nature of the covenant, 
and the things promifed therein, as, the wafhing away of 
fin, Chrift. himielf, his death and benefits, and the way how 
wc come to the application of all thefe, to wit, by faith free- 
ly, putting on Jcfus Chrift for taking away guilt, and 
ftrengthning us to an holy walk; in all thefe facrantents 
(that is, the ligns and word cf inftituticn added) do fully 
and clearly, 1. To the ears : 2. To the eyes : 3. To cur o- 
ther fenfes of feeling, &c. not only hold forth what is of- 
fered, but our way of clofing with, and accepting of that 
offer; as if God, who by preaching Iettethushear him fpeak 
(inviting us to be reconciled to him) were in the facraments. 
letting us fee him tryft and clofe that bargain with us by his 
ambaiTadors ; in which refpedr, the facrament may be called 
the fymbol and token of the covenant, as it is, Gen. xvii. 
and this way the facraments have a teaching ufe, to br.ng 
to our remembrance Chrift, his iuQ nd benefits, as 

well as our eftate, what it was withe ant! before our 

clofing with him: all this, by the word and elements, with 
the actions concurring, is represented, to us, as if it were 
ailed before our eyes, for making the way of the gofpel the 
more clear to our judgments and memories, who c thefr fenfe- 
lefly take it up, or maketh ufe of parables and figurative 


t:3 An Expo/ithn of Com. 2. 

exprcflions, or fimilitudes, to fet forth fpiritual things, to 
&ake them take with us the more, hath chofen this way to 
make ufe of external figns and actions for the fame ends al- 

2. The fecond end of facratnents, is, to fealand confirm 
God's mind and revealed will to man, and to put him out 
or" queftion of the truth of his promifes, that fo he may have 
2 further prop to his faith, and may draw more ftrongcon- 
folation from the promifes of the covenant upon this ground. 
In this reject they tare called feals (Rom. iv. 11) of the 
righteoufnefs by faith, that is, not the righteoufnefs of 
Abraham's faith, but of his obtaining righteoufnefs by it, 
and not by works; that is, They are feals of that covenant, 
which offereth and promifeth righteoufnefs to fuch as be- 
lieve : So was the tree of life a confirmation to Adam of 
the promife of life ; fo was circumciiion to Abraham a feal 
and confirmation of the promifes of the gofpel, as God's 
oath was, Heb vi. 18. And fo are the facraments to us. 

This confirmation may be three ways looked on : 1. As 
that which confirmeththe propofition. 2. Theaffumption. 
3. The conclufion of a practical fyllogifm, whereby the be- 
liever concludeth from the gofpel that he (hall be faved. 

The propofition is this, He that believeth, /ball be faved ; 
this by the facrament is fimply confirmed as a truth that one 
may lean unto : Then the be/iever's confeience in the faith 
of that, fubfumeth, I will then take me by faith to Chrifr, 
feeing that is a fure truth, I will reft on him and hold me 
there ; or more clearly I do believe in him. 

Now, 2. This aiTumption that I, or fuch a man hath 
faith, is not confirmed fimply, by the feal \ for the facra- 
ment is to be externally applied by men, who can fay no 
mere, but, They charitably judge fuch a one to have faith ; 
yet it may be faid to be fo far confirmed, as one, ivhofe 
faith doubteth, may by thfs be encouraged to reft on Chrift 
and quiet himfelf on him. Thus faith is confirmed, while 
it is helped to aflume, though the man be not clesr that he 
hath aflumed: As alfo, one having, according to God's 
command, cart himfelf on Chrift, and according 10 his in- 
jTuution, taken the feal, I fay, fuch a man may conclude 
from the feal, as well as from the promife/ that he is accep- 
ted, even as one having prayed may conclude he hath been 
heard, having done it according to God's will in the name 
of Chrift. 

3*//p, When the conclufion is drawn, Therefore I jh all be 
/aved, the facrament doth net confirm that fimply to us, 
xsore ihaii it did to Adam, (who afterward brake the cove- 

Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. tip 

rant of works, and fo attained not the thing promlfc l .) but 
it fealeth it conditionally, If thou believe, tb.u jhalt be f.ived % 
and fo the affumption muft be made out by the fearch of the 
confeience, before the conclufion receive any confirmation 
by the facrament ; yet by ftrengthning the major propofaicr., 
Such as believe, Jhall be faved ; it ftrengtheneth the conclu- 
fion alfo : For if that were net true, my having faith, or 
flying to Chrift, were no great comfort ; and foconfequcnr- 
ly it has influence on the believers comfort in the conclufiou 
as God's oath and feal did confirm the prornife made to A- 
brahem, and alfo ftrengtbened bis faith in believing it fliould 
be made to him, Rom. iv. 1 1. 

Again, it is to be confidered that the facrament fealeth 
particularly not only as it fayeth, Allthat believe fh all be fiv- 
ed, But alfo, as it fays, Thou, if thou wilt believe, fba't br 
faved ; and the feal is fo appended to that conditional offer; 
that the covenant ftandeth not only fure in general to all be- 
lievers, but to me particularly upon my clofing with it, as 
if God were particularly iingling me out to make the offer 
unto me, and to make my engagement, and to put the feal 
in my hand, by which faith is more particularly helped and 
ftrer.gthned than by the word alone ; there is great ufe there- 
fore of the facrarnents, in that thereby we get faith quieted 
in the believing of this, that God lay by his controversy, 
and keep his covenant, and make forth-coming his promlfc 
to thole who fly for refuge to Jefus Chrilt, according to his 
oath and feal : Thus he fealeth the major (imply, the minor 
conditionally, but particularly; or we may fuppofe God 
fpeaking to us from the covenant thus, He to whom I of- 
fer Chrift, he may receive him ; and all that believe and re- 
ceive the offer, fhall obtain the blefiing offered : But I of- 
fer Chrift tw thee: Therefore, thou mayeft asd ftiouldft re- 
ceive him ; and if thou accept the offer, thou ftialt obtain 
the bleffing offered, and (halt be faved : Thus the major and 
minor are (imply Jealed, but the concluiion conditionally : 
Or the facrament fealeth the offer (imply; but the promise 
as it is applied to fuch a particular perfon conditionally, if 
he receive the offer ; io that none needeth to queftion God's 
offer, nor ChriiVs performance on our acceptation. And 
thus the facrarnents may be called teftimonies, of God's 
grace to us, becaufe particularly they feal that offer of bis 
grice unto us, namely Chrift, and (alvation by him, and 
his being content to give him upon condition of our believ- 

The third end and ufe of the facramencs ; is, to exhibit 
and apply Chrift or his benefits to believers; hence in the 
facrarnents we put on Chrift, and eat him : which is not done 


no An Exp9/It!on of , Com. 2. 

by any phyfical union of Chrift or his benefits with the figns, 
but as in the word Chrilt communicateth himfelf, when the 
Spirit goeth along with the promifes, and hearers bring not 
only their ears, but their hearts and faith to that ordinance : 
So here, by the facraments Chrift is communicated to us, 
when we come not only with ears, eyes, tafte, 6*c. but with 
faith exercifed on Chrill in the facrament, with refpect to 
his inftitution : And he cometh by his Spirit with the ele- 
ments, and word, whereby the union with Chrifl is fo much 
the more near and fenfible, as it hath upon the one fide fo 
many and great external helps in the means appointed by 
God; and on the other fide a proportional bleffing promi- 
fed to go along with his ordinance by the operation of his 
Spirit. Hence it is, that all this communion is fpiritual, 
conferred by the fpirit, and received by faith ; yet it is moft 
real, and having a real ground and caufe, and real effects 
following, not by virtue of the facraments in themfelves, 
more than by the word or prayer confidered in themfelves ; 
but by the virtue of the promife laid hold on by faith. 
And now word and facrsunents being joined together, they 
concur the more effectually for bringing forth thofe ends in- 
tended in the covenant, 

4thly> There is a fourth end which refulteth from thefe, 
and that is, a believer's confolation, Hcb. i. 6, 8. which by 
the ftrengthning of faith, and beholding of Chrift in that or- 
dinance, and being confirmed in the hope of his coming a- 
gain, &c. proveth very fweet, and coroborateth the foul fo 
much the more, as that therein he tryfteth often with the 
believer, and by it communicateth himfelf to his fenfes and 
fpiritual feeling. 

$thly, The facraments holds forth a mutual engaging be- 
twixt God and his people ; God holdeth out the contract, 
the covenant and offer; we, by our partaking do declare 
our acceptance of that offer on thofe terms, and engage ac- 
cordingly, that we fhall make ufe of that righteoufnefs there- 
in held forth for our juftification, and of that wifdom and 
ftrength therein offered for our direction and fanctificatioa. 
In this refpect our taking of the feal, is called our covenan- 
ting ; and Gen. xvii. he was to bepunifhed that wanted the 
feal of God's covenant: Thus our accepting and receiving 
looketh to the word, holding forth the terms, and God 
fealeth and confirmeth on thefe terms the particular promi- 
fes of righteoufnefs and ftrength to the ends before menti- 
oned, that our faith may be ftrengthened in making us of 

Thefe are the main and principle ends of the facraments, 


Com. 2* the Ten Commandments. iaf 

though they ferve alfo for outward diftinguifhing of God's 
people from all other focicties and perfons. 

In funds The word offereth Chrift and his benefits, the 
hearer acceptcth him, on the terms on which he is offered ; 
and confenteth ; both thefe are fuppofed to prcceede the fa- 
craments, though, (as we may fee in the Jailor, Acts xvi. 
and others) it may be but for a very fhort time, yet in the 
order of nature at leaft, they are prior, and then come the 
facraments, which have in them, i. A clear view of the 
bargain, that we may clofc diftin&ly, and know what we at- 
tain. 2. A folemn confirmation, on God's fide of the co- 
venant, and the particular offer he therein maketh. 3. A 
furthering of us in part, and helping us to believe, and a 
conferring of fomething offered. 4. A comforting of tbofe 
upon whom the bleffings are conferred. 5. The receivers 
folemn and public engaging to God, that he fhall obfervs 
and make ufe of all thefe 5 the fifth may be looked upon as 
the iecond in order. 

We may come now to confider the faults we are guilty of, 
in reference to the facraments. And firft in general, then 
more particularly in reference to baptifm and the Lord's 
fupper ; We fhall not fpeak to thefe faults common to Pa- 
pifts and others, r. hich are more doctrinal, fuch as errors 
about the perfons who may adminifter them, as that women 
may adminifter baptifm, tec* But wc fhall fpeak to thofe that 
are incident to us in our practice. 

And firft, in general we fail, either when too much weight 
is laid on them, or when too little. Firft, when too much, as. 
1. When there is an abfolute neceffity fuppofed to be of them 
in order to falvation. 2. When they are thought to confer 
grace of themfelves by the very partaking of the outward 
elements, although without faith. 3. When they are refted 
on in the outward receiving ; as if that made us fome way 
acceptable to God. 4. When there is a fuperftitious blind 
preferring of them, and with, the prejudice of all other or- 
dinances, (o that one will neglect preaching and praying 
long, but mud have baptifm the communion. 5. When 
there is a preferring of the outward ordinance to Chrift and 
the thing fignified, that is, When men feek more to havs 
the baptifm of water than the baptifm qf the Spirit, and the 
external communion more than the inward; in which any 
heaven that is to be found in the ordinances, lieth : And 
when men are more commoved for wanting the facramenc 
once, than for wanting Chrift often and long. 6. Coming 
unto, and going from, the external ordinances, neglecting 
him, and without depeadance upon ' him who giveth the 

Q^ bleffing 

122 An Expcfiflon of Com. 2. 

bleffing, # and thinking that then aft is well enough, feeing 
they were prefent at the ordinance. 7. Going far off for 
the partaking of a facrament to the prejudice of necefiary mo- 
ral duties called for at that time. 8. Placing more in them 
than in works of mercy and charity, or doting on them, to 
the neglect of thofe. 9. When they are accounted fo holy, as 
if they might not be given, where Chrift alloweth them to be 
given ; or as if that wronged them, when they are not ad- 
ministrated in forne confecrate place, as if one place were 
now under the gofpel more holy than another. 10. Adding 
to Chrift's inftitution, in the way of adminiftration \ as if 
what he hath appointed, becaufe it is common and ordinary 
were bafe and too low for them. 

Again, they get too little effeem, 1. When people ufe 
them as bare and empty ftgns, wirhout refpeft to their due 
ends. 2. When there is not that reverence given to God 
in them, as ought to be, according to hrs command, when 
we are about fo holy and fo folemn pieces of worihip. 3. 
When men carnally and without preparation, and obferva- 
tion, can hazard on them as common things. 4. When 
God's grace and goodnefs in condescending in them to us, 
is not admired and bleiTed. 5. When they are not ponder- 
ed and ftudied, that we may know them, and be affe&ed 
in receiving them, and when there is not meditation or* 
them. 6. Want of delight in them. 7 Carelefncfs of them 
whether we have them or want them 8, Corrupting the 
Lord's inftitution in our manner of going about them, ei- 
ther adding to it, or diminishing from it, or changing it, as 
if men might 'do io. 9. Little zeal to keep them pure^ 10, 
Neglecting the occafions of them, when we may have them 
with Tome little pains, ri. Accounting them better, when 
adminiftred by one minifler, than when by another 5 or s- 
ileeming little of them, becaufe difpenfed by fome mea, 
(though lawful mrniftcrs) as if mert added any worth to the 
ordinance of God. 12. Never actually laying weight on a- 
ny of them, or drawing comfort from them, or lefs th?,n 
fhould have been done 13. Not wifh-ing and praying that 
others may have good of them. 14 Not fearing the wronging 
of them by multitudes* who partake of them, and not endea- 
vouring to have abufes of that kind helped, but making 
them common to all indifferently and proroifcuoufly. 1 5. 
When folk fear not the breaking of their engagements in 
them. 16. When men hang the fruit of them on theadmi- 
nifterer y s intention, or on the grace of them that are joint- 
partakers with them. 17. When there is little zeal a gain ft 
the errors that wrong them, as when they are denied by 
biptifls, and when they are corrupted, as in the Mais. 


Com. 2* the Ten Commandments. 123 

To come particularly to baptifm ; we may confidcr i. 
The fins of thofe who feek it for their children. 2. The fins 
of thofe who adminifler it. 3. The fins of 00-lookers, ef- 
pecially thofe who are called to be witnefies. 4. The lias 
of thofe who are baptized. 

The parents or prefenters of children to baptifm fail be- 
fore, in the time, and after the adminiftration of this ordi- 
nance; firft, before, I, By not ferious minding that which 
is to be done 2. Not confidering the child's condition as 
needing Chrift in that ordinance. Nor 3. The end of that 
ordinance. 4. Mitkcnning Chrift, and not going firft to 
him, for conferring the things and blefiiogs fignified. 5, 
Not praying for the child, for the minifter and for a blef- 
fing on the ordinance. 6. Not blefiing God that there is a 
covenant of grace that taketh in our children -, nor offering 
them to be engaged and received in it. 7. Not minding the 
moft fimpie and edifying way of going about it, but walk- 
ing by other rules. 8. Needlefs delaying of it for carnal 
ends. 9. Being more defirous of the fign thai* of the thing 

2dfy 3 When we come to it we fin. 1 . Not fecking to have 
our own covenant with God (by which we have this privi- 
ledge of bringing our children to baptifm) renewed and 
made fure. 2. Not confidering by what right we claim it to 
our children. 3. Not repenting of our own breaches of 
covenant, nor wondering that God keepeth with us, who 
have often broken to him. 4. Not coming with the exer- 
cife of iear and reverence. 5. Waiting on it oft-times with- 
out attention or minding our duty in what is fpoken. 6* 
Promising for the fafhion when we engage for the childrens 
education, and without either judgment or refolute purpofe 
to perform. 7. Being ignorant of what is faid or done. 
8. Not concurring in prayer for the blefling. 9 Not un- 
dertaking in Chrift's Itxength to perform the duties called 

3<f/y» After the adminiftration of baptifm, we fail, t. In 
forgetting all our engagements. 2 In growing carelefs to 
maintain any fuitable frame, and falling carnal in our mirth 
on fuch occafions. 3. Not being much in prayer for the 
children, nor infilling or continuing in prayer for the blef- 
fing. 4. Not being faithful according to our engagements, 
in educating them. 1. In knowledge, that they may be io 
trained up as to know what God is. 2. In the fear of God 
preffing it upon them by frequent exhortations. 3. In giv- 
ing them good example. 4. In giving them feafonable cor- 
rection (but rather fparing them though to their hurt) when 
ikere is caufe of correction. 5 Being alio unfaithful in not 

Q^2 fericufiy 

124* '-An Expofition of Com. 2* 

ferioufly minding them of their engagements by baptifm. 
And, 6. Much more by giving them evil example. 7. Con- 
niving at their faults. 8. Advifing them to what is finful, 
or fending them where they may meet with fnares, or fuf- 
fering them to go there. 9. Providing for them the things 
of this life, without refpeft to that life which is to come. 
10. Not enabling ourfelves that we may difcharge our duty 
to them. 11. Not infilling to prefs thofe things upon them, 
that concern their fouls always ; thinking it is enough that 
fometimes they be fpoken to. 12. Never purpofely ftirred 
up and driven by that tie to fee for their good. Nor, 1 3. 
Repenting our many fhort-comings, Nor, 14. Lamenting 
for what we fee finful in them, when they follow not faith- 
ful advice. Thefe are things that would carefully be looked 
unto, both by fathers and mothers; and all fuch who en- 
gage for the Chriftian education of the children, whom they 
prefent to that ordinance. 

Next, in him that adminiftrcth baptifm, there are oft- 
times diver fe failings. As, 1. When it is cuftomarily dif- 
penfed without refpect to its end. 2. When in prayer the 
child's falvation is not really and ferioufly aimed at, but for 
the fafliion. 3. When it becometh a burden to difpenfe it. 
4. When it is not thought much of, that Chrift admitteth 
fuch into his houfe, or bimfelf to be a partaker of fuch mer- 
cies, let be to be a difpenfer of them to others. 5. When 
he followeth it not privately with his prayers for a blefHng : 
befides what failings may be in unsuitable words, ^ad hu- 
man ceremonies, <bc. And feeking himfelf in the^vttrds that 
are fpoken, rather than the edification of theTiearers. 

When we are witneffes and on-lookers, we fail. 1. la 
wearying and fretting, becaufe we are detained a*wliile. 2. 
Not fetting ourfelves to be edified by that we fee done and 
hear fpoken, 3. Not fyropathifing with the chiT3 or its 
parents in prayer. 4. Not being thankful to God for fuefc 
a benefit and ordinance to fuch a childs behoof. 5. Light- 
nefs of carriage, and in looking, fpfcaking, or thinking in 
the time, as if we were not prefent at fuch an ordinance of 
Chrift's. 6. Not fo ferioufly taken up in fympathifing with 
other folks children, becaufe they are not our own, 7. Re- 
moving and withdrawing and not flaying to countenance it. 
8, Not minding the child when we are gone. 9. Not help- 
ing them as we may to be anfwerable to that tie they qptnc 
under in baptifm. 10. Not admonifhingthem when we fee 
parents and children walk unanfwerable, nor teftifying a- 
gainft them, nor mourning for the dilhonour God getteth 
by baptized perfon's unfuitable carriage. 

Fourthly y All of us that are baptized, fail wonderfully, 


Com. 2." the Ten Commandment '/. 125 

lefs or more, iy?, That we never (as we ought) reckon 
ourfelves obliged by that tie we come under in baptifm. 2. 
That we neither are, norferioufly ftudy to be, as we ought, 
anfwerable to it. 3. That we are not thankful for it to 
God, who admitted us to that ordinance. 4. That we do 
not efteem it above all bare carnal birth-rights how great 
foever. 5. That we do not feek to have it cleared, in the 
extent of it, as to the privileges and benefits thereby con- 
ferred on us and our children. 6. That we do not purfue 
after theblefling therein covenanted to us. 7. That we do 
not endeavour the performance of the condition of believ- 
ing and trufting in Chrift, which is the condition of the co- 
venant, of which baptifm is the feal. 8. That we do not 
lay weight on our baptifm, for (lengthening our faith both 
in fpiritural and temporal lifficulties, as if it were no feal 
of the covenant. 9. That we are often ignorant how to 
make ufe of it. 10. That we do not account ourfelves 
wholly God's, as being given away to him in baptifm, but 
live to ourfelves. 1 1 , That we do not fight againft our Iufts, 
Satan, and the world, according to our baptismal vow. 12. 
That we do not adonn our Chriftian profeffion with an ho- 
ly life. 13. That wd walk and war againft Chrift, inftead 
of fighting under his banner. 14. That we do not aggra- 
vate our iins, as being committed againft this tie. 15. That 
we are not patient under fufferings, nor penitent and humble 
under all fad difpenfations ; notwithftanding that we are by 
our baptifm bound to take up the crofs. 16. That we do 
not meditate on our engagements, nor repent for our ne- 
negle&s. T7. That we do not aim and endeavour to come 
up to the main-ends of this ordinance ; Which are, 1. The 
evidencing our regeneration and ingrafting into Chrift. 

2. The giving up ourfelves to the Father, Son, and Spirit. 

3. Sticking by Chrift on the moft coftly and deareft terms. 
, 4. Taking dire&ions from him, and walking in him. 5. Seek- 
ing the things above, and not the things that are on earth. 

6. Mortification to creatures, and to be crucified with Chrift. 

7. The improving of this tie, not only for obliging us to 
thefe, but for ftrengthening us in him to attain them, and 
to comfort ourfelves in all difficulties from this ground. 
Thefe things arc much amiffing, Alas! they are much a- 
miffing : For we lamentably neglect to draw all our ftrength 
and furniture, under all tentations, and for all duties, fiom 
Chrift, by virtue of this biptifmal obligation and tie : We 
rcfort but feldom to this magazine and ftore-houfe ; this 
precious priviledge is (Alas !) but very little manured and 
improved by us. 


ti6 An Expcfttion of Com. i . 

We come next to fpeak of the fins we are ufaally guilty 
of in reference to the Lord's (upper ; and they be of ieve- 
ral forts. I. Some are doctrinal, when the inftitution is 
corrupted, as in popery : Thefe we will not now meddle 
with. 2. Others are pra&ical ; and they are either in mi-* 
nifters and elders, who admit and debar, or in fuch as are 
admitted or debarred. 

And firft, we are to confider, that men may fin againft 
this ordinance, by not communicating : As, i. When they 
Contemn and wilfully negleft it. 2. When they are not fre- 
quent in it, but carelefly flight it, when conveniently it may 
be had. 3. By not forefeeing and Ordering our affairs, fo 
as we may not be hindred, when an occafion of that ordi- 
nance offereth itfelf near to us. 4. By incapacitating our- 
fdves to be admitted through ignorance or fcandal, and by 
negligence to remove thefe. 5. By frecting at our being 
debarred, or at thefe who has a hand in it. 6. Not repenting 
oi thecaufes which procureth our being debarred. 7. Not 
* Peeking to be humbled und^r fuch a weighty cenfure, and 
to get the right ufe of it for the time to come. 8. Sufpec- 
ting that it proceedeth from carnal ends. 9. Reporting a 
mifs of thofe who do it. 10. Not praying for them that 
partake in this ordinance, where-ever we hear of it in any 
place. 1 \. Looking rather to the unfitnefsof fome that are 
admitted, and the negieft of duty in office-bearers in de- 
barring, than our own. 12. Not fympathifing with them, 
and yet on that ground ablenting ourfelves, to wit, for the 
faults of others. 

And here, by the way, we befeech you, talce thefe few 
words of exhortation. 1. Look on debarring of ignorant 
and fcandalous perfons from the Lord's table, as Chrift's 
ordinances. 2. Conlider wherefore yourfelves are debarred ; 
and as you may be aflured it is from no particular prejudice 
or difrefpect, fo ye would repent and be humbled for that 
which procureth if. 3. By making up what is wanting for 
the time to come : your failing in any of thefe is a fault, 
and let none think themfeives the lefs bound to the ftudy of 
holinefs, becaufe they are kept from partaking of it : But 
the (in of fome is, they fhift it, becaufe they will not ftir 
themfeives up to a fuitable frame of it, and yet they are not 
fuitably affected with the want of it. 

Next, there are faults in them that are admitted to com- 
municate, and thefe both in hypocrites and true believers 
refpecVively ; and that, 1. Before. 2. In the time. And, 
3. After receiving the Lord's fupper. 

And firft, Before receiving, there are many failings: As, 
I. Ignorance of the end of nature of this ordinance. 2. 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 127 

Not ftudying to know it : Nor. 3. To have the heart r 
ly affected with it. 4. Not endeavouring to keep up a b 
eftecm, and holy reverence of the love of Cod, in giving 
cf his Son, and the Son's condefcending love, in coming to 
die for finners. 5. Not feeking to have the covenant c 
lyclofed with by faith, before it be felled by the facraments. 
6 Not endeavouring to have all by-gone quarrels removed, 
and our peace eftablilhed. 7. Not fearching our way, thac 
we may be well acquainted with our own condition, lo as we 
may have the diftinft knowledge of it, when we come. 8. 
Not carefully endeavouring a fuitable frame of heart by pray- 
er, meditation, and reading. 9. Not praying for a bieiiirig, 
either for him that adminiftreth, or for thofe who are to 
join wirh us, to prevent their fin. 19. Not minding their 
inftruction who are under our charge. 1 1. Not prefently 
renewing (if before clofed with and confented to) our cove- 
nant before our partaking. 1 2. Not fequeftring our hearts 
from other things for that end. 13. Not fearing to mifs the 
thing offered, and to contract guilt inftead of getting any 
good. 14. Not fearching after the fins of former commu- 
nions and other fins., and repenting of them. 15. What we 
aim at in thefe, not aiming at them in Chrift's ftrcngth. 16. 
Not aiming and endeavouring conftantly to walk with Gad, 
and keep communion with him in all duties, that we may 
have the more accefs to communion with him in this ordi- 
nance. 17. Not laying afide of rooted prejudices and fecret 
malice. Nor, 18. Admonifiiing fuch whom we know to 
fye under any offence of that kind, that they may repent 
and reform. 19. Unftayednefs in our aiming at conuru* 
nion with God in it, or coming to it more fclfily, than out 
of the due regard to the glory of God. 

2'i/j, In our going about this ordinance, there arc mr^y 
faults that ufually concur: As 1. Our giving too liuie re- 
fpecl; or too much to it, as is faid before of the facraments 
in general. 2. Our not exercifing faith in the prefemtime, 
according to the covenant and Chrift's inftitution. 3 Wane 
of love to conftrain us, and want of that hunger and thirfl: 
that fhould be after Chrift. 4. Want of that difcerning of 
the Lord's body, which fhould be, fo as, 1. To put a dif- 
ference betwixt bread and wine in the facraraent, and com- 
mon bread and wine in refpect of the end. 2. To put a dif- 
ference betwixt this ordinance, and Chrift himfelf, who is 
fignified and exhibited by it. 3. To lay in fome refpeft a 
further weight on this than on the word only, though it be 
fome way of that fame nature. 4. To put a difference betwixt 
this facrament and other facraments ; and fo difcerning h* 
it is to conceive of it rightly, 1. In rrfpecTt of ks ufe and 


n3 An Expefition of Com. 2# 

end according to its inftitution. 2. In refpeft of our man- 
ner of ufe-making of it, not only by our fenfes or bodily or- 
gans, but by faith and the faculties of the foul, looking u- 
pon, and receiving Chrift's body in that ordinance, and feed- 
ing on it there as in the word, and more clearly and fenfi- 
bly : for the facraments do not give utfany new thing which 
the word did not offer and give before, but they give the 
fame thing more clearly and fenfibly. 3. In refpett of the 
blefling ; not only waiting for a common bleffing for fuftain- 
ing the body by that bread and wine, but for a fpiritual 
bleffing to be conferred by the fpirit to the behoof of the 
ibul. 4. It is fo to difcern it, as to improve it for obtain* 
ing real communion betwixt Chrift and us, by a fpiritual 
feeding, as it were, upon his own body ; fo that when there 
is any fhort-comings in thefe, in fo far the Lord's body is 
not difcerned. 5. We fin in going about this ordinance, 
by want of reverence, when we come without holy thoughts, 
and a divine frame, and without love ravifhing the heart, 
which is moft fuitable at fuch a time; much more do we fin 
when we come with carnal loofe, or idle thoughts, or any 
unreverent gefture, or with great-light apparel, or carriage 
in coming or fitting. 6. By want of love to others, and 
fympathy with fuch as are ftrangers to communion with 
Chrift. 7. By not diftintt clofing with Chrift, or renew- 
ing our covenant with him, or engaging of ourfelves to him. 
8. By ftupidity, or fenfelefly taking the elements without 
any affeftion, and by being heartlefs in the work, and com- 
fortlefs becaufe we want fenfe. 9 By not chearing ourfelves 
by faith that we may obtain and win to fenfe, and by pref- 
fing too little at fenfe or comfort. 10. By not improving 
this ordinance in reference to the general ends of a facra- 
ment, or the particular ends we fhould aim at in this facra- 
ment : As, 1. Fellowfhip with Chrift himfelf. 2. Commu- 
nion in his death and fufferings. 3. The fenfe of thefe, and 
the comfort of them. 4. The lively commemoration of 
Chrift's death and fufferings, and of the love he had to all 
thefe 5 for the ftirring up of our love again to him. 5. The 
ftrengthening of ourfelves in the way of holinefs, by ftrength 
drawn from him by faith. 6. Minding his glory, and the 
fetting forth thereof, with refpeft unto, and hope of his 
coming again. 7. Particular engaging of our affections one 
to another. 8. Engaging our hearts by ferious refolutions 
to make for fuffering : Laftly, We fin here, by not reflec- 
ting on our hearts in the mean time, that we may know 
what they are doing, nor putting up ejaculatory prayers co 
God in the time ; receiving the lacrament with our hand, 
and yet not receiving him ia that mean by faith into the 


Com. 2.' the Ten Commandments. 129 

heart, nor feeding on him, and fatisfying ourfelves with 
him really prefent in that mean : for he is to our faith really 
prefent there, as well as in his word. 

3. After commu**icating, there is a readinefs to flip and 
fall into thefe faults: 1. Irreverent and carnal removing 
from he table. 2. Forgetting what we were doing, and 
falling immediately to loofe words or thoughts. 3. Not re- 
flecting on cur by-paft carriage, to fee what we were doing, 
and what frame we were in, and what we obtained. 4. Not 
repenting for what was wrong in every piece of our way and 
carriage. 5. Not following on to obtain what we yet mifs, 
and not ftill waiting for the bleffing, even after we are come 
away. 6. Not being thankful, if we have obtained any 
thing. 7. Freeting and fainting, if we have not gotten what 
we would have. 8. Or being indifferent and carelefs, whe- 
ther we get or want. 9 Carnally-loofe after communions, 
as if we had no more to do. 10. Vain, or puffed up, if we 
think we have attained any thing. 1 1 . Little or no keeping 
of promife made to God, but continuing as before. 12. 
Digrefling on the commendation or cenfure of what was 
heard, or feen, rather than making ufe of it for our profit. 
13. Making that ordinance an occafion of contention, for 
fome faults we conceive to have been about it, whereas it 
fhould be ground of union anfl love. 14. Not entertaining 
tendernefs, and a frame that may keep us ready to commu- 
nicate again. 15. Not meditating on what we have been 
doing. 16. Not longing again for the like occafion. 17. 
Not helping others that did not come, or had not the occa- 
fion of coming to it. 18. Conceitednefs, becaufe we were 
admitted. 19. Defpifing others who might not be admiw~ 
ted. 20. Mocking, or fecretly fnuffing at any who goeth, 
or has gone about it with more tendernefs than we, or who 
endeavoureth to keep his promifes better than we. This 
fin of emulation and fpiritual envy, at any who out-runs us 
in tendernefs and proficiency (touched in thefe two lafi) is, 
as very natural to us, fo, moft dangerous ; it participates 
of curfed Cain's : this fin is the worft of all malignity, and 
is always accompanied with a woeful and devililh fatisfac* 
tion with, and complacency in, the fhort comings of others ; 
that fo, we may be the more noticed. 21. Secret difdain as 
tender Christians, befides us, as hypocritical. 22. Turning 
afide, to live like others who have been debarred*, as if there 
ought to be no difference put betwixt thofe who have this 
badge, and thofe who want it, or fitting up as if all were 
done, when we have communicated. 23. Want of watch- 
fulnefs againft recurring tentations and fnares ; vanity and 
conceit, if we attain any thing, and want of pHy to thofe 

R who 

j 30 dn Expcjtfian of Com. 2. 

who did not come fo good fpeed. 24. Iodifcreet fpeaking, 
either to the commending or ceniuring of fpeakers and 
forme?, but little or nothing to edification. 

In the laft place, we fhall (peak a little to this queftion ; 
if, and how, the admiflion of fcardalous perfons doth pol- 
lute the communion ? And if it be finful to receive it with 
fucfi perfons ? Or, if joint-communicants be thereby defil- 
ed ? Let us for anfwer, conftder pollution diftinclly, with 
reference to thefefour things, j. In reference to the facra- 
ments themfelves. 2. In reference to the admitted, that are 
fcandalous. 3. In reference to the admittcrs. 4. In refer- 
ence to the joint-communicants. 

Fir/r 9 As to the facraments, there 1? a two-fold pollution : 
The \Ji is, Intrinftck and effential, which by corruption of 
the inftitution of Chrift, turneth it then to be no fac: amenr, 
as it is in the maf3: or to be hurtful; as when fignificant 
ceremonies, finful ly devifed by men, are mixed and ^dded 
befides, and contrary to Ch rift's inftitution. The firft e*er- 
teth the nature of the facraraent, and its henceforth no 
more a facrameot. The id. poifoneth it, fo that it may 
not be received without partaking of that fin actively. 

There is an other way of polluting the facrament, that is 
extrinfick and circumftantial, not in efTentials, but in our 
ufe-makmg of it, and the application thereof beyond Chrif's 
warrant, as when it is adminiftred to one upon whom Chrift 
alloweth it not. In that cafe, it is not a facrament to that 
perfon ; yet it is fo in itfelf. This pollution is a prophan- 
ing of it to us, or a making it common. Thus the word of 
promife generally applied in a congregation without repara- 
tion, in application, betwixt the precious and the vile, is a 
prophaning of the word, (for the word of promifc fliould 
not be made common more than the facrament,} as it is 
marked, Ezek xxii. 26. The priefts have prophaned my holy 
name, they have put no difference between the holy and the pro- 
phane, between the clean and the unclean. Yet in that cafe, 
the word ceafeth not to be God's word, though it be aba- 
fed : Or, as an admonition caft before a prophane mocker, is 
but the abufing^f an holy thing, yet it altereth not the na- 
ture of it ; as apearl call before a fow, is pudled and abufed, 
yet it doth not alter its inward nature, but it (till remain- 
eth a pearl : fo it is here in the word and facraments ; they 
are abufed in their ufe, when mifapplied, yet Rill (the infti- 
tution be ? -ng kept) they are the ordinances of God : Thus 
was the temple laid :o be prophaned, when it was made 
more common in its ufe than was alldwed ; yet was it full 
the temple of the Lord ; And fo* admiflion of fcandalous 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandment:. 13! 

> perfon may thus be called, a polluting of the facraments f 
but not eiJential in themfelves. 

2diy $ Confider pollution with reference to perfons who arc 
admitted ; and fo rhe facraments may be polluted, 1 . By grof- 
ly fcandalous perfons. 2. By hypocrites. 3. By believers not 
exerciling their graces ; the facrament is polluted by, and to 
all thefe, becaule, as to the pure, all things (lawful) are pure + 
ft to the unclean and unbelieving, nothing ts pure, their mind 
and ccnfcience being dejiied. Thus their praying, facrificiog, 
bearing, plowing, £;c. all is unclean ; and, by proportion* 
10 believers, though in a good and clean ftate, yet in an e- 
vil and unholy frame: The facrament may be laid in fome 
fenfe to be unclean, and polluted by them, to themfelves. 

3<i/y, As to the office-bearers, who are the admitters, the 
facrament cannot be prophaned eflentially, the inftitution 
being kept pure; yet they may fin. and be guilty of pro* 
phaning it, by opening the door wider than Chrift has al- 
lowed, and not keeping the right bounds: And miniftert 
may fo iin, in promiscuous applying of the promifes and con- 
foiatioos of the covenant, as well as applying its feals, and 
both thefeare (ins to them ; yet thefe cafes would beexcepted. 

1 . When fuch a fcandal is sot made known to them : Scan- 
dalous perfons may be admitted, becaufe they are not bound 
to look on them, as fuch, till difcovertd. 

2. When fuch fcandals cannot be made cut judicially) 
though poffibly they be true in themfelves, they may, though 
againit the inclination and affection of the admitters, be ad- 
mitted, yet not againft their confeience ; becaufe, that be- 
ing a high cenfure in Chriil's houfe, hisfervants are not to 
walk arbitrarily (for that would bring confuiion with .it) 
but by rules given them, whereof this is one, not to receive 
an accufation, but under two or "three witneflcs. 

3 When by fome circumftances it proveth not edify- 
ing, but rather hurtful to the church, or the perfons 
concerned : As, 1. When the fcandal is in fuch a matter, 
as is not exprefly determined in the word, but is by confe- 
rence to be deduced from it 5 as fuppofe it be meant fuch 
a point of truth, as has divines, that are godly, diffentient 
in it, or in fuch a practice (fuppofe perjury) as is evil indeed 
in itielf ; but, by deduction and confequence (which is pot 
clear) to be applied . or it is in fuch things as affect not a 
natural conscience, as fornication, drunkennefs, and adul- 
tery, &c. do; or in fuch things as contradict not exprefly 
any truth : And 2. When the fcandal of thefe fins is by u- 
niverfality become little among men, or there is not eafy 
accefs, in an edifying way, to decide in them, or cenfure 
*hein; there is ftill a right and a wrong in thefe which 4 

R 2 mi- 

132 An Expofttion sf Com. 2. 

xniniftcr in doctrine may reprove, yet he may forbear a ju- 
dicial fentence in fuch cafes, as it feemeth Paul did with the 
Corinthians, amongft whom there were feveral forts of of- 
fenders. 1. Inceftuous fornicators, or fuch as finned a- 
gainft natnre's light ; thefe, 1 Cor. v. 3, 4, 5. tic. he cotn- 
mandeth to be excluded or excommunicated. 2. Such as 
by corrupt doctrine made fchifms, and miiled the people in 
factions, to the prejudice of the apoftle's authority and doc- 
trine, chap. iii. 3. he. Deceitful worker $ % 2 Cor. xi. 13. thefe 
for a time, 2 Cor. x. 6. he fpareth for the peoples fake, 
2 Cor. xii. 19. 3. Some weakly and carnally mifled into 
factions, 1. Cor. xiii. i, 2, 3, 4. thefe he endeavoureth to 
recover. 4. Some guilty of faults about the facraments, in 
their wrong manner of going about it, 1. Cor. xi. Thefe he 
xeproveth and laboureth to amend, yet alloweth them to 
go on and celebrate the facrament, but doth not debar for 
the time either factious minifters," or people from it, as he 
had done the other ; neither is it likely, that the commu- 
nion was omitted, or they debarred, for he doth not re- 
prove for not debarring them, as he doth. For wronging 
the inftitution : the reafon is, becaufe that which warran- 
teth debarring and cenfures of all forts, is edification 5 and 
when that end cannot be gained to a people or perfon, fuch 
cenfures may be omitted •, and except fome bounds were to 
be fixed > here, the difficulty in abounding differences would 
prove inextricable: And therefore, when a fin is become 
cpedemical, and very univerfal, on the one hand, the more 
tender confcientioufly-fcrupulous would be inftructed to 
much fobriety, and earneftly dealt with, not to indulge 
themfelves a liberty to rend the, church, or to divide from 
5t when fuch perfons are admitted, being otherwife capable 
of the privilege ; becaufe exclufion in this cafe, by a fentence 
from the facrament, would probably mifs its end, which 
5s, edification, and would weaken the authority of the or- 
dinance of difcipline, if not hazard the liberty of the gofpel. 
On the other hand, minifters would by all means take heed, 
and be obtefted in the name of the Lord, that they (which 
is readily incident in an hour of tentation) run not on the 
extream of fhifting their duty; infulting as it were over 
tender confeierices, and ftrengthening the hand's of the wic- 
ked by compliance with, or accefiion to thefe fins ; but 
would, under the pain of making themfelves horridly guil- 
ty, manage obvious ways, deal freely and faithfully in mak- 
ing ufc of the key of do&rine, when the ufe of the other 
will not in all appearance be fo much for edification ; that 
by public and doctrinal feparating the precious from the 
vile, and ftraight down right^private dealing, they may in 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandment si 133 

the fight of God commend themfclves to every man's con- 

4. Let us confider if this ordinance be polluted to the 
joint-receivers; fuppofe that feme are finfully admitted by 
the office-bearers of the church ? And we fay, that is not 
pollution or fin to them to partake with fuch, for the facra- 
ment may be blefled to them notwithftanding, as Ch rift's 
ordinance, even as when the word is unwarrantably applied 
in promises and admonitions; fo that pearls are catt before 
(wine : yet fuppofing fome tender fouls to be prefent, they 
may meddle warrantably with that abufed word as God's 
word, and it may prove ufeful to them, For confirming 
this truth we offer thefe reafons. 

The firft is, the word and facraments are of one nature, 
and are polluted or made ufe of, one and the fame way ; 
only the difference is in this, that the one ufually is do&ri- 
nally wronged, the other difciplinarily. 2. Becaufc that 
unwarrantable admiffion of others is not the communica- 
tor's, but the minifter's fin, therefore it cannot wrong them 
more than want of preparation in others who come. 3. 
Any others fin cannot loofen me from my obligation to a 
duty : now it is the duty of every one, as to examine them* 
/elves, fo being prepared by faitable felf-examination, to 
eat, 1 Cor. xi. 28. and yet in that church of Corinth, many 
did finfully approach to the Lord's table : Nr^.v though the 
command requiring felf examination ; will not warrant rul- 
ers not to examine, yet it will warrant private communi- 
cants to endeavour rightly to go about tharduty themfelves, 
and not to be much anxious what others do, as if other 
mens carriage were the ground of our approaching to the 
Lord's table, 4. It is notwithftanding a facrament without 
any mixture of mens corrupt additions, and fo the neglec- 
ting gf it, is the neglecting of a facrament. 5. If fcandal- 
ous receivers did corrupt it to others, then a corrupr mini- 
fter could never celebrate a facrament ; which would con- 
iraditt the Lord's way in appointing fuch, fometimes todif- 
penfe his myfteries both in the Old and New Teftament ; 
and if the minifter's corruption pollute the ordinance, much 
lets will the fcandal of any others. 6- The practice of the 
Lord's people in receiving facraments this way, both before 
Chrift's incarnation, and fince, proveth it. 7. It would be 
a great and inextricable fnare to confidences, if the fruit of 
their communicating depended not only on their own pre-. 
paring themfelves, bu t r.lio on the minifters and joint receiv- 
ers ; if their not preparation or failing in it, brought guilt 
on us, it were impoflible that ever we could with clearnefs 
receive the facrament, 


J 34 An Expofitian of Com. 2. 

For, I. It is Lard to think, a communion is celebrated. 
but there is one or more who fhouid not be admitted, and 
the admiffion of one or two, as well, as of many, is a pro- 
phaning of the ordinance: Yea, if we thought them to be 
(caodalous ; yea, if we knew them not to be holy, we could 
r>ot in faith communicate with them, left the ordinance be 
defiled by us, if their defiling were ours. 

2. The prefence of a hypocrite would defile it to us, for 
his hypocrify dcfileth it to him, and has not right before 
God, to come, neither would it warrant us that we knew 
not: For i. Many do fin when they know not. a. It is not 
our knowing his fin that dcfileth the facrament, but it 
is his hypocrify and rottennefs. 3. Thus the fame facra- 
ment might be as Gods ordinance participated warrantably 
by one who knew not, and not by another who knew this; 
which were hard to make out. 

3 Believers their being out of a frame would pollute this 
ordinance to us, and incapacitate us to receive it, for it is 
to that cafe fin to them, and we fhouid keep as great a dis- 
tance from their fins, as from the fins of others. 

Yea, 4. One could not communicate with himfelf (to 
fpeak fo) if that ground were true: For, 1. We have cor- 
ruption. 2. We know we have it, as well as we can know any 
other mans. 3. It doth pollute the ordinance in part to our* 
felves, and bringeth guilt with it ; therefore, if fin known 
in another, would do it, much more that which is in our- 
felves ; for if it be corruption, as known to be in others, 
that polluteth it v then that fame known in ourfelves muft 
have that fame effect : For, a quatenus adenine valet con- 

If it be faid, 1, This corruption is but half {fo to fay) in 
ourfelves, being weakened by grace, and not allowed. Anf. 
Yet it is corruption, and certainly half-corruption in our- 
felves will weigh more than whole corruption in another, 
efpecially confidering that neceffarily this polluteth in part 
all our holy things. 

2. If it be faid, We cannot be freed from corruption, 
while here, and fo we could not go about any duty, if that 
reafoning were good. Anf. 1. A mixture of good and bad 
in the vifible church, is as certain as a mixture of grace and 
corruption in a believer. 2. If our own corruption which in- 
volveth us in fin in the manner of our doing duties, will not 
loofen us from a commanded duty, much lei's fin in others ; 
yea, we are no lefs prohibited to communicate with fin and 
corruption in ourfelves, than in others ; and alfo we are 
commanded as effectually to purge our own hearts as the 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandment u I3J 

This truth in doctrine, the fober of the independents ap- 
prove as to themfelves (whatever be their practice as to n- 
thers) as the only way to efchew confufion, and keep unity 
and order: So Hookers Survey, part. 2. Amefiusde confe. 
cap. 4. lib. x. Norton adver. AppoL Rcfp. ad ultium qucflio- 

As for other queftions, as, How the facraments feal ? or 
what they feal ? the major or the minor proportion ? the 
promifes as a covenant, or as a tcftament legating Chrift 
and his benefits to us ? thefe would require a larger dilpiue 
than our intended work will admit, and therefore we ihatl 
not meddle with them. 

The laft thing which we fliall inftance the breach of this 
command, is in reference to the duty of. failing ; concern- 
ing which we would take notice of two things : 1. That 
fa/ting is a folemn piece of external religious worfhip when 
rightly and religioufly discharged. 2. That men may be 
guilty of many fins as to their practice in reference thereto, 

Firff, That it is a piece of external worfhip, is clear, 1. 
From precepts commanding it. 2. From the practices and 
examples of the faints in kripture. 3. From icriptu re- di- 
rections given to regulate us in it, yet it difFereth from pray- 
er and facraments. 1. That thofe are ordinary pieces of 
worfhip, but this is extraordinary, proceeding from fpecial 
occafions, either cf a crofs lying on, or 2. Feared and em- 
minent ; 3. Or, fome great thing which we are to fuit for, 
or fuch like. Although it be an extraordinary piece of 
worfhip ; yet the more holy we read any to have been, we 
find they have been the more in this duty of facing. 

2. We are to confider that fafting is not of itfeif a piece 
immediate worfhip, as prayer, &c. but mediate only as h is 
made ufe of to be helpful to fome other duty, fuch as pray- 
ing, humbling of ourfeives, mortification, &c. 

Again, 3. Fafting may be confidered in tour refpects : 

I. As it is gone about in fecret, by one fingle perfon letting 
himfelf a part for prayer, and for fafting to that end ; ma- 
ny inftances whereof are in fcripture. 2. As its private, or 
a little more publick, being gone about by a family^ 
or fome few perfons, joining together, as Efther and her 
maids. 3. As it is public being performed by a congre- 
gation, as Acts xiii. 2, 3. 4. As gone about by a whole na- 
tional church: Thefe four are all mentioned, Zech. xii. 

II, 12. where we find, 1. The whole land. 2. Families toge- 
ther. 3. Families a-part. 4. Particular perJbns, or wives, 
apart, letting about this duty. 

4. Confider fafting and refpect of the caufe that call for 
it, and there are x. Public chutes, Ban. ix. i; 2. Particular 


136 An Expofition of Com. a. 

and perfonal, as of David for his child, 2 Sam. xii. 16. 3. 
For others, Pfal. xxxv. 13. And 4. It is to be minded in a 
fpecial way for helping us againft fpiritual evils, cafting out 
of devils, mortifying of lufts, as alfo under fad temporal 
crofies and lofles, Matth. xvii. 21. and 1 Cor. ix. ult. 

Next, as there are fome times and cafes in all thefe which 
call for fading with prayer to be ferioufly gone about ; fo 
we may in reference to this duty many ways ; As, 1. When 
it is flighted, and not gone about at all ; and thus men are 
guilty either, 1. By contemning it, or, 2. Counting it not 
neceffary; or, 3. By negligence, fo that we will not be at 
pains to ftir up ourfelves to airame for it : Or, 4 Will not 
leave our pleaiures, or work for it. 5. In rot efteeming 
highly of it. 6. In not labouring to have fit opportunities 
to go about it. 7. In fcarring at it as a burden. 8. In caf- 
ting it up as hypocrify to others, and mocking at it in them. 
9 In not joining in our affection with others we know are 
fafting. 10 In our unfiequent ufe of it. 1 1. In neglecting 
caufes that relate to the public, or to others ; contenting 
ourfelves with what relateth to our own neceffity. 12. In 
not being affected with our neglect of that duty, nor mourn- 
ing for it, and repenting of it, nor being humbled under 
the many evils which the neglecting of it carrieth along 
with it. 13. At leaft, neglecting one part or other of this 
duty of fafting. 14. Not letting ourfelves ferioufly to be at 
the end defigned in fafting, which maketh us either neglect 
it, or go formally about it. 

In going about this duty of fafting, there are two evils to 
be avoided \ The 1. is, giving too much to it, as if it did me- 
rit, Ifa. viii. I. or as if itfelf did mortify fin, or make holy, 
or were religious worfhip in itfelf: The 2. is on the other 
hand, when it getteth too little, being looked en as not ne- 
ceflary or profitable for the framing of ones fpirit, and fit- 
ting them for prayer, felf-examination or wreftling with 
God, and not accounted afit'mean for that end, more than 
when it is neglected. 

In fpeaking of the fins we are guilty of, as to this duty, 
we are to confider more particularly how we fin before it, in 
cur preparation to it. 2. In our going about it. 3. When 
it is ended. 

And firft, before our going about it, we fin, 1. When 
:hi right end of a faft is miftaken, and it is not confidered 
as a mean to help us to a more fpiritual frame. 2. "When 
we do not ftudy to be clear in, and to confider the fpecial 
grounds that callus to it, not aiming to have our heart from 
conviction affected fuitabiy with them. 3. When we arc 
not put to it from the right motive, but go about it felfily, 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 137 

to be fee n of men; as, Matth. vi. 16. or for the fafliion. 
4. When it is not gone about in obedience to a command 
of God, and fo we faft to ourfelves, Zcch. vii. 5. 5. When 
there is no fecret examination of our own hearts, to try 
what frame we are in, what lufts reign in us, or prevail o- 
ver us ; Nor 6. aoy particular dealing with God before 
hand to be enabled for this duty, and helped in it, and that 
both for ourfelves and others. 7. When we are not endea- 
vouring to be in good terms with God, and ftudying to be 
in good terms with God, and ftudying to be clear as to that 
before we come to put up fuits to him. 8. When we ns- 
glecl Chrift, and turn legal in it. 9. When we do not fe- 
parate ourfelves from all other affairs timoufly the night be- 
fore. 1 o. When we are lazy in rifing fo timely that day as 
fhould be. 11. When we do not (if it be fecret) labour to 
be unfeen in it to any. 1 2 Not fetting yourfelves ferioufly to 
it 3 Dan. ix. 3. abftracling ourfelves from diverfions^ and 
roufing up ourfelves for it. 

2d, In the time of fafting, we fin, 1. By eating unnecef- 
farily, though it be a little; as we may fin by not eating, 
when not eating difableth us in dutres ; yet the body ought 
to be in fuch a meafure affected, as may not hinder us in 
prayer : But many fcarce fuffer it to be touched, or in the 
leaft meafure affefted, or afHicted with abftinence. 2. In 
lightcefs of apparel, or fuch finenefs in it, as they make 
ufe of on other days. 3. In geftures looking light-like, 
laughing and in fuch a carriage, as is very unfuitable for that 
day. 4. In hypocrify, there being a more feeming weigh- 
tednefs and heaviness, than really there is. 5. In having 
wrong ends before us. As ift. tofeem holy. 2. To carry 
on fome temporal or politick defign, as Jezabel did againft 
Naboth to get his vineyard. 3. To get advantage of fome 
other, and to make fome finifter defigns, digeft and go 
down the better, as Ifa. lviii. 4. To /mite with tkejift of-wic~ 
kednefs, as under pretence of long prayers, to take the more 
liberty to injure others. 4. For ftrife and debate, and 
ftrengthning of factions and parties. 5. We fin here by ne- 
glecting works of mercy. 6. By taking pains in works law- 
ful on other days, Exafting all cur labour, or a part of it, 
which is unbecoming on that day. 7; By taking delight in 
temporal things, finding our own pleafures. 8. By words 
or thoughts of lawful things, diverting us from the work 
of the day. 9. By wearying of it as a burden ; Not calling 
it a delight. 10. By wifhing it were over, that we might 
be at our work or paftime again, Amos viii. 5. 1 1 By ne- 
gligence in prayer, or not being frequent and fervent in it, 

S 2Wf 

13^ ^i Pxpo/itkri :f Com. 2. 

nor pertinent to that day, and the end of it ; for there (hould 
be in all thefe fomething on a faft day fuitable to it ; and 
which is called for on that day, more than orr other days. 
12. By not joining fcrioufly with others, when they pray 
efpeeially in particulars which concern others. 1 3. By little 
mourning or heart melting, efpeeially, in fecrer duties, 
which on that day wonld be mere frequent, more ferious 
and affecYmg, than on other days, that day being fct a part 
for it ; And if private, we fiiould be moreabftracted, even 
from ordinary refreshments and mirth, than upon a Sabbath; 
and the frame of the heart, would be then more humble, 
mournful, and denied to otherwife lawful comforts. 1 4 By 
little of the exereife of resentence or fenfe of fin, that day 
for humbling the heart in the fepfe of otrr own vilenefs 
and loathing of ourfelves. 15 By little fimabie uptaklng 
of God in his holinelV, difpleafure againit dn, &c. 
Winch on that day, is in an efpecial way called ^or. 16, 
By rat diftindt covenanting with him, and engaging to Lira 
againft our feen evils and defects; a fail; day would be 
a. covenanting-day, as we fee in E2ra and Neiiemiah. 17. 
By defective In reading and meditating on what may 
humble us; but much more, when by looks, voids, or 
thoughts, we E&arr the right frame, and fet of our hearts. 
jS. By refting on fafcing, or being legal in it. 10* By not 
minding the profiting of others, nor fympath:z:r.g with their 
wants and cafe not being careful to fee thofe of our family or 
charge obfervant in it. 20. By not abftaining ft ana the mar* 
riagc bed, 1 Co? vii 5;. 

3</, We tin after fafting. 1. Soon re:' to other 

thoughts. 2. Letting any frame v;e have attained, flack and 
wear out. 3. Forgetting our confeffions and engagements,, 
and falling to former fins, and neglecting thefe unties to 
which we have engaged. 4. Being rigid with others, we 
have to da with. 5. Not inilfting in prayer, for thofe things 
we aimed at in failing. 6. Not trying and obferving if any 
thing we prayed for hath been obtained. 7. Not reflecting 
upon cur carriage in it, that we may know how it was dif- 
charged. 8. Not humbled under our many Short-comings, 
and failings in it. 9. Glad when it was done, becaufe that 
reflraint is taken off our carnal humours. 10 Sitting 
down and refting on that we have done, as if all were done. 
1 1 Thinking ourfelves fomething better, by cur outward 
performance. 12. Being vain of it, if it be well to our fenfe 
13. Being unwatchful after it, and n»t ftudying fuitablenefs 
in our following carriage, fo that it is but the hanging 
down of the head for a day, 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 139 

Thefe particulars applied to our own hearts, may be ufeful 
for our conviction, and humiliation. Ah ! Who can fay* 
I am clean ? Ail of us are guilty, either by neglecting iuch 
duties, or by thus and thus going about them unfuitably. 
From thefe fins, we may read alto the contrary duties, or 
qualifications, that are required for the right discharging of 
thefe duties. The preventing of thefe fins, will bring Wi*&£ 
duties called for, and the right manner ongoing about thefe 
duties, without the manner requifite, is but, as it were ths 
making of fome image, for curfelves, in the Lord's wor- 
(hip ; which he has not commanded, and fo he may fay, h 
it Jnch a fajl that I have chofen ? Ifa. Iviii. 5. or, Is it fuch, 
a prayer I called for ; and, Who hath repaired thefe things at 
your hands? Ifa. i. 12. Thefe queflions, which the Lord 
putteth to our conference will make many prayers, and prai- 
fes, and much worfhip, that now feemeth to be in great 
bings or heaps, come down to a (mail hulk, when they 
are thus fanned, lifted, and fearched by this fieve ; ai?d all 
thofe things caften, which are found to bz breaches of this 

Wc come now to the manner how this command is prcf- 
fed, which is 17?, By a reafon. 2<i, By a communion, yl, By 
apromife. All which fpeak a readinefs in men to fail in this 
command, and a fpecial notice that God taketh of the du- 
ties required in it, and of the fins forbidden it. Men might 
readily fay ; What needeth fo much rigidity in the manner 
of worfhip? and, if it be to the true God, though it have 
in it fome mixture of thofe things, which have been former- 
ly abufed, it is not nmch to be flood upon : The Lord 
therefore in preffing it, addeth this reafoa, / am a jealous 
God, (faith he) that will not only have cry church and fpeufe 
honeft and chafte indeed, but chafte-like : As Caefar faid, 
his wife behooved, not only to abftain from all duhonerty, 
but from all fufpicious carnage : Even fo will the Lord have 
his people carry fo to him, as a wife fliould carry to a jea- 
lous hufband, with fuch circumfpecTicn, as he may not have 
any occaiion of fufpician. Jealoufy here implieth tvrj 
things. 1. A faculty or aptnefs, as it were to fufpeft any 
thing which may look like a giving that to any other, which 
is due to God : So a hu£band is faid to be jealous, when I e 
is apt to fufpect want of love in his wife, and is ready ;o gn* 
cher from every circumiiance, her inclination to another; 
even though there be no palpably denionfirative ground of 
it. Thus jealoufy amongft men* 

2. It importeth a fevere indignation againft every thing 
which giveth ground of fufpiclon ; It cannot abide that: 
Hence jealoufy is called, The rage of a man > Prov. vi. 3^* 

S z T&s 

This wrong will not be endured, when many others will 
be difpenfed with. Any thing that feemingly flighteth him, 
or inclineth the heart to another, is to jealoufy infufferable. 
Thefe two, after the manner of men (as many other things) 
are applied to God, to (hew that he will not admit, that 
which is fufpicious-like in his fervice ; but if his people de- 
part from him in deviating in the leaft from the rule given, 
he will be provoked to be ayenged on them for it. This is 
the force of the reafon : The commination or threatning 
added, confirmeth this-, it is in thefe words, vifiting the i- 
niquities of the fathers on the children. To vifit here, is, to 
punifh the children for the fathers faults ; though God 
fhould feem for the time to forget the breaches of this com- 
mand, and not to take notice of corruptions introduced by 
men in his worfhip ; yet, faith he, / will vi/it, or revenge 
that iniquity, not only upon the prefent race, but upon the 
following, even, upon the third and fourth generation. 

For clearing this, let us fee, Firft, What is the punifli- 
ment here threatned? 2. On whom it is? Upon the chil- 
dren of them that tranfgrefs this command. 3. How it is 
executed. 4. Why the Lord doth fo ? That we may vin- 
dicate this place, and clear it from appearance of contradic- 
tion, with that in Ezekiel, xviii. Where it is faid, The/on 
Jhallnot bear the iniquity of his father. 

The firft queftion then ; is, What it is that is here threat- 
ned ? Anfw. We do not think that this place fpeaketh on - 
ly of temporal punifhments, and that of Ezekiel of eternal: 
For the fcope of both, will contradict this \ for that paflage, 
Ezek. xviii. is occafioned from the peoples prefent (traits, 
and fpeaketh directly of temporal judgements ; fo that dif- 
tin&ion will not clear this feeming contradiction. There- 
fore, we conceive here to be underftood many fpiritual and 
eternal evils, which God threatneth to the childreu of wic- 
ked parents. (For, that temporal judgements follow them, 
and are included in the threatning there is no queftion.) 

This will be clear, 1. By confidering that the thing threat- 
ned here ; is, that punifhment which the breach of, or in- 
niquity committed againft this command, or other com- 
mands, deferveth ; yea it is the punifhment, that finful pa- 
rents deferve, he vijiteth the iniquities of the father s $ on the 
children, &c. But that which the breach of this law, or 
which the parents guilt deferveth, is eternal judgment, and 
not temporal only, Ergo. 

2. The thing threatned here is proportionally of the fame 
nature, with the thing promifed afterward ; the one being 
oppofue to the other : But it were a wronging of God's 
mercy to his people, to fay, That his mercy only looketh 


Com. 2l the Ten Commandments. I4t 

to temporal benefits. Ergo> this threaning muft alfo look 
unto, and comprehend eternal plagues. 

3. The fcope may clear it, which is, To reflrain parents, 
from the fins here forbidden ; becaufe by fuch fins they 
bring wrath, not only on themfelves, but on their pofterity 
after them, even when they are gone, as ye have it, Jer. 
xxxii. 18. Now this reafon would not have fuch weight, if 
the plagues threatned to parents were eternal, and to tneir 
children, but temporal. 

4. This threatning muft put fome difference betwixt the 
children of the wicked, and the children of the godlv : But 
temporal difficulties, and ftrokes will not clear up this dif- 
ference : for often the children of the godly, fhare moft in 
thefe. It muft therefore be in fpiritual things, they differ 

5. What is threatned here, muft efpecially in the event, 
Light upon the third and fourth generation. And not ordinari- 
ly go beyond that. Now ordinarily the children of wicked 
men in outward things, thrive belt unto the third and fourth 
generation ; and after that come their temporal judgements ; 
therefore, it cannot be that, which is here only, or prin- 
cipally meaned. 

6. Confider Caio, Ham, &c. upon whofe pofterity, this 
curfe was peculiarly derived, and there you will find fotne- 
what more than what is temporal. 

The fecond thing to be cleared here, is, the party threat- 
ned to be thus punifhed : It is not the fathers that are ex- 
preffed, but the children after them, as it is, Jer. xxxii. i3. 
Ail is fore-faulted, the whole ftock and family: Concern- 
ing which, let us take thefe three confederations along with us. 

1. That thefe children punifhed, are not innocenr in them- 
felves, but being guilty before the Lord by original corrup- 
tion ; or by both it actual and fin, making themfelves liable 
to fuch plagues ; they have no reafon to fay, The fathers have 
eaten four grapes, and the childrens teeth are fet on edge : For 
whether the judgements be temporal or fpiritual, the chil- 
dren have deierved them, and cannot fay they are wronged. 
And this confideration reconcileth this place, with that of 
Ezekiel, where God putteth them to it, thus: None inno- 
cent are plagued ; but ye are plagued ; Therefore faith be, 
read your own fin out of your plagues. 

2. Confider, that the threatning againft children of fuch 
parents, is here limited to the third or fourth generation; 
all their pofterity is not curfed thereby. 1. Becaufe God's 
kindnefs is fuch, as to leave a door open for penitents. All 
fell in Adam, yet mercy opened a door of hope to fin hi I 
nun: And furely the threataings of this new covenant, are 


*4* ^ n Expojitim ef Com. il 

not Co peremptory, as to fliut the door of mercy upon fin- 
ners. 2. The third and fourth generation are efpecially 
threatned, becaufe thefe are the parent, and have moft of 
his nature in them ; he knoweth them beft ; and often he 
may live to fee thefe : Therefore, the Lord threatneth thefe, 
that it may moft affect parents; it being for the fecond, third, 
and fourth generation, that they moft ordinarily travel. 

3. Confider, that in this threatning, (as alfo in the pro- 
rniie following) God doth not give or lay down a conftant 
rule, to which he will be tied, as if he could not do other- 
therwife at any time; For to fay that, were derogatory to 
his election, and the fovereignty of his grace ; and there- 
fore, that is not the fcope : But here he giveth a declarati- 
on of what ufually, and ordinarily he doth, and what men, 
if he deal with them in juftice, may expect from him : Yet 
it is ft ill i'o to be underftood, as the fon of a wicked perfon, 
may be found to be an ele£i, and the fon of a godly perfon 
rejected ; that he may continue his plagues longer than the 
third 'or fourth generation, or break them offfooner wiiea 
he thinketh good ; for though by this, he would reftraia 
parents from fin, yet hath he a door open to many fuch 
children for mercy; even as the contrary promife hath ma- 
ny exceptions as to the children of godly parents, that walk 
not in the paths of their parents going before them, as ma- 
ny known inftances of both, in fcripture do make out. 

The third queftion is, How God doth execute this threat- 
ning ? or, How he doth reach children with eternal plagues 
for their parents fins ? 

Anfw. x. He doth it certainly, and he doth it juftljr: 
therefore, the children muft not only be confidered as guil- 
ty, but as guilty of the fins of their parents, which we may 
thus conceive. 1. As to the child of a wicked parent, ly- 
ing in natural corruption, God denieth and with-holdeth 
his renewing and reftraining grace which he is not obliged 
to confer ; and the Lord in this may refpec~r. the parents guilt 
juftiy. 2. When grace is denied, then followeth the temp- 
tation of the parents practice, the devil ftirring up, to the 
like fin, and they furthering their children to wickednefs by 
their example, advice, authority, fyc. So that it cometh 
to pafs in God's juftice, that they are given up tojvent 
their natural corruption in thefe ways, and fo come as it is, 
Pial, xlix 15. to approve their parents fayings. 3. Upon 
this followeth God's cafting the child now guilty of his pa- 
rents faults, into eternal perdition with him ; and that this 
is the meaning of the threatning, will appear by the exam- 
ples of God's juftice in thi3 matter, when wicked parents 
have children that are not fo much mifcrable in regard of 


Com. 2. the Ten Commandments. 143 

temporal things, as they are wicked, curfea, and plaguea 
with ungodlinefs ; To was Cain's children, fo were the chi 
<Jren ot Cham, and fo were Efau's, who were all for a !or 
time profperous in the world, but following their fathei*3 
fins (a main p.irt of their curfe) God afterward vifited them, 
with lad temporal judgements alfo. 

4. If ic be afked, Why God thusplagueth and threatneth 
the children of the wicked parents ? Anf-w. 1. God doth it 
to make fin hateful, feeing it bringeth often a forfeiture of 
fpiritual bleflings, yea, of bleffings of alt forts, upon whole 
generations and families. 2. To ftrike the more terror in* 
to others, who by this may be feared from fin, and made to 
itand in awe of God, who is fo dreadful as to put a mark 
of infamy on the race and pofterity of his enemies. 3. The 
more to affect and weight the finner ; it is a part of his pu- 
nifhment to know that by his fin, he has not only made 
himfelf miferable, but all his pofterity : And thefe may be 
the reafons, why, as it were by the light of nature, all na- 
tions in fome cafes are led not only to punifii the perfons 
of fome malefactors, but to fore-fault, and put a note of 
infamy upon their pofterity, for fome kind of faults. 4* 
This becometh God's greatnefs, that men may know how 
fovereign he is> and how, treafon againft the moft high is 
to be accounted of. 5. It is to commend holinefs, and the 
ceceffity of it, to God's people, and to put them to enrich 
themfelves and their children > in God, and a good coafcU 
ence, rather that in all temporal riches. 

Thefe fame queftions and anfwers may ferve to clear what 
concerneth the promife alio, they being fuitaWy applied to iu 

It is further to be obferved that the Lord expreflcth wic- 
ked men under that notion, Them that hate me, to fhew 
what indeed, and on the matter, fin, even the leaft fin, a* 
mcunteth unto its hatred of God, as being done (as it were} 
in defpight of him, and preferring fome luft to him ', fo# 
ihere is no queftion but were God loved, holinefs, (whicU 
is his image) would be loved alfo ^ and where it it univcr- 
ially hated, fo muft he be : for a man cannot ferve two 
matters, where their commands and actings are contrary, 
but he muft hate the one, and love the other : And feeing 
it is certain, that finners make fin their matter, and do net 
hate it ; therefore, they muft hate God, who giveth contra- 
ry commands : and fo fometimes finners wifli that there were 
not fuch commands. Again, he exprefTeth the gocUy in 
the promife, under thefe cwo defignations, 1. Thefe that 
hue me, that is the inward fountain and comprehensive (un> 
of all duties 2. Tboje that keep my commandment s % that 
looketh 10 the outward effects of love, and is the proof of 


1 44 An Expo fit ion of Cora. 2. 

it, fo that there is no midft betwixt thefe two, to love God, 
and keep his commandments, and to hate him, and flight 
or break his commandments, and fo no midft betwixt God's 
gracious promife to parents and children, and his curfe on 

La/ifyy It would be in a particular way obferved, that tho* 
every fin hath hatred to God in it, yet he putteth this name 
of hating him, in a fpecial way upon the fin of corrupting 
his worfhip and fervice, to fliew that there is a fpecial en- 
mity againft God in that fin, and that it is in a fpecial way 
hateful to him ; as upon the other hand he taketh zeal for 
the purity of his worfhip, as a lingular evidence of love to him. 
Let us clofe this command with fome words of ufe ; and 
1. Ye rrnty fee what good or evil to us and ours, and that 
eternally, there is in difobedience or holinefs : O parents ! 
what mercy is it to you, yourfelves, and to your children, 
that you be godly ? Alas, this curfe here tbreatned, is too 
palpable upon many children, who are curfed with propha- 
nity from the womb upward : Why do you that are parents 
wrong your poor infants ? and why neglect ye that which 
is beft for them ? Here alfo there is matter of much com- 
fort to parents fearing God. This promife is a ftanding 
portion to a thoufand generations, which though it be not 
peremptory, as to all individual perfons ; yet, 1 . It feclud- 
eth none. 2. It comprehendeth many. 3. It giveth ground 
for us to be quiet for all our pofterity, till they by their 
own carriage difclaim that covenant, wherein this promife 
is included. 4. It giveth warrant for a believer to expect 
that God may make up his election amongft his feed rather 
than amongft others : It is true, fometimes he choofeth fome 
of his pofterity of wicked parents, yet oft times the election 
of grace falleth upon the pofterity of the godly. 5. It is 
a ground upon which we may quiet ourfelves for temporal 
things needful to our children j certainly thefe promifes are 
cot for nought, Pfal. xxxvii. 26. and cii. ult. cxii. 2* Piov. 
xx. 17. 

2. Be humble, O be humble before God, for he is jealous, 

3. Abhor fin, for it is hateful. 

4. Love holinefs, for it is ufeful to us and ours : Firft, 
Thereby our children have temporal mercies fo far as is 
needful, Pfal. xxxvii. 26. 2. They have fpiritual and fav- 
ing mercies amongft them. 3. They have all church-privi- 
ledges, as being the children of tbem that are within God's 

5. Children ! Be humbled under the fenfe of the iniquity 
of your parents, when ye remember their ways ; or poflels 
what unjuftly they have gotten, ye become guilty of their 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandment t. 145 

fins without repentance. Efpeciaily, you have need to take 
notice of this, that are the children of parents, that have 
oppofed the purify of God's fervicr and worfhip, and the 
work of its reformation, and have been corrupters of it : 
Children may be partakers of their parents faults, and Co 
plagued for them feveral ways ; and we think that this for- 
feiture is more than ordinary. And therefore, as amongft 
men, there are fpecial crimes beyond ordinary procuring; 
fttch a fentence, lb is it here. And, 1. They be guilty by 
following their foot Heps, in walking in their parents fins, 
as Jeroboam's children did. 2. In approving their fathers 
way, praifing their fathers fayings or doings ; as it is, Pfah 
xlix. 13. 3. In winking at their parents fins and wickednefs. 
4. In boalling of their oppreffions, blood-flied, 6*c. as if 
they were a£fs of valour and man-hood. 5. In being con- 
tent that their fathers finned, if it gained any poiTeffion to 
them. 6. In pofTriiing and enjoying without repentance, 
what to their knowledge they finfuiiy purchafed. 7. In 
/pending prodigally andriotoufly what the parents covetouU 
ly gathered -, the iin of the parent here, is the feed of the 
ion's fin, 8. In profeiiing forrow for the want of occafioa 
to live in ignorance, prophanity, or loofenefs, as iheir fa- 
thers did, as in Jer. xliv. 17, 18, 19. They laid that thing? 
went well then. In not being humbled before God for the 
fins of predeceflbrs, nor conferring them to him; as Levitt 
xxvi 4c. nor repairing the loffes or injuries which we knew 
they did to any that were wronged Of oppreiTed by them. 


Ex ODUS xx. 7. 
Thou /halt not take the Name" of the Lord thy God in v&in, 
for the Lord will not hold him gvihle[s y that taketh his 
Name in vain, 

THIS Command the Lord prefTeth wkh a threatning, 
that it may be known that he is in earneft, and 
will reckon with men for the breaches of it : The fcope of 
it, is, To have the name of the Lord fan&ifjed, hallowed, 
and had in reverence by all his people 5 and fo every thing 
efchewed that may be dishonourable to that holy name, 
and which may make him, as it were, contemptible : This 
fcope is clear from Lev, xxii. 23, -where having forbidden 

T the 

146 An Exp&fition of Com. 3. 

the prophaning of his name, he addeth this pofiiive precept 
as oppoiite thereto ; But 1 will be halloxved among the children 
cf lfrael\ So then it is that he himfelf may be hallowed, and 
had in reverence ainongft them, as Pfal. lxxxix. 7. and cxi. 
9. And fo this command is much more extenfive than at 
iirft view it app^areth ; the fcopc thereof being ro keep the 
heart in a holy awe and reverence of God, and foin a holy 
way of uling, and reverend way of going about every thing 
which concerncth him. 

Fur more clear handling of it, let us confider, 1. What 
is meant by the name of Cad. 2. What is meant, by taking 
that name of God in vain. 

I. By the name of Cod, is often underftood God himfelf ; 
for to call on God's name and on himfelf are one. 2. Pro- 
perly hereby is underftood in titles, attributed to him in 
Icripture; as God, Jehovah the Lord, Holy, Juft, &c. or 
luch titles as fignify that excellent Being which we call God. 
3. More largely it is taken for whatloever he maketh ufe 
of, for making or himfelf known, feeing othei wife he hath 
no name ; but whatever title he taketh to himielf, or what- 
ever thing he maketh ufe of, thereby to make himfelf 
known, that is his name; fuch are 1. His attributes, mer- 
ty, juiVice, omnipotency, 6*c. which Exod. xxxiv. 36, 37. 
arc called his name. 2. His word or gofpcl, called his 
name, Acts ix. 15. 3. His ordinances, iaeraments, Mat, 
xxvii. 19 Diicipline and cenfures, which ate the exercile 
t»f his authority, Matth. xviii. 20. 1 Cor. v 4. 4 Prayer 
is a piece ot his name; he is a God that heareth prayer, 
Vial. Ixiii. 2. 5. His works, Rom. i. 20, 21. 6 Ail lus- 
irorftiip. Deut. xii. 5. Lxod. xx 24. 6. Lots. Acls i. 26. 
by theie God maketh himfelf (when hetbinketh fit) known 
in his will, as he doth by his word. 7. Profefiion of fub- 
j £tion to him ; fo they that profcis this, aie faid to 
bear his name, and it fhould 1>e reverently ufed, as all ac- 
t ons which make himielf or his- will and decree (which is 
himielf) known, as lots do, Prov. xvi. 33. 

By all thefe God is to be known, and fome thing of him 
may be feen, and we take under name here all theie to be 
comprehended : The firft, becaufe the icope is to hallow 
himielf ii> obedience to all that he comrnandeth, as appear* 
*th, Lev. xx»i 21,32 and the ftrft petition in the Lord's 
prayer, Hallowed be thy n >me y being compared with the o- 
ther two that foiloweth, cleareth it. The iecond is properly 
«md primarily in the very letter here underwood. The third 
c ometh in by native confluence for attaining the fcope of 
t e command, fo that there is neither woict nor woik of 
tied, but a.! relateth to this. 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 147 

The fecond thing to be cleared, is, What is meant by 
taking his name in vain. To take his name (as it is Pfal. L 1 6. 
and xvi. 4.) is to mention any of thofe things before fpokert 
of (which are fo many pieces of his name) or any way to 
meddle with them in thought, word, or deed, as by writ- 
ing, or otherwife: In vain> doth not only comprehend t 
t. Falfe fwearing, or blafpheming, charming, and what is 
wrong as to the matter : Nor, 2. Only prophane abnfingr 
of the Lord's name when the matter is right, by rafhntfs, 
precipitancy, frequency in fwearing: Nor, 3. Doth it only 
mean unneceflary fwearing, when it may be forborn : But 
4. In vain is alfo when it is not mentioned or made ufe of 
to good purpofe, that is, to God's honour, the edification 
of others and of ourlelves •, fo whenever God's name is any 
way meddled with without fruit, it is in vain. 

The fcope of this command then we take to be, To pre ft 
the manifesting of reverence to God. 1. In a high efteem 
of his holy majefty. 2. In a reverent ufe of all his ordi- 
nances in the right way appointed by him. 3. In a good 
converfation adorning this doctrine of the gofpcl, and keep- 
ing his blcfled name, that is named over us, from being e- 
vil fpoken of, or contemned by others, becittfeofns, Piom. 
ii. 24. 4. And more efpecially (that God may he honour- 
ed) in a right, reverend, and edifying ufe of his name, in 
thinking, fpeaking, praying, reading, writing, fwearing, 
vowing, ire. and abstaining from all irreverence in thefe, 
unbecoming the greatnefs of God, and ufing each of them 
reverently, when called to go about them. 

If it be afked what the mentioning of God's name reve- 
rently is ? take ihefe rules to cleir it, 

1. It is neceflaiy that the matter be lawful in which lis 
name is mentioned 5 by this, all hereticks, charmers, curl- 
ers, forefwearers, and blafphamers, are grofly guilty of fin* 
ning againft this command. 

2. It is required that the matter be not only lawful, but 
important, and of fome weight : hence toting for a thing of 
nought, or fwearing in a thing or" no importance, are ;w a- 
bufing of the name of God, and a tempting of him. 

3. It is required that the matter be necefiary alfo ; for if 
a thing may be decided other- ways, it ought to be neither 
by loting nor fwearing; hence in the hebiev, to iVctr is 
flail ufed in the paffive voice, to fhew, That men ought not 
to fwear, but when they can do no otherwife, and when a 
lawful call preiTeth to it. 

4. It would be in the manner, grave, deliberate, under- 
stood, done in judgement, Jer. iv. 3. wiib hit &Sd rever- 

T 2 ' 5. A 

148 An Expnfttion of Com. 3. 

5. A good end is to be propofed, namely, one of thefe 
three, God's honour, the good of others, or our own ne- 
ceflary vindication in lomething, that fo it be not taken to 
no purpofe. 

There is this difference betwixt this command and others § 
in other commands, God exprefTeth thehigheft degree of e- 
very kind of fin, to fcare men from the breaches of thefe 
commands ; here he mentioneth not forfwearing or blafphe- 
my, but taking the Lord's name in vain ; which is the low- 
eft degree of that kind; that by this, God may teach us 
what reverence we owe to him, and of what large extent 
rhe command is, and how careful he would have us to be, 
left we (hould come upon the borders of any thing that 
feemeth to be a breach of it. 

If it be afked, why the Lord is fo peremptory in urging 
this command, and in prcfling the thing here commanded 
in the very leaft ? 

Jnfw. 1. That he may in this fet oat his own grcatnefs, 
and work a fear and reverence of him in the hearts o^ his 
people ; therefore will he have them reverently ufing that 
which concerneth him, that the due diftance, r betwixt God 
that is in heaven, and creatures that are on earth, may be im- 
printed on us, and entertained by us. Ecclef. v. i, % t 3. Lev. 
xxii. 31, 32. Pfal. Ixxxix. 9. 

2. Becaufe bis name, whereby he holdeth forth fomething 
pf himfelf, or that infinite excellent Being, called God, is 
great, dreadful and glorious, and is fo to be had. in rever-r 
ence, Pfal. cxi. that more than ordinary w&tchfulnefs fbould 
be ufed in teftifying our refpett to it. 

3. Becaufe this is the way to curb atheifm and prophani- 
ty, which the devil driveth on by thefe fteps •, firft, to think 
little of God, and then by little and little*, to innure men to 
prophanuy, and habituate them to baffle and affront the 
name of God ; Hence it is, that he taketh pofleffion, mainly, 
of young ones this way; and hardly ye will fee any that 
irreverently meddle with the name of God, but they are 
grofs, or fall at length to be grofs, in other things. 

4. God 5 s name is precious, and given to his people for a 
great refuge, Prov. xviii. 10. therefore will he not have that 
which is their fipgular mercy to beabufed. 

5. God is a friend in covenant, yet fo, as that ^elation 
may not in the leaft wear out his honour and our due dif- 
tance with him, Deut, xxviii. 58, Its the great and dreadful 
name eft be Lord our God. 

6. Becaufe this honoureth God, and adorneth the pro- 
feffion of the gofpel before others, whereas, irreverence 
therein difhonoureth God before them. 


Cora. 3. the Ten Commandments. 149 

For mor£ particular confidering the matter and breaches 
of this command, we fhall draw it to thefe heads; and 1. 
We fhall fpeak to what concerneth fwearing, vowing, ex 
public covenanting with God. 2. To what concerned* 
blafphemy. 3. Concerning the taking the name of the 
Lord in vain, in wodhip, private or public, particular- 
ly, how it is taken in vain by hvpocrify. 4. Of taking it 
in vain out of worffiip rafhly and unneceffarily. 5. How it 
is taken in vain our conversion, as others are occaGoned, 
or caufed to bUfpheme God's name by our carriage. 3. Con- 
cerning lots, be. Thefe we fhall confidcr, efpecially, with 
rdpeft to our practice. 

In fpeaking of what concerneth oaths, we would, 1. 
fpeak of an oath. 2. Of the obligation of it, for this com- 
mand both requireth oaths, and the keeping of them, and 
it may be broken in reference to both. 

We would in the entry diftinguiihing betwixt thefe four, 
I. Oaths. 2. Aflfeverations. 3. Simple affirmation or af- 
fertions. 4. Imprecations or curfes. 

1. Oaths are fuch, as directly invocate God by fuch ex- 
preffions, as, be, or by, by my bolimfs 1 have Jworn, Pial. 
Ixxxix. Jfrjcar by the Ltrd. 

2. Affeverations (called vehement Affertions) are like ex- 
preffid thus, As the Lord livetb, As that light fbineth s in con' 
feience, faiths &c. 

3 Simple affertions are, fuch as in truth, truly, indeed t 
which but fpeak the thing (imply, and affirm that to be 
true or faife that is aflerted, and i"o be'ongeth to the ninth 
command only, as fuch. 

4. Iciiprecations are either directed to ones felf condition* 
2'!y f ana if fuch a thing be truth, then let me perijh ; Shame 
befall me if I do not this or this; or towards others, efperi- 
ally in thefe, Jhame befall thee, the devil take thee, a venge- 
ance on thee, and other cxprcilions abominable to mention. 

Again, in oaths which are for confirmation, let us 
tinguiih betwixt affcrtory oaths, that do but confirm fuch a 
thing to be truth, and promiflbry oaths, that engage th~ 
perfon fwearing to the performance of fuch a thing for the 
time to come, either abfolutely, or with qualifications. 

For clearing the matter, take this propofition, that oaths 
in both thefe cafes being well qualified, is a lawful piece of 
God's worfhip, and may, and fhould be made ufe of by 
his people ; this is a clear truth from thefe icripturts, Deut.. 
X. 20. Deut. vi. 13 Jer. iv, z. 

As for Anabaptifts, who deny the lawfulnefs of o^tH 
under the New-Teftament, we arc not now to medJ'e with 
them, begaufe there be few in thefe days that are in fuch 

i^o An Exptfition cf Com. 3. 

an error. We (hall confider. 1. What qualifications are re- 
quifit to right fwearing: Then, 2. clear fome practical 
queftions. 3. Shew wherein this command is violate in refpeft 
of fwearing. 

In an oath confider, 1. Its matter. 2. Its form. 3. Its 
rife, or mens call to it. 4 The expreffion its conceived in. 
5 Our manner of going about it. 6. Our keeping of it, 
which follovveth after to be fpoken to diftinc/tly. 

Firft, for the matter of an oath, Aflertory oaths mud 
be of things that are, I. True. 2. Weighty. 3. They 
muft be fuch to our knowledge. Again, Promiflbry oaths 
muft be in things juft and lawful, poflible, profitable, and 
in our power, and which to our knowledge are fuch. 

2. The form muft be, By the true God, it being a pecu- 
liar part of his worfhip, for we can fwear by none whom we 
cannot invocate, therefore h!ols, creatures, graces, &c. are 
excluded here, for none of thefe are God. 

3. Its rife muft be edification, that is God's glory, our 
own vindication, or our neighbours good, or the call of a 
magiftrate putting us to it ; and it fhould be ufed for deci- 
ding of controveriies, when no other mean of clearing or 
deciding fuch a thing is remaining ; hence we fay, juratus 
fuit, he was fworn paflively v and the Hebrews have no ac- 
tive word for expreffing it, to let us fee, men ought not to 
fwear, but to be iworn, or by necefllty prefled to it. 

4. As to the expreflions in which it is conceived, or the 
thing fworn ; it is required net only that it be truth to, and 
in the man's meaning that fweareth, but that the expreffion 
be plain and intelligible to his meaning and understanding, 
to whom the oath is given-, otherwiic it deludeth, but doth 
not clear. Hence thefe two rules are to be obferved. 1. 
That the meaning be fo clear, as may be, and is mod ordi- 
narily and obvioufly gathered from fuch words and exprcf- 
fions as are ufed. 2. That the expreflions be according as 
they are fuppofed to be underftood by others, efpecially him 
that exa&eth the oath ; for if he mean one thing, and^we 
another, God's name is prophaned, and the end of an oath 
fruftrate ; much more equivocations in expreflions and men- 
tal refervations are to be condemned here ; the firft whereof 
taketh in ambiguity in word;; the fecond a different fenfe 
in our thoughts from what feemeth ta be meaned in our 

3 As to the right manner of fwearing, thefe things ought 
to be noticed : 1 . That it be in judgment, that we under- 
stand the thing we fwear, and the nature of our oath, and 
him we fwear by, Jer. iv. 2. 2. Fear any reverence going 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 151 

about, as being in an cfpecial way in God's own fight ; thus 
to /ear an oath, is a good property, and the heart would be 
filled with the apprehenfion of a prefent Cod. 3. Single* 
iiefs in the end, that it be not to deceive any, but toexprefs 
the truth truly and faithfully, called righteoufnefs, Jcr. iv. 
2. And for the moft part thefe properties or qualifications 
may agree to oaths, affeverations and imprecations. 

For the further clearing of this matter, we would fpeak 
to fome queftions. 

And the firftqueftion is, how then differ oaths from affe- 

Anpw. They fhould both be in truth and judgment with 
fear, and when called unto ; but in this they differ, that in 
oaths we are only to make mention of the true God, and 
fwear by him ; but affeverations may be thus expreffed, Ai 
thy foul liveth % 2 Kings ii. vcr. 2, 4, 6. and yet we do not 
iwear by the foul of any. 

A fecond queftion is, What we may judge of fuch oaths, 
as are, by angels, faints, Mary, Paul, and by other crea- 
tures, as heaven, light, the world, by foul, confeience, &;* 
Or by graces, as by faith. 

Anfw. We need not ufe much curiofity in diftincYions: 
For, we conceive them all to be (imply unlawful. 1. 1k- 
caufe none of thefe are God, and (wearing is a peculiar 
piece of his worfhip, Deut. vi. 13. And fwearing by any 
thing whatever it be, which is not God is condemned, Jer. 
v. 7. They have /worn by tho/ewho are not God's. 2. Becaufe 
we cannot invocate any of thefe, and therefore cannot fwear 
by them, feeing an oath carrieth along with it, an invoca- 
tion of him we fwear by. 3. Becauie they want thefe pro- 
perties due to fuch, to whom this worfhip belongeth. 
As 1. Omnifcience, to try whether we mean as we have 
fworn or not. 2. Omnipotency. A-nd 3. JuAice to a- 
venge, if it be not fo as we have fworn. 4 Sovereignty, to 
call the f wearers to a reckoning. 5. Becaufe it would de- 
rogate from the fcope of this command, which giveth this 
to God alone, as his due and implieth, that he alone hath 
all thefe properties in him, 6. Becaufe fuch oaths are ex- 
prefly prohibited by Chrift, Matth. iii. 34. Swear not at aii t 
neither by heaven nor earth ; For they (land in an inferior 
relation to God, and a*x his fecvants. 7. Becaufe as none 
or thefe things are God to take order with us, if we fwear 
talily ; fo none of them are fo ours, as we can lay them in 
pledge, for the left change to be made upon them, in cafe 
our oath be not true •, none of them can be added unto or 
riiminilhed from by us. We cannot make one of our hairs 
biack or white ; and therefore ought not to fwear by our 


*5* ** Expof.ticn $f Com. 3 . 

head ; much lefs can we qui-- 1 our conference, or increafe 
our faith, that we fhculd fo freely fwear by thcfe, That 
ftface, Matth. v. 36. cleareth this : For that cf Matth, xxiiL 
16, 17. tTC. fpeaketh of the obligation of an oath finfully 
made, as to that manner of fwearing, which yet ftiil bind- 
eth : but it warranteth not the making of fuch oaths. 

A third queftion is, What is it to be judged concerning af- 
feverations ; fuch as, In conf<ience> good faith, as 1 (hall an- 
Jwer^ &c. as 1 am a Chrijitan ; as I h.:ve a foul to be faved^ 
and fuch like? Anfw, 1. We think, there is no queftion, 
but if thefe were rightly, and in the due manner made ufe of 
they might be lawfully ufed, as fcripture cleareth. 2 Yea, 
xtc think, if any oaths be made ufe of, thefe would firft be 
ufed ; and a man may be calied to ufe one of thefe, when 
he is not dire<ftly to fwear. 3. Therefore, we think they 
cannot beufed, butin necefiity, when lefs will not ferve, and 
fliould be ufed with fear, reverence, undemanding, and 
the other qualifications : And that therefore they iin, who 
in common difcourfe, rafhly and vainly ufe them, which 
we<:once ! ive to be forbidden here ; and when they are not 
confeientioufly ufed, they lead men to a greater degree of 
fin, here difcharged : As we fee fome begin with afTcveration* 
then idle oaths, and then imprecations, as Peter finfully did, 
Jvlatth. xxvi. Reafon 1. All thefe aflevcrations are reduc- 
tively oaths and imply the contrary imprecations in them. 
Thus, let me not be efteemed a Chriilian, nor have afoul 
to be faved: which muftreiace to God for executing thefe; 
therefore, being indirect oaths, and belong to this com- 
mand. 2. Becaufe the very end of any vehement afTevera- 
tion is to confirm what is faid, more than any ordinary af» 
fertion can ; Now in fo fur, it is an oath \ it being proper 
to an oath, to confirm what is fpoken, and feeing what a- 
greetb with an oath in the efientials, they muft be materi- 
ally one, though affeverations, be pronounced in another 
form. 3. Vain affeverations, are againii that rule, Matth. 
v. 57. James v. 12. Let your communication be yea, yea, and 
nay y nay; and whatever is more (in ordinary communica- 
tion) is evil : And it cannot be denied, and therefore 
needlefs and linful. 4. We do not find affeverations, fuch 
as, My confeience beareth me witne/s y to be ufed (warrantab- 
ly) by faints in fcripture ; but with great reference, even al- 
moft in fuch things as they ufed to confirm by oaths-, there* 
fore, fwearing is often joined with them, Rom. ix. I, 2* 
1 Cor. xi. 31. 5. For what end are they ufed? It is ei- 
ther to confirm (bmething or to no end : Eefide, the need- 
lefs ufe of them habituateth folk to baffle and prophane ex- 
cellent things, and do inure them 10 prophanuy : Hence 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 155 

thefe that ufe them mod, are ordinarily lefs tender in their 
other carriage, and it corneth to direct (wearing At length. 
If it be Paid, good faith, fignificth no more but in truth, 
and without di&cfrulation, as it is underftood fometimes ia 
the laws,) Bona Fide and Mala Fide. Anfw. Yet faith is o~ 
thcrwife taken in our common acception, and words would 
be fo ufed, as they are commonly made ufe of by others. 
2. If it be not evil, yet it hath the appearance of evil, 
which fhould be efchewed and abstained from, 1 ThefT. 
v. 22 3. Whatever good faith fignitieth yet certain- 
ly in our common ufe, it is more than a Gmple afTer- 
tioni therefore, fhould a man tell me an untruth, and 
put Dona file, or good faith to it, to confirm it: Will any 
man think but he is more than an ordinary liar, againft the 
ninth command ? Yea, would he not be thought infamous 
in breaking his good faith ? Therefore it is more than yea 
or nay, and fo not ordinarily to be ufed. Yea, we conceive 
that thefe alicverations will have more weight on natural 
confeiences, than iimple aflertions ; and therefore thechal- 
langes or dealing falfly with thefe, will bite and wound the 
conference, much more fharply than falfifying fimple afTer- 
tions, which fpeaketh out this ; that they are nearer of kiu 
unto, and more involved in this command, than at firft ap- 

The fourth queft. is, What may be faid of imprecations ? 
Anfw, Diftinguifh betwixt fuch as one ufeth againft himfelf ; 
as, Let me not fee heaven, if that be not truth, or the like 
2. Such as are ufed againft others (I fpeak by private per- 
form,) as, Sbumc fall thee£ Devil take thee, and the like ; 
which are either conditional, as, If thou do not fuch a 
thing, &C. are abfolute, without any fuch condition. We 
fay then, 1, That keeping the qualifications, formerly men- 
tioned, and required to an oath ; one may in feme cafcj 
lawfully ufe foiiie imprecations, even to ones felf, the (crip- 
turcs having fuch paterns in them ; but with great caution, 
circumfpecYion, and tendernefs. 

2. Curfing of others by private perfons, out ofpafiioii cr 
revenge, is limply prohibited, and that in feveral refpedh, 
For 1 It derogateth from the glo v y of God, if he be there- 
in invocated, in making him fubfervient to our pailions, and 
to execute our revenge; or if he be not invocated in thefe 
imprecations; it is w r orfe becaufe of the devil, cr feme o- 
ther thing is put in his room. 2. It derogateth alfo frcra 
tbat love we owe others. 

3. As for mentioning the Devil in fuch imprecations^ 
as Devil a bit, Fiend a body, or fuch like, it is mod abomi- 
nable ; For thereby the Devil 13 employed in God's room, 

U and 

1 ;4 -An Expcfition of Comr 3. 

acd God is foifaken ; becaufe there is no ground to expect 
a hearing of fuch a fuit from him, and fo you betake you 
to the devil ; praying to him, employing him, reverencing 
and worfhipping him-, as if he werejuft, to execute your 
judgment, when God doth it not: And fometimes by fuch 
imprecations ; you call on the devil, who is the father of 
lies > to witnefs a truth. Ah J how abominable to be beard 
amongft Chrifiians ! Men need not go to the Wild-Indians, 
nor to witches, to feek woiihippers of the Devil! Alas! 
There are many fuch to be found amongft Chriftians ! How 
found theic words? What devil now! The miekle devil, 
be It is horrible to mention, that which goeth out of fome 
mens mouths without any fear ! Ah ! What can be the rea- 
ibn that Chriftians thus wcrlhip the Devil, and fwear by 
him, as Ifrael did by Baal. 

There remain yet fome things concerning oaths, efpecial- 
ly promiffbry oaths to be cleared. As, 1. How promiffcry 
oaths differ from an affcrtory oath. 

And, I. They agree in this, that truth is the fcope of 
both. But, 2. They differ in this, that aflertory oaths, 
have but one verity, to wit, That the thing be, in the pre- 
sent time, true as the man fayeth or fweareth : But promif- 
fory oaths have a twofold verity, to wit ; one prefent, that 
the fwearer meaneth what he promifeth. 2. That for the 
time to come, he fhall endeavour, effectually to make the 
thing truth which he fayeth and fweareth : The fir ft, is 
only a truth in the peribn : The fecond is alfo a truth of the 
thing or matter. 

2. We would difference vows from' prcmifibry oaths* 
Vows hr.ve God both for party and witnefs. Oaths may 
have fome other for, party, but God for witnefs to the giv- 
ing an oath or promife to fuch a party : Yet in fome things 
there is a great affinity, as to the matter, in both. 

Concerning promiffory oaths ; we may enquire, i. Con- 
cerning the makingof them. 2. Concerning theobligarion 
of them ; That a man may make fuch oaths tying himfelf to 
iomethingsin which he was before free ; is without all con- 
troverfy, and clearin the fcripture. Concerning fuch oaths 
it may be enquired. i. In what matter, 2. On what 
occafions. 3. With what conditions, they may be engaged 

And, 1. For the matter of them \ they may be in three 
forts of matter. 1. In fuch matter as is morally necefTtry, 
as the fearing ferving, worfhipping the true God, be. So 
was Jacob's oath and vow, Gen. xxviii. 20,21- That the 
L:rdJbould be bis God. And many of the covenants menti- 

Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 15; 

ned in the Old-Teftament ; and David's fwearing, Pf. cxix. 
1 06. To keep God'sjlatutes. 

2. There is a civil lawful good matter; fuch as duties to 
fuperiors, or to make Tome obligation to others forth-com- 
ing ; or to return and requite fuch a particular good turn 
to one. Such are oaths of allegiance to lawful fuperiors : 
Such did the fpies (wear to Rachab Jpfliua ii. 12. &c. And 
David to Jonathan; and that thefe are lawful, having due 
qualifications, cannot be denied. 

3 . There arc fome things indifferent ; as eating or abfUin * 
ing from fuch and fuch meats or drinks, or on fuch and fuch 
days; and although the thing be not (imply unlawful, yet 
oaths therein would be engaged in, with much prudence on 
fuch grounds, and with fuch qualifications and condition?, 
as may make it appear, the fwearer is not ufing the name of 
God unnecefiarily, and that he cannot other wife gain this 
point : Nor fuperititioufly to make it appear, that he doth 
not bring his confeience under a yoke of will-worfhip. One 
of which ways ordinarily men fail, in thefe oaths ; and \o 
they are neither to God's honour, nor others good ; and 
therefore fuch oaths are either rarely to be engaged in, or 
not at all. 

Next fuch oaths as to the occafions of parties engaging in 
them, may be divided into thefe three. 

The firft is, When we engage in public oaths and promi- 
fes folemnly, when authority calls us to it. 

2. When the edification or fatisfaclion in another, in pri- 
vate calleth fcr it. There are fometimes when a Chriftian 
may be, yea is called to it, for gaining credit to fometuing, 
(that the other is called to believe) to interpofe reverently 

. the oath of God, as Jacob did to Laban. 

3. One in fecret may thus engage himfelf to God, in law- 
ful and necefiary things ; as David, i have fw or n> tint I will 
keep thy righteous judgments. 

Yet in the third place, all thefe oaths, would (till be with 
thefe qualifications, mentioned Jer. iv. 2. Firft in truth, 
namely, the two-fold truth before mentioned. 2. In judg- 
ment, that is, with knowledge and deliberation, minding 
and understanding what it is we fwear. 3. With righteouf- 
nefs or juftice, that is, That it be in things, that are accord- 
ing to the law of equity, as well as piety, neither wrongiirg 
God nor others by our oaths ; for oaths are in themfeives 
frill, Vinculo, JEquitatis, and not by Iniquit atii : Bonds of 
equity and juftice, and not of iniquity and injuftice. 

There are alfo to be obferved thefe tacite or exprefs con- 
ditions in all promifibry oaths, (and fometimes it is fit to 
exprefs them and fometimes not) ; IfCcdwilf, and if no- 
il 2 thing 

t 56 An Expo/ition cf Com. 3. 

thing intcrveen to hinder, Jam. iv. If I live } and health 
permit. As much as in them lictb, they flball aim at if 
fome impoilibility intervcen not. 3. So far as they fulfilling 
or this, (hall be lawful ; for it only can tie to lawful things, 
and lawful means and courfes ; and this is efpecially to be 
underftood of indefinite oaths. 4. While, things ftand fo ; 
but if the cafe alter efTeutially, and men turn enemies to the 
kingdom or common wealth, to whom we are by oath ob- 
liged, to give or ft 11 fomewhac that we know would be made 
ufe of, to the probable ruin or hazard thereof: then it is 
Xiot in our power, Selva prcftcjiate fuperioris. 

It may be afked, How we fhali judge of indefinite oaths ; 
fuch as Soldiers give to their officers, to be obedient to 
them : Or of oaths in things which are indiftlnft, and the 
matter not obvious, as oaths in colleges, incorparations, 
towns, crc. Where the things fworn are complex. 

Anfwt,* Thefe cannot altogether be condemned. I. Be- 
caufe though a man have not, yea cannot have, a particu- 
lar and diftinct knowledge of all particulars ; yet he under- 
ftandeth fuch oaths, as binding to all neceffary and lawful 
things, as the general condition requireth. 2. Becaufe he 
taketh the oath for the end, and in the fenfe, that is com- 
monly taken, which bindeihin the efiential things, pertain- 
ing to the being of that incorporation, but taketh not in, e- 
very particular ftri&ly, 

By what is faid then \ We may 1. Condemn oaths in tri- 
vial things, as oaths in compliments-, when men fwear they 
will not go one before another. That men are welcome to 
their houfes : Then they will not let them go foon : That 
they fhall drink fo much tho' it may not be to excefs : That 
they fhall return fome petty thing thay have borrowed, and 
the like. 2. Rafh promifes, fuch as are haftily and unad- 
Tifedly or doubtingly made. But ere we come to particu- 
lars-, let us confider what is condemned, as perjury, which 
is the higheft degree. 

There ^re fever al forts of perjury mentioned \ feme where- 
of are more direct and immediate ; fome more mediate and 

The firft fort of perjury is: When one upon oath afler- 
teth as a truth, that which he knoweth is not a truth, or 
doubteth of it ; or is miflaken in it, through his own negli- 
gence, not being certain that it is as he faith, whether he 
affirm or deny : Thus Naboth's falfe wknefles were guilt) ; 
and many other inftances may be adduced. 

The fecond is : When one promifeth fomething, which 
he mindeth not to perform, and confirmeth that with an 

oath > 

Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 157 

oath : he is no doubt perjured, becaufe there is not a cor- 
respondent verity betwixt his oath and his purpofe. 

The third is: When men promife and intend for the time 
to perform \ yet, upon no juft ground, fail afterwards in 
performing what they have fworn. This is perjury, becauie 
there is not truth in fulfilling the thing fworn, according to 
the oath. Thefe are direct perjuries. 

More largely again, a man may be faid to forfwear him- 
felf. 1. When he fweareth to perform a thing, which is 
fimply impoffiblej efpecially, while he knoweth it to be fo : 
For as the former is not a 1 wearing in judgement and truth ; 
fo this is a prophane and wicked fv/earing, againft light and 
judgement, or a manifeft lie and falfhood : So that betwixt 
his promife to perform fuch a thing, and the performance, 
there is implied a contradiction. As for one to fwear, to 
be to-morrow at Rome, who is to day at Glafgow ; the 
very* (wearing is fore-fwearing. 2. When one fwearet?; an 
unlawful or wicked thing, or confirmeth it with an oath; 
like thofe forty that (Wore to kill Paul ; efpecially, if that 
oath be contrary to feme duty which lieth formerly by oath, 
on the perfon for fwearing: For, that is not to fwear in 
righteoufnefs andjufiice: Befide, that it withdraweth on a 
neceffity. either of breaking that oath, andfo of being per- 
jured, or of going on to fulfil it ; and fo of being doubly 
perjured, 3. Men are forfworn and perjured, when the/ 
fulfil a wicked oath ; as Herod did, JViatth. xiv. in behead- 
ing John the Baptift ; for, though he feemed not to over- 
turn, and make void his own oath, but to keep it : Yet this 
(as a!fo the former) over-turncth and rnaketh void, the fcope 
and nature of an oath in general, and is a plain contradic- 
tion to it, and maketh an oath, which fhould be vinculum 
aguitatis, a bond of equity ; (there being nulla obhgatio but 
ad offieiurn % no obligation but to duty,) to be vine turn ini- 
quitatiS) a bond of iniquity ; And fo thwartech with the 
very end wherefore fuch oaths are appointed (in which re- 
fpect David did better in net executing his rafh oath, but 
keeping the general fcope of all oaths, when he refuted not 
to hearken to Abigail's counfel, even to the non-perfor- 
mance of what he had fworn. 

Ic may be queftioned here, Whether one man may be ac- 
ctffbry to anothers perjury, if he conftrain him to (wear, of 
whom he hath afumption that he will forfwear. 

Arrfw* Diftinguifli 1. The matter in which, if it be of 
grave concernment, or of little moment. 2- Difiinguifa 
betwixt the publickncfs and privacy of it. 3. Diftinguifh 
betwixt parties; as betwixt a judge, who is to decide, and 
a party that is the puriuer. 


*5 8 ^ n Expofition of Com. 3^ 

We fay then firft, a party purfuing in a particular of his 
own concernment; efpecially if it be of no great concern- 
ment ; may, yea, fhould forbear preffing fuch a perfon to 
fwear, both for fparing the party, and for refpedt to the 
name of God ; fince he can hardly, in this cafe, be very 
hopeful to gain by it. 

2. We fay, (notwithstanding in fome cafes,) that the judge 
may admit fome to fwear, efpecially in public fcandals. 1. 
Becaufe none can certainly know, but God may conftrain 
them to fwear truth. 2. Becaufe it is his way, ltft to de- 
cide all controverfies ; and a judge cannot efchew it, when 
it lieth on him to put a clofe to fuch a controverfy, as which 
he cannot win by any other means ; though great prudence 
is to be ufed in proceeding in fuch a cafe, efpecially, it be- 
ing of that nature as is in fcripture appointed to be decided 
by oath, as Exod. xxii. 11. 

The great queftion, is concerning a promiflbry oath, if 
in any cafe it may be made void, and ceafe to oblige, or in 
what cafes that may be ? 

That every oath bindeth, not according to the letter, we 
fuppofe needeth no reafons to clear and confirm it : There 
are two ways in general how the obligation of an oath pro- 
miflbry ceafeth. 1. When the oath itfelf is null, and 
never had any obligation. 2. When by fome other thing 
interveening, there is a loofing from the obligation which 
the oath once had. 

That it maybe clear that, notwithftanding of this, oaths 
are of a moft ftri£t obligation, having the great and dread- 
ful name of God interpofed in them ; and that many things, 
whatever weight be laid on them by men that way, do not 
loofe from it, fuch as thefe following which we fhall put 
by, in the firft place. 

1. No man's temporal lofs in goods, name, or efrate, will 
loofe him from his oath, nor make it null and void, Pfal. 
xv. u/t. 2, that our engagement by oath is to fomething of its 
own nature indifferent, will not loofe us, though there be 
here no other tie upon us to the thing, and that without the 
oath we were free; yet the oath once engaged in, will tie 
us, as is clear from that fame fifteenth Plalm. For an oath 
is of its own nature obligatory, and according to Numb. . 
xxx. Perfons at their own difpofe muft do even in fuch 
cafes as they have bound their fouls. 3. Though we were 
engaged in the oath by the deceit and guile of others, the 
deceit being circumfiantial only, yet if the thing be not fin- 
ful, it bindeth us, as is clear in that oaih to the Gibeonites, 
wherein the deceit was fuch 4. Though by fear or violence 
the oath had been extorted, yet the matter being lawful, it 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 159 

bindeth becaufe of the honour of God's name interpofed. 
5. Though ic was finful as to the manner, and rafhly made 
at firft, as that with the Gibeonites was ; yet is it binding, 
if hwful in the matter, there being a great difference betwixt 
juramentum i/licituto, an oath unlawfully come under as to 
its mariner, and juramentum de re illicita t an oath in an un- 
lawful matter. 6. Though we could devife and find out 
fome interpretation or meaning of the words of the oatli 
that might ieem to make for looting us from its obligation : 
yet, if that was not meaned at the firft tendering of the oath, 
but otherwife underftood by him that did take it, it will 
not ablblvc nor excufe from the guilt of perjury, To put 
afterwards a new glofson it ; becaufe an oath hjlrifti juris § 
and will not admit for any refpect nor en any account, of 
interpretations prejudicial to the native truth of it, left it 
fhould be found to be, according to Pfal. xxiv. a fwearing 
deceitfully. 7. Though there may be a good meaning and 
intention in reverfing the oath, and going crofs to ir, men 
not doing fo for a particular end of their own, but for a 
public good as is fuppofed ; yet that will not abfolve from 
the obligation of the oath, nor from the guilt of per- 
jury, as is clear in God's punifhing Saul's family for break- 
ing that oath with the Gibeonites, even though he did it out 
of his zeal to the children of Ifrael and Judah, as the fcrip- 
ture exprefly affirmeth, 2 Sam. xxi. 2. 8. Though the 
oath be conceived by a creature, as at leaft the immediate 
object of it, and fo ilnfully made in that refpeel; yet, be- 
ing made, it tieth from refpeel due to God, who fiiineth in 
his creatures, Matth. xxiii. 19, 20, 2r. 9. Though the 
thing become impoffible, if that impoffibility might have 
been prevented by our fearching ourfelves as far as in us 
lay, we are not freed from the guilt of perjury, though the 
thing fworn do now by our own lloathfulnefs become im- 
pcfiible ; or if the thing fworn might have been performed 
before any fuch impoffibiiity came on ; or if we might have 
prevented it by our fuitable circumfpedlion and diligence. 
10. Though a finful oath, to wit, being made on a linful 
promife, in itfelf, bind notj yet the finful condition being 
fulfilled, it bindeth; as in the cafe of Judah, his promifing 
a kid to Thamar, upon that wretched condition of profti- 
tuting herfelf to his finful luft, who did offer the perfor- 
mance of what he had engaged to, upon that raoft finful 
condition now fulfilled, for the condition being fulfilled, 
the promife is abfolute ; and the fin was not in giving the 
kid, but in the condition that was made, which is paft. 11. 
Much lefs will it exempt any man from the guilt of perjury, 
that in fwearing he had a meaning of the words of the oath, 


t6s An Expofition of Com. 3. 

contrary to wl at in common fenfe they bear, and in the 
conftruftion of all indifferent perfons, or to their meaning 
fine jaramento, or extra juramentum : or that he had any 
refervation in his own mind ; the hrft is, equivocation ; 
the fecond is, mental refervation, that have no place in 
fuch an oath which fhould be plain, fingle, and clear. Nci- 
ther 12. Will a difpeniation from any other, as for inftaoce, 
from the Pope, who hath no power to difpenfe in oaths, 
nor from lawful fuperiors, except it be in things wherein 
by our relation to fuch fuperiors we are fubjected to them, 
loofe the obligation of our oath, nor free us from the guilt 
fcf perjury ; if, I fay, the matter of the oath be in things to 
which their power over us doth not extend, in fuch things 
doubtlefs they cannot difpenfe 13. The obligation of an 
oath cannot be loofed, nor the guilt of pcijury evited by 
commutation of the thing fworn, for it muH be accor 
to what is proceeded out of our mou-.h, Numb. xxx. 2. 
Pfal. xv. 4. 14 Nor can it be loofed, and perjury efc hew- 
ed, by an pofteriour tie and oath : for thereby the prior 
or former oath is not made null, but the pofteriour or lat- 
ter is made null by the former, for juramenlurn non derogat 
juri alienoy becaufe God is party, and we cannot reverie an 
obligation to him, which he or any other hath by a prior 
right and tie, 

But they are null and of no force, 1. When the thing 
fworn is (inful and unlawful in itfelf, becaufe there is, nuU 
Inm vinculum iniqait at is j there is not, neither can there be, 
any obligation to iniquity. 2. When it is unlawful to him 
that fweareth, as fuppofe one would fwear to do that which 
were incumbent for a magiftrate or minifter, he himfelf be- 
ing but a meer private perfon, and it no ways belonging to 
his ftation : it tieth him indeed to endeavour by all fuitable 
means the affecting of the thing by them, but not to do it 
himfelf, for it altereth not ftatioas. 3. When the thing is 
limply impcffible, oaths cannot bind, in that rale. ^. When 
the oath is engaged in by any, in whofe power the thing 
fworn is not, as by children, wives, fervants, or fubjects, 
in fuch things wherein they are fubject to others, and of 
which they are not mafters ; it tieth them only to endea- 
vour it with their approbation or permiffion, fee Nvrmb. 
xxx. 5. When the deceit is not in circumftantials, but in 
effcntials •, as, fuppofe one fhould fwear to fuch an other 
perfon to pay him fuch a debt, or to give fuch and fuch o- 
bedience, thinking him to be the very perfon to whom he 
oweth thefc things, who yet is not the perfon we fuppofe 
him to be -, the ground of the oath is null, and its obligati- 
on accordingly ceafeth, as when Jacob was deceived by his 


Com. 3. the Ten Canmandmcnls. lit 

getting Leah firft for rachel, becaufe fuch an oath wrong- 
eth another, to whom that which is fworn is due, and fup- 
pofeth the condition of being due. 6. When the oath is im- 
peditive of a greater good, or of a moral duty ; as fuppofe 
a man had fworn not to go to fuch a place, nor to fpeak to 
fuch a perfon, nor to eat fuch meat ; that oath (being at 
firft ram, and without judgment) if duty and neceflity call 
him to the contrary of what he hath fworn, bindeth not, 
becaufe a moral command may require him to go thither 
to take on fuch a charge there, or to fpeak to that perion 
for his edification, &c. yet this would be tenderly applied 
and with great circumfpeclion. 7. When the oath isinter- 
pofed to oblige to the performance of fome thing which 
have a tendency to an ill end ; as for inftance, if a man 
fliould fwear to meet with a woman -or committing filthi- 
nefs, to give armies for helping to oppofe an innocent, or 
any fuch likv thing ; for though coming to fuch a place, or 
giving luch armies may be lawful, yet as fo circumftantial ; 
this coming, and this giving of them with fuch an intention, 
is unlawful, and therefore the oath is null. 

For looting from the obligation of an oath which is law- 
ful, there are thefe cafes granted. 1. When it is contra* 
di£tz i by a fuperior, having power in that very particular, 
as Numb, xxx 2. When the cafe materially altereth, as 
if one mould fwear to give fuch a man armes, who after- 
ward turneth mad, or an enemy 5 to give obedience to fuch 
a commander, who afterwards becometh a private man, and 
ceafeth to be any more a commander 5 becaufe in fuch cafes 
the relation upon which the dutyand oath is founded, ceafeth. 
3. When the party fworn unto, relaxeth us: For though 
none can abfolve from a vow, yet in a promiflbry oath, 
whereby fome right accureth to one from another, a man 
may difpenfe with his own right; as for inftance, he may 
in whole, or in part, forgive and difcharge fuch a fum of 
money that another by oath has fworn to give him, which 
when he doth, in fo far the oath and its obligation is loofed •, 
he having, as himfelf thinketh fit, accepted fatisfadtion for 
whole or part ; but in vows to God no man can difpenfe, 
he being party there. 4. When by fome after and unfore- 
seen enterveening emergent, the man is quiet difabled from 
performing his oath, as by ficknefs, plundering, <bc. In 
that cafe fo far and fo long as he is difable, in fo far and fo 
long is he loofed ; that condition being neceflarily prefup« 
pofed in giving the oath at firft, though the obligation to 
performance lieth ftill on him fo far and fo foon as he {hall 
be able. 

It may be marked by the tf ay, That often prophanexnen 

i6l An Expo/ttion cf Com. 3. 

are more fhict in keeping finful oaths, than thofe who are 
Jawfu! : the devil putting home that obligation on them as 
a fnire, and their own corruption fidiog with the oath in 
its matter, maketh it appear itrongly binding to them. 

If h be afked, Wherein it is that an oath bindeth more 
than a promife doth ? 

' Ahfw. An oath bindeth to nothing but what is in the pro- 
mife, but it bindeth more ftrongly, and fo the fin i3 great- 
er in breaking an oath than a promife ; becaufe not only 
our truth to men is engaged in the oath, but our reverence 
and refpeel to God alfo, and his dreadful name thereby no- 
tably taken in vain. 

So then againft this doctrine of oaths faileth perjury or 
forfvvearing, rafb fwearing, indeliberate fwearing, as-in corn* 
pliments (as for inftance, ?f one fhould fwear he wilj not 
drink, or go before fuch another perfon :) Solemn oaths 
entered into, at communions, at baptifm, or i> other law- 
ful covenants not performed ; ah i how often are thefe bro- 
ken, even in that which we might eafily do ? We fo carry 
and keep to God as men could not but quarrel ; irreverent 
fwearing even in that which is right ; grofly prophane fwear- 
ing, as by God's foul, his wounds, blood, &t\ Uncothed, 
ftrange, newly-coined and invented oaths, no doubt by fpe- 
cial help of the devils art ; curfings, wherein the d^vil is 
mentioned, and his aid implored for this execution of mens 
paffionate and revengeful imprecations ; yea, not being fait* 
ably affected with the oaths of others,, net admonifhirig them, 
nor feeking to recover them, not endeavouring by all re- 
quiiite care the preventing of them, with- holding ofinftruc- 
tion and correction when called for, and not procuring the 
erection of fchools, &c may make many guilty of oarhs they 
never heard, when they fall out in perfons, whom it became 
them to teach and admonilh, &c. 

There are fome things near of kin unto (to fay fo) and of 
affinity with oaths; as 1. Adjurations, when we adjure or 
charge one by the name of God to do or forbear fuch a 
thing ; as Saul bound the people with a curfe, *\ Sam. xiv. 
And Jofhua charged Achen, Jofh. vii. and the high-pricfk 
Chrilt, Matriuxxvi. and Paul Timothy, 1 Tim. v. 21. and 
iri. 13. 

Adjurations differ thus from oaths, that by an oath we 
bind ourfelves to do or forbear fomewhat, or to tell truth ; 
by adjurations we bind others by interpofing the name of 
God for commanding, charging, perfuadmg to do or for- 
bear fuch a thing, and implying, if not exprtfiing fome 
threatning or curie if it be not done or forborne : There are 
three fens of thclc ia fcripture, 1. - When men adjure mm. 

2. When 

Com. 3* the Ten Commandments. itij 

2. When they adjure devils. 3. When they*adjure unrea- 
lizable creatures, as ferpents, drr. To each of thefe, a word. 

As to the !. We fay that men may fometitriw adjure 
other men in matters weighty, fuitable, and neccfTary to bj 
done, when it is rightly gone about, and not in paffion or 
for felf ends, but foberly, gravely, and fingly for the glory 
of God immediately or mediately, by another's good being 
interpofed; fo, many examples confirm, and fo necefiiry 
rcquireth, that when regard to men doth not fuitably weigh, 
that fuch a defire be put home to the confeience" from re- 
fpeft to God and his authority, who is witnefe and will 
judge ; this fome way fifteth a man before God, and fo may 
prove a good means, through his bleffing, to make the man' 
terious ; which fort of adjurations may be diftinguifhed thu£. 

i . There are proper adjurations or charges authoratauvely 
laid on in the name of God, or of Jefus Chriit ; this is done 
by magiftrates and minifters in their places, ?.s Paul charg- 
cth Timothy, I Tim. vi. 13. and givethhim charge tochargc 
others ver. 17. This being ufed in ferious and weighty 
matters, and not too frequently (left the name of God be- 
come thereby contemptible) k the cioft proper and moft 
weighty charge. 

2. Th^re are obteftations which are ferious and weighty 
mtreattes and befeechiags in the name of God, and for 
Chrift's fake, that one may do or forbear fuch a thing, as 
when Paul befeecheth the Romans and Philippians by the 
mercies of God, Rcmi. xii. Phil, ii 1, 2. and Abigail inter- 
pofeth feriouily with David : this is moft properly done by 
inferiors, fubjecrs, children, be. to their fuperiors ; and 
hath in it alfo a more implicite threatning if fuch a thing be 
(lighted, as in Abigail's words to David, I Sam.xxv. is clear* 

3 There are attentions, whereby one is feriouflyput to 
it to tell fome truth, cr to bear witnefs of fome truth amer- 
ced by another; thus Jofhua attefted Achan. 

4. We fay, Thefe have a binding virtue in fome cafe?, 
and cunnot without contempt of God (who fo chargeth 
them, and before whom they are fo att-dred) be flighted ; 
and therefore if it be not properly perjury for a man, either 
not to fpeak at all, being attefted, or to fpeak what is not 
truth ; yet fure it is more than ordinary contempt, and a 
greater fin, than if no fuch adjurations; atteftation~, or 
obteftations had been ufed, becaufe the name of the Lord 
has been interpofed by others : and if fuch atteftations, 
be lawful, as we have proved them to be in fome cafes, theti 
ought they to have weight, or they are ufed in vain ; we fee 
our Lord Chrift anfwered to fuch, Macth. xxvi. after a 
whiles keeping filence. 

X z And 

164 ^ n Expo/ttion 9/ Com. 3. 

And in reference to thefe ye fail, f . In giving little en- 
tertainment unto, and laying little weight upon the charges 
and obteftations of minifters, which come unto you by them 
from this word and gofpel $ thefe charges of minifters are, 
as if an herauld gave a charge in the magiftrates name, which 
bindeth us from him, and more than another meflage deli- 
vered in other terms. In this then, minifters are asheraulds, 
charging you in their mafter's name, even in the name of 
the great God, and of Jefus Chrift, the Prince of the kings 
of the earth. 

2. When one of you putteth not another ferioufly to if f 
to forbear and abandon fin, or to prattife fuch a duty, 
charging them, or rather obtefting them, as they will an- 
fwer to God to do fo, as often in the Canticles we find, / 
charge yoit) daughters of Jenifalem. 

3. In your overly, rafh, and flight way of ufing obtefta- 
tions and grave intreaties, meerly or moftly for the fafhion, 
or by way of compliment, or in petty and trivial things ; as 
when ye fay, for God's fake, for Gc*Ps bleffing do this or 
that, only as a cuftomary by-word ; this is no doubt more 
than an ordinary taking of God's name in vain in common 
difcourfe, becaufe ye take on you to bind others in the name 
of God, not confidering what ye are doing -, and in a mat- 
ter not neceflary, and of no weight, expofiwg the name of 
the Lord to contempt, and thereby tempting others to care 
but little for it ; this is a mod horrid and crying fin amongft 
our ordinary beggars, whereof others alfo are guilty, who 
are not fuitably affected with it, and do not in their places 
ferioufly endeavour to have it mended $ as alfo this is, when 
we defire one another lightly and irreverently to do fuch 
and fuch a little thing in the name of God, as to fit down 
or rife up, in God's name, &c* which thipgs are alas, too 
too frequent. 

2. For adjuring of devils, it is two ways lawful, and two 
ways not. 

1. It is lawful to command devils in the name of God by 
thofe who are called to it, and are gifted to caft them out. 
2. Is it lawful for any by prayer to God, and the cxercife 
of faith on him, to endeavour to repel and refift them ; and 
to beg that he would rebulce them ; as thus, the Lord re- 
buke thee Satan 5 this way, we neither command the devil, 
nor pray to him, but pray unto the Lord to command him. 

Again : It is unlawful. 1. When one adjureth him, who 
is not called to it, as thofe fbns of Sceva did, Acts xix. I3> 
14. This certainly being a peculiar and extraordinary gift, 
as thofe of prophefing, for- telling of things to come, fpeak- 
ing with tongues, and healing of the fick with a word, 

were 3 

Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 16+ 

were; ought not without fpecial warrant to be ufurped 
more than they. 

2. It is unlawful when it is done by exhorting or obtefting 
of, or praying 'jnto the devil himfelf, and entreating him 
as we do God, which way implieth. 1. Firft friendfhip 
with him, when we intreat him as a friend. 2. Prayer or 
worfhip to h\iA 9 who is not the cbjedt of it. 3. An obligation 
on us to him, when he yieldeth to obey ; and he will not 
fail, if by any means he can, to put that compliment or ob- 
ligation on us, and fo Necromancers, Witches, Exorcifts* 
&c. may caft out devils by collufion (though pofSbly not in 
a way fo explicit) whereby the devil gaineth his point upon 
fuch, as effectually is if there were a moft exprefly formed 
covenant betwjxc him and them ; and this the Pharifees 
falfly and ilafphemoufly, charged on our blefled Lord, 
Matth. xii ~j if by Belz^oub ; that is, by collufion with the 
prince of devils, he had caft out devils. There are no doubt 
many fins committed this way, while fome take on them 
confidently to command the devil, as if to avoid Satan, they 
could put him into bonds : and others feek health from de- 
vils or witches, (efpecially, when it is fuppofed to come 
from them,) and intreat them to do fuch and fuch things ; 
All which are breaches of this part of the third command- 

3. What is faid of adjuring devils, may be faid propor- 
tionally gf adjuring reasonable creatures, which is the fame 
ways lawful and unlawful : Charming alfo, and naming the 
Lord's name over difeafes, as if fome fpecial worth and ef* 
ficacy were in fome words \ is unlawful and condemned by 
this command. 

It followeth now that we may fay fomething to vows* 
which are bonds whereby a man bindeth himfelf (and fo they 
differ from adjurations) to God only as party, and that in 
things belonging to God ; willingly, and upon deliberation* 
(And fo they differ from promiffory oaths, wherein we bind 
ourfelves to others } and in matters which are not of them- 
fcWes religious. 

Under vows we comprehend. 1. Sacraments. 2. Cove- 
nants, folemnly engaged into before others. 3. Particular 
vows to God. 4. Promifes and engagements, whether in- 
ward, in the heart only, or alfo outwardly exprtiled to, or 
before the Lord : For though they have not always God's 
name, formally and exprefly interpofed in them ; yet he 
being party, and they being made to him, he cannot but be 
fingularly looked at, as party, witnefs and judge, in the 
making and performing of them : Therefore, do we com-* 


i £6 An Expsfithn of Com. 3, 

prehend aN even purpofes, exprefied in prayer to him, a* 
being of the fame kind, tho* not of the like degree. 

We mind not here to meddle with fpeculative debates a» 
kont -ows, but to hold us only at what concerneth practice : 
And fay, 1 .' That fuch promifes to God, and engagements, 
being rightfy made and taken on, or rightly gone about; 
are not only lawful, but fometimes neceffarily calltd for as 
appeareth. i. From the command which is to vow, as 
well as to perform. Pfal. Ixxvi. 11. 2. From example of 
faints in all apes ; David faith, Pfal. cxix. when his frame 
is mo'ft tender, verfe 57. Ihavefaid, I will keep thy words. 
And thereafter, verfe 106 I have /worn, and will perform 
it\ Thai I will keep thy righteous judgments. For, faying 
and {wearing to God are near the fame ; and who fincercly 
fay in fecrbt, may in fome cafes alfo articulatly fwear. 3. 
From the end cf vows, which is to bind us to fomething the 
more ftraitly, ^nd to evidence our greater defire and wil- 
iingnefs, to be fo bound ; And therefore they being midfes 
for that end ; when the end is in a fpecial manner called for 
;<nd may, in all probability, be the better obtained, by the 
ufe of this mean : Then it is called for alfo, and cannot be 
omitted. 4. From the Lord's gracious accepting of fuch 
engagements and vows, and approving of them. 5. From 
the fever?,! promifes and prophecies of them, as commend- 
able and good fervice, from men to God under the gofpel, 
ifa. xix. i3. and 21. Jer. 1. 4, 5. Ifa. xliv. 5. 

So then, I lay, 1. In fome cafes •, to wit, when it glori- 
fietb God, and edifieth others; or, is profitable to ourfelves: 
But if that word thwart with any of thefe, there is a failing ; 
or when fome preffure of fpirit, or cogent reafon putteth 
us not to it, or fome great need calleth for it ; (as Abraham, 
for the weighty reafon, expreffed by himfelf, Genefis xiv. 
Swore we would take none of the fpoil, he had refcued from 
the kings over-come by him : For we are not always called 
to it. 

2. I fay, Not in all things ; Becaufe the matter of a vow, 
rnuft be one of thefe two : Either, 1. Some commanded 
duty, as Jacob's vow, Gen. xxviii. and David's, Pfal. cxix. 
icO. were: Or, 2. Something that relateth to worfhip ; 
or, may further fome commanded duty, or prevent fome 
(xn > to which we are given, and much inclined : Asfuppofe 
A man fhould engage him (elf to rife fooner in the morning, 
that he might the more effectually crois the luft of his lazi- 
jiefs; and to keep more at home, the better to prevent the 
fonre of evil, and loofe company : It is not houfe-keeping 
frnpfy, or rifing foon, that is the matter of his vow ) but 


Com, 3» the Ten Comtnandnunts. 16 * 

as they relate unto, or are made ufe of for fuch ends ; 
Therefore vows can only be made to God alone, Plal L\x\i. 
II. and Phi. exxxii. 2. 

3. I lay, Rightly gone about : That is, 1, Deliberately, 
and judicioufly ; for, ignorance, hafte, and ralhnels 
fpill all. 2. With humility ; and due fenfe of our own cor- 
ruption, which maketh us, (Alas!) to ftand in 

fuch bands to keep it in, and of fuch up-ftirrings and ex- 
citements to duty. 3. With fear, finglencfs, and zca 
God ; with love to his honour, and to true holinefs ; Not 
for our feif ends, to gratify, an humour or pafiion, or ia 
fits of convi&ion, to flop the mouth of a challenge, and fo 
put it by. 

4. The vow would be heartily, and chearfully undertak- 
en, not as a piece of bondage, but of liberty, that we may be 
thereby indeed engaged unto the Lord, having no hink or 
hesitation ; nor refervation in the making of it : What can 
be expedted as to the performance, if there be hefitation, ia 
the very undertaking ? 

5. There fhould be much deniednefs in it. 1 . To ourfelves 
2. To the oath, as not accounting ourfelves to be more re- 
ligious by k ; or more pleafing to God, as if it merited 
fbmewhat, nor yet more ftrengthned by making of it, but 
more engaged to perform and keer>what we have vowed. 

6. There fhould be diligence in doing, going on, and help- 
ing and inciting others to join with us ; that fo it may thro* 
grace be made irrecoverable, which is the practice of the 
people of God, Jer. 1. 4, 5. 

7. There fhould be engaging, in the lively exercife of 
faith ; drawing ftrength from Jefus Chrift, according to his 
own promife ; .and ofr ourfelves to make ufe of him, for that 
end : Yea, that iliould be laid for the foundation of our 
undertaking: Therefore everyfuch engaging, ijs a covenant- 
ing with God, and there is no covenanting with hirn, bu* 
by interpoflng of Jefus Chrift, both for the procuring of 
pardon for by part failings and guilt ; and for grace and 
ftrength, to perform, called for and engaged into duties, 
for the future. See a frame of Spirit, fit for covenanting, 
when ferioufly and fuitably gone about, Jer. 1. 4, 5. 

Concerning thefe engagements, we fay. 2. That they 
are of tbemfelves obligatory, and binding to thofe who come 
under them, as Numb. xxx. 2, 3, 3. Vowing is called the 
binding of a man's foul ; and PiaJ. Ivi. 12. it is (aid, Thy vows 
are upon me % God % as preffiag him with a weight, till they 
were payed. 

If it be afked, 1. How vows binds? We anfwer, 1. \\\ 
moral duties, they make the obligation, no greater ; for* 


168 Jn Expofition of Com. 3. 

they being laid on by the command of God, and having his 
authority, there can be no addition to that in itfelf : But 
there is a two-fdd addition, I. In refpett of us ; fo that 
though the obligafion be not greater in itfelf, yet we join 
our approbation or oonfent unto that, whereby, as by apo- 
fitive fuperadded voluntary confent, we bind ourfelves ; fo 
that in fome refpedt we have two bonds (the law; and our 
oath both) for one. 2. Though it make not the former o- 
bligation to bind more ftrongly in itfelf: Yet it maketh 
that obligation to have a more deep impreffion upon us ; fo 
that a man, by vow bound to a commanded duty, will 
think himfelf more bound to it than before; and that 
command will have a deeper impreffion, and more weight 
on him, to perfuade him to do, and to challenge him when 
he hath omitted, than before. Again, in things that are 
merely acceffaries to a religious end, as extrinfic means; for 
itiftance, fading, flaying at home, vowing, never maketh 
the doing of thefe of themfelves to be afts of religious wor- 
fiiip ; but it it maketh our keeping of them to be by a religi- 
ous tie ; fo that without prophanity they cannot be altered 
out of the cafe of neceffity. 

If it be afksd, 2. What is to be thought of our common 
and ordinary engagements, 1. By baptifm. 2. At the 
Lord's (upper. 3. By oaths in covenants. 4. Engagements 
in private to God by vows, purpofes, promifes refolutions, 
in thoughts within 5 or, expreffed in prayer : (I fuppofe it 
doth not a little concern all of you to know, how they bind 
and when they are broken.) We anfwer. 

1. That, all thefe are binding, and ftill accounted fo, 
(Pfal. cxix. 106. Pfal. lxvi.) is not to be doubted, yen, bind- 
ing in an eminent degree, as being made to God and not 
only before him ; The nature of the thing and our confent 
alfo bindeth: For, 1. If interpofing the name of God to 
men doth bind, much more to God. 2. if a promife fo- 
lemnly ratified bind to men, much more to God. Hence 
q. Our obligation in baptifm and the Lord's fupper, receive 
ftrength and conviction againft us from the covenanr, 
-Mrhich we folemnly retify and renew with God therein, and 
that before the world : And our breach of thefe vows is 
charged on us by the Lord, as an open breach of his cove- 
nant ; the obligation whereof is pleaded from them, Gen, 
xvi. ver. 10. and 14. and elfe- where. 

2. Yet they do not bind absolutely, as the duty lieth u- 
pon us, and as we fhould aim at it ; for though we be bound 
by the law to be perfe&ly holy, and without fin ; yet doth 
not a vow fo tie us, or that obligation is not from our vow 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. t6o 

but from the law ; becaufe our vow is to be underftood, 

1. With refpecl to our nature, now corrupt and finful : 
And therefore to vow, abfolutely, to be without fin, or 
abfolutely to abftain from it, is injurious and impoffible. 

2. With refpeft to our aim and defire. 2. With rcA 
pc6l to our not approving, or difaproving ourfelves in 
any thing, wherein we come fhort. 4. In refpeft of 
the obligation to endeavour it, which is, always and by 
all fuitable means to prefs at it, and to leave nothing undone 
which may further it: So then, 1. they do not bind abfo- 
lutely or fimply, but refpectively. 2. Not as to the the vic- 
tory, but as to the wreftling and fighting for victory. 3. Not 
as to the event, but as to the means which are in our power, 
and therefore fome plead, That they had not broken cove- 
nant, though they had fins, Pfal. lxiv. 17. 

3. Tho' they bind not fimply or abfolutely, (and are not, 
therefore to be fo taken and underftood) yet they tie abfc-- 
lutely, 1. To the main, of having God ours in Chrift. 2. In * 
other things, thus : 

1. They tie us to live in no known fin, efpecially, out- 
ward fins, and to delight in none. 2. To omit no known 
duty, but to eflay the doing of it. 3. As to the manner, to 
efiay it ferioufly ; fo that though a man cannot fwear, that 
he (hail have no corruption in him, while he is upon earth : 
Yet, in fo far he may : As 1. Not to approve of it. 2. To 
leave no means uneffkyed, confiding in his knowledge, that 
may help to mortify it, 3. Serioufly, and in good earned, 
to be aiming at the mortification of it, in the ufe of thefe. 
And fo this tie of a vow is, I. As far as in us lieth. 2. As 
univerfal as the duty is. 3. Conftant and always binding, 
4. When it is taken on, we fhould not let it lie on, (to fay 
fo) till the fun go down, but endeavour that we may be free 
of it ; it bindeth us to quit fin, as well as to efchew it. It 
reaches not all infirmities, to make them breaches ; but 
known fins, or the leaft fins ftuck to. 

3. Concerning thefe vows, we fay that the breach of them 
is a very great fin, and doth much more aggravate f ir >ij£& 
where it is, than where it is not: So that, the fins of Chrif4|g 
tians againft baptifm, communions, oaths in covenants, fe-°'2# 7 
cret engagements, refolutions and promifes to God, are 
much greater than the fins of others. Hence the Lord char- 
geth Ifrael with covenant-breaking, by virtue of their cir- 
cumcifion which thcyhad received as a feal thereof, and ag- 
gravated all their fins by that, and looketh 00 them in that 
refpeft, as Angularly finful, Bent. xxix. 24. Jer. xxii. 8. 
4jc. which could not fo well be, i£ there were not fome pe- 
culiarity in that obligation. Our baptifm, doubtlefs, is ng 

Y k& 

170 An Expo/it ion of Com. 3, 

lefs binding unto us, nor the baptrfmal vows lefs (infill, 
Col. ii. iii 12. Neither can there tre any reafon given, why 
the breach of an oath to man, (hould be charged on a per- 
son, as a fin and infamy; and the breach of an oath to God 
not be much more charged fo. Oh ! Take notice then, ye 
who fin willingly, who drink, fwear, omit prayer \ let your 
minds wander, and ftudy not holinefs in good earned, that 
your fins have thefe aggravations to make them horrible, 
infamous, and inexcufaole; f. There is a manifeft perju- 
ry againft the oath of God, which even according to the 
Pharifees doctrine, Matth. xv. 33. was abominable : Thou 
fhalt not (fay they) forfwear thyfelf, but (halt pay or per- 
form thy oath to the Lord. 2. There is unfaithful dealing 
and abominable treachery, tobreak under, tiuft and to keep 
no engagement to him. 3. There is not only perjury, and 
treachery (imply y but towards God, which is more, and 
draweth a great deal deeper, than towards any other. It is 
dreadful to deal unfaithfully, treacheroufly, aod perjuri- 
oufly with him, 4. All this is in things that are very equi 
table, and much for your own god, which maketh no frnall 
aggravation. j. This is done not only againft promifes, but 
againfi: many promifes, and many other bands. 6. That it 
is often and in many things that you fin againfr thefe promi- 
fes. 7. That fin is little refented or laid to heart on this 
confideration, and as fo aggravated. 

gfy it be faid, Then it is better to make no ; pro- 
mifes at all, than to come under fuch aggravations of guilt 
by breaches of them, for none keep them exactly ; i\ nd fo 
men muft needs be in. great and continual difquietoefs and 
anxiety, while under them: Were it not better then, to be 
doing without promifing ? 

Anfw. 1. It is not free to us, Not to make chem more 
than it is to break them ; or n* t to keep them, and when we 
are called to make fuch promifes, and nvake them not, it be- 
cometh fin tons as was faid. I: is not free to us, whether we 
fhall be baptized communicate, &s or not -, therefore whpfo- 
ever, would not fo engage, were to be ceniured and punillied 
asutterdefpifers-of theLord's covenant, Gen.xvii. 14. Ex.xii. 

2. They, who refufe to take them, lay themfelvcs open to 

ihe temptation of being more eafily prevailed with, not to 

perform thefe duties, or of being fooner infnared in fuch 

fj s, becaufe they are not formally engaged by vow againfi: 

J fo they make themfelves culpably acceiTary to the 

gthni of tentation, and weakning of refolur.on ; to 

orjtraiy whereof, they are no doubt obliged. 

If you intend indeed to perform thefe duties, then ye 

v igc to do-fo \ but if ye will not fo much as promife 


Com. 3. the Ten CcmmzndmerJs* 17I 

and engage to do them, it cannot be expected in resfon 
that ye will do them; especially confidering that even thofe 
who honctily promife and engage, do yet notwithstanding, 
find a great difficulty to do and perform. O take heed that 
you be not, by your refufing to engage, making a back 
door for yourfelves to go out from your duty, that fo you 
may the more eafily, and with the Iefs challenge (Lift it. 

If it be yet faid, that the Gn of fimple omitting the duty, 
is lefs than the omitting of it'after engagements and vows to 
the contrary. Anpiv. \< It is not fo to a Christian, who is 
called to engage himfelf, yea, who by baptiim is already en- 
gaged ; for I. The man that neither engageth to do, nor 
doth the duty, faileth twice, whereas he that engageth and 
performeth not, failed* but once : though that one* failing 
is, by its being crofs to his engagement, not a little ag- 
gravated ; fo that in fome re (peel each fault or failing 
execedeth the other *, the one is a greater fin confidered in 
itfelf, but the other is greater -coniidered complexly. 2. The 
man that engageth not, is more acceflary to his own falling! 
in refpeft that he ufed not that mean to prevent it ; yet the 
other when fallen, is more guilty, in refpe£t of the bread* 
of his engagement. 3. The manthat will not engage, bring- 
«th himfelf under a neceility of iinning ; for if he perform 
not, he faileth twice, as is faid if he perform he faileth, be- 
caufe he engaged no,t when he was called to it : So his per- 
forming, is not the performing* vow to God, who requreth 
promifing, in fome cai'es at ieaft, as well as performing. 
4. The man that promifeth and voweth, and aifo perform- 
eth what he promifed and vowed, his performing is fo much 
the more acceptable, as it proceedeth not only from the 
awe of a command, but from a fpotaneous and free will of- 
fering of it to God, and fo is both obedience to a command 
and the performance of a vow ; for thus he chufeth obedi- 
ence, as it is, pfal. -cxix. 33. It is not fo with the other, whe- 
ther he perform it or not, though we think, that God of- 
ten letteththe man fall that will not engage, becaufe he iay- 
eth by his refufal, that he trufteth not to God for the per- 
formance, otherwifehe would engage and undertake on his 
account alfo ; he faith with all, that he aimeth to perform 
only becaufe he cannot efchew it; And if he could (hake 
ofT, and be freed from that obligation to holinefs, that he 
would not out of refpeft to God, or love to holinefs, take 
on a new one. 5. The man that engageth not, (inneth 
more innexcuiUbly in that he will not do that which is the 
lefler f and in his power. The lefs and more eafy a thing it 
be to promife and engage (as it is no doubt more eify than 
to perform) the omiilion of it is the greater fin, and more 

Y 2, inexcuf- 

172 An Expofition of Com. 3. 

inexcufable. The cafe is indeed, as to heathens, otherwife, 
who were never thus engaged, nor called to engage them- 
selves: but, unto Chriftians it will be no exeufe. 

If it be replied, that this is very hard ; for then no Chrif- 
tian will be free of peijury, nor have peace. Anfw. 1. I 
grant the cafe is hard, and the ftrait great •, but it is fuch as 
floweth from our own corruption in this, as in other duties 
and parts of holinefs : for as the law. is holy, juft, and good, 
Rom. vii. and is not to be blamed, as acceffary to our fin > 
fo the vow is holy, juft, and good, and is not to be blamed, 
if in the circumftances right, becaufe of our breach, 2. As 
I think, it is hard to keep ourfelves free of fin, even againft 
light; fo I think, it is a difficulty to be kept free of this ag- 
gravation of fin, to wit, of our committing it againft our 
engagements ; and therefore (as the manner of the people 
of God is) I think it fafeft to take with thefe aggravations 
of our fins, as chief parts of them (to fpeak fo) and to take 
them with the reft to Jefus Chrift, that we may obtain par- 
don of them through him, and to maintain our peace ra- 
ther by often wafhing ourfelves from the filth of breaking, 
than by pleading no breach at all. 3. Yet may Chriftiaos 
even as in other duties of holinefs) in their vows and pro- 
mifes to God, have peace, and fay, in a gofpel fenfe, We 
have not turned back from thee, nor dealt falfly in thy co- 
venant, as it is, Pfal xliv. 17, 18 which certainly implieth 
not abfolute holinefs, or exaft performance of all the arti- 
cles of the covenant ; but that r. In the great and main ar- 
ticles they were honeft, and did not put another God in his 
room to provoke him to jealoufy. 2. That they intended 
truly the keeping of all, and faid nothing by their profeflion 
or engagements, which they minded not to perform. 3. That 
they had (brae teftimony as to what was pait, that they had 
in fome meafure walked according to their engagements, 
and had left nothing undone, at leaft willingly, and with 
approbation of thernfelves therein, that might have fur- 
thered them in keeping covenant, but had ftuck to him in 
doing and fuftering honeflly ; a man fincerely and in the 
ftrength of grace ftudying this, may attain to fuch a tefti- 
mony from his own confcienee, and to a good meafure of 
peace ; yea, a man that may have quietnefs in his perfor- 
ming duty upon the account of other ties, without engage- 
ing, may alfo come to have quietnefs in his engageing to it. 

If then there be a neceffity to engage, it may be alked, how 
peace may be attained in it, and how we may be helped to 
perform ? Anfw. 1. We would endeavour to be clear and 
quiet, as to the foundnefs of our bf-paft engagements, and 
of thefe we prefently enter in, as to the motives, grounds, 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 173 

ends, and manner of engagehig, that all be right there. 2. 
If any thing be feen to be wrong, it fliould be taken with, 
and mended, that we ufe not vows mainly to put by a chal- 
lenge for the time, without any more of it. 3. Ye fliould 
ferioufly mind thefe directions. 

1 . Forget not your vows and engagements, be minding them 
often, and thinking of them, fo as they may never be for- 
gotten, Jer. 1. 4, 5. 2. Defer not to pay them, Ecclcf. v. 
4. Deut. xxiii. 2 1 . Delays make the impreffion of the weight 
of the vow, and of the dread of him to whom it is made, 
much to wear out ; and, taking liberty to be flack in paying 
of it, for, but for this once, or for a little while, is a dircft 
breach of itfelf, and maketh way for more. 3. Keep in 
mind, and entertain fuch a frame of fpirit as ye wore in, 
when they were at firft made ; fuch humility, tendernefs, 
awe of God, 6c. We often, alas, take on vows in a good 
frame, to be on the matter a fort of excufe for us, in let- 
ting fuch a frame go, or at leaft, to eafe us a little for the 
time, as if engaging were performance, which is not the 
leaft part of the deceit of our hearts. 4. The performance 
of the thing would be followed as it is undertaken, to wit, 
in the ftrength of grace, and by virtue of life drived from 
Jefus Chrift, quickning and ftrengthening us both as pro- 
mifing and performing, 5. We fliould be often confider- 
ing the fearfulnefs of the iin of breaking, aod examining 
ourfelves about our keeping of them ; making breaches, 
that are particularly obferved, the matter of confefEon to 
God, and of ferious repentance before him. If we would 
fuffer thefe things to fink down deep in us as in the light of 
God ; this no doubt would make them have a quite other 
impreffion. 6. We fliould ftill keep the knot faft, and if 
one promife or refolution feem to be loofed, we fliould 
forthwith call another j or if one obligation given, feem to 
be weakned, if we fliould give another, that there may be 
ftill fome obligation {landing over our heads : and follow- 
ing engagements, not formally, but foberly and ferioufly 
renewed, may be made ufe of to bind on the former upon 
us, and to make them more effectual, fo fay they, Jer. 1. 4, 
5. going, and weeping as they go, Come let us join ourfelves 
unto the Lord in a per pi :ual covenant % never to be forgctien. 
This is to be underftood moftly, if not only, of private en- 
gagements; as for public folemn oaths and covenants, we 
neither find in fcripture that they have been frequent, but 
l>n fome great and very -rave occafion ; neither couM they 
well be, (fo gr^at niultuudes engaging in them)without de- 
minifliing from the weight of them, and fo without wrong- 
ipg of God's name. 7, We fhould by no means fuffer 


174 ^ n Expofition of Com. 3. 

brcache?, though never fo fmall, to lie long on, but fhould 
get us to the fountain with them, as foul and loathfome, 
ku they bring on more and greater. 

Now then try perjury end breach of vows and oath to God. 
1. fo baptifm, which extendeth to engage profeffing believ- 
ers to the mortification of fin, and to the ftudy of holinefs 
afc to both tables of the law, and to a converfation as becom- 
erh the gofpel. 2. In, and at communions, where the fame 
covenant is fealed. 3. In your oaths folemnly taken in co- 
venants. 4. In your more private engagements to God and 
for him to others. 

Beikle thefe which are common, fome come under par- 
ticular oaths and engagements fry virtue of their ftations ; 
as mimfters, elders, magiftrates, for the faithful difcharge 
of their refpeftive duties; fome by their relations, office 
anJ place, as hufbands and wives each other ; as parents in 
reference to their children, to bring them up in the nurture 
2nd admonition of the Lord, and in his fear ; fome by vir- 
tue of their common trades and callings, have come under 
particular oaths to fuch and fuch incorporations, trades, 
6u. And fome on more particular occafions have come 
under engagements : O look well what ye do, and have 
done; there will, I fear, many be found perjured. I do 
not here fpeak of every particular infirmity, but certainly 
there is fin againft God, and perjury before him which can- 
not eafiiy, if at all be interpreted fo with men;, in which 
refpect, Mai. ii. the Lord condemned putting away an in- 
nocent wife, even though it feemed to have a permiffion by 
the law; in thefe things when men do not what they may 
do, or if there be yet more in their power than is done, or 
if the obligation of the oath 'on them awe them not, or 
weight them not to it, cannot but be a prophaning of the 
Lord's oath : many alas, according to their leveral relations 
and ftations. are found guilty here, who have little or no 
awe of God on them in thefe things. 

In fum, This command is broken thefe three ways, In 
reference to fuch engagements ; 1. In fliunning to make 
them when we are called to it. 2. In nor making them 
rightly. 3. In not performing of them when ma.de ; and it 
bindeth. 1. Abfolutely, to many things which cannot come 
within the compafs of ordinary infirmity. 2. Toefchew all 
known finful deeds, as fweariog, and may be inductive to 
St, drunkennefs, unlawful gaming, needlefs contentions, 6;, 
3 To do all outward duties, as to read, hear, pray, &c, 
4. To do them as ferioufly as we may. 5. Not to lie in a« 
ny leen or known fin here forbidden, nor to delay repen- 
taace, though for never fo little a whiles it difpenftih not 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments* 175 

all here, becaufe thefc are in power, and when wc fail it is 
not out of ordinary infirmity. 

Befide what is laid, there are yet two ways of taking or 
ufing the name of God, which are fib or of k\o to oaths \ 
The firft is that of appealing to Go J to judge, as David di<f f 
that God might judge betwixt him and jperfecuring Snuf, 1 
•Sam. xxiv. 12. The 2. is that of attefting God, thin, 
Lord kn r jiveth i God is my ivittiefs, my xvitnefs is in heaven, &c. 
as Job doth, chap. xvi. 19. and Paul Rom. i. 9. Thefe arc 
lawful when called unto and rightly gone about, but whea 
abufed in rafh, precipitant, paffionate appeals or in unjuft 
matter, as Sarah's was, Gen. xvi. and in rafh and unncef- 
fary atteftations or in trifHing matter \ they are more than 
an ordinary taking of God's name in vain, and therefore 
fhould never lightly be interpofed and made ule of. 

The great breach of this command isblafphemy, though 
perjury be moft direct. That we may fee how this fin r$ 
fallen into we (hall, 1. Define it; 2. Divide or diftinguifn 
it, which we (hall find to be exceeding broad ; blafphemy 
then againft God, {as the word beareth) is a wronging of 
God's holy majefty by fome reproachful fpeeches or expref. 
fions, uttered to his difgrace ; we fiy uttered, becaufe that 
which is in the heart is moft part atheifni and infidelity, and 
fo belongeth to the firft command. 

Of this there are three forts, or there are three ways 
whereby men fall into it: 1. When any thing unbecoming 
God, is in a word attributed to him, as that he is unjuft, un- 
holy, unmerciful, drc. fuch as that complaint, Ezek. xviii. 
25. The ways of the Lord are not equal. 2. When what is due 
to him is denied hirn ; as when he is faid not to be eceraai* 
omnifcient, almighty, fee* as he was by proud Pharaoh and 
railing Ptabfhakeh in his mafters name, who moft irifolent- 
ly talked at that high rate of blafphemv, Who is the Lord that 
1 fhould obey his voice % &c? Who is the Lord that is able ts is- 
liver you out of my hand? Exod. v. Ifa. xxxvi. 18, 20. 3. 
When what is due to God, is attributed to a creature, or 
arrogated by a creature : Thus the Jews charged Chrift as 
guilty of blafphemy, Luke vii. 49. and John x. 33. (fuppoi- 
ing him to be a creature) becaufe he forgave (ins, and cal- 
led himfelf God j of this fort of blafphemy as to fome de- 
gree of it, is the commending or crying up our own or o- 
thers parts, pains, wit, £>c. for attaining, effecting, and 
bringing to pafs of fomewhat to the prejudice of divine pro- 
vidence, fo thofe of Zidon did to Herod, Acts xii 2l. And 
thus often men make mediator* and faviouis as it were o'l 
themfelves and of other mea. 

ij6 An Expofition of Com. 3. 

2. This blafphemy may either be immediately and direct- 
ly againft God himfelf, or any of the perfons of the blefled 
God-head; or mediately and indire&ly againft him, when 
it is againft his ordinances of the word, prayer, facramenfs, 
ire. by vilifying them in expreffions, or againft his people, 
or the work of his Spirit in them : He is indire&ly blafphe- 
med in them, when they or it, are mocked ; as when Paul's 
much learning in the gofpelis called madnefs, or when real 
and ferious religion, repentance, or holinefs, are called con* 
ceitednefs, pride, precifenefs, fancy, ire. 

3. Blafphemy may be confidered, either as it is deliberate 
and purpofed, as in the Pharifces; or, 2. As it is out of 
infirmity, rafhnefs, and unwatchfulnefs, over expreffions : 
Or, 3. Out of ignorance, as Paul was a blafphemer before 
his converfion, 1 Tim. i. 15. 

4. It may be confidered, 1. i^ s * a g a ' n ft tne Father, 2. As 
againft the Son 3. As againft the Holy Ghoft ; all are 
fpoken of, Matth. xii. and Mark iii. 

1. Blafphemy againft the Father is, That which ftriketh 
cither againft the God-head (imply, or any of the attributes 
which are due to God, and fo its againft all the perfons in 
common ; or againft the trinity of perfons when it is denied, 
and fo that relation of Father in the God-head, is blafphe- 

2. Blafphemy againft the Son, is when either his God- 
head in the eternity of it is denied, as it was by the Photi- 
nians and Arians ; or when the diftin&ion of his natures in 
their refpe&ive true properties retained by each nature is de- 
nied 5 or when he is denied in his offices, as if he did not 
fatify divine juftice for the fins of the ele£t as a Priefl, which 
is done by the Socinians ; or, as if he had not the kingdom 
or authority ; or when other mediators, or other fatisfac- 
tions to juftice are fet up and put in his room \ or when 
another head and hufband to the church, prince, or pope; 
or another word than what is written are made and obtrud- 
ed upon her, and the like, whereof there are many in po- 
pery, in which refpedl antichrift is faid to have many names 
of blafphemy, Rev. xiii. 

3. Blafphemy againft the Spirit may be confidered, either 
as it is againft the third perfon of the God head, and fo it 
is againft the trinty : and was that error peculiar to Macedo- 
nia or the ^vi^ctTCAta^ci or pugnantes contra Spiriturri ; that i? 5 
fighters againft the Spirit ; or it may be confidered as it 
iooketh efpecially 10 the operation or work of that Spirit in 
a mans felf, and fo it is that peculiar blafphemy fpoken of, 
Mat. xii. 32. Which when all other blafphemies are declared 
to be pardonable, is faid never to be pardoned. This is the 


Com. 3; the Ten Commandments* 177 

highcft degree of blafphcmy, which may be fo, 1 I. In that 
it is not at any time fallen into by a believer or an elect 2. 
That it is not often fallen into, even by others that are re- 
probates. 3. That it is hardly known to the perfon himfelf 
that is guilty or it, but much lefs to o hers 4. That it is 
never repsnted of. and (we think) doth never affect, becaufe. 
it is never pardoned ; all other fins are pardonable, and ma- 
ny are actually pardoned. 

1. Thirfin then is not every fin, though all fins grieve the 
Spirit, Eph. iv 27. Nor 2. Is it any fin of infirmity or of ig- 
norance, even fuch as Paul's was : Nor 3. Is it any fin (even 
tho'againft knowledge) committed againii the fecond table of 
the law, (uch as David fell into, and may be pardoned : 
Nor 4. Is it every fin that is againft Chrift and clear light, 
for Peter jdenicd him, but it was of infirmity, Mat. xx. 70, 

But this fin is 1. In the main of the gofpel, and as to its 
faving work. 2. It is not only againft light, but againft the 
fpirits prefent teftifying of it, or bearing witnefs to ic, and 
after fore- going convictions yielded unto in fome meafure, 
and (licking or lying on as weighty* and making the con- 
fcience to challenge, as may be gathered, from Hcb vi. 3. 
It is not in one particular fin or act, but in a total and re- 
iolute oppofing of the truth, whereof men are convinced, 
feeking to bear it down in others, and to extirpate it out of 
the world, as the Pharifees did, Matth xii who not only 
rejected Chrift as to themfelves, but oppoied him in all o- 
thers, and fought utterly to undo the truth ; This is the heir 9 
come let us kilt him, fay they. 4. This oppofition flows from 
malice againft the truth, hatred of it, and from accounting 
it a thing unworthy to be in the world ; not out of fear or 
infirmity, or from miftake, but out of envy and defpight at 
it for itfelf : on this account the Lord objecteth it to the 
Pharifees, John xv. 24. But now they have both feen and hat- 
ed me, and my Father, and Matth xxi. 5. It is univerfai 
againft every thing of the fpirit, and obftinately conftant, 
without any relenting, grief, or fear, except only left it at- 
tain not its ends: The fear of that tormenteth it; and ma- 
lice and hatred groweth, as it is marred or obftructed, be- 
ing deliberately begun and profecuted. 6. It has in it afpe- 
cial contempt of, and difdain at thofe fpecial means and 
works of the fpirit, whereby a (inner is reclaimed, as con- 
victions, repentance, renewing-again to it, fac Thus Heb. 
x. 10. It doth difpight to the fpirit, and to Jefus Chrift; 
as to any application, it contemptoufly rejecteth him and his 
fatisfaction, and any glance of the fpirit that beareth that 
in ; fimple conrempt, through ignorance and infirmity, is 
againft the Son, bill this which is thus qualified, is againfc 

Z the 

178 An Expofit'wn cf Com. -. 

the fpirit, and is never to be pardoned; the firft Is agamft 
the object Chrift, but the fecond is a gain ft him who is, or 
him as born in on finners by the fpirit, and as condemned 
by them after their being under thefe convictions, and ac- 
knowledging of them •, this irremiffiblenefs, is not Amply, 
that the fin fhall not be pardoned, for fo many fins are to 
the reprobates; nor yet (Imply, becaufe it endcth in final 
impenitency (though that be'with it too) fince many fins are 
followed by that alio : but we conceive it be in thefe, 

i. That feeing this fin (which can be faid of no other fin) 
doth wilfully and not cut of defpight, reject Chrift, there 
can be no other facrifice gotten to expiate it, Heb. x. 26. 
There remafpeth no mere facrifice for it, and though the per- 
fon after the firft commiSion of it may be kecped a while in 
the land of the living, yet the nature of that fin being to 
grow in malice, and to reject that remedy, there being no 
other, and thus being ftill wilfully and malicioufly rejected, 
availeth them not; fo their fin is never pardoned. 

2, That the perfon guilty of this fin cannot be renewed by 
repentance, the heart of him fupreffing that woi k maliciouf- 
ly ; this impofUbility is not from the. in efficacy of grace, but 
from the order which God hath laid down in the working 
of repentance, and in the pardoning of the penitent \ (o 
that as he will pardon none but repenting believers, fo he will 
work repentance in none but in thofe who yield, through 
grace, to his Spirit's work. 

3. That God in juftice hathfentenced that fin with impe- 
nitency and unpardonabljenefs, making that one fin thus ca- 
pital and unpardonable;' thereby to fcare. the more from 
thwarting with his Spirit, he has denied ever to give them 
that are guilty of it, repentance; and hath faid, that he will 
plague them with fpiritual impenitency unto the end. 

Fifthly , Blafphemy may be considered as it is, r. Doctri- 
nal, or maintained by fome men in their tenents, fuch were 
thofe of the old Heretieks, fuch are thofe of the Pelagians, 
Papifts, and Armenians, as to the nature of providence, 
and the work of grace upon hearts, or 2. As it is in exprei- 
flons indeliberateiy brought forth, or 3 In oaths, as when 
men fwear by the wounds, blood, foul, fee. of our blefTed 
Lord, which as they are horribly to hear, fo is rt reproach- 
ful to his Majefty, that thefe fhou'd be fo abufed, or 4. In 
deeds, writing, painting, acting, reprefenting any thing de- 
rogatory to him, which are alfo charged with hlafphemy, in 
abufing God's name to fuch ends. 5. It may be in a high 
degree, when men act fuch a blafphemy, or confequently 
v hen they punifh it not, when we do not rent our cioaths 
(as it were) at the hearing and feeing fuch things in tefttmp- 


Com. J. the. Ten Commandments if} 

cy of our forrow and dctcftatioa (which was the fin of the 
princes, Jer. xxxvi. 24, 25. who though they were fome- 
what difpleafed, yet they had not zeal vigorous againft that 
wicked deed of the king :) when wc have riot fui table hatred 
againft fuch blafphemous doctrine, P*ev. ii. 6. much more 
it we extenuate them, defend them, or plead for them, or 
6 It may be either, as we are guilty of it by cur own deeds^ 
or when we make ourfeives guilty of the blafphemy of o- 
thers, as having finfuily occaGoned it to them, tempted them 
to it, and laid fuch and fuch a (tumbling before them, as is 
(aid of David, 2 Sam. xii. 14. and of the Jews, Roth, ii; 24. 
They that cau/ed ethers to blafphcme the name of God becdufe of 
them ; thus Chi iftians, efpecially, thofe who have a profef- 
iion beyond ordinary, and particularly wives and fervants, 
by their mifcarriages become guilty oi the blafphemy of o- 
thers, againft godhnefs, and fuch and fuch duties of religi- 
on : becaufe they give orcafion to it, though that make it 
not a wju't the lefs fault to them that blafpheme; fee that 
caftcn up to his people, Ezek xxxvi 2C ; 2f . O how tender 
fhould prof.ffbrs be in this matter ! left ungodly men get 
occafion to fpeak ill, who lye at the wait to catch all advan- 
tages to fortify themfeives in their natural prejudice at godli- 
nefs, and draw their conclufions (rem nvifcarriages, not fo 
much againft the particular perfens mifcarryihg, as againft 
the way of God, and the whole generation of the godly. 

There are thefe things efpecially that make others blaf- 
pheme, I. Some grofs outbreaking, as David's adultery, 
2. Pride, pafiion and contention amongft godJy men, whuen 
they walk as rneri, 1 Cor. iii. 4. and contehtioiilTy, 1 Cor. 
vi. 3. Covetoufneis and e'arihly nVmdedrief$ t 4 RTanifett 
unfinglenefs, and felf-defigns, driven under a' cloak of re- 
ligion, which mak'etli them call ail that are religious, cue? is, 
5. Sinful (huaningand ihifting off fullering. 6. Und.utiful- 
nefs of inferiors in the feyeral duties of their relations to 
fiiperiors, as of wives to their hufbands, of fervants to their 
m^fters, of fubjecls to magiftrat.es, r Per. ii. 15. Tit ii. 4, 
5, 10 7. Following of errors by profefiors, 2 Pet. ii. 2. 

6. Blafphemy, may be conftdered either as it is, here in 
tire way by men living, or as it is by them in the place of 
torment j who keeping (till, no doubt their former wicked 
nature and corruption, and not conddering Go 1 as he is in 
himfelf, but as they feel him in the feverity of his jiiftice 
punifhing them, cannot have good thoughts of him, but 
will fret at his power and juftice, which they cannot get free 
of, though it is like, after their femence is part, this is to 
be coafidercd, as a part of their curled cftate, and doth in- 

2 2 creafe 

iSiO An Expsfition of Com. f. 

creafc meritoriouily their judgment, as blafphemy in the 
way did. 

Thefe ways of breaking this command fpokcn unto are 
more grofs and extraordinary ; we mould now fpeak a word 
to fuch as are more common in our practice, and thefe are 
of two forrs. 

The i. is more grofs, when the name of God, or any 
thing bearing the name of God, as his ordinances, word, 
facraments, pi ayer, he. are prophaned, out of duty. This 
5s done, i. When thefe are mocked or fcorned, which is 
a high degree of prophaning his* name. 2. When the fcrip- 
ture-phrafes, expreffions, or terms are bafBcd to fpeak fo) 
to our finful fcoffing, jeibing and geiring of others, though 
we do not directly mock or geir at the fcripture itfclf. 3. 
When in ordinary difcourie, and unr.ecefTanly Gcd's name 
is ufed, though we intend not fwearing, neither think that 
we do fwear 4. When ordinarily upon fuch and fuch cc- 
cafions, the Lord's name is uied in. irreverent, and unwar- 
rantable exclamations ; as, Lrd Gcd, what is this, or 
that, he. I hope in God, or truft in God to fee fuch a 
thing, he. And poflibly foenetimes in paffion 5. When 
it is ufed in way of by-word, or of certain irreverent pray- 
ers, when a perfon is troubled and grieved, and would ex- 
prefs that pafiion at fomething that falleth out not defired, 
God help me, God fave me, what is that ? what mean ye ? 
God forgive me, God blefs me, for Gou's bleffing do fuch 
a thing: I God will, in God's ftrength, and I truft in God, 
he. I mall do fuch and fuch a thing : for Gods fake do 
this or that, he. 6. When it is uled in meer compliments, 
God keep you, God be with you, God bleis you, he which, 
with many, are too ordinary compliments 7. When it is 
tifed lightly, in way of affeveration and indirect fwearing, 
God a bit, God have me, if I do fo, he. 8, When it is 
ufed in a fenfelefs and fuperftitious cuftom, upon fuch and 
fuch particular occasions, as when men fay O, God be blef- 
fed, and God blefs, at fternutation or neefing (which Piini- 
11s reporteth to have been ufed by heathens, and particular- 
ly by Tyberius, who was none of the moft religious men,) 
God be here, God be in this houfe, when one entereth in- 
to a houfe ; or when the clock ftriketh. 

The 2. way (which is lefs grofs, but more ordinary) where-" 
by we fail in leference to this command, is in lawful and 
neceflary duties of worfhip, by finful and unprofitable dif- 
chargingof thefe; whereby the name of God is often taken 
irvvain, and his holinefs which he loveth, prophaned : this 
fault and failing is two ways fallen into. 

1. k* 

Com. 3.' the Ten Commandments. iSt 

I. In refpecl of the manner of going about fuch ordinan- 
ces or duties of worfhip, 1. When the Lord is not Janet -fit -J 
in them, nor the rule and manner prescribed by him, kept. 
This way finned Nadab, and Abihu, Lev ,0. by their of- 
fering of ftrangfc fire. The Lord complaineth of Ifrael as 
guilty of this, Ifa.xxixi 13. compared with Matth xv. 8, 
9. While they drew near with their lips, and I heir hearts were 
far away, they wotjhipt me in vain, faith the Lord, teaching 
for doclrincs the commandments of men. 2 Whop men ufe 
not fuch ordinances, and perform not fuch duties profita- 
bly, when prayer, reading of.the fcripture, facrament, fer- 
mons, fcc want their native fruit, then his name is taken 
in vain, and in that relpcct his ordinances fruftrated and 
made, as if they had net been ufed or performed, to 2 Con 
vi. 1. To receive the grace of God in vain, is to mils or let go 
the benefit of it, and to fruftrate and difappoint ourlelves 
of the native end and ufe of it : Phis is the firft way in refpeft 
of which our duties are in vain as to God, io as he will not 
regard them. 

The fecond way is as to ourfelves, and here again we 
may confider the taking of the Lord's name in vaio, in or- 
dinances in dutiestwo ways, either, 1. Simply, where there 
is no henefty at all in them, nor fruit from them, but 
mere hypocrify, or atleaft hypocrify in fuch particular acts. 
Or 2, When it is con?paritive, that is, though there may 
be fome reality and fruit, yet confidering what it (hould be ; 
yea, confidering what means the perfon hath, there is a 
great defect as to that which fhould and might have been; 
thus were the Hebrews challanged, Heb v. 12. net that 
they were altogether fruitlefs, but that they were not fo 
fruitful as under, and by fuch means they might have been, 
and that therefore they had in a great part ufed them, and 
received them in vain : This may and often doth befal even 
thofe who have fome meafure offincerity, yet fill far fhort 
what they might have attained of the knowledge of God, and 
of other bleffed fruits, by the right improvement of the 
means they had. 

We may adoVa third way how his name is taken in vain, 
and that in refpeft of itfelf, or of the ordinance or duty ; 
what indeed it is, and in refpect of what it appeareth to be 
when the {hew is much more than the fublrai.ee ; and whea 
the fincerity and reality, and inward revere, 7. teem 

of our heart, in naming God, keepeth no jaft ; 
with the words of our mouth, and our large ex* 
feffion. Thus did the Pharifees, and thus do all hypocrites 
take and bear God's name in vain, net being at ail ani. 

.. ' -. i fJ 

jSl An Expofuion of Com. 3, 

able to what they feem to be ; this may be alfo in others 
comparatively, in refpecl, I Of the law 2. In refpett 
of the means we have. 3. In refpeft of our profeffion. 
That our conviction may be the clearer, let us fee what 
belongeth to the right going about of duty, or to the fuita- 
ble mentioning of the Lord's name, the want whereof, 
or any part thereof maketh us more or lefs guilty of taking 
it in vain. I. Then there" is a neceffity that we propofe a 
good and right end, and aim fingly at it; for if all things 
Should be done to God's glory, this of the naming of the 
Lord (hould be in a fpecial manner fo ; This is a mans call 
to pray, preach, hear, <bc. to wit, the concernment of 
God's name, that is, 1. That God may be honoured. 2. 
That we ourfelves, or others may be edified. 3. That a 
command may be obeyed in the confeience of duty. Thofe 
then who adventure to profefs or name God, or to go a- 
bout any ordinance, feeking themfelves, and not the Lord, 
as is fuppofed men may do, 2 Cor. iv. 5, 2. out of envy as 
they did of whom Paul fpeaketh, Phil. i. 15, 16. 3 To 
be honoured of men, as thePharifees deiigned by their long 
prayers. 4. For the fafliion, or out of mere cuftom. 5. 
For making peace with God, by mentioning his name fo 
eften in ordinances, mif-regarding and taking no notice of 
the Mediator in the mean time: Thefe I fay and fuch like 
will meet with that fad word, In vain do ye wor/hip me. 

2. There is a necellity of a good principle in naming the 
Lord (to fpeak Co) both of a moral and phyfical principle: 
the moral, is confeience, and not cuftom, which falleth in 
with the end, the phyfical is the Holy Ghoft, 1 Cor. xii. 3. 
No man calleth Jefus Lord, hit by the Holy Ghoji. 2. A re- 
newed heart, thus duties muft be done with the Spirit, as 
well as with the understanding. 3. Sincerity, as to theex- 
ercife even of the natural faculties : Thus whatever unre- 
newed men fpeak in duty, without the fpirits influence a*id 
excrcife of grace, they make themfelves guilty in it ; and, 
when they fay, what in fincerity they think not. 

3, It is necefiary that the principle act in the right man- 
ner, that is, i Sincerely, Jofh. xxiv. 14. 2. In fear and 
reverence, Eccl. v. i, 2. 3. With faith and refpect to Jefus 
Chrift, Heb. xi. 6. 4. With judgment and understanding. 
To fpeak of him, not knowing what we fay or to whom 
we fpeak, wrongeth him : Thus ignorant, pafiionate, rafh, 
irreverent and inadvertent mentioning of God, or med« 
ling with any ordinance or duty, wrongeth him, and is a 
bringing of vain oblations, which he exprefly forbiddeth, 
Ifa. i. 13. 

4. When- 

Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 183 

4. Whenever we make mention of God, we fhould ftudy 
to be iri cafe to mention him as ouis, as our God and fa- 
ther in Chrift, in all ordinances and duties, that is, I. Tak- 
ing up our natural diftance. 2. Looking to Chrifi. for re- 
moving of it. 3. Refting on him, and making ufe of him 
for that end. 4. Delighting in the mentioning of God as 
ours. 5. With thankfgiving and bleffing, whenever he is 
named, as the apofile often doth. 

5. It is required in refpect of the ufe, fruit, and effcc> f 
that fomcthing which is profitable may remain and ftick 
with us, according to the nature of the duty which is gone 
about, or the way of mentioning God, fuch as fume con- 
viclion and teftimony of the confeience. 1. That God's 
honour ; 2. The edification of others in way of inftruciion, 
or conviction or of reproof, or of comfort, be. 3. My 
own edification orfpirituai advantage, or, 4. My own exc* 
neration and peace, as to the performance of fuch a duty, 
were in fome meafure of finglenefs aimed at and endeavour- 
ed ; and as their is a miffing of any of thefe, repentance 
fhould be exercifed, and faith for pardon; fome fruit, 
fome fenfe, fome leffon, fome difcoveries, fome convictions, 
be. would be fought after to remain. When thefe or any 
of thefe (if all the reft of them can be altogether without 
one) are wanting, this command is fimply broken; if ia 
part they be wanting, it is comparatively more or lefs brok- 

Let ns then take a view in particulars. 1. Look to our 
profeffion, Oh ! what emptinefs is there, much more ap- 
pearance and fhew, than reality and fubftance ? Yea, what 
defiring to feem fomething, rather than to be ? ifourpro- 
frffions (who are leaft in them) were met and meafured by 
our reality, O how lamentably vaft a difproportion would 
be found ? the one would be quickly found much broader 
and longer than. the other, the outer-half much bagged as 
it were, being a great deal larger than the inner, even where 
there is moft fincerity and reality. 

2. Look thro* public duties, if there he not much taking 
of God's name in vain, in hearing, praying, praifing, ufing 
the facraments, be. and if fo, O what a libel! might be 
drawn up againft us from every fab bath, prayer, fermon, be. 
whereof we often cannot tell what fruit remaineth, except 
it be 5n, guilt, and hardnefs ; and therefore doubclefs his 
name is much taken in vain in them, 

3, Look through private duties in families, reading, 
praying finging, conferring catechifing, faying grace, or 
feekicg a bleffing, and giving thaaks at a table ; hew little 


1 34 An Expcfuion of Com. 3: 

regard is often had to the name of the Lord in thefe ? and 
how little care and pains taken to walk by the former rules 
in them ? 

4. Look through head duties, betwixt God and you, 
he w ye pray in fecret before God : ah! often fo, as ye would 
be afhamed to pray before men ; how do ye pray, meditate 
<bc. in lecrct how do ye join in prayer with others? which 
in fome refpect is fecret ; God knoweth how poorly we ac- 
quit ourfelves in thefe ordinarily, and how much we take his 
name in vain in them. 

5. Look thro* occaftonal duties, wherein ye have occafion 
to make mention of God with, or to others, as when upon a- 
ny emergent or providence, we will lay, It is God's will, God 
hath done it, God is good and merciful, &c or in any parti- 
cular duty of Chriftian communion, in inftru&ing, comfort- 
ing, admonifhing, or convincing of others, or debating with 
them ; how often when the fcripture, and the name of God 
will be in our mouths, in thefe, and the matter of debate 
may fall to be fome of his ordinances, will there be but 
very little reverence and refpedl to God in our hearts ? 

6. ConfiJer how this fin of taking his name in vain is fal- 
len in by writing, not only when treatifes are written, but 
slmott in every epiftle or letter, there will be found fome 
prayer or wifh, for fafhion-fake, where there is but little 
confeience made to have the heart joining in it; how much 
irreverent ufing of the fcripture and of God's name, is there 
in writing of letters, particularly of burial letters, thus. 
It hath pleafed the Lord, it hath feemed good to God, it 
hath pleafed God or the Almighty, &c. I am not condem- 
ning the thing iimp'y, but our way of abufing it. 

7. Look through accidental mentionings of God (if we 
may fay fo) in falutations, God fave you, God be with you ; in 
prayers for children, evidencing rather our fondnefs on them 
thereby, than our love and reverence to the name of God* 
for fuch as are in any prefent hazard, God faye ; for any 
favour, courtefy or compliment; God blefs; thefe are good 
(as the apoftle faith of the law) if ufed lawfully, but they 
are often finfully, rafhly ignorantiy, yea, prophanely abufed, 
we have often more refpeci to them we fpeak unto, than 
unto God. I would not condemn the ufe of them being 
duties, but exhort you to guard againft the abufe, and to 
ufe a grare, reverent underftanding, and fenfible way of ex* 
preffing them, or of any thing like them. 

8 Confider narrations of fcripture-ftories, or other fto- 
rks, queftions. tales, &c. wherein the name of God is men- 
tioned, and poffibly when we tell them, to make a fport of 
them, to make merry with them ; How often is his bleffed 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 185 

name taken in vain in them ? certainly the mentioning of 
his name were often better forborn than fo irreverently uf- 

9. Conficler the ufurping of God's attributes, orofanin- 
tcrefl: in him, rafnly, as when men confidently, yet with- 
out all warrant, affert God is mine ; 1 truft in his mercy, 
fwcet Chrift my Saviour, my Mediator, Ah ! how o r ren is 
this, which is the very crown of grace, to wit, in God's do- 
ing good and fhewing mercy, abufed and prophaned mod 
fin fully and fhamefuliy ! 

There is one particular, which yet remaineth to be fpoken 
of on this third command, which concerncth lots, omens fu- 
perftitious obfervations, and fuch like, whereby the name 
cf God is wronged, in being not only flighted, contemned, 
and taken in vain in thefe events (which yet are guided by 
him) but the difpofal of things which is due to God, is deni- 
ed to hini, and attributed to chance, luck, fortune and fuch 

We (hall then: 1. Shew what lotting or lottery is. 2. 
How it concerned! this command. 3. Diftinguifc lots, in- 
to feveral forts. 4. Shew what are lawful, and when they 
are lawful. 5. What arc unlawful. 

A lot or lotting is, The committing, of the deciflon of 
fomething, in an immediate way to divine providence, with- 
out the interveening caufalties, or influence, of any fecond 
caufe, to fway in that deciflon : fo that when the thing fal- 
leth out, and is decided, there can be no reafon given, Why 
it is fo in mens part, but that the Lord was pleafed to dii- 
pofe. As it was in that inftance of lotting, about the election 
of the twelfth apoftle, in Judas his room, Acts i. So from 
Prov. xvi. 33. It is clear that that is a lot whereof the 
whole difpofal is ofCcd: And therefore it is faid, chap, xviii. 
18. To caufe contentions to ceafe, and to part betwixt the 
migoty ; Becaufe none can quarrel, concerning that which 
man hath no hand in. 

A lot may be many ways appointed, cither by the throw 
of a dice, or the like ; or by ibme other mean putting dif- 
ference betwixt one and other, even as men {hall appoint : 
as when it is ; By what beaft they fhali fii ft fee, by what fay- 
ing, or by what book they firfthear, or look on, &c. Only 
we think lots differ from omens, or fuperfritious obferva- 
tions, thus : 1. Lots are to decide betwixt two ; the other 
are collections, which one may make concerning himfelf. 
2. Lots follow on fome appointment that is mutual and are 
free ; the other may be other-ways. 

That lots in the ufe of them, concerning this command ; 
thefe things will make it out feveral ways. 1. That which 
# A a putteth 

i So An Expofiticn sf Com. 3. 

putteth God to it, and in an immediate way, conccrneth 
this command, efpecially ; I mean, whatever putteth him to 
declare his mind or reveal himfelf ; that putteth him to 
ir, and is a fpecial implicite inv (Seating of him : But lots 
or lotting, putteth him to it, in an immediate way; For, 
j. None other can difpofe them but he, Prov. xvi. 33. 
2. What is difcovered by thofe lots, is either God's mind 
or the Devils, or is by chance ; but it cannot be any of the 
latter two, therefore it is the firfti 3. It is the putting him 
to it, more than he is by prayer ; Becaufc, I, It is by an 
extraordinary way, and often added to prayer. 2. It is for 
the manifefting of a fecret decree ; For by it we are to un- 
derftand, what God has appointed, and eternally decreed, 
concerning fuch an event. Hence k is, that in fcripture, 
prayer is fo often, if not always joined with it ; and there- 
tore it mufc in a fpecial manner belong to this command; 
Yea, if God be flighted in it, he is wronged : If acknow- 
ledged according to his intereft, he is in a fpecial manner 
concerned, where he wholly ordereth the thing. 

2. It is either a mean, appointed to him to underfcand 
his mind or net; if appointed by him, then it is in fo far 
his ordinance and his name is concerned in it; if not, then 
k is abufed. 

3. The medling with God's fecref, or with his will, or 
way of revealing it in his providence, rnuft belong to this 
command; but this efpecially, meddleth with all theie: there- 
fore, &€. 

4. That which cannot be gone about, but the name of 
the Lord is either wronged or honoured, in it; muft necef- 
fariiy, belong to this command, for that is the (cope of it : 
for none can lot without either depending on God, for the 
ordering of, and acknowledging of him in it, when it is 
done; and fo without honouring him, or neglecting him, 
and taking his name in vain. 1. By mifkenning his provi- 
dence, and thinking to get that decided fome other way, 
2. By irreverent going about it. 3 By attributing it to fome 
other thing. 4. By not acknowledging God in it, nor fubmic- 
thrg to it, when done fo. So then, thefe three ways men fall, 
and take God's name rnvain. 1. Before the lot, 2. In the 
time of it. 3. After it is paft. 

Lots, are ordinarily divided into three forts. 1. Divine, 
which are from extraordinary warrants. 2. Devilifh, where- 
in the Devil is often invocated, or in circumftances, the 
dccifion is put to him, and guided by him. 3. Humane 
which are ordinarily gone aboutamongft men. 

. They are divided, 1. In Divinatory. 2. Conful- 
tory, whereby men find out fomewhat that is fecrer, as 


Com. 3. this Ten Commandments* iSj 

Saul found out Jonathan; or are led to fome duty. J. Di- 
vifory, By fuch the land of Canaan was divided, Jolh. xii. 
6. 4. Lufury, or, for play: This division is large and 
comprehenfive, and hath ieveral fteps, according to the 
ht of the things, as they are greater or fma'lcr, or in- 

Concerning them we fay; That all confuhatory, and :ii« 
vinatory lots, except by an extraordinary warrant arc un- 
lawful and a tempting of God, who has now given us 
pther ways and means, to direct us in what is meet for ur, 
to do. 

2 Concerning thofe DevtlHh lots, there is no queflion 
of the abominablenefs of them fuch as foretelling of for- 
tunes, horofcopes, or deat.is j the finding of things !ofb 
by nameing all fufpe&ed perfons, turning the riddle, be. 

Yet 3. We dare not condemn all divifory lots, if rightly 
gone about. 

Becaufe, they are frequently mctde ufe of in the fcrip- 
ture, Jofh.vii 13. 14 and 15. etc. Acts 1. Yea they feeni 
lo be, from the light of nature, Jonah i. 2. The uie of 
ihem, is moral and perpetual, Prov. xviii. i£. To caulir 
contentions to ceafe, and to part between the mighty. 3. 
When they are righrly gone about, they are a honouring 
of God, and are a manifeit acknowledging of his provi- 
dence. I lay, rightly gone about : Where, 1. The matter 
ihould be weighty, or of fome coniequence ; that is, It 
ihould either be weighty in itfelf; or it ihould be fo by 
fome confequence, or inconveniency ; making a light thing 
in itfelf weighty, otherwife it is (as (rearing is, in a matter 
of no moment) but a baffling of his ordinance. 

2. It ihould be neceffary, that is a thing that without 
many inconveniences, cannot be in another way decided • 
otherwife to put God to reveal his mind, in an extraordi- 
nary way, 'when there is an ordinary at hand, is a tempting 
of God ; even at, to leap over a wall is, while there is an or- 
dinary paflage to go through by. 

3. it mould be with a due refpect to God, acknowledging 
him, to be the decifor, calling on his name in the ufe of it, 
and looking to him for the decifion, as we fee almoft in aU 
Jottings, and even of thofe heathens, Jonah i 

4 It fliould be gone about in the right manner, t. With 
reverence, as if we were to hear God pronounce the fentence 
and fpeak his mind; as while Saul is a-taking, the people 
ftand before the Lord, 1 Sam. x. 19, 21. 2. In the faith 
that God guideth it; and fo, without anxiety and fear. 
3. In finglenefs, committing it to him, even in heart as well 
*sin appearance ; abftaining from all fraud or tricks, or any 

A a 2 thing 

3 83 An Expojtiion cf Com. 3^ 

thing wh'ch may have influence, as a fecond caufe, to mar 
or caft the decifion ; this were a high way of mocking God, 
to put the decifion to him, and yet to endeavour to give 
the anfwer our (elves. 

Laftly> After the lot, there fliould he a reverent acknow- 
ledging of God's mind, without fretting or grumbling, and 
a chearful fubmitting to it, as we fee in all the cafes inftan- 
ced in fcripture. Thefe ru!es being oblerved, we think for 
dividing ot ftations or charges ; or of portions, which can- 
not be otherv. ife do::e, without offence or prejudice \ lots 
xnay be ufed. 

Yet, I would fay thefe few things, for caution here: 1. 
Ye fhould not in petty things ufe them, when the matter is 
of no value at all, or of very fmail value ; fo that ye are 
indifferent, how it falls out : Or when it is not of that 
weight, that ye wou'd give an oath in it ; but rather quit ir, 
(and there would be here a proportion kept ,) ye fhould ra- 
ther in fuch a cafe hazard fame lofs, than put to a lot, out 
of that reverence ye owe to God's name : Ail the cafes in 
fcripture are weighty: In your ordinary merchandize, I 
defire you to remember this ; ^ 

2. Ye fhould not fail to ufe your reafon, and honed Sill, 
more in fharings and divifions, for preventing of a lot. 
Folks fometimes, betake themfelves to this for eafe, when 
yet their reafon rightly made ufe of, might bring to a fatif- 
fying decifion. God hath not given reafon toman in vain, 
or for nought : when reafon then may do it -, effay it, and 
forbear a lot. 

3 Let it be in fuch a matter, and fo ufed, as ye may feek 
God in it, and in-call his name by prayer : to lot in a things 
that folks will not., or dare not pray in, agreeth not with 
fcripture examples, nor with thattendernefs which a believ- 
er fhould have at fuch a time: It fliould then be in a thing 
refpecling a promife. 

On the contrary, we may fee how men fail here, I. In 
weighty things, by not keeping the right manner before the 
lot, in the time of it, and after it is paft, when it endeth 
inot ftrife. 2. In trivial things, by making this too cuftoma- 
ry j fo that folk ufe the lot almoft in every thing, making 
that which is extraordinary to become ordinary, contrary 
to the nature thereof. It is an ultimate judge and decider, 
even as an oath is for ending all controverfies : It is like un- 
to Mofes (as one faith,) the great matters fhould be referved 
to it ; yea it is greater than Mofes, its God himfeif, thus in 
his providence paffing a decifion \ the lefler things would be 
Qtherwife decided, 

3, W* 

Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 189 

3. We may gather from what is (aid, what is to be thought 
of inch games and paftimes as run to lottery (having than 
for the very foundation of them) and have an immediate 
dependence on providence for the iilne of them. * 

1. That they are lottery cannot be denied, for they have 
ill that: is in lotting ; there is in them a putting of things to 
a doubtful event as to us ; and that event is guided either by 
God, or by fome other, and which ever of the two, we fay, 
it will be a breach of this command: fo trivially for our 
pleafure to cake the name of God in vain, as many formal- 
ly dp ; for none can tell, how fuch a thing will come to pafs 
by any rcafon. 

2. That to do fo, or to ufe a lot in this cafe is a fin, may 
aJfo be made out clearly, 1. Becaufe it is againft the end of 
lots, which is to divide cr decide where there is controvefy 
and fo it interverteth their end, and becometh (inful *, even 
as f wearing where no controverfy is, is a fin. 2. There is 
either no neceffity at all to take that away, or there is but a 
made-neceflity of our own, it muft therefore be a tempting 
of God : as fuppofe this to be the end of lotting to know in 
the upihot whether Id much money fhould belong to you, 
or to me ; no doubt that point of right to whom the money 
belongeth, may be decided as well at the entry; therefore 
this way of decifion is in vain. 

3. That lotting which hath in it no reverence to Go^ but 
baffleth his name ; nor is confident with the right manner 
of lotting, cannot be lawful ; but this is fuch : for it is not 
only, defuflo cpntraiy to the former rules, but in its own 
nature is inconfiftent with them ; this is clear, 1. From the 
great frequency of lotting in thefe games 2. In the little 
dependence on God for the event that is in them ; and in- 
deed a fpiritual frame of dependence on him, cannot well if 
at all confift with them. 3. From its inconiiftency with fc* 
rious prayer; what! can or dare men pray in earneft for 
God's guiding in thefe things, in every throw of the dice, 
or (huffling of the cards ? or in faith expect dill the revel- 
ing of his decree that way ? or when it is done and pair, can 
they fuitably acknowledge him in it ? Men dare not look io 
ferioufly on thefe things, yea they know they dare not. 

4. That way of lotting which cannot but occ.dion the 
wronging of the name of the Lord, and his providence, can- 
not be right ; but this is fuch : for we muft fay, that either 
God's hand is not at all in fuch things, and fo we deny his 
providence : or we muft fay that he may be put to it by this 
common and coarfe way, and that in ourfport, and ^or our 
pleafure in his immediate providence to declare his mind ; 
which is a notable baffling (to Uy io) and prophana.tion of 


J 90 Aw Expofitlon of Com. 3. 

his name; hence it is, the men fo often fwear, curfe, fret> 
and exclaim in thefe games at cards, dice, he. (wherein 
chance, luck, fortune, &c. are fo much looked to, and in a 
manner deued) and altogether overlook and mif regard the 
majefty of God, as if he had no providence at all in fuch 

5. What is done without warrant of either fcripture pre- 
cept or practice, cannot be done in faith ? Now there can 
be no fuch warrant drawn from fcripture for fuch plays or 
games, the very foundation whereof is lottery, and not on- 
ly accidentally and rarely incident to them, as may be on 
the matter to other lawful recreations, if that can be called 
lottery at all, whkh is rather an undefigned, unexpected 
furpriiing incident of providence ; whereas in the other, the 
decifion by a lot is defigned, waited for, and all along the 
game referred unto, and hung upon : yea it is unfuitable 
and inconfiftent with the fcripture-way of ufing lots, which 
is always in mod grave and important things ; but this way 
of uiing them is manifestly to abufe them. 

6. That which hath a native tendency to make any ordi- 
nance of God vile and contemptible, cannot be warrantable > 
Now that lotting in thefe games hath fuch a tendency to 
make the ordinance of a lot, and of prayer, which ihould 
at leatt be joined with it, contemptible; is obvious to any 
ierious and impartial confiderer of it, neither can it in rea- 
fon be thought that, That which is in fo lacred a manner, 
and with prayer to God, to be gone about in one thing, and 
is by him appointed for fuch an end as an oath is ; can war- 
rantably be ufed in a manner, and for ends fo vaftiy dif- 
ferent from the former in an otber thing. 

7. If lots belong at all to this command, then thefe lot- 
ting-games are unlawful : for they cannot with any religious 
reafon be fuppofed to be commanded in it, and thererore 
they muft be forbidden. And if in trivial things lots may 
be unlawful, much more inuich games which end not ftrife 
and contentions, but often and ordinarily begin them, and 
bring them to a height : and therefore do the ancients de- 
claim againit this as a facrificing to devils, and invented by 

If it be faidhere, That thefe things are thought but very 
little of by men ; Anfw. It is true, and no great wonder; 
for moft men ufe but to think little of the breach of this 
command, yet are there breaches finful notwithstanding ; as 
many take God's name in their mouth lightly, and think but 
little of it, and yet that maketh not their doing fo, ceafe to 
be a fin. God hath added this certification here the more 
peremptorily for that very end, that men may not think lit- 

Com. 3. the Ten Comm<indm>'nts. if 

tie, or lightfy of the very lead: breach of this command (to 
let pafs more grofs breaches of it.) 

If it be further objtfted here, Why may not fuch plays 
or games be ufed as well as other playes, wherein fometimes 
chance or fortune (as they call it) wiil call: the ballancc ? 
Anf-jj 1. Though in thofe other, chance may now and then 
occafionally occur, yet that is but accidental ; thefe are Am- 
ply, or at ieaft moftly guided by lotting, and immediate 
providences, and cannot be prevented or made to be other- 
ways by the be ft art and fkill of men. 2. In thefe other 
games there is an intervention of fecond caufes, and anufeof 
mens parts, natural and moral, for obtaining fuch an end 
•Itimate (in fome refpeft) and immediate; a.* for example, 
when men ftrike a ball with a club, or throw a boul to a 
hole, they are guided therein rationally, as they are in com- 
ing down a flair ; and they aft therein, as in other things 
by fecond caufes and ufe of means, whether of body e-r 
mind ; but in thefe lotting games it is not {Oy for all is caft 
and hung upon extraordinary providence, even as if a man, 
who cannot, would betake himfelf to fwiming in, or walk- 
ing upon the water, when an other betaketh himfelf to a 
bridge or a boat. 

In fumme ; As lots and oaths are much for one end, to 
wit, the ending of controverfy and ftrife, Heb. vi. 16. Prov. 
xviii. 18. So ought the fame rules almoft to be obferved in 
them both. Then 1. Before the lot, we fhould look to and 
follow God's call and depend on him in it. 2. In the time 
of lotting, we fhould aft reverently. 3. After the lot we 
fhould reverence the Lord, and fubmit to the event of it as 
to his mind, even though our frame has not been fo right: 
As an oath bindeth when taken in lawful matter, though 
there hath been rafhnefs as to the manner, by virtue of 
God's name which is interpofed ; fodo lots, becaufe, how- 
ever we be as to our frame, it is he who decideth as to the 
event ; therefore ought that deciflon to be looked on as 
moft facred : God having thought good befide the general 
rules in his word to give evidence of his mind by lots, as to 
fome particular events; and though thefe games at dice or 
cards may in the compleat frame of them require fome fkill, 
how to manage fuch throws or fuch particular cards when 
a man hath gotten them ; yet that, that throw is fuch, caf- 
ting up fo many blacks and no more, that fuch a man hath 
fuch cards and no other, that is meerly by immediate pro- 
vidence, and fo muft of neceffity be a lot; or it is by fome 
other means which would (if affa?ci) wrong God alio very 
much; and though {kill may poffibly influence the event as 
to the upfhot of the game, yet ia thefe throwings or fhuf- 


192 *4n Expcfuicn of Com. 3. 

flings there is no fkill, or if there be any thing that is ac- 
counted ar4 or ikill, it is but deceit, fteing the fcope is by 
thefe to lea\e it to providence in its decifion. 

This doctrine concerning fuch games, was the doftrine 
of the ancients, who did vehemently inveigh againft this 
foci °f lottery, fee Cyprian de aleatoribuSj who fathereth it 
on Zabulus and callcth it the fnara of the devil, and compn- 
reth it with idplatry, fj Ambrcfe de Tobia, page 590. It 
was alfo in (ome councils condemned, Can. apolt. cancn 
42. Con. Trull cannon 50. 

This hath been the confrant ordinary judgment of protcf- 
tant writers on this command, and fbme of them have writ- 
ten peculiar tr^a tiles to this purpofe, particularly Dar.ceus; 
wherein he proveth that fuch lottery is unlawful in itfelf, 
and mod prejudicial to men, this is likewife the doctrine of 
the fchocl-men, though none of the mod rigid cafuifts, yea 
it is the doctrine of our own church, thefe being as unlaw- 
ful g^mes condemned of old ; and of late, to wit, Anno 
1638. by the general a'fembly of Glafgow, according to a 
former aft of an afTembly held at Edinburgh, Anno. 1596. 
Lafthy Confider for fcarring from fuch games, thefe two 
things 1 . The contrary events (that follow moft ordinarily 
en fuch lottery :) (trifes and contentions are occafioned, if 
cot caufed by them, which are ended by the other, fovery 
different are the events. 2. Confider that molt men, who 
ufe them fall often into grofs prophaning of God's name, 
or into high paffions at beft. 

An omen, or fign, or token is, When men propofe to 
and refolve with themfclves, that if they meet with fuch aDd 
fuch z thing they will conftruft fo and fo of it, or when 
they feek it from God for that end; Thus Abraham's fer- 
vant did at the well, feek to know the mind of the Lord, 
and accordingly drew conclufions about it, concerning a 
wife to his mafter's fon, Gen. xxiv. So did Jonathan about 
his affaulting of the Phiiiftines, 1 Sam. xiv. So likewife did 
Gideon about his fuccefs againft the Midianites, Judg. vi. 
And Mary for confirmation of her faith concerning what 
was told her by the angel, Luke i. 34. This is ftill to be un- 
derftood as to fome particular fa ft or event, and not in a 
common traft, or for the determination of a general truth ; 
as for example, Mary believed that Chrift was to be born, 
but knew not that fhe was to be his mother ; but Zacharias 
John the baptift's father, did (it feemeth) doubt of God's 
power, or of the event or truth of what was told to him ; 
and therefore he finned in feeking a fign when the other did 
not ; The Phiiiftines finned meft groily, when they fent 
back the ark and did hang the dcciScn of that queftion, whe- 

Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 193 

iher their plagues came from the hand of God, or by chance, 
Upon the motion cf the kine ? 1 Sam. vi. And it is always 
a finful tempting of God, when men out of curiofity from 
unbelief, or needhfiy, put him to give a fign that they may 
thereby know his power, will, orwifdom. 

An obfervation is, when we gather fuch a thing from 
fuch a providence that occureth without any fore-cafting 
of ours, or determining with ourfelves before hand about 
it, being a meerly iurprifing unexpected emergent : we (hall 
only fay in general concerning oaiens and obfervations, that 
when they agree not with the word, and our duty revealed 
and enjoined therein, they are not to be adventured on nor 
regarded, but utterly flighted, becaufe then certainly they 
degenerate and become extravagant; neither are the exam* 
pies of fuch who beiog led by an extraordinary fpirit have 
uled them, to be followed by others who have not the fame 
fpirit ; doubtlefs it is fafe for us to take heed to the more 
fure word of prophecy, and to follow the unerring rule of 
the word of God, and not extraordinary examples for which 
we have no warrant. 

Superfluous obfervations are not fo much about daily 
occurring providences, which all are obliged pioufly to mark 
and improve to the be ft fpiritual advantage, and in the care- 
ful marking and fun able improving whereof, there lieth a 
fpecial piece of fpiritual wifdom, more efpecially of fuch 
providences which may from the Lord, help either to con- 
firm a man in his duty, or deter him from a fin or fnare ; 
as they are about fome fet and marked adtions of creatures, 
and thefe very fechlefs and filly too (though I deny net, 
but that fimpiy they are providences alfo) which are reput- 
ed to be fo many fixed rules and canons of natural wifdom, 
but really inftituted fpells, or frcets, or the devils rudiment3 
and grammar, (ro fay fo) to fink mens minds into atheifm. 
And obfervations are always fuperftitious when we collect 
and conclude that fuch and fuch events evil or good, will 
happen to us, or befall us from fuch and fuch occurring 
works and pafiages of providence, for which no reafon can 
be drawn either out of the word of God, or out of the 
courfe of nature ; in a word, for which there is neither 
fcripture-v/arrant, nor can any natural caufe or reafon be 
afHgned ; as for inftance, to think, it is unluckly to meet 
fuch and fuch perfons firft in the morning (which ufeth to 
be called an evil foot) for a woman with child to ftep over 
a hair-teather, for folks to neefe putting on their (hoes, for 
one to have fait falling toward him on the table (the fear 
whereof maketh fome to fuffer no fait to come to their ta- 
ble) to have a hare crofs ones way, to burn in the right ear, 

B b ta 

/p4 ^ ;l Expofu'wn of Com. 3. 

to bleed fome drops of blood, &c. Again to think that it 
Bbadeth good luck for folks to have drink fpilt on them, to 
find eld iron, to burn on the left*ear, to dream on fuch and 
fuch tilings, <£c. There is a multitude of fuch freets and lu- 
peiftitious observations which many retain flill, and but few 
witJiQjJt fome and free of all; a tin from which it is ro be' 
feared the land hath never been througly purged, fioce it 
was pagan, a fin very natural to men, and which hath a- 
mongfl Chriftians its obiervahle increafe and decreafe accor- 

Of this fort, or very like them is, folks meeting with fuch 
a. word in fuch a fermon, which may have fome allufion, or 
fecming anfwerahlencfs' to a cafe, or particular, formerly 
dark or doubtful to them, which they take for clearing of 
them, or deciding of the thing without due examination 
thereof, according to the true meaning of the fcripture, 
and the analogy of faith : And their having fuch a place of 
fcripture brought to tlieir mind, or at the firft opening of 
the Bible caft: up to them, which they look on as more be- 
fitting their condition, and that becaufe io iuggefted and 
caft: up, without pondering the word itfelfj and lay moie 
weight on that word on that very account, for folving of 
fuch a doubt, and for clearing and determining them as ro 
fuch a tldng, than on any other having the lame authority, 
and no lets, and it may be much more fuitablenc's to thy 
the thing, without any further tender and fcrious fc runny, 
as if that were a fpecial and extraordinary revelation of 
God's mind to them thereabout ; which is a moil dangerous 
practice. And (as we difcourfed before on the practical 
breaches of the fecond command) is to make a weerd or a 
fbHunc- book of the book of God, which he never appoin- 
ted for fuch i:n end ; again I fay, a moft dangerous practice, 
and yet too frequently incident to fome religious perfons, 
officially in their trouble and difficulty, whereof fome ftu- 
pendious inftances might be given, which would fright all 
from ever daring any more to adventure on fuch a practice 
rot bottomed on the word itfelf, which God hath certainly 
given to h ; s people ro be ufed by them with Chriftian pru- 
dence, according to its own principles, and not to be lotted 
with, or to have their ftate or condition, or the decilion of 
"what they are dark or donbtful about, at haphazard caft 
on it, according to their own groundleis fancies and ima- 

We come now to the threatning or certification where- 
with ; this command is prefled, The Lord w HI not hold him 


Com. 3. the Ten Co9imardm'ents. ror 

guiltlcfs that takcih bis name in vain. In which, three things 
are contained : I. The fcarfulnefs and teniblenefs of the 
judgment and punifhment, whereby the Lor J will avenge 
the breach of this command. 2 The extent of it, as to e- 
very particular individual per (on found guilty, The Lord 
will not bold htii guilt lcfs' % him, whoever he be, whate vet he 
be ; if there were but one, he fliall not escape ; and if there 
be many, not one of them fhall be miffed or pafled by in 
tills reckoning. 3. There is the peremptorinefs and infallible 
certainty of it, Cod will not be cfiflVaded from it, nor will 
he alter this fentence, but it muftand fliail (land againft him. 
The punifhment is implied in that, Not to be hoiden guilt- 
le/jf wherein there is more contained than is exprefFLd, im- 
plying thefe three : 1. That he fliall not be forgiven nor 
abibived, and Co fliall never enjoy Gods favour and Friend; 
fhip, which no man, who bath finned, can without pardon, 
enjoy; thus the judgment is negatively to be undei flood, 
he ihall never enter into heaven, no'; *ee the face of God, 
if he repent not. 2. Pofiicively, it implieth that he fliall be 
found guilty ; and fliall be dealt with as a guilty perTori, 
that he fliall be eternally condemned, fiiut out from God's 
prefence, and caft into hell to be there tormented for ever 
ana ever. 3. Eminently it implieth a very high degree of 
puniihment, that the degree fliall be eminent, and that in 
refpecl of other fins, this fin fliall have a peculiar weight 
added unto its curfe, and be ranked amongft thofe fins which 
fliall be in the juftice of God moft feverely puhiihed ; a par- 
ticular inftance and proof whereof, is in hypocrites, whofe 
judgment fliall be in hell amongft the (oreft ; the hypocrites 
portion of wraith will be a large portion. 

The peremptorinefs is implied in thefe words, The Lord 
iv ill not hold bun guilt !efs t the Lord will nt 
plieth, 1. That iinners fliall be reckoned wirh, ?.p.d j'u 
for fin ; in which reckoning this fin (hall be efpecidly t 
notice of. 2. That all finners fhall be fumrnoiied to ap 
before the judgment teat and tribunal of God, and nave 
their particular libel and accudtions of their particular fins, 
wherein this fin fhall be particularly taken notice of, as a 
main article: 3. That there fliall be a fentence and doom 
pafled upon the guilty, and that whofoever fliall be found 
guilty of this fin, fliall find juftice feverely pa (Ting ientence 
upon them. 4. That there (hall be a holy rigid execution 
or that fentence without mercy, by a high degree of wrath 
upon all who fliall be !'o fentenced. 

If any afk, How this threatning \$ to b^ underfiood ? for 
^nfw. We (hould diftinguifh betwixt fuel), who repenting 
for if, do by faith ia Chrift make peace with Gcd, and o- 

E b z thers 

j<)6 j4ii Expcjition of Com. 3, 

thers who continue in it without repentance : and fo fay, 
I. That it is not to be underftood as if the breach of this 
command were declared to be (imply unpardonable to any 
whofhall be guilty of it ; foi that is neither confident the with 
groiu.ds of the gofpel, nor with experience, whereby it is 
found that grace often extendeth itfeif to the pardoning e- 
ven of fuch. 2. But that it is in itfeif a fin m oft hateful to 
God, and a fin that bringeth great wrath on all that are 
guilty of it, and fhall be found to be fo, before his judg- 
ment feat. 3. It faith that all who are guilty of it, while 
their peace is not made with God through Jeius Chrift, yea 
in fome refpeft thereafter, fliould look on themfelves as 
thus highly guilty •> and that all who are not pardoned, 
fhould account themfelves to be liable to this ftroke of 
wrath, and to be under this fentence of the law that ftan- 
deth particularly pronouced againft them. 4. It faith, That 
men do by this fin, exceedingly hazard their eternal falva- 
tion, and that their repentance is rare, and fo likewife their 
pardon ; it being found in experience, that men, habituat- 
ed to this fin of taking God's name in vain, do but feldom 
get repent^ncei 5. That when repentance cometh, and is 
given, fuch as are guilty of it, will be in an efpecial manner 
challenged for it, and it found to be in a high degree, bit- 
ter unto them in all their after refleftions upon it. 6. That 
it will very readily have much influence in marring a mans 
peace, and obftrudting the intimation of God's favour, and 
t^e joy of his falvation, even when it is pardoned 5 as we 
fee in David, who made the name of God to be blafphamed, 
and was therefore put, Pfal. li. to cry and cry again for the 
joy of God's falvation ; for removing (amongft other rea- 
sons) of that fcandaL And withall, it bringeth on tempo- 
ral judgments as it did on David, 2 Sam. xii. 7. That when 
it is pardoned, it will in the fad remembrance of it, make 
them lothe themfelves, and walk humbly, foftly, and in the 
bitternefs of their fouls; and withall, to think much of, 
and to magnify, and wonder at grace that did evtr pardon 
fuch finners, as it did Paul who lotheth himfelf, and high- 
ly exalteth grace on this account, That it pardoned him 
who was a blafphemer : As for fuch who never betake them- 
felves for pardon, nor obtain mercy, it has in thefeeffe&s ; 
j. It maketh their confeience liable to the fore and grievous 
challenge of this fin, and to the plain and fharp threatning 
that is pronounced againft it, which being delpifed, and 
God himfelf much wronged thereby, cannot but bite, nay, 
gnaw the confeience fo much more. 2 Juftice hath a clear 
r ^ind to proceed upon againft them, not only as finners 
k b;it as guilty nf this fin in particular, and fo be- 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 197 

cau-fe of it, in a fpecial manner liable to wiath. 3. An e- 
minent degree of wrath in hell *, for as there are different 
degrees of torment in hell, io this fin, no doubt, will make 
thole who are guilty of it, (hare of that torment in a high 
degree. 4. That it further hardeneth and incapacitateth 
for pardon (though not (Imply) the perfons that are guilty 
of it. 

If it be afksd, Why this fin is fo threatned and punifhed 
even beyond other fins ? 

Anfvj. Becaufe it is accompanied with the mod hainous 
aggravations, and fo draweth on the greatell guilt; As, 1. 
It is a fin immediately againft God himfelf, and is not, as 
fins of the fecond table, nay not as other particular fins of 
the firft table, whereby men divert from God to idolatry, 
giving to idols what is his due, or turn their back on him, 
or flight his commanded worfhip, as in the firft, fecond, 
and fourth commands; but this doth immediately and di- 
reclly, and by commifiion terminate on God himfelf mod 
daringly and prefumptuoufiy, as it were baffling and affront- 
ing him who has made himfelf known by his name. 2. It 
is the fruit fign, or fymptome, yea and caufe of the mod 
grofs atheifm in the heart, and enmity againfi: God ; for 
it is his enemies property to take bis name in vain, Pfalm 
exxxix. 20 It cannot be in the heighth, but atheifm is, 
and the awe of God is not ; and where there is much of it, 
there is proportionably much atheifm, it fpeaketh forth 
plainly, that there is no right knowledge or faith of his 
greatnefs, holinefs, power, juftice, he. which would make 
men fear him, and ftand in awe of him ; bcv.cz ordinarily 
thofe who are grofs in this, areotherways grofs in many o- 
ther tilings ; for it fktethi and difpofcth for atheifm, and it 
inureth and inhabituateth a man to contemn and defpife 
God, whereas, on the contrary, if a man make conlciencc 
of any thing, it will be of this. 

3. It is that which difhonoureth God mo ft amongft o- 
thers, and giveth them occafion to blafpheme, as David's 
fin did, and as thofe falfe prophets and feducers with their 
followers are laid to do, 2 Pet. ii. :, 2. and where this pre- 
vaileth, all religion is accounted, among fuch, but as a fan- 
cy and nothing, and therefore he will puaiih it feverely. 

4. It is often and rnoft ordinarily the guilt of fuch as ac- 
knowledge God in profeffion, but in works deny him, and 
do not worfliip him as God : It is agaitait light and convic- 
tions, yea, and profeffions of an mtereft in God ; therefore, 
there is an emphafis- here, The name of the Lord thy t 

5. It is not fa of infirmity, as other fins which pleaTure, 
or profit may puili on men to j there U otdiaaril v here none 


199 An Expofition cf Com. 3. 

pf thefe, but cither fimple atheifm ; or prophane cufrom 
that maketh it fo much the worfe, that it is cuftomary. 
The fccOnd reafon why the Lord thus threatneth and pu- 
is that he may thereby vindicate his own 

i.efe, and imprint the awe and terriblenefs of this great 

dreadful name the Lcrd our Cod, upon the hearts of all, 

it being one of the greatelt benefits beftowed, or which can 

n men, to wit, the manifeflation of the name 

, it cometh to be abufed (being theabufeof the 

thing, and fo the gieateft abufe) it is the morefeverely 

ged, and thus one way or other the Lord will have bis 
Koiin jreatnefs known araorigft all his creatures} and 

therefore, whofoever (hall think little of his bleffed and holy 
name here, and thereupon baffle and prophane it, God fhall 

c them think more cf it hereafter^ when he rifeth up to 
take vengeance. 

3. He f and puniiheth it, becaufe men take a 

ry and latitude in it, in formal praying, rafh fwearing, 
joltings, writings, tenents, difputes, plays, by lots, 6"<r. and 

Jore he putteth the greater (ramp of his indignation on 
it, either to rcihain them from that liberty, or to make them 
fmart for it ; and men a!fo but \ery feldom feverely punifh 
it, there fore he himfelf will. 

If any fhould afk the caufe, why men do ordinarily take 
fo little notice of this command, arid fo generally fin againft 
it ? I confefs it may be at the firft wondred at, confi- 
deripg that it has fuch peremp.ory threatnings, and is very 
often followed, even here in this world, and in the fight of 
men, with fliame and vifible judgments ; and that there is 
ordinarily no profit, nor credit, nor any fuch fatisfaction to 
carnal lulls or pleafurcs to tempt' and pulh oh to it, as are 
toother fms ; and that yet nctwithilanding all this, men 
fhduid fo frequently fin this way, mud be alio as wonderful 
as it is abomipable. But we may conceive it to proceed from 
tktic caufes 

1 Much atheifm, and the little heart-efteem that there is 
of God and of his majefiy; the little faith that there is of 
his dreadful juftice, and fevere and peremptory execution of 
his threatnings ; little of tliefe within, maketh men carelefs 
to be watchful, and what wonder, if this break forth, when 
in his heart the man faith, There U no God ; then this 
followetlt, as is clear, I fa. xxxvii. in Sennacherib, who 
when once he faith, Who is the Lord, then he treadeth on bis 

2. There is a natural pride and ftout-heartednefs in men 
againft God, flowing from the former, v\ hereby they fei 
thtir mouth againft God, and think it is a piece of bravery 


Com. 3. the Ten Commandments. 

not to ftand in awe of him ; and (as Goliah did) to 
living God, and to contemn and trample upon all rcl 
andholincfs which appears fooner and mo: 
than in ftout words againlt the Lord, Ma!, iii. 1 3. and in 
piianing of his n.nme. 

Hence it is to be obferved, that where this (in r 
there is either a height of defperatc fecurity and ftuj 
lefnefs, or a deviiifh gallantry in contemning God, and all 
religion, all prayer and other fpiritual exercifes as not be- 
coming pretty men, or men or fpirits ; as if forfooth, top- 
ping with God, and bidding a defiance to the Ahni 
were true knowledge, and the grand proof of a brave and - 
gallant fpirit, and of a pretty man : O! what a drea 
length is this tha; men are come I to fay in ef) 
the Lord, that I fliou'd reverence his name ? 

3 The Devil knowing well both thefe, tak ifion 

to flir men up to it, and what by offering occailons of irri- 
tation to vent their paflioji, and what by habituating them 
to it from cuftom, and the example of others, whereby 
keeping them of fome other fins which others may be guilty 
of, he is in Gods righteous judgment permitted to harden 
them in this. 

4. There maybe alfo fomething in the nature of this fin, 
becaufe it doth not ordinarily wrong others externally, or 
becaufe it may be in a truth, or in profeiHon of duty, 
in worfhip ; or becaufe it may be fallen into inad 
without forethought or deliberation; therefore the Devil 
hath the greater advantage to drive men on to it, if a 
(wearing falily, yet prophanely and rafldy: it not by i 
yet by fome creature ; or if not To, yet by formil : 
lefs difcharging of duties, or fome other 'way; and becaufe 
ordinarily there is no fuch evil that fticketh thereby to o- 
thers, as to make them refent it, nor no ill meant to t] 
felves, as they in their proud felf-tove, do conceit : T . 
fore they are the lefs afraid of before, and the ids challi 
for it afterward. 

Let us make fbme ufe of all this in a few wor-.ls ?. 
Then fee, and gravely coniider, what an this is, what wrath 
it deferveth, how far, and how wide in its guilt it extei 
itfelf, and what fevere reckoning will be for it I O |hso! 
what is your hazard, and what will be your sentence when 
this judgment lhall be fat, and when the judge cometh to 
pronounce it? tell me who of you will be aWe to purge 
yourfelvesof this guilt ? This fentence may and will one da/ 
make many of you tremble, when the Lord will fay, /) 
thou tooke/i my name in Vain in fuch a company, at fuch a play 
and /port , in fuch A-conteJl t i , yea in fuch a prjy- 

200 An Exp*Jitlon of Com. 3.' 

er, Sec. Here is your fentence, / witl not held yon guiltlefs % 
but guVty for this caujc ; This, this is the truth of God, 
if we believe his word, yea, whether we believe it or not. 

Let me therefore (peak two words further to all of vou 
old and young, godly and prophane, rich and poor, &c. O 
take more notice of this fin, and be more watchful againft 
ir, think more ot it, and look more to every way it may be 
fallen into; and by all means ftudy to prevent it, fear to 
name the great and dreadful name of the Lord our God irreve- 
rently ; tremble when ye heard it named ; and when ye 
read, hear, pray, or do any duty, as ye would efchew this 
curfe and threatning, and be found guiltlefs in the day of 
the Lord, efchew this fin of taking his name in vain. 

For helps to this, let me commend unto you. 1. A fe- 
rious endeavoiu* to walk under the impreffion of God's great- 
nefs, and to have your heart filled with his awe •, if his fear 
be in the heart, there will be expreffions of reverence to hi$ 
name in the mouth. 

2. Believe, and be perfuaded of the reality of this truth 
concerning the terriblenefs of the reckoning for this fin, 
and the fearful judgment that will certainly follow it. 

3. Ufe and mention his name reverently in prayer, hear- 
ing conference, &c. For, habituating curfelves to formal- 
ity in fuch duties, maketh way more ordinarily for more 
grofs violations of this command ; and ftudy to be more af- 
fected even when narratively ye are telling fomething where- 
in his name is mentioned, than otherwife, 

4. Tremble at this fin, and fuitably refent it, when ye 
hear it in others, be affected with it, and labour to make 
them fo, that ye may thus train yourfelves to an abominating 
of that evil. 

5. Let it never pafs in yourfelves, efpecially, without 
fome fpecial grave animadverfion : Lock back on all your 
life, and fee if ye can remember when and where ye were 
grofly guilty ; reflect on your woi fhip, and obferve omiffi- 
ons and defects, at leaft in refpecl of what ye might have 
been at, and learn to lothe yourfelves for thefe, and to be 
in bitternefs for them ; efpecially if the efcapes have been 
more late and recent, let them not fleep with you, left ye 
be hardned, and the fentence ftand in force unrepealed a- 
gainft you; what ? will ye fleep and this word ftand in the 
bible on record as a regiftrated decree againft you ? 

6. Seek for much of the Spirit, for none can call Jefus, 
Lord, but by the Holy Ghoft, 1 Cor. xii. 3. 

7. Frequently and ferioufly put up that petition to the 
Lord, Hallowed be thy name, Matth. vl 9. 

The other word of ufe is for what is paft, I am fure, if 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 200 

we could fpeak of it, and here it rightly, there is here that 
which might m »ke us ill to tremble, and evidence convin- 
cingly to us our hazard, and the neceffity of repentance 
and flying to Chrift : Tell me hearers, believe ye this truth 
that there is luch hazard from this guilt ? tell me (if ye re- 
member what we fpoke in the opening of it) is there any 
of you that lieth not under the ftroalc of it ? If fo, what 
will ye do ? fly ye muft to Chrift, or lye ftill ; and can there 
be any fecure lying ftill for but one hour, under God's 
curfe drawn out ? O ye Atheifts, that never trembled at 
the name of the Lord, and that can'take a mouthful of it in 
your common difcourie, and ye who make it your by-word, 
and mock, orjeft, ye, whom no oaths can bind; and all 
ye hypocrites ; who turn the pretended honouring of the 
name of the Lord, and the fanclifying of him in his ordi- 
nances into a real prophaning of it; let me give you thefe 
two charges under certification of a third, 1 I charge you to 
repent ot this fin, and to fly to Chrift for obtaining pardon ; 
hafte, hafte, hafte, the curfe is at the door, when the fen- 
tence is paft already ; O fleep not, till this be removed. 2. 
I charge you to abftain from it in your feveral relations, all 
ye parents, mafters, magiftrates, church-officers, fchooi- 
mafters and teachers ; I charge you to endeavour to prevent 
this fin in yourfelves and others : It is faid that the children 
of many are brought up in it, the moft part live in it, our 
ftreets are more full of it than the ftreets of heathens : Advert 
to this charge, every foul : Or, 3. I charge you to appear 
before this great and dreadful God, who will not account 
any fuch guiitlefs, and to anfwer to him for it. 

><><xxxxxx>o<xx)<><>co< ><xkxxo<x>->^oc<xx^:x^>< 


Exodus xx. Ver. 8, 9, 10, 11, 

8. Remember the Sabbath-day, to keep it holy : 9. Six days 
/bait thou labour , and do all thy work. 10. But the /event h 
day is the Sabbath 0/ the Lord thy God; in it thou /halt not 
do any work, Thou, nor thy /on, mr thy daughter, thy 
manservant, nor thy maid-/ervant t nor thy cattel, nor thy 
ft ranger that is within thy gates, i 1 . For \n fix days the 
Lord made heaven and earth, the fea, and all that in them is % 
and re/led the feventh day, wherefore the Lord bie/Jed the 
/abbathday % and tallowed it. 

THE Lord in his infinite wifdom and goodnefshath fo 
far confulted man's infirmity, as to fum up his duty 
Cc ia 

±bt An Expojiticn of Com. 4/ 

in thefe ten commands, called ten words, that thereby his 
darknefs and dulnefs by fin, might be helped by an eaiy ab- 
breviation •, The firft command therefore containeth man's 
duty to God in immediate worihip, requiring that the only 
true God fhould be worfiiipped : The 2. ftinteth and limi- 
teth men to that worfliip alone which he prefcribeth : The 
3. Commandeth reverencing cf him in ail his ordinances, 
and a reverent manner of going about them. 

This fourth pointeth out the time which moft folemnly the 
Lord will have fet a -part /or his worfliip, that fo he, who is 
both Lord of us, and of our time, may fhew what {hare 
he has referved as a tribute due to himfclf, who hath libe- 
rally vouchfafed on us the reft ; which time is not to be un- 
derftood exclusively, as if he would have only that fpent in 
worfliip (there being no exclusive determination of the fre- 
quency of exercife of worfliip, or duration of them in fcrip- 
lure, that is to fay, that they (half be fo long and fo often, 
and no longer, nor oftener) but that he will precifely have 
this time as an acknowledgment from us, even as when he 
gave Adam the ufe of all the trees in the garden, he referv- 
ed one ; fo when he giveth fix days to us, he keepeth a (e- 
venth for himfelf. 

This command is placed in a manner betwixt the two ta- 
bles, becaufe it is atranfition as it were from the one to the 
other, and containeth in it duties of immediate fervice to 
God, and of charity towards men, and fo in fome fort ferv- 
eth to reconcile (if we may fpeak fo) the two tables, and to 
knit them together, that fo their harmony may be the more 
clearly feen : It is aifo more largely and fully fet down for 
plurality and variety of expreffions and words than any other 
in either of the tables ; yet hath it notwithstanding, been in 
all times in a fpecial manner aivauked and fet upon, ani 
endeavours ufed to overturn it: Satan arming fometimes To 
darken the meaning of it, fome'imes toloofe from the ftrici 
tie of obferving it, and that not only by old Sabbatarians, An- 
ti-iabbatarians, and corrupt fchool-men, but even by thole 
whom God hath made orthodox in the main ; And efpeci- 
ally by a generation in thefe days, who having a hatred at 
ail ordinances^ and at all the commands of the decalogue, 
yet do efpecially vent it againft this command ; becaufe in it 
is contained a, main foundation of godlinefs. As it is won- 
derfully great prefumption for men to alTault and fet upon 
God's authority, even where he hath ftrengthred himfelf 
(as it were) moft, by more full explication, and more large 
prefting of duty, and forbidding of the contrary fin, as he 
bath done in this command, more than in any of all the 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 233 

reft ; So it will be necefiary before vrz c.in fpeak to ths 
practical part of piety comprehended in it, concerning ths 
i<inctifkation of the Chriilian Sabbath, or Lord's day, ei- 
ther in the negative or pofitive part of it, tq (peak docu inai- 
ly (for clearing of the precept) to the.'e three. 

1. Whether this command be moral, and do oblige us in 
its letters as other commands'do. 

2. What is the particular morality of it, and the literal 
meaning of the words. 

3. How our Lord's day ftandeth in reference to this com- 
mand ? and whether thereby the fame fanctjfkation be re- 
quired, as to it, though its inflitution arife from another 
ground, than is required to feventh-day-Sabbath ? Some- 
what of all thefe mult needs be fpoken t:nto, and we begin to 
fpeak hxftof its morality before we fpeak of its meaning, be- 
caufe all dependeth on this, both in refpecT: of exposition and 
practice ; for if it be not moral and perpetually binding, it 
is not neceffary either to explicate it, or to ftudy and prefs 
the practice of it; but if it be found to be moral, then no 
doubt it concerneth us ; and require the fame moral fapcrifi- 
cation of a day now, as it did before. 

Our afiertion then, in reference to this, that, The du- 
ty of fetting a-part and fauctifying of a portion of time, as it 
is limited in the fourth command, for God's fervice as it re- 
curreth, is moral and the obligation thereunto perpetual, 
even as in the duties of the other commands ; the obligation 
to this, being no more diflblved than thofe, though there 
may be difference in the degree of obligation which they lay 
on in refpect of the matter contained in them; my meaning 
in -a word, is, that a day or one of feven is as necefiary to 
be kept holy unto God now, (upon fuppofition of his de- 
termining the particular day) as it is neceiTary to hold 
keep up the worfliip prefcribed by God ; neither without 
iin can any other day be put in the room of it, more than 
other worihip can befubftituted in the place of divinely pre- 
fcribed worGiip ; for the time is fet and fixt by the fourth, 
command (pointing at a folemn and chief time) as the wj;- 
fhip itfelf is by the fecond. 

For clearing of th ; s, confider, I. That we mean not here 
moral-nature, as if without any politive law fuch a thing 
had been binding : no; but moral politive, that is laid on 
by a command which is {landing unrepealed, and fo 
bindcth by virtue of, the authority of the Law-giver, as 
feveral other commands and precepts do ; as namely, thofe 
concerning facraments, belonging to the fecond command, 
aad thofe concerning one wife, and forbidden degm 

C c % marri-'.gc 

104 An Expojttion of Com. 4.' 

marriage belonging to the feventh ; which being fo often 
broken by many faints, and difpenfed with in lome cafes, 
cannot be thought to be moral-natural, fince the Lord dif- 
penfeth not fo in thefe, nor can it be thought in reafon, 
that his fervants would have been ignorant of iuch a natural 
thing: It is then moral pofitive that we mean, to wit, that 
which is binding by a pofitive law. 

2. Confider in this queftion, that there is a great differ- 
ence betwixt thefe two, to fay the feventh-day-fabbatl' which 
the Jews kept, is moral, and to fay the fourth command is 
moral ; the one may be, and is abolifhed, becaufe another 
i$ brought in its room : The other, to wit, the command 
may ftand, and doth ftand, becaufe it tieth morally to a 
feventh day, but fuch a feventh day as the Lord fhould fuc- 
ceffively difcover to be chofen by him ; and though the fe- 
venth be changed, yet one of (even is ftill referved. 

3. There is need to diftinguifh betwixt the moral fubftance 
of a command, and fome ceremonial appendices'belonging 
to it : So the fourth command might then pofiibly have had 
fomething ceremonial in that feventh day, or in the man- 
ner ufed of fancYifying that feventh day, which now is gone 
as double facrifices, be. or in itsrealons whereby it is pref- 
fed : (as their is fomething peculiar to that people in the 
preface, to all the commands) as there was in the facra- 
ments of the old law belonging to the fecond command ; 
yet both a fabbath day and facraments may be, and are ve- 
ry neceflary and moral in the church •, it i9 not then every 
thing hinging on this command, as proper to that admi- 
niftration, and fo but accidental to the fancYifying of a fab- 
bath, that we plead for; but this is it we plead for, that 
the command is, as to its main fcope, matter, and fubftance, 
moral pofitive, and that it ftandeth as ftill binding and ob- 
liging unto us, and cannot without fin be neglected oro- 
mitted: it might be enough here to fay, that if this com* 
mand were never repealed in the fubftance of it, nor did e« 
vtv expire by any other thing fucceeding in its place, then 
it rauft needs be ftill binding ; for certainly, it was once, as 
obligatory, proclaimed by the law giver himfelf, and was 
never fince in its fubftance repealed, nor is it expired or 
found hurtful in its nature, but is as neceflary now as then; 
it is true, the feventh day fabbath is repealed by inftituting 
and fubftituting the firft day-fabbath, or Lord's day, in its 
place ; but that doth rather qualify the command than ; *e- 
peal it; for 1. It faith that a day is moral and neceflary. 
a. It faith a day of feven is moral and neceflary* which is 
all we fay > and why neceflary i as agreeable to this com- 

Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 205 

mand no doubt ; whence we may argue, if the fubftance of 
this command be kept even when the particular day is chan- 
ged, then is the command moral (which this very change 
confirmeth) but the former is true, as is clear in experience ; 
therefore it foiloweth, that the law (lands unrepealed ; for 
it is palpable, that the day, as to its number or frequency, 
and duration, with the manner of fanclifying of it, belongs 
to the fubftance of the commandment, but what day as to 
its order, firft, fecond, or feventh doth not, becaufe the 
firft cometh in immediately upon religion, God's honour, 
and the good of fouls, which the other doth not : This ar- 
gument will (land good againft all who will acknowledge 
this law to have been once given by God till they can evi- 
dence a repeal. 

To fpeak fomewhat more particularly to this, the way we 
(hall make out the morality of it, is by confidering, How 
the fcripture fpeaketh of it in general 2. How it ipeaketh 
of the decalogue. 3. How it fpeaketh of this command in 
particular. 4. By adducing fome fcriptural arguments for 
it t As for the 1. To wit, the fcriptures fpeaking of it in 
general, we fay, If the fcripture fpeak as frequently in clear- 
ing the fourth command, or the fabbath (which is the mo- 
rality of it) and prefs it as ferioufly, and that in reference 
to all times of the church as it doth any other moral duty ; 
then for fubftance this command is moral and perpetually 
binding, (for that feemethtobe the character whereby rnoft 
fafely to conclude concerning a command, to confider how 
the fcripture fpeaketh of it,) but the fcripture doth as often 
mention, and is as much, and as ferious in preffing of that 
command, and that in reference to all ftates of the church 
S9 of any other, trgo, &c. We fhall make om this, by fhew- 
ing 1. Its frequency in mentioning of it. 2. Its fcrioulneis 
in preffing it, 3, Its averting of it as belonging to all times 
and ftates of the church. 

1. Look through all the fcriptures, and ye will find the 
.fancYifying of afabbath mentioned ; as firft, Gen. ii. begin- 
neth with the very firft feventh after the creation ; then it 
is fpoken ofExod.xvi before the law was given; then 
Exod.xx it is contained exprefly in the law, and that by a 
particular and fpecial command in the firft table thereof, 
and is often after repeated, hxod. xxxi. and Levit. xxiii. 3. 
where it is fet down as the firft feaft before all the extraor- 
dinary ones; which preference can be for no other reafon, 
but becaufe of its perpetuity; yea, it is made a rule or pat- 
tern, by which the extraordinary fabbaths, or feafts in their 
fanftification are to be regulate ; again it is repeated, Diut. 

V. Wilh 

zz6 An Expojition of Com. 4, 

with the reft of the commands, and in the hiftorica! part 
c( fcripture* as Ncheminh ix. 13. It is alfo mentioned ia 
the Pfaln^s, the xcii. Pfalm, being peculiarly iiuitled a Pfalm 
or fong for the fabbath day: The prophets again do not 
forget it, fee Ifa lii 58. Jer. xvii. and Ezekiel xx. 22. In 
the New Teftament the fanctifying of a day or fabbath is 
mentioned in ihe evangclifts, Matth. xxiv. 20. Luke xxxiii. 
Acts xiii. 14, 15, 21. and xx. 7. in the epiftles, as 1 Cor. 
xvi. 2nd Rev. i. 10. As if all hai purpofely -concurred for 
making out the concernment and perpetuity of this duty. 

2. Confider how weightily, ferioufly and preflingly the 
fcripture fpeaketh cf it ; firft it is fpoken of Gen. ii. as back- 
ed with a reafon. 2. Through the law the fanftification of 
it in particular is defcribed. 3. It is fpoken of as a -mercy 
and lingular privilege that God gave to his people, Exod. 
xvi. 29. Neh. ix. 14. and Ezek. xx. 12. 4. Many promi- 
fes containing many biefllngs are made to the confeieutious 
and right keepers of it, Ifa. lvi. 58. 5. The breach of it is 
feverely threatned and plagued, Numb. xv. Neh. xiii. Jer. 
xviii. and Ezek. xx, 6. Many examples of the godly, their 
care in keeping it are fet down, fee Neh. xiii. Luke xxiii. 
56. Acts xx. 7. and Rev. i. 10. 7. The duties of it are par- 
ticularly fet down, as hearing, praying, reading, delighting 
in God, works of mercy, <hc. 8. It is in the Old Tefta- 
ment, claimed by God as his own day, not ourSj My holy 
d<iy f Ifa. Iviii. 13. and Neh. ix. 14. it is acknowledged by the 
people to be his, while they fay, Thine hoy fabbath, which 
property is afferted of that holy day, as being God's, be- 
sides other days, Rev. i # 20. And this is afferted alfo in 
this fame command, where it is called, the Sabbath of thg 
Lord s in oppoiition to, or contradiflinction from the other 
fix days : ail which feemeth to fpeak out fomething more 
than temporary in this duty of fetting a feventh day a part 
for God (for we fpeak not yet of the particular day.) 

3. Look to it in all times'and ftates of the church, and 
ye will find it remarkably characterized with a fpeciai ob- 
servation, As 1. In innocency it is inftituted and fet a-part 
from others, and bleffed, Heb. iv. It is called the reft from 
the beginning of the world. 2. Before the law was given, 
the fanctification of it was intimated as neceiTary. 3. In the 
giving ot the law it is remembred, and a command given 
to us for remembring it. 4. After the law, it is urged by 
the prophets Ifaiah and Jeremiah, and kept by the godly, 
Pfal. xcii. 5. In the time, or after the time of the captivi- 
ty, the breach of it is reproved, Ezek. xx. And its obser- 
vation reftorcd by godly Nehemiah. 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 

Hitherto there is no. difficulty, the pinch will lye in 1 
If the fcriptures (peak of it as belonging to the d?\. 
gofpel, in which (for making of it out) 1. We ha*.e th. 
binrsj Adts xx. 7. 1 Cor. xvi. 2. Where Chriftians 30;: 
about the moral duties of the fabbath, isefpccially obf. . 
to be upon one clay peculiarly. 3. That title of the dmifk 
appropriating of a day to the Lord, R.ev. i. 10. Which' 
places will fall in to be confidered particularly when we cob 
to the laft queftion* befidcs thefe we may produce three 
places to prove a fabbath as belonging to the New Telia- 
ment; though not the very day ufed or obferved for the 
fabbath in the Old ; and this will be enough to make out 
the affei tion, two of them are prbphefies, the third of theai 
is in the gofpel. The fir ft prophecy is in La. !:_vi. 2^. The* 
.ind is Ezekiel's delcripiion of the new temp T e, chapters- 
xliii. xliv. (be Where, 1. It is clear, that thefe places re-* 
lute to the days of the gofpel, as none can deny but they da*' 
to eminently. 2. It is clear that though they prophecy -of 
the fci vices of the gofpel under the names of iacriikes, be. 
proper to the Old-Teftament-adminiftration and of the fane- 
tified and fet apart time of the gofpel, under the name oF 
febbath which then was determined, and whereto men wertf- 
then bound by the fourth command as they were no frcr'ifi- 
ces by the fecond : yet thefe prophefiee infer not by virtue of 
the fourth command the very fame day to be under the gof- 
pfe!, which was under the law, more than the fame fervices 
by virtue of the fecond : which none will deny to be in 
force, notwithstanding of the change of fervices : and there 
is as little reafon to deny the fourth to be ftill in force as 
to its fubftance, notwithstanding of the change of the particu- 
lar day. Yet Thirdly, It is clear, That from the- ra- 
tioning of thefe fervices this will follow, Th;,: 
fhcuid be fet and fixed ordinances, and a way or war: 
in the New Teftament, as well as in the G!d, and t 
there fhould be a folemn chief fet time for the fabb 
which men ought to fancYify, and that they fhould no rr*c 
admit any other times, nor ih fet a part into a parity with it, 
than they were to admit any ferviceor w r orfhip not allowedt 
by God, or that was contrary to the fecond command : for 
if any thing be clear in them, this is clear, that they fpeak 
firft of fervices, then of folemn times and fabbaths, and of 
the one after the other, which muft certainly ih'fer, that 
both external fervices, and a folemn chief time for them, 
do belong to the New Teftament : Hence it is, that many 
divines (from that prophecy of Ezekiel) todraw conc'ufions 
for fundi y things out of thofe places, as 1. Concerning the 
necefllty and continuance of a iiandmg mroiftry, and tho' 


2o8 An Expofition of Com. 4; 

minifters now be neither priefts nor Levites, yet (fay they,) 
it followeth clearly, that there will be a miniftry, becaufe 
fuch are fpoken of there. 2. Concerning the neceffity of, 
and a warrant for church-difcipline, and feparating not on- 
ly doctrinally but difciplinarily the precious from the vile, and 
debarring of thofe who are morally unclean from the ordi- 
nances : becaufe thefe things (fay they) are typified in the 
fubftance by the porters being fet to keep the doors, and 
by the charge given to the priefts. 3. Anent the continu- 
ance of a church, and of the ordinances of word, facra- 
ments, 6c. And the congregating of Chriftians to attend 
thefe, though there fhall be no material or typical temple, 
becaufe of the moral things there being exprefied and prophe- 
Ced of, under the names of the old Leviticai fervkes ; yet 
could not a warrant be inferred from them for thefe, (and 
that Jure Divino) if the things were not morally to bind, 
which were fo fignified. 

Hence I argue, If the fancYifying of a fabbath as a piece 
of worfhip to God be prophefied ot to belong to the New 
Teftamenr, then are we bound to the fanclification of a fab- 
bath as a neceffary duty ; but the continuance of fanclifying 
a fabbath unto God, is fpecially prophefied of, and foretold 
as a piece of worfhip under the New Tcftament, ergo, 6c, 
The third place is Matth. xxi-v. 20. Pray that your flight 
be not in the winter, neither on the fabbath day, where the 
Lord infatuateth, that as travelling is troublefome to the 
body in winter ; fo would it be to the minds of the godly 
(for he is now fpeaking to his difciples alone) to travel on 
that day, efpecially and folemnly (et a part for God's wor- 
fhip ; now if there were no fabbath to continue after Chrift's 
afcenfion, or if it were not to be fanclified, there would be 
no occafion of this grief and trouble, that they behooved 
to travel on the fabbath, and durft not tarry till that day 
were by-paft, and fo no caufe to put up this prayer ; which 
yet by our Lord's exhortation feemeth to infer that the fab- 
bath was to be as certain in its time as the winter : And 
doubtlefs this cannot be meaned of the Jewifh-fabbath. For 
1. That was not to be abolifhed fhortly. 2. Travelling on 
the Jewifh-fabbath, was to be no caufe of grief unto them, 
if indeed all days were alike ; neither would it be fcrupled 
in fuch a cafe by theapoftles to whom he now fpeaketh. 3. 
Befides, if no fabbath were to be, it had been better and 
clearer to fay, ftand not, and grieve not to travel any day: 
But his words imply the juix contrary, that there was to be 
a fo!emn fabbath. 4. He mentioneth the fabbath day only, 
and not the other feflivals of the Jews which were to be kept 


Com. 4. tie Ten Commandments. 209 

holy alfo, and by this he diftinguifheth the ordinary fabbath 
from thole other days, and oppoieth it to many, as being now 
the only holy day on which they fhould efchew, if poflible, 
to travel; and would therefore pray to have it prevented: 
for in the New Teftament, the fabbath fpqken of as the fo- 
lemn time for worfhip, is ever meantd of the weekly iabbath, 
and other holy days are called the firft or laft day of the feaftj 
and therefore if the Lord's meaning were that they fhould 
pray, that their flight might not be tm any of the Jexvilb holy 
days, to mention the weekly fabbath only, would not be 
fufficient for that end. 

To fay that it was for fear of fcandal, that they (hould 
pray not to be put to fly, will not remove the former rea- 
fons ; befides a; that time the apoitles and other Chriftians 
had given up with the Jews and Mood not on fcandal in fuch 
things in reference to them, on whom, as the apoftle fahh, 
l ThefT. ii. 16. Wrath had come to the utter moft, and 
who were not infirm but malicious, and fo in refpsct of of- 
fence to be dealt with as the Lord did with the Pharifees i 
and therefore, all things being confidered, it appeareth from 
our Lord's words, that a fabbath among Chriftians was to 
be fanctified forty years, or there about, kfter his death, 
which proveth that the fcripture meptioncth a fabbath to be 
fanclified under the New Teftament. 

We come unto the fecond way of making out the morali- 
ty of this command, to wit, by fhewing how the fcripture 
fpeaketh of the whole decalogue, and thus we reafon. 

1. If all the commandments of the decalogue be moral, 
then muft this be fo alfo; for it is one of them ; and if it 
were not moral and binding, there would not now be ten 
words (as they are called by the Lord, Deut. x. 4.) but nine 
only, which at firft blufli, will and cannot but feem Orange 
and abfurd to thofe who have from God's word drunk in 
that number: But all thefe are moral and binding, as is 
granted by all, (except the papifts who deny the fecond, 
and therefore fcore it out ©f their catechifms.) And that 
they muft be all alike moral and binding may be made out, 
thefe two ways. 

1. All of them in the Old Teftament had alike authcrU 
ty, privileges, and prerogatives, which neither the judici- 
al nor ceremonial law had, as 1. To be diftinctly pronoun- 
ced by God himielf, without adding more, Deut. v. 22. 
2. To be written by his own finger in tables of ftone, Exod. 
xxix. 1 8. 3. To be laid up and kept in the ark, E:;od. xxr. 
16. And if thefe and other prerogatives did put a differ- 
ence, and (hew a difference to be put betwixt the other nine 
commands, and all judicial or ceremonial laws, Why not 
D d betwixt 

•2 io An Expofition tf Com. 4. 

betwixt them, and this alfo ? 2. In the New Teftament they 
are all alike confirmed ; when the law in general is fpoken 
of, none of them is excepted, and therefore this command 
is neceffai ily included. 

For which we would look firft to that place, Matth. v. 
17. Where our Lord in a fpecial manner mtendcth to vin- 
dicate the moral law, and to prefs holinel3 in moral duties 
upon his hearers, even in another fort than the Pharifees 
did : Think not (faith he) That 1 am come to dejlroy the law 
and the prophets, 1 am net come to drftroy, but to fulfil ; Verily 
he that breaketh one cf the Icafi of theje commands, and tracheth 
menfo } Jba It be called leaft in the kingdom of God, &c. Where, 
by law, muft neceiTariiy be underftood the moral law, for 
he was thought to be a tranfgrtffor of that, and efpecially 
for this command in it (for that fermon in Matthew cometh 
in, in order after his being challenged for breach of fabbaih, 
John. v. 10. tic) And his fcopc is to wipe oft that imputa- 
tion, and how ? by mewing that he ftill preffeth the moral 
law, even beyond. what the Pharifees did. 2. It was the 
moral law efpeciatty, which the Pharifees corrupted, and 
whereof he underraketh the vidication, and it \% holinefs in 
obedience to that which he preffeth as neceiHiry beyond what 
the fcribes and Pharifees did \ and indeed it was in that law 
they failed mainly, and not in the ceremonial law. 3. The 
offence and mi (lake that Chrift is to pre-occupy and recti fj 
amongft his hearers, requireth this : tor many of them fan- 
cied that by the Meffiah there fhould be a relaxation from 
rtie duties of hoiinefs called for on the moral law ; and 
therefore, faith he, think not fo ; now a relaxation from 
fome other laws might have been thought of warrantably, 
4. It is fuch a law, whereof to teach the abrogation at any 
time is finful and pernicious, therefore it is certainly the 
moral law. 

Secondly j We reafon thnv when he fpeaketh of the law, 
kKT-^^'Vj or by way of eminency (meaning no doubt the 
decalogue) He fpeaketh alike of aU its commandments, even 
of the leaft of them and fo of this. 4. Ailo thai he came 
not to dejlroy it % which yet the Lord never did of ceremoni- 
als, but rather foretold the abolition of then, as he did of 
the fee king and worfhipping of God in the temple at Jem 
falem, 6r. Yea, when he cleareth the doclrine of , the fab- 
bath from the Pharifees corrupting traditions; he doth ne- 
ver weaken its former obligation, nor ini:nuate its weakcefs, 
but fneweth the true meaning thereof, which from the be- 
ginning made it not only cosfiflent with the works of piety 
vii' J mercy, but eiiceetiinjjy helpful to both, 

A fe- 

Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. Stt 

A fecond place, confirming the whole decalogue (or ra- 
ther^afierting its authority,) is in the epiftle of James, Jam, 
ii. I a He th.it offendeth in one is guilty of all : Why ! Bccaufe 
he is the fame God, and Law giver (And no fervant nor 
angel) who {pake them all, one as well as another of them ; 
And it bciog clear there, that he fpeaketh of the decalogue, 
call the royal law, (there being no law inftanced in ; nor 
any other, that can be of alike authority, in thefe laws in- 
itanced, but only it ; nor that could be pleaded for, by 
James, on fuch grounds, iniuch a time,) and it being alfo 
clear, that he giveth to all thofe laws, which the Lord fpake 
at that time, alike authority; (otherwife, his reafoning 
would not be good, if any one law or command, could be 
iuitanced to him, of the ten, which the Lord (pake, and 
was abrogated, and not binding) it necefTirily followeth, 
that this fourth command, being one of the ten, mud be of 
equal authority with the red. 

It may be noted alio, that James here doth not, (as nei- 
ther doth our Lord, nor any of his apoftles, when they 
cite the law) give new authority to the laws he citeth ; but 
fuppofeth them to have it already ; and maketh ufe of them, 
as confirmations of the thing he prefied ; which could not 
be, if their authority depended on, or flowed from, the 
prefen't citation of them. 

Thirdly, We reafon further thus ; Euher there is fome 
moral duty, contained in this command, and laid on by it j 
which is not in any of the former; or there is but fome ce- 
remonial thing in it, reducible to one of them: For, the 
perfection of this law requireth, that all things needful to 
the worihip of God (hould be fummed in it, and the fcope 
thereof, which is, briefly to compend all, requireth there 
{hould be nothing in it, that is needlefs, fuperflueus, or 
that might have been left out 

Nov.* it the matter be moral ; not contained in any for- 
mer command, then is the command itfelf moral ; feeing a 
moral fubitance, and matter denominateth the command 
fo: Yea, it muft be mora!, otherwife fomething morally* 
neceffary to God's fervice, (fuch as the determination of its 
chief time) (hould be omitted. It may be aiTumed, yet fur- 
ther: It muft be moral, (be it what it will) to efchew a tau- 
tology in this fliort compend of duties \ and that of moral 
duties too. 

Again, If it be not moral, but contain fome ceremonial 
thing reducible to one of the three former commands • Then 
l. It might have been put amongft other ceremonials. 2. 
Other ceremonials might have Jbeen put in with it : Or, 3. 
A reafon given, Why all are not reducible to fome moral 

9 d % com- 



^ Expcjition of Com. 4. 

command. 4. If the matter of this be reducible to another 
command, then it cannot be accounted a diltinft command ; 
neither ought it here to have been given as iuch, but fub- 
joined to iome other ; 2s the fervants and beafts refting, is 
Subjoined to this. 5. It would be fhewn to what command 
it is reducible as to the fubftarce of it, if it be'tperemonial. 
6. A reafon would be given, Why amongft ten£ one, and 
only one, is fet down, fo tar different horn all the reft. 
And if all thefe abfurdities, follow the denial of its fub- 
fiance to be moral ; then, for-efchewing of them, we muft 
conclude it to be moral : and fo the fourth command is 

Fourthly, We reafon thus; If it be not moral, it muft ei- 
ther be judicial, or ceremonial, for the matter and fubftancc 
of it; but it is not judicial: that is, it belongeth not to ex- 
ternal policy, and civil fociety, principally and efpecially, in 
that one nation, bec2ufe no iuch dut'es are comprehended) 
at leaft primarily, in any command of the firfl table ; but 
in the fecond which teacheth duties to others, as this firft, 
doth to God : Neither is it ceremonial -, for, all ceremonies 
that are typical, have their rife fince the fall, and relate 
fome way to Chrift to come. But this of faoctifying one 
day of feven, had its rife in the ftate of innoc"ency, and was 
enjoying to Adam in paradife, before he fell, and therefore 
cannot be called ceremonial properly more than the com- 
mand of a man's leaving father and mother, and cleaving 
to his wife, fo that thefe uvo fhouid be one fleili, which the 
apoftle Ephef. v. maketh ufe of. Befide c , if it were cere- 
monial in the fubftance, then wene it typical and fignificant 
of fomething to come, which is hjgtf to (hew : Then alfo 
had it not been lawful to retained it*, for ceremonials now 
in their ufe are net only dead, but deadly: But this mora- 
lity, in fubftance the fame with the command we plead for f 
was retained by the apoftles, and primitive church ; (to fay 
no more) Therefore it is not ceremonial : And io this law 
muft needs be moral. 

To fay, That the command is partly moral, partly cere- 
monial; if we refpeel its fubftance, will not hold : For, 1. 
There is no fuch other law, 2. That we were to make cori- 
fufion, betwixt ceremonials, and morals ; which it feemeth 
the Lord himfelf hath aimed and refolved to keep clearly 
diftinft. 3. Whatever be ceremonial, That which was al- 
lowed, and enjoined to Adam in paradife ; and wherein we 
may agree with him, under the gofpel, cannot be ceremo- 
nial : For, neither of thefe ftates are capable, of proper ce- 
remonies ; but both agree on a feventh day. Therefore it 
is not ceremonial. 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 213 

The third way, we make out the morality of this com- 
mand, is, By particular confidering of itielf ; and here we 
argue thus. 

If it be not only put into the decalogue, with tbc other 
moral commands •, but more Angularly explicate), and pief- 
fed even in it than they ; then it is certainly moral ; that is, 
perpetually obligatory with the reft. But fo it is put and 
let down in the decalogue, and prefTed even more than the 
reft of the commands, as on other accounts, fo pofiibly in 
this ; becaufe its ground is poffitive, and men need the more 
words about it : Juft as in the fecond command ; ergo, Sec. 
Now, that it is thus put, and prefied ; appeareth thefe fe- 
veral ways. 

2. It fhareth of all common privileges, with the reft of 
the commands fet down in the decalogue, that went all 
fpoken, yea, written by the Lord immediately, and laid up 
in the ark. 

2. It is prcpofed, and fet down in its form, both posi- 
tively ; Remember the Jubbath, to keep it hofy, (and negativ- 
ly) in it thou Jhilt do no manner of work, &c. Whereas all 
the other commands, are but one of thefe ways fet down. 

3. It hath the particuliarity in it, that all the reft have; 
to wit, To be in the lingular number ; Thou /baity &c. To 
fhew, That it fpeaketh to every one in particular : Yea tho* 
all the commands concern all ranks, yet only here, are 
fon, daughter, man-fervant, maid fervant, and ftranger, 
cxprefiy mentioned, as comprehended in it. 

4« There is a fpecial equity, holden out here in the pro- 
portioning of this time , There are fix days given us, to la- 
bour on ; and therefore i: is ail the reafbn in the world, 
that the Lord have the feventh : And if this concefiion of 
God's, of fix, days to work on, be moral (For all the time is 
God's ; and we cannot for our ufe take any part of it, but 
by his grant; and there is no other grant : But this divi- 
ding and proportioning of time, betwixt him and us ; in 
which divificn too, he hath given us by far, the largeft fhare ; 
to wit, fix parts of feven:) Then muft the letting a part of 
a feventh day be moral alio : And fo muft the command it- 
felf, wherein both are comprehended, viz. The fix given 
to us, and the feventh referved for him ; they muft needs 
ftand and fall together: For they mutually put each other, 
thou fhalt labour fix days, and reft on the feventh j thou 
fhalt reft on the fabbathday, and labour fix, 

5. This day is claimed by the Lord, as a thing wherein he 
hath a fpecial propriety: It is the Lord's day; for though 
he did give fix, yet he refeived a feventh. And can, or 
dare, any fay, That he discharged that, or difpenlcd it away 


2(4 ^/i Exptfition of Com. 4. 

from himfclfj to any other ? If not, it mud be his ftill ; 
and cannot without facriledge, be other ways applied. 

6. Obedience to this command, is prefled by an exceed- 
ing weighty reaibn drawn from God's own example ; which 
maketh it clearly relative to its firft inftitution, Gen. ii. 
Where it is faid, That he refted after fix days work, the 
fcrenthday, viz. the whole feventh day, and fo fliould we: 
which is the more effectual, for proving the morality of 
this command : Becaufe, 1. It is a reafon that took placq, 
even in innocency, and fo refpecteth no type or ceremony. 
2 It is uuiverfal, belonging to all men, who are God's 
creatures: And therefore, fince the reafon is perpetual, fo 
muft the command be likewise. 

7. This command alone, and befide all others, is expref- 
ly prefled in the obfervailon of it, not only on matters and 
rulers for themfehes, but as taking burden on them, for 
all under them •, and within their families to endeavour the 
fandlifying of the Lord's day with them, and by them as well 
as by themfelves ; whereby the extent of this command is 
clearly and earnefily holden forth in more exprefs terms, 
than in any other of all the commands \ tho' this be implied 
in them alfo. 

8. The obfervation of it is prefled and encouraged unto, 
by a fpecial blefiing which he hath annexed to the time fet 
a-part by himlelf ; He bleffedit, that is, he made, and ftill 
raaketh it ufeful and refrefhing as a fpecial bleffing to his 
people who keep his ordinances, feeking him therein ; this 
day has a double portion and increafe, befide any other day, 
for his peoples repofe, edification, comfort, fiuding of his 
prefence, &c. And to fay now that this folemn time were 
not moral, were to rob the church of a great bleffing j 
feeing this day fet a part by God for his fervice, hath the 
bleffing, beyond any other day commanded on it ; and in 
the experience of his people often hath it been found to be 

9. It is efpecially Angularly ufhered in with a Memento 
or Remember, which is not exprefled in any other com- 
mand ; and, (hall we think that where God faith, Remem- 
ber, there is nothing to be taken notice ? or, (hall we think 
that it faith not Remember now as well as then ? and if fo, 
Who can warrantably forget that which he biddeth remem- 
ber ? which is not to keep the feventh day, but the Sabbath 
holy unto the tord : And may not all thefe characters, 
put together in one command (fo many not being to be 
found in ail the other commands if put together May not 
all thefe, I fay, convince us that it is the Lord's purpofe 


Com. 4 the Ten Commandments. 

to have this command Handing obligatory in its fubftancc to 
the end of the world ? 'Which is fo prefied, that if there 
be little help from natures light, to determine the day, cr 
to prefs its obfervation, it may be ftrongiy born in, by the 
more clear and weighty reafons. 

And fo we come to the fourth way propofed for making 
out the morality of this command, which isr by adducing 
feme arguments drawn from fcripture. 

The firft whereof is, If the law bind under the New Tes- 
tament, not only in refpecfc of its matter, as its natural ; 
nor only as.it is repeated in the New Teftament, but alio 
by virtue of the authority enacting it: Then this law -of 
the fourth command, though not explicitely determined by 
nature, and though it were not mentioned particularly in 
the New Teftament, muft be binding alfo, for it hath that 
fame authority : But the firft is true, and is acknowledged 
generally by divines (excepting a few) and is clear by Chrift 
and his apoftles their citing of it, as fuppoGng it to be bind- 
ing : Therefore the laft muft be true alio. 

2. Arg If this command be founded on moral grounds, 
then itfelf muft be moral : But the grounds on which it is 
founded are moral: Ergo y &c. i. It is moral that God 
fhould have a folemn and chief fet-time. 2. That he him- 
felf, and none other fhould determine that time; feeing 
no other could do it, and blefs it. 3. Thefe reafons in the 
command itfelf dividing time, into fix parts of it to us, and 
a feventh part to God ; and God's refiing after fix days 
working j with his making only feven days In the week, and 
employing fix of them to work, &c. thefc reafons, 1 fay, 
are ail moral now and binding as before. 

3. Arg. If all moral duties be contained in the ten com- 
mands, then this command muft needs be mora! : But the 
firft is true : Ergo, &c. This command containeth a moral 
duty, which is none of the prececding commands : to ivir, 
the ftinting and determining of the folemn and chief time to 
be fet a-part for God's worihip, to be one day of feven. It 
is true, Time is commanded to be allowed to Goers war- 
fiiip in thofe other commands, wherein the duties of wor- 
fhip themfelves arc commanded ; for, worfhip cannot be 
performed more than any other duty, without fome time; 
but that the chief time fhould be {o much, and fo oten is 
only determined in this command \ from which it appear- 
eth, 1. That an indefinite time of worfhip, or for it, is 
not the morality of this command, becaufe this fo'loweth 
necefiarily, as being fuppofed needful for the performance 
of every pofitive duty contained in the other commands ; 
its morality, therefore, muft be, The determining of that 


Oj6 An Expofitlcn cf Com. 4; 

definite time. 2. We may hence fee a reafon why there is 
r.o new command for this in the Nsw-Teftament ; becaufe 
this ftandeth in the law; neither are, Thou jhalt not /wear, 
kill, &c. mentioned as new commands more than this; (o 
that, had they not been mentioned in the New-Teftament 
(as fome are not) yet had they dill obliged : It is juft fo as 
this; and the reafon why they are mentioned, maybe 
luppofed to be, becaufe the main fault about them 
was defect and fhort coming, bat in this it was excefs, 
which our Lord al(o regulateth by holding forth the right 
obfervance of it, and clearing what was wrong, and fo is 
(uppofed to confirm what he repealeth not. 

4. Arg. If it be not free for men to carve out God's fo- 
L:mn chief time of worfhip at their pleafure, then is this 
command moral (for that liberty is retrained, by this com- 
mand and no other;) But it is not free for them to choofe 
what time they pleai'e, or to carve it out : This feemeth to, 
be only queftionable, which is therefore thus confirmed. 

If it be free to men to carve out what fblemn and chief 
time is lo be given to, and fct a-part for God's worfhip ; 
then, either it is free to them to choofe no time at all ; or 
St is free for them to choofe a longer or a fhorter than this : 
But neither of thefe can be (aid ; not the firfr, as is clear; 
not the fecond, becaufe it will not fo quadrate with the 
end ; for if the time be fhorter, it encroacheth on God's 
due ; if it be longer, it encroacheth on God's COnceC- 
fion of fix days to work in. If it be fhorter, it en* 
croacheth on God's due (as is faid) and our fouls good ; if 
do longer; it encroacheth on our temporal calling ; and, 
can any reftrain man, when God giveth him liberty ? 

Again, if it be free to men fo to cut and carve at pleafure 
on the folemn and chief time for God's worfhip, its either 
free for all men together to agree on a day, even one and the 
fame; oritisfree for each country, or each man, to chofe what 
day they pleafe, but neither of thefe are either poffible or 
practicable to edification ; therefore muft the day be deter- 
mined to them ; and if fo, then fure by this command : And 
fo its ft ill binding, and cannot in that refpect be altered with- 
out fin, which was the thing to be proved. 

5. Arg. That there is a morality in a feventh day, we may 
argue from four famous and main witnefTes. 

The 1. Whereof is the general practice of all Chriftians 
(I fay nothing of Heathens) Apoftles and generally, all in 
the primitive times have ever thought than one day of ftven 
is to be obferved, and have in lefs or more accordingly ob- 
fcrved it. 

2. As the practice of all, fo the judgment and opinion 


Com. 4.' the Ten Commandments. 217 

(which is often more found than men's practices) of all, doth 
confirm it : Was there tver any churches that did not in ail 
their catechifms and canons, take in this fourth command 
with the reft ? do not all writers who comment on the de- 
calogue, comment on this command, and urge the fancli* 
fying of the Lord's day from it. 

3. Take mens confcience for a third witnefs, and it will 
be found that for no fin \ do they more frequently and 
more fharply challangc, than for prophaning of the Lord's 
day : The confcience directly making ufe of this command 
and the Memento, and other reafons in it for aggravating 
of that fin, when yet it will fay nothing for the feventh day \ 
but this firft day of fev&n it prefleth moft exactly, neither 
will any reafon alledged-igainft its morality quiet it; and 
the more tender that Chriftians be, the more will they find 
a preffure of confcience for obedience to this command ; 
and the more eafily will they be convinced of, and fadly 
challenged for, the leaft breach of this command. 

4. God's difpenfations of bleffings or plagues, efpecially 
in fpiritual things, bear witnefs to this truth; Doth not 
experience tell us, that thofe who make moft confcience of 
keeping this command, are often, yea, ever the moft thriv- 
ing Chriftians as to univerfal holinefs and tendernefs, and 
moft near and intimate communion with God ? and will 
not the unfuitable fanctification but of one Sabbath, or the 
interruption of their wonted ferioufnefs therein, give them a 
fore back-fet ? and on the contrary, doth it not appear that 
thofe who are grofs and untender in this, are often grofs 
and untender in all manner of converfation, and are follow- 
ed with fpiritual plagues of hardnefs, deadnefs, and hypo* 
crify at the beft, or elfe fall into grofs outward acts oi pro- 
phanity, or into errors in judgment, which are the bad and 
fad effects of prophaning this day, on them who prejudge 
themfelves of the bleffing of it ; and if the bleffing of this 
law continue, muft not the law itfelf be moral and perpetu- 
ally binding ? The obedience whereof, hath this bleffing 
perpetually more or lefs annexed to it, as the prophanatioa 
thereof hath ufually plagues, at leaft fpiritual. 

There are fome objections that are removed againft the 
the morality of this command ; I fhall fpeak to three of 
them which are moft infifted on. 

1. ObjeEi. This law is not mentioned, as being renewed 
or confirmed in the New-Teftament. * 

Anfw. 1. Its authority dependeth not on the mentioning 
of it fo in the New-Teftament ; the law is God's word, and- 
hath its authority as well as the New-Teftameut, 

E e 2. "What: 

2l8 An Expnfition of Com. 4« 

;<2, What if fdme other clearly moral and binding law had 
been omitted, or not mentioned in the Ncw-Teftament, as 
there feemeth to be no palpable and exprefs command a- 
gainft images, though there be againft wiiUworfhip ; (lire, 
it is enough that it is not repealed in it, fo it is here as is 

3. Sundry other pontive laws are binding, which are net 
mentioned in theNew-Teftament, fuch as thefe, For a man 
Dot to marry his lifter or his aunt, &c. 

4. It will be found on the matter to be confirmed, when 
we mall fee what warrant there is for the Lord's day, which 
5s cue of feven, and yet is clearly holden forth in the New- 
Teftament : But this command 2**f&Q that relating to rd 
try, are fo little mentioned, becauk the Jews, after the cap- 
tivity, were not fo much in the defect of obedience to thefe 
commands ; but were rather difpofed to a fuperftitious ex- 
cefs, which makcth Chrift often rectify that abu r e of the 
fourth command, but never to annul it. The third com- 
mand alfo anect fwearing might be faid to be abrogate^ 
becaufe it is not fo positively averted in the New-Tcfta- 

2. Ohjctt. The apoftle, Piom. xiv. 5, 6. Gal iv. io. and 
Col. ii. 16. Seemeth to caft: away difference of times, efpeci 
ally of Sabbath-days which could not be, if this command 
were moral 

sJnfzv. The apoflle cannot be underfrood fimply to caft a- 
way the obfervation of all days as a bondage, and fo to make 
all tinges alike: For, 1. That would contradict his own 
practice and the practice of the other apofiles ; for it is clear 
that they differenced the firft day of the week from other 
days, and one day in fpecid is called the Lord'* day, which 
other days of the week are not. 2. If all times be a-like 
fimply, and all making difference be there reproved, then 
could there be no time fet a -part to be obferved by men, to 
the marring of that indifrerency; and if fo, then hath the 
Chriftian church been frill in a palpable grofs fin ; for if the 
keeping of a day by virtue of God's command, mar that in* 
difterency, much more will the keeping of a day/by man's 
command, and fo there could never be a Sabbath. 3. We 
muit therefore-underftand thefe places not as cafting all .lays 
and times fimply, but ceremonial and Jewifli days, or days 
invented by men, becaufe the fcope of thefe places runneth 
that way, viz again ft the bringing in of ceremonial wor- 
ship as neceflary, which while fome weak ones, not yet fuf- 
ficicnily informed, did Mill pra&ife, as Rom. xiv. the apof- 
tlc would not have them hailiiy condemned In days, more 


Com. 4. the Ten Cwiman aments. 2T9 

than meats ; yet is there ftill a difference betwixt bread and 
wine in the facrament of the fupper and other meats, which 
this diicourie of the apoftle taketh not away ; fo is it in 
days And in thefe epiftlcs to the Galatians and Colofinns, 
he fpeaketh of days, and not (as would (eem of the weekly 
Sabbath, which is ordinarily called a day) as taking in all 
the extraordinary fearts of the Jews., which is the more pro* 
bable, becaufe the ceremonial law was preffed on them as 
ftill necefiary, by falfe teachers, or he fpeaketh of mere 
Jewifh days, and fo of the feveeth day which they kept; 
for it is of fuch obfervation of days as was (infill, and 
brake them off from grace and thegofpel, as other ceremo* 
nies did, that he fpeaketh of: but that cannot be faid of all 
days, or of keeping one day cf feven : therefore this cannot 
be meaned thrre. 

3. Objeft. The fourth command precife.y commandeth 
the feventh day from the creation to be kept; but that is 
cot moral; therefore, neither is the command fo, 

dnfiv. This objection goeth upon that miftake, as if the 
very feventh day were ftill commanded in it, as the maia 
(ubftance of it, which our next difcourfe on the true (cope 
and meining of the command will clear ; fo that if a feventh 
day, and hot that feventh day be commanded as the maia 
fubftance of that command, that objection falleth. 2. 
Xhere is a difference to be put betwixt the mandatory part 
of the command, and what is further added for pre/ling the 
obfervation of it, or for explaining its meaning; The pre- 
cept ftridily it is, Remember the Sabbatb-day to keep it h-Jy : 
I: faith. Remember the Sabbath, or the holy reft, what- 
ever day it fhall be on, and fo it is faid in the clofe. that, He 
rejled the feventh day . but that, He bicjf:d theSabbath : Draw- 
ing it ftill from feventh precifely, to the Sabbath : Even as in 
the fecond command: This is, 1. commanded in fpeciai 
that no image be made, then, 2. This in general, that all 
God's commandment concerning his worhhip, even fucli as 
were ceremociai, for the time, fhould be obferved with, 
whatever others fhould be given ': So here, this fourth com- 
mandment exp'*eily one of the feven ; beca-ufe the recurren- 
cy ot that time is bounded : and generally, whatever fevemU 
the Lord (hall be plcafed topi ch on. 

We have faid the more on this, becaufe it doth not only 
clear the true fcope of the command, hut fheweth the ne- 
ceCIty of the obfervation of that time, which the Lord hath 
fancTified for himfelf. 9. We fliall put a difference alfo I 
twixt ceremonial and mutable : All the judicial laws are 
mutable and the decalogue itfelf, in refpectof its curfe ; and, 
as U was a covenant giving life, is actually changed and abo- 
£ez Mixed 

220 An Expofition of Com. 4; 

lifhed : Yet is not for that to be reputed ceremonial, and 
not obligatory : Though all ceremonials be mutable, yet all 
xnutables are not ceremonial ; Befides, this change is not in 
the matter. 

Why may not therefore, the feventh day in order, (which 
was obferved from the creation, to the refurrecYion of 
Chrift,) be changed to tbe firft day of the week, which is a 
feveath day in number ftill, without abolifhing the morali- 
ty of the fourth command ? 

Amongft other thing? in this command, there is more 
cxprefs mention, of the whole families joining in this duty, 
than is in other commands : Therefore it being concerning 
duty to us, and a fpecial thing included in the command; 
we (hall fpeakto that point concerning family-worfhip, (be- 
fore we fpeak of the fecond general propofed about the par- 
ticular morality of this command, and the meaning of the 
words of it,) that ye may fee, that it is no invention of men \ 
when ye are called to it, and when it is preffed upon you. 

We fhall here, I. Shew you, that, this command hold- 
cth forth a family, or domeftick worfhip. 2. We (hall con- 
firm it mere largely from other fcriptures, and grounds of 
reafon. 3. We fhall fhew, wherein it confifteth in particu- 
lar, and on whom it mainly lieth to be difcharged. 4. We 
fhall (hew the advantages, of confeientious discharging of 
it, and the prejudices of neglecting it, with the aggravate 
ons of that fin. 

That there is fuch a thing as family-worfhip, included in 
this command, will be clear by confidering, 1. What wor- 
ihip to God in general is. 2. What family worlhip is. 3. 
What this command requireth: 

1. By worfhip, is underftood fome tribute paid, by the 
rcafonable creature to God, as the Great and Sovereign 
Lord Creator; whether it be immediately and directly paid, 
and performed by him, as prayer, and praife ; or for him 
and at his command, and for his honour, as preaching, 
hearing, and receiving of facraments ; which are worfhip, 
when rightly gone about. In a word we call that worfhip, 
more ftriflly and properly, which is a duty of the firft table ; 
and cometh in as commanded in it, for thehonour of God, 
and riot for our own, or others external profit •, which tho* 
commanded in the fecond table, cannot be fo properly cal* 
led worfhip, much lefs imraediate-worfhip. Thus, teach- 
ing others the duties of piety, maybe worfhip, whenteach* 
ing the duties of any other ordinary calling, is not. 

2. We call that family worfhip, which is to be perform- 
ed, by fuch and fuch relations ; or by all the conftituent 
members of the family jointly : And fo it differeth, i. From 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 221 

fecret or foheary worfhip, which one performed! alone to, 
and before God. 2. From public worfhip, which one per- 
formeth by joining in a congregation of many families toge- 
ther. 3. From that worfhip performed occalionally, in mu- 
tual fellowfhip amongft believers or profeffors, of divers 
families: For I. That may not be ordinary as this, nor lb 
frequent. 2. That is free to this or that believer, as they 
fhall choofe : or as occafions do cad them to be together. 
This is not at choice, but is neccffary as to the fame perfons. 
3. This is performed, by virtue of domeftick relations, and 
not of Chriftian only. 4. This may have, and fhould have 
an authority domeftick, in its regulation ; for a mafter of 
a family, may authoritatively command the member of the 
family, to pray, keep the fabbath, isc. and may fuitably 
correct for the neglecl of thofe duties ; whereas that other is 
by Chriftian communion, and admonition only. 

Ye will fee this family-worfhip clear : 1. By confidering 
the Jews eating of the paflbver : Where there was, 1, Se- 
cret worfhip no queftion a part. 2. There was public-wor- 
fhip; a holy convocation the full day, and the laft : But 
3. There was peculiarly a family-worfhip ; or, if the fami, 
ly was little, two joined together, for eating the paflbver, 
within the houfe, wherein all the members of that family; 
or of thofe two little families that were circumcifed were 
neceffarily to be prefent, and to be joiners : this is family- 

2. By confidering, Pfal. ci. compared with other fcrip- 
tures, where ye have 1. D.tvid mentioning his private car- 
riage, and longing for God, and walking in a perfect way. 
2. His public carriage as a magistrate in cutting off the wic- 
ked from the city of God, as ye have. 3. Eife-where his 
public worfhip, as Pfal. exxii. 1, and 2 Sam. vi. 4. his fel- 
lowfhip with oil the godly, being a companion to them that 
feared God, Pfal. cxix. 63. Yet 5thly, and laftly : Ye have 
a walk within his houfe with a perfect heart mentioned there 
-as contradiftincl from all ; which muft infer fome religious 
performances of duties, or exercife of worfhip in his houfe 
in reference to that ftation, as well as in private or in pub- 
lic, yea, a joint exercife 5 becaufe it is fuch an exercife as he 
performed only at home in his houfe ; whereas had it been 
praying for them, or any thing, that otherwife he might 
have done a-part : he needed not go home to them, far per- 
forming of it; Yet, 2 Sam* vi. 2Q. when the public wor- 
fhip is done, he goeth home to bids his houfe ; which ma« 
Bifeftly fhew a peculiar duty performed by him, in his fa- 
mily according as he refcived is that ci. Plain*. 

3* lt 

222 An Expofiilon of Com. 4. 

3. It will yet further appear, that there is fuch a thing t 
and (brae way, what it is •, by considering Zech. xii. from 
10. to the laft; where there is, Firjl> A public mourning 
of the whole land. 2. Of feveral families together : Fami- 
lies Hi all mourn then. 3. Families a part. 4. Their wive 
a part, and fo every particular perfon in fecret. In whicl 
place, it is clear, \ . That there is a worfhip of families, be- 
iides public and fecret worfhip. 2, That, that 'worfhip in- 
caidcth the fame duties, jointly performed by the members 
of the fanlily, which perions in fecret perform ; and (6 fa- 
mily worfhip, will be a worfhipping of God, (befide what is 
in public and fecret,) in a domeflick and family-relation, 

Thirdly, That, this command requireth fuch a family- 
worfhip diftintt from public and fecret, and fomething to 
be performed in worfhipping of God amongft perfons fo re- 
lated, which is not required of others; may thus be made 

1. The thing called for in this command is certainly wor- 
fhip, yea, immediate worfhip; it being a command of the 
firft table, and fuch a thing as the fancYifying of the fabbath. 

2. This command taketh in all domeftick-relations, pa- 
rents, children, fons and daughters, mafters and fervants, 
men or. women yea and ftrangers that maybe for the time* 
cr on that day, fojourning there ; thefe are all cenftituent 
members of a family. 

3. The thing required of them is not (imply reft from la- 
bour, for, i. That is commanded for the beads (left men 
fhculd be hindred from, or interrupted in their holy reft by 
their waiting on them) and none will fay, We hope that 
there is no more required as to children or fervants, than 
as to the beads. 2. Under the negative, thou (halt do no 
work, is included the affirmative, thou (halt fanclify that 
day to the Lord. 3. The fame duty is required of all alike 
(in fome refpect) thou father, and thou ion, thou mafter, 
and thou fervant, and if worfhip be called for from the fa* 
ther, and mafter, for the fanclifying of that day, fo it mull 
"be alfo from the child and fervant. 

4. The manner of performing this worfhip of fancYifying 
the Lord's day in holy duties, is required not only to be in 
public, nor only in fecret, but by the members of each fa- 
mily jointly, and a-part from other families, 

-For, 1. It cannot be understood to require wormip only 
in public together, becaufe, 1. There may be io fomc cafes 
no accefs to public worfhip, and yet the command of fane- 
tifying the Lord's day lieth flill on, and no doubt by fami- 
lies. 2. Waiting on public worfhip is but one piece of fane- 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 

tifying the Lord's clay, and that but in a pirt of It ; there- 
fore there muft be fome other thing included here. 2' It 
cannot be underftocd of the m after of the family, bis put- 
the members of the family Separately to feek and wor- 
fhip God, and of his own going about holy duties hii 

For, 1. Though that be worfhip, yet is it not worfhip 
from perfons in fuch a relation or family worfhip, more 
than if they were not in fuch a relation, or of fuch a famiiy ; 
and though it might be faitt, that fuch and fuch perfons fane- 
tified the iabbath, yet could it not be faid, that the family 
as fuch did it •, even as families or perfons ieeking God ia 
fecret, could not be exonered thereby, as to their being ia 
the congregation ; nor their ferving of God be fo accepted 
as congregational fervice, if they met not together when 
they might: Juft fo it is here i yea as it lieth, by this com- 
mand, on a congregation and a minifter to fancYify the Lord's 
day, and to come together for that end 5 fo doth it lye on 
the family and matter of it. 

% By this command there is more required than fecret or 
folitary fanctifying of the fabbnh, even a peculiar fanciin- 
cation of it with one family difticct from another : I fay, 
1. More than folitary worfhip, becaufe the Lord's faying 
thoU) without repeating fon, daughter, <bc* had been fuf- 
ficient to have laid it on all feparately for themfelves ; the 
enumeration therefore of the whole members of a family 
muft import fome other thing, for the former is implied in 
all commands, as tbcujbalt not kill % that is, as far as in thee 
lieth, thou nor thy fon, fcc. There mutt I fry, be fome* 
thing more underttood by the peculiar enumeration preiTed 
in this fourth command, I fay, 2. Even a peculiar worfhip, 
becaufe it is fomething laid en by this command which is 
holden within gates or doors; and neither gocthto the con- 
erection, nor to the perfons of other families, at leatt or- 
dinarily, but reacheth the members of fuch a family v 
are within fuch a man's gates or doors •, therefore it muft 
be a dittincl family- worfhip maialy performed by that fa* 
mily together. 

3. The thing required here is not only worfhip fimply f 
but worfhip as from a member of fuch a famiiy, therefore 
it is not folitary worfhip : for feeking of God and moral du- 
ties in fecret ftill agree to perfons in all places and families 
alike, but this draweth a line as it were betwixt families, 
and fo divides one family from another; yet maketh the du- 
ty more obliging to thefe within fuch a man's gates or doors 
than others without doors, therefore it muft be joint wor- 
fhip : 

224 'An Expofition of Com. 4* 

fhip : for, a-part, or as concerning fecret worfhip, all arc 
every where alike obliged. 

4. If by this command fomething more in the worfhipof 
this day be required of a perfon that is a member of a fami- 
ly in reference to that family, then there is required of one 
who is not a member of fuch a family, or is required of that 
perfon in reference to another family whereof he is not a 
member ; then it requireth a diftinct family-worfhip, for 
no other thing can be underftood but a joint going about 
the fandtifying of that day in a ftri&er and nearer way of 
communion amongft the members of that family, than with 
perfons and families in and to whom they are not fo inter- 
cfted and related. 

5. If fecret and public worfhip were only required in this 
command, then fhould we equally and alike fanftify the 
Lord's day with other families and perfons, not of that fa- 
mily whereof we are members ; for in thefe we join alike 
for them and with them ; but there is fome peculiar thing 
required here which will not agree to be performed by ail 
alike ; therefore it is family-worfhip that muft be here re- 

6. This command requireth of mafters, (fuppofe them to 
be minifters, or magiftrates) another way of fandtifying the 
fabbath, and worfhipping of God, in and with their families, 
than it doth in reference to other families; the command 
being fo particular, to him, and to all that are within his 
gates or doors, and members of his family, fpeaketh this 
clearly. But except it be joint going about of duties with 
them, there can be no other thing underftood to be requir- 
ed : for, 1. One may exhort another. 2. All come in pub- 
lic together. 3. By the mafters example after the public 
they all withdraw (or fhould at leaft) to fecret exercifes. 4. 
Magiftrates and minifters may command other families to 
fanSify that day ; What is peculiar then, as to their own 
families, but to join with them in duties of worfhip ? 

7. If there were not domeftick-worfhip required on this 
day, then except it were in public, members of a family 
could not converfe together ; for they cannot converfe to- 
gether in doing their own works, or in fpeaking their own 
words, their fellowfhip therefore muft be in exercifes of wor- 
fhip, and fo that muft needs be required in this command, 

8. Some other thing required by this command, of a mem- 
ber of a family which feeketh God, than of a perfon in an 
heathenifh family; or fome other thing is required from fo 
many perfons joined together as members in one family, 
than from fuch perfons fuppofe them to be fcattered from 
oae aaother, amongft heathenifh families; certainly where 


Ccm. 4. the Ten Commandment:. 

huflximJ, wife, children and fervants are Chriftians and 
profeffors of the fame true religion, there is fome other 
thing required of them than where only the hufbanc}, the 
wife, the child or the fervant is fo ; but if they were fcatter- 
ed and became parts or members of diverfe families among 
heathens, they would be obliged to feek God a part; there- 
fore no Iefs, but much more is joint-feeking of God requir- 
ed of them, when they are united together as members of 
one family. 

6. This command (when itmentioneth all within his gates 
or doors) requireth fome other thing of a matter when at 
home with his family, than when he is withdrawn from them: 
But a matter at a diftance may command all in his family to 
wcrfhip God, and pray to God for them, and lb may they 
all if they were Scattered, worfhip God fecretly ; therefore 
when they are together, there is fome other thing required 
of them by this command, which is, no doubt, to worfhip 
God together. 

10. The duties that are to be performed on this day will 
require this; fuch as, ihftru&ing one another, exhorting, 
admonifhing, comforting, ftrengthning one another, and 
talking to, or conferring with one another, of the word, 
Deut- vi 7,8. Which cannot be denied to be duties called 
for on this day ; and yet they cannot be done but by joint 
concurring together in that work, and therefore it conclu- 
deth ftrongly that family worfhip; at leaft on the Lord's 
day, is commanded here ; and if families be called to wor- 
jthip God jointly on the Lord's day by the worfhip compe- 
tent for that day, then by proportion are they alfo called to 
-worfhip him jointly on other days by the worfhip fuitable 
to them, there being the like ground for all. 

11. And laftly, that which is required of families, is fuch 
a worfhip as ought to be performed by them, fuppofing there 
were no public worfhip, nor yet any other family, worfhip- 
ping him in the the world. So Jofhuarefolvethchap. xxiv. 
13. I ami my h'AiJe will ferve the Lord, and fandttfy his fab- 
bath (that being a fpecial piece of his fervice) whatever ye 
will do ; but if there were no worfhipping of God in the 
world but in one family, then ought that worfhip to be joint 
according to that fame word of Jofhua's, 1 and my houfe, o- 
therwife we behooved to fay, that there might be a plurality 
of worfhippers of God in the world, and yet without join- 
ing together in worfhip, which were in itfelf abfurd and 
contrary to Jofhua's religious refolution. 

It being thus made out by the command, that there is 
fuch a worfhip as famity-worfhip, and that it is command* 

226 An Expcfition of Com. 4. 

led, we (hall confider in the next place, how the fcriptures 
do otherways hold it out. 

1. Then confider, that where the fcriptures fpeak of em- 
inently godly men, they fpeak of them as making consci- 
ence of this, and take notice of their honouring of God in 
their familfes as a fpecial part of their eminency ; So Abra- 
ham, Gen. xviii. 19. Jofh. xxiv. 15 Job in the fint chap- 
ter of his book, and David Pfal. ci. are noted •, It muft then 
be a commanded and commendable duty, which is fo parr 
ticularly remarked in them. 

2. Ye will find it almoft in all parts of fcripture, as Gen. 
xviii. Exod. xii. Deut. vi. Jofh xxiv Jcb. i. Pf,iL ci. and 
Pfal. xxx. At the dedication of DavidTs houfe, which was 
not, fure, without fome peculiar worftup and crying of 
God's blefling ; even as in other cafes, thofe who hath buil- 
ded houfes were to dedicate them, or to conucrate them ; 
and wherefore ? becaule they were hoven in a manner, and 
as it were offered to the Lord, for feeking and worihippi ug 
him in them : So, altars, Numb. vii. 84. were faid to be 
dedicated when they were fet a part for God's fervice, and 
confecrated for that ufe. So Neh. xii 27. the walls were 
dedrtated, and the Levites brought out for that end ; which 
dedication no doubt had a religious ufe : and, will any think 
that they began with prayer or praife, as David did, and kft 
offfuch exeicifes afterward? fee alfo 2 Sam. vi. 20 where 
mention is made of David's bleffing his houfe. Efther and the 
maids of her houfe, and the reft of the Jews in their feverai 
families, fafted and prayed. We fee it fpck'en by the pro- 
phets, as Jer. x. 10. and Zech. xii. 12. and that as a pro- 
phecy of the converts carriage under the New Teftament. 
We find it alfo mentioned, 1 Tim. iii 4 and v. 8. Tit. i. 6. 

3. Ye wiil fee it thus practtfed and preiTed before the flood ; 
God was honoured and worfhippeu in families aft.r it (be- 
fore the law) by Abraham, Job and others in their families \ 
tinder it, there was the observation of it, and that by pecu- 
liar ordinances, as namely by the paflbver ; yea it ie mention- 
ed, and that moft exprefly in the very law, as is faid ; it was 
kept up under.the captivity, and after the re? urn renewed 
by Zechariah especially; yea it is alfo renewed in the New 
Teftament, whereby it appeaireth to be of very fpecial obferva- 
tion \ from all which it fe not a little commended to us. 

4. If we confider the many ways whereby the fcriptures 
prefs this duty, it will be found that there is hardly any du- 
ty more cleared and prefled than it, if it is preffed : 1. By 
command ; 2. By examples of godly men held forth as pat- 
terns for imitation. 3 By promifes made to it, and 4 By 
bleffings conferred on the confeiemi+us pra&ifers- of it, 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 227 

Gen. xviii. Deut xi. 18. 19, 20, 21. As evidencing fince- 
rity, Gen xviii. Jofh. xxiv. 6» As making folks liable to , 
the curfe and wrath of God when neglected, Jer. x. 25. 
7. As a fruit of the fpririt, and as a companion of true re- 
pentance, Zech. xii. 8. As a fpecially commending and 
ardorning qualification of perfon? that have it, and fcandal- 
ous where it is wanting, and as declaring one unmeet for 
public charge* Gen. xviii. 1 Tim. iii.4. Tit. i. 6. 

Hence the argument runneth ftrong : That duty which 
vol fcripture is commanded, by many examples commended, 
and by other motives preffed, the neglect whereof bringetli 
guilt and offence upon the perfons neglefting ; is no doubt 
aneceflary duty, but family worfliip is fuck: therefore it is 
a necefiary oury. 

1. That it is commanded, what we have faid from this 
fourth command may fufliciently make it out, yet we fur- 
ther add, Deur. vi. 7, 8. and Deut. xi. iS, 19. In which 
two places it is clear that obferving of the law, is not only to 
be ftudied by a mafter of a family himfelf alone, t?ut that 
the religious duties of frequent f peaking of it, diligent teach- 
ing of it, whetting and preiling of it On his family, arc to 
be performed by him ; yea it is to be written on the pofts of 
bis door, to fhew that religion muft be in the family, and 
in all that enter into it, even as carrying the woYd on the 
frontles betwixt their eyes, was to mind them of the peculi- 
ar and particular iaoclification that was called for from them. 

2. That it is commended by examples, is clear in Abra- 
ham's who deakth both with children and fervants in the 
family, and that in things concerning the worfhipping of 
God, as well as in things concerning his own particular 
affairs; He circumciled them, and commanded, yea char- 
ged them to ferve the Lord, which cannot be fuppofed to 
have been done without other duties of worfhip. And in 
David's, 2 Sam. vi. 20. Who when he has been at public- 
worfhip, goeth home to blefs his family, which was certain- 
ly to go about fome religious duty with them, as he had been 

' doing with the people in the public ; in the one he behaved 
himfelf as king, in the other as a governour and head of bis 
own family in particular ; and had it been only to pray for 
them, that might have been done elfe-where than at home, 
but ir denoteth the changing of public woiihip (wherein he 
had bltffed the people as a public man, as a prophet and 
godly king, and had joined with them ver, 18.) into family 
duties, wherein he goeth to concur with them; Intimating 
that a holy folemnity fliould be partly fpent in public, and 
partly in family-duties, without negleft of fecret duties : be- 
side that in Pfal. xxx, and Pfal. ci. it is clear"} and appeareth 

F f 2 tu 

tii An Expcfition of Com. 4.' 

to have been alfo pra&ifed by ail that built houfes, who did 
dedicate them, and that not without prayer, as is manifeft 
by David's dedication of his, Pial. xxx. as is faid. Job's 
example likevvife maketh it out chap i. where there arc 1. 
Sacrifices in his family, as well as for his family. 2. Hefen- 
dethto ianftify them who wereabient, that is, to put them 
In a readinels for joining with him in that fervice with thofe 
that were at home, which he needeth not to have done 
had they been befide or prefent with him : Yea, 3. When 
he cannot do it perfonally, he will do it by another, that 
God may be worfhipped by them all, fume way together. 

3. I fay the neglect of it is fadly threatned, as Jer x. 25. 
Pour cut thy fury on the heathen that know thee not, and on 
the families -which call not on thy name ; If not worshipping 
of God in families, be a chara&ep of a family appointed to 
deftruction, and be threatned with a curie, then prayer- 
worfhip in families is a neceflary duty ; for its clear from 
that place, 1 That by calling on God's name, is meant God's 
worfhip in general, and prayer in particular, which is a fpe- 
cial part of it. 2. That by families are meant particular io- 
cieties and companies, whether lefler or greater that want 
this worfhip, and fo are the objects of that curfe, 

Objecl. It it be faid, that by families there, are meant peo- 
ple and nations, yea (comparing this place with Pfal. lxxix. 
6.) Heathens that called not on God. Jnfiu. 1. That doth 
confirm the argument : for if heathens, whether kingdoms 
or families be defcribed by this, that they call not on God : 
then ftill it mull be a heathenifh kingdom that has not pub- 
lic worfhip, a. heathenifh perfon who wanteth fee ret wor- 
ship, and fo a heathenifh family that wanteth family wor- 
fliip. 2. The curfe here is not threatned to families, as fa-* 
xuilies, but as fuch families that call not on God's name* 
therefore it reacheth them : for a gua/enus ad omne y &c So 
then whatever profeffion families have otherways, if they 
want this duty, they are thereby laid open to the curfe. 3- 
It is all one upon the matter, whether by families be meant; 
focieties leffer or greater: for if it be a fault in nations ta* 
neglect God's worfhip, and if the neglect thereof bring a 
curfe on them, will it not be a fault in particular families, 
and bring a curfe on them ? 4. Families cannot be excluded* 
feeing they are exprefly named ; though more be included* 
to wit, that the curfe cometh on ro Jtitudes of families, or 
upon nations made up of families. And we conceive fami- 
lies to be particularly named. 1. To fhew that the curfe 
will reach all focieties lefler as well as greater, who have this 
character. 2. Becaufe nations are made up of families, and 
becaufe there is fibnefs (to fay fo) betwixt the callage of fa- 

Qom. 4. the Ten Commandments. 229 

mtlies in religious worfhip, and the carriage of the whole 
land. 5. The comparing of Jer. x. with Plai lxxix. will noc 
enervate any of the places ; but, when put together, ihcy 
Ihew that the Holy Ghoft doth mean both families and 
kingdoms, and ihat what is implied in the cne place is ex- 
prefied in the other, to (hew that God will have both pub- 
lic worfhip from whole kingdoms and family- worfhip from 
particular families as parts or thefe kingdoms. 6. The ground 
whence the curfe is derived, is becauie that iuch a iociety 
ncglecteth fuch a duty, and therefore however we expound 
the place and the word family there, it will hold of all foci- 
eties in general. 

4. I laid that the having of family-woifli'p is looked upon 
as a fpecial qualification, and the want of it as a fcandal and 
offence, for 1. Who are to be admitted elders or deacons? 
Is it not fuch who have this qualification of ruling their own 
houfes well? i Tim. iii. 4 Tit. 1.6 (yea even widows, 1 
Tim. v. 10. are to be tried by this, that they have brought up 
children, no doubt Chriftianly and reiigioufly, which can 
very hardly, if at all be, without worshipping of God with. 
them) 2. If that qualification, to wit, ruling their own 
houfe well, be found to be warning, they are accounted to 
be unmeet to rule in God's houfe, 1 Tim. iii. 5. 

Whence we may reafon thus : That which cafteth a man 
as unmeet for bearing ruie in Chrift's houfe, however o- 
therwife he be qualified, is an offence and a fcandal \ but the 
want of family wprfhip dorh that j therefore the want of it 
is a fcandal. 

In thefe places it is clear, 1. That ruling of their own 
houfe is meant not only in outward and temporal things, 
but alfo, if not mainly, in what concerned! the honour, 
fervice and worihip, of God: for 1. its the ruling of 
fervants and children together, 1 Tim. iii 4, 5. Now 
it is clear that children are to be brought up in the fear of 
the Lord. 2. It is a ruling that eommendeth them as gra- 
cious, which no ruling in temporal things will do ; i^eing 
many meer natural men, are wifer in their own generation 
that way, than the children of light. Many much lefs fie 
for ruling in thefe things, may yet be fit to rule in God's 
houfe, as experience cteareth 4, Thefe words, having chil- 
dren infubjection in all gravity, fpeak out a Christian an 
ligious rule and order to be kept in rhc houfe or 
reference to a religious end, whi lot bur take in fami- 

ly worfhip ; yet it is alio clear, t- \ ; 

inability to rule, but mainly of /enffs in the i,r.: 

kig the ability which God b 
it is not laid here, he that ; 1 ale his houfe (cho 


2%b An Expofition of Com. 4, 

be in part truth) but he that doth not rule ; and it is rank- 
ed with excefiive drinking, ftriking, pride, and ether grofs 
ills; it having that fame efivct that they had, to wit, to de- 
clare incapacity for fuch offices; Hence this is not to be the 
xu\c of trial, if he can rule his own houfe well, as having 
gifts fitting him for it ; but (fuppofing him to have thefe) it 
is to be enquired if he doth actually rule it well, which is the 
evidence of the right improving of his gifts; therefore here 
ruling in the man's own houfe, and ruling in the church or 
houfe of Go J, are looked on as two degrees of one thing of 
the fame nature, becaufc both take in, not only gifts fitting 
for the difcharge of the duty of this refpeclive ruling it, but 
eonfeience may and faith fulnefs in the improving of them. 
We fhall not here to this xjurpofe infift on the frequent men- 
tion that is made in the fcripture of churches being in fami- 
lies ; But fhall proceed to add to what we have faid, fix or 
feven reafons or grounds that will further prove and clear the 

The fir ft- is drawn from nature, which teacheth not only 
that the true God fhould be alone ferved and worfhipped, 
but that according to the ftations God hath put men in j 
they fhould improve them with their gifts and parts for an 
higher end than their own behooff or advantage, to wif f 
fctif own glory : And as they have a peculiar fellowfhip giv- 
en them by him as his gift, fo he fhould have anfwerablc 
and peculiar acknowledgment from them; and therefore 
feeing the appointment of families is Gods ordinance, and 
that it is he that giveth to fome children and fervants which 
are with-hera from others, there ought in all reafon a tri- 
bute to be given to him refulting from that fociety and fel- 
lowfhip: Hence it was, that before the law, the Patriarchs 
had their worihip, efpecially in their families ; yea, heathens, 
befide their public idolatrous worfliip, and idolatrous tem- 
ples, had their peculiar penates, or houfliold-gods, on 
whom for their particular families, delivery from enemies 
and protection, they depended. 

2. A fecond is drawn from the nature of Chriftian com- 
munion amongft believers, which as it requireth the per- 
forming of Chriftian duties, according as we are in provi- 
dence called to them, fo it requireth the making ufe of that 
tie of family-intereft, or relation fupperadded to the former 
for furtherance and entertaining of that communion, be- 
c aufe there is a fpecial accefs mini tired by fuch a relation to 
the attaining of that end ; Hence it is we conceive (a* is 
faid) that fome ChriiVian families are called churches, be- 
cauie fo many Chriftians caften together, lived in a Chrif- 
tian difcharge of all family-ordinances (to fpeak.) 

3, The 

Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 111 

3. The Lord by his covenant doth efpecially (though not 
a 1 . way) derive mercies to families taking them in together, 
and making promifes to them, and conferring privileges 
on them. So Abraham's whole family was taken in cove* 
n.mt, Gen. xvii. And in the New-Teftament, whole fj 
Ijes were at once baptized, which certainly caileth tiiera to a 
peculiar way of being anfwerable to fuch privileges and 
engagements: And is not this one fpecial and very proper 
way of being anfwerable to them, that they worihip God 
together, and join in blefling him for fuch mercies, afid ia 
prayer to him for grace, to carry fuitably to them ? 

4. The mutual intereft that ufually is in the condition of 
members of the fame family, caileth for joint-feeking of 
God, and worfhipping of him, as they are jointly concern- 
ed in the fame dangers, the fame fins often, the fame ftroaks, 
the fame duties, the fame mercies ; for what is fo to oae # 
is ordinarily fome way fo to all, therefore ought they "to 
join in confeffing of fins, acknowledging mercies, depre- 
cating dangers and ftroaks, and difcharging of duties. 

5. Private worfl«p is profitable to all the ends of a fami- 
ly. It is an acknowledging of God and honouring of hiaj, 
it helpeth the matter to keep his authority, and maketh e- 
very one in the family to walk the more refpecYively towards 
the reft, and it keepeth from many out-breakings, whea 
they are to meet fo often together to feek and worfhip God : 
hence, inexperience, we often fee that thefe families, where 
religious worihip is, are generally more civil, at leaft, than 
other families, where it is not, and that the children and 
fervants of inch families readily profit moil, are moft coun- 
tenanced by God's bleffing, and are in greatelt capacity to 
get good of the public ordinances. 

6. The Lord loveth to have a diftincTion betwixt thsfs 
that ferve him, and thefe that ferve him not : Now as to a 
family relation, what difference is ihzrz betwixt a r, 
Chriftian family, where the joint worihip of GoJ is not, 

"and a heathenifh family ? Heathens live and eat and woik 
together, and when no more is feen, they look veiy like 
the one to the other, Even as in a nation where no public 
worfhip is, though private perfons privately feek God, yet 
there feemeth to be no public national difference betwixt 
that nation and a heathen nation; fo in the rormer cafe a 
family difference will hardly be found, if any ihould enquire 
of what fort of families thefe are. 

Add, that it would be hard to fay that a man fhould take 
care of the outward eftate of his family, and neglect the fpi- 
ritual, and keep communion with his family in temporal 


2 3* An Expofition of Com. 4. 

things, and none in fpiritual duties, yea doubtlefs he fhould 
be much more in thefe, as being both more neceffary and 
more excellent. 

Having firft fhewed that this fourth command holdeth 
forth a ^amily-worfMp, and having fecondly confirmed it 
more largely from other fcriptures and grounds of reafon, 
it followeth now according to the method propofed, that 
we (hew in the third place, how particularly the fcripture 
defcribeth wherein it doth confift, whereby it will further 
appear to be of God. The fcripture defcribeth it four 

1. In general it is called in Abraham and Jofhua's cafe, 
Keeping the way of the Lcrd, ferving the Lord, very compre- 
henfive expreffions, and here* it is fantt'ifying of the Sabbath, 
that is, performing of the duties which are to be difcharged 
for the right fanclifying of that day, we conceive it to be in 
fiiort, to do thofe things in a jomt family way, which a 
fervant of God may, and ought to do, alone, that is, to 
pray, read, fing pfalms, &tc. or to do in a domeitic way, 
what Chriftians in providence caft toge;',er, may do ; as to 
pray, read, further one anothers edification by repeating of 
fermons, fpiritual conference, inftrudtion exhortation, ad- 
monition, &f. for they have their tie of Chriftianity, and 
this of a family relation befide, which doth not abrogate the 
former; nor derogate from it, but doth further corrobo- 
rate and add more ftrength to it, as to make it more necef- 
fary and lefs elective, more frequent and leisoccafional, and 
to be now by domeftic rules authoritatively regular for edi- 
fication, which cannot fo be by the fimple tie of Chriftiaa 

2. It fpeaketh of particular duties, wherein they fhould 
join, as, 1. Here of fan&ifying the Sabbath in all the du* 
ties of it, adding more to our farnily-worfhip, that day than 
other days, as well as to ourfecrct worihip, for the Sabbath 
was to have its double offering. 2 Of praying, Jeremiah, 
10. ult. which is neceffarily included in that mourning, 
mentioned Zech, \%. a fruit of the poured cut grace and fupli- 
cations, fo 2 Sam. vi. David's bleffing his family is to be ua» 
derftood of his going before them in prayer to God for a 
blefling on them, not in common as a public prophet, which 
he d : d with the people, but as a peculiar duty difcharged by 
him to his family, whereof he was head. 3. Of family fa f- 
ting, or fetting of time a-part in the family extraordinarily 
for farting and prayer as Zech. xii. in that folemn mourn- 
ing, and in Efther, iv. where it is recorded, that fhc and 
her maids (who were- her family) and all the Jews at Shu- 

Com. 4,' the Ten Commandments. 233 

fan (who yet could not have in that place a public fair) did 
go about that duty. 4. Of inftru&ion, a moft neceffary 
duty to inftrutt and teach the family the knowledge of God; 
the command goeth exprefly on this, Deut. vi. 7, 3. and ir. 
19, 20. where we are commanded to talk of the law with- 
in the houfe, to teach it our children dilligently, or, (as 
the word is) to whet it on them by catechifing, and to writ 
it on the pods of our doors and on the walls of the houfe, 
for what end I pray ? Sure for this very end, that the houfe 
might have the means of knowledge in it, and that the 
knowledge of God's law might be taught and learned in it, 
and will any think that the walls mould teach and the maf- 
ter be filent ? Especially, feeing it is for the families behoof, 
that thefe things- were written :' What if fome in the family 
could net read ? Which on feveral accounts might be, then 
it would follow that they w T ere loft, if there were no more 
Dor other teaching than what was by writing on the walls ; 
when Abraham commanded his houfe to keep the way of 
the Lord, and to ferve him, will any think he did not teach 
them, who he was, and how he fhould be ferved ? By pro- 
portion other things fit for edification, and as worfhip co 
God, come in here, particularly praife as appeareth by the 
Pfal. xxx. intitled a Pfalm or fongat the Dedication of David's 

3. The fcripture fpeaketh of, and holdeth out the duty 
of the particular members of the family, and that in refe- 
rence to theftations they are in, and the relations they fuf- 
tain and ftand under ; as of hufband and wife, that they live 
together, as the heirs of the grace of life, and fo as their 
prayers may not be hindred ; of parents, that they do not 
only provide for their children temporal things, but that 
they a!fo bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the 

' Lord, and 1 Tim. iii. 4. and 12. both children and fervams 
are put in together. 

4. The fcripture fpeaketh of ordering of families by a 
fpecial family-difcipline and authority, therefore it is called 
in Abraham, Commanding or charging hisfervants to keep the 
way of the Lord> and 1 Tim. iii. A ruling sf their own houfe 
*weil % with fome refemblance unto ruling in the church by 
ecclefinftical difcipline, with which it is fome way compar- 
ed, ashavingafitnefs, or as being an evidence of fitnefs, for 

This difciplioe confifteth efpecially in thefe three, 1. la 
making good domeitfc laws for children and fervants in or- 
dering every thing aright, that concerned* the promoting 
of godlinefs and edification amongft them, and in timing of 
things rightly, fo as every duty that is to be done in the fa- 
G g mjly 

234 -An Expofiticn cf Corn. 4. 

mily, msy be done in the beautiful feafon of it. 2. In put- 
ting forth a paternal or parental and rnafterJy authority in 
carrying on thefe ends, commanding or charging as Abra- 
ham did, ruling fo as children and fervants may be kept in 
fubjecrion ; it is very infuitable and no ways allowable, that 
mailers iliould command in their own bufinefs, and only en- 
treat in the things of God. 3. In exacting an account of 
obedience and cenfuring difobedience ; Job and David do 
reprove their own wives, by virtue of the authority of their 
headfhip, David will not fuffer a wicked perfon to abide in 
his houfe ; that is, when commands and rebukes will not do 
he will even extrude and put away. 

If it be afkedhere, en whom doth the burden of difch^rg- 
Jrjg duties in the family efpecially lie, and what is to be thought 
of chaplains ? 

Anfiv. I will not altogether condemn chaplains, for cer- 
tainly matters may make ufe of helps, and God as often blcf- 
fed it, and that practice of Levites being in families, Deut, 
xii. ver. 13. 18, 19. (though it was a mare through his ovvn 
fault to that Levite, who went taking a place to fojourn in, 
Judges xvii, in Micah's houfe) feemeth to infinc&te that 
there hath been, and rrftght have been, fomewhat of this, 
and good if well improved \ yet when putting the charge u- 
pon chaplains, either merely for rnafters of families their 
own eafe, and when they think thcmfelves altogether exo~ 
nered of that burden, becaufe they have fuch with them, or 
when it is becaufe they think lefs of, and undervalue that 
duty thcmfelves, or account it below them to catechize and 
inftruft fervants, or to pray in their families, or becaufe 
they cannot beftow fo much time on thefe duties, who can yet 
be flow much more idly, that is utterly culpable and rnexcuf- 
able ; the burden lyeth on the matter primarily and chiefly, 
and therefore he can never denude himfelf wholly of it, 
more than of his other ncceffary affairs, except when more 
public affairs call him, or when infn mities impede him; fo? 
here the command faith, thou, to wit, Mnfier l nor thy fai 
nor fervants &c. it fpeaketh direilly and immediately to 
fckn, becaufe the performance of the duty i3 especially cal- 
led for from him •, fo in that example of Abraham, it is he 
that commandeth his houfhold to keep the way of the Lord, 
Job himfelf effereth the facrifke, David will not fend home, 
but goeth himfelf to blefs his houfe (though they had other- 
ways much employment if that could excufe) and the man 
that is to be chofen an elder, is fuch as ruleth h ; s own houfe 
well ; having of a chaplain, will give no great proof of the 
matters own dexterity, yet we lay, that one may foi 
better effe&uating the end take help, though he cannot a!-' 


Com. 4, the Ten Commandments. 513 j 

together devolve the burden on another; yea we think 
when the matter is negligent or abfent, duty falleth to be 
performed by thefe of the family, on whom the weight of 
his affairs doth in his failing or falling fhort, He, if qualified 
Co that amongft other defects they fhould make up this, or 
in fuch a cafe the moft fit and bed qualified in the family 
ought to be pitched on for this. 

From what hath been faid, Family-worfli'p appeareth to 
be fo convincingly clear, necefTary and important a duty f 
that any objections or fcrup'es, that can be moved againftit* 
muft needs be but of little weight and importance; and may 
be eaGly folved and fatisfied : It will not therefore be need- 
ful to concfefcend particularly on them, and as for the ad- 
vantages that wait on the confeientious and fultable practice 
of this duty they are many, a few whereof v/e flhal) very 
briefly wuuh upon ; As 1. It hath God's fpecial approbation, 
teftimooy, and-commsadation.-an J he hath a great delight 
and complacency in the diligent and faithful praflifers of it,, 
Gen. xviii. ver 19. 2. It advanceth to a high degree of fa 
miliarity with God,; and is attended with fweet communica- 
tions of his mind as himfeif thinketh fit, ibid, comparing ver. 
19. with ver. 17, and 18. 3. It is readily, and often follow- 
ed with luccefs more or lefe towards the fpirimal good and 
edification of Servants aod children, eitherin the mailer's life- 
time, or when he is gone, Gen. 18. ver. 19. Abraham will 
command his children andhoufbold after him, and they J}) all kesp 
the way of the Lord, they /bail keep, is emphatic and obferva- 
ble * and with promifed bleffings on the mafttr, or head of 
the family, ibid. That the Lord may bring upon Abraham, that 
which he hath fppken of him. 4 It is a notable mean of the 
propagation and increafe of the knowledge of God : G what 
plenty of the growth of ihe knowledge of God migh f , and 
would be, in the church, ifallmafters of families made con.* 
fcience of family duties ? and particularly of catechifing and 
iaftrucTmg them in the knowledge and of the principles of 
religion ? And what -can one minifler do as to this alone ign 
a numerous congregation, if all, or molr, nv. Iters of fami- 
lies be negligent, who yet rouft anfwer to God for the fotiJs 
cf their children and fervant-s, as well as the mini fie r for all 
under his charge \ thefe being under their charge, as well 
as the other under his, as is clear, from this lame commami. 
5. It very much furthers, through GodV blefiing all the ira- 
mily. for profiting by the miniftry of the word, and for join- 
ing in public duties of worihip, as is obvious 6 It pro- 
cureth, or at leaft, is a fit, hopeful and promiling means for 
procuring a fuitable difcharge of all forts of duties, called 
for fronuhe fever?.! members of the family in their refprff- 
G g 2 tive 

1^6 An Expdjition of Corm 4.^ 

tivc capacities. 7. It is nobly contributive, through God's 
blcfiing, for preventing many public fcandals in the church 
whereby the name of God is much difhonoured, and the 
profeflion thereof difgraced. 8. The ruling of a man's own 
houfe well, doth not a little fit him, that is otherwife qua- 
lified for it, and called to it, for ruling in the houfe of God, 
I Tim. iii. ver. 4. And by proportion, for other public 
employments, whereof he is capable, and to which he is cal- 
led. 9. It is waited with fweetly, fmiiing, quieting and fa- 
tisfying reflections in a (trait, and particularly at death *, and 
failings in it (let be utter neglects) are wailed then with fad 
and bitter challenges, as may be gathered from David*s laft 
words, 2 Sam. xxiii.5. Although my houfe he not fo vjithGcd, 
&c, The contrary prejudices either of the utter neglect, or 
of the carelefs and overly performance of thefe family du- 
ties, may be eafily difcovered by the due coniideration of 
thefe fore-mentioned, and other fuch like advantages : And 
from all that is faid on this fubject, the horrid aggravations 
of the grievous fin of neglecting family-worfhip, fo clearly 
commanded, fo much commended and prefied, fo much 
practifed by the faints, held forth to be fo advantageous in 
its practice, and fo prejudicial and feverely threatned in its 
neglect, cannot be but at firft view obvious to any that will 
but with ordinary ferioufnefs take notice of them. 

Having cleared that this command is moral, not as to the 
fetting a-part of time for duty (which every command fnp- 
pofeth) but of fo much time, particularly flinted and defin- 
ed in the command : We come now to fee what is fpecially 
commanded here ; the command divideth itfelf here in man- 
dat, or mandatory part in the firft words thereof, and in an 
amplificatory part, wherein it is more fully cleared and pref- 
fed : The ift is, Remember the Sabbath day tofanflifyit, or 
hep it holy : For the opening up and winning at the clear 
meaning thereof, we would confider three words. 

The firft is, what it is to remember, or as (it is infinitive- 
ly fet down) re'membring to remember ; this is prefixed and 
would look rather like the inferring of fomething command- 
ed already, than the new inftituting of a command, and fo 
indeed it feemeth to fuppofe a day formerly inftitute and fet 
a-part for God (as was hinted before) which by this cam* 
mand his people are put to mind : It doth beiide, import 
thefe four with a refpect as it .were to four times. 1. A 
conftant and continued duty at all times, and in all days, 
that is, that we would remember, that God has fet a-part 
a feventh day for himfelf, and therefore every day we would 
remember to caft our affairs fo, as they may not be impe- 
diments to us in the fanftifying of that day, and we would 


Com. 4^ the Ten Commandments* 237 

endeavour always to keep our hearts in fuch a frame as we 
may not L„ Jifcompofed, when that day (hall come, and 
this affirmative part of this command bindcth/>/7z/>^r, or al- 
ways, and its negative, adfemper, on other days, as well as 
on the fabbath. 

2. It importeth a timely preparing for the fabbath, when 
it is a-coming, or when it draweth near, this remembring 
it, calleth for fomething to be done in reference to if, be- 
fore it come, a man by this is obliged to endeavour to hare 
a frame of heart, that he may be ready to meet the fabbath* 
and enter kindly to the duties of it, when it fhall come, o- 
therwife, if it come on him when he is in his common or 
courfe frame, and not fitted for it, it will fay he has not 
been remembring it before it came. 

3 Remembring importeth an intenfenefs and ferioufnefs in 
going about the duties of the day, when it cometh, and that 
it ihould be with all carefulneis fancl'ified, and that men 
fhould be mindful of the duties called for, left their hearts 
divert from them, or fiacken, beniil and grow formal ia 
them ; whereby mens inclination to forget this duty, or to 
be fuperficiaj in it, is much hinted at ; this word we take to 
be moral, being a mean for furthering the great duty aimed 
at, of fanftifying the Lord's day or fabbath coming. 

4 Remembring may import this, that the fabbath, even 
when it is pad, ihould not be foon forgotten, but that we 
fhould look on the. fabbath pail: to remember it, left by loof- 
ingthe fruits of it, when it is by, we make ourfelves guilty 
of prophaning of it. 

The next word is, the day cfihe fabb.ith By fabbath here 
is meaned reft, as it is exponed by theapoftle, Heb. iv\ and 
that not every reft, but a holy reft from our own works, 
that there may be accefs to poiitive fancYifying of that day: 
for the fanclifying of that day is the end, and this is but a 
mean and neceflary fu pooled help, without wh'ch the djy 
cannot be fanCfcified in holy duties ; holy duties and ourown 
works being for the time inconfiftent; betides, that reft on 
this day is not only called for, as ceafing from our ordinary 
affairs in the time of worfiiip, is called for on any other 
day, bur more efpecially and iblemnly in refpeel of the d^y 
itfelf ; for at other times our duties require a time for them, 
and therefore that time cannot be employed in another or- 
dinary work and in worfiiip alio, uut here the Lord requir- 
eth time and reft to be fan&ified ; and therefore we are to 
perform holy duties in that time, becaufe it is to be far 
cd. Other times and refts are drawn after worfhip, this 
time and reft draweth worfhipjneceffrrily after it ; hence it 
wa* that only the Jew: fcafts were called iabbaihs, I rnton 


*3 8 'An Expofition of Com. 4; 

religious fabbaths, not civil or politic, as their years were, 
becaufc they included a reft upon deftination to an holy ufe. 

That which is mainly queftionable here, is concerning the 
day, expreffed in this command, concerning which may be 
afked, 1. What fort of day, or the quamdiu. 2. How of- 
ten, or the quoties. 3. What day of the feven or the qitan* 
do. 4. When we are to reckon its beginning. 

Foranfwer to theflrft we fay, There are two forts of days 
stationed in fcripture, one is artificial of twelve hours, fo 
the Jews dlvidrd 'heir day. making their hours longer or 
ihorter as the day was long or fhort, but they kept up the 
jiLAiber of their hours always ; the other is a natural day, 
which is a feventh part of the week, and containeth twenty 
four hours, taking in fo much time as interveeneth betwixt 
the funs beginning to afcend, after midnight, the nocturnal 
folftice, till it pals the meridional altitude, which is the funs 
vertical point for that day, till it come to that fame very point 
of midnight again, which is the fun's natural courfe every 
twenty four hours, comprehending both the artificial day, 
which is from mid night to mid day, and the artificial night 
alfo, which is from mid-day to mid-night again. 

The day mentioned here is the natural day, becaufe it is 
a feventh day, proportionable to each of fix days, given un- 
to us, and they with the feventh making up the week, it 
muft contain as many hours as any of the reft doth; but the 
fix days, wherein God made heaven and earth , &c* are natural 
days ; therefore the feveruh, viz. the day of reft, muft be 
fo alfo. 

Let us only for further clearing and for directing of our 
own practice, fpeak here a word or two more. 1. We fay 
it is a whole natural day, that is, as it is ufually employed 
by us on any of the fix days for our own works, that as we 
fpend fo much time in our ordinary callings on other days, 
fo fhould we employ fo much in God's worfhip fecret, pri- 
vate: and public on that day ; what proportion of time we 
ufe to give, cr may and fhould give ordinarily to our caU 
lings on other days, we would give as much to God and his 
vorfhip, to our fouls, and our fpiritual ftate on the Lord's 
day, or fabbath. 

Therefore, 2, There is not to be underftood here a rigid 
preffing of alt thefe hours to be fpent in duties of immediate 
u'orfhip, but our working and waking time, having a re* 
fpecl to cur infirmities, and alfo to our duties, left under 
pretext of infirmity we encroach upon God's day, and give 
him lefs than we give to ourfelves, or fhould and may give 
him : And fo in fcripture they accounted, what is betwixt 
fifing and going to bed, as lull the work of oae day* or one 


Com. 4, the Ten Commandments. 

days work; fcr .is God in conceding fix days to us, hath yet 
fo done it, as there may be a rcferve of particular times tor 
worfhip c illed for from us to him every day, for keeping up 
our communion with him; fo on the feventh day doth the 
Lord allow fo much conveniency of fleep and other refrcfh* 
ing, as may be fubfervient for the main end of the day, thefe 
being works of mercy and necefiity, which Chrift allowed 
on the fabbath, which was made for man, and not man for 
the fabbath. 

3 Yet care would be had, left under pretext of thefe wc 
exceed, and apply too much of what is the Lord's unneccf- 
farily for ourfelves and on our lufts ; and if we will wake for 
ordinary bufmefs, and keep up, on fuch and fuch a dier, 
other day?, yea if we might do it, or others no more ftrong 
than we, do it, the pretence of infirmity will not excufe us, 
cfpeciaily feeing hardly it can be often inftanced, that time- 
oufnefs at God's work in that day, or earneltnefs and con- 
tinuance in it, hath proved hurtful, which we may account 
as a-part of God's bleffing on the feventh day, that left meat 
and fleep may be as refrefhful as. more at another time : 
Thus much for the quamdiu % or the continuance of the day. 

Secondly , It may be enquired how often, by virtue of this 
command that day doth recur? if it be one of feven ? cr f 
if it be the very feventh ? And if this day be taken definite- 
ly for the very feventh day after the creation, or indefinitely 
for one day of feven, as rfis Lord fhould otherwise deter- 
mine, or had always determined; aftricling them to a day, 
but not any particular day by virtue of this command, but 
to fuch a day as was formerly defcribed or prefcribed from 
the beginning, during the Jewifli ftate, and to fuch another 
day as God fhouid after ChrifVs coming reveal unto them, 
and pitch upon for his fervice ? for taking it for granted, 
that a feventh day ao moral is commanded, it follovreth to be 
enquired, whether it be the feventh in number, that is, one 
cf feven, or the feventh in order, that is the f:venth day ? 

For anf.vering this we would premit, r. That there is x 
great difference betwixt thefe two ; The one viz. that there 
be a feventh doth concern the matter and fubftance of piety : 
the other, viz. which of thefe feventh it be, fs more circum- 
ftantial and is alike, if it be appointed by God, and have 
the bleifing. / 

2. That it is ufual for God in his commands concerning 
worfhip; not at firft to exprefs a particular definitely, but 
to deliver it in the bofom of a general indefinitely, medi- 
ately and by clear confequeace, as it were feveial fpecies un- 
der oae genus. 


240 An Expofitlon ef Com. 4. 

As for inftance, r. when Deut. xii. 5. he commandeth 
his people to offer their facrifkes in the place which he 
fhould choofe, here there is a ftinting or aftricting of them 
to the place which God fiiouid reveal unto them ; this be- 
fore the temple was built, tied them to the ark, and fome- 
times to one place, and fometimes to another, as it was re- 
moved and placed, till it was brought to Jerusalem ; but af- 
ter the temple was built and chofen for the place, it aftric- 
ted men to that ; yea when the temple is deftroyed, and 
Chrift come, it aftricteth men to no place by another, but 
it obligeth men to worfhip God every where in fpirit and 
truth. It is true, this is a ceremonial precept, and will not 
hold in all things, cfpecially as to its abolition, yet while it 
flood by a poiitive authority or precept, it fheweth that God 
may command a particular, as one day of feven, and yet 
not inftantly fo determine, but that one and the fame com- 
mand may inforce to diverfe days at diverfe times, upon fup- 
pofition of God's manifefting his mind, even as by one com- 
mand, men were aftricled fucceffively to diverfe places. 
. 2. See it inftanced in the fecond command, wherein God 
requireth fuch a worfhip, as he himfelf fhould prefcribe, 
which is the mora! affirmative part of it, and difchargeth all 
worfhip by images, that is, the moral negative part there- 
of; by virtue whereof believers were then tied to offer fa- 
crifices, to circumcife, to keep the paffbver, fyc. But now 
believers are tied to baptize, to celebrate the Lord's fupper, 
6t. ytt by virtus of one and the fame command: fo here, 
that command which requires the feventh day from the Jews, 
may require the firft day from us Chriftians, for the fabbath, 
becaufe thefe particulars are not exprefly, directly, and im- 
mediately called for by thefe commands, but indirectly and 
by confequence ; yet this fecond command tied the Jews to 
abftain from blood, and to circumcife, before the ceremo- 
nial law was added to them, becaufe thefe commands were 
formerly revealed to them, but it tied them to thefe acci- 
dentally (to fay fo) and by confequence only, even fo we 
fay of the fourth command as to the feventh day, it being 
inftituted before: confider for this, Exod. xvi. 26. where 
fix days for gathering manna, and a feventh for reft, are 
fpoken of. 

A third inftance is in tithes, which was the Lord's re- 
quiring part of their means or fubftance, as this was a part 
of their time; he there required the tenth part of their in- 
creafe, as here he doth the feventh part of their time; yet 
God in proportioning their eftates, did not particularly li- 
mit to any exact and precife order,- but as to this proper* 
lion of their eitates whatever they were ; fo we fay bere; 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandment!. 24I' 

had not the day been determined otherways than by this 
command, it would not have implied any particular definite 
day of the (even. 

3. We premit, that though the feventh day be called mo- 
ral, as is cxprefied in the command, or underftood, yet it 
is but moral-pofitive, and fo alterable at the will of the Law- 
giver, and therefore the queftion would not be much differ* 
ent, if acknowledging the feventh day to be commanded to 
the Jews, as well as one of feven, we yet afierted the feventh 
to be difcharged, and one of feven to be ftill retained, for 
fo one of fev^n wculd be binding now, and not the feventh. 

4. Yet left we fhould i'eem to admit fomewhat changeable 
in the very command itfelf precifely considered, we would 
put difference betwixt the commanding pnrt of the law, and 
its explicatory part ; the command may be moral and inde- 
finite, although iome things in reafonsand motives were not 
fo 5 as in the preface which inforceth all the commands, 
and in the promife annexed to the fifth, there was fomething 
peculiar to that people, yet cannot we caft off all becaufe of 
that, fuppofe there had no more been in this fourth com- 
mand, but remember the day of reft to keep it kly, that would 
not have inferred the feventh day, though we think the 
Jews, becaufe of its former fancliScation, would have been 
obliged to keep that day by virtue of this command : And 
fuppofe that in the explications or reafons, there may be 
fomething added peculiar to that people (which cannot be 
a feventh day, but at the mod (if any thing) the feventh 
day) yet that which is in the commanding part, will 
ftill ftand moral, viz. that the day of reft fhould be re- 
membred ; and if it can be made out thatJt was determin- 
ed to the Jews to fan&ify the feventh day (though it were 
in the reafons added) and to us afterward to fanclify the firft 
day, they will be both found to be a feventh day, and a day 
of reft, and therefore to be remembred and to be fanctified, 
this would refolve into the fame thing on the matter; yet 
we conceive it fafeft to affert, that in this command God 
hath fet apart a feventh day to himfelf, which is to be fanc- 
tified by us, by our application of it to holy ufes, but dotfi 
not by it exprefly, directly, and primarily bind to the fe- 
venth day, but fecondarily and by confequence, viz. as it was 
otherwife before declared by him, and fo it bindeth now that 
fame way to the fanftifying of the firft day of the week, as 
being now revealed by God, juft as in the former inftances 
or examples we touched upon. 

That a feventh day (whatever it be which is chofen cf 
Ged) and not the feveuth day in order, 19 to be fanclified 

nk by 

$4$ ^ n Exp -jit ion of Corn. 4J 

rtu£ of this command, as injoimngthat, .%s tne fubftanea 
and matter of it, may be made out by thefe arguments. 

;. 1. That which is the fubftance of this command is 1 
lb oral, and bindeth perpetually, as we have formerly prov- 
ed) for if its fubftance be not moral, then itfelf is not fa 
either) but that a feventh day fhould be fanftified hath been 
maintained in the church by the apoftles in their retaining 
the fir ft day of the week, white the feventh, hath been laid 
by and never ufed ; therefore it was not the feventh, but a 
feventh day which was primarily commanded in this com- 
mand ; fo that no particular day is infiituted here more thar* 
any pohYive fervice is preferibed in the feconJ command; 
yet the obfervation of what was preferibed, or (hould be 
preferibed, was included. Even fo it is here in reference to 
that day ■, and as we may infer that the feconJ command 
enjoyned not fuch and fuch ordinances primarily* because 
they are abolifhed ; and that ftxhas were negative and pro- 
hibited, as not making of images are moral, becaufe they arc 
continued, and images are to be reveled ; jaft fo may we con- 
clude "that a feventh day here was primarily commanded, 
and is moral, becaufe it i5 continued, and that the feventh was 
not fo commanded, becaufe it is rejected and laid a fide. 

This argument efpccially made out in the defrgnacion of 
the Lord's day will prove this; for if that feventh day was- 
the fubftance of this command, then either it is to be conti- 
nued as moral, v/hich were againft the current of the Ne^- 
Teftament, wherein, as Ch rift hath fet forth different ordi- 
nances, fo a different chief folemn time for wovfhip; or we 
muft fay that this fourth command beiongeth not to us at 
all, the contrary whereof we have made out : It muft then 
follow ihat this command refpecteth, which therefore be** 
geth to us, as it did to the Jew?, r.s well as any other 
command (and particularly the fecond command) dcth. 

Arg 2. It God hath put a difference fome wary betwixt 
the Sabbath commanded here, and the day of li is own reft, 
the feventh day, then it would feem it is not that day which 
is commanded; But he hath put a difference, 1. In the 
mandatory part, Remember; what? not the feventh clay, 
bat the Sabbath day, or day of reft: 2. fcn the bleffing it is 
not laid, he bUJfed t fa feventh Jay, but the Sabbath ; there- 
fore is that difference fo palpable, as being fpecially intend- 
ed ; r, if the fcope of the command v.ere only the 
:nth day, it had been much more clear to have fet it down 
trways ; and no other probable reafon of the difference 
can be giv 

. $ Eeither a feventh day is commanded primarily, 
ana tutu the fevculb but ieccmdariiy and eonfequential 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 243 

or the feventh was commanded the Jews primarily, and ono 
oftheleven, but confequentially (for both were command- 
ed to them) and the firft, to wit the fe vent h as being in ufe 
before. But it cannot be (aid, that the feventh day was 
primarily commanded, and one of feveo confequentially on- 
ly, becauie the general is firft commanded, and then the: 
particular} as when God required tithes of increafe and cat- 
tle, by the command of tithes he firft required the propor- 
tion, and then what particular proportion as to order, he 
himtelf (hould carve out to them ; and fo consequently came 
in the tenth beaft (which parTed under the rod) by a parti- 
cular command, Ljv. xxvii 32, 33. becauie their God de- 
termined ; but if that tenth had not been let down, the ge- 
neral command had determined upon the tenth of cattle, as 
of (heaves, or bolls of corn, even fo it is as to the day, the 
command requireth one of feven primarily •, but that it is 
this feventh, followeth from another determination. 

Arg. 4 If the moral grounds and reafons which prefs 
this command, do mod directly refpect a feventh day, and 
not the feventh ; then it is not the feventh day, but a fev- 
enth day, which is primarily commanded in it (for the rea- 
fons bear out, efpeciah'y what is mors! in it, and principally 
intended) but the moral reafons preiiing in it, plead more 
Arongly and directly for a feventh day, and but indirectly 
for the feventh day, as it was then instituted ; crgo> be. 
That the reafons do directly prefs a feventh day, and in a 
manner ftick ciofely to it, may thus be made out. 

1. If the reafons equally prefs en us the firft day, and the 
observations of it (fuppofing it now to be obferved accord- 
ing to divine warrant) then they da not primarily prefs the 
feventh ; but the reafons equally prefs on us the tit ft daj% 
ergo, inc. The major is clear, for the fame thing cannot 
prefs two days primarily nor equally; that the realons con- 
cern us as well as them upon the fuppofition afcrefaid, may 
thus appear. 

1. They are imiverfai, and do not belong to that people 
more than any other, for the conceffion of fix days is to all 
snd God's cxamp ; e of refting, concerned! all. 

2. If the breaking of that command be equally finful 
to us with them, and ftrike againfi the equity of the com- 
mand, and God's example in us as well as in them, then 
thefe reafons concern us alfo, and m as well as tfcera : Now 
that they do fo, and agredge the fin of prophaning our 
Lord's day, as they did the fin of prophaning their Sabbath, 
we muft either grant, or we mult deny that they concern 
U9 at all : BefiJe the weight of a challenge from the consci- 
ence by virtue of them, will put a tender heart cut of quaf- 

II h 2 tion 

*44 An Expofttion of Com. 4? 

tion of it, feeing God giveth us fix days to ourfelves, as he 
did to them, and his example propofed to us, ought to be 
refpe&ed by us, as well as by them, and the general equity 
is in both. 

3. If the reafons be a fufHcient ground of allowance tons 
working days together, even the laft fix of the week, as they 
were to them for the firft fix ; then they determine not the 
feventh day to be the day of reft primarily, but a feventh 
following thefe fix of labour ; but they do allow us warrant- 
ably to work fix days, even the laft fix of the week, ergo, 
they, do not determine the feventh day primarily; the con- 
nexion of the major feemeth to be very clear: For firft 
thefe muft ftand and fall together, if the conceffion (to call 
it fo) concern us in the fix working days, fo much the refer- 
vation of a feventh. 2. As the conceffion concerneth usia 
the fix working days, fo muft the prohibition of work on 
a feventh of reft, for the one determineth the other, if the 
conceffion be for fix in number ; but if the conceffion be for 
a feventh in number; but if the conceffion be of fix in or- 
der, then it is the feventh that is to be referved, and if the 
feventh be related to in the prohibition of work, then the 
conceffion muft look'to the firft fix days, which it doth not 
as we have fhewed. And therefore, 3. Seeing the fix days 
conceffion looketh to fix in number, fo many thou mayft 
or fhall work together, and no more the prohibition muft 
alfo refpeft the number, viz. a feventh and not the feventh 
day : the minor will be clear to the judicious confiderer, by a 
particular application of the reafons of the fourth command- 

Further, if the conceffion refpeft not the number, but 
the order (as it muft, if the prohibition of work on the fev- 
enth, refpecT: the order and not the number) then, 1. What 
warrant we have for our fix work days ? If it be not here, 
where is it ? for fure we cannot take God's time without his 
order and warrant •, 2. And more efpecially, then could not 
we by virtue of this command plead allowance for working 
fix days different from the work of the firft fix ; if fo we 
would not be aftri&ed by the command 10 fanirify one 
(feeing the one inferrcth and determineth the other, and 
they muft go together) which were abfurd. 

Yet agaiD, it may be made out that the reafons preft a 
feventh, and not the feventh, by confidering the words and 
force of the confequence in both. 

The 6rft reafon is, Sixdaysjbalt thou labour , but the feventh 
is the Lord's. 1. It fayeth not, take the firft fix, but of 
feven take fix to labour, and give the Lord the feventh, for 


Com. 4. the' Ten Commandment!. 245 

he has referved it to himfelf. 2. The fame equity is in the 
inference for a feventh, that is, tor the feventh, if not more* 
he has given thee fix, therefore give thou him a feventh, 
will not conclude more formally then give him the feventh; 
a feventh is the part of time as well as the feventh, which 
is the equity the command goeth on. 3. Had the com- 
mand intended to infer the feventh primarily, it would have 
been more clearly exprefled thus, he hath given thee the 
firft fix, therefore give thou him the feventh. 

The fecond reafon from God's example inferrcth the 
fame, he wrought fix and refted the feventh, do thou fo 
likewife, and fo thefe that work fix now and reft a feventh 
(as we now do) follow God's example, as well as they that 
wrought fix and refted the feventh did. 

Arg* 5. If the pofitive part of the command muft be ex* 
pounded by the negative, <b contra, then it concerneth one 
of feventh, and not the feventh : But the firft is true, 1. 
The pofitive part commandeth a day without refpeft to its 
order, therefore the negative command doth fo. 2 The 
negative is to be refolved thus, ye (hall not work above fix, 
not thus, ye lhall not work above the firft fix, as the event 
cleareth. 3. If it be not at the firft fix, but fix, that is in 
the conceffion, then it is not the feventh, but a feventh, 
that is in the inhibition, but the firft is clear, ergo % &c. 

Arg. 6. If this command, for the fubftance of it, concern 
us, as being moral, and bind us to the firft day, and the 
fanclifying of it equally, as it obliged the Jews to the feventh ; 
then it is one day of leven and not the feventh, which is in- 
tended primarily by it: But it bindeth us to the firft, ergo % 
That it is moral, and bindeth us now, is cleared. Thus, 
1. It either bindeth to this day, or to nothing, there- 
fore it primarily granteth fix, and not the firft fix, for la- 
bour •, and by clear confequenceintendeth primarily a feventh 
and not the feventh, for a day of reft. 2- If it be a Gn a- 
gainft this command to break the Lord's day, or Chriftian 
Sabbath, and prophane it, then it obligethusto it, end that 
dire&ly ; for indirectly, and by confequence the breach of the 
Sabbath is a fin againft any, or all of the three former com- 
mands. 3. If the prophaning the Sabbath be forbidden on 
this ground, becauie it Is the Lord's (as it is in this com- 
mand) then prophaning of the Lord's day is equally for- 
bidden in it, becaufe it is the Lord's, and is now appropri- 
ated to him according to his own will. 4. The teftimony 
of mens confcience9, and the conftant challenges of all 
(when tender) as being guilty of breaking this command 
whenever they prophane the Lord's day, do convincingly 


-4$ An Expcfilicn of Com. 4. 

hold forth that this command concerned* us, and are as fo 
wany witneffcs of it ; and consequently prove that it is not 
the feventh day, but a feventh day, whether inftituted 
or to he inftituted by God, which is the fubftance of it, and 
piimaiily commanded in it ; for it is never counted a breach 
of this command to neglcft to fanctify the fevtnth day, nei • 
th^r, do the confciences of well informed Chriftians chal- 
lenge for that, tho' they do mod bitterly for the other, as is 

In fum, fuppofe now the firft day being inftituted, that 
command were to fan&ify the Sabbath, we would un- 
derftand it of the firft day, becaufe it is already inftituted ; 
and the June reaibns will inforce it, even fo the feventh day 
* in then, becaufe it was formerly inftituted ; betide the 
(abbatifme fignitieth not this or that day, but what dayfoe- 
ver, (hall be by God folemnly fct, or is ftt a-part for holy 
reft ; and the command will run for our obferving the 
Lord's day, fuppofing its inftitution as well as it did for that j 
aUho' it more dire&ly tie them, yet it doth fo but as a rea- 
icn, even as the preface prefixed to ail the commands, and 
the promife affixed to the fifth, concern them literally ; yet 
ere binding in fo far as they are moral, as appeareth by the 
apoftles applying to the laft, Eph. vi. 2. without relation to 
that particular land or people, but as applicable and com- 
mon to any land or people making confeience of obedience 
to God's commands. 

. But here it may be objected, 1. The Jews kept the feventh 
day. Anfw. 1. Not by virtue of this command, but by its 
prior inftitmtion, even as they were obliged to facrifices and 

• circumcifion by the fecond command, though they were not 
particularly named in it. 2. So we are obliged to the keep- 
ing of the firft day of the week by this fourth command- 
ment •, yet it follcweth not, therefore this is exprefly com- 
manded in it, there being indeed no particular day primarily 
at leail inftituted in it. 

2. It may be objected, But God refted the feventh day ? 
Anfw* God's reft is not principally propofed as th^ reafon 
of that feventh day, but that he refted one da- jfter fix 
employed in the works of creation. It is t< infer the num- 
ber, not the order otherways it would not concern us. 2. 
The feventh rehteth not to the order of the days cf week, 
cne, two, three, be but it is called the feventh with refpeft 
the former fix. of work. 

Thus much for the quoties, and, how often the Sabbath, 
recurreth, and what is the day. 

It remaincth here to be enquired what is the beginning of 

* tl>c 

Com. 4. the Ten Co- its. 

the falsification of this day (which belonged! to the y 
do) or where horn we are to reckon it, feting it Is gr : 
by all to be a 'natural day ; Now it is qi 
whether its begiming is to be recfc 

fun-fcuing or darfcnefs, to fun-fetiing the next day, or 
be to be reckoned from morning, that is (as v 
when the fun beginneth to afcend towards us afi 
right, which is morning largely taken, a3 it is eve 
largely taken, when the km beginneth to decline after mid- 

In this debar? then, we uke evening and morning largely, 
as they divide the whole natural day, fo the morning is frota 
twelve at night to twelve in the day, and the evening from 
twelve in the clay to twelve at night ; And it muft be fo here* 
for 1. Mofes Gen. i. divideth the natural day in morning 
and evening, which two put together, make up the whole 
day ; and thefe ilx days, make up each of them morning 
and evening, arc natural days, the whole week being 
ded in ftv^n of them : And that reckoning from God's ex- 
ample is no doub: propofed for our imitation in this. Her.cs: 
the tra rning watch was before day, and the morning facri- 
fice about nine of the clock, fo the evening focrifice was a- 
bout three in the afternoon, and the evening watch about nine 
at night. 2- It is granted by all, and is clear from this com- 
mand; that as we account the fix working days of the week 
fo muft we account the feTenth, for one muft begin where 
another encleth ; and if one of them begin at the evening or 
morning, all the reft muft do fo likewife. 3 We fv: 
the fandtifying of the ordinary Sabbath was from morning) 
to evening, I fay of the ordinary Sabbath ; bee 
extraordinary Sabbaths, as of the paajver, Exod. xii. and 
of the atonement, Levit. xxiii. there were fpecial reafoiis; 
and though otherwise, they were to be fanct-fied a$ fabb 
yet they were to begin in the evening before, was added as* 
a fpecial folemnity of thefe folemn times, and therefore The 
example or inftance of thefe will not be conciu-dent here to 
the prejudice of what we afferr, but rather, to the 
feeing ; there is a particular excepting of them from the ordinary 
rule, and the particular intimation of their beginning in the 
evening, will rather confirm our afTertion, that the ordina- 
ry Sabbaths did begin in the morning, 4. It is not quefti- 
oned, ff on the evening before, people fhouid be preparing 
for the Sabbath following, we faid that this is included m 
the word Remember \ but if we fpeak of the Sabbath to be- 
gin at the evening before, then it will be comprehended as a 

*48 An Expofition of Com. 4. 

part of the very day, and fo it will conclude the work or ob- 
servation of the day to clofe at the next evening. 

We conceive efpeciaily to us Chriftians, the day is to be* 
gin in the morning, as is faid, and to eominue til* the next 
morning for which we reafon thus. 

Arg. 1. As other days begin, or as days began at the firft, 
fo muft this, but days ordinarily began in the morning, er- 
go y 6 c. 

If the firft fix of Mofes's reckoning begin fo, then this 
beginneth Co alfo, but they do begin fo, which may be cleared 
from Gen. i. where the evening and the morning make the 
firft day after the creation. 

I. If there the morning and the evening do fully divide 
the natural day, then the morning muft go before the even- 
ing, every morning being for its own evening : But they do 
divide the natural day, all being comprehended under fix 
days, ergo, &c. the confequence is clear to natural fenfc, for 
the forenoon, which is the morning muft be before the 
afternoon, which is the evening 5 the afcending of the 
fun is fure before its declining, and feeing the morning na- 
tural (to fpeak fo) of the natural day, is from the twelfth 
hour at night, this muft be the beginning of the day. 

Again, the queftion there, being only, whether to rec- 
kon the evening or the morning firft ; it would feem necef- 
fary to reckon the morning firft ; for if the evening be firft, 
that evening muft either be, 1 . The evening of a day preceed- 
ing morning, feeing every evening fuppofeth a morning to 
go before it in proper fpeech (and I fuppofe the hiftory of 
the creation, Gen. i. is not fet down in metaphorical terms ;) 
or, 2. It muft be an evening without a morning, and that 
in proper fpeech (here ufed) is abfurd, and feems alfo to 
be as impofiible in nature, to wit, that there fhould be a 
confequentand pofterior evening or afternoon, without a pre- 
ceeding morning or forenoon as that there fhould be an ef- 
fect without a caufe; or, 3 It muft be the evening follow- 
ing its own morning, and fo that morning muft be loft pre- 
ceeding the firft evening recorded, Gen. i. The evening and 
the morning were thejirft day, which to affirm would not on- 
ly be abfurd, but would alfo manifeftly fatten the lofs of a 
days time on the fcriptures calculation : and it feemethhard 
in all fpeech and fcripture-phrafe to put the evening before 
its own morning, feeing there muft be both morning and e- 
vening in each day ; neither doth the fcripture fpeak any way. 
of evening, but when its drawn towards night, which ftill 
fuppofeth the morning of that fame day to be pafied, or ?lfe 
we muft divide the day in the middle of the artificial day, 
and make the natural day begin zi twelve of the noon day, 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 24$ 

which will be as much again ft the fcripture-phrafe, that rec* 
koncth ftilV the whole artificial day as belonging to one na- 
tural day, the artificial day and night being the two parts of 
one whole natural day. 

All the force of the oppofite reafon is this, the evening 
is firft named, ergo, it is firft, Anfwer. Mofes his fcope is 
not to (hew what part of one day is before another, but to 
divide one day from another, and to (hew what goeth to 
make a whole day, to wit, an evening and a morning, not 
becaufe it prefuppofeth the morning, and being added to it, 
a morning alone, but an evening added to the morn- 
ing which preceeded, that made the firft, fecond, and 
third day, 6r. as one would reckon thus, there is a 
whole day, becaufe there is both evening and morning. 
In this account it is mod fuitable to begin with the evening, 
cannot but be a day, whereas it h not proper to fay morning 
with the evening, as evening now added to it* morning 
compleateth the firft day, and evening now being paft as 
the morning before, God did put a period by and with the c* 
vening to the firft day, it being the evening compleateth the 
day, and divideth it from the following day, and not the 
morning : as one wouW fay, the afternoon with the fore- 
noon, maketh a compleat a day, and the afternoon or even- 
ing is firft named, becaufe, 1. The day is not compleat 
without it, feeing it compleateth it ; 2. Becaufe the day can- 
not be extended beyond it, now the firft day is clofed, be- 
cauie the evening of it is come. 

Arg . 2. What time of the day God began his reft ; we 
muft begin ours, but he began his in the morning of the 
feventh day, the artificial night having interveened betwixt 
that and the fixth, which is clear; for 1. God's refting this 
day is more than his in the other nights of the fix days, it 
being granted by all that he. made nothing in the night. 

2. There had not been otherwife been any intermifiion be- 
twixt his labour and his reft, which is yet fuppofed by diftin- 
guifhing the days. 

Again, if by virtue of a command of a day to be fanclN 
fied, we fhould begin the night or the evening before, then, 
thefe two or three abfurditles would follow, j. Then we 
would confound the preparation by the word Remember, 
and the day together. 2. Then we Chriftians might alfo, 
by virtue of the conceffion of fix days for work, begin to 
work the night before Monday, as die Jews on this fuppofi* 
lion might have begun their work the night before Sunday. 

3. Then we are alnaoft no fooner begun to r the work of fanc- 
tifying of the day, then to break it off fbf reft, and wherx 

I i its 

Z^n Ah Expofitkn of Corn. $ 

its fancYificatidn is clofed, as foon to fall to our ordinary 

Arg* J- If by this command a whole nntur*l day is to be 
employed for duties of worfhip ; as another d#y is employ* 
ed in our ordinary callings, then is it to begin in the morn- 
ing. The antecedent will not be denied, the conferment \6 
thus made good \ if men acount all the labour of their 
working time from one nights reft to another, to belong to 
one day, then muft they begin in the morning, or elie they 
rnuft account what they work after the firft evening to belong 
another day : But that way of reckoning was never heard of. 
the twelfth hour belonging to that lame day with the firft 

Again, if by this command, a whole artificial day toge- 
ther, (that is, our walking and working time, betwixt two 
flights) be to be employed for God's worfliip, then the be- 
ginning nuift be in the morning, for if the latter or follovjv 
ing evening belong to this natural day, before- Sleeping time 
come on, then the even before cannot belong to it, for it 
cannot have hoth : But by this command a whole waking 
day, or an artificial day is to ber (an&ified together, and the c- 
ven after it before waking time end as well as the morning : 
Therefore it muft begin in the morning, and not on the even- 
ing before. 

Further it by virtue of the concefiaon of fix working day* 
we may not work the evening after; then the day begmneth 
in the morning, for the week day following muft begin as 
the Sabbath did, bur the former is true, ergo % £jc % Thefe 
things will make out the minor I. It caa hardly bethought 
confident with this command to work immediately, when 
it groweth dark before folks reft. 2. It is faid, Luke xxiii. 
56. and xxiv. 1. of the women that ftayed from the grave 
till the firft day 6f the week, that they refted according to 
the commandment on the f&bbath day, and early in the. 
morning came to the fe pule lire.. 3. Becaufe Chrift account 
cth a whole natural day that which lafteth till men cannot 
work. 4. God's working clays (ro fay fo) were fuch, 
made not any thing in the evening before the firft day. 5, 
The ordinary phrafe, To morrow is the h:-ly Sab fat h f £xod. 
xvu 23 &c. She veth that the day pee fen I will la ft till to mor- 
row come, and tomorrow is ever by an interveening night : 
So if on the forbidden day men may not work till to mor- 
row, then that evening belongeth to it by this command, 
and if on the fixth t come till to mor 

row, that i$ $ after the 1 . :n. then it cloth not be- 

gin ;u c . en, but lo it is 10 
■ Yet again; It is cS mplcs of ordir 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 2yr 

fabbaths keeping and fan&Tfying fri fciipture,~ they began in 
the morning: For inftance, it is laid, Exod. xvi. 27. Seme 
of the people went out to gather on the Sabbath diy t no doubt 
in the morning, for they knew well there was none of it to 
be found any day after the funs waxing hot ; they might 
have drefied of it the night before, and not been quarrel- 
led with, they being forbidden gathering on the Sabbath. 
The proofs of the former argument gave light to thisalfd. 

There are yet two arguments to be added, wh.ch do efpe- 
cially, belong to us Chriftians, for clearing the beginning 
of our Lord's day to be in the morning ; The firft is takeu 
from ChrilVs resurrection thus : 

That day, and that time of the day, ought tote our fab- 
bath, and the beginning of it, when the Lord began to 
ifeft-, after finishing the work of redemption, and arofe ; but 
that was the fir ft day in the week f in the morning ergo % <bc. 
Thisbindcth us ftrongly who take that day on which he arofe 
to be our Chriftian Sabbath. 

The fecond is taken from the hiftory of ChrifVs paffioa 
and refurreffion together, wherein thole things to this pur- 
pole arc obfervable ; that he was laid in the grave on Fridays 
faight, being the preparation to the great Sabbath, which, 
followed ; 2 That the women who refted, and came not 
to the grave till funday morning (to ufeour known names) 
are raid to reft according to the commandment, as if com- 
ing fooner, had not been refting according to it. 3. That 
his lying in the grave rnuft be accounted to be fometit»e be- 
fore the Friday ended, other wife he could not have been 
three days in the grave, and therefore a part of Fridays night 
is reckoned to the firft day, then the whole Sabbath, or 
Saturday is the fecend ; and laftly a part of the night, v:z % 
from twelve o'clock at night, belonging to the firft day, or 
Sunday, ftandeth for the third, and fo he arofe that morn- 
ing, while it was yet dark, at which time, or thereabouts, 
the womeri came to the grave; as foon as they could for the 
Sabbath, and therefore their Sabbath-feventh-day ended 
then, and the firft day Sabbath began. 

We come now to the third general queftion concerning 
the change, to'wir, the change of the feventh day into the 
iirft day of the week ; where, firft, we fliali fum up what is 
moral in this command, and then fecondly, by fome pro- 
portions clear the change and its confiftency with this com- 

To the firft then, this command doth morally and perpe- 
tually oblige to thefe: 1. That there be afolemn time fet.a- 
pm and obferved for wrprfhijf. 2. That this ftiould be one 

I : % "" ' 'day 

1$1 An Expofition cf Com. 4^ 

day of feven : 3. That it fhould be fuch a day, the very day 
which God appointed the Sabbath of his appointment, what* 
ever day it fhould be: 4. That it be a who^e natural day of 
twenty-four houts, yet having an artificial day together un- 
divided : 5. That fix, and no more but fix working days 
interveen, and that thefe be together in a week ; and there- 
fore, 6. That the Sabbath be a bounding day, dividing one 
vreek from another •, if then fix working days muft be in 
one week, and go together this will follow alfo, that the 
Sabbath muft be the firft or laft day of the feven. 

As for the propositions clearing the change and confiften- 
cy of it with this command, the firft fhall be this. 

The Sabbath may be changed from the laft or feventh day 
to the firft day of the week without any derogation to this 
command or inconfiftency with it ; for all that is moral in 
it, to wit, a day and one day of feven, and a bounding fe- 
venth day, leaving fix for work together, remain untouch- 
ed by the change : Befide, the feventh day not having its 
inftitution from this command exprefly, and direftly, but 
only accidentally (the particular day whether the Jews f<- 
venth day, or the Chriftians firft day of the week being fup- 
pofed by the fourth commandment as inftituted, or to be 
inftituted eife-where) as is inftituted elfewhere) as is faid 
and its firft inftitution, Gen. ii. being only a pofitive and 
temporary law, may be therefore changed, and yet the 
fourth commandment kept intire ; we need not infift in fur- 
ther profecution of this proportion,! much being fpoken to 
on the matter already. 

1. Propof. Not only may the feventh be altered from 
what it was under the law to another feventh day under the 
gofpel, but it is meet and convenient from good reafons (e- 
ven in the command) that it fhould be fo. 

For, 1. If thefe two ages, before Chrift and after him, 
be looked on as diverfe worlds, and if the redemption by 
Chrift at his coming be accounted the making of the one, 
as God's creation was of the other, then it is meet that when 
the world is renewed by redemption, the Sabbath day fhould 
be changed for memory of that, as well as it was inftituted 
at firft for the memory of the former, there being the fame 
reafon for both : But they are looked on as two diftinft 
worlds, and called fo in the plural number, Heb.xi.2. and 
this laft world diftinguifhed from the former, Heb. ii 5. and 
the redeeming of the one is looked upon as the making <*f 
the other, therefore from that forth, the day of reft is to be 
/ucb as may relate to both ; now the day being changed to 
the firft, it remembreth us of God's reft at the creation, bf 
diftinguifhiog fix days from the fevembj and it remembreth 

Com. 4^ the Ten Commandment si *5$ 

us of the new creation, by putting Chrift's refurre£l!on in 
the room of the former. 

Arg. 2. If the new world be a work as much for the glo- 
ry of God, and as comfortable to men, when its begun and 
clofed or finiftied by the work of redemption, as the making 
of the old world was, then the day of reft of the new world 
is to be made to relate to that, much more, if the redemp- 
tion of the world be more for the glory of God, and for the 
comfort of men ; then by the ground on which the feventh 
day was at firft inftituted, it is alfo again to be changed ; to 
wit, the memory of God's great work ; but both the form- 
er are true ; Ergo; or thus, if the ground that made the 
feventh to be chofen for the Sabbath in the old world be 
changed in the new, and that ground agree better to ano- 
ther than to it ; then it is to be changed \ But the ground 
whereupon the old feventh day was preferred, is now 
changed, and there are grounds to prefer another day to it 
fcr^he fame ends, therefore it is meet the day be changed 
alfo : Or thus, if the perfecting of the work of redemption 
and the reft of the Mediator after it, be as much to be at* 
membred as the work of creation and God's refting after it 
then the day is to be changed, but fo it is, ergo. 

Arg. 3. If by Chrift in the new world all the Levitical 
fervices be changed, and the ceremonial worfhip of that day ; 
then it is meet alfo that the day fhould be changed : 1. For 
Slewing the expiration of that worfhip and law, it being har4 
to keep that day, and to diftinguifh it from the Jewifli form- 
er worfhip. 2. To keep Chriftians more from judaizing 
to abftrattthem even from former fervices of the fabbath now 
aboliQied; juftas now, no particular family hath the pricft- 
hood, as Levi had it before, nor particular nation hath 
the church confined in it, as that of the Jews had (though 
thefe were not typical properly) yea it would be fuch a day 
as would point out the evanifhing of former ceremonies, 
which the in-bringing of the firft day abundantly doth. 

Arg. 4, If the worfhip and ordinances of the new gofpeK 
world be eminently to hold their inftitution of Chrift the 
Mediator, and to be made fomc way relative to his redemp- 
tion paft ; then it is meet for that end that the Sabbath 
;be changed, fo as it may be dependent on him as all other 
worfhip is, that ismoral-pofitive or pofitive-moral, and that 
cannot be done well, if the former day be kept unchangeJ, 
at leaft not fo well, as when it is changed, but the former is 
true, all gofpel-worfhip holdeth of him facramems, prayer, 
praife, miniftry, &c. (now facraments as they leal are hot 
ceremonial, for the tree of life was inftituted to be a feal of 
the covenant of works in the ftate of innocency before the 


*54 An Exp oft ion of Co 01.-4. 

fall, while there was no typical inftitmions of a Saviour to 
come, and fo facramenrs as they are Teals, may be continu* 
cd as pci paual pieces of worfhip, without hazard of typify. 
Jng a Saviour to come), therefore he inftituted new ones, 
2w\ that with relation to his work of redemption, confider- 
ed as part: Hence alfo his prayer or pattern is called the 
Lore's prayer , and his facrament of the Supper is called the 
Lord's Supper y becaufe inftituted by him and relating to him \ 
in this fenfeit is peculiarly laid, Heb. ii. 5. That God put 
fa fubjection to him the world to come different from what 
w cfore, and he is put ns the Son in the Ne-v-Teftamem 
in t 5 olace of Mofes. who was the Law-giver and faithful 
ferva : Old, Heb. iii. Upon this ground we think 

that day is ealied, Heb. i. 10. the Lord's d«y, to bring it in a 
dependance on jefus Chrift, and to make it refpeel; what is 
part of the work of redemption. 

Arg. 5. If the day of foiemn public worfliip be a piece of 
God's worfhip, capable of bearing a relation toChrift to come 
and falling out under the Mediator's kingdom properly ; 
ffeen when he cometh in the New world, it is meet it ihould 
be changed. 1. To fliew he is come* 2 To fhew he i$ 
abfolute over the houfe and worfhip of God. 3. Some way 
to preach his grace and redemption in the very change of it : 
But it is a piece of worfiip and tribute of our time (as is faid 
before) and a piec; of worfhip capable of his institution and 
remembrance (therefore called the Lord's day) which could 
not be, were not a day of worfhip capable of that, and 
k falleth under the power of Chrift, who Matth xii. Even 
as the [on of man is Lord of the Sabbath; and why is that pow» 
er pleaded in that particular of the day fo often, if it were 
jiot to (hew, that there is reafon by his coming to look oa 
the Sabbath as under him, even as all other worfhip was, 
which ftood by God's pofitive command, even as this did ? 

Jrg, 6. If by this command the day of of reft from God's 
molt foiemn work to be our day of reft ; then after Chrift's 
Coming (not ib before) not the feventh, but the firft day is 
to be oblerved ; but by the command the former is true. 
Again, if that day be to be kept in reference to any folema 
work of God, which was the firft day after his perfecting it f 
then the firft day is to be kept : But by the command the 
former is true, becaufe our refting day is to be kept in re- 
ference to the work of redemption, and therefore muft 
be on the firft day, which was the day after its doling and 
perfecting, as to Chrift s fuffering and labour, though not 
as to its application, even as the feventh was of God's refting 
from the woik of creation; tbo' not from his. works of pro- 

Con*, $ the Ten Comm&iAmuitt. 

; 7. If the feventh day which the Jews kept, had *«, 
nv peculiar tie or motive unto th«m, which by Chriil is n^w 
taken awav, then it was meet at Ch rift's coining, that 
<h«>u!:i be changed. We would uoJerifand here, that there 
might be fomewhat peculiar or typical in their feventh day, 
and yet nothing (o in the fourth command ; which coir*- 
eth one ot feven, but not the feventh: And thougj* 
we couid no: particularly pitch upon what is typical or pecu- 
liar in it, yet we mjy conceive that iomething there is, as 
in tithes, ©Sitings, be. though the particular thing which 
fe typ^ed, be hardly in Articled : As, 1. If its beginning was 
on the evening to them (as fome think) the reafon of it was 
peculiar, to \.it, their coming out of Egypt at evening, 
Exod, xii. And in (0 far at leaft it would be pecuiiar to 
them •, and by Chrift's riling in the morning is changed. 

2. It is preffed peculiarly on the account of God's redeem- 
ing them from Egypt, they had that to think on, that iornc- 
time they were, where they got not liberty to reft any day, 
therefore (hould they eafe their fervants, as it is Deuc v. 14, 
15 This holdeth especially, if it was on :he feventh day 
that their freedom from Egypt began, Exod. xii. (which was 
after that, made the fkft day of their year, that is, the mor- 
row arter they did eat the paiTover) as it b made probable* 
by fexnue, 

j. It was peculiarly difcovered to them by God's raining' 
manna from heaven fix days, and by his vvith-hoiding it 
from them the feventh. 

4.. it was peculiarly accompanied with fpecial ceremonial 
fervices beyond other days. . i 

5. God's manner of dealing with them before Chrift, 
was to prefs duties by temporal acd external ad van t 
prefty, and more implicitely by fpirituai mercies, thereforc- 

reeab!e to that way and time to prc r s the fe- 
venth diem, which minded them of the G 
creation ; but it is other wife e church under the gof- 
pel : HenccMhc'.r facraments had refpecl (externally) to their 
deliverance fiom Egypt and temporal things, whereas ours 
haverefpect purely to what is fpirifuah 

6. The apoftie, Col. i\ 16. taiieth in their fabbaths with 
their other days, and though he take not in all day alike, 
yet it can.hnrdly be denied, but their feventh day- fabhatbt. 
cometh in there, where all the Jev/ifh. times are put toge- 
ther: Therefore it Would feem there is a type, not in the 
command, but in that day, though not properly, yet acci- 
dentally in refpecl: of its warlhip, end application, &c. com' 
plexly taken ; artel that therefore this fever>th-day-fabbah is 
expired at leall, if not repealed, feeing char, days and t ; nr\*s 


i 56 An Expofiticn 9/ Go m . 4 ; 

kept by the Jews are enumerate with their other fervices 
which were antiquated ; even as when the apoftle condem- 
ned difference about meat or drink, his meaning is not to 
condemn, what difference is made in the Lord's Supper in 
the New-Teftament, but what is from the Old, fo may the 
fame be faid of days ; It is their old difference he crieth 

Propof.y* As it is meet that the day of worfhip under 
the gofpel, fhould be another then what was under the law, 
and fhould therefore be changed ; fo it is meet that the 
change fhould be into the firft day of the week, and to no 
other day. For, 

I. No other day has been honoured with fo many gofpel 
privileges, as 1. With Chrift's refurrettion, Matth. xxviii. 
It was the firft day of his victory and reft. 2. With Chrift's 
appearing twice, at leaft, on it to his difciples, fingling it 
out from other days; or his appearing is for no purpofe 
particularly recorded by the Evangelift John, to have been 
on that day, if there were not foinething remarkable in it 
befide what is in another day. 3. The Spirits giving at 
Pentecoft, Adb ii. will befound to be on the firft day of the 
week : Now no other day can claim fo many privileges, and 
fo many ways relate to Chrift. 

2. If the grounds upon which the feventh day under the 
law was preferred during that world, do in this renewing of 
the world agree only to the firft day of the week ; then is 
the firft day to fuccced: But thefe grounds proportionally 
agree only to the firft day under the gofpel, which agreed to 
the feventh under the law, ergo, 

That which made the feventh day preferable was, 1. That 
God has ended all his works on the fixth, and refted the 
feventh : It was the firft day after the creation ; fo the firft 
day of the week is that day on which Chrift rofe (having 
perfected the work of redemption, and obtained victory o- 
ver death, under whofe power fomc way for a time, his bo* 
dy was before that) and was thereby manifeftly declared to 
be the Son of God, to wit, by his refurrection from the 
dead, Rom. i. 4. 

2. The force of the example will hold here, God made 
the world in fix days, and refted the feventh, therefore reft 
ye with him ; fo Chrift having for a time fuffered, fully 
overcome the firft day, and began his eftate of exaltation, 
therefore reft with him, and rejoice that day, it being the 
beginning of this new joyful world. 

3. No other day can be fubftituted in place of thcoM 
feventh day, referving entire the morality of this command ; 
therefore it muft be this that is pu: in the place of that j for. 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 257 

this command requireth, 1. One day of every feven, allow- 
ing fix of every (even to work, and that together : Now i£ 
the day had gone beyond the fabbath enfuing, it had not 
been one day of feven ; if it had been the fecond, third, or 
fourth day, then the fix working days had not gone toge- 
ther. But now the firft being appointed for God next to 
the feventh, God hath his part or tribute called for, and 
then came fix working days together unto us of that fame 
week, and o ftil) they run, God hath one, and we have fix 
of the fame week. 

If it be here objected, that this way, the new world is be- 
gun with a fabbath, whereas the fabbath clofed and ended 
the old world, dnfiv. 1. Thus God hath no lofs of what he 
required ; tor this way, no week wanteth its fabbath. 2. It 
is mod fuitable that the oid world fhould end in a fabbath, 
and the new begin in a fabbath, that fo the worfhip of the 
new (which molt diftincUy difcovereth the change) might 
the more immediately and convincingly preach the change, 
which could not fo well have been done if working days of 
both had met together, or a working day of the one, and 
the fabbath of the other. 3. Though the old fabbath was^ 
the feventh in order from the creation, yet it was the firflt 
day after man's creation, God beginning as it were, and en- 
tring him with that : Even fo when men are brought into 
this new world or change, God will begin it with gladnefs 
and joy to them. 

Propof. 4. The day of folemq public worfhip required to 
be obferved by this command, was really changed from the 
feventh or laft day to the firft day of the week, according to 
the former grounds. That it was really changed, may be 
made out by thefe. 

1. That the apoftles and primitive Chriftians after Chrift's 
refurrecYion and afcenfion, had their folemn day for meet- 
ing to worfhip God, yet neither did they by themfelves to- 
gether, in practice keep the feventh, nor by command ap- 
pointed it to be kept, nor gave it the title of the Lord's day : 
It is true, that often they kept it in a fort with the Jews, as 
they did Pentecoft, for the opportunity of the multitude 
coming together on thefe days, or to bury it with honour ; 
as they did praftife for a time feveral of the Jewifh rites an- 
tiquated for their gaining, and till they were fully informed 
of their abolition \ but in conftituted churches of the gen* 
tiles \ we never read that they kept it, but another day. 

2. The apoftles and primitive Chriftians kept and efteem- 
ed-the firft day for their folemn day, beyond and above all 
days, yea, and it only as the Chriftian Sabbath* For 1. on 
that day they ufed to meet ordinarily, aod that not occafion- 

K k ally 

2t8 ExpcJItfon cf Com. 4, 

ally, but purpofery and determ : ir>a:c!y, John xx. ry-.^fl I 
which is clearly the fir ft day. 2 They arc pnrpofely toge- 
ther, and not for fear, (for fear fevrttereth) bet while 
are together, they do for fear fhut the door?, b 
bably \<:d from the news of the rcfurrecY:ou ro be together ; 
and fo again, ver. 26. they meet, and Chrift with them: 
And though it may poflibly be, that on other days they met 
yet doubtlefs this holdeth forth fomething peculiar to this 
day i and feme leffbn to be taken from it : That 1 Ch rift's 
coming to them is efpecially tryfted on that day, and that 
while they are together. 2. That when they met at any o- 
ther time, or ever he came to them, it is n they 

were or came together the feconJ, third cr fourth cr 
the week, bur on the fii ft 9 and wherefore dech the li^.y 
Ghoft record that day, or their meeting on tha r day, when 
he omitteth the naming of other day?: biK that t! 
its excrcifes may be efptcblly taken notice of, and though 
other days had been much alike in exereffes to them, yet the 
recording of this day fo often, and omitting the other, io- 
timateth a difference, fure they are not alike in this : fo much 
for the xx. of John > which is the firft place of fcripturc we 
make ufe of. 

The fecond is A<fb ii. T, 2- Here they are faid to be, all 
with one accord in one place when Pentecoft came, where it 
is clear, 1 . That Pentecoft was on the firft day of the w 
for it was the fiftieth day after the feaft of unleavened b< 
Now according to rhe Jews account, their pafTover day was 
on the fabbath (called John xix. 31. an bighiabbath) in which 
Chrift lay all the day in the grave, as appeareth \ for 
day is called their preparation for ths feaft. wherein Chrift 
ftiffered which is our friday ; reckon now what will be the 
fiftieth day after, or Pentecoft, and it will be found to b. the 
firft day of the week : and it is not only obfervable for their 
meeting, but for God's fending thefpirit on them, as a ipe- 
cial bleffing of that day, and his countenancing of their 
v/orfhipping him on it, according to his promife; 2. It is 
clear that they did meet together on this day. 3. That th^ 
meeting together, was not a daily or ordinary meeting toge- 
ther (for John xxi. we fee they went to filhing j and no quel- 
tion fometimes they went afunder) for ver. t. it is marked 
as a thing not ordinary to every day, that en thar day they 
were altogether in one place 4. It was not a meeting in 
reference to the Pentecoft feaft ; for, i . They cn!y art 
geiher, diftinct from the people. 2. It is not in the te: 
but iu tome other houfe fit for their meeting together in pub- 
lic worfiiip; it muft be therefore, becaufe that d;*v wa 
time of their fokmo meeting, even iheir •hriftian Sabb tthv 


Com. 4. the Ten Commtntimihts. i;$ 

Tiu lace is, Afts xx 7. ./foj «/>m /•'' 7 </ 

fc//^/2 *^? difciples came together to break Bread* 

i'ani 1 unit, them, &c. where it is e'ear, 1. That this 

ing was tor public worlhip, as the breaking of bread f 

and preaching iiuimateih. 2. That there i; iome cbierva- 

U in (h.t cisciiniftance, that it was on the firft day of 
.wck, and that that day is mentioned rather than any 
ut the former fix days in which he hsd beeu there at Troas, 
tho' it is more than probable they had meetings and preach- 
ing on them alio ; but this is the only and great difference, 

their meetings on thefe days were occafional, and 

y be but partial (to fpe&k (o) but the folemn chief fixt 

mfiCiiDg or all, was ufuaily and ordinarily on the fird day. 

; together on that day for thefe ends is fpokea 

of, as a thing that was not new, nor occafional; but as 

cuftomary, conftant, known practice ; they came to- 
er purpoiciy to break bread, and to watt on other or- 
• :ccs. 4. It is clear, that by fpecial applying of thefe ex- 
ercifes to that day, and by mentioning of the day for that 
end, that, that day was their moil folemn day, and that the 
old ieventh day was not fo (at leaft neceflarily) employed by 
them. 5 Neither is it like, that Paul, who was ready to 
depart, would have frayed for the firft: day of the week, if 
there had not been fome folemn worfliip in that, or that be 
would have paded the old feventh-day fabbath, efpecially to 
the marring or his other occafions had they been equal, if 
more fanctirication had been required in it, than in the firft 
day of the week, or that he would have fo much infifted ia 
religious public worfliip en that day, if the former feventh 
hau been employed in that fervice, but here the church being 
commuted of believing Gentiles, there is no mention of the 
old iabbath, but as of another common day of the week ; 
yea, 6. Paul's ipending this whole day in that ferv.ee, and 
continuing his icrmon till midnight, (yet accounting it ftilt 
one day) m i ok nan meeting doth confirm this day to be more: 
than an ordinary day, or then other days of the week, as 
being ipectaily dedicated to thefe fervices and exercifes, and 
totally ipent in them. 7. It i% (aid, that the difciples came 
together, they were not lent for that day, but they came to- 
gether, being called and accuftomed fo to do on that day # 
and as being put to thefe duties by the day, as the proper ex- 
ercifes in which it is to be Ipent. 

Hence we may argue ; if the apoftles and primitive Chrif*' 

tians did obferve the firft day of the week, as their prime* 

and chief time for folemn public worfhip, and did pats o- 

vcr die old ieventh day, then is the day changed from the 

' }L k z leveovfa 

260 Jin Expofition of Com. 4. 

feventh to the firft clay of the week, but the firft is cleared 
by the former inftances, ergo y &c. 

And if thefe meetings on that firft day were not fuch as 
ufed to be formerly on the feventh day, I defire to know a 
reafon, I. Why their meetings on that day fhould be par- 
ticularly recorded rather than their meetings on any other 
day : and then 2. Why the one is ib oft mentioned, and the 
other never, to wit, that they met the fecond, third day, 
fac. of the week. Or, 3. If their meeting on this firft day 
now (after Chrift's afcenfion) be not like his going to the 
fynagogue on the feventh-day fabbath, and doing fuch and 
fuch things on the fabbath : that day being moft frequently 
mentioned before, whereas now there is deep filence of that 
day, and the firft day is recorded in its room, neither can 
the fcriptures fpeaking of the one, and filence in the other 
be for no purpofe or for any other purpofe. 

And as the practice of the church holdeth out the change 
of the day, fo doth the title given, Rev. i. io. to the firft 
day of the week, to wit, the Lord's day confirm the fame: 
whence we argue. 

If the title, which by the Lord and his people were given 
to the feventh-day fabbath under the Old Teftament, and 
under which, and by which, he claimeth a feventh day in 
this command •, If I fay that title in the New Teftament be 
rot given unto the feventh but unto the firft day of the 
week ; then is the day changed from the feventh day to the 
firft, and the firft falleth now under this command, as the 
feventh formerly did j but the former is true. The firft is 
ftiled as the feventh was, and as this command ftileth and 
claimeth the day to the Lord to be obferved for him : There- 
fore now is the fabbath changed from the feventh day to the 
firft day of the week. 

The titles whereby the fabbath isdiftinguifhed from other 
days, and peculiarly claimed and marked by God as his, and 
that in tins fame command, muft certainly evidence that day, 
which he hath fet a-part and doth claim as he applieth them : 
And therefore if thefe titles be given and applied to the firft 
day now, it muft needs (hew a fucceeding of that day 
unto the former feventh, for during the obfervation of the 
feventh day thefe titles were not, nay could not be applied 
to the firft, no day being then the Lord's but the feventh. 

Now we find that the feventh-day- fabbath is in the Old- 
Teftament filled by the Lord under thefe titles, and fo claim- 
ed by him. i. It is called here the fabbath of the Lord, or 
to the Lord, that is the Lord's, as contradiftinguifhed from 
the fix days he hath given unto us, a day that he hath right 
to, aad not we, therefore called the Lord's fabbath, a. Ifa. 


Com. 4^ the Ten Commandments^. *6l 

lviii. 3. It is claimed by the Lord as his, my holy day, 
which is fo called I. To diftinguifli it from other days. 2. 
To ftamp it with the Lord's mark in refpeft of its life, for 
it h not to be applied to our ufe, but to his own, it being 
his in a fpeciai manner. 

But in the New Teftament after ChrifVs refurreftion, the 
feventh day is not fo ftiled and claimed, but the firft d;ty of 
the week is, Rev. i. 10. / was (faith John) in the Spirit on 
the Lord's day, In which place thefe things are clear. 

1. That after Chrift's afceniion there was a peculiar day 
belonging to the Lord befide and beyond other days. 

I 2. That it was not the old fabbath, for 1 John's fcope 
being particularly to clear the time of the vifion by the cir- 
cumftance of the day, the particular day as diflinft from o- 
ther days, to call the fabbath then ufed amengft the Jews: 
the L&rd's day had more obfeured it then cleared it, yea 2. 
In that it is called the Lord's, according to the phrafe of the 
New-Teftament, it fuppofeth fome relation to Chrift the 
Mediator, as being derived from him which cannot be faid 
of the feventh-day- fabbath. 

4. That it was not any indefinite day of the Lord : For, 
I. There is a great odds betwixt the Lord's day, and the 
day of the Lord, the former looketh to a fpeciai right and 
peculiar intereft that God hath in that day befide other days ; 
even as when the fev* nth d*y was called his day before, the 
temple, his temple, the prefer ibed fervice, his ferviee, and 
the facrament of the fupper, his fupper, ire. 2. That day 
would be (till dark to the church if it were indefinite, con- 
trary to John's fcope. 

4. That it is, and mud be fuch a day as was common* 
ly fet a part by Chriftians to God as his, and that with re- 
fpeft to Chrift the Mediator, and fuch a day as was known 
to them : And by the former practices it is clear, that this 
day is the firft day of the week, being the Lord Chrift's day, 
who now having conquered death, and got the victory, he 
doth therefore claim this day as a tribute to him. 

This being clear, that no other day can claim this title, 
and that the firflday hath good ground to claim it, we may 
put it out of queftion, that it is. the firft day or no day, or 
if it were not the firft, that to no purpofe were the deiigna- 
tion of that day inferttd, feeing to no other day hath it been. 
applied, nor can it be applied. 

This truth has been uncontroverted in all antiquity, and 
aim oft by all writers (till of late Gomarus beginneth to quef- 
tion it as Rivet cleareth on this command againft him. Now 
(fuppofing it as unquestionable that this is the very firft day) 
we are to enquire il the title applied to this day be the fame 


An Eecp'-jltion of Com. 4, 

*T«h that In the command, and which ufua!!y was giytn to 
the old fevcnth-day -Sabbath, or that the a Lord's d ty. 

And it is clear, 1. That this title claimeth this day to 
God as his day, it being poffciiiveiy exprcft, as when wc 
. , the Lord's throne, the Lord's altar, the Lord's Sab- 
bath, &c» 

2. It conrradiftinguiflieth that day from other days, as if 
they were not fo the Lord's, but ours, like that hi- the corn*. 
msnd, Six days Jha t thou labour > &c. but the /event h is the 
Lord's, to it is the Lord's in a peculiar way, we having lefler 
right to employ that day for our own ufe than another day, 
and this claim of the forft day to be the Lord's, iofcrretb a 
condc (cenfion or difpenfation whereby the laft day becometh 
ours, for had there been two days belonging to him, one dzy 
could not have been peculiarly called his •, in which refcedt, 
1 Cor, xi. *w *vpmufw. 9 the Lord's Supper is diftinguiihed 
from ^Vitfu i**w } their own fnpperj even fo the Lord's 
day is diftingotihed from ocher days. 

3- It layeth on a neceffity of ufing it for the Lord, and 
not for our/elves, becaufe it is his and will infer the fame 
moral duties and ends which the command obligeth to. 

4. It will infer an appointment of ChrifTs, whereby he 
appropriated* that day to his fervice, and claimeth it to him- 
felf ; why, becaufe he calleth it his, even as in the fourth 
commandment there is no expr*fs indication of the feventh 
day, yet becaufe the feventh was called the Lord's,, and in 
his former way and dipeniations intimated as a day to be 
kept for him, therefore it is underftood and taken for grant- 
ed by the Jews, to be inflituted, feeing he calleth it his ; fo 
may we conclude here, that there is an institution and ap- 
pointment of the fii'ft day to be the Lord's, becaufe it is 
claimed by him as his, although no fuch plain exprefs infti* 
tution be of it as of other ordinances, it being clear that the 
inftitution of days is left more generally to be gathered : 
From all which we may gather the conclusion, to wit, that 
the firft day of the week is ftiled by the fame peculiar titles 
claimed by the Lord exprefly as his right and due, and upon 
as valid grounds under the New-Teftament, as the ieventh- 
dry was under the old •, therefore now the feventh day is 
changed, and the firft is come in its room which was the thing 
to be proved. 

In the Lift room we argue from the apoftles ordinance, 
1 Cor. Itvi, 1, 2. concerning contributions for the faints; 
As /have (faith Paul) given order to the churches' of Gallatia, 
even /o do ye, that is, thejirfi day of the 'week let every one 
of you lay by kirn. &c. 1 lay we argue thus, That not the 


Com. 4. th Ten Commandments, afcj 

feventh, but ihe firft day, is the chief folemri dsy for wor. 
iftcr Chrift's refurreftion. 

If the firft day of the week be particularly and eminently 
pitched one by the apoftle, and that in diverfe churches as 
the riucft time for cxpreflirig their charity, then muft "there 
be fi i eminent in the firft day, giving ground for iuch 

ointment and ordinance ; as the apoftle fogling that 
from other days for fuch an end (and no other reafon can 
be given, but that that day being more eJpecialiy and imme- 
diately a] for God, is molt fit for that duty, which 
is a work of mercy) but it is there clear, that the apoftle 
pitcheth Jinguhirly on that day bcfiJe ether davs, Erg^ 

For ftrengthntnq of the argument, consider, I. That it is 
clear to be the firft day of the week, iiace that fame phrafe 
which isufed by the evangelifb, Matth. xxviii. 1 . Mark xvi. 
2- Luke xxiv. 1. Is made ufe of hereby the apoftle, who no 
queftion folio. reth the evangelifts phrale. yea his following 
th m phrafe may hint at a reafon, why he commandeth cha- 
rity to be on that day, or fets it a-part for that ufe as beyond 
other days, to wit. our Lord's reiurrecYion. 

2. It is clear, that he thinkcth it not indifferent what day 
it be done on, nor that all days are alike, therefore he pitch* 
eth on that day, the firft chy, and that not in one church only 
but in many. 

3. That this is not commended only to them, but comman- 
ded and enjoined even in reference to the dzy t and will the 
apoftle load churches with commands in that circumft,incc 
without ground, and univerfally (to fpeak fo) prefer one 
day to another, and Co as he will have uniformity In the ve- 
ry day in the church of Corinth, with other churches unne- 
ceflarily ? Let it not be faid, nay nor thought. 

4. That this day was commanded even'in the churches of 
Galiatia, in which churches he had condemned the observa- 
tion of days, whereby it would feem to be clear, that he 
counteth not the preferring of this firft day, as one of thefe 
days, the obfervation whereof is prohibited and Condemn 
by him, nor willeth it to be laid alide ; and that purpolely 
he palled the feventh day as amongft thofe days, which were 
not to be obferved and retained but laid afide. 

5. That the thing required is a duty of the Sabbath, bf- 
hig a .work of mercy, as Ila. lviii. giving bread to the hungry, 
is mentioned particularly, as one of the duties of God's holy 


6. That the mentioning of the firft day of the week mu/c 
be looked on, as relating to, and as compared with, th<^ 
practice of keepirfg folema^raeetings ok ihn day, and this 


264 An Expfition of Com. 4, 

command of doing this on the firft day of the week muft be 
more ftrong and infer fome what more being compared with 
other places, then if fuch things were not recorded other wife 
of the firft day. 

7. This command fuppofeth them to be already acquaint- 
ed with fome fpecial privileges of the firft day beyond o- 
thers, when he commendeth this as a motive to them to 
be more charitable, to wit, that it was to be done on that 

8. That there muft be fome peculiar thing in this day 
making it fir, yea more fit for fuch a purpofe, as doing works 
of charity in it; rather then any other: And the apoltles 
commanding this (and that in many churches) dothncceflar- 
ily prefuppofe a reafon why he doth it, drawn from fome 
fitnels of this day by another. Now if we will enquire, no 
reafon can be given but thatfeventh-day-Sabbath was expir- 
ed, and that this firft day was inftituted in its place, for 
otherways any day was alike 5 yea the feventh day being the 
laft day of the week, and the day when men ufually reckon 
their weeks fuccefs, it would feem more reafonable for this 
end, that men at the clofe of the week fhould lay up by them 
as God had blefiTed them, then to referve it, to the begin- 
ning of another week, were not more efpecially to be fancli- 
fied then the laft, and the laft to be accounted but an ordi- 
nary working day : The fitnefs then floweth from this, that 
the firft day of the week being the day of folemn commu- 
nion with God, and with one another, and the day of their 
partaking moft liberally of fpiritual bleflings from him, that 
therefore they fhould be moft readily warmed in their affec* 
tions, and be moft liberal in their communications to fuch 
as wanted, efpecially if we confider the Jews to be parties 
for whom that collection or contribution was ; It is the a- 
poftlcs great argument, whereby he pleadeth for charity to 
the poor Jews from the Chriftian Gentiles, Rom. xv. 26, 
27* That the Gentiles were their debtors in temporals, be- 
caufe they had received fpiritual things from them. Now 
this argument is moft frefh and powerful, when believers 
do on the firft day of the week record God's privileging 
them with his ordinances, and giving them his day in place 
of the ordinances and day, which the Jews once had, and 
yet deriving thefe unto them by the Jews •, I fay this argu- 
ment will then be moft frefh to incite to that duty in parti- 

If any fay that it was accidental, that the firft day was 
chofen or named rather than another, becaufe one behoved 
to be named and it was alike which • But i, I demand why 


Cccfc 4. the Ten Commandments. 

miverfaW If it were from one church only ?t rr. 

ly, have been thought fo, but he doth rail for this diN 

ty 011 that day from more churches : 2. Why doth he not 

die, but command it as having more than an in- 

ency in the very day: And 3. Can it be by guefs or 
at (to fpeak fo) that fo many privileges are fallen on 
that day ? Arid that io many things are recorded of it, and 
afuiclcd to it by commands, which is not done of, and to, 
any other days : And if one place would not fuffice to prove 
.that the Erit day aod not the feventh was preferred by the 

'^s, as the chief day folemn public worfhip, yet all thefe 
things put together muft prove a preferrence in that day, or 
we inuft fay that the penman of holy fcripture have been ve- 
rv partial, who have marked many things, and recorded 
thv-m concerning God's worfhip on that day, and have ne- 
ver fo much as once for folemn fervice named, what was 
done on the fecond, third, fourth, fifth days; we muft ei- 
ther fay, that this is inadvertantly done (which were b!af- 
phemy, confidering by what fpirit they wrote) or we mull 
Jay it is dene to put a preference on that day, and to (hew 
that it is especially to be taken notice of, as the moft folemn 
day for Gou's worfhip by Chriftians (which is the thing to be 
ccr.rirmed) for, the day that is claimed as the Lord's, kept 
for, him, and fingularly marked to be privileged beyond c- 
vher days, muft be his day ; but this firft day is fuch, ergo^ 

Propsf. 5 This change of the day whereby the feventh is 
laid ande, and the firft fubftituted in its room, is of divine 
authority and inftitution ; and not by any meer human or 
^cclefiaftick connitution. I conceive there is indeed no 
mids betwixt a divine inftitution, which hath God's warrant 
and authority ftamped on it, and for conscience fake is to be 
obferved as being obligatory thereof, and that immediately ; 
and humane or eccleftaftick cenftitutions, which may reach 
the external man, but in the matters of worfhip cannot bind 
the confeienee, or impofe them as neceffary : Now that this 
change is not by the laft, but by the firft, we prove thefe 

i. Thus, if i* be not humane or ecclefiaftick, then it muft 
be divine; butit is not humane or ecclefiaftick, ergo it is 
divine : That it it is not humane will appear, 1. If it reach 
the confeience, and that immediately ; then iris not humane 
but divine, but it doth fo. 2. If no man or church on earth 
have power to alter God's day, now, nay, nor (imply 'or at 
all, then it is not humane or ecclefiaftick, but, 1. 'None can 
change it, aa we might clear from great abfurdities, that 
L i would 

3,6$ An Expojitien of Com. 4] 

would follow 2. If any church have this power let them 
fliew it, the old church had it not, neither the new, as is 
cleared in the firft queftion. 

2. We proceed to evince this change to be by divine infti- 
tution thefe four ways. 

1. From reafons flowing from fcripture, or confequences 
drawn from it, 1. Thus, whereby genuine and native con- 
fequences drawn from fcripture any thing is fo impofed, as 
it cannot without fin, be altered or neglected, there is a di- 
vine inftitution ; but in the change of the feventh day Sab- 
bath to the firft, fuch confequences may be drawn from 
fcripture, as will (upon fuppofition of the change) adrift it 
to the firft day, (6 as that cannot be altered or neglected 
without fin, ergOy it is of divine inftitution : The queftion 
can be only of the minor, which is made out from what is 
faid in the third propofition, thus, 

If thefe very grounds which plead the conveniency of the 
change fimply, do plead the conveniency of that change to 
the firft day, then by clear and unforced confequence, the 
firft day is chofen, and cannot without fin be paffed by, al- 
tered, or ncgledted, except we fay thefe reafons have no 
weight ; but thefe very grounds will be found to plead for, 
and to be applicable to, the firft day of the week alonely : 
And therefore befide all other days in the new world it may 
be called the day, which God fpecially made, as it is the day 
of ChrifVs reft from the work of redemption, anfwerable to 
God's reft after the creation, <bc. and therefore as being 
moft conducible to that end, the firft day cannot be without 
fin paft by, negle&ed or altered. 

2. Thus, if the very day of Chrift's reft in the new world 
be to be refted on, and fan&ified as the Sabbath, then the 
firft day is to be refted on and fandtified ; but by anology from 
the works of creation, we may fee that the firft day of reft 
after the finifhing of the work of redemption is to be fanc- 
tifisd, Ergo, tec. and Pfai. cxviii. is very confiderable to 
this porpofe, wherein there is 1. A prophecy of Chrift. 2. 
of a day which God hath Angularly made for us to joy in. 
3, That day is the day wherein the rejected ftone is made the 
head of the corneF, which day is clear from Rom. i. 4. to be 
the refure&ion day ; ye fuppofe that day there doth figni- 
iy the time af the gofpel, wherein we fhould joy, yet even 
that way ; the firft day is by proportion that day eminently, 
wherein Chrift's victory was manifefted, and fo the day wherein 
Chriftians ought efpecially to rejoice. 

The fecond way may reafon for the change to be by divine 
inftitution, is from this command : If (fuppofing ftill a 
change) by the morality of this command, the feventh can 


Com. 4. the Ten Comma)\dmentu 267 

be changed into no day but the firft day of the week, then 
is the change into the firft day, of divine inftitution (for io 
that muft necefiarily be, which is by virtue of a command) 
but by this command no other day can be admitted ; for 
each week is divided in fix working days, and thefe together 
to us, and one of reft, and that to God ; now by changing 
it to the firft God getteth one, and we fix and that together ; 
hut if the day were the fecond, third, fourth, be. it would 
not befo; for the fix working days would be interrupted, 
which is contrary to that morality of the command, where* 
by our days are diftinguillied from his, that ours, for one 
week being fully by, we may with the greater freedom give 
God his, 

The third way we take to prove the change of the day t3 
be by divine inftitution of this. If by the practice ofAhe 
apoftles, who were guided and infpired by the Spirit in things 
belonging to their office infallible, this day was obferved as 
different from other days; then there is a divine inftitution 
of, and warrant for, this day, but the practice of the apoftles 
this day is celebrated as different from, and preferred to o- 
ther days, or as divine, therefore it is of divine inftitution ; 
if the divine practice and example of the apoftles in things 
moral and common to all, do not either luppofe a divine 
antecedent inftitution, or infer a fubfequent, then their 
pra&ice and example, which in thefe things is infallible and 
unerring, will have no more force than the example of o- 
thers, which were abfurd, their examples being efpecially 
prefled on us ; and if in any thing, their example be divine, 
it muft be in this fo particularly and fo well circumftantiat- 
ed ; and where their meeting is not been recorded to have 
on any other fecond, third, &rc. day, certainly their prac- 
tice muft be not only more than nothing, but very fignifi- 
cant; and indeed in pofitive worfhip, the Lord hath been 
pleafed to be more fparing (to fay fo) and to leave us more 
to gather from examples than in negatives, as in the pofi- 
tive part offwearing, admitting of church members, in go- 
vernment bap?iftn and admililon to the Supper, yet none 
can fay that there is no fcripture inftitution in thefe, where 
there may be fuch grounds or examples. 

4 The divine inftitution of the change may be argued 
from the title thus, If that which is called the Lord's, be his 
by divine inftitution and feparation from other things not lo 
called ; then this firft day muft be his by divine inftitution 
and feparation from other days, but all that is called the 
Lord's, is his after this manner, ergo, Let the minor be con- 
firmed thefe three ways, 1 . By looking to what is called 

L 1 2 the 

268-* An Expoftthn of Com. 4. 

the Lords generally in the Old Teftament, as his houfe, his 
altar, his priefts, his tithes, &c. are they not ftill his, be- 
caufe hy him feparate for diftinct ufes in his worfhip : 2. 
By looking more particularly, how the feventh day was cal- 
led his day or the fabbath his; Is not this the reafen, be- 
caufe it was appointed by him for his worfhip befide other 
days ? and can any reafon agree better to this ? 3. By look- 
ing how any thing is called the Lord's in the New Tefta-- 
ment, there is no other or better phrafe or defignation to 
try by, than that 1 Cor. xi. 20, 2 1. t2> ^rm^t^ov, is oppof- 
ed to t\>V/«v JWvov, even as this firft day, called the Lord's 
day, is oppofed to our days or .common days, and that is 
called the Lord's <upper 3 becanfe inftituted by him, for* 
fuch and Tuch fpiritual ends and ufes : And therefore there 
can be no better ground gotten for {hewing why this is cal- 
led the Lord'; day befide others, than by comparing it with 
ether fcriptures, and if in other things that phrafe import a 
divine inftkution, why not in this? I do not mean that this 
is an inftitution, or that it will prove that there inuft be a 
clear and express inftkution {hewn, but 1 mean this, that it' 
will infer there is one, and that it is divine, feeing God is to' 
chcofc and not we. We might here again produce the four 
wiencfles already artefted for the morality of this fourth com- 
mand, to wit, 1. The general practice of primitive Chrif- 
tJans. 2. Their general opinion and judgment. 3. Mens 
confeiences. 4. The difpenfations of God •, which will alio 
all clearly depone in this, about the change of the day. 

Propcf. 6.. Although we know not the peremptory and 
precife time when this day was inftituted and the very firft 
day fanftificd, nor whether it was immediately by Chriil, 
or mediately from him by the apoftles inftituted, which is 
of no great concernment to the main of its inftkution ; yet 
we think it m oft -probable that our Lord did from the very 
day of his refurrecHon either hirnfelf rnftitute it, while as 
Acts i. 3 he taught them what concerned the kingdom of 
God; or did infpire his apoftles toobferve it from that time 
forth; Becaufe, 1. If it was not then inftituted, the church 
had for fometime wanted a fabbath, the feventh-day-fabbath 
being expired by the redirection. 2. The reafon moving 
the change and preferring the firft day before others as in 
n nearer capacity of falsification for that end, was from 
that time forth. 3. The apoftles practice of meeting, and 
Chrift's keeping with them, hath been from the firft change, 
even on the hrft two firft days of the week, John xx. 19. 26. 
4. All the practices and other grounds whereby the change 
is evidenced, fuppofe ftill the inftitution to precede ; which 
xnaketh it appear to be very ancient. 


Com. 4. the Ten Geomandtrtrntt* 25>: 

And fo we refume and clofe thcfc fix proportions, 1. 
The day may be changed from the laft to the firft : 2. It is 
meet it fhould be fo, and there is good rcafon for it: It can 
only be^ro the fir ft : 4. It is fo changed actually: y. Its 
change is not by humane, but by divine inftitution : 6 Its 
inftitution feemeth to be from the rife of the £>ofpcl-churci., 
and the very day of Chriffs refurreclion. II nee we in Fee, 
1. Good warrant, even God's warrant for employing the 
feventh day to ourfelves, feeing God feeketh but one day in 
feveo, and now has chofen and claimeth the firft. 2. GodV 
warrant for fanctifying the firft-day-fabbath or the Lord's 
diy as his inftitution. 3. That the Lord's day is to be fine- 
lifted by us Chriftians, and that by virtue of this command, 
as the feventh day was by the Je;vs on its grounds. 

We come now to fpea-k of the falsification of this day,, 
which is the main thing, and for which all the refc is inter* 
ded, we (ha!! firft con iider the precept, and then 2. therea- : 
fans whereby it is in forced. ; j 

The precept is, fanctify it, or keep it holy, fancYifying of 
ifis twice mentioned in this command, 1. [n the end, it is 
(aid, God hallowed or fanftified it, that is by reparation, 
defti nation and appointment for holy ufes, acd as a part of 
worihip, fo he fancYSed the temple, altar, ire. not by infuf- 
iog any holinefs in them, but by appointing them for fcoljr 
ufes ; Thus only God can fan&ify a day, or any other thing, 
fo as to make it a part of worfhip, and no man or power oft 1 
earth whomsoever can do that. 2. In the precept itfelf we* 
are commanded to fancYfy it, that is, by the application of 
it unto the ufes wherefore he hath fetita-part; thus we 
fancYify what be hath fancYfled when we ufe it and employ 
it according to his appointment. And fo we are to conftder 
the fancYifying of this day in thefe duties called for from uS 
on it. 

This fancYfication is two ways fet down, 1. In its cefla* 
tion and reft, feparating it from their ufes, and fo keep. 
it from the common ufes, to which other days may and aib 
to be applied: 2. In its fpecial application to, and employ-- 
naent in holy ufes. 

For clearnefs we fhall confidcr t!rs fan 6t iff cation, i. In 
refpeft of its reft, what we are to abllain from : 2. Compa- 
ratively, with that ftri&nefs called for from the Jews : 3. 
Eminently what is required more as to holinefs this day than 
on other days wherein alio the Lord's people fhould be holy I 
and wherein this goeth beyond thefe ? 4. Pofititejy, in what 
duties it fhould be taken up: 5. Comp-ex'y, in refpeel of 
what is called for to the right fancYifying or that day before 
h come on ; ia the time of it, and after it rs paft, and thar 


25 8 -'An Expo/it ion cf Com. 4. 

in public and private, and by all relations, maftcr, fervant, 
&c. and throughout the whole man, thoughts, words, and 
deeds, and throughout the whole day: 6. Oppofitively, or 
negatively, what are the breaches of this command, and 
the aggravations of thefe fins which break it. 

1. Then, we consider it in its reft, which is required; 
and becaufe there are extremes, fome giving it too little, as 
the Jews did before the captivity : fome too much, even to 
being fuperftitious, as the Jews after the captivity, and the 
Scribes and Pharifees, particularly in ChriiVs time did ; 
ftretching this reft too far. We muft therefore confider it 
more narrowly and particularly for quieting of our confei- 
ences, for the Jews are by the prophets, Ezek xx. Jer. xvii. 
and by Chrift, Matth. xii. reproved for both extremes ref- 

We do then in this matter aflert firft, That there is a reft 
required here, which isextenfive to a man's words, thoughts, 
and aftions, whereby many things lawful on other days, 
become unlawful on this day. 

Yet 2. We affert, That by this reft all fort of actions are 
not condemned, but only fuch as are inconfiftent with the 
end and fcope of this command ; as by other fcriptures, and 
the praftice of Chrift and the faints is clear \ we conceive 
thefe therefore to be permitted. 

1. All duties of piety as was facrificing under the Old Tef- 
tament, or preaching, hearing or going about the facraments 
under the New Teftament : In which fenie, Matth* xii. our 
Lord faith, the priefts prophaned the fabbath, and were 
blamelefs, not that formally they prophaned the fabbath, or 
did indeed break that command, but materially they wrought 
in killing beafts, 6c. which had been unlawful had it not 
been in the exerciies of piety. 

2. All things that have a tendency, as neceflary helps and 
means to the performance of the former works of piety, are 
lawful, as going to the congregation to hear the law, calling 
the aflembly for worfliip by trumpets, or bells, or by a voice, 
journeying, going, or riding to church, <&c. becaufe the 
duties of the fabbath cannot well be done without fome of 
thefe, nor at all without others of them. 

If it fhould be afked here, What that, which is called a 
fabbath-day's journey, A£ls i. 12. was among the Jews? 
and whence it came, and what way it may be ftinted or li- 
mited among Chriftians ? Anfw. It was to them two thouf- 
and cubits, which according to the according to the differ- 
ent meafuringof that diftance of ground, confifting of thefe 
two thoufand cubits, by a lefTer or longer cubit, is reckon- 
ed to be more or lefs by learned men ; but all agree (fays 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 271 

Goodwin in his Mofes and Aaron) in this, but thefe two 
tbcufand cubits was a fabbath days journey. 

It arofe to be reckoned fo from thefe grounds ; 1. From 
their expounding Exod xvii. 29 Let none go out of bis place ; 
thus, let none go without the bounds of the city, which 
with its fuburbs was two thoufand cubits or a mile about, 
2. That the tabernacle of the congregation was fo far from 
the tents of thefe who pitched about in the wildernefs, Num. 
ii. as they fuppofed ; and that the people kept that diftance 
from the people in entering with the ark into Jordan, Jof, 
iii. 4. whence they gathered, That a man might ftill go to 
tne ark or place of worfhip,^ as it was then in thefe cafes at 
a diftance from them, and no further on the fabbath day. 

But we fay, whatever fuperftitioufly or on cuftom they 
took up (for that is but the tradition) we cannot ftinta fab- 
bath day's journey to fo many miles, fewer or more, but it 
rauft be as the man is in providence caft to refide further 
from, or nearer to the place where the ordinances are dif- 
penfed 5 for one may go many miles and not prophane the 
fabbath, if he cannot have the public ordinances nearer, 
whereas another may break the fabbath by going but to his 
neighbours door, yea by walking in his own houfe, or to 
his door, if either it be done idly, or with refpedt to another 
civil or worldly end, which agreeth not to that day ; it is 
not here remotenefs or nearnefs, but what fweyeth us, and 
what is our end, that we are to try by. 

3. All works of mercy are lawful on that day, as laying 
befide us fomething to the poor, 1 Cor. xvi. 1. fending or 
leading fomething to thofe who are in want, Ifa. Iviii. vide- 
ing others, to comfort, ftrengthen, or otherwife to edify 
them Chriftianly; though idle and carnal vifits (albeit a- 
las ! too rife) are not permitted. 

4. .Good works, as Chrift faith, Matth. xii. 12. It is law- 
ful to do good or well on the fabbath, fuch are giving of 
phyfic (whdn it is neceflary) bringing of phyficians, laving 
a man's life, and taking pains for it, Cc. Luke xiii. (theic 
good works may be clafled either with works of mercy be- 
fore, or with works of neceffity that follow, both being 
good works, as they are works of mercy or of neceffity.) 

5. Works of neceffity, fuch as feeding beafts, leading 
them to the water, pulling them out of ditches, when they 
are fallen into them on that day, and much more preparing 
boneftly fober allowance for the fuftaining of the body, as 
the difciples pluckt the ears of corn, Matth. xii. and the 
Jews, Exod. xvi. 13. drefled the manna on the fabbath, tho' 
they were not to gather it, yet on the fixch day to bake and 
feethe a part > and to keep a part till the morrow, but not 


27 2 Ah ExPtfitw <f .Com. 4. 

till the day following ; and therefore they r t0 dref$ 

it alfo Yea, Jefus -Chrift himfeff went to a feaft on the 
tfahbs. h, Luke xiv. that he might take that opportunity by 
his fpiritual difcoorfe to edify the company, as he did nota- 
bly) which he would net have done, had it been unlawful 
to drefs any meat on the fabbath, yet his carriage was fuch 
at that feait moft remarkable, that it would be followed as 
2 pattern by fuch as may be invited by others to eat with 
them, and (hall be difpoied to go on the fabbath : And if 
this were the dellgn of the inviters and invited, mens eating 
together on that day wouid not readily prejudice the fancTi- 
£cation of it, as very often it doth: Such as flying on the 
Lord's day from a deftroying enemy, and m other warran- 
ted cafes, Matth. xxiv. defending ourfelvcs againft unjuLt 
Violence, &c. 

6. Works of comlinefs, tending to honcft or decent wal- 
king, as putting on of clothes honeflly, making the houfe 
clean from any uncieanntfs that may fall in it throughout 
the fabbath, isc. 

. By all which believers have allowance, 1. For piety, 2. 
For charity. 3. For what is needful for their beafts. 4. 
What is needful and convenient, or comely for themfelves ; 
and more is not necefTary : In thefe the Lord hath not 
ftraitned them, neither hath he pinched and p':nned them 
up to abfoiute necefficy, but hath left them to walk 
by Chriftian prudence (yet fo as they may not exceed) for 
fhe difciples poffibly might have endured that hunger, and 
not pluckt the ears of corn, or beafts may live a day with- 
out water, and not be much the worfe, or fome fort of vie* 
tuals may be provided to be fet beilde men on the fabbath, 
weeding no d: effing or preparing ; yea, a. man may live on 
little or nothing for one day : But the Lord hath thought 
good not to ftraiten them, fo as to make his day and wor- 
ship a wearinefs and burden unto them, feeing be hath made 
the fabbath for man, to be refretbing to him, and not man 
for the fabbath -, nor will he have their conferences to be 
fettered with inextricable fcruples; He ieaveth it to men on 
other days, how much to eat and drink by a Chriftian pru- 
dence (yet alloweth them not to exceed even on theft) fo 
here there is fome latitude left to conscientious reafon to 
i?>.lk by. For fome may do fomething at one time, and not 
at another \ yea, one fnan may take more pains in uphold- 
ing his body than is called for from another who is ftronger, 
fo that it isimpoffible to fet particular rules which will agree 
to all, but men would look, J. To their end. 2 To their 
need. 3. To what may conveniently ati t?,d, 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 273 

Yet it i9 needful here to add fome qualifications or caveats, 
left folk indulge themfclves too much, and exceed under 
the pretext of the former liberty which the I»ord hath con- 
defcended to leave men at. 

r. That men would fee that the neceffity be real, that 
real ficknefs keepeth at home, that real hazard maketh 
them fly, or maketh them bide at home, that it be fuch a 
receffity as they cannot contrive a way conveniently to evite 
when it comtth, or could not forfee before it came. 

2. Men would fee that that neceffity be not brought oa 
by themfelves : If the thing might have been done at ano- 
ther time, that neceffity will not excufe; though if the fia 
be taken wich, and repented of, and Chrift fled unto for 
the pardon of it, we may go about the doing that lawfully* 
which finfully we have neceffitated ourfelves unto \ as fup* 
pofe one had got warning to fly the day before to bring fuch 
a phyfician, or to provide fuch drugs, &c. if he did it not* 
then he finneth, yet when neceffity cometh, he may ft ill do 
it, but not with a good conscience, till he firft acknowledge 
the former fault of his neglect. 

3. It would be adverted, if that thing, may be done, as 
well another time, or may not without prejudice (that is 
( onfiderable) be delayed till the next day : Thus taking or 
giving of phyfic on the Lord's day, making ordinary civil 
irifits, beginning voyages, <bc. will not fuftain and bear 
weight before God, when folk do them that day, to have 
their own work day free, and fo put by the proper duties of 
the Lord*s day, for fome things that may be done the day 
or days following : Thus reft is commanded Exod. xxxiv. 
21. even in fowing time and harveft ; becaufe the neceffity 
is not clear, but dependeth on ordinary providence, and 
folks are to expeft occafion and opportunities for them af- 

4. Men would take heed, that they have not a tickling 
complacency that fuch neceffities fail on the fabbarh, and be 
not glad to have diverfions from the proper duties of the 
day. they would go about fuch works with a fort of fad- 
nefs, though yet with clearnefs and peace of ccnfcience as 
to their lawfulnefs : Therefore Chrift faith to his difciples, 
Matth. xxiv. 20. Fray that your flight be not on the f abb at h 
day ; becaufe it would be heavy to God's people to fly oa 
that day, though it was lawful, 

5. We would fee that it mar not a fpiritual frame, and 
that in doing thefe we turn not to mind the world as on o* 
ther days; there would be ftill a refpect to the day in our 
frame (which is called for in the word remember) and even 
whea ouf haiul is gtherwife employed, the heart Ihould not 

M ro be 

T74 J* Expcfcion of Com. 4. 

be taken up with thcfe things, bin fo far as is necefFary to 
the agings of them. 

6. It would be adverted to, that they be done without 
irregularity, and fo as not to give offence by them (hence 
it was that Chrift ever gave the reafons of what he did on 
the fabbath) left others, not knowing our neeeffity, judge 
us guilty of fabbatlvbreaking, or be involved without necet- 
iity to do the like. 

7. Folks would have great refpeft to the end in thcfe works, 
arri to the motive which fwayech and putttith them on. If 
it be outward gain or fear of fome temporal iofs; as if for 
gaining money a phyfician fhould rather go on the fabbath, 
than on another day to fave the life of man; that turncth 
them then to be a fervile work, ar.d one of his ordinary 
week day calling (to fpeak fo : So if a minifter thould preach 
with refpe& to gain or applaufe on the fabbath, or if any 
man fhould make a vifit for a raeer civil end, as «r« 

on other days, without a fuitahle refpect to fpirituat edi- 
fication or furtherance of piety, it will mar ail, and will be 
found a breach of the fabbath. 

"We would beware of (pending too much time in tbefe 
things, but would endeavour timely and quickly to exped** 
and difpatch them, and rightly to tryft them : Dreffing of* 
meat, and trimming, adorning, and bulking of folks bo- 
dies will not be found a well fpent part of the fabbath, when 
it (hutteth out other duties, and getteth too much time, a* 
it coth with many. 

By all whiA we may fee what need there i* to watch over 
curtelves in thefe things, ieft our liberty be turned into li- 
centioufnefs, and left we grow either idle or carnal on thai 

Let us then conflderhow far this reft extendeth : and un^ 
der it we take in, 1. The reft of the whole man, outward 
and inward in deeds, words and thoughts, foit is, Ifa. Will. 
13. we fhould cot fpeak our own words (nor by proportion 
think our own thoughts) nor find our own pieafures. 2. It 
goeth through the whole day, for though every minute of 
the day cannot be applied to pofitive duties, yet in no mi- 
nute of it, it is lawful to do another work (inconfiftent with 
the qualifications and fcope aforefaid) that is the negative 
part in it, thou JJ: alt do no work, which bindeth ad femper. 
3. It is to be extended not only to a man's own perfon, but 
to ail unde» him, children, (ervants, &e. he muft be aa- 
fwerable for it, that they reft ; and muft give them no occa- 
Con of work. 4. It is to be extended even to the leaft work 
of any fort, if unneceflary, as gathering (ticks, fpeaking our 
own words, &c. theic ace all breaches of the iabbath 5. 


Com. 4- the Ten Commandments. 275 

This reft extenclerh to all anions or forts of anions or caf- 
es which are not comprehended under the former excepti- 
ons which are permitted, or are confident w:;h the fancti- 
fying of the Sabbath : As, 

1. All works which tend to our external profit, pleaflire^ 
fatisfaclion, &c. all works of our callings which make for 
the increafe of outward gain and profit, fuch whereby we 
ordinarily fuftain our lives : Thefe Heb. iv. 15. are c 
our own work? as ordinarily are wrought in the reft of the 
fix days ; So it is doing thy own pleafure as well as works, 
Ifa. lviii. 

2. Such works as tend to others external gain or profit: as 
the great motive of them, as fervants may be working for 
their matters profit, and yet prophase the c! 

3. Such as are not neceffary on that day, as ploughing^ 
fowing, reaping or gathering in, and that even in feed-time 
and harveft \ and fo fifliing, going of mills, <bc. when thefe 
are net done for the very preferving. of life, beca.nfe they 
are not neceffary out of that cafe ; neither is there any thing 
here of an extraordinary ditpenfation that maketh them ne- 

ry, the weather depending on an ordinary providence, 
or ordinarily depending on providence, which is to I. 
verenccd: Hence though the weather and feafon be rainy, 
yet it is not lawful, to cut dosva or gather in corn on the 
Sabbath, their hazard in this cafe being common and from 
&n ordinary immediate providence ; yet fuppofe that a river 
were carrying away corn, cr that winds were like to blow 
them into the fea, it were lawful in fuch a cafe to endeavour 
to prevent that, and preferve them ; becaufe, 1. That com- 
eth by fome more than ordinary difpenfation of providence 
in the weather, and affedleth andputteth in hazard this ccfrn 
score than others. 2. Becaufe there is no probability of re- 
covering thefe in an ordinary way, though the weather 
fhould alter, but there is hope of gathering in of fuch as 
are in the fields without tlut reach of hazard^' if the Lord 
alter the feafon. 

4. Such as are for carnal pleafure or civil ends, thus pay- 
ing, gaming, much laughing, &c. being our own works, 
more efpechlly our own pleafure, are unlawful on that day. 

5. Coniider that all things are prohibited which mar the 
end of the day, aud are not confident with the duties there- 
of-, fuch are buying, felling, &c out of the cafes of preiling 
jiecelfiiy : folks cannot be fpiritually taken up, and with 
thefe alfo ; fo playing and gaming is no k Is. confident with 
praying, reading, conferring, oc. then ploughing or fuch 

yca^ U roach more indifpofing tor tf,.#ud fo we do 
- M m.2 . .' . neceflar- 

2 7 5 An Expo/it ion of Com. £ 

rcceflarily thereby incapacitate ourfelves for th€ duties of 
the day. 

6. AH things are forbidden which confift not with this 
reft and the duties of worfhip called for from ourfelves and 
others i thus unneceflary journeying, walking, even fuppofe 
one could or (hould be exercifed in meditation, is notrefting 
as is required, much Ids is gadding in companies, in the 
itreet or fields, to the neglect of fecret and family duties. 

In a word, whatever is not religious and fpiritual exer- 
cife, cr furthering or helping unto what is (o, out of the 
excepted cafes \ much more whatever is finful, fcandalous, 
or unfuitable on other days, or doth divert from, or indif- 
pofe for the duties of hounefs, and the worfhip of God on 
that day, is inconfiftent with this reft, and fo prohibited : 
for, This reft is not primarily commanded and required for 
itfelf, butas conducing and fubordinate unto the performing 
of holy duties in it ; therefore our reft is to be regulated, fo 
as may beft contribute to that fcope, and whatever marreth 
that, though it (hould not be work ftri&ly, but idlenefs, 
carnalneis, or playing, and gaming, and fporting, yet it 
is a breach of this reft 1 for, 1. That is no religious 
duty; nor 2. tending as a neceflary help to it; nor 3. 
is reft commanded that we fhouid play in it, but that we 
fhould fin&ify it \ and 4. playing or fporting cannot be cal- 
led fanclifying the day ; otherwiie we might have more 
Sabbaths than one, and the prophaneft would love them 
beft ; 5. Playing, feparateth not the Sabbath from other days, 
more than work doeth ; for men play in all ; Playing is nei- 
ther a religious duty, it being amongft the moft irreligious 
and prophane ; nor a duty of neceffity for eafing of weari* 
nefs, which doth not here come by any body toil and la- 
bour, but (if there be any) from being exercifed in fpiritual 
duties ; which, therefore, change and variety will through 
God's bleffing do, io as the perfon may be born out in them ; 
ror is their any place for it, except fome duties be neglec- 
ted, therefore it is inconfiftent with this. 

Y/e come to the fecond way of confidering the fanttifica- 
tion required here, and that is by comparing it with that 
flrictnefs called for from the Jews,and to which they were tied 

We fpeak not here of ceremonials (for fo their whole fer- 
■vice might he more burdenfome than ours, and particular- 
ly their Sabbath-fervices, becaufe they were doubled on that 
day) but of moral duties : and in that refpeel we fay, that 
the tie and obligation unto the fanitification of this day is 
equal and alike unto us with them, which is clear in parti- 
culars, For 1. It tieth us now to a long time, to wit, a na- 
tural day of twenty four hours, as it did them then, a- It 

Com. 4." the Ten GmmmlnrnH* 277 

reftraineth from work, and requireth holy reft now, as 
much as then; for whatever work then ftruck againft the 
letter or purpofe and fcope of the command, and marred 
holy duties, doth fo £1111. 3 It requireth poiVive fan&ifi- 
cation by holy duties, as preaching, prayer, meditation, 6<r. 
and alioweth not idleness, nor indul^eth time to other un- 
necefiary works. 4. It requireth as ipiritual a manner, and 
as fpiritual a frame in performing of them now a3 then. 

For, 1. If the command be moral, then there is no 
change in moral duties, for it is the fame command to us f 
chat it was to them, lave in ceremonial things : 2. If the 
fame things were allowed to them which are allowed to us; 
and if no more be allowed to be done by us, then was allow- 
ed to be done by them on the Sabb uh, then the obferv«mon 
in its ftrictnefs is equal, but the firft is true, for works of 
piety, mercy and neceifity, are allowed to us, and fo were 
they to them, as by Chrift's reafoning againft them (as being 
here fuperftitious) may appear : yea, 3. Our allowances are 
taken from the practice of Chrift and hjs reafonings with the 
Pharifees, who in thefe difputes aimed not to (hew that more 
was lawful by his coming than was before, but to (hew what 
then was lawful, though they ignorantly or wilfully mifun- 
derftood the command, for even then God allowed mercy 
rather than facriiice, <bc. which places mod clearly warrant 
us in our practice. 4. Thefe fervice we have now is as fpi- 
ritual, and without all doubt the promife cf the fpirit, for 
keeping up in holy duties as large as formerly, and there- 
fore our improving of it fhould be no lefs. 

Before we proceed there are fome fcriptures which feem 
to thwart with, and to be crofs to this, to. which we would 
fpeak a little for clearing of them as Exod. xvi. 23, 29. and 
Exod. xxxv. 31, where it would feem that going out of the 
place, -drefling of meat, and kindling of fire were forbidden, 
which are allowed us : To which we fay, 1. That we fpeak 
of the meaning of this fourth command ; if any more was 
forbidden them by peculiar judicial laws, that contradic- 
teth not our aflertion, thefe may be abrogated, while this 
command ftandeth. But 2. We conceive that as to thefe 
things, gathering 0? fticks, kindling of fire, dreiling meat, 
6r. no more is allowed unto us than ur,to them, that is, all 
unneceflary labour in, and about, thefe is unlawful to us 
now, and all neceiTary labour in, and about, tbem was al- 
low: d unto, and lawful for them \ as may be gathered front 
ChritVs practice, and his reafoning with the Jews, and from 
the allowance which was to their beads In the third place 
then, we fay that the r e fcriptures cannot be laterally and u- 
aimfally underftood, for it cannot bg thought that they 


17* dn Exp-fiticn of Com. 4. 

*rcnt not cut of the place kindled no fire, drefled no meat 
in any cafe •, yea the allowance for their neceffity, and Chrift's 
ig in and partaking, when invited on the Sabbath- 
cay, Luke xiv. it is like to fomewhat that was prepared 
tiut clay, with his defending of his difciples prafticc 
in plucking ears of corn, and robbing them, as it is Luke 
vi. 1. (which was a fort of preparing and drtffing of 
that meat) iniinuate the contrary ; neither can any thing be 
gathered from that place, Exod. xvi. 23. againft dreffing of 
meat firnpiy, but rather the contrary for the manna that re- 
roamed over what was drefled on ihe fixth day, was to be 
iftid up till the feventh day, or the Sabbath, but not till the 
day after the Sabbath*, and will it not fuppofe, that they 
behooved then to drefs it on the Sabbath as on other days 
fay boiling, at leaft, for as to grinding of it at mills, or o- 
tberwife, there was no neceffity for that on the Sabbath out 
of iome extraordinary cafe (or elfe they had needlefty laid 
it up) and fo. behooved to have fires to drefs it with : And 
therefore that of no^t dreffing meat, of not kindling fire, 
etc. muft be of what is unnecessary and for fervils works, oc 
making gain in mens ordinary particular callings. 

But to the third way, if any fhould enquire what more 
holinefs is called for, or can be win at, 00 the Sabbath than 
a believer is called ymto on other days, he being called to 
be perfectly holy every day? I Anfm t Although he be cal- 
led to be perfe&iy holy, yet not in the holinefs oftimmediate 
worihip throughout every day : He is to be perfectly holy on 
other days, according to the duties and employments of thefc 
days ; but on the Lord s day he is called to be holy accord- 
ing to the employments of that day and its duties: The 
Lord's people of old were indeed called to perfect holinefs 
all the week over, but Angularly to fanciify the Sabbath as 
a part of their univerfal holinefs. 2. Though all the parts 
of every day fhould be ipent holily, yet fome parts more e- 
fpecially, as what parts are fpent in prayer, reading the fcrip- 
ture, etc. and fomewhat more is required of thefe, who are 
called to it on a fading day, than any other days, even, fo on 
the Sabbath. 3. There is a difference between a perfon liv- 
ing holily in the general, and a perfon who is holy in fanc- 
ttirying the Lord's d^y, though a man fhould be holy e» 
very day, yet he is not to ianctify every day which is requir- 
ed on this day, whereof we fhail now fpeak. 

This days fanctiiication then, we conceive toconfift inthefe, 

1. That there is more abftradtednefs, not only from fin- 

ful things, but even from lawful temporal things, required 

on that day than on other days, a fpiritual frame of heart, 

Separating and fetting a-part a man trora ordinary thou 

£ om ^ 4. lie Ten CcnmanAmtnts. 

Hence w: may fay that as the Greek word, u ificth 

unclean as well as common, fo a common or every day fram- 
of fpirit, will be foumi unclean for the Sabbath ; there muft 
therefore be another frame of heart, different ircm an ilk 2. 
day frame, and fuited to that dzy. 

2. This day is to be fanclified in refpeft of the exercife* 
of it beyond other days, and that necefTarily; whereas on 

other days we may be taken up in foms duties of wor- 
irbitrarly, but here necefTarily : And men may, and 
ought, to be holy on other days, in their plowing, and 
other works 5 but there their holinefs is to be in immediate 
worfhip to God, in fomethiag relating to that alway, fuch 
as praying, reading, hearing, conferring, meditatmg, etc. 

3. The falsification of this day Heth in this, that it muft be 
wholly fan&ified, but parts of other days are ordinarily ufzd 
in religious fervice ; but this whole day is to be ufed fo, a 
man fliould be this whole day throughout as in the time of 
praying on of her days. 

4. Duties would be rnultiplred that dzj, more frcret and 
private prayer, reading, etc and more public worfhip ; even 
as there were double iacrifices that day undejr the law, tho r 
there were facrifices all days- 

5. There would be in the duties of this day more intenfe- 
nsis; dffpirit, and a further degree of fpiritual afFc&ions, 
than in thefe duties of other days ; became this day is pur- 
pofely fet a-part for that end ; and by continuance in duties 
we may attain to more of a f pi ritual frame, and becaufenot 
only the exercifes of worfhip, praying, reading and hear- 
ing, be. call to holinefs on this day,, as they do. on other 
days, but even the very day it-felf doth call to it ; even as 
on a folemn day of humiliation, men ou-ght to be more af- 
fc£icd and deeply humbled than on other days : (tho* daily 
they fhould repent and be humbled,) becaufe that day isio- 
ismnly fet a-part for it ; fo ought our wcrfhip to be more 
intenfe and folemn this day fuiufcJy to *t ; wherein we ai 
as it were, d'eted for inditing and perfifting in duties of 
worfhip j whereas thefe duties in this refpect, and in com- 
panion, are on other days, but as ftatts: worfhip is here 
fome way the only work of that day. 

6. There fhouid be more heaveniinefs and fpiritual fenfe- 
breathed after that day in the frame of the heart ; it would 
be near God, and the work of the day would be delightfome 
and fweet; The Sabbath would, as it is, Ifa. Ivin. be called 
a delight, and he wou!d endeavour as it is, Heb. iv. to en- 
ter into his reft, to pafs thro* the outward reft into his to be 
within his chambers; yea, even in his arms, as it were ail 
that day. "0 

7. There 


2S0 'An Expofiiicn of Com. 42 

7. There would be that day more divincnefs in our holi- 
ness (to fpsatc fo) a fort of majefty by ordinary in our walk *, 
looking like the Sabbath, and like the Gcd of the Sabbath : 
There would be an exulting of God that day, we would 
endeavour to have our hearts in a fpecial manner warm in 
the exercife of love to him, and to be much in praifing of 
him ; Our whole worfhip would be more abfolutely, and 
immediately be aimed and levelled at the honour and glory 
of God, as the end of it, than on other ordinary days, 
wherein our prayers, and other pieces of worfhip may more 
immediately refptrct our own cafe and need ; but on this day 
God's honour as the end more immediately whatever our 
own cafe be, and that both in the heart within, and in the 
nature of our exercifes without, this is to call the Sabbath 
of the Lord honourable, to honour and glorify him therein, 
as it is Ifa. lviii. a fpecial majefty being in that days worfhip, 
by levelling it with extraordinary finglenefs at God's praife, 
even as his name is halloweJ, or fanctified in heaven by an- 
gels and perfected faints. Hence, // is good to give thanks 
vnto thy name, be* beginneth that pfaim of praife for the 
Sabbath day, to wit, the xcii, Thefe duties then that fur- 
ther his praife, are more efpecially for that day. 

8. AH thefe reach both words and thoughts, nothing to 
the hindrance of thefe is to be admitted in either; there are 
none of our words and thoughts that day, but they would 
in a fpecial manner be God's, and in it we fhould be fpent 
as hi?, and endeavour to be within view of heaven, to make 
fomc efTay of glorified faints exercife there, and to have the 
Sabbath as a little preludy of that everlafting Sabbath and 
reft in the bofom of God. 

The fourth way of confidering this fan&ificatin is positive- 
ly, to wit, as to the duties, wherein the Sabbath is to be 
fpent, which are fhortly, all duties of immediate worfhip, 
whether they be inward, as meditation, fe!f-examination, 
heart-prayer, either ejaculatory or more continued, heart* 
forrow for fins, etc. or outward, as vocal prayer and fing- 
ingof pfalms, reading the fcrigtures and other pious books, 
hearing the word, etc. or whether they be fecret, which 
maybe both inward and outward, or private in families, as 
reading of the word, conferring on it, repeating fermens, 
praying together, etc. or public ; as joining with the congre- 
gation in prayers and praifes, hearing the word read, and 
the fenfe given, hearing of fermons, participating of the fa- 
craments, when difpenled, joining in folemn humiliations 
and thanks-givings, when they fall neceflarily or more con- 
veniently to be on the Sabbath 5 All which and fuch like 


Com, 4. the Ten Cb'mtiiartdmenis. zil 

are proper duties for that day; to which liberal laying up* 
and .'wing for the relief of the poor according to ability* 
and a* God blefleth, every man would be added as a fuitaMe 
duty of it, though it be no duty of immediate worfhip. 
r rhe firth way is to coniider the fanclification of the Sab- 
complexly, before it come, when it is come, and aftec 
it is pafl. 

1. Then the night before (notfecluding a Mutable remem- 
brance throughout the week) r.msmber it, 1. By timeous 
leaving of worldly bufinefs, it is a great encroachment on 
the Sabbath, though too ufual to continue longer at work 
the night before, than any other night of the week, as if 
folks would" gain the day of reft, out of SaturnfJays night 
and Mondays morning. 

2 By not fuftering this little times leaving of work, to be 
idly fpent, but being taken up with endeavours, 1. To ab- 
ftract the mind from other works as well as the hand, and 
have the heart put in a lively frame. 2. To mind the work 
of the day which is coming, and to have a fuirahlenefs to it. 
If ye afk what fuitablenefs fhould we have to it ? Anfvu En- 
deavour, 1. To be as if ye were about to meet God, to triftj 
as if it were, vifibly with him, and folemnly to treat and 
enter in marriage with him. 2. To be like heaven, and 
in a fpecial manner in fome fort to imitate God, at if ye were 
already entered into his reft, and had reftedfrom your own 
works. 3 To be as if ye were to die, and to (rep into eternity, 
for this reding fhould mind us of that, and was, and is ftiil 
fpecially appointed (though yet no ceremony) to mind us 
of God's feparating of us from others for himfelf, that we 
may reft eternally with him. 

Then. 3. For furthering of this, look back on the week: 
paft, and endeavour to have things clear before the Sabbath 
come, and all by-gone quarrels removed, that there may be nri 
ftanding controverfiesagainft you to begin the Sabbath with. 

4. Pray with fpecial folemn ferioufnefs in reference to 
that day, that ye may have peace for what is paft, that ye 
ir.ay be in a right frame for the day ; that the minifter be 
helped to fpeak as it becometh ; that others may be fitted to 
hear and join v that the word and other Ordinances may 
be richly bleft cf God ; and that the mercy of having the 
ordinances may be minded, with the gracious giver of tkem f 
and fuitably improved. 

2. When the morning of that fweet and def.rab-e day Com- 
eth (after we have {alien afleep in a fpecial manner, as it 
were in the Lord's arms, the night before, and left ourfelves 
there) 1. We would timely begin the work, and beware that 
either carnal thought? get in, or the time be idly flipped over 

N a but 

2 82 An Expcfition cf Com. 4; 

but I fay we would begin the work early; for it is for that 
end appointed, and finful thoughts will nbt be kept out, 
but by fulfilling the room otherwife with what is fpiritually 
profitable. Shew forth thy loving kindnefs in the mornings 
iaith pfalm for the Sabbath, to wit, the xcii. Let therefore 
the meditation of fomewhat of thefe, or fuch like, begin 
with us, ei'en when we are making ready, 1. Somewhat of 
God himfelf, whofe day it is; 2. Of heaven and that hap- 
pinefs that is there. 3. Of the works of God, who gave us 
and all the world a b'ing, and who only preferveth the fame. 
4. Of Chrift's redemption, and as clofed and perfected on 
thisd3y \ which efpecially fhould be minded ; that fo think- 
ing of our many and great obligations, and of mifery we had 
been in had not the work of redemption intervened, we may 
begin the day with a due impreflion of God's greatnefs and 
goodnefs of our own flnfulnefs weaknefs and mifery ; and 
of this blefied remedy and out-gate, 

2. We would addrefs ourfelves tofolemn prayer in fecret 
and that at greater length than on other days, and with in- 
iifting in fpecial petitions relating to the day, with all the 
ferioufnefs we may win at. 

3. We would take a view of our own hearts, to fee how 
and where we left the night before, and endeavour to have 
clearnefs betwixt the Lord and us to our ftatc % and other- 
ways maintained v and renewed if it was; or attained if it 
was not. 

4. Too much time would not be fpent in adorning or bulk- 
ing of folks bodies, or in making other provifions for them, 
but as the whole of it would be taken up in duties of wor- 
ihip (as we have before (hewed) fo feme part of it would 
be fet a-part for fecret reading, yea, for fecret praifing, 
thankfgiving, and ringing, an exercife not unbecoming 
that day, as that fore-cited pfalm for the Sabbath day fhew- 

5. If thou be the head cf a family, or liveft in fellowfhip 
with others, then the family is gravely to be brought toge- 
ther, and every particular member to join with the reft ; 
and here alio prayer and other religious duties are to be 
doubled according to the ceremonial doubling of facrifices 
on the feventh-day-Sabbath under the law ; for in fecret, in 
families, and in public there would be more that day than ia 
other days. 

6. Care and infpection would be taken fo far as men can 
reach, that by none in the fociety ; neither fecret nor private 
dunes be neglected, nor pubiick duties abstained from, but 
that each may ftir up one other, and more efpecially thefe 
vifhofe. places Lead :heia to it, to the fuiuble fanftifka- 

Jm-* tion 

Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 2Sj 

tionof the day in all the daties of it and withal, it would be 
looked to, that none of the family be fuffered to ftay at horns 
unneceffirily from the public worfhip, or to be ab/ent from 
the family worfhip. 

7. Timely (that ye be not by hafte difcompofed) come to 
public modeilly apparelled (it is a fliame to fee how gaudily 
fome come to public worfhip on the Lord's day) grave in 
your walk, wary and circumfpect in your words, that they 
be fpiritually edifying and fuitable ; watch over your eyes, 
that carnal or worldly looks ileal you not away, nor diftem- 
per your hearts ; but efpecially over your hearts ; that they 
wear not out of a fpiritual frame. 

8. When ye come to the place of public worfhip, if it be 
a while a beginning, be ftill watchful, and the nearer ye come 
to it, the more watchful ; for temptations will be very ready 
to divert or difcompofe; there would be a frequent inter- 
mixture of ejaculatory prayers in reference to every thing 
re qui fit e for attaining and entertaining this compoiednefs. 

9. When public worfhip beginneth, fludy to be (as Cor- 
nelius was, Acts x ) prefent join in prayer and praife, to 
hear what God will fay, to receive it, to lay it up in your 
hearts, to be fuitably affected with it, and through grace to 
practice it ; for % blejfed are ibcy cn'y -who hear the ivord, and 
do it :) and this would be with delight, aiming a right at the 
end of the ordinances, whatever they be, whereof we fpoke 
fomewhat on the fecond commandment. 

10. When the public worfhip is as to its firfi: diet clofed, 
let not your minds turn carnal, but depart reverently from 
it, chearing yourfelves in God, fixing the convictions ex- 
hortations, directions, infiructions, etc. in your mind, as 
ye have met with them, and be ruminating rather on thefe, 
then beginning to gaze or difcourfe with others on fubjects 
that are not fpiritual, and to edification. 

1 1. As foon as ye can win, go in fecret and feek to have 
thefe things faftned and riveted betwixt God and you, and 
let that be your firft work, and let the little time that inter.- 
veneth betwixt the diets of public worfhip, till you return, 
be fpent fuitably to the day, and the end of the duties 

12. When all the public worfhip is ended, then ye would 
do according to the prcceeding tenth direction ; ye would 
withal retire a while in fecret, and reflect on your carriage 
in public, and alfo fee what good may be gotten of the day, 
and if there be any miffes neglects or failings obferved (as if 
there be a diligent fearch there will no doubt be) then be 
humbled, feek pardon through ChrilV and refulve through 

N u X E iacc 

i34 4n Expofition of Com. £ 

grace to help thefe afterward ; confider what was faid, and 
like the noble Bereans, A6ts xvii. put it to the trial for your 
confirmation, by your confidering and examining the fcrip- 
tures cited or fpoken of, and endeavour yet more to have 
your hearts affe&ed in fecret with them. 

13. Then call your families and come together after fe- 
cret Peking of God, and 1. Be enquiring of one another 
what is reaiembreJ, that all being put together, ye may be 
helpful by your memories one to another; 2. Ye would do 
this, not as if it were enough to tell over the words, but that 
the doftrines and their uies may be fixed, and ye affefted 
with them ; therefore, 3 Ye would do this with other du* 
ties of reading finging, and fpiritual conference, as the oc- 
cafion of k (hall offer, with prayer to God before and after, 
being thus exercifed till ye go again in fecret to clofe the day 
as ye began. 

14. Duties of charity would be done, contributions made 
liberally according to our ability, and relief fent to others 
as we know their need, which alfo would be enquired after. 

15. Endeavour to have the heart in a right frame to clofc 
the day with : refle&ing on our carriage throughout it, fear- 
ing to lie down with guilt unpardoned, and without fome 
fpecial fruit of the duties of the day ; hafte not to go to reft 
that night fooner then on other nights, on defign that ye may 
be fooner at work the next day ; which fmelleth ftrong of 
wearying of the Sabbath, and of longing to have it at an 
end, of which the Lord complained of old, Amos viii. 5. 
ftudy to lie down with thoughts asyouarofe, leaving your- 
feves in his arms, with refpedt to the eternal Sabbath that is 

3. When the Sabbath is paft, and the next day cometb, 
caft net by all thoughts of it inftantly, but begin your 
work as having juft now ended the Sabbath, fearing to Jet 
the relifxi of it wear away ; and endeavouring in your carri- 
age through the week to retain the ftamp and impreffion of 
it ; especially beware to go to your callings with a Sabbath 
days guiltinefs on you. O endeavour by all means to have 
that removed I and all the week through have one eye to the 
Sabbath paft, and another to the Sabbath coming, hiving 
fiill that founding in your ears, Remember the Sabbatb f or 
the Lord's day, to keep it holy; dieting your fouls, as it were, 
all along the week, for a courfe of communion with God in 
the duties of the next Sabbath. 

It will be now eafy to know when this command is tranf- 
grefled (which was the fixth way propofed of confidering 
the fanftification of the Sabbath, to wit, oppofitively or ne- 
gatively) which is done, j. By coainmting any thing con- 

Com. 4. the Ten Commandfnfntt. 2S5. 

trary to the reft or fan&ification of it ; 2. By omitting any of 
the things which are required to the right fan&ifylng o: in 
3. By an unfuitable frame of heart as to the due manner or 
performing any of thefe duties required. 

We will find the weight of this command yet more fu'Iy 
by cocfidering its reafons how it is explicated and prefLd : 
This is done, I By laying down the equity and exte: 
h, verfc 91 10. 2 By prefling it from God':, example. 

As to the firft verfc 9 Six daft Jhalt thou labour and do all 
thy work: Thefe words may be looked on, 1. As an < 
ging concefiion, which is indeed very liberal ; as ii* the : 
had laid, all days are mine, yet I have g'ven th ivs 

to do all thy work and labour that thou haft to ch>, there* ' 
fore give me the feventh It is but a finall 
fix to return a feventa. 2. As a reftriftiolj, thou (halt do 
whatever work thou haft to do within the fix t none 

of it on the feventh. 3. As a command whereby God dif- 
tiibuteth our time, and commandeth fix for our work, and, 
the feventh for his: And thfjs thefe words forbid idlenefs, 
and command lawful diligence in thefe fix days ; which \vs 
conceive here to be implied. 

I. Becaufe God is not carving out what time we may be 
idle in, but what time we (hould employ in our own lawful 
works as well as in his ; for it cannot be thought that he giv- 
eth us fix to be idle on ; it muft therefore be to work on, fee 
ing as our life fnould be taken up in doing either what more 
immediately concerneth ourfeWes, or what more immedi- 
ately concerneth God ; fo the fcope of this command 
being to proportion our time betwixt thefe two, what is al- 
lowed for either of them, muft imply an approving of it for 
that very end. 2. The oppoGtion al fo will confirm tl. 
Thefe fix days are to be applied to our work, as the feventh 
is to be applied to God's, which is move than a permiffiop s 
and if the negative part be imperative, In it thou /baft not 
work, then the pofitive, Six days Jhatt thai iv:: well 

be uaderftood fo aifo. 3. God's example will nrefs ir, I 
we are to follow it, not only in reft ing on the ieventh, but 
alfo in working in the fix days as he did. 4. In working th 
fix days cometh in as a mean to further and fit for the fruc- 
tification of the feventh, for fo a man puttah t 
nefs and has the more freedom for the rejl on tl 
whereas idlenefs often linfully necedtateth to iht brea 
if, and to a defire that it may be gone, Amos viii 5. 
idlenefs is reproved here, and diligence commanded under 
one confideration, to wit, as the remove of the iovLv.cv :md 
practice of the latter do capacitate us to give God his due ou 
Uis owa day wiiea it corueth ; Even as they arc alfo included 


i86 ^n E*p*fitUn of Com. 4; 

l n the eight command, Thou (halt not Jleal ; for as idlenefs 
becometh a fnare and temptation to a man to Ileal, and 
hindreth him from works of charity, and fuitable diligence 
in the works of his lawful calling, readily preventeth the 
one, and tapacitateth foi the other; fo it is here, for it is 
not unufuai that the lame fin and duty may be forbidden 
and commanded in diver'e commands upon diverfe confede- 
rations *, And this sgreeth well both with the words and 
fcope of this command And 5. According to the holy 
and wife ceconomy of God's gocdnefs, our labour may be 
commanded to make his reft to be to us the more relifhing 
and re f re filing. 

The tenth verfe cenraineth three things for explication, 
1. The Lord's claim of the feventh day, as having referved 
that to bimfelf, it it his, it L to him, and by him, and for 
him feparated from other days. 2 A consequent flowing 
from this : Therefore that day is not to be employed to any 
of our own works, no not the leaft, No manner of work , no 
word, no thought nor deed of any fuch fort under whatfo- 
cver pretext, befide the excepted cafes. 3 Its extenfion as 
to all relations, fo to ail ranks, parent and child mafter and 
fervant, fee. yea, it is thou for thy felf ; and for alt thou 
haft the overfight and charge of, fons, fervants, frrangers, 
yea, and beafts, not that they are capable of lanctifying a 
day more than the beafls in Nineveh were of religious faf- 
ting, Jonah iii yet this fheweth what pught to be the maf- 
ters care, it being for his uie that beafts are put to work. 
God enjoineth all w?ys of abstaining from every, thing 
that is a mans own work on the Sabbath and will have him 
folemn in it : In a word, All within thy gates, looketh not 
only to matters and all in their families, or within their 
doors, but to magiftrates and governors, and all within 
their jurifdiction (gates being the place of judgment, and 
nfed in fcripture to ihew the extent as well as feat of power) 
that they fhould fee to their fanffifying of this day ; and 
the failing of any under them is their fin, when they endea- 
vour not to prevent and amend it : And thus Nehcmiah 
underftood this command, Neh'. xiii when he put forth 
his power not only in contending with the native nobles, but 
even againft ftrangers, for retraining them from violating 
this day. 

Hence we gather, r. That idlenefs is a fin, and that they 
will hardly give God his due on the feventh day, who are 
not diligent in the duties of feme lawful calling and (ration 
for God's honour and other goods through the fix days of 
the week; and indeed this is often feen, that fuch arc lazy 
and carelefs, and idle on that day, paffing it over events 


Com. 4. the Ten Cf?nmanc?rrtrnts. 287 

they do on other days, without any difference at all, except 
it be that they come to church. 

2. We gather that humane, whether ecclefiaftic or civil, 
appointment of ordinary fixed Jays for worihip throughout 
the whole day, befide the fabbath, will not agree with this 
command allowing men fix for labour. It is true, God 
might fovereignly limit men, but where he hath given liber- 
ty (if it were but by conceffion) who can reftrain ? 

CoHcerning days therefore, we lay down thefe four ; I. 
That there can be no folemn fetting a-part of any day to a- 
ny creature •, Thus faints days are unlawful : for the fabbath. 
or day of reft: is to the Lord, and to none ether, it being a 
peculiar piece of worihip to him who hath divided time be- 
twixt his worihip and our work. And although men fhould 
keep the day, and alter the worfhip, yet this is a taking of 
that which was once abufed, and never enjoined, for to ap- 
ply it to God, and wanteth not offence : even as the retain- 
ing of oiher things in worfhip which have bten abufed, and 
are not nec.ffary, is offenfive. a. No man can inftitute a- 
ny day, even to the true God, as a part of worfhip, fo as 
to bind confeiences to it, or to equal it with this d3y : That 
is a part of God's royal prerogative, and a thing peculiar to 
fan&ify and blefs a day. 3 Even thofe days which are pre- 
tended to be fet a-part to and for God, and yet not as a part 
of worfhip, cannot be impofed in a conftant and ordinary 
way (as annaverfary days aid feafls are) becaufe by an ordi- 
nary rule of God hath given to man fix days for work, ex- 
cept id ordinary cafes he (hall pleafe to call for fome part of 
them again. 4. Yet extraordinarily upon occafions of hu- 
miliation, or joy, and thankfgiviug days, for that time, may 
be fet a-part for God, without wronging this conceffion, 
even as in extraordinary times we may work, and not reft 
on the fabbath day, though ordinarily we may not: This 
proportioning of time therefore is for the ordinary rule, 
but yet adrnitteth of the exception of extraordinary cafe-. 

3. We gather that matters and parents ought to have a 
fpecial ovcrilght of their own children and families ia the 
worfhipping of God, and that efpecially in reference to ths 
fanctifying of this day ; and that there is a fpecial commu- 
nion in worihipping of God amongft the fcveral relations 
of a family. 

4. We gather that magiftrates, and all who have power 
over others, ought to fee to' the retraining of vice, and to 
the performing of outward duties, particularly fuch as re- 
late to the fanclification of the fabbath (as well as to abftaia 
from, and to do fuch and fuch things themfelves in their own 
perfons) in and by thefe over whom they have power; and 


:C3 Ait Expijiticn of Com. 4. 

that it is no lefs fcandalous and finful for a nbagiftratc not 

.e that fin be crufhed, that the fabbath be fanctified, 

ance? of religion be entertained and received 

d'nd J in and by thofe over whom he hath charge, 

then if he committed fuch fins himfelf, then if he difcc 

iced the ordinances and break the fabbath himfelf, or 
?red his own family or him felt to be without the worfhip 
Why? beqaufe tfhtfc arc within his gate#; and he 
is to account for them : He is to rule for God, and their 
ich is mainly fpiritua! ; he is to be a terror to evil 
doers., as well as to be an encouragement to them that do 
well ; and men are according to their places and parts to be 
forth coming for God and the good of others'. And yet 
this cannot be called a constraining or forcing of confiden- 
ces \ for a magiftrate or matter thus to reftram thefe who 
are under them ; it is but the ufing of that power, which God 
hath committed to them to make men to do their duty, and 
to abftain from difhonouring God, and the punifhing of 
them, it they do otherwife-, in which refpeft he beareth not 
the fivord in vain. 

The 2. and main reafon fclloweth, ver. it. wherein this 
command is three ways preffed alio. 1. By God's example, 
who during the fpace of fix days wrought (though he might 
as eafily have made all in one day) and refted the feventh, 
and not before the fe?enth, on which he wrought none j 
even fo it becometh men to do, feeing he intended this for 
their imitation, and for that end doth propofe it here ; God's 
reft on the feventh is not abfolute and in every refpecl:, (for 
John v. 17. he worketh hitherto, that is, in the works of 
providence, fuftaining, preferving, and governing the crea- 
tures made by him, and all their actions) but all things 
needful for the perfecting of the world were then made and 
finifhed. (Whence by the way we may gather, that not on- 
)y all creatures were made, angels even theie that fince tur- 
ned devils, ijc. but that they were made within the fix days 
of creation, when heaven, earth, iea and ail that was in them 
was made) Therefore all our works that are neceiiary to bz 
done in the fix working days, would be done and ended, 
that we may reft on the fabbath, as he did. 

The 2. way is by his blcffing of it God blejfed the 
diy, which is to be underftood not fimply in refpeel of the 
day, which is not properly capable of bleffing, but in rcf- 
prcl of the true obfervers of it, he bleffeth it to them, and 
fTeth them in it, which may be in thefe three : 1. That 
jft of that day (hall not prejudge them in the weeks 
work, but that their labour iha.ll be therefore bkffed, fo 
ihct Jr y {hall mils nothing by obferving that day, a-s the 


Com. 4. the Ten Commandments. 289 

Lord bleflcd the feventh year, whereon they refted, and yec 
noi ft mJing they were as well provided as when they la- 

b u ed, Lev xxv. 20, 21, 22. And it is like, that if we 
will compare fuch as make confeience tofaodcify the fabbath 
witn others, who think and feem to gain by breaking of it, 
this would be found at the years end to be verified. 2. That 
the Lord ha h fet a part that day for a fpiritual bleffing, and 
the communication of it to his people (fo the bread and 
wine are bleffed in the facrament oi the Lord's fupper to be 
a mean of conveying fpiritual bleffings to the worthy receiv- 
ers) ha lvi. and Pfalrn xcii. 3. That God will abundant* 
ly manifeft his gracious prefence, and multiply his ipiritu- 
al We flings that day upon its due obfervers, more than on o- 
ther days wherein he is al fo fought -, as there is this day a 
double woifhip Doth in refpect of the duty, and of the day 
whereon it is done, fo there fhall be a doub'e bleffing beyoud 
what is on other days; In which refpeci, even prayers in, 
and towards the temple, (while it ftood by divine appoint- 
mentj as a feparate place from others) had a bleffing beyond 
prayers in other places; and thus Chrift blefled the loaves' 
and the few fmall fillies, John vi. when he made them by 
the multiplication on the matter to feed far beyond their or- 
dinary proportionablenefs ; fo fervice on this day groweth 
in its bleffing: Hence we may lee an ufual connexion be- 
twixt univerfal thriving in religion, grace and piety, and 
fuitable obedience to this command, in the tender fan&ifi- 
cation of the fabbath 5 and withal a reafon, why fo few make 
progrefs in godlinefs, even little keeping holy the fabbath 
as they ought. 

The 3 way is by his hallowing it, wherefore he hallowed it 
or fandtified it, that is, per moJum deftinandi, or by way o£ 
appointing of it for holy ufes, and feparating it from other 
days (as is faid :) The inference wherefore^ as to the hallow- 
ing pointeth at the reafon or end wherefore God #d it, viz. 
that there might thereby be an excitement left to men, to 
imitate God ; and that man might not only have God's com- 
mand, but his example alfo to bind this duty on him. 

If it be afked here, why God will have a day fet a part 
for holy exercifes befide other days ? It may be anfwered, 
1. It is meet that God be acknowledged Lord of our time, 
by this tribute being referved to himfelf. 2. Becaufe maa 
having but a finite underftanding, befide the new corrupti- 
on of it, cannot be intenfely taken up with fpiritual and hea- 
venly things, and with temporal and earthly things, both at 
once, or at the fame inftant ; for even Adam in innocency 
could not do that, therefore the Lord hath gracicufly iet 
a-part a day fg* man's help in that, 3. It is tg uash fl^a 
Q 9 tbat 

a£o An Expcfition of Com. 4,' 

that his chief end is to converfc with God, and to live with 
him, and that he ought to carry in his own affairs along the 
v eek, and order things fo as the labbath may be duly fanc- 
tified, when it fhall come in that fweet foul repofing con- 
verfc with him. 4. To (hew man wherein his happinefs 
eonfifteth, it is even in this, to walk and converfe with God, 
and to be in his worfhip ; this is his reft. 5. To fliew the 
excellency of religion, and of the works of piety, or of 
God's worfhip, above men r s employments in earthly and 
worldly things : It was a labbath to Adam in innocency, to 
be abftracled from bis labour for the worfhip of God ; the 
©ne is men's toil, the other is men's fpiritual reft and eafe, 
far contrary to that which men in the world ordinarily think 
and judge. 

\\ e lee now how great and grievous a fin it is to break 
this command, and with what care this day fhould be hal- 

For, 1. It is a command of the firft table, and fo the 
breach or it is, in feme refpecl, more than murther, adul- 
tery, ftealing, &q. it is included in the firft and great com- 

2. Amongft all the commands of the firft taWe, yea all 
the commands, this religious obfervance of the fabbath, is 
aicft forcibly prefixed with more reaions, and with more full 
aud particalar explication: Becaufe 1. All the commands 
hang fome way on this; and obedience is ordinarily given 
to them with the fame readinefs> as this day is employed ia 
Gcd's fervice. 2. It keepeth life, as it were, in all the reft, 
and when men are cold in this, fo are they in all the reft. 
3. This trieth men in their love to God beft : If indeed his 
company and fervice be more delighted in, than the world : 
and is a notable indication of the frame of the foul; it mak- 
eth proof both of their ftate and frame, as men are uftffflly 
and liabitually on the fabbath, fo in effect arc»thcy, as to 

3. No breach of any command hath more aggravations ; 
for 1. It is againft reafon and equity; when God hath given 
us fo many and fo good reafons for it. 2. It is high ingra- 
titude, the fabbath being a mercy ; and a great mercy indeed 
it V: to be privileged with accefs to converfc with God a whole 
day of every week in duties of worfhip. 3. It is againft love, 
God's love hath inftituted it, and our love fhould in a fpeaal 
mr.nnervent itfelf to him on it. 4 It is cruelty againft our- 
felvcs , for the fabbath kept ho'y, is backed with the pro- 
paiie of a fpecial blefljng, and we by this fin prejudge our- 
(elves of ihat ; yea the fabbath rightly fpent, is a meanbotli 
or hoh.'ufs and of a^ttrnsfs to God, at iouior^ijty to him, 


Cora. 4. the Ten CsmmdnJtientf. let 

and of communion with him, it pTOmoteth both 1 So that it 
is eminently verified here, thac the . (i» againft this 

command, fin againft, and forfake their own mercy. 

4. No lin doth more evidence univerfal ur.tendernefs, and 
as it is a fin in kfelf, fo it evidenceth, efpecially when grofs, 
a very finful and way atheiftical frame, and difpofition, as 
may be gathered from Neh. xiii. 

Yea, 5. It occafioneth and breedeth ot'ier fins; it habl- 
tuateth to finning; and hardeneth againft challenges, fo 
that men ordinarily become very grofs and loofe, and fall ia 
fcandalous fins, who neglect the fanclirication of the fab- 
bath, which is the quickner and fomenter fome way of all 
duties, and knitteth the two tables or the law together Hence 
it cometh to pafs, that we often hear men that have turned 
to be very loofe, grofs and fcandaions (and as fome of 
them on fcaftolds and gibbets) cry out of fabbath-breaking, 
imputing the one to the other, as a main canfe; for by this 
fin men grow ftout againft challenges, and formal in fecret 
duties, and fo at length fit quite up. 

6, No fin hath more fliarp challenge for it, end more fa4 
judgments avengiDg it, then fins againft this command ; have 
there be^n any men deeply challenged for fin, or at death 
'(whether ordinary or violent) brought to exprefe and utter 
their challenges but fins againil this command have been 
main ones ? The flighting of the Lord's fabbath made Jeru- 
falcm to be burnt with fire, Jer. xvii. laft ; for this (in the? 
are threatned with terrible plagues, Ezek. xx. 2r, 24. not 
only in temporal things, ver. 23. but with fpiritual plagues 
to whkh they* are given up, ver. 25, 26. You know that a 
man was ftoned for gathering fticks on the fabbath, ^u;n. 
xv. fee aife Exod. xvi. 28. and Ezek. xxii. 8. where the 
Lord accounteth fabbath-breaking a refufing to keep his 
commandments and laws, and a delpifing of his holy things : 
O is it pofible, that a man can ha well that brcakcth the lab- 
bath, or to whom it is not a delight i 

If any (houldaik here, if indeed the breaches of this com- 
mand be greater fins than the breaches of the commands 
of the fecond table ? and it fo, if God will be avenged on 
thel'e feverely ? 

For anfwer (premitting this one word, that in comf 1 
ing breaches of the commands of the two tables, wc wo 
compare fins of alike nature together, that i6, fins of pre- 
emption with fins of prefumpnon, and fins of infirmity 
with fins of infirmity) we fay, that a prefumptuous lin a- 
gainft the fourth command, if it were but to go unne- 
cefTarily to the door, or to gather flicks, is a greater fin 
Shan a prefumptuous murther, becaufe it iirlketh more im- 
■*£> *; O02 mediately 

595 A* Expofition of Com. 4; 

mediately againft God : And that a fin of infirmity agaioft 
the fourth command, is greater than a fin of infirmity a- 
gainft the fixth : Yet we grant that prefumptuous murther 
is a greater fin than a fin of infirmity againft the fourth 
command, becaufe prefumptionand high handednefs in the 
manner of finning, in a fin little on the matter compara- 
tively, dareth God, as it were, and flxiketh immediately a- 
gainft him, and fo is an additional high aggravation of it ; 
befide what it is in the nature of it : And though our cen- 
fures againft prefumptuous breaches of the fabbath which 
are now as great fins as formerly (as is clear from what is 
juft now faid) be oiten more mitigated now under the gof- 
pel, neither was it as we conceive, ordinary to ftone the 
prefumptuous prophaners of the fabbath, even amongft the 
Jews ; yet will this be no good reafoning •, men do not now 
execute punishments upon tranfgrefibrs of the fir ft table, as 
on tranfgrefibrs of the fecond ; therefore trafgreflions of the 
fecond table are greater fins than tranfgreffions of the com- 
mands of the firft ; for fo we would be in hazard to poft- 
pone all the laws or commands of the firft table to thefe of 
the fecond ; but we are to confider that temporal puniftx- 
roents are heightned or leflened according as "the peace and 
order of civil iocieties may be more or lets therein concern- 
ed, fo that it is not by thefe meafures that we are to make 
the eftimate of the greatnefs or fmallnefs of fins in the fight 
of God, and in order to his righteous and absolute judg- 
ments, and therefore it is enough that we enquire what God 
hath done, and will do, and what tinners may expect from 
him, however men may over-look and pafs them by, yet 
before God they are often taken notice of, and plagued e- 
Ten in this life, and will be for ever hereafter, if they re- 
pent not. 

We may now therefore in the clofe, exhort, befeech, ob- 
teft and charge you all, as in the fight of God, who is a 
levere avenger of them, that ye would be aware of the fins 
whereby this command is tranigrefied : particularly guard 

1. Not preparing for it, or not remembring of it ; many 
prophane the fabbath, or ever they come to public, yea, be- 
fore it come, in foroe refpecl. 

2. Carnal thoughts and a common frame of heart, yea, 
even to fpeak fo, a particular frame that looketh but to out 
own condition or cafe : As not ftirring itfelf to be over and 
above that, to be affected with God and his glorious works 
of creation and redemption, to give him praiie for his mar- 
vellous goodnefs on that day ; there is alas, generally little 
delight and praiie in his worfhip, even on his own holy day. 

3. Ge- 

Com. 4. the Ten Commmdmcnts. 293 

3. General unedifying difcourfes, and of the news of the 
time, of health, and other things not necefiary to that day. 

4. Little profiting under the gofpel, and not growing in 
knowledge and practice ; many a fabbath is thus prophaned* 
few getting or feeking the bleffing of it, or on it. 

5. Going to the fields and viliting of neighbours to put off 
a piece of time, that fo much time may be faved on other 
days of the week, wherein many men think they have more 
to do; and not feeking to edify, or to be edified when they 
vifit. Certainly by this going abroad and running up and 
down the ftreets unneceffarily, ye indifpofe yourielves. ye 
offend others, and tempt them to follow you, ye flight either 
duties in your families, or in fecret, or it may be both, in 
a great meafure ; I fuppofe that if ye made confcience of 
thefe, there would not be fo much time to go abroad; take 
fome other day for recreating yourfelves •, If ye fay, ye have 
then fomewhat elfe to do: And have ye nothing to do 
this day ? Or will ye take more boldly from God's day, 
then from your own ? Is facriledge lets than taking what 
is your own? What if all did fo gad abroad? (And it 
may be they have no lefs rcafon) What a fabbath day 
would we have ? There is a remarkable word, Exod. 
xvi. 29. that on the fabbath none might go out of his 
place, which though it be not to be underftood as reftrain- 
iog exercifes of piety, or works of neceffity and mercy, as we 
fliewed before ; yet it would feem to be the meaning of the 
word?, that on that which we call taking the air, and on 
Yifiting, there was a reftraint thereby intended. 

6 Men's fitting upon choice in the church at fuch a dif- 
tance that they can fcarcely hear, and that they may the more 
fecurely confer together on common purpofes ; fo that thfey 
do not fo much as aim to profite, of whom we may oppofite- 
ly fay (as Chrift faid of the priefts, that they prophaned the 
fabbath and were blamelefs,) That they fome way kept it 
and are guilty ; many alio ikep, weary, and wander id their 
thoughts, and are as ftones and ftatutes in the church. 

■7. Little ones and boys going and running up and down 
playing and making a noife, and fervants gadding; all 
which will be charged on magiftrates, minifters, elders, maf- 
ters and parents, who are not confcion.ibly aiming and en» 
dtavouring in the diligent uie of all fuitable means to amend 
and prevent fuch abufes, and to punifli continuance in them : 
Efpecially look to it when few plead or appear againft fuch 

8. Much idle loitering over of the fabbath, doing nothing, 
and much fleeping it over, Idleneis is a fin any day, much 
more on this day, 

9. Little 

194 4n Expofificn of Com. 4. 

9. Little care of fanclifying the Sabbath when men arc 
from home, or when they are not in their own congregati- 
ons, when they are not in their own houfes, or have not 
any to take the overfight of them : There is much liberty ta< 
ken this way, and there are many complaints of it; What 
sny brethren ? Doth not the Sabbath require as ftri£t factifi- 
cation abroad as at home ? 

If any (hould afk remedies of all thefe, and fuch like e- 
vils, I know none better than thefe that are in the command 

The £rft is, Remember ', what? 1. Remember bygone 
fallings, and repent of them : 2. Remember coming ta 
judgment, that ye may be found of it in peace as to this or 
any or any other guilt, and endeavour to prevent it : 3 Re* 
member to be all the week over in your worfhip, and walk, 
minding it. 

A fecond is, be well employed throughout the week, and 
be not given to idlenefs or lazinefs in your particular cal- 
lings, nor in fpiritual exercifes, there will be no fanclifying 
of this day without that, be not therefore flothful in bufinefs, 
but fervent in fpirit, ferving the Lord, Rom. xii. 11. 

3, See that nothing unbecoming thereof the day be ad- 
mitted, no manner, not only of deeds, but of words or 

4. Let every one take infpection of others, and ferioufly 
mind rr in your feveral places, as ye are called. 

5, Follow God's example in other things, as it U propo- 
fed to you for your imitation, and ye will do it the better in 

6. Aim. at the bleffing as well as the duty, hang on him- 
felf for life and ftrength to difcharge the duty, and for the 
bleffing, fince he is the author and beftower of both, and 
to do the duty delightfully and with joy, through the faith 
cf his bleffing ; and acknowledge his unfpeakable goodnefs 
in privileging you with his day, and the worfhip thereof, 
ftili waiting on him, and trufting in him for whatever good 
may come to you in it. 


C ^95 1 


Exodus xx. Verfe 12. 

Vcrfe 12. Honour thy father and thy mother; that thy day: 
may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God groetb 

OUR. Lord Jefus Chrift, Matth, xxii. 37. Summeth up 
the whole law in thefe two words, which he calleth 
the two great commandments, Thou/halt Jove the Lord thy 
God with all heart, with all thy thy foul, and with all thy rnini^ 
and thy neighbour a? thyfelf, the two legs that piety in practice 
w&lketh upon ; the one comprehendeth our duty to God, which 
runneth thro' all the ten commands, but doth more eminently 
exert itfelf in the firft four, whereof we have fpoken: The 
other containeth our duty to our neighbour; which is fet 
down morepa r ticularly in the Iaft iix commands, whereof we 
are now to fpeak ; and however many do net igncrantly and 
wickedly look on duty to man as femewhat extrinfick to 
religion, and duty to God, yet both have the fame authority* 
both are pnfin one fum of the law, both are written on tables 
of ftone with the Lord's own finger, and put within the ark : 
and therefore we ought with a proportionable care to en- 
quire what God requireth of us as duty to others, as well as 
to himfelf : And we fhould make nt> lefs conference of o- 
bed ence 10 the one than to the other. 

Before we come particularly to the fifth command, we 
(hall fpeak a little of thefe two, 1. Why love to God is cal- 
led the firft and great command, and love to our neighbour 
the fecond, and only like to the firft, Matth.xx. 38 2. Why 
hath the Lord carved out mens duties to others as well as 10 

For the former of thefe, confider in the firft place th.;r 
the commands of the fecond table, are equal to the com- 
mands of the firft, in refpect of the authority that enjoineth 
them: He that faith, Thou /baft have no other God's before 
me> faith alio, Tkoujbalt not kill, dec. Jam. ii. 11. In which 
refpeftit is faid, Matth. xxii 39. The fecond is like unto this. 
2. If we compare the two tables together, as to the matter 
contained in them, and the immediate object of each duty 
commanded ; the duties of the firft table are greater than 
the duties of the lecond tabic lefcr; the one relating morst 
immediately, the other more mediately to religion, in which 


29°" An Eicpc/itfan &f Com. e. 

refpe£i they cxprefs peculiarly our love to God, which is cal- 
led the firft and great command ; for the firft four commands 
require that which in its own nature is worfhip, and is in an 
immediate way to be given to God ; but the duties requir- 
ed in the other fix, are not properly, formally, and imme- 
diately called for as parts of worflilp to God, tho', as they 
are acknowledgments of him, they may be confequentially 
thereto referred. 

As to the 2. Why the Lord hath in fo fliort a fum parti- 
cularly fet down our duty to others, as well as to himfeif, 
and (hewed how every one fhould carry towards another : 
We would fpeak to it the rather, that there arc fix com- 
mands in the fecond table, and but four in the firft table 
and the Lord commending the duties of the fecond table, 
hath faid, the fecond is like unto the firft , becaufe he would 
have it in our careful obfervance, going along with the firft ; 
And the apoftles as well as the Lord, in prefHng holinefs, • 
do ordinarily inftance in the duties of the fecond table, as 
Luke x. 26. What is written in the law ? how readejl thou P 
Matth. v. 27. Thoujhalt not commit adultery, <bc. Rom. xiii. 
8 f 9, 10. Jam. ii. 8, 11. &c. And the realons of it may be 
thefe ; 1. To teach his people that it is his will, that they 
fhould be holy in all manner of converfation ; therefore 
there is no piece of duty called for, but it is comprehended 
in a command, even the leaft thing eating drinking, and 
whatfoever they do, 1 Cor. x. 31. 1 Pet. i. 15, 16. he 
would have them careful to be holy not only in the church 
but alfo in the market, in the (hop, at home, abroad, not 
only in prayer, but at the plough, &c. 2. To hold out the 
great extent of holinefs, or what holinefs he requireth in 
his people; It was a great miftake in the Pharifees, that 
they placed the main part of religion in the performance of 
external duties of the firft table ; whereas the Lord layeth 
both tables together, to tell that they muft march up toge- 
ther in our pra&ice, and that it will not be holinefs in itfelf, 
and in God's account to perform the one without the other. 
3. Becaufe the Lord would have his law a perfect rule, that 
the man of God might be perfeft, throughly furnifhed to 
every good word and work. 2 Tim. iii. 17. Therefore is 
the fecond table given, that we may know how to walk to- 
wards as well as towards God, that matters may know their 
duty, fervants theirs, <bc. and that none are left to an ar* 
bitrarinefs therein, but that all tied to a rule : 4. Be* 
caufe men are ready to flight holinefs in reference to the 
fecond table ; hence there will be fome kind of awe of God 
oa men, in reference to live duues of the firft cable, fo that 


Com. y. the Ten Commandments. 297 

they dare not altogether neglect prayer, hearing the word, 
<bc, and yet they will make little or no confcience of loving 
their neighbour, or of fhewing mercy as we fee in the Pha- 
rifees : 5. Bec3ufe it is no lefs neceflary for Chriftians living 
together as to their being and well being and mutual thriv- 
ing, that they do duty one of them to another with refpectto 
the command, then that they ail do their duty to him ; how 
elfecan folks live well together in a family or other foci 
if each therein do no duty to another ? the neglect of this 
makes them as a houfe divided againft itfelf, which cannot 
fland : 6. That the Lord may have the more clear and 
convincing ground of challenge againft fuch as flight thefc 
commands, and live in envy, malice oppreflion, o:, for 
none can fay he knew not thefe to be fins, Mic. vi. 7. The 
Lard hath Jbewed thee, Oman, what is good, that thou ds/uf- 
tice, and love mercy, &c. and he beginneth at the duties of 
the fecond table, the mare to flop their mouths ; If they 
ihould fay they knew not they fliould be holy, or how to be 
holy in thefe, he had it to fay, that he had told them : For 
thefe, and fuch Like reafons, the Lord hath been fo particu- 
lar in, and hath added his authority unto, the commands of 
the fecond table as well as to thefe of the firft, that we may 
lay the greater weight on them. 

From the connection of the two tables, we may obferve 
thefe three generals firft, That there is no part of a man's 
converfation in, reference to his walk with others as well as 
God, whatever be his calling or ftation, but he ought to 
be religious and holy in it ; God hath directed men how to 
carry in all things, 2. That it is a neceffary part of religion 
in refpect of the command of God enjoining it, and in or- 
der, to our thriving in holinefs, to be confeientious in du- 
ties to others, as well as in immediate duties to God, who 
in his law requireth both. 3. That where kindly and true 
ebedience is given to the firft table, obedience will be giv* 
en to the fecond alfo, where confcience putteth to pray 
and keep the Sabbath, it will alfo put to do duty to our 
neighbour ; he purpofely putteth thefe together in the 
gofpel, when the Pharifecs would feparate them, and what 
God hath conjoined, let no man put afunder. 

It may be here enquired ; what it is to be religious in thefe 
common duties we owe to others ? Anfw. Though we can« 
not inftance in any thing, wherein religion hath not its place } 
yet we (hall pitch on a few things, that it more efpecially 
implieth : And 1. It is neceffary that the matter of the duty 
be commanded, and 2. That refpect be had to the command 
in the doing of it, a man muft not only provide for his fa- 

P p mily 

2c,£ 'An Expojtticn of Com. e; # 

mily, but he muft do it religioufly, a matter muft not nfe 
his fervants as he pleafeth ; the fervant muft not abufe his 
mailer's fimplicity, but obey in fear and trembling, &c, 
Ephef. vi. 5. Col. iii. 22. In which places the apoftle pref- 
feth fervants to lock to thefe things, while many of thera 
had heathen mailers (and what is fpoken to them may be 
applied to all, in all callings and ftations, and ferve to direct 
how to be religious in common duties.) And 1. As to the 
end, it is required, that they ferve not men only, but the 
Lord, and fo eye his glory, the adorning of the gpfpel, the 
edification of others ; there being nothing we do wherein we 
ought not to have an higher end than ourfelves or men. 2. 
That they have a religious motive in their fervice, implied in 
thefe words, not with eye fervice, as men p\eafers % but as do* 
ing fervice to the Lord, in obedience to him, and not to men ; 
not fo much becaufe their matter command; not for the 
fafhjon, nor meeriy for profit, but becaufe commanded of 
God. 3. Thai for the manner, it be in finglenefs of heart, 
chearfully and readily. 4 That refpedl be had to the pro 
mife, as well as to the command, for their through bearing 
in their fervice, and for their encouragement in the faith of 
their being accepted through Chrift, as it is, Ephcf vi. &. 
Col. iii. 24. elfe it were a fad thing for a Chriftian fervant 
to be in hard fervice, and have do more to expert but a bit 
of meat and a penny hire from men, but Chrittian fervants 
may eye the heavenly reward in fweeping the houle, as 
well, as in the religious duties of God's immediate worfhip. 
For helps to underftand the commands of the fecond table 
we may confider thefe four fcriptures, which will hold out 
fo many rules for that end : The 1. and principle one is, 
Matth, xxii. 3 9. Thoufhalt love thy neighbour as thyfelf, which 
fheweth that there fhould he a warmnefs of affection in us to 
our neighbour, oppofite to hatred, (Lev xix. 17, :$.) revenge, 
malice, inward grudging ; and no doubt this warmnefs of 
love, making a man meafure his duty to others by the love 
he hath to himfelf, will notably help to underftand and ob- 
serve all the duties of the fecond table. The 2. Is, Mat. vii. 
12. Therefore all things , whatfoever ye would that" men Jb&dd 
dotoyoUy do ye even fo to them, which is a rule of general e« 
quity. and is oppofite to partiality and felf-love, which un- 
dermineth all the duties of the fecond table ; a-nd this is of a 
general and univerfal extent, to all perfons and things fuch 
as buying and felling, to duties betwixt man and wife, neigh- 
bour and neighbour, matter and fervant, ire. The 3. is, 
Phil. ii. 4. Lock not every man on his oivn things, but every man 
en the things of others, a notable effect of love, not only to wiih 
Weil to cur neighbours, but t6 feek and procure their good, 


Com. £. the Ten Commandments. 2^9 

and it is oppofite to fclfi<hnefs and regardlefnefs of the good 
of others, if we be well ourfelves. The 4. is, Piom. xii. 10. 
Be kindly ajf:tlionate one to another, with brotherly love in ho- 
ur preferring one another y be kindly to and manifeft your 
efteem of your neighbour, not in a comp' emeu ting way f 
but really and heartily, which by James is called the/a/- 
filling of the law, and by the apoftle John, the old and 
new commandment \ wherein there is more religion than many 
are aware of, more than in knowledge, fpeculations and 
empty notions; Oh ! How fliort are we in thefe more com- 
mon duties, that He, as it were, among our feet ? 

We come now to the lifi.Ii command, which is the firft of 
the fecond table, and it containeth, 1. A precept. 2. A. 
pomife, and fo it is called by the apoftle, Eph. vi. 2* the 
firji command with prtir&je, which muft be upon one of thefe 
grounds, either, 1. Becaufe it is the firft command that hatli. 
articular promife : that promife in the fecond command 
being general and applicable (as it is actually applied there) 
to all the commands; or, 2. Becaufe ibis is the firft com- 
mand of the fecond table ; and often in the New-Tefhment 
the commands are reckoned and inftaneed by that table, es- 
pecially when duties betwixt man and man are prefix J : And 
if k be faid, that it is the only command of the fecond ta- 
ble, that hath a promife, it is anfwered, it is the only coj 
mand that hath an exprefs promife: Betide, it isnotabfurd 
to read it thus, it is the firft command (jf. e.) of the fecond 
table; and to prefs it the more the promife added to it is 
mentioned ; fo that to urge obedience to it more ftrongly, 
it is not only the firft command, faith the apoftle of the fecond 
fjple, but ithath a promife alfo added to it: And thus cer- 
tainly is the apofties fcope to prefs its Observation. 

In the precept we are, 1. To coniider the object, father 
and mother. 2. The duty, honour. 1. Again, concerning 
the firft, it is to beconildered that this command in its fcope 
refpecleih the duty that we owe to all relations, whether 
they be above is, iufeiior to us, or equal with us : This is 
clear from Chrift's fumauag all the fecond table, and con- 
fequently this command with the reft, in that comprehen- 
sive general, Thou fault love thy neighbour as thyfclf ; and 
therefore our neighbour in general muft be the object of 
this command, as well as the reft, and fo it taketh in ail the 
duties ot honour that every one oweth to another, whatever 
be their place ; there is a duty of honour and refpeil called 
for from every one to every one \ and fo, Ephef. v. 22. ic 
is prefted upon wives towards their huibands ; and, 1 Peter 
iii. 7. upon hufbands towards their wives, which muft be 
comprehended here ; Thus father and mother are here to 
P p z be 

3od An Expedition of Com. 5. 

be largely and fynecdochically underftood, one fort of re- 
lations being in a figurative manner put for all the reft. 
2. Under them are comprehended all fuperiors for place, 
in church or common-wealth, who in fcripture get the ti- 
tle of fathers, as magiftrates, fupreme and fubaltern mini- 
sters and all church-officers, teachers, overfeers, and ail in 
the place of fathers, i Cor. iv. 15. yea, they who are to be 
efteemed as fuch, for gifts cf learning, wifdom, grace and 
piety, Acts vii. 2. or for their worldly means and outward 
eilate, as Jofeph was, Gen. xlv. 8. 01 for their age, and the 
reverence due to them on that account, 2 Kings ii. 12. in 
a word, any fort of eminency putteth one in that roll of fa- 
thers largely taken, though they be not properly fuch. 3. 
We are called in the firft place to look to the duties of this 
relation, as it is domeftick, fuch of a mafler over the fer- 
vant, of a hufb?,nd over the wife, <bc. and then cometh 
the carriage $f one towards another in general, and though 
uioft propeily the duties cf parents, mediate or immediate, 
over their children or nephews, be here pointed at, which 
js.moft liteial, yet the former alfo is included, all particulars 
of that kind being by a figure comprehended under one. 

If it be allied here, Why the mother is added ? Anfw. I. 
Becaufe although the mother be not fo qualified for the rule 
and government of the children, yet fhe is no lefs intitled 
to their acknowledgement and this parental honour by the 
labour, toil, and tendernefs of their birth and education, 
and in, as well as in the difpofition of the members of the 
body mentioned, 1 Cor. xii. 22, 23, 24. the excellent at- 
temperation of God's wifdom is very confpicuous, by bal- 
lencing the greater authority of the father, with the greater 
pains and care of the mother, that the children's duty of 
love, honour, and gratitude, may return to both with a 
fuitablc equality. 2. She is added to ihew that it is not on- 
ly . e molt eminent fuperior orneighbour to whom honour 
is due, but even thefe who have more weaknefs, and efpe- 
cially the mother : Hence it is, that always almoft in the 
Proverbs, where duty to the father is preficd, the mother 
is alfo named with him, to fhew that children fhould not 
think that lefs refpect is due to the mother than to the fa- 
ther ; yea, fometimes the mother is prefixed to the father, 
as Lev. xix. 3. Te foall fear every man his mother arid his fa- 
ther, which is done to meet with the humour of many who 
are ready to leiTen their duty to their mother, and therefore 
we are called to it, even in her old age, Prov. xxiiL 22. and 
to guard againft defprfing of her then, which is too readily 
and frequently incident. Thus doth the Lord provide in 
his word againft our corruption,- which is ready to take ad- 

Com. 5. the Ten Commandments. 301' 

vantage of debording and outbreaking at the weakeft: part. 
If it be further afked \ Why all fuperiours, yea all neigh- 
bours, are fpoken or as fathers and mothers ? . hefe 
reafons are obvious from the fcope; It is 1. To (hew that 
the duties of this command are mutual amongfr all relati- 
ons; it giveth fuperiors their due, yc fo as that it teacheth 
them alio how to carry toward their inferiors, that is, to be 
fathers to them ; and that the relation necdl'inly imp 
a mutual tie; therefore this command doth not only direct 
inferiors in their duty towards fuperiors, but alio iuperiors 
in their duty towards inferiors. 2. They get this name to 
make their (ubjection to each other, and their mutual rela- 
tions the duties the mere fweet and kindly, when the fub- 
jection is to be given as by a fon to a father, and when it is 
exacted and expected as by a father from a Ion ; which con- 
li leration fliould be a kindly motive to all mutual duties, and 
alio an inducement to hide infirmities, and to conftruct ten- 
derly of failings. And thus the denomination cf the natural 
relation feems to be borrowed, to ftablifh and ftrengthen the 
poiiuive relation, which of itieif is not fo binding of 1 he con- 
icience by nature's light. 80 much for the object of this duty. 
The duty itieif here called for, is honour, which is alfo 
largely to be underload, both as it taketh in the inward e- 
fteemof others in our heart, and alfo the evidencing of this 
in outward expreflions in cur conversation : For by this 
command it appearech that there is, 1. Some eminency in e- 
very man ; 2. That every one fliould obferve that and hon- 
our it in another ; What is it then to honour them ? It is 
not to compliment them, and only ftfemingly to reverence 
them, but it conCiteth efpeciafiy in thefe, 1. In obferviog 
and acknowledging what is eminent in any for nature, grace, 
ftation ; or other accidental things, and if there appear no 
more in a man, yet as he heareth Jod's imAge, 
or is a Chriftian and member of Chrift's church, he is thus 
to be honoured. 2. There ought to be an efteem of hii 
and we fhould really have an honourable account ot him, 
and that in fome refpect beyond ourfelves in for ing 
or other. 3. It licth much in love, and kii on- 
ate reverer.ee, as is hinted, Rom x\\ 10. 4. It taketh in 
obedience according to our ftations, flowing from a difpcfl- 
lion of their heart to obey, ILb. xiii. 17. 5. h 1 
both to the thought of the heart, an 
there fliould oot be in our fecret chamber any dc 
wilhing ill to him, Ecclef. x, 20 6. It cotnpreh 
holy fear and awe that fhould be joined with t, L 

Honour being thus fixed in the heart, it is to be t\\us cx- 
preflcd, 1. In words, by respective and revergat fpeaking 


jo2 dn ExpsfitiGn of Com. r. 

and giving anfwers, or making fuhs ; Sarah called her huf* 
band Lord, i Pet. m. 6. 2. It is exprefled in geftures, by 
bowing, rifing up, keeping filence fometimes before others, 
Job xxix. not anlwering again, Tit. ii. 9. faluting, oc. Col. 
iv. 15. 3. In deeds, by obedience and testifying refpeftthat 
way which is generally called gratitude, therefore obedience 
to parents, Eph. vi. 1. is drawn from this command, which 
preflefh obedience upon men according to their relations. 
4. id our means, communicating thereof when it is called 
for ; fo tribute to whom tribute is due, Rom. xiii. 7. and 
double honour to the eiders that rule well, 1 Tim. v. 17. 
according to the acceptation of honour ufed in that precept, 
Honour the Lord with thy fubjiance, Prov. iii. 9. 4. In our 
prayers for them, 2 Tin*, ii. I. 6. In covering their infir- 
mities, Gen. ix. 2i, 22. 

As the breaches of this command may be eafily gathered 
hence, as being oppofite to thefe, fo this rule is always to 
be carried along in praJlice, and this honour and obedience 
muil be ftill in the Lord ; that is, there muft be a referving 
to the Lord his due, for God is the fupreme Father, and 
all our refpect to under-fathers of the flefli, is to be fubor- 
dinate to the Father of fpirits, Heb. xii. 9. as he may have 
the firft place for whofe caufe we give reverence to them, 
and fo that word is ftill true, A6ls iv. 19, // is better to obey 
Codthan man ; man is only to be obeyed in the Lord, Eph. 
vi. 1 . And in this refufing 10 comply with unjuft commands, 
is not difobedience to parents, but high obedience to God, 
the refufal being conveyed refpe&fully and after the due 

Again, the branches of this command are exceeding large : 
Two things by it are elpecially called for ; 1. Love. 2. Ho- 
nour, and whatever is oppofire to, and inconfiftent with 
thefe, is a breach of this command ; wherein v/e are to ob- 
serve, 1. The object of our love and refpe<5t, it is al! men, 
I Pet. ii. ij. Honour all men, love the brotherhood ; our neigh- 
bour here in the largeft fenfe comprehending all men. 2. 
Conftder that the act of love and honour that is required is 
mod intenfe, we muft love our neighbour as ourfelf, and this 
reacheth far. 3, Coniider that it taketh in all that is our 
neighbours, his name, fame, credit, and eftate, C'c. but e- 
fpecially love to his falvation, becaufc ia this moftly doth his 
concernment lie. 4. It taketh in all midfes or means tha 
are for his true honouring, or vindicating of his name wher 
he is defamed j hence, Pial. xv. it is the property of an ac- 
curate walker, not to take up an evil report agcinjl his neigh" 
hut % even when it is brought to him and laid before him. 
4. Yet there is a difference to be obierved in the putting 


Com. J. the Ten Commandments, 

forth of our love and tclii Tying of our refpecl ; forwefi: 
love him as ourfelves, but in giving refpeci and honour, we 
arc to prefer others ro ourfelves : to love our neighbours a9 
ourfelves, jmportcth the kind of reality of our love, we are 
to love him no !efs truly than ourfelves (for we alio coir 
here as the objefts of our own love) but we are fome way ta 
,ur him beyond ourfelves. 

If it be a Iked", how that can be ? I. That one fhould Ic 
all men ? fhould we love them all alike and equally ? And, 
2. ought we to prefer every man to ourfelves? 

To the former we fay, I. This command requireth, as 
to the object, that we love all men, excluding none from 
our love, good or bid (while they are within rhe roli of men, 
capable to be prayed for) friend or enemy, for we fhould 
love them that hate us, and blefs them that curfe us 2. As 
to the main things defired, or the fubject matter of our wish- 
es for thero. our love fhould be alike towards all ; our love 
being a willing of good to others, we fhould defire the great- 
eft good to all men, that is, peace with God, Chrift. heaven, 
fanciiScation, repentance, he. that lead to it; there is here 
no inequality, nor two heavens, a greater and a lefferto be 
the fubjeft matter of our wifhes and defires. 3. If we con- 
fider our love as to the a3 of loving in the kind of it, it is- 
equal, we being called to love fincereiy, cordially, and with 
the whole heart, perfectly, every man. 

If ye ask then, Wherein is there any difference allowed ? 
Anfw. If we confider, 1. the effects of this love, they ti\ay 
and ought to be more raanifefted towards one than another; 
we arc to pray more for one than another ; to communicate 
and to deitnbute more to one than another, according ret 
the opportunities we have, and according to the particular 
relations and callings that God putteth us in ; for, befiJe our 
general relation, to ail men, we have particular reafons to femg 
beyond others ; hence may a man do more for his children, 
and thefc of his own houfe, than for others ; Co may wc 
pray for fome men more and oftener, as their nece£ky is 
concerned, and as they may be more ufeful. 2. In re 
of frequency, our love may and ought to vent itfelf mere 
frequently towards fome than others, and fo it diiTereth from 
that general love we owe to all. 3. In refpect of fympathy, 
we are to be more touched with the hurt and hazard of 
fome, and more finfibiy defirous of their good than of fhat 
ot others, and fo our love ought to afflct us more, and ftir 
more feniibly in reference to fome than others, as in the 
cafe of a woman towards her child, and of one dear friend 
to another; fuch was thq fympathy between Jonathan and 
David, who though they loved ataoy others, yec there 


3°4 An Expcftion of Com. 5; 

a more peculiar fympathy betwixt themfelves, as to all 
things that concerned them, good and evil ; this may arife 
from natural relations, particular obligations, mutual fami- 
liarity, and other fpecial grounds. 4. According to the di- 
versity of concurrent circumftances, we may fometimes wifh 
temporal good to one, and fometimes temporal rods to an- 
other ; providing always it be out of a true dcfire of, and 
refpect to their fpiritual good. 5. In refpect of complacen- 
cy and delight accompanying the act of loving, there may- 
be a difference : for there may be much more delight and 
fatisfaction in loving one than another, as there appeareth 
wore of hoiineis in one than another ; 10 godly men love 
even natural men, if of good parts, civil and h'iendly, more 
than others that are deftitute of fuch qualifications ; but if 
men be aifo gracious, they not only love them the mere, 
but alio acquiefce the more, and have the greater compla- 
cency in them on that account 

If it be asked, From whence thefe differences as to the 
effects of our love, do flow ? Anfw. They may* arife, 1. 
From natural relations ; 2. From the difference that is a- 
mong men in jheir carriages, humours, and fuch like, as 
they are lefs or more engaging. 3. From external circum- 
ftances, of acquaintance familiarity,- or particular engage- 
ments ; zj. From favours, fo men may love their benefac- 
tors more in the fore^roentioned fenfe) than others ; 5. From 
civil relations and interefts ; 6. They may arife from a reli- 
gious and Chriftian intereft and relation, fo we are to love 
the godly, not only more than other men of the world, but 
alfo we are to love them, 1. On another account than we 
love others, to wit, becaufe thy are fuch, becaufe they are 
true members of the fame body, are loved of God, and 
Iiave his image fliining in them : 2 With more delight and 
acquiefcing complacency, as David doth, Pfal. xvi. 3. 3. 
There fhould be another way of venting our love to them 
than to others, both in fpiritual and temporal things ; thus 
loving the brotherhood is diftinguifhed, 1 Pet. ii. 17. from 
loving or honouring all men ; fo alfo the kouJJjold of faith , 
Gal. vi. 10. is efpecialyt o be confidered in our love. 

If it be asked then, How dlffcr.eth love to the godly from 
common love ? Anfw. That there is a difference, is clear 
from the forecited fcriptures, Pfal. xvi, 3 1 Pet. ii. 17. and 
from, 2 Pet. i. 7. where brotherly kindnefs is diftinguifhed 
from charity : In a word then, it differeth, 1. In its acqui- 
; complacency, though there may be fome fort of com- 
p "acer.cv comparatively in others, yet limply and properly 
it is to be exercifed toward the godly. 2. It is on another 
account is is (aid, to wit, as tk?y are loved of God, love to 


Com, r;. the Tin Commandments'. 

them runneth in another channel, and hath another fprmg 
and rife, Matthx. 42. 3 It fliould be in a more high and 
intenfe degree^as to its exercife, becaufe God is more con- 
cerned in ihem; and though good fliould be dene to all, 
yet efpecially to this houficll of faiib And the manifeftati- 
on of our love even towaids the godly maybe lefs or more, 
according as lefs or more of God appeareth in them, or in 
their way. 

If it be further asked ? How vre cr.n love wicked men, 
an-i if their bemg fuch fhould not marr their love to them I 
Anfxu. We (peak not here of fuch as are debarred from the 
prayers of the people of God, and who are known to hav£ 
finned the fin which is againft the Holy Ghoft ; ncr do we 
fpeak indefinitely of final enemies, thefe (according to all) 
being excluded from our love: But we fay that other parti- 
cular wicked men, as to their perfons (whatever hatred we 
may bear to their evil deeds) are to be loved in the fore- 
mentioned fenfe, yet their wickfcdfiefs may 1. Marr compla- 
cency in them, that they cannot, nor ought not to be de« 
lighted in, nor with pleafure converfed with. 2. It may 
marr the effects of love in the evidences and manifestations 
of them, for that Christians may, yea, and fometirnes fliould 
keep up all or moil teftimonies of it from fomd, is clear 
from the apoft'es direction enjoining the noticing of fome, 
that they may be afhamed, 2 ThefT. iii. 14. 3. It may marr 
love in ordering its exercifes, yea, and occaiion the feem- 
ingly contrary effe&s, as their wifhing for, and doing fome 
things temporally adverfe and crofs to them, for their great 
fhame and humiliation, as is evident in the pfalmifb pray- 
er, Pfal. Ixxxiii. 16. Fill their faces with Jhame, that they 
may f*ck thy name, Lord: fo fome out of love are to be 
corrected, yea puniihed temporally, yet with a delire of, 
and refpect to their eternal welfare. 

If it be yet asked, If, and how, one is to lore himfelf ? Anfi 
Self-love is fo co-natural to us, that in effe£t it is the imme- 
diate refult of our fenfe of life, and confequently the very 
relifh and indearment of all enjoyments, the fpring of felf- 
preservation, and the heft meafure pointed out by our Lord" 
himfelf, of the love and duty we owe to Others, which as it 
is the mean whereby we taite and fee that God is good, and 
how great hisgeodntfs is to us, fo it ought principally to re* 
fer itfelf . and all iis plcafing objects, to him as the fountain 
of all, who is indeed love ; but yet it is that wherein ordi- 
narily men do-much exceed, as efpecially thefe following 

1. They exceed in it when therafelves are propofed as the 
end of their own actions, as it is 2 Tim. iii a. when their 

Q^ cj owa 

306 An Expofitlon of Com. $. 

own things fway more with them, and are fought more by 
them than i. the things of God, to which the firft place is 
always due ; and 2. then public things, and the things of 
others, even in the cafes wherein thefe do require the pre- 

2. When it is terminated on the wrong object, as when 
they run out in the immoderate purfuit of bodily and tem- 
poral things, caring more, if not only, for the body, ne- 
glecting the better part. 

3, When it is laid cat for the pleafing of corrupt felf, and 
the making of provifion for the flefh to fulfill itsiufts, Rom. 
xiii. 14. Self-love under th€fe confiderations is corrupt, and 
to be guarded againft. 

Anfw 2. Self-love, or love to our felf, is allowable when 
qualified with the following properties. 1. When it is fub- 
fervient and fubordinate to higher ends, and can hazaid it- 
felf, and deny itfelf for God's honour, for a public good, 
yea, and in fome cafes, out of refpect to the good of others 
alfo, fo a righteous man fhould, and when at himfelf, will 
do much, though with his own hazard, for a Chriftian 
friend, for the fafety or edification of the godly, or in de- 
fence of the intereft of Chrift. 2. When it is drawn out 
after fpiritual things, and it is on thefe moftly that pains arc 
taken ; as how to grow in grace, to have a good confeience, 
to have the foul faved, fin mortified, 6c. 3. When out- 
ward things are defired for the former ends, as when we 
pray, Give us this day cur daily bread, that we may promove 
thefe ends, being willing to want them when they may not 
fland with thefe ends, and defiring life, means, 6c. in fo 
far only, as they may be ufeful for the attainment of them. 
As the firft, felf love marreth duties to God, and thawarteth 
with them ; fo the fecond advanceth them, and fwayeth 
them ftrongly, yet fweetly to them. 

Again, This command is the firft in order of the fecond 
table, and is peculiarly backed with a promife, to (hew the 
concernment of the duty called for; the fcope of it being 
to regulate that refpecl which each one oweth to another, 
that they may give each other due honour as the firft effect 
of love, and the great bond of all the other commands, and 
enjoined duties of the fecond table; God being pleafed to 
provide for that refpeel and honour that is due from one man 
to another, as well as for the fecuricies of their perfons and 
eftates ; yea, in fome refpect he preferreth this command, 
viz. that one hurt not another in their honour and ef- 
timation to thefe other, relating to their perfons and eftates, 
and therefore he requireth honour in the firft place, and af- 
terward erjoincth the duties of not killing, not dealing, 6c. 


Com. 4; the Ten Commandments'* 307 

And although every man doth love refpecl and eftimati- 
on among others, yet there is nothing wherein more liber- 
ally, and even prodigally men encroach upon one another, 
than by the negiect and denial of this duty, and by the con- 
trary fin, though it be mod directly oppofite to love, and 
that general equity commanded, whereby we fhould do to 
ethers as we -would have them do to us : Therefore we con- 
ceive, the Lord hath preferred this to the other five com- 
mands, and hath fo backed it with a promife, and aifo fet 
it down pofitively, Honour thy father, &c for this end, that 
we may know it is not enough not to defpife them, if they 
be not alfo pofitively honoured by us, even as it is not e- 
nough, not to prophane the Lord's day by common and 
unneceffary works, if we do not pofitively fanctify it : And 
it is not for nought that this duty is fo much preffed, being 
a main bond of Chriftian and civil-fellowfhip, keeping folks 
within the juft bounds and limits which God hath fet unto 

If it be asked, What this duty of honouring our neigh- 
bour doth include ? Jnfw. It doth include thefe five things ; 
1. Refpeft to our neighbours perfon, 2. To his place; 3. 
To his qualifications, either as he is furniftied with natural 
©r moral abilities, or as he is gracious ; 4. To his acciden- 
tal furniture in externals, as riches, credit with others 
6c. fo David honoured Nabal ; 5. In refpect of mens acti- 
ons as they deferve, or as they have done or atchieved, any 
thing whereby good cometh, or may come to the church or 
common- wealth, honour includeth the giving refpect to our 
neighbour in all thefe 1 

If it be asked, if, and how honour difrereth from love ? 
Anfw. It differeth from love, in that love properly confider- 
eth men more generally, as they are capable of good, which 
we wifh unto them : but this confi Jeretb them more parti- 
cularly, as fo and fo qualified, and having luch and fuch 
things in them deferving refpecV, for honour being a bear- 
ing of teftimony to fomething worthy of refpect in fuch a 
one, it doth firft confider what is worthy of honour in the 
perfon, that fo it may bear a teftimony truly, according as 
it findeth ground. 

If it be asked, Whether outward expreflive evidences of 
honour are always to be given to the perfons honoured ? Anf. 
Although indeed in honouring of God there needeth not al- 
wife in external expreflive evidence of it : as for inftance, a 
man may in the croud of company honour God by ejacula- 
tory prayer without fuch external expreffion, as Nehemiab 
did in the prefence of the king and queen, chap. ii. vcr. 4. 

Q^q 2 ~ yet 

308 dri Expofiticn of Com. $1 

yet honour given to others muft not only have the acknow- 
ledging of iomething worthy of eftirnation within, that it de* 

..crate not into diflimulation, as the ordinary comple* 
nienting (train doth, but muft alio have exprcffions with- 
out, to bear witnefs unto that w*liich is within, in gefture, 
words, or otherways, as men are called to the giving of 

If it be asked, What honour doth import, and what may 
. : comprehended under it ? sinfw. Under honour are com- 
prehended, i. Charitable conftru&ions of mens actions, 
whereby what is doubtful, is exponed to the bed : It will 
not, nor ought not, I grant, determine a man to efteem e- 
vcry man gracious whom he knoweth not to be prophane> 
nor every thing to he truth fpoken by him which he know- 
£th not to be falfe : But, i . It will keep a man from running 
into the extream of contrary judging of him as wicked, falfe, 
carnal, natural, gracelefs (a lamentable ill amongft evea 
good people, too ready often to give fucji defignations and 
i , ithets to their neighbours, whether inferior or fuperior to 
them, on very little ground, and fometimes to perfons, who 
without breach of charity, may be fuppofed for true reli- 
gion, not to be much, if any thing at all, fhort of them- 
ielves) or fuch an one as fome may call him, even though 
he know nothing of his goodnefs, yet becaufe he knoweth 
not his evil, he forbeareth to conclude fo harfhly of him. 
2. It will make him live with him as (to him at leaft) nega- 
tively gracious, and accept of what he faith for truth, not 
knowing any thing to the contrary, in fo far as Chriftiaa 
prudence will permit him ; and thus far a charitable con^ 
itrudiion wijl lead us in reference to our neighbour, for we 
are not bound pofitively without ground to determine a thing 
to be right or wrong, or a man gracious or wicked when 
we have not certain knowledge, and fo may be deceived; 
but we ought to walk with men whofe hypocrify and difho- 
nefty we know not, as with good and honeft men ; yea, c- 
ven where fome flips or efcapesare to be found. 2. Honour 
comprehendeth and taketh in humility fo far as it refpecleth 
and relateth to a humble carriage amongft men. which is a 
grace moderating a man fo, that he preferreth not himfelf 
inordinately to others, either in refpeft of place or parts, 
or other fuch like grounds, which Chrift commendeth in 
the gofpel, and enjoineth that men fhould not love the vrp- 
permoft rooms, or firft falutations, but feek to prefer o- 
thcrs, and be to their own honour as weaned children, or 
new-born babes, Matth. xviii. 3. readier to ferve and give 
honour to others, than defirous of fervice and honour 
from themj and this is r,ot in compliment, but in reality. 


Com. J. the Ten Commandments. 309 

3. It taketh in efteem of others, and vindicating of their 
name and fame, that they may be accounted of, and be ia 
good repute with others; endeavouring their vindication 
then moft when they are wronged ; feeing a good nimc is fo 
efTential a part of honour, EccleC vii. 1. 4. It taketh ia 
praife which is the commendation of a fact praife worthy, 
or of fuch and inch laudable things, beftowed on the per- 
fon by God. 5. Gratulation and rejoicing at anothers good f 
as if it were our own. 6. It taketh in mercy and commu* 
nication by way of charity to others. 

Now all thefe effVcls of honour are to be drawn forth ac» 
cording to the ftations we are in, and the relations we fut- 
tain, and as we ftand in reference to others according to 
their ftations and relations, ofhufband, wife, fervant, maf- 
ter, fon, father, friend, be. And no doubt more even of 
this outward refpect would contribute not a little to our 
hearty and comfortable living together. 

Thefe being fome of the commanded duties, the contrary 
vices are prohibited, As 1. Rafh judging, taking up of pre- 
judice upon unfure grounds that will not bear fuch a thing: 
and this may be either a weaknefs proceeding from igno- 
rance, or a prejudice flowing from malice at the man's per- 
fon, which is more readily inclined to cenftrue fo and fo of 
fuch a man and his actions than of another : The firfl may- 
be removed, and the perfon faulty in it, will be defirous to 
have it removed, and will efteem more of the perfon mi(- 
taken, when it is removed, as Eli did of Hannah, 1. Sam, 
i. 17. The fecoad is hardly removed, and admitieth not ot" 
the mean which may remove it, leaving no room for ir.for- 
mation, apology, vindication, <bc Pride and preemption 
are condemned, here, Pride whereby one with Jpiotriphcta 
affe&eth the preheminency, a higher cilice or precedency 
in the fame office, the firft falutatien, the higheft room at 
table, <bc. Preemption, whereby a imn is ready to under- 
take fomething above his ability, as if he were more fit ar*d 
able for it than indeed he is ; even as on the contrary, IV- 
lillanimity is a fcarring to reach to, and adventure upon, 
what a man is able for, and called to. 3. Vanity, or vain* 
glory, much blazing abroad cur own good actions, or de- 
lighting to have them known to others, that they may bLze 
them. 4. Ofientation, making fliew of what good is in us § 
and following what is good for that end, and in fuch a way 
as may be taken notice of by men, as the Pharifees, who 
only fought their own glory in their prayers and alms. 5. 
Envy, which is a grief and fadnefs for the honour of an- 
other, that fuch a good turn fliould fall in Lis hand, 01 that 
be fhould be honoured, followed or refpecled, as if his be- 

• ing 

jto An Expofition of Com. $1 

ing honoured and preferred did detract from their own cre- 
dit and honour j it differeth from fear, which is a fadnefs 
that an enemy is preferred, becaufe they may fuffer and be 
in hazard from him. This envy followeth principally from 
pride, whereby folks would monopolize all honour, and 
what is honourable unto themfelves, and are grieved when 
it is not fo, a manifeft fruit of the flefh, Gal. v. 21. and a 
prime and moft deftructive enemy to grace, and yet very rife 
in this hypocritical age, and much incident to religious folks, 
efpecially to minifters and perfons of gifts ; an ambitious hu- 
mour, coveting to excel and darken all that are about them, 
when as it were more Chriftian and congruous for a man to 
whom God may have given more than he hath done to o- 
thers, felf-deniedly to vail and ftudioufly to obfeure himfelf 
in fome cafes, leaft he fadden or eclipfe others., cr draw more 
observations to himfelf. 6. Emulation, which is a feeking 
to go beyond another in eileem; not from any love of vir- 
tue, but only out of an envious defire of having the prehe- 
minence of fuch a perfon, of out-{tripping him, and of 
bearing him down in his reputation; it followeth on the 
former. 7. Detraction, a vice whereby men under-hand 
whifper what may be to the difhonour of another, even tho* 
it be a truth, ufing infinuations, and fuch a manner of 
feeming refpect to the detracted, as may make the blot and 
infamy to (lick, as when many commendations are given a 
a man, not out of any refpect to him, but to make fome re- 
proach call upon him go down the better, and be the more 
eafily believed, as coming from fuch an one who refpecteth 
and loveth the man ; as, he is difcreet, of great parts, &c» 
but, by which but all is overturned. 8. Contention and 
ftrife ar$, alfo oppofite to this command, and any thing 
whereby, directly or indirectly, mediately or immediately, 
the fame of our brother, and bis eftim2tion is reflected u- 
pon, which are of a large extent. 9. Mocking, difdaining, 
taunting, and fuch like are plainly againft this command, 
and forbidden id it. 

There are feme queftions that do arife from what is faid. 

1. ghiefl. If all men fhould be honoured? Yea, if even 
wicked men alfo ? 

Anfw. 1. Wicked men known to be fuch cannot be ho- 
noured, as if they were gracious ; neither can any place or 
dignity, meerly as fuch, have what is due and proper to 
grace attributed to it without guilt, the doing whereof we 
conceive is that fin reproved by James, chap ii. 1. viz. the 
accounting of rich men, that were wicked to be more reli- 
gious than others not fo rich, and poffibly there may be 
much guilt of this fin in titles and dedications of books, 


Com* $1 the Ttn Commandments. 31 1 

where the moft religious, pious, &rc. are often unwaranta- 
bly put amongft the ftiles. 

2. Yet there is a civil honour, which they may get, and 
we are called to give them upon feveral accounts, As 1. On 
the account of their place, if magiftrates, honour to -whom 
honour is due, is in that refpeft enjoined, Rom. xiii. 7. 2. 
Of their relation, if they be fathers, mothers, tsc. as it is, 
1 Tim. vi. 2. 1 Pet. iL 3. 3. Of their other qualifications 
and parts, or on other accounts, ye even on this general ac* 
count, that they are men having immortal fouls, capable 06 
grace, and of being reftored to God's image, our evidence 
ing of honour to them is called for. 

2. Queft. If rich men fhould be honoured? Jnfiv. Rich- 
es of themfelves, and for themfelves, are not honourable, 
neither can they make the poflcffbr fuch : But riches may 
make one capable of doing more good, and of being more 
ufeful in church and common-wealth, and confequently of 
being defervedly honoured ; and no doubt a rich man is to 
be rel'pe&ed, as a fteward intruded with fomething to be 
employed for the honour of God, and for the good of o- 
thers \ and riches, when well improved to thefe ends, they 
become ufeful, and therefore in that cafe the pofleflbrs of 
them are to be honoured ; but when abufed, the perfon is 
more vile, fo David,' at firft, honoured Nabal, as a father, 
and called himfelf his fon, but after that his churlifhnefs ap- 
peared and difcovered itfelf fo grofly, there was no fuch ho- 
nour due to him, nor given him. 

As to what the apoftle James difcourfeth, chap ii. 1, 2. 
certainly he doth not there fimply condemn all reverencing 
of rich men, but the doing of it. 1 . On a religious account, 
and in religious things. 2. When there was only care tak- 
en for accomodating them in aiTemblies, and no care at all 
for accomodating poor ones, as if becaufc they were not 
rich they had been without all intereft in the gofpel ; the 
honouring of the one and that jointly with the contempt of 
the other made the fault. 3. It wss condemned by him, 
becaufe done for an evil end, viz. for flattering of rich men, 
thefe reproved by him for doing it, not being fingle, but 
felfifh in what they did, feeking only their own advantage. 
4. The preferring of rich men as, and becaufe, they are 
fuch, as more religious than poor ones, who it may be have 
much more religion than they, is the acceptation of perfons 
condemned here by the apoftle James, viz. when a rich 
man is preferred as more godly, and only becaufe more 
rich, before a poor man, alike godly, or more godly than 

gueft. 3. 

fit An Expojlthn sf Com. $. 

• £ueft. J. Wherein corXifteth the difference that is betwixt 
the refpt:ft, which is to be given to a good man, aud that 
which is to be given to another) when both are alike in 
outward things. 

Anfw. r. It may be that in outward figns and evidences 
of refpecT: there be no difference, the one may get as low 
courtefies as the other. But 2. There is a heart teftimony 
and refpecl:, fuch as Paul had in the' confeiences generally 
of all, but efpecially of his gracious hearers, that is, an ap- 
probation that he is worthy of honour, not only for the 
outward capacity he is in to do good, but for aclual impro- 
ving of it to that end, which is a far other thing than out-* 
v/ard civility. 

2. In this there is a difference betwixt the refpeft given td 
the one, and that which is given to the other ; in that fome- 
thing of gracious conformity to the image of God, befide 
other common commendable qualifications, being difcovered 
in the good man, he is (at leaft, ought to be) with more 
complacency delighted in, than the natural man, though 
as to outward things in the fame ftation with him. 

3. Honour floweth more natively to the godly, the objeft 
drawing it unto it in a native way. 

If it be afked, whether -or not a man may feek his own ho- 
nour and fame, and how ? Anfw. A man ought not to fetk 
it as men of the world do, to fatisfy the luft of the pride of 
life, nor inordinately beyond his line, nor even in externals, 
nor ever as his laft end, and as the chief thing for honour 
being the teftimony of excellency, ai>da good name a teftimo- 
ny of that virtue which is in a man, he is firft to ftudy virtue 
as tfie folid good, whereof the other is but the luftre, vir- 
tue being indeed the main thing to be fought after, whether 
a good name (as to men) be feparate from it or not. 2. 
Yet may k be fought as a thing that is defireable and good 
% (it being fought in a right manner, and by way of concomit- 
ance) a good name being above great riches , Prov. xxii. i. 
3. It is ever to be fought in the way of virtue and well-doing 
ilattery and crooked dealing being never warrantably, and 
in- the following of good, men are to walk through ill report 
as- well as good report. 4. It is to be fought in things re- 
lating to godlineis, not in riches, or henour, or eloquence, 
or great learning, but honeftly, faith fulnefs, holin: is j thus 
Paul difclaimeth, feeking the applaufe of being a learned, or 
eloquent or wife man, he difdained thefe ; feeking it only 
in the faithful fingle and zealous difdrarge of his miniftry 
among the Corinthians : 5. This teftimony or refpect is to 
be fought after, even with a piece of holy ambition in the 
cnoicUnces of others, but not fo much in the outward evi- 

Com. 5. the Ten Commandments. 3ij> 

dences and teftifications of it : To be commended and ap- 
proved in the confidences of thefe we live among is defin- 
able, and that which aifo Paul bimfelf aimed at. 6. This 
reipeft would be a ftep for an higher end, that fo all our 
refpeel may be improved and made ufe of for the honour of 

5. Qiteft. Ifitbeafked how and in what manner, r.rc we 
to puriue or feek our own honour ? Anf-w. See what the 
fcripture faith, 1 Sam. ii. 30. Them thai honour me /will ho- 
nour : And firft the honouring of God is praife-worthy and 
honourable in itfclf ; Gold hath not more its luftre, a ruby 
♦and diamond its beauty, nor the fun its light and glory, then 
godlinefs and virtue, whereby God is honoured, are radient 
to their own praife. 2, If after by reafon of human infir- 
mity, and other difadvantages, this radiency be obfeured 
or through mens ignorance, folly, or malignity, this wor- 
thinefs not obferved or not efteemed, the Lord undertakes 
for the former, and vindicates from the latter, telling us 
plainly, them that honour me, 1 will honour, and hence it is f 
that we fo often find in fcripture, honour attributed to 
thofe things that are fo low and mean in the. eyes of men, 
As r. To taking with inftrudlion, Prov. iii. 16. 2. To 
yielding to correction, even when unjuft, 1 Pet. ii. 20. 3. 
Submiiiion to parents, as in this command. 4 To humili- 
ty and paffing of wrongs*, an4 ceafing from ltrife, Prov.xx. 
3. In a word therefore, the high-path-way to honour, is 
by humility, the fear of the Lord, obedience, fubmiffion 
and feif-deniednefs : Whereby the Lord, as it were, to make 
honour the more honourable, will have it rather to be his 
pure gift, then either our ftudy or purchafe. 

§>uejl % 6. If it be afked, how one can fulfil that part o£ 
the command^ enjoining us to prefer another to ourfelves ? 
jfnfw. 1. This is not to be univerfally and Amply under- 
ftood, as if we were called in every thing to do fo, and to 
every perfon ; for we may know that fome are more igno- 
rant and more prophane than we are in many practices^ 
guilty of things we may be free of, and fo we are not oblig- 
ed to judge contrary to truth ; Yet, 2. In fome one refpeft 
or other we may prefer them, as 1. In that they may have 
fomething beyond us, they are poflibly more humble, more 
fingle, zealous, diligent, &c. though inferior to us in other 
things. 2. They may have much good we know not. 3. 
We certainly know, or at leaft may know, more evil in our- 
felves than in them, and therefore are to prefer them to 
ourfelves. 4. We know more aggravations of our own e- 
vils than of theirs \ and therefore (imply we may without 

R v bypocrify 

ji4 ^ n Expcjition of Com. $1 

hypocrify prefer men generally to ourfelves, though we in 
particulars could not do fo, nor give unto every one in every 
thing the precedency. 

We come now to fpeak a little of the promife, which Is 
added to ftir up to the more ferious obfervation of this com- 
mand, and as for the nature of it, it is a temporal one, pe- 
culiarly applied to Ifrael here, yet generally agreeing to all, 
and fo applied as to the fubftance ot it by the apoftle, Ephef. 
vi. 2, 3. where he putteth earth for land, whereby heinfinu- 
ateth that it is to be underftood of any land wherein God 
fhall pleafe to caft a mans lot to refide or inhabit as well as 
of Judea, fo then, 

If it be afked, whether or not this promife is to be Smply 
underftood, and the accomplifhment of it without any re- 
flriction expecled or looked for ? Anfw. Although this pro- 
mife feems to have a peculiar refpect unto that difpenfation, 
wherein not only the faints everlafting reft was prefigured 
by that temporal reft in the land of Canaan, but alfo the 
more obfeure mantfeftations of the life and immorality 
brought to light by the gofpel, fupplied as it were by more 
full and affuring promifes of earthly bleffings, yet feeing the 
the apoftle, aswehave touched, doth in the preffing olthU 
command alfo accomodate to us, its promife, we think it 
holds out that fuch, who through grace are enabled to give 
obedience to the command, may by vrrtue of the promife 
annexed, expert from God even outward things, in fo far 
as the having of them, fhall be for their good and fpiritual 
advantage. And 2. They may with confidence promife 
fchemfelves, that whatever they have in the world, or how 
many or few days, foever they may have in it, yet all (hall 
be with God's bleffing and peace: And 3. That their death 
fiiali never be untimely : And 4. What feemingefflct foever 
rhay be in the performance as to length of days* here (halt 
be abundantly made up through eternity hereafter in hea- 
ven ; what then will or can be the prejudice of few days on 

From the annexing of this promife to the command, 
thefe two things clearly follow, 1. That there are temporal 
promifes made to godlinefs. 2.' That a godly man hath 
that right which none other hath to fnherit the earth. 

If it be aiked here, whether or not a wicked man hath a 
right to any thing in the world ? Anfwer. There is a three- 
fold right, the fir ft is, a creature -rights whereby any of 
God's creatures have a right to any thing in his creation 
that'is ufeful for them, when it is fimply neceflary ; and 
not occupied by another under the like need ; and after the 
fimilitudc of this right, crowe's, and fo the other living 

creatuies t 

Com. 5. the Ten Commandments. 3;- 

creatures, may take their meat on the field of any ma* 
ftarving, may for himielf, or his brother (if in the like con- 
dition) when the proper owner of any corn cannot be got* 
ten, put to his hand and take of them for preventing of 
death by hunger; and fo like wife it may be in other things, 
all things being made for the ufe of man at the fir ft, and 
committed to him ; and the orderly dividing of mens lots 
and portions, having been but the better to further that end 
and not to mar it, is not to take place when it thwarteth 
vrith it; thus the the difclples did pluck and eat the ears of 
corn when they were an hungred, though the corn was 
not their own : God alfo, who hath the abfolute dominion 
hath fo given to man a property, that he hath rcferved a 
right to himfelf to make ufe of it (wfyen need requireth) for 
the good of other creatures ; thus he providcth for crows, 
ravens, Ac. out of one mans flock or other. 2. There is 
a pofitive or civil right amongft men, fo that one man hath 
right to fuch a piece of land, another not: both thefe rights 
a wicked man may have, and both land and fuch right to it 
good men may often want in particular cafes; So that if 
there were a civil conteft betwixt a good man and a wick: i 
for fome land or ether fuch thing, the qualifications of the 
perfons would never make the right oi the one better or 
more valid, nor of the other, worie or lefs valid, as we may 
fee, Levit. xix. 15. 3. There is a right by grace which fanc- 
tjfieth the former rights, and putteth a man in cafe n&t on- 
ly warrantahiy before men, but alfo before God, to make 
ufe of the creatures, fo that he may fee and vifit his taber- 
nacle and take the moderate ufe of any lawful refreshment, 
and not fin, Job v. 24. The man hath not only his daily bread, 
but hath it by God's promife, and upon this ground we pray, 
Give us this day our daily bread. This right is peculiar to a 
be'iever and godly man, which. none other poffefs what they 
ivill, can lay claim unto, fori godlinefs and no other thing, 
Hath the przmife both of this Ufe and of that which is to come, 
I Tim. iv. 8. therefore we may upon good ground fay, that 
godlinefs is great grin. 

If it be yet further afked, But what advantage have god- 
ly men by thefe temporal promifes ? ' Anfw. This is not their 
advantage to be alway abounding ia thofe outward things ; 
that is, neither fo defafio and eventually, nor were it meet 
It fliould be fo ; but, 1. They have a promife of what ?s 
needful and ufeful fimply, even of temporal things which 
no wicked man hath, they fhall, Pfal. Ixxxiv. want no good 
things yea though lions fuffer hunger } Pfal.xxxiv. 10. yet they 
thatfeek the Lord } fljll not want any good thing, z. They 

R r % *aay 

316 An Expsfition of Com. 5.' 

may pray for thefe things fo far as they are needful, and 
imy confidently expect them, and go to God for them by 
virtue of that right, ere they get them, fo Matth. vi. II. It 
is our daily bread by allowance, and promifed before we get 
it. 3. If a natural man abound, he cannot promife him- 
felf the continuance of meat till the end of his life ; no, not 
fo much as his dinner to morrow, nor life till then : but a 
believer live, he may expect the continuance of as much 
food as fhall-be neceffary for him ; if he have nothing, he 
<may confidently promife himfelf both life and food to mor- 
row, if either or both of them be needful more nor a wic- 
ked man that hath more wealth, health, and outward pro- 
tection can do. 4. He may promife himfelf the bleffing 
and the fanctified ufe of what he enjoyeth, which another 
cannot. 5. He may have peace, whether he have or want, 
in the enjoyment of creatures, or in their fcarcity, becaufe 
he hath a right to them, for it is not from want of right to 
creature-comforts that fcarcity of them cometh, but God, 
like a wife and fldlful phyfician keeping back meet for health 
where there is abundance in the right, and to be given alfo 
when needful : fo that comparing him with a wicked man 
whether he have or want, whether he enjoy more plentiful- 
ly, or be in fcarcity, he hath ftiil the better of him by far 5 
which fhould make us all love godlinefs the more which hath 
fo gr.^at an advantage as this attending it. 

Thus much in fhort of the promife annexed to this com- 
mand. To defcend to fpeak particularly of all the feveral 
relations comprehended under it, as of magiftrates and fub- 
jedts ; church. officers, paftors, guides and ruler?, and or- 
dinary church-members ; hufbands and wives ; parents and 
children ; matters and fervants, isc v and of their refpective 
duties, would be a large talk, and draw us forth a great 
length beyond our defign in this undertaking ; and fome- 
what to this purpo/e being already fpoken from the third 
and fourth chapters of the epifile to the Colofians (which 
the bled author was then in his fabbath afternoon fermens 
opening up to the fame congregation that heard him lecture 
on the commands) and all of them being, to many at leaft, 
more known, than ala.s\ they are practiied (though indeed 
we know no more in God's account than we fingly deiire, 
defign, and endeavour through grace to practife, and -they 
all, and they only having a good understanding that keep 
his commandments, John xiii 17. Pfai. cxi. 10.) and fince 
withall, if ihs generals we have hinted at in the expofition 
of this command be well underftood,' ferioufly pondered, 
and confcientioufly in the Lord's ftrength, practically im- 
proved j they will not a, little, through his bleffing, contri- 

Com. 5. the Ten Commandments. 377 

bute for helping us, fuitably to acquit ourfelve: in the dif- 
charge of all the particular duties of thefe fevcral rela- 
tions. We mall now forbear to be particular, and (hall 
only fay in the general of thefe ftation an:! relation du- 
ties; that, as if a ferious Chriftian and truly godly man 
be fought after, he is in a fpecial manner to be found in 
them, fo, when fanctifiedly, fuitably and fcafonably perfor- 
med, they in a fpecial manner adorn the doctrine of God, 
and keep it from being blafphemed, and bear a very real and 
evident testimony to the truth and reality of religion in the 
profeftbrs of it, and withall are a notable mean of convin- 
cing men, and even of winning and gaining them who obey 
not the word, as maybe clearly gathered from Luke iii io, 
II, 12, 13, 14. Tit. ii. 5, 10. 1 Tim. v 14. and vi. 1. 1 
Pet. ii. 13, 14, 15. and iii. 1,2. compared together. 

Before we proceed further amongft many queilions that 
might arife here, one word to thefe two. 

1. Whether ought a father to love his fon, or a fon to 
love his father moil ? Anfw. The fon ought to love his fa- 
ther moft, as reprefentiiig moft of God ; and the father 
ought to love his fon moft, as comprehending moft of him- 
felf, fuch mutual refpects may exceed one another on dif- 
ferent accounts. 

2. Qutft. Whether is the father or magi A rate moft to be 
obeyed, if they command contrarily ? Anfw\ If that which 
is commanded be a thing belonging to the magiftrates place 
to command in, as where fuch a onefhoald live, what ch; rge 
or office he fhould bear in the common-wealth, and fuch 
like, ceteris paribus, the magiftrates is to be obeyed, for 
thefe things are fought by the magistrate from him not as. a 
fon, but as a member of the common -wealth, whofe i;ood 
principally fhould be eyed, and had refpeel to : but if it be 
a thing that belongeth to the father, and not to the magi- 
strate to command in, as what hufband or wife a child fhould 
marry, and fuch like, that belongeth to the father as a fa- 
ther, and fo is to be obeyed, notwithstanding of the contra- 
ry command of the other. 

The fcope of this command being to moderate men in 
their exceffive defires after honour, and to direct and regu- 
late them in giving refpeift to others, and in (eeking c 
themfelves, and to inform us, that by no means we fhould 
wrong the eftimation of ethers more than their perfons and 
eftates) or ever we lay allde fpeiking of it. it will be 
'tofpeak a little of humility, and the contraries and oppofites 

That humility relnteth to this command, and is compre- 
hended under it ; appeareth from Rom. xii. ic. Phil, ii. 3. 


3i S An ExpofJicn of Com. $. 

And is a grace fo neceiTary and ufeful to Chriftians that it 
ought efpecialiy to be headed and taken notice cf. It may 
be coulidered in a threefold refpeft, I. In refpett of God, 
this humility ought to be in reafonable creatures to God as 
their Creator, they being nothing, andlefs than nothing be- 
fore him, and ufeful or gainful for nothing to him. 2. It 
may be considered as it refpe&eth others, and that not in a 
complimenting manner, but as it comprehendeth our hum- 
bling of ourfelves in our carriage towards them, and from 
the icnic of our fliort- coming of them, and being inferior 
to them in fomethings wherein we prefer them to ourfelves, 
Phil. ri. 3. 3. It may becontidered not only as it mederat- 
eth us in our common carriage towards God, or towards 
our neighbour, but alfo as it concerneth ourfelves ; for by 
it we are kept within bounds, as to our thoughts of our- 
felves, and what is ours, or in us, upon the difcovery of 
many infirmities we are compafied with, fee R.om. xii. 3. 

Humility confidered the firft way, is not properly contain- 
ed under this command, but ccmeth in under the firft com- 
mand of the firft table, but humility in the twolaft refpe&s, 
as it moderateth our thoughts and efteem of ourfelves, and 
frameth our actions fuitably, and according to right reafon 
in reference to others or ourfelves, cometh in here, and is 
enjoined in this command; and concerning it thefe follow- 
ing things are to be obferved. 

1. This humility of one man towards another differeth 
from humility towards God, becaufe of the great difpropor- 
tion that is between Gcd and creatures, infinitely more than 
any that is amongft creatures themfelves, there is nothing to 
be made in cqmpaiifon with God, neither is there any pof- 
fibiiity of profiting him, John xxxv. 7. but there may be 
compared and ufefulneis too, amongft creatures which this 
humility taketh not away, fee Job xxix. throughout the 

2. This humility is not oppofite to magnanimity, boldnefs 
and zeal, but is weli confiftcnt with thefe, as is clear in 
Chrift, the apoftles and others of the faints : for boldnefs 
and magnanimity is an adventuring in Chrift's ftrength upon 
what one is called to according to warrantable grounds j and 
humility, although it leadeth us to entertain due thoughts 
of our own infirmities, yet it moderateth us in that alfo ac- 
cording to right reafon, fo that the exerciie of both being 
to be ordered according to this rule of reafon, as the call, 
cccaiion, objeft, and particular circumftances fhali require ; 
It is evident that there is no inconfiftency betwixt the two, 
but that they may very well be in one and the fame perfon f 
aad at one and the fame perfon, and at one and the fame time. 

3. From 


Com. 5. the Ten Commandments. 31^ 

3 From tliis we may fee, that humility diffcreth from, 
and is fomewhat elfe than fainting and defpondency of fpi- 
rit or penfive pufillanimity, in not daring to follow a call in 
reference to fome feemingly difficult aftion : now humility 
being the virtue acting according to reafon, this is ttut 
excels without and againft reafon", and therefor-. ns hu- 
mility and zeal are commended, fo this want of valiant-* 
ne's for truth, when called for, or bafenefs of fpirit, iscom- 
plained of as a fin, Jer. ix 3. and Mofes, Exod. iv. 10, 14. 
and Jer. i 6, are reproved lor fome degree of it ; for in e- 
very difficult good which men would aim at (and the moil 
deferable good things among men are moil difficult) there 
are two things considerable, 1. There is a bcnim^ or a good 
thing which is defirablc ; as for example, to do fome ex- 
ploit, to undergo fome charge, &c. now,men being bent to 
be ambitious, covetous, rafn, tic. to attain fuch a good, 
humility moderating their defires and defigns according to 
their capacity and abilities, and bridling that excefsnpon the 
one hand, is of great advantage. There is agnin in the fe- 
«ond place, in attaining fuch things, a difficulty, by which 
we are in hazard to be feared from, and fainted in follow- 
ing of duty, and zeal and magnanimity guard againft this, 
fuftaining the man, and keeping him from falling into dif- 
couragement, or pufillanimous penfiveuefs, which is the de- 
feat upon the other hand. 

4. This humilty, as a grace, differeth from civility and 
outward yielding to another, hecaufe, I. It proceedeth from 
a principle of conference, and upon a conscientious account, 
viz. the inward fenfe and feeling of the defect of grace in 
ourfelves, and the impreffion of our neighbours worth. 2. 
It is fingie, without any approved defign of pleafing men f 
or any other confideration, but purely upon the fore-men- 
tioned account. 4 

This is the grace of humility, with which the befl: rncra- 
lifts among the heathen, were nothing acquainted ; they had 
indeed their moral virtues, as remaining fparks of nature's 
light, and dark refemblances of fome gofpel graces, which 
neverthelefs, wanting the principle of faith, without which. 
it is impoflible to pleafe God, and not being dire&ed to the 
right end, the glory of God could not be acceptable to him. 
But, betides this imperfection and defecrivenefs in their wif- 
dom and way, the gofpei having a far rrMre high and noble 
defign, then they couid propofe, hath aub graces, that are 
wholly peculiar to it : The work and end of moral philoso- 
phy, could be no ether, then to moderate paffions, and re- 
gulate manners, in fuch a conformity to reafon, as mighc 
give unto a man, void of all fenfe of his diitance and alien- 


320 An Expofition of Com. c 

ation from God, in inward lying tranquility, and outward 
transient peace ; whereas, the project and fcope of the gof- 
pel, is quite another tiling, viz to reconcile, and fave loft 
finners, through faith ir. Chrift, and in him, to make them 
partakers of hoiinefs here, and glory and happinefs here- 
after ; Hence it is, that as the gofpel doth, by renewing or 
(anclifying, wholly change the old appearances of virtues 
into folid graces, flowing from Chrift the fountain, and re- 
ferred to God as their true endj fo alio doth it require and 
beftow its proper graces ; fuch as repentance, faith, humi- 
lity, and many other, unto which thefe moralifts were alto- 
gether ftrangers. And as to the humility, it is certain, that 
the gofpel, by difcovering unto us, the loft and wretched 
condition, whereinto fin had ruined us, and the free and 
wonderful love, whereby we are delivered out of it, doth 
agreeable to this command, teach us a lowlinefsand felf de- 
nial, fo unlike to any thing in the doctrine of thefe old mo- 
ralifts, that it is not more proper to the fpirit of the gofpel, 
than its contrary pride, may be called their characleriftick ; 
in as much as it is evident, that thefe felf-improvers of felf, 
became alfo felf-magnifiers, to that pitch of arrogancy, that 
Lucretius and Seneca, in the name of their moft famous 
feels, endeavoured by argument to extol their virtuous man, 
even above their gods ; and the beft of them would have 
accounted Chriftian humility an unworthy and bafe abjec- 
tion of fpirit ; but neither are thefe the only men tainted 
with this evil ; the fin of pride is fo plainly the ruin of all 
that are without God, and the neck-break of all that feek 
after righteoufnefs, otherways than by faith, that we may 
well affirm, humility to be faith's infeparable companion: 
No wonder then that there is no grace more commended 
to Chriftians, and more necefTary; which might appear by 
confidering, i. The commands whereby it isprcfied in fcrip- 
ture. 2. The weightinefs of the expreffions in which it is 
holden forth, I Pet. v. 6. Humble y ourf elves therefore under 
the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time. 
Rom xii. 3. For J fay, through the grace given unto me, to 
every man that is among you , not to think of himfclf more high- 
ly than he ought to think, but to think foberly, according as 
God hath dealt to every man the meafure cf faith. Phil. ii. 3. 
Let nothing be dons through ft rife or vain glory, but in low'i- 
nefs of mind, let each efieem others better than curfelves, Jam. 
iv." 6. 10. But he giveth more grace : wherefore he faith, God 
refijteth the proud ; but giveth grace unto the humble. HumSli 
yourfelves in the fight cf the Lord, and he flo all lift you up. 3. 
The many commendations of it, it maketh us 1. Like Chrift, 
Matth. xi. 20. John *iii. from ver. 4. to'i8. and is particu- 
lar \j 

Com. 5. the Ten Qommandrntnts. 3Zl 

larly taught by him ; 2. It is an ornament which we ought 
to he cloathed with, 1 Pet. v. 5. 3. It fitteth for fuitable 
difcharge of duties, Micah vi. 8. 4. It procureth the in- 
creafe of grace, 1 Pet. v 5. 5. It is more then to command 
a city, for it maketh a man mailer of himfclf, Prov, xvi. 
17, 18, ly. 6. It hath many promi.'es of exaltation through- 
out the fcripture, and of riches, honour, and long life, 
Prov. xxii. 4. Pial. cxii. 3. L-dtly, it preventeth many e- 
vils and vices that are even incident to Chriftians, and lead- 
eth to the conrrary virtues. .1. Humility moclerateth a mans 
defl^n, in preffing for honour, fo it preventeth ambition, 

2. His purfuing inordinately after riches, and lofupprcfTctli 
covctoufnefs. 3. Inordinate feeking after knowledge, and 
fo it guardeth again ft curiofity. 4. It moderateth in refer- 
ence to a mans efteem of himfclf, and fo it fhooteth out 
felf confidence. 

And then if ye confider it with reference to a man of e- 
minent parts or ftation it preventeth, 1. Difdain in him of 
others inferior to him. 2. It preventeth defpiiing of other* 
counfel, and his trufting to his own underftandmg. 3- It 
preventeth leaning to eftates and riches, and fo he prefer- 
reth not himfelf, as being the better, becaufe of thefe. 

And in the laft place, there is a pride whereby men hav* 
ing done any remarkable thing, are inclined either to feek 
applaufe, efteeming highly of what they have done, and 
feeking out their own glory, which Solomon faith is no glo- 
ry, but is rather as, if a mcnjhould eat too much honey , and 
fo turneth rather to their fhame \ or to receive it inordi- 
nately, which Paul would have done, had he fuffered them 
of Lyftra, Acts xiv. to have facrificed to him, which pride, 
with all its vitious attendants, this humility preventeth and 
fupprefTeth. For, 1. It mindethnot high things, Rom. xii: 

3. Neither 2. Vaunteth itfelf when it paffeth by wrctogs, 
and forgiveth them, and when it doth or fuffereth any o- 
ther thing commendable ; it thinketh not of itfelf above 
what is meet, but foberly, Rom. xii. 3. 3. After acls of 
charity, the right hand knovveth nor, as it were, what the 
left hand hath given, it forgetteth good works, as to any 
felf efteem of them (which pride remembreth and keepeth, 
as it were a regifter of) but afcribeth all to grace, Not /, 
but grace in me, faith the humble man with Paul, 2 Cor. iii. 
5. and 1 Cor. xv. 10. 

In a word, this -humility is extenfive to every thing in a 
man's deportment as a man, and to all duties which con- 
cern him as a Chriftian, whether in reference to the wor- 
fliip of God, or the doing duty to men, even as on the 
contrary, pride, felf-conceit, and prefump:icn are very a« 

S f ilSfU'Cj 

An Exp'foion of Com. $* 

fenfive, and immix thcmfelves in all that a man doth, and 
at make all ro (t\rik. 
.And as it is commendable, likewife it is very neceflary a3 
to many things; as 1. In external things, that relate to 
our converging with others, it is neceiTaryas to a man's cre- 
dit and juft reputation : the proud man is often in God's 

iteotrs judgment defpi'ed ; Then it is neccfiary for things 
relating to oiirfelves, as for our entertaining peace with 
God, tor keeping as within hounds, for guarding againft 

res, for keeping up communion with God, and for fa- 
ting to the fuitable- discharge of all duties called for : It would 
:e u? preach, and you hear more profitable; it would 
fettle and eftab lifh againft the reelings that are in this time, 

it put many into a diftemper, and a fort of fpiritual dif; 
traction and madnefs, it is jjjie humble that God givetb grace 
io> totuhm be revealetb his fecrst> who havelargeft promifes 
and commendations, err. Let us therefore learn to be hum- 
ble and fober, without affecting to be wife above what is 

et, this grace of humility in the lively exercife of it, is 
In a fpecial manner called for by the Lord at this time, of 

t reeling and falling of many, the want whereof uieth to 
preceecle ?.nd predifpofe for a fall. 

To dole this we fhall only add, That wherever there may 
be a pride, there alfo is an humility oppofite to it. Man may 
be proud in refpe<& of outward things, as of eftate. riches, 

..ent, employment, &c. And alio in refpect of things of 
the mind, yea, even of fpiritual things: As, i. Of parts 
2nd gifts, as knowledge, quicknefs of wit, fruitfulneis of 

. anion, <bc. 2. Of graces and holinefs. 2 Of experien- 
ces, eminent manifeftations, fpiritual exercifes, <bc. where- 
with Cod may make fome to fhine very far above and be- 

,d ofhers. 3. A man may be proud of fome good de: 
clone by him, wherein poSibly God hath made him force- 
hat more than ordinarily inftrumental. 4. There is a proud 

triofity leading to feek after the knowledge of fecret 
things, or of things too high for us, or of things revea 
and competent for us to know in another way than God 
hath allowed, or leading men to adventure and ftep further 
than they are called, which is condemned by the Lord, Exod. 

... 21. where he forbiddeth the people to break thro' and 
gaze : Now there is no pride, in all thefe refpeets, an oppo- 
iite i '.:; \\z\\ maketh a man walk foftly, and efkem 

of him'felF, notwithftanding of any difference God 
hath made betwixt him and others in -what things foever, 
and to (vait till his mind and will be made known in his own 
Way, and Dy instruments made choice or by himfelf, and put- 


Com. 6. tU Ten CommanAnents. ^3 

teth on to ferious endeavours of pra&ifing it when kn 
which pride doth not. Thus we fee both how extenfive iind 
how neceftary to Christians in whatfoever Ration they are, 
this excellent grace of humi ity is, which is a fpecial orna- 
ment of Chiiftians, and a notable piece of beautiful confor- 
mity to meek and lowly Jefus. 


Exodus xx. Verfe 13* 

Thou Jbalt not kill. 

IN the fifth command the Lord generally prefci Tbeth hu- 
mility, in that refpect which is to be (hewn by every 
one to another in .their feveral ftations and relations; bre 
proceedeth now more particularly to give directions in thefc 
things that are moft dear and neceftary to men, firft in the 
matter of life, command fixth : 2 In the matter of chafti- 
ty and temperance, Com. 7. 3, In what conce>* = eth rheic e- 
ftate, Com. 3. 4. In what concerneth truth, and more e- 
fpecially our neighbours name, Com. -9. Laftly, in what 
concerneth the inward frame of our hearts toward our own 
eftate, and the eftate of others, Com. 10. 

For underftanding this command, Thou fo alt not kill : we 
may conuder, 1. Its object; 2. Its act, to kill: 3. its Sub- 
ject (to fpeak fo) Thou. 

As for the fir ft, this command cannot be confidered, as 
relating to beafts; as if they were not to be killed, becaufe 
God gave man all the hearts for his ufe to feed on them, 
Gen. ix. 3. and we are to eat of whatever is fold in the fhara- 
b!es, by his allowance, who'e is the earth and the fulnrfs 
thereof, 1 Cor. x. 25. Befide man in all thefe comm 
is properly directed in reference to his neighbour and not to 
beads: Yet I grant by Striking a beaft, a man may offend, 
as, 1. When that ftroke wrongeth his neighbour, to whom 
that beaft belongetii. 2. When in our Striking th ee Efc, z. 
Unreafonablenefs, as if we would require that capacity in a 
beaft, that is in reafonable creatures, and fo r aircrew 
offend when they anfwer notour expectation. *. \ft 
there is a breaking out into anger and pjffioin at bfttres] as 
when a horfe rideth not well, a dog nuiaeth not well, a 

3^4 dn Expofition of Com. 6. 

hawk flyeth not well, be. which fpeaketk an impoteney in 
us, who are fo eafiiy mattered by irrational paflions, which 
will fometimes alfo feize upon us in reference to fenfelefs 
and lifelefs creatures, when they do not accomodate us to 
our minds. 3. When there is bitternefs and cruelty in 
ftriking : Something of this the Lord reproveth by making 
Balaam's afs fpeak, and rebuke the madnefs of that prophet, 
who unreafonably fmote the afs, and wiflied he had had a 
fword to kill her, Numb. xxii. 29. whereas a juft man pi- 
tieth his beaft, and regardeth the life thereof, Prov. xii. 10. 

But for the better underflanding of the object of the com- 
mand, we fhall proceed to fpeak to it, and the aft of killing 
(which is the fecond thing) complexedly, and if we confider 
killing in reference to a mans felf, it is certainly underftood 
here; for that being the fum of all the commands of the 
fecond table, Thou (bait love thy neighbour as thy felf, it muft 
be underftood as repeated in each of them; as here, Thou 
/halt not kill thy neighbour more than thy felf or fha It prefer ve 
htm as thyfelf which fuppofeth that it is not free for a man to 
wrong himfclf more than to wrong others; and generally 
thefe reafons whereby the Lord reftraining us from killing 
others, will alfo hold in the reftraining us from killing, 
and othervvife wronging ourfelves ; therefore there is no 
queftion, if it be a (in to wrong, hurt or torture others 
whether in bocy or in th€ir foul, as to the tranquility and 
quiet frame thereof, and any ways to procure or further 
their death, it will be no lefs to do thus to ourfelves ; be- 
caufe love to ourfelves is the pattern that we ought to walk 
by in loving others. 

We may be guilty of the breach of this command in re- 
ference to ourfelves by omiffions as vveii as commiflions, as 
when things needful for entertainment and health of the 
body are, either defignedly, or with an exccflive mifregard 
to health and life, omitted 

We may further fall into the breach of this command in 
reference to ourfelves, either directly, as purpofing and in- 
tending hurt to our own body; or indirectly, by cafting 
ourlelves in unneceffary feen dangers, by wilful or carelefs 
over ufing of known unwholefome food, by exceffive and 
immoderate toil, by fpending and wafting the body with un- 
chafteneis, bj drunkennefs and gluttony (whereby many 
more are deftroyed than with the fword, according to the 
comruoD faying, plures gula quam gladio pereunt) and many 
Other w?ys. 

If we confider this command with refpect to others, we 
may conceive it in reference to a threefold life, which wc 
fhould endeavour to prefofve and promote in them, in any 


Com. 6. the Ten Commandments. 325 

one of which a commiffion or omiflion will make a breach 

1 . There is a life of the body ; and whatever cometh from 
us that wrongeth that, either directly, as ftrokes, challen- 
ges or appeals, &c. or indirectly, if it were but by keeping 
back fomething that is in our power to give which might 
be uferul to our neighbour in his need, that no doubt mak- 
cth guilty of this fin of killing in refpect of this bodily life. 
I have mentioned'appeals to duels under the former branch, 
becaufe albiet that in the matter of private duels, the pride 
and corruption of men do ordinarily either commend a vain 
bravery and gallantry, or pretend the excufes of a feeming 
obligation in the point of honour or occefiary defence : Yet 
we are furc that the judgment of God, which is according 
to truth, by pointing out on the part as well as of the accepter 
as of the appealer; thefe enfuing irregularities do condemn 
the thing as exceeding finful. As, I. Impotency of mind 
and excefs of paffion, which if fooner in the accepter, doth 
only add deliberation to his other guilt. 2. Contempt of 
the public laws and civil order. 3 An ufurpation of the 
magiftrates fword, which is given to him, both for punifh- 
in f J and protecting. And 4. An invafion of God's right of 
vengeance, which he hath fo exprefly referved to himfelf, 
and frpm this the accepter obferviog ordinarily no more 
moderament in his defence, than there was neceffity for the 
engagement, hath no excufe more than the challenger, fo 
that in effect: although the mediate rife maybe thought to 
be on the appealers part, yet the fin is common, and is in a 
word a plain complication of hatred againft our neighbour, 
contempt againft the laws and powers cf God, who hath 
appointed them, and a bold and uefparate defpiling and rafli» 
iog upon death, judgment and eternity, which do fo em- 
inently attend all iuch rencounters ; O how much more he- 
roic and noble, were it for men to approve the wife and 
great kings choice, he that isjlow to anger ii better than the 
mighty , and he that ruleth his fpirit than be tint taketh a city, 
to hear him, who U higher than the princes of the earth, 
who commands us, Love your enemies blefs them that curfe 
yev, do good to them that hate yen, and pray j or them -which 
defpitefuliy ufe you, and confirmed all by his own moft 
powerful example : And laftly, the Trudy of that divine 
goodnefs, which embraceth both good and evil, juft and 
unjuft, to afpire to that height of all felicity and gloiy in 
being perfect as our Father, which is in heaven is perfect ; 
But to proceed. 

2. There is a fpiritual and eternal life of the foui, thus 
fin deadneth and kiileth men, and in this refpect ail who 


3^5 4 n Expofition of Com. 6. 

qcc unfaithful to others in the matter of their foul?, or whQ 
cauSe them ro fin, or finfully give <hem occafion or* fin, be- 
come guilty of foul-murther, So Ezek. iii. 18. and xxxiii. 
6. His bleed will 1 require at thy bands, faith the Lord to the 

Men become guilty of this not only, i. By commanding, 
as Saul did Doeg to kill the Lord's prieiVs, and David did 
Joab to cauie Uriah to be flain, 2. By counfeliing and ad.- 
vifing, as Jonadab did Amnoa in reference to his filter 
Thamar. 3. By alluring and down right re as Tha- 

mar did Juda; 4. By consenting to the Co of others ; cr 
any wife affifting, countenancing or encouraging them in it, 
as Saul was contenting to the death of Stephan, and was 

nding by keeping the clothes of them that Stoned him, 
and as men may be in reference to falSe teachers, 2 EpiStle 
of John x. 1 1. 5. By proving high provocations to others, 
and thereby ftirring them up, to fin fuch as are reproach- 
es, opporobious Speeches, chartallings and challenges to 
fight, 6c. but alfo, 6. By evil example, as David was ac- 
CeflTary to the fin of the adversaries blaSphamous reproaching, 
by what he did, and the apoltie often infinuateth Chriftians 
may be thus guilty by their infukable deportment in the Se- 
veral relations rhey SuStain and Stand under. This may alSo 
be by doing what hath the appearance of evil, yea even by 
. doing or things in themfelves lawful but inexpedient becauSe 
unfeafonable and with offence. Thus one Chriftian maybe 
acceSToiy to anothers {tumbling, and may finfully hazard 
the crtftroying of theSe for whom Chrift died as the apoftle 
difcourSeth concerning offences even in things not Gnful in 
themfelves : 7. By not warning faithfully before fin be com- 
mitted, as is clear, Ezek. iii. 18, 8. By not reproving after 
the fin is committed, but iuffering it to lie on our brother, 
Lev. xix. 6. 9. By not Suiting and proportioning the re- 
proof to the greacneSs of the fin, but making it too Soft and 
gentle, not Shewing jufr indignation againil it, which was 

i his guilt, who though he did not altogether neglect or 
omit to reprove the prophanity and groSs wickednefs of his 
Sons, yet did not reprove at that rate of hoiy feverity, called 
for, and anSwerable to their atrocious and villanous wicked- 
nefs, he frowned not on them and dealt not roughly with 
them, as he fiiculd have done, as is clear by comparing, 
1 Sam. ii. 22, 23, 24* 25. with 1 Sam. iii. 13. 10 By raih 
putting men in offices for which they are not ail. or not 
competently qualified, and So cannot but in all probability 
fin much in them, especially in the office of the miniilry, 
1 Tim. v. 22. 1 1. By not endeavouring by all Suitable and 
lawful means withiu the compaSs of our power and calling 


Corn C. '** Ten Cm its* 3 2 > 

to prevent the fin of others, and to rtffrain to £ Om % 
a5 Eli is on this account dplfetigft by the Lord I JSara in. 
baching, vcriti 1 fpreadirg 

lieftfiestftid fatfc dodtrinc; thus Antichnft is npronouCy 
a pAiticly guilty afttiw fin of foul murther ; as a!! fialfe 
i cers are lefs or more according to the nature 
b -f t ibe taught by them and their indttftry in prop 

ratio" the fame ; andlifcewife all that tolerate and do not 
retrain them, whofe office obligeth them according to their 
power: all th'efe and other wife ma i accefibry to o- 

qs, and fo make their.fflvcs £$ty of this great 
and cruel oul-murth 

This fort of murther aioun'detl . and yet 

is in an efpecial manner.fcrbi dden by this command, and the 
prevention of it accordingly called for, u being a greater evi- 
dence of love to our neighbour to be careful of his foul than 
ofhii body, the one'belng more precious than the other: 
vj n: : prophets, teachers and feducers, fe em or- 

dinarily to be molt tender of mens pcrfons, and moil defirous 
to plealc them, yet are they in this fort horridly guiuy of 
their murther. 

3. There is a life of contentment, confining in the tran- 
quility of the mind, and the calm form of a quiet fp 
with comfort, joy and* chearfulnefs : To this pur-pofe faith 
Pa*U 1 Then. iii. 8. llive t ifyeftuniTfajtintheLsrd: and it 
is faid of Jacob, Gen. xlv. 27. when be heard that Jofeph 
lived, hisfpirlt r as 11 it had been dead before, he- 

caufe of his great heavinefs, ariling from the atrt 

cf h?s fen. Thus we become guilty of this tin of hi tragi whea 
we obftruct or interrupt the ipirituai comfort and joy, or the 
inward contentment or our neighbour, by fear, heavine/s, 
difquietnefs, difcouragement, &c. whereby his life is made 
bitter, and his tranquility impaired, and r o his hurt proctu 
or furthered : As Jdfeplvs brethren did not only become 
guilty of his blood, but of weighting their Father, 
deadning, as it were his fpirit, which after he news 

of Jofeph's being alive revived : So people may he guilty - 
gainft their miniilers, when they make them do their work 
not with joy, but grief, as it is lieb. xiii. t 7. 

Again, murther, as it refpefteth the bodily \*te of cur 

neighbour, is either immediate as Cain's was of Abel, Jo- 

ab's of Abner and Amafa ; or mediate, as Saul's was of 

,: Lord's priefts, David's cf Uriah, and Achab's of Na- 


Agnin, killing may be conuaered either as purpofed, fucii 
as Cain's was of Abel, and Joab's of Abrier and A ma fa, or 



328 -. Aii Expcfition of Com. $1 

not purpofed ; which again is twofold: 1. Innocent which 
is even by the law of God every way 10, and is indeed no 
breach of this command : As when a man following his duty, 
doth that which befide, and contrary to his intention, and 
without any previous neglect or overfight in him, proved* 
the hurt and death of another. 2. Culpable, becaufe al- 
though it do proceed beyond the purpofe of the perfon, yet 
it is occafioned and cauled by a culpable negligence: As, 
iuppofe one were hewing with an ax, which he either knew 
or might have known to be loofe, and the head net well 
faflned to the helve, did not advertife thofe about it ; if by 
flying off, it happened tu« wound or kill any perfon, he were 
not innocent; but if without any inadvertancy he either 
knew not that it were foofe, or that any were about him, 
if then it fhould fall of and kill his neighbour, in this he is 
guihlefs: So, when the Lord commanded thofe who built 
houfes to build fettlements about the roofs of them, if any 
perfon fell where the battlements were, the niafter was free; 
if the battlements were not, he was guilty. 

Murther is alfo either to be coniidered, as committed af- 
ter provocation, or without all provocation, which is a great 
aggravation of the fin, though the provocation maketh it 
not ceafe to be a fin. Further it may be coniidered, as it is 
the murther of wicked and evil men, and that on the ac- 
count of their religion, which is a molt horrid aggravation 
of the murther. 

Laftly this murther is either ordinarily, as of meer equals, 
or inferiors; or extraordinary aggredged by the quality of 
the perfon murthered, whether he be a fuperior, as a ma- 
giftrate, a parent ; or whether he be of a near relation, as 
a brother, or kinfman, 6r. 

We come a little more particularly to confider the extent 
and nature of the fin forbidden here (which is not certainly 
to be underftod by taking this life by public juftice, or in a 
lawful or juit war, or in ncceffary and pure felf-defiance) 
that we may the better underftand the contrary duty com- 
manded : It implieth then a hurting, which we may confider, 
1. As in the heart. 2. As in the mouth or words. 3 As 
ingeftures. 4. As in deeds ; for we take it for granted that 
it reacheth further than the grofs outward act, as by ChrifVs 
exposition of it in Matth. v. is incontrovertibly clear. 

The heart is the fountain, fpring, and treafure of all evil, 
in it brccdeth all evil, and from it proceedeth this murther, 
Matth. xv. 19. He that in heart hateth his brother is a mur- 
therer, 1 John iii. 15. In award whatever is oppofite to 
leve in the heart, is a breach of this comoaarjd : As, 1. 


Com. 6. the Ten Commandments. + 3:9 

Hatred^ which is malitious, and limply wifhcth ill to out 
neighbour, and only becaufe we love him not, without any 
other reafon, as one wickedly faid, 

Non amo te Zabidi, nee poffum die ere qnare, 
Hoc tantum poffum dicere f non amo te. 

So Cain hated his brother without caufe. 2. Anger, 
that fupponeth a pretended wrong, and is delirous of re- 
venge, becaufe of ingratitude, pretended injuftice, isc. 3. 
Envy, whereby we are grieved with the good of another, 
fuppofing, though groundlefly that it obftructeth ours, and 
therefore we leek to overturn it : Anger is cruel, and 'jurat/) 
oittragiousf but -who can Ji and before envy ? Saith Solomon, 
There is often feCrct hatred on this ground more irrecon- 
cileable, than where many and grave reafons can be given, 
4. Rage, which preffeth revenge beyond what is condign, 
though it follow it lawfully, as to outward means. 5. Sa- 
vitia, or cruelty, that delighteth in the hurt and prejudice 
of another, all thefe and others of this kind go generally un- 
der the name of hatred and anger. 

If any afk here, Is there no anger lawful ? Anfvj. Yes* 
for there is fomewhat of it natural, yea, and fometimes it 
lawfully immixeth itfelf in duty, as in zeal, when God is 
diflionoured, which was in Moles, Exod. xxxii. And no 
doubt, indignation at wicked men, in fome cafes, is lawful 
and alfo required. But carnal anger is forbidden; which, 
1. Is a defire of re v enge where there hath no wrong beer* 
done to us. 2. When the revenge defired is difproporti- 
oned to, and greater than the wrong. 3. When it is pre- 
pofterioufly defired, without intervening juftice. 4. When 
it is not defired for the right end, to wit, the man's gaining, 
but only for the fatisfying of our carnal humcur. 5. When 
it is immoderate and corrupt in the manner of it, (o as the 
name of God is dishonoured by it. This unlawful anger, 
when it is, 1. Againft a fuperior, it is called grudge. 2. 
When againft an equal, rancour. 3. When againft an in- 
ferior, difdain and contempt ; thefe two laft follow ordinarily 
Upon the firft. 

2. This command is broken by injurious wofds, as in 
that fifth chapter of Matthew, He that Jhall fay to his bro~ 
ther, thou fool, is guilty : O what guilt will there be found 
to have been in imprecations, curlings, wrathful willies, 
difdainful and paffionate fpeeches, when Chrift will call 
men to an account for the breach of this command ? 

3. It is broken in geftures, fuch as high looks, fierce 

T t lock?, 

33° * ^ n Expofitlon of Com. 7; 

looks, gnafliing with the teeth, ACts vii. 54. foaming with 
the mouth, and fuch like, wherewith even our blefled Lord 
and his fcrvants have been followed ; and as there may be 
adultery in looks, fo there is alfo murther in them 5 fuck 
looks had Cain, Gen. iv. 5. 

4. It is broken in deeds, even when death followeth not, 
as in wounding, imuing, oppreffing, cruel withdrawing of 
the means of life, extortion, exaction, biting, ufury, litigious 
wrangling, violent compulficn, raifing and racking of land 
or houfe rents beyond the juft value, and fqueezing and ex- 
acting upon poor labourers and tenents, without any due 
regard to them or their labours ; which laft is a frequent 
fin, but little regarded, a crying fin, but little cared for. 
Next, it is broken by withholding what might be 1 ufeful and 
refrefhful, as by neglecting the fick and diftreffed, want of 
hofpitality, efpecially to the poor: All thefe are finfui 
breaches, whether direCtly or indirectly incurred, neither is 
it fuffident that we abftain (imply from committing fomeof 
thefe, but we muft alfo make confeience to praetife all con- 
trary duties. 

The laft thing propofed to be fpoken to, was the perfoa 
thou ; where, in a word, we are to diftinguifh private men 
from public men, who are magistrates and bear the fword, 
whom this command doth not reftrain from executing of 
juftice ; yet thefe may alfo fin in their pafiions; and un- 
juftly put forth their authority, and be carnal in punifhing 
and palling fentence, even when there is ground in juftice; 
and thus magistrates may become guilty, though in the ex- 
ecuting of juftice, not fimply, but by reafon of other con- 
curring circumftances. Thus much fhortly on this com- 

Exodus xx. Verfe 14. 

Thou Jhalt not commit adulury. 

THE Lord having fpoken of fuch fins as do more re- 
fpeCt mans being, fimply in the former command, 
he cosietk now to direft in thofe things that concern a man 


Cora. 7. the Ten Commandments. 3jt 

in his life, in the ordering of his converfation : And as it 
will be found one way or other, that by our pafiion, ha- 
tred, and anger, in one degree or other, the former com- 
mand is broken often, fo this fin (th.it in the very name of 
it is abominable) is not To unfrequent, even amongft Chrif- 
tians, as might in all reafon be fuppofed and fufpecled. 

The vile fin of inordinate concupifcence and luft en t red 
into mankind exceeding early after Adam's fall, and in no- 
thing the bitter fruit of original fin, and that pravicy of cur 
nature fooner kyeths, and did kyeth, then in it. Hence is 
it that Adam's and Eve's nakednefs, and their being afham- 
ed, is fpoken of in fcripture, which implieth a finfulnefs 
and inordinatenefs in them, which formerly they were not 
tainted with; as alfo a fhame or plague following upon it : 
and this corrupt nature being ftill in man, it is hard to fpeak 
of, or to hear thefe things holily ; and therefore there is a 
neceflity both of holinefs and of wifdom here, left \vc 
break this command, even when fpeaking of it, and hear- 
ing it fpoke of; yet the breach of it being a (in fo rife, and 
the fpirit in fcripture thinking it needful to fpeak of it, yea, 
ifr being put in a particular and diftincl command by itfe'f ; 
and our raoft holy and blefled Lord Je(us having himfelf 
commented on it, Matth. v. there is a neceflity of frying 
fomewhat of it, but fo as to contain within the bounds of 
fcripture expreflions : O! be therefore afraid of finning in 
hearing ; remember and confider that the Lord feeth and 
in a fpecial manner abhorreth fuch vile imaginations as 
fhall be irritated and excited even from his holy command 
enjoining the contrary, which is indeed both an evidence 
and a part of the finfulnefs of fin, as the apoftle fpeakech, 
Rom. vii. 

To take therefore a view of it, let us confider the fcope of 
the command, which we conceive is in a fpecial manner, 
and obvioufly holden forth in thefe few places of fcripture, 
commending holinefs in refpecl of a mans perfon, and con- 
demning uncleannefs in all its branches, 1 Theii. iv. 3 4, 5. 
7. For this is the will of God, even your fantlificat ion, thai ye 
Jljould ahftain from fornication, that every one of you f 0011 Id 
know to pojfefs his veffel in fantlificat ion and honour, not in the 
luft of concupifcence , even as the Gentiles -which knew not God 

for God hath not called us unto undeannefs, but unto ho- 

linefs, Ephef. v. 3, 4, 5. But fornication, and all unclean- 
nefs, or covetoufnefs, let it not be once named among ft you, as 
kecometh faints : Neither filthinefs, nor foolijh talking, nor 
jefling, which are not convenient : But rather giving of thanks 
For this ye know } that no whoremonger^ nor unzUta p-rfn, 
T t z nor 

332 An Exfofition of Com. 7. 

ncr covetous man who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in 
the kingdom of Chrtft and of God, Gal. v. 19. Novj the work 
of the flefh are manifefl, -which are thefe, adultery, fornication 
vncleannefs, lafavioufnefs. Rom. xiii. 13. Let us walk koneft- 
ly as in the day, not in rioting anddrunkennefs, not in chamber- 
ing and wantonnefs, not infirife and envying. Col. iii. 5. 
Mortify therefore your members, which are upon the earth ; 
fornication^ andeannefs , inordinate affeBion, evil concupifcence % 
and covetovfnefs, which is idolatery. In which places, as we 
fee the fin forbidden in this command, held out under the 
mod odious designations, viz. a work of the fleflj, fornication, 
adultery, ancleannefs, la/civkufnefs, inordinate affe£lion % evil 
ioncvpifcence, <bc* branches of this fin, and a decent walk 
commanded, as contrary to the fame; fo we may fee from 
them the /cope of this feventh command to be an honeft de- 
cent, fhame-faced, chafre, temperate and holy life ; which 
being well confldered, doth much illuftrate the meaning and 
confent of it. 

If we might be particular, we could fhew how there is no 
command more prelTed, more fully explained, and forer 
plagued in the breach of it than this, and fet forth with 
more aggravating expreffions, to make it fo much more a* 
bominable. It wrongeth God, and the fociety of men ; it 
wrongeth others ; in particular, our children and ourfelves, 
both in body, eftate and name ; it bringeth a blot on thd 
foul here and hereafter, Job xxxi. 12. Prov. vi. 33. It 
taketh away wit and courage, yea and even the very heart, 
belotting men, Hof. iv 11. compared with Prov. vi. 32. So 
did it in Solomon, and therefore, the man given to it is 
compared to an oxe and a/W, Prov. vii. 22, 23. &c* It is 
compared alfo to the neighing of horfes, Jer. v. 8. and the 
hire cf a whore, and the price of a dog, are put together, 
Deut. xxxiii. 18. The madnefs, folly, yea and, to fay fo, 
devilry and bewitching power of it are fet out in Jezabel. It 
Ss faid to t*> Eph. v. 6. A work of darknefs, that bringeth 
Cod's wrasfh on the children of difobedience , as it did bring it 
on Sodom the old world, and the Canaanites moft fignaliy ; 
and feldom is there a remarkable plague and puniihment 
brought on a perfon or land, but this fin of vilenefs hath a 
main hand in the procuring of it ; and where it reigneth, it 
is ufualiy, if not always, accompanied with many grofs fins, 
which are occafioned by it, and given way to for its fake, 
as drunkennefs, murther, idolatry, £?c. 

For further clearing of this command, confider I. The 
fpecies or kinds of faults condemned in it, and the virtues 
cr graces commended. 2, The manner of beiDg guilty of 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. 333 

the breach of it, which becaufe this command will be found 
to be fpiritual, as the other commands are) reacheth to 
the heart and affections as they do. 3. Con fid er the fia 
Irere forbidden in its incitements, foments, and other fins 
more implicitely comprehended under it •, as idlenefs, glut- 
tony, drunkennefs, impudency, gaudineis and und i:\flnefs 
in apparel or nakednefs, dancing, ringing of bawdy longs, 
loofe company or feilowfhip, and every appearance of this 
ill, and what may lead to it, and difpofe for it, or is an e- 
vidence of it. 4. See its oppofice virtues, and the means 
ufeful for the fubduing of it, as chaftity, modefty, fhame- 
facedntfs, temperance, lawful marriage, the remedy there- 
qf, &c. which are required in this command, and are very 
ufeful for a holy life. 

That thefe things ought to be fpoken of, none. will deny; 
that they belong to one of the commands, the perfection of 
the law requireth it; and that they come in here undur this 
command, the nature of them, and their conjunction with, 
or influence upon the fin condemned, or duty commanded 
here, will make it evident ; the fin of adultery being a prime 
branch of the carnalnefs of our nature, under it the reft of 
that kind are comprehended for making of them the more 

. Now in considering the act of vilenefs forbidden, we may 
I. Look to thefe ills, that are Amply unnatural, of which 
thefe that be guilty are called in the fcripture, Rev. xxi. 8. 
the abominable, fuch are thefe, 1. Who proftitute themfelves 
to the abomination of filthy feilowfhip with devils, as they fup- 
pofe and imagine. 2. Thefe who commit beaftiality, a vile- 
nefs mod deteftable in reasonable creatures, it is called con- 
fufion, Lev., xviii. 23. 3. Thefe who abufe themfeives 
with mankind fpoken of, I Tim. i 10. Rom i. 26. 27. cal- 
led a!fo in the fcripture fodomy, going after firange fi*jb, hav- 
ing been the abominable practice of thefe mifcreams, whom 
God let forth for an example fuffering the vengeance of eter- 
nal fire when he rained, as it were, fomething of hell from 
heaven on them burning them quick, and frying them in a 
manner to death in their own fkins, becaufe of the lufts 
wherewith they burned. Thefe are abominations againft 
nature, againft which the laws, both of God and men do 
feverely animadvert, fee Lev. xvii. and 20. Dcut. xxii. 

2. The act of vilenefs inhibited taketh in thefe ills of un* 
cleannefs, that are fome refpect againft nature a'.io, tfcoiigfi 
not fo obvioufly, nor fo grofs, fuch as are betwixt psrfons 
within degrees of confanguinity and affinity ; This unclean- 
nefs is called inceit, fuch are reckoned up, Lev, xviii. 20, 
Dcut xxii. for this the Canaanites we;e c , and it w 



334 'An Expofition cf Com. 7, 

abominable even to heathens, 1 Cor. v. 1. &c. the evil of 
inceft flows from the unnaturalnefs of mens confounding 
the relations and degrees, that nature hath fet men diftinft- 
ly in* as for inftance, nature hath made the father's wife a 
mother, to join therefore with her, deftroyeth that relation, 
and is unbecoming that reverence and refpedl we owe to pa- 
rents ; Hence this inceft is always either in a direct or ob- 
lique line, but not in the collateral, beyond the relations 
or brother and fitter, which are indeed the very beginnings 
the collateral lines, and as it were, almoft one in their com- 
mon parents ; thus conjunftion with one of the fartheft and 
moft remote of a line that is direct, is inceft, which yet is 
net fo with the very firft after thefc excepted, of the line 
that is collateral; a man might not marry his fore grand-fa- 
thers wife; nor his fifter, but may marry his coufin-gsr- 
man, and becaufe man and wife become one flefh, it is in- 
ceft which is within the degrees to the wife, as well as if it 
■were within the hufband himfelf, and is fo called confufi* 
on, Lev. xx, 12, 14. 

3. Confider it as it is againft a tie or bond, called 
the covenant of God, Prov. ii. 17. and this may be three 
ways confidered, 1. When both perfons are married, as 
David and Bathfheda were, this is moft abominable, and that 
which we call double adultery. 2. When the man is mar- 
ried, and the woman folute or free. 3. When the woman 
is married and the man free, thefe two laft are both grofs, 
yet the latter is accounted groffer, as having thefe aggrava- 
tions, of difturbing the peace of our neighbour family, the 
corrupting his feed and off-fpring, and the alienating of his 
inheritance added unto it, therefore not only the firft, but 
even the third hath been ordinarily punifhed by death a- 
mongft men ; and certainly the guilt of the fecond, is little 
inferior, if not equal, to either of them : fori. It hath the 
fame wickednefs of adultery, with the other two, as being 
contrary to the covenant of God. 2. It is in like manner 
peccant againft the remedy of uncleannefs anddiforder, for 
which the Lord did appoint marriage. 3. It doth no lefs 
difturb the quiet and profperity of families, provoking jea- 
loufy in the wife, the more impotent, becaufe the weaker 
veflel, alienating affections,* and often hindering a lawful 
propagation, but continually marring the education of the 
children lawfully begotten, and the parents care of their 
provifion : Neither are thefe things to be reftricted to the 
man, as if he were only therein criminal; the free woman 
the adulterefs, by her manifeft acceffion, doth evidently in- 
volve herfelf in the fame guilt ; if a free man ly with his 
neighbours wife, the aggravations, flowing from her marri- 

Com. 7. the Ten Commandments* 535 

cd ftate, are all charged upon the man, and by the law of 
God he ii therefore condemned as the adulterer. Doth not 
then the parity of reafon, in the cafe of a married man with 
a free woman, equally transfer on her the guilt of his 
confequences ? Neither is it any excufe for the women, that 
the man is ordinarily the temptor; becaufe not only hath 
nature put the woman's greater weaknefs, under the fecurity 
of a far greater meafure of modefty, but the Lord's righteous 
law ft alfo binding both upon without diilincYion : fo that I 
think, we may well underltand all the three forts of adul- 
tery, to be forbidden by the fame I>aws, and under the fame 
pains ; and therefore conclude with Job xxxi. 9. 1 1. that 
adultery, without reftriction, is an iniquity to be punifbed by 
the judge upon the man, as well as upon the woman. 

Of this fort is alfo bigamy, the marrying of two wives to- 
gether ; and poligamy, the marrying of many wives, and 
keeping concubines with wives : For God made but two at 
the beginning, one male, and the other famale ; and hath 
appointed every man to have his own wife, and every wo- 
man to have her own hufband. And although many holy 
men have failed in this, yet can we not exempt them from 
fin ; neither will we afcribe it to God's particular difpenfa- 
tion to them, which we dare not make fo common as that 
practice was, confidering efpecially what abufe it came to, 
as may be inftanced in Solomon, and from whom it had its 
rife, viz. Lamech, and what bitter fruits and fad effects it 
hath had following on it in families and pofterity, as may be 
feen on Abraham, Jacob's, Samuel's father Helkanah, which 
made mens marriage a vexation to them, contrary to its 
ends : But now our Lord, by reducing marriage to its firft 
institution, hath very exprefly abolifhed it in the New Tef- 

4. Confider it in free and unmarried perfons, and thus 
it is fornication ; if it be conftrained or forced, its death by 
God's law, Deut. xxii. 23, &c. only to the .man ; the other 
is free, and it is called a rape, if it be continued in, its 
whoredom and filthinefs ; if with one woman, it is concu- 
binatus, an unwarrantable abufing the ordinance of mar- 
riage, and defpifing of it : if with fun dry parties, it is proi- 
titution, and moft abominable \ and whatever way it be, it 
is abominable, bringing on the wrath of God l Ephef. v. 6. 
Col. iii 6. Not once to be named amongft the faints: and 
whether marriage follow or not, yet it isftill finful. 

It may have feveral aggravations: As, 1. If it be in times 
of light ; 2. If with perfons unfuitable to be converfed with ; 
3. If in families profeffing godlinefs ; efpecially, in the 
the fourth place, if the per Ion be a great profeffor ; 4. If 


33 6 4n Exptfition of Com. 7, 

it be in a time when God is quarrelling and contending with 
a whole foc ; ety or land, and threatning his judgments a- 
gainft all : Now altho* this be at this time aggravated from 
all the!econfiderations, yet, oh ! how much doth it abound, 
and how frequent is it ! 

5. Confidcr this aft of vilenefs inhibited, as it may be a* 
rnongft and betwixt perfons married and living in conjugal 
fociety 5 for the ufe of the marriage-bed is not left arbitra- 
ry more than the ufe of meat and drink ; but is bouncftd by 
the Lord, both in the contra&ing and in the enjoyment \ 
and when thefe bounds which are fet, are tranfgrtffed, the 
tranfgrefibrs are guilty. Thus men and women may begin 
their marriage carnally, by wooing carnally, which will make 
them guilty, altho 5 there be no more: Marrying with perfons 
of a different relipjon, or with other unfuitable disparities, 
maketh guilty of the breach of this command, that fort of 
marriage not being the lawful remedy of fornication, or when 
we are fweyed more with temporal ends, and with refpeft :o 
the fatisfyingof flefhly lufts, then with confeientious refptfifc 
to what God allows, and right reafon requires, referring all to 
God's glory ; for this thwarteth with the end of marriage and 
doth tranfehange marriage into a cloak for covering covetouf- 
nefs or filthineis \ and ib before marriage there may be guift. 
Thus alfo married perfons may break this command, if 
they do not poffefs and enjoy one another in hdinefs andko* 
nour, 1 Theff. iv. 4, 5. and do to give to one another all 
due benovolence : Thus men do fin in the defeat, by not co- . 
habiting, by withdrawing without confent one from ano- 
ther, and by proving a fnare one to another : The apoftlc 
calleth it, 1 Cor. vii. 5. defrauding of one another: And 
many pieces of unkindlinefs amongft married perfons, un- 
becoming the honour and refpedi that the one fhould have 
to the other, may be here comprehended. But men fin 
more and oftener in tUe txctk } viz. by carnal living with 
their own lawful married wives, and ufing marriage for luft, 
living in the luft of concupifence, as the apoftle calleth it 5 
and that as the Gentiles did even in their marriage-flati- 
ons, 1 Theff. iv. 5. And he calleth it, Col. iii. 5. inordinate 
tjfettion ; an affedtion which a man hath to his wife as to an 
whore, rather than what becometh a wife : Thefe things, 
when reproved, muft not be offended at ; but the Lord 
looked unto for the purging of this corrupt nature, of fuch 
filthinefs, as is fhameful even to mention. 

This incrdinatenefs may be in refpeft of frequency, un- 
feafonablenefs, carnalnels in the manner ; and what need 
is there to fay more ? It may alto have place among married 
perfons, when their conjugal fellowship hindreth them from 

Com. 7. the Ten Commandment:. 

fetting a-part any time for extraordinary devotion?, which 
yet they ought to do, as may be drawn rrom what the ap< f- 
tle faith ; l Cor. vii. 5. Though excefs in this alio is to be 
guarded againft, but when there are times of trouble, and 
of private or public calamity, wherein the bridegroom is 
called to come out of his chamber ; in fuch times as thefe, 
married perfons may be readily guilty of inordinatenefs : 

And it is known that there were, upon feme occafions, 
rcftraints under the law when a man might not touch a 
Tvoman though his own wife, to {hew that in conjugal fo- 
ciety men fhould obferve a purity, and that they have doc 
unlimited liberty in this, more than in other things, as eat- 
ing, drinking, he, For although all pleafure in meat and 
di ink be not unlawful, yet carnal fenfualnefs is : So what 
is nartiral, fuitable, and feafonable, here is allowed, arid 
crdinacy forlvdden.. Thus during the marriage ftate, guilt 
may be contracted. 

Again, men may thus fin by unjufl: diffblving of marriages, 
by deiergng, divorcing without the juft caufe of it, extrud- 
ing, and fuch like acts, contrary to the nature of that itrict- 
eft bend and covenant. I grant it is not always necelTary to 
j divorce even where there i§ adultery ; the Lord is not 
offended with reconciliation, where the punifliment of the 
not executed by the magiftrate. 

But if the divorce be made, and the woman afterward 
married to another, her return to her firft hufband, evea 
after lawful diiTolution of her fecond marriage, is an abo- 
mination and exceeding defiling, Jer. iii. 1. Thus in dif- 
fering marriages there may be guilt. 

Lah.lv, this uncleannefs may be confidered as it is in a fo- 
litary perfon, when alone, in their actions of darknefs and 
abominable imaginations, which are to be loathed rather 
then named ; yet thefe things which are done in fecret are 
ften of God, though it be^ fhame to fpeak cf them : ke 
Ephef. v. 11, 12. This fecret uncleannefs, again, may be 
by a perfon, either waking, or fleeping, mentioned, Lev. 
xv. which confefiediy becometh men or women's guilt, ac- 
cording as they have drawn it on, or by unfuitabie imagi- 
nations difpoled themfelves for it ; yea, when it hath not 
ingrata reccrdaiio, an unfavory and difpleafing rememb- 
rance, and a holy horror following thereupon, there is 
guilt : Of this we fpoke fomewhat in the preface to the 

Thefe abominations then are not reftricled to the outward 

acf, but ^re extended further, and many ways men commit 

this wicktdnefs: as 1. In heart, Chriif calletb the lu/ling of 

zfier a ~cmjn a committing cj adultery in his heart. Mat. 

U u v. ib\ 

33 s 'Jn Expofitkn <f Com. 7, 

v. 28 This indeed hath degrees according to the length it 
cometh, and entertainment it getreth, and other inch like 
circumltances, but it is (till accounted by God to be heart 
adultery, and it is called burning, \ Cor. vii 9. and Rom. 
i 27. and is exceeding loathfome to the Lord, and hurtful 
to the inner man, even when men neither refoive nor in- 
tend acting, yet by not abhorring thefe imaginations, but 
(uffering them to roll in their thoughts (O ! beware of car- 
nal ne is upon the thoughts of this) they become guilty, and 
that inward tire being fuftered to burn, often breaketh out 
into a viiible flame. How that 1 Cor. vii. 9. diftereth from 
the burning mentioned, Rom. i. 27. we {hall now forbear 
to mention. 2. Men are guilty of this wickednefs, when 
they licenfe their outward ienfesin the finful purfuit of their 
'objtcls : Thus eyes full of adultery are fpoken of, 2 Pet ii. 
14. thus Matth. v. 28. A lnjlful look is adultery .- and Job 
ix. 31. faitb, he will not look upon a maid Thus' alio ob- 
ksne pictures, delight in them, or other fpedlades of that 
fort, cannot but defile the man : The ears are ckflled by 
hearing of, and liftning to obfeene and filthy difcourfts, to 
drunken, bawdy, or light wanton amorous fongs : the toucli 
with embraceings •, and the mouth with killings : Such are 
ipeken of, Prov. vii. 13. She caught him and biffed him. 

To infift further, is not fuitable : but oh ! there is much 
guilt contracted this way., and but little noticed, and m 
iied for. 3. Men may become guilty by geftures, as they 
are evidences of this vilenefs, or difpofe to it, and poftures 
indecent and unbecoming civility, and godlineis : See what 
is fpoken of a naughty per/on, Prov. vi. 13, 14. and I fa iiw 
16. &c. this is oppoiite to honefi walking which is commen- 
ded, PiOm. xiii. 13. and a carnal ivantcnne ft reproved. 4.. 
Perfons become exceeding guilty of this evil by fcurril and 
obfeene fpeeches, whereas this iin fhould not be once nam- 
ed ; by reading fcurril, wanton, amorous ballads or books, 
which is, as if we were conferrirg on fuch a fubkee, by 
taunting and reproaching one another in Mich communica- 
tion as cerrupteth good manners ; by jefting that is not ccn-< 
venient, efpecially if it be ?x one that hath fallen in fome 
aft of fllthinefs, or by whatever may be near, or of afinful 
fuitablenefs to fuch an evil \ lee Ephef. iv. 24 and v. 3, 4. 
ire. 5. This (in is fallen in by too familiar or unnecefftry 
converfe with light, vain, loofe company, more efpecially 
private companying with fuch, which is not only an appear- 
ance of ill, or a fnare to ill t but evil and loofe in itlelf, cal- 
led by the apoftle, chambering, Rom. xiii 13. and Solomon 
iriddeth men not come near the do:r of fuch a womans boufe, 
mucii kfs to enter into it, Prov. v. 8. 6. Men fall into is 


Com. 7. the Ten CommGndrmnts. 3?0 

by wantonnefs, immodefty, want of clue fhame-facc 

or any other way whereby they yield reins to the Icofc, 
wanton, carnal humour that is in them. 

There are many other fins which come in acre ; and al- 
though fome of them may be reduced tofeveral of the com- 
mands, yet in a fpecial manner are they related, and as it 
were, tied to this; As 1. Idlenefs, fuch as you fee, 2 Sam, 
ii. 2. &c. occasioned David's fall, and is by Ezck. ix. 16. 
49. charged on Sodom, as predifpofing for, and going ?Aovig 
with their uncleannels ; idlenefs being in itfelf mater om 
vitiorum, and ncverca omnium virtutiim y the mother of a I 
Tices, and the ftep -mother of all virtues : This breedeth un« 
-d looks, and giveth occafion to, and entertaineth car- 
nal imaginations, and it occafioneth much gad-ding, when 
* folks, either have no lawful calling, or are not diligent and 
fcrious in the employments and duties of it, 1 Tim. v. 13. 
2 Lightnefs and unftahlenefs, charged on Reuben when 
lie defiled his father's bed, Gen. xix. 4. and by the apoftle f 
keeping at hor.ie is (Tit. ii, 5.) joined with chaftity, modelly, 
and hhame facednefs. There is a gadding, and a fo-caliei 
furthinefs, efpecially in women, more efpecially young wo- 
men, which is exceeding offenfive, and yet exceeding rife; 
it may be it were more fitly called impudence, or impudent 
boldnefs, which maketh them run to all fpe. c tacles and fh 
to fpeak in all difcourfes (which quite crolfes the character 
that one gives of a modeft virgin, that u She loves rather 
" to loofe herfelf in a rnodeft iilence, than to be found in a 
" bold difcourfe,") and to hazard upon all companies, ex* 
ceeding unfuitable to that modefty and fhame face.; 
which is particularly called for in that fex. Take in hew 
alfo the manner of going, minfing. or tripping nicely, 
and making a tinkling with their feet, fpoken of, Ifa. iiL 
16. and touched at a little before. 

3. Wantonnefs, and too much carnal mirth and laugh- 
ter, which is both the evidence and great fomenter of loofc- 
nefs in the heart and fo footifbje-a.ftiU'g* which is riot conveni- 
ent % Eph v. 3. is conjoined with this fin, and none ought- 
to think that there is a lawful freedom in fuch jollity, as, 
chambering and wantonnefs ', Rcrm. xhi. 13. Now this tukcth 
in much, and is of a large extent. 

4. Undecent converfing^ going abroad in company with 
rafh and offenfive freedom, when as entring the houfe, yea, 
coming near the very doors of an whores houfe is for- 
bidden, Prov. v. 8. tne ill and prejudice whereof may 
be feen in Dinah's going abroad belike without an en 
Gen, xxxiv, i, 2. &c* Potipher's wife did caft herfcif in Jo- 
U u 2 fen:/* 

343 An Expofition of Com. 7. 

feph's company thus, though he gave her no entertainment, 
but in the fear of the Lord fled from her. 

5. Add dancing, a thing condemned by the people of 
God as no honeft recreation, at leaft, when in companies 
that are mixed, and (as we call it) promifcuous dancing, 
fuch as ufeth to be at marriages, and the like occasions, both 
of old (as may be feen in the canons of the feveral coun- 
cils) as alfo of late by our own and other reformed churches. 

I fhall fay thefe things in fhort of it : Firft, that ye will 
rot find it mentioned in fcripture in the perfo.n of any of 
the godly, it becoming an Herodia.'s daughter better than 
profefibrs of religion. 2. That it will be readily found to 
indifpofe for the exercife of godlinefs, and fo to be incon- 
tinent, or at beft, hardly confident with either a pious and 
lively, or a fober frame of fpirit. 3. That it marreth not 
only the gravity of perfonsfor the time, putting them in a 
fort of regular diftraclion, but lefleneth the efteem of fuch 
perfons y this infobriety being like a dead fly that maketh 
the box of ointment (if any be) to (link. 4. That in fcripture 
examples we find this fort of dancing only among prophane 
and loofe people, and recorded alfo as a piece of their ftain 
or blot, rendring them fome way infamous ; and oftentimes 
it hath alio fnares waiting upon it, as in the Ifraelites amongft 
themfelves, Exod. xxxii. and in the daughters of Moab with 
the people of Ifrael, and in that of Herodia's daughter: 
Some alfo fuppofe thole whom Dinah went forth to fee, Gen. 
xxxiv. were thus employed at fome feaft, or fuch other fo- 
lemnity, where fhe was infnared and beflowred, 5. Yea, 
St is often, if not ever, the fruit of fome former loofenels 
and carnalnefs, being the effecT: that exceffive wantonnefs 
ufuaily breaketh out in •, and can God's people warrantably 
have fellovvihip with thefe works of darknefs P or can they 
(if guilty themfelves) reprove it in others ? Cicero calleth it 3 
Pqftremum vitioram> quia actafequitur, the laft of vices, be- 
caufe ufuaily followeth former loofe carriages. 6. Thqre- 
5s no lawful mean of recreation which is ufeful for the health 
of the bodyy but is, and may, and fhould be fan&ified by 
the word and prayer, yet, 

. I fuppofe neither ufeth this to be fo, neither would any 
think it very fuitable, or*well confiftent with a praying frame, 
and can that which ftandeth not with the ferious exercife of 
repentance, and a praying difpofition, or that which none 
would think a lit pofture to meet death, or the Lord's ap- 
pearing with, be in reafbn thought confiftent with a Chrif- 
tian walk? which fliou Id always be with the loins girded, 
and the lamps burning : It is fomewhat like this, or lefs than 
this, which the Lord condemned Ifa. iii. 16. walking, or 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments'. 341 

mincing, or tripping, and making a triftkiing vjith their feet. 
What is that, but difdainlng the grave way of walking, to 
a {\\ i in it ? as many do now in our days ; and (hall 

this be difpleafing to the Lord, and not the other ? feeing 
he loveth, and is beft pleaied with the native way of carry- 
ing the body. Junius and Rivet from him, calleth this min- 
cing or nipping, ing or ftanding on the earth in an 
artificial wtif. 

Betides thefe thiogs that are more general in folks car- 
riage, there is fomewhat further in our cloathing and diet, 
which is to be fpoken to here, feeing in thefe we ought to 
be Chiiftian, fober, grave, 6c. and 1:1 nothing do our light - 
nefs, vanity, (as we ordinarily ufe to call people vain from 
their apparel) pride, wantonnefs, and rioting appear more, 
than in vain garbs. Hence the apoftle Paul, 1 Tim. ii. 9. 
joineth modeft apparel with fhame-facedneis and fobriety or 
chaftky, as alio doth the apoftle Peter, 1 Pet. iii. 2, 3. and 
in Jez.be! and others, decking and dnjjing to feek love, is 
ever accounted an high degree of loofenels : It is a wonder 
that men fhould take pleafure to deboaxd in their cloathing, 
which is the badge of their periidioufnefs, and was at firft 
appointed to cover their fhame and nakednefs. It is obfer- 
ved that the Hebrew word njQ beged, doth fignify both per- 
fidioumefs and cloathing and cometh from that word, which 
fignifiet.h to break covenant, the Lord thereby intending by 
the very confideration of our clothes, to humble us, and. 
keep us in mind of our firft breach of covenant with him ; 
and yet fuch is our wickednefs, that we will glory in that 
which is indeed our fhame, as if it were a fpecial ornament ; 
and whereas at firft, cioching was appointed for covering 
nakednefs, for preventing of incitements to luft and for de- 
cency, now Jezebel like, it is madejule of to be a provocation 
thcrcuuto,— i'ee Prov vii. 10. God in his firft appointment 
of raiment, for Dreventing of vanity, and commending ho- 
ned: februry therein, did make for our firft parents codts of 

And therefore we fay, that in men and women both, 
there is condemned by the Lord; 1. Coftlinefs and txect- 
five bravery of apparel, 1 Tim. ii. 9. which faith not t] 
ve are to fofter (ordidnefs or bafenefs, or that men in ail 
places or ftations, and of all ranks, fhould as to their ap- 
parel, be equal, but that none fhould exceed. It is firangt-, 
that fometime the pooreft and meaneft for place, and often 
for qualifications, are fineft this way, as if it were the belt 
cr only way to commend 4 and fet them out; and that fome 
fhould have more in cioaths than in their irock, is utterly 
intolerable. 2. Strangenefs in the ever-changing fafiiions, 


342 An Expofition of Com. 

and extravagant modes of apparel, while as the Lord by 
nature hath continue^ the fhape of mens bgdies to be the 
fame-, for what is meant cllc by Orange apparel, lb often 
forbidden in the fcripture, but that which is commonly cal- 
led tie fajbicn, or new fajhion, a new and uncouth garb? 
And certainly mens minds are often infected withlalcivious 
thoughts, and luftful inclinations, even by the ufe and fight 
of gaudy and vain clothing; and we will lee, light, ioofe, 
conceited minds difcover tlumit Ives in nothing fooner than 
in their apparel, and fafhions, and conceitednefs in them. 
3. There js a Ijghtnefs in cloathing as to colour, mounting 
as they call it, &c. and in drefiing of the body, which may 
be feci in thefe drejjing of the hair, in powdering* , laces , rib* 
bens, pointSy See. which are fo much in ufe with the gallants 
of the time; this efpecially in women, is iniifted on and 
condemned, I fa. iii. 16, 17. &c. fome things indeed there 
mentioned, are not {imply unlawful, efpecially to perfons 
of higher quality, and at all times; but the particulars fc l- 
lowing are condemned ; i. A ft c fling of, and having a luft 
after, brave cloathing, making our back our God, as fome 
do their belly, Phil. iii. 1 9. and this may be where cloaths 
are but means, yet the luft and appetite after them may be 
great. 2. Haughtinefs and vanity in cloaths and drefEngs, 
when we think ourfelves better with them then without 
them; or efteem ourfelves becaufe of them above others, 
in other things fuperior, or at leaft equal to us. 3 Excefs 
in thefe, in their fuperfluity and coftlinefs, as is faid, above 
and beyond our ftate and ftation. 4. Wantonnefs and light- 
nefs in them, which is efpecially in nakednefs$ as to fuch 
and fuch parts of the body, which in modefty are hid ; for 
women having cloaths for a cover, ought to make ufe of 
them for that end, and it is more than propable, that, that 
walking with fir etched out necks , there reproved^'Teismh to 
women, their making more of their necks, and their breafts 
bare, then fhould be, or is defent, they affefled to difcover 
and raife their gorgets, when God commendeth modefty, 
and nature is beft pleafed in its own unaffected freedom, yet 
they ftretched them out: It is both a wonderful and fad* 
thing, that women fhould need to be reproved for fuch 
things, which are in themfelves, 1. So grofs, that let the 
moft innocent be required, whence thefe, more than ordi- 
nary difcoveries, do proceed ; and they muft at leaft grant 
that the firft praflifers of fuch a fafhion, Oould have no o- 
ther defigfn in it, then the more thereby to pleafe and allure 
mens carnal eyes and regards: And 2. So impudent; for 
if to be all naked be flxameful and exceeding ready to pro- 

Com. 7. the Ten Commavdments. 

voke luft. muft not nakednefs in part; more or le r s, be, 
?.cd c!o the farqe ? So that this will be found a gl 
their flume ; for nakednefs liitbci to was a 
as a reproach : We read of old of fuch as were grave, that 
they covered t ■ ': a vail: And 1 Cor. xi. mar- 

ried wo mens going abroad uncovered, 's looked on as un- 
natural \ What would fuch fay if they lived in our 1 
we are perfwaded the graveft amongft women arc meft a- 
verle from this etil, and the lighted -are rnoft prone and 
given to it : And feeing all women thould be grave, it muft 
import a difciaiming of that qualification where this ' 
nels is delighted in : If therefore there be ?-ny fhame, if 
there be any conference, we will expect to prevail with fome 
who are touched with the fenfe of gravity, that they 
be geed examples to the reft, and once endeavour : 
tually to bring gravity and modeft fhame f aft nef* m faihioa 

There is in clothes a bafc effiminatenefs amongft men 
(which lbme way emafculateth or unmanneth them) who 
delight in thole things, which women dote upon, as dr 
of hair i powdrifigSy andwajhings (when exceeding in) 1 
jewels, &c. which are fpoken of, and reproved in the 
daughter of Zion, If a. iii. and fo muft be much more mr- 
fu i t a bl e to m en . A I fo 1/2 ter changing 'J apparel i 3 c o ; 
men putting en women, ahd women mens cloaths, v.! 
unfuitable to that diftinclion of fexes which the Lord 
inade* and is condemned in the word as a eon fu lion, an ab- 
furd unnatural thing; and an inlet to much v. 
Whereof the Dutch Annot?,tOFs, as feverai fathers did 
before them, on I Cor. xi. 14. make mens heori&i.hg 
wearing of long hair, to be fome degree, it being given to 
women, not only for an ornament and covering, bar 
in part for diftinction of the fatnale fex from the ir 
And hear having touched a little on this vain dr effing 
hair (now almoft in as many various modes, as t 
fafhions of apparel) especially incident to women ; It 
not be impertinent to fubjoin a ft range ftory, whu ' 
pious, and grave Mr. Bolton in his four laft things; ?i?z 
40. repeats from his author the famous Hercules Saxonia, 
profefibr of Phyiick in Padua ; " The Plica (faith he) is * 
14 moft loathfomeand horrible difeafe ra the hair, mil* 
<f of in former times, as Morbus Galiicus, and Sudor An- 
" glicus, bred by modern luxury and excels, it feizcth fpe- 
'• cially upon women and by reaibn of a vifcuous, veno- 
" mcus humour glneth together, as it were, the hairs of 
u the head with a prodigous ugly implication arnd enumg- 
*' lemeat, fometiines takmgthe form ut a great inake, lame- 

344 An Expcjition of Com, 7. 

t( times of many little ferpents, full of'naftlnefs, vermine, 
u and noifome frnell : And that which is moft to be admired 
u and never eye faw before, thefc being pricked with a needle, 
<f they yield bloody drop?. And at the firft spreading 
11 of this dreadful difeafe in Polland, all that did cut or this 
€l horrible and fnaky hair, loft their eyes, or the humour 
V falling down upon other parts of the body, tortured tbsm 
€i extremely. It began firft, not many years ago irj Pol- 
• c land, it is now entred into many parts of Germany, 
u And methinks (fays Mr Bolton) our monftrous fafhionifts 
" both male and famale, the one for nourifhing the horrid 
" bufiies of vanity, the other for their mod unnatural and 
€t curled cutting their hair, fhould every hour fear and treni- 
€l ble, left they bring it on their own heads and amongft us 
" in this kingdom." It is alio worthy the noticing that Tcr- 
tulian hath to this purpofe, in his bookde cultu mul.cap. 7. 
where haviqg expoftulated with Chriftian women for their 
various vain dr effing of the hair *, he befpeaks them thu- ', 
€i Drive away this bondage of bulking from a free head, in 
€t vain do you labour to appear thus dreffed, in vain do you 
" make uie of the moft expert frizlers of hair, God com- 
lf mands you to be covered and vailed : I wilh that I, moft 
<c miferable man, may be privileged to lift up my head, if 
<f it were but amongft the feet of the people of God, in that 
* f blefled day of Chriftians exulting gladnefs, then will I fee 
ci if ye will arife out of your groves with that varnilh and 
€t paint of white and red, and with fuch a head-drefs j and 
" if the angels will carry you up fo adorned and painted to 
€l meet Chrift in the clouds." And again, cap. 1 3. * ( Thefe 
" delights and toys (fays he) mull be fhaken off, with the 
€t foftnefs and loofenefs whereof, the virtue and valour of 
" faith may be weakned. Moreover, I know not if thefe 
€< bands that are accuftom.ed to be furrounded with rings 
f * and bracelets, or fuch other ornaments, will endureto.be 
*' benumed and ftupirled with the hardnefs of a chain : I 
€i know not if the leg, after the ufe of fuch fine hofe-gar- 
<( ters, will fuffer itfelf to he ftreightned and pinched into 
f< fetters, or a pair of flocks : \ am afraid that the neck, 
" accuftomed to chains of pearls and emeralds, will hardly 
" admit of the two handed iword ; Therefore, O blefled 
" women ! (faith he) let us meditate and dwell on the 
" thoughts of hardfliip, and we fhall not feel it, let us re- 
<c linquifh and abandon thefe delicacies and frolicks and 
•' we fhall notdefire thtm, let us ftand ready armed to en- 
cc counter all violent aflaults, having nothing which wc will 
u be afraid to forego and part with : Thefe, are the ftays 
" and ropes of the anchor of our hope, 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. 345 

" Let your eyes be painted with fhame facednefs and quiet- 
,c nefs of fpirir, faftning in your ears the word of God, and 
c< tying about your necks the yoke of Chrift, iubjecl your 
" head to your hufbands, and fo fhall you be abundantly 
<c adorned and comely. Let your hands be exerciled with 
" wool, let your fecrt keep at home, and be fixed in the 
*- houfe, and they will pleafe much more than if they were 
*' all in gold ; cloath yourfelves with the (ilk of goodnels and 
41 virtue, with the fine linning of holinefs, with the purpure 
** of chaftity ; and being after this fafhion painted and a- 
€i domed, you will have God to be your lover." Which 
notably agreeth with what the apoftle faith, 1 Tim. ii. y, 
10. " In like manner alfo, that women adorn thcmfelves in 
u modeft apparel with ffiame-facednefs and fobriety, not with 
" broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or cortly array •, But 
c< (which becometh women profeffing godiinefs) with good 
■« works/' 1 Pet. iii. 1, 2, efpecially 3, 4, 5. JVhofe adorn* 
mg% let it not be that outward adorning, of plaiting the hair 9 
and of wearing of gold , or of putting on of apparel. But let 
it be the hidden man of the hearty in that which is not corrup- 
tib/e y even the ornament of a meek and quiet fpir it, which in 
the fight ef God is of great price. For after this manner in 
the old time, the holy women alfo who trufied in God } adorned 
themfelves, being infubjetlion to their own hufbands. See alio 
Tit. ii 4, 

Next to what hath been fiid of dreffing the body, fome- 
what may not inappoiitely be fpoke to, anent dreffing and deck* 
ing of houfe s and beds ', and anent houfjjold furniture or phnifhing % 
wherein there may be an evil concupifence and luft, and an 
inordinate affection ; our minds being often by a little thing 
kindled and fet on fire : See to this purpofe, Prov. vii. 17. 
where that women fpoken of, hath firft the attire of an 
whzre, then, he faith, her bed is dreffed, her tapeftry and cur* 
tains provided, incenfe and perfumes are in the chambers : So 
alfo beds of ivory are reproved, Amos vi. 4. which are all 
ufed for entertaining the great luft of uncleannefs, which, 
ordinarily have thefe alluring extravagancies attending and 
waiting upon it. O ! what provision do fome make for the 
flefh, to fuffil the lufts thereof ; and how careful caterers are 
they this way for their corruptions ? And certainly Chrif- 
tians are not in their hcufes more than in their perfons, 
left to live at random, and without bounds; and folks no 
doubt may be unfuirable to their (rations, as much in the one 
as in the other. This excefs may be alfo in the light and 
wanton manner of adorning houfes and buildings with fil- 
thy aad unmodeft paintings, pictures, and ftatucs, and fuch 

X x like, 

34<5 An Expofiiion of Com. 7, 

like, which, with other things, is fpoken of and condemned, 
Ezek- xxiii 14. But withal, in what \vc have fpoken in 
C exceffes fo incident even to profeffors, we would not 
have folks too rigidly toexpone us, for wc knew that there 
are lawful recreations, nor are honefty and comelineis in 
behaviour and apparel, blameable, but to be commended in 
their place : Neither would we have any think, that we fup- 
pofe all fuch, who do the things above cenfured, to be in- 
to them from this principle of luft ; but for clearing 
of the matter further it would be confidered, 1 That we 
fpeak of thefe things as they are abufed, and particularly 
condemned in {his church. 2. We would confuier the end 
ot the things themfelvs3, as they have been at firft hnfuily 
introduced,, whatever may be the innocent intention of a; 
particular ufer 3. We would refpecl others, who may be 
offended and provoked to lull, by what an aclor is not pro~ 
voked with, and alio may be finfully tempted to the like 
from that example, or if not fo > yet may pcilibly be induced 
to judge them vain who walk fo and fo in apparel, light 
who dance, 6*^. which we would prevent and guard againft. 4. 
We would not only abftain from evil, but from all appear- 
ance of it ; now certainly all thefe things vre have fpoken of 
look like ill, and may breed mifconftructions in others, e- 
*en poffibly beyond our own mind and intention ; We may 
alfo confider the mind of very heathens in reference to thefe 
things, as alfo of the fathers, council*, and the divines 
which are cited by Rivet and Martyr on this command. The 
council Laod, Can. 53. apud Baif. hath thefe words, Let 
Cbrifiians, when they go to marriages, abjiain from dancings 
but Jine or [up. And another faith, Nemo fere Jaltat fobrius- 
ri'iji forte injamt ; no man almoft danceth that is fober, un- 
lefs perchance he be in a (it of diitraftion or madne's: Nei- 
ther doth David's or Miriam's dancing, being ufed by them 
as a part of worfhip in the occaiions of extraordinary exulta- 
tions, fay any thing for the dancing that is now in ufe, as 
their longs of praiie to God ufed in thefe their dancings a- 
bundantly fhew : And beflde, their dancings were not pro- 
miscuous, men with women, but men or women a-part, 
Bcii :e, if the feeing of vain objects provGke to luft, the cir- 
cumftances and incitements of dancing mull do it much 
more: And what men commonly fay, Take away the pro- 
mifcuoufnefs 0} dancingy and it U If will fall; It doth con fir ai- 
this, that dancing 13 not pleaded for, or delighted in, as it 
is a recreative motion, but as promifcuous with women, which 
beficl it provocation to luft fpoken of, occafioneih 

that both much time and expence is beftowed on learning 
this, which is attended with no profit. 


Com. 7. e Ten Commandments. 

Wh.it we have fajj of thefe evils may alfo take la ex:cfs 
iafuepinP) lazinefs, Szc. to be feen in David, 2 Sam, xi. 2. 
and playing ; too much whereof favours of vxtntonnefs and 
riotoufnefS) as thefj words, Romans xiii. 13. are in 
fignification extended by fome. Now ail thefe ex 
fpoken of, being oppofitc to fobriety and modefty, fhame- 
faccdnefs and gravity, much come in under •wantGnne/s % and 
what foiloweih doth come in under intemperance. 

The fcripture infifieth much in condemning the fin of in* 
temp ranee * which we conceive doth mainly canfift in 
tony '.no drunkennefs ; and Teeing thefe fins muft belong u* 
fome one command (although virtually and indirectly they 
break all) we take them efpec!a{!y to be condemned here ia 
this command, where temperance is commanded} andthere- 
fore we fhall find them in fcripture mentioned, with a fpe- 
cial refpeel to the fin pf unc)eannefs % exprcfiy forbidden here : 
Fw.nefs o* bread and gluttony is obferved to have been So I 
fin, and the rife and fource of their fihhinefs, Ezek. xyi. 49. 
Drunkennefs is marked, efpecially as leading to this, Prov. 
xxiii. 31, 33. Therefore we choofe to fpeak a word to thefc 
two evils here, which are in themfelves <o abominable, and 
yet, alafc ! So frequent amongft thofe who are called Chi if- 

It is true, there is both in eating and drinking, refpeci to 
be had, 1. To nature, which in fome thing requireth more 
in fome lefs : 2. To mens ftations, where, as to the kind 
or quality (as we faid of deaths) there is more allowed to 
one than another : 3. To fome occaiions, wherein more 
freedom and hilarity u permitted than at ether times, tit hep 
more abftinency And a reftraint upon thefe, even in the<%- 
felves lawful pleafures, is extraordinarily called for, fo that 
we cannot bound all pcrfons, and at times, with the lame pe- 
remptory rules. 

There is alfo refpecr to be had to Christian liberty , where- 
by God's goodnefs men have allowance to make ufe ofj&efe 
things, not only for nccefiicy but for re fre filing alfeff 
the virtue of temperance and fobriety (as all other virtues) 
doth not confift in an indiviiible point, fo that a man is to 
eat and drink fo much, and neither lefs nor more, without 
any latitude; the Lord hath not fo ftreightned the coofci- 
ences of his people, but hath left bounds in fobriety, that 
we may come and go upon, providing thefe bounds be not 
exceeded. Neither is every fatisfaction or delight in meat 
or drink to be condemned (feeing it is natural; but fuch as 
degenerateth and becometh carnal. 

"We would therefore enquire into the ilnfulnefs thereof, 
Sx 2 bud 

348 An Expofition of Com. 7, 

and becaufe there is a great affinity betwixt thefe two evils 
of gluttonny and drunkennefs, we raay fpeak of them toge- 
ther for bravities fake. 

We fuppofe then, i, That both gluttony and drunken- 
nefs are finful; and that both in the ufe of meat and drink 
men may feveral ways fail ; the many prohibitions and com- 
mands that are in the word, for ordering us in the ufe of 
meat and drink, 1 Cor. x. 31. Whether therefore ye eat or 
drink, or whatfoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Ptom. 
xiii. 14. But put ye on the Lord Jefus Chrifl, and make not 
frovifion for the fiefh, to fulfil the lufts thcr-eof. And 'Rom. 
xiv. 20. For meat, deflroy net the work of God: all things 
indeed are pure, hut it is evil for that man who eateth 
with offence, Prov. xxiii. 20, 2C. Be not among ft wine-bib- 
ers ; amongft riotous eaters of flejk. For the drunkard and the 
glutton fhall come to poverty : and drow fine fs Jh all clothe a man 
with rags. The many reproofs that there are for exceeding - 
in both; Ezek. xvi. 49. Behold, this was the iniquity of thy 
fijler Sodom ; Pride fulnefs of bread and abundance of idlenefs 
was in her and in her daughters, neither did (he fir engt hen the 
hand of the poor andneedy. Luke xvi. 19. There was a cer- 
tain rich man, which was cloatked in purple and fine Hrinen, and 
fared fumptuoufly every day ; with feveral other places. And 
the many fad judgments which have been inflicted, as well 
as threatned for them : Ddut. xxi. 20. And they /ball fay unto 
the elders of his city, This our fon is ftubborn, and rebellious, he 
will not obey cur voice, he is a glutton, and a drunkard. Prov. 
xxiii. 21. For the drunkard and the gluttonfhall come to pover- 
ty ; and drowfinefsfiall clothe a man with rags, with the def- 
perate effects following on them, as Prov. xxiii. 29, 32. .&£. 
Who hath woe P who hath forrow P who hath contentions P who 
hath babbling P who hath wounds without caufe ? who hath red* 
riffs of eyes P At the lafl it biteth like aferpent, and ftingeth 
like an adder, &c. will put it out of queftion that they are 
not only finful, but fo in an high degree. 

Yea, if we confider the ends for which God hath given us 
the ufe of thefe creatures (.which excefs inverteth and mar- 
reth) viz. his honour, and the good of ourfelves and o- 
thers ; the rules he has given to regulate us in the ufe of 
them ; and the holy frame he calleth for from us at all times, 
the difference that fhould be betwixt his people and the men 
of the world in the ufe of thefe things ; we will find this ex- 
cefs in the ufe of thefe enjoyments to be finful, and no lefs 
contrary to the holy nature and law of God, and xo that 
holinefs and fobriety that fhould be in a Chriitian, than for- 
nication and other uncleanneffes are ; therefore there is no 
fin h^th more woes pronounced by the Holy Gho/V againft 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. 349 

it, than drunkennefs (a woe being ever almoir joined with 
it) nor more fhame attending it, fo that of old, diunkards 
drank in the night, 1 ThefT. v. as being aihamed of it ; tho* 
now alas ! many are drank in the day, and Tome in the mor- 
ning, and fuch as are addicted to it, are with great difficul- 
ty recovered, Prov. xxiii. 35. 

2. We fuppofe alfo that thefe fins may be, and fometimes 
are, feparated and divided, for one may be guilty of excels 
in meat or of gluttony, who may be free of drunkennefs, 
and contrarily : it is the laying of a holy man, Aug* lib. 10. 
confeff. cap 17. " Drunkenncfs, O Lord, is far trom me, 
'" but gluttony hath often prevailed over me." And there- 
fore we are not here to account ourfelves free when both 
thefe ills cannot be charged onus; It is often incident to 
men who think themielves fober to be much move watchful 
ag^init drunkennefs than gluttony-, yea > and ufual for fome 
to excite and put others much more on to exceed in eating 
than they dare do in drinking ; as if there were net that 
fame hazard in the one that is in the other, and as if one 
and the lame rule were not given for both. 

3. We do alio fuppofe that there is not one way only 
whereby men may become guilty of both thefe fins, but there 
are many ways and alio degrees thereof; and though all be 
not alike grofs, yet all are finful : Therefore we would t. 
Coniider thefe evils in divers refpecls : Then 2. Lay down 
and fix fome general limits, which we are not to pals : 3. Ia- 
ftance fome flighted particulars. 

For gluttony in general there is a Latin verfe. 

Prapropere, laute, www, ardentcr Jhtdlofe. 

In which rive words there are five ways of being guilty of 
it ; 1. By hatting, that is, defiring meat and drink before it 
be convenient: Thus eating and drinking in courfe, not for 
hunger or thirft, but for cuftom, good fellow(hip) carnal 
pleaiure, ire. is gluttony, and is curfed by the Holy Ghoft, 
Ecclef. x. 16, 17. IVoe to thee, land, isfr. here drinking 
and eating are tied to their feafons. 2. By delicacy in the 
kind or quality, as when meat or drink are excefiive for 
ccftlinefs or finenefs, lavifhly provided, as feafts very or Ji- 
narily are, Prov. xxx. 8. So of the rich glutton it is laid, 
he fared delicately every day, Luke xvi. 19. 3. In the quan- 
tity, by too much, when eating is exceeded in, even to in- 
dilpofition for the duties of our general Chriltian, and of 
our particular callings, not to the itrengthening us for them, 
Ecclef. x. 17. 4. In the manner, viz too ardently, when 
meat is defired with a fort of luff, Prov. xxiii. 3. 2o> 21- 
5. In the preparing of meat, viz. itudioufl\\ that is, when 
it is too riotouily drefied, far pleafing men's carnal appetite 


3 co An Expcfithn of Com. 7. 

and tafte, or pallat, by the finenefs of it, and other curio- 
sities of that kind. More particularly, we may fin either in 
the exctfs of meat and drink, when we go without juft 
bounds i or in the defect, which may as well mar the end, 
viz. God's glory and our fitnefs for duty, as excefs may; 
therefore doth Paul exhort Timothy to the ufe of a little 
*/ine, as heedful for him. 

2. Confider the fin of gluttony in the matter of that 
which we eat and drink; thus fome may fail, as was juft 
cow faid, by too much daintinefs in their fair, as well as too 
great a quantity : And again in the manner, wherein many 
are very fenfual and carnal, as being much given to fatisiy 
their appetites, which Solomon fpeaketh of, Prov. xxiii. 1, 

2, 3. he. i'o Eta v. 1 j, 12. 

3. Confider it either in reference to mans felf, when he 
Ivmlelf faifech, or coniider it i,n reference to others, when 
he putteth them to eat or drink, and occafioneth their fin j 
either of the ways is finful, and the laft is particularly curl- 
ed, Hab. ii. 15, although prophane men have often made, 
and do make a paftime of it ; and fome others that would 
feem more fober, are but little troubled with it, and many 
feem by their practice to think they cannot make others wel- 
come to their houies, unlefs they put them to exceed this 

4. Confider it in the act t and in the luft to it, even as 
there is fornication in the act and in the luft, fo there is al- 
fo drunkennefs and gluttony; and thus, as is faid, Phil. iii. 
19. the belly becometh a God, and men's great care is to fa? 
tisfy it, [Yiauh. vi. 25. So to be given to wine, 1 Tim. iii. 

3. and to lock on it with delight, when it moveth itfelf aright 
in the cup, <bc is condemned, Prov. 23, 31* 

5. Coniider failing here morally, which is not fuitable to 
a man, and which even a heathen will difallow, and failing 
Spiritually, which is not fuitable to a Chriftian ; as when a 
man's eating and di inkmg is meerly governed by fenfual, or 
at beft, only byphyfical injunctions and cuftomary accaii- 
ons, and not by Chriftian directions, and is not levelled to- 
wards the great end, the glory of God, to which Chriftians, 
even in eating and drinking, are obliged by divine precept 
to have a due regard. 

6. We may confider thefe fins as in the act, or as in the 
effects; the act is exceflive ufe of meat and drink in itfelf, 
whether evil effects follow or not ; the effects are thefe which 
follow, either in diftempering the man in bimfelf, or mak- 
ing him fall out with others -, The fin is properly in t^e act, 
(though the finfulnefs of the effects be not fo diminifted by 
their iollowipg on drunkennefs, as many fuppofe) and there 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. J5I 

may be a finful aft, when there is no vifibfe finfuJ effei 
the man's carriage or diftempcr. Hence lfa. v. 22. there 25 
a woe denounced againft'lhofe who are Jiror.g to mingle, or 
drink fir on g drink ; the Fault is not that they are ftrong, 
is a property of nature; nor is it that ttuy were dru; 
but that being ftrong to bear much without beirig diftem* 
peretf, they took on more, lippening or trading to thaej 
and (o abufing their firength beyond the right end or" k 9 
arid drinking more becaufe they were ftrong, then they 
duril have done if they had been weaker, 

7. Ccnfider eating and drinking in their circumftances, 
and td forr.etimesmeat and drink fomewhat beyond ordinary, 
and chearfulneis in the ufe of them, are allowable ; Some- 
times again abdinency is called for, and though no parti- 
cular time be let for abfiaining from men and drink, or 
for failing, but God hath left that to men's prudence ; 
it cannot be denied but when one will at no time want dia- 
ller ncr fupper, that he may have the more time, and be in 
better frame for praying, furthering of mortification, fym- 
pathy with Joseph's affliction, &c m there is no doubt bi 
will be found guilty of this fin : Seelfa.xxii. 13, 14. where 
lome are curfed for killing oxen and fhecp, eating rleih and 
drinking wine j for certainly fometimes God calleth for 4 
reftramt upon the (at other times lawful) ufe of creature en- 

8 Eating and drinking may be confidered as to the ex* 
pences we beftow on what we eat and drink, and the auc- 
tion we have to them or delight in them, fpoken of; as aU 
fo in refpect of the time we fpend on them. Kence \ 
curie, lla. v. 1 1 . Wo to them that rife early ', and tarry 
at Jirong drink ; much time fpent this way, even when the 
grofTer efTwfts follow not, will bring a curie from God ; for 
he hath given time for other ends, and will have that no 
lefs tenderly minded than efrate, health, or any other bene- 
fit ; and if we dare not fpend, wafte, or abufe thefe in eat- 
ing or drinking for fear of fin ; why fliould we take more 
liberty as to our precious time ? 

9. Confider eating and drinking as a mean feafonably 
made ufe of for its end, asfrength or healthy and the honoi-r 
of God, or as an end iifelf, or without refpect to another 
end: and thus it is finful: EecleiVx. 16, 17. and the land 
is curfed that hath princes that keep not the bounds allowed ; 
which implieth, that the ufing of meat or drink, without 
refpecl to its end, and that in due feafon (as God giveth al! 
things, Pfal. cxlv. 15. and as we fhould pray for ail thinrs, 
Matth. vi.) is a breach and excels. 

10. Coa- 

352 An Expofition of Com. 7, 

10. Confider eating and drinking either as going the length 
cf evil, or as having rhe appearance of evil, where either ot 
thefe is, there is a breach, fincc we ought not only to ab- 
flain from evil, but from all appearances of it, 1 ThelT. v. 22. 

What hath been iaid agreeth both to fins of drinking and 
eating: we fhall now give fome general rules, the obfcrving 
whereof will further difcover the fins that are in the ufe of 
meat and drink, either in the excefs or defeat. 

The firfl is, we fhould look to a right end, both in eat- 
ing and drinking, which is threefold: 1. Supream, Eat 
and drink to the glory of God, faith the apoftle, 1 Cor. x. 30. 
thus we may fin either in the defect or excefs, by difenabling 
ourielves for any duty of his worfhip, or by not adverting 
to this end ; this rule therefore faith, we fhould be fo fway- 
cd in quality, quantity, time, <bc. of our eating and drink- 
ing, as we may moll: glorify God. 2 Subordinate, and fo 
-we ought to have a refpect to others in all thefe ; hence it 
is, that 1. Cor. viii 9, Rom xiv. 20. there is a woe to him 
that eateth with effence : thus by frequenting taverns, tho' 
we exceed not in drinking, we ftrengthen others to follow 
our example to a greater length $ or it giveth them occafioa 
to misjudge and mifconflruft us; fo aifo the ufing of law- 
ful enjoyments in a too carnal and joval way, before carnal 
men gives them occafion to think that we place fome happi- 
nefs in thefe things, as they do. 3. Our own (lengthening 
and refreshing is an end to be looked to in the ufe of meat 
and drink, and fo when we weaken and mdifpofe ourfelves 
by them, we fin againft this end. 

2. Confider the act itfelf of eating and drinking, if it be 
exceffive for the kind of meat or drink, as too delicate, &c. 
or for the quantity too much, or for the time that is fpent 
too long, &c. itisfinful. 

3. Confider the manner, If creature enjoyments be with 
delight fought for, or exceffively delighted in, and folks be- 
come reftlefs and anxious about them, JVlatth. vi. 25. and 
too eager in purfuing thefe things, and too much taken up 
with them ; fo that the (eeking after them marreth content* 
ment and the quiet frame of the mind, then there is finful 

4. Confider the effccls in diverfe refpecls ; 1. In refpeft 
of a man's outward eftate or family, and fo a man iinneth 
when he eateth or drinketh beyond that which he may up- 
hold, or his condition in the world will allow, and wheo 
his eating or drinking fo, may make himfelf or his wife and 
children faft for it afterward, or to be much pinched. 2. 
In refpecc of his calling, if it divert a man from that, and 
mar the work in his hand, and m*;ke him b*eak appoint- 

Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. i^ 

ments fet by him for of finifhing other men's work, which 
he might otherwife have kept, and much more if it indifpofe 
him for fpeaking of, or doing that which concerneth his 
calling, it is then lure in the excels. 3. In reference \o his 
body, If k be weakned, dulled, or indifpofed by the excefs 
of meat or drink: This is called, l!a v. 12 ; of 

them, and is not allowable. 4. Lock to it as it 'affelteth 
folks re a fen, and in lefs or more indifpofeth them to con- 
ceive or judge of things aright ; much more when it raiieth 
a fury or madnefs, and makcth them as reafonlefs beads in 
in their carriage, it is exceffive and to be efchewred no doubt. 
5. Look on it in reference to the ipiritual duties of a man's 
Chriftian calling, as of praying, reading, hearing, repent- 
ing, ire. the obligation to thete duties iying on a way, and 
our re frefh ments being in themfelves midfes to lead to the 
more chearful performance of them, when by them wc be- 
come more indifpofed for them, fo as eiJie 1 ' to forbear them, 
or to be formal or droufy in them; that is lure not good, 
but to be evitei. 6, Look to it in reference to the ferious 
inward frame of the mind, which theie flioiiid have who 
ought to walk always with God, keep communion with him, 
and be filled with the fpirit, whatfoever rnnrreth that or cb- 
ftrucleth fpirirual confoiation, or is inconfiftent with it. c.-.n- 
not certainly he good : Hence Ephef. v. iS to be fifted with 
the fpirit % is oppofe-i to excefs in wine or drunkennefi r, fa 
that what is inconfiftent with the one, may be underftood 
as belonging to the other, and although this fenfible joy of 
the fpirit cannot be always carried alongft, yet none ihculd 
incapacitate themfelves for keeping up with it. 7 Look on 
it in reference to our corruption^ and the promoving of 
mortification, when it either marreth this, by dulling or 
weakning of graces of the fpirit, or indifpefing for their ex- 
ercife ; or llrengtheneth and provoketh the former, it can- 
not be but fin fill, being a feeding of the fief b, a making c pro- 
vificn for the JJ?fb 9 as if we foftered our corruptions of lazi- 
n£ls> fenfuahty, and other lufts, when we feaft ourfelves 8. 
Look on it with refpect to its oppoilte, fobriety and temper- 
ance ; What is not fobriety, is excefs, and contrarily ; and 
fobriety being not only no excels, but a denied fober ufe of 
creature?, there muft be excels when the mind, as well as 
the body, is not fober, in the ufe of thefe things. 9. Look 
on it with refpect to its end (with which we began) when it 
ieadeth not to, and fitteth not for honouring of God, when 
it marreth our being uleful to our relation and others, ei- 
ther by taking up our time, or i pending our means that iva 
cannot provide for them, and fupply them, or indifpofeth. 
us for duties, .or hindreth a man from confidcriDg his own 

Y y foft 

354 An Exposition of Com. 7. 

Jail end, thus it Is finfully exceffive. io Look on it in re*' 
rerepjce to death and Ch riffs fecond appearing, for certain* 
ly enr Frame and pofturc in every thing fhould be fuch as 
we may not be furprifeJ with that: Hence is Ch rift's war- 
ning, Luke #xL 34. Take heed that ye be not overcharged 
with furfeitihgy gluttony, and drunkennefs, and the cares of 
this life, and that day ccrne upon you unawares : where he 
rnafceih not only the coming of the Lord, an awe-band to 
keep from grofs cut breaking into thefe fins ; but joining 
them with the cares of the world ; he fheweth that there 
may be, and oft is, an fa'difpofivfon for that day, even from 
the inward frame of the mind, occafioned by fenluai incli- 
nations and defires, when nothing doth outwardly appear. 
Now put what hath been fa'rd to trial, and ye will find 
that it is not only 'he who by furcharging himfelf ftaggeretb, 
vomiteth, or hath no ufe of reafon, wno in fcripture is ac- 
counted guihy of thefe evils ; but many more, as will be fad- 
5y evident when the Lord Cometh to count with fhem ; and 
if he mould call many to this reckoning a? the time of their 
eating or drinking, it would be a terrible furprifal to them : 
It is marked (Matth. xxlv. 39.) as an evidence of the fenfu. 
ality and fecurky of the old world, that they continued eat- 
ing and drinking, and knew not till the flood ind it 
is more terrible and fad what the Lord hath faid afterward, 
£0 fhall it be at the coming of the Son of man. O ! fear and 
think feriouily of this when ye are at your cups, and after 
them, and do not imagine that you are never guilty, but 
when you are like to beafts, void of reafon ; for the fcrip- 
ture condemning drunkennefs, comprehendeth under it ail 
excefs in drinking, and that which may ind:fpoie for going 
about what we are called to, though the exercife of our rea- 
fon be not always difturbed. Neither to conffitute drunken- 
nefs is it needful, that the perfon" willingly and purposely in- 
tend drunkennefs, it is enough that he willingly drink (and 
his will cannot be limply forced) although he be not defirous 
that thefe effects fhould follow ; for it 11 the aclrand not ths 
effect, which is properly the fin, as is (aid : If there were a- 
ny thing of the rear of God, or fenfe of duty, or fhame of 
difhonefty, there would not need many motives to difwade 
From the evils ; by committing of which moil holy men hate 
brought fad things on themfelfces, and occasioned fad curf- 
es to their children, as in Noah and Lot is clear ; and there- 
fore their examples and falls are fo far from being to be i- 
nutated, or made ufe of to diminifh from the account men 
t to have of ti: fs of the guilt, as they orren a- 
las are, that they are let up as beacons to fcare and fright 
ftttp them. 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. 35 j 

What fort of pcrfons it doth worft become, is not eafy to 
determine, it being unbecomming to every perfon, yea even 
beaftly and againft nature, men being by it not only put for 
a time from the exercife of their reafon (as it is in ileep) but 
incapacitate to acl; it, and put in a contrary beaftly fury. 
How unbecoming is it for old men, thatfhould be examples 
to others in fobriety ? How unbecoming is it to young men, 
whofe youth mould be other wife exercifed ? How v. 
ing for mean men, who ought to be fober ? and how efpe r 
cially unbecoming is it for men of place and reputation ? 11- 
pon whom this fin bringeth difgracc, arid particularly it is 
mod unfuitable for minifters to be given to drink, or to 
their appetite, to whom the Lord, I Tim. iii. and Tit. i. 
hath given fpecial rules and directions in this matter ; but 
mo ft of all in women it is abominable, and was, and is fa 
even amongft heathens; In furn, zvkoreJane, wine % and new 
ivine> Hoi. iv 11. take aivay the heart ; and men are un- 
manned and made effeminate by them, as was faid ; yea, 
are transformed as it were unto beafts ; of old, men were 
fo amamed of drunkennefs, that fuch as were given to ir. 
betook themfelve; ordinarily to the night [though fome in* 
de:d did rife early in the morning to follow ftrong drink, 
Ifa. v. n.) And when folks will not ke<^p at didance at the 
beginning from this fin of drunkennefs, but will needs take 
a liberty and be chearful in it, it prevaileth fadfy; over the rn f 
and rnaketh them enftaved beaits ere long to it, and they 
become bewitched with it, fo that they can hardly be got free 
from the fafcinations and inveiglements of it, Prov. xxiii. 3*. 
If it be afked here, Whether men or women, when health 
requireth vomiting, may not drink excefSvely for provok- - 
ing to it, in place of phyflc ? 

Anf. 1. That in fomc difeafes there is more allowed of 
fome forts of drink then in health, cannot be denied : Yea, 
2 a difference is to be put betwixt forts of drinks ; fome are 
not inebriating, that is, the drinking of a great quantity of 
them, will not diflurb the ufe of realbn ; others are fuch 
that exeefi; in them, wijl not only indifpofe body and mir.J, 
but quite obitruct and remove the ufe of reafon and judge- 
ment ; the tint fort or drink (which is more properly phyfica!) 
may lawfuly be drunken ; butln no cafe it is lawful for a 
to exceed in the ufe of that drink which bringeth with it tlic 
difturbance of his reafon ; the reafon is, becaufe this is fin- 
£ul in itfelf, aad exprefly againft God's command, and de- 
faceth his image in us (which is in knowledge) and is dero- 
gatory to it, therefore it is ftill reckoned a proper fruit cf 
theflejh, Gal. v. 21. and it fecludeth from the kingdom or. 
heaven, as well as fornication theft, £tc. and therefore, can 
T y 7, no 

'3;5 An E'xpejitiori of Com. 7 

no more be lawful under that pretext than the other are ; 
fee 1 Cor. vi. 11, 12. It is alio oppofed to an hoiuft Chriftian 
%vaik y and to the putting en of Chri/t^ Rom. :ciii. 13 and 
that is always true which we have, Rom. iii. 8. that ill is 
net to be done that good may ccmc of it ; neither hath God 
rnade exception in drunkennefs more that) in fornication, 
for which fome fuch pretexts will not be wanting with fome 
to palliate that fin. Again, this is not the proper end of 
drink to procure vomit (I mean the fore mentioned fort of 
drink, which none ever read of as approved ;) befide, it 
draweth along with it many other fins ; Who can tell but 
when they are in drunkennefs, they may blafpheme, curfe, 
commit adultery, murther, or fuch like ? fhould they then 
actively remove the ufc of their reafon by a practice which 
may be inductive to fuch abominations ? yea, may not death 
then come ? and fhould it not always be looked for ? and 
what a pofture would a man be in, when in fuch a cafe, to 
meet death ? moreover the diftemper that followeth fuch a 
drinking is not fuch as followeth phyfick, which doth only 
make fick or indifpofe the body, and what influence it hath, 
on the brain and reafon, is but accidental and indirect, but 
it is otherwife with that diftemper that followeth drunken- 
nefs, which putteth the perfon in fuch a fort of fury ami 
diffraction, that the carnal unrenewed part doth moft fre- 
quently get great advantage by it. 

If it be afked further, What is to be accounted of thefe 
anions, which are committed in drunkennefs ? Anfw. Some- 
what was iaid of this on this in the flrft command ; but fur- 
ther we fay, 1. Drunkennefs being a voluntary act, it can- 
not excufe, but maketh the perfon doubly guilty 1. by 
making the man guilty of fuch an aft, 2. By drawing on that 
incapacity on hirnfelf, whereby he difpofed himfclr for that 
and many more : In this refpedt the perfon committing mur- 
ther, or finning otherwife, in drunkennefs is more guilty 
than another, who not being in drink committeth the fame 
fin, becaufe two iins concur in him, and not in the other: 
.And therefore, 2. Although the murther, (wearing, &c* 
of one that is frefh, is more grofs, murther and fwearing, 
<bc. in another refpect, becaufe it is more immediately from 
the exercife of deliberation and choice, and that on this 
ground, drunkennefs may in part extenuate the refolute per- 
tinacioufnefs of the fact, yet it aggredgeth guilt upon the per- 
fon on the former account. It was once anfvvered by one, 
who being defired to fpare a perfon that had committed mur- 
ther in his drunkennefs, and to impute it to his wine; that 
he mould do fo, but he would hang up thefigon where the 
wine was; and feeing the man made himfcli fo, his punifh- 

#%> ment 

Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. 357 

mcnt was juft, for had he not been the flagon of that wine, 
that fin might have been prevented. 

Let me touch on Tome particular ills, which it is poffible 
are more abounding and leis looked to than Jrunken- 

riefs, yet hateful to God ; and take not I pray the mention- 
ing of them ill, for they will by unftrained coukquence fol- 
low to be condemned by the former rules. 

The 1. Is the liberty that is taken by all forts of perfons in 
refpecl of meat; as if only appetite or luft were their rule, 
which may be feen in that exceilive and fuperfluous vanity 
which is in feafting, wherein that is fenfually fpent, which 
might be ufefully emp ! oyed, and often they that are rcoft 
prodigal and profu'.e that way, are leaft in charity \ and if 
they may pamper their own iiefh, or get the name of good 
fellows and good houfe-keepers, though it be to (uch as 
have do need, and though there be nothing or very little al- 
lowed for the iupply of the necefHties of the faints, or of 
others, and much more withheld that way than is meet, 
vet they think all is well. 

2 There is your tipiing, though you drink not drunk, 
your four-hours (as ye call them) this drinking, as or- 
dinarily ufed, is certainly not for ftrength, and therefore 
as is clear, Ecclef x. 16,17. by the oppoiition there, it muft 
be for drunkennefs. If many men were put to fearch in this 
particular, it would be found chat there is more expanded 
on thefe in the year, than is .bellowed in charitable ufes ; 
mere time taken up in them, than in religious duties, and 
more inclination to attend them* than to hear fermons ; 
men cannot come abroad for this end, they cannot fhift 
their buiinefs without huit, but for their company they can 
do both : Pro v. xxiii. 29, 30. IV ho hath woe ? who hath far- 
row ? who hath contentions ? who hath babbling? who hath 
wounds without caufe P who hath redne/s of eyes i They that 
tarry long at the wine, they that go tojeek mixt wine. Here 
you fee who are the perfons that have a woe and God's 
curfe on them, and other inconveniences •, are they not tip- 
lers ; even they that tarry long at the (Wong drink how much 
or how little they will \ Ifa. v. 22. Woe unto them that are 
mighty to drink wine, and men ofjirength to single jtrong drink. 
Certainly God hath made man, and given him time for an- 
other end than that, and hath not for that end given his 
creatures to men to be thus abu fed, this cannot be t 
or drinking in due feafon, and I am perfuaded it is not for 
neceffity, for our own health, for the edification Qt others, 
or for the glory of God. 

What then can be faid - r or it? that it helpeth to pa& the 
lime (which is pretended by many as an excuie) is a part of 


35$ dn Expo/It ion of Com. 7. 

i;s guilt and juft: accufation, for it maketh the time to be 
loft, which ought to be more thriftily and carefully fpeot ; 
and what chearfulnefs it is accompanied with is often car- 
nil : When is their fpiritual difcourfe, and what may be e- 
dh'ying, and mioifter grace to the hearers at fuch meetings r 
when do ye pray for the fan&fied ufe of that time, fellow- 
ship or drink ? if at all, it is but feldom ; many a curfed 
four hours is taken by fome, though all God's creatures be 
good, be fanftified by the word and prayer : Be exhorted 
therefore ro forbear this, especially jou who have place in 
government, either civil or eccldiaftick ; do not you make 
Others to offend with your example, nor Strengthen thefe in 
their wicked nefs (to whom ye fhould be examples of good) 
encouraging them to go in and drink drunk in taverns or ale 
houies, when they fee you go in to tipple : It is a (name to 
hear what drunkennefs 01 this fort is to be found even a- 
men git young men, and others from whom we would lead 
cjxpeft it. 

3. There is your drinking at bargains-making fo frequent- 
ly, without reipedl to the end wherefore drink was appoin- 
ted ar:d given, as if ye were to honour drinking a? a help to 
you in your bargains, although this evil be now alas epide- 
mick > and hardly will a man that hath fuch bufinefs, get it 
at all times fhunned, confklering the humours of others he 
dealeth with, yet certainly if ye would all fet to it, 
would be no great difficulty of reforming it ; but 

begin not, how fhall it be done ? It is an uncouth and ftrangc 
thing, and even unnatural, that neither a man's appetite, 
nor his health, nor the time of the day, nor his ordinary 
diet ihail be the reafon or occafion of a man's drinking, or 
the rule whereby to try the convenient itfhen or feafon of ir, 
but when ever a man (hall make fuch or inch a bargain with 
me, or pay me for, or get payment from me of, fuch and fuch 
things, that muft be the rule of my eating and drinking, 
what btaft will be thus dealt with ? O how many irrational, 
and almoft infra-brutal practices are amongfi us 

4. There is drinking of healths, and conftraing a pledg- 
ing (as it is called) of them, and thus by th:s means, forc- 
ing, or tempting, or occafioning (although it be willingly 
done by them) drinking in others ; this is one of the higheft 
provocations in drunkennefs, and a dreadful perverting of 
the end for which God hath given meat and drink, neither 
health nor neceliity calling to it: For, I. This, hath the 
woe appropriated to it that is pronounced, Hab. ii. 15. Woe 
to him that givctb bis neighbour drink ; this is a great incite- 
ment and provocation to drinking, and how many times 
bath it occahoned druakepnefs ? Ag^in, a/Whereas every 


Com. 7. the Ten Commandments. t 

man's own appetite fhould rule his drinkng. this maketh one 
man prefcribMhe quantity and quality to others, and To one 
man, or fcvcral men, drinketh by the meafure, will, and 
appetite of another; which is unreafonable, it being con- 
trary to nature that men fhould drink all at one time, ami 
and precisely lb much, and of fuch drink, i bis even in 
Ahaluerus his feafr, Efther i. 8. was forbidden. B 
what can be the ufe of drinking of healths ? i- cannot be 
the health of another whom we refpeft, becaufe that is to 
be expected in the approved way of prayer, which is the 
mean that Christians ought to keep fellowship in for the 
health one of another, and we fuppofe they are readied to 
drink healths who are leaft in prayer for fuch whom they 
pretend to refpect It was a notable faying of a great maa 
(foliated belike to drink the king's health) " By your leave, 
€< I will pray for the king's health, and drink for my own -." 
And certainly whatever it be in it felf, yet the many ill con- 
fequents which have followed the drinking of healths, the 
many drunkennefies and quarrellings occasioned by it, the 
refentments that men will have if they feem to be flighted 
(as they account it) either when they are drinking them ie!vef t 
ifr when their name is mentioned in the health to be drunk, 
do manifeft that they who ufe it, etireem more to be in that* 
way of drinking than in any other, and fo alledge that if a 
man drink not as much as they, herefpecleth them not. Am 
gain, men in company drinking heakhs, either take drink 
when it is neceffary (and in that cafe, heakhs are but iur 
the faihion) and do not prefs it on others, and even thus, 
though it be indifferent like, yet considering the abufe which 
hath been of it, the offence that may tiow from the main- 
taining of it, and that it often proveth the rife of more, and 
giveth occaiion to others to follow it more, and to hold it 
on (even beyond the intention of the fir ft inventer or propo- 
ser) it is much more fafe to forbear ; or they drink unne- 
ceffarily, and prefs it on others, and thus it is abamic 
See what the fathers think of this in Mr. Bolton's direc: 
for comfortable walking with God. 

If we look narrowly into the thing itfetf (although cuftora 
when it is inveterate weakneth us in the right upta&mg of 
things, yet) it will probably be found to have arifen from 
heathenifh idolaters, who ufed Libamen Jovi, Baccho, <&c. 
and if it be (up poled to help the health of others, that can- 
not be expected from God, who hath given no fuch pro-* 
mife, it mu'i therefore be from the devil ; k was called by 
the heathen:, PhiVia Jovis, drinking of healths being among 
them as a piece of drink-oficring or facrifice to their idols 
on the behalf of thole they luentioaed ia their drinkiog, or 


3^0 An Expofition of Com. j- 

whofe health they drank. And it is certain there is no vef- 
tige of it in Christianity, nor any reafon for it, and experi- 
ence cleareth that many grow in a fort fuperfthious in the 
ufe of it, as if the refuting fuch a thing were a prejudice or 
indignity to the perfon mentioned, and that the Devii hath 
made u!e of it as a rower to convey in much drnnkennefs 
into the world ; we think it therefore abfolutely fa f eft to 
forbear it, and we are fure there is no hazard here ; See 
Ambrof. de alea and Jejunio, cap 13. arid i3. Auguft. de 
temp. ler. 231, 232. Bali!, in Epiit. ad Cor. fer. 14. Cart- 
wright's confefiion. To this lame purpofe thefe old latin 
lines are worthy the noticing. 

Una falus funis nullum potare fclutem. 
Ncn eft in pot a vera faint falus* 

Which may be thus Englifhed ; 

To drink no healths for whole men y good health is, 
In drinking healths, we real health do mifs. 

We fuppofe that a kindly mction towards a perfon that is 
prefent when one drinketh to him, may be differenced from 
this, yea, and taking occafion alfo to remember ethers that 
are abfent ; for our eating and drinking together, being 
that wherein our familiarity and freedom one with another 
venteth itfclf, to have fome figns or occafions of. teftifying 
our kindnefs to, and remembrance of, thofe whom we re- 
fpect, will not be unfuitable. 

5. There is your drinking at the birth of children, and that 
not only, or fo much, at their Chriflning or baptifm (where- 
at as appeareth by the example of circumciilon, fomewhat 
may be allowed in Chriftian hilarity) as in after viiits, fo 
long as the women is in child-bed, or doth lie in, fo that 
none can fee her, though it were many in one day, but fhe 
and they muft drink, and then again drink ; O what a de- 
bauched time is it to many ? That while they are lying, and 
while God calleth them to be ctherways employed, they 
lhculd be entertained with tippling ; and it is a fad matter, 
that though it be both a burden to the receiver, and ex- 
pence to the giver ; yet neither of them will itand in the 
way of it; but both will concur : indeed, where women in 
that condition are in ftrait, we would allow in that cafe to 
give them fome drink, or rather to furniih them with mo- 
ney to provide it, but when there is no want, tut rather fu- 
peifluity to add more, what is that but to keep up a fa/hi- 
cn, or cur own fcppcfed credit ? This is net the end for 
which thefe creatures arc given, nor is this the fellowship 

Com. 7. the Ten Czmmzndir.entf. 3*1 

that Chriftiacs ought to have one with another, fjeing 
therefore there is in this cuftom both fin in abufe cf time, 
and of meat and drink in a high degree ; and (eeing there 
is in it alio this fhame, that men and women ihall let ethers 
furnifh them as though they were poor, or do them a fa- 
vour in buying drink for them (when their necefiiiy is pro- 
vided) as though they loved to drink and tipple ; and lleing 
withal there is a damage here, and much money fooliihly 
/pent, ire. to the hurt of many, we would entreat you to 
foibear this alfo ; and except fuch of you as are poor and 
ftand in need of drink, we would have none of you fuifer 
any firanger, or other then yourfelves to bring in drink 
to your houfes, but rather let yourfelves to be Chriftian in 
your fellowship-, and I fuppofc alfo, that fewer vifits iu 
that cafe would ftiite better, and would be much more com- 
fortable and advantageous to the fick party. 

6. There is your drinking at lick-wakes or derbies (as ye 
call them( after the death and fo after the burial of friends 
cr neighbours, as if that gave a call and m?de a rendez- 
vous to drink; Certainly if drunkennefs and tippling be 
unfuhable at any time, much more on fuch an occation is 
it fo, even inoft unfuitable ! Is this the way to be made 
Chridianly to mind your own approaching death, and to be 
prepared for it ? Is it nof rather to make the houfe of 
mourning a houfe of feafting, and to forget the end of all 
living, which the living {hould lay to. heart ? Is this to bear 
burthen with a fmitten family wherein one is dead, to come 
and burthen them, and table yourfelves in their houfe ? 
Will this fit them who are alive to get the right ufe of the 
ftroak, to be difturbed by providing fuch and fuch meat, 
drink, fervams for you : When it is like that thus pray- 
ing comes to be neglected, and heavinefs {wallowed up in 
this 1-eathenifh way of drinking away care and thought; 
certainly if the parties be fad, that fort of fellowship is not 
fit at all, and proper ; if they be in hazard to take no im- 
preffion of the rod, this ftumbleth them and quite driveth 
it away: O heathenifh hateful and abominable practice! 
And where was it ever feen that frequent company at fuch 
a time, and fuch company, proved ufeful ? yea, often it hath 
been followed with abufe and many fad confequents ; and is 
the dreg of old fuperftitious Popery not fully removed out 
of the hearts of fome. 

If what we have faid be truth, viz. That eating and drink- 
ing (hould be in feafon for Jlrength, as it is Ecclef. x. 16, 17. 
and for the hzneur of God y we are perf waded that it contra- 
dicted/ all thefe evils, as unbecoming Chriflians : And there- 
fore if che truth of God, or your own credit and efteem 

Z z have 

3<*£ -An Expoftion of Com. jl 

have place with yon, let tbefc things be forborn and aban» 
dotted ; are we laying heavy burthens an you ? Doth not 
this way propofed by us, look both more Chriftian and 
more civil-l ; ke, and rf in fuch our ward things that are hurt- 
ful to yourlelves, and rone carv fay, but the reforming of 
them is fome way in your power; If in fuch things, i v 
we prevail not with you, wherein fball we prevail? Are 
there any who come to death's door but thefe things are 
loathfome to them, and their confeience crieth out on thti 

therefore feeing we fay nothing but what your confeience 
will confirm, let us prevail with you fo far a* to procure a 
reformation of thole evils that are fo hurtful to you; 
and dishonourable to God. 

7. There is one thing more, whereof I. fhall fpeak but nt 
word : I fuppofe the exceflive number of tavern- keepers vint- 
ners and hoitler's cannot but be a breach of this command, 
and an ocenfion,' if not a caufe of intemperance in drink, 
for fuch a number cannot be fuppoied to be tteceiT.iry for 
mans lawful ufe \ it muft therefore be to provoke to the a* 
bu(e of the creatures \ and this employment is now becou 
fo common, that he who is defperate of any otl of 

living, will betake hUnfelf to this Ihift ; and readily fuch f 
under that woe pronounced, flab, ii againft thole v 
drink to others : Take heed to this ye who take tins call- 
on you, it is lawful in itfclf I grant but often it is made un- 
lawful, and fuch as are/in it, become often partakers or n 
ay fins committed in their houfes, which for their own par- 
ticular advantage they overlook, and particularly of the fin 
of uncleannefs and whoredom, debauched drunkard* being. 
ordinarily vile and laicivious perlons ; yGu ought therefore 
to discountenance night-drinkers efpeclally, by refuting to 
give them what they call for, as you would not m ike your- 
selves partakers of their fins. 

From what hath been faid it doth appear how bafe and 
tmbefeeming Christians thefe fpoken of drinking? and tip- 
plings are, which are of tlmt nature, that we can neither in 
faith pray for, nor promife themfelves a bleiling upon them 
from God, they being neither in feaion nor tor a j ight end ; 
And no doubt when the Lord cometh f fuch as have b 
given to thefe fins, will wilh they had been oth'erways excr- 
cifed. |H 
Thus much for the feveath command. 


t 363 3 


Excdus xx. Vcrfe ij. 
Tboujbah not jfeaL 

WE come now to coofider tins eight command, ' 
jhalt not ileal: In the former the Lord reftrained 
the lu/l cfiksficj?:, and means abufing of their bodies, la 
this heregulatcth them in the ufe of their riches and eftatcs, 
and fetteth bounds Xo the lufi of the eye y and the covetoufnefs 
cf the heart. 

The fcope of the command in genera! is, to regulate us 
in reference to the outward e (hue of ourfclves and others, 
that we fail not either in wronging, or in inordinate an I a 
ceffive profiting them orourftdves : And mifcarriages of this 
nature are comprehended under this of dealing, to make 
ihem the more odious. 

From the general fcope of the command we nuy fee, 1. 
That the Lord ailoweth properly amongfl ins people, other- 
ways there could be no ftealing. 2 That men have not li- 
berty to manage theie things of the world according to their 
meer pleafure and arbitreinent, but there are rules fit to 
them, by which they are to be governed in reference to them 
Knd there is religion in buying and ieliiag, and fuch ike, as 
well as there is in praying and hearing the word, though ttfe 
the things be of a different nature. 

For opening the command, Confider, t. The fin Forbid- 
den, jieaiing, with the pofitive duty comprehended under 
it 2. Consider its extent as to the kinds of theft. 3. 
Confider how the^t may be faid to be committed. 4. You 
may connder more -particularly feme particular fins prohi- 
bited, and duties commanded, and queftions that may be 
moved concerning them, as about charity or giving of aims, 
viury, making of bargains or ccntra&s, purfuing of riches, 

The fum of this command vre may gather from Ephef. iv. 
28, Let him that ftofe fteat no more ', but r&iher let him labour 
working with his hands the thing which is gpvd, that he may > 
have to give to him that needeth. 1 ThefT iv 6. That no man 
go beyond and defraud his brother in any matter ; becaufe that 
the Lord is the avenger of all fuch i as we alfo have forewarned 
you and tefiified. Lev. xix> 1 1, 13, 35, 36. Te /ball not /leal, 

witter dcalfalf,y y neither He one to another. Thiujbalt not 

Zi z 1 defraud 

364 An Exp&fitkn of Com. 8 # 

defraud thy neighbour , neither rob him : the wages of him that 
is hired Jhall not abide with thee all niqht until the morning. 
Te Jball do no unrighteov. fiefs in judgment % in met-yard> in 
weight or in ?neafure,ju/l bal/ances, juji weights, ajujl epbah % 
end a juft hin Jhall ye have : / am the Lord your God which 
brought you out of the land of Egypt. Theft is moft ftri&Jy 
defined to be the taking away of that which is anothers, he 
not knowing it, and that to his hurt •, hut more generally 
we take it to be, any inordinatenefs in reference to riches, 
cither by wronging our neighbour, or profiling ouiTtlves, 
and that whether it be in the attaining, retaining, or ufing 
of them; this, though in few words, yet comprehendetli 

1. Then we call that inordinatenefs ; when men miftak- 
ing the right end for which, and the golden mediacrity ac- 
cording to which riches are to be employed ; they do fail 
cither in the excefs, by tranfgreffing the juft bounds, or in 
the defect; or making ufe of wrong midfes for attaining 
the end : Hence the love of money, or cf riches, being the 
root of all evil, becometh idolatry, when riches are made 
the ultimate end, and purfued and made ufe of only tcrfa- 
tisfy the luft of the eye ; or when this love of money is made 
fubiervient to fome other luft, as to the pride of life ; thus 
the love of money is inordinate as to its end, when it is for 
an end without and beyond that which is convenient for us. 
^ 2 We may be inordinate by our being too vehement in our 

clefires after riches, fo that we will be rich, as it is 1 Tim* 
11. 9. we refolve it ; and muft be fo by any means, as it 
were ; which is moft dangerous, and by being defirous of 
too much, keeping no proportionable meafure, but being 
fometimes in the excefs, /pending our time in feeking more 
than is convenient, fometimes in the defect, trifling away 
much time in the la^y, carelefs, and negligent purfuit of 
what is convenient. 3. There may be inordinatenefs in the 
midfes made ufe of for attaining or retaining riches either by 
an unlawful way of cocqueft fimply, or by that which is fuch 
5q fome refpecls ; as by unlawful callings and fuch like : All 
which unlawful ways may be reduced to thefe three, , rapina, 
furtum, and turpe lucrum, rapine, theft, and filthy lucre, 
of which more afterward. 

Again, this inordinatenefs we fay is when either our neigh- 
bours eltate, or our own, is wronged *, his may be wronged 
when ours is not advaGMged ; as by deftroying, firing, and 
the like, out of hatred and malice ; yea, it may be wrong- 
ed by our negligence, when poflibly he and ourielves are 
both wronged, yet this is condemned in fcripture i and Exod. 
xxii, 5. & fejuent. the Lord provideth laws anent it. It 


Com. 8. fc the Ten Commandments. 365 

may be alfo iq reference to the profiling ourfelves or our 
neighbour, or bettering of our own eftate or his ; there is 
no doubt inordiaatenefs in getting, keepiog, and ufing that 
which belongs to us or to our neighbour, as when we get it 
without right, or its due price by aq others folly or negli- 
gence, <bc. 

To proceed a little, we fliall confider the fin forbidden in 
this command, as drawn to thele three ioremeationcd heads} 
rapina, fiirtum^ turpc lucrum. 

Rapine includeth violence of all forts, both by land, and 
that either by more petty parties, as robbers, plunderers, 
be. or fuch as are more Itrong and able to carry their point, 
is conquerors, generals of armies, &c. medling wi:h that 
^hich is not theirs, which is robbery in the Lord's account, 
Hab, i. 6. And by lea, this is c^hed piracy : It wns a true 
and iharp anfwer which a Pirate, did give to Alexander (as 
is recorded) who being taken by him, and afked, How he 
could or durft live that way, replied, " He did only what he 
" himfelf did; fave that Alexander bereft men of king- 
" doms, he but of a little of their means; he with more 
ic ftrength on the land followed his point, he with lefsupon 
M the lea/' Of which piracy, whether caping or robbing 
poor innocent tea faring-mens goods, as it is now ufed by 
many, I wiih ail capers and their confederates in dl Chrii- 
tiao kingdoms and common wealths, would ferioufly con- 
fider, and would to this -purpofe take notice of what the e- 
minently learned Grotius faith in his book de jure belli if 
pacts, lib. 3. cap. iS.ferr.2. but more efpecially, feci. 4. 
where he doth with much reafon (whereof he was a great 
maftet) and religion, afiert, %i That when juftice, ftrietly 
" lb called, is not hurt, yet a man may fin againfi thar du* 
c< ty which confifts in the loving of others, and more efpe- 
a cially what the Chriitian law preicribes (which yet here 
" is only corroborative of the moral law, that perfect and 
11 perpetual binding rule of life and manners) fothat if it be 
u manifeft that Inch caping, robbing, or fpoiling, will 
u chiefly hurt and indamage, not the whole body or gene- 
<c rality of the enemies, or of the king, or fuch as are or 
€< themfelves guilty ; but the innocent, and that in inch a 
" meafure, as will thruft them into the very greateft cala- 
" mities and miferies : wherein to caft even fuch as are 
" private and proper debtors, were a mercilefs and cruel 
M act: But if to all this it be added, that fuch fpoiling or 
" robbing is found to be of no conliderable moment or iai- 
€i portance, neither to put an end to the war, nor to cut 
M ihort aad confume the public and main force of the ene- 

" my ; 

y56 An Expbjifiok of Com. 8. 

• # my ; tli:*n, and in that c::fe, fuch gain ought to be ac- 
* f counted unworthy of a morally good man, and more e- 
*' fpecially of a Christian, as being made only of the cala- 
€i miry or thfc times."' On which account Plutarch blames 
Crah he had made purchafe of the moft part of his 

riches by robbing and (polling in times of fire and fword, 
looking on the calamities of the times he lived in, as his 

teft gain, Grot, annot. ad idem V.lud cap. 18. "Whatever 
will be faid io'r prefled men and other fubjects, who on the 
cxprefs call o( the magiftrate go to fea-fights, their non-ob- 

ion to enquire narrowly and fcrupuioufly into the juft- 
m:fe of the war, when it doth not appear to them unjuft ; 
yet unquestionably fuch perfors as go a caping, and I 

partners, for a fhare of the gain, are obliged to a ftrift 
and accurate examination of thejaftoefs of the war, fince 
they willingly offer themfelves to fuch work, yea, feek for 
accefs to it as a fpeciai favour and priviledge \ which they 
may let alone if they pleafe, and fo in this cal t, on 

the leaft fcrupleor ground of hefiution, to Ut itaione ; and 
if they go on r and feek not fatisfadYioii to their consciences 
to 01 mo ft a ner.it the juftnefs of it, they make 
guilty in their (rations as the prince ; ftate, or common- 

!:o engage in an unjuft war ; fince what*, 
not done in faith and from a peri wa (ion 
nefs thereof, is a fin : and though war were uncontrovc 
jail, yet Grotius his grounds bercre laid down, < 
eonfuicred, by fuch cfpecialty, who out or a covetous hu- 
mour and defire to make gain, though under the filly pre- 
text of weakning the enemy, the leaft thing ordinarily inten- 
ded by them, engage themfelves in this courfe, which not 
only crufheth many poor innocents,, but is a!fo often waited 
with blood fried, and taking of mens lives ; w rl 1 not 

it feems be readily denied) may defend themfel their 

goods, the means of the livelyhood of themfelves and their 
families, won with much toil and hazard ; and if they may 
endeavour the prefefvation of theft goods, and defend them- 
jelvts agafnft fuch as would fpoil and berave them of them, 
then its worthy of very grave confideration, if this cafe the 

[ants wounding, mutilating, or killing poor private men, 
quietly following their callings for their bread, in their own 
lawful (at leaft hitherto in this fo circumfta misted cafe, by 
Grotius, not judged and determined unlawful) defence, will 
be found altogether free (efpecially if the juftnefs of the war 
be doubtful, or not confeientioufly enquired into) of mur- 
ther : And if the aggreffors themfelves fliould be wounded 
or killed by thefe felf-defendants, whethcrvthey will b^ with- 
out all culpable acceffionto their own feif auirtiier ; and fo 


Com. ?-. the Tin Commandments. 

whether they will not be involved in the guilt, nor only of 
the breach of t th, but alfo of the iix- 

And whether cftate acquired or d by 

be brooked and poi h folic} p 

with the well-grounded expectation or" Cod's bhdir.g, 

li makcth neb, &th nofirroiu t 

fay, calls for ; rave coniideration. Betide that, 
obferved, that inch couries have not only made thefe e 
that ivvre acquired by them, quickly to melt away, but al- 
io to have been a moth in the eftatea for the time bettered 
by them. Obiervabie, and not altogether alien from this 
matter, is that Chrdtian and grave act made againit prize- 
goods in the town council of Edinburgh, t\\& head pity 
this kingdom, in great Mr. Knox his days (as one bh 
fruit of the gofpel amongft many ethers) May 10. Anno 
i 561 . the very year after the public dtablifhmcnt of tli^c 
formed protectant religion in Scotland. The tenure where- 
of follow : 

u I T is ordained that no man whbio this bur^h buy n- 
" ny prize-goods, under the pain of tinzei of Irs ire 
¥ for ever, and puniihment at the wilt of the civil l 
•f ftrate, it being contrary to a good confeience, and that 
u we are bound to deal with every Chrifiian brother, as w« 
" would wiih to be dealt with, and the goods opt to be ibid 
•' by any godly man within this burgh." 

This rapine, again, having a fort of pretext, b^ometh 
oppreffion, when a man by power, favour, or fuch like, 
outreachedi and goeth beyo: 1 Lis title, andinda- ; 
party witn which he ccnteadesh more than his right or 
wourd warrant him to do ; and this may be in great men o- 
ver their 'inferiors, as mailers over (ervantr t of landlords o- 
ver tenant?, ot ma pie or fuhje&s; a: 

all thefe, who any ways make ufe of greatnefs to d 
thers, or thruft at them, either to make them quite A \ : 
they have, or by retaining from them what is theii 
by exacting by their title what is really prejudicial to th 
thers property, even though by oppreliioo the perfoi 
made willing to condefcend. Thus alfo overpowering of o- 
thers in law-fuits and courts, and making ufe of moyen :o 
bear them down in their right is interpreted by God as o[> 

For the fecond, viz. theft, more properly it lpoketh to 
all ways, ^whereby ; without pretext of violence, ano- 
ther is wrongeJ : T -led ta four, 1. If it br 
a wrong done to a common wealth, it is called p3cu!&tu$ $ 
which in a iar^e acccption iucludeth not only private mea 

3 fi 3 An Expbjftlon of Com. 3. 

or, magifrrares, frealing or robbing the public treafure, but 
alio collectors, queftors, and others that are in fuch like 
offices, who, when they intervert what belongeth to public 
ufe, and become guilty; and proportionably all fuch as arc 
entrutied with the keeping and diltributing of what belong- 
eth to the corporations and focieties, and do intervert it, as 
Judas did in fome refpect, when he intervened what was 
committed to his keeping, for ufes not allowed, and there- 
fore he is called a thief, though his crime was alfo facriledge. 
2. As it refpec'icth any thing appointed for pious ufes, fo 
it is called facriledge ; fee Leviticus v. 15. Mai. iii. 8. Acts 
v. 2, 3. and though now we have nothing that is holy by 
fuch a confecration, yet what is appointed by God's war- 
rant for holy ufes, cannot without tin be intervened ; fuch 
are churches or houfes built for God's worfhip, flipendsfor 
maintaining of his minifters and ordinances, becaufe thefe 
belong to the church, as the other do to the common wealth, 
fuch alfo are the poors money, collections, <bc. for if there 
be an appropriation of thefe things for that ufe, then why 
fhould that property be encroached on, more than other 
properties ? And if any fhould fay thefe are the magiftrates 
gift, and he may ufe them as he pleafeth ? Anfw. I am not 
fpeaking now of what power the magiltrate may have in an 
extraordinary cafe of neceiiity, there being no doubt, times, 
when particular mens property will not have place, but ought 
to cede to the public good ; but in ordinate cafes I fay, that 
the right which the church hath in them, for thefe fcre- 
mentioned ufes or ends, is no lefs than any private man's in 
his own particular eftare \ befide that, they are indeed given 
unto God ; and therefore it is not in the magiilrates power 
to make what ufe of thefe he pleafeth, neither is it at his 
option to appoint them, and maintain and keep them up, or 
not, as he pleafeth, but it is his duty, and that which is re- 
quired of him to do fo, as he would be found faithful in the 
difcharge of his office. 3, There is a grofs kind of theft 
in men ftealling, not fo much ufed now, as of old, when 
there were flaves, of which men made advantage : This may 
be alfo in taking or enticing away of another man or wo- 
mans fervant, to their matters or miftrefs prejudice ; which 
is clear theft, though often practifed, and by many, little 
regarded : As likewife in (educing of children to a falfe re- 
ligion, to a bad marriage, to evil company, to drinking, 
whoring, robbing, 6r. to run away from their parents out 
of the country ; without a juft and neceffary caufe, &c. this 
is condemned in the law, and 1 Tim. i. 10. The 4th fort is 
fingle- theft, or the wronging of a man in his private and 
peribnal eftate \ as when a man's money, deaths, houfliohl 


Com, 8. the Ten Commandments. I ' ) 

furniture, corn, horfes, cows, fheep, merchant- wares, books, 
working-tools, &c. are ftollen and privily taken from him. 
And here do come in the general heads of that theft for* 
merly mentioned. 

Turpe lucrum\ or filthy lucre, is that gain which acquir- 
ed either by fimply unlawful, or by diihoneft, unworthy, 
and bale ways and means : As I. By niggardlinefs, when a 
man feeks to make great gain of: the very leaft and imalleft 
\ who ufeth to be called xu^vo™^ and v.vuuoxptw* or 
Cymintbitis % that is, fo miferable a wretch, and fo bale a 
niggard, that he would cut a cumin-feed and fell it, 2. By 
taking too largely and greedily when gifts are going, whe- 
ther to the prejudice of the giver, or of others ftanding in 
ho Ufs, or in more peed, and of no lefs, or it may be, of 
greater defcrving, tlfcreby incapacitating him to give therrw 
3. By a man's proftitution of himfelf, without all neceiiity, 
only to win the world, to bafe offices and employments, 
diigracing his itation,as for great men to turn to inch, where- 
hey eat as it were the meat out of the mouths of the 
poor men, who have all their days been bred up in, and 
followed fuch employments. For.minifters of the gofpel, in 
a peaceable ftate of the church, and without any neceflny, 
to turn to, and deal in worldly trades ; or in a time of trou- 
ble to betake themfelves to the very bafeft of them, when 
others would do as well, or well enough, for their necef* 
maintainance. 4. By vice and villany, as for gam to 
pjay the whore, to be a pimp or pander, to keep a ttcw or 
y-houfe, to for-fwear or bear falfe witnefs, willingly 
to fell drink till men drink to excefs and be drunk, and to 
'ure and follrcit them to it, if the drink may bat fo go 
Lway, and bring fome advantage to the vintner, <bc. 5. B/ 
zing under colour of law, as by biting ufury, forgoing 
writes, by moyen and buds prevailing in iaw to dwang a 
man from his right, for a man to buy pleas, to deal in brok- 
en, crazed, or incumbred eftatesthat he hath nothing to do 
with, on defign to make gain by defrauding creditors, or 
forcing them for his own advantage to hurtful compofitions, 
6t. 6 By exceUive, immoderate and hurtful travel and 
p.iins to win a very little and inconfiderable thing, and it 
may be without all ntcefiity too. 7. By robbery ard mur- 
ther; Prov. i, from ver. 10. to 20, 8. By fpoiling the dead, 
rliHing tombs, taking off rings or iinnings, <bc. 9. By car- 
ding, dicing, and ftage-pfaying : and making conqneft and 
gain by any other diihoneft or crooked mean. 

Thus we have hinted the fir ft diftribution of inordinate- 
cefs in enquiring into rapine, theft and unlawful or filthy 
jain. Confidcr it again, 1. As it wrongeth others only, or 

A a a as 

37° An Expofitioii of Com. 8. 

as it profilcth us alfo : 2. As being direct theft, or as being 
under pretext of law : 3. As acquiring donations, or by 
mutual contracts or bargains: 4. When it is in refpect of 
ourfelves or others. 5. When it is in attaining, and ther> 
k is called avaritia y avarice ; when in retaining, then it is 
tenacitas, tenacity, niggardlinefs r and fordid parcimony, in- 
not fpending with fuch a fuitable proportionablenefs as is 
requisite, or not given back what is unjuftly purchafed, or 
taken from any man, by falfe accufation or otherways, cal- 
led reltitution, whereof Zacheus fpeaketh, Luke xix. 8. 
6. When it is by an ill employment, as playing, gaming,. 
&c. or by the abufe of a lawful calling : 7. As it profufely 
wafteth what we have, and fpoileth others of what we fhould 
beftow on them, or as it hokleth in more than is meet, and 
ii> fpoileth ourfelves of that comfort w% might have in our 
eftates, the one is by prodigality, the other by fordid par.- 
cimony, as wehavefaid ; fee Prov. xi. 24 8. Asthewrong 
may be dene at firft through ignorance, or continued in af- 
ter folks come to the knowledge of it, in which cafe the 
thing is to be reftored, and the amends is to be made as is 
cfear, Lev. v. 15, 16. And in Abimelech's dealing with 
Abraham's wife, whom, after he knew to be his wife, he 
did reftore again untouched. 

O ! how doth men3 addicledaefs to creatures make them 
find out many inventions to fatisfy their luft with them ! 
Hence is this commandment fo broad, that it is difficult ta 
fpeak of it in all its particulars, In further profecuting 
whereof, we f li all not aftricl ourfelves to fo precife a method, 
but endeavour to lay down thedireel: breaches of it by which 
the pofitive part, andthefe duties that are required, will be 
the moreeafily difcernable. 

Confidcrthen its breach, 1. as it wrongeth others; 2. as 
it wrongeth ourfelves ; 3. as it wrongfully feeketh to bene- 
fit ourfelves, or better our own eftate. 

As to the firft, Confider it firft in the quantity, it is theft 
whether the matter be in little or much, if fo be it be a real 
wronging of others in that which is theirs, even as a lie is 
a lie in any matter, in great things as well as leffer, and this 
theft in little or much will feclude from the kingdom of God, 
1 Cor. vi. 10. and as drunkennefs may be in drink, that is, 
not the very greateft quantity of drink, nor in the fineft 
drink, fo may theft be in little or courfe things. Confider, 
2> As it looketh not only to the hand, but to the heart al- 
fo, even as adultery and murther do -, it is a piece of the e- 
vil treafure that Chrift faith in the heart, Matth. xii. 35. 
and xv. 18, 19. 3. It may be fometimes, when he that 


Com. 8. the Ten Commandments. 371 

commitceth it, knoweth it not, but fupponeth fuch a thing 
to be juft and due to him, as when he ufeth not means to 
know, and when he knoweth, doth not rcftore it 4 It is 
fometimes wholly io carried, as that he who is wronged, 
knoweth nothing of it : as when (for inftance) fuch a right 
that would clear him in his bufinefs is to his prejudice kept 
lip, and he made to believe that he hath no fuch right, al- 
though he quarrel it not, yet it is theft before God 5. It 
is direct, when, though one knoweth fuch a thing to bean- 
others, yet he will needs have it. 6. It is left or more, as 
there is a feeming necefluy, or none at all in the perfon 
ftealing; for if the thing be indeed neceffary for life, it is 
not theft ; fo alfo if the thing have a general and common 
allowance among men for its warrant, it is not theft, thus 
the difciples plucked the ears of corn, which was not theirs, 
and yet were not thieves: The fin is grofs. wtien in holy 
ihings, or public things, or when things are taken with vio- 
lence and hazard of life, blood, &c. or when there is great 
prejudice following it to our neighbour, or when it is more 
frequently gone about, or when it is under truft, &c, 7. It 
is in contracts and bargains to our neighbour's prejudice ; 
as by too clofe flicking to claufes of writs, beyond, it may 
be, the intention of the makers, and when there is fome 
pretexts of law, this is againft the end of writs and law. 8. 
It is in buying or felling ; and fo, 1. We fail in the end, 
when we mind our own good only, without any regard to 
our neighbours. 2. In the matter, when the thing is not 
good that is fold ; as the refufe of wheat that is fpoken of, 
Amos viii. 6. fo when ye fell a thing for better than it is, or 
in buying, will needs make a thing worfe than it is, or p ly 
the price in bafe money, you are guilty of theft : 3. When 
the meafure or weight is fcarce, and not fo much as it ihoulcl 
be; fee Amos viii. 5. 4. In the manner, when the buyer 
difpraifeth any thing below, and the feller comme'ndeth it 
beyond and above its worth, Prov. xx. 14. It is naught faith 
the buyer , &c. which although in fome degree it be inevita- 
ble, yet no doubt, when on either. hand it is wittingly and 
defignedly done, it is a fault. 9. It may be committed in 
the matter of juft debts; As, 1. When nothing is payed. 
2. When a part is only payed. 3. When payment is made 
out of time, which prejudiceth thefh we owe to, as much 
as if we kept a part back. 4. When means are ufed to get 
what we owe diminished ; 1 . By dwanging and conllraining 
a man to quit fome part of it ; 2. By dealing indirectly to 
get fomething down of the fum which we owe. 10. It is 
committed when advantage is taken of anothers neceffity, 
and fo 1. when they are conftrained to fell cheaper, than 

A a a z with- 

372 '--An Expcfthn of Com. 8« 

without lofs they can ; 2. When we fell deprer to our neighs 
bour, becaufe we fee he muft have it ; 3. When one is tar* 
c:d to unreafonable terms, becaufe he muft have money. 
Dealings of this nature are like to that, to fell the poor for 4 
fairoffhceSy which is reproved, Micah viii. 5,6, 7. and \% 
a grofs theft. It is true, ia fome cafes, as for inflance, when, 
others would not buy fuchthings, and we need them not our- 
felves, neither would buy them, were it not for our neigh- 
bours good, and if they be not fo ufeful for us, an abate? 
inent in fuch a cafe may be lawfully fought. 1 1 . It eaay be 
by law-fuits, even when law feemeth to fide with folks, fum- 
mum jus , being often, fumma injuria ; as, 1. By putting 
folks ncedlefly to fue for their own, or by our feeking what 
is not ours \ 2. By bearing through a bufmefs to the preju- 
dice of another, upon a title of law beyond equity ; the firft 
is condemned, 1 Cor. vi. 1. &c. the fecond in Job xxxi. 21. 
If 1 have lift up my band a gain ft the faiherlef (faith Job) when 
Jfaw my help in the gale y See alio to this purpofe, Prov. in. 
29 30 12. There is a breach of it by wronging our neigh- 
bour under truft (which is a high degree of theft ;) As, 1. 
By giving advice to his prejudice, when he lippeneth to, 
and confideth in our counfel *, 2. When advocates are cot 
faithful; 3. When partners in trade and bargainings are 
cot faithful one to another-, 4 When fervants, factors, 
treafures, &c. are not faithful, who, as Jofeph, have ail 
committed to them, and like the unjuft fleward, can count 
up or down fifty or eighty, and eighty or fifty, 5. Efpeci- 
ally here fail tutors of orphans and fatherlefs children, who 
having thefe committed to their truft, make it their work 
to prey upon tkeir eftates, if they can but do it handfome- 
]y, and without obfervation, this is theft, robbery, oppref- 
fion, and deceitful dealing, in the higheft degree. 13. 
There is a breach of it by bribery, when judges fufier them- 
selves tb receive gifts, prefects, buds or bribes, whether 
to the preventing of judgment, or fcr doing right in judg- 
ment which they are obliged to do without thefe. Whoe- 
ver fuffer themielves to be bribed for judging right, may 
cafily be tempted by a bribe to do wrong in judgment -, all 
fuch forget that the judgment is the Lord's, Dent. i. 17. that 
they ought not to judge for men but for the Lord, 2 Chro. 
xix 9. that they ought in a fpecial manner to be fearers of 
God, men of truth, and haters of covetcufnefs, Exod. xviii. 
21. that they fhould not refpect perfons in judgment, but 
hear the fmall as well as the great, Deut. i 17. that they 
fhould not refpect the perfon of the poor, nor honour the 
perfon of the mighty, but judge righteous judgment, Lev. 
&ix. 1 5, that they ought not to wrefi judgment, nor to take 

a gift 

Com. 8. the Ten Cimmandmentt. 373 

3 gift (which blindcth the eyes even of the wife, and per- 
vcrtcth the words of the righteous, Deut. xvi. 19 Exod. 
xxiii. 8.) and th;u fire {hall con fume the tabernacles of bib- 
, Job xv. 34. the Lord doth highly refent, and will mod 
feverely punifh the breach of this command in fuch, becapfe 
they do more immediately reprefent himfelf, as being placed 
in judgrp ^PP'y b" w r oo^- *4 There is a breach of 

it when there is inequality betwixt our advantage, and that 
which is expended by us for ethers, or when for what is not 
ufeful and needful, their money intruded to us is exhaus- 
ted, or when we occafion them to fpecd money needleily, 
upon any thing that is not ufeful, but rather hurtful, as iu 
exceffive drinking, feafting, cloathing, that is full of vani- 
ty, or in vain fafhions <*f cloathing, playing at unlawful 
games, as cards and dice, or executively at lawful games, or 
in dancing and fidling, and fuch like, which aie amangft 
the lavilh and profufe ways of living, and whoever are ac- 
cefTory to make others follow thefe, or for thefe do procure 
money from others, become thieves, and thus all idle va- 
gabonds, playfair-, fporters, minitrels, ftage-players, and 
fuch like livers on other folks charges, are guilty of the 
breach of this command. 15. Their is a wronging of our 
neighbour's eftate by negligence, floath, err. when that is 
not done which we ought to do tor their good ; this is done 
efpecialiy by the tutors, by fervaots, and others, who f:an<i 
in fuch relations to any, as that by virtue thereof (hey are 
obliged to have a care of what they are intereited in. 16. 
We wrong others by engaging them to be fureties for us# 
when we fee not a way how to relieve them. The engagers 
themfelves alfo become guilty of the breach of this com- 
mand, except in fuch cafes wherein equity and charity re- 
quireth their engaging, and this way, many are . rop* 

their e Mates. 17. It is committed in retaining what is our 
neighbours; As, 1. When the payment of money or things 
borrowed is delayed beyond the time appointed, Prov. \u. 
28 2 When things borrowed are hurt or wronged, th^ 
Lord giveth laws for this, Exod xxii. 14. 3. When pled- 
ges are loft by negligence, or intervened to our own ufc ? 
4. When our neighbours beaft is ftraying, and when ften 
by us, and not kept for him, as we would he fhould do to 
us •, fee Deut. xxii. 2. Lev. vl 4. 5. When lomething is 
loft, and we keep it, as if finding gave us a right td i~, ic 
Jhould be for the right owner, and if he cannot be 
public fignification ihould be made of it, as th4 air- 

cth. 18. This command obligeth us to reiiore. 1. Wh^g 
we have unjuftly taken from, or gained of others aoy \v<iy, 
as Zacheus did, Luke six. tf, 


374 Ar> Expofition of Com. 3. 

It is recorded" of Selymus the Turkifli emperor, a mod 
bloo.iv man, that when he was a dying, one of his Bafiaas 
deliriiig him to build anhofpital for relief of the poor, with 
the wealth taken from the Perfian merchants; he replied 
thus, u Wouldft thou, Pyrrhus, that I mould beftow other 
ri mens good?, wrongfully taken from them on works of 
* f charity and devotion, for mine own glory vain and praife ? 
* Affuredly 1 will never do it; nay, rather fee they be be- 
€l flowed on the right owners again * Which was done 
forthwith accordingly, to the great fhame of many Chrifti- 
ans, who mind nothing lefs than the reftitution of ill gotten 
goods, whether by themfelves, or by their anceftors, but 
cull out fome fmall fragments of a world of fuch ill gotten 
to beftow on fome charitable or pfous work, as they call it. 
Zacheus his penitent proclamation here confifted of two 
branches, to wit, reftitution and deft ri but ion. 2. It oblioeth 
even children that have (omewhat transmitted to them from 
their parents, which they have unjuiily conquefhed, to re- 
ftore it otherways they make themfelves guilty : And in all 
thefe we would diftinguifh the court of the Lord, or of con- 
fcience, from mens civil courts, and thus it will not war- 
rant the heir before God (though before men it may) to re- 
tain that which he poflefleth that the Father left him a right 
to what he unjuftly purchafed. It may be it is this that mak- 
eth great eftates melt away in the children's hands, becaufe 
it thusdefcended ; The Lord hereby would have men know 
that they are not richeft who have moft left them, but who 
have it well conquefhed with God's buffing. 19. Confider 
it as it doth not properly take from our neighbours, yet 
wrcngeth them and deteriorated their eftate ; fo men may 
wrong the houle they dwell in, the horfc they ride on, or 
any thing which is fet or given in loan to them : Thus they 
may wrong the instruments that others win their living 
with ; fo alio we wrong others when their time is taken up 
either by waiting idle on us, or by unmceflary employments 
put upon them, vifits and fuch like; or when weaknefs of 
body is occafioned to them by any of thefe, thus Exod xxi # 
19. the Lord will have preparation made for loft time, as 
well as loft means. Many tipkrs are thieves this way, to 
each other, and to themfelves, and God will make them 
count for. how little foever they think of it. 20. There is a 
wronging of our neighbour without a com pen fat ion, and there 
is a wronging him with a pretended compenjation, that is, ei* 
ther when the thing is not fo good in itfelr, or not fo good 
to him ; thus Achab, 1 Kings xvii. was guilty in defiring 
Naboth's vineyard, even though he offered him as good, yet 


Com. 8. fhe Ten Commandments. 37 j. 

it was not fo good to Naboth, becaufe this was his fathers, 
and he efteemed it n ore : Thus alfo there is a (kali g of a- 
nother man's contentment, altho' that in which he placeth 
k may be a matter of very little or no worth at all but yet 
if therein he hath an intereft of affection, as they qa\\ it fuch 
as a man may have for fomc petty jewel, a hawk, a hound, 
or the like, fo that it pleafe him, or delight him, the wrong- 
ing of him in that, is not only a fin againft the fixth com-, 
mand, in grieving him, but againft this in prejudicing him 
of his contentment, which as to him, in fome relpcft, is a 
forer wrong than the. taking from him, of that which in 
itfeif were of far greater worth, would have been. 21. 
There is a failing by unfkilfulnefs \ as, when one taketh on 
him fome office, and receiveth wages or hire for it, and is 
net qualified for ; nor fuitable to the place and employment, 
thus Phyficians, lawyers, and judges, otten fteal from men, 
through their ignorance : As alfo minifters, who fupply 
charges they arc unfit for, and confume that which fhould 
entertain others, but this fin in minifters is oftentimes more 
through unfaithfulncfs, when being fuftained for the good 
of rhe people they turn rather to be hurtful. Thus Chrifr, 
John x 1. calleth / r at ] fe prophet t, thieves and robbers : And 
indeed, it is the worft gain in the world, that utterly unfldl- 
ful and unfaithful minifters get by ftarving and murthering 
the immortal fouls of men. 22. We wrong others when' 
we communicate not to them when thd^are in need, and we 
in capacity to help them, yea. when by idlenefs and prodi- 
gality we incapacitate ourfelves to communicate to the ne 
cefiities of others, as Ephef. iv 28. is clear. 23 Befide thei e 
cometh in here all felling and buying of what Uiouid not be 
fold or bought, as public places in church or ftate ; this firii * 
horn Simon Magus, Acts viii. 18, 19. is called Simony, and 
is a fin of a high degree, making that faleable which the Lord 
will have free : and it taketh in not only giving money, 
but any other thing upon this account to promove fuch and 
fuch peifons, or receiving any thing to be fwayedfo, and fo 
whether it be munus manus, ligiia aut aft'ionis, a gift of the 
hand tongue or action. 1. By a gift of the hand is under* 
flood money or things that are ulual!y given. 2. A gift of 
the tongue comprehended* fair fpeeches, lolicitations, flat- 
teries, 6c. 3. By a giu of action is underftood, le.rvice 
dependence, on- waiting and courtefies, (as tfiey are call 
ed) made ufe of to procure anothers favour, and in ail 
men may greatly fin, as when they hunt after thefe three 
anc' arc with any of them and fo covet any 

01 them, a&'when magiftrates or judges ielljuftice for bribes 
when men by lying and ! falfe-witnels bearing, fell the tru h, 


3><J An Expo/iticn &} Com. 8. 

thereof lawyers are chiefly guilty, who for fees plead ill 
caufes wittingly : Or when one givcth them, that he may 
gain more really upon the other ; as for inftance when men 
by any of thele bribes buy juftice, and much more injuftice 
and buy lies or falfe teftimonies-to prevent or pervert juftice. 
24. There is a guilt in confenting to, encouraging in, con- 
niving at, or jnftifying of fuch as commit this tin, or are 
receivers or refetters of w^at is ftolen, for their itrengthning 
and encouragement ; fee rfaL 1. 18. Prov. i. 10 25 Seiz- 
ing upon other folks goods fomctimes under pretext of ef- 
cheats, as admirals do upon fea-wreck, and fuch like ; when 
there is no juft ground to take away the owners right, and 
this is reckoned open violence before God, and is a moft 
cruel adding of affliftion to the afflicted. This .tin then of 
theft, in reference to our neighbour is fallen into by violence* 
deceit, negligence, unfaithfulnefs, ignorance, unikilfulnefs, 
Sc. And when all is faid, a tender heart will ftill need its 
own exi'rninruion and trial of kfelf, there being as many 
W3ys to break this command, as they are ways to prejudice 
our neighbours eftate. 

* We come now to confiJer how a man is guilty in wrong- 
ing his own eftate (for there '& a fkill and dexterity in the 
managing the unrighteous mommon) which we consider two 
ways ; r. As he wrongeth and diminifheth his ertate by not 
providently caring for its prefervation and increafe, or im- 
provement : When he is not frugal, or not fo frugal as he 
ought to be, but lazy and floathfui, he becometh guilty of 
the breach of this command, becaufe he incapacitated* him- 
felf for being ufeful to others, and putteth himfelf in hazard 
of poverty and want, which is the proper fnare of this fin 
of ftealing, and difpofeth for it, Prov. xxx. 9. This pover- 
ty which is fo enfnaring, is brought on. 1. By finful Spend- 
ing and debauching away of our eftate and time, as the pro- 
digal did, Luke xv. 11. &c. 2. By unneceffary wafte ia 
prodigality and lavifhnefs, fuch as (though unjuftly) Judas 
condemned in the woman fpoken of, John xii. 5. For much 
/pending muji have much to uphold it, and muft have many 
ways to furnifh itfelf according to the proverb moft: ordina- 
rily verified, Omfiis prodigus ejt avarus, every prodigal man 
is greedy or covetous, to fatisfy one lull he exercelh ano- 
ther ; however he being but a fteward of what he pohTdTeth 
be by his prodigality, not only interveeneih from the right 
end what means God hath given him to be otherways dif- 
pofed of, but alfo drawtth upon himfelf poverty.' 3. By 
negligence, lazinefs, carelefnefs, 6r. in a lawful calling (for 
they that are given tofleep, or idlenefs, ihall cornc to pover- 

Corn. S. the fen Commandments. jtf 

ty, as the wife man faith) or being without a caning alto- 
gether. When God giveth men ability of body or mind, it 
is fad that they (hould be ufef'ul for nothing, nor adtive in 
any thing but to fin, and be fnares and reproaches unto 
thriftians and Ch'riftian religion, as all idle perfons, bearing 
ihe'name of Chriftians, are, whoever they be. whether gen- 
tlemen or others. It is obferveable, that both before the fall 
and after the fail, Gdd put that talk of working in mens 
hand, commanding him to labour: many other tuch fool- 
ifh ways there are whereby a man cometh unto poverty* 
and becometh guilty of not providing for himfelf, or his fa- 
mily : Alfo by furctyfhip many arc bowed and brought low, 
which although it is not limply to be condemned, more than 
to give freely, yet it is to be well regulated by charity and 
net, directing fo to aflift our neighbour in his prefect 
exigence, zs we may be fure alfo of our alter relief, left for 
the debts of others, our own families be made to moan for 
want. 2. We may confider a mans failing in reference to 
this command, as he wrongeth and fieaieth from himfelf 
the free and comfortable ufe of his own eftate; of this mau 
Solomon fpeaketh, Ecclef. iv. 6, 8. and vi. i, i\ and he itew- 
ardeth not the world well when he hath it, who cannot find 
in his heart to live on his own, and who iiveth heartlefly, as 
if he had nothing at all ; in this refpeft a man wrongeth him- 
felf, and particularly thefe ways : i. By covering too great 
a meafure of riches, fo that he will not be content with e- 
nough, but he will and rauft be rich, this is avciratia> or 
greedy even though the means be lawful which he ufeth for 
acquiring of riches. 2. By the vexing anxious manner of 
feek'ing after even what is neceflary : Thus a man may be dif- 
fidently and vexingly felicitous for his to-morrow's dinner, 
and be vexed about it, as it is Matth. vi. 31. Caring for the 
tnorrow, what he Jhall eat or drink, or taking thought about it ; 
this is is carking carefulnefs 3. There is a failing in keep- 
ing any thing of the world that we have gotten, when we. 
cannot beftow it, cannot win or part with it, for charitable, 
cither publick or private ufes, nay, not for honeft ufes # 
this is niggardlinefs : And when it is univcrfal, both in re- 
ference to burfelves and others, it is durities, or extream 
hardoefs 4. Some may fpend on thernfelves liberally, but 
they can part with nothing for charitable fnpply of others, 
fuch a one wasNabal, 1 Sam. xxv. and this is cburlifhnefs, 
5. Some cannot even beftow on thernfelves what is fu.fficient 
either for meat, drink, or cloathing, as we may fee, Ecelef. 
vi. 1, 2. and chap. iv. 8. that the man hath much, and vet 
can neither fleep nor eat heartilv, becaufe the comfortable 

B b b " ufe 

37S ^ Expcjition of Com. ? r 

ufc of creature enjoyments is God's gift, this is fordidnefs. 
Over all thefe perfons the world prevaileth, it maftereth and 
overcometh them, and they do not mafter and overcome it 
as Chriftians ought to do. 

If we would come to confider, in the next place how a 
man fhould profit, better, and improve his own eftate, it 
will be hard to fpeak fo of it, as to pitch upon particulars v 
for certainly God al'lowcrh pariimony ; or fuitable and due 
fparing ; and frugality ; as he diflalloweth and difcounte- 
nanceth the extreams in the defect and excefs ; we would 
then confider the midft, in quo fiat virtus, as they ufe to fay 
and fo fpeak of thepofitive part in thefe following queftions 
i. If a man may aim and endeavour to increafc his eftatc f 
how far ? by what means ? or how ? and for what ends ? 
2. How we are to walk in merchandize and bargains? 3. 
How to walk in charity, alms, and diflributing to others ? 
4. How to walk in managing of our eftate, as to the gathe- 
ring, keeping, or preferving and ufing of it ? 5. What to 
judge of, and how to carry in ufury (as it is called ?) 6. 
What to account of the punifhment of theft in the court 
of men ? 7. How it came that the covetous have been fo 
marked or noted in the primitive times, 1 Cor. vi. 10. and 
Ephef. v. 5. that they have been looked on as perfons feclud- 
cd from heaven, and not worthy of church-fellowfhip ? and 
what marks to know them by ? where we may touch a little 
on the ill of that fin, and fpeak a word by way of diffwafive 
from it. 

For the firft, That one may lawfully increafe his eftate or 
goods, cannot be denied, it being well qualified, Jacob, Gen. 
xxx 30. found it neceflary to provide for his family ; and 
1 Tim. v. 3. It is a thing that nature itfelf teacheth a very 
infidel. The great matter is to qualify it rightly •, 1. As to 
the end, 2. the meafure, 3. the means, 4. the way and the 

1. For the end, I. The chief and the laft is God's glory, 
that we may be ferviceable to him with our fubftance, in 
our generation, and may be kept from ftealing and lying, 
Prov. xxx. 8, 9. 2. Others good, that we may be helpful 
to them* for men may and fhould work for this e*)d, altho' 
they had what were fufficlent for themfelves, fee Eph, iv. 28. 
3. Our/elves are to be confidered, and we are to look here, 
1 to neccjfity, 2. to convenience % 3.. to honefty. There is a 
threefold necejfity, I. of providing for ourfelves, 2. for our 
family, 1 Tim. v. 8. 3. For our place and ftation, fuch as 
Nehemiah, cap. v. 14. he. was apprehenfive of, hence tri- 
bute is allowed to the magiftrate, being in fo public and e- 
minent a ftation, and fo ufeful for the people : la all tbefe 


Com. 8. the Ten Commandments'. 379 

we fliould live, as far as may be, oji our own, having aa 
eye to that direction of the wife man, Prov. v. 15. 3. Con- 
venience requireth more than neceffity, and is to be provided 
for, fee Prov. xxx. 8, Where Agur praycth for that which 
is neither too much nor too little, but convenient. 2. There 
h honefty, and this hath yet a farther reach than conveni- 
ency, and thus we are to provide things honcfl in the fight of 
all men, which may be lawfully aimed at ; to be honeft then, 
even before men, is commendable, honefty being no pride f 
fee Rom. xii. 17. 2 Cor. viii. 21 . 

2. As for the meafure, which is to be kept in theinereaf- 
ing of our goods, it is hard to determine it, yet fure folks 
are not left to gather as much as they may even by lawful 
means attain to, having no bound fet to their defircs, de- 
figns, and endeavours, but adding one thing to another, till 
they be, as it were, ahne in the earth, which is reproved, 
Ha v. 8. Hab. ii. 9. This boundlefnefs, alas! haunteth and 
attendeth too many, and hath never fatisf action. Agur 
found there was an excefs in riches to be prayed againft, as 
well as poverty, otherwife he durft not fo have prayed : It 
is with riches as with meat and drink, competency is good, 
but excefs furfetteth and loadeth, Luke xxi. 34. Hab. ii. 6. 
We conceive thefe generals may belaid down here,. 1. What 
may conduce for the ends aforefaid, and is neceiTary conve- 
nient, and honeft, that men may aim at, and no further is 
needful. 2. Riches not being promifed, but only what is 
convenient, and our endeavours being commanded only for 
things honeft ; this indeed may be aimed at, but a man 
fhould not intend to attain to any thing beyond what he hath 
a promife or command for : The promife is, he Jh.ill net 
iv ant any good thing, Pfal. xxxiv. 10. and lxxitiv. II. which 
is indeed broad enough, and may infome refpect be extend- 
ed even to the command for things honeft, whereof we have 
fpoken ; fee Heb. xiii. 5, 6. where, in the Greek (to guard 
the hearts of the people of God againft covetoufnefs, and to 
fortify againft all fears of wanting what is neceiTary and com* 
petent) there is a five fold negative in the promife, / wilt 
not, noty leave thee, neither, not, not, will 1 for fake thee, 
*, ft*, m\ i, put 3. A man may aim and endea- 
vour to be as rich as he may warrantably pray to be, but no 
more ; and his prayers are guided partly by the promifes, and 

by the commands, Give us this day our daily bread and 

partly by the faints approved examples, as that of Agur's, 
Cive me neither poverty nor riches, Prov. xxx. 7, 8. 4. The 
meafure may be judged of, and tried by this general, to wit, 
if the omitting of fuch a thing hath the juft ground of a 
B b b z • ' challenge 

3&> An Expofition rf Com. 8* 

challenge'in if, a man mufl: flunk it his duty to aim at that, 
^nd his fin, if he fhould nor, and it is not his inclination or 
affection that muft guide him here ; now men will be chal- 
lenged in their conscience for cot aiming at competency, but 
pot for cot feeking to be rich ; only know there is not, nor 
can be one rule for the fame meaiure to all perfons-, in this 
inatter ; men having different burthens and charges may feek 
more or lefs accordingly, and therefore when Jacob's fami- 
ly increafed, Gen. xxxi. he thought it time to provide for 
them, neither can there be a rule for the lame meafure, e- 
ven for the fame perfons at all times, as is clear, Jer. xlv. 5. 
in Baruch and Nehemiah, Neh, v. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. men 
ought not to aim to be as others, but as is needful and com- 
petent for their rank, burthen and Nation. Neither 5 . mud 
we reckon in this matter by a man's fuccefs; fome there are 
who think they are exonered if they ufe but any means for 
providing for themfelves, and they have a fort of peace in the 
endeavour, be it lefs or more : Others there are, who even 
by lawful means feek, and alfo attain to more than is conve- 
nient for them, and think they may do fo, fcecaufe they have 
fuccefs; but endeavours would be fuited and proportioned 
to the forefcid ends, with dependence on God's bleffing, 
whatever be the fuccefs, Pial. exxvii. 12. 

3. It would be qualified by the right means, there would 
be righteoufnefs in the way of purchafing or conquefhing 
our eftate; and it fuppofetb, 1. That it be by a lawful oc- 
cupation, which excludeth what is gained by cards, dice, 
wedding, or wagering, &c. 2. By an occupation ufeful to 
others, as well as profitable to *us, gain muft not only por 
chiefly fway ; but, we fhould aim at that wherein we may 
be ufeful to church or ftate in our generation, then it is, 
lawful to make gain, as the wage9 of that fervice, All trades- 
men, and men in phce, would be as officers to church or 
ftate, and upon that ground they have a right to make gain. 
Thefe tradings in wines, in fuch quantities at leaft, that, 
wrong the country, and in other things fubfervient to vani- 
ty, I know not well what to fay of them, only I think I may 
jay it had been good for common-wealths, fome trades had 
never been : It is the thing that is condemned, Rom. xiii. 13, 
14 Eph. iv 23. 3 We would have a care that neither de- 
ceit, lying, or any other unlawful fhift be ufed in a lawful 
calling, which may wrong it, Lev. xix. 11. 

4. As to the manner, it would be qualified thus, 1. That 
it be in obedience to God, ferving him in fome meafure in 
that calling of trade, as well as in prayer ; and acknowledge 
ifig him in the particulars of our gain : 2. That it be by 
faiii* oa Jiim, waiting, as was juft now laid $ for the b!e(- 


Com. 8. the Ttn Commandments. 381 

fing from him, Pfal. cxxvii. 1. 3. That it be by a Chrif- 
tian way in every thing, (ubmitting to him when a crofs 
comcth, being without peremptoriuefs or anxiety, being 
quiet in praying, as Matth. vi. but not thoughtful : 4. That 
it be by tryfting and ordering our care tor our eftate in the 
world, fo as it may be moft confident with promoving our 
edification, and we not intangled with the affairs of this lifr f 
as it js, 2 Tim. ii. 4 nor fo hedged up and ftraitned with 
them, as to have no time for other things more neceffary: 
In.fum, our manner would be fuch as the heart may be 
kept in a good frame for praying, praifing, keeping com- 
munion with God, and even for dying in the midft of 
our endeavours of that kind, Luke xxi 34. otherways we 
may be furfetted, even in cares, about lawful things, and 
made alio indifpofed for fpiritual duties, as a man is by glut- 
tony and drunken nefs. 

Let there be therefore moderation in all tbefe refpects, o» 
therways, as faith the fcripture, a man that will be rich, 1. 
He loadeth himfelf with a burden of thick clay, Hab, ii. 6. 
2. He pmteth himfelf amongft briers and thorns, for Mat. 
xiii. 22. riches are compared to thefe : 3. He furfetteth. 
himfelf as a drunken man doth, Luke xxi. 34 4. He run- 
neth himfelf in afnare, anddraweth on many forrrows, nay 
pierceth himfelf through with them, 1 Tim. vi. 10. O ! but 
many fcuis will cry out greatly one day of this evil of im- 
moderate purfuing after riches : 5 He bringeth a woe from 
God upon himfelf, Ifa. v. 8. 6. He will readily be high* 
minded and proud, 1 Tim. vi. 17. 7. He is in eminent 
hazard to trull: in thefe uncertain riches, 1 Tim. vi. 3. He 
is in great danger to turn afide from the truth, and to em- 
brace error, which is ftrange, yet mod; true, 1 Tim. vi. io. 
9. He is in great hazard to be an opprefibr, James ii. 6. and 
v. 4. 10. Riches' immoderately fought after, do the man 
ftill evil that poffeffeth them, as in Agur's prayer, Hczeki- 
ah's experience, and I Tim. vi. 10, II. is evident, where it 
is faid, they fall into many foolifli and hurtful lufts, which 
drown them in perdition and deftruction. 

The fecond thing .is concerning trading and merchand"^ f 
whereof we fhall fay but little in particular ; In general then, 
1. Trading is lawful in itfelf, as a means to the end propo- 
fed, as is faid, being alfo well qualified (as was fpoke to in 
the former) conform to the qualifications of end, midfes or 
means and manner. 2. There m;y be faults in buying and 
felling both, all men generally loving to buy within the? 
worth, and to fell dear, as a heathen once told a company 
what was in all their minds. 3. A merchant-man and trades* 
man beftowing his time, pains, eftate in trading, may take 


3^2 An Expcjltion of Com. 9. 

gain as the wages of his pains, as a fervant may do for his 
work, as teachers, and phyiicians may do for their pains, 
becauie they cannot be wanted, and none can go about 
thefe employments without livelyhood, therefore is the 
workman worthy of his hire, but it mud be fuch a work 
as is worthy. 4. Yet a man's rule in bargaining is not to 
take whatever he can get ; nay not