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Full text of "A commentarie upon the book of the Revelation .."









The Text is explained , the Series of the feveral Proohe^ 
cies contained in that Book, deduced accordin^to tLeir 

order and dcpcndance upon each other; the periods and fucccsfion of time* ,f Ju 
which, thefeProphelies, that are already fulfilled . beS 

accomplished. fiKed and apphedacci^ 

befulfilled, modeftly, and fo far as is warrantable , ^ 

eoq aired into. 
Together rtub / 



and important- Trutht. ^ * A ^ 

Delivered in feveral LECTURES , by that learned, laborious, and faithfull 
Servant of Jefus Chrift , 


I-ate Mmifter of the Gofpel in gufgon^. 

To which IS affixed a brief Nummary of the whole REVELATION 
withan AIphabeucalJND£XofthechieFand principal purpofes & words ' 

comuned iq thii Commcotane. 

Revd.217. UMd, I c^ ^uUklj, : ikffid i, he tha, kfipab ,h,^»f,„gs of,h ftopkju of, hi, Book, 

G !■ .^ S G tf. 
8y ROBERT SANDERS. Pri„,„,„.hea,y,„dUoiver%, 

I D 8 0^ 

# -§ •§ '^ # W^ W # ## ^ ## * # -^ %•# * ^ •# ^ ## *|f #%•###*•##### ^ 

To the Judicious and Cbriftian 


THe Reverend ( mVcf triumphing and glorified ) Author , was fo famous and defervedly in very 
hifhtfieem in our Church, both becaufe of ihe fingular aYid extraordinnryway ojGodi calling him forth to 
the Minijiery of the Gofpei , having left the \Jniverfitj (wherein I was at the fame time a Student) before ht 
had finished his courfe of P bilofophie , and without any'purpofe to foUoxp his kool^, at ieaft in order to fuck an 
enii and having Lived feverall years a private Gentlej/zan withhistpife andchildren, enjcyingagoodejiatein the 
Countrie , from which he did, no doubt , to the great diffatisfaSiion oj many of his riatural jritnds , and with notaiittli 
fre'mdice to his outward condition, retire y and (being called thereto) hu7/My offer himfelf to trials , far from his own 
home ^ in order to his being H'^entiated typreach the Gofpei ; in the Minifiery whereof , he was immediately thereafter 
fettled here at Glaft^o w, where it hath not wanted afeal in the confdences and hearts ofhii hearers : ^nd alfo, becanfe 
of his eminent piety', fled fajinejje, gravity, prudence, moderation , and other great abilities^ whereof the venerable Gene^ 
ral ^fembly of this Church hadfuchperfwafi^n » that they did , in thejear 1650, after mature deliberation , very una- 
nimoufly pitch upon him , though then but about eight and twenty years of age , as <*rmng(i the ablefl , ficl^erefi^ andmoji 
accomplished Minifters therein , to attend the l{ings family i in which fiatlon, though the times were mo/J difficult j as 
abounding with temati^ns and fnares , with jealotifies j heart burnings , emulations and animofities , and flowing with 
high tides of many various and not a few contrary humours , he didfo wifely and faithfully behave and acquit hl7nf4f,that 
there was a conviBion thereof left upon the confdences of all who obferved him ^ and fo as he hadpeace through Jefus 
Chrifl as to that minifiration : The ^uthtr, I fay, was in thefe and other refpeBsfo \amous , that henteds no Tefiimony 
or Epiftles oj commendation, efpeciiUy from fo obflure andworthle^e aperfon } jyet, being of his particular and very in . 
timate acauaintance, daily converfant with him, andrtnthaU his ordinary Hearer, being in a good providence CoUagued 
with him in the Mi'niflery (though a. mofi unequal yok^e-fellow tofofirong a labourer) 1 thought it my duty to give tbet 
fome brief hintboth ofhimfelf (wholoved alwayes to be hid , exceptwhen it was nee effary for him to appear) andofhis 
Booh^y wherein thou wilt find that th» fpirit o/VV/r.Durham was not of an ordinary elevation: notwitbfianding whereof, 
as, in Preaching the Gofpei, he liked not tofoar and hide himfdffrom the Hearers in a cloudof words ( it was not in the 
wifdom of words, but in demonflration of the Spirit and of power that he taught ) Soin hi5lVrUing,heufidthefamt 
plainneffe offpeech ; yet how hwfoever his fiilefeemeth to be, I nothing doubt but that every intelligent Reader will find 
fitch certainty oj truth tofatiifie the mind , and fuch fweetnejfe ofmaiterto engage theaffeflions , that he will count tht 
Author an Interpreter one among a thoufand. And therefore, if at any time ^houmiffe , asposfbly thou mayefi , that 
comptneffe andfinenejfe ofp hrafe which in thit phrafmg and wordie age is much in k/c, i<now thit he hadfo very sharp C?* . 
pregnant an ingirt, andfo exceeding rich andfruitfull an invention , that they ordinarily didoutflripe and go beyond his 

matter, but, ordinarily, very mas fie, fignificant and expresftve of his meaning , though plain andjimple , and it may be , 
fometimes not fo beautifully jituated, nor fo adorning and out. fttting of it, as posftbly fome would beat , which the Lord, 
in the depth of His wifdom, didfo order, that, as the Author himfelf might be kept hnj/ible {andindeedhe didexempla- 
rily shine in humility ) fo no other should thinly of him above what was meet : for , it hath been thought by fome , while 
hearing him difcourfe, that if he had had fuch a polished fiile andfo well combed words At feveral othirs have,whofe matter 
yet falleth exceedingly short of his , he would have been looked upon as a very rare and lingular man in his generation , at 
rcallyhewas, and as thefe fame Lefi»rs of his uponthe B^evsht'lon) which he was by many importumd to publish) 
will readily give ground to think^ofhim: which, though fur fuofiance {<:xcept as to thefe few intfrmlxedfolidly ^ fuccinEily ^ 
and, I hope, fatisfyingly difcuffed quefiions) they were delivered ^ by him to the people oj his charge within a very short 
tiwe, one cf them every Lords- day before sermon , when all that lii/ie he did alfo preach twice awceh^at leaji, and mofi 
ordinarily thrice, hefide his daily pHblich^LeEturing every fijth week^ according to bis comfe in the City , and all his other 
Atinifierial duties of Catechifing, vifiting ofthefick^, exhorting oj the whole from houfe to houfe, and his weekly meeting* 
With the Congregationall Eldership for the exercife of Difcipliney tnojf dexteroufly, jaithjully , condefcendingly and inde- 
faiigahly difcharged by him towards about fifteen hundred fouls , of whom he alone as Minifler had the over fight ; yet in 
thiphoUferies and contexture thereof, tbouwilt , notwithfianding, find as much folidity, fobriety andmodtfly, much 

A t quick^- 

To the Reader. 

plication of the Text of this Sook^and conVtncwgfroofet ,)J tht Foft of K.ome hts being that ADtichrift ( a matnjcope of 
it ) even to tht atvakftung oftheUmemabiy decayed ^^al of the people of Godagainfi that Beajl , dtunk^vsiththt blond of 
Saints, after whom , fo confiderable a part of the Chnpan world, and that to the great offence of the Jews, is , alas, Jtili 
wonderirtr ; thott roUt, Jfayt ^*M' '^°fi' difcoVer Vafi Ua»rerin Hifiory , great light in the Scriptures^ and -very deep 
reach in the profoundefi andtf,ofi intricate things mTheologie, to a pnblick^projesfion whereof , inthisVniverfiiy of 
Glafeow, h« w.ufometime (to wit^ a little before his being appointed to attend the IQngs Family yby the Commisfivntrt 
0/ »/jf General! Affembly , dMhori'^d for vifiting thtfaidMniverfity , irioji Hnanimoufly andfolemnly deftgned and 
called, to the great fatisja&ion and refreshment of many y and more particularly and ejpecially of famous and worthy 
Mr Dickfoo, /o whom the precious Author was chofen tofucceed in that Profesfion , (he being called to a Projesjion of 
the fame natitre in the Univerftty of Edinburgh") as one of the abltfi and beft furnished men ( all things being conftderei ) 
»» our Church, that were not already engaged infuch employments , and mofi likely to fill Mr. Dickfons room : But , hi* 

fitted to deal in the edification- objirufiing differences of thispo»r, torn and divided Church, as may further ajterwardt ap- 
pear by a Piece of his concerning Scandal shortly^ if the Lord will, to bepubiished. J will not detain thee much longer 
from perufinz of this Wori\ , only I shall in short give thee an account ( left his way of Writing should be mifiakjin by any , 

by way ofdigresfion more largely i .... ... 

foundneffe andin offenfivenefje of the matter : wherein, though hehaih here and there differedfromfome great men j yet 
hath he carried the difference with fo much meekneffe, and fo few irritating or rtjie^ling expresfions , dt^ling only by tht. 
jirength offimple reafon, that he hath caji a copy, worthy to be followed by others in this erifiick, agt. j. Some apprebtn- 

caU for feve rail of them. 6.Th't if they might any way at all be ufejull, they shouldnot a'ltogahtr perish , there'having 
been no other convenient way for the publiihingofthem; andindeed ithadbetnapity to have fmotheted and l\fpt them. 

^hi'ie he was a LtBming upon this Scripture (and ftnce ). there was a confiderablepart of a day every week extraordina- 
fUy fet apart for prayer, as for other caufiStfo, no doubt , for feekingGods help in that work^) defiring, J fay, that theft 
prayer-full labours of his may be richly blefi of Godto thfe,for making theeread the Revelation ( which, it may be, hath 
i\tn by thee, ior mofi of it at leafi, as afealed booj\ hitherto ) with more underfianding, edification and coj/jfort than ever-, 
anddefiringwithall, that the bright and Morning-Star, who holdeth the Stars in His right hand , may illuminate and 
fix many Stars offuch magnitude, and keep them long brightly shining in the firmament of His Church ,for the direttiony 
gttidanct. and comfort, thereof in thefi cloudy andfadiimes^ I amy at leafi w-ttld be,. Chrifiian, 

Thyfervantfor C H K^l S T S fa\e , 
Glafgow, thetj. of September, intheworkoJthtGofptly 

X 6 5 8» 




Blingdefired t$ fpea^^ my knovpledge of this fubfequent Work, lAckno'^ledge thAt iVPAsont 
Vphojrtquently encouraged the Author to let it go abroad. lor , bovpever he had no time to p6- 
lish it , and T\?hat it here almoji all Voas taken from hit mouth by the fen of an ordinary hearer : 
yet I am affuredy the matter of it > as I heard it vpeekly delivered^ isfo precious as cannot but be very 
V0elcom and acceptable ts^^ the yporldof Believers,, jam confident , that the gracious defignVphuhfomt 
ttforthy Brethren ahfongfl us have in hand^ and have novo far advanced to the go dfatisf action of all veho 
have taftedof the firfi putts of their Labours , of making the body of holy Scriptures plain and ufe full to- 
vulgar capacities y, is not a little furthered by this V^iece : For , albeit mth greater lengt hi as the na- 
ture of the Bookjfnecesfttj didrerpire ) than thefe Brethrensdejign of shortuejfe doth admit : yet il 
maketh very plain and ufefull that without all queflion hardefl of all Scriptures. This t can fay, that di- 
verfeofthemofi obfcure texts oftjjat holy Book^, Ti>hich i under flood little at the beginning of his te- 
nure, before he ciofed his Exercife, vpiremade tomefocleary thati Judged hjt Expofition might well 
be aquiefced into without much more debate, 

Ihat wit Were more than ordinary Weakj Which durjl promife from the pen of any man a clear and 
certain Expofit, on of all the Rjeveiacion before the day of performance of thefe very deep and mjfierious 
Vrophefies. It was not for nought , that moft ji^icms Calvin and acute Beze > With many other pro^ 
found Dpp'mes , would never be moved to attempt any Explication of that Book^: Yet I hope I may make, 
bold to affirm, without hazard of any heaoie cen fur e , t hat ther e is here laid fuch a bridge over that very, 
deepnvir , that Who ever goeth over it , shall have Caufe tobleffe God for the Authors labour,. 

The Epiiile fpeaketh to the man , / shall adde but this one Word , 7 hat from the day 1 was imploysd 
by the Presljterie to preach and pray and to impofe , With others , hands upon him for the Miniflery at 
Glafgow, 1 did live to the very lafl With him in great and un'mterrupted love , and in an high eftima' 
tion of his egregious enduements , which made him to me precious atr.ong the me^ excellent Divines i have 
been acquainted With in the whole isle. O if it were t hi good plea fur e of the Mafter of the V ineyard to 
plant many fuch noble Vines in this Land i 1 hope many more of his Labours shall follow this fir fi , anfi 
that the more quickly as this do^h recgive the due and expuded a. ceptAnce,, 




An J ND E X 
Of the principall Queftions and Controverfies, 

which are difcufled and cleared in this 

I." f^Omemmg the holyTmity , and OhjeB oflVorship , e 

2. ■ Comemmg a Calling to the Minijlerj', andchaweie therein , 44 

3* ^^^ Comemmg IVritingy c\ 

4. Offending and Hearing. a a 

^. Concerning Churchgo\>ernment and Difcipline in general. 69 

6. Concerning a Minijiers relation to a panicuUr Congregation , 8p 

7- Concerning the nature and difference of common and Jay>ing grace. 1 02' 

8. Concerning the influence the De't>Hhath on fome wicked mens aBwns^ and how he carrieth on the fame , 1 2S 

9. Concerning Minijierial qualifications. 170 

10. f^oncerningtheidentitjof ^ngel, bishop and presbyter t 191 

1 1. Concerning the "^ay ofColpenanting with God , and ofafmmrs obtainingjuftification before Him. 200 

12. Concerning B^pentance, 213 

1 3. Some general Obferyations concerning Preaching , and efpeciaUy application. 223 

14. Concerning the nature ofChriJit death ; or, if it be properly afatitfaBion. 25-4 
15- Concerning the extent of the merit ofchrifts death, or, if it may be accounted a fattsfaB ion for allmen, 257 
J 6 . Concerning learned Mede his Synchronijms , 286 
I?" Concerning Chnjir interceffion. 350 

18. Concerning the comfortleffe grounds laid down in Poperie , for eafing affiiSied confciences. 382 

19. Concerning the idolatry of the Church of Rome. 390 

20. Concerning Prophefjing. 403 

21. Concerning a Miniflers particular Meffage to a particular Auditory , and if'n may be again and again infixed 

on and repealed. 405 

22. .Concerningthe Waldenfes. 430 
25 . CorKcrning the Conjlitution of true Churches by I^ejormntion, out offuc h at ha\e been corrupt, 443 
24. Concerning the unity oj the Catholickyifihle Church. 462 
2<^. Concerning thedifficulty of faltation under Popery. " 502 

Reader, thou wilttind the particulars, relating to each of thefe heads, digefted in the follow- 
ing Table at the end of the Book, according to the orjier of the Alphabet : And befides , 
in the perufal of the Book, thou wilt find a deletftable variety of other concerning-que- 
flionsj right latisfyingly, though but fliortly, handled. 

A N 


OftbeBOOK ofthe 




THe K^lpetatton ofjefus Chriji, which Godga\e unto Him ,to she\>i unto His Sefeantsthirigs '^hich 
muH shortly come topaffe i and Hefent andftgnified it by His Avgel unto His Servant John. 
_ 2. I'Vho bare record of the JVordofGody andoffheTeJlimony of Jefw Chrifi , andof all things that he fav/. 

3. BleJJed is hg that readeth,and they that hear the v/ords of this Prop hecte , and keeplhofe things 'ithichare wit' 
ten therein : for the time is at hand. 

4. ]ohn to the fey>en Churches in Afia , Grace he unto you, and peace, from Him v^hich isy and which watf and 
which is to comC) a ndfrom thefelpen Spirits which are before His Throne- 


bernefs in going about fuch a work,and that the Spirit of Jefus Chrift,vvho hath given this 

Book for a benefit to His Church,help us to a rignt uptaking of it : Yet,confidering that 

^^ the fubjed: matter of it, is fo profitable and comfortable to the Church, to the end ofthe 

5^1 ^'^9"^^'^ • confidering alfo what was Chrifts end in giving it , as His laft Will and Woud, to 

y the fubjed: matter of it, is fo profitable and comfortable to the Church, to the end ofthe 
??M(-'"C'i ^'^9'^^'^ • confidering alfo what was Chrifts end in giving it , as His laft Will and Woud, to 
^^jc^ His Church, to wit,to be a ?^ey>elation, and thereby to make manifelt His mind to them - 
therefore ]ohn is forbidden to feal it , that it might be open for the good of His C hurch: and confidering with- 
all the many motives and encouragements that are given to read ana fearch into it , as Vf r.3. BleQ'ed is he that 
readnh, and they that hear the words if this Prophecy, which faying , is alfo renewed again after the prophetick 
part i« immcdiatly clofed, c/;<jip.22.7.i 4.which feem to be notable encouragements,not only to undertake, but 
aUo to lay it on as a duty, to read and feck to underftand it. We refolve,,th rough Gods grace, to eflay it^thac 
it be not altogether ufelefs to the Servants of God to whom it is fent, as leer, i , Icis true, many things in it are 
'Obfcure : and it is like, that the full clearing of them is not to be expelled, till God in fome fingular way shall 
open them up, (neither is that undertaken) Yet, there arc, i.many clear, edifying, and comfortable paffages 
of Gods mind in it : the holy Ghoft mixing in thofe to be fed upon,and to fweeten thofe pafl'ages that are uiore 
obfcure ; and to encourage the Reader to fearch for the meaning of them. And, 2. though we be not clear to 
apply luch paffages to this or that particular tinie,'or party,or peribn ; Yet, feing the fcopefets out,in general , 
the enemity of fpecial enemies ofthe Church , and it being clear who they are : we think they may be expon- 
ed not only according to the Analogy of Faith and found Dodrine , but according tothefcope ofthe place, 
though every thing hit not,3^et nothing being contrary toir. 3. /n thofe things that are moil oblcure;there may 
be found Doilrines concerning the difpofition of enemies,and Godsgiving vidory over rhem, & prcfcrvation 
snd outgateto His People, Andlaftly, thofe things that are moft oblcure,"being particulars , wherein there is 
no iuch haz.ud for us to be ignoran::, as infundamental Truths : and yet being fuch as God hath allowed folks 

A by 

1 Jn Expofition of the ^ _i Cliap.r, 

by wifdom to learch out : therefore , here h avifrfow, is prefixed to the hardcft places tn it, as chap: 13. rerj.uh. 
Upon thele confiderations, we intend ( through the Lords help ) to hint ac lome things in the reading of this 
Baok to you> for your up-ftirring to fearcli further into it. The \\'hole Itrain and form of it, is by way of an E- 
piftle, Jefus Chritti by John, writing His lalt Will to His Church, 

The Preface is in the words read, to Vf r.g.The Bjdy of it,.trom that to the O.yer.ch.ip.zz. The Conclufion, 
is in the endof the 2i.cb a/».where it is clolea with the ordinary] clofe of other EpiftL-s. • \Vc shall firft (peak to 
the Prcface,,and then rothc Body, when we come to it.. We need not ftand upon tht- AuthoritVjnor Title of it 
that holds out the Penman : it being of fuch a divine ftamp and M ijelty, doth carry Authoritv in the bo'bm of 
it, that if any Scripture hold forth theSoveraignity, Majefty, Juftice, Mercy and Truth of God, to the comfort 
of His People,and the making the hearts of tils Enemies to quake jthis Saipture doth it. The Author, that 
ii, the Penman, tsjolm the Dh'me> as he is holden out In the Title. Whether this Title be authentick or nor , 
it's not much to be difputed. It is in fome Greek Copies , The J^lpeUtion of the holy jfpofik and E\>atJgclift , 
\ohnthe ViVme. And jwe think it is clear to be ]ohn , the Apoftle , honoured here to bear Chrifts lalt M^iiage 
to His Church. He got this -name in the primitive times, as being moft lull of Divine Revelations , & pr)'ing 
intotheMyftsriesoftheGofpdi and particularly ofChrifts Divinity. And in the Preface there fee ms tobe 
lome things that bear this ocit, i.That he is called Jbfcw, without defigning what ]a.W;, importing that he was 
the ]ohn, that was well knov^'n and famo;is for an infallible and extraordinary meafure of the Spirit. 2. He is 
faid to be that ^ohn, that was banished into the Itleof Patinos : M'hich, from the ancient famous ftory , is clear 
tobeJffA«,the Apoftle, he being banished thither under the perlecution of Dpw»V»<»« the E nperour. 3. It's fur- 
ther clear,from the 2.Ver.in his defcription , iVho bare record of the JVordofGod , and of the Teftimony of]efiis 
Chrift, which relates to his writing of the Gofpel, as he ftileshimfelf in theciofcof it,cfc<if.2l.24. Thu is th' t 
Difiiple, M'hich tepfeth of thefe things , and "ftrote thefe things , and we kiiow that his Tejlmiony is true Neither 
doth it make any thing againft this, that this Book ("being prophetical) dochdifteriomcwhatinftile from his 
other Writings : for, the ftile Is not fo unlike his : there being many words and phrafes in his Gofpel , and in 
levcral Chapters of this Book fo likeone another : as , that Chrift is called the JVordyZnd ihi Lambt in the one 
and in the other, thefe phrafes being peculiar to Him. 

The Preface hath two parts. Firft, A general Infcription oftheBook,Vfr.i,2,3'. Secondly,.^ particular Ih- 
fcription and Diredlion to the feve« Churches in /ffia, to which the fcven Epiltles in the (econd and iHird 
Chapters are written, from Vv'y.4. to Vcr.9. And there are feveral particulars in every one of thcie.To begin with 
thi Infcription. Tj??c2?eVf/«io» , that is,the making open and unfolding of fome thingsi obfcure: & chough they 
be ftiIlobR:uretous,yetnotinthemfelvps,norto usnowjas they were before this: 2.li'sofJefi/s Chriji: Firft, 
Becaufe given out by Jefus Chrift, to John, as from the Adminiftrator and great Prophet ot iriis Churcn ; And 
lecondly, Becaufe much ofthis Revelation concerned the governing of His Church. Thirdly,7-Krttt^ Codga'fe 
unto him: which denotes the order of the Pcrfons in their fublifting and operations j the Father working t'.an 
Himfelf, by the Son, and the way ofChrifts working as Mcdiatour, who doth the will of Kim that fent Him : 
for, as God, He underftands all things effentially by Himfelf, but as Mcdiatour , He hath that given and com- 
municated to Him. Fourthly, The end of this work, is, ToshewuntoHif Servants thitigs which mujl short 1/ 
come to pafe, that this Revelation may not be kept up, but made forth-coming to His Servants:by whom is un- 
derftood not all Creatures, nor all in the vifible Church, nor only, fuch fpecial Ssrvants by Offic€,zsjohn was ; 
but fuch as were and are His Followers, Subjeifls, and Believers in Him in the vifible Church. Fifchly, 1 he 
lubjecS of this Revelation , things which mujt shortly come topa[fe> not things paft , nor fo much things prefcnt , 
( though in th2 fecond Sc third Chapter , fuch things be fpoken to ) as mainly , things to co.me. Aiid it's faid , 
Thit thejmtiji shortly c^me top^ffe: becaufe, though the full accomplishment of them was not tobe 
"fill the end of the world, as will be dear fromtheProghecy, and therefore thole events cannot be 
confined within fome few years j yet, the beginning of the fulfilling ofthem was inftantly upon the back of 
this Revelation. Sixthly, Hefentandfigmfied it by his Angeli that is, Jefus Chrift made ule of the miniftration 
ofHis Angel to lignifie this, both to fet out His dignity and grandour ,and to conciliate the greater crcdittoit. 
S-vcnthly, The perfon it is revealed to, is , His SerYant hhn -, his Servantby fpecial Delegation and Otfice^in 
a fpecial Imployment, as a Steward in his Houfe. 

J Ol>ferYe the great advantage & benefit, the priviledge & prerogative thatChrift^Servants have beyond all 
others: Chrift v\'rites his Letters to them: there is not a word written to Kings & great men jbut it is tosbcw his 

StrfantstJnngno cometopijje : To be his Servants, is tobe Gods freemen-,and they v/in fardeft bennuponhis 
Secrets SiMy{\icrks,l?fal.2$.TheSecyctofthe Lord is with tkmthatfcar himyand he -tfiUsh^iv tbcmhit Cot>:n3rit 

2. Obferye Chrift's way of Adminiftration: Though this Revelation be lent to His Servants: yet not imme- 
(diatly, but firft it is given to Chrift> and He gives ic to his Angel , and the Angel gives it to l^hn , & he brings 

Ghap.i, , Bcok^ofthe^efelatm. "5 

ir ojc to the Churches. lefusGiritt muP: haye bis ownplacc : and the firft notice oFany thing.concerning the 
good oftheChurch, comestoHimasMediatour: and hedoth nothing but he firft reveals It to his Servants 
the Prophets, Amot g.Thcy are his Servants of State to bear his Mind to his People. 

Verj.z. The fecond thing inthe Preface, \SyZ dickr\}pt\ono{Mm , who bare record of the Word of God : which 
may relate to the Gofpel oilchn, which holds out lefus Chrift, who was, and is theTubftantial Word of God , 
as he begins his Gofpel. 2. And cf the Tejlvnony oflefm Chrift : which may look to his Epiilles. 5, And of a U 
tlingi thathej'aitf : this looks to the particular VifionsGod gave him in this Book .[Iohn*s irarin^ recw^.points 
o.it his faithtulnefs according to the Charge and Commiflion given him: what is given him to dcliver.he keeps 
not up: what he rcceivesin charge, he difcharges. 

3. We have the commendation ofthisBook, r;^-,^. to ftirup folks to make life of it, bccaufcHekncw 
many would fcarre at it, and be ready to let it lye befide them as ufelefs and unprofttable : whereas all Scripture 
i jgivcn by infpiration of God, and is profitable, Sec. 2 T/w. 3. 16. Therefore this isadded, Blejpd is hethat tea- 
Jeth: that is, this Book is not a thing to be fpoken of only, and not to be read and ftudied : for, the Seals of ic 
are opened : andblelTed are they that read it. It's a happy and a goodthing,foberly and humbly to read, and to 
(tck to underlland it: and becaufe every one cannot read , he adds » ^nd ble^edare tUy that hear the -^ordr of 
this Prophecy : it may relate not only to private, but to publick reading and hearing of this Bookf, when it is 
read and exponed ; So thatby'Chrift's own Ordinance, this Book is to be brought torthto His People; and, 
beeaufe folks are ready togrow vain and fecure, and to reft upon reading and hearing, He adds another word, 
and keep thofefayin^sthat are written therein , that is, it's not the reading, nor the hearing (imply, that ^'ill bring 
the blelfing: but the-obferving and making right ufe of it. Then he adds a reafon why he would have it read 
and heard, andthe fayings of it obferved and made ufe of, becaufe she time is at hand, the fulfilling of the things 
in thisBook,isathandi the timehafteth of calling folks to a rcckoning,what ufe they have made ot thofefey- 
ingstthetime of pouring out his wrath on his Enemies,& of being very kind tohisChurchScPeople.is at hand. 
I .Ohferve , It's a good thing to be ftudying the vfcripture : it's a mark of the blelfed man, Pfal.i. It makes 
the man of God wife to falvation I and it's good that thofe who want the ufe of reading themfelves, make up 
that want by hearingothcrs: and particularly, It is good to be reading.and hearing this Book readjihofe that are 
fitted for reading, let them ufe it well ; and tho (e that have not this benefit, let them take and improve other 
opportunities that may bring them to the knowledgeof Chrift's mind ; and the more , that bleffednefs is given 
but to CiK or feven forts in this Book, and twice or thrice over,to thofe that ftudy it, %V.22.7.i+. 

2. OlJerveyThtit ifs not enough to be given to reading and hearing of the VVord: neither would folks reft on 
if. but joy npradlife with both, I,«i^.ii.28. BleJJJed are thej that hear the Word ofGod^andk^cf it. Itis notthc 
reader ,orbearer« but the doer, that is the blefled man. Yea, though ye v\^ere able to open and unfold all the 
My fteries tliat are in this Book, if ye be not fuitable and conform thereto in your pra(5lice , ye ar«i)Ut like that 
man fpoken ofji/iw. i. 23 ,24. who, leholdmg his natural face in aglajfe, goeth his way, andforgctteth what manntf 
of man hewjts. He thatis a hearer, and nota doer, deceives his own foul : als xnuch hearing and reading doth 
you good, as is improven in practice. 

queft. How is tljjs Eook_catUd a Prophecy ,fcing fame things in it concern things frefent^ai in^hefe 'Epiftlety written 
to the feven t^hurches in Afia ? 

.(4w/«'.Propheciesare oftwo forts, i. Prophecy, is that whereby things paft or prelent are known by an in- 
ftindt of the Spirit; So Moffir writeth ofthe Creation of the World , and things that were before histime : S3 
Ahijah knew the wifeof ffroiorfw : and Elisha difcovered the King o^ Syria his Counfcl , and the covetoufnels 
oiGeha:{i: And,in thisreQ)ev^,afwell as in reference to things to come, this Book may be called a Prophecy : 
becaufe thofe things that areprefem are retealed by the Spirit. 2. Prophecy , is of things to come : and in this 
refped, iL*s called a Prophecy: bocaufethe main drift of this Book of the l^yeUttrnXs^ to ftiew things to come, 
the iirft three Chapters heinginrrodu<fiory to the reft. 

^ Verfi^. Followeth the fecond part of the Preface , and it's the particular Infcription and DJre(5lion of this 
^^\^\ctoi)^iff^euChnrc\\Q%m Afia, phn to the feven Churches in Afia : and itbeginneth as the Epiftles or- 
dinarily begin, Grace be untoyott, andpeacc. Where we have, i .the thing wiftied, Grace and Peace. 1, The 
. perlons to whom , the Selpea Churches. 3. The Pcrlbns from whom ,thc Three Perfons of the Trinity. 4. And 
upon the back of this a thankfgiving. ]ofw, is the perfon Wishing i that which is wished, is, Grace and Pe.ue , 
two words, which comprehend all good: C^ace, is the fountain ofGods free love; and Peace, thecifecStof 
that f'-eclove: whichbeing here put together,is love,vented in its precious effeifls. The Perlons from whom, 
are Three, or, the Three Perfons of the Trinity , i.From the Father, which if t which was, and which is to come, 
that is, from God the Father, defer ibed from His eteinal being, without all beginning or ending. And this dc- 
Icriptiori ofthe Father, relates tothat of EA:o<i. 3.14. I AM THAT I ^M, hath fcm me umoyouisnd it is a 

A 2 name 

4 An ExpofttioHofthe chap.r. 

jiame that God often taketh to Himfelf, Thefrjl and thelaji, the begHining and the'ending : and the '1 ide JE- 
HOVAH taketh up thsfe three* JEjih-futiiretime j HO,thetlik« prefent : VAH, the time paft.In a word, 
it's cheparaphrafe of the word JEHOVAH: and this title is attributed to the Father>not feclucfin^ the Son & 
Holy Ghoft ; biit the Father.being the Fountain of Che Godhead, when He is joyned with the Son & Spirit , 
thole things that are eflsntial to God, are ordinarily attributed to him. 2 . From the Self en Spirits : Thefe are 
not creatures,or created fpirics: for,firft, created fpirits are not objedts of worship, from whom we may wish 
Grace and Peofce, Secondly, neither are created fpirits let in betwixt the Father andtb;Son, as thofe fevcn 
Spirits are here. Thirdly, In the 5.cfc<»/>.Vfr.6.thorefevenJ'piritsjare called the Eyes and Horn f of the Limb : 
£}'« being his Omnifcience , whereby He kes every where » and H0rnf,beiag His Power , working by His 
Spirit, and making ftubborn fouls fubmit unto Him : and thefe feven Spirits being his Ejes , which arc every 
where,and his Power or O.hnipotency, vn^hich herealfo are invocated, They can Id^ no other but the Holy 
Ghoft. The Holy Ghoft is called the Seyien Spiritsi not only, becaufe it's frequent in this Book of the Reyela- 
tion to go on the number of S 3ven ; but alfo, and mainly , to shew the manifold and various operations of the 
Spirit, as i C*r. 12.4,6. There are diver(iii:s of gifts, bm the famrSpirir, and diverjitiet of operation fMt the fame 
God, 'S»bich 'Pforktth all in all- 2. Becaufe it hath relation to the id ven Churches He is to write to , their need 
requiring much : and he being an infiait and powerful Spirit, he was ablp to let Out abundance of grace and all 
confolation to every one Mnthouc prejudice to another, as if each'of them had the Spirit wholly , Therefore he 
isfbdefcribedinthisM'ish. Secondly, thefe feven Spiritsarefaidto be before the Throne, th^iis , prefent with 
God, yet made ufe of by God the Father and the Son , working by the Spirit, effedually communicating wliat 
may be for the comfort of His People : and in thefe words, the holy Spirit is holden out in a pofture, apt to 
execute whatis needfull. Tne thirdPerfonis in the ^.Yer. And from Jefu4 Chrijl ; Grace andPf«e is wished 
from him ; he is fet out in his Three Offices of Prophet, Priett, and King. Firll, In His Prophetical Office , 
The faithful JVitmfs , becaufe he reveals the Will of God, and that faithfully: therefore ,lja.^^.^. He is give rt 
as a Witnefs, a Lsader and Commander to the People. Secondly, In his Prieftly Office, Thefirft begotten ofthi 
dead : To shew, i . that he offered up himfelf to the death. 2. Becaufe he was the firft that role from the 
dead in his own ftrength, and made others to rife, and he died not again : for.though Lai^anis rofe , he died a- 
gain, and though Enoch and Elias did not die, yetthat was by vertue ofhis Power and Refurredion , as alfo 
rhatany other did arife. Thirdly,In his Kingly Office, The Prince of the Kjngs of the Earth : which Title fers 
out Chrift, not only to be God -equal with the Father, but as Mediatour, Ring of his Kirk . He is called,Pr/«(;ff 
ff the I{ings of the Earth, not as if Kings, and all great men,or others, were in the fame manner fjbjedsto him 
in the relation that Believers are( in which refped: his Kingly Office extendeth no further nor his Priellly and 
Prophetical O -fice) but though lb h: have not fuch a near relation to them, nor they to him: Yet he is King 0- 
verthem, to reftrain them that they prejudge not his Kirk j and tO judge them forany wrongs or prejudice 
they do to them, and to inflidl temporal judgments on them hcre,and eternal hereafter, when he shall be their 
ludge, and the Books shall be opened at the great D.iy. The wish is from the Th ree Perfons : and though the 
Holy Ghpft be here named before the Son, it is not to confound the order that is among tlie Perfons of theTri- 
nityinthcirfubfiftingand operations : but for this reafon, becaufe Jahn\$ toinfift on Icfus Chrift the;(ec6nd 
PeVfon, he keeps him laft in naming, to make the pro2refsin his writing the more clear. " • ' , , . - 

Ohferye, There are three diftind Perfons of the blefled Trinity, the i^ather. Son, and Spi'rit, wiib are the 
fame one God: in the Name of thefe Three, is Bapri(m adminiltratedi and from Tnem , Grace is wished and 
prayed for, 2 Cor. 1 3. 14. For, i.That there are Three, who are diftinilly mentioned here, cannot be denied -, 
that the firft is the Father ; and the third, lefus Chrift, really diftimfl from the Father, is clear; for,thc^Dn, and 
no \ the Father , vi^as incarnate : and therefore the like muft be (aid of the feveniSpirits, that they fet forth the 
Holy Gboft perfon.illy, feing it is He who in the like places ufeth to be j-oynedin'with the Father and the vTon , 
as 2 Cor. 1 3 1 5. I Joh . 5.7,8,and therefore n's faid in the feven Eplftles, to be %vhat the Spirit faith. Thefe Selperi 
Spiiits therefore, is that one Spirit, and He a perfon that fpeaketh to the churches. 5econdl,y , 'that each of 
thefe Three muft be God, appears, i. Becaufethelaft two are both joynedascquall with theFather,ofwhonrt 
therecanbenoqueftion. 2. Becaufe the Son, lefu5 Chrift, afterward hath the fame title attributed tohim, 
which is here given to the Father 3 . Becaufe the fame one fiic, is prayed for from all of them, and, it being , 
Cr ace and Peace, which only God cangivclupponesdivineeflenfi^lAttributestobein thofe from whom they 
are wished : yea , they are named here, as joynt Senders of this Epiftlc , and Vuthorizers of this Word ; therer 
fore is ir fo often afterward faid. Let him that hath ears, hear what the Spirit faith: & there can no Authority but 
What is divine,be fafiicicnt here.HenceaHb, thtfsj'aith the Lord, and thmjaitht'oe Holy <^hofi > are freq lently 
pic for one another: each one therefore oftheic three muft be God. 3. It may 'appear from this alfo , that all 
' helethrc? are On-.- GQd;thu3, this Reyelation and Salutation cometh from one God, chap.i-^yer.i . and 22. 18, 


Chap.t. BookpftU Revelation. ^ 

ipand yet this Revelation and Salutation comctli from the Father,Son ,and Spirit: therefore th«y are that One 
God. Again, If the Grace and Peaee proceed from one Eflence, which is common to all, then they are the Inme 
God, effcntiallyj though diftind: Perfons: but Grjce and Peace looks to the fame Godhead and Eflcnccjthoiigh 
it be wished for from all, for the effed, Grace and Peace, is but one, it doth therefore fuppofc an unity in r'he 
•fountain from which it comes , to wit, thefe three Perfons of the glorious Godhead, who are named diftmdly, 
not to shew a diff€rent|^edt from the Father, which is not from the Son ; but to shew the concurrence of theie 
bleflcdThreeinan united ■nM'y for bringing forth of thefe ;fo that whatcometh from the Father, comerh alfo 
from the Son and Spiik, Taaic eflential Attributes, and that moft fimple and infinit Eflence , being coinmon 
to all the three Perlons, it i efts therefore that they are three diftind PerfonS , 'and yet of the fame infinit God- 
head. Neither will that which the So«m>/?f and others oppofe to this place,bave weight. Say they, Chrijli^ 
fpokeh of here, 'd^ dead', thtrefote camh be God. For, it's one thing to fpeak ofhim who was dead, another to 
fay that it (peaks ofhim as fuch. He that died was God , but he died not as God : and therefere this can only 
prove, that lefus Ch^, as to his Perfon, is man} but by it,\^'e can no more deny him to be the fecond Perfon o'E 
rhe Godiiead, than ifferw^ai d when heis called thefirfi and the laji, by thatjwe candeny Him to be man. And 
that the Son & the Holy Ghoft, are equal with the Father, appcareth alfo in this, that they are both equally 
with hii?i,the object: of divine Worship here , to wit, of Invocatbnand Prayer,which couidiiot otherwife be. 

Concerning the UoljTiimty and ObjeB of Worship. : 

THere is much Ipoken of the Glory of God in this Book : and no where isirhe diftirKftion of the Per- 
fons of the glorious Godhead more frequently and clearly fet forth. \ohn vi'as more full in this than 
any who wrote beforehim : becaufe that in his time Ebim and fome others had arifenjwho did deny 
the Godhead of the Son and Holy Ghoft; and therefore, with a particular refpe^t to theie, he did 
write the more fully of this, for which he got the ftile of V'Cfiim fingularty, as \<^as marked on the Title. It will 
ftod therefore be impertinent now, onccfor all, to touch-that a little further; and*although here airioficy would 
be reftrained, full faiisfaftion in the up-taking of that Myfterie being peculiarly referred to that time \^'hen m'c 
shall fee him as he is, as our Lord's word, f oh. i^.io.Then ye shall know that lam in the P^i^e/,dorh import : & 
therefore we M^ould not prefume to fatisftc our felves in the tT/or/ , or particular manner how that is ; but 
humbly be contented to nave our Faith folidly grounded in the on , or being thereof : vvhich may be done by 
tonfidering thefe three, to wit, i. the truth ofthe thing ,2. the exprfeslionsufed in holding of it/orth, and, 5. 
the necesfity of the believing thereof. - ' ■ 

For the 6rft-, we fay, that as there isbut one God efTs^itially , fo there al'b three diftind',co-equaljCo-eflential 
and con-fubftantial Perfons ofthatblefled Godhead, the FathefjSon, and Spirit, who yetin amoft wonderful :. 
excellent and infinitly perfC(5l -( though an inconceivable ) manner, havean order of fubfittirig and working ?,- 
fnongfl themfelves. It was a faying amongft the Ancients , that to (peak of God , even that which was truth , 
wssi dangerous ; (Etiam de Deo dicere y>erum, ejlpericulofam: ) and indeed here it ought to be remembered. Ye c 
tnay we confider the former general Piopofition in the fe Alfei tions, 

I . jfffertj^hzxe is but one God eflentiaHy cpnfideredj and-in this the S:riptore is clear, and fo inthis Book , 
chap .i.mdi laft : although there be a-pluirality df Perfons mentioned-, yCt it is- ever God fpoken of as 0-ne, in the 
lingular number: and. thus he is ftnli oppofed as the 0«e living Cod, to the plurality of Idols. And indeed,tbere 
can be no plurality in this: for, if that Orfe God havein him all perfedions , there can be no perfedlion belide 
him : and lb no God belide this Om true God. And,if we foppofed any perfedlion to be befidc him, then were 
not he Godjbecaufe not infinit in perfe<ftiott: and ,if infinite then that which is infinit, in that refpedt, cannot be 
multiplied.There is no queftion oFthis, feing the moft wife Heathens have been neceflitated to acknowledge ir. 
• i. Affert. Although rhere be but One God , yet thercare three Perfons, The father, Son, and Spirit. There is 
■fi^ one of thefe Bpiftles to the feyen Churches, but this may be gathered frafti it , r. the Father is the Sender 
of them 'all, as from VeKl.c^ip.i. may be gathered. ^. the'Son i-s he v^ho immediatly gives Jofc« Commidion 
to write, as the Titles he taketh to himfelf do clear. |g. thd holy Ghoil is in the clofe of all,inentioned as a joync 
ipeaker, Let him hear what the Spirit faith, C?c. 2.More pa'rticularly,tbey are diftindly mentioned in tht Epiftle 
to Thjatira, cbap.z.lper.iS. Thefe thinzs faith the Son of Cod ; that holdsforth the Father and SDn:'W7here a fon 
is> there is a father : and God here is perionally taken as another t\om the Son. And ter.i^.we have the Spirit 
"as diftind: from both. 3. they are put together, chap."^. i .T^efe things faith he thai hath the fetien Spirits of God : 
HC> that is, the Son formerly mentioned : Gcd, thati», the Bather, diitindfly confidered as another Perlon ; tie 
felpen Spirit! , that is, the holy Ghoft, in whofe name lohn faluted the C hurcheo formerly, & who is to be heard , 
as the clofe of every Epiftle shewcth. 4. the like is,Vff.i2. where the Soi^ fpeaketh in tl e tirft Perfon,! & Me, 
The Fatheris defigned by thetitle GOD j the Spirit again ,38 diftindt from both, Ver, 13. 5. The fame may be 

A3 ga- 

6 A ExpofttioHofthe " Chap.i. 

tijchcrcd f oiiT ver. 14 with 22.whcre the faithful JVumfs, Gc d, and the Spirit , are mentioned as three chat are 
di(tinv!t. 6.Andlaltly3c/j«p.5AVC haveXiiem moil fully dift:ingiii«hed, Firtt, there is the.Farier,onthcThronc, 
M ith the Book in his hand, >«r.i. Secondly) th:re is the Lamb, the Son : And thirdly ^thef^eft Spirits ^fGodt 
th : holy Ghoft,v<rr.6.aU ot them confidered as diftindl Perfons. 

3. AjJ «.Thele ThrccFaiher, Sen, ^nd Spirit , are really diftinA one from anoth ;r ; and (care three Perfons." 
AU ihac is laid, doth confirm this alio: for, i.Tftey are really diftindt, though nor fimply in refpecft of their ef- 
ieacc : yctjas they are perfonally confidered>the Father yX^^ not the Son : and hcthatfits upon the Throne, is not 
the Lamh. The Father did noc become man,nor the Spirit ; but the Son, he died, was buriedy&c. which can 
1 c laid of none, bit of a perfon : and yet cannot be faid of either ofthe other.two. The holy Ghoft is the Spi' 
rit ofGodf as the Son is tne Son ofGoi : and if that fuppo'e a real dillind pertonaliiy, this muft do alio: the Son 
layes, fo doth the holy Ghoft or Spiricfay to the Churches: the Fath?r is God , thefirBf and laftt the Son hath 
the fame Title, cfc«^.2.8.even He who wasdead,ist/jc/?rH, and thelajl: the Spim hath the ftme authority, and 
i s to be heard, and hath a divine omniprefence to be in all the earth, chap.^.6. which can belaid of none but of 
him that is God. Now^if the Father be God^ and the Son God \ and the i^pirit God alfo: and if there be but one 
God, and yet th.'fe three be really diftindl, thenxhcy muit be diftint^ Perfons in refpet5t of their perfonalpro- 
perties, feing they aredPerfons, and di'ftinv^. 
^ 4. Afferf. Although they be three diftind Perfons, as to their per fonal properties; yet are they all threeOne 
God, eflcntially conlideredj and all have the fame infinit indi vifible Effence, though we cannot conceive how. 
This follows on the former : for, if there be three Perfons, and each of them be God , and yet there be but One 
Gjd, th;n each of thefe Perfons muft be the fame One God, co-equal and co-elfential : fo the Father is alius , 
another from the Son, and each of them from other ; but he is not aliud, or another thing.but thefame.Hence, 
the Son ,is the SMtf/God, and the Spirit, the Spir/>o/<^ffd- They are upon one throne, c^dt^. 5. Theyconeur 
by the fame Authority and J^overaignity to write.' and He that fends this Epiftle to the Churches , is but one 
Ooi},chjp.i.i. who therefore M'ill avenge adding thereto, or diminishing therefrom, cfcop, 22. yet* thatO»f 
C7tfi,is the fame Three Pfry<>»x,chap,i. ver.4. 

Jjjert.s. Thefe three blefl'ed Perfons, who are One moft glorious Being , have yet an unconceivable order 
in their fubfifting and vvorkiug : which, being to be admired rather than to be fearched , we shall but fay, 
I They have all the fame one Eflencc and Being, as is faid. i.They ail have it eternally , equally and perfedf ly 
none is more or lefle God, but each hatlrall the fame Godhead at perfediion ; & therefore muft have it equally 
and eternally: for, the Godhead is the fame,and the 5on is the firft and the lalf, as the Father is: and the Fa- 
ther and Son, were never AVithout the Spii it, who k the Spi: itofGed^nd each of them is God. It doth con- 
firm all thefe, that they have one Throne,Name,and Authority attributed co them. Yet, 5. the Father fubfilts 
of himfeli, and doth be^etthe Son by an inconceivable and eteraialgeneration: th e Son doth not beget , but is 
begotten,and hath his Ibbfifting, as the fecond Perfon, from the Father , fo much the titles of Father and Son 
importhere: the Spirit proceeds both fromtheFather,( therefore he is the Spirit of theFuther ) andfromthe 
;S on, therefore is he izid alio to hAveihefetienfpirksefGed: and the Spirit doth neither beget,nor is begotten j 
but doththuSjinaninexprefliblcmanner.proceedfromthemboih^ 

For the fecond. If any should wrangle for the expreflionstbatareufedby Divines.inthisMyfterie;\Vecon- 
ftlT; that many ofthe Schoolmen have exceeded, and have taken too much liberty in this wonderful Myfte- 
riei yet, it is the thing that we efpecially should beeftablisfaed into,audfrom fcripture that is clear, that there 
is but One God, and yet Three, who being denominated inthe concrete, muft imply three different real l^ela- 
tions, or Subfiftances, or Perfons : and this fffence being infinir a id communicable , there is no \^'arrant to 
bound it to the rules and properties ol created beings, who are but finit: andinthatrefpedt alfo incommu- 
nicable: And we conceive that the names here given ( and elfwhere in Scripture ) will amount .clearly to the 
equivalent of Bffeme and Perfons y M'hich are molt obvioufly made life of in thi^ matter: for, what is that, J am 
AphaandOmeiA,v/ho'^*Syis 3 tf«(i/j/ocow«, batthatfamejEjcoi.j. 1 AM THAT J yl M, which dcnoteth 
his £eing or Ejfence, as that which is ever a Being : and Idols, being differenced from the ttue God by this > that 
th -7 arc by Kature no gods,G4/.4.8. it implies on the contrary, that by Kature he is God,and fo God in refpedt 
of his Effence : and therefore that God may be cHentially conliJered, and in thatrefpetfl of his Effence. Again, 
ttcfcexprcfTions, that the one is called the Fatkety and the other the Sow, and yet both One God, doclearly 
hold forth thit there are real relations in that Godhead, fubfifting in a diftindt manner^ and [o there muft 
bePjrfons> as fieb. i. the Son, is called the expreffe Image ofthe Fathers Perfon , which plainly fayes , that the 
f .ihcr, confidered as diftinguishcd from the Son , is a Perfon , and fubfifts ; and that the Son, as diftinguished 
from tihe Father, and as fo li'vely and exfrejly repre fenting his Perfon, muft be a Perfon alfo , having this from 
th' Fithcr.i and what is faid ofthe father and Son , muft alfo be true of ih^ holy Ghoft,? who is God equal 
w^ith both, yet different from them both, as they ditfer from each other, though not in refpcd of that Tamcin- 


chap. I. Iiook,of the Revelation. 7 

coiiiin lu'.cible property, yet lie whoproceedeth, aiuft differ Irro.n thofe froiia whom he proceeds ,'as he who 
is bcgGtieti.muft diiVcr from him that begat liim. 

■ for then operations, we may find here , that in fome thii.gs they cone ir joyntly > yet feme way differert- 
ly. Some things a^ain are attribuEcd toonc,which cannot be co another, as thjir perional properties : the 5on 
is begotten, and not dv F ither or the Spirit : therefore he is alianerly the Son: the i^ather begets: and the Spi- 
rit proceed^-. Tnefe are called their perlbnal properties, and their works <i^ /mra ; or amonglt, or in reference 
tothemlelves: ofthis kind is the incarnation of :he Sjn,\vhich can neither be faid of the fatlier, nor of ih: ho- 
ly Ghoft. Again, in things ad extra, or that relate to iheXTieatures limply , vvhether in making>0i- governing of 
the World, they joyntly concur : the Father createth all, lo doth the Sjn and holy Gholt: the Son, from the 
Father, by the holy Ghoft: the holy Gholt,from the father and the fiJn.as thofe expreffioHS of God, fendirg 
his S-'H, tiie Son's fending the fpirit from the father, Scc.do cicclarc,3F<'^.I4,2(5.and 16.7. G«/.4/6. 

To the third. This truth concerning the bkfl6d and glorious Trinity, being fo often indited on here » and 
coming (o near to the nature of God himfelf, it cannot but be exceedingly RecelTary for Chriftians to be 
through in the faith thereof : yet it is qucftioned of late, whether it be to be aCcompted a fundamental point 
of faith or not ? I fay , this oblate is qaeltioned by Socinus y^nd the favourers of a boundlefs untolerablc Tole- 
ration : for, ot old it was moft facredly received as iuch, amongft the Ancients, as the Creeds that are called 
Apoftolick, Nicene)and that of^tkanaftus, do manifeft ; But this Engine the Devil drives, fiift, to make the 
mcft ncceflary truihsindiffercnt, that then he may the more eafily engage oppofers to quarrel the very truth of 
them it leif i but we conceive, whatever it was of old be fore Chrift, yet now it is to be looked on , not only as 
atruth , which is clearfrom the Word > but alfo as a fundamental truth; which being shaken, would overturn 
Chriftianity, and the way of Salvation that the Lord hath revealed in his Gofpel. This is not to be extended 
to a rigid degree of knowledge in this wonderful Myffcerie > but to fo much clearnefs in this truth from the 
Word,as may bea ground to Faith in the thing itfelf. And that this is neceffary, as a fundamental, we think a- 
rifeih clearly from thcfe three grounds, l .That truth, without which the true God caimot be taken up, believ- 
ed in, and worshipped, is a fundamental truth: but, this truth ©f the Trinity of Perfons, and Unity of the God- 
head, is fuch, that without it, thatGod, which is propofed in the Word, and isthe only true God , and the ob- 
jedl of all Worship, can neith.^r be taken up, believed in, nor worshipped rightly: Ergo^^c. becaufc the true 
God is One, and yet three Perfons : and as fuch, hath propofed -Himlelf to be known and v^orshipped. 2 that 
truth without which the work of Redemption vvouldbe overturned , is fundamental ; But this is Ibch: for,by 
taking away the Myflerie of the Trinity, they take away the Godhead and Perfonality of the Medi. tour, and 
fo do enervat his fatisfad:ion. And, as on the former accompt , the true God is other^'ife conceived than he is 
in himfelf i fo,inthisrcrpe(ft,theM.'diatour ismade aquiteoiher thing. And, can any thing be fundamental , 
if this be not ? 3. the way that God hath 1 aid down in bis Worship, requireth ihis,feing in Baptifm there is par- 
ticular and cxprefle mentioning of thefe three, the f (»<^er,Son>and Sp'mtt as the Superiour , to whom they th :t 
are Chriftian Souldiers, Ihould b: lifted and inrolled : and fo we may accompt of allafter-worlhip : feing God 
requires us to hono.ir the Sm ,33 we honour the Father , and feing tliefe Three equally witnels from Hciven , 
I f ofc.f .the father, War dy and Spmi: all which rliree>are One : can ih_Mr teftimony be received as of three , or 
can they beaccompted as OwcGod without this'^ And yet there can neither be One j in Faith , engaged unto in 
Baptifm, or one, \^'ho!e teftimony we may receive, blithe who is God: and can any think but it's necefl'.iry for 
a Chriftian, and that,fundamentally , to know to whom they are devoted, whom they are to \\rorfhip , whole 
teftimony it is that they receive, whofe operations they feel ,whom they are to make ufe of,Scc. And therefore 
ii*5 neceffary to know the Trinity of Perfons in that One Godhead. 

It may be the exercife of fome tender foul> that they know net how to apprehend this Oojeft rightly, wh ?n - 
they coirte to woi fhip : and that often they are difquictcd , while their minds are unftable : Concerning this , 
there is need here to diftinguilh betwixt what may facisfie us as to the Object in it felf , and what may be fufii- 
cienitousindiredtingofourWorfhiptothatObjeifi: Ifvi^etakeup God as in himfelf, hereisadepth that 
cannot be learched out to perfctftion : He it broader than the Sea, Who can know him ? highey thantle Hea^fy 
'^hatcanvi/edo,Jo!;.ii.S. But yet we have footing in his Word , how to come before this God withtear, 
reverence, holy admiration, &c. and fuch affedions and qualificatiorx as a true "Worfhipper that woifliips in 
fpirit ought to have; and in this , the pure Worfhippers, who believe this ti uth of one inhnit God and three 
Eerfon/j ought to be taken up, rather that they may be iuitable in their worfKipping, . and have becoming ef- 
fedts on their own hearts, than to be difq:iitting themfelvcsby.poring too curioufly on the Object wo fhippi d 
exceptinfo farasmayfervetotransfoi'auheheartintoalikenefs toliim. . And , it is not aiming to compre- 
hend the myfterioufnefs and manner of thefe incomprehcrGble Myfteries, that doth work this j but the real, 
through and near imprefTion of tlie general, which is revealed clearly in his Word. We would therefore com- 

AnBxpofit'mofthe Chap.i. 

8 r • «r rrt,;« T Thar folks would fatisaetheinlelves in the general with the folid faith there- 

m:t.atli.T.thrceinWorfhip.^^^^^^^ concerning ihe Per fons of the blefled Godhead: 

.of. without delcending ^^ Pf^/^'f^^^^^ confafes the mind, and difquiets the confciencc, and cannet but do 

fo intho!e who xvould be at the lo°^i"g "g^^^ himlelt to us, and vvherein,weconceivc,it's fafeft to reft , and 
Tirles,NAmes.^c. whereby He hath^^^^^ ^^^ ^_^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ himfelf hath 

toboundaUourcunohtievvithnthole rpr,t y^^ ^ ^^^^ of feeing his Glory, by Ihewing him his 

,ai:ght : thus,Hxod.3Vand34. theLordd^^^^^^^^ thereby teaching men to 

.oodnefsintheproclatrango h,s A^^^^^^^^ .^^ ^^ ^^-^^ ^^^ comprehenfive Attn- 

ing in our hearts: and cannot but diminilh thatAu- 
\Ve would remember therefore that he is purely Sp 


vvorlhippingofJemevenmotnrnBa^^^^^^^^^ BatftiUthi, 


Mould be remembered, ^^^*™^,^'if" Paiher,Son ,andSpmt. thatarebuc 

T^vo: andthereforeThcobjeaotWo^^^^^ or 

OneGod. WeWorftitptheF^ffccr, ^e5o«^^^^^^ 

ekSP/Vi^ asif he vvho^notnamedw^^^^^ 

ly Ghott, are the fame God with the ¥^^er (.^^^^^ 5 ^^ J^^^ ^^ fubfitting and operating; and io the 



th. Son. although ^jbe notfoufual in S.npture ,^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ J ^^^ .^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 


v/hichisthe Work of the ^V^'^'f^'"''^^^^^ TheZ^^^iion ofthMy Ghcji, is fubjoyned.asadiftind pe- 

and5. Grace ^^«"'?r'f ^V^^^G^dt S^n ^ ' being direfted to the Fa- 

tition,totheLoveoftheFathe andGraceo^^^^^^^ and therefore to plead againft the God- 


Ifitb.objeaed,againftthenec^^^^^^^ .^^^ ^^^^,^, Godhead of the 

tolerating whatoppofeth ^l^^^^Xl™^^^ Difciples, as in .^S.ip.Thcretore, ^c. 


as the 

to bi accounted 
trieci,tnen v/ere luc wiiw.v^^v.^. . .— - - - ^ deftrovina it, were to be reltrauieci, Decaufanature hath 
no fundamental thing: and confequenty, no Error,^^^^^^^^^^ A.d iiKleed if a mafter of a family & 

aiotdilcoveredthat ThattheTefore n uftb^^^^^^^^^ 

.tather, who yet,as fuch, is (to fay fo ^ ,^;™\°.'"^^ butis nocwithftand- 

Chap.€. LtokjtftkeRenlamt. i^ 

be chouglu , thnt a Mqgiftraie , who muft count for his Authority o\ er a people , as a maflcr milH do foe 
his, over a family, is le.fe obliged thereunto ^ For,Chri(tiansaretobcChrifkians in their ftations , as in' 
their pcrfonal carriage ; and fo to fcek the promoving of theGofpel , and the reftrainingofwhat may marr 
it actordinff ro th:irltation. Tnirdly ,\veanf\ver, that e\e« this may be drawn from tbeMorall Law of 
God : wherein not only the true God is alone to be worihipped, asin the firft Command ; bjt alfo accord- 
ingly as be hath prescribed andreveiledinHisVVord,whichisthcfumofthefccondCo;nmand. Nowj 
this being trL£ , that the Lord hath thus revealed Himfelfto be wo-fhipped according to the Gorpel,it be- 
coxe> I o leflb necefl'ny to Woi fhip Go.1 in that manner, than to Wo-lhip Htm,who is the true God ; 8c 
fo*, if by the firlt Command , and according to t e light of nat jre,Magiftr,.tei fho.ild rellrain , and not fulfer 
what IS inconfi-.lcnt with the worfhipping of theUnetriie and living God,fo is he,by thefecondCommandf 
and that fime light of nat ire , obliged to reltrain all manner of Do flrine and Worfhip , that is inconfiltcr,c 
with what he hith revealed, according to the fecond. 

, Toihe lalt part of the objeilion , fiom that in'ftance, A^. 19. We fay^firft, that fuppofe there had been 
gie.t ignorance then of ibe Godhead of the holy Gholt, while th n: myfteric of the glorio.is Trinity was 
iHore obfcurely revealed j yet , it will i-iot follow, that it is -equally excuf ible and fufterable now, when it is 
fo plainly difcovered : yea ,canitb: faid,thit they had beeiiexcufible, if, after P<i«/.ftejchingof them the: 
tvue nature of Biptifm and of the holy Ghoft , they had continued not to beiie-, e th^ fame,as they were before 
he did it ; or, that we can be fo now jhaving his leflon to them for our inftrucfVion ? Yet,recondly,It: fecraeth,. 
thatthePcrlbnoftheholyGholt, is not intended thrre. but the gifts of thj Holy Ghoft, which often get 
that nanae in the New Teitament : for, the holy Ghofl , which is to be underftcod in that place , is fnc6 as 
was communicated to believers, and fuch as thete afterward did receive, asfrom j'cr.z.and 6.is clear. Now 
there is great odds betwixt the necefllty of dr{tin<ftnelfe in the knowledge of the fe gifts , and of the Holy 
GhoftHitnlelf, who is not, nor cannotbe communicated by the layingon of handSjCxceptin refpcdl of His 

fifis : this place therefore, doth not meet the conclufion formerly laid down , whidi was in referenceto xhc 
aith of the holy Gholt Himlelf , and not to the knowledge of His gifts. 

Thefeiieneralsbcing granted, there do arife , from this pravitice ot "^ohn^s, feveral'jQjcft ions, concerning 
theObjcft of Divine Wo; (hip : which, uponthis occafion , ( it may be) were not unworthy to be more par- 
ticularly confidered > fo far as the nature of the place calleth for, and doth become our fcepe. As firft , %vc 
(ee in this Prayerj ]o)6« doth diftincSly name all the three bleffed Perlbns , fsr their inftruftion and confola- 
tion to whom -he lends this mcflage. Sxondly, V/hcn he names the Son , he doth name Him by fuch Titles 
as agree 10 Him only as Mediator i yea, and in this fong, \tr.6. doth refpc^Sl ihat, particuLirly,which is on- 
ly applicable to Him as Man and as Mediator, to make them welcomeit the more liear[ily,and thereby alio 
the more to commend Him to them, and engage them to Him, Ly remcmbring them wbatHeis, and whic 
He hath done, that doth thus falnte them.Thirdly,Hc' hath a peculiar thankfgivingunt^ the Son,confidered 
under fuch defignations, as cxptLifTe His Wtinderful love that appears in His futferings , which cannet be ap- 
plyed to the Father or Spirit: which ii indeed Divine WorHiip, being ihcfamc which is here given torae 
leather, and Spirit. All which giveth occafion to enquire in thefe four. i. Concerning thcObjea ofDivinc 
"Worihip, in general. 2. Inwh.urefpcftitis to be given to the Mediator. 3. In what form. Petitions may 
be directed to Him ; or, if in any peculiar form. 4. Why the Mediator Chrift, is fo much , and fo warmly, 
under thefe conliderations oFHis incarnation and iliffe rings, infilted upon in the New Teftament a and whai: 
may encourage and help in tke improving of thofe grounds. Th;le things being dciptbs, are ratfeer to be ad - 
mired and believed, in the general, ( lo far as we fee clejir in this precedenr) than curioufly to be pried into ; 
yet, that they go not altogcth ir without anfwer, wc ihall lay down fome generals in reference to all thefe , 
which will yeeldfome practical and comfortable conclulions. To the firft, we fay, 

1. God is the^^oneObjeift of Divine Woriliip : and there is no Objedt thereof but God: becaufe there is 
none'who hith theleinfinit Attribute's and Excellencies , which are requifite in the Objeft of Divine Wor- 
fhtp, but God , fuch as Omnilcienci'e, O.nniporencie, lofinitnefs, fupream Majsfty, Glory ,C?c. from whick 
(to fpeak fo)refuksAdor3bility,an(flential Attribute oftheMajelty of God, as Immutability and Eternity 
are; He bjing ado; able , becaule Infinite , Immcnle , Omnilcient, ^c. And therefore it cannot be cou> 
municatc to any other, uwre than thefe incommunicable properties can bej and yet none can bz worihipped 
who is not ffo to fpeak) adorable. 

2. There is but one kind of Divine Worlhip, to wit, that which is S ipream , and becoming this infinite 
Aiajelty of God : and , in a word, that which is required in the firft Table of the Law , as that which is 
competent to this glorious excellent God: and this followson the former; for , if there beburoneObjec5l , 
thcrecan be but one manner of Worlhip. Therefore, in ^criptarc » t-o Worihip God , is alVi^ay oppol'cd ta 

B the 

10 AnSxpofitm^fthe chap.r. 

theM'oiihippmgofanyother,ardrotheadnutting of any Worlhip, which is iiot competent to (jod, as 
J^eftl Ip.p, io> and 22.9. 

3. Although there be Three P.-rfons of th^ glorious Godhead, and all are tobe worihippedjyet.th^re are 
not three Objects of Wor/hip , b.itonej norchrs'e kinds of Woffhip : Not three Oa)eO;h', becaiilcth^re 
three Perfons are the fame One infinite God , wh^ is the Oojevfl of Woi Ihip. For , tii ft , thojgh th-; three 
Perfons, be really diftinift each from oth:r: yet, none o^ them is really diihiidl fromtheefllniccofthj God- 
head : Therefore, the Father, is that fame 0->jedl: of Worship with chc Son, becaufe that fatne God. And, 
fe€CMidly,. though the Father be infinite , and the Son infinite, C5r. yet, thcreareiiottuoinfinitncff.s , but 
the fame infinitnefs and immenfnefsjjthat which is the Fathers is thivfOns alfo : becaiife thefe are tff.ini.il 
properties, and focommon to all the Perfons: and therefore-, though their perfonal properties be diltmd j 
yet>iheir cffentiall Attributes being common, they are not diftindt Objects, but the lame oae Ojjec5b} Teing, 
ftilJ, in Worship, refpevft mult be had to their cffjntial Attributes ;.and kt to the Godhead, which is common 
to All ; and therefore confequently to th!rm,as they are one Ojjeti*:,4i bHng the D:;icy ( which is One) ih it 
is the formal db\tdi of Worship ; And , though fometimes th;fe three Perlbns be named together , as here i 
yet, thafcis not to propofe them as diftjnA objedlsjbiit to shew, who this one obj etfl God is,to wit ,th * Father, 
Son & Spirit, three Perfons of the fanie One indivifiblc Godhead. Hence, th^ unitie of the Godhead, is in- 
culca«ed,for this end-: Tht Lord thy Grfd, Ifrad, it One Lcfds, 

From which itfolloweth) 1. that the mind of the worshipper is not to be diftraded in feeking tocon:iprc-^ 
hend^r order, in his thoughts, three diftind Perlbns, as diltin^il objcvfls of Worship ; b jt , to conceive re- 
verently of oneinfiniteGod , who isthreePdrlbns. 2. That whatever Perfonb,' named , heis notto think 
that the oiheris leffe worshipped ; but that in one a6b he Worships chat one GoJ| and Ibih^^^ather, Sonand 
Spirit. 5. That by naming one Perfonafcer he hath named an other, (fjppofe he name the leather at firft, 
and afterward the Son ) he doth not vary the Obje(ft of Worship, as if he were praying to an other than for- 
merly i. bat thatAill it is the fame one God. . 4. B:caufe our imagination is ready to folter fuch divided coa- 
ceptions , weconceiveit isfafeft not to alter the d€nomi4iation of th; Perfons in th: lame Piayer, efpecially , 
where itis in the hearing of ocbcrs, who poTibly may have fuchthoughts , though we h wc none ; and I f jp- 
pofe , this way is moft ordinarly taken in Scripture. 

Foranfwcfing to the fecond, to -wit, how ih^ Mediator is the ObjeA ©'"Divine Worship: we shall firft 
diftinguish this title ObjtFi , then anfwer. By Divines , there is in this cafe a threefold Objedt acknowledged 
( all peeing to the Mediator in fomercfpet^.) i. Thercis Ofcy'eSww w<J/cria/e, or, (jM/rf, ih.it ir, the Objciit, 
©r perlbn to whom Worship is given. 2.There is ObjeSium formate, or , quoj that is , the account upon «'hich 
it is given to that peifon»Dr objed:. 5. There isObjeSium conj^deiationts , ihatis , the confideration chat the 
va shipper hath of that Obje^iV in worshipping<jf Him ; and is as a motive thereto, or is ( as the learned yoe- 
/»w calls it ,fpeciJjcano ObjeHi ) thefpecihcation oF the Objed" , whereby the h.^art o^ the worshipper , by 
taking up the Objetf t worshipped under luch a confideration , is warmed with love and thjnk falnefle , and 
ftrengthened in his confidence, to Worship that objedl. Tnus, the relations that God tcok.on Him to be 
the Redeemer of His people f . om Egypt, and from the land of the North , did give no new Gojedl: of Wor- 
sljip i yet, did they give lome external denominations, or fpccifications , of that objedl Gpdto them' : tlic 
confideration whereof.in their worshipping, did much quaiifi: the Obj eft to them, fo that with the more 
thankfiilncfl'e and confidence, they might approach to him: and thus we diftinguish between the Objedt 
worshipped, and the co;i{iderarion whichmaybcKidof Him in our Worship. And this doth notm.ikeHiin 
adorable fimply and in HLmielf , becau(e He was fo naturally ; but , it is tha grojnd upon which H: is ac- 
ceiTible to us, who are tinners and enemies : from which, we may lay down a threefold diftin<5lion. i.B.'- 
rwixt the material and formal objeul: of Worship. 2. Betwixt the Oojetfl of the aA of Worship,and of our 
confideration in worshipping. 3. Betwixt that which is the ground of W^orship, fuppoie Praycr,Faith fi.n- 
piy cpnfideredin it felf , and that which is the groundof our accelfe confideredin our felves , to pray unto , 
or believe in, that Objcsft. 

To anfwer then the Queflion, we fivy , i. That the Mediator is the ObjcdV of DJvine Worship, is fixedly 
to be acknowledged i even the Man Chrilt,is to be honoured v^ith Divine Worship.prayed unto,S?f. as m 
Scripture is clear. Thus the M.'diator Is the material Objofl of Divine Worship,or,tne OhjeBum qnti '.for, 
wc worship and invocatc Him who is the Mediator; and there is no queftion of this. 

2. . Chriltjccxifidered as Mediator, and in the vei tue of His mediation, is the only ground, npon which we 
Iiavc right to expecfl to be accepted in any part of our worship ; or, to have prayers granted, which we pur 
up to God und:r what ever designation or. title: for, fo He is the Vo9r and the IV'ay, fob .10.9. and 14.6. and 
m this rcfpec^ though He be not as fuch, the formal objecit of Divine Worship j yet, He i» the foundation 


Chap.i. Book^ofth RtveUtm, it 

whereupon it is now Ixiilr; theM-'j/j bywhicnitmuftbeadilrcff.-dtoGod: and HetstluHighPricft , 
Heb. 7.2^. This was typified by the Temple , Ark, and Hi^h Prieft under the Law ; for , (inncrs have not 
accefle to God , but by Him ; and thisftrengthens Faith to approach , that God is manifcfted itiournature , 
and that (o we hare-, by His fuflfcring, entry through the Vail* to the Throne of Grace,which formerly, with- 
out refpe(5t to this,, was shir. 

g. Oir Lord Jefusj who is God, in our worshipping of Him , may be confidcred as Mediator : and, upon 
that ground , the heart may be imboldcned to approach unto (rod : b?cauleH.*that is God, is alfo Man and 
Mediator. Thus, \^'e prailc and pray to Him that died, and Gonfiderinff Him as once dead, in our uptaking 
otHim, yetfo.asitisjbecaufeH.MsGod: for,haditbcenpoffible tnat the Mediator could not hjve been 
God, there had notbe-m ground forgiving ofchis Worship untoHim -, yet , thiscon(ider;*ion warms the 
heart with love to Him, and gives confidence and chearfulnefle in praying to Him> or praifingof Him , as in 
this fame placet and afterward, c»p.^. bccaufefeingwc have a Man to do with , who hath fo experimen- 
t .11 y felt fmleff;; infirmities, of purpofe to be the ground of a f ympatliie with His Members : and fcii^ He 
h..cn ftill humane afFcdions, by having a glorifiwd body Itiil united in one Perfon with His Divine Nature • 
which wants not humane feeling,ihough in an inconceivable manner: and feing alfb , that that is given in the 
Word, as an cncotiragcment for m, to ftcp forward, to e3Cpe(ft grace and help in the time of need, Ht ^.2. iB. 
and 4.15, 1 6. and that even from Him: there is no queftion but, by the as^tual confidering of this, a Ibulmay, 
and ougnt to ftrengchen it fei f in its approaching unto God. 

4. \i.t.this Divine Worship is givento Him,as HeisGodjandbecaufeHeis Godj and lb Chrift-God 
IS thtObjcBumfoTmak, or, qa$ of tnis Divine Worship, becaufe it is the Godhead that is the alone formal 
Object ot Divine Worship, as is faid: and Chrift only, as God, hath thefc eflential Attributes ofGm»f/ctf«?ff, 
Supream Majefiie, jidorabihtie, tSc. which are rcquifite fortheobjeft of Divine Worship. And ihcreforein 
this pIace,akhough H= be let out in what is peculiar to Him as Mediator : yet , His bang reckoned with 
the other two bletfed Perfons , doth prove thai notM^thilanding thereofHeis confidercd in his Perfon as 
God. It is then thus, as m'c (ay, Chrift-God died, yet as Man : fo the Man Chrift, is worshipped ,ytt asGtxh 
for, though He be one Perfon , yet the properties of the two Natures are diftinCt. H ;nce, as the rathttt did 
prove Chrilts Godhead againlt the /(Brians, from this, that H^ was worshipped with Divine Worship; and 
account tHem Idolaters for worshipping Him thas, whom they did not cftcem to be God s fo do the latter 
Divines in reference to the Socinians. 

5. Thcreforethis Worship that is given to Chrift, the Mediator, is of the fame kind thatts given toGo^t 
to wit, Supream, Divine Worship : for, there are nottwo forts of Divine Worship. And to give the Me- 
diator, who is God, an infcriour kind of Worship, would, 1. Wrong Him who is God: for, by taking to 
Himfcif th It external relation , He hath not diminished His eflential Glory and M?tjefty. 2,It fuppones two 
©bjedls of Worship, and two kinds of Divine Worship : which is falfe. Tnercfore Divines have ever cen- 
liired that aflfertion in the St^ynonjlrantt Confeflion, anent giving a peculiar and mid He-kind cf Worship to 
Chriil the Mediator, as of it fclf unfafe and as making way for the Sociniatt fubterfuge , which is to allow a 
Worship to the Mediator, as Mediator, infcrioar to that which is given to God ; and fo , that it should not 
follow from this, thatCf^r^ // -^vorshippei. Therefore, He » God equal '^•'ith the Fctther. Now,the Scripture 
giveth Him that fame Wo ship, and not any other , even ■when it is denied to all creatures -, yea, when He is 
wotihipped in the dayes of his flesh. He is confidered as the oniy begmen of fhe Father, as Lord and Atm^h* 
lyjhavmg all creatures asfervants under Him, CJj. and yet he is Itiled the Son ofDaUdfHe that ^MttP come% 
&c. even at thn time ,:o shew, that b^th confide rations have place in worshipping of the feme Perfon, who 
is God, and alio Mediator ; and nor to bring in a new Worship s for, none canbe more glorious , than what is 
due to God : b jt to lay a new ground of having accefle to give Him the Worship which is due , and by a new 
relation to give a kindly qualitcation of the Objedt » whereby the heart may be provoked lovingly ^ thank* 
fully to give the fame. 

6. When tWs Worship is given to Him, it is given to the Perfon who is Mediator , and that in one indivi- 
dual 9Qi : for. He, as God, is not worshipped one way; and, as man an other way } nor is there a divifion of 
His Natures to be conceived j but the Perfon, who is Man , is worshipped with this Divine Honour inthe 
lame adt ^ becaule He is God r therefore there is no fuch precifion called for in the intent of the Wor- 
shipper, asifoneNatureofChriftsvveretobeworshippedandnotthcother: for, ii';> the Perfon, wbais 
worshipped , now confifting of two Natures. 

7. When the Mediator is thus worshipped, there is no diftintft Object of Divine Worship worshipped : 
but as whatever Perfon be named , ii's the fame God j fo , however the Mediator be named , or confidcred , 
i/s the fame Perfon : for, though the fecond Pijrfon of the Godhead, confidered in Himfelf » be wiummi or, 

B s the 

^5 4n ExpoJtMH&fthe Chap.i. 

the ramctiiin*^>vlih the Mediator, ( fcifufit forma i, as Divines fay) yet is he Unuf y thefavne Pciion: and 
the iecond Pafon of the Goihead , being Unum, to wit, the fame God with the other two glorious Por- 
ibnseflentially confidercd* although he be n©L CZ/jk* with the Fdih^r and Spine , conlidcrcd pcrlon«lly:f<jr, 
the Godhead , tff.-ntially taken, is the fame tiiing with ihj Father, Sou and Spirit, as hath been laid. Tiien 
it will follow, that even wh:n the M-diaior is worshipped , there ubut ftill tne lame one formal Object of 
DiVine Worship, to wit, God 5 they being ftill-the lame tfl'jncial properties , which alone give ground tor a 
creature to Worship all the Perlbns o: Cae gloriojs T. initie, conlidcred in thcmlelves:or,thvSjn,conlidcrcd 
at Mcdiatorjin the manner exprelfed. Again it appears thus , the S jn w bo is Mediator , is the fame Object 
of Worship', that the S^n the fecondPerioncf the Godhead is: fqr, now he being One Perfon, cannot be 
conceived as two diftind Objeds of Worship ; but the Son, as the fccond Perlon of rhe Godhead jis the fame 
Obied ofWorship with theFather gcSpirit.as hath been faid.Therefore th(.Sjn,whoisM:diator,whcn wor- 
shipped with Divine Honour,is the fame formal Objed: of Divine Worship alfo.Aud this alio doth conhrm, 
that Divine Worship is given to him as God> f or,ro only is he the fame jjcct with the father & Spirit. 

8. When the Son is w;orshipped , there is no lefle rcfpect to be had to his Mediation , than when thj 
PatbT is expre^d ;fo that who ever be named, the Son Itill,. as Mediator . is to be made nfcof , and that 
in the fame manner : for, as there is but One God , So there is but One Me.ii.itor betwixt Coiand man, i. 
Tim 2A- without whom there is no accefs for a linner to approach unto , or worship acceptably, this One 
God. Thus, God is the formal Object of Worship; the Mediator ,corfidcred as fuch, is the ground up- 
on, v^hich wi^i confidence w^ may approach to that God : therefore is he the fVay , and Tmh- and Life : 
there is no eoing to God but by him, lb that in our Worihip , God and the Mediator are not to be feparated j 
yetju-e thdy not to be confounded : for, we Worship God, in and by the Mediator :* in which refpect , the 
ilediator is called the Dttr, i Itar, iVjy, Sec bccauie it is by the vertue and efficacy of his Mediation that 
the finful diitance betwixt God & us is removed, and accede made for fmneis to worship him , as was ty- 
pified by the Tewp/e, and lU^rr»<icfc, in which the Mwc/'/ca^ was placed: & in looking to which, the 
people were to worship God.- , ,- j w « . t, . j- . •, r , 

From all which, it \<n\\ follow, in reference to the third. Firft,that cur Pi ayers may be directed to Jefus the 

'Mediator exprefly, as AH 7 $9- Secondly , That he may be nam^d by Titles, agreeing only to him as Medi- 

alor,to wit JAtdiator, Jejus, Ikou vthoditd, /idyiaeaie, i^c. becaule ihefe , being given him , tn commo , 

defien the Perfon. Thirdly, That th;: heart may be in the inftant ihrred & atfcOed with this, that he is Me- 

idiator. fo as to fpecifiehim , or, to make him the Object oi our conlideration as fuch j in that act , as hath been 

ftiid Thus a foul may pray to lefus, who died, who made fatistaccion, who intercceds, i^e. and, upon that 

aonfideration, be affected with love,lti engthned in hope & confidence m us Prayer , which ytt is put up to 

3hun,becaufcheisGod. Fourthly, We may ask from him what peculiarly belongs lotheOdice ofMcdia- 

gion -as that He may guide His Church, pour outxhc Spirit,gitt Miniaers,interceed,eic. becaule the Pv^rlbn. 

mwhomihefebelongiii God. And that extrinfick relation,or denomination, of being Mediator , doth not 

fnarr us te pray to him : as his being God , hinders not but that he IhW executes that Oijice- by pcrfonning of 

£ic&acts -.but botb givcground, that confidently wcmay pray to bim, ior thele things : yet, in that, ftili his 

Codheadis the formal object ot our Prayer, though the things we pray tor, belong..to his Mediation: for.wc 

coukinot feek ihefe from him,wetc be not God , 6cbecaule iie is God & Man , we are imboldcned to f^ck 

i?hcm &to expect them.See P/<»/.45.3,4 ??«. for, the matter fought, to svii, riding frofferoujlp^. bjlongeth 

to kis Mediation,as the (cope clears 5 yet, the account upon which, is, th it he w a, hoi molt mighty, for (as 

«h€y fayl it is not Mtiiatio, bit Deictm, that is the ratio fvrmalis ot Divine Worship, .or,his Mediation, as it 

includes his Deiety, by the wife Grace of God thefe two being novvinleparably joyix:d together: for,certain- 

IVrChrift the Mediator, was to be made ule of with refpect to his future latisf action, betore he adually be- 

^mc Man i as it is fince to be done, with refpect to his incarnation and fuftcring ( ior he was Mediator and 

food in that relation b.fore he was i^/an) yet, it cannot be faid, that he was then, as fuch , confidered as ths 

formal abiect of th^ir Worship Ceven wticn they did explicitly confider him wuhrelpecc to his Mediation ) 

bccaufe he did not then actually exift in twoNatures: & therefore, behoved to be th .- torraal Object of ^cx-- 

ship in refpect of that Nature, >vbich aloncdid then exiit. Fifthly, As any otthe Fcrfons may be named 

ioPrayer : fb, for ftrengthening of our Faith, n:uy the Mediator be named and prayed unto under fuch titles 

& relations a$ agree only to him, & not to any other Perlon :. Vet, then we would beware,!. Of conceiving 

that we arc praying to a different Objci5t,or that the Mediator is Lik glorious, ji4it,holy,eZ<;.unto whom we 

pray, thaawhcn God is cxpreay nametL We would alio beware of conceiving that by lo doing, Chrift is any - 

way more ingagcd to.or imployed by, any, than when any other Ferlon ot the Godhead is named j or, when 

«chcr expreifions are ufed.thoiigh wc out iel vcs may be aiorc Itrengthcaed by luch confiderations.a* When 


Ghap.r. Bi>ok^ofthe Kevelit'm. 13 

there is an alteration of the cxp; csfion, wc w ouid beware ot c©nccivlng th:t wc alter the objcd jblit^wouul 
mind that it is the continued worfhipping of the lame Ooi)C(St GOD, however h^be defigncd: or jWhit ever 
be iheexprelTions or diftcrcnt helps, vrbitb we i'cck to Itrengthcn our Faith by. 3. We conceive, that in pu- 
blick, elpecially, that change should be warily ufcd* left it breed, or be apt to breed any fuch thoughts in o- 
ihers, the generality ofpeopJe, being- prone to imaginc-ditierent objects of Worfbip in luch cafes. 

From w 'hatis faid, we conceive, that the different cxpreflions among Diiinesin this matter , may be eafily 
agreed ; for example, fome call Him, as Mediator, ObjeBum materiale j as God, ObjtBum jormale : lomc 
lay, as Mediator, HeisObJcBumquodi and, as God, O/yc Smn ^//o ; lomefay,P<r/ow<i, fcui^,quieji Detts j 
tjl ifitocandus, quia Mediator, f.d qua Deus : iome again fay, Qbrifim qua Mediator , ejl inlpocandiii, fed quta 
Veus : for when loine lay* qua Mediator, H-e is not the Olf\cB ofH^orshtp, they underft and the formal Ol^JtB ; 
vhich is that, thatis undentood by others, when they fay, (;wa Dcus^ Again, vvh.'n others fay, qua Media- 
tcr , he is to be worshipped, they uhderftand it as he is the ObjeB ofconfideratien : which is exprcHcd by 0- 
thers, when they fay, quia Mediator, Chr'tpM Deus eft inlfocanJu^ j or , as fuch , he is ObjtHum material: of 
oar Worship. 

It may then be asked, what may be thought of fuch a form of Prayer, Mediator, or, Advocatiypkadfor 
wff, which fome may be apt to put up as bemg comfortable to them^ We anl\vcr,in thefe hve Allcruons. 

AJfcrt.i. It cannot be limply condemned if well underftood with thcfc and fuch like qualifications, that 
is, 1 . If theMcdiatorprayed nnto, or he^who is to plead orinterceed, be not conceived to be any different b- 
>rSof Worship, from God, with whom be interceeds 5 otb*rwife there is no keeping oftheunity of the 
Gbjed of Divine VVorshipi much Icflc is he to prayed untoasif he were inferiom to Go.i, as eafier to bedealt 
"Sfith, or, as if He might be jfo'<en urjto, -when jet see are notjrapng unto the lather, and am shipping HimJn that 
jameaB: for, as Chrilt-God, reconciled us to himfeifV by hi;.' own fatisladion ; fo, ismmldf prevailed 
with , to make the benefits purchafed , forth coming to us by the ycrtue of His owninierceflion r and tlic 
Perfon is the fitne , though the confideration of him in thele , is diver fc. 2. J f there be a right up-taking 
of his intercclTion , that in the time while h j, as God, is prayed unto , Jaith be excrciled on th i vertue of 
his intcrcesfion, for attaining what is prayed lor; fo , that expresfion is but made ufe of for ftrengthemng , 
of Faith, without any new, or different atft of faith, but fuch as is ufed with other expresfions. 3. Ifth^j 
Object prayed unto, be diftinguifhcd from the lute or matter prayed for : for fo , it is as if we prayed unto 
him that is King of his Church, and hath received the goycrnmenc , to manage the fame for his Churches 
behoof: becaufe, though the thing fought, to wit , Cfirilts intcrcesfion, be peculiar to the fecond Pcrlbn of 
the Godhead, and that ;»s Mediator : yet, he from whom itis (ought , ii God : and fo the Object is the 
fame. 4. It muft be one in the matter, as if in different expreslions by naming the Father, .we should pray, 
Father, make me partaker ofthebcn-fity ofChriJifinterces/ion: for, ifit be thought that that expreslioa 
Cometh more nearly to the improving of Chrifts intcrccsfun , (or , fo to fay ) to the imployuig of him , than 
any other expresfion doth. Then it is not to be admitted : becaufe it placetla the improving, ofhisintciccs-' 
fjon, rather in words, than in faith. 

^ffer.2. We grant, that fomeiimesj d? faHty , it may be ufed in fincerityf, and accepted by Glod , when 
there is much contufion irr reference to thele qualifications in the Pstx^on : becaufe it may have what is ciLii- 
tial, to wit , an adoring of God , &; an exercife of Paith in Chrift , under that expresfion : fo that their 
meaning is , to obtain what they feek from Godt through the vertue ot Chrilt intcrcesfion , thojgh them- 
ifclves beunworthy. Thus, no qucftion, many Prayers of the Saints , M-hsre faith hath been in the JWedia- 
tor, have been accepted, although there huh been much indiltindtnclTe, as to the Object, hi many tnings ; 
faeh were Comekus his Prayers,/.S/ 1 0. A;id the Apoitles, noqueftion, prayed and were accepted; yet, had 
defect here, f 06.16. 2-f. 

ji^ert. I. Again, wcanfwcr. That fuch a form Is not nectfliryfimply tothe ufe-nnaking of his intcrces- 
fion , either as if that were limited to this expresfion, or,as ifit were a way mOte proper,compendiojs,wei^h- 
ty, or acceptable, in the ufe-making ofChrill, than another : even though all ^hcfe qualifications concur : tor, 
no qucftion , inthe Prayers that arc regiftratedin the Scripture , . Chriits interccsfion is made u fe of; yet no 
ikch form is recorded therein, 

^Jfert.^. VVe lay furthet, that it may be abufed, and, we are afraid, often-is ; and that it hath fome apt- 
n£ fle to fcfter miftakes concerning the Object of Worship ,'or our act in it , as, i.< That the Mediator is ont 
Object,and the Father an other, asifwemightpraytotheiWediaior before we pray to God, and not be in 
that fame act worshipping the Father : or, as if the Mediator that interceeds",, Were an Object different 
fromGod, withM'homHeistointercced. I fit be faid, that He is an other thing than God. ^iw/iv. For- 
mally confidered * I as is faid y he is another ibirg than the fecond Palon of the Godhead^; but be is 

B* 3. not- 

j^ AnExpoftionofthe chap.i, 

ro-noy other Pcrfoq, nor any other God ; and fo not an other objcd of Worship. 2. It twidethto pro- 
pofe Chrilt as more eafic robe deak with than God; and God, ( to wii , the Father) asmorerigidc, and 
Ic vere than the Mediator, w h .reas the divine Attributes are the lame in bjth : for , if Chriil-God be con- 
lidercd without refpe(it to His own Mediation , there is no accefTe to Him more th m to.the Father:and if re- 
fpevil: be had thereto, thereis no equal accefleto the Pather,there being thefame CovcnAnt&Promifes.And 
it is certain , lome will think they may pray to Chrift, when they dare not pray to the Father. 3. It obfcures 
the \v-y of the ufe-making of Chritts intercefi2on> which is a mod fiiblime thing , and being the fame with 
praying inHisNjme, and in Faith, mult beconceivcd to bedoneSpiritually by Faith, whereas thus Clorilt 
is rcpretentcd as a Mediator amongft men j to whom firft adrclfe is made , ziv\ then by Him to the Princi- 
pal P.rcy : and fo it conftitutes two addrefles, which brangles the unity of the objedl of Worship.4.It lome 
way lefTens the Glory of the Mediator , at leail in appearance, as if He , even the Perfon.were not 6'upream, 
but hadanother to plead wiib. Itistruc, it is fo, as Ke is Mediatory butftiUit would be adyerted that He 
is alio God : and fo He may, and caii confer what his M-diacion procures : and cxpreiTions in Prayer ,woulii 
btficthat, and would not be as ifhe were not God as to his P<;rfon,lince his Incarnation? 5. Iticemcth,ii 
not to reprelent two O'jjedts of Worship, yet two kinds of Worship, to wit, one to the Mediator, or to 
Ch'ift, a* Mediator : and an other as to God : for, who readily will think , that he who ii a diftmd Party , 
intreated to plead, is to be equally honoured, and that in the fame a»it with him with whom He pleads , or 
at lealt, a twofold manner of the lame Worship,*/^, one in this manner, and an other , when this form is not 
ufcd. 6. it is hard thus to conceive rightly ot Cnrifts Perlon : for, when we pray to Him, wcmuft con- 
fider urn as God, at lealt that mult be impli.*d : tlicn, H^isaUoiobcinierceeded with by MisownMedia- 
tion, as the Father is, which, I fuppole,fe\^' intend. If they take the Father Pafonally* and 16 that Chrift is 
to intercPc'd with the Father as a diftin^l perfon , or a diltindt Party, and fo not with the Son and Spirit alfe , 
Tnat will infinuate that the Father is not the fame God with the Son , and infer a divided conception of the 
inoft limple eflence o/the Godhead , which is the One object ot Wership. 

AffiTt.^- Therefore, when all is conlidered, although we will not condemn it fimply, yet we think it more 
fit to abitain from fuch formal cxpreflions j or, at leaft, to be fparing therein, efpecially in pubUck : becaufe « 
.J .So it is difficult to prefcrve that unicy in the one objeift of Worship, which should be ; for , it is not cafic to 
redd things in ^Tidticej as dilttndtions may be given in dodrinal dsbates and conclulions ; and should fouls 
hazard on what may confufetheinfelves. I fay, cfpecially in publick, or with others: becaufe.if it be ditficulc 
to keep our own imaginations Itayed in liichexpxeiTions , it will be mo.e difficult to redd other mens ima- 
ginarions,.confideringwhatignorance and v«inity ufually doch accompany many. 2. Tnereisno fuchforn* 
in S:^ipturc, even in th^ New Tcftament, when the Mediator is prayed unto : and it is lafcft we should fol- 
low rhefc that have goncbcfore us : He is indeed prayed unto, conlidered as Mediasor»but ttill foas the thing 
prayed for, is exp:dtcd from Himfelf, as well as-tobe obtained by Him. 

To clofe then as we began ; here fobricty is called for^ and curioliiy is tobjshunned : & in Worship the 
heart is rather to be occupied with Godly fear,ieverence 8c dread,than the head to be fi led with imaginations 

Having thefl\following things tixed m our hearts by Faith ( which M'e conceive more limply neceflary to 
Worship, what ever th:- expreiiionbe,^ to M'ir. i. An impreflion of the Holinefl'e, Jufticc,Omnifciencie, 
and Glory of Gt)d , ^c anJ fuitable attoftions with the prelent work, to wit, f jch as the worshipping of 
fuch a God doth call for. 2. A. conviction that we are praying to that one gbriousGod , what ever our' ex- 
prclfions be; that it is h i we arc worshipping, that it is oar delign to adore Him,and that it is from Him that 
\\c expect whatwe pray for, M'hatever.t iie dcfignation in the petition b *, and whatfoever Peifon be named. 
3. An impreflion of our own fii/ jI dif-proportionableutfle to that work , and of the utter incapacity that we 
itandinof having accelTe to God,or any ground of expecting any thing From Him,inrefp^tof-ojr felvesj if 
It b.Miot obtained by vertue.ofCbiiftJeius Hisfatisfaction and inter ceflion. 4. An excrcifing of Faith on 
Chrift theMcdiator, for attaining ol what is prayed for, from God , by veitiieof the Mediation c^the Medi- 
ator. All wijich are nccelfary , and where they are , we conceive i the foul is to iilence all other quefttonings , 
and to hold here j and wb:n doublings arife , to put thefe tv\'0 queries to a point within it felf. 1 .To whom 
art thou praying ? Or, was thou praying ? or, from whom cxpeccs thou what thou was leeking? V Vas it not 
to, and from God ? And, 2. For wholccauie, and by vcrtue of wliat.doft thou expect it fiom God » What 
givesthee confidence to put that futc to Him ■» is it not only through the Mediation o^ Chrilt J efus alone ? 
And where thile two arc fixedly anlwercd by the conlcience, when tcntadon would jumble, becaufe ©f in- 
tiiltindtnelfe in Prayer, rhrre may be quietnclfcnotwithftanding: becaufe, thefetwo arethetifentiais of 
"Worlhip.to wit , Firit, that God be approached unto aiui adored. Next, that in and by the^Mediaror, ad- 
s^l■S~ ptily be made unro tljm , and this may be where there is no fuch explicit cxprciliouof eiUisi : tor • 


Chap.T, Hook^of thel^evelat'm, j^ 

where God is mentioned, the M jdiator is implyed as the gro Jnd upon M'hich we adproach unto Him : ajid 
whcH the Mediator is expreired, it is undcrftood, that God in and by Hi>n is woilhippcdiand that no other 
God butHe who is the Father, Son, and Spirit, .-^nd if in all thek a conlciencc were pofcd.that.may be,had 
no fuch exphcite thj.ighc< ( nor is it pofli jic in worshipping at5tuall>', to entertain them diltindly) it wou'l J 
anfwer, that lb it intended and meancd, from one qucftioii to another, till it refult to this , to wit , that h^ 
were praying to rh : one God, through the vertuc ot die Mediator Chrilt Jelus, which is the fcopc. And this" 
much anxiety may be prevented. 

As to the fourtii QUeftion formerly mentioned, to wit, what may be the reafons why Cliift is To much 
infiited on in panicalar, in ih2 Saints approaching to God , fo as the heart is efpecially rcjoyced at the men- 
tioning of Him ? or, wliatmayhelptoimprovetaatgroiindof accdfcwhich wehaveby H\m\ ^«/iv.To 
the liriVparr: It is no marvel that this relation that Clirilt doth Ibnd in, be much infifted on, in fuch a cafe : 
and, that tliereby the heart be warmedj and made to exult. 

Firlt, Becaufcjby thatcoufi deration, there i/ Ibme ftayingof us in approaching to God : for,the Godhead 
conlidered in it Ielt"> isanintinit, inconceivable thing : and as there is no proportion betu'ixt iiim and us • (o 
not betwixt Him and our capacities ot reaching Him fo confidered , but by this union of the Godhead with 
OUT nature in the Perlbn of ( h ^ Sin ; fo that He who is Man, is alio God , HO^^in^ the fuln^fft of the Godhead 
iXvtU'mg in Him l/odily, Co\oi{. 2. 9. There is a condelccndcncic upon the Almighties hde , shewing Himlcif 
acceihbic to Imners, and as appointin j; this ( to fay Ibj for a trylting place with them,to wit,that,Hf'i inCkria 
nronaUngitx worJd to Himfef , 2.Cor 5.19. whereupon the heart fixeth, thei c to meet God)and hnd Him 
tliere j and is thereby imboidaied & helped to trylt with the great and dreadful God. Tais was typified by 
the Lords placing of the Mercy-feat above the Ark, by the giving of his anlwers from thence, and appoint- 
ing the people with rcfpect thereto to make their addu ff:s to him : whence we kc , kokjng toward the 
Tt>T>pkijoni\i24.to'^rd^hehofy Hi//, and koly Or ac/e, &c. frtqiendy mentioned in the Siints ftiaits- 
whicn wcretypical of this irue Tabernacle ^ 'ivhi.b God pitched and not trntn : and alfo held out there in their 
fi dng in their Wofship> where God had by his Ordinance tryfted chem , ihoughit was but in Type. And, 
feing they made fo much of it , what wonder is it chat the Saints, linccChriltsiiicarnatioa and fufFering' 
make fo great account ofthcSubftancc and Antitype itlclf? 

.Secondly, A fecond reafon , is , Becaufe in Chnft Jefus the glory and riches of the Grace of God , in the 
work of Redemption, dorh molt emineiwly & palpabi y appear : which is both fwee teft to the Saints', to in- 
fiitofj , Sc alio tendeth to the advancement of the glory ot God, dwelling in Him , and lb furnifhing Him lor 
them. And tbircfore>rheie commendations that are given expreQy to Chrilt the Mediator,&: whereby Faith 
is Itrcngthened in Him, do alio ftt forth &: commen<i exceedingly the Majefty of God , and his Grace con- 
defcending thus to men: & , in the fame aift , do ferve to ilrcngthcn Faith in Him : for, honouring ot Ged, 
& the Mediator : &alLbtbcip£akingtothepraifeof Gcd, and to the commendation of the Mediator ' 
cannot be feparated: & what ilrengthens Faith in the one, dor h it alfo in the other. 

Thirdly, A third is, Becaufe there is molt fenfible footing 6c (to ipeakib') grippingtobe gotten by look- 
ingto the Mediator, and mentioning of Him ; for, 11; being God &c alio Man, tJtereismore accelle to con- 
ceive what the atfcOiions & bowels that He as Man hath, & tor this end hath taken up.to Glory with Him, 
that finners thereby might have confidence in approaching 10, and by , an experienced high Pricft , Heb 2*. 
J 8 & 4.16. ' han can be had to confidtr God abitradtly in Himfelf ; of wliole 'divine Attributes, there can be* 
no fuch apprchenlion. And rhisis notto givea ncwOjjeci of our Faiih,as if thereby it were furer , (for no- 
thing can be added tothe f ilntfls of God ) Bit, is to make that Objed: ( to fay fo ) .more difcernable , con- 
ceivable, fuitable and accesfible unto us : tk. to give us a new ground to ftrcngthen our Faith , and a new way 
of having our neceshties made fcnhble ( to lay lo) to Him , mat is , when not only by His OniKifckme He 
knows them fully, as God, but aifo being acquauited ttiereby with the lame ; In refpetit of His humane'aflfe- 
tftions. He is; in an inconceivable manner, by lympaibie afiedtcd therewith; which though it adde not to the 
hight or degree of his love and pity; yet,dothitbringitt6fuchachinnel ( tolay fo; that hearts arcn-iore 
able to conceive thereof, & are more delighted & comforted therein. And therefore it is no marvel that the 
fame be molt frequently mentioned. 

Fourthly, He is ( as isfrequendy faid) the giound upon which we have acctffe : for, fin made a gulf b> 
Cvvixt God & manj man could notftep over the fame to God, but God Itepped over, & hath come to mans 
fide by being manifefled in our nature,.in the Perfon ot the Son , ttiai fo He might give men accede again to 
Him. HL^ceChrift is , in going toGod, the D-or, and IVay j and,asit were,ihe bndgeby which thtypafle, 
& that fafely unto their former communion with God : & therefore Ghrift being God , ib that they cannot 
have Him but they muft have God: &,being alfo the tVjy , by which acccile isgiven ihtm to God , it is no 
niarv4.ihat the mentioning of Kim be fweec. ' Fifth- - 

i6 An Expofitm of ths Chap.^." 

fifthly, The great effeifls of the love of God have kychej, 5c have been brought about in the Pcrfon of 
the Son, the Mediator : and, though there be no greater love, as to itsextcnt, degree,0r.frcencflein the Son, 
than in the Father and Spiric, { as is laid) nor can be 5 yet, that makech die Mediator more obvioafly lovely 
to the ilnner, although indeed, in the fame things, the loveof the other two Perfons doth appear alfo. And , 
lieing this maketh the obje<5t of our love more Icniible to us, and hclpeth us to underltand Gods love the bet- 
ter, u'hich otherwifc is inconceivable : therefore, GoJ, by propoling^his as the pattern & evidence of his 
Jove, and as the O jjcdt of ours , doth even allow linners to feed their love, and Itrengthen their faith on this 
Obj ect , and on the imtiiediate and explicicc tho jghts thereof, which yet is delighting and feeding on the 
love of God lb manifefted, which ca nnot be lb well read & underftood,as by diretit looking upon it, as it is 
manif. fted in the Mediatoi-,\vho , being God , became M m, (uffercd, died,and is no\V,though glorifiedi yet a 
true M m , touched in a humane manner with our infirmities, as a mother, or friend are touched with the dit- 
fic'jltics of a child,or one intirely belcved, though (till in a manner becoming his linkfle, glorified, and moft 
perfcc^t ftate. This is a main attradi ve , to make louls look to God by this open D«ar : and alfo by cxpresiing 
this, \\'hlch is ncarcft to. their owncomfortjSc conception to exprelie their Faith inGod,or their love tohi n. 
For encouraging and clcarmg of us in the improving of thele groundsjthefe things would be remembered. 
•I . That our blelfed Lord is true Mm, having thcfe atfc*5iions and properties that ar« natural and not finful 
truly.and really: and that therefore, there is a greater ncarnefle conceivable in our approaching to him, thau 
to God fimply confidercd in himfeP". 

2. That, as he is Man, having fuch properties: fo he is affecfted fuitably thereunto , that is , he hath a hu- 
mane affection to, and fympathie with thele he loveth : and hath the e^rperimental remembrance of hi j by- 
f^alt fufferings, which alio hath its own affciling influence on his foul, for awakening ©f fuch pityas is con- 
liltent with his inconceivable glorified ilate. 

3. ThatheAvhoisMan,andtlau<arte(5ted, isalfoGoJj ScCohy his Omnifci'me, acquainted with every 
need & Itrait of his people: Sc with cycry petition of theirs , whereby his iormer affedions are ftirred , (co 
lay to") & his fympathie awakened,to make his divine Attributes forth-coming for their good. 

4. It wojld bi confidered, that the Seri^ture allows thefe coiifiderations of Chrilt to Believers, for help- 
in^; them up to communion with him, & lb with G jd in him : ^ for ftrengthening tlicm to approach to^ 
him with confidence on that ground. 

5. As there is an exercifing of Faith in God, 8c thereby, a keeping of communion with him ; fo there is a 
proportionable fympathizing, heart- warming > and bo vvel-movingaffed-ion allowed us;, even towards the 
very Man Chrilt, asohe hath to a dearfi iend , or moft loving husband: that fo, in a word,we may love him, 
who is Man: as he, who js Man, loves us. And, this kind ot communion ,is pc culiarto the Believer , with 
the fccond Perfon of the Godhead, as itis peculiar to the lecond Petfon of the Godhead, as Aian, by humane 
aifedions, to love him : And thus we are not only one Spirit with him as with the other Perfons of the God- 
head, 1 C#r.6.i7.but we arcone hody with him : ofhificsh ,& efbis bo:s4, £pb. ^.t^o. in refpedtof this uniott' 
Sc communion that is betwixt a Believer and the Man Jcfus Chrilt. 

Hence . (5. As we have moft accclfc to conceive of Chriits love to us, who is Man : fo we are inlihe greater 
(Capacity to vent our loye.on him , & to have our bowels kindled upon the confideration of his being M.in , 
& performing v\'hat he did in our nature for us; lb the object is molt fuited, to be beloved by us , in his con- 
cicfcending to be as a Brother to us. And this doth confirm what is laid, & is a realbn alfo why Believers venc 
•their love to God by flowing in its expresfions directly conceriiing Chrilt : B ecaule , he is both the more fen- 
fible Object ot our Faith, & love ; and alio becaulc there is more posfibiUty to conceive &: mention what he 
in our nature hath donc,ihan to confidcr God, and his operations, in himiclf abflractly^ 

7, Hearts v^-ould always remember that he is God, and fo rhat they love, and keep communion with him 
'that is God : that inakes ibe former the more wonderfully Uvcly ; as this should make fouls keep up the elti- 
mation and dignity thatis due to fuch aPcrlon , fo condclcending. And lo by the Man Chrilt, both to love, 
cjid believe in God. 

And infum, having the excellencies of God dwelling in the ManChriQ, who^c affections they are more 
able to conceive ot , A' hoferuffcrin2s have m.idc his love palpable, in whom God h.uh condcfcendcd to deal 
with us; and on whom our affections and Faith alfo may have the more icniible fooii;iii!; by theconlidcration 
of his humane affections, there is no wonder th it this way of adoring.prailing, &z loving of God,befo much 
in{iltedupon;.&yet,eventhenwhcnihehearti3uponthisconlideration delighting andfeeding it felf upon 
,thc Mediator, itiU his Godhead is emplyed, and God in him delighted in : without which , all other confo- 
lations would be defective. And fo itis G0d,inthe Mediator, who is the object of this delight,Now,unto this 
.(?ne Cod, be piailb in the Church, by JeUis Chrift^ lor now and ever. 


Chap.1. tMkpf thi Stpetiitiim, f j 


Verr4. Uhn tothefelpen Churches in Afia, Grace be unto you, and peace, fromHim \vhkhis ,and'^hiih '^^ ; 
and "ifhich if to ctme, andfromthejey>en Spirits which are Before HisThrone. 

5. Amdfiom lejfui Cbnft, "tffho is thefauhfuU witnefe , and the firfi- begotten of the de4d\ ^andthe Prince of 
the Kjngs of the earth : Vnto him that lotedust and v/ashedtufrom our fins in his own blood. 

6. ^ d hath madi us J^inp and ^ritjisumo God and his Father ; /* him be glory anddominhnfor (Tpcr 
ande\er. Amen. 

WE heard ofthePerfons from whom: follows now thefe towhomthcEpiftleisfent, towita 
the fe'pen Churches in Afia j and they are particularly named , ver 1 1. &are fevcrall cimes fpoken 
of in the two Chapters following : Therefore) at the entry » we shall fpeak to a doubt or two 
concerning this infcription to them. 
Qiieft. I. fVfyis this Jiif^elation , inform of an Epifile , fnt toparticular Churches, rather thm to the vnbok 
Churcff ? 2. And why if it fent particularly to thejeyen Churches in Afia ? 3. lYhy are thejJUltd feven Chur- 
ches, and not one Church. 

To the firft ©f thefe : Though it be fent to particulaf Churches ,• yet , this excludes none from the ufe of 
it to the end of the world : for, though many particular Epiftles , as the Epiftles to the Romans , Corinthi- 
ans , Galatians , &c, be direded to particular Churches ; yet , the benefit of the Word contained in them 
extendeth ro all Believers in all ages> as well as to them to whom they were directed : So , thofe particular 
Epiftles , dire(5ted to the feven Churches in Afia , in the 2. and 5. chapters , are ufcful and behoveful toall 
the Churches of Chrift in the like cafes , as if they had been particularly directed to them : therefore is that 
Word caft to , in the dole of each o^ thofe Epifllcs , Let him that hath an ear, hear what the Spirit jaith to the 
Churchs-Z. As to the general fubjeiSl matter of this Book.It concerns not thefe particularChurche8,more than 
others , as wc told at the entry. For , ter.T. It is directed to his Servants , tobe made u(e oft© th:; end of 
the World , andii's fent to thofe particular Churches to betranfmitted by them to other Churches j and in 
this fenfe , the Church is called the pillar and ground of Truth , 1 r/OT.3.1 5. as holding forth and tranfmit- 
tin?; the Truth to others. 

Tothc fecond , JVhj is it dedicated to the fe\ien Churches in Afia ? \An[v«. i. Either becaufe thefe Chur- 
ches were next toParmos, where lohfi was now banifhcd : for> thofe who are skilled in Geography know , 
that this little Ifle lyes off Afia the leffc. Or, 2.Becaufe it's like lohn had particular infpedion of thofe Chur- 
ches in A/ia committed to him : which though it be not particularly fet down in Scripture ; yet > it's clear 
from Scripture , that there was a divifion of infpeftion among the Apoflles , without limiting any of ihem. 
Peter was fent to the Circumcifion ; Paul to the GentileSi lames abode at Itrufalem. And in the Ecclefiaf^ck 
Story, ii^safTertcd, that after Paul had planted Ephefus^ lohn ftayed thcre>who lived lafl of the Apoftles : And 
fo thefe Churches being ( as would feem ) under his Ipecial ovei fight , while he is abf^nt from them by ba- 
nishment, he commends this fcpiftletothem, ^.Jefus Chrift fends it to them, partly, becaufeoff^mefpe- 
cial faults that were among them, their need lb re^juiring : and becaufe of fomc fpecial tryals they were to en- 
dure, and the need they had of coofolation under thefe trials; partly, becaufe diey were the moft famojs 
Churches then: for, lerujalemwas now deflroyed , thisbeingwritteninthe daysof Dow»iM«theEmperour. 
To the third. fVhy ^uritef he to them 4tf particular CiMtchts , To the feven Churches in /fia , and natto the 
Ch'vrch in Ada ? Anfw. For clearing of this, the 6'cripture fpeaks c^the Church in a threefold fenl'e, 1. As 
comprehending the whole number of vifiblc ProfefTors, fcattered through the world : Co the Gofpel-Churcl? 
is fpoken oF horn chedayes of Chrifl to His coming again , as i Cor. 12 28. God hath fet [omt in the Churchy 
firji jipofk!,fecundariljPnphets,^c. where by Cfewrcfe, is not to be underftood this or that particular 
Ch-irch , nor the Ch Tch in Corinth : for, the C burch he is fpeakingof, is fiich a Church, as God had fet the 
Apuftles in, and all Ofhcers; and that was in no particular Church, but is the univerfal Church , fpoken of 
in the Verfe before made up both of]ews and Gentiles : and fo the word is often ufed elfwhere, as it is laid, 
Paulmadeb y>ock. of he Church, and that he perfecuted the Church. It was not this or that pariiculat 
Church, bit all thtt c;illed on the Name of Jefus Chrift, to what oever particular Church they did belong. 
So.( I Coy.10.3^..) he Church is contradiftinguished from JeviJ zndGemih » GiT^e none offence to thejcws , 
tmGcntih «or i<?f/je Church o/<?od, that is, to the Church vilibic, profcfling Faith inChrift. And this 
Church , i^cW. 1 2. is fet out under the fimilitude of a woman in travel , in readinefs to be delivered , and 
afterward dotn fiec:\vhich is not this or that particular Church,but the Mother-Church,comprchending the 

C whole 

i§ ^ AnSxpofttioHfifthe Ghap.l. 

Wiiolc vifible n Jtnbcr of Pi'oufljrs. 2. I: is rnkcn, as comprehending^ a number of Believers , meeting to- 
gether in one place ordinarily for the Worship of God , the fmalleft afTociated part of this body of the uni- 
verfal vifiblc Church, as i C^r. 14.34. a company of profefling Believers met , or meeting together for 
Pr<:acliing> or Prayer : and in iliis lenk, the S.i iptiire Jpcaks not fo often of the Church. 3. L's taken nei- 
ther for the wliole body of vifible Profcflbrs, nor yet ibr fuch a parr o'i that Body , that iy, a company met or 

theUiiiverfal Catholick Ch.irch > nor for a particular Congregation ; but for a number of particular Con- 
gregations unda r one Government, fuch as there was in Comth and Ephefus. And yct,\vhen he diredts his 
Epiitlc to one Church , as under one Government, particular Congregations are included : as in Jerufalemy 
there were many Churches and many Watch-men, and they could not meet together in oneplace, for the e- 
xercjfe of Gods Worlhip : yetic was not unfuicable to fiy, the Church at fenifalem, C as the Church aiC?/rfyi 
^otv) as under one Government, though it were not fuitablc to fpeak of thsm asof one Congregation met to- 
g^beriibr, there were many moc Congregations of people in one of thofcTowns,as i Car.T4.34. compar- 
ed with I Cor. i.^. there were Churches tinder one Church. : therefore* it behoved to be a mutual combina- 
tion, that made up one body. In anlwer to the Queftion therefore* While he fpeaks to them as Churches in 
Afi^ty it is becanfe he looks on them as lb many diftindt incorporations, parts ot the whole ; or, bccaufc thnc 
cafes Reconditions were diftin6t:;& one mtflage could not agree to all >tha cafe of £/>ic/i», was one j the cafe 
oiSmyma, ano her, CJc. And feverall cafes and conditions, required feverall letters. 

But if any fay , // i; improper tofpeak.ofa Church h the Ke"^ Tejlamen^, except of a parti cuUr Co'>^grcgation , 
b:caufi it's [aid here to the fevcn Churches in Alia, ani eljiehere the Churches in J jdea,C5c. 

We aniwer : i. That inference will not hold j b jt rather the contrary : for here, it's faid , the Church at £- 
phefus^ ; and in Epijefus were many particular Congregations : therefore , it's meaned of a Church aflbciat jd & 
combined under one Government : neither ever are Churches in one plac; mentioned,of vvhaifoever numbet 
they he ;.but as one.2, Thoughyc>>:'» Churches ofAfi^ be fpoken of here: yct,z^cVf/. 12. the Church is fpokcti 
of, under the fitiulitude of one woman: & thefe Churches, m..ft be parts of that one: the iiQ(\ of that woman 
6c children of that mother. See more, c'j^^^ii.at the end. \ 

oifei^et That our Lord jcfus Chrilttakcrh norice ofth: particular eftate of his Churches: not ofily how 
it goeth with the Church, in general i but how it goeth with this or that partictUar Church j how itgoeth 
with Edinburjrhy Ghfgoiv, Scc.which shews a reafo.i why hediltinguisheth them in the infcription. 

Thefecondpartortheinfciiption, is,a thankfgiving, from the midft of the 5.T»er/r to the 7.t;f r/T when he 
hath wished Gntce and Peace fiomjefm Chrift, whom he calls t'.e firjl legmen from the dejd; becaufe by vcr- 
tue of Him, all do arife ; and becaule he was the iirft that rofe and went to Heaven ( for,tho jgh Enoc'} and 
Elioi bcperfonally in Heaven, they tafted not of death: and fo cannot be called the fiyjl begotten from the dea.i; 
others died again, as La:^arus) And when he hath called Him the Prince of the Kj'^gr ojthe Mr/jfe,as fct down 
now at his Fathersrighthand,as the Fathers L3rd-I>jputy, to point out His Mediatory and given King - 
{Jom jandHisreigningiforthegoodofth^Eledt , an .1 to rule othtrs for their faHc: thoighnot tolubdue 
& make them willing ^ubjcdls j yet , to bruifc them with his Mace &; Iron- Scepter. When, 1 fay , h: is 
ipcaking thus of Jcrliis Chrifl-> his heart beginneth to warm : and he breaketh out in a word of thanklgiv- 
Jng : wherein there is , i.adefcriprionofthePerfon, towhomthethanklgivingismade. 2. Thethankf- 
givingit felf. The ciefcription is excellen' , and ofexceeding great confolation" to the Church,as holding 
out Chrifts bowels, & the priviledgesand benefits that Believers ha vein and through him. 1. Inth.-Foun- 
tiin they come from, Him that loYd us. What a One is Curift ? he is he who loved u>.- this is the Bolbm > 
s;race, from v-hence all orher Graces & Benefits do flow, P^oV 8. everlalting love, and the fiift and chief itile 
inaliourpraife. If Believers would know who Chrift is ? k's hewho/fl>L'd/tf: a moft comfortabie ftiIt^. 
a. In the particular benefits that flow from this love , and wasledus from ouffns in hii o\tn hlocd. Every 
word hath an cmphafis in it : He had not an empty and comple nenting love : but fuch a love as moved him 
to leave the hi^^t oFGlory , and conae down gc take 0:1 our nature : and in that nature to die, and shed his 
blood for us rand by that blood, to wash tisfrom the filihinetfe and guilt of fin , in taking away the evil of 
iniandwrath. ^nd,inLhatHeisf:aidtQwash us fromfin»w H//eTv/j4/ffw/, Itfuppone<;, i. Thatfliisa 
filchi ncflfc. 2. That tliis hlthintfll- is noreafily wofhea away. 3. That there is a great efficacie and real 
vertue in the biood of Cisriit, to walh the foul and cleanfe it from fin, as if it had never finned j as there is ef- 
ficacie :.nd vcrtue in a fcutitain of water, to wafli a filthie thing. And this was typified in thofe ceremonial 
and legal washings » mder the Law. 4. Ttiatj that wherewith Chrilt washeth Believers , is, his ov/n bleed : 


Chap.i. Jiookyf th ReveUtm. jt^^ 

nottheblood ofBulls & Goats; but the blood o' thefirft begottcnfrem tkedud , the blood oU he true and 
faithful witnejje ttht blood o'^the Prince efthe l{in^s of the earth ; yea, tlie blood of Him M'Uch is,\vki:h \\ai^ 
& ivfei;/;^r»^#OTr, the blood ofhimW;oiv<*f, and IX Gflrf, Therefore (-<^S.20.28.) it's faid, Feedtbe Ciwih 
ofGod,Vi>hich he hathfurchajed with his twn blood, h holds out > not o.)ly th .■ efficacie and ikisfiidloiinefle or 
the bloodof Chrift i but alio the end of His death: that it was no^ a meer Teftimoiiy and Witneflc-bearing , 
nor only to leave an example to others, ( as profane men, derogating from our blelfed Lords deati i , afiirm) 
but » to wash His own from their fins in His blood > to take away the guilt of fin in JuP-^ficaiion, 6c to make 
the Power of His death come in and flay fin, and to fandifie , as it is l Coy. 6. Su:h irerejome of you , but now 
jiu areviashid,\hiit\-ii Juftified&Sandificd. ThereisnotaName that Chrift hath, baiitbuh fomepri-' 
vilcdge and benefit in it to Believers; it holds out lore on His fi.de, and confoladon oa ours: 6c every benefit 
which comes to usjis a Name & Commendarion to him , & may be fo ufed by ii?. 

Verj 6. In the dcfcription , He fets out how Chrift , not only takes away what is ill, from us j but how He 
abounds inconferring privilec4ges on us. He not only takes away fin ; hw, He hath made its K}^gs iS Priejls 
to OadBis father: Firft, 7(i/i,?f , I. In delivering us from the flavery of fin, that the moft part of the world 
livesin:, andinmakingusmaftersovcrfinandfinfullufts, mafters over the D.nil andths "World, andrhe 
Fieih in'fome meafure. And this is a Princely thing : fo the Church is fet our, 1^V.I2. a$ having the Moon , 
that is to fay, the tranfitorie world under her fcer. 2. Kings , in reiped: of a Spiritual reigning in oqr fpirits 
with God, by an heavenly converfation : fc-rViwr our cori^perjations in Hea\)enyV\\\\\)p.i. 2.0. C0I.3 i. inanholy 
andhcavenly pride, and in a fort of kingly majefty, difdainingthe ups & downs in the world. ^Kpgs alio , 
in title and right, beins fet as Kings on the Throne with Him , to execute the judgem:nt writtm, Plal .149. 9. 
This honour have all His Saints> in a fpirirual way , and fome MMy to judge the world in their practice : and 
they shall be Kings in poflesfion, when that, which is here , fhall have the full accomplishment.' and all the 
Saints, as fo many crowned Kings, shall follow Him in the clouds. Secondlyi Ptiejls ,10 offer their bodies a 
livin<z; Sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God ,^$m.\ 2.1. to offer Prayers and Praiies, the calves of their lips ; 
arki this is no fmall priviledge, to have accefle to God asPriefts. The ^f^s held thefe two, as great digni- 
ties, the Kjogly and Priejlly ofices i and Believers are called by Chriit to both , fo that they may come with 
boldneffe to th; Throne of Grace, and enter within the Holieft , through the Vail , by that new and living 
way, being freed from the fpirit of bondage and fear , which in a great part accompanied the fews ceremo- 
nial "NVorihi p. I. How many excellent confolations are here to Believers , and grounds of directions to 
them? What grounds of confolation comparable to thefe , tobev/ashenmthatbloudcftheLamb^ to It 
made Kjnfsand Priejls to God and Chrifts Father , that is, to no Idole, bat to Him, to whom Chrift is a Prieft ? 
Here is life and immortality brought to light by the Gofpel, priviledges and benefits of an exceeding pasfing 
worth and excellency. 

1 . Comparing this verfe with vcrf. i .Here Isjng: and Priejls : and there? his Servants. ObfcrYe, That there 
is no fuch royalty & dignity in the World, as to be our Lord Jefus his Servanr ; it is truely to be a l^ng , to 
reign ; and a Prteji^ to be confecrated to God ; It confifts not in loofnelfe and carnal liberty -, but in new ob> 
dience: and the more obedient, circumfpedt & ftrift in Holinefle, the greater liberi:y,majcfty,& kingly ftate- 
lincfle. All our Lords Servants are Kings, fo great a King is he, and fo happ y are they . 

2. Tiiefc Priviledges lay an oblig^uion on Believers, to carry themfelves as fuch. I. If Chrifts bloud be 
given as a fountain to wash ar, then make life of it for pardon of fin. Mortification &: Sin,5titication. 2.Let 
us carry our fclves Kingly, lis a beaftly thing to be a fcrvant of fin; but, it's a Kingly thing and fta^cly » to 
be minding the Throne, we are called to the faith and hope of : to have our heart's Scconverratiowffuitable 
to that holy and heavenly place ; to have royall fpirits, difdaining, and trampling on the things of a prefenc 
world, as unworthy of our hearts & affcdiions. 

3. Comparing thi/ with the former , when hefpeaks of Chrift , his affeift ions warms 5 and when lie 
fpeaksof the benefits , which come by Him , it ieades him to the love they came from: and by that, again,he 
isledtopraifeHim; and he cannot get Jefus Chrift fet high enough. Oi/erV* , Believers hearts ihould 
warm , and be often warming rhemlelves with thoughts of Chrift, and venting their warmnefle of affed ion 
to Him in praife; It's a fweet thing , when Believers hearts cannot part with Chrift ; but, when ever He 
comes in their mind or mouth, ftillro give Him a word of praife ,andcometo their purpofeagaiu , a5.Jo('/» 
doth here: And it's often thus with P<?«/, asir<w.i.i7. f^^.3.20. 


2^ An Ixpfttm of the Chap.i. 


Verr.7. behold, he comtth with clouds, and cTpery t)? shall fee him , ani they alfi which peirced Vtm : and all 

kindreds of the earth shall '\^ailbecauje of him : elpcnfo, Amen. , ,.,. . ,., , ,., 

8. lamMpha and Omega, the kgimingani the ending.faith the L$rd> '9ffhtchts,and'is>htch VfM,and'^hch 

h to comcthe Almighty. , ., , . j. r ,• j j • ^t r 

9 1 iohn who ah amyour brother, ^companion tn tnbulatton, and m the kingdom anipattence of yfm 
0rijl, wL m the Iflethat is called Patmosjorthe -^ord of God, andfortketepmonj of]efus Chrifi. 

iT's a concerning mefTige that Chrift is now fending to His ChurcH : therefore thereis the larger preface 
to ftir them up he writs to, to make that which he fends welcome.^ c l • r. 1 ^ -/x, 

"We heard, from the 4 ^rfe , the particular Infcnption or diredhon ot this Book , as an Epiftle : and 
when he hath w'lihzd grace and peace, and fet down the parties from whom the^4«and pmee is wifhed, 
and the Epiftle is fent : he turns it over in a thankfgiving to Chrift. efpecially , pitching on Him,as looking to 
the benefits and priviledges they inioycd through Him: as being, in a fpeciall way, purchafed by Him : and 
this thankfgiving , or doxologie, is all, that he and all Saints can give Chrift for all that He hath done for 
themj mto him be glory ^ dominion. Believers, in looking on Chrilts purchale , would be more in afcnbing 
glory & dominion to Him; not that they can add any new glory to Him, or enlarge His Dominion; but it is 

to acknowledge, that to Him belongs glory and dominion, as it s afterwards, Cf^ap. S^f^f^^- Jf^h « ^^« 
Lambthat'^^flain,torecciy>epowr,aniriches,aridwifdoTn,an.ipength^ni^^^^ IcsBelievers 

cxpremon,and hearty aflent, in approving Gods purpofe & projedt in making himHead ov^r all thcChurch. 
VerCe7. He feems to come back where heleft, when he began his thanklgiving , to fpeak otJ-fusChnft 
under the laft title of Pr/wc of the Kim of the earth j and that by way of pre-occjpymg an objedion , which 
carnall hearts might make: and it is this. IsHQ?rince of the l<^rigs of the earth, yfho y^is^iitio dc^ih , and 
laid in the Grav?' Where is He now, if He be fuch a Prince ? He anfwereth. Behold^ fje cometh -^'tch clouds : 
though many profane carnall hearts now do not acknowledge Himj yec,He (hall one day be acknoxvkdged 
He is now outof light j bucic will not be long fo : He is making ready tor His coming to Judgement , and 
is.coming,aap.22.2o, Surely I come quickly. This coming, m the prefentume,implyeth two things.! i. The 
ikafonablnelfe of His coming ; He milfes no time, He comes quickly, 2. Thau even the fliort^iime He de- 
Uycs, He is making ready, as it were , for His coming 5 He is leading Witnelfcs ,^and fitting f roctlTcs, and 
difcovering the truth and falfhood of every thing ; and every thing that may further His coming, is going 
forward 5 Hcisnotidlein reference to His laft coming to Judgement, bjt ishafting all. Secondly,His com- 
ing toiudgement, is fet out in the majefty and (btelintfle of it , under an cxpreiTion ordinary in the Prophets 
I as much of this Book is) He cometh with clouds- . So Ffal. 97- 2. Clouds and darkpe^e are round about htm 5 
andiW«/.24.:^o. nc{hi\\comeinthecloudsofhe:t\en,wi(hpov/erandgnatglory.SQPf4.i%.iox\. Toltt 
outthe ftatelineffeof the Judge that cometh thus backed with Coeleltiall Majelty. Thirdly., His coming 
is fet out by the palpablenelfe and vifibleneffe of it , St&ry eye shall fee htm : though moft part of Achcilts 
think not ofhis coming now; yet when He shall come, there shall not be a reafonable creature , that ever 
had life on Earth , whether Believer, or unbeliever , but they shall with iheir eyes fee Him in that day. 
J3;ouithly, Among them that shall fee Him , ihd<i ;irezddedi They- alfo who peirced Him: under which is 
comprehended His greateft Enemies ; and it takes in both thofe , who had then hands hote in his bloud, and 
killed him bodily j and thofc who crucified , and do crucifie Hm Ipiritually , asu's faid. Chap. U.S. Hi 
was crucifiedin fpirituall Sodom, they shall all, in that day, be called betoreHis Barr, and be forced to look 
on Him. A fifth circumltance inHls coming , All kindreds of the earth ihallyatl beeaufe of Him i in the O- 
jmnA\\,aHtheTribesofthe€arth: it is a word borrowed fromtheJe'^J their manner of reckoning , who 
counted their Kingdoms by Tribes. The meaning is, all the Kingdoms of the earth, and thofc that laugh at 
Himnovv,andthinklictleof His coming, whenitisfpokenot, shall wail becaufe of Him, thatis, becaufe 
eftheir flighnng of Him ; and now feeing Him to be their judge , whom th.-y flighted and contemned ; and 
though there be now a kindly mourning, like that in !Zach:\Z..io. They thalllool^ upon Him whom they_ 
ha"^ pierced, and they shall mourn ; yet, thisbeing to be at the day of j adgemeni , and fpoken of the enemies 
that think nothing of Him x\o\v, we take it to be ananxious howling ot enemies , when they shallfee Chrift 
come in the clouds to the great judgement , and all His Angels and Saints about Him, as Matth. 24. 50^ 
Ihen shall allth-. Tribes oj'the earth mourn. Sixthly ,There is a iixth circumftance added, eren fo i jlmen : 
which is lahns fccting to"iiis leal, to His conaing: and its doubled^as it is ordinary ^ both in the Greek-and He- 


Ghap.i. Book^of the Revelation. ii 

brew. H^' u'isheth He may come, and b^licverh He will come t that it may be as he hath faid, even as he 
cloleih his B^y>elation , Amen, Eleenfo, come Lord I fits. And fb it looketh to His (lately way of coming, & 
the efted:s it shall have in tiie world, it being for His Glory, to vindicate himlelf from the rubs that his pro- 
fane enemies put upon him in the world, he fayes ^men ro that , e'pettfoy Amen. 
Ohftrlpe , I . Our Lord lefus, that was crucitied , and thought little of, shall be as high as ever he waslow 
' in the open viewof all his enemies. The time is coming { and now is advancing faft forward") when he shall 
take unto him his Kingdom j and be vifibly feenby all the Kingdoms of the earth, to be the judge of quick 
and dead, the Prince oUhe Kings of the earth. This is one ot the Articles ofourCreedj and wewould 
make ufe of this Scripture , to confirm it: there isa time coming, and it is not far off, when he shall let his 
Throne in the Clouas, & all eyes shall fee him.Thlnk ye this true, that there is a time coming, when we that 
are here,8c all others, shall feeChrift in his Humane Nature,Sc alfo much of his Godhead as he shall be pleal- . 
ed to let out, and we capable oi^ Think on it, and let it not go with a word j but confider how ye will meet 
himSc ftand before him: and w^en ye meet with difficulties,or ereature-comforts that would turn you afide, 
rem ember on this day:& where will they all be, when ye shall be arretted to fland before him.Eccfc/ii.p. 

Obfi' Chrifts coming to judgement is a fpecial part of his ftatelineffe, ScamainpartoftheUniverfalnelle 
of his Kingly Office as Mediator, when he shall come and fit as Judge, and give fentence on godly Sc wick- 
ed, and lend away the one, and welcome theocher. Tliis will be one of his ftatelieft dayes , whenheshall 
vindicate himfelf from profane men, and bear himfelf out to his people in his exceeding Glory. Believers,bc- 
licve there isfich a Day; and let it quiet your hearts in the mean time of all thefe conhifions. 

Obf.i. O jr Lord lefus his coming to judgementiWill be a doleful coming to the moft part of the world ; 
they alfo vi'ho peirced Him, and all kinreds of the earth Ihall wail becaufe ot Himj they fhall cry to the hills 
Tail on ust and to the mountains, cotterus ; and would be glad to get into the clefts of the rocks, and to the 
tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the Lord , and for the Glory of his Majefty, Ifa.2. 1 2. Men would 
think the grcatelt hill or mountain a li ght burden in that Day , to get themfelycs hid from the pcircing view 
of a flighted and provoked Mediator. Oh J^ut that will be bitter and fore t© bide 1 Think upon it. There is a 
time coming, v\ hen many of you that hears this fame word , if Grace prevent not , ihsU lee and find the 
truth of it.Ii's terrible, but experience will make it true : many of you now skars to hear tell of Chrifts com- 
ing to judgementj but when that day cometh,it fliall be bitter in another kind to you , when this bitter yelling . 
Doi. ccyjing & 6o^v/»/J^ fhall be among the carnal world that flighted him , &yc fhall find your felvcs among 
them,and Ihall fhare with themj and every cry and yell about you , fhall be a new wound. Therefore humble 
your felvesjand fc«. k for mercy and reconciliation in time: for,either muft you get in now,or never. 

Oif.4. A hearty conienting and faying Jmen to Chriftscoming to judgement, to have fore-thoughts of it, 
and to be longing for it, and wifhii^ thatit may come, is a good token of a Believer and friend of Chrift , to 
whom this day will be a comfort. Bjt, if many of us had our own mind , we would never wifh to die , nor^ 
that there should be a day of judgemenr. 

Fcr.S. Chrift cometh in Himfelf to tell what H; is, and to confirm what John hath faid of Him , lam' 
Alpha and Omega: which are two letters in the Greek Alphabet j y^//?^^, the firft, and Omegajihchk: and 
the meaning is in the nexts words , the beginamg and the ending. The beginnhg. He who gives all thio'gs a 
being and beginning, and have no beginning My felf: Theending, He who puts an end to all things; and in 
whom all things end , and hath no endingmy felf : fpriall things terminate in Him as their end,RiBOT. 1 1 .36.- 
Tp Him Are aUthjvgs, whkhis, which v/at, and VDhich is to come, the fame defcription which was given to ' 
God the 'Fa.thetfverf.^. fetting out the immutability and unchangeablenelleof hisbeing,that he is fromEter- 
nity to Eternity the fame^and^as we shew,th: title Jehovah taketh in thefe three words.Then more plainly, • 
the Almighty: every word here is a proper Attribute of Godj he is infinite in power ,foveraign in dominion , ■ 
& not bounded as creatures are; And this is clear to be fpoken ofChrift,not only from the fcopQ,{John being 
to fet out Chriil from whom He had this R evelation) but from then ."perf. following, where he gives Him 
the fame titles over again; or rather,Chrift, fpeaking of himfelf,taketh and repeateth the fame titles. 

Ohf.i. OurLordlL^usChriftjisGodequal withtheFathcr,5cholyGhoft: he,whois the^rfl&laff,the 
beginning and the ending.which is,which was,and which is to come,the Almighiy.muftbe God.Thele titles ' 
can agree to no other ; there is no created being capable of any of thefe titlesjbut he.is fuch.ThereforejC^c. 

CbJ'.z. The ftatelineflc and majefly of our Lerd lefus Chrifl : What an excellent and ftately Perfon is he? 
there is not a propeny attributed to God, but it is agreeable to Chrift. Theufeofir, is, to bring hearts to ' 
high thoughts of Chrift: anditisnotfornought, but for this end that the Scripture infiflsfomuchingiv* 
ing him fuch ftately ftiles, even to wear Ibuls out of their, Atheiftical thoughts of him ,• and to prefer and e- 
ftieem him above all. . 

C 3, j.Xbok'*-' 

11 Aft Expojjflon cf the ^ Chap.i. 

3. Looking upon thefe words as fpoken by Chnit mnflCelt" : atrer John hath dcfci ibed him , he comctti in, 
and takes ic oA Johns hand, and delcribes himlelf. ^ Cb^ ene , That our Lord Jclus own mouth , can belt cell 
what himfelf is : hearing, reading, fpeakiiag.writlng will not do ic j if the dcicription come not out olChrilts 
own mouth, it will do litde on hearers. 

.P^crf.p. Follows the body ofthis Book, or Epiftlc. We will not now enter on a particular divifion of ir. 
That which is Icerf. 1 9. ot t his fame Chapter, fh ill ferve for the time, jVri^e the (hi igs "ivhich thou haft feen, and 
the things which are , and the things -^'kicb shallbe herej^fter. The whole may be taKen up in theie two, 1 .John 
his reprefenting the ca(e of things, as they were for the {)refent,and , as thiy were to be hereafter. 

The firft of chefe, to wit, his reprefenting the cafe of things as they then were, is, that which is fet down 
in the firft three Chapters : wherein is fet out the cafe that the (even Churches oi Afta were in ; which he dif- 
covers to thcmfeives, & to the world : and shews how many foulfaults they had under a fair name & pro- 
fesfion : and this takes up Jff^w'x firft vifion. 

That which is from th.- 9.17:)/? to the end of this Chapter , we take up in thefe three. i.Thereis the vifion 
it felf, what ]« ''» fa w and vrhac he heard from T>ffr/. i o . to Vfr/ 1 7. mixed throw other. 2. In the p.and 1 o. 
•>>fr,>x, fbme circumftanccs are fet down concerning \ohn and th : manner of his receiving the vifion , to make 
way for the faith of the vifion, and the whole l^ory that follows. 3 . From the vyMrj'xo the end » fomc circum- 
Itances, that make way for Jo/j« his writing & publishing what ne faw and heard, are recorded. 

The firft circumflance tnat makes way for the faith of the vifion and ftory, is, the perfon by whom Chrift 
wrote* I lohn : of whom we have heard before in the entry. And he fcts out himfcif here further , under 
dfeveral expresfionsor titles. \.Woo alfo am y»ur brother ; a fon of the fame houfc , a joynt heir whh you in 
the fame Kingdom ; a comforting title to them, and a humbling title to him. Thofe he wror; to , being bre- 
thren, he reckons in himfelf a brother with them : for, the moft eminent Believers , John, Paul , Jlbraham, 
DaYiid,!^c. come in to be brethren with the meancft Believers ; all being children of one Father,ofoncHoufe 
heirs of one Inheritance: and Abraham, his being a brother, and lohn his being a brother, prejudgeth not the 
leaftof them to whom he writeth. And as all have one Father i lb all are begotten by the fame word, have 
Gne Spirit here , and Glory for ever hereafter. 2. The next title he defcribes himfelf by , is, companion in 
mbulation, that is, a fellow fufFerer with you , a sharer of the fufFerings of Chrift as well as you; I, who am a 

freat Apoftle am not exempted from fuffering*«iore than ye are, who are in Smyrna, Philadelphia , 8cc. I 
avemineown fhareoftheCro{fe,asye have; yea, hetakesittohimfelfasatitie of honour, as a great pre- 
rogative and dignity, as Paul, £ph. j . i. / Paui theprifoneroflefus Chriftforj ou GemilestSo it is, I lohn,\vho 
as I am fuffering with you, fo I am confined for Preaching to you in Patmos: pointingoat this , that as all Be- 
lievers are brethren : lb all haveonelet in fuffering here away 5 and none are exempted from the CrolF;: were 
it the Difciplc whom Jefus loved and leaned on his boiom at the Supper, the night :se was betrayed : yet , he 
muft be a companion in tribulation, and come into heavenat the fame door with the reft. Folks would not 
think this ftrange, that atfliiftions li^ht on thefe whom Chrift loves bcft ; the fervant is not greater than the 
Lord, It should comfort fufferersi and make them look on it, as their prerogative, to be fufferers for Chrift 
3 . There is a fxjrther aggravation, or explication, of the former , and in the I^ngd^m and Patten:! ofjefur 
C/mfi. Ltfl it should be thought any thing derogatory to be a fufFerer, he lays, he is a companion m the 
kingdom and Patience of Jefus Chrift with them. And thefe two words , J^ngdom anS Patience , are put 
together, not only to shevy He is a King and a Pricft with oiher B-'lieverSj but to shew this much,thatChrifts 
K.ingdom^ is often more in the exercife of patience than in dominion ; and that the Subjevfts of ChriftsKing- 
dom here, are more put to exercife patience than to reign. His meaning is , I am a sharer with you in the 
Spiritual Kingdom of Chrift ,that needeth no worldly grandour, but hath need of patience. And it faith,that 
he couttf s it his prerogative to be fingled out, and put to patient fuflfering , for giving teftimonie to Chrift as 
King of His Church. Afilid:ions for Chrift , and sharing in his Kingdom , m<iy ftand well together for the 
lime and in reference to the upshot, if we fufter with him, we shall reign with him. 

A fecond circumfjancc, which is alfb a further dcfcription of himfelf, is, from the place and caufe. i. From 
the place of his fuffering, I was in the IJle which is called Patmos. This P.itmos , is an Ifle in the >Egean- 
Sea, near the eoaft of A{ia the Icfl".-, not far from the feven Cnurches in Afi.i , to whom he writeth : a place 
which is called barren, by them who write of ic : not much inhabited then, nor now , becaufe of the barren- 
neffe of it: therefore it was a greater evidence of the cruelty oHohns perfecuters that banished him thither. 
2. Thecaufe, is, fir the Word of God, and far the te^imony ofleftu Cfjriji , that is, for his Preaching the Word 
of God, and for his owning and maintaining Cbrifts Cofpel : for , his beai ing teftimonie , that Jefus Chrift 
w IS the King, Prieft, and Prophet of his Church, and the eternal fubftantial Word of the eternal Father^ for 
i:i;:ifts caufe, who is the Word of Go d;orj for bearing teflimony to Him. The Way howhecamc toihis 

" Ifland, 

Chap.Tj Book^of tl:e ReveUt'm] jg 

Iflandjisnotfetdovvnibut Hiftorietellsc [B%eb.l'tb.i.caf,\i\. exlrenaa andClent. Mex.) it wasinthc 
fourteenth year of Vomiiian the Emperour , when he raifed the fecond perfecuiion againtt the Church of 
Chrilt, about the 97.year of our Lord, that he* after he had tortured lohny banished him to this Ifie : near a- 
bout tlie lame time ohohn*s age. This then is the place that lohn was banished to : and yet , in the fame 
place , he hath Ivveet fcllovvship with God : is countenanced of him, and honoured to be the carrier of this 
Revelation to the Church. 

1 . 5ec here how far gracelelTe and profane perfecuters, ( fuch as this beaft Vomitian was ) may prevail a- 
gainft the (ervants of Jellis Chrilt , when he doth banish lobn to PatmoSi befide other horrible perlecutions j 
which he raifed againj:t the Church. Chrift, by this, would have us know his Kingdom is not ol: this world. 

2. Solicarineffa for Chrilt, is not lbs worft condition. Chnft can make up that another way : and if there 
be a m ceffity of withdrawing men from their duty.as of Minifters from their publick Miniftery jhe can make 
it tend as much to their private benefit, and to the publick good of his Church, ifnotmore: neither doifi 
lohn lofe any thing by his banishment 6c confinement ; for, he finds more intimate and fwect communion &: 
fellowfhip with Chriftj and gets more of his mind : nor doth the Church lofe any thing by it : for, fhe gt ts 
this Revelation of Gods mmd. If we believed this , we would neve r go out of Gods way , to make up his 
Work: for, if he pleafe to lay us by , he knows how to make up that -, both to our felves & Gods people. 
The Chriftian Church, is as much beholden to Paul' s imprifonment in Epiftles,as to his liberty inPreaching. 

3. Honeft fuffering for Chrift, hath often with it the fresheft 5c cleareftmanifcftations of Chrilt. Folks 
that will continue faithful, and bide by their duty through fufferings , rhey shall not only not be 1 ofcrs , but 
gainers, i Pet.4.1^. J/jre bereproachedf<frthe2ZameofChrift,happieareye: for-ithe Sf hit of God.and of Glo- 
ry reJUih upon you. I would have none carnal nor vain in this , but humbly confident and conftant , as they 
V'O.iia thrive in their Spii itjal co idition and maintain their peace. 

«■— — — ■— — ^^■— III IMI.II. 


Veri. 10. I '^as in thcfpirit on the Lords day, and hard behind me a great yoice, at of a trumfef, 

BEForc lotn come particularly to the Vifion he faw,he infifteth in fome particular circumftances,that 
make way to the more full faith and credite of the Vifion and Story that followeth : and though 
they beonly circumltances in themtelves : yet they are profitable and conducing tothe m.iin end 
he hath before him . We heard of the firft and fecond circumftance hoW) ^nd where Itf/;» waS)Wke n 
he got this Vifion. 

Followeth in the io.\ierf. the third and fourth circumltances , that is, the day when he got this Vifion , & 
the frame he was in , 1 waf in tbejpitit on the Lcrdt day. The words,in the Originall , are, J 'ftp*** tntkefpirit 
on that Lords day 3 pointing out a day fingularly, and a day thatin a particular and fpeciall manner is called 
His Day, befide any other day, thai Dominik day , or day which is the Lords. 

That we may have accefT; to the ufe, we fiiall JTpeak a liitle tothcfe two. i. What particular day thisis j 
icing there is no mention made what day it is , more than this , that it is called The Lords day. 2, VVhat it 
is to b: in the fpirit on th is day. 

For clearing of the firit of thefe two , ye would confider , that there is bat one other phrafe in Scripture 
like this, and ii'sfpokcn ofthc Lords Supper, i Cor. 11. Tkisisnottoeattke Lords Supper-Thty that know 
theOriginall, know alfo this phrafe to be fingular,fike this of the Lord's day, if t« x,i/f/<tKii)'ju-'frf.> & i Cor. 
11.20. Kv^ictKov. tflil'^rvov J which is oppofed unto, and contradiftinguishcd f r om, 1 o ) J" 1 ov J\ii -Try ov: which 
was not fet apart from other fuppers, and common ufe, as this was : And thefe two , being by one particular- 
phrafe exprclled > we muft expound the one by the other. Now , the Lords Supper, is called fo, for three 
Reafonsj for which alfo, we conceive this day , to be called the Lords day. i. ThsLcrds Supper, b-Caufe 
of the Lords fiugular inftituting that Bread and Wine for a fpeciall and religious end , diitinguishing, difle- 
rcncing and fetting it apart from a common ufe , to a more fpeciall ufe : Andfo,thi5day, isca\kd the Lords 
day : becaufe of the Lords fcparating and fetting apartthis day for His fpeciall Service and Worship ,* and 
in that , diftinguishingit from other daye$,as He had done that Supper £tom common fuppers, 2, The Lords 
Supper, for its fpeciall fignification, JefusChriftandHis benefits being efpeciaily^ let outinit, his death &- 
fufferings pointed at, and the benefits M'e have thereby. So this day , is called, the Lords day , becaufe it's ©f 
fpeciall fignification, pointing out not fo much Gods ceafing from the work of Creation, as our Lords ceafing 
from the work of Redemption ; as the Lords S-ippcr is fo^the remciBbrance of iiis death till He come again? 


24 An Expofition of the Chap.i: 

lo is this day for r^metnbring the work of Rcdempuon , and his Refurredtiorii till He come again. 2. 'The 
Lordi Supper : becaufe of its Ipeci ill end , to feC out the honour of tlie Mediator, and the Worihip', and Or- 
dinances bro jght in by him under the New Tcftamcnt i' lb to diltingnilh ic from the PafTeover. So' his day 
is C2\kd the Lords rf*/, for the fame reafon, to let out the honour ot the Mediator , and that k may be en- 
rolled among the Ordinances of the Nev^ Teftamem : therefore, when m ih^ New Teftament ought is 
called the Lords, it points ordinarily at Chrift the Mediator, and at the lecond Perfon of the God-head as 
1 Cor.8.5. One God, diftinguished from One Lord. We take it then for granted, that it is called , the Lords day 
for thefe Reafons: bec^fe 'v.*s a fpeciall day, let apart for the Lords ule , of fpeciall lignification , and lor 3 
fpcciall end. And Secondly, that it is a fpeciall day, known to the Church, may appear; far elfeif o/i» would 
not have given it fuch a denomination ; and that it points at fome thing of Chrilt , and fo is feparatt d from 
any Jewish day, and common day , It is a day known fingularly to relate to Chrift. To clear it, confider fit 
muft either be the firfl day oftheVVcek, or fome other: B -it none otherdayitis,£rf9, C^c. Ifany other it 
can be fuppofed onely one of thefe two: either not any particular day of the Week , but any fpeciall day or 
time of Chrifts appearing or manifcfting liimfelf i Or elle the Jewish iSabbatii day. Now , neither of thefe 
can be meant by the Lords day. i. Nontheformer:for, luchaday olChnitslpeciallappearing notbeine 
named here, it would leave the Ciiurch in an uncertainty to know what day was meaned : yet is this day 
mentioned, to pcnnt it out from other dayes; that isthefcopewhyitisfodefigned. Befide, ifitwereany 
fuch day , it would point at no one day j fpr there aie many times of Chrifts appearing. It's not fo to beun- 
derftood then, though even fo our Lords appearing may agree to the firlt d<.y ol the Week , whereon moll 
frccquently He appeared after his Refurredtion to his Diiciplesjas Mat. iSJoh. 20.26. ABsi.2, ZNeither 
the latter, to wit, Che Jewish Sabbath day. 1. Becaule it's ever called the Sabbath, andgets the own name 
that it formerly had : and the giving of it this naroc> will morcoblcure then clear the day. a.Bcaufe the Jew- 
ish Sibbaths Were then annulled, as C©/o^2. 16. Lttnone judge you'tn meat or drink, or inrefpeH of an holy day* 
or of the ne\t Moon, or of the Sabbath dayes : Therefore then can tney not be called thelLorcb day. And Gal. 
4.10. they are reproved for obferving Dayes, andMonLths, and Times, and Years > where it is clear the 
ja\^'ish new Moons, Sabbaths and Feltivities were then, and before that time abolished info far as peculiar 
to them, though all diftindion of dayes was not taken away , more than all diftin^itions of the Elements in 
the Lords Supper from other Meat: becaufe diftind:ion ofmeat was condemned there alfoj But this fol- 
io weth> all jeu'ish diftindtion both of meat and dayes was taken away, but what is fliU affigned by Chrift, that 
continues. j.T^e Lords dciy in the phrafe of the New T ftament, looks to Chrift , as having its name fome 
way from him .- which cannot be faid of the Jewish Sabb^tth -, But this is called the Lords day , as pointinsr at 
an Ordinance of the Nc vv Teftament, whereas the jewifk Sabbaths had a refpeft tothe Old Teftament-Or- 
dinances. 3. Itremaineththerefbie, it muft be the hrft day ol the Week, becaufe no other day can lay 
claim to it ; it is that day, v\'hich we call Sunday , or, the Chriftian Sabb .th ,• & A'as , in the Primative times 
calledThe Lords day. i. E :caufet\ii:R:2iOns why a day i$CiikdT he Lords day ; doagree toit^efpecially! 
The jewifh.Sabbath, was called The Lords day, Exod.20.8. becaule on it he ceafed from tl^ works of Crea- 
tion ; this day is caile J The Lords day i becaule on it Heceafed from the work of Redcmption,iW<«r.i6 I 2 
.ittt.24- i,2./o^.2o.i. J t'i that day, whereon our Lord not only role J but fcverall times did meet with His 
Difciplcs: and many markfeverall priviiedges and bmefics conferred on this day, as the pouring out ofthe 
holyGhoft, ^S?/2. And moe reafons might be given ,whcreby this day is fingularly beyond others to be 
calle.i H/V. 2.B jcaufe this firtt day of the Week and no other, was let apart for the Lords Worfhip and Ser- 
vice, as dirtinguilhcdfrom other dayes. And lohns end here, is> co hx on a particular day , known to them 
andfo eftcemed of among them, as fuch a day. That it wasfet apart for the Lo;d and HisWorfhip,is cle.ir 
not only f om places we have named, but from jiB.2o.'j. Upon thefirft day ofthe Weck^, Vihenthi bihpits 
came together, to break,bread, Paul preached unto them, ready 10 depart on the morrow , andcontinwd hisfpfech 
umillmidmgkt : Which intimates not oneiy a meetiaj.', but a tultoni of meeting , and that for P^e iching , 
Prayer, aud celebration ofthe Lords Sipper. 5oi Cor.16.2. Uponthefrjidayof ihefViek,, letey>eryone 0} 
you /<»/ by him infiore, 4« Cod hath prospered otm 5 anci in the l vajht tells , concerning the Colic dtion ofthe 
S lints , he had gue 1 the fame order to the Churches ofGalatia. si'k be asked, Why doth P^m/ point at the 
.firtt day ofthe Wecy, and bids give theirifa\e> CO Cnarity that day : here it is, becaufethatday was dedi- 
cated to Gods S.rvice and Worship, whereofCnanty was a pendicle : And ( as we hinted at j this was not 
peculiar to one Church,as C«rintb ; but was common to all i\\e Churches. Tl^e like order was in all the 
Churches of Galaiia: and it doth not point at ?auls inltit ting a day j but at his fiippofingof it to beinfti- 
tuted; andachisinjoyningofapofitived tieofCharity meet for thatday. And it's obltTvable, taattho 'gh 
the 5umts had im etings on otber dayesj yet , is it ne vcr laid, they did ir.eet ihc lecond,third^r fb jrth day?s, 


ehap;T. Book^of the RfveUi'm. ,« 

&c. but on the firft : \\'hich certainly Is done, to fhi w a peculiamelTe in that day, and ihe tneecingcon it ; yea. 
few or none deny this denomination to fignifie thefirftday on this account, it being fo clear Frona Antiqui- 
ty, and no other day being here to compet with it, and that can lay fuch claim to this denomination , as this 
day doth ; and was by the moft Ancient ftili lo named. 

For the (ccond thing, to be cleared: What it isiohe kt t he fpirit on the LorJriay} T$ be iHtheJpirit, is, Firft," 
tobeSpirituall , to have the habits of Grace, and a new Nature: and thus it taketh-in the ordinary walko£ 
B.'lievers, GW,.5. 16.25. Secondly, Moreefpecially, it is for thefc who are habitually in the Spirit , to be a- 
c;tnally andin amorc eminent meafure in the Spirit, SLsEfb 5. 18. to befiHtdvtith thejpirit , to be in aholy 
rapture and ecftafie, is warranted and allowed to Believers in a more fpcciall trame, and at more fpectall times 
to be in a fpiricualnefTe abitradted from carnalHeife, and lawfull things, more tlian ordinary. Thirdly,lt is to 
be in the Spirit in an extraordinary manner and mealUre, or to be in an extraordinary rapture,theipirit revea- 
ling fomething extraordinarily; and this is to be in the Spirit, in a fenfc different from theform •: , albeit con- 
lifting with them. We cannot feclude any of thele, in this place: tor fobn was regenerated , and was habi- 
tually Spiritualland Graciousi butweelpecially include thelafttwo: As if he laid, thoughl was abfeot 
from company andChriltian fellowihip,and had not a Congregation to Preach in on the Lords day i yet I 
was in the Spirir,exercifingthe habits of Graccand 1 was in an eminent, Spiritualland Holy framcj the Spi- 
rit , elevating my (pirit.: ( which is that fpokcnof J/«.^S, 1 5. Ifthgu ealhbe Sabbath a delight , the Holy fthe 
Lordi^c) and the Lord taketh him in this fpirituall frame and flrain, and ravilheth him in the Spirit : and 
from the lecond ft«rp He brings him up to the third, to be in Spirit as an extraordinary Prophet , as we take 
Peter to have been,.4S. 10. when he went up to pray,that is, to the iecond ftep« and fell in a Trance, aad W 
Heaven opened,which is the third. We think the fame hath been John't cale here. 

The words^give occafion to fpeak of levei all Doilnnes, as i. Thegoodthatis to be gotten on the^Lordg 
day, when folks arein a fpirituall frame. i.That when folks arc feparated f roiii the publicbOrdinances ,they 
would be making it up in private, by giving themlcivcs to fpirituall exercifes. 3. And that God not only can» 
bit doth make up thegood to be gotten by the publick, by private andfecrct fellowihip with bimfellF, when 
Believers in Him arebanilhed ito^^, or denuded of the pjbiick Ordinances. But not to infift on thefe ,' the]^ 
give occalionto fpcak a litile of thefc three things, l. The inftitution of the Lords day. 2.Theramethac 
theLordsdaygets.3 Of thcfandificationof itjOr-ofa fpeciallpari,whereinthefand:rfication ofit conlift*. 

For the Jirltjo wit,for the inftitution of this Day,f«;verall Arguments areherej or, we may argue feverall 
wayestoproveit. i. IfintheApoftlesiimetiisday was fc;t apart for the Lords Worship &; Service, and 
in a fpeciall manntr called K«, as being kept to Him on a morall ground, then Ave have warrand, and ii^s out 
duty to keep itrfor the fame end and ufc : fo', the practice of extraordinary men, grounded on morall & per- 
pctuallJReafons, and that were not peculiar to them as extraordinary, bat arecommon to them Sc us'(as the 
Grounds and Reafons of thefetting apart this day are, it being for the remsmbrance of hii Re{urre(9:ion, antf 
the bringing in of a new Worldj^nd therefore, all did frona the beginning , keep that diy)are binding to us,as 
is clear. But the firft day of the Week, wasappointed to be th: Lords day,in the Apoltles times :&: fingled 
out andfet apart for his Service and a morall ground, ( for , no ground peculiar to them can-b.' givenjTherc- 
fore certainly it muft be our dutie to keep it.2.Ifthc ftift day of ihj Week, was tingled ojtfrom other, da.ycs» 
and counted the Lords day, then there behoved to be an inftitution for it, or.a fuppofed inftitution, ihrt is, It 
muft be the Lords day, either becaufeHe inftituted it, when he I poke many things to His i potties after His 
Refurre(ftion,concerningtherightorderingofhisHoufeand Worshipj and by hispraftice, obiervcd Scfan- 
dtifi^d it, for his fpeciall :Jervicc i or, becaufe thefe twat were infallibl y guided and led by his Spirit ,inftituted 
and gave warrand to kec p it : for, without an inftitution and command , h is not to be kept , or named lo , 
more than another day j B Jt this hrft day, was in practice, (ingled out befide all other daycs,5c is accounted 
the Lards in a i peciall manner, as is faid, therefore there mufl be Ibme inftitution ofic.^.Compaiing this Text 
with I Cor. 11. 20. If the fiift day of the Week^bc ihc Lords dajr, as the Sacrament of the Supper is th^trdf 
Supper , then it muft be by His appointment and inftitution His; B Jt fb the phraCc in both places is to [le un- 
deritood. Ergo , by companng thefe two places, the peculiarnefle of the phrafe is ILich , mat ( there being 
no other phraie like them in Scripture ) it leemeth the holy Ghoft warrands us to gather therealbns of thie 
denomination of the one from the other , though the inftitution of this day be not lo clearly cxprcfled , 
as the inftitution of the Lords Supper. For it's a received Rule for expounding Scripture,to expojnd more 
dark places, by places that are more full and clear: And therefore conclude M'e , that the Lord's day is to be 
called the Lords: becaufe of its inftitution, though we know rot wiiere ; becaufe , for the lame renlon, ihs 
Supper \sc3!i\td His i there being no (olid ground to conclude upon: And they who give reafons to the 
contrary , muft makcit appear , that there ate other reafons more pregnant , or elte the language of the 

D koly 

itf '^ookjfthe ReveUtioH. Chap.i. 

holy Glio:1 muft have weight with u<;. 4. Tliis iirlt day is the Lords, as the fcventh day is called his , or any 
other thing in the Old Tcftament j but that is ever becaufe of his letting apart that day or that chijig for His 
own/roai others of that kind. Therefor^; it mult be fo here. 

There are feme exceptions, ^nade by fcnc worthy n?en,M'hich we fh ill fpeak a word to, As i .If it be fo , 
itwill follow that all dayes are not ahke, contrary to i^w.i4>i4. G«/4.io. Co/. 2. 16. where the Script j;e 
feems to fay plainly, that^l dayci arc alike : Thc;rcfore the Lords day cannot bcib underftoo.i. ^nfw. Tnis 
doth indeed diredly contiadid: the letter of the Text : for Ciiher this Text pomteih ar one day by another * 
or elfeit doth nothing, a. The Apoftlesfcope in rhs places that feenn to be contrary to this, is clear: wh.n 
he cafts the Jewish Sabbath and holy dayes, he caftsrhem alike in refpeft of Jewish obfcrvation only : O'lin 
fo far as they were Jewish and Typical: for, Chrift had taken them away in that rcfpcct , e\ en as he calteth 
meats alfa,> yet without prejudice of the Sacraments: and this confirmeth onrArgumcnr. Forifjewish 
Dayes and S V^athi, wete taken away fojrtie years and more ,as is clear by Patd, before /dfcw wrote thisR:- 
velatioa, in as far as they were Jewish , and yet J*fe» fpeaks of a Lords day , as ditferenced fro n other dayes * 
it faycs it continued when they were abolished. There is a great odds oetwixt laying afiie of jewiih dayes, 
and the Lords day: and when ]ohn fpeaks of the Lords day, he fpeaks of it in the fingular number, in oppoii- 
tion to thofe many dayes, the jews had, tuidcr theceremopial Law. Aud even that learned Do^r grantcth 
this place to fpeak of the fir ft day , and the Churches practice tomeet on it alfo ,and in fcveral relpcfts , »o be 
priviledged beyond oiher dayes. 

A fecond exception is, If this day be fo counted of, it will bring in the fandtifying of it, in as eminent a mea- 
fure, as the jews Sabbath was. And, is not that to judaize ' Anjv\f. Didinguish bctwixt things Ceremoniall 
orTypicall.and things Morall and Perpctuall J We bringback nothing that was Ceremoniall and Typicall, 
as their Sabbaths of Weeks, Sacrifices, and many other things were j bjt for Morall duties > they become us 
Juwcllasthe]e"»j, and bind Chriitians to the end of the World. And this brings not back ludailcnc, 
neither leads us to Sacrifices , and the like , which pointed at Cnrilt to come i but contrarily , this day and 
the duties o[ it , holdout Chrift already come ; which dcftroyeth all the le Ceremonies and Sacrifices , and 
declareth them to be gone. 

A third exception, It cannot be compared with the Lords Supper :. for , i. The Lords Supper , is clearly 
inftituted ; but this is not clear in the inltitution thereof 2. The Lords Supper, is a Sacramenrj this is not : 
and dayes may be changed, as Sacraments cannor. Jnfw.l. To the laft part : It is a begging of the Q leltion: 
if It be the Lords day,fet apart for his Service, all the world cannot change it j except He, who can change 
Sacraments alfo. 2. To the firft part ; That the inftitution of tlais day is iwt lo clear , as the inftit ition of 
the Supper. Anjv^. We do not paralel them in refpecSt of clear ntffe or inftitution: b jr, in refpcvft of ihe 
giouna, or realon why they get this name: which fuppones an inftitution. Ir the Sacrament oF the 5apper> 
be called fhe Lords J'uppcr, bectufe inftitutcd by Him» for a fpeciall ufe i fo muft the Lords day get this name 
onthisreafon; or, fome better or clearer reafen from Scripture muft begiven. 

For the fecond , Seing it gets this nametobe called the iofi^/i/:?/; Itmaybequcftioned here concerning 
our ipanner of fpeaking of da\ es, calling the Lords day Sunday* the nextday after it Monday, &c. whicn 
Juath the firtt rife from Superftuion, if not rromldolatry : fome of them being attributed ro l*lanets,as Sunday 
and hUnday ; fomeof them to Idols, as Thurjdjy, Slc.B Jt to fpeak to the thing it feif^i look to the Primitive 
times, we will find Sunday called the Loi ds day j and the dayes of the Week by the firit,iecaid,third,d:c.But 
the names of dayes , bcinglikethe names of places and moneths,folksmurtfpeak of them , astheyapein 
ufe, and Scripture warrands us fo to do, ^Hs 17.22.Paui is faid to ftan J h th: midft of Mars hiU.AUs i8 1 1. 
Ipeaketh of a Ship,M'hofe figne w^s Cafiar and Poliuxi So, Mofchyjamaiy, fuly and Augu^, are from the 
Idols Mais and Janw, or,derived from men th.it appropriate more than ordinary to thcmfeives. And thojgh 
it was ordinary to Chnltians, in the primitive times, 1% call this day the Lords day among themfelves > yet , 
whenthey had dealing with the j#t>'/, they called it /^eS^jii^tt^: and when they hid dealing with the 
heathen, they called it the Sunday. And lo , tho.igh it be bctt to fpeak of days as Scripture nameth them ; 
yet, it is agreeable with Scripture, to dt fi3;n or denominate them,as they ace ia ufe among.a people,dpecially 
where no lupcrftitious ufe is in naming of them. 

For the third. The Sarwitification of this day. It is pointed out in lohn his faying, hz was in ths Spirit on 
the Lo. ds day : to point out this , that this day requireth a fpecial SanCtitication and letting apart to Wor- 
iliip God. And th:re arc four ft ips of it mentioned in the Scripture. The i.is negative abftinence,not on- 
ly from fin , but from onr civil and ordinary afi^drs , which are lawful on other daycs,but noton this day J fa. 
5^. 1 3, The 2 -is pofitive : in devoting itto God, and fpending the whole day in duties of Worfliip* in read- 
iogj Jiearingj prnying,fijiging, breaking of bread, o; celebrating the Communion, ABs 20.7. And that,not 


Chap. I. I]ookj>fthe "Revelat'm. ^y 

onl^ in private duties; but in publick : and in private, wtieii the publick is interrupted , except in cafes of nc- 
celiity. 3. I cfhould be fpent in the duties ot charity.' though the fanClification of this day cannot confift 
with working; yet, it may ftand well with giving of almes, and feeing to the neceflities of others, i Cor.\6. 
1 ,2. A fourth Itep, is , in the Text: to have a holy and (andtificd frame, a divine ftamp, a heavenly conver- 
fation. more than ordinarly taken up with God and Chrift, and the things of another Life that day. This is 
the main thing wherein the Sibbath is to be Sandifi^-d, and wherein it rcprefents heaven , to be abftraifted 
fromthe world j and to be living above in our Spirits, eminently raviihed in Spirit, as abftratitedfrom things, 
we are to be taken up with on other days. The frame of a Sabbath, sho jld be a kind of ravishment,whcre- 
in not only we arc not taken up with working our ordinary callings , but we do go about Prayer and other 
Spiritual duties in a more heavenly way, than on other daycs, and that with a difference in our frame , being 
moreelevatedandSpiritual, welhouldbeothermen, in moredivinecontemplation.' This is the main thing 
called forin fandtifying the Sabbath : and therefore,H*i.4. heaven is fet out bv the Sabbath : wherein there 
ought not only to be a cealiwg from our own works j but an enteriag into our reft, Hebj^.io. as it is ( I/j.58. 
1 30 a delighting in God, calling the Sabbath our delight, the holy of the Lord and honourable , the heart 
being taken up with it. 

Remembcrfrom all that hath beenfaid , this day is the Lords day : and it faith that folks should fpcnd 
it . not as they like ; but for Him, and about the duties ot H;s fervice. It is not the fancitifying of the Sab- 
bathto fpend an hour or two in publick, and the reft of it in our own difcourles, pleafing and (flelightfome 
to our felves. All d'ayes are Gods ; but He hath given you fix, and rcferved (hz feventh to himfelf. "V e should 
be with him in the fpiriton the Lords day. which isthe main ufe pf all that hath been faid» 


Verf. 10. I'^as In thefpirifonthe Lords dajiy arti heard behind me agreatl^oke , 4t of a trumpet. 

1 T. Sayini , I am Alpha and Omega, the firft andthelaji : and what thou feeft , write in a baok^y and find it 
unto tbefetienChurchet %vhich arc in AJia, unto Epfxfus, andunto Smjm^y and nntt Bergamos , avdunto T<»/- 
atira , and unf Saidis , and Philadelphia ; and unto Laodicet. 

JOHN hath in the verfes before, and in the beginning of thi5>put by the.particular circumftanccs relating 
to this vifion : we sball fay no more of them. We come to tnc vifion it lelf, in the fvft of the chapter , 
with fome circumftances, making way to Uhn^y writing of what he faw. 
We comprehend, under the vifion, notonly whatisobjed:edtotheeyc,orwhatIffft«faWi but all 
that he fees or hears , whereby fome new thin g is reprefented to tobn , or that which he had heard or ken 
before, is again more clearly revealed, and made known to him , asitulcd to be in the extraordinary Pro- 
phets, having Gods mind, feveral wayes, manifelted to them. 

This part of the vifion hath three fteps, Firlt, What Mn heard j from the midft ofverj. i o.to iperfM. S> 
condly. What he did, tfr.i 2. And,thirdly , Followeth that which he faw, to T^crf.ij. the relt of ttie chapter 
from ■)?«>/ ly.hath feme following effects and circumftances, to clear the vifion,and I«/j»*/ writing of it. 

That which lohn heard, is three wayes defcribed. i . In the nature of the voice, which he heard. 2. From 
the place where , or the manner or way how he heard it ; the voice [pake behind him . 5 .The particular n atter 
that was fpoken.Firft>the nature of the yoice which he heard, is fet out with two words, i. It's called i^reat 
>wVe. i.It wasa voicCifj c»/<? ry//w/?«,oMil<e a trumpet. 

\,AifeAty>okt,i\\z'i is, a mighty found? a voice that made a great noilc, asafrcrwards,litfr/ii 5. ^»V Vow"^<« 
asthejound of many waterf, like the tumbling down ofagreat river over a high fall or precipice* 

2. It was a voice *« of a trumpet y that is, 1. Not a con fa led or inarticulate Ibund, but aitately voice, having 
9. kind oF majefty with it. 2. Like a trumpet, giving a ccrtaih and diliindt found. And , 5 .I<i« atn/mpct, to 
Itir up ^ohn to attention, to give him an alarm, to let him on his watch and guard to obferve what he faw and 
heard. And it imports the fe four things, which might be fo many grounds of Do(ftrine. i.Themsjcflyofche 
Peribn , who was fpeaking to J>7;», that Ja^» may come to take hirn up j it is to shew that it Mas no com- 
mon Perfon, but oir Lord lei us Chrift, that is ftatcly in his coming: & this is the firft thing that folks should 
have,when they coaie to hear the Word, they should be aftedled with the majefty of him who fpeaketK and 
confider it's his voice, '^ho shakes the hea');fin and theearth, that maki'S the. hindctio foilfs , ^c. Pial.ip. a.It 
is to point out to John the great diftanee between him and the Perlon thatfpeaketh to him , and fo to bumble 
laim,and toafted him with a bumbling and kindly fenfeof hisown infirmity* And thefe two go ccgeriier, 

D 2 t^ 

3§: A» Expofit'mof tke^ Chap, i. 

to wit, an impre^jn of the ftatelinefl'i and niajeity ui viod, who fpeaksi and an humble fcnfe of mhrmity in 
the creature. S x\iin Abraham, Gcn.i8.*7. Behgid nov» 1 1 h^l^e taken upon mtf off iaJ^unig the L^rd, yvht 
^m hutdtjfi and ashes, and yerfi^., Shall not ths judge of all the earth do right > And they arc aifo joyned, £c- 
oUf.^. I j2.. J^eep thy foot when thougo^ into the boufe of God: God is in hea'pen > and thou upon earth : let thy 
tcordsbefew. 3.; It is to put lohn to an holy attention to hear, and to be watchful in hearing., what He was to 
fay to him i th^trumpetfoundethihat he maybethebetcer taken heed to when He fpeaks. And thisisal;o■ 
agoodpropercyofh^:arers,when,asicis^Sf 10.33. We can fay with Cerw«//«* , IVe are all here pre em k' 
fore Godtto hear whatfoejer thingf arc commanded thee of God i to be in a humble, watchful polturc'having 
the heart laid open to vvhatfoever God willfay 3 hanging on Him, as chephrafeis, Luke ip.48. 4. The found 
of the rrumpet,.is not only to waken to attention j but to put to adtion : 11 gives, not only a diftindt lound for 
diredlion j but it putito doing : to point at the nature of our Lords voice, and how it ought to be heard. It's 
not enough to hear, .but there would be a fuitablenefle to the voice heard , according as the trumpet founds 
diftinAly. Folks would hear fuitably, and M'elcome what is faid^and conform their pradice iheretOj taking 
With convidions> challenges, dire(5tions to duties, promifes, ^c. as the Word giveth them. Therefore the 
Preaching of the Word, is compared to th; founding of a trumpet, Jja 53. Liftiipthj y>oice like a trumpet ^ 
thatis, powerfully and diftindtly : andj as it fuppons fomethingon tne Mi-niiters tide , that h,; M'oald nave 
his voice trumpetfikci foit fuppons fome thing the fideof the nearers, that they would conform their pra- 
»^icQ fuitably toit , as Souldiers prepare themfelves at the found of a trumpet, 1 torintb.j^.8> 

The fccond circumftance, is the place where, or the manner now> he heard the voiccjit Ipoke Behind him; ic 
came not as before Jafc/i j but as it were unavyare^ furprifing him behind him. 1 .The more to affedt John wnh 
the fojnd, and to make him inquire in it : for, the more furpi-iling a thing be, it atfcdb th e more, and wakens 
np the more delire to enquire in it. 2. Tnatour Lord may even try Jo/^n how he will carry himfelf infol- 
lowing the enquiry of the voice: and lo to put John to pains to Hnd it out. Tneref ore ,2/4.30.21. it is faid 
Theushallheur a Ipoice behmdthee: partly, to iigmhe that our-backs are on God,M'hen he lpeaks,we are run- 
ning a-way from him: partly ,10 ftirus up to^urn our face abour,as it wcre,and to enquire after what is fpoken 

Kct/*.i i.The third ttiing,is,the matter fpoken: 5c it contains two things. i.A defaiption of the Speaker,his 
Title and Name, I am J'pha and Omega, the fir fi and the I i/i,the lail two words,are an expolition^of the tor- 
mer two.2.The Commislion John gets, and the diredtion given him.i.GeneraiJy,tJ Arite what he faw. And 
3 Jvlore particularly ,to fend it to the feven Ch.jrches.For this Title,we fpoke oi iz before, ticrfS. 

It is our Lord, alferting his own Godhead, as boing the tirit , the b.ginningof all the Creation of God a- 
ilively, being of himfelf Goi e{r=ntiall,5c giving a beginning and being to all things that ex.ft , Joh.i' 3. 
^U things were niadebj him, and -without hln mm not anything rnade t'oat "^dsmade j and the ialt e^jd of ail 
things: not only everlafting himfelf, without eiKijbutLo vvhoxe Honour atv ail things that have a b.^inmng 
He is the ultimate end, they are all for Him. 


Anf\v. B;fides this generall, ;that it is to hold out Chrifts Godhead: therefore, this and other fuch like 
Tiiles, arefo often give.i him in tbis Book: which is of excellent ufe and benetit , to have this born in upon 
the hearts, and minds of finners. 1 1 is repeated here: I .That lohn might know fro.n whom he haithisCom- 
misfion ; even frotn Him, who iiad power to give him a Co.nmisfion both to fpeak and to write ; Tuc firft 
andtbelafi : a thing that concerns Mmillers to know when they come out to Preach the\Vord,whof(. Com- 
mislion they have, that they take not this honour to tbemfelvcs, nor from men, except in the ordinary way 
appointed by Him: for except they have Cnrilts VVarrand mans , will not Commiilionate them to go to 
Churches and Preach at their own hand. :.It is alfo for the Peoples caufcj to learn them to take the Word off 
labn's hand. It is not lohns word, that cometh to then j but the Word o't Alpha and Oincga^ thefrSiy & the 
lafi: And it were good for us fo to fpeak j & good for you fo to hear the Word. That fame Jefus Chritt, that 
gaye/eAwand the Apoftles warrand to Preach and Write, it'othit fame jelus Chrilt that fendeth out Pallors 
aod.Teachers to Preach: it'oHethat gives gifti to men f.r edifying the body, Eph.^.iz... H;s Warrand to 
boiih,i$ one; and His Authority.CominifTionating both,is onc,& both are gifc^ fur the Churches good. 

The fecond thing in thistfcffe , is, theCommiiCon lohn gets.i.lngenetail,to write what he faw.2.Morc 
pc-\Tticularly, to fend it to the leven Churches. 

.1 . i IVfite what thoufeefi : that is, not this Vilion only, which thou haft feen j bjt all the Words and Cir- 
cumttances which thou haft feen, or fh ill fc e and hear : And fo ii%- his firft warrand to write this Revela- 
tioH^ andfend,itto the Churches: it pointsat the Authority, on which the written Word is founded jic de- 
pends not on men,but on lefus Chi ift that gives warr-wd to write; & we ihould look.on the Bible » Sw^yery 
Caapter thc.eaf as by. Chnfts direction written to-us. 

2. The 


Chap.f. Book,of the Revelation. 2^. 

2. lie matter he ftiould write is reftrided, JVrite, not every thing that pleafcth thee,bHt what thou feeft : 
to point out the guiding and infpiration of the Spirit inthefe holy Men, vhowerePen-menofthe Scrip- 
ture j they fpake and wrote , as they wereinfpired and guided by the holy Ghoft. 

2. It (hews, that thsLC is need, and it is requifite , that men have a particular Commiffion to«rrythc 
"Word CO People: not only aCommiffion, in general!, to write, or, to carry the Gofpel; but for every particu- 
lar meiragc. Not that men fhoid be anxious, or perplexed,about their Warrand,or CommifTion , in an ex- 
traordinary' way's • but to weigh well the Time, Place, Pcrfons , and fuch Circumftances as may clear their 
Commiflion in an ordinary way, there being fome things to be written & fent to one Church by Chriits 
"Warrant, which are not fo toanothers every Church hath their particular Meflage & CommifTion reneWed. 

2. More particularly,what lie ihould da with it, when it is writcen in a Book j Send it to the [eptnChurches 
tbatis John, this Revelation is not to ly befide thee : but it's for the benefit of the Church : fend it therefore 
to the fcven Churches in ^yJ^. i.Bscaufe molt famous in that time j and becaufe near to P<i/w«;, where he 
was J and becaufe it's probable ^tf^» had fome particular relatioa to them ; and their need prcfently required 
ir. This Book of the Reveiation> is fent for the benefit of" the Church :ahd therefore ought to be welcomed 
thankfully, as a rich jewel. • „ . ^. . . , . 

Weihewed before, why ibefe Churches were cuMt^ feven , and not/Ae Church in Afta> \'rf4' and fay no 
more of it now. Thefe Churches, are particularly named. We fliall not Itand on a Geo ^ raphicall defcrip- 
tion of the Places. £//>«/»«, is fpoken ofatlarge,^^. 19^20. This Church and J'ot/'W^, were in that part of 
JJia the lelfe, called io'pia i Pergamof, in that parr, called Mto.'ia , Thyatira,iS(frdis,ind Phila.ielphh^n Ljdia i 
and Laodiceat in that part, called Caira, or. Cam : which not being profitable to you to infift upon , m'c shall 
take fome generall confiderations from the words and fo proceed. 

And, i,Ic would bcconfidered why thefe Churches, are deligned from the name of the Cities wherein 
they M'cre.' We rather fpeak a word to this ; becaufe we find Churches in the New Tcfliment . named by 
T€>wns It's true, the Churches in Gtil(9tia , are alfo named i but moft frequently they are named by Cities . 
as the Church at Jcrufalemi the Church ac I{^ome, the Chiirch at Corinth, 8cc. And Ttus is to ordain Elders 
in every City, by Bault appointme nt : which was for the City ; and it's like alfo , for tfie edification of thefa 
about, God making the Gofpel fpread fion^ Cities to Countries about, as it is faid , the Word fpread from E- 
pkejut to all Afia, though there were other Churches befidc thefe, that were within the walls of thcfcTowns. 
The reafons of this, we conceive to be , i . Becaufe the Ciaes, or Towns , were moft famous for their popu - 
loufnefle j and were well furnished with Officers ; and there^was moft occafion of getting a Harveft of S juIs 
io them,- by fpreading the Net of the Gofpel among them, in rcfpe^t of which accidentall and politick confi- 
derations, which belong not to the eflence of a Caurch, fome Cities being more famous and able to keep the 
word of truth, and make it furth-coming to other Churches , Ic is not un-agrceable to Scripture , to have 
particular rcfpcd to C'tics, and Churches in thsm, as they may further the work of the Gofpel. 2.'Becaufe ih 
thefe great Cities, and Places of concourfe,theMinifters & Ojficcrs of the church, whoferved in the work of 
the Lord, and went round in acircuit in the Cnurchesabout, had their molt ordinary refidehee , as it would 
feem ,• and that their fixed, coUegiat meetings &,eoaibinacions were there, i. Bxaufe we find no particular 
Congregations mentioned, but only the Church at (uch a Town written unto, though there was many par- 
ticular Congregations about ; & thefe Cities kept riot the Word within themfelves. 2. Where they are men- 
tioned, as the Church at lerujalem: it taketh in not only th;fc withm the walls , but all the Churches in J«- • 
dei: Co Corinf hiZzkes in Cenchreat^. tj 1 ir r. r r 

2. Confider thofe Churches as once given to idolatry: ^phejus,\vzs famous, or rather, infamous for that, 
\4Sii ip. yet now Chrift cfteems them ail Churches , beftowa an Epittle upon them,holding out, i .His love. 
2.The power of His Grace and Gofpel. 3. The foyeraignuy & f reeneffe of His Grace , breaking in on the 
kingdom of fin & Satan araongft them, and that Chrift can winn in Churches to Himf elf , out ofthe rtioft: 
profane hsathennishSc Idolatrous cities 8c people. ^ ... 

3. Confider, Thefe cities are refpeded by Chrift: & it s not becaufe they ire cities: tut becaufe they are 
Churches: that which makes them to be preferred before others,is the_Churchcs in them ; And this is it that 
maketh places carry refpeift with lefus Chrift,more than all the glancing vidtories & glory ofthe world; 

4. Confider them,as they are fome of them more,(ome of them lefle , yet, none of thcm,are called Icfll* or 
more Churches.£/>Ac/i«>M here were many thoufands, is but a Church, as Smyrna, &<)thcr lefler towns are': 
the reafonis, the Scripture goes rot upon multitude , & external confiderations of that kind j but lifbntbe 
unitie that is among Minifters,& Officers,which is not aftrid:ed to one particular Congregation : and where 
it rs,it makes an union among many,asamongft few j 8c amongft few, as amongft many. 

f.Confider, That the number of thefe Churches is according to the places where they \^'ere fixed , and 

^ % vrhcr*;- 

:j,o ^ AnSxpofit'mofthe Chap.r. 

wiier?the member? did ttitvabit: \rhich shews , that Parccaial marches by bounds or towns inconvenient 
lying, is not unfLiirable : bit Gonfonant to Scripture: wherefore rbe Church of fpfeff«f ,or,ofany certain place, 
inclu«'Icth all the Profeflbrs living there, the}' are acco jntcdof cliat Cliurch and no other , as providence hath 
put them together: and the Churches arc divided a; they live tundry. No indweller oi'Ephejuh is accounted 
of the Church of Smyrm , or contrarilyj order in this, being well confiltent with the Golpel: and as we will 
riot find mention madein Scripture of two Ch.jrches, in one placc,what ever thenumbcr l>e.({avc when they 
areaftirfub-hvided, as i Cor. 14.) 5owc\villnotiindany^aintfpokenof, as belonging to any Congrega- 
tion, but a? they dwell: and the Church at luch a place, and Saints of fuch a place, arcftill takcntobeof 
a like extept. ^ ■ ' 

6. Confider, Some of them were more corrupt, others of them were more pure ; yet , he writes an Epiftle 
tothcmall: fome hath a narne that they are hving , whenthey aredcad; l"ome afe fallen from their hrlt 
love i (ome have in them thole that hold the dodirrine of the Ktcola'ttivt 5 fome are iukc- warm jC?c Yer,thcy 
arc all ofthcm owned as Churches, and written to. i. Becaufc our Lord looks on them, ashavingthst 
which made them to have the effencc of Vilible Churches: and m lb fn-, He gives them the name , though 
inanydefciflswcreinthen^: and therefore intitles. them fo. Heftandsnot rogiveLW»c*ij thetideofa 
Church to Himj which man^, it may be,would ibarcely count worthy the nameof Chriftians. 2.Bccaufe our 
Lords way,is not at firft to give up with Churches, and Perlbns, who are joy ned to him in Church-rela- 
tioias.i but to prcfTe upon them to be forthcoming to their obligations : he fayes not,] ye arc no Churches j 
but reckons them Churches: and on that grciLind> founds his promifcs, threatnings aiid diredtions: &■ gives 
them reproofs for what is wrong> and His advice to amend the fame : an excellent way of dealing, to have 
Ch jrches anfwerable to their obligation, and not tocalt them o3. Rcje^Stionis thelaft thing ufed, when nei- 
ther threatnings, promifes,reprc(ofs,nor directions have place to do them good. And we may fay it on the 
bye, it is Chrilts prerogative to remove Candlefticks.and diflolve ties bct%veen Him and Churches. 

7.Confider,thde Churches as they are now, comparing them with what they wereoncetGolden-Candle- 
fticks ; now dens for Mahomet : the Godhead of Chriftoncc written of to them: now. trampled on. Whick 
lliews, I- How^ doleful a thing it is to defpife warnings. 2. To what a hight Churches defedtion may come 
w: when there is not a healing in time: when falling from the firtt love is not taken heed to , it may come to 
make a Church no Church. Thefc Churches were once as glorious as ever GitfJ^i'ftJ was, and more, PW 
writing to fnnth'y of them, and here ytbn to them all | yet , for contempt of the Gofpel , God breaks the 
;ftaves of beauty and band*, and they arc no Churches to Him.Tremble rethink upon it. 

S. Confider, that lokn now in prifon writes : th -Church is obliged to I^>/?»*imprif®nment. We now have 
moe writings by the Aportlcs Epittles from their prifons, than we have from their liberty , God making thi» 
good ufc of mans malice. 

9. He repeats his commidion , not only in generall , but to every Church , as their peculiar meflfage was , 
that he might bear out his commiflion in his dealing with them i and that they might know the warrand 
they had to hear him. Neither Minifters ought to fpeak, or people to hear, exceptthey be warranded : there 
is an unwarrantable ncflc in hearing, as there is in fpeaking, Prolp. ip. 27. And people would make confci- 
ence in hearing, that it be not done indifferently i and there M'ould not be mdirfcf ent accefle for all loPreacb, 
mi for hearing, but as the Lord warrands. 

L E c T u R. E vr. 

Verf.i l.^hi Itutmi to fee the take thstffah "Pfith me.Anihtingturneddfx'^[ey>en golden canMeflkkj. 
I ^. Awi in the midfi ofihtfe'Un canAltflkks , one like unto the Son of man , clothed with a garment down ta 
the foot , andprt about the faps with a golden girdle. 

14. Hishe^id, and his hairs "^ere white tike wooU , oi Vi>hite atfiow, andhisejes were*** aflame tffirei 

1 5. Afid his feet like unto fine braffc , ai if the) burned m a furnate : - — 

THc fccond cifcunnftdnce, orftep, of the firftpart of the Viuon, is whit John did, T'er/ri2.or his car- 
riage when he heard the voice, Ipoken of before, tierf.iO. Iturmdto fee the yoice that (pake: a voice 
J9not properly the objevfi of fignCj butit'stwo wayes tobeunderftood. I. Either /<?6m turned 
him, that is, gave pains more clearly to perceive and underftand that which was fpoken: for,/r- 
ing , in Scripture, is often fo taken, for a more clear up-taking and iinderftanding of a thing/ and fo the mean- 
i iig is, lohn haying heard the voice behind him, he lends to his ear to take it up better. Or, a. It may look 


Chap.t. Book^ef the Revelation, ji^ 

10 1*', n s Jdire, to fee him that fpoke : and lb n«: lunied, not tj . ec the yoice » but the fpeaker : and ©n the 
back of this, the heavenly Vidon is reprcfcnted to him. And being turned , Ijavf fe^en gdden candleftiekj. 
Follows what lohn law upon his turning about ; he gets this Vilion.t oiks that go about the uie of the means 
ferioufly, minding edification, they readily prolit. ^ 

Lei us (peak to that which proptriy is theVilion. Ic holdsout, or, there are holden forth in it, three 
things. I .The Church,isholden out under the fimilitudc of a Candleftick j or, the feven Chjrches o^Afia\t 
under the limiiitude of leven golden Caiidlclticks; fo they are expounded, l»«r/. 20. 2. The Mimilers of 
the Chiircbesj arc holden out under tiiQ limilicudc of feven Stars, "Perf.iS. So are they expounded in the 29 
>.TJ'.ailb. We shall forbeir any further expoiition, or fpcaking of them, till wccome to that place. The 
main thing in the Vilio.J,is, Our Lord Jeltii-,reprelenCed thcfc wayes. Firit,in His Officea, Secondly^ in 
biscxcellentqualificuionsforhisdifchargingihefeOdices. Thirdly, in his care of His Churches , anda- 
dluall executing of His Ofrices, and cxerciliag of his qualifications for the good ot hi? Churches and Mini- 
fters; He is among the one, walking i and hoidiog the other in His hand} and hath a fword , going o.it of 
his moLiih^for th _• ^o^d oi Doth. 

Qucft. i . IVheih r is it Chriji t')at appian andfpe^ks here, or n9t \ The rcafon of the doubt , is f fom \trf. i. 
Where t is faid, leftds C^riftfent andj Jgnifitd theje things by bit an^fl. 

An[vi . It IS he that appears and IpeaivS here to3f#^« , who gave him the Co nmiflion to writeiand certainly, 
ic was no Angel that gave iebn Commiirion to write and lend ic to the feven ChuicheSj but it is JefusChrilt, 
wh© intitles himlelf before, to bs the/?r/Z and the kfi '• no Angel can give Commiliion , nor dare take upon 
him thele titles and Ifiles, bucjefus Cnnit only. 2. It's clear alio to be Chrift, from the parts of the defcrip- 
tion,and from the particular chaise that Chrift is hoidcn out to have,io wit, in having a care of theChurches 
ill holding the Sc <rs in his hand, and lending a fvvoid out of his mouth. Whqcan do thslc things buiChrift? 
3.From the feven Epiftlcs, which begin witn fame part of this delcription , as belonging to Him: Heis.ftill 
Itiled by fomc part of it, ^baf. 2- and 3 . 

(^elt.2. Wio^het doth Iijus ChriJl appar here really in his Man head > or, It it^y a rtprefcntation of 
aiminayifton, fer fignifymg and holding fofth the exc€/lentpro^jenisan.iqttUtfcat>9rtstjatarein Him, at 
fometiine Godappedrid of old to wetikjnan condefie 'ding to his capacity fjt his comfort, ttf Pan.7.9, an4fometime 
ChriHt Of Dan.i o.^.t* vnhxh this Vtfwnfeemeth 10 relate ? 

AnjVi/. Wc take it not ror any rcail apparition or Chrift in his H jmanity, or as He was i^^n, conceived in 
and born of the Virgin Mary, crucitied, dead and buried, and in that nature rilen again and afcendedj but we 
take itoiily to be a reprcfentation, or vilion of the glorious properties and qualifications, ind ftatcly Majefly 
of the S^n of God, M'ho M'as, and is, and is to come, the firit> and the laft : whoas He is God, fo alfo was and 
is Man j but doth not now appear in his Humane nature, b Jt as God. I{ea^oH, 1 . Bscaufe in fubftance it is 
the fame'Vifionthatwcfind,Ddt«.7.9.andio.5. where God, and Chrilt, as <TO<i, are holden out under the 
fameexprcffions : and if thefeexpr eilions cannot be applyed in thefe places to fignifte the parts of a Humane 
body ( which God h uh nor, for He is a Spirit) there can bs no reafon why the lame cxpreirions here,3hojld 
be applied to the parts of a body, a I *s clear alfo, ifwclook totheend> which Jefus Chrift hath before 
him in this reprefcntatio.i; He being to dirc<5t feven Epiltles to the feven Churches in ^JiaM^ fcts out hiai- 
felf by lomc excellent properties, to ground the faith of his P<;ople, and move them to reverence, receive, & 
give obedience to what he writs unto them. 3 Look through ail this Vifion » it cannot be applyed literally j , 
the feven Churches, cannot be feven CandltfticKs ; the feven Miniftcrs, caiaiotbe feven Stars, 6cc. but it's to 
evidence the excellent qualifications that are iii Chrilt, under th.-fc rcprefentations : a nd therefore what lome 
would draw from this, or other reprefentations of this kind, concerning Chrifts Body on earth , ortheiibi- 
quitie of his Humanitie, or bodily prefence with his Churches, or, for protrading of his Body \ as hVimkfl^ 
manni/s and other Lutherans idledgcd ) hath nogroundfrom tins place ; butrather iL^juft contrary : if 
Chrift appeared after his Aicenfion, no oCl|cr wayes than he did b.-forc His Incarnation,he would take away 
all carnalliboughtsofhis bodily prefence on earth, j^.h'ifAid, One iikt4mto tkiS m 9f Man ■: andthis holds 
o Jt, he was not indeed Man in this Vifion : but appeared to ]oktt , as h; did to Danid j fome way leprefenting 
hjmfelf fo. Bjt, 5< The application and cxpofitionof many c^ thefe exprcsfions.Cib^p.aand^.holding forth •. 
his ejCfi to lignihe his Omnifdence and the like, will shew the abfurdity of this. But come to the three pares 
of the defcription.more particularly : wherein, as we faid, 1 .We have his Offices and Authority. 2 Hi's qua- 
lifications for executing thefe Orticcs.3 .His care of his Ciiui ches,and his atituail execute^ ot his Offices , & 
cxercifingof his qualifications for the good of i hem, and his Minifters. 

Firft, his Offices and Authority are reprefentedi his Kingly and Princely Oiificcs, under his Garments j , 
his Propheticall Office, by the Sv^ordtkatprocccdith out of his mouth, , 

It -^» Expojltim of tU Chap.'i. 

Long garments , were cfpeci ally ufcl by two Ions or Pcilons , Kings andPriefts. Exoiz^. 29. Aarm, 
ths high Fritft , and his Sons > have holy Garments agpointcd them j and the high Fridt was to have a 
lono- Robe curioufly fcwed and embroidered : fo alfo , long Garments , were for a figne of Authority asd 
reverence,- and Chrilt cafts that up to the Scribesand Phaniees, Mof.23.5. JW<if^. 1 2. 38. And Chrilt was 
clothed with a purple Robe i which Was a Ipeciall Robe, dcligning great men from others, though thw'y did 
it in dcrifion to Him. 

Vit'x'^girt ahutthi paps'^hhaioldeitprak. A girdle hath two ufes , i. It was uled for neating the long 
Robe; tor binding It up, thatit might noi be ciimberfomc tomenintheirimploymcnt, LnrA.17. 8. Gird 
tkyfelfandjcrre me. 2. Agoldmgirdle iignifieth Authority and Eminencejib the girdles of Kings ligni&ed , 
//;.?. 22.21 .when Eli'ikiff is conttitutcd a Ruler, it is faid, / wiydtath him wifhthy rebe , ana prtngthm him 
ivith thy girdle : and v^bat is meant by that, is expounded in tlie roilouang woals , 1 ^<// commit the Go- 
ycrnmert into hit hand , and he shali be a father to the inhi'.bitants oflewfalem , and to the bouj e »f]udab , 
and 1 •^.7/ tty the kty of the houfe ofDayid upm his shoulder ; he fhaUofen and none shall shut,^c. This girdle 
ot Chrilt^, is Ipoken ot , Ija. 1 1. 5. l^^r.teoufneJ}€ shall be tise girdle ofh.s lomt , andfaHhfulne{fe tht girdle 
tf hie reins. 

The exprcsfionholdeth out theie three things, which we conceive to be underftood by ir. 1. The Autho- 
rity &: warantableneUe of our Lord Jefus Chrilt His Kingly and Pdnccly Oftice , as that which foUoweth , 
doth of His^Prophctical Ofricc : hereby letting us know,tliat our Lord lelus His being in heaven and in glo- 
ry, hath not made Him lay by His Ofrices, or ctie executing of ih.-mi bac He remains King and Prieft for 
cver,P/<j/w.iio.even in heaven He bears his Oifices to nis Churches. ^.That our Lord lelus Chrilt,notonIy 
bears theleOt'ticesj but, in an excellent and glorious manner: ihere is no llich King, no fuch Prieft, noCuch 
Prophet as He : fo that whatfoever belongs to any of His Offices , ©r any part or any of them. He would 
have His people looking to Him as eminent therein: He is a King ruling in Righteo. ilnefie , ttatcly in Maje- 
fty and dominion j a Prielt, \\ixlcmttmethfor e^er , and hath an unchangeAi?le Priefihood i and , >»- al;k to fate 
ah them , ta the uu*tmofi, that come unto God hy tiim Jemg He liVsfor ever to mans mtercesfion for them: and , 
fuch an high Pr'vfi becomes U4 , "who ts holy, and haimifffe, mdefihdfj eparaiedjromjinners, and mad: higher then 
the heavens , Hcb.7.24 25,26.He is a Froplaet, luch as hath no vqjal : none teactieth likeHim. Tb. reforc 
it becometh us not only, not to have low thoughts of Chrilt, as bearing thofe Oftices j but to think of Him 
as being eminent and glorious in them, and all that concerns them. 3. It holds ojt , that our Lord Icliis bis 
ftatelineffe and glory, doth not n:iarr, nor hinder Him mttie application of His Okfices, and executing them 
for the good of «is Ch Jrch : but, for as itately as He is, for Authority , having on Hii long robe,and being 
girded with a golden girdle ; yet. His garmentis lo truced and girded , as He is fitted for His imployment , 
and to make ule ot His Offices, for the benefitof louls ( See John 13*?.) as ever he did when H^ was on 
earth. Chrifts greatncflfe and lilory, is lo tar fromunficting Hira tor the difcbtigeor His Oftices , that He 
hath robes eompatited, and himlelf lo fitted, as he may handfomly go about the difcharge of them^ing ftill 
2irded,though the girdle be ot gold. 

The fccond part of the defcripcion, \>erfl<\Xs His quahncations for HisOfSccs, fctout under the particular 
parts of a body, Firlt, His head and H is hair were like ■woo/ : this would not agree to Ch nits Manh ead in all 
appearance , He not having come 10 that age, at which men ufe to become white-haired. It is an applica- 
tion of, or an allufion to that ofDan.j.^.ii not taken out ot ir. And ih; reafon oFthe allufion, is, to let out, 
J. The Eternitie of Chrifts Godhead : tnat though He was, and is Man .; yet, before the world was, he was, 
and is the Eternal God, without beginning, that whitenelfe of the hair , being fpoken of God , to fee out His 
Eternity ; He is not from yefterday, as poor creatures are j but from everlalting,though His eternity maketh 
no change nor altcratK)fi on Him, as age doth on men. 2.1c lets out our Lord jefus His wlfdom and expe- 
rience, and the reverence chat is due to Him : He is let out as one having gray bairs,being eminently endued 
with wifdom and experience, as old men ufe to be in comparifo^iof others, and as tbeie «f younger years u- 
fually are not. Theretore,D<»».7.9.Heiscalled,/k<»«cif«(c/</<i>rx , which expounds his Appearing with 
whke\:iMs,ifa.\i2The Spirit of the Lord rep upon Him, tbejpiriij>fwfdom (.odundcrjianditig , tkefpiritif 
couttjcUnd might, tbejpira of knowledge, and ofmejear of the Lard. 

Ibjlecond part of this qualihcauou, is, m His eyes ; H/J^^-wivere^tJ a)?<?mco/^re.Hc is alfo thus fet 
forth,P<i/».lo.5. Thefee>fj, pointouttheomnilcienceofCh.ift, who, asood, lees every thing : and they 
are faid to be *w aflzme of fire , partly, becaule of their peircing nature : that as all things are naked before 
Him and bare ■■, lone lees throughly, in through and out through ibem all. Ail things are lying open, &, as 
4t were, imbow.-lled before hiseyes,He6.4.And , partly, becaule of the dreadfulBelfc,6c terribienefle that will 
arile from His omnilcience t© the wicked of ihe world:His,aDd his Churches enemies, nothing will be more 


Chap.T^ ^6ok^of the Revelation. ' 2* 

terrible to thera, nor a glance of Chrifts eye, whereby he can deftroy worlds of thetri , as v«'hen he looked 
down on Sodom and Gomorrah, fire and brimflon followed his eye, & deltroyed them. 

The third part ot his defcriptioniis Vcf/i 5. Eisfin like unto fine brafpe : this is excellent braffe, glittering 
bralle, nearcft unto gold, as being tome way mixed \\'ich it : and thele/J« ofbrajfe , poinc out not only his 
power ,biK elpecially his wayes , counfels, and difpenfations toward his people in ordering of his Ch jrches , 
Gods paths and wayesbeing ihemanner of his guiding of the world , So Chrifts feet do figniiic his fteptMng 

. . point 0'.K> I. That all his difpenfations are pure and per 

fed. 2. Excellent and iirm, loiidcand durable : there is no prevailing by the gates of hell agaiiift them 
They are pure, fpodelfe and clean: ro iniquity is in th«m, Deut/^z 4. He is the i^<?ct f'is ^ork.is perfeB : for, 
al/histta^efarejuigemem: .a GodofTruth^ and without iniqutty, jujlandrightishe. We think thisto be 
the meaning here: his wayes in his Church, his flopping up and doM'ii in it, are pure and fpotlefle , firm and 
folid ; all on-lookers cannot mark a fpot in them ; they cannot be m-nded,or b2ttered, nor hindered, he fo 
Cckerlyfets them down. It lerves to hold forth the ftatelinelfe ofeur LordJ.HusChrilt, and to bring ouc 
hearts to a holy awe and reverence of him, O, thic folks knew what he were, they would walk in more awe 
and reverence, before and with him, who is fuchaltately Perfon I Lovci reverence,and admire Jefus: there 
i« no fuch ftatcly and lovely Perfon in th.* world I fubmit to him, he vdll do no wrong. Contend not witk 
him: for, on he will go, fo (jckerly fcts he down his fteps, like pillars ot brafle. The reafons of thcfe expoii- 
tions, will appear mere, in the Inlcriptions of the Epittles, chap.z. and 3. 

L E GT U K E Vir* 

VerCi 5. — — ^nd his Ipcice/ts the found of many waters. 

16. ^/£nd he hadin his right h.indjey>enjiars : and out of hit mouth went a sharp tvio-edgedfviord : mdhis 
^umenams "^as as tke Sun shinfth in hisfirength. 

I Told you, that this Vifion doth not reprefcnt the Body of our Lord Jefus, or his humane nature; but it 
is to point out his divine qualifications, wherewith he was furnished as God-Man inone Perfon , for the 
good of his Church. And thefe things fpoken-of,as parts of a body,bear out fomc refcmblance and ana- 
logic of thefe quaIifications,that are in him ,far beyond any thing that can be conceived. 
The fourth property or qualification, is> kisy>oice: whichis Mdtohe as thefound of many "Waters. It was 
laidinthe \o terj.iohQ a great ')foiceyU'if a trumpet y here itisfaidtobc//it*//;e/citt«.i of many waters y both 
high and ^reat, ncardafar off, and very terrible and dreadfull. By his Vwce , in Scripture is unJerftood main* 
ly two things: both which may well relate to this refcmblance. i. HisefiediiaU willing and command- 
ing of things to b?, asiL*s laid, Hefpoke andit wai dote, hecommanded an i itjfood fajl, (Gen. 1.) Lettherebi 
light, andit was light : for, Chrilt as God, hath nota voice properly ; but the voice > being that by which a 
man fjgnifieshis command and will, and being here attributed to Chnil as God , it is to point out his cffe<5lual 
willing, and bringing that forth which he would have done : and ib points at the effctilualnclfeof Chrifts go- 
vernment. There is nothing called for by him, but it cometh to paflci nothing commanded, but is done, and 
that with a word. 2. It'stakenforthe manifcltation ofGoJsterriblenefTcand majefty , Pfal. 18. I3. The 
Lorda/fothundredinthehealpent , dndthehighefigarehisWtceyhailfto'ie; andcoalsoffre. In whichfenfe, 
it is applied to the thunder : b;cau^e, by it he manifeits his power , and ih ^ ws himfelf teni ble. H nee there 
is fo much fpoken of his Ipo'ce, Pfalip. 3, 4. 5) 6, 7, 8> 9. The vciceofibe Lord , &c. To shew not only the 
powerful eftedls of the Vo-ce of God in the thunder, and the way it produceth its efrecls ; but the terriblencff; 
and majefty of God who hath fuch a voice, that, as itis Hag. 2. 6. Can shake heaten and earth : which is to 
point out his dreadfulneffeand terriblcneHe, againft the enemies of his Church. If he fpeaks the word, they 
evanish: one word of this King will make the Itouteft Tyrants to quake^ as is clear from Scripture, and the 
itorieol- former times. 

A fifth q ;aIification, is, ^perf.iG. He hadlnhis right hand fe\)enftArs. Th .-feven Stars are expo;, nded 
inthelaftVr/f, to be the Minilters of the Churches. And the rca I onfofit we forbear, till \vecome tothat: 
only here, our Lord Ji.f sis faid lohixyt aright hand » thatis, power . andskill, and ad:ivity in'exerciiing 
his power : for, :he rioht hand, is the ftrongeft hand^and that by which men skilfally , & d xctroufly g© 
about the bringing to pafle of that ^hich they would be at: He hath notpower and fury,but power & skill j 

E dn<J 

34 ^*^ Hxpfttim Bfthe Cbap.ii 

and with power and skill He mana^s all His matters. Believers have noca handlefTe Mediator , { to fpeak 
Co) He hath hands, as well as feet But more of this in the third thing , contained in thi&defeription. 

Sixthly , Hi is defcribed further , Ota of his mouth wmt a f^o eigidf-word : whereby is meancd the word 
of God jcfpeciaUy the Gofpel : His >a;'ce, fpoken of before > ismoregenerall, relating to Hisunivcrlall pow- 
er and (overaignty overall the World ; Tnis relates more particularly > to :hc written and Preached Word , 
called The v^ordoftks Spirit ,'^hich is the 'wordofGod,Uph. 6. and ^harpir then a tvps edged [word dividiii he- 
f^ixt ihej^ynu and the morrtw , the foul and the fpirit, and » a difcewer »jtke thoughts •,» ;' inreni's of the he.nt, 
Heb.4. The Word iscompared to afford and a two-edged fwordf 01 theie rcafons. i. Becaiife or'thepowerof 
itiit hath a difcernlngjpeirciugspenetrating power w i:h it, to come in our hearts : and to di-''c©ver rlie thought* 
and intents of the heart, when Chnft blelleth it, and maketeh it ftrik at the roots of corruption, it will him- 
ble the proodeft hearE,andqviicken thedeadeft ipirit , and pierce through the SoulandCorifcicnCeofthe 
molt obdured perfon , as jiBs 2 Vetets Preaching did pTtckMs hearers. This is the faving and proper eftedt 
of the Word> whenit Anatomizes folks, andlayeth open their thoughts , their feeurity, pride , formality,&c. 
andftrikesatthe root of the body of death , to kill it, and be its death. 2,Bscaufeof the effeft it hath among 
carnall hearers and hypocrites ; in which refpedl, We think it is efpecially looked on here, as aftei wards in 
the Epiftk' to Pcrgamos,Chap. 2 "ptrfilAS I will fight againftthem with thefviord of my mouth. This/iv»ri, 
when rightly handled , proves a torture to the wicKed men in the world, when it difcovers their • ottennc fle: 
fo it*s faid of the two faithful! Witntfies , F^epel. 1 1. 10. that they tormented them that dwelt on th' earth i the 
Word ofGod was foiharp in their mouthsj that it did Aeiv ( Hof.6- 5.) their minds and conlciences, and gall 
ed them at the heart 5 fo ( AH. 7. ^ it is faid, Stephens hearers were cm/ m their heart , and gnashed upon hint 
Viiith their teeth; they could not abide the plainneffe and evidence of the Word, accompanied With power. 
5. B3caufeit hath a further cutting vcrtue to wicked men , when it proves through Gods Juftice, plag fing to 
their hearts and minds , and hath an inflrumentall efficacy for their flayingi when God draws out the f -ntence, 
and gives the word an edge , and makes it cut, and in His Juftice , to prbmove their deftrudtion ,7/^.11.4. 
With the breath of hii lips he shall fl*y the wicked, 1 Kings 19. ly. Him that efcapeth the f-^lmdof Jthu , sh4l 
Mlisha fay : and Hof 6. 5. i herded them by my Prophets, and ftew them by the words of my mouthy 
through Gods pronouncing of- fh up threatnings , and their corruption abufing- the thrcatnings , 
it becomes their death, i. This/"Pvw(/> is faid to proceed out of his mouth : to point out m here- 
from the force , efiicacy , and power of the Word consetn, vrhcn it piei ceih : It's not the Word, as it is writ- 
ten, or fpoken by mens mouth : but as it proceedeth out of Chrifts mouth, whick makes it profitable or con- 
vindng: and it is this which makes finners guile fo grcat>and tarmentcth hypocrites when He addeth weight 
With it, to thwart their corruption , and they repine a§;ain(l it. 

The laft qualification , is, His cauntename "^as m the Sm%shimth in htt flrength-, whereby is meaned th« Idve 
that He fheweth to His People,and the Glory and Majefty thatis in Himfelf, Pfal4.6 Lord lift ttp the Ihht of 
tky cwnterumze upon u»- , that is, the manifeftation of thy love. And Pfal. 80, the caufing of His face to fliine, 
islcveralliimeslpokenof. And this favour and ftately Majefty in Chrilt, is compared to the Sun fhinmg : 
not as in the morning, nor at even, norunder a cloud j but in his ftrength. i. Becaufe of the glorious majefly 
that is in it , as Chap. 5. 1 5. of the Song , Bis countenance 14 m Lebanon , excellent at thecedarf. there is an ex- 
cellency and beauty in it that dazels and obfcurcs all the excellency and beauty of the World,even as the light 
of the Sun obfcures the Stars. 2. Becaufe of the lightfomncfle of it : for , , Chrift is to Believers , as the Sun is 
toibe World , loh. i. 9. He w thattruelight^th-atenlightenethe'Psrymanthatcmi'.th intothe world. Li^t, both 
for diredlionand conlblation: and that is a third realon of the fimilitude. H« countenaftce is as the Sun shi>nng_ 
inhiffitcngth, for the rcfrt-fhingnelfe of it. Pfal,^-^?' His countenance makcth the heart more glad than 
corn, and wine, an<f worldly comfotswhatfocven 4. His countenance is fo compared, from the effectual in- 
fluence it h\ith on Bdievers growth : even as the vf un haih influence on the growing of comes , graffe , trees , 
herbs, and all things in the inferiour world : fo Chriiis countenance hath influence on B lievers growth in all 
thingSi Therefore, Mal^. 4. 2. I^s faid ,The Sunofrighteottfne^e shall arife'^ith healing tmder His wings tofuch 
ofifeatMis ^ame , and they sballgo^ forth artdgro'^tipas cattvt in the fall. His prefence and favour, hath a reall 
and efie^iiual inft lence on all that areunited to Him, as the fun in his ftrength , hath on herbs and plnn s. We 
point.but at thefe things , which are infinite in themfclves. O that neceflitic of union with Ghrift 1 th« ex- 
cellencieof that condition of being near to Him t He is ourhght ; there is n&liying without Him : and how 
lightfom is it, to walk with Him, a«dto dwell in Him ? 

The third thing in the dcfcription , is, Chrifts adiuall exercising of His Officesand qualifications for the 
good of His Churches and Mtnifters( which are the objecfts about which Hiscare isefpeeiallyexercifed > 
holdenouc in thefe two-, ix He vfz\Vsame»g the golden CanMefticks. And 2. He ^eps the Stan in Hisnghf 
Aoa^iihatishis Workandgfeatimploymentjas^**'). i^ii6,<indcbap.z^'P°rf.i» l.His 

Cliap*ir ^9kofthifiet>eUtm, W^ 

1. His walking aiMong the golden Cafldlcilkks, points out, i. Hisfpecial prefeoce inHis'Church: though 
Hebeomniprefent through allthe world: yet He hatha fpecial tnanifeftationof His prefcncein His Church 
and there is a fpecial relation between Him and them, as it's Ipoken of Ifrael , Vfal. 147. 19. compared with 
Deut.4. 7. jy^hat nation [0 great that hath God fo near them in ail tbifjgs,&cc} He is near to his Church in a lin- 
gular manner, in the fpecial effedsof Hisprefence. 2. It points outHis fpecial care of his Church; He 
choofeth His Church as the pleafanteft placein all the world to walk in ; and He taketh pleafure there.as in 
His Garden and Gallerie: His common providenceis extended to all the wcrfdj but he taketh fpecial notice, 
and hath a fpecial care of His Church above all the world- Ifai. 27. 3. j the Lord do keep it, I will tvatfer it e'pery 
moment; teji any hurt it , I v/ill keep it n'ght and day. See. //«. 43 3,4. 3. It points out His fpecial taking notice 
of> ana oblerving the caniage of Mis Cnurch and of all within the lame : He knoweth all the world, and the 
thoughts , words, and ad:ions of every one , allprojedts, counfels, and events before they come i but in a 
fpecial manner He taketh notice of all His Church,^ how the Work ofGracethrivcth in his people j whan 
fruithis Ordinances have among them , who are makingprogrefle, who are backfliding, what is the parti- 
cular pofturc of every foul, to Ihed off luxuriant branches, to purgeout what is corrupt, to help forward M'haC 
is right, to prevent any prejudice may come unto them : to for-lee and provide for any thing, as it may bi: for 
their good. Which ihews, i . What a great benefit it is to be a Member of this Church : if it be a mercy, to 
be under his fpecial and lingular care, it rauft be no fmall priviledge and benefit to be aMcmber of hisChurch. 
2. It lettgth us fee what manner of perlbns we ought to be, who nave Chrifts prelence lo near us, nearer than 
all the world befide : when ever we are in the Ordinances, we would take up Chrift ,as walking amongftthe 
midltof us ; and in all our converfation , apprehend him at our ear : it both calls for holincflefrom us, and 
laicthwatchfulnelfe onus, knowinghow narrowly he taketh notice of us. 3. It points out, how inexcufable, 
the faults and failings of thefe who live in the Church , are . Chrift walks among them : and yet they ftand 
not awe of him; the fignsofhis prefence are alwayes with tliemj and yet they take no notice of them; the 
nearer the ligns of hisprefence, and his fpecial care be, the greater is our fin, if it have not influence onu*, 
4. Itpoints at Chrifts tendernefleand care, for the comfort of them that dare not truft themfelves, bur com- 
mit themfel ves to him and truft to his care and tendcrnefle : he feeth well to all h; s Churchc s, and every par- 
ticular perfons condition : and is never from them : his being in heaven , hath not made himtolay by his care 
ofhispeople. This were a great confolation , if we would fingly make ufe of It. Matth.1%, Lo,2amVvith 
you to the end of the world , and he keeps his promife. 

Theothcrword , his holding the Stars in His right hand, holds out his care of his Mioifters :the meaning 
is, that as he walks in the midlt of the Churches , and takes fpecial care of chem ; fo he takes a fpecial care of 
the Minilters of thefe feven Churches, andfoof theMiniitersofall the Churches. And under this is hold- 
enout, i.Thedifficultyofthe Minifttrs ftation : they are not able to ftand their alone , except tkey be up- 
holdcn by Chrift : partly , becaufe of the malice and oppofitioii of men, and Devils that by M'ickcd men feck 
to ruine and overturn the Church and work of God intheirhandsj the venting of their malice begins at 
them ; and partly becaufe of the greatnefle of the burden and charge , that lies on them : and partly al^ from 
their own infirmities, t$c. 2. It points out the Lords fpecial care of them , according to their ftation, ftVait , 
and charge : as their charge is great , and their diTficulties grcatand many j lo he exercifes his power for theic 
diretftion , defence and protedlion : hehathcareof allthewerld } but more efpecially of his Churchc s : bit 
for his Churches fake,he hath, moft ofall , a fpecial care of his Miniftcrs, who are called the Mt fljngcrs of the 
Churches and the Glory of Cfltift. I C^or. 8. th^ybjingth:; men that he makes ufe offor the handling of his 
Sword, and fabduingot fouls to him. Tney often meet with little ettimation from men and walk among 
manylnarts and dangers: therefore he holds out his care, and the application of his power ,efpecially, to 
incourage and ftrcngthen them to duty in the midft of thefe fnarcs and difficulties. 5. By his holding them 
in his right hand , he points at that dependency .that Minilters ought to have on Jefus Chrift : they Ihould go 
about their duty , as in his handi lippening to his ftrength and power, rather than to ought in themfelves , for 
the performing of the task commited to them. 

1. This is for fpecial confolation in evil times , that Chrift hath fuch a care of his Minifters and Churches: 
let the Devil pluck again and again to have a Mmiftery down, fomtimes by force , fbmtimes by flight, it will 
not be , they are ftars, and in Chrifts hand : fooner will Scars be plucked from heaven, than they from him. 

2. Chrifts care of his Church, kyths in caring for his Minifters : The right care of the one, is carried along 
with the right care of the otherrand ii'vinot aright care of Churches, where there is not a refpcdt toMinifters: 
ChfiftHcnoweth the good and the ill of the one , ftands and falls vvith the good and ill of the other; there ii 
fuch a connexion between them , and luch a fibnefli , they are fo interefted the one in the other, that accord- 
ing as the one is |fo is the other; ordinarly ,ifthe Minilter be carnal and fecurcifo is the flock ; and ifth^ 

E 2; - ^ - ^ Minift.r 

3^ AHlxpofitmofthe, Ghap.r; 

Mmiflerbeiu a lively remperj there will alfo be lome life among the flock. Aadif wefpeak in rettrcnce to 
ihofc who have enmity at the Church, hatred againft the Church is vented> & begineth at hatred againft the 
Minifteric»U's impoirible to be careful of Chrilts Cnurch & de fpife Sc hate his Miinfters, or overturn a Mi- 

5. It shews,that there is a refpeift due to them tliat Chrift puts in this place; and where Chrift h ith put 
refpedt, it brco.nech us to put refped: alfo: th.TC fliould be a iympathie with them , and a reverencing of 
them, if it were for no more but for this caufe , that h.^ keeps them in his right hand : refpeCl: to him, sho jld 
make rcfpedt to them: It's aftrange R.iligion,to profeffjrelpeCt to Churcnes and Soiius , and ihow io little 
to Minifters: Chrift did never Id. 


Verfi7. ^ndwhen ^faw him, Ifellat his feet 4i d:ad : andhcl.udhif right hand upon me ,fayingum9 me, 
Jtar noti l am thefirft and the hfi. 
18. J amhe fhM ifpeth, and \vai dead : md behold, I am aliyefar evermore , jtmtn, — — 

YEhave heard of this Vifion, w^hich JoA» faw : the Lord beginneth with it at the entry of ibis task, 
of writing this Book of th: B^\:latimy toimprint on him a Itamp and impresfion of his ow.i excel- 
lencicj as a preparation and hcting or him for the Work ; even as hz began \vith Ifaiahy chap. 6- and" 
with Ei^ekjcl. chap.i. Bearing oat, by chele Vifions,:^ reprefentanon of hisGlory &.M.ijelty,there- 
by to fie 6c q jaline th^m for their duty: for, they arc htteft to bear Gods melfage, & to deicribe Him to o- 
thers,chat are thus preparedj8cqualiHed,6chave lom= reverenc(.& aweofGod irriprinted o;i their own hearts 

Prom the 17. ytrf, and forward to the end, we have fome conlcq jents, that followed this Vifun , or, 
fome circumftances for the cdifi:aiion of the Church , for clearing of the Vifion before mentioned , and for 
tnakingwayforjf<,;f>«V writing ofwhit he faw. Andthey are fojr in number, i.. Theeifedf, which the 
Vifion had on fa^« , in the beginning ofVfr/17. for as ftately and lovingly as JefusCnrilt reprelentedhim* 
lelf , he could not bear it ; but faints vviien he iees Him , and he falls ac His feet as dead. 2. A conlola* • 
tion propofed by our Lord toUhn, which hathf.n'crallft.-ps, m the latter part of \>:rj: 17. and 18. wherein 
as lohnkythcd weakncffe, (o Chrift kythed much love, tendsrntlTj , and skilfulntlie in applying an effc;-. 
«9:uall remedy, fo: c Jring the dUt^mper lehn was into. 3- A repetition ot'lghn's Commisiion &: Warrand- 
to write, vcTf.i%. And 4. An explication of that part ol ine Vilion ,, concerning the meaning ot the leven- 
golden Candlcrticks, and thj Stars, verfZo. 

I. And yvhen Ifa"^ him, I fell dov^n at hisfcei m dead^ Thi; is the firft confeq lent or effed' of the Vifion. 
IfelldiViniddeal: thatis, I wasb:nummid( asit were) and dammishcd with the light ofihccxccUenc 
Mijefty and Glory that I faw in him^ and I was put out of capacity to ad the ads of body orniimi , as i£ 
1 had been dead i f could no more exercif: , or a6f the ads of a hying man , th m a dead man can , as D.iMi:/., 
Chap.io 8.9. And it hath beenoften feen in the beft of GjJs Children , whin more than ordinary rcprelenr 
titions of Gjd have b^en let forth , they have b.comc as dead men, unfit for aftion. And it proceeds from- 
two ground?. i.Fromthe exceeding great diftance ihatisbecwixt theinfi.nteMijefty of God, and finite 
creatures: thebrighcneni; of the Glory, Excellency, and Mij city of God the Creator , burdeneth &over^ 
b-irdeneih th: weaknelfe and infirmity, of the beft of creatures : for, if the eyesof creatures be that weak,th it 
ihzy cannot look on the S in, what wond.-r that fi.fh and bloud is norable to look on th : S-.m of Righteojf'* 
nsd'e. Tnisnew wine^istooftrongfjrouroIdbotdes.z.From the fear of a begun quarrell, andgrojnds'of 
a continued quarrell then apprehended, making not only a difpropor tion, through infirmity, betwixt the 
M jcfty of Go j and th^ creature, which is lb many wayes dcf.dtive to comprehend him ; but alio making ^ 
dilcoiiformity through fin , and lb a fear to appear betore him: which makes the creature foar undoing , as 
\nlja.6. IVjumr, iamuidbne: for I am a man of unclean lips i far mm eyes haY: {ten the Lordof'hojis.: 
For, though before the Fall, when God and Adam were rrienas, i&e could have endured God to Ipcak to 
him} yet,afcer the Fall, the appearance of God is terrible unto Him: when hehearsHiS voice, heisafraid, 
and run; & hides himlelf. And there is i'o-.rxt thing of this tear, tha: fticketh to the bjftj a fear that rifeth f om 
the fight of lin, which nearnefie to God doth dilcovcr. And it's like thn fome thing of both ihefe grounds 
were mjohn, as may be gathered from o ir Lords application of the remedy , and cue grounds whereupon 
he goes \n comf jrcing him, He Uycth h'S hand on him, andpengtbenr him, and jaiih, fear not, ^c. wheieby 
it leemeth'. I. /a'jwcoiiceived, from a diltemperofmind,Cnriit would reckon with liim,and withPi/er.Ltt^. 
.$ 8= fears C as a fintull and prof ain perloa in his owii account ), his b;ing lb near fuch a Glorious, ^id Holy 


.Chap.l. Book^ofthe RepiUt'.en. %y 

Majefty . And a.This diftemper of mind a^ hs,^ na h inlluence on his body,and makcth hi-ti fall do wn at 
his feet; not out of reverence , to worih p Hitti: but bsiiig overfv\'ayed with the exceirivenelTe of fear , that 
maltered and overcame him, hecannoc Itand up,but fjlicth down as dead, 

5v This fets out to us the great difproporcion, that is beiwixt creatures and the Majefty of God : thebc- 
loved Difciple ]ohn, cannot ftand before Him whenh." kyths; but falleth down as dead.I/4.40. 1 5-, 17. & 41* 
1 1 ,12,24, All Nacions are as nothing before Him, or as the duft in the ballance j a little nearneffc to God [ 
fliOLiid leave a ftamp of h.imility, and an impresfion of the Majefty and excellency of God upon us. This is 
one of the fountain Graccs,h jmility, and a holy awe of the Majefty ot God: and this is the way to come to it, 
to get a right fight oftbai excellent Majefty thatisinHim. 2. Reverence and admire Gods wile and well 
ordered governing of this World, efpecially thefe things that concern hh Ch jrch and People. Wonder that 
God hath carved out fuch a way in the works of Creation and Providence , and in the difpenfation of the 
Gofpel, & myfterics of Salvat-on futablc to o jr weaknelfe : and fo as there may be communion kept wif h 
Him, Jtfi,26.9. -It is made one of the ftacely fteps of his power, that He hoUith back_thefaco of his throne > ^ 
fpeadeth bis cloud upon it : He draweth the vail of the firmament before his Throiie , to keep his Glory from 
breaking forth, and eating up men: And in the difpenfation of the Gofpel , he hith chofen the Miniltcry of 
weak men, to reveal his mind by tK^m tous: and fpcaketh not immediately himfelf ; becaufe we could not 
endure it : if ye heard him once fpeak ,as he did on mount Sinaiy ye would fay as IjrAeldidyLet not Codfpe^i 
tousleUvnedie. And this way of revealing himfelf, shojikfbefofar from making us caltac it , that it 
fliould make us wonder at his condefcendency in hedging up of himfelf ( as it were ) for our good.g* It lets 
us fee how' much we are in His reverence, that deals fo tenderly M'ith us , when a little gl.mpfc of His Glo- 
ry, alookinj>of his eye, a drawing by of the vail, would kill us, and make qs as if we had never bjen. a Ic 
meweth us alfo, that humility and reverence even in thebeft of Gods People;, is ofcen ready to degenerate 
i.no fervile fear and difcouragement. The worshippmg of J.*fus Chriit in humble reverence, was a 
duty called for from Jo^w ; yet this diftemper of exceslive fear vras not called for : fuch is oar weaknefle, 
and the flipperinefle ofo.ir v^'alking that hardly can we keep th; right path , but deviat to one lide or oth:r : 
our faith is ready to degenerate into prefumption j and our humility to fainting and d.fpondency of Ipirit i 
and our fear, to difcouragement , hearlefnefle, and diftruft 5 our corruption is rea \y to ab jfe any thinj- : f jr 
though there be no cxcelfe in thelc graces i yetihcremay beinusexceifc in the- excrcife thereof by'reafoa 
the corruption which is in ns. 

Tne2- thing, isX'hrifts tender care ofM» under this fit: IVhinhefa'U at hi: feet a; d^ad , Hec^mO^rts 
him : and this is fctjdown in three ltep5. i . He laid his rigk hand upon him, as a fi .>n of his kindling (T; , for 
his encouragement. 2. Giveth bimagenerall vvordofexiiortatioo, torhiscomfoVt,/L'<?r«o/. g.Hi^iv.th 
himthree generallgrounds why he should not fear, to fupport his faith.. Objer^e^ ing^^nerall , OurlLzrd' 
lefusHis exceeding tendemclfeof Folks, efpecially in theirfics ofiaincinganddifcoura ,ement which a- 
rifetbthrojghtxielrmiftakin^jOrwronguptakingofHim. Firft , It points at thiexceedino- tenderne(& 
aidefifeiftualneffeof H/>cire, thaton thi back of this fi: >layctho.i H s aaid and iA\x\^fear not°j thattaketh. 
hini at this nick of hisdift-mp^r, and raifeth him. 5 condly , wh tt is the gre^t gro jnd of conrolarion that 
ispi'opofedjitisa holdin^forchofhimlelf, I am the firft and tb: I ift. AnJ it lets us ' ee whenfolks fcires 
at Carift, and difcoarages and faints through their miltaking of Him , thereisnofuch way of curing that 
diftemper and miitake, as by a right uptakin^ of Him. Th : No:e hatii th-fe two branches, i . Thnt the 
great ground of ourmiftaking of C^irift, is o ir ignorance of Him , in his O.fices and worth. 2. That ih> 
right curing of that miftake, is the ri^ht knowledge and uptaking of him. 3, Ic fayes thi>,th ir whe ^ fouls are 

iuuijwein. 1 ,11$ alio sticwetn. i. mat ttiere are lomc Kind ot oodily exerciles, that arife from a diftemper 
of the mind, that fo faints and vi'eakeneth the body, that none can cure but Cnrift : and this of difcounio-e- 
ment and fainting, is one.2.It sheweth to B .lievcrs their necesfiiy of hiving the word out of Chrifts mouth 
for thnr encouragement, erre they can sh ikeoffdifcouragement: H: hath gotten the tongue o'"rh 2 Learn- 
ed, to fpeak a woi-d in feafon to the weary foul : if h j \vere more waited on in Ordinanccsj and if the word 
^^'cre taken as from his mouth, we should come better fpeed than we do,and profit more by thcO.dinances. . 
3.More particularly, his right ljand\s His Power: and his Ixytnikon John, is not any pe; fonall to ich : but 
aniaward ftrengthening and up-ftirring, as Darnel, Dan. 10 10. Behold, an hand touched 'me Mhich [er me upon 
my knees y ihzi'is. , fomc power for my ftrengthening and comfortable up-ftirrino. And P/,/.. 138^ :^. 
Dat\diz\iK In the dajf ivhen I cryed, thouanJ'wered(i me : andjirengthne!(l Tfie ^ithflrcnrth inmyfml' 
Which IS the communicating of in A^ard ftrength , to keep him unfinking under the fad condition he v.-as in'. ' 

£ 5- n ft- 

^ f • ^<: Oil wliJit om need is : our u'eakiuffc: and dilcouragenient is often fuch , dut ve have need nst 
I. It points OlJ _^ « ^£gj.gj^^i3^ 2. Ic points at Ci:irilt'S vv^y of de;ding with ib jls , th«r will fometimes 
only ot ^°''"^^f4 "^ fort J firlt lay on His hand, and then k£ the word of comfort ,fear »ot,come behind i 
He& th'i-s iTieel and its a maincvidenceof Chciits ccnderueifc, faithfuinefl:- and wildoni , ±at takes this 

^''"Th!l*£!lna'fen of Chrifts carcis, his faying,/*^ not'- a word that is often uied and repeated in the Pro- 
inciect^im I . j^j-^(^/j^p^f,rj. oi/:,. IhereisancKCefTavefear that God allowcth not in 

! T?Xrhh^h three marks trom his expenence. I.lt's a degenerating fear that breeds miltakesofChrift, 

no. . wnicu ii^ii ^.^ ^^^ weakens and faints theai m their fellowihip with Him. Chritt allovveth not 
?"/^«'rft!rm the marringof that. 2. It maketh folks uiKapableof hearing or receiving a meflage from 
r^u-a fn:\Lr «7^n^n he Ipeaketh, they are benummedjCenlekUe anddead , having ears, but hear not : and it 
f^, I uiironrthatiS^<>rdcak^ 3. Ic difables,ob- 

locketh ^Jj^^;^^^^^ of tliat duty tl«t Chrilt calls to. When John iscalled to write the Vifioa, 

Itrucrs ^"« "1^ , . i,grefore,Chnlt faiih,Jiaf w< j but rile up and wntc thoa arc called to reverence and feat 
ne taiietn as «c • ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ .^^ , ^ ^^ further thee,anddoth not kinder thee init. And 

'"'* '^\S Wn noctofear/in fofarasitworksanyoftheteefteas. C)i/.2.When fear exceeds, degenerates . 
we wouia ^^^"' ^ - ^^ ^j^gle ^hrce Ipoken of, our Lord allowech it no more than He doth proud fecurity : 
and growetn ex . ^^^ tender of fouls under theone,nor he is under theoiherj yet, let us not plcafc 

oi^feS e^rs. Itjiith that folks would be tender in 

our leives in tut ^^^^^ ^^^^ diftcmpers,kno\ving there i«a gieac diftejence betwixt thefe , who arc under 
SWumpiion. and others, underfaiming ,. ,,. Ai.ru ^u *' 

carnau prciuii>t". r^hrifts care, is, mgiving Jowl grounds of conlolation to warrand his faitb : and they arc 
1 he third ite^ o ^ ^.^ ^^^^ <jod-head, 1 am the firjl ani the lafi : i am God that fpeaks to theej 1 was be- 
mrce. 1 ije nriT,i continue when the world Ihall be ended, the eternall God, a fingular property of 

fore the W^ld ana wm .^^ God-head : therefore would he fay , thou needcft not kx,yebn : 1 am 

God.and a demomtratiui ^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^^ .^ friendship withGod: 6c 


itjsalfoaproof.that tne ^.^ .heunionofHis God-head and Man-head, in one Perfon j and his fuffcring in 

, ■ ^; * 1! T ^Ia tn hi<! God-head JamU thdt lilpethy and iv^ dfad : and beMd 1 am aU\c for cteimore, 
his Man-head united to n^i^^^ and better for the imdcrftandiiig of the words , 1 am th, hring , and I -iCM 
In tj'ef "8i"2ll,it IS otnerwiie, ^^^^.^ j ^^ ^j^ ;.^,. ^ ^^^^ ^^ j ^^ ^^^^ y^^- ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ j-f^ f^^^ 3,1 
ynadc dealanihehoia, i </K7 ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ . ^ .^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ 

^.^^ r"]?r°['7l >^« JX Sa« to ha^ I'fe m himjelf: and 1 chat was.and is this living God , the Way. the 
^'"ff^f'^'l^''Sf'^!l^^^^^ is,I became Man, was made of a Woman,made undcrtheLiw , 

Truth, ana tne i^irc , ivipdiator ( God-Man in one Perfon ) his taking on the nature of man} and fatis- 

0^/4 jointing °f ^^f,''.;*',,T^ wrath of his Father: and in fubjeCbng himfclf to the death of the 

fiing the Juftice of God in m ier^^^^^ ^^^^^^ are joyned in one Perlon; yet, it was not as God that he 

?'5^l' 'JaKrfip.HbS^^^^^^^^ AndbtholdJli^eforc-,cmon,Am.n: inasfar, aslwasonce 

died, though the Pe ion ^nat m a ^^^ evermore. And this laft expresfion,hath two words put to it, 

dead,as Man, now ^'^ f ve. and m-, ^ ^^ ^.^ R,f urc^tion ^ and the confolation that flowes 

to pointoat Its ^^'^^ll^^y-J^^!^^^^^^ death, andlive j and lo I live.as I (hall live forever , for the benefit of 
from It to Believer^ 5 1 f^^^e ^ve^^^^^^^ ^^ ,3^ ^ ,r life being linked to Chnfts life . who is God-Man 

Believers 1,1 mc. That °^^^^^^^ ftialUivealfo,?e./..i4.i9. His life is n pledge and pawn of ours. 2,A' 

and our Mediator: b^caule he hv^^^^^^^^ ^he truth of his Relurrc.^ion, & to put^all the world out of doubt 
f;,.«,or Verily: an f f^^J.«J°^^^^^ g, Man in one Peilbn.Be allured ye have a living Chriit. 
oflMshvingnotonlya God,buca^^^^^^ topointout his ab folate loveraignit., as 

Mediator in the ft^^; °™™ Ae;.,are the lign of Governmem,I>.22 li.Ic's Ipoken o^Eliakim , 

deliver and carry to heaven whom J picaio " p lu r u n ^ j j o,-k. xr^rrKor 

•,.^«,, ;ii u„f;cMnr'/»rmvdcm nion: tor, i have fupreme power over hell and death: Motthat 

lU ulH ih It tbej need no: feat iheai; for tiiey are bpth his Vaffals; the devil bears not the keysi but he ^ars 

Chap.l» ^ook»f the RevelM'm, j^ 

them himfelF. Thcfe are the grounds oUonioiation, that are given toI»/j»: and thcyare ftiengthening 
grounds of faith and lalvation lo all BeUe vers. 

Obferygy I .Our Lord Jefus,is God j the firit and the laft: He that was born of tb2 Virgin Mme: and io a 
true Man, is God i he thac was crucitieel,dead and buried, is God.Thisis one of the Articles of our Faith: and 
rhisplao ofSciipcurej i6 to b.' looked on, asaproofofir, againft ail the molt cavilling enemies ofo.n Lords 
Djitit ; He chat died,vi'as,and is, the tirlt and the laft i and the incommunicable Attributes of the Godhead a- 

2. This is propofcj, as a ground of confolation to John and all Bcl»:vers. And it hath a world of eonfolation 
in it , as I .Not only that there is a Go J ; bac that our hota Jcius Chnlt, ;s Ooa j and thai, nocwichltar.ding his 
beinv> God, yet he hath loved linnets lo well ) that he coo^ on mans natjr«:; iaaid in that ijaturc,drs;d for thcmj 
aiut tkathe* who wooes linners, and offers to marry ih£m,is Goa,and yet is very tenuei to tncmana of tiiem : 
which is no fmali confolation. And it fliewcch alio, that ne is faithful and poweri ull lo perform his promile 
to Believers: lb there is not adehgnol enemies laid from the beginning to this dayjbuthe hatha hand beyond 
it. 2.ThacfolKsmayexpedgoodorQod; leingChriitisOoJ, can Bwlievers look for hard deahng trom 
him ? He isab.olute in his loveraigncy anddomiiiiO;), yet Ivvaying it lor me good of liehcvers. What would 
folks havemore for aground of eon:olationintimciOi;2onfulion, than this ? let the world go asitvviU , our 
Lord J^fus, is God, and wifely orae.s all. 3. it faith tnis, that ioiKs when iheir dilcojragcments prevail, as 
they are ready to miltakeChnIt, 10 they are rcudy to rerted; on his Godhead, as if he were noc faithful, or 
powerf j], or v\'iie, or tender enough. 4. The loiiu cure of fear and fainting^is , to be acquainted with Chriit 
as God; the i^orance d Chrilt is tne gi ouad of tueir being anxious , impatient , and damnished with rmth- 
Itflefears, i jo^ 5.4,5'. 

Pronithe fccondground, I amliVtng and vtas diad, Ohffpe 1 .that this Eternall Son of Goi became Man, 
elfe he could not have died i hj tnat Wus-ood,. vs'ab aiio true M^a: and this is another ground of our Faith, or , 
acorifirmation ofan Artieieof it.2.That Jcius Chntt, in hi .Mai)head,latislitd Jultice: tor, he was dead, he 
laid down his hie, and that willingly : ISLo man taKSth my Uftfxomrm , hut I lay a dawn , and take it up again. 
^ Tnat Jefus Chrifl is God and Man, having two ctitiji^t N aCLites in om Ferlsn j for, in che one Nature, he 
IS IMn^ i and in the wther Nature, he that way living Ixcame dtati j yet it's but one Perlon, tnat vFas both liv- 
ing anddead: fome things ( asis ordinary) are attributed to the Penon, that agree but to one ofthe Natures, 
as C A^t2o.^<$') Godis laid to bive purchased his Church with ms own Blood ; not that th.- Godhead could 
fuffer, but h^ tnat v?as God, fuffered ; lO ot the Man Cnritt,.it may be fud^ tnat ne is Omnipotent, yet not as 
man, but the Per(on that was^and is Man, is Oinnipotent : lo the PenOn ihatisGod,died,£boughnotas God,' 
but in reipett of his humane nature, and as he was Man. Thefc phralCifrom Giirilts own mouth, do bath 
clear and confirm our Faith. 

And behold 1 am aU\>sfer e\etmore. Then i . Our Lord jefus Chrift, who died once, shall die no more. 
i.He\vhodied out of love to his peopie,is riien and exalted 10 heavenly glory and dignity, andbears thj Ol- 
fice of Mediate , for the coniolation of his pepplef&f.eVermore.^.His exaltation maKeth nim nolelfe mind- 
ful!, nor K ff; affedHonate, & tender of B^'lie/ers in iiim: iot^john might have thought, tbit now there was 
a diftancc and dr intfT.* come in between Chrilt aad- him, elpecuny contidered as Gou ; but He tells khn, he 
li verb for his comfort.- and that he may exped;, ti^the who gave lite to ail > aodluiu down ins hi^ for him , 
and other Belie vers, would be tender ot hi > and of his life. 

Which ietteth us fee, i .That the price of Believers Rcdemptidn, is paid. 2. That it is paid by a Brother, 
that had a humane naturej and was like us in ail thiiigs except hn. 3. That Chrift, who is God, is alio Man i- 
and that, to put us in a capacit \ of living 4. See her^ Carifts Returrection & victory ever death ^ lb that the 
iiargain is compleated 6c ttnifftsd: and conleijUently, that Believers Ih-all rile and live for ever through Jhhm. 
ETery word here, is bigg with coutolation^ to us> if v^e kno\\f, how/ to luck at it. 


Ver f. 1 8. - " And kaYe the ktys of bell and of death. 

19. tVritc thtth'mgs '^oUOj ihou bafi ,een 55 teihings "fohich are, ^thc tilths tDhkhshall he ktnaftet. ""^^ 
^ 2o. Th^ m.fte.y ofthe, even tars whkh thou , a'^efi h my right l^and , and ibejeveti golden Candlfi ckf. The 
'eytn St^^rs art the Angels ofihcje'peM Churches:^ the felpen QaiJUjifckf vtbtfhtbou^awejiiareshtjeyfnO^utcJcef. 

TpHe Lord is noM' comforting Jo/;«, i.From his Natures, or, Perfon, 2. From his dying and vi<5torieover 
*■• death. 3 .From his Of ace,which,asMediaior, he executes jinftan(;.ed eipecially oyer hell and death, for 


40 /n^xpojit'm (f the Qiap.r. 

t.iefe reafons , i. Becaufe hell arrd Jeath , were tii- lalt enemies Chrift hid to fub.iue , as if He laui , 1 have 
gotten po\^ er over the greacelt encaues s and con{equentIyt I have power over the icft: and lb ixpointsac 
the greatneire and iiniverlality ot his power, as Mediator, he b.-ing made head over all ihmgs to the Church, 
and having all things put under him, borh which are in heaven , and which arc in earth , and which are under 
the earth , that ac the Name of Je(us every knee (hould bow. 2. For the comfort of bis people. Paiticuiarly 
ijr the comfort oiltbn, becaule now , fohn v^'as atf . igb:ed with the M ]t ty of God and the challenges of his 
ov\'n (infciln die, and was overcharged with fear j therefore Chiilt f..i.h to him , fear not hell nor death, ohtt, 
for I halp-t'e ksyes of both , andean difpofe io of them , as they fhall not hiirc thee ; fo guarding him and his 
people againlt rears and dovvn-calting > which may flow from the apprcbjnfion of bell and death, which arc 
the main things that the wakened perlon, caftdown at Chiilts feet, doth fear. 

I. From our Lords repeating ihefe grounds of coribi^ioofor \oicn*s incouraeeraent, in general , Oiferyte , 
That when fear grovveth exceliive, and degenerate?, even in iheie that ihould leaft miftakc Jefus Chrilt , it is 
not eafily removed j but will take one ground of encouragement and conhrmation after another , ere the foul 
be erected. This isclear trom the many Arguments , and the repeating; oi tbem, to remove John's fear : for, 
Chrift doch nothing idely : fo apprehenfive and jealous is fltih , whcii the Mijtfty of God kythes,andthe 
fcni'eof fin, and challenges for hn are wakened , and ihecreatures infinnitieand w-eakmffeisdircovered, and 
foltrongis misbelief. That the foulsofthefewhoaremoft tenderly dealt with, ( and readily none was more 
tenderly dealt with nor J«fc» , the beloved Di .ciple who lay inChrills bofom ) are {lardly raifed up to com- 
fort and conftdcnce. This flowes partly, trom the proiienfle of out natuic to miftake Chrift, and fink in dif- 
courr.gement : and partly, through our weaknciT.- and finfulm-ffj i fothat the worth of Chrift , gets nocredit 
in the general, far leife m our particular , at fuch a nick of time as this is, when difcouragementl prevaileth : 
a thing that experience teschcth , and that fouls would walk in fear of , at luch times -, a temper like unto 
which we may lee, Pfal. 77. My fore d d run in th: tiigkt , my foul refufed ctmfoft. 

The fecond general, is this , Tnat ic is no great hazard tor a dilcouraged loul to be laid at Chrifts feet : ii*s 
a good pafture, when a foul cannot bear the weight of a difhcultie , torhroM' it felf down before him. Chrift 
is tender to thefe, and though fouls lin in giving way to exceifive fear, through the apprchenfion of wrath and 
guilt ; yet our Lord deals gently with them j when the reed is bruifed , He will not break it j when the flax 
is but Imoaking, he M'ill noiqacnch it ; when the ewes are with young, he ioftly (nrives them , and carries the 
lambs in his boibme, and luitshis tendcrneflt in refrence to them . Ifa. 40, 1 1 , If any be in fuch a condition « 
it were good to believe this : Chrifts tendernelfe in luch a cafe when the foul is laid low , i$ abundantly clear 
in this one inftance. 

Thirdly, Morepaiticularly.OijcrVc, I. That Believers may have apprehenfions and fears of hell and death 
or, the fears ot hell and death may feafe and be excefiive in them ; therefore Chrift guardsagainft it , which 
©therwifewerenot needfull. 

Ob[. 2. Miich of this fear procccdeth from the ignorance of Chrifts Natures, Perfon, and Offices, or, from 
the ignorance of Him in the adminiftration ot thele his Offices , Therefore when he comes to comfort lehn* 
he holds out his Offices, and lets him kivDW that life and death are at his difpofing. Tiiere is fome fecret mif- 
takeofChhft.andfomeftrangemould of Chrift in the mind» where exceifive fear prevaileth; therefore it is 
often faid ,ftar not, it is I, be not afmd : and through the foUou'ing Epiftles to the Churches , He ever telU 
cth what he is, with fome property. 

0[:f. 5. That our LordJ^fus Chrift, hath the abfolute guiding and adminiftration of what concerns bis 
People ; yea, hath their greaCeft enemies at his command s he lets into htll and death , and keepsout M'hom 
he plealeth, he gives orders in all. 

Obf. 4, That thereis no greater confolation to Gods People in time of their fears of hell and death , than ta 
know that our Lord lefus hatli the keysof both, and all in both , that devils will not vvinn out of the pit , till 
he open the door nor lengthen their chain one link, but as he k ts it out, T^eV. 20. 4. 1 4. 

^, Lay all thele together , what needs John fear ^ If evil Ipirits av5l by Cliriits orders , and the moft wick- 
C .1 in hell or earth cannot exceed tkek orderr , what needs there be fears ? feing Chrift keep the keys ©f the 
devils houfc , and harh orders given , and imployment carved out to them, as acurately as he hath to men on 
earth, good or bad : tor death and hell are his fer vants, and go not their own earrands , but his ; and therefore 
dare not exceed theii CommiHion, yea they mi ft not, nor cannot , v\ hat ever malice they have in prolecuting 
his order : W hat ground then of fear is there ? _ And lo it may fcrve to comfort us againft the evils of our oui- 
w;<rd and inw.ird condition : there is nothing comes in Church, or Commonwealth, but n s he orders ir, wh6 
i^ faichfuil in all the houle of God, as a fon. It were good if our meeting together h;id this fruit to get the faith 
ot hisSjveraignit* lealed up in our hearts, iffolks would chooie a good Friend, Patron, or Matter, he is the 
F arty : ftick ib him , and fear nothiUj^. ^crf. 19. 

Chap,r. TSookofthe Hevel^'m. 41 

F Verf.ig. Followcth thethird thing, and it is loinc eircjmitances , that make way for Johns writting v hac 
i!ic Uw, or, our Lords repeating and mlarging oflohns Comaiiffion. This CommifTion is fo often repeat- 
ed, to tell, i.How pundtuall He wo.ild iuvdghn ui keeping himfelf by his CommilFion , neither altering 
nor diinin»ihing iC| nor doing any thing IclFc or more, bat w hat he hid Commislion for. 2- To fhevv on 
what ground tnis word depends, and the Authority of it : it's not to beaccoanrcJ authentick, heauk lokn 
•^TOte It fimply jorbecaufe the Chni ch accounts it fo,bui becaule J»hn at Chrilts command \vr«te it : Chrift 
will have th J VVarrand and Authority of His Word dilcernable, and out of queftion,erpccially what is con- 
tained in this Revelatio:): We will not find the Warrand of ^y lo ofcen repeated, as the "Warrand to write 
this4.kmaybctorthi8Tcalbn, J«&«x former fainting and fagging might hive made him forget bis en and ; 
therefore jHe will repeat it to him: 10 tell that difcouraging ana fainting mult not marr folk in the ir duty; but 
they would alwayes labour fo tocompof; tiieir fpirits, as the duty th y are called 10 may not be neglecited : 
and though they may -b: furprizcd with fear and fainting: yet, they would up,and fall to work again. We 
may conw Jet the realons of this repetition more l ully atterM^-lrd. 

That which He comnaaods Him to writc> doth more accurately and diftindly divide this Book , nor he 
did formerly, Vw/i r, Sottiatthele words, are the compendious diviiioii of the Bjok and Prophecy that 
ibiloweth. And we take it to be a diyifion of it, in three lb; tsof things. l.Tne things which thou halt leen. 
a The things which are. 3. Thethings which (hall b,; hereafter i orothcrwife, the firit branch compre- 
hendeth the fecond alio: and fo it's divided in two. 

I. The things which thou haft leen, that is, the things that in-thy time have happened , or fallen forth 
fince the Golpei began, the Hiftory of the Gofpci in its rife and victories to this time: And we expone it thus 
and do not refer it only to the particular Vifion fpoken of before ,for two reafons, ( . Becaufe,T/fee/i' things 
ffihich thoub^fun, hold torth the fubjetiJ- matter of theBook, as well as the things which are,and the ib 'gt 
'Which sbail he hereafier. And the things which thou haU^ een axe diltingubh .-d trom the things whtch are , 
and fhtthi'^gs which shailin hereafter : ti»ey mult therefore be of one forr. -And lb, the things which thou hafi 
fgen, relate lO the timepait; the thiigf whtch are, to the time prefent , as the things which th.iU be hereafter . co 
che time to come. 2. Becauie>compaiingthefe words with Verf. n. we vvillnndaclearditFerence: lorin 
»«r/?ii.it's faid inrthc lingular number, Wnat fhoufeeft, write in a Hook. , and lend it to the feven Cnurches : 
v/hich iooketh to the particular Vifion> i po r:en ot there* or to the following Vifiens ; looking on th^ /(eVe- 
iatiet$, as one Vifio« with fo many parts ; but here, it is written, the things, in the plural! j and which thou hjfi 
/ec», in the preterite time, that is, wiice the things which are part ; to uiltinguilh chem from things prefent 
and to come: and fo we expound thefe things, of the things palt, from the rif;i of thi Gofpel to this time, ac* 
cording to the (cope of this Prophecy ^ 

2.The things whtth are, that is, the prefent eft it of the Churches, in the two following Chap-ers : which 
holds form the Itatc of thefe Churches, as they were for the time. 

3. Thtthittis which shullhe hereafter y or, which muft be hereafter, ^oint atthcSory and State oftha 
Church from \ohns time to th.- f.cond coming of Chrift : for, from the rife and beginning ot- the Ch.irch 
here , it ends not, till it bring the Church Mil itant to Glory, and put the wicked in the bottomlefT. ^iiyChap, 
ao.and 22. I mark it, becaufe it lerves to be a key to the reft of th; Story. And this divifion , Iheweth , 
l.That we are not to leek in this Book of the Revelation, things that were before Chiifts time.as lonie need- 
lelly draw it to the four Monarchies. 2.That the things contained in this Book , relate not to a generatioa 
ortwoonly,- but to things falling oat in the Church to the end of ihj world: for, though lome lutlethings 
hafore Chrilts time, be hinted at in this Bookj yet they are no: brought in, asprincipall Prophecies , butas 
ulefull,to expound thefe principallProphecies,as wheui^'we is Ipoken of ( Chap, rj, ) & its by paft Govern- 
ments under the name oiBabylonjit is brought in,to clear wnat is meaned by tne whore which lohn faw. 

Aj^niii, fwo things further, are obfervable here, i. O r Lord Ic.us his care and refped: to His Church,^ 
that will acqu<iint her m ith things paft,pre(enc, and tocutne, for their com rort 6c edification, fo well would 
He have them provided with lellbns, and guarded againlt all times, and what ever difficulties may come- 
2 B 'ing now to enter to the ftory, which He is to write, he divides it ere he begin , both to m?k« ^vf foe 
clearnc ffj in ihe thing ,& for diitinftneUe in the uptaking of ir j to make it the more inteUigible to them to 
w<lonnhe writeth,atvdtoallthai ihould read it jHedrawtthitalluptothrccheads. And there is a proii- 
tab'e uie to be made of this for men, in Ipeaking and writing, to be methodicall and orderly ; our Lord.-, way 
ofwriting, isno friend to confafioi 1 , nor cnemie to order, iflo be, order be madelublervienttoediricirtQu, 
and no; to curiolitie i fuch is Chrift^- order here; and to t'latfcope doth that recapitulation ferve, tleb 6 I. 
and 8 l .And lo are the writings ot P<ii//often,molt exact in this, 
yerj. zo.lhii verle containeih an explication of the myitery, fpoken of before in the Vifion > which lo n 
■* V law . 

^e An Expofit'm of the Chap.i. 

f aw: at Iea(t of fo much of it, as is ufcf ull and neetif.iii co be kno^vn: as ufually He leaveth alwayes lomcwhac 
at the back of the Vifion, to be a key to open the reft i So this f -r veth to open Ibmewhat that is palt; fomc- 
thingthat is fpoken in the fevenE^iltlciS to the Angels , and feveral times hereafter. There is loineihing 
to be fuppUedhere, while H: fa. ch, The mijieryofthefe'pen Stan whid>thoujaweft,ihit is,l will ihew thee-, 
or, 1 wUl tell thee thcmyttery of the feven SiarsjC^c. asHel<rith,i(e»tf/.l7. I mlt 'el thee the mjjiery oftht 
W9man, tliat is^, I M'illlet chee know what it meaneth ; lefus Chrilt bjing the belt Interpreter cf His own 
mind,condefcehdcth to open up fbmuchof thj myltery as was utefuii and needfull. i. He expoundeth the 
Stars : and then, 2.the Candlefticks. 

I. He^xpo'jndeth the S.ars: TheJe\>enStJfs, are the yingels ofthefey>en Churches, that is, the feven Stars 
flgnifie , mean^ & reprefentthe Aiigels> or Minilters, or Otticcfi uf che leven Churche?; for, it's a thinj^ or- 
dinary, tocall Minifters, Angels, M 7.2. 7. The Priefts lips sh0uld keep kntvvlediei and the people should j'cek, 
the La'^ at his mouth : for he is the mejfenger of the Lord ofHoJh. In the Origmahit is, ¥or he is the Angel of 
the Lord of Hefts. Sd, fudges 2.1 .it is laid , an Angelofthe Lord came up from Gilgalto Bochim : the word in 
sheOriginaljisjtfWJjfew^ercdwwwf jone , particularly lent for that earand. M^nift-.-rs are called Ang Is, i. 
For Gods fpeciall imploying them about His holy things, beyond others. 2. Becajle of that thdr landti- 
ficd Itation : to put tnem in mind;, that they should be in their converlacion , Angelical. 3. To make them 
10 be received as Angels by others : that is the dignity due to them. By Angels here , is not mtaat fome 
more eminent nor another in thefe Churches , fuch as the Lord Bishop 3 b Jt by Angelf, We underftand all the 
Bishops and Presbyters that M'erc over thefe Churches, i. Becaufe, wh.'ii it is faiti, thefelpen Stars, are the 
Angelsofthefe'^en Chuiches, it fpeaketh of them ind..fi.iitly, whether they be moe or fewer; nd he faith i.ot, 
they are the leven Angels of the levenChurches ,as it faith,/k felper^anilefticks ,are tbefey:nChur:hef;buz fu£- 
poleth, that the number is not fo exad in the one ts in the other: tor , if the number of Miniiters v\'eie dc fi- 
nite, as of the Churchzs, Wky fhould the manner of Ipeech bj ditfiTent ? nor fiith it , the emine t Angelf of 
fl^ftlf en Churches; but indefinitely, they are the Angels of the feVenChurchfs. fi.sPhilip.i. Hiwritrthto 
the Bishop and Deacons, fjppohnga plurality of flich in one Town, lelfe than Ephejtu , or others mentioned 
here. Therefore, 2. It is not to be expo.inded of one man , as if fome one man in each of ih.-fe Churches , 
had had the preheminence, becaufe our Lord writing to Ibme of thefe Criurchcs , and dircxfting the Epiftic 
to the Angel , fpeaketh ol: chem as moej As when he writeth to Smyrna , chapter 2. vcrf. 1 0. He laith, Fear 
none gfthofe things which thou shM [offer. Behold , th: de^il shaJl caftjome of you in^o prifon , thit ye maj be 
iried : which muft relate primarily, to the Miniftcrsin Sm/rna: and f ippoltth inoe Mmiiters than one j and 
that in direding the Epiftle to the Angel of luch a Church, he underftood the whole collective body or Mi- 
nifters and Church -Officers > that afterward He diftributes in moe individual perlors. SeethcNotes there, 
and on cbaf 2.')perf.24. where the Church in Th^atira , is diltributed in three, 1 . In thefe, who arc polluted 
Members thereof. 2. In thHe, who were free of tliele pollutions called thereji. ?. In dx Minillers,who arc 
ftiled Tou, u fxlu J^i , as diftind from the other two, yet AH'm the plurali luunbcr. 

3. What is then to be underftood by </f«ige/tf/£/>^^j«* C^ndfoof thereft) wemay lCfirnfromi^£?j.2o.l7. 
with 28.where Paul having the fame buirinciie 10 do on the matter,in recommending t lie care ofth<uChurch 
to fome, for preventing ills which He fjrefaw to be coming, Hi.calleth notO/ze, but the E/iit^ofthe 
Church of Epbefus : and giveth not to One , the charge or nameof Bi-lwp : bjt to Alloi'thtm He commit- 
teth it. Thers,'ore, feing Pau' comprehendeth all in his Sermon under that name iTi^KWui , IferfzS. (& 
would by writ, as well as word, done itj we muft fo expound Joi^w to do alfo , tbo gh he write in a more 
oblcure ftilc, as bjft agreeth with this Prophecie. For this Argument is lure, Thefe that lo'.n wrote to,un- 
der the name of the AagelofEphej4s>(indioofotheiChutd\e3 ) are thefewhohave theoverlightot , and 
authority over, thefe Cnurches ; Bat thefe are clear to be many Elders, or Bishops; ASls 20, ^c. ErgOjiSc, 
Therefore ta.ke wc the ftile Ang^l, to be coUedtye , i.e. to the Argels ( feing the ftUe , a$ alio tl-ve matter a- 
greeth to all ) or Minifters of luch a Church : as luppofs one were writing to a City , governed by a number 
of M.^gilt rates, in an Ariltocratick Government, might it not be directed lathe Magiftrate of.luch a City , 
and yet no particular perfon be pointed at , but the whole be colledively underftood J and lo we conceive it 
here. Even as, by oik beaFl, chap.i ^,^(. or head, chap. 17. he doth expreife a Civil Government, to wit , 
of^ome, before it was Monarch icKjfo may he beundeiftood todo,by the figurative title iif/;^c/here,t hough 
it be in the fing ilar number j Confidering with all, that the things charged on this Angehor required o: hun 
are fuch as agree not to onej but to rhe coUedivc body, of Church-Ofdcers together. Bcfide, moe Mini- 
fters there where than one in thofe Churches : thnt is certain. Either then the/muftbecompieh.ntled 
under the title of Angel, or elfe taken in as contradiftinguished from them M'ith the reft of the Church ; But 
taat will be found abi'urd; that the Church and her guides saould be fome.way contradiftinguished , and yet 


chap. I. Book^of the J^eteUtm. j^^ 

N^inilttrs not to fall under thst diftin«5tion ; for Stars they iTii.ft be , that is j jiffgel^ ; or Candlcfiich, that is, 
amongft the people, as diftingLillKcd from the Stars j But the latt cannot be. Thi/refore of neccflity , the fiift 
nuiit be underltood. We conceive then, as by Chmchi or CandhjUck , is underltood many Profeifors or 
Churches , f for under Church herc» fiKh who thus plead , will grant moe particular Churches to be coinpre. 
hctided: fo:, fay they, they are Diocefum Churches ) in an united way of woi {kipping or Government; 
So, by /ngcl, rhany Church-guids in an united way of Governing may be undcrflood. Minilters are called 
Stars J for chel'e reafons. i. To fignifie and point o-tt the eminence and dignity of the Office , that it is a glo- 
rio.is and Hi incing Office. 2. To pom oat what is the cfpeciall end of this Office ; Ic is to give light : as the 
ulc of Stars is , to give light to the world j lo it's" Minifters main impleyment , to Ihine and give light to 
others; to make the world which is a dark night, to be lightCome. fn which fenic, Ai<?f. 5-) 14. Ic's faid. 
They ate the light oj the "^oild. 3. It is to fignifie , that they are but rubfervient lights: Our Lord Jcfusis ih& 
Siniof Right(.o.i(ncir;,f/><if Lii^nf, thatgxcAX. Light} and Minifters are lelfer lights. 4, It is to point out the 
way hovv Minifters b^Gon:>e tightlomc. Stais receive their light from the Sm> and by vertue of that bor- 
rowed light are made, lightfome ; fo Minifters, are made lightfome, and fh,ii.e to give others light, by 
vcrtue oh the light that they receive from Chrift: they arc lights, but theirlight is Starlight, aborrowed 
lii^ht rmidccclipfed betwixt JefiisChrift and them, will darken them, feeing they have no light, bat what 
they receive from Him. This would learn Minifters and Peopk aright uptaking of the nature of this Office, 
and keep oft'c. ntrary extremes, that both refpcdively are lubjedt un*^©. 

The lecend part is expounded , the f 'pen Candleflicki , are t he fe^pen Chwches , as be fore he expouned the 
feVenS.-arstobetheAngelsofthefcven Churches. The Churches are called Candleflicks, foriheleReafons. 

1. Becaiife the Candlcftick is that which properly the light is fet into : and it's fitted for receiving of light , 
though it have none of its own j fo the vifib!e Church, isthatwherem Chrift Jefus fets his lights , i Cor. 
12. 28. Cod hath fet fome in the Chtmh , frjl /poftlet , fecondly Prophets, ^c. The Church is , as it were, 
the Candlcftick to .the Candle, the proper deat of th- Apoftles , Prophets and Minifters after them. 

2. Though the C.mdleftick gives no light ; yet ic makes the light let one it to be the more ufcfall to others, 
as Mat. J . 14. \e r.rethe light of the world : a city fet on a hiU cannot be hid : neither do men light a candle to 
friauunder abushell, baton aQandlefiick.i that it majgi'^pe light to all that areinthehoufe: So Minifters are 
Itt in the Church ; and their fetting in the Church, is tue way whereby God prcfefves light , ordinarily , and 
makes it (hine. And fo, the excelleht comely! order of the vifible Church , kytfis in this, that it is like a City 
fet ona hill. And hence the Church is called tfc^pi//jr and ^iw/i^of/kn-w^fe, iTfW. 5, 15. Th-lightofthe 
Truth being fet in the Church, as on a pillar to make it kyth the more , and be fcen the further, that otherg 
may f^ll in love with it. And laying both thefe together , th; Minifters being Li^ht, and the Churches 
Candlefticks , it holdeth out a near and fib relation betwixt Minifters and People , asif the People were dark 
without Minifters; and the Minifters would not Ihuie far, nor be ufefall , if they had not Churches Co bear 
them up. We ought not to ftrain this (imihtude 1 00 far, as if Churches might be Churches writhoit Minifte rs, 
much klTe before Minifters be fet in them, as a Candleftick ftill is a Candlcftick, without a light, b.it certainly 
Very dark. That is not rhe fcope ; but it is to ihew that in Conftitute Churches, vhat is Chrifts efteem,both o( 
Miniftersand People, and what is the mutual! relation that ftands betwixt them, each to other. We know 
tkat the Church organized , is but one body , whereof the Paftors are a principal] part ; and that thefe dero- 
gite not to the other relations betwixt Minifters and People,as to be Fathers to them: to beget them to nou- 
rifh theiTi, as a Nurfe do':h in giving fuck ; to be Mothers, travelling in birth with them : in which refpciil , 
pariiculinr Churches , and Chriftians have their being from Miniltersjas fuch inftrurhents who hath begotten 
their by ':he immo'-tall feed oFthe Word. 

2. Golden Candlefticks , 1. To point out comparatively , the excellency of the Vifible Church j above all 
(ithcr Sjcieties in the World ; and pohtively, the excellency thatis among the Churches .'as gold istherooft 
excellent mettall 5 fo the Church is the choice and vt'aill of all the World befide : ii** Gods Garden, 2. To let 
us fee what is Bjlievefs du-y, and wh'at all the members of the Church are obliged to, theyoughrto be as gold 
that will abide the tryall , and hath ro drolTe. The Church of Chrift fhotild be throughly fincere, asgold: to 
bz like every fort of mettall. will not be enough. * 

Qneft ffo'9i> can thefe Churc'm be c4led goid^ fetng many of them are offo little worth , that they could fcarc2 
abide the try all , at Pergamos, Tnyatira , Sardis, CJc. and Laodicea iijo corrupt that she bath no commendation 
at all? 

Avfv. Our Lord lefus defignesthe Vifible Church, or Churches , not according to the plurality ; but ac^ 
cording to the better part: and when there is any gold. He counts by it : even as one msycallanheap ,a 
heap ox corn , though the greateft pari be chaffe, 3. There is fomeihing eflaitiall to the Church as Vifible ; 

P Z ' which 

44 M Expofttion tf the Chap.i. 

wmch makes themget this denomination : tor , tae Vilible Church hath a Gomparativo e3Cccli«.iicy ocy'ond. 
others that are withiirtCi and J efjsChrilt lookingnoc to what they were, but to the nature otuVuible. 
Church, hj calls i h^m golden C'anileftiC^s , even as he calls the Minilters Sian , ihoLigh there were lonK- a- 
naong themot little woiih , as that nngel oiLaodicea : bccaafe by vertue ot tneir Olficc they were io: So the 
Churches writcen to, by the Apoftlcs,.arecaiica Saints, and Hjly, in fofar , asby vertueo: their piofcffiou 
and Church-ltate-relation that they flood in iaGod»they were Ib^ 3. He delignes them lo by vertue of chcir 
obligation ,to let than fee what they fhojld be, and were obliged to be.Tnis is a maui reafon why thcCliurch 
of the Jrflr/, is called a Holy Peopk : not for any great holintfTe that often was amongft. them all j but becaufc 
they were feparated from ocher People, to be a peculiar Peopic to him; m which relpedl, the children of Be- 
lievers, are called holjy i C*r J.which is not tobe underltood of any perfonall hoiiuelte ; but of a holinefle ia 
refpcv5l of a federal! or Covenant relation : in which 1 cfpeA , they are feparated from the reft of the world »• 
who have not an externall rightto fuch Chucch-priviledges. Thus, both-ftock and branches are holy, and 
no otk>rwife, J^/w.i 1. 

Which,lets us fee, i, WhatrefpcvSl Jefus Chrift hath to His Churches andMinifte^. 2. Thit the Scriptures 
way of expounding it felf, is to expound one place by another; one verfcor phrafe , darKly fet down in one 

S'accby an orher, more full and clear in. an other place. 3. i'articularly,how to expound the word are, or i>» 
- feren Stars : are^ that is, they fignifie and reprefcnt; a word often uled,<7f 0:41. 26.The leven good kine», 
«r« feren years , 8tc. So the Lamb , is the PafTio ver , and Maf.i6.z6. Take e«t, Uiis is my body,this cup 0. 
my bloud, &c. which expreflions hold out no Tranfubltantiatioa, or tran 1 mutation , or turning of one (ub- 
ftance in to another, more than what is faid here imports that tbeMinifters were tranfubftantiated in Star*,or 
the Churches in Candlefticks, or contra^ily ; Batit is a myfterious, and Sucramentall way of fpcaking, to Ice 
forth the thing fi^^nifted, or reprcfented, by giving the namcthcrcof to the figne, which Feprefentsic, And 
this is in many peaces to be adverted unto. 

Cpncerniftg ACallmg to the hUmfierie , and clearnejfe therein. 

THis command of writings was particularly let down, Iptrf. i \ JHlere again, ii*s renewed j, and after- 
ward, C^a/>.2.3nd CA^i^.j.is feven times repeated , with relpcdt to every Church he writes unto : 
which certainly is to shewiof what concci iiment clearnelfe of a Call is, and that both in general], 
and particular ;, andis dohc amongft other reafons f^r ihis end , to clear fohnx n his Call, and to 
Warrand the Peoplein their receiving of his Mtflage.From which we may gather this, that a Miniflir that, 
taketh on hinj. to cdifie a Church in the name of the Lord , had need to bj clear of his Call thcreunto,lrom 
the Lord: it?s not the generall that we now inlift on. to wit, that there is fudi'a peculiar Calling, or, that none 
bat the Lord can authorize for it s but it's elpccially concerning that clearnelle which.cvcry Minifter ought. 
10 have in his Call, that with holy boldnefle he may go about the. work.havinjg peace in himiclf ( what ever 
he may meet with in it yas one who hath not run,,whereas the Lord did not lend him Jer.23.a1. That this is. 
exjeedingjy rcquifite to a Miniltcr,wc fuppofe will be outof queftion to all who know ihat Minilters are 
but Ambafladorsi &fo for th;m to want clear neffe of the Lords Call.isto be uncertain whether ihcy have a. 
Cbmmisfion or not:& therefore they wJjo look not to it,can neither have that confidence of the Lords own- 
ing them, or accepting of them in their duty.exccpt there be fome (atisfadion nerein, to \vit,that the Lord 
hath fent them.or doth fend them.It will be a pulfing queftionstomany one day, Man,M'ho made thee a Mi- 
«ifter^"Who gave thee Commisfion to treat for Chrift»And although others may have peace in the ule-mak- 
ing or fuch a mans Miniftcry j yet himfelf can have none, he being ever lyablc to this queftion, friend, how 
•nteredft thou hither?& how obtained thou this honour? Do jbaeffe from xhe defcdl of this tryal,it is,in part 
iliai many thruft.thcmfelves into the M'ork at firft , whofe after-carriage 6c way proves them never to have 
been fent: which they durft not have done,had they, walked by this rule of waiting for aCommisfion thereto. 
A'.id on the other hand, fome really calledtoxhe Miniftery, are yes kept in a kind of bondagCjbotn as to their 
duty & their peace; becaUfe it's not clear to them that it is fo; for, although the being ofa Minifter & hisCal- 
ling.iimpl y depends not on his clearnefli of his Call : as the being ofa B^rlicver doEh not necelfarily infer that 
lie muft know himfelf to b.; a Bjliaircri yet,no queftion,as a B:htvers particular comfort depend on the clear- 
ntfleofnisintcreft.for which caufe he sho.ild ftudyit j fo a Minilters confidence and quieinefs in his particu- 
lar Miniftry,doth much depend on this, that he be clear in his Call'tobea Aiinifterj. for which caul e, they 
wholook there- away, or are entred iherein,wouldhumbly enquire for notfamg more than this, thattheybe 
dear that they have Chrifts Commislion for their engaging.^ And although it be imposlible to be particular , . 
©r fully fatisfying in this , fo as to meet with all the difficulties thac may occurr i, bat Cbiftian prudence and 
lendeuseHewiUuillfiadinauer of exerdie in ih.' deciding chcreofj Yet| having this occafion here; ( whichis 
^ ' alfo 

Chap.t, Book^oftheRepeiatiom 45^ 

alfo frtqu - nt in this Book^ we may .once for ail,iay a word in the gencrall to^ what may give a Miniftcr clear- 
neife in his Calling ; which we may take up in a five-fold coiiliderarion. i.Or a Minifters Call to that work , 
in general!. 2.T0 a particular People. 3. In carrying a particular M. fllage to that People. 4. What is required 
©f hio) as to writing tor thcbcLefr of ihj Church. 5. And what refpevii People ought to have to Gods calling 
of a man,in their hearing and reading. 

For the firft>we fay, i.That Mimlters MOuld foberly endeavour fatisfadion at their entry,if ihey be call- 
ed tothat work or not ; and begin with that: This is certain, that ii's not indifferent , whether ffien betake 
them to thiscalling or an other: for God hath not indifferently difpcnfed his talents: nor hath he left men to 
thailiberty, tb choofe as they will » but willeth them to continue and abide in that calling whereto they are 
called: and not which they have chofen themfelves ; yea , that a man have lome knowledge or affed:ion to 
tliat work of the Miniftery, will not prove him to be calied , allthough.ill that is externally needful! for his 
promoving therein did concurr jior that will ndt prove a call toanotlur Charge oB Truft j and fo notto this: 
andnoqueftion,itbeingaderirablethinginitlelf tobeaM-ffengerfof J.-fusChrilt tohis Church, many 
may deiire ihc ofHce ot a Biihop, and be approven of God in their look there-away s and yet indeed never be- 
called of God aflually to it , as experience maj^ confirm. 

SecondlyAVhen we fpeak of a Gall in any orthe former refpedts, ii*s not to be underftood , that mew now 
areio look for an immediate and extraordinary Call, as John and the Apoltles had , That were as unwarran- 
table as to look for an extraordinary mtafure of gifts, luch as they were furnished with , and that in an in}-- 
mediate way i but it is that as extraordinary Officers had extraordinary and immediate evidences of their 
Call {, for (bit required)'fo Minifters and ordinary Office-bearers , that are called in a mediate way , would 
feek fur fuch evidences, as mediately may fatisfiethem : for the mediate calling of the Church, according to 
Chrifts Ordinance, is Chrifls call, as that mprc immediate was; and therefore, AB.20.1S.md elfewhere,thele 
Elders and Paftors oiEf befits ( M'ho yet, no queftion, had but (uch a Call as thele that were chofen by the 
People, and ordained by the Presbytery, ^3.14.23. and 1 Tim 4. 14.) are faid to be fet over the Flock h, the- 
^fl/y^A^; and foPaftors and Teachers, whoare to be continued in the Church byamediateway ofmans 
tranfmitting it tooihers,as Pauls word is, zTim.l.l.zxQ yet accounted a gift of Chrilts to his Church, as the 
Offices of Apoftles,Evangeiift5, &c.are, EfA*/4. II. 

Thirdly,In this enquiry, the great ftrcfle wonld not be laid on a mans own inclination ,.or afuppoled im- 
pul(e,which yet may be but the inclination. That being found to fljw from , or to go along with rationall. 
grounds, may have its own weighti but otherwifc , not : for we fee often men more affectionately inclining 
to what they fhould not, than to whatihey Ihould. H.*nce many run who are notfent : vvhofe inclinations 
certainly lead them to it : and others again , that are molt convincingly called , have yet difficulty to go over. 
theirinclinations,asdoth appear in Mtf/M, Jeremiah ind Jonah ^ atl^aftinhisCill to Nim>eA^ And our 
hearts being deceit£ull,and we ready to account the motions of our own fpirits tob.- better than they are,there- 
is need, whether in thegenerall, orin the particular call, to b^ wary h;rc. 

More parcicularly,we conceive,rhat both in generall,&:with relation to a particular placefor the clearing of 
a Miniflers Call'^refpedl is to hz had to thefe four:wbich may bj fatisfying as to bis peace.when th :y concurr, . 

1. A mans Gifi, is the great differencing Chara£ler ofa Call , though it bi not of it felf , . conltitutive of a 
C :11 , that is , that one b • in fome mealure AtAdKliKtf, or , apt to t^ach: this being infallibly true.that whom 
the Lord defigncjfor any imployment in His Hojfe , if it were b Jt to m^ke Curtains , Sockets, ficc. . to the 
Ark , He will fbme way fit, &jii ike them futable to it : & thisis as th-* Seal whereby He evinceth in the. 
hearts of Hearers, that he who treats, is his authorized Ambaffador. 

2. Toclearamantoexercife his Gift :i»muft not only hia G\£zi b^tfcundti dtclaredtebefo y bythefita> 
tvhom the tryaUofGiftsistommittedb^ JeJutChrift : for, it's not the having a Gift , that makcth a Call ; yea-, 
northatwhichmakethirapublickOitt .ortobe acknowledged as fuch: buiii's theorderly Authoritative 
misfion. that foUoweth upon that Gift : in which refpedt , the exercife of the Glf , and the laying on of the 
handsofthe Presbytery, are put together, iTim.4,14. eventhougl>itfeemeth that he had knowledge and 
Gifts before. I fit were not thus, vdiat a confufion would there be in the Church of Chrift > more than "in any 
Commonwealth ? Where it*s not Gifts that conftitute* a Magittrate, or an Officer: but the orderly calling 
ofa pcrfon thereunto by fuch as have Authority: M-hich ought alfo fingularly to be obferved here. And the • 
Lord hath appointed this, not only for the publick order of his houfe, which is exceedingly prifed by Him j ; 
but alfo for the particular clearing of lb; perfontbat istobedefigned.. Thus,! conceive, aperibnthatisat 
fome doubt about his Gift.and posfibly thinking it fit to cdifje j yetjUpon luppofiiion that it be found other- 
wife by thefe to whom the Spirits , or Gif ts,ought to be fubjeded, he may nave peace in abftainrng , whatt 
•ver his own thoughts be: becaule the Lord hath not made thefe his rule. • Hence alfo , on ihcoiher hand , . 

F 3 * ~ iovasxi 

^ An Sxpofit'm tffhe Chap, i. 

loaT' who ma" eflcem their Gift unfit for edit_^jiig or the Oiurch j yet if it b: found otherwilc by thefe 
whs'le phce leads diwn to decide, and whole ccilcitiio^ wui nuke U:e.n tender in it , tiiey ought, and may 
\X'ith p-acc yecW: wl.ccas, if there were no A Jthontative trial, what a loriurc woiud is be to lonie to have 
th'' vvcichtwheliy lying on theinfilves,and whatadoorwoiiidbeopea toth^moitlelt-contident peifons . 
on the other hand ? Y ca, M'ere it not cnus, fhere wo jld be no need ot the Lijal ot Gifts, enjoyncd* i C»r. 1 4. 
20 V^ v\^ich being in extraordinary gifcedPrephets, it's mucii more coberdpedkd inordinary Miiuft.Ti : 
ncitner were there ufe for fo many precepts to try* aiid lo many ciiaracters how to dilcern them that are fit- 
ted for or called to the Minittery j whe eot, to be apt to te.uh, is a m jin one, if there were not weight to be 
laid on the probation, aixl determination of a l:*rcsay tone, wno are to count to God for tueir decifioniti fuch 
a caf ■ and are not left to indifferertcie or aroicrarincik ta^iein. 

2. For atn>rSpi.a.e,bilici: the former two, JtniUneJJeinhimjelfifnece&'iiyy vvitliojt which, both the 
former two will not lultain him agamlta cUallengc; exc.pithere \x a ccltimomehere, that coiifcience to du- 
ty, and obedience to Gods Call made him yeeid to it > ih.n Ciodi giory , and pron»ovmg of the Work of the 
ciiif yin2 of Chrilts Bxly, was his end i and that hia taiung up ot CiiritU itund, to be calling him to follow this 
Cili was his motive taat made him betake hunlelf CO thu Cdihng and not to another, and that upon delibe- 
ration and leavch made, to ditcem the mind of God. Wntr. th.-fe cnrec cone arr, to wir, a Cifr, and thator- 
d-rly appro ven, with the hearts y v-elding 10 the Call, upon that account > to do Chrift iervice m that, more 
thari in an other rtutio i , becauie it apprehends hun to caii to that imployment and not to another y we con- 
ceive there is good ground of peace, lo as there cannot be a torturing Ciuilengc upon this occalion : for , al- 
though men intrultedtotry, are not infallible in dixerniiigotGitts i yet, whenule is made of this way, as 
Chrilts Ordinance, f^r attaining latisfadtion m this mutter of a ^ all, it's not like thathis Ordinance will be 
a Inaretoany: and if triers of Gifts should miitake,- yet may it be expeCted,that either the Lord will dilcovcr 
it timoufly Ibme other way to the perfon concerned, or graciojlly time ocber way pity him, who did yecld 
only out of refpcvil to hisCall as it was lupf«led by him. And wiio KnoAvcth aUo,but Gifts may/oUow by 
Gods ble/Tmg upon Labours , when He lb clears a Call , if tae Qjelliion only be tuere ? As one may have 
ueaceinaMagiftracie, when fingl yu'o unbraced ojt ottheconfacnce ofGodsCall, although it maybe 
they who had hand in his eledion did unfi .ly make chole of fuch a pcrion* And though this linglenelle b« 
liot limply nccefihry to the being of a Call; ( for, there may be a Call without it, as in lud^t ) yet, it's limply 
neceflcM-y for themans peace that accepts It. 

4 . We take in here the conliderations ot Gods prCPidence , ana the concurrence of his difpen fat ions : which , 
though they will not determine a Call limply, nor make a tning iawrull to one , whicn is not in it felf law- 
full ; yetjin pofirive duties, they may do mucn tocaitiheballancein Iwaying aman to©ne Calling beyond 
: another ; as fuppofe one hath means and wayes in providence provided for liis education, which otliers h.ive 
not los he hath been led to Itudy^conlcience puts at him to take fome calling.and it may bc;,pcMnteth at this, 
at left fo far as to make proof of it : all doors tor other Calhngs are ihut upon him , fo that he muft betake 
himfelftothis , or languish m doing ot nothing: fomctimes others may be made ufeoftoputachim , and 
the mind is kept in dif juiet while he eflayeth any other thing: reaion here sheweth , fuch & fuch Hke things 
condirring, may hive lb much weighcas to encojrageone to rollow tiiis motion,aiid;may confirm him Wiicn 
this goeth along vi'ith th- former three, or hath th:m following upon it." 

If there w ere more particular enquiry called tor concerning tiiatimpulle of theSpirit, -which may bein one, 
in Tcfcrenceto the M^niftery , how to ttilcern it ? aixl what weight to lay on it ? We confelie that it is hard to 
decide therein : the operations of the Lot ds Spirit being myit.nies, ana often leeming unreasonable to men j 
its alio the deceits Qf our own hearts are deep , and not ealiiy reached : \ct, for helping in this,we may fay, 
Tnat it's not unaluall to the Lord, to podfe one by fits Spmt , when Hi mindeth to have him to the Mini- 
Iteryj andthereby to Itir the heart ot one, more than anoih.-r, and more to this Calling than another, though 
iti all, or at all times, not in the lame meaf-ire. This m experience hath been found,andGod hath afterward 
iv^aled it to have beenof him: and by this, many have been brought to the Miniftery , who have been profi- 
.r' ble in it i who, had not this been, would aever have thought on it, or have b^en perf waded thereto by o- 
thers. And feing the Calling of the Miniltjry is m an elpecial and peculiar way from G®d, and eminently 
His choice herein doth appear, it s not inconfiltent with His foveraignty and interelt th-rein,thjt he ufe this 
mean or way or an inward impulfe. And although what is exprelly fpoken of this in S:ripture be for the 
moft part in reference to extraordinary Officers , and that in an extraordinary manner j yet by proportion 
may an ordinary imp jli"a be gathered from tbit as concurring in tne fending of ordinary OJficers, as there is 
an ordinary tnotion of the Spuit:acki«)Wledged inotner lawful duties. Yet, i . AdvertJ, that this impulfcof 
che>5pirir, is not in all alike or eejiially difoernable. The Lord lometin^s will tbruft one forth by a more in- 

Chap. I. IiO0kj>ftheRevelatm, 47 

ward imp ife i and will draw others by more external means : Hence itwill be found, thacif the (hing bj of 
God, M here the way is meft improbable, and there be f eweft encouragements and kaft outward drawin^^ , 
there tac inward thruft is the more ftrong: becaufe by it the Lord doth fupplie the want ofthat weight , 
which thcfe outward helps might have on Him. And again, where O'Jtward things do more convincingly 
concur, as that a man is purpoQy,asit were, educated in reference to ihat end, provided for, and encouraged 
by others in the un Jertaking thereof,C5c. i n tnefe , although the end may be fingle, yet often is the in war d 
impulfe ItiT- difccrnable; becaufe the Lord hath provided other means to draw theiu forth, which do fupply 
ch at: neither is lie to be aft ridtcd to one way of proceeding in this. 2. Advert, thatthisimpulfemay be , 
when yet it is not di(cerned,either becaufe it is not taken heed unto i or , becaufe the inclination may be pre- 
judged, and the peribn not difcern the language thereof. Or, becaufe the Lord may make it afeend by the 
Iteps and degrees, as it were, at firft withdrawing the mind only from fome delign that it was fet upon j and 
itmaynocbepofitivelyatfirilknownwhatheaimetbai: And, Secondly* He may incline the heart to, and 
briiig it in love with reading, and ftudyingiand other means which afterward he may make ufe of in reference 
to this end i and yet poffibly bide from the perfon that which he aimeih at by this. Thirdly, He may make 
a ftir inwardly in the heart* making it Ibme way difquiet in every other thing , and reltkfll'in whatfoever it 
tuf neth it fdf to, as not being its proper work ; that thereby He may conftrain it to look ibme other-where. 
Fourthly , When this is done, He may make the perfon content to efTiy the trial of his Gift, if fo be by that . 
be may attain quietneflV, and yes Itill the perfon be but trying what the language of that impulfe may mean , 
and not be diilindly clear of the refult. And, the Lord doth wi fcly follow this order ,pnrtly,co draw on the 
perfon by tteps, who might otlierwife be feared, if all were prefented to.him together j andpardy,chatin due 
order he might eflPeduate his point, and train up the inftrument to a fitr.elfe for the work he is to call him . 
to, whereas , if he had perfwalion of Gods calling of him to the Miniftry at firft,before any acquired ftinelfe 
for the iame, he mightbe in hazard to flight the means, and precipitate in the thingjwhich the Lord allou'eth 
.not: partly alio he doth it, to keep fuch independence on Him for through^bearing in every Itep, one after 
another; fo tliat alrho.igh at firft,one hi not clear that God ealleth him to the Miniltery it felf, yet if he be 1 o . 
far clear, as chat he calls him to forbear fuch an other Cilling, to follow llich a Stady,to ifljy trials,£^i;.. he 
ought to yeeid to that, waiting for what God may further reveal to him. Therefore, 3. Advert , that difte- 
reiKeouffht do be made between an impulfe to theftudy of Divinity , and an impulfe to the Miniltery ; . one 
may lealTy be Ihrred to the firft , and ought to account it fo , and fo far to yeeld, without difputing whit may 
follow ; as we may fee in many, who in the ftudy of D^vinity,and in trials have given good proof of Gods ap- 
proving them in going that length, and yet he hith thought meet by death, or oiheiwayes to prevex^t their 
being entered adtually to the Mmittery ; which declarcth that they M'ere nevei- called thereunto.Ms thirefbrt j 
by any impulfe, one cannot warrantably conclude that he is certainly to live fo long ; fo can he not certainl y 
gathcrr , that he is called to b.' at^ually a Minifter , which llippoleth the fbnner: and therefore certainty in . 
this, is not to be at fit ft enquired for, or expected j b jt fo much is to be reftc«l in , as may give the confcience " 
q lictndfe in the prefent ftep , fuppofir^ that death fliould prevent an other : this being the Lords way, that 
the further one follow His Call, it willbe clearer unco him; like one th.it afcendeth by degrees , be is llill in 
capacity to behold the further. Yet, 4. Advert, that every impulle, which maybe to the'Cillingof the Mi- 
niitery,is not to be accounted an impuKe of the Spirit of God : or, as his moving.£ither to the ft jdying of Di- 
vinity , or the following cfthe Mi nifteryj as we may fee in the multitude of falfc Prophets of old, and in the 
CKpericnce of later times, wherein many haveiand do run, whom tlse Lord never fcnt. And confidering the 
nature of our fpirits , and rhe way that the devil may have in th,' feducing of iomcjand jumbling of others:this 
needeth not to be thought ftrange. The great difficulty then will be , how to dilcern the voice of the Spi^ 
ritof God in this particular, from the voice of our own fpirits, or of thi devil,in this refpedt , transforming 
himfelfinto an Angel of liglit, and lometimei even driving honeft hearts to etc attempting of th is as a goo.l 
thing, who yet may not hi called th.'reunto of God indeed. 

Tohelprheninthe trial of this. Con (ider, i.That that which is.an impulfe of the Lords Spirit,'dcth more 
compofe and fandtifie the whole f a ne ©f the inward man, it being that fame Spirit which is the Spirit of 
Grace and fupplication; therefore ihe more fenlibly he poufe, t he more fenfibly are thefe cftedsi &c the more 
compo.ed and fand-ihed a heart be, the mo.e ekar and diliindt will t^atimpulfe of the Spirit be : becaufe 
then the heart is more impartial to dTcern the fame. . And although this impulfe of the Spirit be but a com- 
mon work, which may be in a hypocrite, and loalway hath not this fanftifying efficacie with tj yer,we con- 
ceive where one, out of confcienee, nflitfcih on it, to try m hither it be of God or not , there can be no con- 
clufion drawn ftom it to quiet the conlcience in the acknowk^lgment iheieof, except it be found to be like 
His Spirit in the e ffe»5ls of it. . 


,^ AnExpat/ttimfffthe Chap.ir 

2. Thst this impulfe of ihe Spirit; , is noi: ba : ked wi th ih.^ airiftance oFour fpirits j but fome m a> ii con- 
llraineth them to yecld to it , even contrary to their own inclination , So that it moveth and carrieih a man 
over the thoughts of gain , reproach, credit or lolfe , over his inab:lity and imfitnefle j which are never more 
di covei ed than M'hen this impulfe is ftrongeft and moft diftindt, as we may fee in the examples ofMo/ir, Jc 
remhb , ^c whereas morions from our ownfpirits, do often Icfl'en the difficulties, and hide the unfitnelfcand 
inability that is within us, and readily ground ihemlelyes upon Ibmefuppofed ability or probability, more 
than there is apparent reafon for. 

3. That Goa> Spirit moveth by fpiticuall motives like himfelf , as the promoying of Gods glory, the 
editication of His people , the preventing of achallange., by giving obedience to Him, and fuch like: 
whereas other motions Kave ends and motives like themlelyes-, as in the faKe prophets and others 
teachers in the New T^ftamcnt may be feen; who fed not the flock, but themfelves, and fcrved not the Lord 
Chri(t,but their own bellies, andfoight their own credit, eafc.C^f. yea, even Ji/dWf , though extiaodinarily 
«noved by the Spirit j yctit*s like tnat was not the motrve winch prevailed with him to yccid ; butfomc 
carnal motive, whether gain , credit or fuch like* as is held forth in the Gofpcl. 

4. That the motion of the Lords-Spirit, is, in its nature, kindly ; and in its way, regular , according to the 
nilc of the Spirit in the Word , that is , it do:h not drive the heart violently as the Devils injeAions do , nor 
doth itprccipitat in the following and perfuiag of what it moveth to; but , as having the command of the 
heart , he moveth natively , without making the fpirit confufed, and he prtCeth the profecuting of what he 
moveth unto , orderly , it being the fame Spirit that ha:h laid down a rule to wal k by in the Word, and now 
ftirs within the heart : and therefore^ the inward impulfe, cannot but be anfwcrablc to the outward rul«. 
Hence alfo the fpirits motion , Is fubmilfive to the way of trial appointed in the Word» and is not abfoluie or 
peremptory ; whereas motions from our felvcs 1 or from the devil , are head-ftrong , and irregular, aiming at 
the end of thing , without refpcft to the way prelcribcd for attaining it. or, at IeaIt,do not fo heartily approve 
of the one as of the other, efpecially if it be thwarted in its defign by them. 

<;. That this motion of the spirit putteth to the ufe of all means thatlead tothe end* as virell as to the end it 
felf > that is, reading, ftudying , praying., or what may fit one for that end : for , the Spirit never divideththc 
end and the means: and ?<!«/* word to I7/«#^^tf, fiibioymt)gthax,pteceipt ,£iTpe thy felft» redding* to th^t 
other oi\i\s fulfilling his Minijtm , doth confi m this : whereas, when thefe are divided , there can be no claim 
made to a motion of ib2 Spirit of God. 

6. XTonfider, that the impuUeofthe Spirit, is a fitting, gifting impulfe, and arrying along with it a capa- 
city in fome meature for > and a faitablenlfe to , the tliioj^ that it calls ta Hence, in the Scripture, the Call ot 
tlie Spirit , and the Gif :s of the Spirit go together. And this latt , is given as the evidence of th firlt , and in 
this rei pe«3: , although there may be an impulfe to the ftudy of Divinicy w ithout the Call of th.- Spirit unto 
the Miniftriei yet can that never be counted an impulfe of the Spirit actually to enter the Minillerie, where 
this giftingbf the Spi : itis not ; foi", it can never be inftance d in all the Word of God, that Hi s Spirit fent any, 
but hisC.ill was fealed by his Gifting of them. And lo, in c ffe^ff, the trying of this impulfe.fo as one may have 
fatisfadfiontheirein , will for the molt part refolve in the trial of thofc two formerly mc ntioned , to wit , the 
fitnefleof ones Gift to teach. Secondly, Thefinglcntfleandfincentyof the motive whereby one is! wayed 
to follow the impuUe : for, although the Spirit may move 5 yet if it be fome carnal gtound that perfwadeth the 
pcrfon to yceld to that which the Spirit moveth unto, itcanbe nogroundofpeao-, Thcfe two then are at 
iealt, asto a mans peace , the^wi-fw^i^woj*, in ttietriilofthisinapulfc; fo that without them , he cannot 
conclude himfelfto be called adtuallytoenter the Miniftrie, or have peace in the undertaking the of. 

Tofpeak a Word then to what weight is to be laid on thi>impulie: Conccmingit, wefay. 1. That if all 
til in<»s befide concur to the fitting sxA qualifying of a Minifter, this i , ; ot limply to be accounted :\fine fjo non 
in ones undertaking : Bccaufe, i. There may be fome impulie . though we dilcern it not. 2. B caul there 
arc more clear grounds to gather Gods mind from , as the eff :;(ih of t *e Spi' it fitting one w ith Gifts for the 
change, and other grounds laid down , whereupon weigiit may more fafely be laid, than upon any in^'ard 
apprehending , or not apprehending of the Spirits motion, which is never given to us in any thing, as cht- alone 
rule of obedience : and we muft luppofe the motion of the Spirit to be where thefe Gifts are , feeing as rh« 
impulfehatb al way the Gifts with it , to we may gather the impulfe from the Gifts. 

2. We lay, hit where other things concur not, no impulfe is to be accounted a iutficient evidence of a Call 
to the Minitfery limply , upon the grounds formerly given : yet, .3. A diftinCt native, fanififying i:npulfe» 
may be a Call to iifc means, and to wait on in Gods way for attaining officnelfein afubmilfive manne.,reek- 
jjiii rather to know what God intendsjthan as being ablblutely determined in refpecff of the end. 4. Although 
<5ifcs^ fingleneffc of heart, and an impulfeconcure together j yet will not thefe conftitute a Minifter , though 


Chap.i. Book^ofthe Rer^elat'm. 49 

th;y may evidence a Call to the MIniftery ,and w^arrand one to ftep in , when a door is opened to them: bccaule 
neither oFthefe. do include an Authoritative Commiiilon for him to treat , although they do put him in a ca- 
pacity to be fent asan AmbalTador ofChrift , whenhefhall.be Authorized. Henceitis.thatin thecafeof 
Deacons ^Sj6.\vhoarebyGifcs fitted for their 0?iice-y and of Bishops, Tit, 1.7.8. and 9. who are > in 
th;rclpeds there fct down, to be found quaHfied for their imploymcnt ; yet is the Authorative ordaining 
of l)Oth mentioned, as that which did conltitutc them Officersfnthefererpedliveftaiions. LaHly , we fay, 
that yet this impulfe, when all concur with if, may have its own cumulative weight, for the ftrengthning of 
one »n.it hath it,to the undertaking of thisCharge .when the Lord in his ordinary way opens the dcor unto him. 
To fhut up this part of the dilcourfe , we conceive, that it Were ufefuU to the Church , and conducing ex- 
ceedingly for the clearing of Entrants to the Miniftcry? that there were Ibme choice and way of tryall , both of 
jlich as miffht be prefcntly foand*fit to enter the Minilteiy and al fo of othersthat might be advifed to ftudy in 
rcf;i ence t'nereunto : and that it might not be Itfc unto men themfelves alone , whetner they will offer them- 
fflvcs to tryall in reference to that Charge or not. For Co , many may , and no queftion do , fmother good 
Gifts which might be iifefuU > the eby prejudging the Church thereof, who by this grave convincing , and 
.( ere it fail ) Autnoritative wayi might be brought tonh , and vt'oiild more eafily be made to yeeld thereunto, 
when the burthen thereof were not wholly left on themfelves ; whereas now , partly , from fhame and mo* 
defty. partly, from cuftome, and undervaluing of the Miniltery , none ordinarily whootherwife have a tem- 
poral! beii-^, or any place, do betake themiclves to this CjUing ; and it's hard to fay that either none fuch are 
gifted for it, or that luch Gifts Ihould be loft. And by this , on the ether (idei we fuppofc , that many who 
do now defign themfelves to the Miniftery , ( bccaufe none but fuch as take that way aie called thereto ) 
would hz alhamed to thruft forth themfelves ; and lb the Church might haveaccefle a great deal better w 
the providing of her felfwith able and qualified Minifters 5 whereas now ihe is , almoit, confined in her 
choice to a number that give themfelves , or at molt , are defigned by their Parents , or polfibly conltrained 
by ncceffity to fbll:.w fuch a ftudy. It's true, this way the Lord may provide his Houfe , and may fo engage 
thole whom he minds to makeufeofj yet certainly > it looks not ib like, inanordinary way , foratCaining 
of edification asthe other : and confideriug that the Church as fuch , is one body , and lo ought to make uie 
of every member, and any member, as may moft conduce for the good of the whole body. There is no 
queftion, but the Ciiurch might call amemb.-r, upon fuppofit! on of his qualifications, to tryall, and 
(being found conform, to wnat was ftippofedj might appoint himtothciMiniltery; and that mcmbcc 
ou-'ht CO yeeld to both, from that duty that lyeth on every member in refi-ence to the whole body, which 
is to be preferred to any particular membev's intereft : and this without refpedtomensoutwsrd coiidition 
or place ; providing their being imployed in this ftation > may be more ufefuU to the Church, and the edificati- 
on of Chrifts Body, than their being imployed in no Calling at all , or in any other Calling. This being alfo 
'to be granted.that Ibme men may be To ulcfull in, and fit for publick civill Calling^.as that thereby theChurch 
may be beneficed fofar, that it will not be meet in every cafe , and in every perfon, to ufe this power ^ yet 
fuch extraordinary cafes being laid afide , no doubt ordinarily it were ufefuU : And feeing all Incorporations 
andCommonwcalthshavethisliberty tocall, and imploy their members , wiihoacrelpedt to their own in- 
clinations , fo as it may be moft behovefull for the good of the Body ; this which nature teacheth , and ex* 
perience hath confiimed in them » cannot be denied to the Churchj which is a Body , and hath its own policy 
given to it by feifus Chriftforthe b jlding up of it felf . This way is alfo agreeable to Scripture : and to the 
pradice of the Primitive times: none can fay that the Church did not choofe her Elders and D.'acons,and 
other officers out ofall her members indifferently , as fhe thought fit, ABs 6. fevcn men fitly qualified are 
to be looked out amongft all the Peoples foin Pauls pradice through the JSisi and in his directions to 
Timothy, and Titus: fuch only are not tobechofen, who otter them, elves to it : but indifferently , fuch as 
may be beft qualified> arc to be enquired for , and when found , whatever they be , to be called and ordained 
to the Miuiftery. By all which, it appears like the Apoltollck way to enquire for men that may be found 
qualified for the Miniftery: and alfo , that fhuning , or repining to enter the Miniftery in any perfon found 
qualified for ir^and thus called to it,hath never been fuppofedas allowable by the Apoftks ; but it was looked 
upon as a duty , for thofe that were fo called, to obey , as it was the duty of others to enquire for fuch. To 
this alfo, may that exhortation of P«<rr relate , i Epiji. 5. Chap, and 2.Ver/e. lecdtbtfiockof CodwhiStt 
amoTiffi you, taking the o\erJight thereof not hy conj ratnt , bui %\illingly,S^e. whereby it would feem , that 
he is preffin*^ obedience from thole that were called , that wiUinglyihey Ihould undertake the overfight of 
Godstlock. ^Which words, if'wcllconfidered, would pinch exceedingly a tender Confciencecfany man, 
if aCall were thus prefled upon him. And indeed, if it were at mens option arbitral ily to re fufc fuch a OIL 
the dircdions that are givento tlie People and Mmifters for fearching out , calling and ordaining fucb, were 

G to 

fO ^ Bxp&fit'm 9f the Chap.i. 

to no purpofe ; for thii?they might sll be trultraccd. We do not fay this to prejudge the laudable way of 
training up Students in reference to this end , it leemeth that even anionglt the f « wx , thefe who were to 
teach the People , were numerous, and as it were in Coliedges, trained up with the Prophets , & thefe who 
were able to teach them. TheApoltlesailb were not detedtive intrainmg of young men in reference to 
thisjwhich fhews the laudablenelfe of that way. And although the main parttheicof be not to be placed in 
Scholaftick deb.ites i yet is training necelTaryjwhich in the meanelt Calling is found uCcfuii: and therefore 
not juftly to be denied here.We would only lay ,i . That they would be Ibme choife made in the delignine of 
Youths for that Study : fo that in an orderly way , fomc might be lb trained , and not have liberty other- 
wayes to withdraw •, and others timeoufly advifed to look to f. meother imployment. 2. We would not 
have Elections bounded and limited to that number , foas either any whofoever thus trained up > might cer- 
tainly be fuppofed as capable of being Minifters , or as if no Congregiiion or Prcsjytery might fix tneir 
eye upon , or give a Call unto any other. This way ofcalling was long continued in the Primuivc Church 
as we may (ee in the example of ^/wfo'o/e, who bv-'ing a Senator and Preiident (although not yetB.iptiz'd) 
nc verthelerte , b.'caule of his known ability, piety , and prudence , was unexpectedly, 'and unanimoally call- 
ed to be Biihop of Millan : and nocwithltanding ot his great oppolitnefl'e thereto , was at length lo preifed 
as he was made to yeeld ; and after proved a notable inftrument in the Church of Chrift. And it's remark- 
ed, that the good E nperour ^a/fminw«» di J exceedingly rejoyce , when he heard it , blesfing God that 
had led hi u to chooi e one to take care ot bodies , who was accounted fit to take care of fouls. Jheoderet 
mft.'ib.^,cap6. The Uke is recorded by E««gri«*. Hiji.lib.^.cjp.6. Ot one Euphraimius, who, while he 
Was Governour ol the Eaft , wascholen to b^ tlilhop otAntiocht which the author cilUthfedes Jpfftolica. 
Thisisalfo the eftabliih:d DovSlrine of ojr Church in the firlt Book,ofDtfciflin«, in that head tnatcona.rneth 
Prophi.f/ing and interpreting Script jre, whereof theie are the words, Moreolfer men in Mbom isfuppofed t» 
be any Gift , v/hich might edif^e the C burch, if they Mere imphjed , muft be charged by 1 he Minijlers and Elders to 
joyn themfehes with the Sesfion and company oj interpreters , to the end that the t^rkjnaji j udge whither they be 
able to lerve to Gods glory and the proht of the Kirk 1 inthevOvati.nofMuiutersor not. And, if any be 
found difobedient , and not willing to communicate the Gifts and fpecial graces Oi God with their brethren 
after fufiicient admonition , Difcipline mult proceed againlt them, prolfided that the ciVilMaiilraLe concur 
ivith the judgement and eleHion if the Kjrk,: for no man may be permitiedt <« beft p/e..fcth him , to h'pe within the 
iQrkofGod ; but eyery man mu(i teconitrained by fraternal admonition , andcorreHion, to bejlow his labours 
•when of the Kjrk,he is req uired^ to the edif cation of others. W hich if it were zealoully followed , might by Gods 
blesfing prove both profitable , and honourable to the Church. 

Tolayfomethingtothefecondheadpropoled>towit , ot a mans ciearnefle to the MiniftcrieoFa parti- 
cular Congregation , wefuppofe that this alibis neceflary forhispeace , leingihereisnoreaion thatmen 
ought arbitrarly to walk herein, but accordingly .'S they are called ot God to o.ie place and not to another : 
therefore we fee that in John*s commisfion 5 the general is not only cxprelfed i bui parciculariy.he is inltr . di- 
ed in reference to fuch and fuch particular Churches .'and according to this, we lee in the Hiitory of the^^fli 
chat fome were ordered to Preach in one place, and fome in another j and ABs 1 3. P^iul and Silas in th ir 
leaving Jntioch, and going to the Gcwn/er, were not only called by word , but connrmeu and authorized by 
the laying on of hanc's,ind we doubt not but this general alfo Mill be gwnted.tor helping to ciearnefle there- 
in, the former general rules, are alfo to be applied with fpccial refpeci to the particular cale. As i.It is to be 
tried,if the Gift be not only luitable to edification in general , but to the edification of chat people in particu- 
lar: fo that if when their c.if.s dilpofitions, qualiocations , C?t and his gifcs,dilpoiirion , & other fitnelle 
both in reference to his publick Miniftriein D oCtrinc and Dilcipliue , as alio to his induinents in reference to 
liis private converfation ( yea, their very corruptions and infinnities being cotnpared togethe: J If, 1 fay, luch 
aman m.iy, in well grounded realbn, be looked upon asqualifiw'd for trie edifying ot (uch a people: In this 
comparifon alfo , reiped would be had even to the more pubhck itateof the Church; fo as a mans fitnelfe 
would not only be tried with rcfpedl to the Congregation it felf : but with rcipeCt to other things. 2. This 
firnL flj would be found and d -t.'nnincd to be io, by thefe whole place it is to try Gifts , even in this refpect. 
. 3. The tryfting ©f ptovidences isto be obfcrved : as , the rile of the Call , it it proceed from no natural or 
carnal end > if no oth :t door b.' opened clfwhere to him who is called , he may the more warrantably Itep in 
there ,if no probable fettling ofthat Congregation appear otherwife than by him, lb as his rcfjfing might oc- 
calion a detriment to that place? If things looK fo as ne have an clteem witno.t prejudice in thr; heans of that 
people; lb as he may prob ibly expe^ »6 be4ooked on as a Mmilter, & to have the Word without prejudice 
received from him in that place? alio if without carnall refpedts his heart bj made to incline that way , or if 
uiKxp^iSedly & ever many difficulties the people hiye pitched on hiin & adhered to him -> Thcie, and fuch 


Chap. I ^ 'Sookofthe RepeUtion. , f7 

like , may Wtve their own weight , fo as to help to gather this conclufion, That probably fuch a manS 
Miniftrie may be ufeful and profitable in fuch a place ; Neither is the ^dvite of fober and unbyafTed men » 
Minifters and others , to be ncgleded j feing often they may lee more in a mans parciculat cafe , nor he can 
dif cern himfelf : and that is ott found to be a mean made ufe of by God , for manitefting ofliis mindc in fuch 
cafes. Again , if there be any competition of places , foas onebi fought by moe Congregations at once, 
the cafe is here fomewhat different, fuppofingthe man to be equally fitted for fcveral places ;otherwife. 
greatet fuirablenefle to the one , nor to the other , where it is palpable, doth caft the ballancc. In deciding 
what to choofe in this competition, there is much need offinglenclfe and deniednefle to all outward ancC 
carnal thing's , both in him that is fought i andinthemwhofeek , and in all others intercfled; thisbeinga 
great ill to lliffer carnalntfle and contentions to ftcal in, even in perfuit for a good Minifte r. Neither is there 
greatwdght to be laid upon prioritie or pofterioritie in the applications that are made , the matter it felf and 
caufes which may be given for the laft and for the firft , can only fatisfie the confcicnce as to the great fcope 
of the Miniltrici to wit, the edification of the Church : feing a man is obliged to look to edification in his Mi- 
niftrie, and fo to fettle , where probably that may be beft attained , and not as an occafion may be, firft, or laft 
moved to him: and it were good that both he who is called, and they who call> M'ould fubmic all interefts.and 
be regulated by this. We conceive alfo, that thedccifion of this, doth not mainly or principally lye upon tlie 
perfonhimfelfrfor, asheisnotfimplyto judge, whether his Giftsbcnneet forche Miniftrie in general ,oc 
for the edification of fuch apeoplein particular; fo neither comparatively is he to decide, whether it be 
more conducing for e dification , that he imbrace one Call rather than another ; but this is to be done rather by 
thefe, whofe place leads them indifferently to look to the general good of the Church. This then is the greac 
rule to decide by , whether his Miniftrie, confidered complexly in all circumftances, may moft conduce to the 
edification of Chrifts body by the accepting of this or that charge , when all things arc fingly and impartially 
weighted and compared together ? fo as in the refult , it may, upon good grounds , be made to appear, that 
the one will prove a greater furiherancetotheperfedling of the faints, and inlargement of Chrifts Kingdom 
than the other: as if his Miniftrie in one place, may be profitable to moe fouls than in another: and that not 
only with a refped^ to the particular Congregation j but as ic may have influence to the preventing or fuppre{^ 
fing of fbme general evils, or the promoving of fome general good in moe Congregations befide: If his 
Miniftriemay probably have more acceptance and fruit in one place , than in an other ; if by fome prefent eir- 
cumfiance , the planting of one place be more needful > and the delay thereof be more dangerous than in ano- 
ther * whidi feemeth more difficult than the place in competition there with j if the man find , after fome trial » 
his liberty greater , his bowels more ftirrid, and his mouth more tjpened as the Apoftle fpeaks,2 Cor6.in refe- 
rence to one more thananothet s if the harmonious judgement of fingle and unintercfled faithful men prefer 
the one , as more edifying , to the other i and many fuch like, whereby Chriftian prudence, aft.-r the inquir- 
ing of the Lords mind, may find the general end of edification to fway more on the one fide than on the other* 
accofdingly confcience is to determine that to be Gods Call , andtheperfonistoyeeld: for, although in 
every cafe thefe could notfway amanwarrantablyand fimply inrefpeClofhisCall ; yet where the com- 
petition is in a cafe, that is almolt equal on both fides, they may have place to caft the baliance. 

For the third, That when a man is cleared in reterence to a particular Charge , there doth remain yet a ne- 
cefTity of clearing him in reference to a particular meflage to that Charge : for, as the condition of every Con- 
gregation , is not alike ; fo is not one way to be followed v\'ith all. Hence we fee that Jofm hath a particular, 
and feveral meflage in reference to thefe feven Cnurches , though all agree in the one generall fcope* to wit, 
their edification. This is not to awaken at every time an anxious difpute,what matter to preachs But, i . Toj 
confider what particular faults have need to be re proved j whatTruths have nee defpecially to be cleared j 
what duties are efpecially to be prelfed , as being moft flighted amongft them ; what f nares they are moft in 
hazard of and need moft to be warned asainft, and fo accordingly to mfift: for , though all duties be good, and 
all fins be to be cfchewed i yet do we fee in the Word, that fometimes, and in fome places , fome are more in- 
fifted on than others , upon the former grounds. 2. The ncceflary Truths of the Gofpel , as they tend to in- 
ftru»5l, convince , convert , comfort , &c. which are the great task of a Minifter, are neceflary to all peopi e j 
yet in the prcflfing of inftruiftion and conviction , more than confolation ; or, again , confolation and healing 
applications , more than fliarper threatnings and reproofs , That is to be regulated according to the temper 
and cafe of t he people, as alfo the manner of propofing and following of them , according as may among fuch 
prove moft edifying, as the Lord, in thefe feven Epiftles, doth more fharply or more mildly deal with t lem 
10 whom he writes. But becaufe there may be occafion to touch this on the 10. Chapter , and here we have 
already exceeded our bounds, we fhall fay no more of it ,but fliUl fay fomewhat particularly to writing^ and 
the peoples ufe-making thereof. : 

G 2 Concerning 

jl .^ MSxpopimtfthe Chap.i. 

Concerning Writings 

IN reference to this, \vc fay, i -Thai men may by writing , communicate what light God gives them , for 
thego>^dofcheCi:urch. ii^s crue, the G jfpel wa>at tirit Ipreadand planted by Preaching,ihit is more 
properly the mean of converlion. ii*s true aho ihjt all the Apoltles Preached , but ali did not wricc;yec 
weM'ill find, that the Apoities made t^rcit uie of writing, lor the informing, reproving, Itrcngthenmg , 
and every way edifying of Churches and P:rlons brought to ths: faith; for , rhey wrote th.4"e Ep'illes, not 
only as scripture, for theCiurch in generall,.b.ital o lor the edifying of fach perfons,ui particular, and for 
dealing of fuchand fuch particular Djubcs, or Truias, wiuch the ftate of fuch times> or Cnurches did moll 
call for. There is reafon alfo foi taii* ifvvcconfidci , i. The relation that is amongil all the members of 
the Catholick Church, whereby all are tied, to be edifying one to anodur,&c. 2.The end \i'herel,oreGod 
hath given men Gi'ts, which ib to profit wuhdl: and yet, j. That a man cannot by word make his Gift 
forth-coming in the extent .hit he is obliged i tnere is iheieiore a n jcesfity of uling \\'ntingfor that end , ic 
being a fipgular gift ofGod for promoving cdincation. 1 i*s upon this ground , as we laid , that many Epi- 
ftlesare wrlten.tobe ufeiull, wh:rethe vVrit,*rs could not b^, and whenthey were to begone. It's upon 
this ground allo> we conceive, that many Pf Ims, and Songs ( as that ot Hc^ekjabs.Ifa.ii.) are committed 
to writing by the A jthors: that by it their Cole or Gift mignt be made ulefuu to others, lor ihcir inftruSiion , 
as the Titles of fundry Plalms bear. 

This way, for many Ages, hath been blefied, for the good of the Church of Chrift, who have reafon to 
blefle Cod , that put it in the hearts of many Ancients and others, thus lo be profitable in the Church. And 
it may be, fome able men have been but too ("paring to make their talent torth-coming that way to otliers . 
And as we may concludcj that Minifters may Preach the Goi pel v ho are called, bccauV; the Apoftlcs did it , 
even though Minifters are not gifted with infallibility of Preacning, as they were, becaafe that was for edify- 
ing the Body j fo may we conclude, that men called to it, may write for the edification of the Chuich ,, al- 
though they be not gifted with infallibility in their writing. 

2» We gather from this, that none fhould t ike on them to write any thing, as the Lords mind, for the e- 
dification of the Church , without a Call to it : I mean not an extraordinary call , as John had j but this I 
mean, that as there is an ordinary cp.ll ncedf ill , to the Preaching ot the Gofpei, (' and wc may conclude from 
Gods extraordinary way of calling the Apofties to Preach, the neceslity of an ordinary Call ) So, in the gc- 
hcrall, that (ame confequence will hold in rcfped of waitir.g, for luch an end. And it we loak ihroiighihe 
Scripture, we ^all find a CA\. for Writing, as w ell as lor Preaching ; and readily he who was called to.the 
firft, was alfo called to the fecoiid, as b^-ing a Prophet of the Lora. . Thojgh mis particular we do not ab- 
solutely and limply prcffe, feing menmay be called lo writ-, and not be fitted to Preach i yet I conceive, vf c- 
Ipmm is called the Preacher from his writing. And to warrand writing, we would conceive fo much to be 
neccflary as may, i .Satisfie the man himleif, ai to his being eailrd to luch an eminent duty by God, Sr there- 
tore there muft be fomewbat to hold out to Him, ih^t it's Go js mind hs; Ihould undertake fuch a task. 2. 
That men walk not by their own fatisfadlion alone; b Jt that there rai) be lo much, as to convince others, 
that God put them o» that work: and therefore though we would not prelle an authoritative mislion to 
write, as to Preach s yer, csnliderisig dvit JoWj warrand to \vrite; is alto a warrandto others to make uic of 
ir, and that people would have a wai rand for maKinguic of writings, as well as a man tor his writing, there is ' 
fome orderly thing neceffary, as to point out to tlie man. his duty in writmg.for his peace slo aJfo to point out 
to others th,Mr duty in ufe-making of it.So that neither any that pleafeth may wr.te (but ne wouidgive fome 
reafbn, belide his pleailire) nor would cv<;ry one ufe the wntlngs or aU , as they plealc. 

Reafon I . A Call is necelfai y tor every thing j and men in lawfuU duties are to walk by it : otherwife, all 
lawfull duties would lye upoff-aTtmcn as their calling ,or be at their pleafurc ; vs hich Hands not with GoJs 
putting; the task, even^f particulars, into mens hands. 

a. To write of the holy things of God, is to take on us, to tell what God thinks,' and what is His will,- 
whichis a moft concerning think, efpccialiy to do itiolemnly inwritj left it prove, at leail.a taking of Gods 
>^ame in vain ; when v\ i.hout a Call we do it. 

3. This may clear ir, that neiil\-r publick Preaching, nor private ediacation byword, canb: difcharged 
r'ightly;,but when men walk according to Gods call in thefe, which is alio neceffiry in writing. 

4. There is no promife to b • guided in it, or ©f mcciffe to iii without lome clearntfle of a Call to it j and 
fo it cannot be comfortably undertaken nor prolecuted. 

5. All the Saints had their call to W'Kc, who took that way : henc fome Apoftks have writen, others tjot; 
ii?aie Saints have recorded their cafcotliers not. The realanofthisditierence is, becaufc fome were called 


Chap. I. Botiksf the ReVeUtm» ^j 

to write , and others otherw'ife imployed ; elle we muft fay, they failed who wrote not. Neither will it fiui- 
ply A^arrand one, that he writes truth : there was doubtk lie cruth in the Preaching of tb; 5ons of Thunder , 
and alfooftheSonofcoiifoIationi yet God thojghc ic not good tocall them all to write. And experience 
hath otten made this truth out, that many have taKeii on them to write, whofe writings have been exceeding 
hurtfull to th- Church ; fo ihat had all men walked by a Call in writing, there had been fewer erro irs, ai leaft 
they had not come unto fuch an height ; and the Chnch wojld have been free of many I'ubtile Dilputatioiis, 
that have more prejudged chanadvanced GodiincHe in it. As th^'refore fome may fail in not vs'iitiog, when 
they arc called to it, lo others may in going about ir,whiles ih.y are not called lO ic. 
. Ifwemigbten iuireinthegenerall (for particulars cannot be pitched 0.1) what may evidence aCallro 
write? VVeshallihew, I- What is not needful!. 2. What will not fatisfie and be fuflicient. And 3. VVhat 
is needf ill and mry b.- fatibfying. 

I. An extraordinary Call by revelation, or immediate impulfe of the Spirit, fuchasJoJ5)»andthe Apoftles 
Ijad, is not.needi uil: It mighc make a Writer as well as a Preacb.-r to be lufpeded, if taey Ihould prct.-nd to 
any fuch' Call. 

1 . We think not an authoritative miflion in the perfon who is writer, fimply needfull ; One may be fitted 
to edifie by writing, whofc Gifts lead not to edifi; by Preaching : yet ought not die Church to be frullratc of 
the benefit or his Gift. 

3-. We think not a presfing inclinaiion (imply nccefTary i ieing often , inclination th .vans with duty i and 
mens modefty , lazincife or oih.^r refpeds , may much divert the inclination, as in Mo\eit 3 eimiah and 0- 
thers, when called to Gods Work. 

4. We think it notneceflary, that there beany fingular or extraordinary meafuic of Gifts btyond others : 
Some may be called to write by particular providences, when others of more under ftaadin^ may be fpared i 
even as fome may be called to Preach, & others of aiore learning and ability, are paifed by 

Oil the contrary. It will no: b.-fufficicnt to evidence a Call to write. i.Tohavean inclination. 2.Toh3ve 
Gitts: Or , 3.T0 be found in truth: Nor, 4.T0 have a good meaning and end, Thefe will not ferve in other 
dutiesj and 10 neither in this,without refped' had to tlie particulars after mentioned. 

That a man ther^ke may have peace, as to his undertaking, we conceive there is a concurrance of feveral 
things needful, to berorferved : As, i . There is a necesfity of a fmgle end, to wir> Gods glory , others edifica- 
tion i and in part may come in > his own exoneration, as to fuch a duty. L'i not felf-feekmg , nor geciing 
of a name , nor ftrengthening f jch a particular party or opinion, that will give one peace in this matter. 2. ic 
is neccflary, not only that the thing be truth : but that it be edifying,profitable, and pertinent, at fuch a time: 
Gods call to any thing , doth ever time it, and tryltit well , as molt lubfervient to ths fcope of edificaiio 1. 
Hence, that which is Erroi-, or impertinent, can never plead a call in writrng , more than in preaching ; yea , 
\ve conceive, the writing of many light, frothie fubjeds, or of fpeculative janglings , and contentions abo.ic 
words, is exceedingly contrary to edification, w hich ought to be th; end and al fo the rule of our pradice in 
writing. j.B^fides thefe, there arecircumftances in the concurrence of providences tryfting together, in refe- 
rence to the perfon writing, to the fubjed writen of, the time wherein and occalion whereupci, and Jucn 
like: which being obferved, may contribute togive fome lightinthethiog. A?, 1. If the perlon be called 
publickly to edihe the Churchy if he be of that weight, as his teftimonie may prove profitable in the 
Church , for the ftrengthenirrg and Confirming ofothers^ or thelikc confidcrations ; though no new thing 
be brought forth by him ; which ground, as a moral reafon , Luke ^ivcs to Tbetphilus of his writing the 
Gofpel, Luke i- 1. 

2. Confidcrations may be drawn from the fubjed. As, i . If it be a necelTary point, tba: is controverted. 
2. If the Scripture opened be dark, and<)bfciire jandpolfiblynotraanyfatisfyitigly writing of it. ^.-Ifthe 
way of handling it , be fuch, as gives any new advantage to truth j or, tothe opening of that Scripture i 
( tho.igh it be not fo accurate every way ) that is> if the manner be more plain, or more short > or more full ; 
or, touching at fome things, otheis have paffcd, orclearing what they have miftakeD,or confirming , w h it 
they afTjrted only, or fuch like cafes wherein they may contribute, and be nfeful, for the underftanding of 
what is already written ; or occafion others, to form and mo jld their invention , and what God hath given 
them, fji better advantage to others j feing fome hath the faculty oi inventing, others of improving what is 
invented : thus both are made ufe of, for one end, when they are brought form together} even as in building 
fome axe ufeful for plotting, or contriving , fome for digging ftones> fome for hewing , others for I lying by 
fquare and linej yet muft be furnished by the former: So is it alfo in anedif ying way of writin^,every aie have 
not all j yet fhoald none refufe to contribute their part . 
5. The time would be confidered, if fuch a truth be prefently controvened, or loch a fubjed necefTary 

54 An Expafit'mcfthe Chap.i.' 

to b: fpoken unto now ; if fuch a perfons interpoimg may be ufeful , if fuch a duty be negled:ed , or if 
fuch a Sciipciire b; not made iife of, and the like. Thefe may have their weight to put folks to it , even 
though they fho jld fay little more than \^' hat is faid by others : bicaufe then all are called , to put to their 
hand to hel p ; that is the time of it. And th.'re is this advantage , that when many do write, it ferveth net on- 
ly to confirm and ftrengih;n what another hath (aid , but it occafions fome to read that fubje(ft > that rea- 
dily would never have read it , had not (Uch a man written thereon > feing another book of that fubjedt 
might poflibly never hare come to their hands : and with all , this is advantageous when moe arc engaged in 
the lamefubjedt. Thisconfiderationisallegedby Be//^r.pr<e/« inTawpr/OT. ouio^AugaJline, asareafonto 
put men to write, who were not of the molt excellent parts ; that it was edifying , and b-cter than nothing ; 
yea, that it was befeeming at fuch a time, to fee many armed in the Camp of Chrift , againft His adverlaries, 
although all be not leaders and captains. 

4. 0:ca(ion alfo may be, from Gods putting one to have thoughts of fuch a fubjedt when others areo- 
therwife taken up , fome not having acceflc to be edifying othcrvviiei aswhenoccafion of ftudy is given , 
and the thing by publick delivery> or fecret communication is known to others , and called for by them to 
bemadepubfick : or that they would Get themfelvcs to it , God giving occafion of health, qiiietneife, 
me ins>C?c.for it: thething getting approbation from (uch as are fiiigle, & intelligent, judging fuch a thing 
iiiefull: in this thefpirits of Gods ieivants would be fubjedt to others. Such conli derations are frequently 
mentioned by worthy men, in their prefaces to their Books. And it's obferved in Viut Pellicani , as fwaying 
him to pubhfli his writings, though not accounted ( by himfelf at leaft) to be of accurate learning, that, medi- 
Mriter andfimpiiciterfctipta, mediocwir doBis placitura Vtdens , fuod iUorum major jk copia, quitm, eximie do- 
Borumgiatlficatipttemibus Ipoluii. For , as the moft learned Preachings, do not alway edifie moft j fo neither 
is it in writing: and though (as a learned man obferveth in a preface) (hat which is accurate , editethmoft 
intenfively , and beft explaineth the thing j yet often , what is more popular, edifieth moiJ extenfivcly , and 
proveth profitable to many moe who are but of ordinary reach. 

Of Reading , and Heamg. 

IN the lafl place, it is alfo clear, that people are not indifferently and vidthout waiWnd to read or hear » 
except they know that they be warranted therein ; for, this command of writing * is not only inferied , 
for the confirming of JeA» in his Call to write » but alio tendeth to warrand the le who are writen unto , 
confidently to receive &. make ufe of what is written. And itfoUcws upon the former : fbr,if a Call be 
aecv-flary, to fpeak or write in the Name of the Lord» then ought alio people lome way to be clear , that in 
their reading and hearing they may be walking according to Gods rule and call to them in reading what He 
calleth them to read, feing men cannot be fuppoled to be left to arbitrarinefle therein. Hence it is,that where 
the Lord difowneth the commilfionating of luch to teach , and accounts them guilty for running whom he 
hath not fent,& that either by writ or word, as rnay appear, by Jrr.25.and i^lptrfJl^&Lz. So alfo doth he re- 
prove the people that do countenance fuch in their hearing or reading , whilcas their Call is not evidenced to 
be of Him. Hence fo frequently, both in the Old and New Teftament , are we commanded not to counte- 
nance fuch , but to beware of them 5 and that muit reach the reading of their writing as well as converting 
with their perfons, the one being dangerous , as the other is; for , one of thefe two mufl neccffarily follow » 
fuppofing them not to be called of God thereto. 

I. Either they are enfnared by fuch and fuch errours , as others take on them to venr;& they are brought 
to give heed to lies in ftcad of truth : and fo though reading and hearin g be good in it felf ; yet that wife ad- 
vice of Solomon, Pr^V. 19.27. doth here take place, Ctafe, my fin , to hear inftruBiioTf, that caufctb to aufrom 
the "V/ards of kn^Vt/kdge.Thxi cScSt'is frequent,the Lord thereby in his lecret Ji.ftice punishing the lightnelfe 
and curiolity of prelumptuous per(bns» that dare hazard upon any fnare. Hence it is that fo often that Hght- 
neffe and indifFerency in the prai9:icc of reading and hearing fuch as are not called, hath with it an itching af- 
ter fome new Dotflrine, and a fecret di fcontent with found Dodlrine , which putteth thera to this , to heap up 
teashers to themfel\>es, whick is faid, iTim.^ ,2.5- i.to ihew the difference that is betwixt Teachers fent of 
God, and fuch as People choofe tomakelb to themfelvcs, without his warrand, And,2.1t fheweih what or- 
dinarily doth accompany that itching pr?ii5tice,l>rr/4. Thy turn away their ears from truth, andaretarnedta 
faUes : for , as it is ordinarily a lulling to vent fome Itrange Dodlrine, which doth make men write or Preach 
without Gods Call thereunto j fo itis an Itching after fome fuch thing, or at leaft a loathing of found fimpH- 
city, that makes people thusbeftow their time in the reading or hearing of fuch. And if no fuch thing be at 
firft fenfiblc j yet doth fuch perfons tempt the Lord to give them up unto it. 


Chap.i. Heokpfthe'Rtvelatm, ^^ 

2. Or if [bis follow not , we are fare that it shall no vxay prove ul efull unto the followers thereof • as thac 
V'ord( Jer.23.3^') is, Iftm them not, nor commanded them: therefore they shttU not profit this people at alt. 
And feing cdihcationis GoJs j^ifc , can it be expecfbed but in His way ? or can that be accounted His way , 
which He hath not warranted ? At beft, it putted, l.Theperlon in the hazard ot a fnare, which hath taken 
many offtheir feet, which fomctlme feemcd to be ftrong : and can ih.'y pray unto the Lord that they may 
not be led into teinptaii0n> when they do caft themlel ves into the Inare ? 2.lt carries offence along with it, in 
reference to the party who runs unlent , it proves a ftrengthening and confirming ofhim, and fo a partaking 
of his fin : in reference to oi hers , it either Itrengthens them, by tiiat examplcjto call themfel ves in that fnare 
which posfibl V may be their mine j or it grieves them and makes them fad who are tender of luch thingsj or, 
^ves occafion to make all differe nee of that k ind to be thought light of. All which {hould be e fchewed : a c 
leaft i t doth this, it diverts men from that which might be more profitable , and to which they might expedt 
able/iing which they have not a promile of,,nor can expert in this. 

And feingreadingisafpecial mean of edification, if well imployed, and agreatftep to deftrucftion when 
otherwayes, as experience doth prove, people who are commanded to watch, andtochoofcthat which is 
moftexc llent^cannotbelefcinanindifferencieinthisj yea, the fpending of our time rightly being the 
improving of a fpecial talent , which> inreading many things , may be exceedingly mifpent , if not hurtfully 
abi ifed ; Chriftian wifdome therefore is mainly called-for in this , that a nght cnoice may be made. Efpe- 
cially, confidering, thjt it's but little time that many can i pend in reading j therefore by a wrong choice they 
incapacitate themielvcs from reading that which may be more profitable for their cafe and ftation. And alfo, 
feing every one hath not that ability to difcern poifon from good food , there mult be therefore a neceflitie 
that people regulate their Chriftian libertie in this rightly, left it become loofnefle, and turn tobeafnare. 
Alfo , though Ibme, whom God hath furnished with Gifts , and by their place and Itation calleth them to 
convince gainlayers, may, and are called to acquamt thenifeives with writings of all kindj yet ought not all to 
take that liberty to themfel ves, more than they durft hazard pjblickly to debate with advei-fari:s of any 
kind ; feing ibe ftrength and weight of their errors are Itutfed into their writings, and we are no lefte unable 
to encounter there writ than their word. 

In matter of hearing, it is not fo hard to difcern who are to be accounted to fpeak without Gois c ommis- 
fion ; beca'jfe ordinarily , fuch have either no warrantable Call at all , ( no not in the outward form i and fo 
cannotbe accounted but to run unfent^ or , by palpable defedion from thi truth , and commifTion given 
ihenri in that Call, they have forfeited their commiflTion, and fo no more are to be accounted ambaffadours to 
Chrift,or watchmen of his fJock, than a watchman of thecity, is tobi accounted an obferver thereof , when 
he hath publickly made defetition to the enemie, and taken on with him. Fox We are here to reft in the ex- 
ternall Call, and not to difpute that which is inward : becaufe it paflerh our reach ; and Chrift hath furnished 
His Houfe with external Ordinances, for the warranding of His peoples peace in reference to thcfe thi ng5 : 
there is therefore great difference to be placed here between one that is called , and one whom we tnink 
not worthy to be called : ii*s ch; firft that warrands hearing , whereof we niay.afterward have fome-ocea- 
Co n to rpeak. 

It ismore difficult to give diredlionsin reference to reading: yet , feing that now God hath furnished 
His people M'ith many u^ful books, that in experience have been-found to be fuch, we may for the help or 
the weaker propole thcfegeneral dire(5tions. i. Thatihey would fpend their time in the reading pf luch 
books, as judicious tender Chriftians have found good of Dcfore, or shall recommend to them: fuch as! (fo to 
fay) havebeen tried and rafted, and therefore may be, as good food in which there is no hazard, inedled 
with. And there is no dif6cultie here: for, fuch and luch books are commonly efteemed fuch , ancMt is Gv.fi2 
to attain to the knowledge of them. 2.Some relpctt may be had to ttie Author fo far as may help to a deci- 
fion in this,whether fuchand fuch a book may be made ule of , if it be known to be his ? that i.^ by other 
writings, preaching^r otherwayes he be known to be found and ferious, (uch a bool', may w i; h the tnovc 
confidence be hazarded upon:It is for this that frequently the names ofAuthors are inlerted intheir writings, 
as is done by John frequently in this Book. Por, though no mans name ought to bear fuch Iway with any , 
as to make them digelt anything without trial , becaufe it cometh from him ; yet it m::y give to one, 
freedom to make ufe of the writings of luch , rather than of another, of whom there is no fuch 
ground of confidence. 3. Where Books and Authors are noted by the judicious and Godly to be dargerous 
and unprofitable, and in experience have been found to have been fo to others, diftancc would be kept with 
ftich i left we find the proof thereof by our own experience , whicii we would net learn from others. 
4- Where Books and Authors arc both link rwwn , we conceive that it's more fafe for private persons for a 
<i«ie to abftaia the reading of them , imtill it be found v hat they are by fome others \\ ho may more jiidi- 


56 AH txfojitm of the Chijp.i, 

ciouily difccfii the Hiiil^, and in the meantime ro fpcnd chat emu* in the reading of fixh as unqueftionably are- 
; prcfi.able : bcciufc by this wc lofe no time , and this may be done in faith, know ing that vj-e are not hazard- 
ing o:ir felvcs apona tentarion , which by reading the other , that is unknown to us, cannot be. And fcing 
men ufually take this Wiy in making choice of Phyficians ftr the body, M'haare in experience found by o- 
xhcn to be ski'f ill and ulefull , rather than to hazard on any who are yet unknown and have given no liich 
prcof; wifjom would lay, that no Jtfle should be required in the making ufc of Phyficians or remedied thac 
tendcoourfpiricualledihcarion , it being no kill' concernment chan th: other. And if thefe things were 
obfervcd in Writing , reading, and hearing refpediively ( as they may b>: applied in cafes^ the Church of 
Chrift might be preferred from many Errors and offsnces, which by thislibc.ty is occafionedi and taany pcr- 
fons lavc.l from much hurtful!, and unprofitable labour, bath in writing and reading. 

L E G T U K E I. 

c H A P. n, 

Vcrf.i. i iKtothejin^tloftheChmchofEfhefus, Vifrite^Tlitfe things fa'tth he that bolieth the felpen Start m 
KJLhis riihthand , Vtiho'walkethinthemidjlof the fclfen golden Candlejikks : 

2. 1 l^iow thy 'Works, andthy labour, and thy pMience, and hovi/ thou can(i not beamhem v^hich are eVtl, ^ thttt 
haft trkdthem v»hich fay they arejipofiles, and are not, and haft fo'nd them liars: 

3 • -y^nd haft born, and haft patience , and for my Karnes faks hifi laboured , and haft not fainted. 

FOlIowcth now the particular Epiftlcs to the fcven Churches, wherein our Lord maketh 
them know how privie He is to their anions , ill or good » commending the one and reproving the 
other ; with fome promifes and ihrcatnings intermixte J. There are fome things common to ail ihele 
Epiitles J fomethuigs peculiar to the Churches He writes unto, as chey are commended only, as 
Philadelphia and Smyrna j or difcommended only , as Laodicea i or fomcwhat of both , as the other four. 

1 . Ws common to all , to have th:rir Epiftles agreeing in the form > thoagh different in the matter: As , 
i.to be divided in an infcripcion, comprehending the party to whom and trom whom » 2. A narration, or 
body, comprehending the particular mefl'age Chrift fends lothem. 3. A conclufion, comprth.-nding fome 
promife to the over-comers ; and an advertiiment to all hearers to prohr. 

2. A 11 arc diredted to the Angels, or the Minifters, ftt the Cnurches , and not to the Church:s th.^rnfelves^ 
immediatly, though the ftrft direftion, iSlhap. i.\eff.i i.) be to them. And in tht dole ot eveiy EfUftle, it's 
faid » v/hat the Spirit faith to the Churches. If any ask how the Cnurches and Angels, or Chirch-gjides, arc lb 
indifferently and promilcuoufly named ? ^nfw. For thele reafons. 1 . Bccaule the Ch irch and the colle- 
<5f ive body of O "ficers are fo exceeding nccr of kin each to other, and in their interelts , i^i:3 inter woven , thar, 
in the Scripture phrafe, to write unto the Church, and to write unto her Officers , arc ortc i as to tellunto the 
Church, Mat. 18. and to tell unto the Church-offtccrs , are one. 2. Becaufe the Church is virtually compre- 
hended ( to fpeak fo) under her Officers, who are not only the fpecial members, but alio the reprefenters ot 
that body : and as one, writing to an Incorporation > or Burgh , and directing his letters to the Magiitrate 
thereof, may be faid to write unto the Burgh j even lo it's here ; for, though Minilters in relpeCt of theirAu- 
tliority and Adminiftration of the Ordinances, do not reprefent the Church, but Jelus Chrift, whofe Ambaf- 
ladors they are ; yet in refpedl of their united way of acting together, and their fympathizing M-ith all the 
members, and their joynt interelt in all the affairs belonging to the members , and the reciprocjll Iharing 
that is between them and the members, of all good or evil temperatures » they may well be faid to reprefent 
the Church, whofe fcrvants they are for Chrilts fake : even as the Magiftrate, aftingin his duty,reprcfenteth 
God; yetinfomefenfealfomaybefaid to reprefent the people. 5, Becaufe there is ordinarly a great fu- 
tablenefle and likencffe between the Minilter and people of that Church whereof he is Miniftcr j be luke- 
warm, and they are lukev^arm ; he lively, and readily it is (o with them* as we will fee in all the feven Epi- 
itlcs following : and therefore the writing unto and deicribing of one, doth by confequence include both,efpe- 
cially . coniideriiig that whether the Churches eitate be good, or ill , tbc Minifter hath much infl aence on it : 
and therefore , both in reproofs and commendations , the firlt word is dir»;d:ed to him. 4.Becau(c the or- 
der Chrilt hath inftituted in Church , doth fo require ; he reveals not his mind immediatly to the people i 
but fiiit to his Minifters , and by them to the Church : tor,our Lords way , is orderly , lo as may prevent con- 


Chap. 2. Book^ofthe RenUtim. -^ 

f ufioii 111 his Church : which is done , not by putting ic in the bands of people ; but by putting His Minifiers 
to it in thele things which concern their Itation , and thele being fuch things as belong peculiarly to Mim- 
fteis to be amended , in the Epiftles therefore doth he particularly diredl it to them. 

5. All the tittles given to Chritt , are for ihv moit part taken out of the Vilion , chaf. r. only they are 
ehofen and pitched on as may belt ferve the icope of every Epiltlej as the Lord is to dilcover their cafe , or, 
accordingly to threaten or promife , the tittle is wailed which is moil fuitable to that end : as here , Ch'ritts 
prefence, care, and loveraignity over His Churches and Miniltcrs, are laid down , whenheisiodifcovera 
fecret fault in them , and to threaten the un-churching of ihem for ic , th^re being ordinarly in every Epiftlc 
two Ditties, one refpeding the cafeof the Church written unto, the other the promile or threatning which is 
annexed : and therefore are they , upon the matter , often in plain tearms refumed in the dole of the Epiftle, 
which may give fome infight in- the meaning of them. 

4- li*s common to them all, to begin with, this word , IknoVfthyv/orks : that fo there may not only be 
an evidence of Chrilts God-head j but alfo to remove all exception , which might be made againft bis tefti- 
mony- We take it to look ordinarily, not fo much to his approbation, astohisO^nnifcience , fimply : be- 
ca'jfe it is indtfferently made the ground of reproof , as well as of the commendation : aad therefore is ufed 
in the Epiftle to Laodicea , where no commendation is given. 

For more particular ufe-making of thefe Epiftles » Confider. i. the immediate fcopeofthcm, which is 
to Itir up the teven Churches, according to their (everall conditions , to hold faft what was right , and to a- 
mend what was wrong 1 having in ihem the difcovery of the then cftate ot thofc Churches , and fome M'arn- 
ings futable to that end: andfotheyarenotina Prophetical way prima ily to reprefent particular Churches 
in ages following : "Yet, 2. Are they ufeful in a fpccial manner to other Churches, being dodrinally applied 
totheircafe, as the Lord applieth the words of 1)^/4629.13. Manh. 1^.7. Hypoaita, -well did ifaiahpro- 
fhecieofjou , S5c. while as //2ii»'f words do principally relpeCb the people in his own time j yetmay they be 
applied to all Hypocrites in fuch a cafe , as if it had been intentionally fpoken of them j io may it be here 
in the application of them to particular Churches, in the like cafes .yea, to particular perfons, according 
to the common clofe, He that hath eats to hear , let him hear , Sic. And the E}>ililes may be fo much the 
more ufeful in application, than other Scriptures; bccaitfe in one mapp they comprehend together the 
complex cafe of aChurch , with the particular diredtions , repioofs ,and encouragements , which befits the 
cale. 3. The Epiftlesbeing directed to both, the Angels and Ciiurches, to the one mediately, to the other im- 
mediately , as we fhew , we would beware of confounditig the direCf ions and matter contained in them as 
equally agreeing to both , as alfo.of to^gidefeparatingof mem ; asif what ptincipally belonged to the Mi- 
nilter , did no way belong to the people , and contraiily : butto look what may agree to cither , without con- 
founding of ft cuions or fexcs. As inall other Sci ipiures we take dire^^f ions in things belonging to Magiftrares, 
to be given to them , and Co to others in all leveral Itations rcfpetflively i lo hire, what bclongeth to Miniftcrs, 
apply it to them: as for inftance, preaching , and judical trial of corrupt meni chat, fo far as it i* authoritative , 
belongs to Officers : yet fo far as people have accelfe in their ftations to premove fuch ends ( as many wayes 
they may ,in fo far it belongs to them , and lo in other cales. 

P^erf. 2. FoUoweth the body of the Epittle ( for , the inlcri prion is opened, chap. i. except what conceni- 
eth the application of it to the eftace of this Church) and ithath leverallttcpsinit, i. A general word , 
which is the ground of our Lords pronouncing his cenrure> 1 ^nowtbj/v^erks, to holdout his Omnifcience 
v\'ithout approbation or commendation. Tne meaning is , 1 know all thy works inward and outward , thy 
form and way of Adminiftration of all things in the Church , all thy outward carriage in things , the things 
ihemfelves, and thy frame in going about them, the matter and manner of doing them, andtheendthou 
hadft before thee in them 3 and I knew them perfectly s exaCfly, and throughly : a thing that in the entry 
to his fervice and every other thing , vve would look to and bear in mindj that Chrift is acquainted with all 
our carriage , and every thingthat efcapeth us. And this being often repeated , it laith , that Chrilt counts 
ihis a main part of his mtflage, to have fouls convinced of his perfeifl & thi oiigh knowledge of thcr works. 

He proceedeth to the coinmendation , tier.l. 5. The commendation is, i. fnordy letdown: And, 2. more 
particularly explained : primarily ,it'sapplicabie totbe Angel j but fecundarily to others. I.'aflionly fee 
down in three tteps in the words, thy labour, and thy patitnce ^ and how thou canft not bear them that are 
e^il. Having told them in the general, that He knew all their works , good and evil , He tellii the par- 
ticular works he commends, i. Their lab ur: the Word in the Original, is Ko'tcj . the labour which is 
properly applied to Miniftersin their Ailniiterial work : It'sthat word , iTiw.5. 17. Letthe Elders that 
rule vvell be counted worthj of double hortow , efpecially thsfe tvio labour itjthe "^ordand DoElrine; And , 
2Theff. 5. 12. l^novi/ them which \abo\it among you , and are oyer you inihe Lordi and u'a aword that 

H . feis 

*3 An Expofition of the Chap.2. 

Jets out the threat carcftilnefle and painfulnefll: ot cue Miniltrie : and being fpokcn efpecially to the Augcls , 
the ineanin^is! 1 know chy paintulnelle and care in the work of the Miniltric,committed co thee, eipetially 

icry'wcll all theVerfecution and fiiffcring thoj art under,all the ili.wiii oi lome vviihin>all the malice of others 
\vithouc a-'ainlt thee, and all the troubles thoj hath nriet wiih trom Saianand his inltruments, and how pa- 
tiently 'fijbajiilively'and conltantly thoj hath born them all. The 3. thing whereby they are commended 
( and It relates efpecially to the Minilters ; is , their zeal mexecuung Dilciphne, They could not bear them 
■xshkb were Oi/ s and theretore , tor as panent as they were und.r croU s j yet they were Itout , couragious , 
and zealous agiinft corrupt men i by trying , cenlunng, and gi ymg no toleration to them. And this He alio 
points at, with a commendation. ,.- u \ ah n. jr uli j, 

2- He explicateth more fully thefe three fteps > beginning at the laft,firit:andfogoeth backward through 
the three i He b.'ginneth at and explicateth their zeal , in not bearing with corrupt men , T,:ou hajl tried 
them which fay they are Apofiksy and are not, and hAfi found them liars. Wherein thelc three particulars are ex- 
plained I Who the ill men were whom they could noc bear, even falle teachers , ihat took upon them to call 
themfelves Aportles, asit they had been indued with anintaliible Spirit, and had an umlnerfal charge. And ii's 
fee out as a parr af ih'elr z -al and commendation, that thefe falle teacliers , that pretended to fuch a Commis- 
lion and to be (o forward IbrChrlit, M'cre yet put to proof and trial by them. - 2. The orderiinefleof theic 
proceeding, is commended, that they took noc things by giielFe, nor upon hear.fay,but tried them; they nrlt 
tried their doAiine by the touchlton f and then by the doHrtne^ whether they who preached it were OiChnlt 
or not or had a call and commisfion from Him : it holds out an exadt ?,nd judicial way of proceeding and 
trial of them both in their dodrine and call. 3. That as they were not indeed Apoltles, though they called 
themfelves Apoftles j fo they toiind theai o jt to be what they were, Idan anddeluders of the people , elpeci- 
ailyinallediiinc^aeommiirion fiomChnlt, M'henthey had none. Andthis being a main part ofthecom- 
mendationoftheAngd,andofhisexerci(e, it's molt largely inhltedo^ 

Vetf. 2 He explaineth their patience, andhafi born, and hafi patience : iheu bearmg, looks to the fuffenngs 
they met with from the falfe Apoltles, in the proiccutingoi tUeir trial : wherein tney met witn many aftii- 
Aions • yet they endured to profecute their duty as good Souldiers du.. Z'Tim.^.2,i,jindhajipatience:yf;\\kh 
relateth to the quiet and patient manner of their (uttering alttivition. It is nothing to lutfer, wnen tolk can- 
not efchew it j but they iliffered patiently in thr doing ot their duty^nd continued in patient fuffering.3.He 
commends and explains their labour i For my names fake , thou haft laboured and not fainted: wnich lirft 
words for mi names fake^ will agree well to the word going betorej and 10 is the ground or their {ubmilFion 
and patience under crolL'S : or, it nwy look to the words following j and 10 the meaning is, for zeal to my 
giory thou haft endured all this pains j for my names lake, thoJ halt been at pains in doing , and halt over- 
come all rubs inthe way. Andhafi not fainted : that is, thou halt not been wearied of , nor feared or boalted 
from thy duty ; nor made to deiert it for all the fuffering thou halt met With , but rcfpedt to my N ame , 
hath made thee perfevere.So then,their labour, as it was Ipoken ot before, points at their painf ulnefie j and. 
irere it rcfpedls their finglentfie, that it was not in a way of lelf-feeking> but for His Kamesfakp. 2. 'I hac 
k was conltani and continuing : they were carried on without interruption in prolecuting their zealous 

If it be 'asked here, how fuch as caU themfellpes Apofiles, or do count themfelves not fubjeSi to the Difcipline of a, 
particular C hurch (m thefe who pretended to be Apoftles heholfed tit do ) can be order 1/ proceeded againjt bj Qhuich 
iriail and centre, elpedally of aparticularLhwch} u-n-^-i..-, u. 

Anf\^> 1. ThereisnoApoltle nor Angel, in the preaching of the Go i pel, that is altogether above 
triall : they are, as fuch, above erring in Doctrine i yet may and IhouLi their Dodrinc be tried according to 
the Word, jiU.\7.l'i. Gal.i.^. Becaufe , even Apoltles are buc Ambalfadors, and are not Lords over the 
Faith of Gods People,* but helpers of their joy , z.Cor.^,20. i Pet.^. 3- &c. Secondly, Apoftles in the 
guiding ot" a conltitute Church, oftentimes ufed not their extiaordinary Aucnority , as admg by thcmlel ves 
by vercue of their infallibility ; butjoyntly wiihothers, inan ordinary way , clearing and conSrming 
their Dodrine and practices from Scripture,and Gods Call,warranting them in that particular , as appears 
by Peters apologie, ^S. 1 1. and Paul with the relt of the Apoltles their proceeding , AB.i^. In which 
two refpsdts, a's lutabie for BelieverSj to try the Spirits, 1 'fo^.4.1. Thirdly, We lay , that no prefump- 
tuous title affjmed by ones felf , nor any irregular walking, as belonging to no Church ; or not to fuch and 
tucha particular Churcii, can exempt any member of the CaiholickChurch from triall,Sc if need require, ' 


Chap.t.' Sookjfthe Revelation 5^9 

fromcenlure of the particular Church, where fuch penon, or pcribns, Ihall refidei which we fliall con finne 
fromchefereafons. i. Noc from trial: becaufe in io far the Dovitrineandpradicesot the ApofUesthem- 
felves ( who were not fixed members of any particular Congregation for their Mcmberfhip, and their Office 
behoved to be of equall extent ) were fubjedt to tryall , that it might be known whether tiiey wet e of God 
ornot, asisfaid. Yea. x. Neither from cenfure ( fuppoflingit pofTible that they fhould en c , and them 
a^5tually to have erred) as we may fee by Pauls fuppofition. Gal. 1.8. If I preach avoiher Gofpel, ^c. 
and alfo by P<?«/f open rebuking of Pmr when he was to be blamed , Galz.i^. 3. The fame pradicc 
may confirme it, the Church rulers of Ephefus werenotfcaredby that title, nor yec by their not leaving 
Memberihip among them ( as it feemes fuch could not have, being readily ftrangers , and thereby having the 
greater accefle to give oat themfelves for the thing they were not)yet they went pn to try and cenfure which 
is particularly commended in them by Jefus Chrift, 4, It may be confirmed from that power that Chiilt 
hath given to his Church-ofBcers for edification , and for preferving the Church committed to them 
frominfe(5lion , which wouldfcem to be defeciliye , if men had liberty ( under the former pretexts ) to vent 
errour and commit fcandaloas praiiliccs, for theenfnaring of others, in Churches whereof they were not pro- 
perly members ; and though it might be faid , that (imply fuchperfons were not under the iriall and cenlure 
of luch a Church ; yet eatenm and in that refpedt , as it's neccfrary , for the good of that Church , to hava 
chefe perfons tried andcenfured, they do fall under their authority ; and warrantably it*s put forth for put- 
tingfome note on them, for thepreventing and reraovingofoflfences from the People. 5. It may be confirai- 
ed 1-rom the unity of the Catholick Church vifible,by which any member thereof(if no particular thing im- 
pede) may claim the priviledges of a member by communion in publick Ordinances ofWord and Sacraments 
m whatfoever Church , though he be no particular member thereof; and therefore a pan he 01 glit alfo to be 
liabetothe Difcipline of Chrift in any particular Church , where he ftiall fall tobe : ^ feeing that claiming 
the priviledges of a Church, and fubmiflion to theOrdinances thereof, are in themfelves reciprocal! j and 
thought fome profane wretch renounce his own priviledges yet that makes not the Church to lofle hers > 
but fo long as he continues a member of the Catholick vifible Church, aslongasheisundercendiresof 
the Church , which are put forth in particular Congregations. 6. It may be confirmed from the abfurdities,, 
that otherwife would follow. As, i. There might be afcandalous member of the Catholick vifible 
Church , v^'ho could not be reached by Church-cenfure. 2. One Chriftian might otfend and ftumble another: 
sindtellingtothe Church, would be no remedy to it. Mat. 18. if no particular Church had power over fuch 
aone> which is contrary to Chrifts fcope. 3. A door wouldbeopendto aloofe liberty vfithin Chrifts 
Houfe: for, in fuch a cafe, men could neither be cenfured, nor caft out of the Church, norinanyEcclefi- 
afticall way , be compelled to take on Church-memberfhip , or live regularly in the Church : by this , there 
might be fome Chriftians fick and needing this cure of Difcipline , to whom it could not be applyed j by this 
the ordinance of Difcipline would not be of equall extent with the Sacrament of Baptifm : AH which are 

Obfer'^e, i. Chrift would have us alwayes walking in thelenfeof his Omnifcience,which makes him begin 
all thefe Epiftle with this , I knoVf thy Viorks : aprofitable, but a difficult Truth to be believed by Chriftians. 

2. Chrift is an unprejudged witnefie, and should be efteemed fo by bis Church ; he bcareth teftimony un-^ 
to ihem , as he taketh notice of their good , as well as their evil. 

3. Such as Chrift never called, may take on them highelt titles in the Church, pretend confidently to a 
moft immediate Call, carry fair , and gain relpecli , and have fome gifts for that end , asit (eemeth the^e hacj 
who called themfelves Apoflles. 

4. That diligence in duty , and difficulty in the performance of it , often go together : to do , and to bear ,' 
are often joyned : two things that in our relblution and practice we v^'Ould not funder j and if it werebw'liev- 
ed, we would not fcare at the very shadow of fuftering in, or following upon our duty as we do. 

5. Patience in fufFering, and impatience againft corruptions and corrupt men . can well ft.ind together 
This people is faid to bear andfufFer ; and yet it's faid , they could not bear : the reafon isj becaufe their pa- 
tient fufferingjor bearing,in the one word, relates to their enduring of croifes: and there not bearing or fuffer- 
ing, in the other word, relates to corrupt men, and their zeal againft them. It were a good thing to knit thefe 
two together, not to let our zeal wear away our patience, nor oar patience prejuge our zeal. There is a 
kind of zeal that puts folks alway to do to the end they may shun fuftering , that is not good ; and there is 
a fort of patience and meeknefte that wants zeal and bharpnelJe in reference to the purging of Chrifts Houfe ; 
a patience that can bear with ill men: and this is no more to be commended than the fo/mer. This Angel is 
commended that he efchewed both,and had both paticnc" 2nd zeal in exercKe, running in there right channel, 
and put forth toward the right objects: and would God thefe were more leen and di.ccruablc in our practice : 

H 2 the 

(5o AH Expcfitionoftht Chap.i. 

the one would make our zeal to shine , and ihe other would make our patietK^ and humility praile-wor- 
ihy : and if they be not joyncd, our zeal Ihall be carnall, and our patience, luke warmj and neither oi ihefe 
will be coinmended ol'Cbrilt. 

6. There is no name, priviledge, oriirie, that fhould feat e people* efpecially the MiniftersofGjd, 
from fearching or crying corrupt men , that bring corrupt Doilrme, pretending a Commiifion fromChrift 
when they hjve none, tnojgh they sliojld have the pretext otM. miters and Apoltles, and had never io 
greatgifts (for very like thete men whotook this name tot licmfelves wameU not girts ^ orlbfinootha 
carriage to infinuate themfi 1 veson people , and coGommeod iheir prelumption to thcio; tor > k was cofn- 
mendablezeai in this Angel, to try them, anddiicover ihem^ 

7. If folks will put to proaf and trial! many things and perjons that i^ave fair names, they will be found 
Tery unlike the names they take. It is a time wherein W€-lwdneed not totake every thing on truft from ail 
perfons, though their gifts w«re great , and they had big titles and names j but huntoiy and foberly to waic 
on God for light and diredion, fearching and trying both mens carriage and I)oii5biiDe,and Che Ciominiflion 
they pretend to in carrying of ir. 

8. Where an immediate Call is pretended unto,and great tides aflTumed, ordinarily it is to carry oo iome 
ftrange Doilrine or defigne, and is therefore to be fufpeCted by the people ot God, 2 C»M I. Vw/. 13. 

O. Tht censuring of corrupt unfenc Minifters, is a rooft ditficult task, what from t^en nature, ana ibtne- 
times from their parts i what from the addiCtedncfle of many uiKotheoj. Yecitisafpecialiduty : andal- 
though it be often difKcult to follow, and be miftaken by many othersj Vet that u*s acceptable beiore Jelus 
Chrilt, may appear from thefe confederations, i. Thatthe Scripture holdeth forth no kind ot per ons as 
more abominable in themfeives, and more hatefull to Himj tor which caule, they arecalled dogs,anddumb 
dogs thatcanmt karif I C3.^6.io.Salt without fa'jtow, "wollftsjdol shepherds, juchM feed themjei>es, and kjd ha 
fiock., yiindguids, ^c. Hence it is that there are not more lad expoltjlations with complaintj; or^ or threat- 
nings pronounced againit any , than againft thefe ; Our blelfed Lord Jelus multiplies woes unto f jch m a 
more terrible manner than was ufuall to Him, Mat. 2}. 2< There is no kind ot perlbns that prove more 
dishonourable to our Lord Jefus, and to His Gofpel than fuch : ihele make the Law to be delpiled , Mal.z, 
add the Sacrifices and Ordinances to be counted vile and contemptible, 1 Sam. 2. Such elpeciaily open the 
mouths of profane men againft Religion> and the Author thereof , and exceedingly derogate from the au- 
thority of Him they pretend to have lent them, and to the AaibalTa^c they are lent with, while as they look 
fo unlike Him. And upon this account it is anxmglt others > that luch particular dire(5lions for the finguiar 
qualifying of Church-Officers, are given m Scripture : and the cenfuring of fuch» and that by Chrifts owa 
Authority , yindicateth Him, which cannot be but honourable and acceptable to Him. 3. Tne fcandalous 
ini(carriages and unfaithfulneffe of Minifters bring a fpeciail blot upon aii Religion > as if it were but meer 
hypocrilie and tended to rbe foltering of fuch ills : and profane men are exceedingly ftrengthened in luch. 
Atheiflicall apprehenfioos, when thefe ills are not taken notice of, and Cvnlured by Church-Authority : 
whereas by this feverity in the exercife of DifcipUne, the faults ate feen to be in perlbns and not inReligion* 
or the Ordinances thereof. 4. There is no fuch contempt done to our Lord Jefus > as for one to pretend 
JO have CommifTion fromHim i and yet to be running unlent by Him > or, having gotten Commiifion. to 
mifcarry by unfaithfulneffe init : this isa betraying of trurt,and cannot bUt be looked on as a high contempt 
againft Him. 5. As there is a fuitableneflfe inthecenfuring of luch Ctiurcb-othccrstoCbriftstuind io- 
thei e doth appear in rhe fame attenderneffr of, and zeal unto His Glory. Hence it is, that Hi* molt zealous. 
feiTants, as Eliaa , Paul, ( yea, and Hinafelf when on earth ) did let themldves mott againft thai generation. 
<^Thereisnofortofmen more hunfuli 10 the Church, by obftruding Chrifts end uifiis Ordinances, to 
wit , the edification of His People : for, fuch profit them not at all , Jtf. 2 j. y ea» they fland m the way oi 
their profiting, fometimes by corrupt Dodrine j ibmetimes by example* lometuiiesbyfadning and weake- 
ning of thefe who look more tenderly to the pra<Slice of Godlinefl'e : and if no othe r way -, yet by filling the 
»oom, and fp ftanding in the way ot the peoples being provided with fuch as might be helpfuil and faithtuV 
Kow, confidering thegieat refpedt that our Lord Jefus hath to the edification of His People 5 and confider- 
mg the weight that He hath placed upon this Miniltery , as a mean ror promoving ot tnat end , and with all 
the great obftrudlion that followes to that end, when this mean dilappoints. It cannot but be accounted ac* 
ceptabie to Him to remove fuch anobftrudion. Yea ,7. ^0"h<Jej ing that th' re is nothing He commend* 
pore than mutuall love to His Difciples, and there is nothing wherein love can appear more to ibcm than 
an feeking their fpirituaUedification.which was that wherein Hii own love eminently kyihed j and there i» 
sothing wherein this kind of love kych»s moreto Him or : befn > than that th.. y be kd uitb knowledge and 
uaderftanding.by Paftors according to His own hearty according, to His v^'ord 10 Pticr.ttur, y^u thw mt > 


Cbap.2.' Bookjfftbg Revelation, 5j 

then feed my hmbs: it cannot therefore but be lojked on by Hux^ as acceptable feri'ice. And indeed, itiz 
be commendable torelive a neighbours beaft from hazard , when there is a flothfuii ihepherd ; or to relieve 
the bodily life from temporali hazard, how^ much more mu't ic be commendable to prevent che eternall ha- 
zard otimmortalifoulSj which by corrupt Miniiters caijnoc bjt be in hazard J 8. Tuere is nothing that more 
rejoyceth and hardneth corrupt men, than when they are like People > like i:*iielt> and have Paltors accord- 
ing to their own heart j and there is nothing that th.-y are more provoked and di pieafed with, than the cen* 
furing of luch ; yea, even men who have no icipecik ahnoft to Religiou at all , yet abnorr and oppoie the cen- 
4ijring ol- fuch, as if it were a pcece of Religion ^or rather ofoppolicion to RwhgiOi:> ) to do To ; which cer- 
lainly sheweth that the following of this triall , mult be a main tuitherance to Oodiiiieire, and comerh near 
f be Kingdom orX^hr iit. p. Not only is there an obitrudlion to Godhnelfe by fuch , but they have a main 
influence upon the advancing ot propnanity. and the kingdom ol the devil , as if prokliedly they had confe- 
derated with him agaihft Cnrilt. tdence it's faid, that tiom them doth prophanity go out to the whole Land 
fer.z^. And they are called Minilters of Satan , 2 Cor. 1 1. as Ambaliadors employed by bim in his fervice 
And where it's thus, noconly are lcandalojspra<itices committed, bat avowed , as it were in contempt of 
GodlineUe, and of laithfuU Minirters, who lerioully ttudy the promoving ot it. Hence it is, that orcen there 
isakindofftated enimity againft fauhfuinelfe and faithfuU men , not unlyamonglt luch Mmiitersthem- 
fei ves, butin their Congregations and Followers, whiA sheweth the piejudice that cometh by them , and la 
the neceflicyol removing them. * 

li may now look like cruelty (it may be) rigidly to purfue fuch , and like pity to fpare them wliich may 
much beapplauded unto by many : yet if we could conlider what hazard may come to immortall louls in a 
fliort time by the want of a po wcrfull Mmiftery^mach more by the having ot corrupt men, either in Life or 
Do^Jtrine in that ftation, and what thoughts lb uls will have of that cruel pity in the day of J jdgement ; we 
are perlwaded borrour would artedt the hearts of theie who are concerned » conlidering huw many are pal* 
pably in hazard through defect in this : Can it be thought thatCnrifts ordaining ot a Muiiitery was only to 
have men bearing fuch a name, and not to have fuch as etteCtually and lerioufly would promove His defign» 
andcanthatbeexpetled, whilft men unfit for it, or unworthy of chat calling polfeiletne room? andif ittjea 
deplorable condition to have Congregations delolate without the 0;dinance6,and living like Heathens,or sa 
Iheep without a 5aepherd, or blind men without a Guide, is u any IcHe, yea)is it not much more lamentable 
to have luch as rather marr than tjrther the miin delign? which b;eedeth confidence and lecuritym fomc 
naturall men,occafioneth prophanity and looinefle in ochers,and almolt lervetnto no end , but to keep fucli 
a Congregation from one thjt may guide them , and them from knowing their want,or hazard: and in f jm 
Ct)obftruit, and put in a non-entry, their edification, more than it non:: were there at all ; lor , Chrifts way 
appointed for edifying of His Cau.ch, is not only to have the form ot Or Jinapc^s , by men luppiying thele 
places i but to hive lucti as may by His approbation follow His WJiy ot" attaining his end. vVe conceive 
that the regulating o the entry of Churcfi-ol'ficers , lo mat none bat luch as are cnereby approvenmay be 
admitted, andoithctryallofthefe whoarein, that fuch whocarry themfelves unworthily may be remov- 
ed, is one of the main ends why Church-authority is given by Jel us C uUt tor the edification of His body , 
aschelpecialidiiedions \.oTimothy andT««*, which do regulate Cnurch-omcers, efpecially in the ad- 
miifionandaccufationofElderSjdodemonltratei andifthismampouit be neglevited by Church-officers* 
it may juftly provoke God to weaken » if not to break that Authority to them , and to make them- and it in 
their hands juftiy co become defpileable, which nothing tunhers more than the admicting and permitting of 
corrupt and unmeet Officers to be in the Church. Ana if people delight to have it lo , and fret at any thing, 
Which may amend it, muchmore iftheyaffcwttlie continuance thereof, and concur to the fuppo/tingot 
luch, it may be that the Lord give them a fill ofiheir own wayes j and by errour, con^ufion, or lome other 
way, fo bring it about in his jult j.idgemen., that either they shall have no face of Ordinances at all, or have 
thecarcaflreofthemasafnare and a curie unto them , who received not the love of the Truth, that they 
might be L ved, but contented themfelves to have the fhape and form of Chrilts Ordinances only among, 
them without refpeOl to the end for which He appointed them. That zealous and pungent dil<:our(c , 
Which Mr.£<j^/W hath to this purpofein the clofe of his ^^ree»w»f, is molt weighty andconvincing,3 ancl 
the matter thereof, fofar as concerns this, worthy lobe confidered. All which is Itiii to be underfto d of 
luchlegall trial Is as are followed on lolide grounds* and in an orderly circumfpedt manner j for fuch was 
tfcs triall of the falfe Apoitles, by the Angel or Elders of the Church oiEphefus 3 which ufually is cited by 
Divines to confirm the power of the Chuich in cenfuring her Officers. 



6% - An Ef£pofnm*of the Chap. 2,' 

L E G T U H E I r. 

Verf. 4. Keleert helefs , 1 ha\>e fomewhat aga'mfl thee , hecaufe thm^ajl left thy fit Jl loYe. 
5. li^member therefore from u hence thou art faJlen^andrepem. and do thefirjl works ,or elk I Viilhomeume thee 
quickly , and wiH remote thy Cartdlejlick, out of hii place , except thou repent. 

UrLordJcfusisthe faithfulandmiewitnefTe, who impartially teftifieth , both of whatis right 
and what is wrong in his Church : v\'e have heard His commendation . /hewing what was right • 
He began at thar,to make way for the other pare of His teftiinonie, which is to difcover what was 
wrong; and it is fet down,Ver.4.i. More generally by a tranfiticn from the commendation,Nff>«- 
thelejfc, I haYe fomeubat againB thee , thills, thovg,h all ihefe things be true, and thou be commendable in 
them, and I commend thee for them -, yet there is a ne^erthelejfe added j that is not all, there are fomethings 
wrongwhich I alfo take notice of, and will quarrel for ,thoui;h there be many things right. This (hews i 
our Lord Jefus His impartiality in taking notice of all , good and ill. And, 2. Tt Slews the extent of diicJ 
which confifts in an univerfal refpedt toall Hiscomnandsj and failing in fomethings, may bs as a dead flis 
inabox of ointment , to marr the lavour of the reft. Aq|^,3. That it's meet for Believers to know their whole 
eftate, their ill as well as theirgoodbothareufefultot^m to be known, andbotharsreprefentedby our. 
Lord Jefus unto them ■> His commending of them, alters not whatis juftly reprovable,his reproof prejudges 
them not in what is commendable : this way Belie vers ought to take in reference to theinlelves. 4. It fliews 
that even Believers fliould take a reproof, as well as a commendation , efpecially when it cometh from our 
Lord Jefus His mouth j yea , thought in many things they be right , yet fliould a reproof, notwithftanding 
thereof, be digeltcd in any thing wherein they are wrong. ^ 

I. The particular reproved , isfetdown, tbou had jallen from thy firjilolpe. i.By /ov^hereisnotunder- 
underftood theobjed beloved, asfi's faid of widows, iT/w.5.12. who had caft o&thdxfrfifaithi it was notfo 
here '.there was no publickdefedion in matter of Do»5i:rine, as the commendation preceding clears. Nor 
2. is it neceflary here to be underftood principally of a decay of love in the habit it felf, but in the exercife & 
fruites thereof, as is clear by theoppofition following , dothe frftworks: which pointsoutthefaultreprov-' 
ed , to have confided in the neglevil' of thefe , which is again removed by the performing of them ,• though 
we think there is a (uitablneffe between the habit and its fruits , as it is with the one , fo is it with the other - 
and few ads and fruits do evidence the habit thereof to be cold and languilhing. 3. neither do we under" 

we conceive, it doth include thefe three, i. A falling from thole duties , wherein efpecially true love to God 
8c charity to others confifted) that is, they were much in outward reformation, profe/Tion and zeal that way; 
but wanting inwardly, heart-burning love and affedion to God , andfoin feme meafure were hypocritical • 
in that their love within was not anlwerable to their proteflion without , but were more taken up in external 

lit may fa 

fedionof oneof them , with and to another, that fliould be i this being ordinary, that lo've inflamed to God*, 
ward, and love one to another , go together: andthereforeasitimporteththey had fallen from their for- 
mer warm imprefTions of love to God i lo al To fi om their kindly affedtion one to another , and had fallen in 
partto be more in Sacrificc> and externals of Worlhip. than in Mercy and love one to another , Hof.6. 7. and 
Matth. 12. 7.Thethirdis,adccay of loveinthe manner of doing duties j fothar thought they continued in 
the pratlice of former duties towards God, and towards others : yet in refped of love to God , as the prin- 
ciple ading them in fuch duties or affedions towards others , they had much decayed , and therefore may 
be charged to have fallen from their fiilt love , though they continued in the cxternall periformances, becaufe 
the former natire vigour and life in thofe duties was decayed, Whence wemay gather, thatthere may be 
many things commendable in a Church, or in a perf on , and yet there may be a fecret quarel between 
Chritt and them, as Pfal y^.Tperf. 54. 35.36. compared together, do ftew; yea, that there may be many things 
rightin aBelievcr in refpeft of externals, and yet a difldtisfadiontojefus Chrifl in their fecret condition. 
That this Angel, and many of thefe written to in this Church were Believers, this reproof clears, which 
fijppofeih theoa once to have had love} that they have many things commendable, the former' verfe is 


Chap. I.' SookoJiheHeveUtion, ^, 

clear, to wit, pure profeflion of truth, zealous exercile of-dilcipline, diligence in doing.and labouring, pju- 
ence in llitfering, honcltie in their end, for Chrijif names fake , and continuing in all thcfe without fainune : 
yet is there sneYertheleJJe added , which may make hearts to tremble, and DOt to reckon their condition 
tiom externall performances j and ought to put Believers to it , to lee how they will free themlelvtS from 
this part of the challenge. 2.0jr Lordjelus doth el'pecially take notice of the love oF His people, and is 
much Iwayed in His commendations and reproofs according as He ftndeth it in exercile towaids Him 6c to- 
wards others. 3.Love within m.iy be cold, when folks practices without look very hot.&upon the matter 
may be accepted ol ChnIt.4.Beheveis often at their hrlt engaging to Chrift, have their love more warm to- 
ward Him, and towards ochers.than afterward it will be } or, B.heve.s ordinarly flips from that warmnefle 
of affection that accompanieth their efttry, and becometh more cold in their aifeCf ions towards God and 
towards ocners i the hrlt love continueth not. 5.iiackfliding and declining from what folk have been either 
inproteslionor pravilice,is,&;will be a Ipecial article otCnnltsCharge.Heoce is h^thai hold fa fi is fo frequent- 
ly repeated in the following Epiftles: not only to intimate what is oar dutvibuc alio to evidence how ill the 
Ljtdtaketh d.'cuning when Hw nnds it among His people, Heb.ioMrf.^H^ Ijany mandraw hck., my foul 
shallha'Pe riopteajuremhim. 6. Every decjy is a/<?//iwj, and hurts the vvork oj: Grace pioporcionabiy as 
groiie comiiiulions tlo j and it's as imposhble for a man to lit up in the exercife or inward Graces, and not to 
hurt them, as for a man to fall from a hight and not be woandeu. 

_ /^e)'J.5.Foilo\veth the direttion, whicn our Lord prelcnbeth as the duty futing their cafe, and the threat- 
ning wherewith He backs it. Tne direotiou fiath three iteps , every one of them making way for another. 
The i.is, ^member from wheme thou an fallen , that is, advert and confider how ic is wuli tiiee, be it was 
at thebegiuuing ; that lo by retieCtiug upon themlelves, and comparing their prefenc condition with what 
is palt, they might be brought to Cake up their own condition. Inlum , it luiplieth, that there had been in 
them an inadvertencie unto , and forgetful nelfe of their own condition for a ti.ne, which had made them 
without challenges Hip into, and continue in thatbaciiflidden condition. Unto this, femembring is oppoled » 
which takeih in, not only a iimpleaClofmemorie, butalenhble exercile or checonfcience and affections 
alio, following upon their refieCtingon themfelyes » like the word , Eiek^ i6.6». Thou shah rememLr tby 
wayes, &c. 

The lecond part of the diredkion is, repent : this is the fruit and end of the former , relating al fo to what 
was palt, that not only they fliould Iook. upon their own wayes, but that their eye fhould aCct their heart 
fortheupltirringofihemintheexercifeoiii^L'pentance: which includeththcre cv\o, i. A kindly indigna- 
tion againft their lin , and againft themielves for their lin, lb as in fo.ne paiV, they avenge God of themlelves 
inthejudging and cenliii ing ofthemfelves in the behalf of God, asitist^pzCory.ii. 2. Ictakethinam 
inward and outward change of their way for the time to come,which is ever a fruit of trueR.'p:ntance jwhea 
ihe pai ty is brought not only to coufelle, but to forfake their lin , as the words following clear inthe third 
direction } which is, dothefir/l -workj. Tnis relateth unto the the time to come, that is, that what once they 
had been at inthe performance oi Worship to God , and in duties one to anocher m the manner , as well as 
in the matter, and were now fallen from ^as we hinted at in the repi o. f j chat they sho.iid by all means let: 
themlelves to recover the lame, this being a native Jruit and companion ot Repentance carefully to abftain. 
from the evils, and perform the duties which they have been mult touched with in the challenge. Thefe 
three go well together,and notably prefcribe the remedieof a foul backflidJen f roin iiveHnelle to deadnelfe 
and direds to the recovery of iheir former Itaie , which \yili not be attained by lazie Prayers , and fainting 
complaints ; but by lerioasup-itirring, and exercile oi thckihtoclclfjearching^repentance, andfwS/Ve,and 
that in the native order as they lye. 

More particularly , from the (everall diredions, Oijer'Jfe ^i.That as forgetful nefTe of our own condition ,. 
and not renewing on our icives, isthegreat caule of mach decline g and backlliding in heart, and of conti- 
nuing therein ; loupon the contrary,! elf examination,and rememberin;^ of our own way,and reflecting on 
our lelves,is a notable mean to prevent decay, and to entertain a good frame,* as aifo to further the exercile of 
repentance, and to recover a frame when it's iolt.2.iielieveri may fall into that negleCt . 3. When B.-liever-s. 
become negligent, they dechnein part, though not wholly. 4, When Believers fajJ>they are to take the fame 
way tor their recovery. 5.Believers may be under great decay, and yet not take great notice of it , nor from: 
whence they are fallen j yea , it implyeth further , that wher^ the decay is witliin ,.and the carriage fair 
without, (as here^ u's hard to get them convi need of ic. 

From the lecond itep of the diredtion, J^pem, 8cc. Oi/.i.That Repentance is a duty incumbent even to 
Believers, i^oh.1.8. z.That it is called for, whereever there is lin, even of omilTionSjas here. But, g.Efpe- 
cially where mere IS declining.4,Change of practice, where there hath been fm, will not be fufiicient:, ifrg- 
pew^nce for what is pait do not accompany ic, ~" " Fxoni 

64 -An Expofitm of the Chap.*. 

Icrem the third flop, Do thefirjl works, ObJ. i. i nat beiic vers firft works.are often more commcuOablc • 
»han thefe which come atcer.2.Theie may be great dittaencein the fame works oiuhi.- matter , even of the 
lame perfon, in Chrtfts account.3. Works & u orks UvcUly gone aboui,aie called for from Bdievers; Chriit 
JeU;8 vras no legall Preacher ; y ;c doch he require both Repentance dc Works from ihefe Eph/ians. 

The third thing in this Epiitle , is the thieatning, or certiticaiion, wherewith this direcfionis preffed, 
( which doth the more confirm the forme; Doctrine ) or elfel mUeome unto thee quickly , arid remo^vthy 
Candlefttkfiut of its place, except thou repent, in u'hich words, vvc are to co.mder ine min^ threacned. 2. The 
pertbns threatned. j.The ccrtirication, upon which it's pronouiKcd. 4. The perfon ihreatning. And iittly , 
The fpeedinerte or ftiddainnelfe of His performing what be ihreained. I'he thing threaCned,is che«WM>- 
ing of the CarttfleftUk^out oj its p'ace. By Candltftick^, Chap, i . yer(.2o. is underltood ihe church : Therefore 
by the removing thertot mjit i^e underltood the un-Churchingot them j 5othai Ephtfus njw a Church & 
Candltftick, should have that retr.ovcd, and not be continued a Church ; ihisis in eiteCt i,ke that , S3ach \ i 
of the Lords breaking the two (laves , and refufing to ict^ that people any nacre. Thi, is a fad , though a 
j*iift thieacning.which may put us to enquire wherefore the Lord thusthreatneth this Angel , and Chuich 
bcfiJe any other ? efpecially confideringthey were not the vvorlt, ( as was Jeen in the commendation ) 
why then is Ihe threatned ? and how ulually the Lord doth execute this , fhall be fpoken unto , when the 
words are opened. 

2. The perfon threatned, is moQ efpecially and immediately the' Angel > asisclearbyufingof thefineu" 
larnumber,?/;y Candleltick , and f willcome iothee, ^c. And with bim, we conceive, that the threatnine 
refpeds molt thefe who were really Belie vers in thai Cnurch : becauleefpecially,the charge of falling frocn 
thefirltlove, anddiredion of dom.4 the firll works agree to them. 1 he threat ning alio of removing the 
Candleltick, would be moft laid to heai t by them. Thus Chriit ufually threatned: Vea.corredeth His own 
when Helets others flip, Amos ^2 N-itherdoth Hehere.opaiticularly chargeand threaten the Heathens 
for refuling the Gofpei, nor yet the fal fc Apoftles, or Ricolaitans, for open abufing it, as Hedoth this zea- 
lous Angel ; the reafon is nor, beCaufeHcloves them Idle i bat becaule their lins come nearer His honour , 
& heis more afteded with them * and becaufe He mindcth their good, He judgcthand chaftenech them left 
ihey fliould be condemned with the world, i Cor'/i^^.i 1-32 whereas He lufpendeth His judging of tbe'reit 

& beftoweth not areproofup-nthcm,untill judgement altogetherfurprilethem. ' 

3. The ceriihcation upon vvhicli this great judgement Cwhich is greater than either 5word, Famine or 
Peltilence) is threatned, is, except the^ repent : by which we may gather , the neccifity oi Re'penrance'inic 
feif, and u's acceptation by Jelus Chnlt, not as if there were any merit in it to delerve, or any moving im- 
puUivevertueinitto perlwadeHim to pity Us humiliations ule to perlwade men ; He is not capable 
of luch motives : nor yet as if He had any delignt in the fadning, and exercihng of his PvOple; but that He 
may Ihew the peremptory connexion between R.pentance and Pardon ,• which in the order of Salvation 
He hath laid down, thereby to make iheiinntr KnowfomethingoftheiUof lin.and worth of grace: which 
is the realun why the preaching of the Gofpel ordinarily begins with this. By Kepentancehere ,* we do 
not underftand llridiy the grace ot Repentance, as it is coniradiltinguished from Faitn , much leffe any na- 
turall or worldly forrow, which may be in a hypocrite j but we take it as it comprehendeth the whole work 
of Converfion and Faith in jefus Chrift, as lometimesit's taken, Matb.<^. 17. compared with Mark I if 
becaufe itispropofedhere, asthcM'ay to prevent wrath which is due lor fin, which cannot be done 
without faith. 

The fourth thing to be confidercd,is,the perfon threatning , / Xvillcome , I Jefus Chrift who walks a- 
mong the golden Candlefticks, I the Lord of the Vineyard, A'/af^.2i 40,41. Tins ismentioned.Firlt To 
lee us fee Chriftsablblutenefleand foveraignity over his Churches, to ciilpoie of them as hepleafeth i that 
Minifters and People may learn to hold their Church-being of Him: S.^condly ,To hoid forth Chrilts pecu- 
liar Authority, in Churching and un-churching j and that peculiarly, thisbelongeth to Him: there is noMan, 
nor Enemy , nor Perlecution,&;c.can loole the relation of a Church ui its being, out Chrift Jefus , or they < as 
ordered by Him. ^* 

Thefifthis,! W/c»«e^wJct/)i,yea,and unexpeFiedlj, as the word imports. Thisisaddcd toftiewthat 
thrifts threatnings are in earneft,and that Hearers would not dally with them. It flieweih alfo , how eafily 
He can overturn a Church, and make no Church of it : He hath often gathered Churches quickly, and can 
He not diffolve them when they look to be in their prime? Who,having read the commendation of£p^e/«* 
m the former verfes, would have expedted fuch a threatning in the clofe ? 

The words now being opened, we may enquire , 1. Ho\>, thu threatning of unchurching it Church ufeth to 


Cliap.2. JfWiksf the "Rentatm. ^ 

^nfwer , We conceive k doth not neceflarily Imply the overrunning, wafting and deftroylngoF fixh 
a City or Land , that it flibuldbe no City , but that itlhould be no Church. Sonietimes indeed God will 
even by fuch a mean bring about this thing threatned ; But here we take it to hold out fomeother thii!)g , 
than ii He had threatned Sv\'ord or Peftilence upon tlicm : It is the fanie upon the matter with that , Math. 
2 1 . 45' The kingdom of God shall be taken from tlxm , ^c. M'hich was Chrifts word to the f eivj, and is cfpeci- 
allythefe wayes brought to pafle. The firlt , is finfull , that is , when a Church fell ihemfelycs to falle Oo- 
(flrine > which overturneth the foundation : in which fcnfe , Hof. 2. the Lord denies Ephraim to be hiis Wife; 
becaufe of her fpirituall whoredoms whereby ihe had broken hertye: thus a people may b s faid to un- 
church themfelvcsby their unbelief , confufions anderrours ( unconliftcnt with the foundation ) accord- 
ing to that , IfaL 50. i. And lipm. 1 1. the f «W'X are faid to have broken themfelives oft' by tbeiji' unbelief. 
Tne fecond way is penall , that is , when the Gofpcl hath not fruits among a people, the Lord re- 
moveththe Light, and His Ordinances from them , taketh down his hedge from about them, andfasic 
were) fcndeth them a bill of divorce , refufing to own them afterwards as a Church : not by giving them 
up to outward enemies oppreflion (which for a time they may Ixi free of ) but by ratifying their own fen- 
tence of rejedling of the Gofpel , as it is » JB. ij, 46. and thus the Kingdom of God was tranflated 
from the Jews -, and they became no Church , when the Gofpel was taken from them and (cnt untq ths 
Gentiles. A third way maybe mixed, partly iinfuU , partly penall, a people upon tlie one fide not receiv- 
ing the love of the Truth j and therefore upon the other fide , God gives them up to ftrong delufion, wliere- 
uponthcy proceed fromevill toworfe in thebelievingoflies,asit is, 2Theff.z.\o. However , this ts cer- 
tain , this flouriihing Church of Ephefu^, hath now long fince been a proof of this Truths for errour growing 
to an hight ,-and delufion and ignorance following upon the back of defpifing the Gofpel , hath, brought that 
Church into the eftate that it is now into. 
For the fecond Queftion , I0>ytht Lord peculiarly threatens the Churches of E^htfuswkb thefe punishments } 
Anfw. It is not becaufe His difcontentme nc was more MMth her than with other Churchesj But i . It''s lika 
they thought outward honefty and reformation enough for their Church, eftate , and that there was nocaufe 
cttearofun-Churching) fo long as they continued pure in profefllon, andz.-alous in purging, &;c. And 
therefore tobcat down this conceit, and tofhew the neceffiiy of power , asvi^^Uasofform . for continuing 
of a Church-cftate, He doth fubjoyn this thrcatningcrf"un-Chuiching ,lefpecially to this Church. 2. Becauie 
thefe here threatned , would lay more weight on this threatnin^ , and be more aifed:ed v\'ith fhoring to be un- 
churched , than with either Sword or Peltilence, Sec. TheLordrherefoieapplieth wifely that which He 
thinks moftconduceable to this end, 3. It's like, their outward Church-eftate wasfomcthing thought ofby- 
them , and the externali frame of Ordinances in purity , and that of Difciplinein vigour, might be relied on , 
and too much eiteemedof, efpecially by the Minifters (it being too ordir.ar/ For men to think too much 
of external forms) The Lord therefore in this threatning toucheth th^. failt that might flick fecretlyt» 
them > even in their zealous profecuting of externali reformation. 4. Becaut^ H^ would have all men know- 
ing the refpedt He hath to fincerity , and the influence which the exercife or noi cxercife of grace hath upon 
keeping , orlcofing of externali Priviledges, Therefore doth he fo threaten this Church when no outward 
caufe of fuch controverfie feemeth to be before men. 

If it be asked futther , Why this Church is called the Angels ' For, Tiey , bith reference to the Angel, 
and by ihe Candlejlkk , is meant the Church itfelf. Or, 2. Howthisbeiom s athreatningto rheMini- 
fter ,itbeingliker a plague upon the People? Or, 5. How the People can be plagued for a fin in their Mi- 
nifter ? Wefliallconfiderthetirftbyitfclfj after we have gone through this Epiitle. And now to the fecond 
queftion, we fay, This threatning becomes his plague, i. Becaufe of his intereft in them, and affet5i-(. 
on to them : nothing can comeon a People , but itafFe;5ls theMirsifter; their tlroak is his ; yea often it's 
forer which isonthem, thin what isonhimfelf, 2 Cor. 11.29.50. iVho isvueak^, and lam not 'Wt^k. ? 
fyhoisojfended,andlbumnot ? was P<itt/x touch of the infirmities of the People. 2. it's the ncareft flroak 
can be on a Minifter, tobeftrickeninhisCharge, orblafted inhis Miniftery, Sic inthishcis fmittenasa 
Minifler, in things peculiar to a Minifter ; other tlroaks are common to all men: y^a, thus to be fmitten in the 
un-Churching of his Flock, is Itriking at his Cro\^'n, and his Joy 1 TheJJ. 2. ulr. for a faithfull Minifter will fb 
accountit. 3. It's probable , it was (bme contentment to him toleethingsgo right in his outward Miniftery , 
Cenfures to be weighty^ Difcipline vigorous , the People to give him credit and countenance , &c. without re- 
flci5ling on his own fpirituall condition , or aiming at the inward warming of love in the hearts of his People , 
but thoui^ht all well , and who but he, that had fuch a well ordered Church ? The Lord therefore threatneth 
to take that ground ofboafting, or felf-pleafingfrom him. It's a lad thing when a Minifter cannot carry even, 
when things go well, and cannot look to jiimfelf and the people alio, sndbebamble when he is counte- 

1 nanced 

66 ^-''*-' ' .AH Expojition of the Chap. 2. 

nanced : want of this , fpilleth many hopctuU beginnings in Miniilers hands. And this rdation-, thy , is parci- 
cularly mentioned here, to make the threatning touch him the more j it is not the Candlejiici, but thj 
Candteflk'i^, which was to be removed. For there be two things that make a thing to be in elteem with 
men , and the lofle thereof to aftcd: them. The firft is , That it be in it felf To ^y ^Vhtoi/ that is a fhing 
lovely and defireablc. The fecond , That it be To tJ'iov , that is , a thing which is a mans own ; Thefe two 
going together jTliat it is both an excellent thing inthelelf, and withall a mans own ; when once evill 
befalls tttit thing, it doth exceedingly prefTe a man. Now both thefe are here, a golden Candkftkk^, there is its 
excellency in it felf, and thy Candleftkkjt there is the iVngelsintreft and propriety in it 3 Boch are fet down 
to atfecfk him the more. And indeed a Church being in its bloflbming and riling condition , and all things 
feeming to go well therein , even then ^ to be threatned thus , cannot but gteatly affedt the heart of a faithfxill 

To the third, HoVi can People be ptm'ishedfar Minlflers faults } 

jinfvf. If they u'ere altogether innocent , it might feem hard: but when they alfo are guilty; yea, and it's 
like here under the fame guilt , there is no M^rong , but it's the correding of tM'O by one whip , both Mini- 
fteraftd People, for their formahty and reftingin outward forms, without power. 2. Though People in 
one particular be innocent 5 yet a Minifters fault may occafion a plague on the people , who are guilty by 
other fins, even as the fault of a Magiftratejas we may fee in DaVtds numbering the l-'eople>and Gods plagu- 
ing him in the People for it , thought they were in much, free from that particular fin, and as iheep,what had 
they djne ? So, M'hen a Peoples outu^ard profefTion , or obfcrvance to the Miniftery and Ordinances, become 
the ground of a Minifters pride , or boaft, they may by fome confufion be put through other , and fo his pride 
and glory is ftained , and their hypocrifie and formality puniihed; even as on the other fide , a Peoples vanity 
of their Minifter, may have influence on the Lords blafting of him, that it may be feen , all flelK is grafle. 
Which confideration ought to make Minifters and People M'alk refpedively one to each other , yet fobcrlyi 
left th: Lord be provoked againft both. 

From this threatning, Obferye, i.That no Church or Minifter hath a Jeafe of a Church- ftateandthe- 
Gofp2l, if they abufe it. Ephefus is now no Church; yea, Z/r««/ was broken off. 2. It's one of the 
greaceft threatnings that can be, to be un-Churched ; Sword and Ptftilence are not like ir. 3, It may far- 
prife a Church in a very flourifliing outward condition , if love be wanting. 4, Nothing hath more infiu. 
encc in procuring of judgement , than coldnefle in love to God and others, f . The eltate , good or ill of 
Gods own People , hath moft influence on the continuing or removing of the Gofpel. It's not for the guile 
oi Kicolaitans , or falfe Prophets,that this is threatned ; bjt for their fin who once had love. 6. Repentance 
and diligence hath great influence to prevent fuch athreatning. 7. Minifters and People may have much, 
influence on one anothers good or ill condition ; and fometimes wemay read our own diftemper and Icourge, 
in the diftemper of one another. 

L E G T U R. E III- 

Vet: 6. But thisthouhafl , that thou hatefithedeedsof the Kicohitans , which I alfo hate. 
7. He that hath an eat, let him hear v^hat the Spirit Jaith unto the Churches, To him that ol^ercomah vul 
Igi^ e to eai of the trte of life , v/hich is in the midft of the parndife oj God. 

He fixth verfe containeth the laft thing that is comprehended in the body of the Epiftle of Ephefus^. 
and it's a kind of mitigation ofthelharpreproofand threatning going before : as he began with 
a word of commendation, fo he. will dole, with it,, and will let them fee , that thought He 
had marked their fin , and reproved them forit ; yet.He was the fame in his love, and had the lame 
thoughts He began with towards them: and it is in fum ,,this, for as much wrong as is m you, and for as much 
as ve are fallen from your firft love , yet there is fome fparkle of zeal in you , ye have this good thing , that the 
co'i rupt dodrine of the Kicolaitans ( which began foon to corrupt the fimpliciLy and punty of tlieDoLtnae 
of Chrift) is hated and abominated by you, even as it is by Me. 

To clear this a little more ,. we Ihall fpeak to thefe three things, i- What tbefe Nicolatians y/'^xc 2. >Afhac. 
thi^hatred was. 3. How it was commendable j or, what is the ground on which itis commended. 

Fortbe 1. We fhall confidcr firft what the 2<<co/«i<^ar. were. 2.,what was the occafion and rile oi their 

errpr, or erroneous Dodtrine. ., , . r , ■ c ■ ■ r ur i 

for the fii-ft , what they were. There is not much recorded o. them in Scnpture^ yet it ieenieth from all, 
/ thst 

Chapli. B99\yf the ReveUtmu /^cvc&irau-i:''^ """* 57 

that is A'ntcen oFchem ( being compared withi whac is written ot the n in this Chapter) that they were fuch 
a lort otSchiUnatical Herecicks , as had corrupt Do,itrine in their n^.ouchs , and corrupt and licentious pra- 
ctices in their converi'ations.Theref"ore their </ccrfx are fpoken oFin this verfe^Sc their Do^wte, vcrf.l^. both 
V'hicn are laid to be hated of Chrift, there being a I'uitablnefle between their Doitrine and their dueds. 

For the particulars oF their Djitrine and deeds, many are aflerted by the Ancients , but two things mainly 
are pitched on. i.fn their Doilrine they opened a door to licentioufnefs, and maintained, that for nicatioa 
and adultery were no lin, and they cried down Matrimoniall chaftity, tho jgh called for and approven of 
God.2.ln their practice, without all refpetik to ortence & Icandal , they lived as chey li(ledjeatin> things Sa- 
crificed to Idols C a thing m jch ftumbled at in thofe dayes ) abufing their Chriltian liberty tolicentioufnelTe 
and loufnelFe, taking advantage of, and abufing the decree ot the ApoItles,^3/ 1 5.20. that Chriftiatis would 
abftain from pollutionr of idols » and from forntcathn, and from things Wrangled , andfrom^bbody as it all thefe 
things had been of one and the fame nature , as indeed at that time they were , all neceffalrSy to be abftained 
irom, as if they had been oFone nature. Tnele are granted by all to be the two main iK^gs thacthefeNi- 
co/«//«faf were guilty of: though there be that add many moe » as Epiphanius doth : and if we look to the 
14. and i5.Vcr/.of this chapter> it is not unlike, that the Lord points at chefe two hults: for in the 14. "perfe , 
He tells Pergamos , that Ihe had them that held the Do^rine of Balaam, -who taught B Uac to cd'^ ajiumlfling 
block, before the (hiidren oflfrael, to eat things Sacrificed unto Idols , and to commit fornication : and in 
theif.verfej Sohafitijou alfothem that hold theVoHrine o/f/?eNicolaitans , which thing I hate. Where 
they that maintained the Doif rine o£ Salaam, and the Nicolaitans are the fame } and tie meaneth, as Ba- 
laam taught Balac to enlnare the Ifraelites, by drawing them to their Idol feafts , and commie fornication 
with the daughters o^Moab j So laith the Lord, ye haye the Kicohitsns that folio w the fame footfteps, 8c 
teach the fame Doctrine. 

2. f hereismorGdififerenceconcerningtheoccalionandrifeofchisHerefie. Itiscommonly andbythe 
moft part { if not by all) attributed to that Kicolas , that C ABs 6.) is mentioned among ibe leven Deacons that 
were choien to wait upon the tables , and who gets there a teftimonie , that he was a man full of the holy 
Ghofl: ; but there being various opinions about theoccafion and rife of it , I shall name two chat are fpecial , 
andchooi'e which of the two we think fafcft. 

I . Some write of him, that having fallen from his integrity.and become diflblute in his pradtice, he (trove 
to maintain it in his Dotftrine C a thing too common to draw our Doitrine to maintain our praiti^e) & for- 
mally taught this error, and begat many profane followers. Neither ( fay they ) is it like, tiiat fuch a vile 
fin would bave been fathered in Scripture on luch aman, if he had been innocent. Ochers fet it down witli 
more mitigation and charity to Nicolas, thus> That this Kioolas having a beautituU wife, was fufpedted to 
entertain jealoufie of her, it's like from fomeothers, Members ofthcCiirchj and being to j inadveitanc 
and rash in the way which he took for removing thatfufpicion , to make it be leen that he had none j he 
•brought his wife in publick, and holding her forth , faid, he cared not who converfed with her , fo far was he 
from being fufpicious of her honeftie. 

This rash fad:, though flowing from a goodintention ( fay they) was abufed by fome to patron ize the er- 
rors formerly mentioned beyond hisintention •; And they were called Kicohitans on this occalian; notbe- 
caufe he taught lo * but that they concluded fo from that his prailice , and fathered what they maintaine i 
on that worthy maji ; asitis ordinary for corrupt men to father their corrupt opinions upon , and to shelter 
themfelves under grave and Godly mens names. This laft, in the doubtfuinelfe of this cafe, it being alferceJ 
by the mod ancient (to wit, Clemens Alexand) we rather embrace, partly, becaufe of that mans commen' 
darion. ABs 6.whereit is (aid, he was a manfullofthe holy Ghofl ; and partly, bccau(e it is molt charitable j 
and therefore is lafeft, efpecially, where fuch a teltimony is given to the man in Scripture. And for as abomi- 
nable as this was , it was for many centuries of- years , revived and continued with many additions- in the 
Church, by GnoJiicks> Bafilides, C^c by thofe, called the Saiwnians > Carpocrati ws , and many others , M^ho 
made a pretext or NicoLts for their patron. A thing to be wendered at, thacib foon after Chrift, wnile Johrt 
.the beloved Dilciple was living , Satan should affault and fet upon the Church with fuch errors : and yet a » 
.wonderfull , that after thofe errors were refuted by an extraoidinary Apoltle , fpeaking from Chrifts ow,i 
tnouth, they were vented and maintained by thofe Hereticks, a lymptom of rh;.t peartnefTe and impudenci i 
.that corrupt men are led with, when lb foon, at fuch a time , contrarie to fb clear reproofs , men durft vent 
and abide by fuch grofle things : O what force and efficacie hath the fpiritcfdelufion when it's letten loofe ! 
and what a highi may it come to I Tremble at the beginningsof it : it's hard to conceive , with whatauda- 
city and boldneffe it will bear it felf out > that though our Lord would write an Epiitle tr«>m Heaycn , deki- 
.ti«n will fo blind folks, th^t they will not queftion their errors. 

12 Tie 

tf^ MSxpofmontfthg Chap. 2. 

The fecoiid thing; to bz fpoken unto in this coaimcndaiion, is, that they hated the deeds of the Kmlniuns: 
iiot iheir perfons limply, b.it their deedsi and them as promoving tiieie deeds: thoi^h the Church had thefi 
men among them, and was levere in her Disciplines ycttheLoid taketh notice otthisefpecially, thatshe 
kept a fecret,lincere«bh)rrencie of them m her heart; not only did not the Angel and Church counte- 
nance them, nor only foroear their company ; b.« they bad luch an abhorrencie of their deecis and of them- 
felves, in carrying on thefe deeds, that the thmking ot them was abominable : as faith Da\ndy P.al.i 39.21, 
22. Do nofl hate them that hate t/^e} I hate them with a perfe^ hatred. And P/:iiy. 104. I hate every fui^e 
"^aj. So this hatred in re^erence toihcle NkoUitans , was not carnal , or in reference to their perfous fim- 
ply i but in thefe three refpec!ts efpeciallyj i . In relpe^it oi their deeds and Doitrine , it ftruck at their deeds 
as here, and at their Do^rine,as t>erf.is. And, 2. Looking upon them as inftruments and Minifters of Sa- 
tan, made ufe of by\lwn for corrupting and poikining of Ibuls , ^ and shaming of the Gofpel, they abhorred 
themconfidered as fai^h, what ever pity to their perlons, or delire to their Salvation they had, 3. As they 
conceived them to be hateful to Chriit and hated by him, lb did they haie thems fq uaring their natred, as 
they did conceive Chrift to hate. 

Objerlfe i . That there are fome things and perfons , efpecially at fomc times , that it is not enough for the 
people of God to abttam from them in their pra\5tice , if there be not an abhorrencie of them in their hearts. 
The \Vay of error and corrupt pradiices thattoUow on it, Ihould be abhorred , as any other lin> how grolle 
and fcandalousfoever ; Heieheas murther, and Schifmas witchcraft, Gal. f. 19. and there is good realon 
for it ; for if folk be not lerious in hatred of, and (o out ot love with the thing> they may foon fall in the pra- 
dticeof it : and fimple abllinence will never be counted fincerity before God, whole trialis how it Hands 
with the heart and aftedlions, how the heart is atfevSted or dlf-afietled toward the thing ? 

2. Our Lord Jefus counts it fome mark of lincerity, when tbere is a lingle hatred of the way of erroai^as 
ic is in it felf evill an J hateliill to, and hated by Him. 

The third thing in this mitigation, is thcground on which theiY hatred is commended , It is conformitf 
with Chritt, vthich I alfo hMe. 1 hate them ; therefore it's commendable in thee to hate them j it's a lure 
ground ofcommeniation, to hate what He hates, and love what He loves. Tnis ground of commendation , 
implyeth two things: i . That it's well done to hate what Chriit hates. ObferU,Gods People Ihould love 
and hate one thing with Jefus Chriit ; they should ftudy to be conform to Him in the exercile of all their 
pafTioas and afte<ilions. 2. It Implyeth a likeneffe to Chrilts haired in the nature thereof , that they hated 
ihem as they were hated by Chriit, and not as they were enemies to them. Obf.U's a go jd way to Iquare 
folks hatred and zeal fo, as itdegener not into paffion : to look to the matter that it be fuch as is hated 5/ 
Chrift, and to the manner that it be fuch as His is, lingle, and zealous ; and that it be on that account,bccaul€ 
hatefullto Him : otherwise, men may carnally and itlfishiy hate,but without commendation. 3. it implyeth 
alfo, that corrupt Do^rine is molt hatefull to Chriit Jefus, and should be to his People. 

Verf.j. Folio ^veth the conclulion; wherein we have two things, i. A general advertifement , or exhorta- 
tion common to, and repeated in , all the Epiftles, Let him that hath an ear hear. 2. A particular promile for 
upftirringof them to wreltle and overcome, To him that o'percometb,will lgiy>e, ifc. 

for tte exhofiation, it's shortly the Lords giving this watchword and warning to all that are in Ephefus , 
and all that shojld hear this Ep.itle, 10 obierve what the Spirit laiih to them. 1 . BecauTe , it's ot'Ephejus 
concernment as well as the Angel's. 2. Becaiife itisof particular Believers concernment as well as the 
Churches; therefore, He would have all hearers looking ©n 11 as particularly fpoken to them. ^.B^caufe u- 
fually all hear nor. 4. Yet the(e that have ears should hear. 

The fcope in:iplyeth thefe three No:es. i .The Lord fupponeth here, that every one this Word comerh 
unto, will no: have hearing cars ; they will not hear uhis Word lb as to lay weight on it , and give themfelves 
liptoit. 2. It implyeth thit folk that have any convi^ion, wakening, orliie, fitting them for hearing, 
jfiiould efpe:ially be bufie in improving the Word iieard i Tojou it iigi^en to\no%v the mjfterief efths king" 
dom ofheaffcn , hw to tbem it is notgi^en , ^.c. It would become Believers C what ever others do ) to be bulie 
laying iipfj ne promiles, direiitions, reproofs, ihreatnings, &c. it's mainly for iheir ule written and taught * 
lomakethemanofGodperfedt. 3. It implyeth that hearers would labour lo to make ufe of the Word 
fpoken ( 1:0 whomfoever it be hrlt fpoken ,),asif it were particularly & efpecially ipoken to them:this being 
the excellency of the Word, thatit contains in it many conditions, and fuitamany Generations, and fome in 
this place, as well as in Ephtjui. 

2. Tne Lift and fpeciall part of the conclulion, is a prom\le,To bimtbat o^ercometh will I gi\>e,t$c.\Vhere' 
in , I. Tiie partyjsid-lcribed, to whom the promile is made* To him that olpercometh , in the lingular number; 
to point oi;r ihii o.ir Lord Jefus taketh notice notonly of aChurch thathghts , butof everypanicular Be- 

Chap.2. Book^ofthe HeveUt.tm, ' ^p 

lieveiinic. This defcrlption ofthepaity, implycih, i. Acafe orexercife thatthefe towhom thepro- 
mile ib made are fuppoled to bein, and k is that they are v/rcjUing or pghting : thele are the objed of tlie pro- 
niife. It implyeth, that Bdievers have difficulties to hght wuh, and a righting hfe ot it here away. 2. Tncir 
duty to fight and wreltle with thefe difficulties, outward and inward. 3. That there is an adlual righting ac- 
cording to their duty. 4. A victory, overcoming, a getting of their foot lo;ne way on thefe dilticulncs : a vi- 
ttory foilowes the wreiUing to every Believer ; what ever he be, that in the M'ay of duty meets with dii fi^ 
culties, andlettethto, to overcome them, he Ihall get the vidlory : yea, lighting lerioufly, is lomc ad- 
vancement in vi'^ory j thereforeis it in the prelentence , to the overcomer j or who is a overcomin.;2;becaure 
fighting and vi*^tory are never leparated , riually , in this caie. 2. The promife made to the overcomers for 
t^eir encouragement, is j I shallgil;>e tlxm to eat of the tree 0} life , ^c. It's an allulion to that tree plnnicd in 
EdettiGen.l'i. That tree was caiied the tree of tife , &c. notforany phylicailefficacy thatwasinit, asPa- 
piflsgloHe here, ( thoui^h God might have made it inttrumentall as a mean of it) tfierefore, when fin entrcd , 
r-he re was no 111 e of that tree i neitliercoulditdoany thing, but it was lo called, to hold fcrth to Adam Si- 
cianientally the eternity of life , which he might expedl by keeping the Covenant of W ork sj that tree was 
given him to fignifie , and feal up that lifeto him, upon condition of his obedience : and in allul-on to it , 
Chrift faith here , to the man that righteth andovercometh , I will make him partaker of cternall iife , not in 
any earthly Paradife , biitin Heaven 5 for lo Paradilc is taken in the New Tcitan-rent, Xtti.23. 43. This 
tjfght shah tifoa be with me in paradife. By eaiing then of the tree of iife, we mean Heaven, with all the great 
aa vantages of it, elpeciallyJelusChrilt who makes up that lifeto fallen finners,}vhich that tree could not do. 
From this promife, O^y.That our Lord Jefus would have His foUov^'ers cheerfull in their let vices ; vhere- 
fclM-e He fetteth a recompence in their view •• not to make them mercenary and ler vile 3 but hearty and checr- 
fiS in tiieir obedience, becaule they ferve fuch a good Malter. It's a great miftake in lome, to lay that look- 
ing to the reward makeih a foul fervile i upon the contrary , it maketh a foul free and willing ; and thi s is the 
ground of Gods giving promifes of rewards^ and the ufe which the Saints make oiihcm,Hei. n.Mofes had 
relpotl to the recompence of reward, and it fweetned his croflTe, 8c made him cheerfiiU in obedience. 

2. From the particular promife He maketh, Obf. That there cannot be a greater proinile nor encourage- 
ment for duty, than the happincife that God hath provided for His People in Heaven , when it's rightly eyed: 
and the frequent laying down of this promile, is for this end, to make Believers bear difricultics patient.y, & 
wade through them willingly: a broader light of Heaven, and tavtli and Hope ltrengthened,ia cxpecuuon 
of it \^'Ould make folks fight iloutly. 

3, The thing He promifes for their prefent fuflaining , is. Heaven, asthat which they might hope foV 
after this life. Obfi. That Chrifts followers Mould fulpend their full lire, till after this life; ihty wojld not 
CKped ancrther rife or heaven here. 2. The h Jpe of heaven, sao.ild comfort wreftlers before it come. Be- 
lievers , take your wrcftling rife here , and exp.tt and look for a q .liet life hereafter ; and look not for it till 
then. Chrilt (peaketh of the wrcftlmg, as h:ro, To him that olpenomnh j and of the vidf ory 5 as ia heaven, I 
wiUgiy>ekim to eat of the tree of life. 1 he not thinking righdy on this, maketh us lo often grumble when we 
want fatisfaiftion in the things of a world. We propofe to oirfelves a quiet life , whereas the Word of God 
never promifes quietnelfe , and a compleat vidtory and trumph here s yec the time cometh, when wreftlers 
IhaAl be conquerours over crofles and corruptions : and carnail men, wholive now as Kings, without any 
right, Ihall lye under wrath : there is no llich j)romire made to them. 

Before we proceed to any other of the Epilties, tuere are lome things infinuated in this,the clearing v.'hcre- 

o-:-maybcufefullinmanyoftherelt: we shall therefore take occalioa to Ipeak fomewhacnoWjOncefor ail, 

to thefe three. i.To Church-government and Difcipline in generall. 2. To that relation which is betwixt a 

particular Minilter and his Flock. And, 3.T0 the nature of tae difference that is betwixt faying and coauiion 

gracc.AU which will be ufe full for the underftanding of many things in thefe Epiitles. 

I. Concerning church-government & Difcipline ) in generall. 

He matter of Difcipline , is much inrifted upon in thefe Epifties i and often the great vi'eight of 
the commendations or reproofs that are given in them, is laid on this, as they weic faithluU 01 dc- 
fedfive in the a dminillration thereof : which doth cenainly show , not only the laVvlLilnelieot a 

of Chrift' 

theedificatic .v.^-., „ .w...^ ...-^.. — .. .,.^i..v.^... .^..^. ^^.,vv»- ^^ ^^^.^^ ^. .^.^.^ j.^.- 

fure, but lycth on them } to be dilcharged, as they would have Chrilts commeadation on the one iidtjaan as 

1 3 they 

-^io '>!« Expojition ofth\ Chap. 2. ♦ 

they would cfchew His iharp reproof on the ocher , aid as cluy would prevent ,the offence anudeltrj- 
Cti o;i , and promove the edihcation of the People over whOiii they waccii, as ch.7 thac muft give accounc. 
Ic is therefore no wonder that the devil hath in all .iges either lou_^ht to oppole , or corrupt lo excellent a . 
m :an of the Churches edification; he began even jnder heathen Einperojrs to traduce this government , as 
UKonfilircnt with civil Authority j and did provoke perfecutors by nothmg more than thus , that Chrilt was 
asco jnted a King by Chriltians, and that accordingly they did keep diftm :t Courts under Him, which the 
Politicians of the worlddid account inconiiitent v/ich Govern nents, as aiiy app^rar from the Hiltory of Pri- 
mitive times, and the Apologies of Chriltians , particularly of Ofigen jgainit t'eljus , wherein he doth par- 
ticularly and fully in (ift upon this. When the Lord h id vindicatcanis Ordinance of Government ^ with all 
His other Ordinances,) ths devil fet himfelf to corrupt the f-ime, a.id to pervv^rt it in its nature, and divert it 
in Its exerc/fe from the appointed end of edifying the Ch urcn » to De an occalion of orfeiicc to her , and ty- 
ranny over her, by the many debates concerning precedency> which he itirred up after the Churches free- 
doai from heathenish perlecution, till at lalt he brought Antichriit co tyrannize oyer the face ot the vifible 
Church, that thereby he might either make the GovernmenL nurtf nil or odious unto the members thereof, 
and others. Even as in reference to the Doilrinc of Chrilt, he did endeavour rbe corrupting thereof by er- 
rour, when he could not altogether fuppreife tiie fame. Again, when the Lord oiought' the light ol: the 
Gofpel to publick', at the time of Reformation, and Antichrilts tyranny is by many caiten olf , he leeketh by 
all means to e^eftuate oneof thefetwo, to wit, that either the Church lliQuid have nodiltincil Government 
at all ,- or tliat, at leaft, it Ihould be of another form, and of another nature than is appointed in the Word. 
Hence it is, that there have ever been fuch debates in the Church concerning the Government & Difcipline 
thereofj and even whether there be fuch a thing or not: And although the oppofers thereof, do not pro- 
ieflbdlyoppofe the truth of the Gofpel, nor intend confufion in the Church ; yet hath it with it no little ad- 
vantage to the Kingdom of Satan and prejudice to Chnib. 

For, I. By this means Satan obfcures the beauty and excellency of theChurch of Chrift,and draweth men 
to undervalue the lame i asbeingatbeft but a refined peece cf civil policy , as but fublervient to politick 
ends, and the upholding of temporall greatnelfe of men in place. Hence it is, that we will finde tne moft 
Woddly-wife and politick men ( thatare lealt zealous ordinarily in things of uod) to be the greateft favou- 
iers and abettors or" this: and it is no wonder, femg Ghrifts \ray of (Jo'^a ument , even as his Doutrine, is 
toolishnclfetothe wifdomofmcn: It's oblerveable alio , that vvheie this opinionhath place, there is little 
accountof any other ordinance ; the Sacranient of the Lords Supper is proitituted promifcuoufly to all j the 
Miniltery, is either acco.inteda thing indiB'erenr, or Minifters made tne ferrants of men, and arbitrarily to 
be put out or in, asthey arepleafmg or diipleafing to them ,• and it is Ipecially intended to curb free tauhfui 
fpeaking, and to be a fnare to make them flatter Magiilrates and Powers. All whicti shew the undervaluing 
principle that this opinion doth proceed f 1 om. 

2. f his opinion hath ordinarily with it more licentioafnefle , and that boih in Doilrine and Prat5tice: for, 
neceflarily, one ofthele two do follow : either many errours and Icandals in pratiliceare accounted light and 
not cenfurable at all i or, if that in way of realbn be granted, yet m practice it is never perfor.ned. And can 
it ever be made outin any pradice pall, or posfibly to come, that otfences in People «r Minilters nave been 
lo exadly taken notice of, and reftrained, or removed, where Church-government hath been denyed j as 
where it hath been in exercile Z 

3. Although fuch Magiilrates might be found, as would take notice of every thing exadllyi yet their med- 
ling with it furthers not Ipirituall edification , lo as the way of Church-gove. nment doth ; for at beft , it 
would make men but civil, and make Religion look like the way of ancient Pnilofophers , who prefled the 
rectifying of nature i whereas a Church reproof, or cenfure , hath both more cdihcation to others , and 
more convincing fhame to the parties themlllves , in relpedt of the iin thereof , as flowing more immedi- 
ately from Jcliis'Chritt, and more direCtly rcprelenting to them his Authoiity, and their reckoning to Him, 
who more lingularily binds in heaven, what by his Othcers is bound on earth. And we conceive, tnat even 
the prophancit, in experience will finde this true,that a verbatt Church-cenfure ( .which conlidered of it felf, 
IS but light) will yet have more impresfion { as to the ends aforcfai J ) than fentcnces ot a civill Magiitrate , 
that in themfelves may be heavier ; and this \\-ill be, even when the parties in their outward carriage will 
feem to reverence the Magiftrate, and to contemn the Church. 

4. Although it fhould tse yet laid, that Magiltrates could make things more effeduall , as iucenfuring of 
corrupt Minifters> and fuch likc> which indeed is a benefit in it lelf to the Church j yet , conlidering this 
manner of performing it, efpecially bdng compared with the performing thereof by the Churches own Au- 
thority, it proyeih more dilparaging unto the Church of Chriil: becaule if Minilters and Church-members 


Chap.2. Book<ff tbe FevcUtion, y'r 

Ihould be apt toiall in feandalous oflenceb, r.i)d yci ilic Cbuich have ro Authority, but what isextrinlkk 
for the remc dii g thereof, then is (he apt to be IcoivCd Lpon ss a luferer ot prof aiaty, and as a neft to unclc;ni 
perlons ot her leli , it by the Magiltrate , coi.rie m ere not taken with her ; and although by his means fixh 
Ihoiild be purged out ; yet in the ©pinions oi natural men this imputation tticjss to the Church , as if fiich- 
things and pericns were well ccnfilient with her prottslion , and in lu of by her ipecial Offficers and Mem- 
bers. Nowcenluringof thefeby herown Authority, cloth flai) and only vindicate hej and them froni 
ihcfe alperfions, which are frequent upon the out-breakings ot fuc li Icandals in the mouths of many profane 
men. And this revenging of difobedience, and vindicating of the Church of Chriii, is none of the Icaft endS' 
of this Church-authority, which by no other power can be attained. And no quellion , the devil loves lo 
have fcandals breaking out in the Church, el pecially in her Officers , which do once put a blot upon her. 
And if it be to be taken notice of at all, he had rather that fome other did it than the Chiirchher feltibecau'e 
io the commendation becometh theirs, and the blot flicks to her : and thus ( as it were ) be proclames to all, 
what fort of pcrlbns would the'e Church-cfticers, and Church-mcmberi' be , for all their profeiJion , if {hey 
Were not even as otf.er men by feme other hand rcftrained ? And thus the wifdom and holmefle of our Lord 
Jefus, is refledfed on , as if He had approven corrupt mens defigns, who love to have a blot on the Chuich ^ 
but not to have her vindicated from \ t : becaule by this, the Churcfi is capable to give offences ; but, in a in- 
capacity, toremovethem , or tovin^iicateherfdf from them : whichltandeth not with that zeal, which 
our Lord hath to His own glory in the Church. And certainly , ii's not the punishing of faults (imply , 
that vindicateth the Churches holinefie } but it is the cenOjring of them in luch a way as evidence th the 
Churches abhorrencie thereof, that doth it : otherwise, Chriftians and heathens living under one Ccmn.on- 
Wealth , might be fuppofed to have the fam.e indignation at fcandalcus ills. And (othe denying of the Chur- 
ches Authority, if it doth not permit faults to be unpuniflied (atleallall) yetitfecludethluchaway ofcen- 
furing them, as may vindicate the Chui ch and Chriit Jelus ihe King thereof in an lingular m.nnner : and ( if 
wemayjofay) puisherj yea, the Lord Himfelf in their reverence , whether she Ihall be free of corrupt:. 
Teachers and Members or not ? or u heiher flie Ihall lye under that blot or not ? 

5. By the denying of this Ordinance,thc other Oidinances which are acknowledged, aremadeueak & 
Gbitru(ited in then- exercife. Concerning the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, it is clear : for, by this the mil 
whereby it is in a fingular manner fcpai ated, is broken dovvnj many offices of the Church , as thele of E. ders 
and Deacons, are made void j and that of Preaching, made contemptible or maimed. For , publick auihori- 
tativc rebuHng ofal],andfometimcsof(ome in particular, is a Ipecialpait thereof. Now, where Church- 
goyernmentisdenyed, either the Minifter mull do it arbitrarily by himfelf, and fo he is more liable to a 
Ihare, and the party reproved to be Itum.bled, as having only to do with the Miniiler , who may p;,r;i:illy 
proceed therein ; or , it muft be foi born, and fo his Miniftrie be made obnoxious to defpiiing, which by his 
rebuking, with all Authority, is to be prevented , and every way plainnefie and freedom^evcnin Preaching,., 
Specially towards thefe in piace,is fo far ascan be, rcftrained. 

6. By this, the devil aimeth ftill either to make Religion to futier as a tbirg that m.en may carve on ac-^- 
cording to their interefts,as in other matters of policie ( therefore hcmixeth all together ) or, he doth conti-^ 
niially lay grounds of jealufie and difference between Magiltrates and Miniltersi thereby 10 make, thatJMi-^ 
iiifters and thefe w ho will be faithful, should either finfully conceive at what may prejudge the Kingdc m of 
ChriftK)r by their teff ifying againit the fame, ix^ake thcmlelves mere odioi s to the Rulers; for, lay this once 
foraground, that there is no Church-government but what the Magiftrate hath, then cither the Minifter 
muftfay,that none ought to be admitted to Civil-government, but iuch asboth for skill andconfcience aie. 
fit to mannage the matters of Religion ( which Civtl States will not al vvayes be content v^^ith , neither often 
is it poflible ) or, they muft account any man, who may be fit to mannage Civil things, fit alfo to mai nage 
the Affairs of ChriftsHoufe, which in confcience cannot alwayes be done, whereby neccfiariiy, they nrulfc 
be brought in tops with Magi ff rates, except we fay that either unskilfull Magiftrates ufe rot to be in \ l;ice, . 
or that fuch may yet be tender and dexterous in the mannaging of every Church matter that comes belore 
them. And on the by, we may fay,thai feing qualifications, httirg one for any place & Govcrnmtiit, are (in> 
ply called for in thele v fio should fupplie the d me ( ihoi gh fcinetime defaBo they be notfo qualified ) and-. 
leingfpecial qualifications, are required for goveiningolthe^ Church of Chrifl, which are not required in 
thefe that govern a Civil State, and vt'ill rot be accounted limplieneeiflary to them; Itmifl'thercfore 
follow , that by the Lords Gidinarce, thefe two Governments are rot ccnjoync d in one perion , feing hi: 
hath not alwayes ccnjcyred the qualificaticns that are requifite for both. We shall infift no more ii^; 
this : the reading of thele Epiftks villli.fficiently ^htw how concerning^ihis truth is :_Knd akhcughthis- 

con- - 

^4 An Expofitlov of the Cbap.l. 

controvv.'rfic be abandasKly dcired by tlic writin 4s ut many wartby m^n » that there oecdeth no more be 
iaid c'a:rcrin i yec, having fach occaCon tVom taefc Epiftles, wc shall , oacc for all , touch feme things coa- 
ccrning Chiirch-governaient, as it is holdcn forth therein : whereby \i'e will find it clear. 1. That there is 
fuch a caing as Cnurch-govern Jient, diftmtl and indepetidcat from the Ci viU . 2. Wherein it conli(teth. And 
3. vVho are cfae Subjects thereoL And, 4. We shall lay down Ibme conclufions or c^fervatioas concerning 
\bz (amc. as th .7 may be gathered from tiie Text. 

I . Thi; Ch jrch of Ciiritt is furnished with a Govcrni-nent and Authority within her felGFor tke ordering 
of her own artairs, trying and ceuluring of her own M^inb^rs, and that im:r»ediatly from Jefus Chrill , dl- 
ftiu'i and independent trom any Civil GovcrnmeiK on cai-ih. That there is fuch a thing as Government 
and Authority in her, is clear by thefe, l . The practice of the 3 ngel of Ephefus in the trying and cenfuring 
of faUe A poftles, which canriot be doiK without Authority and G overnmenc. 2.This practice of theirs , is 
commenUed by our Lord Jefus: it can therefore be no ufuipation intii.'in. 5. In the Church ot Peig»mos , 
Vii will tind the Angel reproved, that they had them that held the Di£lrmc of the N.ic9!aitans , £?c which doth 
fjppofe A'.ichority m th^m, even to havccenfured and cut o.fdiefe fro.u cneir lociety: tor, if they had not 
had Authority to it, it was not ih^ir duty to have done by it i and if it had not been their duty to do it, our 
Lord jefus had not reproved then for ommittmg it, 4. Tne Church o^Thjiatira , is reproved alio for pijfe- 
nng the woman JcT^belto teacfj andj'educe H ;S SerTfa tts: which doch imply an Ajthority and Government , 
iitting them to whjm he writeth, to have marred and hindered her Preaching, and iomewhat to have been 
in their povrer to havedone, which was not doneby them : otherwifeour Lord Jefus wouid not have fo re- 
provedthem. The making out ofth^fe three will confirm this. i. Tliat the thing commended in £^ie/i/j, 
and defiderated in the other two Churches, doth imply Authority & Power. 2.Tnat this is in the Church as 
diltind; and independent from any Civil Go vernment. ^.That this is a thing perpetually belonging unco the 
vifible Church , and was not temporary, as peculiar to chat time. 

That there is an Authority implyed here, the confidering of thefe three will make out. i .If we confidet 
what is commended in Ephefm and deliderated in the otncr t'v\'o : the very expresfions and avfts do bear 
forth an Authority. As , i .That is commendad in Ephtfus , That tliey cannot bear them which are eVd , bttt 
ha^e t riedfaffe jfpofiks, and hate foundthem liars. All which hold torth a j udicial way of proceeding and 
trying > which implieth a citing ot luch a party and witnelles, for the difcovering of fuch and fuch things , 
according to th2 rule given toTimothie, i Tim. 5.1 9. Aga'mfi an Elder receive not an accufation, but before 
two or three witnejjef : for , there can be no trial without witnefles , there can be nowitnefles without Power 
to call them , and exadt an oath of them , that being the end of al I Itrife, which cannot ht done without Au- 
thority. The word added , and haji found them liars , doth confirm, that it isa judicial finding atter trial , 

whereby they decide. r, ,<- , n, 

I. Fn the general, that fuch and fuch things are evidences ottalicApoltles: and then in particular , that 
fucli and fuch things are found to be in them: and therefore that they are faUe Apoftles,which preilipponeth 
this trial before they judicially pronounce j than which, nothing doth look more Judicature-like. Which 
will be the more clear, if we confider, i.That this trial and fnding^ procecdeth from their zeal, and not bear- 
in*^' v^Mth evil men ; and therefore cannot be a trial for private information. 2. It's a trial , tending to the e- 
dification of the Church, and the preventing of that fnareamongft th; people , which noperlonal or private 
thing could efreftuate. ^.Ic's a trial and finding ,oppofite to what is reproved in Pergamot and Thjatira, and 
fo fuch a procclTe and fentence as rid that Church of them, which nopnyateor pcrional adl could do. 4. It's 
a proceedino- and tryall, which relates to thefe diredions, which P<«//giveth to Timothy and JituSy as the co- 
incidency of the matter > fcope and other circumltances do dcmonftratc luch, as , i. I{ecet\ie not an accujation, 
bin before two or thee witneffer : which is the ground of that which tolloweth , iperf.20. T^em thatfin , rebuke 
before al' Nou^ it that rebuke be an authoritative ad ( as cannot be denied , which yet is but the execution 
ofthe fentence that followcth the former triall (then the triall it lelt muft be judicinil and author :tatrve alio ; 
and therefore fo muft this n-iall be here underltood. To fay that this is a Mmifteriall jCt, and that that triall 
preceding* , is only the Minifters private ad , for his own clearing, cannot be admitted : tor, that tryall be- 
longeth to many , as after will appear. 2. To whomloevcr it be luppolcd to belong, it inferrcth an authori- 
ty ta try , and fo to conveen and examine: otherwife that triall might be made mettettuall ; and lo the par- 
ty wancinf authority, not to be chargeable M'ith short-coming therein. Oi 3. This trial mult be commended 
ro Church-officers without Authority to dfeduate it , and fo it will not be a mean luitable to theend. 4^.iMi- 
nifterial trial anJ reproof, will not bcenoughtogain the end, and to make a corrupt Member to be no 
Member of fuch a Church, whidi is the thing defiderated in Pcrgamos and Thyaura. And conluJcrmg the ' 
commendation of chcfe Angels and Churches , it is not like that they were detcdive m their perlonal averf- 


Cliap.2. *Sookofthe Revilatm, ^j 

nefle from and rebuking of chefe Errors , and yet ihey are reproved as being defe£live : which much infer thac 
ihey came fhortin relpedt of thac judicial trial and cenlUre , which is here commended in £f/5?r^ , as the 
confidering of them will clear. 

2. yergamos reproof (Ver/ 14. and 15. ) is Thou hajl there them that hold the VoBwte of Balaam , and them 
that hold the DoSirine of the Nicolatitans : the fault is , not that they approved that Doitrine or connived at 
it ; for , they denied not the Faith ; and Amlf^n is commended asa faithful Martyrc amonglt them : nor is it 
their fault j that (uch lived in the Town j or» as other Heathens might . did fomctimcs enter the Congregati- 
ons : nor is His quarrel only againft thcfe Nictf/a/M/w themftilves , butagainft the Angel of the Church, be- 
caufc they had them in their fociety as Members with them . and had not cut them off : and feeing this cutting 
oif , is luch a thing as made them ceafe to be Members of that body,and relateth to that which Paul wiiheth 
to the troublers of the Church , Gal. 5 . and commends to Tttu4 , Chap. 5. Him that is an Heretkk^, rejeFi t?c. it 
muft imply an Authority and Power, without which this cannot be done , this un-Mcmbering or un-Church- 
ingofa Peribn being a cenfure of highcft concernment, and that fame which we call excommunication; It 
followeth then, that this Church had that Power , and ought to hive executed it againft thefe corrupt Mem- 
bers , r^iagher failing therein doth make her reprovable. 

If it befaii here thai thii doth imply no Authority and Poiver , but v^hat is common to all Societies hy the Law 
of Nations andKature ^fuch as companies of Chijurgians , Wrights , andfuch like , ha\>e in excluding men from 
their own Society: vihiih yet is no didinH Authority ^ but fubordinateto, and deri'ped from the Magijirafe? 

Wc ani wcr, i. That even thefe Societies in thefe things adt by Authority , however it be derived : and fo 
the Argument holds , that the excluHon of Members from Church-communion , doth imply an Authority : 
and what is faid of the uecelTity of fuch a thing by the Law of Nature, and Nations, doth confirm the fame : 
for, if every Society be furnifliedfcr the maintaining of it felf by the Law of Nature, fo muft alfo the 
Chureh be ; except we fay that it is more defedtive than other Societies. Befide , even fuch Societies could 
not do fuch a thing, were notpriviledgesgrantedthembyAnthority for that end. 2. Weanfwer , That 
although the argument hold in the general , that their is an Authority necellary j yet will it not prove it to 
be dependent in the Church » as in thefe Societies itis. For, i. The derivation of Authority from the Ma- 
giftraie to thefe Societies, is clear : for, fuch and fuch Societies have that Power, becaufe it is granted to them 
by the fuperiour Magiftrate; and others want it , becaufe it, is not granted them : but Ifuppofenonewill 
plead for a derived Power to the Church from the Magiftrate in this place : yea , the greatcftoppofersof 
Church-government, do acknowledge that It is not derived from him as Lod.Mol-Pag. 654. There is no 
reafon therefore that Church-government fhould befubordinate to Magiftracicas other Societies are, which 
{he exerces ( as they fpcak ) by a proper right and divine without delegation , Jure propria C? dCfino , non 
delegato. 2' The Magiftrate may enter by his Authority fuch and fuch per ions to the rights and privi- 
ledges of fuch Societies and exclude others from them ( though poihbly it may be done unjuftly) yet, was 
it ever heard of> that a Magiftrate might priviledge any with the priviledges of Church-memberfliip , 
or by his Authority un-Cburch any ? The paralel therefore cannot be univerfall in thefe. 5. All othci: 
Societies as fuch , are partsof a Commonwealth , and together make up the body : and tlierefore in reafon 
ought to be fubordinate to the common Government j but the Church as a Church , is no effentiall or inte 
grail part of a Commonwealth: there is therefore not the like reafon for their fubordinntion. 

Ifanysbould yet except and fay , that an Authority may be immediately from God yandnetderitediandyethe 
^y Him appointed to be juhotdinatetotheciVtll Magiftrate, oi is injlanced in that Power j that a Husband hath 
o^srtbe VVife j or a Parent olper his Children. 

We Anfwery i. That it may be queftioned , if a Parent , as a Parent, be fubordinated to the Magiflrate , 
althought , as a man and member of the Commonwealth , he be : for , he may command his Children with 
out any Authority from him : yea contrary to the commands of Magiftrates ( and in fome cafes warrantably, 
fuppofe in their Marrying, adhering to the truth of God , &.c. ) neither can the Magiftrate increafe or di- 
miniih their power, althought they may ftrengthen them, or marr them ailually in the excrcife theteof j 
yea, fappofe a Parent to incline to match Son or Daughter in away that is not finfuli or inconvenient; 
and for this end , to command them to give obedience : and again , fuppofe the Magiftrate to command 
them othcrwayes to match :The Magiftrat's command here, wUl notloofe the Child from the Parents 
Authority; becaufe , although both Parent and Child be the Magiftrat's fubiedlsj yettheirobedienceis 
called for in reference to thefe things that belong to a Magiftrate only. Hence that cafe of a Magiftrat's 
requiring one , thing and a Parents commanding of another to the fame Child , is by Divines folved by this 
diftindioH , That in things belonging id the Magiftrat's command , the Child ought to be obedient to him 
in what concerns the duty of afubied:} but in things that concern the duty of a Son properly, he is to be 

i\ €>be4ie»c 

74 ^« Expojitm of the Qiap.2.' 

obedientto the Father , whatever the Magiftrate command : which fhewcth , that(im{5ly the commands of 
a Father , as a Father , are not fubordinateio the Magiftrate : and fo that in reference to feme perfons , there 
may be two fupream Powers , upon divers confiderations , who may command without fubordination one to 
another; and yet their Authority be no way inconfiftent together. 

2. We^w/vvcr, That although the Authority of Fathers and Husbands were fubjeil tothecivill Ma- 
ciftrate asfucn; yet can it not weaken this confeque nee , ( If the Authority of the Church be not derived 
from the Magiftrate , Then can it not be fubordinate to him ) for, the Authority of Parent, Husband, &c. is 
perfonall and naturall , that is , founded in nature rand therefore is derived by nature to Parents , Husbands » 
&c. And fuch,do not make a body of themfclves, but are members of another greater body; whereas a Church, 
is a Society and Incorporation , compleatin it felf : and as fuch > is not founded on nature ; but by Gods pofi- 
tive grant and foundation is. fuel! : and therefore Authority muft be immediatly derived to the Church by 
the famemean , ( to wit , of a policive grant ) by which its being as a Church is derived. And can it be in- 
ftanced that there is any fuch ,10 wit, a complcat Incorporation, having immediate power from Chrift for the 
governing of it felf and iHutting; out of corrupt members without any derived power from the civil magiftrate, 
who yet, are fuburdinated to his power in the exercife of theirs. We grant indeed ,that the Church, confi- 
dered as fubjci5ts and members of the commonwealth, arefubjedt to him ; but it will no way follow, that the 
Authority or Government wherewith fee is furniflied , as aChurch istobefubjedted to him. Neither can 
this be thought ftrange i thata Church Judicatory, confidered , as fuch , fhould be accounted independent, as 
to the civil Magiftrate, feing we muft either fay , that a Minifteti inhis Minifteriall and Paftorall duty , adeth 
by an Authority immediately from Chrift^, without any dependency on the civil Magiftrate (which yet 
readily cannot be admitted in any other cafe, to wit, that a perfonftiould command without dependance on 
the Magiftrate) Or, we muft fay, that the MinifterpreachethandavftethinhisMiniftery, intheMagi- 
ftrate*$ namie mediately, and by this Authority, or by none at all: which Ifuppofe, none will affirm. 
And what greater inconfiftency is it with civil power, to have diftindt Authoritative Courts, than to have 
Rulers diftindly and- Authoritatively commanding perfons , efpecially themfelves r 

3. If M'econlidertheEpiftletoT/&)'<i»r<», where much is commended; yeithexei'i a notxv'nhftanc^ngt^nd 
reproof caft in upon this account , becaufe thou fufferefi that woman ^c^ehel , that calleth her felf a PropbeteJJe, 
t0 teach attdfeduce myfer')pants. This fuffering, can be no deteft in refped: of civil Authority : for , that was 
not in their power , or is it any defedt of any perfonall or private dutie : becaufe none fuch can imped other 
perfons teaching , if willfully they will fet themfelves to it ; nor can they be thought defedVive in that, 
that are fo commended for Faith , Charity , Works » Sec. and that even in refpect of their thriving and 
growing in theirereprivate conditions: it muft therefore be a fuffering ot herinfofaras by Church Anthority 
ilie was notcenfured and reftrained , that thereby the feducing of Chrifts fervants , might be prevented, 
vvhofe edification is the end ofthis as ofall other Ordinances: and foconfequently , the Church of Oirift is 
furnilliedwith power and authority in reference to her own affairs and members. 

2. This will alfobe clear by coniidering thefe who are primarily in this refpect commended and reproved 
in thefe Epiftles: it is not the body of private Chriftiansj but the Church-officers, as peculiarly diftin- 
guifhed from them : fo that thefe threatnings and reproofs , do otherwife belong to them , than to the Church 
as we will find in the progreffe And there can be no other rcafon given ot this , but becaufe thefe faults were 
the faults of thefe that had authority to right them, and did it not : which will be more clear afterward , when 
weconfider the fubject of this power. 

3. Thefe ads; areeithtradrs of private Chriftians , orperfonalladsof Miniftersand Church*OffTcers 
(both which , are already overturned by the forememioned reafons ) Or , it muft be by lome extraordinary 
ad, as Peter's imltnngoi JnartiaszuJi Sapphirai or , it muft be the exercife ot fome ordinary Power and 
Authority : there is no other thing conceivable ; But none of the firft three can be (aid. Not one of the firft 
two , for the rea fons ^iven ; nor the third , Becaufe, 1 . There.is no warrand to look upon thefe Officers as 
fiirniflicd with that gift i nor was it ordinarly to the Church, and her ardinary Officers, fuch as thefe were. 
2. That would not attain the fcopepropofea here, which is, in part, recovering of the offending party: 
therefore faith the Lord of fe^ebel, verf. 21.22. lgar>e bet fpace tg repent i and doth threaten her but 
conditionally : which iheweth , that He meaned no luch extraordinary orf'-cutting of them. It remaineth 
then , that it muft be the exercifing of an ordinary Authority and Government ; and therefore fuch muft be in 
the Church. 

The fecond ihin'> ?o make out tM Argument , is, that this Anthority and Power in the Church, is diftindk 
and independent from any civil Governnaent; which from the Text, may thus appear i. The fubjeCk 
is diftvnd, to wit, Ch^irch-officers. 2. The obje^^ is di<^inG^| 10 wit ,the Church and tke m«mbers thereof 


Chap.4. Bookof the RfveUtm. ^j- 

aloMc , and as (uch : it is not the inhabitants of Ptrgamot and ThyaiUct j but the Chureh-members that are 
under the fame. 5. The matter falling under chat cogmden , is diltinil, to wit , that which is hurcfull to 
fouls, as the feducing of Chrilts (ervanss , and fcandals , conlidered as fuch. 4.The ccnlUres inflided.are ditfe- 
rent» to wit , no civil m.\x\€t upon eftates , nor punishment upon bodies , nor cancelling of the freedom of 
their Burgeships in Towns or fuch like ; but feclufion from Church-priviledges and memberlhip. 5. The 
end is dittinct, to wit, the reclaiming of ths party offending , and the bringing of them to Kepemance » and 
the preventing of foul-hurt toothers* and the vindication of Chrilts name. 6. Tha manner is dift'erent , 
there is no eKternall Pomp nor Power or force in the mannaging thereof, fuch as is in civilGovernments:for, 
that is not here conceiycable , confidering the afliiQred and pcrlecuted condition of thefe Churches , but the 
fword of the mouth, and trial 1, and cenfures. Andy. Thsydiffer in their rife, civil Power being derived 
from Superiors to Inferiors j but this hath no rife or derivation from any civil Power , although for the time 
thefeOties and Nations wanted it not j but did arife from that intrinfick oeconomie and power , which ac- 
companies the very being of a Church, and which by Chrifts appoi ntm^nt doth refide m fuch a number of 
perfons, conlidered as a Church , which did not refide in ocher inhabitants of the fame Towns , nor did 
inChefe before this their Church-ftate. 8. The account, upon which , this Government doth conlider per- 
fons and actions , is diftin(5l from the civil : men are not conlidered as men , nor as in dwellers in fuch and 
fuch Places oncly j but as Chrilts (ervants : and adtions, are not conlidered, either as profitable or hurtfuU to 
men (Imply j but as profitable or hurtfull to their fpiricualleftaie. And there fore,itis/frff/(j«2 of Chrifts Ser- 
vants, and as fuch, the deeds of the Kicolaitans and jfc:(ebel, are to be taken notice of by it. 

2. We fay , as it is a diftindt Government from the civil ; fo it is independent as to it: and ifthe former be 
true , that there is an Authority and Government included here and m the former refpcdts exercifed as diftiacSk 
from the civil power then in bcing.it will alfo neceffarily follow, that this Authority was independently exet- 
ciled in reference to that civil power ? 

For, I. TWereis no derivation of this Church-power, from that civil power, as is faid. Therefore it cannot 
be dependent on it , feing it neither did , nor could derive it. And although fome exceptUs was hintcd^that 
there may be a power in Fathers, Husbands, and other fuch naturall relations , over Children , Wives, &c. 
which yet is dependent on theMagiltrate ; yet fuppole that by the law of nature, Parents did combine in one 
Society and Government amoHg them felves, asaChurch doth, and intbat cafe had a diftindt Government , 
could that Authority and Government be accounted dependent, Seing no luperior Authority could marr them 
intheexercifeof their power without injuftice, more than a Magiltratecanmarra Fatherintheexercileof 
His Authority towards hisChildren whenhedoth itjuftly ? So this Church-power , not beinga perlbnall 
priviledge , but belonging to her as a body and Society ol many members combining rogether , having that 
by the law of nature, as is granted ( and we adde, if Jclus Chrift allowed them) ihe cannot therefore be 
marred by any Authority in the exercifing of that government , what ever inj uft viole nee may do. . 

2. Itappeareth to be independent in this, that there is a Church-government among Chriitians, even 
when Magiftrates were fetting themfelves to undo the lame;If then Government be neceflary totheChurch, 
and yet it be fo ordered in the Lords providence that civil Government may be for hundreds of years ene- 
mies to the Church , as was in thefe Primitive times. Then it will follow , that the Church-government 
and Authority is not placed in the Magiftrate, or civil Governours ; becau(e , in that cafe either fhe fhonld 
have no Government at all ( which by thefe Epiltlcs will be found falfe ) or she muft have a Government 8c 
Authority deftrudtive to her, which is contrary to the cndthereof }Or,in thelalt placc,herALitho itymult 
be independent) fave of Jefus Chrift alone: and if it were not fo> con!iidering now that thefe to wlwm Chrift 
vvriieth, M'ere not civil Magiftrates , there had been no luch accefle to expoitulate with thcna tor their om- 
misfion, if they might not have adted independently on them. 

3. It may appear thus , that ifthe civil Magiftrate cannot repeal by his Authority any of their fentences , 
then is their Authority independent as to him. Now, fuppofe a Church juftl y to degrade, or depoie a fal fe 
Teacher , or to ctrtoff a rotton member , could any Magiftrate by his Authority continae that man to be 
aMinilter, orthatmembcrtobeaChurch-memb.r , (what ever violence might do ) Suppofe fome Em- 
perojr ( as in fome cafes Julian did ) had taken th^ recognition o^Ephefu* fentence againft the tie falfe A- 
poftlcs, and had declared it null ? would not ftill their fenience have itooa in force not withftanding? Or 
lUppofe Ptrgamos-, oxThyatiray had cut off fe^e6</ or th^ Nicolaitans fro n their Society , could any ci- 
vil Magiftrate, HeathenorChriftian, have enacted them 10 be continued Church-members ? And this 
doih not only flow from the injuftice of the matter : for, fuppole a Proconful had juftly degraded fome 
]ud^csoi Mphefifi 3 aijdtbeTown Q^Epbefus, had juftly caftenouc fonnemembers from their Society 1 

K. a yet J 

7^ An Expojtiion of the Chap.t. 

yeC by the Emperours interpollng his Authority, as the fupream Magiftrate , both might have been fully 
reftored ( tho jgh injuftly) fo as they might have been really again Magiftraces and Burgefles ot fuch a City: 
which cannot l>e faid in this cafe. No Empero jrs Authority could have conftitute fuch (though unjuftly) 
tohayebeenOfdcers, orinembers, at all of ihefe Churches. The difference then, {I fay) cannot conlilt 
in theinjuftice of the matter alone i ( for both are injuK ") but it mult coniift in this , that civil fw^ntences are 
fubordinacc to the fupream Magiltrate, but Church-lentences arc not; although by violence they might have 
countenanced fudi and fuch perfons> and have made the effecfts of the fentence in many things void; yet 
could their Authority have never reached to the formal removing ofthem,is in civil cafes was hinted. 

Thirdly, To nuke out th^ Argument, we fay* that this dillin^t independent Power b.-re mentioned , is a 
thing that agreeth to the Church in all Ages and conditions, and is not peculiar toany one time: as fuppole , 
becaufe the C hurch wanted Chriftian Magiftrates at this time , it had been lawful to exerci fe Authority in- 
dependent from them : which inother cales, where the Magiltrate is Chriftiani is not to be granted. There- 
fore we lay , I. That which is attributed to thefe Churches here , agrees to them as Churches: and there- 
fore to all Churches at aU times: for, the duties are common , and the hazards are common, to Churches at 
all times. Therefore this remedy ofChurch-difcipline, muft be perpetuall alfo , it being the cure that is 
appointed forfuch a difeai'e. And, that often repeated word , He that hath ears to hear , let him hear what 
the Spirit faith utKoOie Churches ,doih(pe3kina\\ ages to the end of the \Vorld, alfwell as then. 2. Ifallo- 
ther diredtions, exhortations. Sec in thefe Epiftles,.be perpetuall and binding to the Church, to the end of 
the World, then this muft be fo alfo: and there canbeno- reafon given why tHis is to be accounted tempo- 
rary, more than the other: efpecially, coniideringthatCnrifts feuding of this Revelation , is for the gojdof 
His Servants unto the end ot the World : and that efpecially, is aimed at in thefe Epiftles , as the forcired 
clofedoth.confirm. Ix mult then be injurious to Chrilts mini, to (crape out fo much as concerneth Go- 
vernment , as not belonging to His Church for lb many a;je3. ^ . If the grounds, requiring the exercife of 
diis power in the Churches, during this time, be perpetuall, agreeing loall.ages, Thenitisnot tobea- 
ftridred to the time of the Church^^s being under heathen Magillratcs alone ; But the grounds are perpetuall: 
for, that is not bccaufc the Magiltrate is a heathenj but that the perfon offending may be brought to repen- 
tance i and the leducin^ of others may be prevented: Now thefe ends are perpetuall, which the Church is to 
ftudy inall times; and ieing Church Authority and Government, is here holden forth, as a mean appointed 
by Jefu8 Chrift for attaining of thefe ends, It mult therefore be of perpetuall ufc to the Ciiurch alio. 

Although thefe Truths be clear from the Word j yet there are lome things,iwhich are panly exceptions ; 
partly objedions , infilled on by Adyerfaries, which wc shall fpeak a little to , as-the nature of our intend- 
e:d purpole will permit. 

Aforcired Author, ;><»^. 545- doth confidently undervalue all Arguments to this purpofe j and denieth all 
dittinCtnell'e of Government in the Church by any Power diltin6t.fr om that of the Magiftrates j 8c to main- 
tain it, dothj i.aflert. That all fort of Power whatfoever, isfupreamly in the Magiltrate , whether Heathen 
or Cfariftian, by that place , ilo»».i3.2. he heaps up with many bigg words fcvcral abfurdities that accom- 
pany Cashealledgetn^ thatopinionof a diftinit Church-government > which -he calleth invidioully the 
building of an Empire within an Empire. Yet, 5. He granteth , that where the Civil Magiftrate taketh not 
on him the care of the Church, and maintaineth it not : . in that cafe, by the Law of ]vJature and Nations , 
the Church comethxo have an Authority, or fomevphat equivalent in the place of that, whereby she is qua- 
lifie.i for the ordering of what concerneth her Members, during that-cafe of fuch a Magiftracie allanerly; and 
denyeth any other Authority to have been in the Church , during the time that thefe Epiltles were written , 
but what was by voluntary confederacie, and aflbciation ot Members amongft themfeives : and therefore 
faith, That they had and exerciled no lefle Authority, during that time, in Ciyil things : for which end, he 
maketh ufe of that place,.! Countb.6' i, i.Scc. 

In reference to all which , we fay, 1 . That Authority cannot be denied here ("however it be derived )(eing 
it is a Pow-er to Excommunicate and Exauthorate Officers and Members which they aHlitM^!! as he fpeaks , 
pOig-Cs i- Yea, a Power equivalent to that of the Magiftrates , becaufe it's a Power adequate for the time 
to this end of governing the Church, p<»g545» And therefore, we fay, it this confederating, or up-making 
of this Government , be a thing;«rc called for, and necelfary to be done, for this end ; it is the thing which 
we aflert alfo 5 and, in refpeft of the particular circumftances, that is , what places or perfons are to alTociate 
together, is to be regulated by Chriftian prudence jbutifitineancd ofa voluntary allociation and confede- 
racie, fuch as trades and crafts ufe in their Societies, as that alone which isthe ground of this Power, This 
we altogether deny : Becaufe, i.lfthat confederating be called tor, bytheLawofNature,thenitisnot 
vduucary and free. And this Authority, is not grounded mecrly upon voluntary confederating ; becaufe 


Chap.2. SookjftheRepelamtf, ^y 

as it is not arbitrary to a converted Chriftiaii to be baptized or not j lb , being Bapti2€d , it is not arbitrary to 
him whether to joyn with the Church or not. And being joyned, fubmitting to its Government , is a ne- 
ceflary duty to him. And it becomcth not Authority to him .* becaule he fubmits to it i bufhe is to fubmic 
to it I becaufe it is Authority : and ttieretbrefuppoling that thefe falfe Apolties , or Jiiihd , or the Nicolai- 
tans, had never confented to lubjedt themfelves to the Difciphne of thele Churches (as,by their raking fuch 
namesofApoftles and Prophets tothemfelves, it's hke tney did never ) yet notwithllanding had thele 
Churches Authority over them> and it was their duty to fubrait unto them. 2. It s granted that the Au- 
thority that the Church hath in fuch acafe , is equivalent to what the Magiilrate hach and might exeicife : 
and if it be not equivalent to this, then tlie Church of Cbrift under fuch Magiltrates would not be ^o perfedi 
as to their Church-itate and wel-being. as otherwayes : which cannot be laid without wronging the wil- 
domof God,as if he had left His Church deftitute of inward Power when fhe had lea t outward Prote- 
dionj but if it be fuch a Power, it cannot be arbitrary and meeriy grounded upon the confederacy i but 
muft be authoritative upon an other account » and may autlioritati vely enjoyn one to confederate ; And fo 
confederating, is not the ground that conftituteth the power ; but a mean , making way for the excrcife 
thereof. 3. If it were asked, Whatclpidemeor f roof could be gilpen offuchy>oluntarj confederating in the 
Churches for that time ? It would be hard to show, that univerfaliy in all the Churchesj, there was luch for- 
mall comparing actually agreed upon ; and yet> that there was Government and Authority in them all , is 
evident. 4 . Suppofe confederacies to have been ; yet could they never have conftituted an Authori ty and 
Government diltinft, and independent from the civil fupream Power, efpecially while the fuprcam Power 
oppofed the fame i as fuppofing ( to keep ihs limilitudes proponed) that many Chirurgians and Tradfcmcii 
of any kind, did live under a Magiftrate and Laws , which would admit no fuch, by their Authority to live 
and confederate under them, will any fay that in that cafe , by voluntary confederating , they could alfume 
an Authority to themfelves j and cenfure any Perfon ( efpecially againft their will ) without wronging and 
encroaching upon that Authority, under which they live ^ Yet it cannot be.denyed to a Church, and that 
without any prejudice to the Magiftrate : becaufe it in nothing lelfens his Authority or withdrawet h any. 
thing froin hiscognition, which formerly ufed to belong unco him: but as the ariling ofa new Church 
within a Nation, hath vith it new cales, actions , and conliderations of pcrlons, and deeds ; fo it is reafoa 
thatit should have with ita new Authority togovern the lane. 5. If the Church had another kind of in- 
terelt, in reference to Ipiritual offences, than in reference to civil deoates, then this confedcracie cannot be 
the ground of fuch an Authority: this will not be denied according to the former principles, which do pa- 
raiel both thefe in the prinaitive Church , andmake this the proof of the former j But it's clear, that the 
Church-authority did far otherwayes reach Church-members in fpiritual o^Vnces , than in civil things : 
which may thus be made out J i. They might Excommunicate and un-Church for fpiritual offences &for 
difobedience in thefe , ifa brother did nof hear theChurch, andofttimesthey didlbi But it cannot be 
faid , that if a brother had been dilbbedient to an arbitrary decree in civil things , that upon doat account, 
they would have proceeded againit him to Excommunication, aoJ conltrained him to have fubmitted: fure 
we are, it was never put in pravflice, at the leafl till Antichrift arole. 2. Ip that Chapter, 1 Cor. 6. 7, and S. 
the Apoltle rcafoneth for fubmiflTion to this j and exhorteth Chriltians, lo wronged , to fuller the wrong ra- 
ther than to purfue it before Infidels: which doth luppofe, that the Church was not furnished with Au- 
thority to redreffe civil wrongs, as she was 10 redreife 1 cand:jls. And th^-refore, M «///>. ig.our Lord giveih 
order to proceed, in cafe of non-fatisfadion, to the highelt degree. And on the by, we may fay , it is an 
odd thing to expound;that place o^ Matthew, by this place of Paul, As if the Lord did only there warrand 
a man to purfue injuries before heathen Judges, when he woiild not fubmit to the advice of Churck-mem- 
bers, feing exprefly Paul enjoy neth them rather to luifer wrong, than to m t kc the Gofpel contemptible be- 
fore Infidels by the contentions of Chriftians: which yet that expolitioa of Matth. 18. will apptovc of: which 
fheweth, that it muft be underitood to fpeak of Church-offences : in refpcft of which , {uffering and bearing 
with them, is condemnable, as we fee in thefe Epiftlcs. 5. If what the Co-irch did in civil things be com- 
mon to any perfon or perfons in any rank or condition whatfoever, and to Chriltians in any time and cafe , 
that is, that they may and fhould fubmit their differences to fome i and thele to vv'hom they are fubmitted, 
may decide : And upon the other fide, if what the Church exerced in reference to Eccleliattick offences 
and cenfures, be not common, but fo that no fubmisfion to others but fuch as are in power could warrand 
one to draw forth fuch cenfures as are here mentioned, ( yea according to the principles which v/e oppofej 
it were not lawfuU for Chrifliaas to do fo now in civil things ; , for, tW^y fay it's not lawfull to do now in 
Church-things, as thefe did at that time ) Then the Chtjrches Authority was not equal in civil things , as 
in fpirku«dl ihings : And foconlequencly, no confederacy can warraatably ground thij Church- Authority 5 

K. 3, Bt.«^ 

78 ^« Ixpoftt'm of the Chap.i. 

Ban the former, we conceive, is clear : Thercroa-, 6cc. 4. it may be clear by this, that the Church did^ne- ^ 
ver exaft civil mulcts or irrfliCt bodily punilhmeius : which iheweth abundantly , that (he did noi exerce 
Aurhority in ciril things equally as in fpirituall : and yec had iitrr Ajchoricy been only gro jndcd on the vo- 
lujcary confederacy , snc mighc have inflid:ed the one, as well as the other. 5. Suppofe a C hurch-mcmber 
had wronged an Heathen by his mifcarriage i No queftion , Church-difcipiine would have reached him : 
which is not the intent of that, i Cor .6-Theretbre that cannot be the ground ot their Power alone. 6.ThaC 
dirctftion, Mauh. iH-Tell theChurch , was given, before this was written : feing then, this is the foundation 
ofcivilalfociation, as is pretended, thatotM.««/?>.i8.niult be of another kind. 7. This opinion will inier 
the felting up ot a civil Power in civil thing;s, whereiheMagiftrateis not Chriftian,* yet,that was never af- 
fertedby any. 8' The Advcrlaries thcmlelves grant, that in fuch cafes, the Church may do much more 
in Church-matters, than in civil : bccaufe that the Magiftrate doth allow his power to rectifie civil thiugs i 
and yet, this doth make both equally lawfuU. 9. Suppofe the Magiltratc had repealed a i'entence , paft in ci- 
vil things i no queftion, it had bound them, though it nad bitn unjult j V et fuppofmg he had repealed one 
of their Church cenfures, and declared excomoiunicatioB void , It had not done fo , nor h^ been acknowi 
ledgcd; yea, had he inhibited them to decide a particular in civil things , they would not have proceeded j 
but when he did inhibit cenlures, notwithilanding, they did proceed , and actually did lufter Martyrdom 
upon that account : which, in a civil adtion, I fuppofe they would not have done, i o. That, \Cot.6. ad- 
mitted any to be Judge that men fubmitted unto, or had wildom j But Church-things were governed only 
by thefe who by office wereRulers. All which do Ihew the vanity of that allertion.that they equally meedled 
with both kinds } and yet, this one thing , is the ground of all that is laid to evert this Authority. Add that , 
a Cw.6. the parties offending are reproved for going to him j here, the Church-officers, ior not cenfuring 
theie that oftended : which I'uppoleth a power to be in them.And it cannot be thought, that the Angels had 
been fo cen Curable, had they not decided civil bjfinefl'es , as for this. 

BefideC pag.548.) He denies that there was a neceslity of obedience in civil things ; which yet clearly , 
isherc afleried in thefe Church cenfures. Whereas it is laid, as a fuxiher evidence, that the ChurchesAu- 
thority during this time M'as only built upon this volunury confederacy , that after iupream Magiltrates be- 
.came Chriftian, they did intermeddle with all Church power without any contradidion ( pag. 544.^ It is 
either a meer miftake or an untruth : a miftake in this , that it accoynteih their meddling in a civil way with 
many things, which the Church ftill meddlcd-with as formerly , and adding of their civil fandion thereto, 
for ftrengthening, not for diminifliing the Churches power •, to be an afl'uming of Church Power and Au- 
thority, which are things moft diltindt j even as a Chnltian Magiltratc , doih command the Son of a Chri- 
ftian Parent to do the lamtf things, which his Parent doth command bim in reterence to the Chriftian Reli- 
gion, M'hich a heathen Magiftrate did not,- yet is the Parent's power and autnoi ity over his Son no lefle 
than when the Magiftrate was heath -n, becaufe the Magiftrates command is not privative i but cumulative to 
the Parents Authority : even fo is it here. And there can be no greater reaion to fay that Church-Power and 
Authority over Chriliians, did cea fe in fpirituall things afte r Conftamine became a Chriftian , than to fay 
that the Power and Authority of a Chriftian Parent and a Chriftian Mafter did expire at that time. And 
leing it is granted, that Church power, and Paicntall power, are both immediately from God.iv.thout any 
mediate derivation by the Magiitrate> it is teaion that they ftiould be of equal duration and continuance alio. 
And in matter of fa(5t it is clear , that the Church continued to exercife the lame power , which toriwerly 
ihe did j and alfo that the Magiftrate concurred in bis itation for tne ftrsngthening thereof ; and there is not 
theleaft fhadow for any delegation after that , more than formerly i But, that now by tlie approbation of 
civil authority, the Church had accefle to do that > for which before that time she was perlecuted, even as 
there was full liberty .given to Preach the Go! pel, which forme rly was inhibited : yet , none will fay,that 
that power of the key of Dodtrine, was derived from the Magiftrate. For,what is alledged of the Empcrours 
calling ofCouncels, That will prove him to have put them to the exercife of their power i but not thatit 
was derived from him, more than when before that time Provincial Councels were called by fo.ne eminent 
Bilhops , It will prove that their call did authorize them, But rather both thefe calls do uppofe Authority to 
be before in thele that a re called. And therefore there is no queftion , that if Cor^wm* nad called others 
than Church-officers, to judge and cenfure in reference to thelc differences Eccleliallically, he could not have 
derived Authority to them, lb as to have made them equally Rulers , and with the lame Authority as if they 
had been Church-members and Ofhcers: which yet mi^ht have been done , if their authority had relide«l in 
him alone.Beiide, he commanded the preaching of the Gofpel alle, as is laid. 

VVheace we may fee that Chriftian Magiftrates , did not meddle with that Power and Authority, which 
formerly refided in thi Church : neither ever was it heard of, that a Magiftrate did excottimunicate,auihorize 


' Chap.i. Boek^of the Revelation, wp 

orordainaMinifteri and fuch like, wherein Church- power is exercifed. And though it be faid that he doth 
thefe things mediately, by putting the Church to it, andby calling Church-officers toconfukin Ecclefi- 
aftick things, vi'bich he doth confirm by hit Authority , even as he doth govern other Societies , as Phyfi- 
ciar.s. Lawyers ,8fc.by Authorizing lome of their om'h number to mannage what concerneth llich callino's & 
Functions (in which rcfped:, fay iome, the Fundion is different from theMagiftrate > ) Yet he is nofthe 
La\vyer,nor the Phylician, more than he is the Miniltcr ; but the Authority is on him alone. To this wefay 
I. That the paralcl , is moft unequal : becaule although a Magiitrate be not by his ftation a Phyfician , or 
Lawyer ; yet fuppofing him to have skill , he might lawfully do any ad incumb-nt totbele Stations : which 
doth indeed (how, that the fame Authority, whereby they ad:> doth refide in him : but fuppofe he had the 
Tbeorie of Ecclefiaftick things, and skill in them j yet he might not ftep to himfelf, to ait the adts of a Mi- 
nifterial F.un^ilion j aor as a Magiftrate, to lenience with Church fentences, adminifter Sacraments as he 
might do in the fentences of inferior Magillrates & Courts : which doth lhew,thac that Authority doth not 
relide in him.2. We grant that he may be laid to govern mediately, as he may be faid to teach &; preach medi- 
ately ( for, he ought to provide for that) But that will not inter thattheAuthority of preaching is derived 
from him : yet,no way doth the weight of this controycrfiefo muchly on matters of fad, what Churches 
or Magiftrates did fince the Apoftles daycs, as by what right and warrand they did what they did. 

This laftaflertion therefore ahhough made out, could prove nothing without the former- nor will the 
inftancing of exorbitancies in Church-governours, infer any nullity of that Power, more than the enume- 
rating of mifcarriages of men in civil place , will enervate that ordinance of God: yea, we are fure much ill 
hath come by Magittrates intrufion in this Church Power, and many have milcarried in it j mi ich lelTe will 
heaps of (landers againft moft faithful men doit , whom God eminently co jntenanced, and who fino'ularly by 
fuifering were honoured to teftifie lor Him, fuch as Mr.Welsht MrMelVd , Mt.DaVidfon and others, who , 
we are per fwaded, in the great Day, will be as bold in reference to their being approven in their fta- 
tions , as anyofcheiroppoiers ortraducersonthis account. This way , of writing , will not be found to 
proceed from zeal for the Lord > which hath folitderefped: to fuch who eminently adhered to him: and 
iet thefe traducers of His Ordinances and Servants, prepare for giyingacc junc for both to Him , to which 
we leave them. 

Fortheabfurdities wherewith he doth load this truth, they being for fubftaacc the lame which often 
have been fully wiped away, we shall only fay thefe two, i . That either they are no ablurdities : Or,2.Noc 
fuch as the grounds acknowledged by him will infer. For, i.Itis noabfurdity limply, that a man in di'verfe 
confiderationsfhouldbefubjedt to diverfe co-ordinate powers, as a fon is to the Magiitrate as a Member of- 
the Commonwealth , to his parent as a child and member of the family: and in fome things ("as formerly 
hinted at) he is fo obliged tobefubjed to the parent, tliit no command of aSuperiour canloofe him 
Iromitj and in other things , fo fiibordinaied to theMagiftrate , that therein the parents authority hath ■ 
no place. And the fame may be feen in wives, who, in lome things , are fubjetl to their husbarids com- 
mands, and no Authority can warrant them to do othcrwile. 2. We fay, that this fame abfurdity might 
have beeninftanced in thefe Churchts , that ths Lord writes to, fuppole ( ashe doth in the other cafe) that 
the Magiftrate had appointed fome , whom the Church had called to her 5ynods ( as for example , to 
that mentioned , ^Bs 15.) 10 iome other civil imployment , as they werelubjedts 5 would not the fame 
abfurdity of the interfereipg of the two Authorities have followed ? he mult either then fay tliat fuch a 
cafe was not conceivable in thefe times , or he muft lay the abfurdity muftbeevired, or ii will be faftencd^ 
upon the way approven by the hoi yGhoft, astheChurchesgoverningofher lelfdiftindly is granted to be 
at leaft-during luch a cafe : and when he lofes and vindicates his own conceflion , it will be eafie to anfwer 
his objection. 3. It cannot be denied but that a Minitter may independently command a Magiftrate in < 
the Naine of Chrift according to the Word , and that not only by realbn otthe matt«;r , as an other pri- 
vate lubje\5t may do j but by vertue of his Office and Authority ; in which reipedt he is not only a reporter , 
to tell what is Truth , but a Meflenger and Herauld authorized to charge all hearers to the obedience 
thereof, as Uhn the Baptift did Htred, who in fome refpe*5t might be lubjed to HeroA , as in other re- 
fpedts Hetod was to him : and if this be no abfutdity in reference to particular Governours , why should < 
It be thought abfurd in reference to the Powers by which thefe govern '> SupreamChurch-Powcrthen , 
and SiJpream Civil-power in diflin<5t perfons, cannot be abfurd. And we fuppole there can be no Author!^ 
tative Officer , that upon any civil account can fo independently comniand the Civil Magiftrate ; Church- 
|y\ver therefore is not to be regulated in every thing , as the Civil is. It's ftrange to. fay that it's lawfull . 
Jv a ■Magiitrate to receive Aiinilteriall injtunaions, or not as he pleafeth , or at Icatt no more than a fick per- 
iods lubjea loihe Phyfician , cauitbeiaidthawfentiMiniitcrcanhave no inpre Authority in prefcriling .. 


8o AnSxpofnmufthe Chap. 2. 

duty in the name of Chrift , than a Phyfician ingiving directions for health ? Or , will it be thought equally 
finfiill or lawfull , to difobey the directions ot the one as of cheorhcr, even laying afide the matter? or,shall 
every one, skiUull in Divinity, becounted of equall Authority with a Minilter , as the counfel of one that is 
5. kilfjll in M -•dicine, is to be counted of the fame weight , as if he were a graduat Phyfician, if his reafons be 
as weighty? or, isthereany exception of fome, more tlianothers from Minifteriall power , becaufe of any 
outward place or crandour ^ Thefe things can hardly be conceived without wronging the Ordinances of 
Chrid. 4. It's thought abfurd to fay that a Magiftrate is not blindly to av5t according to Church conclufi- 
ens and determinations but deliberately to try his own a<5b, and yet not to be the proper Judge thereof. It 
cannot be denied , tbataMinifteristotryandjudge of what commands the Magiftrate shalUayonhim in 
reference to his duty ; '\i therefore the Magiftrate's fubfequent judgement , did demonftrate him to be fu- 
prcam in Ecclefiaftick things , the fame will prove theMagiftrate's judgement in the cale forefaid to be fub- 
ordinate to the Minifters; that therefore is no ablurdity. 5. Aa Amballadour from one Ring to another, 
or to fome inferiour Magiftrate, is in his perfonall carriage fubjec^ to the Authority within whofe bounds 
he is ; but as an Ambaffadour in the following of his Commisfion and inftruc^ions , and as fuch, he is only 
countable totheie that fent him ; and never was it heard that oni i'ubjedtcd his Ambaffadour to the Autho- 
rity of thole to whom hevvas fent, even amongft men , But that was refcrv<;d at leaft, for fome others ap- 
pointed for that end by him : neither doth a Magiftrate account an Ambafladours independency on him ta 
beinconfiftent with his Authority. NowMinilters being Ambaffadours fent byChrifttoMagiftratcsas 
to other5,j we muft either fay thefe to whom they are lent, rault judge when they faithfully exerce 
their Commisfion or not , in their Mafters name : which is abfurd amongit men » and could not but look 
partialUike J orwemuftfgy, they are not countable or cenfurablc on earth j or, that Chnft hath in- 
trufted His Ambafladours and Chqrch-ofticers with this power of ccnfuring men , who shall walk unwor- 
thy of their Truft. 

if it be izidthat an Amhaffadouris no Magijlrate, andhath but an inflfuBed p0\\'er ? 

Anfvt. Yetisitapower,andinthatrefpedtiuchasChurch-ofricershave: andfuppole there were a plu- 
rality of Ambafladours for a King or State within the Dominions of another , inltru^^ed to a(5t jeyntly for 
h is affairs, and to cenfure any of their own number, or retinue, that should wal k unworthy of their place ; 
would any Magiftrate think that thefe wronged his power j if they shut fome from their fellowship without 
his warrand c or could he claim to recognoice their deed » although in a criminall cafe, he only might have 
acceffe to punish even their members in that place ? 

For that qualification of his concesfiom which is to allow this confederate Authority only to the Church 
that lived under fuch a Magiftrate, as doth not undertake the care thereof; we fuppofe it will not be eafie to 
free it of abfurdities, if this diftind: Government be not acknowledged to be perpe cuall. 

For, I. Do not the lame Scriptures (that place all Authority in the Chriltian Magiltratci and require ab- 
folute obedience from his Subjects to him ) in the lamemanner belong to any Magiftrate , as a Magiftrate , 
and his Subjects under him » and particularly that place > J{om . 1 5. And fuppofe the Magiftrate 
fkould not aflume that power , and put it in exercife j yet if Ecclefiaftick power be in that fame gift, 
committed to the Magiftrate with thecivil power > no private perfons could upon any pretext meddle there- 
with. For fuppofe the Magiftrate fhould abltain to punish fome kind of Murthers, Witchcrafts , 8cc. no 
private perfons could confederate themfelves to aflume a power of punifliing thefe ; becaufe civil power to 
punilh thefe things » is not committed to them ; but to the Magiftrate. If then the Church might cenfure 
fcandals, without incroaching upon thefe Scriptures at that time , Why may it not do fo even when the Ma- 
giftrate is.Chriftian ? This Church power then cannot be underftood to be comprehended under the Magi- 
ftrates Commisfion, feing Paul'is exercifing it, even while he is extending to the utmoft tlie Magiftrates 
■Commisfion in all things, and quarrelling Chriftians for encroaching upon any thing due to him ! & no que- 
ftion hi knew beft the extent of thefe diredrions. 

2. There is no Magiftrate , who will piofefledly difclaim the charge and Government of any people } al- 
though in pradice many ofchem prove negligent of the Church of Chrift. Now it may be asked , iftbis 
necesfi:y of confedt«iting foriexercifing of Church-authority doth ly upon the Church only when the Ma- 
giftrate is profefledly Heathen, or if alto when Erroneous or Atheifticall and Prophane , orin pradice negli- 
gent and carelefle ( like Gallw) in what concerneth the Church ? It cannot be aftridled to the firft : becaufe 
the Church is no more obliged to an Erroneous Magiftrate , then to a prophane and careleffe Migiftrate 
(ihougi he be not profefiedly Heretick or Erroneous ) if that Audiority be not improven for them: and fo 
.•^ccordifig to thefe principles , the Church is to confederate and exercife Authority within her fclf , even 
<?hen : v hich will come;to this, that the Church is called to afllime this Authority, except in fuch cafes a? 


Chap. 2. 'Bovkoftht 'ReveUmu 8r 

the Magiltrare doth take it on him and cxercifc it tor her good , ( for ifhe exercife it to her hurt, it is better 
to want u ) and fo it vi'ill turn near to this , that the Church is to alTume this power, fave where the Magi- 
ftrate is Godly, and according to confcicnce doth exercife hiopower for her good. And dien it may be 
asked , ( fuppofingtliatthe Magiflrate profclTe willingnelfe to govern the Ckirch, ) how Ihailitbejuflped 
whether fuch and Inch a Magiltrate be to be admitted to Govern ? or , whether they be to aifiuiie Govc.n- 
menitothemfeive^ It will come to this , that it muft reft in the judgement of difcrefcion of thefe pri- 
vate Chriftians , whether they will admit the Magiltrate to Govern , or not ? ^ nd according to the prin- 
ciples of that Author , if they judge him according tothcir light , to be one that taketh nocareofthe 
Church J they fhould afllime that power to themfelves : for elfewherc he afhmieth the judgement ot dif- 
cretion to be the great decider j and that a man had better do according to t he hght of an erring Confcience » 
than againft it. ^ ' ■ 

Yea , 3. According to his grounds, they may not only affume power ia Ecclefnftick things ; but equally in 
civil things alfo.And will he fay, that the Church o? Frame may take power in civil things, as they do in £c- 
cletialiick, and not wrong the Magiftrate > Or , can it be laid that this is a priviledge to the Magiltrate , 
which makes hirn fo to depend both in things Ecclefiaftick and Civil upon a Pco^tI^s eltimarion of nim » 

4. By thefe grounds, either aChurch Iheuld never afllime power under anyMagilft-ate however carelcflre 
and profane > ami fo asis granted , wrong her lelf, contrary to the law of nature ; or by afl'uming power , 
they declare that they account the Magiltrate a Heathen, Erroneousor Aiheifticall , &:c. and is not that a 
greater irritation , and probable occalion of divifion betwixt the Magiltrate and Church , than to continue 
this power diftinit under all Magittrates equally? And truly itlooketh not like Gods Ordinance, that 
puttethHis Church oftentimes in this Itraifi, thatitmuft either fuffer prejudice, or difclame andprovoke 
the Magif!rate fo 3$ to account him an Arheift unworthy of Government -, but to have forfeited fo much of 
his Power, 9^c. Andfuppofeaprofanefon fuccced in the iWagiftracie to a gracious father, or profane 
men be chofen tofucceed others who bare rule before them even in Church-affairs , ( which cafei^ 
often incident; what ftrait would it be to the Church either to continue to be governed by the JWagiftratc 
as formerly ? or, with io much difidyantage upon perlbnnll conlid^rations , to afTume a power vt'hich for- 
merly they did not » 

5. Either the Church affumeth that power contrary to the Magiftrate's command i and (b there is clear 
ground of a Perfecution and War ,• or, ic is with his good will , or , at leaft , permisfion i and that muft pre- 
luppofc this, that he doch account himlelf Heathen , Erroneous or profane , which cannot eafily be expect- 
ed, efpecially from a man not fo denied and mortified, as fuch a Maigittrace is fuppofed to be .* for, delegated 
it cannot be, feing in that cafe this alfuming of Autho.ity is not called for. 

6. Itmay be asked, what degree of erroneojfnelfe, profanity, orcarelefnefle in a Magiftrate, may war- 
rand a Church to afllime this power ; feing even amongft heathens thereare degrees ? and if lo , then hovf 
fhall that be judged ? 5uppofe a Chriftran Magiltrare should neglcdt Church anairs., otherwjfe than as they 
fall within the compafle or civil Government ; inwhichrefpeit Heathens did own thon -^ orfuppofehc 
should own fomc lentences, punish fonie fcandals, which, it fecraeth Jureliati did'm expelling Samojaienui 
and Selperm , in commanding to give again to the Church a place where they ufed to niec-t, that fome KogucS 
had violendy put theni from, faying, that it was fitter that God should be worshipped there, than that it 
Ihould be imployed for fuch an ufe.Now,what is called for in fuch a cafe, might be a debates whe tiler mighc 
not luch Heathens be accounted to take care of the Church , and ib it became not thcfe Primitive Chriftians 
to have retained power during their reigns ? or , what may be thought of Chriflian Aiagiitra'tes thac dCJ m 
more, and, it may be, lefle than thefe ? whether are thefe to be retained or not > 

7. It may be asked ialuch cafes , whether is explicit confederating for that end neceffary or not ? ^ flip- 
pofe fome would not fiibmit willingly,How could they becompelled' Or, if fo, were they lyabletonocerf- 
Itire, bccaufe of their obftinacy ? It were good that thefe things were cleared , if it be fuppofed that this hi 
a pra'fticablc thing.and often to be praAiled. 

It is furthc faid , That the Churches gteateji hai^ard , ^ frotti the great power of Church 'tnm t dini Hot 
of the c'lVd Magiffraie , m experience sheweth : therefore iCs dangerom to give them power. A»f\v. SO 
the^roatcft danger of E'Tour , is from Church-Teachers : shall they theretore have no Teachers ? So the 
greateft hazard of tyrannic to a Stare in civil things , is from a civil Government : is it nor therefore to be 
allowed? Yea, ihisis thereafonofit, that corrupt Cliurch-officers WfOng the Church irioft , andthaC 
both in Government and Dodtrine : becaufe in both they corne nearelt Her heart: and therefore when 
they mifcarry > it cannot be but worfe than when an Authority more extrinfick doth milcany : and' 
•by their Power, they bad e^er greateft acceflJe lodohergood orevill: and this rather confirmeth what 

L , ■^ was 

si An Expoftt'm of the Chap.2. 

was faid. That properiy the PoWerdoth b.-lon^totier , andhadnzed to be wellmannaged, becaulc cot' 
lu^tio optimi eflpesfimct. But was ic ever heard or , that Chiirch-ALithority, well mannaged,did hurt to the 
Church or Scatc either, under what ever Magiftrate ? It follovvethonly that the abufe of Church Power is 
ill 3 But no more. 

2. Wecoine nowin thefecond placetoconfider wherein this Authority isexercifed: which we shall 
fpeak to only in lb far as rhefe EpKUes give gro jnd , & we will tind it to be in thefe four. 

I. There is a Tiiall, thouhdft tried them that caUihemfehes Apodles , ^c. which triall inferreth Authority 
to cite and warn parties , to call and examine witnefles, i Tiw.5. ip. to take Oaths ; which is requilite to 
triall and witncrfing , as that alone which putteth an end to ftrife amongft men, Heb.6. Therefore, Mat. iS. 
the Lord giveth the fame rule concerning procedor by witncsfing in the Church , which Mofes gave in refe- 
rence to all Courts , That out of the mouth of two or three wifneffes, Cc. shall Onery matter be ejiablnhed. Tnis 
fliowethalfo.thatth^y may receive the complaints of offended Brethren , { as isin Mat. iS.) keep meetings 
for that end, lead inquiry upon the crying himeof offences ( as is like they did in this cilc otEphejtts ) and , 
in a word , do every thing tliac is needful! for complcating triall: for where the end is appro vcn , the means 
that are neceflary to the attaining thereof, mult be approven alfo. 

. 2.There is a Power here to judge and determine, thou haftfotmd them liars : which doth re fpevfl thefe two , 
i.The nature of offences : they mult j udge what is truth and what error ; ocherwayes they can not tell who 
is a falfe Apoftle and who a liar : and they mult judge what is Icandalous in practice , and lb what islaw- 
fulornoti otherwayes they can make no progrelfe in trial orcenfure: for , they mult find fuch a thing to 
be an error or fcandal, and fo not to be fuffered in the Church.z.It hath reference to perlons; there is a Power 
in judging fuch and fuch perfons to be guilty , whereby they pronounce not only lijch Do.itrine to be er- 
roneous, butfuchaMinilteror perfon to be guilty thereof , as is clear from the Text, and lb mult judge 
what is proven or not , and every thing tending to that , as citing witneffes and par.ies , hearing exceptions 
and anfwers , ^c. 

3. There is a Power of cenfuring a perlon found guilty. Thefe words, thou canjl not bear themj^c. thou 
haft them, and fuffereji them, do import that, as is cleared : this haVtn^ of them, implying a fault , which 
was, thatby their Authority fuch were not cut off from the Church : which is the highlit degree of ordi- 
nary cenfures : forifitbeapriviledge andbenefic tobeadmitted tothe viiible Cliu ch , andtheOrdi-. 
nances of Jefus Chrift therein , it cannot but be a high degree of cenlure to be cut off from both : and yet this 
is implied here to be in the Power of thefe ChurchL*> , and th jy cannot be conceived to have cuttcd offfuch 
from their fociety fo as not 10 h.\vi had ths-n or fuffered th.*m to remiin therein , but by this which we call 
Excommunication. From which neceffarily this foUowcth , that noc only the Church hath a Power of cen- 
furing 3 but particularly of cenfuring thus, by cutting off one from Church-membership , and from the 
priviledges of the external Ordinances thereof: this is ciUed by ojr Lord J.-tlis, Matih.i6. an accounting 
vfomaheathsnandapublicane , i Corinth. 5. x^. a putting a. way of the wicked perfon from among them i 
a cuttingoffoftroub/ers , Gal. 5. 12. and { Tivj.s 3- lo. ) a rejeSling ot them. There is nothing almoft more 
frequently and clearly held forth in Scripture man this, both in l)j.!;trine aid praitice. Tne Lord hath 
furnished His Church with this Power to ccnfurc , that He may prefcrve a A4ajeltie in His Ordinances , 
which appear to the molt pirt but fooliUmctfe and weakn.fl'e , and that He may have weapons of His own 
kind, tobat:er downthe proid imaginations of Church-Members, and revenge all dffojedience, as the 
Apoftle fpeaketh, 2 Corinth.io.6. for which ca.ife, hii callcth ix. a rod , 1 Corirub./^. 21. M\dapuni!hmeru y 
2 Corinth. 2. 6. 

4. Tnere is here a Power of ordering and making Laws of what concerneth the affairs of the Church, 
as may be gathered, i. From this, that tiiey try Ofticcrs ; whereby it is apparent , that the Church had her 
Laws in reference to the admisfion of Miniitcrs , before they could be accounted luch ; and that thefe who 
were found by th>'ir trial > to be liars , fliJild not be accounted A poltles , or Church-ofiiccrs : othcrwilb 
Authority, in the former refpedts, would be maimed and defedivc. 2. It may be gathered from this, 
that they might conclude what was oftenlive , and what not, \vho was to be tried , and upon v\'hat grounds , 
whenthetrial was to proceed 3 whoand what was to be fuffered in the Church , and what not ; who. 
might Preach, and wh at might be preached i and in every thin* that concerneth Do^itrine, Worship, and 
Order , according to the Rule of the Word , and the great end of the Ordinances , to wit , the cdirication 
of the People: belide which, th.^reis no Church Authority any where, it being a Power indeed, but a 
Power given for edification , and not to dcltrudtion , 2C<ir. 10. 8. and 13.10. Th.s Power being exer- 
cifed , niaketh decrees : therefore luch afcts are called , (^S. 16.4.; The decrees that were ordained^ 
of,ths jipojUes and Elderi i andbyP*»«/, a felting of thin gt -in order , iCoMi.54. And( iC*r. 16. ; fuch 



Chap. 2. Bookjf th Revelation. Sj 

were coiicributions for the poor , orJerlincfTv' tor prevcncing of confufions in Preaching and Hearing ; cal- 
ling oFihe people to Farts, as ^3-12, 5. and i^.^.and C/7(»/>. 14,23, &-c. trying, proving, admitting , orcen- 
lurmg otOrticers, and luch like, as in the Bpirtles of Paul to Ttmoth/ and Titu4> are clear. 

Tile third tiling \vc are to enquire for in chcle words , is, who are the proper and tirlt fubjeft of this A'.l- 
ihority and Power ? And we Aniwer, i. negatively. 

1 . The civil Magi Urate , is not cne fubje^it of this Power : for they ,to whom Chrift writtcth thefe Epi- 
files, are thalijbjeotot this Power } But the civil Magiltrate is not the party to whom Chriil wriceth 
tbele Eprif les, as h clear, and it can be alleadged by none : Therefore it is clear , ' that the civil Magiltrate 
is not the UibjeCt ot thii Cnurcn-Power. Yet , no ejueltion, our Lord Jefus knew belt to whom it belonged: 
neither is it like , when be accounts them to have Authority , that he doch account them to have it trom yo- 
Uintarycontedcrating for the time : tor, he accounts their neglevilof the praitice otic, to be a fin, againlt 
the breach of their duty ; even as He quarrelleth with the Angel oiSanlis for being defective in the Do- 
tflrinall part or nis Miniltery 5 and He commendeth the Angel of Ephefus for his labour in Doiftrine , zeal> 
and Dilcipline , as duties equally belonging to the Miniftery upon one and the lame account. And it muft 
cither be laid that a Magiltrate , in his Election to be a Magiltrate over a Church , is neceHarily to be quali- 
fied in reference to theie atiairs j or , that the Government cnereof , doth not belong unto h im i Or, that one 
may be called of God warrantably to a Ciovernment over a Society , and that in re 1 petit of things and per- 
l«ns of no leife concernment than the civil State j and yet it not be necefl'ary that he Iliould ,be qualified in 
reference thereunto ; which is abfutd. 

2. We lay,that it is not the body and comrounityof the Church and People to whom this Poweris com- 
mitted : v.'hichappearcththus, i.By the fame Argument, thefe are the iubjedt of this Power to whom 
Chrilt principally diredteth His Epiftles, whom He commendeth for the cxerciling of this Power , and r&r 
provcth for the ommitting thereot'j But thefe are Church-ollicers, contradiltinguilhed from the rett of the 
Church , as appearetii not only by the common Inlcription , unto thi ^ngd of the Church, £5c. whereby 
they are diitinctly conlidered , but alio Cbap.2. l^erf.^. where the Church ib diitinguished from the Angel nr 
ihsihreatnmy, I 'Will remotfe thy Candlefiick^,i^c. which faith, that what He had fpoken inthe former 
commendation of that triall , did peciiiiarly belong to the Angel , whom He conlidereth as diltind: from 
the Church , fpoken of under the ictmtot'CanMeJitci{, AUo in the Epiftle to Thyattra , the Otficers are e- 
rpecially reproved, as appeareth from verf.2^. Bmuntoyoulfay ,'<3q. that is, theCnurch-ofhcers toM^hom 
He had been formerly ipeaking i and to the reji in Thyatira , that is, the members , as diltmdt from them. 
It IS hinted alio, intlieEpiltle loPergamos , astheexpolicion thereof cleareth : and nowhere in any of 
thefe Epiltles is that dirtinctionio clear, asinthefe, where He fpeaketh oftheexercife otihisPower: 
thereby the more clearly to shew where it relideth. And though it be faid in the clo!'e , Let him thai batfj 
tars , kear what the fpint faith unto the Churcha : yet , that is noi to extend evi:-'ry thing equally to all the 
members : for , then the Miniltery of the Do6ti ine, would be common to all alio. It is therefore to be un- 
derltood with refpecif to their places and ftacions , as was laid in our entry to Ipeakiipon ihc iccond Chapter. 
2. The Church here, is divided in Angels and CandlefiKkj, that is, Ofiiccis and Member.'?. Now, 
weinult either give the Power to the whole, that are comprehended und;r the titles ot\y£ngels 3 that 
is, O.ticcrsi andCandkfttcks , that is. Churches and Members; or, we mult give it to tnc Otficers 
alone , as diltinCt from the Cnurches : for there is no warrand to g we it to the Angds , and to lome of the 
Church-members , and not to all ; for, that were again to fub-divide the ChuiCh, as ifall its members 
were not ( as to government) ot one rank, contrary to the way keeped here- And indeed we know 
no other reafon more palpable , why the Officers and Members of the Church , are fo diitimftiy let forth j 
but that their diltindnelle in this refpedt might be held forth: But the firlt cannot be iaid, that all 
come in equally in Government , who are members ; becaule that would taxe in Woman and Chil- 
dren: Therefore it muft belong to the Officers , asdillindk from theotlicr threes fcing much ot this 
Church-power, is conv'crfant about things of that nature, as trying offalle A pottles , corrupt DotfLrine, 
Sec. which do require both fitnefle of qualification , and continuance in reipedt ofnms , and painfulnetie , 
beyond that which a! wayes Church-members ufe , orjarecalled to have inrefpett oftheone, orcanbe- 
Itowinrefpedl of cheother. Andfeing thefe are certain Truths, that thefewho arc ordinarily called of 
God to the exercife of any Authority, are to be fitted for it , and patiently to follow :he tryall (for here thefe 
who are to cenfure , are alio to try, ) It wilf follow therefore that ihis power in fuch things cannot be 
thought to be committed unto the body of the People: efpecially, if weconfider ihefetwo. i. Thrt 
in the choice, even of a Deacon > there is fuch exadneffe required in the trial of his qualifications, and 

X- 2 ' autho- 

^4 . , - Angxpofitmofthg Chap. 2. 

auchority to his adtnisfion to that Oifice : yet the yowc: of Governing , doth not belong to this Oificcr , as 
fuch j but he is inferiour to chat. N jw if it b^ fappo/ed that the people generally have interelt in Govern- 
ment and Ruling : Then It will folio \v, i. That there are moequalihcations required in a Deacon, which 
as fuch , is but a lervice, than there is required in thele that Govern in the highelt things. And , 2. That 
to be a member of the vilible Ciiurch, hath more Authority in it , than to be a Deacon , at Icaft than a Deacon 
can have as fuch : becaufe the oaq govemeth by Authority in the highelt things , and the other as luch but 
ferveth : And by the Inftitucion and rules for the Election ot Deacons , it would leem that th^re is by that - 
Office an acceslion of Ibmewhat to them , like Authority , more than they had before , or other members 
have : and feing this acceslion loath no Authority witii it , Xt will feein rtrange to lay , that a Church- 
member , that is overfeen by an ordinary Deacon , hath Authority in hioa , which the Deacon , as ditb , 
b^th not. 

In the fecond place w; may add this conlideration , That it is limply imposfible for all Church-members 
(even the generality of them) to underltand many queftions that may be agitated j yea,we may fay further, 
they are not called to underlland them J and again, others cannot posliblygive their attendance for the 
triall of intricat things, which may draw a great length. For it is afferted by learned Thomoi Hooker of New 
Sn^knd, parc.3. chap. 5. pag.56. and 37. That the preparation y is to be made by the Elders , becaufe the body of 
the People 3 if numerous » they Viill be unable wah any comely con^eniency to conjider and weigh all the circum^ 
Ranees with all the emergent difficulties , ivbich will certainly and necejjarily occur injuch agitations , nor can ia 
reafon befiow their time andpai'^s upon them , as the imricatie and perplexity of the werlcwillJ0m(time re<iuire. 
Thus farr he, which doth certainly render it at leaft exceeding fufpicious , that they Ihould beinftatai with 
Authority to judge and determine, who cannot polfibly wait on the triall i efpccially , conlidering that in ail 
judges and Governments, mentionedin the Scripturejand particularly in thele Epiftles, thefe two are joyned 
together, to wit , triiH and cenfure. 

3. We fay , that it is not one petloaor Church-ofiicer above other Church-officers, to whom thisPower 
»nd Authority is committed. B jcaule, i . It is to the Officers who are contradiltinguished from the People, 
and are not compreheivied under the title Caj9dUjlitk,ot Church i Bjc that mult be underitood of all Mmi- 
fters, and not of one only. z. By this one An^el colledivcly taken , many Rulers governing one Body in an 
afTociated manner, are to be underitood as was cleared, cbap.i. If erf. 20. 

And therefore, 4. The aliociated number of ruling Church-ofhcers , is the proper fubjeit of this Church- 
power : becaufe It is to them th.it Chrili: direviteth thcfe Epiltlcs under this name vl«^e/ , as was shown, 
Chap.i. terfzo. L'*' thefe He commendeth and reproveth i ii'^ithofe to whom theoveriight ofthe People 
belongeth in reference to th.-fe frmres, AHs 20 23- ^c, i I's thefe to whom the power of triall and admiiiion 
of Church-ofHcers pertaineth, i Tir/1.4. i +■ which is the work here comaicnded in Epfxfiis. And if this be 
true, that by Angil h?re is to b." underitood a plurality of united Cnurch-rulers, as was laid , Then tliis alfer- 
lioH laid down will alfo follow' for, no other refts to lay claim to this Authority. 

To clofe then, i.:i the fourth place, we may fhortly lay down ihcfe conclulions further from thefe Epi- 
ftles, I. That this DilcipUne and Authority is to be cxerciied on all foits of perlons, members of the duirch, 
whether they be pretended Teat h;.r:>, as Apa^ks and Ifropbeteffes , whether Men or Women ; in a word , ail 
who are capable to give otfence and tjo be etlined by Church ccniures, which young Children, mad men, 6c 
luch like* arc not in the reach of. 

2. It concerncth all forts of q^^s^ whether of Ertour or pra'ilice ; and is to be cxercifed in reference to the 
firlt, as well as to the laft, asis clear fro-.nthefe Epiltles. 

3. Thele higheft cenfures , are to proceed againlf Errotirs Sc Scandals of a high nature,as thefe mentioned 
in the Text are j or fuchas arc agregvd with hi^htening circumitances , as difobcdiencc and contem^^t in not 
hearing the Church, Sec. Aio/.i B-^md which after triall* are clearly made out: that thereby the icntence in 
Its equity, may be convincing for the gal.iingof its end, both oa the orfendinj^ parry (3c orhers. 

4., [ t folbweth here, that when ottciices are fo circumfbnuated in Church-members, cenfures are to pro- 
ceed again ft them , aadtheyarenottobelufferedtoenjoyChurch-priviledges, as if they were not under 
thefe offences , except they repent of them 5 yea, that un-Churching and Excommunication in fuch cales > 
is an Ordinance of Jefus Chrill. 

5. Church-ofticers may be often defeitive in reference to Difcipline as well as to Doitrine , which is alfo 
a.gulltinelFe before the Lord, as appeareth here. 

6. , Although a Church be defective in the purging out of corrupt members : yet that doth not pollute 
the ordinances to others, or necesfitate them to leparatc from them. Thefe Churches continue to be Chur- 
chfi5/ &nd the Ordinances to b; Ordinances of Ciariit , although fuch were continued in communion with 

them i 

Chap.2." Jlookof the Revelation. g- 

them i and notwithftanding thereof, thefe who were free of choie corruptions , are approvenand commend- 
ed by JefusClirift. And if it were not fo , that a per Ions endeavouring in his ftation toamendfucha fault, 
and to have fuch fcandals cenlured , did not exempt him from guutineH'e , lb as to continue in Church- 
communion , ahhough the pluraUty of Ofhcers should be short ot their dutie : in that relpedt then there 
might hi Itill reparation after reparation in infnitum : ^ which abllirdity the learned Hooker , and Kortonoi 
New England, do prclfe for the obtaining offubmislion to their Church centuies and keeping of com- 
munion with their Churches -, even upon fuppohtion , that the plurality of a Congregation , Ihould rc- 
fufe to shut out fome delerving the lame. Otherwile (fay they) when ihele did feparate , upon 
fuch a new emergent occalion* there behoved to be anew feparation, andlbto.thi becaufe no Church 
or men can be expe<fled to be lb Itraight, as either not to keep inlomeinjuUly, or not to fufpcd that 
fome fuch are keeped in ; which alfo would be a fnare to their conlciences who judged lb, and be a caufe of 
feparation, although it were not fo indeed. And were this applyed to the detects of Presbyteriall Chur- 
ches , there would be no preshng necesfity offeparating from them, or from communion , in any ordi- 
nance , with them. 

7. We may fee from thefe Epiftles , that although cxa(5t holinelTe be, dejure, required of all Church- 
members i yet , defaHo , often > They are not all exadly fuch , and that therefore the holinelfe which is 
fpokenol, asellentialto vilible-Churches, or to Membership in them , is not rigidly to be extended to a 
reality therein. If this Church o'iLaodicea ( wherein nothing is commended, but much found-fault with J 
be confidered , it will be found that this holinelTe will not abide a rigid trial i yet it cannot be denied, but 
they have what is cflentiaho a vifible Church, and Membership therein * even as her Minifters , were Mi- 
nilters « although not anfwerable to their ftations , as was faid ; and if what thefe worthy men, Mr Cotton , 
Koritn » and Hooksr, doaflent unto in iheir writings , were accordingly adhered to in all pradices, we con- 
ceive there needed not be any great controverlie concerning this point. The lecond of thefe forcited kn- 
ihors^ patt.i.pag.io. layetii down the /?/«c^ of the difference in thefe words C as he calls it- ^ V/hether 
fuch as walkjn a way ofptofannejje , ot remain peninaciotijly objlinate in fome wickedneffe , though othenvays 
profesfing andpraBifing the things of the Gefpel , ba\e any allov^ame from Chriji , or may be accounted fit mat- 
ter according to the tearms of the Gofpei, toconftitiiteaChttrch} Which Authors ^ alfo do acknowledge, that 
calling out of a Church , is but to proceed upon clear fcandals of a grolTe nature , convincingly made out , 
andnootherwaycs,^a«.3.fag.39. And if there be defedt in the executing thereof, feparation upon that 
account, isdifclaimid J as is formerly hinted , if the Church in Doftrine and adminiftration ot Ordi- 
nances be pure , that is, without etror. The judicious Cobbet o^ new England t hath an excellent faying 
( as he hath many to the Anabaptifts ) againlt whom he writeth (. p.2. cap. i feSi.i i . ) Better (faith hc}ihey 
V(hoha\enotfo peculiar a title thereto , be folded up in the Church t than th it one ofjucb lambs be left out in 
the wild wiUerneJfe. Andagain , cap.'^.feH.^. is full , to shew that there was no ItrictnelTeoblerved in the 
admislion of Profeflbrs to Baptilm j but rather an enquiry of their purpole for the time to come , in bid- 
ding them bring forth fruits, and beheve in Him that was to come, as from 3 o/j«V example, Mat.^, and 
Pauls, ^Fi.16. where there is no meniion of trying the faith of che ho jsholds o( Lydia and the jay lor ; 
who yet were inftantly baptized j as alio were thelePhariees fo checked by /o^», Mattb.-^. anumuch 
more hath be well to this purpofe. I have but hinted at thele things, to shew that although there be 
many queftions of Church-dilcipline j yet they are not all of one nature and hazard, with all adverla- 
ries. And the laft doth rather concern the conltituting of Churches , and admislion of Members , luppofed 
yet to be without , than the governing of Churches , and incburched-membcrs : in reference to whicii 
there is great difference. 

8w We may lee, that the fuftaining of, and dibmitting unto this Ghiirch-power , is a necelfary and con- 
cerning duty : and if, what is laid of Church-power and Government be truth > then this fubmilfion m ult 
follow : othcrwife there could be no Government nor exerciie of Power , if ihofe who are called by their 
Itations to be governed , were not I'ubmillive thereto : and if it were the Church-ofhcers duty to try and 
cenfure , even by cutting off fuch and fuch fcandalous perfons, I'fien it behoved to be their duty to fubmit , 
and theChurc bes to acknowledge thefe leniences , asChriitsWurdis, tAatth.x^. Lethimbeto thee asa 
heathen ^^c, AndHfZ^.ig.iy. itisthusexprelfed,oiej» ifcfwf/?<>f J-a/t of^rjott , amlfubmit tothem: M''hich ■ 
certainly , looks as well to the Authority of Difcipline , that requireth lubmiifion , as to the obedience that 
ought to be given to the Word in D odtrine : for this caule , Ofhcers are deligned by the title "^lers: wh ich 
is of ten given to civil Go vernours, and the fainting of fuch foul-ovcrfecrs , is marked as a thing moft unpro- 
fitable to the people themfelves : and therefore is the more to be shunned. 
Amongft other batteries againit this Ordinance of Difcipline j this is irotthe leaft that is railed againft it , , 

^' I . that. 

An Expojitkn $/ the Chap. 2, 

willingly dc 
inltretij^ch and force: for, by thar fame Argutncnc 

ihatichat!)n'>compiilfiverorcc, if men willingly do notyecld, which indeed tem^s to place all Auchoricy 

:, a Itrong Ton rebelling ngainlt his facher, or a people 

or ar^nie agninlt cheir MagiltraCeorGenjtal, Ihoiild bt exempced fro.n their ruojci}"ion to them j and the 
Parent , Magiltrateor General , be denuded oftheir Authority over them ; becaule they havenoc force to 
compel obedience. Authoricy lyes in Gods appointing of lucn to rule , and fuch others co oo<iy i although 
foine linfiilly Ihould invert that order, as I'uch dilputes teach men to do. And the Quettion here cometli, it m 
lealbn a Church-member may difclame Cliurch-authority and cenCures fi mply, or dejure , diough by Power 
or violence they may do (o defaSli : yea, this doth indeevl prove Ch'>:irch-governin:nit to b^ dilhmft from the 
civil : becaufe it is not armed with worldly Power and ftrengch, as other Governuients of the world are ; &: 
in that reCpeil:, is not of this world, as the Lord Chrilt laid ot His Kjngd3m,]oh. 1 S . yet was He ftill a King , 
and ic cannot be butahigh^uilttomir thlb-, cittierbyoverciirningoiitakogether, or by encroaching onu, 
and thereby to mar its freedom or enervat its power, or by refuhng to fubinit unto , acKnowledge , or autho- 
rize the fentences thereof, as mens places call them to db. 

Wc may therefore propofea word or twoto ail , but efpecially to Magiltrates in reference to this, i . Lee 
M.igiltrates in the fear of Godconfider what they do, left they involve themfclves in this guilt," it hath ever 
been hard to kick againftthe pricks : and although (ome would make encroachment on this Government to 
be a fweet thing ; C which nun ealily admit in their own perlbns without any reltraiat, ) yet theend thereof 
is bitternelfe. And it would be couhdered , if fuch counlels tend to commend i<.eligion and f irther it , or 
not ? which at the beft are L?ut to mould and reltrain it , (o as it may be lubfervicnt to their own greatnelfe 
and ends , as in Henry xh^'^.o^ EngUni d\<\ appear. 2- rhey_wouldconlider ifconfcience put them to it , or 
if the molt zealous prelfe it , or if Ibme other th ing drive it on , and to \vh;it fort of perlons that dehgn is molt 
lavourie 9 If it be notordinariy the moft profane, or otherways erroneous ? and siiall Magiltrates be lubfer- 
vicnt to (uch ? 5. They would conlider the ablurdities and conlequencsalledged , if they Dehmderancesor 
ills to Religion and Godlinelle , or but to their own power and greatnelfe, and that in pret^^xt only ? is it be- 
caufe they will more zealoully or prohtably do it , themi'elves , or becaufe they had racher it were not done 
at all , nor done by them , and fuch like ? If it be the (trengthening oftheir own Power, more than ofChrilts 
that moves them: for it hath often been a milerablemiitake ofthc Powers of tiie ear. ti > tofeek theitreng- 
thening oftheir Government by their enervating of Cnrifts, which hath proven to be the overturning of 
their own. It Magiftratescannotinconfcience clear themlclves in thefe things, it cannot but be found to 
be an encroachment on Chrifts Ordinances , which are ufefuU and necellary in His Kingdom. 4. Con- 
(idertheconlcquents, M^hen things are marred and lye undone , or when mifguided by undilcreet hands, 
who love nothing inore than to make Ordinances deipicabie ; for, if indeed a diltinil (government bein- 
confiltent with thecivill , then a diftinvit incorporation as a Church is , mult bemconliltent , even in its be- 
ing , vvithacivil iState and Commonwealth. And ir Church Pgovcrnment be ncedlelfe. becaufe all things 
may be done by civil Rulers that are incumbent to it, aMiniltrieailb willbe necdlelle , becaufe civil men 
that have knowledge may fupplie thatj andleldomeis any found chat rejedts the one, but he is^ at Icalt^ 
exceedingly lax in the other. 

5. Suppole it b : ob:ained , that this Government be born down, what doth the Magiftratcs gain thereby ? 
It is but , either that fuch things , that Church -difcipline takes noticeof, should altogether beliighted , 
•that lb there miy beconluhon in the Church : which is but a poor advantage : or, it is that the burden inaygbe 
doubledonhim who had it heavy enough before, and fo he be made more imaiediacly liable ror aii cnc de- 
•fed:s that shall beintixjfe things. And at the moft:, fuppoling that they should be diligent intheoutward 
duties for the reltraining of VAt outward man ; yet doth never that come up to the ule ot edifying , as it doth 
by Chrilts Ordinance of Difcipline : for men, are but punished as men , and not as Cariltiaus s and taults» are 
but cenfured, as in orher States, and not as in Chrilts Church. 

6. Let them confi Jer, that the cftiblishing of this Poiver, as diftin;5i: from theirs , doth not exclude thena 
npon the matter trom having accelfe to any thing which may cdirie the Church: for they are admitted la 
overfee the fpreadingofpureDo-lrinc and the reltraining of lalfe Dodrinc, error and vice, and to every o- 
•ther thing conducing to the end of edification in the way luitable to tiieir places : Oiily u bounds them here , 
that pure Doctrine be preached by Chrilts orderly called Min;iters , and not by themlelvcs or oihers , upon 
their meer command} audio that order beprelerved , and Difcipline and cenfures be exerced and made eife- 
Ctual in the Church in the fainc method. And this is not to reltrain them in Government and incapacitate 
ihem for edirying tile Church in their places, more than by retuhng them power to preacn auttioritative.y,& 
to adminilter the Sacraments as Chrifts AmbaHadors i or, more than a Father is incapacitated to exerce his 
iatheriy power on an u.nruly child, becauleaMagiftratecrCiiuixh-Judicatory doth concur with hiin, . 

7- They 

Cha{5.2. Bookj>f the Revel Atm. S;^ 

7. They are no way weakened in civil things : for, what ever the Magiftrate formerly poffc fled before 
the conitictiting of the Church > or what ever Magiltrates in other Sates , where no Churches are > do 
poffefTe > that is ftill allowed to him , where this diftintt Government is ercdred : therefore it cannot be laid , 
that "it doth encroach on him: for, what cafes do flow from a State, as a State, are (fill left untouch- 
ed by this Authority : only what cafes flow from it as a Church , or from the Members thereof , con- 
fidered as Chriftians, thefe only are meddled with by it, to wit , trial of Gifts, admifTion of Minifters , 
ccnfuring of Church-officers and Members, and that with Church cenfures , others than have been, or 
are ufed inany meer State or Commonwealth, and fuch like ^c. And feing none of thefe belonged to th Ma- 
giftrate formerly, and do but flow from this confideration of their being a Church : It follows that the 
keeping ol Power diftindi in thefe,can no way be faid to encroach on the Magiftrates Power,feing he poljefl- 
eth itill , what ever any Magiff rate pofleffed : yea , feing by the Church there is a new relation aryfing from 
what formerly was , it feems convenient and neceffary , that there Ihouldbe anewdiftin(5l way of ordering 
and governing the fame: elfe fuppofing that aWagiftrate had under him both Chriflians and Heathens 
in the fame incorporation, he were either not to cenlure Cfiriftians otherwayes fortheir faults than heathens: 
which is abfurd , feing the fault of a Chriftian hath adiftind notion from the fame fault in a Heathen, to 
wit, it is an offence and fcandal which arifeth from this, that the perfon committing it, is a Church- 
member 3 and foby their mifcharriages , they refledx more on their head , and the profefT.on of theGof- 
pel , than the faults of others : or , he muff puniih the fame faults that are done by peribns under the 
fame civil Law wiih feveial and diftindt punilliments , which is noleffeinconfiftentwith the nature of 
a civil State confidered in its felf , which admits not of diftind" cenfures of the fame faults and perfons , 
n-.ore than of a diftind Power. And fo if the confideration of a new Church- relation will admit of diftind: 
Laws and cenfures, without wionging of the nature of a State ^ and that equity which ought to be kept 
in reference to Subjeds , neither ought this of a difl:ind Power to make thefe Laws, and execute thefd* 
ccnlures, be thought inconfilfent with Magiftracie, feing it flows fiom the fame new relation ; and this 
equity among Subjeds, is no lefle effential to a well ordered Common wealth, that univerlhl Su- 
preinacie and Power to the Magiflrate. And the conveening of Church-officers for the exerciling of 
Difcipline, and that without dependence on the Magiflrate, can be no more inconfiftent with fubjedion 
to him in civil things , than theconveening of Church-members for hearing of the Word and receiving of 
the Sacraments , even thought it ihouldbe exprefly contiaryto His command. 

. 8. It would be confidered, that the right exercife of Church-power, doth not only not weaken i but 
on the contrary , doth exceedingly ftrengthen civil Authority and obedience thereunto in the Church. 
For, where this is, a Magiflrate hath all Authority that civil Lawsgivehim, and all the power .that the 
Word upon confciences doth imprint j and he hath belide thefe. Church-power and cenfures concurring 
for bis ftrengthening : becaufe difobedience to him , is accounted afcandaleby the Church; and therefore 
isamonoft other fcanJals to be taken notice of , and cenfured by this Power; even as they rake notice of 
dilobedient Children, Servants, and Wives i which doth exceedingly ffrengthen the Authority of thefe 
relations in the Church, beyond that which can be elfewhcre. And thus the Churches Power doth con- 
firm the Power of the State, when they cenfare difobedience to them , and when they cenfure the fame 
faults in the fam^ perfons , which the State doth , thought under a different notion ; and by fo doing , they 
pronounce the Power and proceediag of the civil State to be juft , when the things punifned by it , are thus 
reprefented to them, and nor only as faults againft humane Laws and inconfiftent with Ciyil-ftates, butalfo 
as fins againft Chrift and unbecoming His Church : which certainly cannot but add a great imprelfion of re- 
verence unto the civil Power. Thus thefe twodiftind Governments, do no way interfere, but fupport' 
each other. And fo as it's no obffrudion , but a great furtherance unto Church-power in the exercife 
thereof ( although it be ftill diftinft and independent as fuch ^ to have Civil-power after its own manner 
concurring with it i fo is it a ff rengthening to Civil- power, to haye the acceflion of Church-power inits 
kind, to concure with it. Andifindeed we fuppofe Magiftrates to punifh all things that are fcandal ous in 
the Church , there can be no prejudice to the Power by this , which doth cenfure the fame things on ano- 
ther account. And if we fuppofe them not to do fo. Then there is necefTity for thisjchurcji-power , that fuch ■■ 
things may be taken notice ot, as hath been faid. 

9. The exercife of this diftind Church-power , is a great advantage to the Church ; and fo cannot 
but be well confiftent with Magiftracy : for thefe two ordinances, cannot but be confiftent. i. Itmakcth 
fiirhatefull. 2. It ftrengtheneth the Authority of all other Ordinances. 5. There can be no fuch way 
for trying qualified men fit to mannage Church-cenfures and Church-affairs, as fuch who are purpofcly' 
chofen* 4. It jiaih what the Magiftrate can give, and this befide. 5". Itprovetbmofe convincing and • 


S8 An Expofam of the Chap.2. 

edifying to che perfon ccnfured : for , ( whar ever is laid to the contrary ) experience doth prove , that no cen- 
i lire hath fuch convincing weight on confciences , aswkcnii'sdiitindlyadminiftredby Church-orficers. 
6. It doth more fhevv the HohneUe of the Head Chrift , and the com pleat ndfe of His Ordinances, and other 
ad vantages tliat may be gathered from what we faid at the entry ro this degre/Tion. In a Word , if civil pow- 
ers mind cdlticarion in riidr place , and to be a terroiir to evil does , this proves itrengthening to them : bc- 
caiife it furthers that end. If they mind not that 5 it is no marvcll fuch a power be fufpicious like , which lend- 
cth only to the carrying on thereof. 

It is ordinary to men tofufpedmoretheenaoaching of Church- men in Pcm'er and their exorbitancy than 
of any other , that Being ever thought by natiirall men to be a bondage , and thefc ever eftecmed to be more 
proud , rigid, 5cc. and I know not what in the exercife of their Power. But men w^ould foberly confider , 
1. lfch.>tbcthefaiiltof the Ordinance, orof theperfons , andif DifciplinewelldifchargedandEcclefi- 
allically followed with love , meeknefle . conyidion, &c. iffoic weienocufefull ? And it the fault be in 
the pcrfons , wliy fliould it be imputed to the Pow'er it ftlf in this cale , more that in other cafes ? 2. Is there 
any thing in a Church- Office to occafion this exorbitancy and mifcarriage , morethan in another civil Station? 
This looketh not like in it felK 3. Ifmorenccrly we confider Church-officers , there is no fuch reafon to 
fufpcA them : for , is there any rank of perfonsfo regulated , and to be tried in their qualifications for the ex- 
ercife ot thdr Tru(t, as by the Scripttire they are ? Or, are any places more deliberately filled , that men 
confcientious and fit for fuch a Trufl my be called thereto ? And are there any fort of perfons fo bounded with 
profitable rules in the exercife of their Authority ? If there be defed in theobfervingof thefe, it ought ten- 
derly to be remedied} yet,itGannot bethought but Church-officersmuftbemoft fit to mannage Church- 
matters. 4. Let them that arc innployed in Church-power be confidered , without refpe(5t to that > are they 
^ot of themCclves men of tendernefle , confcience, and gifts proportionably , as men in any other Station are , 
fo that it may be liippofed for their qualifications and carriage , they might have been men of other Stations ; 
and if called thereto , Judges , Rulers, Sec. without any juft gtcund of fulpition more than others ? And if 
io, fliall the very Office, which ought to capacitat them more, only render them obnoxious to fufpicion ? 
This had need to be adverted unto , leaft theit office be reproached. Andmay not that Power put in civil 
hands , be as ready to mifcarry as in theirs ? 5. What Church-men are ufually moft miftaken > is it not they 
who (fill have been mod faithfull and zealous in their duty "> Have not fuch ever alfo been thought meft in- 
tolerable even in refpedt of their freedom in the "Word , as we may fee in the cafe of E/is , John the Baptirt, 
Sec. and the two Prophets , cbap. 1 1. Shall therefore Doctrine and Power in the word , be thought infufter- 
able ? Or, ihall the t\\Ue Prophetsof Sa-a;/, or of Antichrilt , be thought more fit to have place than the 
Lords faithfull fervants ? This can be no good ground that doth refleA only upon thefe that are faithfull, 
others being ready to apply themfelves to the pleating of men both in Word and Difcipline. 6. It would be 
confidered, what may move men of judgement and parts ( efpecially if they be confcientious ) to top with 
Magiftrates '> It's not like that lelf interelts doth that ; feing flatterers that fcek that mott , take the contrary 
way and come fpeed , when as the moft faithfull are often under a cloud. Or , is it like that the moftr.ealous , 
humble and tender , fnould be moft Ibbject to mifcarry ? And if there be ground to reprove or cenfure either 
by Word or Difcipline , is it not moft profitable , even though molt dilpleafing , that it be done ? 7. Confi- 
der , who moft readily fret at this Power ? it will be found they are fuch , who from inclination toloafnefTe 
or errour cannot abide any bands , or from a principle of politick indiffercncy in the,matters of Religon j 
would mould all in a State-i rame j and fuch are imbittcred at freedom in Preaching , as well as power 1 n Go- 
verning : or, they are fuch as are led with a prejudice at thepowcr of Ordinances, which certainly men natur- 
ally arc not free of: and it would be adverted in this. 8. Confider, that this miftake of Church-rnens Power, 
doth often arifein fuch cafes , whe rein they are ferving Chrift : and men entertain it moft in fuch times , when 
tiieir frame islealt fpirituall and fober, as the obfervation thereof iri experience will evidence. What man at the 
approach of death hath been comforted in fuch an oppofition , or challenged for fubmifllon ? Although con- 
tempt thereof hnth lien heavy on many , and that to fcare others from following their waves. All therefore 
of all ranks, would be obtefted to advert to this . left they be found even fighrers againft God ; e^'peciilly aH 
fueh times , when this defigne by fome is driven : leaft by putting to tlieir hand to pull down his Authrtritjr , 
they themfelves i.>eril"h in the fall thereof. And what doth the advantage at moft amount unto? It i$this,t!iere 
fhall be greater freedom to fin, and fewer means to reclaim from it 5 or what cenfure fhall be iof^ided, 
may be done in fuch away as may Hand with mens laughing at their fin , without being affec5led in the con- 
fcience by any convincing mean ? Hath thisever profited any hitherto ? Or , hath the right exercife of Dif. 
cipline ever been prejudiciall toany ? And do not ordinarily Religion-and Difcipline floarifh together? And 
arc n«t Congregations in beft cafe, where thisOrdinance is moft vigorous"^ And do aotthefadeffcits of the 


Chap.i. Sookofthe'ReveUtion, S^' 

want of this in other places evidently demonftrae the necefliiy thereof? People would cOnfider theie 
things, efpeciallytbefe who arc engaged fingiilarly for the fupporting of this Ordinance: for a time of rec- 
koning will come , when this CKercile of Difcipliue and fubmilfion thereto according to mens places and en- 
gagements J will not be found fo indifferent as now it is efteemed by many. And dil putcs of this kind , we 
luppofe , will not be admitted , when the Lord will declare that he hath ratified in Heaven > what according 
to His will hath been pronounced in thisordinanceofDifcipline upon earth; which by Divines, is well 
accounted tobe the ratification and confirmation of the threatnings contained in His Word* and added to 
make them the more weightie ., as the Sacraments are unto the promifes of His Grace. 

2. Concernmng 4 Minifiers reUtlon to a particular Cmiregatm. 

'T'His relation between the Angels and the Churches, is mentioned in all thefe Epiftlcs- The Miniftcr, 
■'• or Angel , is called the Minilter ol: fuch a Church peculiarly : here the Church , or Candlcitick, is called 
Hk , I wiilreraoveri&> Candleftick. it willnotchereJrore be impertinent to enquire a little concerning this 
mutual tye and relatiooin thefe three, i. In the general. 2, In the grounds of this peculiar tye. 3. In 
the nature of It} particularly, in thefe two, i. If a Minifter , as fuch, be only a Minilter to a particular 
Congregation, in which he feryes : And> 2. It" that tye be fuch, asuponnoconlideration it may be broken 
orloofed, and he removed by tranfporcation to fome other charge. We are the rather to take notice of 
tliis: not only bccaufe it ferves to clear the Text in hand ; but alfo becaufe it fupplieth (omewhatyetde- 
fe<ftive in reference to aMinilters Call, (of which we have formerly fpoken ) to wit , what may be 
thought of a Call , that is, by tranfporting of a man that i^^ already fixed in a particular Congregation : or , if 
a Minifler fettled in fome particular charge,may uponoccafion ac^Minifteiially in things pecuiiartoaMinifter 
without the iame. 

For clearing or' the firft, we would diftingniHi a threefold relation that a Minifter of the Gofpel ftands 
inta The firft is, a relation that is between Chrift the Mafter and Lord « and him as his Servant and Am- 
b^ador. This is the firlt relation, and f untain ofall the reft : in this refpedl > they are the Miniftersof 
Chrift, and Stewards of the mylteriesof God, 1 Corinth. 4. i. and Ambafladors for Chrift, z.Carimh. 5. 
20. dfc. becaufe they have their Authority and Commilfion fiom Him , andHe peculiarly is their Mafterand 
owner. In this refpetl alfo we may cotifidertheChurchiandlbfheisChrifts, Church , purchafed with His 
own blood , /l^s 20.28. This is the principall relation, by which both Angels and Churches are Chrifts , as 
he is the Soveraign Matter and ov^'ner of both : And fo neither are the Churches the Minifters , not the MinU 
fters the Churches i but both are Chrifts. 

2. There is a lelTe principall relation , which isdelegatory, and flows from the former , He, to whom 
both Miniftersand Churches do belong; thinking good to bcftow Minifters as a Gift un:o his Chur<:h: in this 
refped , Minifters relation is primareiyf;unto the Catholick Church , and fo, i Corinth. 12. 28. it is laid, Geit 
hathfet fome in the Church , firji Jpojilts, fecondarily Prophets , thirdly Teachers, ^c. And ng tin , Ephe}. 4. 
II. 12. Hegalpe fome Afiojiles , fome Pafiors ,fomeTeacher$t for the edifying of the hody of Chrift. Here we 
may fee that Minifters belong to the Church univerfall , and have relation to ic, they b jing Minifters of thac 
fame Church , that the Apoltles were Apoltles of, and for that fame end , to wit, the building of Chrifts body, 
which takes in both 7«^ 3ndGc«ti/e , as from that, i Corinth. i2. terf. i^.i^c. doth appear, futhis refpedt 
the Minifters principall relation and charge, is Chrifts Church univerfal , and bis body ; and th^y are given 
thereto, to wit, to the Houfeof God, whchisthe Church of the living God , into the which they are co 
behave themfelvcs as Steward;} , £?c. as Paul hath it, i Timothie,^, 1 7. 

3. We may confider this relation , as more particular , and Idle principal and as fubfervient to the former 
end; and fo Minifters, are Minifters to particular Churches, and not to others ^ and Churches, are the Churches 
of fuch Minifters ; and not of others, as we may fee in thefe Epililes. Thefe relations are neither ineonli- 
ftent, nor yet tobe confounded; and may, from thecomparironsufedin Scripture, b(f thus liluttrated , 
The Church is compared to a City, or a Vineyard, or, Flock; the Minif crs are Watchmen , Dreflers , ot 
Paf.ors: The Lord Chrift is thesoveraign , andownerofall. Now ^ifihequeftion be moved a>ncerning 
thefe VVaTchmen, Drelfers, or Pastors, to whom they belong? First of all, tUey are Christs, as appointed 
by Him for fuch a Work , and countable to him in it , as Watch-men arc the VVatchmen of fuch a Siace, or 
King , whom they ferve. Secondly , They are alfo Watchmen of the City , in common , as that is the ob- 
jedi of their watching , cprnmitted to them j or, they are Drelfers of the Vineycard » 0c.andfo it maybe 
laid , they arc Watchmen to the whole City. Yet Thirdly, Becaufe there are feveral Towers of tliatone 
City, aud it requires feteral Watchmen ^ and thele require an orderly appointment of tiiem co their feveraj 

M polls 

^ lAn Expofit'mofthe ^"^ " Chap.*; ~*' 

polls 5 and fo in rhis refp*^ , a Watchman that is a vVacch:naii of the whole City , tray be called pcculiar- 
ly.the VVacchiiienofliJchanJiucli a particular Town , and Fort i for diftinguishing.hiiTi/rom other Watch- 
men of thefame City jAvho inthatreipeil , cannot b^ called w'atchinenof any particular Town , but fuch 
as is allotted to theiii, although they be vVatchmen of the whole City principally; and fo may be faid 
oftheoih^r fimilitudes. Even lo it is with Muiiilersi who are primarily Chrilts, and by Him are delegates 
principally to the over fight of His whole Catholick Church i yet fo , as for the oetter attaining of that end , 
each hath his particular Pott ailigned him: from which, for diltiniVions fake , he is denominated, as 
fpecially belonging to it. The former relation is e;f ential to a Minirter ot Chrift , to wit , that he belongs to 
Chrifts Church ; and is commKfionated for the edifying thereof. Vac laft , to wit, a Mini(ters relation to 
this , or that particular Cnurch, is not effential to. aMinilter ofChrifts but is to be lubfeivicnt to the for- 
mer: for, we fee Apoftles and Evangehits had no fuch particular relation: and it is not impoiFiblc but 
aMiniftermaybefeparatedfromfuch a relation i yecishe ItiUto continue a Minilter of Chrift: much lefle 
is the difference bet wen one particular Church and another , to be counted eflential to a Minifterial relation. 
Thus in. a great houfe , theremay be many Stewards for diltributing to the Children or Servants ; and for or- 
der, each may have his number alfigned to him for whom he is to provide, and on whom he is to wait. 
They are all , i. Stewards of that one Milter. And, 2. in reference to his own houfe they are all alfo ftewards, 
of it. Yer, J. By peculiar delegation , they are only Stewards according to their peculiar allignments. h's 
eflential by their commiflion to be Stewards of that houfe j but not that they fhould be Stewards of fuch 
and fuch a number : for , this addeth no new power to them -, but orders them in the exercife of the former. 
In the fecond place , this particular relation between the Minifter and a particular Flock , doth arife from 
thefe grounds, i. From the Lords fpeciall affigning of one particular Cnurch, to one man, rather thau 
to- another ; in which he is to labour for the good of the whole. In which relpedt , as he is a Minifter of 
Chrift, to the Catholick Church , and hath that common with all other Miniftersj fo hath he this peculiar 
to him-, that he is fpecially defigned in reference to that portion, as it were his particular Polt , as hath 
been faid. 2. Upon this delegation by the Mafter , fuch a people become peculiarly his; and by the Ma- 
ilers appointment, are to fiibmit to the Ordinances adminift rated by him : becaufe, that fame Lord and 
Mafter of the Minifter, whovvarrandshimpcculiarly to treat with luch a people, being alfo Mafter of that 
Flock , calleth them peculiarly to fubmit to Him : from which , according to his appointment , there doth 
arife a mutual obligation between fuch a Minifter and fuch a People : he is , obliged to minifter unto them in 
the Gofpel ; and they , are obliged to fubmit to him , ftrengthen him , acknowledge him , communicate 
to him in all good things., and to provide for him, ^c. And this mutual relation , is not founded mcerly on 
voluntary confent , nor is of a perfonal nature ( tofpeakfo) that is, as if he, or they weredifpofingofthem- 
felves as principal parties j but it is an obligation flowing from the former delegation, and cannot but fol- 
low from the nature thereof , and by vertue of the general commands given, Hei. 15. 17. \Thef.^. 12. 
Gal. 6.6. iS>c. although there were no explicitc covenanting in reference to thefe ends amongft thefe parties : 
and where any is , it is but a formal exprefllng of that which otherwife is implied : and is nccelfary , not for 
binding up that relation fimply ; but for the better furthering the ends thereof. Therefore in that tye , Mi- 
niftersand People both are to look upon that obligation as a mean iubi'ervient to an cnd,and fo to be regulated 
by it : and ( as was hinted at ) both would remember that they do principally belong to Chrift j and that there- 
fore it i > not free to them to article or not , or as they M'ill in that obligation , or otherwayes than may ftand 
with the Mafterscnd, and delegation forfaid. 5. From this mutual obligation, there doth arife a more near 
mutual fympathie between that Minifter and Church , than between him and any other Church , or theni , 
and any other Minifter : they have common intrcfts , common ha2ards , common joy and grief, ^c. in which 
refpedt a croffe to one of them; is a crolfeto both , as this threatning here doth clear: and in this refpedt, there 
is agreater fibnelfe between them tlianothers not in this peculiar relation. 4. As there are peculiar duties call- 
ed for on both fides from each to other , which are not fo required berween them and others ; fo there is. 
a particular charge or.reckoning and account, which will follow thereuponj: in thisrefpeit, a Minifter is to 
count more peculiarly for that particular Church than others s and the people again for the reverencing and 
Ciicouraging of him in afpecial manner, as maybe gathered from, Heb. iiyYtrf. 17. And upon this ac- 
count , Paul did particularly aggtege the Gemilesdight.ng and grieving of him , in his Epiftle to the Corintbi' 
awjand Galcniansy becaufe of his particular delegation in reference to them. In which re fpcvft, although 
he was an Apoftleoftheuniverfal Chtirchi yetpecullarly was hethe Apoftleoftbe Gentiles: and upon that 
ground , did plead a pecuUar claim to them ; But ftill as fubordinate and I'ubfervient to the former. 

Thethird thing prepoled , is, that which mainly i> to be enquired into, to wit. The nature of this tye 
aod relation betwixt the Minilter. and apanicularChjrch: if it be fuch as doth bound him in his Autho- 

. Chap.t, Buokofthe ^eveUtml p-^ 

:tity , (o as he may not perform any Minilterial aCt M'ithoui the lame ? and fo upon the other fide , if he be fo 
tyed CO chnc Chui ch, that , for the greater good ot the uniyei fall Church, he may not be ioofed from it , and 
be made u(e of » as a Miniiter, eifew here ? ■ 

For the firll , We may take thcfe generall Concliifions for helping us in the underftanding thereof The 
fiiftis* that there is an Union and Communion in the catholickviiible Church : which is one Body, i Cor'. 
12. and that both of 3^e^vj and Gemites, one City and Houfe, one Coma ion wealth, Ephef.2.l^.S<.c'onc Mo- 
ther of us all, Gal^. 26. one Bride and Spoule, &c. Which expresfions , do hold forth this 13 nion in refe- 
rence to all vifible Churches , and all the members thereof. There are not two Bodies , Cities , or Com- 
monwealthsin this relped ; yet mull thcfe places bo underltood of the vil ible Church , it bein;> that Bodie , 
into which we are entred by Baptifm, i Cor. 12.1 3. and that City , in which Watch-men are fer, and ex- 
ternal! Ordinances i and that Commonwealth , which fucceedeth to that which once was peculiar to ifrael , 
and from which the Gentiles were once feparated by a Particion-wail , which is now taken down by 

Comlufion 2. Although this Church be one in it felf j yet it is (ub-divided in particular Churches , which 
';^e as pans of that whole.This ari ethfrom accidental confidcrations of the number of Proi-'edbrs , diftancc 
'6f place , and fuch like : in which r. fpe^fb, it's needful for her edification , and th-j going about of the Ordi- 
nances , that this fhould be ; yet is this (ubdivilion without prejudicv: of the Union forelaid , yea it is liib- 
fervient thereto i even as fuppoiing a numerous City or 1 ncorporarion fliould be fub-divided in lo many 
X^Jarters, or lefler Societies, for the good of the M'hole.Thus theChurch at fir(t,b jing one, upon the former 
confiderationi, upon this occaliondid extend her f«.lfin this manner^ and thele who juit now were of one 
Church, & meeting togetherfor the Ordinances, wereinduced to divide in feverall Societies and meeting- 
places, ( as may be gathered from the Hiftory of the ABs ) yet continuing itill o' the ftme Bodie together, 
m the firft ivfpctl.In which refped-, Ibmtimes the vifible Church is fpoken of in the plural number i fome- 
times again only in the lingular, as pointing out an Unity : luch are thefe phrafes, to edifie the Chunh,x.o add 
totheCWc/f;, tocaftoutof theC^z/rcfc, &c. which relped: the whole Church , confidered asan integral! 
whole, exilting in particular Churches, as we(ay,/k wWcivw/f/, which do;h yet but exiltin lb many par- 
ticular Nations, & hathnoexiftencc diltind from thenij and to fay it were conlidered as agenuf in this Ienfe» 
would not be intelligible. 

Condufz. Our Lord Jefus, the owner both of Minifters and Church , hath given Minifters, principally 
for the edification of Hi^ Catholick Churca , without rei pe^f to this or tliat particular congregation , but as 
thatisfublervienttotheformerend,asitis, Ephef.^. 11,12. i Lor. 12. 28. it being one Cnurch to which 
ixDth Apoitles, Paltors, Prophets, and Teachers are given ,* and th:-y having all one fcope, to wit , the perfc- 
fting or the 5aints ; and one Commislion, to wit, the preaching of iho Go. pel , which principally is to en- 
gage Souls to the Bridegroom. Hence in their prea- hi ng , \vc are to conceive this order , i . Apoftks and 
Minifters, &c. treat with finners , to have th.m engaged by taith to Chrilt , as theMaltcr tor whom they 
treat. 2.T0 enter them in the Catholick vifible Ch.^rch by Baptifm as the entringof tiiem within Chriftj 
Houleingenerall, without rerpedi to this or that particular congregation : aiwhcn Philip, JBsS. didfirft 
preach Chrift to the Eunuch, and afterward did Baptize him, and then left him. Ana, 5 B jing thus entred 
and broug; ,t in to the Catholick Church , thereupon foUowcth iheir entringimo parr icular Congregatioias , 
tliatfo they may be the more conveniently and commodioully edified and provided for, as all that are in 
Chrilts Houlc Ihould be ; who therefore are committed to lome fpeciall Overfecrs and Stewards for that 
end : as luppofe the Eunuch had been admitted (o lome particular Church for pnrr aking of the Ordinances 
therein after his Bapiilm ; that he lliouid be a member of Chrifts Church in gencrall, which is : eaied by Bap- 
tifm, 1 Cor. 1 2. 13. was not indifferent to him J butof what particular Church he might beamemoer, than 
by aftc' conveniency was to beregulated. Whence it doth appear , i . That there is a confi .leration of the 
Church as univerfall , befide the confidering of her in particular Churches. 2. That the Church fo con- 
fidered, as an integrall whole, is before the particular Churches ; and they are derived from her, 3, That the 
work of the Mininery doth relate principally to the whole , their ccmniislion being, in common, to build 
the Bodie , to watch the City, feed the Flock , preach the Golpel,&c. and their delegation to particular 
Chutche*;, is in a fubferviencyto this, that is, lb as this may be themore orderly and conveniently luUowedr 
even as fuppofe (b many Eldermen or Watchmen were by fome Superiour deligned for the governing and' 
v-atching ofone City, and fhould for the better accomplilhing thereof, have thciv feverall Quarters and Di- 
Vifions asfigncd to them j yet ftill were they to be accounted as Goverix)urs and Watchmen of the City prin- 
cipally, and not of thefe particular portions only. 

Cmch)'4. Ahhough tiiey be deligned principally for the Catholick Church , and their Comniisfion Will 

M 2 b-m 

^ 'An Expo/lt'ten of the Chap.2. 

bear them tx3 treat any where 5 yet arc they not Catholick Ofricers of that Church, nor at theit arburiment 
to treat where they will j but ( according to the order which he hath letled; in particular Churches as parts 
of that whole i that being the way which He hath laid doM'n for edification. 1 lay , 1. They are not Ca- 
tholick orticcrs, there being great odds here betwixt 0/]^ter* ofthe Catho/ick.(.huHh , and Catholick Off cers 
eftheCatJ:!olick^C^urcb , lUch the Apoftles and Evangelilts were s luch the Pope claims to be, that js>io nave 
an immediate accelle tor exercUing the Truft equally to all places. Oriicers ot the Catholick Church, are 
fuch as are placed in it for the building up thereof > and have commisfion in reference to that end j yet is it 
to be executed according to the rules laid down, that is, as Chrifts call in an ordinary way shall give them 
accefl'e. For although C as was faid,) they have a Power and Commislion, aBufrimOi to be Minilters of the 
■^'hole Church, and'Watchmenof the City indefinitlj^ ; yet , aHufecundo, they are Ipecially delegated for 
fuchandiuch congregations or Polts» as was hinted in the former limilitudes. In this refpedt , Peter and 
l^dulw&te Apoftles otche Catholick Church equally J yet, for the good thereof, by Ipeciall appointment 
Pwfrbecometh the Apoftle of the Circumcifion, and Paw/ of the Gentiles : and lo Paul could not be called 
the Apoftle of the Circumcifion, nor Peter of the Gentiles, in an equal manner. Hence that Argument may 
be anl wered, if a Minifter be a Minifter to more congregations behde his ovJn , then he muft either be a Mi- 
nifter to them as to his own equally , and fo have common charge of all : which \^'ere indeed abfurd , and 
would conftitute him a Catholick officer j or, he behoved to be to them a Minifter or officer of fome other 
kind than to his own, which were alto ab furd, and would introd uce a new kind of office and Officer : It's 
anfwered, aBu prima , he is a Minifter ofthe fame kind to all the Cnurches, to wic , a Minifter or Ambafla- 
dourof Chrift j bat, aBufecundo , and in refpckfl: of fpecial delegation , he is peculiarly Minifter of that 
congregation, whereto particularly he is appointed: in which rcfpeiiti P<i«/and Peter are equally, and yet 
Kot equally Apoftles ofthe fame Catholick Church. 

Cons 'uf.^. Notwithftanding of thb particular delegation ; yet is it profitable that a Minifter ihould exerce 
Minifteriall adts , uponoccafions warrantably calling for the fame in other Churches ; and when called to 
it, he may do it , not only by vcrtue of his gift i but.allo Authoritatively and by vertue of his office and com- 
misfion * as a Min:lter of Jcfus Chrift : even by thit fa.ne Authority and Warrand , whereby ordinarily he 
r' lifters within his own Congregation jand they are adts of Aiiniiteriall Authority in the one as well as in 
other : for Aiinifters in the Church, are not to be looked upon as Majors of feverall Towns, or Sheriffs 
of feverall Counties , who cannot exerce Authority out of their own iJounds i but they are to be looked 
upon as Heraulds of one King, having Authority to charge in His Name» where ever it be , within His Do- 
minions, although for the better fupply ofthe Subjects, lome of them be deligned for one corner , lome of 
them for another of the Kingdom: or , they are like Ambatfado jrs, authoaz.-d to treat with rebellious Sub- 
)e£ls, who have each ofchem Authority to treat and conclude with wholowver fh ill come in their way : al- 
though for the better carrying one of that treaty , fome of them be defigned for luch a corner, and to tryli at 
fuch a place , and others eifewhere j yet all of them bjing joyntly Ambailidours, and any of them warranted 
if it were poTible, to treat and conclude with all> by vcrcue of their Power ; lb that the ending ofthe Capi- 
tulation with one of them, is equally ftrong and binding as if it had been clofed with another, although tor 
efchewing ofconfufion they metin their treaty (everally. It is lb here, every Ambalfadjur of C hrift , upon 
Gods occalionall Call, hath warrand to propofe the fame termes, and conclude the treaty with a finnerj yea, 
to feal it in any congregation, as well as in his own: which may b.- cleared and confirmed farther in thele fol- 
lowing confiderations. 

1. The Power and Commiflion , whicha Minifter hath to perform Minifteriall duties , he hath it fro.ii 
Chrift the Mifter and Lord ofthe whole Church: and in this relpeift, is the Mmilter of Chrift, i Cor. 4. i. 
and His AmbaCTadour, 2 Cor. 5. 20. and therefore may his power extend it felt to His vilible Kingdom , he 
being a Herauld authorized to proclaim in the Name of that King : as fat therefore , as His Autboi ity as Ma- 
fter doth reach ; fo far m.iy his Minifteriall delegation under Him , upon j jft occafion , be extended. In- 
deed \^'ere his Authority derived from a particular Church » it cojld be extended no further than it felf j 
(;, which is the ground of this miltake) But his Authority being derived from Chrift , the Mailer* 
though in a mediate way ; and the Minifter being His Ambalfadour , treating and performing all his aitff 
in His Name , There is no ground to deny this Minifteriall Authority ofthe iervant , where the Mafter is 

2. Cpnfider, that the Matters intent in fending Minifters, , is , by them pot only to edifie particular Con- 
^regations> but the whole Bodie, as is faid. A Minifter therefore in hisat5ting as a Minifter upon fuch occa- 
iipnsjmuft be as a Minifter in them} other wife hi were only given as a Minifter to that particular Church, 

\ ji, if his relation to the Catholick Church beprincipail, aad his relation to a particular Congregation 


Cliap.2. *Bookjifthe "RenUtion, pj 

fiibordinate to that , then muft his Miniftcriall Authority , in the caie forefaid , extend it felf to others of the 
vifible Church, befide that particular congregation : becaule > according r/j the rule, pofUr ^utdunumquod- 
que ejl tale , id ipfum eft magis tale, that is to fay . if becaui e he is a Miniiter of the Cathohck Church , he is 
the: etore capable to be a Minilter of a particular Church j or , if his Authority reachetb to that particular 
Church >becaufe it is a part of the whole, then much more muft he have a relation to the whole ; But the 
former is true > as hath been c learai. Minifters are in capacity of taking the Overfight of fuch and fuchCon- 
gregationSjbecauleluch Congregations , are parts of the whole Church j and Minitters are appointed to e- 
difie th z fame s and do undertake that particular charge > as it is fubfervient to the generall end of edifying 
the whole ; even as Watchmen take the overfight of fuch a Port , becaufe they are Watchmen of the City j 
and liieir overfeeing luch a placein particular, doth contribute to the good of the whole. 

4. Their CommifTion which they have from Chrift , will fuit as well in one Congregation as in another , 
it being indifinit to preach the Gofpel without refpesil to this or that particular People i and it agreeth alfo 
with their office, and His end : (eing therefore their Commisfion, in the matter ofit> is not bounded , what 
warrand is there to bound their Authority , as if as AmbalTadours they did treat with one People , and 
as private perfons with another; M'hereas their Commi/Iion, in it felf , is indefinite, and by accidental! 
confiderations but appropriated fome way to one people more than another » For further clearing M'here- 
of, confider, 

I. That the Apoftles had theirbounds in Chriftian policy afigned to them j yet notwithflanding might 
they Authoritatively , as Apoftles, a(5tany Where in the Ciiurch : therefore will not the particular allotting 
of Congregations for Minifters in a fpeeiall manner , confine their Authority within the fame. It's true ) 
they were Apoftles of the CathoUck Church , and fo might ufe Apoftolick power in any part thereof , 
which a Minifter cannot do j yet proportionally , he is a Minifter of that fame Church , as is faid: and there- 
fore as that peculiar delegation did not marr the Apoftles in the ufe of their Apoftolick power when it was 
called for any other where ■, (. for, although they did it in an extraordinary way, yet Veter had ftill Apofto- 
lick power in reference to the Gentiles, and Paul to the Je-wS} when they exercifed it ; ) So may a Minilter 
have Minifleriall power, in Minifteriall aits , and mayadt by vertue thereof , when in an ordinary way heis 
called to it without thebounds of his own Congregation. 

2. If Apoftlesmight ufe Apoftolick Power, and , as Apoftles , adt without the bounds of the Catholick 
Church , then may Minifters adt , as Minifters , without the bounds of their particular Churches : becaufe 
there is a proportionablen.^ffe inrefpcdt of the extent of power betwixt Minifters in their particular Con- 
gregations, and Apoftles in the Catholick Ch.irchi But it's certain that the Apo lies , as Apoftles, did 
Preach to Heathens , and engage them to Chrift , and enter them in the Church , and that by vertue 
of their Apoftolick Commisiion and Authority : It will follow therefore , that a Minifter is not fo 
bounded by his relation to a particular Church , but that he may exercife Minifteriall power without the 
bounds thereof. 

3. If a Minifter , by that fame Authority , may Preach and adminiftrate the Sjcraments to others without 
the Congregation, as to thefe within , then is not his Minifterial Ajthority confined to one particular con- 
gregation; B'Jt the former is true. For the matter of preachmg , it is not denied: only it is faid that they 
preach notby Mmilteriall Authority, but as gifted private men. Unto which we oppofe , 1 . If a Mmifters 
warning, reproof, invitation, &c. have equal weight with it in every part of the Church, as it hath in hii 
own Congregation , Then muft he preach everywhere as a Minifter; becaufe , it cannot be denied , but 
he hath in his own Church a Minifteriall Authority , befide that which a gifi:ed Brother would have ; But 
the former is true, the Word by him hath the fame v\'eight as preached by commilfion from, and in the 
Name of, Chrift, fo that he may fay , tVe pray you in Chrijisftead be ye reconciled , which another cannot do : 
and the guilt of refufing the Word from him, will be found upon t le account of his Authority , no lefle in- 
excufable than if the refufcr were a member of his own congregation. And I fuppofe a conlcience will not 
get a defence tabled for excufe upon this exception. Befide, the Minifter hath Minifteriall Authority, as an 
Ambalfadour, toconclude with them that receive his M'ord ; and by the power of the keyes, to pronounce 
pardon upon the termes of the Gofpel in one Church , as well as in an other ; and one may receive that word, 
and reft on it as fpoken by an AmbafTidour, and expedi the ratifying thereof. And if it were not fo , their 
confolation were exceedingly leffened , and the Minifter difable d from concluding the treaty as an Ambaf- 
ladour, which dothnotagree with Chrifts end of fending Minifters , whichis the perfedting of the Saints, 
and edifying the Bodie indefinitely, Ephef.^.i2- And therefore may he , as an Ambafradour,aft in thefe Mi- 
nifteriall duties. 

Tfteconfideringof the fecond Branch j will clear it more j to wit/ ibus, Ifa Minifter may adminiftrate the 

M 3 Sacsa- 

.p4 AnSxpofnmofthe -Chap.jr 

6'jcra'ments without his own Congregation, th.-n mult his M.niiteriall power go beyond that relation ; be- 
caiiic th:reis a Miniftedaii power req aititc for thefcj which no gifted perlbii whatfoe\ er can aflume j But 
the foraicr IS true. £r;o , Src. 

T:iis minor is denycd by fome , as being an unwarantable pravflice j yet being generally ufed by all , it is 
thus anfwercdjthat a Mimlter may give the Sacrament of the Lords Supper to one not of his congregation , 
becaule the bodie of the Church thinks good to admit them; and therefore he may warrantably admini- 
llrate it to them > it t>eing ftill lawfull to him in it felf to coniccrate the elements jin his own congregation. 
But we reply , i. That a Minittermay warrantably baptize one , who is no member of his congregation ; 
and therefore neither of the former anfwers will weaken this Arguirtent ; As luppo'e a Minilter did en- 
counter fbmc heathen , it cannot be denied , but he might preach the Gofpel to him> and upon nis profeiled 
Faith and converlion, baptize him : oth.^rv^'^ayes it were now impoifible to baptize and bring in a hcathea : 
which were abfurd. Yet could not that be done, without Autnority , as is grantedj nor could it be done to 
him as to a Member of a particular Church : becaule , even after his Baptifm, it were lawfull for him to 
choofe whit particular Church he would joyn unto j neither before that, were he in capacity thereof , nor 
could the Minifter adt therein by the Churches warrand : bccaufe , i . The Chui ch could not judge a per- 
fon that is without : that were iiot within their reach. 2. BecauCe a Minilter might do this upon occafion, 
where there could not be accefle to have any Church determination concerning tae thing , as fuppole it were 
abroadonajournay, as Pfei/j/^'i- encounter was with the Eunuch, AHs'6. yet can it not befaidtnat uponihe 
heathens propoling this queltion, IVbat doth hinder me tobebapti^d ? that it might be anfwered warran- 
tably by the Minift-r , it hindereth, becaufc thou art no Church-aiember ; or , my Church is not here to 
authorize me, £?c. fuch anfwers would be uncomfortable to the man , and diiproportionable to Chrifts end.- 
It followeth therefore , that the Minilter, asaMinifter, might ba|_'tize him, and fcal the treaty, and lb Au- 
thoritatively treat and preach as a Minilter, feing Authoritatively hemayfealit. The former aniwer is 
therefore weak : And, r.doth fpeak nothingatall to ihecale of Baptifm j Nor ,2itotheadminiftrationof 
the Lords Supper out of his own congregation , ieing it alloweth him power only to confecrate the elements 
there : yet there can be no queltion , but Authority to adminiltrate ttit Lords Supper , mutt be as broad in 
thisrefpedt, as to adminiiirate Baptifm , Ieing they are both feals of die iame covenant. 5. IfaMinilters 
powder were pcromprorily commenfurable with his flock, even in thatcaie of ihc plurality of the Church 
their admitting of fuch a member , the Minilter could not be warranted to adminutrate to him i becaule ftiil 
notwithltandingthatperfon continues to be no m,;mber of that particular Ch-ircU, norluoje(5l to other Or- 
dinances of Diicipline : and therefore, according to tne former grounds , no Inch determination oi a people 
could communicate Authority ta.a Minilter by fuch an idi , as :o make him ule mmilterial power in refe- 
rence to a perfon, not under his charge : if otherwayes he were not hjrni}h>.^d theiewiih. 

4. Thefe principles feem to be repugnant, both to the commisfion , anJ practice generally of all the Mi- 
nifters of the Gofpel; For, i . They have one commiifion for all pLxes and perlo.is where they shall bcf 
called ; this makerh them to ad as Minifters in one place , and not in another. 2. Their commiifion is to 
treat for Chrift indelinitly, and for the carrying on of His delign, without refpett to this or tnat particular 
charge;, except in a fubordmace manner , fo that by their commiifion , tney arc conltitute Cnrilf s Ambaila- 
dors , Minifters and Stewards limply for the preaching of the Golpei and edi fying of liis Body . This faith, 
they are but Ambalfadors in reference to fuch and iucha people : and lo confequently, could not by Hb war- 
rand, dole a treaty in His Name with any other. 3. A Muntter by his commisHon, if ablolutely fct a pare 
for the Work of the Miniltrie, folong asChnft hath Work for him, if he continue faithful ; yea , by vertue 
of this his commislion , he is to follow the fame. Now by this , fuppole a particular cougregation to be dif- 
folved or deitroyed ; or, fuppole them to reject him that he hath no accede toexercife his Aimiltne amotigft 
them, in fuch a cafe he ceafeth to be a Minilter, and his commislion expireth , according to thcfe principles, 
•lb that he ft indsafcerward in no other relation to Chrilt than any private perlbn fo qualihed. 

It doth alio thwart with their pradices , it being ackn«wledged and pradliied almolt by all ever fince the 
dayes of the Apo'tlcs, that Minilteis naight and did adminiltrate Word and Sacraments Authoritatively be- 
yond the bounds of any particular congregation. And although in the primitive times , there was ItriCt m- 
terdiilion , that no Bishop should cxercile jurisdiction at ins own hand , within the bounds of another : 
C which was neccfluiry for preventing of confulion and keeping of order ) yet wash never heard tnat a Mi' 
■wilier might not Authoritatively Preach , and adminiftrate the Sacrament by the key of order in any part , 
as he might be called.: yea, it is not to be thought that the Minifters of particular Churches m their vo- 
yages to the Apoltles , or fcatterings and others-ayes , whereby they were ueceliarily withdra\\'n from 
$heir own particular disrgeSj chat they did, during thai time, abftain all Miniltcnal e erqles, became foic 


Chap.2. Boo'ioftkeReveUt'm, g^ 

fliouKi picjudge the Church of their labours as Mmiftcrs , during that time ; which is not likely, confidc- 
riiig , that th-ir help m the Mimtlrie of the Gofpel, i'. fjau-times inliniiated, and acknowledged by Pauh &c 
t^.y counted his teiiow-labourers, fuch as jinfiarchu4 , Epaphras and others, companions and fellows, both in 
Paul's iuiferings and labours. It is iiKe therefore, tnat tucir miniltcrial adting , cannot be confined to any 
particular place or Congregation. 

Laltly, mis opinion would infer many abfurdiiies J As,i. A Minifter could adminifterno Ordinance as ■ 
aminilter, andfome, notatall, butin nioo^vn congregation. 2. Norinit, butcofuch as were of his own 
Fljck. And, 3. Ir'any ottier were preli;nt, neihjuldbi the AmbaUa-lorofChrifttoonc;, and not to ano- 
ther ; and that in the lame menage. 4. Suppole a Congregation to want a Minift.^r s or, that ho be, by lick- 
nefle or othcrwayes, incapacitated from exerching ot his Office, By this ground th^y could have no mi- 
riifteriall ad admimltred amongitthem, andlbnoBaptifm, or Sacrament i nor yet have any benefit of a 
miniltrie more than if there vvere no (uch Ordinance. 5. By this , no particular Ch'Jrch might have mlni- 
iterial co.nmunion ( to fay lb ; in Churcii-ordinances together, but fuch as private perlons j yea, as h^achens 
might have in the hearing of the vV'ord. 6. Tnere could be no mmifterial communion and help amongit 
Aiinifters : for fo , no Muulter could fuppiie another , more than a p ivate per fon , though minifters , as 
joynt workers in one Work , be called m a Ipecial manner to have communion together. 7. No m.'mber , ■ 
now ever gracious , being withdrawn from hisown congregation , could be under any miiufteriall charge , 
or h 1 vc acccfle to the preaching of the Word, as it is a treaty by an Ambatfador j or , to any Sacrament for 
himfdf or his : which ishard, confideringthacic isthefameMaft^r, and the lame houfei andfeiagorten 
bccafions may draw m:n abroad where the Ordinances are , this would make them in a great pare to b3 
ftrangerseven within the Churs;h whereof they are children. 8. NoMiniftjr might Authoritatively re- 
|?rove any offending brother not of his own congregation , nor cenfure fuch as did not willingly joyn , how- 
Ibever Icandalous ; which is contrary to the practice of H^^<;/«*, as already bith been fiid. Neither would 
this bring in confuhon, or the making o t the particular pri viL-dges of a Congregation common, more than is 
allowable; becaulc this pleadeth not for an arbitiarinslle in the exerciie of this power s but that there may 
be a po vver to be exerciled for edification , when it shall be called for. 

Neither will it hence follow , chataMinilter, Elder,or Deacon, maythruft himfelf in, totheexercifeof 
Jurisdidlion in every place , becaufe they are Oificers of the Catholick Ciiurch : beca jfe, i . This only faith, . 
that he , being called orderly by an opened door may exerce his power in one place aid congregation, as well 
as in another. 2. B jcaufe ruling belongeth to the power of J urisdidlion -, which, bcfide inltalment in an 
Office , doth require other things to concur v^ith it, before it can be exercifed ; Preaching and adminiltra- 
tion of the Sacraments, are done by the power of order, and by vei t ue of the Office as fucn. Hence a Mi- 
nifter might preach to Heathens without the Church , and bap fize in due order; becaufe he doth that as a 
Minifter: yet could he not cenfure one fuch, till he were a Churcn membe r , and untill thsre were fome or- 
derly way of trying, judging, cenfurlng, 8cc. by a Church Judicatory feded: becaufe the exercife of this 
power doth require more than the being of an oHice. And therefore even the ApoUles who did thus preacb 
and adminifter the Sicraments,* yet neither judged thele thit were without at all i nor thefe that were with- 
in ( when they adfed by ordinary rules) except m the way of orderly proceeding. Therefore,. 43 j 1 5. Paul 
fcunJitmeettogotoJerw/i/ew to a Synod for deciding of fome thmg? bytnispowerof Junfdiition, al- 
though itillby his Doctrinehe wis Authoritatively condemning theTirrour: which fheweth, that there is 
more required in the one than in theother. Andinthat praflic -sthe Apoltles gave a precedent to Minitleis 
whereby to bediretifed inordinary cafes, becaufe in itthey didtoUow ordinary- rules common with them to 
all Minifters , and did not ad as extraordinary Apolties , for fo one was equally fufhcicnc for deciding of the 
matter as all were, butinthisacopy isgiven how theChurchistowalkinlichcales ordinarily. 

Thelaft thing which we are to enquire into, is, If this rela ion betwixt a Minifiet and dpartindar Congre- 
gation be fuch , as the Church for a greater good to the whole bodis may not loofe ic, and ctU one , ferVmg at otK 
particular Church , to fix and ferlpe elfcwhere , uponfuppofttion that it may more further the good of the 
1"^ hole Church » 

^nf-w. What is already faid , doth make way for the anfvvering of this , whicia we Ihall comprehend in 
thefe three Aflertions , 

-^//Itr.r.No Miniller ought todifpofeofhimfelf at hisown private arbitrement, to the prejudice or dif- 
foliition of a tye betwixt him and a particular Congregation that is orderly and legally fettled.' i'or, fi.\t , 
no Minifler being free of fuch a relation, ought to difpofe of himfelt arbitrarily, ( as was faid in t!ie 
dole of the firft Chapter ) much more being under a tye and particular relation. 2. It's a generall to ali'i 
iCar.j* Le t eUry man abide tn that calling ■whsrein be is called 3 but efpecially , Miniltersar»jto walkby 1 


9<5 An -Esfpeftt'mof the <aiap.t. 

lingular call, even in reference toaparticalar Cnarge: lo as it may be -the Flock overwhic. theHoIy 
Ghoft hath fee them : which muft> at leaft , include his beinp let there in the mediate way of Church orckri 
which is that that the Holy dioft ownes. as by comparing, AUs 1 3.3.and 4. and ^fif/ 14.25. with Adi.zo. 
28. is clear. This therefore cannot be left 10 any private way of traniadingbetvcifxt a Muulter and aPeo'plc.' 
3. Ifit were fo, then this particular relation were of no value, neither could properly a Minifter be called 
the Minilter of fuch a Church >or luch a Church be his in a more peculiar mann'-r tnati other Churches , if 
he mightat his pleafure and of himfelf diflolve that U.iion. 4. Mmiftcrs being fei vants of ChriftsHoufe 8c 
Watchmen put to their Polts by Him , as being fpecully to count for that People commuted to chem i rhey 
ought not and cannot vvitho it His warrand remove ; this would be found to be treachery and unfaithful- 
nefle in any other Servant or Watchman , much more mult it be here. 5. Whereas Chritt hath appointed 
thefe particular relatiojis for the entertaining of order, the preventing of confiifion and promov/ng ot edifica- 
tion, this would deltroy thele ends and bang confufion into rhe Church : which is contrary to the order 
that He hath elhblifhed in it. Laftly, It would beget dclpihug of the Miniltcry in the hearts of the People , 
and lay them open to fnares , if a Minilters fettliiig in a place itood lo upon his^wnEltftion ( elpccially 
after a former tye^ as isuiually in men \\'hoareof oiher profelfions. And there are mauy ftridl aflsot Coun- 
cels in all times againft this as amo(t wretched abufe, if it Ihould be admitted in the Church. 

Ajjert. 2. Although this tyc cannot be loofed by any privace confent , fo that no Miniller can traBfporc 
himfelf upon that account j yet iiuy the Church for her ou ngreatcr good tranlport a man from one particu- 
lar place to another, and that warrantably, notwithftanding ot the lormer particular tyeand relation : yea , 
fometime it v\'ill be expedient for the good of the Church lo to do. The application or the former grounds 
and the laying down or fome 0thers,vvill make m ay for the clearing and contirming of this. The firlt is , If 
there be an Union and Communion in the Catholick vihble Church, and if Minilters be efpecially given to 
the edifying of it, andinaiiibordination thereto, to theedihcaiion of particular Churches, then fuppofing 
chataMinifterstranfportation fromoneplace to another may furthermore the good of the whole dhan 
where he is, in that calc , it ought to be done. Becaule the whole is to be prefered to'the part, the good ot the 
Bodie to any particular member: and in that cale , it is not the prejudice of that particular Church^that their 
Minifter be fet where he may more profite the Bodie, but C as the learned c ovules in his Treatife of a GofpeL 
Minirtery, lib.^xap.y. faith ) '* It's rather their prcfcryation and farty , even asit's the good of any parti- 
*' cular Fort of a Cityi when a Watchman is removed from it to fome other Poll: , where he may be more 
^'ufefuU to the whole City: becaufe the benefit of the City, is the advantage of every perfon therein. But 
both the former are true, as hath been faid, to wit , that there is an Union and Commjnion in the Catho- 
lick vifible Church 3 and that a Minilters relation , ftandeth principally to ; erve Chnlt m refvrrcnce to the e-' 
dification of the whole : Therefore, Sec. 2.The examples ufed already* hold this toith, the Cnurchbeinaf 
one City, and Minifters appointed to be Waicbmen thereof, there can be noreafon why one may not be rc- 
mored from one corner to another , if lo it may conduce for the good ot the whole, rinsis aiiowed in all 
■Commonwealths, Cities, and Incorporations, &c. and is engraven by nature on the hearts of all a en to 
prefervethemfelvcs into Societies by fuch means: andean that be denied to tne Church olCnrilt , which 
nature maketh common to all Incorporations? 3. IFa Minilters relation to a particular charge be lefle 
principall and fubordinatc to his relation to the whole Bodie, Then ought it not to Itand in the way ol his 
being ufefuU to the whole, B t rather it is in fuch a cafe to cede and give place to the otii,- ; : other wlfo that 
particular relation would be principall, and would not be lublervienc to tUe other, as a higher end : b.caule 
fo, the Church in gencrall would be more frullrated and prejudged of the benefit or fucn a mans Minillery , 
than if there had been no fuch relation at all. But the former is irue, TUis partic jlar relation is llibordinate to 
the other, as is faid. Thercfore,&c. Th.lc conlcquents do follow upon the grounds tonuerly laid dov\'n. 
Moreover we m.iy addthele uncontrovertible conclufions. 

Concluf I . There is a diverllty in the cafes of particular Congregations ; and there is diverlity alfo in the 
gifts of Minifters. SomeCongvcgations arc more weighty, andmuchmore or ilicgood or hurt of the 
Church depended! upon their plantation than others. Again, fome are more intelligent, Tome are more un- 
cahe and dangerous to deal withall, &: c. as experience cieareth. W hereby it is apparent that the planting 
otfome places, is of great confequencc for the GofpeisadvancemeHt, abok'c the plaguing of others: and 
alio that comparatively, one place will require Ministers otherwile qualified than another. Again, tliere 
are divcrfuies of gift-; among Minifters , Ibme are fit for one People, and nor toi another, as is clear from, i. 
Cor. 1 2 14 1 5.5cc There are diterftty ef gifts , but thefamefptrit, diferencer efaimmiflrations. Sec. 

Coticluf.i. Minifters ought lo to be diltnbutedand placed in particular charge s,^is that there may be fome 
proportionablcnclVeand luitablcneflc betwixt the Minifter and his charge, that isj the ableft Minifter ihould 


Chap.i. H^okpfthe'RtnUtm. 97 

have the wdghtieft Charge 5 theweakcft, the Ciifitlt burthen; and as their gifc is more eminent inlearning, 
teaching, prudence in Government ,&c, there Ukevvireoughc a proportion robe keeped in laying on their 
Charge, fo as theremaybea.fitobje(^ for fuch qualifications, and asthegoodoftheBodicmay bemcft ad- 
vanced. This alfo we take for granted: for, that is ihz end of all gitts which are given 10 every rnan 
that be may frofte withall, 1 Of • i2 7. whether it be tAc vord of knowledge , ok, the word of xvifdom , &lc. 
they are all members ojonehodj j verl". 12. and therefore aretoconcurtorthegoodofchtfijdy , according 
to their feverall qcrahfications , as different members of that one Bodie : and in ihis refpe(5t , a difproportion- 
ating of a Minifters Charge to his gift , it is as if we would put the foot to do the hands Work,Oi the car 
to iupply the room ot the ey»: : which were abfurd j and would urgue either fuch and fuch diftindion and 
difference not to be neceffary , and lb all the members niighc be eye or head , or any one member ; or, it.will 
fay that we are not to walk according to that which the' Lord hath diftributed to every one : both which 
are abfurd , and exprcfly contrary to that wfaachis (aid , i Cot. 12. Where exprefly thefe three are held 
forth » I , That the Church is one Body. 2. That ^ere are different ^fcs , which are as different 
members of one Body , fomemoreeminen ly foroneufc , and fome more eminently for another. 3. That 
the Lords intent by that difference , is , to have ail thefe members concurring in their feverall places for the 
good of the whole Bodie ; that fo , as it is , V«r/ zj". by each members concurriiig in its own place > there 
may be no Schifm it\ the Bodie : which cannot be eichewed j iithisproportiona.ing of publick Charge^ and 
Gifts be not obferved. 

Concliff, 3. There cannot be ordinarily fuch adifceroit^ of the proportionablnclfe of mens gi'tstoa 
particuUir ftatioa at the firll entry, as to fit every one fufficiently, and to place theminth.irrigmrojtn. 
This wefuppofe , is allbclear from experience » wherein it is feen that many , at firfl , are fixt in Congrcgui- 
ons wherein afterward there provcth to be a difproportionablncffe. And it cannot be other\\'ife , upon thefe 
confiderations, i. Becaufe it cannot then be known fully what will prove to be rfet. peculia. gift of every 
man , till triall and experience evidence the fame, 2. Becaufe this proportionablncffe is not only to be tried 
by comparing a man and a particular Congregation fimpl j but it is to be taken by trying him comparative- 
ly • and that both in reference to other gifts and other Congregations : for, a man ab4blutely confidcred , may 
be fit for fuch a Congregation; yet when other Congregations and gifts are conlidercd , it nwy pofTibly 
be feen that he is more fit for an other Congregation than many other Muiifters j and yetpoifibiy fome of 
thefe may be as fit for his Congregation. In that cafe, it cannot be denied, bu itlook^thliker the right 
proponionaiing of every member , that men be put to ferve in th^ie Cong^ g tions 1 for which according 
to their gifts thty are beft fitted. 3. Becaufe at a Minifters firltcntrythv-rt is nococcafion to try a mans 
propo' tionabhiefle to any other Charge but one, or at moftin reference to lb many as fh.iU at that prefent 
be vacant and give him a Call, Now, fuppofe fomother Chrg flio.ild thereafter vat. e,ii';> hard to fay 
thar liiey fliould be fimply excluded from naving any acctff. to that perfon> if his gifts were moreproponi- 
on^dble to them ; B ^caui'e > as we faid , this proportion.iblnclfe is 10 be looked to in reference to wh.it is moft 
fit for the whole Bodie: for although ( if we may fo compare it) it is not unfit that tfe foot ihould be 
guided by fight j yet with refpedt to the w bole Body , it is more fit for \ he whole Bodie , ih n the eye fhould 
be placed in <he head, than in the foot : becaufe it is not togiveli^^hitoonemtmberonly, but to the whole 
Bodie, So is it here , aMmifter may fuit a particular Congrcg.ition , giving light as it were to the foot, 
whereas if we confider his office , which is to be an eye to the whale Bodie , he is dilproportionably placed : 
for lb the Bodie is darker , when the foot hath more light : which is abfurd- 

Concluf. 4. Chriffhath furniihcd His Church with Power in her Judicitories and Officers, to propor- 
tion Minift rs Gifts ftiitably ro the good of th.Bjdy. Hence is the trial of Spirits and Gifts appointed: 
ardin that refped: , thefpirits of the Prophets ^ are to be fubjeHtotheVro^hets , iCor, 14. otherwayes the 
Church in her Government were defective in that order which is in oilier Societies: and it would not b« 
odequate and proportionace to its end, ifthat were not : for fo there might be an inconveniencie and dif- 
proportionablncffe in the church , and no remedy to cure the fame. From which grounds put together, 
we m.' y thus ar ►lue , i If God haib given diverfitie of Gifts to Minifte rs, and they be to be impi-oven for the 
good of the whole Bidy , Then luppoling that aMinifler fetled in fome more private or kffer Congte- 
ggation be more proportionably qaalihed to fill fuch aplaceas is more Urge and eminent, than aiy other 
who can be bad without a ch.'.rge. 1 hen in this cafe he is to be tranlported : becaufe otherwayes , that be- 
ing denied and th Caarge p it \\ on a man of no competent ability , there would be a difproportionablnefle 
between the Gift and the C larg ,-. For, that would joyn the able man and the light burthen, and the weak man 
and the heavie burden : v hich were abf irdj B ;t the firlt is clear from the former conclufions. Thei efore, ^c, 
•iZ. If by a Minifters fitft plantation in a particular Charge there be adifproportiooablneffe in theaBody , 
-< , . • N v^ich 

9!8^ AfiBxpfmonoffhe CJhap.i. 

which transporting of him to another Charge would remeed , Then is he to be tranfported : and tranfporta- 
tion in that cafcmuft be allowable and expedient: becaufe by it that dueproportionablnefle is preferved 
among Minifters, and Members of the Body , which otherwayes would be defective , and fo a Schitm is pre- 
vented ; For it the end , to wit , thatproportionablneire be neceirary , Then tranfportition, which is a ne- 
ceflary mean whereby it is attained, cannot bur b;; neccdary amo; But theftrll is true from the former 
grounds. ErgOt^c. 3. Ittranrportationwereunlawfull. Then we behoved to fay , that either no Minifter 
couldbeatfirft mifplacedto the prejudice of the body : or, that there were no rcmced for fuch a cafe f for 
the recovering thereof j butboth thele areabfurd, as the former grounds do clear. 4. if Minifters were 
percmptorly tixtby their firft tye to particular Congregations, Then couIJ not their Gift come under cog* 
■ition m reference to any other charge; which would inferrethefeabturdities, i. That the Church were 
bounded and limited in the ufc-making of her own Members for her own good : which is contrary to die J 
sature of a body; for fo flie might have Members, fit for fuch and fijch ftationsj and yet could notr 
makeufeof them. 2. In proportionating Gifts for places, their woild, be little place for Chriftian pru- 
dence and deliberation : becaufe fo the cafe would be determined nccelTarilyby pro\'idence , that fuch va- 
cant places behoved to call fuch men as were not under any fonner tye , and they behoved to accept thefe' 
particular charges : or , tnuft both neccflarily forbear ; and fo fuch Churches be without Minifters , it maji 
be for alon^ time, before any did occur whom with confidence they might Call : and it will be hard to* 
fatten any ofthefe necelFities upon the way of Chritt. 3. By this, the Church lliould have little or no accefle^ 
atalltocognofceof mens Gifts, fo 8S to proportion them for her good , if (he had ho place for it aftcrtheir 
firft entrytothe Miniftrie : becaufe, then often there doth lye much of it upon the mans determining him- 
felf; or, at moft a Presbyteries determining of him, and a particular Congregation pre/fing , who often 
are more fwaycd with refpedt to thcmfel vcs , than to the Church in common. Befide , that there is no accefle 
to cognofcc thereof upon other grounds giveti : if then the Church be any wayes allowed to cognofce 
or dilpofeof Members according to their Gifts, and that be not left to particular inclinations , tranfport*' 
ation miift'be allowed.' And if it be fingly done, wefuppofc, there is no luch accefle to cognofce of a' 
mans Gift , and to proportionate it for the good of the body , as may be done in tranfportation. f . We mayi 
argue thus , , If Minifters be lights planted in the Church for the good of the whole , Then ought they fo to- 
be placed, as they miy moftextenfively give light to the whole. Now, thele are certain, t. That there 
are fomc Gongrcgatiofls where a Miniftermay morcconfpicuoufly hold torth the light of the Gofpel than ir> 
others* fome places being as Tables or Candleftickstrom M'hichligntdoth ihine; other places again , be- 
ing as corners.. 2. Sometimes alight maybefetin acorner, or under a buihell comparatively , andnotbe 
ietonthe place M'herethegreateft light is called for. 3. When it's mifplaced , itoughi robe removed from the 
corner to be fct on the Candleftick ; and although it may be , that, that corner be«ome more dark ; yet the 
houfe in general becometh more light fom.'. And if thele former grounds be true. Then tranfportation, wbenr 
k prov«s the rcnwving of a light from under a bed , to the Candleftick , for the greater good of the whOlc 
houfe, muft be allowed and admitted: But thele two confiderat ions will make tins appear, i. Chriftsex- 
prelfe words, Matth. 5,14.15. ye^art the light of the ■world, i$c. Neither do men tight a candle and put it 
mnder abtnhett ^ but on a candlefiick,i thtit all in the houfe may fee light, ( compared with Luke 8. 16. ^ which 
demonftrates there , that Minifters are lb to be placed as they may molt lighten the whole houfe : and if any 
place conduce mote for that than another i they;are accordingly to be placed. 2. The Apolttes practice 
dearsthis ; we will find themin their Preachings Specially, to frequent moft populos places , becaufether« 
was mofit occafion of fpreading the Golpelin thofe: ?<»«/ is marked, ABi 19. 10. to have Itaiedtwo full 
years in ■ Ephefta , and that all Afia , upon that occafion, heard the Word: which doih hold forth; 
!• That there are fome places (.particularly' populous and <publick places ) of more concernment for the 
fpreading of the Gofpel , when they are well planted , than other places. And , 2. That the Apoftles were 
in their abode and Preaching exceedingly Iwayed by that confideration.'fb that althojgb in fome refpeQ 
they had equal intereft in all perfons and Churches j yet did the confideration of the good of the whole ei> 
gage them to have particular refpevit to fome places beyond otners > and lb, asitwere, to tranfport ihetn- 
fclves from private places to morepuWick , that they might give hght to the moe. 6. If the good of a paN 
ticular Congregation , and nece/Tity of a particular iVlinifter, may warrand a tranfportation, much mor^ 
may the publick good of the Church do the fame : thiscannot be denied ; But both the firft are true, i. The 
p;ood of a particular Congregation may warrand it , as fiippole they be utterly prejudged againft aprefenc 
Miniftcr, M'ho yet elfewhere may have accefTe to be profitable} either tranfponation muff be allowed, 
or hemi^be rendrcd unprofitable, contrary to the end for which Chritt bath given Gifts , iCor. 12. and 
ibcyputin aworfecondjtiooby having, than by wanting : For the fecond ,, That a Minifters particular 


Chap.3.' •Butk^ef th ReveUtm, 'S9 

neceflity may conflrain this, as fuppofe there be nopoflibility to live and follow the MiR?ftrie in fuch a 
place, bfljcaufe oF outward Itraits: thus, NfAcwM^, 15.10. the Levites by the withdrawing of their main- 
tenance, are made to f lie every one to his field ; and Kehemiah contends with the Rulers , and removes that 
• obftrudtion, and doth not challenge the Levites, asMr.JJow// dothobferve. We tindalfoinChurch- 
ftorv ( Socrater , libzcap. 36.) of one SjDpanus, who nor being able to live in one place ,becaufe of bis infirm 
-health , which did dilagree therewith, he was tranfported to another more wholefome and agreeable to his 
•conftitution. 7. 1 f notwithftandiiig of that relation betwecna Minifter and a people, any .particular Mcm- 
i)er, or any other Offeer, upon weighty confideration, may remove themfelves , ox be removed from that 
Congregation, Then may the Miniiler be removed alfo, upon fuppofition of the "publick. good; becaufe 
there is thatfametye between the people and the Minifter , and other Officers and the people, thatisbe- 
•tween the Mnifter and them ; for , the relation is mutual j £ut that private Members , and Elders or Dea- 
Mcon* may remove * or be removed orderly, hath.neverbeen.queftioned. Ergo , CSic. 8- If aMinifter , upon 
.particular occafion, for publick good, may perform Minifterial acfts without his own jCougiegation for a 
time. Then fupponingthefe grounds to be urgent, and Authority to interveen , why may he not be fully re- 
moved > for, the fame ground that calleth to ad: for a time, to wit , the good of the body whereof he is a 
Minifter, may call forit to be perpetual ., and.oughc not to.be rejeded j But thefirft is £ruc.E/^o,^c. p.If wc 
-will confide r the Word of God more nearly, we will find this to be conform thcreta 

And, I .If we confider the Old Teftamenr, it is cettain that the Invites had theif own fixedneRe in the 
fcverall Cities bcfidc Jerttfaiem, feing that was theirXDffice to teach the People ; and no queftion,it wasdoisc 
orderly; hence, Thou/tndthe LeVtte wkhitt thy gates, is fo frequently mentioned : and ^^.15. 2i» it is faid > 
that of old time Mofes h^d^him in elferj city that didprtach him. It is certain alfo , that notwithltanding of that 
fixednefle, Levites might beremovcd to more publick fervice at Jewfaltm , as is gathered from Vem. 1 8-6. 
and 7. Jfa Lfifite come from any of thy gates , <Xit of all Ifrael , where hefojotitned » and shall come viith all 
his defirtjto the f lace v/hich the Lord shall choofi^ then shall he tnimfler t &c. where a Levit's removing 
from Mmiftting in one place to another , is clearly approven. Neither is it robe thought , that this re- 
movall was left arbierarie.to the Levite himfelf : becaufe fo, confufion could not have been efchewed 5 but 
ivhen it is fo qualified , that he cometh -mtkall his dejire^ it doth fuppofe atriall thereof, and an orderly way 
of di fpofing of him.) for the attaining of that end , to have preceeded , as the learned Junius doth obferye on 
tthe place 

■ » 2. If we comef cuhe NeNvTeftament, there we will find our Lord Jefus himfelf going from City to Ci- 
, ty j He fe ndeth His Difciplesxo go through the Cities> Preaching the Gofpel : the Apoftlcs follow the fame 
': way in their pratflice ; Andwe will find them fending Minifters fomecimetoone place, (ometime to ano- 
ther i fometimes keeping particular .Minifters with themfelves, as fi om the Hiftory of the ABs, and from the 
beginning and clofeof (everall Epiftles, may be gathered. And although thefe pra(5lices may feem , at firft , 
t?>De extraordinary, yet confidering the end thereof, which is the (preading of the Gofpel , and the gro ;nd 
>»ipon which it is built, to wit, the unity of the Church , the good whereof is to be fought by all the Minifters 
who are Chrifts Servants., in reference thereunto j confidering alfo that the Church, to the end of the world, 
is furnifhed with power for profecuting ot moral ends in an ordinary way j and that the Churches propaga- 
tion,is the end now as then; (eing alfo the removing of Minifters fometimes firom one place to another , m \y 
conduce to that end now as then 3 and the ground,to witjthegoodofche Church univerfall,isthc fame now 
as it was then. We conceive the prad^ice it felf muft be moral, as the ground was , although then the manner^ 
.& power V/2S extraordinary -y wliich is now to be performed in an ordinary way. ^ 

3. If we will particularly coniider, ASl.i 3,1.213. we will find this near almolt in an cxample.For,T.Tl.iere 
are therefeverall Prophets and Teachers in the Church of ^/ir/w^, as Barnabas, Luciits, Simeon, S5r. 
1. They are Miniftrin^ there in a collegiat way, and that for a long time. 3. Two of rhem arc pitched on , 
tobefentelfewhere* fortbefpreading of the Gofpel, it being inthewifdom of God thought fit, to call 
fome from Antioch , where were many , that others might be hel ped, who had nothing: although no que- 
ftion, there was work for all ofthemin^w/wfoitfelf; And He might have thruft out moe immediately 
Himfelf, if this w^y had not been pleafing to Him i yet their fundering was thought fitter for the Chur- 
ches univerfall good, 4. Thisis execute in a mediate way by thelayingcn of the hands of the Presbytery, 
and with fafting and prayer. Whence we may argue, If for tiie greater good of the Church, IbmeTeachcrs 
were taken from Amiooh and fent elfewhere , Then "may a Minifter , by Church-authority , for the end 
forefaid, be removed frona one place to another; Butthe former is true. £f^o,8cc. There is nothing can be 
objed:ed againft this , favetofay that this was extraordinary', in that it M'as particularly commanded of 
Cod: And, 2. That they were extraordinary Officers that were fent j But this will not enervate the 
\ N 2 , Argu- 

io(> Ah Expojitm of the diap.j. 

Argjinjnt: fo-.inth^fepra^ic^sof extraorJiniry O.ftcers in ch^ I'ritnitive times*we mjftobferve lome rules 
toditfcrence what is ordinary, fro.n whatis cxcraordinary in ihim» and ib know what is CO bi unicaced , and 
what not : othi;rwife we may rejeA all the pradl-.c;s oFCnrift , and t.ie Apoftles upon that accojnt, and lb 
prejudge our felves exceedingly o£a great part of clie Word that is written for o Jr diredt.ai. Let us there- 
fore obferve tbefe rules j. 

I.. Whereihe ground and reafon of a pradlice > is moral » although the Call thereto and manner of dif- 
charging thereof b; extraordinary i yet m lit the pra6tic- it felf be moral , alcho igh the manner in Co fit 
as is extraordinary be temporary : This , that cUeKirkliave Teachers ^fjppollng thattiisre m.iftbea 
Church ) iiismorall } asalfo that her feach.Ts havea Call » This will follow from Corifti lending of Apo- 
ftles, Difciples , and others ; Bxajfe the fame reafon faith , that a Miniftjr who is Ctirills Ambaflador , ac- 
cording to nisitation (as an Apoltle was in his ) Iho jld h^ye his commiirion as an Apoltle had : but that the 
Ch arch Ihojld al way have Apoltles , o: that her Teachers fltould be immediatly called of Go J , That wilf 
■ot follow r.becaufe the reafons thereof are not moral. No^'.if wemiy lafely reafo.i in the general, ihata 
Churchmuft have Officers with alawful call , becaufc Cnrifts ApoftLs had luch, though it was immediate, 
and alfo he that was called ought to ojey : by proportion we miy gath.-r. chit a Cnurch -officer miy be called 
from one place to another, upon a moral ground , although there bs* no immediate call at his removall , more 
than at his firft entry : becaule the ground whereupon this pra^ice i» founded , & wjiich is the reafon there- 
of, to wit, the greater good of the Cliurch ^is ftill binding now as then. 

2^fc 2. In clijfe primitive pradlices , there is a proportion abkniirf to te obfer ved between the Officer* 
who av^ ,and their call and mmn^r of proceedin,;, to wit, an extraordinary O^ticer , muft iiavean extraor* 
dinarycall, as fuch j and he miy aft extraordinarily inthe profecutio.i thereof, by extraordinary Power > 
whereas an ordinary Oi ficer m ift aok , by any ordinary call and Po^er , the fame things , f jppofe in preach- 
if^,Difcipline,ordainingoFMinitters,&c.andinibfar».ihatlayingoaof hands was extraorciinary, as being 
done upon an immediate call.B.it Minilters may follow it in an ordinary way,that is, by a mediate call, they 
may ordain Minifters to a particular congregation, or tranfport from one to another by proportion ;. becaufe 
the Apoltles by an immediate call did fend out extraordinary Officers to any particular place . 

KjiArg.; We would in fuch practices difference fuch things as are temporary , that is, f jch as have fpecial 
lelation to that time and ftate of the Church ^ as extrao/dinary O/ficers and Gifts were; from mch things as 
agree toche Church as a Church, and lerve to the edification thereof at all times. And th is alio tianf porting? 
oFa Mtnilter, nauft be allowable in fuch cafe : becaufe there can be no reafon given why that practice Ihould 
"he peculiar or only agreeing to that time and cale of the Church , or during tlie Apoltles lifetime ; but the 
|rro-jnds that infer tb: conveniency of it , are in a good meafuce commo no us wiih them , to wit , the furthe- 
lance of the ChurchesgoDd , which cannot otherwayes be fo well done. And if it may be as well done 
without this, we acknowledge that this pra<^ice will not be binding. And certainly the Lordsputtin^ 
of the Church to this^t? fend outfo.ne already called, when immediatly he might have thruft out others, 
doth lay , that he minded to teach what ordinarily fhould be done by the Church in the like cafe ; for, his 
lending of them nvediately by the Church, audnot immediately by himlelf, asatothsriimes, dothinli* 
Buatc this.. 

l(pkAi. We are to diftinguish things whereia the Apoftles acited extraordinarily , by reafon of their in- 
fallible Giftjextraordinary Power ,Cfif. from fuch things as were common to . hem with other Minifters , and 

therein they adted in an ordinary way common to them with all Minili> rs: of ihe firlt fort were their immc- 
ate deciding of controverfies , appointing of cenfures, lending of Mi lifter^-, &c. by vertue ©i their own 
alipne power: this is not to be imitate<<l : of the other for^ are their admitting of Minilters upon a mediate call 

to coiigregations, as ^Bi 14. their debating and deciding of controverlies, & making of Laws ina Synodical 
way, by reafoning f om Scripture in an ordinary way, as jifis 1 5. Thefe are imitable j and what they did in 
that manner mny be followed : And their laying on of Hinds ( \vhcn the call was intimate) their Praying 6c 
Paftiiigr which are mentioned in this place, were of the lalt kind i and fo upon fuppofition of the intimation 
ofa call, this their practice for the fubltancc is to be followed. 

Now, to rcf-ime a little further the application, that we may knov^ what is ordinary and what is extraordi- 
nary in this cafe j or, what is moral, an i what perpetual, or uMwt is temporary. i.That there be a call ofCiod, 
thatis moral and perpet lal ; and it may be concluded from this, that no Mtnilter without Gods call , is to be 
tranfported j bit that thjt Call is immediately revealed by God Himlelf, is temper .Jry, and not t be pleaded 
{<?r inordinary cafes. 2.. Tnis is moral, that hewhois called of God to difie His Church , by leaving one 
phcetofervcHftn in another, Ihould obey the lame.. 3. ,Ii*smoral, that this removall should noi be at the 
JEUns own determination j butjhat it b^ done b> Cnurch Guides , and Clwrch Judicatories. 4. It's a moral 


Chap. 2. 'SookpftheReveUt'um, lo, 

ground upon which this proceeds, to \ric , the^reater edification oFthe Church , whether by engaging and 
grafcingin oK Strang rs, or building up of thele that are brought in j this ground can noway be ihooghc 
more pec jhar to thcfi times than to alter mnc : and therefore it is laid down as the great end of Paftors and 
Teach.-rs, aswellasof Apoltles, as may be gathered from, i:pi>f/:4. 11,12, 13,14. This reaibn then miift 
hjvi w^ht to the end or the world. 5. It's an ordinary way by which they proceed, to Nvic, faltino- and 
prayer, fh.-win^the necelfity of a concurrence of Gods orderly and external Call with bis inward, for^war- 
ranting of this pratitice-; and alio shewing that when the removing of a Mmilter from o le place to anothef 
miy coiitributetothe j^o jdof the Bjdy , they are in that heartily to concur who have mott fpecial intercft. 
No vs th.-fe things b.ing moral and ot perpetual weight ui the Church, althoijgh it will not pkad that the 
Cn jrch may fend out Ajjoltle.-. by an immvidiat call , or that they may lend out indehnitely without refpedt 
to any place, or not kiio .ving where i yet this will follow , upon the grounds laid down , that when God 
calietba man fur the edifying of the b(9dy ot H.« Church from one place 10 another , there it onght to b * o- 
beyed ; and ihic lotnam.^s Godm y call , tot the greater good ot His Church, to have men removed from 
one place to another, fie is Matter of the Harvcft ; and therefore may ehher thrult out Labourers of new 
to His Field, or may takt from one partofihe Field to let upon an oih.r .Oaly thele things would b • adyeit, 
ed here according to the former rulesji. That byGodsCall, is not to be undeiftood any extraordinary chin?, 
but His fignify ing of His mind in an ordinary way , that luch a mans removal from luch a place , to ano- 
ther , is upon conhJeraiion of his gifts, upon comparing of tb; places , and therelpeding of the ftate of the 
^hirch , a hopef jU mean throjgh Gjds bleffing tor the further promoving of edihcation. 2. As an imme- 
diate and extraordinary Call was neceflary for luch ofticers in fuch a cafe ; fo proportionally is an ordinary 
Call by ordinary Ofacers , acting by o. dinary Power, only neceflary for ordinary cafes , f^ing in moral 
things ordinary Ufdcers , are to do by tl^ir ordinary Povver what c xcraordinar y Officers did by their ex- 
traordinary Power. And if we will cjiiirJ^r this practice, we will find it this far to be intended tor imita- 
rion ; For , I . Although the Lord im.n-diately reveal the Call , -yet doth He follow His defign in an ordi- 
nary way : not by ihr jlting oat new ddcers , which he might have done , if he had walked altogether ab- 
foliitely and extraordinarly in this j but he doth it in a mediate way of providence , in the making ufc of 
fome already called. 2. Thz circ jm.tances fecm (b to b_- recorded, as if the Lord were giving the reafon of 
calling fome from jinuoeh , rather than f ; o.n any o:her Ctiurch , to wit, becaufe there was a confiderable 
number in that place of fit qualified men j and that lo in reafon it were more agreeable for the good of rhs 
body , that io ne shoald be taken fom them to fupplic the want of the other,rather than that others should ■ 
be altogether deftitute , or fome removed fro.ii 1 jch places^ might not lb well fpare : . and there can be no 
reafon or the mentioning of this , b jt to sh m the moral equity of this pradice , that Minifters would hz 
proportionated in the Caurch fo as may be extenlively for tue good of the whole : and that where fomc 
places abound, an.^ others have Icarcity, theabjnimceoftheo.ie, shoulicondefcend to fupplie the o- 
thcr, and that no: of the weakeit or lealt able. 3. Ta t Lord ufeth a mediate way of fending them by the 
Chirch^s interpofing of ner A't.ioriiy and Prayers , which He did not ufe in ihe lending of Apoftles j nay , 
Matthias nad no impoli. ion of Hands; and this was becaufe the elev5tion of Apoftles was no way to fall with- 
in the compafle of ordinary Ch ircn-power, nor to be folio wed. k would feeai therefore, that it is made uf^ 
of in this pr a^ice, to lignifte, that it is a thing , to be continue in the Church , and to be performed by ordi- 
nary C.iurch-judicaiories , and uiiitated by them. 

Ifw.'confider thetimes foUowmg, it hath ever been pra^ifed in the Church. 1l*s marked to have been 
ill! pravSkice oft le firft two f imojs general Councels , as a mean ullfuU exceedingly for the good of the 
Cijrch. TiieNrc*« Comcel di 1 transfer Euftaebius from dmh.a to Amiocb. S<fZom.lib.7.Cap.2 And it's 
oblcrved particularly otGfegor'tus Ni^i i'»:f «»<» , that he was thrice tranfported : nrlt , he was Bishop in 
Cappadocia, thereafter broaghc to Nrt^iaw^wwi and thereafter toC»nJiantino.'U by the fecond famous ge- 
neral Co<Jncel, and ii*s marked to have t)een of great ufe to the Church. Cent.4 15 . 300. and to have been 
their common pra>5tice in this time. Sacrates, lib. 7. cap 55. doth for this very end,gi ve many inftances of 
this in feveral perfon?. A: the beginning of t^e Reformation , it was one of the great means that was made 
ufeof by God for prapagating t'.ie Golpel in leverall places : the tranfporting , or removing; of Minifters 
/rom one place to ino:her was exceeding ufefuU : and what cruelty had it been to have rcfufed tfae deiireof • 
people, feekinj^M'nifters from thofe that haitham ? And howelfe could they have been fjpplied ? And 
proportionably the latrrxweight lydth here in all times. 

AJfer 3. Altho igh in fonscafes this be for ths good of the Church , and is to bepradtifed by Cb iich J j- 
dicatories : yetit U to bedo.ie ^vich great (inglenelfe,tendernelfe, ^udence and caucion, leaft that which of 
itfelf, being rig'icly mauaged, is a benefice to -the Church, be turned to an abjfe,&^rov« hurtful 10 kef. 

N^ 3 Tnefe 

•_ *oi Aff Expojttien of the ^ Chap^. 

'J'hefc Caiiponsanl Rules rauft be regulated according t© particular circuinllantTatc cafes, which cannot 
be numbred.Yet thele things may be faid, i.That no felf refpedt oughc to have place here,but the greatergoofc 
ofthe Church andadvantageoftlicGorpel, is the great K^Oriiiov whereby this is to be decided. 

2. This general! is to be found oat, by coitiparing of places and qualifications with refpedt to the number 
, of the hearers, their qualifications as they are ftrong or infirm, trav5Vable or ftubborn , pure or corrupt ; In 
refpeit of their ftations, as they have influence on publick things or not , as they may have influence in com- 
municating their light to other places j as the word in his mojth may be more readily and freely received 
M'ithout prejudiccrand fuch other coniiderations of this kind : Ibme whereof » arejiinced in the clofe ofthe 
former Chapter concerning a Minifter'j Call at his firit entry. 

J. Tnis comparifon would not be conlidered betw een places , as if there were no tye ftanding beiweea 
him and either of them: certainly there is more difproportionableneife required toioofe one from a charge* 
than would have calt the ballance between places at his entry. Al To other means of a proportionable fetliog 
and providing of fuch a place,would be firll ferioully ellaycd and followed il they occur. 

4. This would be endeavoured to be done by convincing reafons, io as ( if poliibly^they who have intereft 
may be latisfied, if not in refpe-ft of their aticdion; yet in refpcA of their realbn, to wit , that it is the more 
publick good ofthe Church. 

5. No people ought to oppofc the removall of their mofl faithful and beloved Minifters , when it's done 
upon convincing realbns. Thefe people are content to yeeld to the removing even ofPaulaad BarnetbM , 
Avho, no qucltion, were molt dear unto them. And certainly were there endeavours to convince on the one 
,fide, and an acquiefcing to conviiilion on the other, it would look much more Chriltian-like.and prove much 
.more ufcfuU. And if this be a called for duty, to wit , that a Church-judicatory remove one from a feiled 
Congregation, upon fuch grounds , it mult be a fin and an oppofingofduty , M'ilfully to obitrudt the fame j 
and if it may be a Call of G jd, tl\ere is more need of confcience and fubmisfion here , to try if it be fo or not , 
than ablblutcly to refolve a peremptory and pertinacious oppolicion to the lame without any refpedl to the 
grounds thereof. And we conceive that the keeping ofa right mean in this practice , and efchewmg of ex- 
treams > mi^ht conduce cyccediiigly to the advantage of the Church ; and it would be exceeding fuitable to 
theunitieof the Catholick Church and that communion thatoug^httobeiu her , and well becoming thac 
Authority and care that is committed to Church -judicatories, that the feveraU particular Minifters were 
upon juft grounds proportioned with refpcwt to the edinc^ion of the whole. Andfo we have done with 
this particular relation. 

J. Concerning the naturt and difference of fav'mg and common Grace. 

IN this Epiftlci there isa lar^e commendation ofthis Angel's practice : which is not only given tohiai 
in refpedt ofthe matter of his a^fiions i but in refpeifi ofthe q'.wl ifications of th:m ; as . firft, that he did 
not only fuffer for, and have patience in, that which was materially right 5 but that he lliffcred/or t^hrijls^ 
Kamjf fak?.: and that he did not only hate thee deeds of the Hicolaitatts ; but did it with a refpedt Co 
Chrift : which is here added , to difference the fincerity lOf thefe actions from others that are materially; 
good alfo : for,, no queftion , there may be much (uffc;riog , which is not commendable before Chriit. An4* 
.certainly many others, even among heathens, did hate xhcicKicotaitans , who yet cannot be thought to be 
alike comprehended under this commendation. T/iis therefore that is added > for my Names fakj , mult 
'be to <how the (incerity and gracioufneirc thereof, as that which did put a difference between their lutfcrings 
and patience , and the fuftcrings of others. Aodit doihim43ly , th.u this qualificatioo, was that mainly , 
which made the Lord take notice thereof. It is therefore the fame on the matter withthat j Mnah.^. 1 1.^ 
of being perfecuted far ChriJIs fak? , to which the pomilejs made, Ycr/. 12. andthefirae, wirhthat 
I Pet. 4. 1 3. of being m;ide partakers o^Chriflsfuffmngf , and of being reproadjedfor Ms Kame : which. 
,being an evidence, and part of bleflbdnclfe in thefe places , cannot be conceived but to imply (ince- 
rity j without which, fulfering it fclf, even where the caufe is good , would be of no weight as to 
that end. We do therefore conceive thefe words undoubtedly to be added, to point out thai wherein 
their fincerity con(;fted^ and wherewith the Lord was efpecially well plcafed : fiomvvhich wfitnay gather 
iliefe DoArines.. '' 

firft , That there is a gr,'at dirfa'once between an aiftion morally or materially good , and that which is 
gcaciois, and asfuch acceptablcto God. It is not ^\m\Ay fuffer in^ ^indhaire.i , which the Lord commends 
.Jiere:but/?/j^m/;^and/jtffreifoandfoqiMlificd. Hence we will tiid frequently in the Scripture , difFe- 
%^n^c made between thefe ^ 19 do that which is good upon the m liter , and to do it with a perft^ fjeart. 


Chap. 1. Boo'^of the RereUtUn, lo^l 

In adions therefore j there arethefc three to be diltindly coniidered , i. The aft it felf. as it is naturaljfup- 
pofe an att of hatred, love, grief, SJc. 2. As the ai£t is moral , andisdircdediowardanobjevflthat isa- 
greeable to the Law, that is, to love chat which is ^ood, and to bate that which is evil , and (b torch : both 
which , in many reipeols, may be in hypocrites, who ma/ do chat vvhichis materially good. 3. We arc 
to confider an aCl as gracious, that is, when not only the thing for the matter is agreeable to the will of God , 
as fuppofe, one were a ■ ing, or (iiffcring for a truth j but alio when thatis done in the manner that the Law 
requircth , and with a fuicablneHc thereunto : and lb onefutfers not only for a truth j but as a Chnitian he 
carrieth hi.nfelf in his i iff:: ring tor the fame : it is this lalt which makes the ditfeience, and which the Lord- 
doth efpecially take notice ot , and commend by this qualification , that it is done /"or /jw Karnes Jake. 

Secondly, We gather, that this difference, wherein chegracioulnefTeof the ad: doth conlirt,is not to be in-- 
quired for in any inteni'e degree of the a£l it feif, whether politive or comparative ( at leaft only ) but it is to 
beinquired for in the nature and kind thereof , to wit , in re fpedtot politive qualiticacions concurring 
therewith, and having influence thereon : For, this commendation 3 is not given upon the degree^ but from 
the nature ot thele aCts : it is not co -nmendable hatred, bccaufe it is in (uch an intenfe degree pofitively : 
nor comparatively , becaufe it hateth chefe errors more than it doth hate truth j but becaule in their hatred' 
of thefe errors, they conform themfd ves to Cbrifts hatred of them. And likewife by that commendation 
for Chrijis Namefakf, is not holden forth any degree either of their labour ,or patience fimply , nor yet com- 
paratively, that they laboured more , or did luffer more for that which is materially good, than they did foe 
any other thing j or, becaufe their patience was for degree more than their impatience ; but| that there was a 
peculiar refped to the Lords Name both in their labour in patience. ^ , 

Ilitbe asked, Wb<f/ //;»», Viihkhbefidetbe moral teWtude of the aH ^ mufi concur for the making of it to be 
accounted gracious ? 

It may be anfM'cred in thefe four. Firft,There is a different fpiritual principle in the per fon ac5ling,which ' 
mult adualTy have influence upon the ad , and from which the ad , as gracious, proceedeth. This m Scri- - 
pture is called the Spirit , Inner-man, New-creature , fSc. and is ditferent in its acting from the OWman and 
Fh$h ; yea, and from the faculties of the tbul , coniidered m;erly as natural : for, if we confider an act , fup- 
pofe oflol^e.jubmKjion under fuffciringsor fuch like 3 it is the natural act of the foul as formally elicited by it ; 
but if we conlider them as gracious acts, they do proceed from the Spiri c influencing them Cto lay fo) with a 
fuitableneffe toit (elf, by the co-operation of the Grace of G^d. Sw^condly , There is a difference in refpecc 
of the end ; there is a gracious and fpirituall end propofed in performing of fuch a lawful! thing : this is im- 
plied here in this, that they had the glory of tlis Name of Jelijs before th *m in their fuff^ring and patience , 
as fceking to purfue that , and not to gain credit to themf^'lvei. Thirdly, There concurrech to qualifii a gra- 
cious action, a fpiritual motivj inclining the fpirituall principleto follow thisend , which can never be lepa- 
rated from the former, and here is clear in the twoinftances that are in ch- Text j where, as refpect to Chrijig 
l^ame> is iheend,ro,love to Chrifl,&- z -al to His Glory moveth them,6c fwayeth them to purfue this end, by 
fuch means, as Labouring, Patience, hating of the Nicofaitans, Scc.and thus to have patience for ChriftsNames • 
fake, is out of refpect to Chrifts Glory, to b; fwayed tliereunto. Fourthly, there isa difference in refpecc of 
the formality of the ace , when not only the thing thatis good is yeelded unco , upon a good motive i b.)t as 
fuch, it's yeelded unto or acced,that is, when theobject,as Ibconli-leied, is acted upon : 6c lb noc only is oitc 
fAvayed to patience in fuffcring from refpect to ChrilisNamej but upon xhxs formall confiJeratioii,t:hey yeeld 
themlelves to it, and doit as fuch.So that Itill there is a reduplication in the act, fuitible to the end & motive ' 
propofed: and as the per fon in the act hath another principle to act by , another end propofed to himfelf , &•. 
another niotive perfwading him to iti fohath h3 a different uptakingof the ace or object in the act, noc only 
as coniidered in it felf as good ,* but as coniidered in reference to luch an end,and as luch he acts on it. . As for 
inftance.ii is laudable & commendable to give to one that is in mifery , and more laudable to love one th u is ■ 
gracious, and to fupply his wants j yet both thefe are not fufficient to make the act to be accounted gracious , . 
even though the love to them Ihould be moft intenfe, and the beneficence large 5 but there mult b; a co.icur- - 
renceofthefe four formerly mentioned, to wit, 1. An inward gracious principle acting : otherwile , one 
may be renewed , and carry love to another that is gracious s and yet itit proceed noc from this principle ,, . 
it is not to be accounted lincere gracious love. 2, There muft be a fpirituall tingle end in their lo vmg of 
them, and giving to them, to vyit, the honouring of Chrilt in them, and their good. . 3.. A ipirituallmo-- 
live, to wit, the confidering oFthem notonlyasioltpaic, or as lovely in theiiifelves; but as gracious 
and beloved of JefusChrift, whoie command calls for love to them. . And laftly, this is done totheuv 'rff 
fuch , when the heatt in it's affection, cloieth with them upon this account 3 . thai ihey, are beloved of. 


rio4 ^*^ Expofitm of tJft chap. 2^ 

Cnr.lt, 'and, asbein^chcmTelves called of Go.l to that datie. Thus, Mat. to. Toii>pe taadifcipk , is one 
thing; but to give to him in the name of a OijCifle , i>^no:h.'r,ihatis,togive him upon that account that he 
is fach i or, a> itis » Mark,^.^i. Becaufe ihej'beUngto Clniji : the former may be often in nwny naturall nien, 
and hath no luch promile j this cannot be m any out a B^'liever , who only may expecl the promifed reward. 
Thisrf/, istobeiinderftood.as I Cffr.8.7. where foremen not only did eat that which was facrificed; but 
ai fiich a thing, and under that formallconlidcration ,that is, with lomeconfciencc ot the Idol,as the words 
be fore carry u i and this m maketh it quite another thing S j is it to be underltood here, when we lay the 
objeifl is to be conlidcrcd as fuch. And in this reduplication, we conceive, that a main peace ot"finglen(.fle 
and (incerity doth lye, when not only we do what is commanded ; or fuffer for what is truth j but when we do 
it as a thing conymanded, and furter for it as for His namesfake : and infome rel'petSl ,it may take-in the two 
former lalt differences i and foif any shall make the nu.i.bcr fewer, we shall not debate, providing that un« 
dcr any name thefe be taken-in. 

Hcncci thirdly, We gather alio , That what ever adt is fo qualified ' as in the former is exprefled ) it is a 
fincerc gracious adt in whatfoever degree it be» lb that it be an afl oi ?atienc% Lote, Hatred, i^c. proceeding 
from an inw'ard renewed principle, tending to a fpirituall end , fwaycd by a liipcrn.iturai 1 mocivei and upon 
that account ading, it cannot b^ but accounted an zGt of (incere Patienct, Lolfe, Hatred, ^e. although as to 
thedegreeofit.itbebutliketheerainofmjftardfeed. Forahho gri ihea^^s themlelves, even toward 
fuch 0Djc6ls, may bz diftinguished from gracious ad's j yet they cannot bj conceived to be fo and fo quali- 
fied in any degree, but hoc ipfo they mult oe conceived to be gracious : becaufe in 16 f..r they are agreeable to 
the Law, and that not only 10 the matter , but in the manner of them. And this ag reeablnetfe to the Law « 
being a proof that one is (andified , wichoutwhichno luch ad could be performed, it may be alio an evi- 
dence of Juftification , although it be not conlidcrcd as a condition thereoft which is accepted by th: Cove- 
nantofGrace. Andalthough ihefeads beimperfedlinrelpedofdegree; yetthey cannot be denied robe 
fincere, or perfc(ft>in refped ot their kind. Every ad of the new nature in M'hailbever degree beiig like ic 
felf , and conform to the principle from which it proceeds th ; even as on the contrary , thw lealt mo.ion of 
the old man is finfull according to the root from which it flowcs ; tor, thefe two cannot be feparatfd, which 
the Lord hath puttogeih.T ,agood treemuft have good fruit, and cannot bring forth evil fruit , Mat. 7. 17. 
iS.&c, Now,adsinthelealtdt^greefoqualifted,asbefjreisfud,areinfofar, atlealt. fruits or a good 
tree ; yea, o^ a gracious principle w icniii j and therefore thy cannot but be fuch alio. And it t were not 
thus, that this Angel had patience for CAriy?*N«m«y»^, itcouLlbenogroiiad of .ommeuda ion fo'- diffe- 
rencing his patience, frotothe patience ot nypocritts , if it did not fafficicutly prove his carnage to uu fin- 
€ere. Aaci hence, 

Fourthly, Arifeth alfo this, t aaC no naturall man or hvpocritc , though coming the greaccft length in the 
ftate ot hypocrifie , can in the lei:ft degree perform an a£l lb and fo qualitted, as is bcf jr? faid, more than th . y 
can ad from a principle which they have not : for, ifthjymi^ht inanymealuie havcpauence/orCri/?* 
fiatieifake , in refped of th; end, motive, and account upon m hich the heart yeeldeth to iufifering , it cou d 
be no ground of a peculiar commendation to this Angel , which is yet contrary to the (cope. And it the i or- 
mer be true, that every ad fo and fo qualified , is a lincere ad , this mult neceflarily then follow thereuponu 
And fo more particularily we fay, that no hypocrite can thus formally do any thing th.\t is j;ood, as.to give in- 
ftances, 1 . 1 n the duty of love to God j an hypocrite cannot love God a^ God,ind .0 > iitfer for Chrift, N imcs 
fake, as is formerly exprtfTd. Bccaule, i ^ That is given here as the evidence of t .is Angel's gracious pra- 
Aice, that it was fo q' laUfted j and the promiles that are annexed to this of futfering far hit Karnes fake 
(Wiiereat formerly we hinted) do confirm ic. 2. This being true ot all naturall men , th it th y are reah ha- 
ters of Go.H ,• and it being true alfo , that naturall men and hypocrites may goagreat length in loving God, & 
in exprelfing the evidences thereof in icmerefped j 1 1 mult either be laid then, that they hate God in refpeft 
of the materiality of their aCtions, or in refped of the want of the qualifications formerly mentioned.that is, 
becaufe they love not him, and what he loves as fuch, and upon fuch an account : now , it cannot be faid that 
they love not God in th fo merrefped j Nay , not only in refped of their being dcfedive alanerly in the 
degree or intenfnen'e of the ad, as may be fhewed afterward. It mutt be true therefore in the laft refped. 
And fo it will folio v, that no man in nature can be faid to love God , or perform any ad in things materially 
good , according as ir is formerly qualified. 5. This may be added » that if refped to good, could f way the 
natural! man (b as to make him ad acco ding to the former qualifications in any one ad , then might ne 
perform all other ads upon th .t fame account alfo ; for, « quatenw ad omne, "valet confequentia. Now,if it be 
abfurdto fay, that one can be a hypocrite, and yetin all his performances and adions be fofwayed (which 
is the clear evidence ofa lincere Profeiror which necdeth not to be afhamed, Pfal. iip.<5. ) X^cnicmuft 


Cap.*. Jhokofthe'ReveUtm, ^ fojf 

j4/b be abCurd toj&y , that a- hypocrite may perform any commanded thing upon that accontitas fuch , anU 
is formerly quali&d. 4, The doing ofa(5ts fo qualified , doth neceflfarily preCuppofe a gracious principal , 
or habituall change in the perlbn that a(5ls it : for , it being a friiic , ( in fo fir as it is fo quahtied ) that is gco.i 
and agreeable to the Law of God in die fpirituall meaning thereof, icmiift bsfuppofed to proceed from a 
tree that is good , feing grapes are rsoc gathered from Brambles , 5cc. Ic cannot therefore be confident with 
the ftate of hypocrilie , for one to perTorm adts fo qualified j who in practice is ftill a ftranger to the fpirit- 
uall meaning of the Law in the kind of the ai5l:. 2. k may be inftanced in hatred: for > though one in na- 
ture or an hypocrite may hate that wbichisfin5 yet from this we may gather thathecannothateitasfin, 
and it is hateful! to fiodf: Becaufe, i. This hating of the Kieolaitans deeds, is given here as a proof of 
this Angels fincerity : and if it were a thing common , there could b^ ho'fuchpeculiarnefle in it and there can 
be no peculiarnefle here, but that they hated them upon rfeat account as hatefull to God, and out of zeal to 
him they did it : other wife, no queition, heathens and naturallmen might have hatred at them in gtcater 
vehemency for the degree thereof , than thefe who are commended. The difference then muft be in the 
qualifications , as is faid. 2. The reaibus fjrthe former i oft ance will confirm this aUb: for if one might 
hate fin as fin, and as hateful! to God , tb^n might he hate all fin , and what is hatef ull to God , according to 
the aKiotne foroierly laid down, a quatemn adomne, &c. and fo he might here his Idxing of any thing more 
than God > andhisbeingdefetSiveinrhedegrceandmannerof anydutie: and confequently, hecouldnotbe 
liid to love any thing more than God > felrg noman can a(ftually love a thing , and > upon that fame account 
aad conlideration , hate that aiSt of their love , at the fame very time, in the lame very degree : Ic muft theij 
follow , that what hatred they bear to 6a , is for fame other ends , and not upon this account. Again , if one 
might hare fin as fin* one might love grace as grace jit being equally approvable by God to hate fin as fin, ani 
to love good as good. Now » this being diiprovcd in the farmer inftance , mult alfo fall in this. Laflly , 
The hating of fin as fin, rauflfuppore a different principle, whence that adt doth proceed, befide what isin 
it felf finfufi : for, it cannot be conceived that a finfull principle , as fuch , can hate it felf ; and in Scripture , 
lufling againfl theflelh, or lighting againitthe law in our members, which muft be a warring againft lin 
as fin, and as proceeding firom iuch a root as thej^esfj or the old ma,rf, is ever attribdted ro the Spiiit, Oal. 5. 17, 
or the ««««■>»<?«, andlawofthemind , Rom. 7. which doth neceflfarily inf^rr a change of the root in thelc 
who do hate fin as iln : and therefore this can be .within the compjiT.* of no hypocrite. Neither will it in- 
fringe this , that by experience we find drunkards , f^^earers , and other unrenewed perfons , hating not 
only thefe a*^s in themfelves; but even in their children i or, that vye may find it to have been in oar (elves 
before regeneration : This indeed M'ill prove that a natarall man , may hate that which is fin j but will not 
proy^ethathe hates iiasfin, but as that M^hich is hurtfuilorfharhefuutohim, or proves difquieting to the 
peace of his naturall confcience, as from the fame experience may be gathered j for , thefe fins in others 
will never affe<^ them: and there will flill be many delightfome fins continued in , which , it may be, they 
will know to be fins, and yet carry no fuch hatred to them. And though naturallmen in their judgement 
may be convinced that fin as fin ishatefull , and evil in ic felfj yet it v\'ill not follow that they will adlually 
hate it as fuch upon that cojfideration : becaufe there is no particular fin, that from the Word may be 
gathered to be fin , but a naturall mans judgement may be convinced , that as fitch it is evill j and yet often- 
times do they continue drunk with the love of many of them : becaufe men dono:confider and hate ill 
(imply as ill, but as evil to themj even as they defire not that which is good fimply , but that\t7hicli 
they conceive good to them i and experience daily will make this appear > that the heart lovtth not , or 
hateth not things as they appear fimply in themfelves, but as it conceives them to be in reference to its pre- 
fent condition, Now> confideiing fin as fin fimply > without reference to any other thing , there is no- 
thing upon that account can be conceived in it that can be hatefull to a natural man , who is dead in his fin- 
full condition. It muft be therefore for fome other refpedt that he hates any particulate ill , as thefe whom 
God afterward renews will find in their OM'n experience. 

Fifthly, This alfo will follow* that then there is adifferencebetweentheaftsoffavingGraceandthe 
adt« of common Grace , befide any confideration of the degree thereof: Ho thatrhis difference may well be 
laid to be in kind , or, iJpogHtere. We need not be curious in the tearnis of Phyfical , or n;oral differences » 
this muft b • a Phyfical and real difference . as Grace is a Phyfical and real thing , and doth not only differ from 
common f^ifts in re^'pecit of the Covenants accepting of fuch a degree , and not of another ; but alfo in refpedt 
of concuring q lalifications formerly me ntioned : for, an adt performed with thefe qualifications , mult either 
be of rhc' f ime kind that an aCt is wubout them , or it muft differ from itbecaufe of thefe quaUftcations. And 
if it differ beca fe ofthe'e, th.^n is that difference real , flowing froiSi the kind of the ad , and not from the 
<pnfideration of the degree alone : and fo notgraduall only. . 

Xo6 J^ Expofi'm of the Chap.t.^ 

Liftly , It will follow, that one in the fearch and trial of ihe lincerir^ and faTingneffe of his Grace , is not 
only tocon6kr it in the degree thereof, either polirive or comparative j but may aifo look to the nature 
and kind thereof, and cannot conclude the fincerity ot it , except they confider the qualifications formerly-' 
mentioned: for,that mult be ih.; only Hire way io6ndoutthe lincerity ofana»£l:, which our Lord Jefu».. 
propoieth as the ground of the commendation thereof : but here we fee that the grounds upon which Hi 
commends both their patience for Him , their refped: to Him , andiheir hating of what was evil» is , not 
(onlyacleaft) bccaufeof any degree , thatisconfidcredin thefeatfts; but bicaufe of their kind, or quali- 
fications wherewith tliey are qualified, as it is not patience ( that is , patience as it is a Grace)bccaufe it futfers 
lb much , or fuffers moiefor Truth , than for any ocher caufe , conlidered upon the matter ; but becaufe 
their fuffering in a goodcaurew.isfo qualified , as is laid: We will fee this fame to be clear in all other in-, 
ftances, as, k is true faving Repentance > not that which hath the deepeft Ibrrow politively , nor that whiclv 
hath more Ibrrow for fin comparatively than pleafure in it , but it is according as the principle 8c motive are^' 
from which the forrow proceeds, and by, and according to wnich it aCts: otberwayes,no quei\ion,JudM his 
Ibrrow might have beenfaid to have been true Repentance: which was certainly not only an intenfc grief ; 
but alfo comparatively > it atfe£led him more than any worldly loiJe could affecSt him, or any pleafure or ad- 
vantage, which by his fin acreafed to him, as the ftory of the Gofpel doth clear.The like may be faid of fear , 
There is no pofitive or comparative decree can prove it to be faving, this being certain , that for degree fome 
natural men may fear and tremble, an.1 that with anxietie , fo as the Lord may be more feared in this manner 
by them than any Orher tiling elfe : . trial th.'n muft efpecially ba , by confidenng the principle wh.«reby th^ 
perfonisaitcdin thisfear.Lne motive that fwayes him to it, and the account upon whichheacftechonGocf 
in it, whereby filial Lar is difl'crcnced from fervil: and this can be by no conlideration of thj degree, however' 
confidered ; but muft be in refpc(5t of the qualifications of the aa. 

iritfhouldh^hidjT/mh'iJinilerefpeB'to God fivay'mgonetof&nov/ for fmor fear more thanany other w»- 
ti>e doth i ^fo in thairefpeB > it maybefai^ to conjifl in the degree. 

^nfw:j. This fuppoitththeconciirrmgotpoiicive qualifications. 2. It fuppofeth the concurring ofthc 
fame quahficatio^is mentioned. 3.Thisplabcth not the difference in the inteni neile of the adt only , but in the 
qualificationsthithaveinfl.ienceoniriandfoitdothconfirmwh.itwel.iid,to wit, that more relpe(5t is to be * 
Kad to the nature of the act, and the qualilication thereof in our trial ,than to the degree thereof. 

Hereit is to be ad vert --d , i .. That in all this d ifcourfe cf tne politive qu.ilifications of fincerity , they are 

ftillto be cpnfider^d with, refpedl: to CUriftand the Covenant of Grace , lo that linglenefl'e in theend^taketh**, 

in the glorifying and >vorf]iippiag of Gpd' inChnft, and in the motive , theconfidL'ration of Gods worth'* 

and lore » as cohfiier^d i n Him, comes in '( as the Words, o jc of th . afprehenjion of the mercy of God in Chriji , 

put in the defiijUtionpf Repentarii,ce, do import ) and in the reduplicaiion , it acts on Him confidered as fuch , i 

that is, it loves (jod, fearshiiii, and bjlie'vs in Him as confidered inChrifl: andtnishathanuniverfalap'" 

probation of the way of the difpenfation qf Grace, and thar as proceeding from a principleof life communi-' 

cate to them by Chrifl Jelus : whereby they become not only oblii/ed to God for it i b jt obliged to Him^ 

in Chtifl Jefus, And thus we may lee, that this finglerefpect to God and Hisowngoodnefiefbr Htm- 

fclf, doth hot llr it out fimply ail relpect ,to our own good: for, the confidering of Him in Chrift, 

cannot but include that i but it derivesaji Q'Jfgood from that Fo.intain, and by that Channel Chriji; and 

fubordinateda all the thougl^ts thereof tothe praife of Gods Grace in Him. And this is to be remembered 

ihrougho !t i becaufe this dotli fully diffcretice true Gofpel -fincerity from the moral fl ifhss of love , fear , 

faith, tSc. which by fomelegal wo. k may proceed from natural men , whoyetcan never act any thing 

for kind the fame with thefe cjuJif^cacions; beCaufe tlie confidering of God , and acringon Him fo by love , 

fear, faith, SSi;. is re4lly to callHim and count Hiin Father in whatfoever degree they be , whichhaththe 

promife ofacceptatioii , and is a frdit of the Spirit of Adoption : for, GodsCovenint runsnonohim- 

who believes atlucba'degree.ibutfimpjy , to him tliat doth believe , thus qualified, whether his faith or' 

taubelief be more or lelfe : air;d fo the marks run npt , thcfe that have Griace or fruits at fuch a bignefle only j 

but thefe that have good fruits in'any meafifre", havethehi fromChrilt; andmay conclude that th»tree is 

good: and therefore, cannot but h2 accounted living branches, that will never be brokenofT: which of no 

hypocrite can be faid , who do never bring forth their fruiti in Him. And it is hard to fay,that fruit broughc 

^Drth.byyertueiindcominunication of life from Chrilt , doth not differ butindegree from fruit brought 

, fiarihfrom, andtogurlelves. Especially, confidering, that the Scripture dorh contradiflinguilh, them' 

, ^thacaccount, witlibut this fefpecttof heir degree, asweraay gather from Ho/ 14. JJ, being compared 

^ \ic woiiIdailveiXjthatthisredupEcaUonCQnfifltthno&onlyiii the propoiing of fuchanend^or being 

'^ acted 

Cfcap.2.' BooJ^of tke HereUtioth^ 107 

acted ly luch a motive > to wit, a command > CJc. but it takes in a Hnglenefle in both , and gives fuch an end 
and motive the chiefconlideraiion in the act, v hereby in the practice of duty the bean not only purpofeth 
the pleafing of God in the giving of obedience to a command, but goes about it asaihing plesfingtoGodfiC 
honourable to Him, and as fuch doth approve of it: for, a fervani may defire to plcafc his Mafter > and do 
what he hath commanded, and yet polhbly not to be fingle in it ,35 it is pleafing to him : \vhich,as we faid, is- 
tbe thing wherein the great pinch ot difcerning ihele diflerencing qualifications will lye. 

Learned Baxter t in his excellent Tieatife of the Saints everlafting reft, part.^. doth otherwife exprefle 
the Doftrine of the difference and trial ot- (aving and common Grace , than what hath been ufually refted in • 
among pradlicall Divines, \i hich doth nccefTitate us fomeway to infift a litlc further in the clearing thereof.' 
He hath thefe AlTertions , I. That it is not the Law but the Covenant , that can clear the fincerity of G: ace 
as laving, to wit , as it is accepted by th:; Covenant as the fulfilling of the condition thereof , fdg. : 05. and 
205. 2.He faith that God hath not in the Covenant promifed Juitification upon any meet adt , or adts con- 
fidcred without their degree and fuitablenelfe to their objeft, C?c pag 210. 3 . There is no ad: , confidered 
in irs meer nature and kind , which a true Chriftian may perform , but one that is unfound may perform it 
alio, pag.zi r. From which he draweth , That wicked men may really rely on Chrift-, have recumbencie 
onhi,n,iovcGod>C?cpaff.2ii.and 231. andthat they may hate fin as fin, andasdifpleafingtoGod , IbiA. 
4. He aflerts. That the lincerity of faving Grace as faving , lieth materially , not in the bare nature thereof 
but in the degree ; not in the degree confidered abfolutely in it felf, bur comparatively as it is prevalent againft 
its contrary, that is, when love adhereth more to God than any other thing, and fuch like , pag 222 . vhich 
he endeavoureth to Ihow both in the infufed habits , and in the adts of laving Grace : and pag. 35. doth aP 
fert. That in loving God and Chrift as lylediator, there is no more than a gradual! difference between the 
regenerate and unregenerate: andin thpend', he doth load the common opinion widi many dangerous 

Thefeaffertionsdofcemjatthefirft, tobeexpreflycontradidlory to what hath been faid j yet if we will 
confider the explication thereof , we will not find fo great difference in the matter' it felf as to be the rile ot 
a new debate and controverfie in the Church, wheiein there arc, alacel too many already J nor any 
juftcaufe to reje<5t the former received opinion for any prejudice thatfoUows upon it : to-\iS'hich two wo 
ihall fpeak a little, 

I. We conceive that the difference will not be found fo great as the e xpre/Tions at firft feem to carry , 
and were it not that this opinion of his, is exprefly laid down in oppoficion to \\'hat is commonly received , 
there might be not logreat ground to f ifpett it : For i. the infufing of habits as nectlfary and antecedaneois 
to gracious afts, is acknowledged by both : and exprefly* />^rM. /<»j. I58.andi5'9. he doth condemn the 
contrary in GreVmchoViw , at leaft as an error. And, pa>t.^ pag. 224. he hath fom\^hat to the lame purpofe. 
2. Iti? not queitioned whether trtie aits of faving Grace have a rational and deliberate prevalencic 
over the oppofitelufts, asheaflertSj part.i. pag 212,21^. thatwillbe allogranted by all Divines, that 
though where true Grace is , it maybe captivated andnotalwayesadtually prevail agaii fttheoppofite 
fuggeftionsoftheflLft J yet in a fober and deliberate frame, the interelt of God and fpiritual things M'ill 
have more room in the heart of one that is renewed ( as he is fuch at leaft )■ than fintullufts unto which th* 
flesh doth intice. 

3. It isgranted alio , thatbefide tl^ie adt there is neceffary for the conftituring of it to be faving > a futable- 
neife and adequatneffe to the object, which we will find in th- expiicariontnereof tobealmoft the fame 
with thepofitive qualifications, which Formerly we did lay down, cispag.ZiJ. and 212. he doth thus ex- 
prefle it , Tlejinctrity of the aB , as {aVmg , confifleth in its being Juted to Us adequM obji H ) conldered in its 
refpeBs \^ hich are ejfemiai to it as fuch an obeB )andfotobe/ie\>ein. andloye Godoi God, and C thrift Mi hriftt 
if the fmceiits of thefe aBs , but this lieth in believing , accepting andlotfing Goii , a- the only fupream 
G»d , i^c. where exp/efly the at5t is confidered as acting upon its object under the reduplication for-^ 
merly mentioned , and feems to be by him accounted the fame with accepting and loving God above 
all. And again , pag.229. to wiS GodandChriJi nbote all ( faith he ) this is to M^ill faVmgly > which he ex- 
plains thus, to Vi/ill Godoi God , the chief good , and ChrtH m Chrift the only Sd\>iour : and pag 230. he faith , 
ib^tamanmaji %\illCodandCi.rift, who b) the underjiandtng are apprehended m the chief geod ("as the de- 
vilsdoj and yet by not willing Him ^/oconfidered, that ivi//»/7^ is not laving, and wherefore ? Jt muft 
bebecaufe it wants th.it reduplication : which reduplication in thtterme as, mutt be indeed extended to 
the will, as well as to the underftanding, as he there aflerts j but is 1 ottobereitricted tothe degree o. its 
act , to fpeak fo, but is to be extended alio to the nature of it. Further , we will find the fime learned Au- 
thor eUewhere ( 10 wit , in the Appendix to his Aphorifms , m. lib pag, 242. in anfvcer to the 4. ob- 

O 2 jcciion ) 

loS^^ M Ixpofitm of tht Chap.i. 

jciition) giving the difference b.^tween fincere Covenanting with God and that which is not fincerc , wh .-re 
he doth lay down fix concLirringq'ialifications, andlbcoacludes thus; Tefee t'^ai there if a great differcfice 
bav^eenc&Ytnantingfinc'rely ando^eianting in hypocrrjie , andfobnvfeenfakhandfaiib', .tna yet the uiitc- 
rence will be found no other thing but what almoit is ufuaily atrerced by Divines in thelikecafe. 

4. We will find him alb come near in expreffions, as f»f.225. <rj/^c/j^fM'jf^''ewf is acknowledged : and 
although he call it a mar.Ufpecifck^difference ; yet doth he exprefle the fame, th:is , thai i^' froceedeth from the 
agreement and conformitie of our aBions and difpofitionstg the Law (which determineth of their duenejje , or their 
difconformitie thereunto : again,/?ji^.2i9. iainitmCis loy)e an^deliyht , ^c. as :h;re things wherein fincenty 
may be tried, ( for certainly delig.iting in God , is a Grace and aco.nmanded d.ity, as loving of Him is^eom- 
pare it witbp«^.2i g.and 214. he doth affert that hypocrites may have delight in (h- fame objedts ( lo wit , 
iheknowledgofGodand His Works j which areobjccfts alfo oF the delight oF the Regenerate j biit(laith 
fee) '* In the linner,thefe delights are wf^irf/io/fitf/amcw^mrc mth the former fenfu:il delightt: foritisnoc 
"the excellencie or goodnefle of' God Himfelf that delighteth them ; but the novelty of the things &c. as re- 
** ceivingthereb/ fome addition to its own perfection, and not as from God.C^c and though th.'y delight in 
*• Undying and knowing God, and Heaven, and Scripture 3 yetnot in God <*f God ori^cc^ie/^oorf, nor out 
of any favina hli>e to God ( this concradiftinguifhing o^faVmg love , from knowing of God as God, and From 
hypocriticallove, doth feem to place the difference in lorn- other thing than the degree alone ) but either 
because as fome Preachers) they make a gainfuU trade of it by teaching, others i or, becaufeitis an honourto 
i0»Vithefe.things, or be able todifcourfe of them , or at bejl ( tiota, if theFe b: their beft motives, or the higheft 
accountupoH which they delight, Then they cannot delight in God ^ God, \^'hich fincere Believers do -, nor 
can they do an aA for kind the fame; and (ith there mult be a difference between their delight, and the de- 
light that is gracious in relpedt oF the kind , becaiiFe ther go on d 'FT? renr accounts , fo m at it be in other 
Guaces) as I faidbefore , tbey deUgh' to kJiow God out of a delight in the no'^pelty , ij^c. and natural elelfotion of 
ibbe underjianding thereby ; it is one thing to delight in knowing , another in the thing kjioMvn, .And afterward neer 
the toot of that page, faith, So it is ihi fame kind of deUgljt that fu:h a man (to wic a hypocrite) hath inknoiv 
ing God and kno^ving other things: wnercby it is clearly infinuated , that it is anorh.^r kind of delight, which 
the Believer hath in delighting in Gjd , than any unren^vVed man can have, fein^it's another Kind of de- 
light thin he hith in any other thing. And wlierein this kind of difference confifteth we may gather from 
whatis faid. 1 . Thereis fuppofed to be a different principle , to wit , an infufed gracious habite , which 
muft precede this a^iJ. 2. There is a different end, the one feeketh to pleale his own curioficy , theo- her re- 
fpe£tethGodandhisownrpiritLial good. Thereisj^.a different morive; the one delighteth in it , becaufe 
it is profitable , or honourable, or pleafing to himfelf to kn 'w fuch things 3 the other delighteth in God Him- 
felf , as a«5ted therein from the excellency that is in himfel F, and the love that he hath to himfclF, and the Ipi- 
rituall faiisfaiftion that he hath in it. 4, There is a reduplication in \h,i adt , they not only djligh: in God , 
but in him m God, moved theretoout of true love to God , \^'hich K faith he ) the nnturali man doih not. 
Kow, thefe four being granted by the faid Reverend Author, and being the very fame thing upon the matrer 
with that which formerly we aflerted, we may lee that befide any confideration ol the degree , theie muft be 
aconccrranceoftbel'eqtialifieations, wherein ordinarily the difference in kind, betwixt faving grace and 

pontneoneii-le, tne luprcmacyi . 

degree, if it be well underitoodj and upon the other the concurrance of thefe qualifications is acknowledged, 
the difference ainnor be great : for underftanding oFihis difference ( which muft be lelle thsn appeared at 
firlt ) we would conlider thefe two , I . That when the degree of grace is fpoken of , it may b.- conddered 
either more Jiri^ly, as contradidinguished from rhe former q laliftcations, which in this refpedt a e laid to be 
the i^W of the ad ; or, it ma, be confideredmore /argely, asitcomprehendeth the prliiciple,morivo,end,&;. 
and Foit Caketh in the form jr qualifications. It Fecmeth that this learned Author , \yhen he fpeakcih of 
xhedegree,dothtakeitin this large fenfej whereas ufualy it is taken in the firft and ftrid fenfe , and this 
makeih the difference appear great.r than it is : and if this diftinftion might reconcile thefe miftakes, it were 
defireable. 2. The fupreroacy . or precedency and prevalency of the intereft of God in us above the intereft 
oFtlesh(in which alone that^reverend Author doth place the fincciityo.'TivingGra c.paj. 2Ki. prop. 10.) 
inaybeconfideredin refpeii of the degree oftheaA"it f.- If, bi;v> compared wr. theobjeds wh uiipoii ic 
r.fts j and Foco nparativcly, that ad may be fiid to be prevalcnr ,'Fipprif. of love, f-'ar,Fon-o\v,Scc.rhu bvcs 
.ind fearb. God more than any other thing, and hath more Ibn'ow For fin than dc'ight in ir, &.c,or we may con- 
fiiler ihisf-ipremacy and preyalcncy ol Gods incereftin refpcd of the qualificadons of the ad, that is, of the 


CIiap.2. ^BookjftheReyelation, i^p 

end, motive, 6c c. and thus theintereft of God nuy oc iaid to be prevalent , when it is refaed to God Hini- 
felf, and the ibiils cftccniing of Hiai as He is God , chat maketh it love Hinn and fear Him , and forrow ior 
difhonouring or Him , fo that ii% His intereit , more than an; other end or motive that hath inf luence'on 
theCe ads : in this latter lenle , theieisalfo no difference Irom what was formerly laid s andifthat propoli- 
tion could be (o underftood , there might bean accomodation ; but the inltances and explications addai by 
thefornamed Author, feem to limit this prevalency o^ Gods interelt to theadtit leif,asbeingonly compar- 
ed with other objedh, or as ading on God, or whit is approven by Hun prevalently, beyond what it doth 
on other oppofitc obje(5ts. In a word, this, when the good that is in God is confidtrred on the one hand, and 

mv^lll.. L lUm ^lll-J l.««V_ V-ri VIUIMIJ' j_»ww...>.^ «.i.»,i»,w». .>.^w»»M.*j iij mk,iV, I f . j,iiav.uii 

prevalency of Gods intereft to be efpecially in the motive fwaying to thead , and other qualifications^ and 
the ad to be fincere , iuppofe of love, fear , forrow > &c. not only bscaiife it loves or fears God more than 
any otherobje^ft j but becaufe , fi.igle refpett to God and fpintual good, maketh it love Him, fear Him, ior- 
row fjr the offending of Him> in whatever degree the a>:;t it feifb^. In the former relped:, fiippohng that 
an ad cotild b: prevalent , to wit , m loving or fearing God more than any other thing , fuch ads behoved 
to be accounted fincere and laving without any rel ped to the motive , or other qiialifications of them : and 
it fiippofeth that an ad may have thefe qualifications and not be gracio js : in th j laft refped , ads fo quali- 
fied ( fuppoling that there may be fuch prevailed over by the violence of other objetts ; yet are to be ac- 
counted gracious, becaufe fo and fo qualified , without refped to the digree of the prelent ad j and fo, that 
no ad ofan hypocrite can be fo qu ilitied. 2- The difference is in this , that this reverend Author doth'only '' 
Conftitute the difference in that comparative prevalent degree alone : and therefore exprefly alferteth , paJ, 
235. that thereis m more but a giadttall difference betwixt the grace that it in an regenerate man and tiJhre 
fijat he hathto God , and the common grace and lote that may he in one unregenerate : which would ieem to f ly 
that the one may leve God on the lame confideiation and account , and from the fame moiites that the o- 
ther may , efpecially confidering that he doth extend this meet graduall difference , both to the habits and 
ads : and fo the queltion here cometh to thisj if th.-re be any other difference than a graduall difference to be 
inquired for ? And this is that which we aiiert, that thereis be fide any gradual difference, a difference in kind 
^ that is, in relped of the former qaalifications) betvvixtfaving and common grace , and that in our fearch 
the one is to be inq lired for with the other ; (o that no degree fimply can quiet the mind , excep: it be i'o- 
qualified as aforefaid. And we conceive thac the i.iftances,reafons, fimihtud.s , and Scriptures that are ad- 
duced by that reverend Author to lUuftrate and confirm his opinion, will do no more but this, to wit, (htw 
thit when a gracious perfon is ading rationally , Godsintereft will be prevalent with him in degree ; and 
that ever it flio.ild be lo , and that it is moft ulefjU for a Believers clearnelle thai It be lb in an higli degree. 
All which are without cjueftion : but they will no wayes exclude the q lalifications mentioned; but rather do' 
prefuppofe them, as for example, pag 23 r. 32. he fa.th. That fmcerej arrow mujl be at fuch a dtgree that itpre>- 
\>ail oy>er our delight in fin asdloyie to tt , elfe it cannot be fating : alihojgh this be true , yet , can any lay tiiat 
this is enough, except the principle, motive, &c. from whica it proceedeth , and by which i/s quahtied be 
confiJered, as was formerly hinted? Again, /?<i^. ^34. he faith, Tjue h\e to the brethren conpjieth in ihisde- 
greet that it hy>e them aholp: our honour, -wealth, iSc. And ( 1 aith he ,; i'Vhat did the lolee of fame in Queen Ma - 
riesdjyes want but a more imenfe degree to make it prey/ail olper loye to their houfes, to their honour ,fafety i5c. 
that it mjght be fincere ? B ;lidc this int.nie degree , tnere might be wanting a right principle , for bangiii.T 
forth oFlove, and a right account upon which to love them , without which the hazarding of 1 i vc s & eftates 
bothforthem, had never been accounted fincere love befoieGod; and with which, the giving untothem^ 
a cup of cold water as in the name of a Difciple, Mat. 1 o. would have been acceptable. And no qu- (f .0.1 , 
many who through fear, and felf love , did keep down the Itirrings of fincere love within them , 10 taat it 
prevailed not to make them publicklyown thefe Sifterers as they inouldhave done : yet might Itiii carry fin- 
cere Icwe in their hearts to them, although finfuUy they obfcured it : which will indeed prove them to be 
guilty , and-their love to be imperfed ; but will not prove it altogether to be hypoGriticall and unfound in 
the kind thereoF : and therefore feing without thefe q ualifications j no degree can be fufficient to prove the 
fTncerity of an ad : and where thefe are, the ad in wnatfoever degree cannot but be acco.inccd fincere j it 
m. ft rather be thefe that conftitute the fincerity of thead.thin any degree confidered jsdiftind f^rom thcml 
That sflertion therefore, which is , pag. 238. T^JU a hypocrite may lore a Godly man fur his.God'ineJle, ora^ 
Cbfifiianfor Chrifts fake , feemeth to be unwarrantable , and utterly to make void that mark of the Grace of 
God, wiiichconfiftiih in true lolpe to the brethren : for, nothing can be conceived in the comp^araiiye degree 

O 3i ' v\'iih.- 

no AnSxpofitmifrhe Ckap.2.' 

vithout th? kind , but ii^ay be in hypocrites : and oh.n chelc that are finccrc will be for a time fo capci vaied 
with fcif-love , tliat they will not evidence their love to oihciS} but fee for themf elves , as the Dildpks 
iii(l,when"Chrift wasbctraied : yetit cannot be denied but chat then they loved him lincerilyj and that 
notin \^'ord only, but in deed alio. And although it was exceedingly clef«.'dhve j yet unlbund it cannot be 
called : and fo may be faid of love to ethers. And coniidering » that where nature hath dominion , there is 
(till cnimity nt the feed of God as fuch , how can it be lb ic a natural man can love> and hate the fame per- 
fon, upon the fame account, at one time ? It cannot be denied , bat natural men may intirciy love thcfe that 
are gracious -, and that alio their fuppofing them to be beloved ol God , may have lome w eight wiih them : 
yetis nocthat rerpe(5thad to them upon this account as they are beloved ot God, or like to Hun j but at the 
molt> as thereby they may gain Gods love, or have Ibme bcnctii by their loving of them , or the preventing 
of lome evil , Or the conrirming of themfelvesin their fccurity andielf-couceated opinion hem this, that 
they love luch an onexiirc. And it appears further in ihi5, that they love roc ail who are Godly, and hate not, & 
fliun not , all th.it are oppofite to Godlineffe ; and lb do no: love God and Godlmelfe it lelf lingly as luch ; 
becauie then their own mclinacion and fecret delights, w ould be hateful to themfelvcs. And yet certainly,all 
this would be, if Godly men were loved, upon this accour.t,becauIe they are fuch. Again,/»<?g.225. heiUii- 
ftrateth it by this comparilbn of eating much and little , to Ihew that the moral good ot an action confilteth 
in the degree thereof. Now , none will fay , that fimple fhunning of extreams of eating and driaking tco 
much or too little , will conftitute an aCt to be fincerely gracious, and acceptable to God> except it be con- 
fidered as qualified with its motive and end, to wit, Gods Glory, C^c. And ellewhere, go!d(l.mh he) is tote 
tried by wight. *i bj the tou^^flom : now this is true that the quantity of gold is to be tried lo , ( but goldlim- 
ply is not only to be tryed by the M'cight i and then alfo Grace is not only to be tried by the degree ) yet cer- 
tainly the reality andtruth ofit, istobetried by the touchltone , audit is here the lincerity and truth of 
Grace that we are inquiring for i and, faith he. Ibid it is not iht^reftling > but the otenoming , thatthe pro- 
mifeismadeto , which is trueinrefpediofiheprcmllesoffull fruition: for,theledopreiuppofeafulland 
total vititorie j but canit be (aid that no wreftler may be laid to have true Grace , or may conclude that he 
hath it , till he have m this lenfe fully overcome ? That would diredtly thwart the Authors fcope , which is 
to prcffe the making of our eleiflion and calling lure , and by this achate tohelpth,;rcin; tor, upon this 
ground, none in this life could attain affurance, becaufe this visitor y that is mentioned inthefe Scriptures, 
*j^V.2.3.^c.' He that o\er comes, ^c.\'i\h.crd{x\to\z\\: that tiiererore which he aiilrcs , pdrj 24.3. cannot 
be granted, to\\'it, thai fgbting is the fame aBion naturally in both to wit , inthefewhoolpe-xome , and 
thefe Mho are overcome , 1 Jo-h. 4.5. wuh 2 l^et. 2. 19, 20. For bo bfiga but t. elpaliam Jirong, andcort- 
jl am do conquer, wienihejeeblsjfaint y aM cowardly and impatien. I, do turn their backs and are olpercome. Ic 
miy be obferved , that though righting be the lame ( t-oilibiy Pn) licdliy unaeritood ) yet it's one thing 
to hghc valiantly, and (toutly , another to do it cou'ardly and tain jngly , or to right for refpect to their Cap- 
r lin, or for love of wages, &c. and fo there is a great ditference mor.iily betvVecn nghcing and righting , and 
alio in rcfpct.^ of the poritive qualifications thereof : and thus the difference is admitted here. B.-ride, that 
word viKavJt in the prefenr, iheweth that the Lord doth ieck> n a ditference before this vi^flory be obtai- 
ned. Aud(laithhe) the Kingdom of Heaven fufjereth Violence ; and violence is no diftiuCl: adf ion but 
a different degree of adion. '1 nele things ( I lay ) may Icrve clearly to iih ff rate what we alferted : for 
here, fijhting is contratlillinguiflicd from the victory that follow^ th it. Now canit be faid, that there 
is no true Grace in th.' perlon thrX rights , or in fighting that he may overcome ? And if there be , than the 
friceriry and tru.h of Grace confilteth is not in this adtnai overccmT.g only : nor can it b.- faid , that the re- 
newed ft. h er wrcflleth in the fame manner , or that his- righting is mine fame kind, coniidering that he 
rii;hteth by his faith, i Jtf/j.5.4. that he mortifieth the deeds uf the flesh by theSpl; it,/^ow.8.i3 .thatheput- 
teth on the whole armour of Uod> Epkef6 Cc. And Icing an unrenewed man, nciciur nath luch weapons 
or fpiritual armour , nor hath a life or dexterity to uie them , nor luch arguments indi:cing him to the fight, 
or inch 3n end before him , or fueh a principle as h capable, fo to be wroL'ght upon , ^c. can it be laid ihit 
his fightuig is the fame with the former ^ And that other expreflion of offering violence to the Kjngdom 
efGo i , i'5 but a borrowed exprelhon : and therefore ought not fo to be made ule of here , as if there were 
itronger and weaker aifaults made at Heaven indeed 3 and asif there needed no more to th.> weak alTault , but 
a further degree only, when, at lealJ, there muft bj new conveighed skill and Itrength , and a rcw vvr.y mult 
be folcwed for attaining it. For , the icopeoi tnac place, is,tofhew the necellity cf taking hold ofChrilt 
by Faith, notw iihiUnding of what ever impediments and discouragements w oold fcare one in the way : and 
io it proves , that ihe. Faith ofaB.iiever, is lar ditferent from the Faith of a Hypocrite ; becaufe the 
one Iteps over difficulties upon the confideration of Gods taithf ulncfle , and by taking hold ofjcfiis Chrilt 


Chap.J. Botkof tfic Revelation. 1 1 j 

dorh prevail! n the conquering of Heaven, asit by violence and might they did carry it » whereas others,- 
who never took hold on Him, or by their Faith improved His offices , fortheupmaking of their own 
"needSjhave no ground ofexpeitation to be admitted to H^avenjand nothing they can doxan be of force to do 
\-ioIence to ihc Kingdom of God without this. And fo in this refped: the fighter pre vailetb and over- 
cometh , and gaintth Heaven : bccaiile :, as the Apoftle laiih , he ttriyech lawfully^ iTim 2. 5. and becaufe 
he fighvjdi in the right manner j and his fighting is not , notto be accounted fiucere , till he overcome; b it he 
ove- Cometh , becaulv it is fincere -, and foit's lincere before that. Bjfide , the native expofttion of chat place 
lookcth to a violence peculiarly called for in that time; tor, Jime the dayes of ]o\mBapuJi JakhthcTi-xz , 
which will concern this nothing. For indeed then , there was a great difficulty togettheMefllahclofcd- 
W th as already incarnate, and to lay by all Types, asnow having their accomplilhment. By all m hich , we 
think it is more agreeable to Truth ; to continue the received Doftrine of inquiring for the Truth and fin- 
cerity ofGraceinthekiadthcreof, and not in the degree only. For further confirming whereof , ( beiide 
what is faid ) we fliall firlt ihew that there is a real difi[erence between the habites of faving Grace in the R > 
generate, and the common difpoiitions that may be in hypocrites. 2. We fhall fhew that there is fucn a 
difference alfo in the a£ts of faving Grace, in relped^ oi thefe former qualifications , btCdethe confiJer- 
ation of the prevalency of the degree, and the aCts that may be in hypocrities. , And,3.Tnatthisne\v 
opinion 3 hath no more advantage wich it , than the former j but that it hata the fame inconveniences, ( if they 
beinconvaiiencies) v hich are ..lleged againft the former , waiting upon it and others alfobefidesthefe. 

I. That the infuled habits of Grace which aie called the new nature , feed of God , the utiSlion , andfpirit, 
S^c. do differ from thehabits and difpoficions that are in unrenewed men and hypocrites, and that by a real 
and Phyfical difference even in kind , may thus be made out, i. If the F/w^ and Spirit, 3cc. b: different 
in kind having different originals , and different effects, ^c. Then Grace, thus confidered in a renewed per- 
fon, mi ft be different in Kind from what is, orcanbeinany hypocrite: becaufe the one is Spirit, theother 
is ftill Elesh: and there is no mids between a natural and a renewed man, and what pioccedeth from 
themasfuvh: for what isborn oftheone, is Spirit; andM'hat is born of theother, atwhitever lcn^T;chic 
be i it's F/eth: But the former is true; Fksh dud C)/'/m are molt oppofite in all the former re(pe(5ls : this, 
to wit, xh J Spirit, is an immediate effect ol: aPnyficai opperacion of the Grace of, God working a change 
upon the heai t ; and fo mult have fome fuitable Pnyfical thingin the nature of it , different from any thmg . 
which is notpreduced by the fame caufe , or by the lame manner ot"caufality i fuch as common difpolitions 
are and in effects, tncre is contrariety, the one lufteth againft theother, for the one is contrary to the 
other J <9<?/. 5-. 17. and therefore there muft be fome real, Phylical difference between thefe, vvho'ecaufes 
and effects are lb different. 2. If they do not differ in kind, ihenicioeithjrbjcaulethey arebo:h fruics 
of the Spitit, and that eq tally,. or, becaufe neither of them is lb , or, becaufe diat which ii of the Spirit 
favingly , doth not differ from that which is not faving. Now, norjeofchefecanbeaff.rmed. Concerning the 
laft,this only can be faid for anfvver , that although nature and faving Grace mr.y differ fo, yet co.iimon Grace 
Cannot be laid to make fuch a difference , it being alio a fruit of the Spn-n. And to this we reply, if 
thefe common gifts can be confiitent with a dominion of fin, and compleat deadnefle therein , and iaying. 
Grace cannot be confiftenr with tl^efe , Tnen there mult be a real difference, feing faving Grace no: only 
importeth a relative change of a man , to wit , th.uhe is j.iltified, but alio a real and Pnyfical change, 
to wit, thit he is a new , or renewed creature, which by no common Gifts or Graces can be : Bit the 
former is truC' And therefore again, 5. If faving Grace be fome what Phyf cal. (to fpeakfo^ and 
cofSftituteth a Phyficali difference between a man that huh it and othcs; yea, betM'een a man and chat 
which formerly he himfelfwas ; and, if co.nmon Grace cannot do that, b it.themrnthuhath it and no 
more, is the old man ftill , and in nature j Then there muft be a Phyfical difference between them: But thj 
former is true. Er^Q. For this isever certain, a man is either renewed or unrenewed and in nature » there 
is no mids: Now if there be any difference thit is Phyfical between thefe two t which muft be , as there 
isbetween a good tree and an evil , a nevt' creature and an old, and not as between a little creature, and one 
that is mote big : for, we^vand ©yrefpeAthe kind ^ Then h.ibituall Grace muft differ from ail other com- 
mon works Phyfically > becaufe it is that which conltituteth this difference Adde. 4. Thefe co nmon dil- 
pofitions may evanifh or neverbe fo through , b.it the perfon which hath had them may pcrifh : which can- • 
not be faid of faving Grace called the Seed of God , immortal 3 and incorruptible y xhai remainetli in them ^ 
that once had it ©c^ efpecially , confidenng that it is called immortal, inrelpeCtofthenatureof itj and 
that, that continuance is one of the properties thereof. For although nothing of it felf be eternal , and 
immortal but God ; yetit cannot be denied but what tfe Lord mindeth to make immortal , He doth other- 
HV^ife fa and qualifie it for that end than other tbing.&, as we fee in; the diftere nee tbacia^beween- Angels 


iit /» Expdfuion •/ the QapX 

aiul other creatures , and che fouls and bodies of men , .mi[ <ir cnac gloriojs conformity that shall bj put on 
the glorified Members of Ciirift unt© their head. And tlioiiji,li lis he laith ) c>iat all , boih Pailofo[:bjrs and 
l3iTincs do lay more i yec this is enojgh : which aUb che tbreiii^ncioned Autl'.or acktiowledgeih in the Ap- 
pendix to his Aphonfins , pa^.240. And dying Grace being oi: the ihiiie nature with Glory , it were hard 
10 lay , that a mioin nature, did tor kind partake of the Diviiw nat ire , and ot'thj hdt traits of the Spirit and 
Glory, who, yet may be torniinred in heU for ever. Laltiy, Tae mjlciplying of thefe coin;non gifts, could 
never alter the tree and make it good ; fo as if it were poifuJe th.{t they im^ht grow t j the greiiteit higtic 
and bignelTe , ih;y would be Itill but common gifts , feing they grow fro-.n that root : therefore the tree mult 
iirlt be good, ere the fruit be good, tiow common gifts never being able to alter the tree , asis faid , there 
m'.jlt therefore be a difference between tliim and laving Grace in Cowic other tiling than in the degree. And 
indeed if thefe difpolitions be of the fame kind withgraciojs habits, then the root of common .-•nd fanng 
Giace wo lid be one i which the Scripture doth ftill difierence : and m this relpeCl the habit hath not its lince- 
..ri'-y from the avils, as if it were gracious, becaufe thia(5ts th:!reof are thus comparatively prevalent i but 
the adis, are gracious and prevalent, and cannot but be fo > becaufe ihcy proceed from fu'ch an habit i and 
th. habit is firft gracious^rWfore the z(^s thereof be lincere : and therefore there mult bj arcal and Phyfical 
ditierence in the habit it felf from common difpolitions, as it is conlideredC atleaft) in order of naturc,b.-fore 
rhe aits: and fo , the difference doth not only lye in the dd:s themfelves. Neither can ic be faid here * thai 
h ibits and difpoficions do not differ in kind : therefore that difference is not to be fought here: for, b.-lide thac 
this Aflertion will find oppofition among Philofophers , it can no wayes be acknowledged here » where the 
habit is not natural , nor acquired. And certainly the names and titles , whereby lUc: Scripture doth let 
forth this habitual Grace, ( as the Neva-nature , Spiriti Neviman , Kew creature , Gods JVorktnsmsbip , Hi« 
Seed, the Heart of Flesh, &c. whereby it is not only contraLiiltinguish.d initskind from nature andfleih, 
taiven in their molt grofle acception ; bat from all common gifts of the Spirit alio ) do hold forth a real diffe- 
rence to be between them. 

2. Concerning gracious a(5Vs, that are fruits of this Spirit and grow upon this tree ofhabituall Grace , 
mamly theque(tionishere>If that a6t of love, whereby a Believer loveth God 1 doth differ any other wa/ 
than gradually , from that adV of love whereby an unreneweth perlon loyeth Hun, or which he while unre- 
newed had unto Him. that is, that the one loveth Him above all and the otaer doth not , riiojgh both love 
Him really and in the fame kind for the nature of the ad? And fo if this be not theo^ily mark by which the 
iincerity of all Graces are to be tried? whereof this is a particular inltance. 

To lay lomewhat ro this , we conceive , that the truth and reality of fincere laving Grace in its adls is o- 
therwife to be inquired for, than in fuch a degree only : for, true love loveth God above all, b.caufe that is the 
nature of true Grace as fuch, to have fuch a6ts : and fo it is rather a confeq uent following on,or a concomitant 
.of true Grace where it is lincere, than that which conftitutes the truth and lincerity thereof ; although itmay 
well,(bcingrightlyunderftood)evidence that: even as a Woman tint loveth her Husband chaftly, cannot 
but love him b>:yond any other j yet doth not that conttitute the linceritie of net lovej becaufe an Adulterefle 
may do fo to an Adulterer ,• But efpecially, it is in loving him as her Husband,and according to that relation; 
otherwife we fuppofe it is not impo/Tible for a Wife to love her Husband , beyond any <.)ther man , and yet 
not to doit with true conjugall love , but pofTibly upon lome wordly (and it may be linfull) principle:whic|ji 
if contraried, wo.ild foon dii'cover that love not to be found, a? not loving him as her H isband , b jt for fome 
mother advantage or fatisfadlion, as often experience doth clear: and muft not that differ from the love of ano 
th:r, who cleaveth to the H'jsband out of confcience and aft'ection , from that conjugall relation that they- 
itandin ,and becauleheis her Head, even when many croffes and dii contentments occur loher inherad- 
h.'ring to him ? So it may be in other cafes, a Servant may fear his M.ilter more than any man, as a Son may 
do his Father i yet that there is difference in that fear ( although both agree i.i the comparative degree , and 
neither of them dare offend him) none will deny. This diftereace then , mult be in the forraahty of it , (to 
•fpeak fo ) as th » fame perfon is diftinctly or differently confidered by the onej and the other ; and as they are 
dtfferently fwayed, andactedin the fame thing, asintheinftanceofhlial and iervil fear , is ordinarily illu- 
ftrated ; much more may this be conceived in the a ding of grace on God, therebeing fo many relations un- 
der which we may conlider Him, and act on Him. And may it not be fuppofed thitaWonanmayat 
firft love a Man above all others,and yetnot love him for himfelf conjugally , who afterward be ing M irried 
to him, may come to love him on other principles, and from other grounds ? and though there be no diff'e- 
f enc ■ in the comparative degree, and the firlt posfibly feemed to be molt vehement i yet is there a difference 
really betwixt what it was, and what it is. And it this may be in moral and naturall acts , mayitnotbe 
much iiiore in fpintuall favmg acts* when compared with ihofe diatare not fo ? Ii';> upon this ground thac 

Cap.2. li^9\pfthe'ReveUtm. jij 

the acute Divine Cameron doth eiq^refly afTerc , that the love whereby a Wife loveth her Husband , doth 
differjpecir from that \\'hereby /he may warrantably love another , fo that if fhe loved any other in the leaft 
degree with that kind of love wherewith fhe loveth her Husband , flie were really an Adultertfle. And 
this is when he is fpeaking of that queftion, Kum Chr'^us Mediator Jit adarandus ? intending thereby to 
fli;w, that that kind of love, adoration, &c. which is due to God, can be given to none oiher inany 
degree, withoutmanifeft impiety. And will it look well , to fay that warrancably we may give love and 
fear, &c. of the fame kind to men and creatures , which we are called to give to God ? and that only the 
degree to him , is comparatively to be fupream : yet upon th: former affertion , this will neceffarily follovv^ 
for, i£ a Believers UU, fear , See differ no oiherwife fromthe/opc/e^r, Sec. of hypocrites , Then that 
adt of love which he bath to God , muft be of the fame kind with what he hath to Wife, Childrcw, &c. ex- 
cept in the degree : yec Ifuppofehe would be mightily affe(5led within himfeif, to approve himfeU to do fo 
in the lealt degree. We fay then , that the fincetity ot Grace is not to be inquired alanerly in this pre valent 
and predominant comparative degree thereof; but there muft be fome other things concurring , at leaft, that 
conftirute the difference betwixt laving adls of fpiriiuall Grace, and thefe common ads which may be in 
hypocrites. For, if thefe two maybe feparated, thatis, if there may be this comparative degree, in the 
common gifts or graces which an hypocrite may have , Then that which conftitutes the difference of the 
fincerityot Grace* cannot confift in that only; for, that muft be proper to L\\ng Grace quarto modo y }\'bkh 
doth difference it from all other thines : but we may fee in inftanCv's , that if we confider this degree without 
refpedl to any other thing, it may be found where faving Grace or fincerity is not j and contrarily , faving 
Grace may be ( at leaft in refped of paitiailar ads ) where that degree is not. Therefore it is not that alone 
wherein properly , and e ffsntially the difference doth confift. 

Before we give any inftances , we would premit fomeadvertifements, efpeciaily concerning the firft* 
which may polfibly look ftrange-liketo fome , to wit, that there may be fuch a comparative degree of love , 
fear , forrow 8cc. in hypocrites , who yet have nothing offincere Grace j and that therefore fincerity is not 
to be tried by that comparative degree alone. Concerning which it's to be adverted, 

Firft , That when we fay , there may be in an hypcaite fuch a degree of love, fear, &c. that may be com- 
paratively prevalent , that is noi^ to be underftood , as if there were love , fear, &c. in fincerity in the leaft 
degree in any hypocrite; but only this, that feing it's certain ( and this Learned Author alTertcth it ) that 
hypocrites upon carnal! confiderations may love and fear God in fome refpeds , which yet is out of no true 
refped to God: io it may be fuppofed, that upon the fame confiderations they miy come to love Himj 
or fear Him above any other objed comparatively. Certainly upon this fuppofition , thit it were at that 
degree upon thefe carnal 1 confiderations , it would ftill be bat of the fame kind of which it was , to wit , car- 
nail , and hypocriticall love , and fervile fear. Neither can this fuppofition b; thought ftrange, Seing, i. No 
hypocrite can fear God fincerely more than love Himj yetthdt fuch an one may, uponapprehenfionsof 
Godsterrour* fearHis vvr3thmorethanallthevi?orldbefide, cannot be denied. 2. Seing alio it's bitt fome 
carnal motive thatleadeth natural men to love any thing moft , why Ihould it be tbo ight impoiUble, that up- 
on fuch motives and confiderations, they may be fwayed to love God moft? Efpeciallyconfidering what 
flafhes of joy may be in temporary Believers ( although they continue not ) and what may be fuppofed to have 
been in Kebuchadne:{ar , Dan. 4 and Dariuf, cap. 6. and po Tibly in many hypocrites a mongft the feivs and 
others, upon fome fignal manifeftations of Gods goadntffeto them: yet, even the fuppofition of the be- 
ing of fuch a thing , ahhough it adually had never been , Even that wereeno-gh for conhrming of what we 
fay, 3. It cannot be denied but hypocrites may have a 2.*al of God , which may b:ar great fway with them 
and more than any meet temporal thing, asintheinftanceofchc fews , Rjim. 10. Yetth.-re cannot be zeal 
of any kind without love of that fame kind; yeaizeal prefuppofeth love > and that in an high and intenfe de- 
gree. But we ihall offerfome inftances afterward. 

Secondly, It would be adverted , thatwedo not aflert that hypocrites may thuslove or fear God habit- 
ually, and { to fay fo ) in their ordinary ftraln : nay , we think it extraordinary to them to attend even ro this j 
and that it foUowcth upon the back of fome extraordinary manifeftation , either of Gods bve, \A'rath, tcrrour, 
&c. If it be faid, that this meeteth not the queftion- Jnfw. Indeed that Reverend Author , ftateth it upoi 
habituall and deliberate ading ; yet, confidering that the thing enquired in here ,. is the fincerity of particular 
gracious ads : if there can be any particular ad which hath that conwarative degree, and yet is not fincere,nor 
will prove the perfon to be gracious , Then it will follow that the iincerity of particular gracicas ads , is not 
alon'* , nor mainly ro be enquired for in that, , 

Thi. dly , It would be remembered , that when we fpeak of this pre valency in the cotnparative degree , 
that we take not the phrafe largely j as includin&ihe motive , end, &c. orGotfe mtctAAVfayingtowchan 

P ad. 

Si4 AnExfofttmoftht Chap.j.' 

act , by fuch a fpiritaall motive, &c. fcut itrictly , according as we held it forth in two diftinctions, mL-ntioned' 
before this. Gods intcreft tb jn in chis act, is not to be conlideied, as it refpectetti motives , ^and compareth 
ail thefe, amongft which refpect to Him doth fway ; but it*s to be underftood,as it relpects the act only, with- 
oat refpect to the motive, what ever inducement it b; that perfwadeth ih>.'reto. Ocherwife, as we laid, the 
difference isbut in expreilions: and it's not our purpofe to contend for words. And ihercibre infuch an ex* 
plication, we fliiU acquielce, as to this, and we proteffe not to difpjte againft that. 

If it ht faid, that the loving of God ib comparatively above any thing, is not to love Him above all : be- 
caufethat tor which welove Him,is more belov-dby us, even thojgti thereupon we Ihould be induced to 
give our lives for His Ciufe , &c. Anfv.l. It's true, thisproyeth it not tobefincere love, grtoproceecf 
irom right principles and motives , as is faid j and this is not intended : for even f.ich a perlon hates God' 
really, as was formerly alferied. Yet, fecondly , it's fuch love as hypocrites ufe to have to other things , 
to wit, that love wherewith , they love the world, their Patrons and Idols ofany fort, which is certainly 
ftill from fome felfifli principle or motive : and therefore indeed ftill they love themfel ves belt ; yet are 
they faid to have fach things to be their Idols > and comparatively to love them above all other things, even 
abovetheLordHimfelf, although it be fuch amotive asprevaileth withtWem torthatend: andmaynot 
riic fame be acknowledged here , fuppofing that the Lord may for a time get that from a man upon carnall 
confiderations which lome Idol ufeth to have ? Thirdly , We conceive it will be , in this cMcar^umemum 
adhominem: for,thisReverend Author inftanceth the preyalency of love toGod and the Brethren , not in 
the motives that fv'ayeth to love them moftj, but in the acts, being compared with other objects , that is » 
if God ftp loVed ab'o\>e His temporaU'iotd things , if the Sainube lo'Ped mart than our efiate, place, ^4. foMwe 
tan quite all thefe for them ,asihetormerinitancesdoclear. Nowfuppohngitmaybemadeo.it , tliacasto 
the erfects , hypocrites may fo love God and the 5aint«, as to abandon all their temporall fatisfactions tor 
them, and poslibly even their life ("which is the only thing that thac Reverend Author laith was deflderated 
in the love of fome in Qjeen Maries dayes, /'a^- 237.238. 239.) though Itill upon carnall principles and mo- 
tives; Then it will follow thattheaflertionas tormerly underltood ,.will be futticient tooppol'e thatpropo-- 
fition, that the difference betwixt laving and common grace is only graduall t and that in relpect of fuch a de- 
gree as is explained. Now wecometoinftances. 

1. We may find it in /eVc : one that is an hypocrite, may in fome refpect C as is qualified) loye God above 
all ; For , r. May it not be faid from ih: zjal th.it many fews had , that they loved God above all ,' and our 
of their blind zeal would have preferred Him to their lives, or what elte was dear to ihem ? Yea , 2. Was^ 
not that in Paul while yet a Pharifee before his Conveifun , who infome relpect nad thai tcftimony frorr» 
his Confcience , that zeal and love to God put him to all that he did, fo that it is li ke he cotild have fu ffered 
the ioffe of ail things in that quarrell ? yet,, it cannot be faid , but that his love to God after his Conyerfion 
was exceedingly dirterent from what it was before, although in this comparative degree it might be fome 
way the fame, to wit, he loved God above all b.fore j and he continued to do fo thereafter , but with love , 
far och;rwife qualified, than fornerly hedid. Ifitbelaid, that although the'feivj andPijtf/hadazeal' 
of, and did loye God above all ; yet , was it not according co knowledge, as is faid, J^m 10. and ib could 
notbeacceptcd by the Covenant as fincere love. J^nfw, This is tiuth, and doth confirm ojr alfertion ; 
for , wherefore was it not accounted lincere, and as fuch accepted ? It cannot be faid fimply, becaufe 
they loved fome other thing better : for, the degree of their zeal and love , is not controverted j butit isin 
refpec5t of the qualifications t hereof , itVt>M not according to kpo^vledge , that is, in a word , not regulated 
and qualified in refpeiftof the principle, end, motive, andaccojnt tnercof, according to the rule .where- 
by' truelove Ihould vent, which int'.ieirigiiorance th.y could not do j and therefore ftill there is fome 
thing bcfide this degree neceffary to theconltituting 01 the fincerity of love , that it may be acceptable: 
and lo in other,a<5ts, this mud ever be pre fuppofed, that they be according to knowledge, that is, i . Tnat 
the matter of it be right in it felf. 2.That the manner be according to the rule prefcribed , that is, not only 
Gods glory for the end , but the glorifying or Him according as He require th and prcfcribeth. 3. Thar 
both thele be known to tiie perfon. Aad, 4, That as fuch he pertomi them ; and upon that account , actin 
them , as they agree to His will : ocherwife it can never be accoun.ed to be an act according to knowledge , 
as in the former inftanceis clear : whereby it appsareth, that the Iincerity of an act-, and this prevalent com- 
parative der ree tncrcof,may bs feparated. 

Thirdly , That n^n may love their Idols above all , cannot be denied , feingmcn are naturally mad upon - 
their Idols iioTarkslovetktir Mahomet, £a«/'j Prophets theii '<»^/,evenbeyond their own fives. Now,, 
may not one love God and Chrifi> as one may love Mahomet' or iheir Idols > This Argumentis alio ■ ade 
ufepiby ih: fo; cited Author , to prove ihaia natural man may loyc Chiift really tor iiind , fag. z^6, 237: 


Chapil. 2wkj)f the ReveUtm. ti^ 

Aud will noc this fame koldin refped of the degree alfo -; Confuiering that there is a? good ground , a,id 
more, even in a humane refpevfi: , for Hiftoricall faith to believe the tiuth of the being and worth of Gjd, 
and JefusChrill, and as much proof and experience of the advant g.-s and benefits chat come from him-, 
as there are for any to hz rffired ot the b.Mng and worth oF Mahomet, Jupiter , Apollo, ^c. Now fiippofc 
one chat formerly loved Mahomet, or Jupiter ^ above all, (hould by the foice of Hiftoncal faith , or fome ex- 
traordinary ddiverance be brought to account of, and love the only true God, as he did formerly love 
Mahomet or his Idols , co jld that be accounted to be linccre love , becaufe the objed were changed ? Sup- 
pofing Itill no change tobe in Jche man , nor intrinfickly in the ad it fel fin refpecfb of its kind ■? and yet upon 
the fuppofition forlaid ,, this ad: would not be defedive in rcfped of the comparative degree ,' fappollng hitn 
10 Jove God now » as formerly he did his IJol; It muft therefore beinkind. And may nocfuchatls as 
have pi oceeded from Nebuchadne^ar and other hypocrites , upon fpecial and lingular appearances of God , 
be accounted fuch, wherein there was fome kind of reality as to their adualcilceming ofGod above all* 
yet ftill being without fmceritie , as the zeal of the Jews was , becaufe God was not efteem ?d df according 
to knowledge , that is , as in Chrift lelus : in m hich rclped He hath manitefted Hirafelf in His Word , and 
vithouc which > there can be no degree of love acceptable to Him. 

Fourthly, Might not one have loved Clirift above all , while H>i was upon earth , from the convt^ions of 
•the worth that was evidently fecninHim, and from particular favours, received from him, fuppofe of 
health, freedom from the rage of the devil, ??c. as one man may love another, efpecially His bencfador a- 
,bove all things , fo that He may become his Idol ? Now, fuppofe it had been fo ( which was not impofli- 
bel) that men had known and loved Chrift thus after the fl fh (asth: Apottle fpeaketh, 2 Corinth 5.17.) 
could that have proven that love to be fincere ? And yet the fault, is not in refpect of that degree. 

Ajain ^ we may inftance itin faith : for , that one may truft Chnft in fome refpect above all> is clear by ths 
many examples of the faith of nniracles and t hat both active , and paiTive j yet is it alfo clear that faving falch 
is of another nature, and hadi other qualrBcarions concurring in it's acting as fuch: the firft acteth 
on Hin, as powerful to bring forth fuch an act, and in refpect of fome particular manifeftation of 
His Will for the bringing forth thereof; the other confidereth Him as a^iviour oflferedtous by Gods 
faithfullntlTe in the Word; and for that end, to wit, Salvation; and upon thit account, to wit, as 
■offered, and as fuch , itreceiveth Him and refteth on Him, being moved thereunto by its giving credit 
tothefaithfulnelTe of God in refpect of His Covenant and offer of fpeciall Grace. So, to be willing to 
Jiave Chrift, is a main act of Faith ^ and that one in nature may in fome refpect be willing to have Cnrift 
and Heaven above all , cannot be denied , efpecially by this Author. Neither can it be faid , that this re- 
fpect to God and Chrift , isinferiour to their love to earthly bleffings, M'hich they prefer to him , as isinfinu- 
ated pag. 237. for certainly they may efteem Him beyond temporal blellings : therefore they will fuffer the 
ioff; of thele ,and their life it felf upon this prefiu-npcuous ground of gaining Him by the abandoning of thefcj 
7Ct C2n;iot that be accounted fincere willing , becaufe they will Him noc as fuch > and according to the tearms 
of his Covenant. 

Further it may beinftanced in ftaft repentance , lo\eto the brethren , ^c. as was formerly hinted : whe:- 
in we will find that natural men may come to this comparative degree in refpec t of rhe external objcc t,to wit, 
CO fear God more than to fear men, or any other thing j to Ibrrow for fin in fuch a degree , ih Jt it may pre- 
vail over delight init , and love to it; wherein the comparative degree that conltituiech the lincerity there- 
of, is inftanced , ^Ag. 231,232. and they may love the brethren fo as to relive , cioihe , vifite them , 
&c. and for this end to pait with their own eafe and eltate , which is the degree that is only marked as 
wanting ro fuch as loved the Splints; butyet could riot part with temporal things for them, pag.l'^g. and 
upon this ground it is , we conceive » xhztpag. 232. this neccffjry advertifement is given , That thefe graces 
Vihich areexprejjedby thspaQion , as fear , ioXie , joy , e?c. Aremtfocerain'y to betriedbyt'^pajfion that is in 
them , At by the v/illthat is contained in them orfuppofidto tfyen ; v\'hich mufteithcr be to fliew , that fomiimes 
the vehemency of the palfion may feem more towardsone objtcc, fuppofe in fear of men, or love to ereature«5 
when yet the v^'ill rationally feareth and loveth God more : or, it is added to fli nv that fomthing mift be re- 
fpected in the trial belide the degree fimplie ; lb that this degree is not to be accounted the alone ni irk of trial: 
otherM'ii'e this advenif.meitt were needlefle. And what is fpokenofche will its acting rationally in its act, 
as contradiftinguifhed from the pafTion , or act of the fenfitive part , muft infer fome concurring qualifications 
tobenecetlary intheact ofthe will, which cannot be in the fenfitive part, whichdothneCLfftrilyi if.rata- 
clte acknowledging ofthe necelliiy of obferving fomething in the nature o'Lt\xc act, bciide this degree alone , 
for the evidencing ofthe lincerity th: reof. 

On the other fide, may not habits for a time be without acts, at leaft, without acts prevalent in refpect 

P2 -of 

11^ An Ixpojit'm of the Chap. i. 

of this degree ? Now then, what shall be judged or fuch ads* fuppafe of love, fear/aith, Cfc. which for a 
time are prevailed over, and the heart is led captive by the ojppolits ? They cannot be denied to be fincere 
a£ks of Graces nor can it be faid, that there are none fuch at all: tor, in that one place, J^w. 7. we vvilltind 
the Apoftle fpeaking of f jch motions of the Sp'Kit or rnner-man, which yet prevail not as to the effed , b .1 
the heart is led captive over them, fo tkat what he would , that h^ doth not i and' he is led capti ve to the law 
of fin , over the law ofhis mind j yet , even then doth he acknowledge thefe adls of the Inner-man to be 
fincere adts of Grace : and therefore doth comfort him fel fin them » and doth oppofe them to the law of fin 
in his meaibers, which otherwife he co jid not do. And this lincerity cannot flow^ from this degree , which 
then is not : it muft therefore flow from the kind thereof, and fo be contradiftinguished in that refped 
from any common work of a hypocrite. Ifitbefaid here,thatitistruel<»l^,/i/r/>,iijc.thatinits fober,com. 
pofed and deliberate rational adings doth prefer God , although at fits and times it may be overpowered i 
and thatin this refpe6lP<i«/did in his dehberate actings, prevail over the Law of his members , though by 
its fuprizalsitdidcaptivatehim. ^nfw. Although this be granted to be truth i yet it will 'hor intringe 
the Argument : becaufe weask not only what Faui was inrelped ofhis ftate , or ofhis deliberate adling, 
but what thefe motions and ftirrings of the Spirit in him were , that were overpowered , whether even thefe 
were gracious and fincere, or not ? For>if thefe ftirrings be ads, as is acknowledged, p^^.214. they mult 
cither be fincere, or not j it cannot be faid,«fli, upon the grounds formerly given j they muft be then fincere : 
and if fincere, then they muft be fincere, not in refped 01 the prevalencie of the degree -, but in refped of 
the nature of thead it felf, asis faid, For although we fay that fuch a perfondid mhis natural adingoE 
kYe, ^c. prefer God above all j yet that M'ould only prove that the pcrfon were habitually gracious , and a 
true lover of God i or, prove that once he hath had ads trueiyJincere j but that could never be the ground 
Upon which the finceritie of thefe prefent ads could be founded. Andfoas theclofe of all, feingthis pre-, 
valent degree may be feparated from fincere ads, and may be in ads that are not fincere in the manner qj^' 
liHedVcenra: Therefore the formal reafon offincerity, is not to be inquired in it aloue. Ifitbelaid^ 
that even in fuch ads wherein corruption prevaileth inthteaffedionorpaflions j yet Grace isftill preva- 
lent in the will. Anfw. Then whether can it be faid that there is no true Grace in the atfedions,. or, whe- 
ther the adings thereof in them.be not fincere. althoj^h not prevalent ? If they begraciojs , even as fuch , 
Then the Argument doth ftill hold, that Grace may be fincere where it pre vaileth not as totheefFed : if it 
be denied that they are fincere as fuch , Then it will follow that true Grace is not univerfal as to the lubjed 
thereof, or, that it may be fincere in the will and not in the affedions: which yet are ads of the famcGrace 
and foul, in fo far as renevtfed jftiiving with it felfin fo far as unrenewed. B.-fide , prevalencie is bjt in the 
will as renewed, (o that it is only as fuchinducedtodifTentor confent -, whereas that fame "will, as unrenewed, 
y.eeldeth over that diffent of the renevi'ed will : whereby it comech to paffe that ads are elicited thereby , 
which the renewed part did oppofe ; and fo indeed, as to the effcd , the renewed will is not prevalent : be- 
caufe that is not aded, which it would be at j yea, ads are elicited by the will , asis laid, waich, had the re- 
newed part been prevalent , had not been at all,, which.flievveth that in fuch a cafe there is a pre\'alende > 
even in the will. 

If it be faid further, That the love wherewith natural men love God , as it is formerly defcribed, is but 
ftill felf-love;becau(e they love not God as God; but upon fomeoiher fell-account ; and therefore do ftill 
love t hem fe Ives more i and (odo not love God above all loveraignly: becaufe they love Him not forthe good- 
nefTe that isin Himfelf j whereas if Go.lsintereft were main and chi jf in that love, it were to be acco.inted 
fincere : and this prefuppofing the habits tobeinfufed, this foveraignintereftof God in the ad will take in. 
the end, motive, and thatwhich weciUed the reduplication of the act. ,yinfw. If that Aflertion,rhatfince- 
riry doth lye in the comparative prevalent degree, be thus explained, as to take in Gods intercft as foveraign 
in the end, motive, and f-brmai confi deration of theact , Then itcometh indeed to be one : and if fo , then 
tliere were no reafon to fall out with the Doctrine that ordinarily is delivered concerning this ; and , for the 
expresfions we will nor contend, as we formely did : but when vVe confider the explication of the Author, 
cfpecially as it is oppofed to the common Doctrine , itfeemeth that hemeaneth the Ibveraignity of Gods in- 
tereft in refpect of objects ,. compared together , that is , G jd more foveraingly loved, feared,and trufted , 
thanany other : and doth not take in the confideration of God in the motive , end, and formall confideratioti 
ot the act,.whtch hath influence on the perfon for bringing forth of fuch an act; and fo on the act it felf, 
that is bro jght forth : foTiihecomparifon runneth thus, betM'ixt the objects j^t?/-!; andfphit , who doth p.e- 
vnilmoft on the heart, but is not in comparing the motive and other qualifications of tiiat act , which mate- 
rially is fpirituall: and therefore ftill in thai refpect, the former Argument, will bold , and the ordinary ex- 
presfions w ill fuit better to the thing. 


CIiap.2, ^ookjtf the Revelation, 117 

It may be further argued againft the placing ot the nature of lincerity in the prevalent degree alone > thus , 
If the acts of laving grace be "lincere, before they be in this degree prevalent. Then this preyalency of the de- 
gree, cannot be the thing that conftitutes the fincenty thereof, much leffe alone be it i But the former is 
truth, that act of love, fcith, Sec. isfaving, which is wreftling againft its oppofits , fo as to win the heart ro 
loveGodmorethan all oth.Tobjetfls, even before iiattainit: For,wearetofLjppofe this method, i. Gra- 
cious habites are fuppofed as infufed, whereby the tree is made gooJ. Then 2. That thefehabites have their 
inclinations and acts, that luft againft the flesh, and fight with the flesh for M'inning of the heart to the fol- 
lowing of its motions : and as fighting gOi:th before the Victory j fo in this fpirituall combate , do thefe lu- 
ftings and actingsgo before the prevalent degree , and by thefe the heart is engaged to love God above all ; 
whereupon followeth that prcvalency as a degree of Victory. And yet weluppdfe, that were the leait 
fparkleof grace kindled in the heart, fothatitwerebut ImoakingindcfiresoflovetoGod and faith in Him, 
itcannot be denied to be (incere ; although it hath not broken out in a flame. For,if this prevalent degree be 
in fome refpect an effect of thefe ftirringi, thele flirrings mult be fincere before they come this length , as to 
prevail : for, they were acts before, and ir not gracious acts , then how could acts that are of themielves un- 
found, produce an effect that is lincere, leing the caufe mult be of the fame nature , and as noble as the effect > 
And foconfequently its fincerity doth not fiaW from this degree} but on the contrary rather, this degree is 
attained by thele ftirrings, becaufe fjch ftirrings, are acts of lincere love and grace : whereas they are extin- 
guiihed in another, and come not up that length ("at leaft in the former relpects) becaufe thele ftirrings were 
for their kind unfound : and ib natiyd-y the actings and ftirrings of grace of any kind, mult go before , either 
the prevaiency or repulfe thereof. For, fuppoungcreatures once to have the heart of man, there is fir 11 an' 
cffiying ( as it were ) by fome inward motions to gain the heart from thefe , before actually it be gained. 
NoWjWefay, that M'hich maketh fome motions gain the heart deliberatily to prefer God above ail, is,becau(e 
thele motions are fincere, and do fuppone as antecedaneous to that degree, at leaft in order of nature, 1. An 
inward gracious principle fitting the heart fo to conceive of God , and making it capable to be fwayed by 
fpirituall and fupernaturall motives, and in fincerity to a£k on them as f uch . 2. it prefuppofeth an atituall 
putting forth of this gracious principle in its confitieringGod as fuch a good in Himielf , and for its happi- 
neffe in Himfelf delirable , and lovely in an other kind than any creature : Wh.reupon, 3 . 1 he heart is actu- 
ally inclined as being fwayed by fuch a morive , to wit, the goodnefte of God Himfeir, and the fpirituall 
happinefle that is in enjoying of Him, and as fuch > and upon that account to loye Him , delire Union with 
Him, and prefer Him above all j whereby felf( as it is properly/c//, finf jll and corrupt ) is sh.it byjind a fpi- 
rituall motive beareth fway in the adb , and fo muft be fuppoled in order of nature ( at leaft ) to before it. 
4. When the heart is th.is affed^ed tOvvards God, then the former th.ee ( to wit a Ipirituall end, the enjoying 
of God, a fpirituall motive, that is, a refpe^ to His worth , and a fpirituall principle whereby he v\a; enabled 
^o to conceive of Him^ do concur for the eliciting of this ad, and that in a new manner,upoa that <- bjedf fo 
confidered; whereupon it adtsotherwife inthecloling with God as God , than ever formerly ic did. 
Upon which this prevalent degree and Vidtory doth follow, as the refult of the hearts fo adting on God , 
which cannot bjt prevail. And thus it loveth Go .1 above all, and fhutceth down all competi tours, becaufe 
confidering Him as fuch as He is , and to it\n refpedt of the underftandings uptaking 0.' Him , it doth lor 
fuch an end , from luch a motive , by fuch a principle, and in fuch a manner , aCt o.i Him, as fo confidered ; 
which others do not, who though they may have a fort of ftriving in thjm j yet tbiir fighting ^noi b.ing ac - 
cording to the former qualifications, can never prevail, as it cannot but in the end be a Conquerour in them 
that thus fight. 

Further.luppofingthisfincerity to lye in that prevailing comparative degree, we ask, what makerhthc 
love ^^'hich is in one to prevail , fo as to love G jd above ail, more ih.m in another ? Or whit made Paul, af- 
ter convcrfion , love Gad in that refpedl fincerely , more than before ? It muft be faid, that it floweth from 
the interveening work of the Spirit, boch operating in the infufing of habits,and co-operating in the b. inging 
forthofadtsi whereby P<»«/, is now enabled to do that which could not be done, till fii ft the tree was 
made good. And.iffo, th;n there maft be a real difference in the adt it felf, as being the fruit ofaaotner 
tree , or of a tree that is changed : and if the trees be different in kind, the fruits muft be lb alfo ; for,grapes 
. are not gathered off thiftles, nor contra: andfo muftit belaid of ih^feadts, either they prcceed from 
diflferent habits , and fo muft differ in ki.idj or, both muft t)e from 9 gracious habit: wnich cannot be 
granted, feing often thele adts in hypocrites evanish, which of gracious habits cannot be aiierted ; and 
to fay that different inf jfed habits are not reqjifite to either , will not be urged by any ,as hath been laid. 

Weadde, that adts of love thar flow froni common dilpofitions in a natural man , may be confidered as 
adts before tbey be thus prevalent ; tor^ he hlfes, fears , iSc. and fo they be adts, although not gracious adts 

P 3 ' or 

1 18 :An ExpuJitloH of the Chapit^ 

or linccre ; bjt w'e cannot conrider th2a(5^:s oFthegracioas habics ofle\>e,fakh>fear, ^c. (as that a man, as 
renewed, (^oihioye,fear, ^c.) but wemuft conceive them as fuch to be gracious and fincere : for,ihey are* 
of the Spirit, and what is ot it, is of chat kind ; and what is but like to a gVain of muttard feed , and cannoe 
be confidered as lelfe, is yet laving and true Gracc> having the qualifications forcfaid ; the lead bloflTom on 
that tree being good tVuic: therefore there muft be (om^ difference in kind between common adfs , and 
rhefe of faving Grace> belide any thing that can be conceived to be in the degree : becaufe in the one , the 
qualifications may be ,and are feparated from the a(ft i butintheoth.-r, no act can be conceived as influenc- 
ed by the Spirit, and proceeding from it, but it muft be cqnceived as having thele qialifications in it, to wit, 
it hath a fpirit'.iailend.is fwayed by afpirituall mofive,3nd aoVeth from a fpiricuali principle , and as fuch, is 
1 wayed to fuch an aft. If it be faid'^ that it is the le aft, degree of G race when it is fincerL', thit i s fo to be ac- 
counted, that is, when it is fo prevalent j and that in that refpedl no a>il as fuch , is in the Idaft degree preva- 
lent, b.it it is (incere.^fn/Vv.Tnat will not faiisfi:; for , here it is afll-rted that the ad of love as proceeding 
from thefe habits, cannot be conceived as an aft j but muft alfo be conceived as graciojs,and as arifing from 
chat root: but according to the other opinion , thefe may be feparated, that is, although love aft ; yais it not 
iincere love , till it aft prevailingly j and fo it may be confidered as an aft before it come to th .t prevalent 
degree of afting, which cannot bein theother,BeUde,if fo, then were not faving Grace, Grace, as having 2 
dirterent original from common gifts j but as having different fruits or effefts , or different degrees of fruits. 
For clearing whereof, we may fuppofe gracious habits to be in one. And, i. do not the afts ofto\e ^fajtbt 
featy^c. proceedfromthefeinfuledhabitsjandarethey not aftings of the New-creature » And, 2. are 
not thefe afts graciousas fuch ? and becaufe they are fuch , they are faving and fincere, that is, becaule afts. 
of the New-nature. 5. Do not thefe habits fit and quahfie one to aft otherwife than one can do who hath 
not thefe habits: & that notonly in refpeft of degree,but in refpeft of kind ? otherwife thefe habits would 
not be a different principle from common difpofiuons, ori as inruling a different life , but hel ping one to cx- 
ercife the life which he had : which were abfurd. 4. Do not men who are {o fitted by thefe habirs,aft accord- 
ingly in theproducing of their acts otherwife than any other who is not foqualitied? And fo, 5. muft not 
uhen the acts produced , be differenced , which are thus differently produced ? And wherein can this diffe- 
rence confift but in the kind ? For,if it be faid, they differ , becaufe thefe gracious habits bring forth acts in 
that prevalent degree , wherein the Lords intereft hath the cbiefcft room,Then it maybe enquired , i. I» 
that the alone difference ? or can it be (aid th it the new life hath no influence even on the manner of acting* 
contidei ing that the perfbn is furnifhed with new qualifications, both in the underttanding, will, and affc-^ 
ccions: an d thefe cannot but concur in the act j and yecmuft concur differently inrefpect of what one in 
meet nature can do. 2. It may be inquired, .could that man have brought out thefe acts without thcfc habits ? 
And if not, they mufl be dicn different in kind from what formerly he did bring forth , feing they could not 
be produced without a new and different cauie. 3 . Neither can any acts proceeding fiom thele habits be ac- 
counted common acts i they tnufl then ,even the lealt of them be faving. And, 4.if they bj faving,8c that as 
acts limply, it muft be becaufe of Ibmething tfiatis in their kind,without refpect to their degrees as the lealt 
motiois & actings of corruption are fin , becau'e they are from flesh, even whenby Grace they are kept 
from victory: 6^oisi(:,onthecontrarie,wiih the lealt motions of the Spirit. 

Yea, if we were ftrictly confidering this very difference, asitispropofedin relpect of the prevalentcom- 
parative degree , we will findittoinfer arealdiftercnce in the kind of the act, bjfide this comparaticede- 
gree: for (iiippoi'e in the act of fincere love) by one the Lord is pret"erred , and all other objects are rejected ; 
by another, tic is loved , b Jt Tome other thing i"? preferred to Him : now tha act of love , which re fpecis 
God as the chief good , and as fach clofeth with Him , muft be different in kind from, that that taketh Him , 
but not as the chief good: and therefore loveth (ome other thing more. For , in this act there is notonly 
a comparing of God with o her things j but an act refult'ing from that comparifon , whereby the heart of 
one faith, when this queftion is propoed, It God thy chief good ? \ea ; and io pofitively it cloieih with Him 
as luch : in the other, when the heart compareth , i i laith , Haj y God is not the chief good : and therefore 
clofeth not with Him as fuch ; but rcfuleth Him. Now thele two, nay andjea , to accept of Him as fuch , 
or to refill e Him , muft dl ffer oppofitly , and not in degree only. For the conliderat ion of God here in the 
act of ih: h.-ai t , is not fimply it he be good; for, that cannot come under confideration,but if Hebe the chief 
good » and Io to it, and it- it will take Him as f ich ; and fo that act of love to Him mult be fjch as determi- 
neththacq.Kftionby>e/», or««j; and in that refpect the one yecldeth , the other rejecteth. Therefore 
here it is not yeelding in this or that degree, but yeelding, or refuting j which in that pinch are contradictory. 
S.By ihj one act of love, God gccteth th; chief room, and other things are caften down : it is quite contrary 
in the other J and can thefe two be of one kind? Qicani^cact of love which preferrech many things to 
• .* •■'"■ * • Him, 

Chapiil BQokbf the ReveUmn,^ 119 

Him, act for its kind on God , as that act of love tiiac taketh Him as infinitly preferable to all ? Becaufe the 
one confidering Him as the chief good, accordingly loveth Him j and the other, not doing fo, but othervvile, 
Thisdifterencemuft follow thereupon. 3. Thatact wherein there is this prevalence, muft either have 
fomwhat peculiar in it which doth make it prevail over its oppofits , as to love God above all , which ano- 
ther hath not, that loveth created things above Him s or , it mult have its prevalencie from what is common 
toboth. Nowj this laft cannot be faid : becaufefo, it were man himfelfthatdidmakehimfelftodifteKthere 
muft therefore be fomthing peculiar in the other, as a caufe producing that effect i and iftkere be a peculiar 
caufe, and fome peculiar thing in the one which is not in the other, differing the rife of this from the rife of 
the other. Then this prevalent act of love which is the effect of that pe culiar caufe , muft beJidc this degree 
differ in kintl alfo, as being peculiarly influenced by that caufe which the other is not. And feing this pecu- 
liarnefleis prefuppoled to proceed tfie prevalencie of the act, it multneceffarily follow according to the fame 
grounds, that there muft be (bmepolitivequahfications concurring for the conltituting of the finceritieof' 
Grace befide the prevalent degree thereof. And that thererorc fiaceritie doth not conlift alone in it : and fo, 
that hypocrites cannot do the Ikme acts for kind, which the Regenerate may do,\vithout refpect to this com- 
parative degree. 

To conclude then,we may illuflrate all , thus , S jppofe a dead' body were by the power of God made to 
move,or (peak, as once Bahamas Afle did. There is motion and fpeech there , fuppofe it be to the fame ob- 
je^ft, and in the fame, words i yet doth it differ from the motion and fpeech of a living man that ad:eth ac- 
cording to reafbn. I. A dead man is moved only from fome extrinlick power without the interveening. 
principle of life from within ; although he may be moved more fpeedily and Iwifcly toward a certain obje*^, 
than one that from an inward principle of life afts himfelfj yet doth the motion of the living man, differ 
in kind ( befide any comparative degree which can be in the a£l of moving^ by a pofitiye concuning of an 
inward principle of life and a locoinotive faailty whereby h; is immediatly adied ; So , natural! men being . 
dead in fins , what ever afts are produced by them , arc meerly produced by the common work of Gods 
fpirit from without, without the incerveening of any fpirituall principle induencin^, thele adls , v\'hereas 
the ads ofa renewed man are indeed performed by the power of Gods fpcciall grace j bjt ( mediamibus' 
habmbus ) by the interveening of infufed habits , M'hcreby he not only is aded , but ads liimlelf in the 
bringing forth of thefe. As, A tree in th.- Spring-time , doth fend forth her bads , from the native feafon 
of the year its having influence thereupon} yet alio by)thequickning of that naturall fap and moiftneffe 
wherewith it isfurnifhed withinit felf^ 2. A^ead man hath no end before him in his motions or adings , 
as a living man habitually hath concurring in his adt : foan unrenewed man hath no pure fpirituall end in 
the beft adts, which the gracious man hath r the one, eatings drinking , living and bringing forth fruit to 

himfelt, Ho(.io.l..2<icy^. 7,5.6. and the other living, and thencefortbbnnging forth fruits to God32Cor.5.i(S. 
Hence, men in nature are faid to ferve fin, and men in grace to beccne fei vantsto God , How. 6. in relped 
of their defign in the lame ads. 3. - Dead men, as they h ave no end before them, [o have ths y no reafonabie 
motive, as a living man is fuppofed to have in his adings : (o naturall men have no fpirituall motive , fup- 
pofingitbe,inlovingofGod, it is feme carnal felfilh-thing that Iwayeth them: for, having nofpiritiiali 
principle within , as matter to work upon, No fpirituall motive can have inf !• lence upon them , more than 
lire can be kindled by any blowing, where no kindling, or combuitible matter is : a renewed man as fuch 
hath a fpirituall motive concurring with , and having influence on, his adings : and fo, not only loveth God, 
becaufe oflbmeexternall benefit j but he loveth Him , as b.-ing provoked from that inward principle cf 
the Divine nature that is in him, and refpeds to Gods Commands and Goodiiclle, whereby as fuch he cannot 
but love Him , and thefe who bear His Image > and what is fpiritually good : even as a naturall Parent , ©r 
Son, cannot but love his own CHld, or Fatner J and that from another fpeoiail principle than they love any 
other Child or Parent ; fo alfo he hath a pure fpirituall motive , warming this-principle , and kind lino- the 
fympathy : and thus he is fwayed to love God , becaufe of fome fpirituall good , as thellbduingof iin t the 
conforming of him to Gods Image , the manifefting ofHimfelf to him , and fuch like ; and be loves Gods 
People, becaufe he taketh them to be be loved of Gad, or to love Him, or be like Him, as fuppofe a' 
Woman did carry affedion to a Man, it may be from fome carnal principle , as his furnishing of her in her 
vanity, and his being fubfervient to the luft of vanity, pride, &c. in her j yet atterward , being matched 
with him, mighrlove him becaufe he were her Husband, and had condefcended to marry her, ahhoogh he 
iliould not ferve her vain humour as formerly : in this refped, her love doth differ i rom what it was , as hav- 
ing a conjugall motive added toit» which it had not formerly. 4, A living man , in his actings, is fwayed to 
themasgood,andasgoodtobimi.anditisimposfibleforhim to will any thing even though itbegood,. 
but as it is confideredaJJiwh by him ; yes, eyen things thai are hurifuU are in bis defiring of ibem conhdered 


iio Au Expoftt'm 9f tbi Ckap.i. 

under this ixJtion as good rohiinj but there is no iucti ihi igin chc motion of a dead marv : fb,a rene Wcci .nan, 
not only adeth on that M'h;ch is fpiritually good, (uppofe in the loving of God or His Pjoplcj but alfohe is 
r:\'ayed therein, and a£lcch therein upon this formaU contideracion as it is fuch, that is , he loveth God asHe 
is good in Himlelf, and to Him in \vhat is fpiritually good^ and oih-rs as tbcy are luch as have title to Him , 
that is, Mat. 10. To lolfe them in the name oj righteoiif men , that is, upon th.t for.nall conlideration as 
fuch , to love them. And diis is that wherein mainly Godly tinceri^y and linglenefTc doth kythe , when wc 
are not only moved to do what is good, and that from a Ipirituall motive upon the matter good; but are 
fwayed to that thing, by this rao«ve> as they are fuch, and 16 confidered by us: and thus , this at doth not 
only refped: the objed , as it is conceived by the underftanding to b; fuch j but it doth rcfpcd the aA , as 
it is inclined CO , undertaken and performed by the will , to wit , it willech it as fuch : although the adt it felf 
be not in refped of its degree every way adequate to fuch an objeit* that is , though God get not fo much 
of the heart as it becometh Him to have $ yet, the heart, confidering Him as fuch a God who deferveth the 
heart , and ought to have no competitor with Him , and as fufficientty able of Himfelf to make it happy 
doth fo will Him j and upon that account, doth love Him and delight in Him , although it be exceedingly 
defedivein the degree of both, and they be b.it conceived as luch, to have a being. Now , as a man is to 
tT^y the truth of his life, not oniy becaufe he moveth and fpeakeih, but becau'e he movcth and fpeakcth fo , 
in refped of the kind formerly mentioned i So a renewed man,i5 not limply to try his new life from his aCls 
but as they are fb qualified, as is fa id, 

If it be objeded, That hithe; to ihisfeemeth to admit no mott\ethat concerneth out jehes , Mfuppofe onelolfed 
God, for beinigood to him ; or , hea\>en , becaufe they expeHid to be happy inify and that as if no motive could be 
admitted in losing God but for himfelf; or, hovti may thif motilfe be differenced in the lo'pe of a natural man , from 
one thai is renewed » 

Anfiv. There is no fuch thing as the firft intended : it will only fay this , that as the natural man is fwayed 
in the perfuing of moral good, as it is fo confidered by him ; fo a renewed man doth that which is fpiritually 
good, and that as it*s confidered as fuch by nim. Hence there is this difference, that a natural man in his con- 
fidering any ad> which in it felf is fpiritually goodi and materially agreeable to the Law i yet in his yeelding 
to perform it,.he doth ftill confider it as a natural good , or moral at the bett : as fuppoie in loving of God » 
he is confidered by fuch, as good to them, on a natural, or (as to ih^m) a finful account, is he ioveth God, be- 
caufe He hath gotten temporal peace, deliverance from bodily hazards > an eafie or honourable life ; it may 
be, becaufe in providence He h ith profpered him in fome finf ,1 courfe , this ih; learned forementioned Aij- 
thor, pag.zoi. doth j uftly call one ofthegrejteji ofallfms , Vihen the holy God ii made a pander andferlpsnt to 
curfliih : and no queftion, m:)ny do love God upon luch an account j or , if they Iotc God for the hope-chey 
have of being brought to heaven by Him (which is one of their highc ft motives ) itis becaufe they hope to , 
getheaven from Him, and acqefle to their finful lufts here alfo j thereby fuppofing , becaufe of His goodnefle 
and mercy, that they may (in , and ferve their lufts i and exped even heaven alfo attcrward ; or, they love 
Him under the hope of heaven j not becaufe there they do exped or defire fpiritu jl or heavenly fatisfaction 
in HiinC'f, in beingfatisfied with His likenefle ( which they never delight inhere ) Bjt becaufe they have a 
fuppofcd opinion of a greater degree of that fame happinelfc , which now they hunt for : and fo heaven is 
never confidered by them as a fpiritual good: or, they may love God , as fuppofing Him to love and eftecm of 
them, becaufe ot lome lovelinelfe and excellenciethat is in themfelves : and upon that ground expect , even 
heaven fro n Him,and love Him, becaufe He fo efteemeth ot them : and this is to think God like themiclvtSi 
and net to love Him upon any Ipirituall account ,as is faid. 

Again, The renewed manas Iuch> is fwayed by fpiritual motives in thefe things,that are but naturally and 
morally good j and under a (piritual confideration He adcth on them, to wii , as they are commanded of 
God, tend to His honour, and are ufefull to help onem the worshipping ot Him, and lo forth ; and thus He 
may be acted even in Eating and Drinking* and things that are fpiritually good in themL'lves, as the loving 
of Godjft.idying of holinefle, iS'C. He aaeth in them as f ich, that is, he loveth God , becajfc He is an in- 
finit Tpirimal good in Himfelf, and becaule he hopeth to be made bleflcd and happy in Him : thus, to love 
God, and dclire union and communion with Him, that we may not fimplie be happy , but happy and blcfljd 
in the enjoyinc: of Him , and in b:ing made conform to Him, is no carnal,finful or mercenary love: becaufe, , 
this the Lord Kimlelf doth warrand ; and it fup^ofeth a fpiritual principle , withdrawing one from commorv 
fitisficcions and delights ; and it loveth God as God, becaufe thus God is confidered as the chief giod , fuffi- 
ciendy and only able to make happy in Himfelf: and therefore He is defired , becaufe no other ttiingis ac- 
counted fufdcient or meet for happinefle, but he. And fo, love to God for himfelf , and love to Him lucaufe 
we expect to be happy in Him, or have already gotten fpiritual good, fuch as Regeneration, Saoctificaxion, 


Cap.i. Bd9kpfthe^evelat'm. IH 

Repentance, C^c. from Him,are noway inconfiftent.iogether : and therefore, when M'e fpeak of loving God 
for Hunfelf , it is not to exclude all refpedb to our fclyes ,and our ovvn good in Him j but it excludeth 2II carn- 
al refpciS: to our felves or refpect to [our fclyes as carnal , and delighted with things that ave fuchj and to fliewf 
thatthe good which we expedl from God, aod for which we love Him , is a fpititiial and heavenly good, hav- 
iflg the enjoying of himlelfjoyocd with it; which doth comnlend all other good to us; ibchaticisrerpedt 
to God, and our enjoying of Him , that doth make thefe things lovely. And io we love God , becaiile He is 
good, and becaufe He heareth our Piayers , andbecaufeHef.irni(heth us with what is needful »and fofoith; 
not becaufe any fleflxly luft is pleafed , or temporal end is gained} but, becaufe He confitmeth o:ir faith or fpi- 
ritual joy in him : wbiciimany that have the fame things which we have obtained from him , and are alfo car- 
nally chearful in the ufe of them i yet, are ixA joyful upon this account , but are deligiited in the things them- 
lelves«or \\'hacplearech their natures in them, but not in God Himfelf, and fo in other things. 

Before we cwfe > it: Will be of eoncernmcnt for the underftanding of all this Queftion , to take up rightly the 
true difference betu'ecn a tiural fpcafck, different ( whicia is acknowledged ) ^d if hjjical difference , which 
is denied. This phyfical ditference doth flow from fome poficivc qualifications concurring inthcaditfelf , 
which are not in another a«ij: , that hath odier , or contrary ^ualificaiioiis in the place of thefe : again , a mor- 
al different , as it's expreflfcd » doth not confider the ad: \Vith refpedt to any pofitive qualifiqatians in it felf | 
but , in refpeiilof fo»e extrinfick confidera:tioa j asa pound ot gpld ,and an ounce, of gold^ arc of the fan}© 
kind in refpetS: of their qualifications phyficallyj yet, fuppofe one had hired alefvantfof ,a.pouud,orha(i 
conditioned fo much for the rent of fame lands by a iLibfcribed Contrad and Covenant i in tliiisrefpedt , the' 
pound would differ from the ounce morally : becaufe the pound, by vertueof fuch Covenants , wouldbecome 
the fervants hire , and the landlord! rent, which the ounce would not be. This is a moral difference , and 
fioweth from the bargane* wherein it was conditioned that fo much > and no leife , fhould be accounted fo ; 
fo faith the forenamcd learned Author, that this moral difference of Giace„ doth flow fronn the confideratioii. 
of the Covenant , whereby only it can be determined what is faving Grace , according 10 die tcnnor thereof j- 
whereby luftification or Salvation are befto wed upon any a(5t,pa|;.zo5. And therefore , Grace, t^^iuiihtts 
comparatively prey>aUnt in degree ,iit0 be accofinted true faVrn^ Grace : becaufe: bjtlje Covenant of Grace that 
K called fofi and only accepudM the condition thereof , Pag. 226. where alfo he domlay , That t^ejmctrU 
tie of Grace doth lye in the degree, not formally bia materially tn/y ; becaufe the form of thefe gracious aSls , con- 
fiBeth in theii being the conMon on which Sahation» promifed. W here, i . To forbear the Author^ . eflcewijTg 
of all Graces equaUy ,.and gracious aftsindifterecKly to be. the condition of the Covenant , ( which yet- nec^i- 
farily this opinion doth pxefupofe » andfo is the more to* be adverted unto } Thercare two-things^co be ob- 
ferved , v«herein the miflake lyeth here- 1. That itaccounteth nothing, to be faying, ^r an evfdence of 
what is faying > but what is called-fbr , or accepted by the Covenant as the coHdition.tl}ereof, whereas any 
thing that coniequently will prove one to be renewed , will alto prove hira tobejultified: although it be no& 
that to which his luftilication is covenanted: but is fbmethingthat doth neceifarily prcfuppofe it, aodfoH'ow 
after in a iuftifi^d perfou' , and can be in no other elfe : for >. if an a(Sb » fo and fo qualified , will prove one to 
have the habiis of Grace , uithaut which he cotald not produce it c Then muft they pcoveliim ta be renew- 
ed, and fo to be juftified : becaufcxthefe adts are holy a(fts, 2sv\f wits of the. Spirit, as thjy arecalled, Gal^,^^ zni, 
nations of the Innef man, ^m.7. andfruitsof agpod tree: and therefore, muft prove that the t^reedsgoodV 
^ There is a miftake in thi* ,, t^hat it fupponeth the ' Covenant not to accept of Graces i wkeihe 3£ the con^' 
ditionorotherwife ) fuppofe of lolpe , faith ^i^c. but at fuch a comparative degreeonly ,* andnotfimply to^' 
accept of them as lincere , although not as fully perfedt. A$ fuppoleone by covenant had;farined fotne porti- 
on of land,, that doth^for the; twr^e bear no^bicg but bramlples , upopi,thi§ ^onditipn thsw: he ihould;have.rerv 
tuyued to him fo many wine;gr^es3,.bi^;arihant±iie brambles- tiiat gpcw tliereoH',, in thisjr^cjct , one^has" 
really gave grapes , could not expect to have thefe accepted , as bdwft'thecbveriai)t<ii) fri3it.af the vieeyaftijP^ 
the rent of his- lafe , if they ^e^e noq bigger thati the [gambles which Voirnerly.djd, or-dothcflntlhue'togrow 
therein: whereas the tcnnorof the Cpyefiantin the condition that it proponei^,; a04 in its .aecept;ation of 
Grace ( tofpeak fo ) doth ever propoleand accept ihefe Graces , fimply confidered' as fuch , iharjs, it ac- 
Cepteth of Faith : and the Believer is.to be accounted a Believer, ^nd in Covenant, nofonlybecaufe of that 
degree of his Faith in Chrift : but becaufe- he,, confidering |4iin asi the4>^iviotirQf.(inners.,-artdasfentof God 
■ far thai end , is dxawn > oat of reject to the faithfulnefleof God in His Wqr^i:.„vto receiye Chrj.it j asHa 
i^.offeredito hiiw. and upon that account , according tXD tiie tcarp:is«f the Coy^min!^ > iO'lijbiKiit-to Ijlis righie- 
Qufheffe.» and reft on Himifor actaining^oft Salvation. Likewife in Repentance , Bardon' and /iiftificatiuri 
9re not knit to any degree of iforrow; (. as wasformerly hinted J t^acit. , ,chat God will aecoont hi^t a penit^ent ]« 
whofe liirrow fcffifi:i diath-escfiad bi& diejightin it :. hut unto true B^-pentanee ,j which is for iti q\iali6catioi^j^ 

114 AttSxpofttiontfthe Chap.i. 

fuchisthepromife made> v»hofoeTuf repents , ^c. Andinihis tefpcct, Gods Covenant ninneth noc , thathb 
will have grapes bigger than brambles , or gold of more weight than the perlon himfelf j but , if they be true 

§ rapes , growing upon a good tree , and not grapes di Sodom, or brambles, he doch accept of them, and laicb, 
eltroy not > for there is a blelTmg in it , though it be like unto the fmalleft borrie upon the uppermoft tops of 
the boughs , and alchojgh ftill he call for perfection in the degree of all as the Covenanters duty. And if ic 
be gold , and miy abide ih.- touchftone and fire, and not be conlumed, he rejects it not , of what ever weight 
it be in the fcales» as i Cor- 5. 1 3» 14, and 1 5. is cleare. Now gold abideth the fire , not as it is io quantity buc 
as it is in kind> and for the qjalky upright; and no place is there which doth exprefle Gods way of trial 
more plainly 3 and it bath the promife to the man whofe work in any degree will abide the fire , though the 
dlrofle that is ^ith it { which fljall be confumcd ) be in the quantity far beyond what b folid. Hence we will 
find in Saipture , that fuch exprcflions are ufed as do ever lay the weight of the fincerity of mens ads, and 
place the difference of gracious and finfuU adts in the kind thereof , as accounting all of fjch a kind to begra- 
«ous , wiih3Ut fuch refpeCk to its degree , as whenitisfaid, atrecK known by itt fruit, M<w. 7. the meaning- 
is not, that it is known by fruit ofluch abigaeffe, but by their kind; Ton's not every tree , thatbringeth 
not forth fruit at fuch a degree , but that Dringeth not forth ^ood fnat^, that is , ot fuch a kind j that is 
hevten dovtn , Mat. 3. A vine is known to be a vine > by its grapes ot the fmalleft bigncfle j yea , even by its' 
blcflbms. Hence fo frequently in the 5owj , the Lords trees are differenced by their buddings, andblof- 
fomings, and moft tender grapes , orfirft bads: which could not be y if it were not the kind of fruit that 
evidenced the difference of trees: for, men gather not graces ( even of the fmalleft \yigneffe) from thornt , 
nor figs from brambles. Saall true Believers , are laid to \izye. the fame f^irit of faith, 2 Cot.^. 13. and ttie like 
frccious faithy 2 Pw. 1.2. Which doth hold forth this, that as all Believers, who have faith, have the 
lame for kind , though not for degree precious ; foallo, allihefe who partake of that faith , that is true 
of its kind , nwft alfo neceffarily be Believers » and in Covenant with God , of whatever degree itbe , if it 
be the fame for its qualifications and kind with the former , it isprecioustotherwife,even Believers have nor 
the like faith in degree: thelikendfe then and precioulnefle thereof, muft be in the kind , M'hichno 
hypocrite can have , and ir cannot but be accepted by Godj fo true Repentance, andworldl)^ forrowy 
are differenced, 2Cor. 7. not in refped of any degree , but in refpeft of the kind; and the one is ivwdl(/ » 
anddieotber is forrow ( !>. 9. )-aftcr a Godly manner , and ( >. 11. ) after a Godlj> fort : which muft be becaule 
of poficive (jualiftcations concurring in it , which the other hath not. And the inftances that ate brought to 
prove their forrowing after aGodly manner , in the words following, do confirm this, to wit, their C4r*- 
/uhtffet!^ealy &c. So, 1 Pet.i.zi. there is unfainedtalte j and elfe where unfained faith , which are difterenc- 
edfrom counterfeits in hypocrites, as that which hath reality , is from that which is only in appearance. 
For although they may have really Hiftoricall faith , and a kind of naturall loye to God ( to let thefe go , as 
fuppofed ) yet? can ihey never have juttifying faith , or real fpiritual love 9 or of that kind : other wife it were 
not fi'tned , and could not but be accepted , leing what is unfained is ever accepted. Now , love and faith , 
cannot be called fained Umply in thefe who have truly the lame Kind ofa^ftsofloveand faith , or yet iruo' 
afits erf fome kind: they muft tbrrefore be in this relped /«iwr<i , that though they be in their own kind*' 
truea<5ts of Hiftoricall faith , and- common love ; vet in this they are fained, that they feem to be ofano* 
tier kind than they are of, to wit,, favingand gracious: and therefore comnwnadts in an unrenewed man- 
and faving ads in him that is renewed , muxdiffer in kind , as that which hath reality and fuch abeing , doth- 
differ from its counterfeit , and that which is but in fhew. 

The fame mi^ht be followed in all fuch Scriptures , where fomepraaices are diffferenced from other in 
refpeftof pofitiveconGurringqaalifications,a»todowiih iperfett hearty is frequently in the Hiftory of the' 
IO«lS'^o wafc with godl)' fimfUdty , and fimerhy , and ibat at in the fight of God , 2 Cor. 1. 15. and 2. 17, 
to liavc "^l qualified aciordini t$kfl9-wltdgt, and fo forth , and^lmoft ever when a gracious ad is defcribe'd: 
yea, we will find it even in outward duties,, fUppofe in the duty of Praying, or Preaching; that is accept- 
dale Prayer to- God', which is Praying in the Spirit , inthe Name of Chrilt, and fo forth : orberwayes the 
Gift of Ptayer may be, where the (iraceih.rc^fis not, and nointenfncflt of thcexercifcof the com- 
mon gift can make it, without thefe qualifications', tobeacceptable, (?c, whereas thcleallfigh or groan' 
rightly qualified, and arifing from the right root, cannot but be acceptable. ., 

Tocomethento faya wordto the third thingpropctfed, to wit, that this inquiring for the truth of Grace,- 
in its kind , and not in Its degree otiiy and fimply , but at leaft in its degree and kind together , is no way 
prejudicial buthelpful to the exact andfearchbfour felves. This feemcih to be the reafon that moveth that 
leatoed Author (Viho is an eminent batterer down of prefumption, and aprcfTerofholinelfe) to place the 
finceritie of. Gra«e in this co»paratiye degree, thkt thereby prefumptuousbypocritesbenoi ftrength- 


Chap.r. Boo^^f the Reveiation, jil| 

cncd in ih.ir felf delufions, who may abufe this maxime, whic k faith, that the truth of G met lyiih in the kind 
and n»t in the degree thereof : for, readily do rhey ihink ihey are aifurcd they love God , and brieve Him 
truely , CJc Bjt there ii no ground foe tear of that here. 

Therefore,!. We fay, tttac this degree being well underftood and expreffeJ , is indeed neceflarily knit 
with iaving Cjrace ; lb chat if anv man deliberatly and habitually prefer the intereft of desh, or any carnal re* 
fpc<5b to the intereft of God and His way , or love any thing more than God, or equally with Hinn that man 
can never warrant ibly conclude that he hath faving Grace, this being inconfiltei^t with it ; and alfo one Who 
loveth God «ncervb'> cannot when he aiSleth deliberately , and accjrding to th<i former qualifications , but 
love Him beyond'all, becaufe that is the natureof fmcere love. 

And, 2. We do not fcclude tbis, but adde the former qualifications of the kind thereof; and therefore this 
way miiltbi both more convincing to dicover a hypocrite » when he muft not only look to the degree but 
CO th-'kindairo,'andontheotherlidc,bcmorclaiisfyingtothc poor Believer, when he hath not only his 
mark to^ather fromthe degree , which often may be exceeding dark and doubtfjl to him , when he con- 
fidci eth many Idols that may have gr/ac place in himlHf , and how far hypocrites may come in that refpe»^i 
but when he may alfo refJedl within hiraltflf upon his end, motive and manner of adting , C^c. he may be 
helped to dilcern the finceritie and honcftie of his own atSl and purpofc , and have the help of nis confciencc 
teftimony in reference to thefe alio ; and fo come more confidently to conclude concerning himfelf. 

It is rcuei it is a molt hard C2«l^ (though a molt necelTary task) to difcover the nature of finceritie and 
faving Grace for the comfort of a tender Believer » to as prefumptuous hypocrites may not juftly ftumblc 
thereon to their own ruine j yet, art they , to wit , h y pocrites , more apt to flatter themlelves in the truth 
of their grace , luppofe of/airA, /c>tf, CJc. in refpe\^ of the kind thereof, than in refpedk ofthecompa- 
xarive degree thereof. And are they not as confident and perfwaded of this , that th-y love God above all^ 
and truft and lippen to Him more than to any other thing for attaining to lite » And will be ready to fay , 
thereis no other thing they can lippen to ; and in this they are fixed fo , as none fhall be able to convince 
them of the contrarie, becaule Gods foveraignity in that relfct^ is fo naturally fixed in the confcience » 
that they never debate it , but thinks themfelyes through in it, th^ con virion of its realbnablelTc is fo ftrong 
•on their judgements. And indeed upon what hath been faid, if ^ye will feparate tbe degree from the kind 
and qualifications formerly mentioned, they will have much feeming realbu for them ; and yet even then, 
€h^ will bewray that /tfVc^/aifA,^!;. which they etteem to be in this degree, tobeunfoundinitskind, as 
being but the fruit of nature, and lomewhat (readily) which is ot age equal to themfelves,Cic. and there- 
fore cannot be (bund. Therefore we adde, that this way will be more ufcful to convince natural men, than 
the other is: becaule generally , they are per Avaded ofthetruih and reality of their grace : and to fay 
that their grace were but defetftive in its degree, would, i.keep them from the through conviction of their 
gracelefnefle, and the right uptaki'ng of their deceitful nature} which yet i> mainly and principally ne- 
ceflary to tbe work ofconverfion. hot it would make them luppofe that they had already attained feme 
beginnings, whereas this placing of the fincerity of true Grace in the kind,doih at the fii ftpoint out to them 
the necesfity of a change, and more eafily difcovereth th'o unloundnefle of every thing chat grow^th from 
the naturall root ofan unrenewed condition. 2. This placing of it in tha degree, doth put hypocrites on- 
ly to amend or quicken tlieir pace , an4 to be adding to their building j but not to take a new way , or to 
lay a new fouadauon: now this exceedingly fuits with a prefumpcuoas hypocnt's humour , who eafily will 
grant that their faith is weak, bit not that it is unfound , and are ever delirous to encreafe what they have , 
■which will prove but a building uponfand; and ifthis were thealone mark of trial > whether God had 
the chief room by this comparative degree in their adts , they would be exceedingly confirmed in their o- 
pinion that all is well. It's like when Kkodemm came to our Lord , he would not eafily have been con. 
vinced that he loved ortrufled any thing more than God; neitherdoih our Lord take that way for con- 
vincing of him; but doth ih;w the unlbjndneffe ofvvhathehad, in refpeft of the kind thereof, and that 
the tree behoved to be made good and of another kind , before any fruit thereof could be approvable ; 
and therefore He preacheth to him the Dodkrine of Regeneration , and the necesfity of being bom again , 
and doth notinfift to shew any defedl of degree, but of kind, as in that, foA. 3. is clear, thcttt faidiHe , which 
is born of the flesh, IS f ksh i that is, what ever fruits may be in a natural nun , they are of a corrupt kind 
as the root is : whereby He would obviat a fecret obje(ilion that KicodemiiSy or a formal hypocrite , might 
have from the degree or abundance of feeming good ads oi t^eal, lo\e, frajer , ^c. ("as may by Hicodemm 
his words toChrittbe gathered to have been in hini) be it fo,laith He,let there be many ftuits , and that in 
a great degree, that is not the thing that maketh them acceptable : for , they arc flill bjx flesh , that is , of a 

Q». 2 corrupt 

124 ^^ Bxpojit'm ef the Chap. 2. 

corrupt kind : and thiK He rejec5t:eth them all at once, and Itoppeth his mouth without comparing thv^in in 
Reference to tWeir objeft< , T\4i.'rein Kicoiemus had not been fo eafily convinced. Arid on the contrary, faith 
the Lord , J^at is born ofthefpirit, isfpirit : whereby He doth not on]y fhew , that there muft hi fruits of 
another kind , to wit, fpirrtuall -, and that nothing otwhatfoever degree can be accounted fincere, except 
it proceed from this principle, to wit, the Spirit : but aifo it (heweth thit there is nothing which dorh co.-nff 
from that principle , if it were but the leaft motion , but i t is fpkit , and acceptable according to the root that 
it cometh from, wdthout confideration of the degree thereof. And feitig our Lord took that way,to difcover 
and convince, it cannot but be fafeft. 3. This vvay alio would be dangerous to many poor tender Belie- 
vers, ifthey were put to try the fincerity of ihdr Grace by this prevalent degree alom; : tor, do not they 
often find their unbelief or leaningto creatures ^at leaft in their lenfe ) to exceed their faith in God> And 
do not they find love to things of the world mor^ frequently carry the heart to delight therein , than in God 
alone 2 And flwll they caft all unlound in fiich a cafe ? What bad Paul done if he had walked by this mark , 
when the motions of fin captivated him, J^pm.j. and yet is he ftill comforted in the; fincerity of^His Grace t 
and in the adtings of the inner-man : which cannot be grounded upon this comparative degreej but upon the 
kind thereof. Now , if this maxime were true , thefe things would follow it, i. He could have no evi- 
dence of his fincerity , except he had more grace ( and that ftill inexercife) nor corruption , and that to his 
fenfe; for , every grace hath fomeoppofite corruption,and if it were not prevalent over its oppofite corrup- 
tion,then could he not conclude that he were gracious , and fo not except he were more gracious than cor- 
rupt. a.If any graCe were prevailed over by its oppofite corruption , he could not conclude that he were in 
a gracious eftate : becaufe this is certain > that where one grace is fincere, there all graces are , tliey being all 
members and parts of the new creature, which in Regeneration is brought forth j and it being certain alfo* 
that for a time, lome graces will be exceedingly prevailed over by their oppofices, more than others, as the 
fearofmenwillkeep a Believer under in a particular more then the fear of God , Then it will follow that ei- 
ther he hath true fear ofGod at the fame timei and fo the fincerity of this grace offear doth not confift in 
the prevalent degree theVeof , or , hath no grace fincere at all, becaufe where one is unlound, all is unfound y 
iS contrO: i or , one grace muft be found and another unfound , which cannot be fald fHnply, upon the ground 
formerly given, TheBiiever then,fn lucha (^ife , muft either conclude himfelf to be unlound ; or , he muft 
Cry it by fome other mark from the kind thereof. And though a Believer ought to account hinjfelfj greatly 
faulty, when any one corruption pre vaileth j yet it will not follow that he fhould reckon all to be linlband^ 
which this would infer , and fo contradideth the Saints pradtices in fuch cales. - . 

From all this we conclude>that u*s more fafe to keep both the common do£trine andexpresfions : and al- 
though we have been longer upon this than pofTibly may be thought fuicable to our purpofe j yet we have 
adventured upon it , if fo be it may conduce any thing to the clearing of that wherein the triall of mens ftat-?s 
is fo much concerned ; or if it may occafion fome more unanimous expresfing of this matter , by others who 
may more dexteroufly perform it , that fo this be not ftated as a new controverfie in the Church , at fuch a 
time when fhe is almoll overwhelmed with inteftine debates already. For weare fare in the generall , that 
thefe qualifications formerly mentioned , of the end , motive, reduplication, &c. are neceffiry to the con- 
Itituting of any a(St to be fincere, as ha^h been faid. And if they be neceffary , they muft either be compre- 
hended under the expreflion of thi^ prevailing degree of the acb, and fb it is but ( ao7^o/x«x''* )a Itriving for 
words, which are not to be contended for. And fo both thefe are upon the matter one. Or, iftheybenoc 
comprehended under that expreflion , then they muft be fomewhat different from it ; and fo there muft be 
more requifite to conftitate the fincerity of grace , and to difference it from common works ,hi hypocrites , 
than this degree foref aid. Or, we muft fay, that thefe qualifications muft be accountsed common to the afts 
of hypocrites> and thefe that are renewed : whichis a thing that we cannot admit, upon thegrounds former- 
ly laiddown: althoiigh we ftill acknowledge that the presnng^ at the moft eminent degree of grace , even in 
that comparative relpedl Is exceeding neceflary , and ufefull tor attaining to the clear difcernnig of the fince- 
rity of grace : for, often Believers do make their Own fearch exceedingly difficult , becaufe of the want of 
this. Andtheagtationofthisqueftion, being fomew bat ne w , vve nope what is faid will be the more fa- 
•vourably conftruAed : efpecially this being our fear, that by fuch expreffions, or aflertiom, as this opinion, 
hath with it , grace may come to be looked on as too common a tiling , and it and nature, tobe thojghc 
more fibihan, indeed they are. 



Chap.t. J>Mk.i>ftht ItnUtim. ij» 


Verf.S. Jndtmto the AngtUfthe Chunbin SmjrnayWitet Thefe things faith the frji andthe laji , T/vhicb 
tf as dead y andisaliye. ... 

9. 1 kntw thj -works, and tribulation, and po\ertte , ( but thou an rich ) and I know the bhfphemy ojthem 
Vthichfay the^ are jews and are not, but a thejjnagogue of Satan. 

10. Fearnone ofthofe thing! v/hich thou shaltjuffer: beholdt the dey>H shall caji fome of jou uwofrifon^ 
that ye may he tried t and ye shall halpe tribulation ten dates : be thou faithful untodeath, and I \«iU give thee 

acrownofli^e. , f . . /. .^ 

11. He that hath an ear, Ul htm hear what the S^tritfatth unto the Churches > He that oyercometh , shall not 
be hurt ofthefecond death. 

He fecond Epiftle , is direded 10 the Church o{ Smyrna : and as her cafe doth differ from the cafe 
of Efhefus, and that both in refpecft of fuffering and integrity j ib doth the Lords meflage to her 
ditfer , and is wholly comfortable. 
There is no charge agaihlt this Church, as in many of the reft : this doth not imply an univerfal 
freedom from guiltinefle of all forts > But, firtt, that this Church hath been free of groffe evils, and hath 
been in honcft iimplicitie aiining at their duty.And/ecoudly, it beareth out the Lords tenderneffe in palling 
over many infirmities in an honeft Churcii where there is much fuffering. 

It is not our purpofe to infift in thele Epiftles ( thematier being clear » and ye haying good opportunity 
of hearing them more fully opened > we fhall only give a view of the fcope , to keep the coherence ot the 

whole Book. 

The Epiftle hath the divifioncommon-M'ith all the reft, in thofe three general parts, to wit, fitftja Preface 
or Infcription, comprehendingthe Perfon from whom, and to whom, this meffage is dire'ded. The Titles 
given to Chrift, the Sender, were fpoken to, ehap.u They are two, 1 .He is the frji andthe /aft ; this It ttcch 
out the eternity of His God-head , or His eternity as He is God. 2. He is (tiled, He that was dead and it 
ali^e : this letteth out His Office with the efficacie of His death , and the vidory that He had obtained by 
overcoming death , and the devil j and being now above death and 1 ufferi'ng, to live God and Man in One 
Peribq for ever.Thefe Titles are fpecially chofen here for the confolation of this fuffering honeft Church : for , 
His fuffering and dying commendeth Him as pitifuland compaflionate i and His God-head and Victory , 
fetteth Him out as fufhciently able; both which being puttogether> do exceedingly comfonHis people,who 
cannot but live, leing He liveth, and cannot but continue fo for eVer, P]<»/L 18.46. J0/A14. 19. 

Secondly , The Body of the Epiftle, is contained, Ve/f.g, 10, 11 . it elpecially rUnneth on thefe two, i. To 
hold out Smyrna hit cafe , and that both in re(pe<5l of wnat was prcfent, tieif.^. and alfo in relpeCt of whac 
was tocome, "Perf. ic 2. It holdeth out theconfolaiions which are allowed to her for her incouragement'in 
reference to both, and th2re t-vvo are intermixed. 

Her prefent cafe hath two things in ir. i. Her outward afflidlions are mentioned. 3. Herhoneftyand 
integrity underthem, is taken notice of, and approyen by Jefus Chrift. And ihii laft , is a main ground of 
conlolation againft the firft. 

Her outward afflidtedcendition, is exprefled in thele three words. i.They were under tribulatiifn, ihar 
K, fad and greatly ftraitning preffures, as the Word fignifieth: and by this may be underftood the afflidjon? 
cf body, name, and eftate , and the lad confequents following thereupon , which the Godly are pu lo by 
the perfecution of wicked men. The z.woxdis, pofertie ^ 1 know thy pol;>ertj : we take it literally tobe un- 
derftood of (uch pinches and fttaits in their outward eftates , as plundering, fcqiieftiration, finings, and othe r 
means ofthat kindufe to bring upon men; umothis fortof a.t iiStion the chnftians in the primitive perfe- 
cutions Were exceedingly liables who y ei joyfully fuffered the footling of their goods, Heb. 10. 34. This is in* 
deed no litde part of trial, when pwents and children are caften look of all temporal things, and have not for 
the refrefhing of themfelves and their families. The 3. part of their aliiidlion, is^ the reproach of u-icked 
men that wanted not altogether profeffionj Ikpow {iaith the Lord) the blajphemie of thefe "ffhichfay they 
^ire Jews, and are not, but areofthefynagogue of Satan. Amongit all the Saints crolfcs, there arc none more 
bitter than cruel mockings, as they are called, Heb. 1 1 . 36.and mockings froii^ Jewj that pretended to Wor- 
ihip the God of Abraham, oilfaae, and of Ji»(o^ , would be more heavie than the repr . aches of heathens ; 
there were none alio more bic.errevilers ottheSonof God and of His followers, than thele hardned ]ewyi. 
who having fynagoguesin confiderable Cities, did ever with all their might joyn themfelves to reproach 

Q^l and. 

is5 AHExpofumofthe Ch.ip,i." 

aiKt pcvfjcutctlic C'.iriftians. Ic is like that thc-y luJ a rynjgJt;;.ie in this place , prctenJing to worship God 
accoiJingco the m.iuncr of His Law ; but b/caufe of ihcir obftinate iiialicioufii.flrj , they arc by the Lord 
d.nicd zolr^JewJi and arc laid to lie, and tobsof chi fynagog icot Satan : becajle indeed th:y looked liker 
a coinbiiiation for the devil, than a Congregation fjr worshipping of God , who Hew the Lord, forbade co 
fpcak in His N uue, and did perfxutc His Miiiitlers and People, a^- th>; word is, i TheJ.i.j/^,i^. 

From which we may fee > i. That the molt honett and tender , may be liable to moft sharp affiidlions, 
2. Tiiat often rods and crofl'.-a of feveral kinds are joyned tog.tlijr. 3. That reproach is not the leaft part 
otartidlionofthe people ot God i andtheshamjihsreot, bwing well endured, will be accounted honed 
I'ufforing pf a crofTe , as if ic were a bodily affli^lion. 4.Tbeic is no perfon more bitter and iawetlive againft 
thofe that are (incere, than fuch as have had fon:ie engagements to God by profesfion, and have fallen f;ona 
the lame. 5. Precendedfriends ( asthefejeux wcrej may coine to be molt grofle cnemiec , which is both 
thciv fia and their plague: th^Tefore, I Theff.z. — 1 6. it is laid , that wtath wm come ufMtbeirtto thetatermojf. 
4) Gods- people may look to be met with , and eut.rtained by men , as the Lord J>;.Ui uL-th to be: if He be 
well entertained, lb will it be with them ,• if He be defpifed, as He v*'as by thele Jciv/ , let them look to be 
blafpheined and defpifed alio : for, ic is enough to the fervant that h: be like his Maltcr. 

1 he coniblation that is propofed agiinlt the forefaid affliction, is two wayes lee down » i. More generailf 
I kftow ihy works ' wliich doth noc only relate to His Omnilciency , as is uluall in thelc Epifties ; but hereic 
taketh in His approbation , as the word after cleareth.Alfo it is oppofed 10 His uking notice of their enemies 
malice , I know the blafphemy ofthemthat calithemfehes ffivs, S5c. Thireforf,His knowi ng of their works* 
mult include His refpcCt to their honelty, as His knowing Oi their blalphemy pointeth out His deteftation 
of the fame. It is no little part of B .lieyers confolation in any ftraii , that the Lonl Jei us knoweth how it is 
M'ith them , and can bear teftimony to their integrity , when they arc even alinoU overwhelmed with re- 
proaches before men. It is no lialc encouragement alfo , that He do«h take notice of enemies their malice , ' 

The (econd way the confolation is exprelfed, is more dire^fJ: , by Chrifts plain tefttnaony in thefe words* 
thou art rich, that is» what ever men think oJ thee, as being moft defpicable> or, what ever thou be in thy 
own eltate , moft poor and defolate ; yet really , and in my eftlmation j thou art rich , that is, thou art 
indeed Itrong in the Grace of God > well furnished with Promifes and Priviledgcs , and abundandy rich ' 
in faith and good works , jam. 2 Var/i 5". i Tim. 6. 18. In which things , true riches do confift. This ^ 
feemeth to be a ftrange paradox unto the men of the world , thou arc poor , and yet . thou art rich : yet * 
often h ive the Saints found this to bea truth j at hji'jping nothirt^ , ana jet foffesfmi allthings , 2 Cor.6lo. 
Andif this were believed, it might allay the fervour that men have in purl umg after lemporall riches : 
for, the having of them cannot make them rich, ( the greateft men iv\ Smyrna get not this teftimony 
from 01 ir Lord Jefus, th it f*c/ ace ricA ) and the want of them cannot make th.m poor : and there- 
fore Swj'rw^j. even in her poverty, is rich. This alfo would make the heavenly Riches to be efteemed 
of, if men believed that their life did noc confift in the abundance of the things that they enjoy , as it is , 
Luk^\Z.^^. . 

Tne future cafe of S«»)r««, which isfet down,1^«r/.i0.is alfo an afflioied condition j and hath its encourage- 
ments luitable theretoj laid down. It is, I . generally propoled to be fuffering , Tear none of thefe things which 
thou sha'tfuffer. This Church had been liitfei ing j and though honeft» was yet to lufter more. 

Obf, I . Sutferings when diey begin, oftencimes are not inltantly at a dole. Yea , 2. The Lord w ill fome- 
timcs exercife thefe chat arc melt tender, with one crofle upon the back of another. 3. HeHimfelfis 
fiotvvithflanding (till tender of them , even when they fufler , as may begatbered from this comfortable 
iTitRage to Smj ma. 

2. Thefe futfcrings are more particularly defcribed , i . In the kind of fuffering. to wit , Imprifonment : this 
is not (o to b; underftood, as if th.y were to be tried by no other kind of luffcring j but it letteih out a main 
part of their aofle, to wit, that lome of them should be caft in Prilbn, and lib^ity taken from their perfons* 
which it may be, heretofore they enjoyed. 2. It is defcribed in the principall Agent and Inftrument of their 
fuffering, The deVthhallcafi fame f you imoprifon. Heathen Emperours, wicked Govcrnours andSoul- 
dicrs , were initrunen all therein, yet it is alcribed to the devil , asifitwere immediately a(3:ed by him , 
for thcfc reafons, i. To Ihew whacinflience the devil hath in the adting of wicked men , fo thatineffedt 
their deed, is hisdecd, they arc fofubfervient to him. 2. It is to ih:w from what author all perfecutions 
do tlovn', to wit , from the devil, who is a murderer and a liar from the beginning, and father thereof, ]ohS. 
44. 3. Icis to aggregetheborriblncfleofthisfinofperfccation,asbeingamainpeeceofthedevilsbufmefle, 


Chap.2. B99k.of the RiVtUtm, 117 

beinllrumentall therein who will. 4.1tfervcth alio to comfort and encourage the fuffering people to pati- 
ence and conltancy ^ lemg the devil is their fpecial enemy , they oughtthcrefore not to faint in oppofiog of 
him,nortoltLimbieinbeingoppofedbyhim. r, r , , . . „ 

7 Theirfufteringisdefcribedbya^a<;fignationottheperfonS,whOMrereeipecialIy thus tofoffer, be shall 
caft fome of you into prifen, ^c. By jflw, we underftand efpecially the Minifters j foine whereof, faith the 
Lord, wcretobecaitifiprifon; andyetbut/biwe : toshewthatHe M'asnotaltogeiher to extinguish their 
light/ Tlie realbns why we underftand it efpecially of Minifters, are , 1 . B^caufe that doth efpecifally prove 
a triall to the Church, when her Minifters are fet upoti. 2. Becaufe the prelerVing of fome of them , is a fpe- 
cial comfort againft atilidion, according to the promife. Ifa.io.2o»2i . And were it not to bz underltood of 
ilinifters, it might havea fulfilling, though they Ihouldall be caft in prifon. 3. The fenfible alteringof the 
number from lAtfM in the lingular, to 7«tf in the plural number, doth clear thatrhe fame party is to be under- 
ftood by both: and feing by the firft* the Angel, colled:ively taken, is certaitily.to be underltood j this sheweih 
that in this laft place, fuch, to wit, Minifters, are alio to be underftood. This! orm of changing the number , 
will be more clear in Vcr/24. ^ ^ ., , . . ... .„ , , ^ , 

4. This future affliction , is deferibed in its end, that is, triallj thatye may be tried : this is neither the end 
that the devils or perfccuters have before them i but that which the Lord intends, who, bythis fuffering, 
minded to difcover fome infirmities to themfelves, and to bring forth the folidity aiidftrength of His grace , 
to His praife and their comfort before others. 

5. it is deferibed in its heightyand continuance: its height ietriiulathn , that is » very fore and great pret 
fures r its continuance, is, ten dajes, a definite, for an indefinite tim^ ; and doth fet out , I. That their aft'li' 
(Jtioas in general v7ere determined by the Lord> to a day. 2. That it was not long j it was but for daye^t.Thc 
faddeft aftliSion of the people of God have an end. Y et, 3.1t is tor ten dayet : to fhe w that it was for fome 
continuance, and that the peoplcof God ought not to look tor freedom irom their crofles in the fir ft, fecond, 
or fith day. Some apply it to chejperfecution that followed in the dayes oiTrojan, for the fpace of ten yearsj 
but we conceive the moft geuerall acceptation is fafeft. 

The fpeciall encouragements that are ex^refled, are two; Cfor, fomeare implyed in the former words) 
The firft , is, fear none ofthefe things, be. 1 his is a generall comfort, frequently given by th^* Lord, fear not , 
^c. J/i.414245. ^c. And certainly though it be generall; yei being fpoken out of Chiifts own mouth, 
muftbeverycomprehenfiveandmaffie. Bj>whichwe&<ir», That the Saints confolations flownorfrora 
their freedom, or being preferved from crofles, (for, thatisnot their comfort here ^ but th;y flow from 
Chrifts being engaged co fuftain them under tlie fame, and from bis Word, which ought 10 keep them from 
anxietyand tainting in the greateft tribulations. The fecond encouragement , isfubjoyned toan exhorta- 
tion., BethmfaithfifUuntodeath , and J wiHgiipe thee a crovtn of life. The Lard fjbjoyneth the promife to 
the exhortation , 1 , To fhew the neceflicy ot ftedfaftnelfe, even under futfering , ieing without it th.-re is no- 
promife of reward. 2. It is done to mollifie and fweeten the peremptorinelfe of that exhortation by luch- 
a fvveet encour^ing promife annexed to it. The promifesis oi a crown of life ; which lookeib to theeter- 
nallhappinefle that Believers are to enjoy after this, as2TiOT.4 7.8. Itiscalled life: becaufe of the cheer- 
fulnefle of that condition, where Mortality is fwallowed up ot life : and the life that is here, is not worthy 
of that name. And it is a cro:vn of life : to shew the dignity and excellency thereofj and alfo to intimate that 
itis a prize to be obtained (as Crowns ufually were given) after a fight. Alio, the Lord iaith , /' wiUgixe- 
it , ifthoM be faithfulltinto death: to shew, that faiihtulnetfe and perfeverance therein , is a neceffary prc-re- 
quifite to the obtaining of this Crown * yet that it hath no meritorious influence to alter the nature andfree- 
nefle of it, it is ftill a gift of grace even to tbofc that perfeverc. 

Ob'er'Pe, i.Thatfaithfulnefleandperfev^ranceinHolineffe , arenolefleneceflTary thanHeaven : for, a 
man cannot attain the one without the other. 2. "What ever pinches a Believer may have , the Grown of 
Glory ought to make all Iweet inihevery hope thereof.* therefore is it propoled here. 3. Ic is not every 
one that have this pre mile, nor every one that may warrantably apply the fame j although moft men ufualiy 
exceed in this, and bsguiie themfelves. 

Tne Concl'jfion ( which is the thud part of the Epiftle ) followeth, "perfi 1 . "Wherein there is, i'. The 
common advertilement to all that ha^pe an ear , to hear : which sheweth how careful! men ought to be in 
hearing of this Word, even as if particularly it were fpoken to them. 3; There is a fpeci.ill promife maite 
to overcomers , be that oy>ereometb , shall not be hurt ofthe fecond death. The perionto whom the pro- 
mife is made, was formerly fpoken of : it is not tne ma» that pleafeth himfeli, or yeeldeth to all (brt ot ten- 
tati«n$, or for a lime feemeth to be diligent ; bat he ibai fighteih and overcovneth, Th« thing prdmifed ', 

IX% J» Expojjtis of thi Chap. 2. 

is» tobclcccpcd from d»jfc«rt ofibefeeond deaib : tn jrc is a arlt J.-at'i ..which u a fcparation of the 5jui rrom 
clie BoJy,coir.inonto gpodanid ba!d»*acr'i i^dlcconcideicli, which ii tobett.'rnally fcparatcd ttoin the pre- 
Icnce ot vJod and the Lnmb , eipjcinliy at the day of Jadgciiicnr, to wit , when all the M'icked as do^s, fjr- 
qjrers, jiiid liars, ^i.iW. b- cart into the lake, whicU i* the kciaud death, {{elt.zi.S. In fum, ih: promilejs ,hc 
ihat ovciconjctb ^411 be kceped frQ.m hell. 

From which we may gather, i. Ttiat th*rc is a fecond dcatb after men are laid im the grave. 2. That this 
death is rnqfi horrible and dreadtiiil- 3- That it is a. lingular rare and fpcciall favour and priviledge to be 
kecpcd from ih it fecond death. 4. It is implyed, tb.u the generality ot men , who are Ilavts do their iufti , 

jttJii P- i-fvjeu ivLuui njt >. onu jrttny , «iv^nj <ii»«. »».v^-v} " %, .*•- jj gu«.u>.> , ki*ai. i&u itfttit may ue keepeci li'Q.T) tli& 
li;coi^ d^^tf^ and wrath to come , he may the more patientlj« endure what « ve« clie he may meet within this 
world, tbpi^gh it were even the firlt death it felt. 

Cwcerwng thf ittflueHct that tbt IHv'tl bath on fome Vtkk«d ttism avians : andbtHif h: doth 

carrieoH th&func. 

, ji.-:^ 1.: : : "3- 

ONa thing may be farther inquired here , to vi\u coneernkig the lievils inftuence on mens a^on$ 9 
for, that thi^ efFed: is attributed to the de vil> ( the de)?ilskall eajifome of you into prifon ) it holdeth 
forth a fpecial hand thathehathinadVingmentodoevU » 16 that iheir deed is his. Concerning 
which, we may in generall lay , that the dcwil may have, and often hith great power on men , e- 
fpecially wicketi men, in making themlubfervient to his defigtw. Thus, he makeih men caft lixne faithful 
Minifters in prilbn here ; he reigneth, as having men at his command , in the next Epiftlej and leadeih them 
captive at his will, 2Tim.2.2j6. he fighteth with Miehaek and ftirreth up Herefies as well as perfeGmion, ckap. 
12. he decciveth the Nations, c^j/>. 20. Andoftenhis powerisfpoken of in tbisProphefie : and it iscer* 
tain that it is very great, i . having efted:s upon the bodies of men, to carrie them from one place to another, 
as be did to the body of Chrift, Mattb^, to afflii.1 them by fickneife, pain and lores as he did \ob : and the 
Woman ( Lukf 1 J. 1 6.) whom , bung a daughter of Abraham, Satan hath bound, faith Chpift, /» , t})cfe eighteen/ 
years, ^c. 2. Upon the external lenfes ; he can delude ears, eyes , iSc. either by mifreprefentmg extemal;- 
objedls, or by inward difturbing of the faculties and organes, whereby men and women, naay , anddooftew 
apprehend that they hear, feeiiifc. fuch and fuch things , which indeed they do not. 5. Inwardly he may 
have influence to difturb the rcalon , and mar the judgment t as he did in lhtf^ men whom he poffcffed , 
Matth.S \>erf.2S- He hath influence on theunderltanding, and fo he is faid to blind men ., 2 Corintit. 4. Var/4. 
4. He may work on the memory and affe<5t:ions alio, as by Itealing away the Word , Mat. 1 3 . yerj . 19. and' 
alio wakening hatred, luft, envie, G^c. Yea, (bme M'ay he may \»'ork on the will * and fo he is laid to put re«j 
folutions in the heart , as it is faid oiJnanitu and Sapfhira, to lie to the holy Gholt, ^0jf f ,-3. and of J«(fc*#,u 
toAe/ytfj'Chrift.. jo^.13 27 So, iC^rff».2i. being compared with, 2^<i/n.24.i.it is faid, thai /ie,thatis,Sa*' 
tan, did move and provoke VaVtd to number the people. All which in the etfeds , arc clear : thcrefbpeis h^ 
faid boih to reign i n fome at his pleafure , and to deceive or delude others by wiles and- fubtihy , 2 Corinth? 
2. Ver/ 1 1 . which are his devices. Thefe are all certain : Although we cannot folly fliiw kovv he eff(.^uatecft' 
them ; yet.this we may fay j "•* 

Firft , He hath no abfolute inde pendent power to do what he Will » but 15 limited, ordered, andboundeJ> 
by the Lord. And, fecondly. He hath noinfalHWe, irrfgperable way of adting by himlelf on men ; butaa 
men through their fin yeeld unto him : for, he is dependent, Jfl&.i. 7,8. and can violent none to fm. Ttwrdly, 
He can have no immediate infallible acquaintance with what is in mens hearts : for , that is Gods propeftj*.^ 
Fourthly^ He hath no immediate determinating influence on the will of men : fo that although he may peiP 
{v<f;uie violcndy.i vet he cannot determine men to follow ; that is die Lords prerogative alone I to have hearts' 
in His hind, Pr<jV.2i.Vrr/?i. to turn them whithcrfoever He will. And therefore, what{oe\.*er way the devil' 
}5re vaileih; it is but by a mediate way of alluring, or deceiving, by making ufe of means for that end. FiftWy, 
He can-infule no new corruption, nor can he create any inward fpecies or reprefentations, thereby to tempt: 
foTy that is a wprk o' omnipotencie 5 but, he-muft u'wk upon M'hat is within the perlbn that he ad^rrh upon , 
for ppdixing of thcfe ; yet , b.'iny pennitced of God>, he may ufe mod powerfuU perfwafive means , by h's 
skill and agility to draw men ( being now corrupt>infenfibly tomanygrofT: tins ; or, atleaft,tatemptfhem. 
Which temptaticui, meeting with con.uptioa•in■us^and ihc Lord juftjiy giving ovef fomctoitjSacamiiay pre-- 
vail oyer them by fjch and fuch like means , as , 


Cliap.i. ^ 'Stfokjf the Revelation. n^ 

I. Hij may by fignesknowtnens particular inclinations and predominants (although he reach not to the 
undcvftanding of the thoughts imn:iediatly : ) and he may gather what fnare may nioft readily prevail with men 
f jr the time , acco; ding as evidences may appear in their way , either by their not praying to God , or ,by 
what kythes in words and other carriage, wherein certainly he goeth beyond any man , to wit , in taking up 
ofmens inclinations. 2. He may fuit and fir external temi^tations to their diftcmper, andtryltethcmioas 
there may be ace fit to the venting of luch lufts : thus , he maketh Jttdas his inchnation to covetoufnefle and 
thePharifeesenvie, to tryfte togetlier ; Da\id to hoholdBathshehainiach a pofture , when he is fomewhat 
fccure , ^c. 3 . He may j umble , confound and put through other the inward frame . by working on what 
is natural in the humours of the body, for awakening lull , paflion , revenge, fufpicion, fears , iSe. where- 
by men are fome way dilpofed to yeeld to the tentation offered, which he timeth with this, 4. He may 
caft-in reprcfentations in the mind , of fuch and fuch things , diverting the imagination from cbjed:s which 
might mar his defign ; and fo he may order what is within .asoutotir, or by it, toformreprelentationsin 
the imagination ot fuch and fuch things; whereby , propofing them ( as it were ) objedivcly to the under- 
ftanding , he may mediately offer them to the will : and for that end alfo , for a time keep fuch thoughts in 
-the mind and in the memory. Thus, often the Saints cannot be free of imaginations ( by his abuling of 
the fantalie ) which they hate , and at which they have horrour : and therefore , thefe cannot be thought na- 
tively, and naturally to aiife from themfelves » which are fo ftrange and uncomh to them. Thus,fome 
things come unexpectedly, by Satans furnifhing the thoughts with a finful midle for attaining of an end, 
that is defired; and, it may be» isdefirable. Thus allb he tnay darken Scripture, offer diverfe (enfes ;o idfarnilh 
objedlions againftthe truth of it,or againft the true meaning of it.obftruct their taking up of the weight of any 
reafon againfl their Errors,^f. as he is faid, io blind. (2C«r.4 Ver/4.) the minds of them that believe not^isc. and 
tofpew outafioudofmor , KeTf. 12. 15. Hemay not only objedtively thus preli^nt fuch a thing j but he may 
continue to bear it in , and to ufe motives drawn from leeming reafon to ingage the will to yeeld to it , as he 
did to Adam , and £ Vtf at the firlt : and thus , he ftirreth not 0;ily natural humours of the body ; but natural 
corruptions , engaging all the lufts , as they may have influence to prevail with the will , for yeelding to thefe 
tentations ; So fttd^ts his covetoufnelfe , is engaged to deal with him to fell his Mifler : for, the devil though 
he infufe no covetous humours yet he may aCt on what there is: and he ftirreth the Pharifees envie to con- 
cur and make them accept of that offer. And in this doth lye amain part of the tentaticn , and the devils 
wiles and devices , whereby he deceiveth , to wit, in making feeming reafons to have weight • as if there were 
force in them, and true grounds to be rejected as not for fuch atime,Cic. nor of fuch weight. Thus he 
prevailed with £W> prefenting the tentation with its plaufible , ( thoi gh falfe ) reafons. And this way, 
though indire£lly» as the Apoftle faith, zCorinth. 11.^. He con inucih to deal with -^iflw/ fuccellbrs , 
to prevail with them as he did with £Vc by his fubtilty : and thus he leadeth men at his plea fure , by propof- 
ing to them what he uill : otherwife he could have no fuch dominion over men in the world as he hath: and 
thus , many fins are born-in on men , without any connexion with their natural complexion : and if it were 
not thus, one man miSht prevail in fomerefpedt more with another ( for he can deal by reafon with him) 
than the devilcould, ifhehadno obje^ftive influence on them: and the tentations being often unto parti- 
cular defigns , it fheweth , that the devil hath a moral obje^ftive way of dealing with men : otherwife it were 
no more to fay that the devil put it in ludas heart to betray his Mafter , than to fay hi flirred him up to love 
monty i but this fhcwcth , that to him who loved money formerly , the devil propofeth this , as a fit mean 
to gain fomewhat ef it. Alio, ^Slt 5-. it is faid to Anani^, 'why hath Satan filled thinehean to lie ? C?c. fo that 
C as it were ) when it was objected within themfelves , what if it be asked whether the Lands were fold at fb 
much 9 the devil furnifheth the anfwer : fay { faith he ) it was : and he maketh it probable that none fhould 
know it , feing both man and wife were to agree in their anfwers: and fo he prefcnteth that to them, by which 
their covetous and diftruftfull humours prevailed with them j and they both yeelded : therefore it is alfo faid, 
^^x 5. 4. ivhy haftthdu comeilped tUit th^ng in thine heart ? And >. 9. Hovt is it that ye ha\e agreedtogethet » 
The feed, as it were . cometh from the devil who inje(5ted it j the conceiving is from our corruption , which 
entertaineth the motions flirred up by him. And h^w can it be otherwile faid that he bhndeth mens eyes 
that they ihould not underftand the Gofpel ? for , if it were only by a natural ftirring of humours , it wo ild 
diltemper them for every thing j but here lieth the tentation, that th^y are wife in all other things 5 but in 
fpiritual things the devil blindeth them, andmakeihtbe Gofpel feemfoolifhntffe to ihem, Tnns,hefetteth 
on Ahab by entyling him without by his prophets t and fwaying him within out of pride j and hi prevailed 
with the falfe prophets, by ftirring them up to lie , and that in reference to thatpaiticular defign , which no 
mete influence on the body could have done. 

R By 

i^ AnSxpofttmtfthi Chjp.i; 

By all which we may fe e , that it is not witho jc good rcafon laid , that tbe devil goeth about feeing w kotn 
he may devour 5 he is near the heart , and is often upon folks counfel when they are not aware. And this 
flie^^'cth , what need there is of watchfuinefTe , that we give not place to the devil , and that he get not occa- 
fion to tempt .* for , withniuchftibtHitycanhemakeufeofit j and a£l men inexecutingof his orders , when 
they know not what he is doing, as likely it was with thefe per fecuters whom he engaged thus to pcrfe- 
cute thefe Minifters : which way of his , being frequently mentioned in this Book , wc have once for all, faid 
this of it. 

From this we may alfo gather, how little weight is to be laid upon the teftimonie of this<le vilj whofe work 
it is to fupprefle the Truth of Chrift , and to traduce His Servants : for which caufe , our Lord and His Apo- 
ftles , would IKK (ufFer him to fpeak , even when he pretended to confeffe Himj bccaufcj he was a liar from 
the beginning , and the father thereof. It*s therefore not unworthy the obferving how contrary to our Lords 
way the jefuities are in this ; who, to fupplie the defed: of other teftimonies for their M^ay againft the CaM' 
tiiflt, ( as they call them) docarefUlly and indultrioully gather and heap up teftimonies from the devils mouth, 
and infult therein as a proof incontrovertible: for this end, Lorimtty mcap.^.AH Y. 16. having cited fome 
pretended Hiftories holding forth the little weight the Lutherans had with the devil . doth fubjoyn this as an 
infallibleconfirmationoftheircompliance with him, Sed&exortenergumetut Laudunenjistata Gallia ,ac 
toto orbe Cbrifticme cekbratijftme , Cahittianof demon trridens, nihil fibi abiHis timendum clamabatcunHts audi* 
tmibfUt jinno i$66. quoniam amiciejlem, ^ faderati , Jkut teftantur aBa , GalUcefumma^de firi^ia,^c. 
It is in fum , thus , That the devill o Jt of the mouth of one that was famous for being poifelfed by him, 
did mock the Cahinijh, cryin;* out, and that openly before all, that there was nothing to be feared 
from them , for they were friends and confederates : and for confirmation of this , he aflerteth 
the thing to be with great faichfulneffe recorded j as if the weight did only lye in the matter of 
faft, and that there were no caufe to queftion his faithfulnefle who gave this teflimonie. But of this 
enough : we have reafon to thank God , that our faith in the Truths of God , and oar clearnelfeof the Errors 
•ftheir way , «re built upon a more fure foundation } and that our controverfie with them> is not at the devils 
decifion » from whom indeed the Cahiniflr might exped no favourable lentence. But the Lordis judge 
Himfelf , To Him be praife for ever. 

L E G T U K E. V. 

Verf. 12. \^ndtBthe Angelofthe Church in Pergamos^Vf rite »tbefethinis faitb he whiehliath the sharp 
fvtori with t\vo edges. 

13. IknoMfthy werkf^y andAvhere thou dwUeTl ,eyen -where Satans feat is , andthouholdeftfafl my Kamtt 
and haft not denied my faith .eYenin tbofe dajes ■\^befein Antipas wm my faith ftd martyr , who wasflain amongyou 
y/here Satan dweUeih. 

14. lut IhaYe afewthingsagainflthee , becaufe thou]hafl there them that holdthedo^rine of Balaam, wfg 
tmtght ^^alactofafl ajiumbling blockjefore the Mldnnof Ifrael, to tat thingsfacrifced unto Idols , and to commit 

15. So haftthou alfi them that hold the doSirine of the Nicolaitans , whichthing 1 hate. 

1 6. Uepem , or elfel will come unto thee quick!) » "^^ will fight againft them with the /word of my mouth. 

17. He that bath an ear , lethimhexr what the Spirit faith unto the churches , Tohimthatofercomethv^Hl 
Jgite to eat of the hidden Manna , and wiUgivehim a 'ffhitejicne ^ andinihejloneamw namewrittenj whieb- 
nomankpoweth , faVmg he thatreceiyethik 

FOlloweth now the third Epiftle, dirededby theLordtothe Chmch of Pirgamos : iheeflateofit 
is implyed in the Body oftne Epiftle to be a fuffering condition : and though having much integri- 
ty , honefty , and conlhncy under her fufferings : yet in fome things reproveable and cfefedive: efpe- 
ciallyin her zeal againflfalfe Teachers: for which caufe, the Lord doth here, though withgreat 
tendernelfe , reprove her. 

Thedivifian ofthe Epiftle is common with all the refV. The Infcriptionisinthei2. Inrf. The Body of 
tiie Epiftle, in the 13,14, 15, 16. tvrfes. The Condufieninthe ijterf. 

The diredlion , ( which is the tirft part of the Infcription ) is , To tht ^ngelof the Church of Per' 
gamos, a famous City in ^^Tiijtheleffc, lometimes the feat of Kings j and for that prel'ent time, a feat of 
the Homao- Covcrnours : a place full of lin. Idolatry., and cruelty > Yet hath our Lord aCbuicbhere^ 


Cliap.t, B9§kj>f the ReveUtm. iii 

to which H>.' writes, when He taketh no notice of the Governour , or ofthefe who were moft eminent ; 
¥'hich doth shew, i. The power and efficacy ofche Ordinances of jefusChrift, in reaching whom He 
pleafeCh.tiiojgkin the moft defperate condition. 2. Itfti-'wethchifreeneireofgrace , that condefceods to 
gather a Chuicli here. 3. it sheweth His tendernefle to, and care of chofj whom He harh gathered to baa 
Church unto H imlelf, bjyond any other in the World. 

Tae TitlcHe taketh to Him felf, is, He\vliohtthtbefwtfd\klthtbetv«oedgct: the fword with the two 
edges , is the word of God, EfhefO- 1 J. Heb 4. 1 2. which we heard ( Chap. 1 . > . i6- ) did proceed o Jt of 
Chrifts mouth. It sheweth, tnat Chrift hath the command of the Word , to make it eftedlLiall for the 
good of His Eled j and for the convincing, imitiing, wounding and flaying of His enemies by fpiritual 
pia^iues : andit ischofenin rliis place, b^caufeHcdothmakeuieofchisasHisfoveraignepriviledgeinthe 
threatning, for ftirring up the Atigel to his duty. 

In heBody ofthefipiftle ( beiides the common afTertionofGodsOmnifcicnce) we have, Firft.thecom- 
mendationofthrs AngelandChurchjY'^'/i;. Secondly, the reproof, "»»«'/; 14,1^. Thirdly, an exhortation 
to duly, with a sharp threatning added, as a motive to prefle the i'ams t'perf. 16. 

liithe commendationi we have, i. the thing commended. 2 S Jme excellent aggravations , if to call them 
fo^ or commending qualifications of this commendation. The thing commended , is in two expreflions to 
one purpofe , Thm hddeflfaft my name, and baft tft denied mj faith : By name , we underftand the Dodltrinc 
ot the Gofpel , whereby Ohrilts Name , thatis ,Himfelf is held forth and manifeftcd : for, in the Gofpel , 
to preach Chrifts Name, and to declare it to the Gentiles , is all one with preaching Himfclf* or His Golpel. 
By faith , is underltood the Dotftrine of faith in Him , which i^ the fame thing. The holding faft •/H>j 
Name , is a zealous adhering to the profeflion of His Truth, as it were, holding it by botti hands j 
vkud not denying Hi! faith, is an open avowing of the fame by a pub'.ick profefTion , and honouring Chrift 
by their avouching of their faith in Him , without fainting , or shifting in the fame, notwitbttanding of 
any peril that might follow thereupon. For, this negative , Kot dcnjing his faith , doth import more than 

The commendation , is amplified by two fpeciall clrcumftances> that ferve to heighten the fame, i .From 
the place where i And, 2. from the time whenj they expreffe this conft ^ncy. i. For the place : it is where 
Satans throne wm. It is not much to avow a profcfTion in fome places ; b jt to do it in ftich a place as Per- 
games, m' here Satan had a feat or throne, (as the word is ; is much. Satans having a throne, implyethnot 
only a finfulneflw* in that place , common with other places j b jt it doth inlinuate luch an open avowed op- 
pofition to Chrilt and His followers, and fuch an adhering to Satan , that , on the matter, it looked as if Sa- 
tan had commanded exprefly there in chief: for , not only was wickednefTc tolerated ; b jt carried on , and 
eftablisbed by a law : nor only had he a feat in hearts , as he hath in all men by nature j but in the Magistracy 
and Judicatories, whereby orders M'ere given in publick , in reference to perfecution and profanity j and men 
did (o walk , as if diredliy orders had b.-en given by Satan, and taken from him, in that place : he did fo effe- 
dkually without controll { as it were J obtain his will, the Lord lo permitting and ordering it in His wife and 
fecret providence and Jufiice. 

From which, i. We may fee how tyrannoufly the devil would mann ^g; every thing , if he had things at 
his difpofall. 2. At what great height he may have his dominion, even o.iid.nheGoipel , and in the place 
wher.'" it is. ^. How fully men naturally are flaves to the devil , h^h Aug the prince of this world , that irorketh 
in thecbildren of difohedience t Ephef 2.2. And, 4. We may fee what need there is to pray chat Chrilts 
Kingdom may come, and how thankfull we ought to be, who are in any meafire freed from this 

The fecond circumftance in this commendation, is, the time , that is , it was elpen in thojedajes Xvherein An- 
•tipdH v/M my faithfulllAartyr> vthowasflain among you * ■where Satan dwcUeth. This is ai.o an excellent 
pa t of the comnendation , that it was not only in fuch a place, that was wicked and pro; anej but 
at fuch a time when wickednefl'e and profanity was exercifed in its height , which is proven by the death 
ofa faithfull Martyr , who was then violently (lain amongit them : at fuch a time to hold fail His Name , 
was indeed commendable. Whereby we fee how the Lord doth take notice of the commendable circum^ 
ftances of his peoples duties, as He doth of the aggravations of their fin":. What this jimipM was, there is 
• no more mentioned in Scripture concerning him ; it is recorded in S:ory that he was a Minilier in Vetgames , 
and it is not improbable, feing thefe are moit ordinaril y the objeA of perfecuters malice and violence. How- 
ever, the Lord putteth three great titles upon him, 1. He is a Martyr : this fignifietH a witntflTe , and that 
notonly luchawitnelfe, aswitnefTethby wordandproFeffion , butasfcaUth it withhisbloud: thusfW, 
fpeaketh of Stephen , ^£?. 22. 20. when the bloud of thy Martjr Stephen v^m shed. And therefore in the 

R 2 Pri- 

1^4 M txpofimn 9f the Chap 2. 

P umitive times, Martyrs were diftinguimM from conreffors, thus, M irtj'rs, were fiich as fuffered to deatfi- 
confeffors, were llich as f^.iffered impr ilbnmenc, mutilation of lane member, whippings, or fuch li ke for 
the faith of Chrift. 2. He calls him a faithJuU Martyr : to fhew that not only the caule was honell * for 
which he futiered j butallb that he was hoiK-lt in his luffering for the lame. 3. H- is my faithful Witnelfe * 
which fetceih forth , I . The end ofAntipof luffering,which was to bear witncffe for Chrilt. 2. It holdcth 
forth the Lords owning of him in that teitimony, and now by this , as it were, from Heaven "writing this 
kindly and honourable Epitaph upon him , he is my faithful Martyp. It may be , he was ftoned in ionie tu- 
mult as a feditious perfon, or one not worthy to live, becaute of Ibme reproaches or other put upon him • 
yet thus doth the Lord own him, to wipe all thele away , and to make his memory to be the more lavory * 
and witncffe bearing for Chrilt, to be the leffv feared at, that fo others may be animated and encouraged to 
be followers of Him. ° 

Frcwti all which we may gather, i. That it is exceeding commendable to be zealous , and ftedfaft in fuch 
a place, and at fuch a time as Religion is hazardlome and dangerous. 2. That the deaib of any of the Lords 
people, efpecially when it is in witnesfing for Him, is exceeding precious in His light. 5. Tnat honeft wit- 
nelJing for Chrilt is a moft honourable thing Antipat b^ing particularly named with thcfe titl . s , for fettine 
forth the honourablnelleof his futfering. 4. We may fee alfo, that the. e is an implied diftmdion of Mar- 
tyrs, fome are faithful, and, it may be, fome dying the fame death, and before men for the lame caule , may 
yet not be accounted faithful before the Lord, if it be asked. What is neceiiary to make one to bc,accounted 
a faithful Martyr before God ? We fuppofe the fe four are necelfary , i . That the perfon fuffer as a wel-doer 
foitmuftbeforthetruthefCtirift, orrighteoufnt;{refake,Ma«^.5.lo,ii. >OT,n>neJlmort ,fedc:iufamor* 
tis, ([uafacit Martjnm. 2. Not only would futfering be itated upon a particular account,* wherein ihev 
have the iide that is right comparatively i but they would be right limpliein the main truths of Chrift , as for 
inftance, fointimes Aniant and ]e\vs, after Chrilts comingin the rlesh , and other Hereticks , did iuffer by 
Heathens, either becaufc they would not worship their Idols, and difclame the true God j or , becaufethey 
Would notfimplie deny themfelvestobe Chriltians : they had indeed the better , if we look to the Queftion 
as dated between them and Heathens ; yet they cannot becalled Chrijis faithful witmjjes , {dn-y they did 
not faithfully give teftimonie to Him in His Perfon, Natures, and Orfices. 3. It is ncceflary'thrt the per- 
fon be> as to his ftate, a B.-liever, witho jt which none can be a laithf ud M:rty r , although polfibly his tefti- 
monie may be a faithful teftimonie : for, v/ithout faith it is imposfible to pleafe God , efpecially in fuch a great 
thing as fuflfering for Him. 4. It would b^ gone about in the nghc inan.icr , lb as tbere'jy the teftimonie 
given to Chrift, may be made the more to Ihine, to wit , there would be biamlelieneffe in the mans convcr- 
ution, finglneffe in his end, deniedneUV, zeal, humility and love kything and in exercife in his undertaking 
and undergoing thofe fufferings, as we may fee in Stephen, AUs 7.51. C^c. And this is tofujjer as a Chrifiiari 
andnot m an er>ildoer, andbufte body, 1 Pct.4. 1 5.i6.and accotding to the willofGod, by which fuch may be in- 
couraged to comm'u the keeping oftl.eirfouU to Him in vtel dom^, ibid.terf. 19. This is alio confirmed from> 

He doth again repeat v/here Satan dv/eUeth. i . To shew that the devils dominion in that place, was not 
by flartsand fits j but ti^at he had a letlcd, and ( as it were ) a conflant reiidence there. 2.'! o commend theit 
honefty and ftedfaftnefTe the more. 3. It is to shew the great evidence of the ueyilsdoiuinion, to wit that 
faithfuU men were put to fuffering for the caufe of Chi ilt. ^ 

The reproof followc; b, yerf- 14,1 $, Firfly,generally, but I halpic afevf thingi againji tJjte : this is not to be 
underftood asif the faults were little in themielyes s Rjt it is thus expr..flcd, I . I o shew how tender He was 
of them, when ( ss it were) He heightens their commendation, and extenuates their faults. 2.1c is toencoit. 
rage and hearten them to mend cheerfully that which Hereproveth. 

Hence Obfer^ey i . There may be corruption and defers , where there are very many things commen- 
dable. 2- Where there is honefty in the main, and a fuffering condition for Chrilt , there He is no 1 igid or fe- 
Vere cenfurer jbuta moft tender conftrudter of His Peoples infirmities. 

Secondly, More particularly He fetteth down by way of fimilitude the ill reproved, ^etf 14. BtMu'^e thou 
bafi. there them that hold the doSirine ofBalaam^^c. which He applyeth, yerf. 15. It is not to be thought that 
there were any profelfed followers of £<»/<ia»i in that Church i b.it the intent is, to shew, that, upon the 
mauer,ihe doctrine of the N»W<j/f«wx did agree therewith} and if i<»/««w*pradtice was haiefuU , ^^^^^5 
muft a'.fo be fuch. And fo, by propofing the hatefull way oi Balaam, He difcoyereth : h. odioufncfTe of the 
dodtrine of the Nicohitans^ : which will be found, upon the matter, tobe the lame. The H.lto y of Balaam is 
Tiecorded, Numb.ily 13.2f.and 31 . Chapters. In fum this , he was a greedy covetous wn ich , who gieedily 
avmcd at the wages of unnghteoufnefl;; i and being reftrained from curfing the people of J, rael by the Lord , 

Cliap.2, Book^ofthe Revelation. i j j 

he gave lubtile advice to B<i/«it to draw the people oti/rac/ into a fnare,that thereby God might be provoK- 
ed againft them 5 and (b, in th:clofe, they might be prevailed over, jofephus , in the fourth Book ohhe 
Antiquities ohixjews, exprefleth it thus, That headVifed Balak tofendfome of the beamifultefi Women of 
Midian to v^ander about the Camp of Ifrael ■, who , though they Ihouid intertain the Jfraelites tamiliarly , yet 
that they Ihuuld not yeeld any thing to their lult j but chat they fhould pretend to run trom them, rill they 
ihouid partake of their I Jol-feails with them : in reference to both which) they prevailed with the Ifraelitef, 
and drew them both into bodily, and fpiritual fornication; which were the two great faults of the 7>licolai- 
tans ^to wit , liberty in fornicati jn, as if it were not finful j and indifterencie in eating oFthings lacnficed to 
Idols* witnoutrefpedt to offence, aswasshowenon 'tierf6. Therefore the Lord here fpeaketh of the do- 
(iJtr'me of the Kkolauanf, asbeingindeed the reviving of iiaAiawV old condemned Error ; And fo they be- 
came guilty b.'fore God of his prailices, a^ if rhey had exprefly profelfed the maintaining of the fame. It is 
faid, That Balaam taught Bahkto caji aftumbting blockjbe fore the children of Ifrael , 55c. His wicked advice 
getteth that name : bjcaule, it proved an occalion oi falling and Itumbhng to the Jfraelites , as if a ftumbling 
block had b.'en caft in th: way of fome man , to make him fall. Thus many finful pradhces have not only 
the conliderationof guilcinefle , in refpetit of the perlbns themfclves , who commit the fame » but havealfo 
the confideration of offence, as they are apt to prove occafions of falling , and ruine unto others. Thisalfo , 
to wit , of laying nflumbling b'ock^before others^ U'ill agree well in application to the Kkolaltam : who, as they 
were guilty in tne hn of un.leaunelfe j lo were they carelefle in reference to offence, not regarding how of- 
fenfive their way was unto others in the ule of indifferent things , fuch as eating of things lacrificed , Cc. 
which in thefe primitive times was to many the occalion of ftambling, when Chriltian-liberiy was not righ i- 
ly bounded, as wc may gather from , i ConwA.S 9 10. And thefe two alio oitw'n go together , tobe care- 
leffe of guilt before God , and of offence before others. 

From which we may gather, i . Tnat the moil vile Errors and delufions may increafe exceedingly : This 
of tbe Kicolattans had ipread in Kphefus, Pergamos , and feveral other Churches , even in the dayes of 3 ohn 
the Apoltle. 2. That new-upftart grofle abominations, are oftentimes indeed but the reviving of fome old 
buriea and condemned prav5tices or doitrines.Thus the Error of the Nicolaitans, is bat indeed,on the matter, 
the putting ot talaam^s pra»5lice in a doitrine, and maintaining the fame under another name. 3. Wc may 
fee that it is an allowed way of confuting new ftart-up delufions> to shew their agreement , on the matter , 
with former old acknowledged and condemned Herelies. Thus the Lord doth here j and in the Epiftle 
following, he conpareth them to Je'^bel : for, often men will more impartially judge otby-palt Errors, than 
of whatf:remeth to be new ; and therefore the devil ufeth molt cunningly to dilgLiife thofe things, and to en- 
deavour to have old Errors vented under the notion of new lights, and depths , when indeed they are but old 
rotten delulions. 

If it be faid here, that ordinarily the moft groffe men ufc to brand the moft Orthodox with this , asbein» 
reviversof old Herelies, whereof many initances may beglven. For Anfwer, We fay ,thata limpleaiTert- 
ingofthis, isnot fufficicnttobearitout; we would theretore propofe thefe qualitications, i. That the thing 
efteemed to be an Error or Herefie , be indeed incontro vertibly luch , and th it in fo n; fundamental thing : 
indeed fometimes,even the Ancients , do put fomethingsin the Catalogue of fierelies , which will not be 
found to be of iuch weight. Itis not thofe we Ipeak of, nor is it fuch that are mentioned here. 2. The appli- 
cation alfo would bi clear ; and men would not charge others with Herelies oFan odious nam j or n.>t jre up- 
on prejudice , or upon miftake o." fome expreflion : nay, not upon fome Teeming confequence, which the Au- 
thors do deny, and, it may be, others cannot demonftratively fhew the inference thereof. Here it is not lo, 
the practice and dodVrine of the Nicolaitans, is (o clear, that they cannot deny it in pariiCtilars , though it 
may be,acfirft, they would refufe it to b.'th; doctrine of i<»/««OT, X. Sjch an application woald be made 
in knowledge, and from thrdjgh acquaintance with the alleged old Here fie upon the one fide, and with par- 
ticular tenents of others, who are fuppofed to maintain that error , upoa the other fide. Ofcentimes men 
Ipeak in thofe things, what they know not , or with a too lightly pading view j or , upon fome probable re- 
femblance, or appearance* are ready to ground fuch an application. 4.This would be remembered , that the 
old condemned Herefie muft be fuch as is condemned in Scripture, and that Itill the Word is to be acknow- 
ledged as the fupream rule. Ail which agree in this application jand where they agree , it is not a hitle pre- 
judice to an opinion, to (ay, it is, on the matter, the fame with fuch and fuch an old Herefie, that is, to mens 
conviction long fincecondemned upon grounds from the Word of God. 

This was a foul Error: and it is not to be thought that this ^ngel, who is here fo commended, was guilty 
of any of thefe evils, by any pofitive acceflion to them ; but this is the fault charged upon him, that thou haft 
them thathold thedoBrine of the Hitolaitantj that is,the Angel hs^d fuch in the CHuicb, M'ho continued to be 

R 3 Mem- 

1J4 An Expofit'm of the ^ Chap.i. 

Mciiib:rs, and were not by Dirdpline cut off. This is his tauk : for , it was not the Churches fault thac fuck 
lived ill Petgamosi bscaulc they bad no civil Authority to impede that j yet it was their fault that they lived 
Qiui ch-memb ji€ there* becaule thzy had Church Authority to remedie that, which yet was not put in excr- 
cifc againtt them, as by Ephefuf had been done. 

From which we may gather, i . That the Church is inverted with a Power and Authority for cutting off 
of corrupt Memb.-rs. 2 Thac it is a moft horrible rault where there is defesi in this. OjrLordJefus quar- 
rellechth:wantof thisinPtfrgrfwof, where He cominendethmichhonrftie: and Hecommendeth it in 
Ej>hefiis> wherethere wanted not inward defetfls : bccaufe there is nothing that more occafioneih the Name 
ofChnlt to hi reproached, his Ordinances to be delpifed, his people to be offended and (tumbled , than the 
fuftering of corrupt Members that are tainted with Errors to continue in the Church , Therefore much of 
the Churches commendations or reproofs in thefe Epiftles is founded on this, as it is rightly, or, partially ex- 
ercifed. 5. By this it appearcth, that our Lord Jefu* is no friend o toleration ; and that the tolerating of 
corrupt teachers, can no way be approvenof Him. It is true, this is direCHyfpokenagainlt Church-men their 
tolerating of corrupt teachers: but will any thing that that will be approven in civil Powers> which is lb 
hatef-il in the Church-officers » or , that Jefus Chrilt will account toleration in the one to be hateful, aiid in 
the other to beapprovable ■> 4. There isdiverfitieof teraptrsin Ch irch-oificers , and diverfitie of conditi- 
ons in Churches, even where there may be real honeltyui both: Epkcfm had much coldnefle within, and 
yet much zeal againft thofe Nicolaitofii i Pergamos again , is mu n co:i> aended for their zeal and conftancie 
in fuffering : and yer reproved for want of zeal agamtt ihe ecor apt M.mbers. 5 Men may be very ftraight 
and tender in the work of God, and bold in reference to fuftering j and yet taint and be dekftive in the pro- 
fecuting of Church-cenfurcs againtt erroneous men. This appearcth botn from this Epiltle and that which 
foUoweih, where their particular condition and publick carnage in other things, is exceedingly commended; 
yet is there a nstmthflanditii in both in reference to this. 

Ifitbeasked, PVhatcan b: the reajon that honifi , tender , *nd:(e4Uti4meH shauUbefo oftendefeaiteinthii, 
Vfhoyet may be jealous andferYem aiainJlfcandatoM practices » 

, Anfw.Thek realbns may be given, i . It is more ditficult to get the impresfion of the odioufhefle of cor- 
rupt dodirine on the heart, than of grofle outward pradices: bccaufegroflepradices otfend nature more 
diredly, and arehatefuUevento naturall men : and even lomegood men are ready tofolter fuch an opinion , ^ 
as if grace were more confiftent with error than with profanity. U pon this ground the Lord Himfelf , and 
th:; Apoltles do more frequently give people warning to mark and aoftain from them that caufe offences con- 
trary to the Dodrine of the Gofpel , than they do in matters of grofle practice. 2. Perfuing of perfons 
that are erroneous, hath often little fruit with it as to the perlons themiel ves, there being b Jt few that are re- 
covered out of that fnare of the devil , and to whom God giveth repentance . who once deliberately oppofe 
them'eWes to the truth ; b jt on the contrary, they feem to be more bold , and to make a greater ftir than if 
they had not been taken notice of, as we fee in Corimh, and Galatia •, the more that Paul prcfled them , the 
more they feemed to defpife himi and they go on in their contradiction and blalphemy , as in the Hiftory of 
theA^s, andinftancesofHymewewf and Vhiktu*, is clear. This maketh that even fometimes good men, 
©utof fear of the inconveniences that may follow* and the difficulties that accompany fuch a work , may be 
too prone to ovcrfee and forbear them. 5. Sometimes retpedt to the perfons of fome who may be carried a- 
way , may have influence on this, as fuppole fome perfons for a name of piety , fometimes favorie, fhojld be 
reduced j prepolterous tenderncfl'.- to ihofe may m^ke men cruelly to fpare them to their prejudice. Tnis fault 
the Lord leemeth to quarrel in Thjatira, that they fuffercdhuJerVamt to befeduced. 4. There may be alfola 
defign by more gentle means to reltram fuch an errour, and recover lucti as are fallen , whereby they may 
come to exceed and turn to be defedtivein not ufingthe means appointed, as if fuch cenfures had been need- 
lefly appointed , or , as if the Lord didnot make ufe of mediate means for the reflraining of errour.5.5uch 
bulinellcs alfo have often their own miltakes among many tender members of the Church ; fome whereof, 
may be too favourable conitruders of the moft grolfe feducers, and lo fear to'otfend them j and /<»v« to keep 
all in pence, oftentimes may ileal in to have weight to the prejudice of the Lords Ordinance. It is written 
of the Schifm in Pbrygia, which arofe for Montamuy that many did conftrudl too well of him,as not think- 
ing it impoifible but' he might be a good man , who , therefoje could not go alongft in the thoughts that o- 
thcrs had of h;m. Tnere is rca lily (bmethiag of this amongft the weakelt fort where deluders come , 
which getting way or a time, doth rather increafe than dimmish; and fo leaveth this duty in a greater 
none-cutry than athrlt. 

. We come now to the remedy, or duty exhorted to, which is laid down and prelfed l^erf.iO. It is in fiiort, 
I{cpcnt i that fame which was propoii:d to Ephcfuf, "perf.^. The Lord hereby fignifying , i. That when 


Chap.i. ^^k of f^f Revelation] 1 3 y 

fins are falle n into, it is not enough to forbear them , but there muft be an exercifing of repentance for ihem. 

2. That there is no cxpedlacion to be keeped free from wrath where there hath been hn without repen- 
tance, 3. That ommiflions are finfull and to be repented of, even as commi/Tions are. And, 4, That fin- 
full ommiflions »n a mans publiek Station ( fuchas this is , whicliis reproved ) are robe repented of, £S 
grolfe per fonall fault* are. 

The threatning annexed, is, in thefe words, »r elfe I will come unto thee qukkfYi and 1 willfi^kt agamfl them 
■with thej\v0rd 0fmy mouth. It hath two parts : the tirlt, refpedVeth the Church or Angei of Pergam»s , 
i willcome unto thee ijuickj/ , that is, if thou repent not, I will one way or another come in judgement a- 
gainft ib^e. We conceive it relateth to the Angel elpecially , it beingin the Angular number : becaufe 
this fault being a defe(5t in Difcipline* is not fo to be imputed to the People, af to him wbofe place it was to 
take order with fuch corruptions ; which will appear more clearly afterward. The fecond part refpedleth 
thele groife members that were lliffered to be in the Church , to wit , the NUolaitans , I will fight agamfl 
them with the j word of my mouthy thatis, leingyeare guilty of defeft here, if there be not repentance tor 
it , 1 will come in an extraordinary way and my felf punish thofe whom ye have fuffered. For clearing of 
this threatning, we n^yconfider, i. Wherein it confifteth. i. HowitcanbeathreatningtotheAngel. 

3. Wherefore he islo peculiarly threatned. 

To the fh-If , It is clear here, that the party immediately threatned , is the KicoUitans , whom the Lord 
threatneth to tight againft with the fword of His mouth : which looketh not to any external , or corporal 
plague : for, the fword of His mouth, is not the weapon that inflideth fuch : But it looketh cfpecially to 
thefe, I. To a difcovery of their wickednelfe, and of the hatefulneffe of their way , by his Word. 2. To 
acenfuring, threatning, and Sentencing of them bythefame. 3, ToafruitlefnelTe offuchdifcoveries, 
threatningsandfentences, astoanyfpintual orfavingwork upon them j but that thcyshouldb.- by fuch 
clear convi^ions and fentences, in Gods fecret Wifdom and Jultice, more hardned, convinced, irritated and 
affe<5ted with fpiritual plagues , than if they had not been fo dealt with : in this relpecft often in the Scripture 
we have mentioned , hewing by the ProphetSy andfl^ying by the wordt of the Lords mouth , as Hofea 6. 5. and 
fighting with Antichriji, and dejirojing him by the Spirit of His mouth, zTheff. 2. 8. And elfewhere the like ex- 
presfions to that purpofe. This is a lad plague, M'hen the Table of the Gofpel becometh a fnare , and when 
through mens own corruption they become moredrunk with their own delufions , even under convincing 
Ligbtj.and when the WordofGod, which is the only Weapon whereby they may otfend their enemies , is 
through their oppoling the Light thereof, turned to fight againft them , as they have turned themfei ves to 
fight againft it;the event here as to them .cannot but be dcfperaie. 

For the fecond ^It may be queftioned how this can be a threatning to the Church or Angel that the Lord 
would take Ibch courfe with thefe corrupt Nicolaitans} It might rather look like a tavoiir toihem^ 
Jtnjwer. If we confider it more particularly, we will find ita threatning in thef; refpeds, i . That it implies 
Ghrift to be angry at their negletting of their duty ; and that this extraordinary way doth infinuate His eltee- 
ming of them not to be worthy to have this employment ; therefore he caketh their duty offtheir hand , 
and providcth HimfelfoFfome others for the performing thereof. Thus , \\'hen ?aul is threatning the Co- 
rinthians, lEpii^. Chap. i^. "Perf. 21. IVhat y shdll come unto you With atod-> ^c. whereby he shewech 
himfelf to be angry. In the beginning of the next Chap, he reproveth them for futiering the inceftuous per- 
ion, andconunaodeth him to be Excommunicated : which bearethout this , that P^«/V coming over them 
topreflefuchaduty, wasaftrokeornote fortheirdefe^5lin the fame. 2. It isa threatning in this refpedf : 
becaufethe taking of fome extraordinary way and mean as in reference to thefe Kicolaitans , hath ftrange- 
like and uncouth erteAs oftentimes following upon it: thereby the Church is put through other , and re- 
volutions follow ; and often the Wheat is trode upon , when the Tares are a weeding : which cannot b.ic 
be hurtful to the Church. 3. Itfupponeth alaying-by of this Angel and making ufe of fome other for 
this work oficonvincing, reproving, and confounding, iSc. of thofe wicked men , which should be to His 
difgrace , when he should have no hand in fo good a work : and fo the meaning of the threatning, is, to i|he 
Angel > if thou fpare thefe wicked men, and do not thy duty in reference to them, 1 my felf will come in an- 
other way, and lay thee by, and follow my purpofe in fentencing, and cenfu.'ing of them by fome other mean. 
And this is to give another bis Crown, M'hich is fo oft commended to the Angels in thole Epiftles to be kept. 
Thus the threatning is not to remove a Miniftrie or Church-eftate from Pergamof as \v as in the cafe ot Ephe* 
fus i but it is the Lords threatning to lay afide fuch particular Minifters, and notwithitanding thereof to carrie 
on His Work. 

Now for the third,towit> wherefore this threatning refpedeth theAngelmore peculiarly, than that of H- 
fhefut, did. jinfw.Jhe reafon was formerly hinted, 10 wit? tpjh%fm fin & def e^ was in the pradice of t he 


,-g AH ExpofitioH of the Chap.l. 

DuvverofGoiiiien".-, common to Mimllcrs andpjopic: iherefore cloth that threatning extend aimoite- 
G lally tQ4D0tli • this liu agaiii,wtiich is reproved h.;rc, doih peculiarly rcflcCi upon the Minllcrs: and there- 
Le tne weight of cliecareucmngdoc.i peculiarly rdpedU^^^^^ _ 

From which we may learn, i. fUac tainting and untauhtjlnelie in the Work or vxz Miniltnc, may pro- 
cure an interruption by one mean or other in tae exercilc theveot, or a blattirg oFa man in Gifts and Parts t 
whjlomtimestiathbeenuf:f-ill. 2. Itfheweth ihit ,o mimes God may keep His Word in a place, arid 
exercile it in reference to fomc peilbns, between wham and Hun there is a Itandin^ or itated fighr, theyr 
fiehciiie a<yainft Him an d not receiving the love of the Truth , and He fighting agaiwlt tliem by giving them 
UP to haicfnefle of heart and ftrong delulions s and , in His lecret and holy Jullice, making His Word and 
Ordinances to promove the fame. 3. It foliowcth ai lb, that it is a molt dreadfuil thing when the Lord and 
His \Vord become our party, and when He hghteth againlt a people with ihat S;vord : it is here a more ter- 
rible threatning to fight againft thole with the Sword ot His mouth , than if He had lent the Sword , Fa- 
mine or Peftilence upon them. 4. Itimplieth, chat this is a plagtKi, and a way of punishing ,thattheLord 
in His T ft ice often fendeth and cxerceih upon deluders and corrupt Teachers, who have not received the 
love ot th-* Truth and have perverted the Word ot God to their own deltrudion, to M'it , that it fliould bea 

Toe Conclufion foiioweth. Iperj. 17. and hatn two parts common with the relt ; i. All that are Ipintually 
affeded and have the fenle of rignt hearing, are exhorted to hear what God faith by His Spirit to the Clmrches, 
as if oarricularly it were fpoken to them, ihis is lo far from fuppoling that men naturai.y have ears to hear, 
chat it doth imply the contrary, to wit , that it is not every one that hath ears to hear , bit that he is a rare 
man that hath them ; for , none can hear fpiritually what the Lord faith to the Cuurches , but fuch as have 
eottenthemasMo/eJWordis, D«!«r29.4. . u /ir r> i- n ,. 

The lecond part oftheConclulioncontainethlome encouragements to the wreftling Believer, as all the 
reftoftheConclufionsdo. Theparty iowhomthepromiieismade,is the fame, towiuhimthatoterco' 
meth or he that is a overcoming, as it may be read ; which pointeth at the zealous, fingle,cor:ftant, and 

hidden Manna. M«»«tf is called , {PfaLioS-) ^ngtls food ,^^^,]oh6.breadftorn heaven, t is, in a word, 
the molt excellent, and refreshing food j yea, Chrilt Himlcli , who is called the true bread from heay>en , 
Ioh6 of whom whojoefer eatetb shall notdte. li is bidden Manna, polfibly relating to that pot of 
M mm that M'as kept within the Ark ot the Teftimonie : and lo u pointeth at fuch food as is hid with 
Cnrift in God, and to be enjoyed v^'ith God in the heavens ; which was typified by the tnoft Holy. How- 
ever itiniDorteth, Firft, the excellencie ot this food, and che latisfattion which the overcomcr may ex- 
t)e<a'- it IS inconceivable and incxprelfible , The eye hath not feen , the ear hath not heard of it , nor hath it 
entered in mans heart to conceilpe thereof, Ila.6^.. Secondly , Ic importeth its lickern. Oe : it is hid, it cat>- 
not but be fure to the overcomer , leing it is kept in the lecret place ot the moft High. Tnirdly, It im- 
norteth the rarity and fingularuy ot this excellencie, being a thing altogether unknown to the world, 
LMntwerehtdden: in whichrefpeds ^Co^iT 3- 3) our Ufe is iM to be hid with CMft in God. The 
fecond exprelTion h ,Iwillii^ehimawhueftone: wiiitejioms were ufed in thole day es, for two ends, 
as mav be gathered from Heathen writers, i. In their wrettlings and games , he th \t overcame , and was 
vidtor iroca whiteftone, asabadgeofhonourputuponhim. 2. It was uled in civil Courts (when men 
were accu fed and challenged of crimes) to be given as a fign of abiolution : thus a man that was found 
innocent and ablol vcd got a white ftone, and he that was condemned got a black ftone : both anfwer 
well here where Chrift promifeth to give toiheovercomcr a Croww, in pledge ot his vidory, and a tull, pa- 
blick, and open abiolution in the great Day , betore men and Angds. 3. This v/hite ftone hath a new name 
wr'aten upontt : a Kame, is fome honourable thing i a new name^ is iomethmg eminently honourable: It was 
the Lords way to change the name of fome , whom He eminently loved : and for confirmation ot His fa- 
vour to them, He gave their, new Nimes: fo he did 10 Abrahamtfacob , i^c. This faith that the be- 
lieving overcomer fhallbemade by jefus Chi ift quite another thing, where Hefhallhave fjchGlorv 
and Maicfty beliowed upon him , as \*'ill need a new Name to exprclfe the fame , and make him think 
himlelt- another thing than ever he thought to liavc been. We take it, on the matter, to be that fame which 
IseKvrcffxUchap.-^. V. 11. by hvyingti\t Name of God, andChrilif new Name written upon them. 4 It is 
a Name which no man knoweth fatm^ l.e that receilDeth it. This muft be ^an excellent mot to that only 
thefpiritual fcutsofthereccivcvisabletodiicein the excellencie thereof t fo that tio on4ooker can tell 
* what 

Cbap.1. EffohjftheRevelAt'm, ij7 

what the fausfat!tion> dignity, and honour of fuch a perion is j buc he who is pofleffed with the fame : and 
proportionally , theie who are made joynt Heirs ot the fame Glory- Thefe promifes may in fome part be 
applicable to the firit fruits ofcbe Spirit that the B^Hevers are partakers of here: which , in refped:o! car- 
nal delights, are unfpeakable andgloiious, and fuch as paffe all underltanding j yet the proper fulfilling of 
them, and the main (cope of the place, is to be applied only to the enjoyments that BeUcvv.-rs have to expetit 
in heaven^ when they ihall reap the full Harveft , and be brought to the polleffion of the Kingdom prepared 
for them ; tor, all of- them do prefuppofc a full accomplished vn5lorie before they be attained : which cannot 
be exped:ed in this life. O but heaven mult be an excellent happinefle ; feing the fatisfidion the reof is fa 
inexpre/Jible 1 even the Apoftle Patd who was ravished to the' third heavens, mult give it over , and fay, ki 
heard what was impo/fible to be uttered. 2 Cor. 12. 


Verf. 1 8. Jnd unto the jSngel of the Church in Thyatira, Vfrlte, Thefe things faith the Son of God, whe hath hit 
tjes like unto aflzme of fire, and his feet are like fine brajje, 

19./ kpovt; thy ■works , and charky , andferVice , and faith, and thy patieme , andthy works, and the la(i to 
be more then the frft. 

20. Notvvkhjianding y Ibay>eafewthingr againflthee^ becaufe thou juffereft that woman ]e.'ehel ^ -which 
€allcth her leifa propbeteffie 3 to teach andtofeducemyferlpants to commit fornication ^ and to eat things facripced 
unto idols. 

21. And Igalpe her fpace to repent of her fornication y and she repented not. 

22. Behold, I will cafi her into a b;d, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation , except thty 
repent of their deeds. 

23. ^nd I will kjl-her children with death , and all the Churches shall know that I am be which fearcheth the 
reins and hearts : and I willgiipe unto eleery one of you according to your works. 

2 ).. But unto you I fay , and unto the reji in Thyatira, as many at halpe not this doSiritte , and which ba\e not 
1(pown the depths ef Satan, as theyfpeak,y I will put upon you none other burden. 

25. Bta that which ye hay>e already, hold f aft till I come. 

26. -And he that otfercometh, and k^ep. th my workj unto the end > to him will Igilfe power oYerthe nations : 

27. i^And he shall rule them with a rod of iron : asthe yeffds of a potter shall ihej be b.ol^en to suiters) e^enm 
2 receiiped of my Father. 

28 . jind I willfi\e him the morning far. 

29 . He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit faith unto the Church:^' 

THis is the fourth Epiftle, dired'ed to the Church of Thyatira. The divifion is common with the 
reft of the Epiflles,To wit, i.Anlnlcription, iperf.iS, 2. TheBodyot theEplftle^ Tfe>f.ig.20, 
21 , 22i 22,24,25. The Conciufion is in the reft. 
In the Infcription, Chrift taketh three Titles to Himfelfj the firft is, thus faith the Son of God. 
This is (to fay fj) HisroyallScile, than which there can be none higher : For, i, Itbeareth out His God, 
head: for, Chrifti-. not the Son of God by Adoption, as Believersarcj butHeisthe Son ofGodbyaneter- 
nall Generation , being begotten of the Father in an iinconceiveable vvay : in which 1 elpe^t, He is frequently 
aWsd the only begotten of the Father, i ]oh.i^.iS and the brightneffe ofhisglory , andexpreffe image of Lis per- 
fon , Htb.i.^. 2. Ic points out the unity of the EfTence of tneGod-heaiS which is common toiheFather 
and the Son : for, this fame that is the Son of God here, asbeinga diftindt perion from the Father, is thefiift 
and the latt , who it> who was, atid is to come, ifje jilmigbty , Cnap. 1.8. 1 1. which are cflentiall Atcributesof 
the God-h-'ad, 3 . This title being compnred with the Vifion in the former Chapter, wherein Chrift was 
fpoken of astrue Man, doth point out the Union of the two Nitures in one Pcrfon : for , the Son of Man , is 
the Son of G )d ,• and the fame Perfon who is the S3n of Go:! > is the Son oi Man. All which , are conlidera* 
tions that bear forth excellency in Him i and give ground o't comfort to His People. The reafon why He 
taketh this itile to Himfelf in this place, is, becaufe He is Sovcraign to reprove faults in , and to give diredti- 
ons unto. His Church : and that with fevere threatnings in reference toperlbns that were guilty : theref ore» 
■toir.akeall the more weighty, He taketh this ftile. 

The other two Titles, are taken out of the Vifion,C^^^. 1. To wit , J^ho hath eyes ^ a/lame of fire , and 
f i'fet are/ikefinebt-ijfe. . TiiQ^di ofthem, fetteth torih His O.nnifciency, that is able to reach the 

S fecrets 

Ij8 Au Exfafitm efthe Chap.2. 

fecrets of hearts , and difcover the h}^ocriik ot th.- molt fiibule hypocrite. Anfwerable ro this tiitic ( >«r/. 
23,) Heisfaid to fearch the fxart and the le'tns: aiid Hi;beinj^manifLft.:diobe fuch , isHis b.ing nio.* n 
to have eyes likeunto .; ft .me of tire. Taeiatt ride > mnd his ftetUkf unto fine braffs , ihewech the irxorrupt- 
ncfleandj'iftnefleof His way in mannaging the affairs or HisHoufe , ancihisloveraignirrefiliible maniur 
in promoving his dcfigiicsj as having both ablolute Authority to Govern, and abfoU.tcr pow»:r to executii 
Whacbeintendeth. Anlwerabletothis, (>fr/. 23. ; H^\s{3xAt»rendef to everyone accorSng to tb:iT uerks. 
He takeih the fii It of thcfe t\\o cities : became He is to difcover the hypocrifiv; ot a cojnicrkic Proph».t.iic. 
And He taketh the la(t : becai.fc He is to threaten her and her followers. 

In the Body of the Epiftle ( befide the gcnerall afllrting of hh> Omnifcience ) there are four nuin thing?, 
I. There is a commendation , Tcr/. ip. 2. There is a quarrel, with fome aggravations thereof, yerf.2i>, 
and 21* 3. There is athreatning, including a duty, or , comprehending th.- way how the thing threatncd 
fnighi be prevented) yerf. 22. and 25. This is in reference to them that were corrupted. 4, Their is a 
mitigation of the ihreatning, or, a confolatiou laid downin refcrcoce to thefe that were keeped free trotn 
the fe corruptions, Yerf.z\t2<). 

The copjmendation is great , both as to the extent of the matter commended, and as to the qualification 
thereof. Befide the general ylknow thy ^vorks , the things commended in them, are fet down in five words , 
exceeding comprcb.nfive. Thefirft is, their charity , ot lore: this fetteth forth the inward framu- of th.-ir 
heart in reference CO God and the Saints* and is, ineffetft, the fum and fulfilling of both the Tables of the 
Law. Tbb was defective in EphCjUs. The fecondis» their /fri^ice: this lookech to their miniftering to the 
Saintsof their fubltance » and otn;r\\ ife ; and is a fruit and proor of the former. The third is , thei r faith : 
which refpedteth not only the purity of their profeffion » by their keeping themfelves from Error : but main- 
ly itlooketh to thjir exercifing of faith in Him > and dependence on Him : for , ic is faith , to wit , the grace 
«f aiihthat is commended here » as ic is the grace of love , patience, Sec. The founh thing , is , fatience : 
which is a fruit of faith i andimporteththcirfabmittingtoiUfferingfor theGolpelof Chrilt, without faint- 
ing or ihiftiiig. in rerpsdofthe outward profefTion before others, or freeing in re fped: of the inward frame 
of their fpirit as to ihemf.lves , notwithftanding ot all thefe fufferings. The fifth word is, and thy Morks j 
Wbichgenerallylookeihtothe ftrain of their carriage, which by this the Lord holdeth forth as commend- 
able. All theie being pit together, they fhew an excellent frame this Church once had, and xrithall, give 
aGopieuntous. Yet there is a circumftance or qualification added} which dorh exceedingly heighten the 
commendation , thai is , and the l^ to be more then the frjl. The Ttieaning whereof, is , altho.igh thou haft 
bceuin a good condition for chanty, patience, works,&;c. fince the beginning j yetthy lait worksare. 
For extent in pradice/or livelinefle in degree, and for a fpiriiual manner of performing of them, beyond what 
they were ; io that her prefent condition is fet forth to be a growing condition , which doth confirm her ro 
have been really fincere and in 3 moft lively frame. The commendation was excellent; but this qualifica- 
tion pjttech thccrov\'n upon it : for where a decay cometh upon the gracioufnefle of a peoples irame, ( as was 
in Ephcfuf ) or , where there is an up -fitting without progrefie, thefe become as adead flie that maketh all the 
box ot ointment to ftink . 

The challenge foUoweth, Ve//! 20. and 21. i. Generally propofed. 2. Particularly expr^flfed. 7, Iris 
aggreged. Who could have thought that the next word to fuch an excellent commendation, (houldbea 
noPViiiihJlandiNg ? But this flieweth, i. The deceitfulnelfe and defperatneffe of our corruption , that may 
have its infJucnce befide much grace, as hath been frequently marked. 2. It iheweth the Lords conde- 
fcending and gracioufnefle , who giveth fuch aieftimony , even where there are faults. The general! expref- 
fion is , 2 hiffe afe iv things againji thee : Which is the fame , upon the matter j and fo to be Uftderftood as 
was fpokcn to Pergamos , "perf. 14. We fliall therefore fay no more ofic. 

More particularly, theqjarrel,.is ^becttufe thou fuff tuft that Vioman'Je^ehel , v/htcbcalle^jherfelf apr^* 
fhetvjfe,ijc. For clearing of which , we would, i.confidcr fe\ebeh ia\i\i , which the Lordchargedi upon 
her. 2. The Angel's fault , for which he is charged , who yet was free of her grofle evils. 

For the fii ft : 9 t^ebel'is defcribed by her name and pradtice. It is not to be though that there was fiicba 
M'oman bcaringfuch a name , or owing the pradticesof fe:(ebcl Queen of Jfrael, who is recorded, i KjKg 16. 
31 . &.C. But it is like , there hath been in this Church fome impudent woman, M'ho , for the furthering the 
abominable Sedl of the Nicolaifans , getteih this name h'^bel , to make her and her Tenents the more odi* 
oiis > even as in the former Epiftle , fome w.-re faid to hold the doilrine of Balaam > for this very end. For 
le^etfil; pradtice , iJ^ng. 16. &c. isrecoded to be infamous for thefe two, i. For groffe idolatry and the 
^reading thereof. 2.^ For painting and fairdingher-felfin an impudent way, which mfinuateth her being, 
guilty of Adulte ry aod uncleanneile« Which two being the hults whereof tlus coiuiteri&it fxofibeieSc wji& 


guilty, the Holy Ghofl givcth her this name (xt Jezebel: thereby to fcarc His People the more from her , 6cc. 
for. what ever ihe intended, flie was , upon the niarter, but nJczcbcL By this it appearcib alio, that (he hatli 

been (bme fpecial promoter of the SeA of the Kicolaitam : (oi , we will find her praibce and tenentstoa- 
gree tbsrcwith. i-Shccalleth her fdfd prop'jctCjJe , that is, (he took on her, and fo gave out her lelF, as iiihz 
had been excraordi lanly inlpired by tlie Holy (jhoft , thereby lO gain more credit to her opinions. It 'smark- 
ed in /Vncient Hiftory > iJbiat there was neper almolt gn eminent Herefi ; or Heretick , but had Ibme fpecial 
woman for thepromovers thereof, who of centimes took to rhemfelvcs the name ofprophetefles. Eufif 
b't;44,Ub <).cap.\6 (which is cited in the fecond Ct^nturie. wp ie Haref. ) marketh it of many : Simon Ma^ui 
had his Helena i Carpocrates his Msrccllina ; Apellet his P Jtlumcna, j Montanm had two , whom he called 
prophettfll's , to wit, PrijcilU and Maximiila : and At^ufiine frequently mentioneth one LuciUa , v\'ho M'as a 
great ring-leader ot the Donat ft s: loic is like the Nicolaitam had fucha prophetclfe, tor furthering of 
their deligne. 

If it be'asked, JV^ry the del^ilfeeketh thus toj:ngctge v^ometi, and to pm them on the top ofluch d^fignef > 
Anfw. Thefe realons may be given, i . Becaiile often women are molt eafiiy engaged and carried lartheflt 
on in tbedelufion { and it i$ riot to eaficio make a man give que himfelf for a prophet , as a woman totake on 
her the name of a propbetefle. This gqn^rall we m^y gather from , 2 Tim. l ■ $.7. 2. Women are molt 
eager, vehement, and diligent in purfuing what they are engaged into: even late times may teach how 
they may prevail and inlinuateon many by their diligence* if we eonfxder whatis recorded otJAi^xb Hut- 
fbinjan and Ibme others » mentioned in that little Scory of the Ri fe, Reigne, and Blaine oiF^miliJis , Lil/et'T 
tines > ^c.in New Englattd- 5. Women are oftentimes lefle fulpedled than men j and any feeming parts 
orabilities , which in the Lords fecret J.iftice they may be furnished with , is ulually more admired an4 
taking thanin men , as if it lookedlike a thing above nature. This fame conlideration , occalioned a ^hifna 
in Phrjgia , becaufe fome had more refbed: to Montanus his propheteifes , than was fie. 4. Women 
alfo have more fecret , and private accefr>» to tempt and infedt others, than men can have: for, parily.ihey 
are leflfe lulpedted ; partly , more flighted and defpifed by others ; partly alfo , more forborn becaufe of 
their fexe than men would be ; whereupon often tiiey arrogate to themfelves a greater liberty and impi** 
dency in fpeaking when they are corruptly principled , than would be fuffered hi men. And laitly , there 
is moreaccelfe for them to converfe with u'omen , and to infufe their venom in them than there is f^r ipen. 
£r//e^itf/ marketh this as a reafon of fuch Hereticks affociating with women, that thereby there might be 
the greater facility to feduce theiimpleofbothfexes. Sometimes alfo they were helpfall by their means 
andcredite to further Sedt-mafters intheirdefignes, and tohold them on inthem : fometimes again , 
they were exceeding dexterous and diligent inventing andfpreading falfe reports upon hone ft Minir 
fters, and to beget a favourable opinion of thefe that were erroneous. All v\'hich tend exceedingly to 
the promoving of Error and to the hurting of the truth. And we will find Jw^o/Pjofi often complaining 
ofthe malicious reports that this L«:i/^ufedfo fpread upon them , whjreby the calumnies oftheD^*?- 
fi/?/ were ftrei^thened. Upon which grounds and thj like, we may (ee what the devils defign is in 
leeking to engage fuch in the head of fuch a defi^n. This then is the ftrft fiult charged on her , that contrary 
to truth , and without warrand from God, fhe tUd call her felf a propheteflfe j even though fhe had not pro- 
pofed any Error. 

Her fecond fault is, that Ihe teacbeth ' this was forbidden, 1 Cot. 1 4, 34. and i Tim 2. t 2 . And it appeareth, 
that even thefe Prophetelfes, who had an extraordinary Gift from Gou , as i ^;//pj daughters had, ABs 11, 
Yec were not piiblickly and Authoritatively to Preach : for, P«tt/ commands them lilence, i Cor. 14. even 
wheu he is fpeaking of extraordinary Prophets. And we will not find in the New Teftament ( at leaft ) 
any ground for a Woman publickly to officiate in the M'niftrie of the Gofpel » as an Authorized OSice^, 

The third part of her challenge, is, that by her Teaching she d\ifedme : which is a challenge to her , 
though fhe had been guilty of none of the fcMrmer two. This, to wit, ledudrion and leading of people out of 
the way of Truth, doth ever almoft follow upon perfons ufurping a Calling to themfel ves , or upon perfons 
ftepping without their ovv'n bounds and flation to Teach ; and we will !eldome find perlbns to run iinfenc 
in any of the former refptdts j but itching after fome new thing ,hath had influence upon them , to carry 
them without their bounds, az we may fee in JezeMhere, and ordinarily th ough the Scripture and Church- 
hiftorie- The particulars wherein fhe feduced her hearers , are two. Th^tixdU, tp commit fomianiotiy 
diatis, byher affsHing fornication to be no liji , ihe occafioned and ttivred them up tptakeiiberty 
therein , vvhich po:>libly oiherwayes they would not have done. Thcfeeond is , lo m things fa. ti^cdiQ |- 
«(o.x, that is, by proppUDdipgi%jn;jiriereiicieQfcneat5, jRd |jreteo4ing ip Cafii^ia^'^iiperty ^ ifee educed 

S 2 th.m 

140 " J.n Ixpofitm ef the Chap. 2. 

them without all refpedt to fcandal , to eatof thefe things, 10 the ftumbling, p^rieving and wounding of others 
that were weak and tender : which two, are the very do<5lrines and praifiices ot ihe NicoUitans , as was 
fliovvn in the Epiltles to Ephefus and Pergamos. 

But it is a dirt-erentq-iarrtl from this which the Lord hath with the Angel : it's expreHed thi^s , becauje thja 
fuffereft that woman le^cbd , t!lc. that is» not that they countenanced her m her Errors , or did he ir her in her 
Teaching j but that they fuftl-red her , and did not impi-de her. If it be asked , How they can be quarrelled for 
fuffedngofhei , feingthey were not Magijiratcs , nor had ci\>U jimhoriueto rfflrainher'> Jnfw. That is not 
the quarrel ; but this , that they b>,-ing invefted by Chrift leliis with Church-power to ceniure corrupt Mini- 
fters , and cut off rotten Members,, did not exercifeihe fame in cenTu ring and Excommunicating of this 
falfe Prophetiffe and thefe that adhered to her , as Ephefus had cenfured the fjlfe Apoftle?, Tfcrf. 2. Sj , on 
the matter , it'ij the fame fat ili: which is condemned in Pergamot, terf. 15. who had fuch c. rriipc Members in 
their focietie jand did not by Exco.nmuniGacion cut them otf : which Iheweth that the Church is invefted with 
(ach a Power Cfor,nocivil Power can be alledged here)andthatthenegle(ilingof cheexcrcife thereof,is ex- 
ceedingly difpleafing to Chrift lefus. 

If it be asked, i. How Church cenfures , VVfcew backed WtthnociVd Authority , can impede one to teach"*. 
3. J'Vhy the Lord iffo difpleafed "fpithChurch-rulcrs their Juffering of corrupt teachers ? 3. Ifth^ relate (tny way to^ 
m'pH Powers m well at Ecclejiajlicli ? 

Tothefirft, weanfwer, Ahhough Ghurch-cenfures have no civil compulfion with them ot bodily vi- 
olence or Ittength to reftrain any fiom corrupt teaching j yet they have a threefold weight , when rightly gone 
about : th-jy have an authority and M'eight as to the confcience of the gain-fayer : becaufe cenfures , being the 
Ordinance of lefus Chrift , and, as it were a feal putby his Authority to a conditional! ihreatning , they have a 
ftamp of HisMajefty upon them : and fo they ("erve to humble men , or to revenge their dilobedience : and 
therefore thefe who fceminly profeffe to defpiffe fentences , want not an inward apprehenfion of the terrouc 
of Excommunication , and would gladly not havethat fentence paft upon them. 2. If men obftinately fup- 
prefle the weight of the cenfure upon the confcience » as well as of the Word ; yet , being a mean appointed 
of God for the reftrainingof fuch evils , it's oftentimes countenanced by Him , if not to the bumbling , yet to 
the blafting of fuch perfons in their defignes : whereby in his fecret Providence and luftice it often conieth to 
palTe that lentences againft fuch perfons , are eminently owned and countenanced by Him , withfome con- 
curring difpenfation , evidencing His ratifyingof the fame , as fometimes , fuch , are in juftice given up to 
more vile delufions > (bmetimes to grofTc out-breakings in practice , fometimes their very natural judgement 
and fenfes are blafted , their credit and Teputationevanifheih', and , it may be, fomeway He doth fignally 
follow them with Hisown immediate Hand by fomeftroak upon their Eftutes t Peilons , or Families , even 
when they feem to be countenanced by civil Power « as it is written in Ghureh-ftory he did to Simon Magttf, 
and i4mW after he was Excommunicated, by taking himaway in the very highi of hisinfolency,who having 
again recovered Court and being in a folemn manner with many attendants coming to appear for his pretend- 
ed 'vindication , was fmitten zshc thought with a defire to eafe himfelf , and for that end withdrawing to a re- 
tiring place in one of the ftreets of Conjlantinople , he did inftanily expire, and having been wjitedfor long by 
his attendants-, was at la(t found dead in the leat , his inteftines being diflblved and voided. That little Book 
( formerly cited)of the Rife , and Reigne of the Familijls, &c. hath fome dreadful! inltances of this. Thus 
the Lord hath often made fuch away toftink, by fmitiing the head thereof in Ibm^ extraordinary manner. 
And though this be not the proper end of E-{Communication y yet when it meeteth wi^h mens corruptions , ir 
is often ajuft confequent thereof. And thefe , or fuch like wayes of difappointment , cannot be fo warrant- 
ably expedled where this Ordinance is not improven: becaufe it hathinepromife, and is a mean appoint- 
ed for this end , ib^t mfn may learn not to^ blafpheme > as the Apoftle Ipeaketh , i Tim. i. 20. 3. Jt hath 
weight as to others, to fcarc them from countenancing of fiich j and is, as it were, a Mat k or Beakon fct 
upon them, thereby to give warning to others for efchewing of their company , asicis, ^om. 16. 17. 18. 
and(in many other plac«s : and if it have this fruit,it cannot but in a great part blaft thcit dciigne. Now; the nc- 
gle<5l ofthis fentence, mad6 all thefe reftraints void, as if nonweight had been in Chrifts Ordinance : this was 
the Angels fault. 

A'S to the fecond, to wit, vsrherefore Ghriftls foidifpleafedXvith the fuffering of corrupt Teachers, we may 
gather the reafons thereof from what is faid : For> i. it Iheweth little zeal to His Glory, when His Name 
isfuffered to be blefphemed. 2. It fheweth littlelove to His People , when they are fuffered to be feduced. 
3; Itfliewcth little refpedVto His Ordinances, when _they are not made ufeof fovthe end appoi-nted, 
and when corrupt men are fuffered to in vert the order appointed by Him: in a word, Error and falle Teach- 
ers have brought more reproach upon the Name of Chrift and ProfellionoftheGolpei, and have made 


Chap.2. Soek^of tie Feveidthrf. 141 

Religion more defpicable to profane men J than any grofleouc-breakingshave done: alfo, moe fouls have 
been dertroyed thereby > and that fpeedily with fvvift deltrudion , 2Prt. 2. and, as it were carrying them 
away with a flood, as it is , chap. I2. Lailly , Other fins are fallen into , by fome more pretext at lealt , of 
tentatton and corruptions prevailing, but this is done with a high Hand, whereby men not only break the 
command themfelves , but teach others fo to do , Matth.^. ip. And therefore it iscalled a Teaching of 
rebellion againft the Lord , Jer. 28. 16. and is fallen into , with more deliberation than other fins ; for which 
caufcanHeretickisfaidrobe condemned of Himfelf, T»>. 3. 11. Which being put together, with many 
other aggravations of this fin of corrupt Teaching , and ills that follow thereupon , it is no marvel that the 
Lord Jefus who is jealous of His Glory , and affefted with the hazard of His People > be exceedingly di(^ 
jjleafed at the negled of fuch a duty , as is the ufingofthe Authority which he hath given to His Church- 
officers for edification , and particularly for the curbing of currupt Teachers , and the taking of the foxes that 
fpoil the Vines. Seng. 2. ly. 

We fuppofe now, it is not difficult to Anfwer to the third Qoeftion , to wit , If the fuffering of corrupt 
Teachers be reprovable in men , who have civil Authority to reltrain the fame -^ for , the fame grounds that 
ought to awaken zeal in Minifters againft this ill, ought alfo to ftir up Migiftrates25ealoufly in their places 
to life their Authority for vindicating of the Name of Chrilt, and preventing of the hurt of His Church 
and People, feing the Sword is not delivered to them in vain > but for the terror of them that do eviU 
/^ow. 13. 3. Sure we are, in the Old Tcftament, Magiftrates were included within the command of re- 
ft: aining and punifhing fuch as did intife to falle Worlhip , as well as the Priefts were , Deut.. 13. 1 . C?e And, 
in the New Teftament , we find no repeal of the fame : and though there be no inftance thereof in the Gof- 
pel> or, A6ts of the Apoftles,becaufe Magiftrates were not then Chriftians ; yet, in the progrefle of this Book 
of Revelation, we will find, that when Magiltrates became Chriftian > it's looked upon as reproyable in them 
that countenanced Antichritt; and it*s highly commended in thefe , that out of zeal to God , Ihould with 
dra\^' from the whore and burn her with fire , chap. 17. Iperf.i6. 17. And feing in the Scripture , all Secfl- 
maftersare accounted Antichrifts, a?, }\/lat. 24. iloh.2. 18. 2Efiple,y>erf.y.^c. can there be any better 
rule to try what is duty in reference to them, than by what is approven of God in reference to him who 
istheprime Antichrift^ And this is clear, that the Lord hathnotmoreclearly engaged Himfelf to fight 
againit any Error by His Word than this j yet , He will not have that a pretext to Magiftrates for fhunning 
to exercife their civil Power againft Him. We fee alfo in Church-hiftorie > that themoft tender Magiftrates, 
when they were in the belt frame > hive ever been moft zealous in this, as by the examples of Con/?^«/'» , 
Grat'tanui , Theodo/ht^ , C?c. is clear : and the moft untender friends , or greatcft enemies of the Truth , have 
ttriven to have all forts of Religions equally tolerated? or, at leaft , to have a fort of hirmonie amongft them 
by the removing , or burying of all L ws Civil and Ecclefiaftick , that did ftrike againft fome Errors. In 
reference to the fiift , it's oblerved by ^mm'maus . an Heathen writer, and a great friend to luliatJt 
that amongft other devices that Jw/wMufed torootoutChriftianity, this M'as one, that he gave toleration 
openly to all thediflFerent Profeffions that were amongft Chriftians , (which then after cne Councel of 
Nice were very many ) and required no more of them , but that they fhould abftain from civil di cords j 
and 'b without fear follow any Religion they pleafed. Thewordsare ( as they are cited by LudoYicw Mo- 
Uneus i pag. 560. ) ut coifophiit ciWibm difcordiis , fua quifque 'B^ligtoni ferVtret intrepidm. And certainly , 
it can be no acceptable fervice to Icfus Chr^ft, to f-ollow that way, which this expert child of the 
devil made ufeof againft Him. knA AnAflajitM sXio , is condemned for this , that he endeavoured fuch 
an oblivion , or a fji.vn/liAv in the Church, as tended to fupprefle all the former Cannons , Decrees, or Con- 
feftlons, which had been enadted in the former famous general Councels againft grofie Errors, as may be 
feeninthebeginningofthefixthCenturie of the Church-hiftorie. Laftly, This is alfo fure, that the afTert- 
ingthat Magiftrats ought not </c ;«re, or might not </e/4f?o , meddlewith reftraining of Hereticks , was 
ever in the Primitive times accounted a grofle Error, jiugujiine profefleth himfelf fometime to have been 
of that opinion: yet often in his writings doth he profefle himfelf to have been convinced with thereafons 
ol his brethren, and with the experience that he had both of the neceftityand advantage of the Magi- 
ftrates interpofing in fuch a thing i fo that he became amoft vehement prefier of this, as in his Epiftlesis 
clear : and he feareth not to account the oppo^ers of this , ( to wit, fuch as pleaded for toleration from Ma- 
giftrates ) amongft Hereticksj and often namjth them under the Title oiI{pga,t'tan't,£xotaonQ who ic feemeth, 
was fome eminent pleaderfor this forbearance, and one of the Donattfis party. 

If is not intended that Magiftrats j or Miniflers , ftiould account alike of all Errors or Hereticks ; much 
leffe that indiftcrcntly th^ higheft degrees of civil punifhments , or Church -cenlures , (hould execute againft 
th«mj but that according to Spiritual prudence, both Ciyil and Church Authority fliould beexercifed 

53, ietc 

j^ Ah Expofition */ thg Chap. £. 

fo the retraining of fucli evil workers from, anu pjnishingofiherti ,for hurting of the Church or gnnitSc 
diihonowring of Hi5 Name. Id which, Chriltian pradcnce will make dirter«;nce, i. between Errors chac 
deltrov the foundation and are called dzmnab'e , 2 Pa.2. i,2, ^c. and other Errors, which are conliftcnc 
rvith the foundation, altho.igh they be as hay or It.ibbie bailt caereoo. 2. Merence is to be made between 
Errors that are fimplie Do^rinal, luch as thcfe tiwt are abojc the objedl ot Predetti nation , order otGo4$ 
D -crees or f.ich like : wherein certainly tliere is a right and a wrong , yetarejhey not To intolerable as Errors 
that imply a S "hifm in pradice to the renting ol the union oi the C harch , as thefc Errorsot rhe Ho-patianf 
and Oottitills Were {. Difference alfo is to t>e itiade^ betwixt a man w^ao ent . rcaineth an erroneous opi- 
nion and an ofh-r who is an H^retick, that is , who act only after admomcion , doth continue in th • fame 
opinionj but allo^dochperlilt CO vent and propagatthe fame lo the hurt ai^otfence of o:h^rs. 4. Although 
he that is reduced is guilty , as the feducer is j yet reafon vvoaid put a dirt.rence between him that aaivdy 
teachr-th andfeducech , andhlmthatisout of weakneife feduced , and is bat a i olio wer of luchaleader. 
c There may be acenlurmg in (o:ai degree either by civil or Church- Authority , when ycc there is no pro- 
cedour to any high degree in either: and thus thecenluringin lomecales, may be diftingu s.ied, notonly 
from forbearanceand negligence i butalfofromlhch cenfar.s as may appear ngid , or unfcalonable: thtis 
Pju/fometimes reprovetti and chreatueth m the E^iltles to th.- Cmmhtans and Galatiant , when yet he will 
neith-r alcocrether forbear them, nor palfe the higheft fencences upOi» mem. Caruhan prudence is to lay 
weicht upoS fuch and (uch coniiderationsin the managing ot luch an A itnpiity j but itill fo as nothing en- 
tin^uifh that zeal wlicb M igiftrates and Ch arch-ofticers ought to have tor eKCrcifxng of their refpediye Au- 
thoritiesinreftrainingofluaianevil. BatwewiUinliftnomoreontbis. r^ r l, 

f olloweth now, that we should conhder the aggravations ol the l^rds quarrel , both in refped to J«fi«/, 
and to the Anffel They are two, relating to botn; l . Shefeduced Chujls feiMams: and this is tne greater guilt 
both in refer?nceto her pradice, andallo to their fuffenngof her. 2. it's aggreged froi^i thii , ^(rf,z i. i 
t<iy>thtf rpacetorepemofherfomieatmandsherepetuana-.whcrSy li^miixah, ihatfhehadcoatinuedfor 
a time in her praftice , and , notwichltandmg ot Oods .orbearance, had not amended ; iheretore her fmful 
cradire and their nesle^Hve forbearance, became the more uiexculable. 

*^ SncerSefi^^^^^^^ we are to confider, ,. Whoaretcbeunderftoodbythistitle, Cbnfii 

5.rvLTx 2^^^^^^^^^ Tothefirftvvelay,ByC/;r//I.5er>«m., arenotunder- 

l>n ! Wn indifferently for , heathens and thole that are without the Chui ch , get not this name s but it is 

rXoChriltiansandChurch-iiiembers: ibjezefee/ aimed .lOt to We Pagans , and inted them withlier 
Errors, hit Chriftians and Church-members. 2. Itmay refped lome more eminent in th. Church nor o- 
rKpr.LparTsoProfeffion- and loamongft Church-members she aimed moft to feducethele that were 
founds th° rnatter of Doitrine, and infeded with no Error i and thefe that were dean in their converfation 
rdfreeofgrScandals.rathertha.iluchasweregroffea^ Botthele are clear 

*n ma'cer offaa by experience ; and by proportion it will f oUow, that as Hereticks, upon their own conh- 
deStTon (eek toLf.'o^ Church-m^^^^^ rath.r thanthele that are without; ^o among Church-members 
Svvvtllf^ek lather to eneage thefe M'ho are eminent for parts , blamelelfe in their carriage , or appearing to 
l^Tadius^d^^^^^^^^^ Fol^thelecond. to wit, why Chnftuiveththemth« 

TSthi X^^ who were feduced Z We may give tliefe veafons for it , l. It is to aggrege the guUt of both;, 
oc Lrh h^eii Paid 2 It is to eive the alarm and warning unto thcle that are His own People , leing even Hi? 


l^ore thTtkdi^v'X^^^^^ ^"^ (asitwere) dimimsheththe 

""""^iriuLk:^^^^ ,hefethingsmaybeeaquixedinto,Ufanytruelygradousmay 

SeenSbvKeachersandleSucedtoErr^ 2. %Vhat may be the reafons that maketh the devil aim 
auSSn of O^^ Servants, rather than others ? S-Why Chnft doth lb expreUy aggrege tlusgmlt,- 

"i'nTnfwer'rtSftC^^^^ wefay,firft, that thefe that are trijdy gracious, are not fo readily and 
freo^ientlv reduced to Errdf, at leaft to be leaders tberdn and promoters thereof, as they are unto grofl^e pra- 
SoffLces-For,i. WevvillnotfindinScripturelomanyexamplcsoUheo as of the other. 2. Itis 


SlSSmconveviiSncanm^tbefaid frequently totalis ?. h^anill that .s followed with 

moredeliberation, and cometh not from the furprifmg of fome particular tentation, as other groffe evils do: 
thereforecannotbefoconfiftent with gracious principles , and a (piruuai walk , as particular .outbre^hng 

Chap.i, Book^ofthe Rcfelatioft. l^j 

v^herem aperfon is captivated. 4. To be a Teacher of Error , is to be a Teacher of rebellioa againft the 
Lord, /er. 23.. -ind to be a Minifter and promoter otSatans kingdom, 2 Cor. n. 14, 15. "Which ar firtt ap- 
pearcth to be abominable unto any of a gracious principle , and more than a fin otinfirmitie. f. Alfo the 
proixiiles fecm elpecially to relate to Gods guidingof his People in the way ot Truth, and keeping thettv 
from bein.; leduced by talfe Teachers : which , though it be not to beextended fimplie to all > yet it appeat- 
eth it is to be extended further than in reference to pratfticall Icandals. 

Yetlecondly , we lay,Thatitispofrible,evenfor cbefethat aietruely gracious to be feduced to Error: 
for, 1 . There are promiles indeed that they fliall be kept from the fin ^ainft the holy Ghoft , and from total 
and final apoftalie and impenitence in relpedt of any ill j but there is no jjiomife that a Believer otherwayes 
ftall be kept from any ill incident to one that is unrenewed. 2. Even Believers have corritption, and ib have 
n;iuchd.irkneire and ignorance in their judgment, and muchperverlneflein their inclination and afeflions. 
It cannot be thought Itrange then , that they be capable to be carried away by a lentation to Error , there be- 
ing no ill but it hath a party in them to take part with it. 3, The many Warnings that are given in Scripture , 
even to Believers , to beware of the leaven of the Phaiilees and Sadducees, to beware of falfe Prophtts that 
come in Iheeps cloathings , Cc. fhew, that they are not without the reach of the hurt of fuch aientacion. 

4. Experience alio doth confii m this ; for, it feemeth that in fome meafure Solomon wanted not fais accefTion 
to this evil, if we conluler m hat is recorded, not only at his fuffering of corrupt worship to be within hisDo* 
niinion i but alfo of his counienancina of the fame » by building altars and other\yayes, although vt'e cannot 
particularly detemiine .N.nthtircan it Be denied , but that (ome of shefe chat were leduced by felfe Teachers^ 
in Corinth and Galatict, might be gracioLis: and in after-c.mes alfo it hath been out of queftion. 

To ih;r fecond, to v\'it, w^hererore Satan aimeth to feduce Chrilts Servants unco Error rather than others ? 
We may anfwer in thcfe reafons, i. He doth it, becaufe his hatred is moft at fuchj and it's their ruine,w hich 
efpecially hehuntechfor. 2. BjcaufementhatareinEnor and profanity already, are his own ; and it's 
no g lin for hi 11 to take pains to feduce them uncn) fuch delufions» fo lon^, at leatf, as they continue fuch . 

5. H :: hath other more lutable baits for other men that are given to grode ills : therefore he referveth this 
lor others. 4. In lome refpevil, thele who have a form of Religion , or fome ioclination towards it ( efpe- 
cially if weak in kno\\'ledge) are in fome refpedt more obnoxious to this tentation than grofly profane men 
are ; for they, like GaUiio, care not wh 11 be truth and what be Eirot : but one, who hath fome tendernefle , 
and withall weak, is more ready to debate, and inquire for Truth j and fo not being Itrong enough to rid 
himfeif of difhciilties,he is the more ealily in angled. 5. Grolfe teatacions to profanity, are not (o taking 
wichthem: therefore the devil aflayeth them by this, chat under the colour ofibme new difcovcrie of 
Truth , or fome more perfe>ft way of Chriftianity,orf jchlii^e , he may draw them to Error : and, by this 
n^re fubtilc lentation, whereby he transformeth himfeif to an Angel of li^hr, he doth often prevail when 
other tentacions wo jld not. 6. Ic'smoftadvantagiousto his way, to have fome eminent^ for piety and 
paftsengigedforit; for, bythis, hegainethcrv;dit toit,andmakethit thj b."tter digeft with others, who 
often refpedl an opinion , as they refpetft thefe who own the fame : thus he aimeth at this as a main engine 
whereby he may prevail with many j whereas the engaging of profane men b. ingeth no credit to ibc h a vvayj 
neither is it his advanta^ to divert them from their profanity. It wasagreatltumblinginold , efpecially 
in the cafe of the Ko^atictm, that many confietfors and emineiu men weredrawn away with that Err..r : and 
this was often caft-up to the Orthodox , as a matter of great weight : whereupon Cyfriatty in his book Ve u- 
mate EccUJLe, taketh occalion particularly to Anfwer this Objection, that people be not prejudged at truth, 
becaulcof Ibme mens name : efpecially, conlidering that there were many moe more eminent oi' the contra- 
ry mind. And , by the way, this flight of ih; devil may be obierved, that men will make more work , and 
greater noife in commending E'ror by the nanae of one or two that favoureth tae fame, as if that M'ere of fo 
great weight, than they will allow to Truth , though it have many moe eminent names ftanding for it. 
7. When men are aiming to be feriojs in Religion, the devil cafteth this ftumbling-in their Way , that if he 
prevail not todraw them to Error, he may at leaft mar them or divert them, by putting them through other, 
in niaking them debate fuch and fuch needlelfe Queftions i and fo keep them irom the more ferious and pro- 
fitable cxercife of Repentance, felf-exaraination, making of their Calling and Eledion fure, CJc. Hence it 
is j that while men lye in fecurity or profanity , they are not much troubled with this tentatioa ; bit being 
onceawakened, th.'n he fetteih upon them, if fo be he may extinguish that wakening , or give them a w; or g 
feibefcNPe they be fully formed and fetled. Agdthisisonereafon why Errors anddeluiions do often ac- 
companie the firft rile of the Gofpel amongft people. 8 B/ fcducing oi thele that appear to be Godly , the 
devil bringethmoftreproacjj upon the Name of Chrift and Religion ^and makethitthemoretob^ ftumbled 
^ by thefe that ate in eature , as being but fom& tancie-and conceit , which would not follow upon the fall 


144 -^^ ^^P^fition of the Chap.t.' 

ot many profane men : therefoie he aimeih rather co (educe chem that are Chrifts Servants and appear t« 
be Godly. 

Tothethird ,Wemay feewhytheLordefpecially aggregeth His q .larrel from this, i. BecaufeHisS.'r- 
vants come more near to Him than others. 2. He will have us knowing that Error.is not to be CKtenuatcd 
or commended, nor falfe Teachers to bj tolerated, even chough many oi' H s S.'rvant^ Should come to counte- 
nance the fam3 ; yea, on the contrary , it is themore aggregea and to be abhorred. 3 . He doth by this (hew 
the Chjrch-ofticers, that the moe that are engaged to love Error or follow faife Teach, rs, theyou^httobe 
the more ftirred up with zeal in their duty againlt feducers , that they have prevailed with many ot His^;r- 
vant«. And by this, He fheweth His tendernefle to afteftionate Prof;.flbrs> rather to cenfure for their lake 
CO; rupt Teachers whom they relped, than to forbear them. 4. This is alfo mentioned, to fh ; w this wo- 
man, and all corrupt Teachers, what they gain by having mjft (licceflfc: a^ainft Cnriits> S ;rvants, to wit , this, 
that they have the more guilt, and are the more obnoxious to Chrifts quarrel. ^Xi^<i moe advantiges the de- 
vil hath to his kingdom by the fedudtion of Chrifts Servants, ita>ncernctn Him the more in that tooppofe 
him, as in a thine* which in a fpeciall manner refledteth upon His honour j which maketh Him fo to quarrel 
tor jezefee// practice, and the toleration of the fame. 

From all which, what we have faid, is confirmed , to M-it , that corrupt teachers are not to be tolerated ia 
a Church, even when civil Powers do take no notice of them : it is well known f om the Hiltory of the Pri- 
mitive times, that feverall G jdly a nd zealous men have cenfured -, yea, and even Excommunicated many He- 
teticks, as jirmns and others, M'hen they have been fure to be iiiltantly perfecuic d for the fame: and it is re- 
corded of fome, who though they were thr earned before hand , that yet having h- ft provided their Ch.irches 
Mrith well quaUfied S jccelfours , they did afterward proceed to pronounce Liitence ; thereby shewing their 
readinelfe to undergo what ever trouble might follow upon that lame account , and M'ithall their zeal and 
tender care of the Churches edification. 

We come now to the fecond aggravation, which is in Yerf.zi . and it is made up of thefe two, i . There is a 
forbearance upon the Lords fide, l^a'peherfpacetorepem , that is, 1 did not luddenly and at firft execute 
judgement upon her i but did for a time forbear her, thereby giving her an opportunity to repent: and indeed 
His long- fuffering and forbearance, doth of it felf lead to repentance, according 10 what is (.nA,I{om 2.Tperf 4. 

Thefecond part , is , but she repentednot: which holdeth torth the abufe of this mercy upon her iide ,to wit, ; 
that notwithftanding of the Lords forbearance she continued in her former pradice w ithour repenting of , or 
turning from, the fame : therefore she is the more inexcufablc, and they alfo in fuffering of her. This ag- 
gnavatlon doth import tliefe four, Firft, that the Lord forbearing of a finner, ought to be an inducement to 
them to repent, as is clear fro.n that place, 2^»i.2 4. Secondly, It imponeth that fometimes God will give 
time and opportunity to repent, b His forbearance, untomoftgrolfefinnersj and fufter with much lung- 
fatfering the veffcls of wrath fited to deftrudiion, Td^m.^.iz. Thirdly, It importeth alfo, that fuch opportuni- 
ties are often abufed ; and particularly, that it's a rare thing for an oppolcr of the Truth to repent, The A- 
poftle putteth zperaA^enture in ir, 2T/W.2.25. In meekn ffe inflrtiSii gthOjC that oppefc themjehc! , ifperadven- 
cure Cod WtUgi\c them repentance, 5?c. We find alfo, Chap.9. and 1 6. of this Book , that on the back almoft 
of every plague upon Antichi ilts kingdom, it is marked, tftat vet they repented not lor all that. 

]f any should ask the reafon, JfVhy repentance i; fo rare in reference to thtffin "> 

We anfwer, i. It's a fin of a high nature, being deliberate and agaiufl fjflScient grounds ofconvi(^ion: and 
therefore in Gods Juftice, is plagued with impenitency beyond other fins : and as in fome re'peifl, it com- 
ineth nearer to ihefin againft the holy Ghoft than other fins in its nature i fo alfo in Gods Jaftice it commcth 
nearer to it in its punishment. 2. The nature of this fin is fuch , that men tainted with 11 , are thereby in a 
greater incapacity to repent than thefe who are guilty of grolfe ills in praiilice : becaufe , 1. Nature doth not 
lb challenge and convince for fins againft the Truths of the Gofpel, as for fins againft the Moral Law. 2.Be- 
caufe men in Errors and delufions have their judgements fo engaged , blinded and prejudged , that they think 
often fuch Errors are no Errors: and therefore there is the greater difhculty to bring tnem to theacknow- 
ledgement of the Truth, and of their being wrong ; and yet this muft precede their repentance. :^.The Lord 
alfo by this doth fet a mark upon this fi 1 , to fcare all from the fame : men oftentimes think lictle of this ill > 
He hath therefore put this mark 01 His difpleafure thereupon the more exprefly. Hence it is, that His 
threatnings are more clearly and exprefly annexed to the fecOnd and third Commandments than any other , 
that He m:!y make men know He is jealous of His Truth and Ordinances , and will by no means acquit fuch 
as take His Name in vain, whatever men think ofthefe fins. In the fourth place, this aggravation impor- 
teth, that when time and good opportunities are abufed , guilt becomeih the greater and the more inexcu- 
fablc, and the Lords contioyerfie becoaieth the more sharp. 


Chap.2. Soffk^of tke Revelation, t^^ 

There are two Condufions aiiiied to be drawn from thele words , by foitJC, which no way they will 
bear, i. Some fay , that Je^bcl b^d an abihty and power to repent , feingfhe hath time allotteci to her for 
it , and God expedteth it of her. For Anfwer , To fay nothing of this gcnerall , which is found to be an 
untruth from other clear Scriptures , which hold out men to be dead in (ins, Ephef. 2. i. dec and unable 
for any fpiritual good , Thefe things will vindicate this place , i. Ifweconfider who this party is, to wit, 
a moft vile Seducer and Adultereffe: and even fuch Patronsof nature, will grant , that fuch high and groffe 
fins do juftly deprive perfons of any ability to repent, and do incapacitate them for exercifing of the lame. 
2- If wecompare this with iTim. 2.2). we will find that patient waiting upon oppofcrs : and thereby giv- 
ing th:m opportunity to repent, is one thing; and to have repentance given them , is another: for, many 
have time allowed them , when yet it's at a peraduffture if God ftiail give them Repentance. Which 
(hewtth , th u Grace to exercifc Repentance , when an opportunity is , mult be given of God as well as the 
opportunity it felf: otherwayes no opportunity can be rightly improven : which flieweth again » that men 
in fuch a cafe , have not this ability of themfelves to repent. 5. The words do not fpeak out her 
ability; but what was her duty under fuch along fuflfering difpenfation, as the opening of the words 

Jf it be faid then , Hov* can she be more inexcufable 9 

Anjw. I. Becaufe this inability is of her own on-bnnging. 2.. Becaufe it wa-; not inability that fwayed 
her to continue in her fin , and rejeA Repentance} but it was herpofuive inclination to thele Errors , and 
her averfnefle from the Truths of God. And what ever men may difpute for the patronizing of nature 
againlt the luftice of God , now ; yet when He cometh to judge , and when the confcience beareth 
witnefle of the vehement aftedrion and delight which men had to, and in their, wick edntfle, There will 
be none who fhall dare to enter a defence upon their inability, feingin confcience they will be convinced, that 
that was not the thing which made them willingly choofe fuch and fuch evils , and made them rejedt all 
means tending to recover them. 3. This alfowill make her , and fuchasllie, inexcufable , that they did 
not improve liich opportunities fo as they might , and did not abftain from the following and committing of 
fuch g ofle evils , which even many unrenewed men have done ; who yet had not abiUty to repent of them- 
felves more than they : and thus , none in fuch a cafe will be able to fay in judgment , that they did make fuch 
u(e of the Word and other means as they might have made > even in fuch a condition; or, that they have come 
that length in outward Reformation , that they might have done. 

The fecond Condufion pretended to be drawn from this , is , That the Lord hath an univerfal will td 
have all men faved , feing He giveth her rime to repent. This we fay doth not follow hence : For, i. fup- 
pofe it might be faid in fome rcfpe(5t , that he willed the Repentance of fuch a particular perfon , who lived 
under His Ordinances, It will not follow thereupon y that He witlcth the Salvation of all } even of fuch 
who never heard of Repentance. 2- It will not follow , God giveth Ibme time , which ought to be im- 
proven to Rvjpentance , and doth not inltantly execute His ludgment , Taerefore He willeth fuch a per- 
fons Silvanon : for , God for a time forbare Pharaoh , even after he had evidenced his p jrpofe in fo doing * 
to be the exalting of His own Glory in hiideftrudtion, 3. If It werefo , what might be faid offueh as the 
Lord doth not forbear , nor give time to repent; but taketh away in their fin , as he did JZimri andO^^fci? 
It cannot be faid on this ground , that He willeth their Solvation i and (o not the Salvation of all. 4. It 
will not follow , Chrift willeth perfons to repent , Therefore He willeth their Salvation : becaufe He may 
be faid to will them to repent, whenhe requirethitof them as their duty : and this, their duty of repent- 
ing , is the immediate objedl of His revealed and preceptive will : but a perfons Salvation is , the proper cb- 
jeclof His will of good-pleafure, or of his decreeing and purpofing \\ ill. And no otherwayes can he be 
faid , to will fuch perfons Salvation ( becaufe he commandeth them to repent ) than this , to wit , that in 
his Word he hath fignified Repentance to be fuch a perfons duty , and that he hath appointed a connexion 
between Repentance and 5-ilvation; which ftlll relatethto his revealed will : even as when God made the 
firft Covenant with jidam , it might be faid that he willed Mam to be holy, and that by that Cove- 
nant he had made a connexion between holineCfe and life; yet it is not proper to fay, that the Lord 
willed life to Adam upon that condition : becaule that looketh to the event , and refpedetb the Lords 
will of purpofe: which cannot but be effedtual. And if the Lords willing of men ^it lealt fuch as are 
under his Ordinances) to be faved be thus underftood , as including only the duty which God layeth 
upon men , and the connexion that he hath made between it and Salvation in his Word , It may be ad- 
mitted: but if it be extended to any antecedent will in God himfelf, diftindt from that which is called 
his revealed will. This place and fuch like will give no ground for fuch an Alfertion. Ifit be asked 
then , Why did he give her fpace to repent , if be intended not her Salvation ? jinfvi. To forbear 

T deciding 

145 -An J^xpojttion of tie Chap. 2. 

deciding of what might be His p'.irpjfe to this particular perlon , ( who haply may bean Eledl , ) b-cai fe 
nothing is decided o^ her tiiial condition in the Word ; Thefe reafons may be given, 1. tliereby the Lord 
commendeth His Grace that doth focondefcend to (uch a perfon. 2. Thi aggravation of he) guilt rnd incx- 
cufablneffe, are the morcciear , as hath bcenfaidi and thereupon He haauhe more acc.Hc to maniLft 
the fpotlefTeneflfeof His luftice, as is in the thrcatningj Ver/. 23. 3. Itdodi the more coraro.t and en- 
courage a penitent linner ; to Itep forward in the hjpe ot Mercy , i'ein^ even fuch a pjrion as ft^bel h .th 
had fuch an offer ; and that fhe, it' penitent and b jhevingi would have been acce[>tcd. 

Tne third thing in the Body of the Epiltle, is , thsthreatning,>'er/ria,3nd23. Wh:reby He again \von-«- 
derfullypreflethher, and thcL* who were feduced by h^r , tothecxercife ot mat much flighted dutyot 
Repentance. The threatning hath three parts, 1. Something is threatncd. 2. An exception is put in, leav- 
inga door open to M-'rcy, 3. The fcope oreffetl of the Loidi executing this ihreatning, is fct do',vn. The 
thing threatned, is threefold, according to the levcral parties that he threatneth, 1. t'oi le^ebel , Behold » 
IwiUcafther upon abed: which pomteth out fome remarkable (trcak or plague threatneo to be itifliilwd 
upon her. whereby Ihefliould become a fpedtacle to others, and yet not be inftamly removed. 2. For them 
thst commit adultery 'with her , 2 •u/7/ caji them into great tribulation, that is , I \v'ill bring upon them fiat 
partake of her fin, whether in refpeCt of Ipirituaforbodily adultery ( forshewasguiky of both ; grie- 
vous and publick temporal ftroaks. And> 3. I will kill her chi'dren with death: for , her children", it's 
like were children begoten in their unclean converhng together : them the Lord thieatensto remove , 
and thereby to give an evidence cf His difpleafure at their way , as He did VaVtds child for his adulteiy . For, 
we conceive, the children ofheripiritual whoredom, are underftood under that exprefTion, thefe that com- 
mit adultery with her. From which we may fee 3 that grcfTe Errors may procure many temporal and bodily 
crofles , as was formerly faid. 

Yet fecondly C as is faid ) even this threatning hath ado3ropeninit,andisnotabfoliite , but conditional, 
%K6eptthey repent > Gf«. which do:h indeed exceedingly fet forth and commend the Grace of God. 

The third thing , is the Lords end , which is the manifefting of Himfelf in two or three of His Atributes> 
to wit, His Omnilcience , luitice > and power , as was hinted in the entry. When the Lord forbeareth ^ick- 
ed men, He is either rho.ight nor to fee , or know f Jcb things 5 or not to be juft, and powerful to redreffe and 
avenge the fame: and when he feverly atidpub'.icklyii.fliCtcth judgement uponfuch, then He is known 
notonlytobeOmnifcient , butalfjluftand Povverfulj and this is that which he aimeth at, efpccially inhis 

Tne laft thing, is , the mitigation of this threa'ning, Iptrf 2\t2$. Wh.reinwe may-coifi'lerihefe 
twojFirft, To who n it is directed. Secondly > What is themitigitioniLfelf. i. L'^ oiredVcd , xdjou 
vi^itv i 10 jou,inihz plural numb.-r, that is , to ih:co.npanie of Minifters , who were defigned by the Title 
Jingel i at the entry. Andto thercjlin Thyatira , that n, the Members of the Ciurch , conttadilVi'igaished 
from the Minifters. It's added, that hat: net thk DoHriw and hay>e not kpov^n the depts of Satan, ^c This 
is to diltinguish the Church -men ibers , that were pure and clean, from thelethit were corrupted wi.h 
Je:^ebe!s do iinne. So the; e a-e three parties implied here > 1, TheMnifters. 2 Th 2 ]ure Members. 
To bo:h thtfe this confjlationis diredied. 3. Tncre arc fome led aM'ay with thefe cor-upti ins , which 
are not included. Tne pure Members, are qualified and diftinguished by thefe two, I. Theyha'^fennt'ii 
doBrine f thatis, they own not, nor maintain, nor reprove this corrupt doiirine. 2. They ha\e notkpoMn 
the depths of Satan, that is, th;y have not loved nor approventhefame, nor in their pra !f ice experimentally- 
meddled therewith. Thej t that is. corrupt Teach ■rs, counted fuch dodlrrines anrl pracfVices , depths and 
highmyfleries and attainments in R-ligion: thereto e they gave them thh name oUlepths. Andit'o not to 
be thought that they called i\\Qm depths of Satan; but the Lord addcth this, to shew indeed what kind 
of depths they were : they are (faith He) depih> indeed, as they fpake; bjtthey arc the devils depths 
or depihs of 5atan. Which exp.efTion, holdeth out thefe two, i. The great fub ilty of the adverf- 
ary of mans Salvation, the devil, he hath depths in his way; allhisdeligns are not obvious 5 he can vail 
and cover things and make them appear'farotherwayes than they are; andheexercifethhisfubtilty moft 
especially and deeply, in the carrying on of Error, and drawing (^f fouls from the Truth : thefe are hi? 
iepths here; and hnfubtiltj is fpoVen or^ 2 Cor. 11.5- his wi es and cunning craftineCe and Ipecial flight , Ip'^cf. 
4. 14. whereby it com.th to pafTe thatheintanglcth , and , as it were , b:Mitchcth , Gnl 3. 1. many m ich 
themoft grod'e delufions. 2 It holdeth out what influence deluflon Will have upon poor creatures j it will 
even makethc.H cry up the moft abfurd Errors fo; myfteriss arxl depths , as if there were nothing in Religi- 
ea ("oexcelltfrn as thefe. 

Themi igaiionitfelf ,is.iutwoexpfeflions;.th€firfl,is negative, lperfz\. Iwillput v^ on you none ether 


Chap. 2. Book^of the /Revelation, x^7 

^r</c/i,cnacis,inrur«, IwlUnotgive you any other cfirc^tion , norprefcribetoyouanynewdnty,bjlide 
M'hac formerly yc h.ive hnd given unto you , and to which ye have fubmirted ; for, though burden fomtimes 
fignifie lome weighty ih/eatning, or denunciation, or judgment, as may be gathered fro:n Jcr. i.Z], Yet i% 
tl|is place , it cannot bw lo underltood i but muft be underltood as it implictii ibme new dm y b^ fide \n'hat for- 
merly was Imj.oed upon them , astheexpolition inthenc«C verfe dothclear. And lo fomtimes in Scri- 
pture, duty is compared to a b irdenand yoke : not b.xa'ifeof its burdenlomntfle and troub'efomnefle , in re- 
fpcd oF it felf } but becaule every duty hath feme obligation with it , which in rcfpev5i: of oar corruptions & 
ioHrmities are burdens, though by Chrilt Jcfusthey Ixxome light, 

Th? fecond part of the mingation, is politive, \>erf.2^. and will help to expound the former. But thm Vthich 
ye ha\e already, holdfaji tiUlcomc : which doth imply, Firft, tha' th( y had Ibme duties prefcribed unto them 
already: whertbyitappeareth thatan o/ieri«rie/i, did fignifie fome other duty : for, that was the tking 
they had already. Secondly, It shcwtth, thatby Lavingof fuchduiiesCtofpeak To ) is not only underftood 
the having of them prefcribed unto them ; b :t their being a great length in theobedience thereof, as may hi 
gathered from thelike Phral'e, ihap /^. 1 1. where hold that fafi vvhicb thou hajl, doth fignifie their endeavour 
to keep what they had attained to. And thus the meanit^ otthis mitigation here > is, I have prefcribed to 
you chat are pure in Thjatira, no other duty or direction j but that with all fricericy and 2 :al ye keep the dire- 
»flions pre'cribed unto you,and continue to walk in the way M'hich hiihsr to ye have fgllowed,mito the end. 
This is prelfed by Chrifts fecond coming, i . to let them know; He was to come agi i n. 2.T0 let them know, 
that at his lecond coming. He will reckon with His Churches according as they ob:y .or difobey His dire- 
cflions. 3. To teach all to walk To in making ufe of the Word, efpecially m corrupt time?, as they may with 
confidence appear and reckon for the lame before Jefus Chiift at Hislecond coming. 4. To shew, that Be- 
lievers ought to fet no other tearm totheir per levering in duty, but Chrifls fecond coming. 

From what is pafl we may Obfer\fe i.That inthefe'EpiitleS)expre{L diiference is made betwecnMinifters 
and People: tojou I fay, relatcth to the Min;f^ers»*and, to the rejl^ relateth ro the Members of that Church. 
And therefore in the aftplicationofthings contained in them, we would diftinguish them alfo. 

Z. That by Angel, in th-- In cription , is underltood MinifterscoUedHvely: tojou, is in the plural number; 
and yet it's to thele that the Epiille was diretited under the name o^Angeh in the fing ilar : and therefore are 
they contradiflmguished from the rejl , which lookeih to the Members of that Church^ott and the refi being 
the fame thing here upon the matter, that Angel and Church were in the Infcription ; favejthat the reft^ even 
as many> Q^c.diftin^uiiheth the pure Members from the impure » the Church comprehending both. 

3. That a Minilters guilt, or the guilt of Officer? is not fecluding fcandalous perlbns from Church-Com- 
munion, doth not lye on the people, as upon the Minifters : therefore thedut)- common to the Minifters &• 
people, is commended to both , whereas that reproof was peculiar to the Miniflevs : and, there/?, are taken- 
in only in the mitigation or confolation j but it was, Thoufufjerejl, in the reproof. 

4. Chriftthinketh much ofzealous executing of Difcipline, and would not h we Minifters fparingita- 
gainft Hcreticks or corrupt Teachers, more than other fcandalous perfons ; yea, the reafons from the hazard 
of infe(3-ing the Flock, and the examples of it in Scripture, aremoflprefTing in reference to them. 

^. Here alfo wemay fee, that there is a Church- power & Authority, diftintfl from what is civiliand cen- 
fares to be inflid:ed by Church-officers on fcandalous perlbns, even where Magiftratcs are Heathen. 

6. That delufionmaycometoa great height; As, i .That a woman preacheth. 2. That she calleth her 
felf a Proph-teffe. :?. That she feduceih Chrdts Servants , and they are feduced by her. 4. That this is ioi- 
mediatly after Chrilt, while John the beloved Dil'ciple liveth. 5. That all thefe Er 1 ors and abominations 
are covered with the title of myfteries and depths : what may we expedl ino.ir timcSj when fuch was the lot 
©f thofe who lived at that time > 

7. The writings even of the Apoftlejo^, could not prevail lb far as to make them renunce and aban- 
don them. 

8. See here, how Chriflaccounteth of Members of a vifible Church ; He flileth fuch as were fedticed to 
adultery and Error, His Servants : and they were Servants ftill , who were feduced ; and are afrerward 
threatned, as fe^e6e/is. Whereby it appeareth, that thefe titles go more upon the relation, that Church- 
naembers ft md in , and the obligation that lieth on them , than upon the qualifications that are always to be 
found in them. • 

9. Ojr Lord ]erns,is no approver nor countenancer of feparation Mm a trueChnrch,for the fiults of (bme 
Members in it : nei. herdo faults in fome Members, and defeifts in Minilters and Officers in executing Difci- 
pline, pollute the Ordinancesin t;.;emlelves, or to others , who are free ofthai guilt: and fodo not ncceffi- 
ute a feparation fi:om fuch a Church , or any Ordinance thereof: for, this, and the former Epiltle, being 

T 2 com- 

148 Ju Ixpofit'm of the Chap. 2. 

compared t02;etber , thcH; things are clear* i. That cnerc were grolTe Members in the Church, Adulter err , 

Kicolaitctns, Seduietft ^^- 2 • That they were continued in Church-communion j thou hajl ihem andjuffereft 

"them* clearly import this : for, that Angd no otherwayes had them, but as Church-members under his 

charge. 3. That this Angel finfuiiy permitted them to continue Church-members : & therefore is reproved. 

Yet, we conceive alfo> it's clear in matter oi faft, i. That many who were free, continued in Church- fel- 
lowship with this Angel, in that Church , notwithftanding thereof j fo , the words to you, and to the re/?, as 
ofthat fame M^-mbership, import, it being bjt one Church. And, 2. That ojr Lord did not reprove thera 
for their fo continuing , even when He reprovethtbe Angel for his fault of b.ingdefedive as tohis cenfur- 
ifig o( Jezebel. Yea, 3. that He appro veth their notfeparating> in his approving the general ftrain of their 
carriage , which could not otherwayes beapproven, this being ib obvious to view, it it had been a tault , ot if 
they had by it partaken with chem in their un. 4.That our Lord warrandeth them ro continue fo ; & layeth 
BO burden of feparating from them, on thefe who Were hone ft: only , faith He , Hold f aft that v/hkhye ha'pe 
sheadj tiUlcome, that is, keep your felves according to the rule given unto yoj, and according to your pre- 
fent practice. 

Hence may be argued, i. If where Church-mesnbers are polluted, and fuffered notwithftanding by 
Church-officers to remain in Church-communion , Chrift doth not only, not condem the clean for keeping 
fellowship with them i but exprefly requireth them to continue, as they did, then He alloweth not lepara- 
tion on that account : But the firftis truth ; He condemneth them not, but requireth them to holdfaji till he 
come. Ergoj^c. 2. If Chrift lay upon Members no other burden, but to keep them elyes from pcrfonal 
pollution, then he laieth not on them feparation : ( and itmuft be a burden not of His laying o;i ) B.it the 
former is true, Holdfafi that yvhichye hOfe ahtady. Ergo, ^c. 3 . If I'eparation thwart with Chrifts diredion 
to a Church in that condition, then it's not a duty ; ijut if the honelt Members in Thjatira had leparated , 
they had notheld faft what they had already , but would have gripped to fome new thing , and fo have 
thwarted with the dired:ion laid on them. Ergo, C^c. 4. If this direction containeth all their duty in re- 
ference to that defed:ion, or thefe polluted Members, then feparationis not a duty in luch a cafe : for , it's ia- 
eonfiftent with it. Bat this containeth all, 1 . Otherwayes it would not befit their cafe : which to do, is 
Chrifts fcope. 2. It's not only negative, not condemning them for not feparating; nor only pofitive,gi ving 
them other dire<5tions i nconfiftont with it j but ii*s excluiive > I lay onyeu no other burden, this , and >jo other. 
And though other particular duties may be alleaged to b^; comprehended unucr this generall ,• yet reparation 
cannot be comprehended : becaufe ii's inconfiftent with it, as appeareih: For, it the thing that Chrilt calieih 
for from thefe who were honeft in Thyatira , be fuch a thing as was conliftent with their former pradiice of 
keeping Church-fellowfhip with fuch , then feparation muft be inconfiftent with itj But the former is truth, 
and appears thus : If Chrifts diretSion to them be , to hold as they were, and not to alter, then certainly it is 
conliftent with their own former practice : Bit the words are plain, J lay on you, to \\'it> that are clean, no o- 
ther burden , but abftain from their way , and hold faft. And certainly it would look very ftrange , to fay , 
that feparation from them were commanded under that word , /:oW/dr^ , 8fc. And that fo, /^oA/yJi/f, 
were to be expounded , je;^ar.ne from thatfaciety j and yet that muft bi couiptehended under this, or it's not 
a duty for fuch a cafe. 

Befi Je, this duty which Chrift commends to them, is a duty which every one of them ought perfonaliy 
to go about , though others did not. And if leparation were included here , according to that ground , it 
woi>ld infer many abfurdities, as, firft, fuppofe the Minifter to continue defedlivein his duty ,are all the pure 
members to feparate fiom him '> Or, Secondly , Suppofe none but two or three did lay that duty to heart , 
^»'ere thefe two or three to feparate from al 11 ell owship with the reft, and quit all publick Ordinances ? 
yet, noqueltion, infiichacafe they were to hold fait what they had already. Thirdly, Sjppofe the 
pure membei 8 tocoatinue in LHowihip with their Officers that were thus defedtive as formerly they have 
done i yet keeping themfclves clean in their own ftations , can it be thought that they difobeyed this di- 
reiftion of Chrift, Thaf9ehich thott haft already , hold fa(i till 1 come 9 Or ,h is not rather to oe thought 
that they did more nearly co.^orm to Chrifts diredtion by 10 doing, than if they had withdrawn, and 
feparsted r 

We may alfo argue againft feparation in fuch a cafe, frotn this Scripture, thus: Iffeparation be ano- 
ther burden to Chrifts Giiurch than what He laid upon Thjatira , Pagamos, iSc. in fuch a cafe when their 
officers were defeiftive in executing t)ifcipline, thenitisnot tobeallowed iniheChurch of Chrift after- 
ward inCich like cafes j But the former is true. Therefore , &c. If thefe n\'o things be clear , this Argu- 
Bient will bv' clear, i. That though thefe Churches were in fuch a cafe, yet there was not feparation from 
the Ordinances in pra(itice or exercife ainongft chem upon that account j This ,.w« fuppofe, is dear from 


Chap.2. JitokjftheReveUtion. ,14^ 

what is laid. 2- If this alfo b3 clear that the preiling of leparation upon fuch a ground , will prove a bur- 
den unto the people ot God : Then it will follow, that Chnft doth not lay it on upon thefe ChurcheSj fcing 
He expreflyhgnitieththit He intends to lay no other burden upon them, buttoholdfaft what they had 
already. It muit therefore be an untender thing to burden honeft fouls with the apprehenfion of being 
polluted fro;n the perfonall faults of joynt Worihippers or Communicants : for , fi rft , this putteth them 
to try all that th jy fo keep fcUowftiip with : and they cannot have peace , ea^cept they have foire confi- 
dence that others , by their joynt Communicating, do not pollute the Ordinances : and this confidence 
cannot be , till fufficient triall be made thereof; and yet Believers find it fufficiently difficult to ny them- 
felves. 2. It putteth them to an utter uncertainty, in refpetit of any comfortable fruit of Ordinances : be- 
caufefo, it hangs not only upon their own frame and good condition ; but alfo upon the good frame and 
dilpofition oi thefe that Communicate joy ntly with them. And fo , fuppofing that a B.-liever may hi out 
of the prefent exercife of grace, and a joynt Communicater with them i in that cafe , the Ordinance is po!' 
luted unto them, becaufe they are polluted even to that Believer that is in luch a cafe. And , can any have 
confidence that no natural p^rfon , or indifpoled Believer hath Communicated with them ? Neither will it 
remove this difficulty , to lay , that men may have peace, ifihe offences or indifpofitions of others be not 
known unto them: For, i. What ifit befaid, if triall had been made, they might have been known » 
2. S jppofe it were not poflible to know them ; yet if the Communicating of corrupt men did not only pol- 
lute the Ordinance to themfelves , but alfo pollute it in it felf, that is , make it want the nature of fuch an Or- 
dinance as to others i then , whether it were known or not , the ordinance were no ordinance, becaufe of 
its being polluted in (bmethiogeflential to the being thereof: otherwile, the fame Ordinance might be 
an Ordinance to one who knew not of fuch fcandals ; and not be an Ordinance of Chrift to another , who 
knewfuch things, though, it may be, in his own particular cafe, no lefle gracious , and lively than the o- 
ther ; for, it canrioc be our knowing that fuch a perfon is fcandalo js that Communicates with us , that can 
pollute the Ordinance to us, except upon fuppofiiion that the being offuch a thing did pollute the Ordi- 
nance in it felf before we knew the fame. 3. If this ground were laid, it might be a fcruple to a tender B > 
liever to Communicate with himfelf , to fay fo : tor, he hath corruption in him 5 and it will be hard to fay , 
that the corruption of others , will have more influence to pollute an Ordinance to him , than his own can 
have : efpecially confidering, that he is moft throughly acquainted therewith : and it will be as hard to lay, 
that Chrifts call doth warrand a Believer to Communicate with peace, notwithftanding of his own feen cor- 
ruptions j and yet that that fame call will not warrand him to Communicate with peace , if he be in his own 
duty and frame approveable, notwithftanding of the corrtiptions of oihe rs. All which , being grievous bur- 
dens, cannot be fuppofed to agree with our Lords fcope in this place. 

Hence alfo M'e may fee, that Chrift doth not rigidly caft off Churches, for defefts in Difcipline , and grof- 
neffe of particular members , when, in the main, the foundation is keeped : and though the Lord never look 
on thefe but as faults , and as reproveable where they are , as we may fee in many of thefe Epiftles j yet , to 
allow feparation from a Church, becaufe of thefe , and to account it no Church, is with Him all one, as when 
He calleth His people from BrfW, C^^p. 18. 

We conae now to the Conclufion of the Epiftle, which is contained in the 26, 27, 28.and 2p.)>erfes. "Where- 
in, I. Some proraifes are laid down, in the fir ft three I'cr/cf J and thecommqnadvertifemcnt, is repeated 
in the latt iperfii as is ufuall in the reft of the Epiftles. The objeifl of the promifes , is the lame , to wir, the 
eYercomer: enly here, hei^ defci ibed by an other property , which interpretah thatgenerall, to wit. He 
keepeih my 'works unto the end » that is, one who in the fincere pradice of Religion hath ceafed from his 
own works ( as it is, He^.4.10.) and hath given up himfelf to live to Me, as it is , 2 Cor 5.15. thatis, to 
have My glory for his end , and My Will tor his rule j and doth continue to prolecute that end according :o 
that rule , notwithftanding of all difficulties to the end. This is the o'Yercomcr , and the perfon to whoai all 
thefe promifes of being admitted to Heaven, are made, and who may exped: the fame. 

Therearetwo excellent promifes made to fuch a perlon in thefe words, i . To him Viill Iiilpepower olpet the 
Nations: which doth indeed fpeak out an excellent Dominion , but no earthly .Dominion : For,i. T.iis 
promife is to be performed after the full viftory. 2. All overcomers are not capable of temporall Power 
over the Nations. It imports then thefe two , Firft , an excellent Dominion that the B;liever may expei^t. 
Secondly, a joynt fharing in Chrifts Conqueft over the Nations; in which refpe*5l,it is faid, 1 Cor.6. Ihey 
shalljudge jlngeli and aU the vt'ttked in the day of judgement. This Dominion is two waytsamplifi.-d, yetf.zy. 
Firft , In refpeci of the abfolutnefle thereof over all the wicked , they shall be bruifcd mth a rod of iron , as the 
IfeJJels of a potter shall they be broken to shirers : this is a figurative exprelTion , tending tola forth this , that 
though often Believers are now opprefl'ed by the wicked of the world j yetihedayiscoraingjWbenitshall 

I yo An Expofitm of the Chap.2. 

beotherw'ife : B.lhvcrs shall not only be free fio.n cheiropprcifions ; b it (hallbs at ab'blatc Kmgi., having 
Dominion over them in the morning , as it is , Pfal.^(). 14. when the conduion of the wicked in Gods Ja- 
ftice shall be moft iniierable. The f^cond way how it's amplified, is, ey>e?t m \ receilfed of my Father : which 
rcfpedteth, l. Tliethin^ given, they are made joync partakers ot' that wnich Ch ilt reccivetn. 2 Ic refpedterh 
the feciirity whereby it*a given : and fo I will give him power, even as I received of my F.^.cher , imports th it 
the Belici'ers Dominion (hall b^ no lefle fure unto him oy Chrith gitc, than Chriih iJo.nlmo.i is fare unto 
Him by ih: Fathers conferring the fime upon Htm. 

Thefecondpromife* isj and! viiHgiyehimthetnorningflar: by ih: mornin^Jlir , is undcrftoo.' C'lrifl 
Himfelf. as He Himfelf expounds it. Chap. i2terj .16. lam the bright and morning Star , io it is , 1 \^'iIl give 
himmyfelf. The firft promife was mucn , bjt thij is more : a.id tno.igh heav^-n ol- m ich whenitispro- 
mifed; yet this promife containeth more : for He that b lilt the hoiife, is ot more worth th m the houte.Cnntl 
is called the morning Star for thef^ reafons , i . B'caule the morning Star is moll eminent among t the Stars i 
(o is Cnrift among tne Sons , Cant- 1. 3. Hj hath an eminenci^ ueyond all other confolation> wii.itfoever. 

2. He is called the morning S:ar,becaiie when Hj is beftowed upon any , the dark nij^hc of chcir former mi- 
lerable and difconfolate condition isputtoanend, asthe Diyltar piitethanend to the preceding night. 

3. Ctirift b.ings in th^ D.iy-Spring from on high unto the foul wno rcceiveth Him ; and never was the D ly- 
ttarforefrcflifuUtoa Traveller wearied with the darknelf^r of the nij^hn , asChrirt will be tothe wreltler, 
who is longing to have the Day-(tar arifing in his heart, 2 Pet. i.i^. And although thcfe b: hints,to shadow 
out the excellency of Chrilt, yet the truth is, neither Day-ftar, nor Sjn, nor Moon, nor all the Stars put to- 
gether, can fufticiently refemble His worth and lovely beauty , and refreshful! iealonablenefle to a fojl , 
when He manifefteth Himfelf to it. 

If it be asked, why Cfirilt promifeth to give Himfelf to the •>ercower> and under that nnme? Anf\v. It is 
for the le reafons, i. B .'caufe tnere is no omer tning that can be abfolutly fatisfyingtothe B.'liever.b.itChrilt 
Himlelf : and feing Ch-ift aimeth at the fatisfaibon of the Believeti this glorihetri His Grace and Love, that 
H.'wlU for that end beltow Himfelf uponthem. 2. Itis, to teach them where to expect their nappinefle 
vvh:n this life is ended, and fo wheretofeekit w'.iilethiy are here : th is is not to be had in . andamongft 
creatures, but is to be fought and looked for inClirilt Jelts Himfelf. 3. It is done to com tort and encou- 
rage the B -liever : for when Chnft beltoweth Himlelt upon him , what will Hj not elle communicate to 
him that m ly be for his good > as the Apoltle reafoneth to this purpofe, J^w.8. ^2. Believers may be encou- 
raged to wreHle a while j this night will have an end, and the Uay-ftar wiii arr.e ; alter which, there shall be 
no more night , nor darknefle , nor Sjn to give light , but the Lord God Ihill enhgbren them, and the 
Lan^b Himfelf fhall be a light unto them j tor holding forth of this conlolation, is Chrilt exprelTed by this 
name in this promife. 

In the 29.V«r/. tb; Epiftle clofeth with the common advertifement. He thai hath an ear to hear, ^c. which 
is not done for the fashion ,• but is the Lords commending of what huh been laid unto the conicieHces of ihe 
Hearers .• becaufe what isfaid ,is faid by the Spirit to the Churches j and it becometh well thefe who have 
ears to hear , to hear what is faid by Him. 


CHAP. ni. 

Vcrf. X. A Nrf unto the Angel of the cJnirch inSardis , vmte , Thtfe things fakh he that hath thefe'^n 
AMSpiritf of God, and thefeyen Start i Iknow thy works , that thou haft a name that thou liYcft , 
and art dead. 

2. B? -watchful, andflrengthen the things 'which remain , that are ready to die : for 1 hate not found thy works 
perfeB before Gid. 

3. [{cmcmber therefore how thou hajl receitcd, and heard , and holdfaj}, and repent. If therefore thou shah net 
watch • i "^dl CO me on thee of a thief, and thou shah not kpow what hour I will come upon thee. 

4. Thou haft a few names e\en in Sardis, which ha\e not dtfUed their garments , and they shall wali.with me in 
whiiC , for they are worthy. 

<;.Hethin o\>cr comet h , the fame shall be cloathed in white raiment , and I will not blot out his name out of the 
bjo'^oflifc , but I wi I confcjf' hi' name before my Father, and before h^f Angds. 
6. Me that hath an ear, la him hear what the Spirit faiihumo the Chure.es- 


Chap.r. Book^oftheJLevelatm, \^i 

THis is the fifth Epiftle , dircded to the Church in Sardis. It hath the divifion that is 
coininon lo the rcii, to wit, iliere is. Full, an Inlcripcion, tcrf.\> Secondly, the Body ol the Hpi- 
itle.Ve'/2,3iand4. And, thirdly, A Conclu(ion,><j'/;5,and6. 
l"hc party unto whom it is dirc^fted , is, the Angel of the 0un.h ofSardit : this was fpoken of » 
Chap. 1 yerf. 1 1 . It was once the leat of the rich King C refn^ , abounding in much M'eakh, and alio in much 
fin , and profanity i yet Cnrilt by His Gofpel bcgetteth a Church in this place. Although it be direded in 
comtnon to Mimfters and People, and for that end doth contain what reipefteth the Church in coiTimon j 
yet we conceive it doth cfpecially and principally relate to the cafe of the Minifter , and to the People as 
joyned and agreeing; with him in that dead condition, as the Expofition thereof will clear. 

The pcribii from whom the EjJiitic is fent, is fet forth by two titles, Firft, He hath thefetien Spirits of God : 
this was expounded, Chap. i.\>erf^ and it is again repeated, C hap.i\.y>erf.^, and 6. By thdejcVew Spirns arc 
underttood the holy Gholt, in His feverall Gifts, Graces, and Operations. Chrilt is faid to halpc thele : bc- 
caufe He hath commicied unto him the difpenfing of thefe Gifts and Graces of the Spirit to the Church , and 
doth joyntly with the Father, fend the holy Gholt the Comforcer for the good of His People,as is clear from 
foh.iA.terf. 16,17. andC/.'^p.i6.1?cr/7>8i&c. and many other places. Hitakcth this title in this place: 
becauie haviu'^ to do with a dead Miuilter and People, He would both make them know what muft quicken 
them, to w'n , the Spirit ; and how they may attain the lame, to wit, by Him. It is no little part of Chrifts 
plorv 5 noroftheB-lieversconfolacion, thatChrifthaththedilpenlingoflife> 8clivelinefl"e unto his People. 
The fecond title, is, v»hich hath the fe\>en Start : this is in part taken out o^Chap. i.yerf. 16. where Chrift is dc- 
fcribed as having in his hand leven Stars. 

By Stan are here underftood Minifters, as Chap.i . terf.zo. is clear. Chrift is here f lid to haipe them,is He 
hatiuhe leven Spirits : which doth import , 1 . His fpeciall interelt in , and title to Minifters : He hath a pe- 
culiar right to the C lurchbefide what He hath to the world ,- yet hath He a more peculiar right to the Mini- 
fters, as havin<>- their Coi-nmilfion trom him, and dependance on Him , in a more fpecial manner. 1 here- 
fore, P/^/.68.?er/. 18. He is faidafter His Afcenlion pecjliaily to have received gifts for men,or in the man : 
And yet thefe gifts, arenooth.-r bat the gifts of Apoftles, Paftors and Teachers, See. whichHeagain givcth 
to his Church , as is clear from Ephef.\. yerfS. and 1 1 . Secondly , this title importeth drifts abfoUite So- 
Veraignity over his Minifters in a Ipecial manner j for, h hatb them ; And lo they being His , He may d.fpofe 
of them at his pi eafiire, for furchering ofthem i:i his work if they be faithf jU , and for bh.fting of ihem it ic be 
otherwife. Tnirdly, it j oints at Cnnlts care of his Miiifters ,• who doch ina fpecial manner keep and pre- 
ferve thefe Stars, as fomethiiig that is much elteemed of by Him. Cnnlttakech this title iintoHiAU cifin 
this Eoiftle , i . That he may provoke this lifelefle Angel , to feek life in Him , feing he who had the fcven 
5.cars/had al io the feven Spirits j and fo efpecially they, to wit. His Mmift .-rs might expert to be made lively 
byHim>i'^he were improven by them > and lo this tide doth back the diresflions that loUow. 2. It is alio 
to lee them know that areMiiiift-rs, tha: thjjgh they be in an eminent place i yet are they fubjed to Chri(t 
Whj is their Sjveraign , and fo o i^^ht to be dep.-ndent on Him, ochjrwife they are liable to his triall an4 
cenfure, whocandifpof.-of theiiiashe will : audio this title addcthweighc to the threatning , which is 

contained J Krf. 3 ,. , , r , e n t • 

The Bo.ly o^' ih • E.^ift'e followeth in the dole of the fi'ft verfe , with the 2 ,31 and 4. We may take it up 
inthefefour, Firft, th'eLo.d dircovereththeh/po:riiieanddeadnelfe of this Minifter and Chjrch , V.r/"i. 
Secondly, he propofeth m my diredions as remedies^ tit for their recovery. Tnirdly , he prcfl'.'th the pradice 
of thefe d'ireftion; by (evcral weighty reafons and threatnings i and thele two are intermixed ,Vcr/ 2 3. 
Foirchly, there is a qialihcation of this charge, and a confolatioa in reference to fome Members that were 
free from'this ch illenge i an d this i i held forth, y>erf.4. 

The cafe of this Mmift :r and Cn.irch, is, in two expreflions , 1. Setting 0.1 1 what they were thought-cf 
by others. 2. Expresdng what indeed they were before God. Before others th:y had a name t'^^at they 
Vfcre liy>iny , that is, they w ."re thoa^ht to be in fo.iie good and lively condition more than ordinary , & were 
thought b^'others about tb .-m to be a Cnurch , in better condition than other Cbjrches : for, to hnfe a name, 
doth i-nport the efteem o'lbn^what in her, which was no; ordinary > yet, fiith the Lord , notwithftanding 
of that m\w^t'oe^ ^vcrejc««i, that is, very unCutable to chat they wereelteemed to be 5 and in refped thereof , 
indeed bjt fpirinnliy dead. By this deadnelle we underftand, Firft, A fimple deadnelfe in hypocrilie, and lo 
itistobeunderftjod, there are bat many ofyoanaeer hypocrites >altho igh ye hive a fair shew. Secondly, 
Deadn-ile maybe underftoDd comparatively, that is, either in refped of what they feemed to be , and were 
though: to be by o'h 2rs, or what they ojght to have b.-en ; or, in refped of \\ hat fomtimes they had b^en. 
■ A nd To even Believers may be thus charg^dj who baying fo:ne lif c , yet in thefe refpeds were defedi ve. 


If^ At Expofifion of the Oiap.j. 

And by confidering what is faid > V. 2. \\'here fointhings readjto die, are fpokcn of, ic will appear ih; t his 
charge is fo to be applied in reference to declining Believers in part > as to others who were altogether hypo- 
crites. It is like this Church hath been free of grofH; Errors ; for there is no mention oFthe Nicohitanr in 
the fame as in other Churches: Itislikealfo there hath been no inward divilion amongft themf.-lves, or 
groilc profanity of praflicei or fuch like : for there is no mention of fuch in ih: reproof, nor M^oiild fuch have 
Itood with an eminent name j but on the contrary, it is like they had Ordinances in frequencic and purity » 
the Minifterhad Gifts in fome emincncie, external fubjedion was given to th.- Oalinanccs, and they were 
waited upon, and,k may be,there was zeal in outward Reformation, as was in £^.'j«r/Itf. Vpon thefe, and 
the like grounds, they came tobi efteemed-ol by others, as being in an excellent frame ; th;.- Preachers were 
thought excellent Preachers , and no Church thought more happy than th^ Chjrch o^Sard'^ j and it is like', 
n was counted a bkffid thing to live in fuch a place : and, it may be , that the Minifter and People had th jir 
own too great efteem of themrelves, as being priviledged beyond oih-rs , becaufe they were freeboth of the 
E rorsin Do(5trine, defefts in Difcipline>and alfoof the erodes and tria!s,which we find other Churches lying 
under : whereupon they are faid to have a name j and yet thcry were indeed, and before the Lord, in the re- 
rpe6tsformerly mentioned , dejdt and unani wcrable to that name : waich is indeed a lad charg », and a molt 
dangerous condition. Whence we may obferve, that a Church, or Minifter, or a particular perfon, may 
have a great efteem from others, and alfo have much efteem of thcmlel ves, and have fomc feeming grounds 
for the fame s and yet either totally , or in part, and comparatively , be butdeadand lifelt;fl=: i and in no fuch 
eitimation before God. This may make all, both Minilters and People, to tremble , & co beware of being 
pleafed with frothy and empty names, which oftentimes are found to be exccedinglight before God. 

It may be enquired on this occafion , l .as to a private perion, what grounds one may have to account him- 
felf living , when yet indeed he may be dead 9 For anfwer , We conceive that the Lord in His wifdom hath 
made a peremptory decilion of this Q;w;ftion to be impofTible, to wit, how great length an hypocrite may go, 
andyetbc ftillintheftateofhypocriUej as alfo ofthat other, to wit, how far a Believer may declineintne 
eftate of Grace, and yet continue to be a Believer ? becaufe the deciding of ihefc , as to the maximum or »wi- 
nimum quodjtc, doth not tend to edification : And He would have His People keeping a diltance, even from 
the borders and marches of thele things in their practices. Yet we conceive>that it is clear from Scripture, 
that a hypocrite may have verj' many things thJt may be the occafion oi a name to him j and yet really he 
may beuillunfound. We may, for example, inftance them in ihcfe particulars , i.If welook tonegatives, 
they may be juftly chargeable with nothing before men, either as to omifTions or commisfions : and in this 
rcfpecl PaulwAS blamleffc, even while a Pharilee, Phil.^, 6. 2. If welook to the common gifts ot the Spi- 
rit , which come under that name o'i Gratia gratis data,taey may come a great length here,as> to fpeak u'lth 
tongues, to underftand all Myfteries , to have all knowledge, I Co/". 13. 2. Andinchisrefpedt they may 
Preach well, Write well, Dilpute well ; yea, even to the edificaiion of oth.'rs j and , as to the exercifingof a 
gift, Pray well alio. And , no queftion, Iud4s and others , whom the Lord will not own for His in th; day 
of Judgement , were eminent in all thefe, asthey were for cafting out of devils and the working of nnracles. 
5. If we will look to the performance of externall duties, it will b.^ found they may come a greatlengih in 
this refpevft. rhat Pharifee, Luk.A^ I i,i2.prayed and failed often , and gave tithes of all : andthatman, 
Matth. 19.20. faid, All thefe things did I keep from my youth : which might be true , as to theoutward perfor- 
mar.ce of duties, and fo as they underftood them j which alfo is confirmed from the example of Paul- 4. If 
we look in to the fpirituall meaning of the Law, as it doth obliege the inward man to a conformity thereto , 
\\c will find that hypocrites may go a length even in that : thus we find a difcreet 5:rib ( Mark, 12. 32. 33. ) 
acknowledging, that to /oVe the Lord ^vith all th; heart , "with all the underjlanding , mth all the foul, with alt the 
jhength, andtolo\e our neighbour at owfelf, it morethan all bwnt offerings orjacrif'ccs. This is indeed much , 
to prefer internal moral duties to external ceremonial performances ; and is more than ufually was acknow- 
ledged amoneft them : for which caufe , the Lord faith in the next word , Thou art not far from the kjngdom 
of Cod ; yet He infinuateth he was not in the Kingdom of God, and fo not really found not withltanUing. 
5 . They will fometimes have feeming fruits, even as to fuffering ; although no hypocrite can have a lincerc 
end therein i yet it is clear, that many of them may fuffer many things materially for the Truth of Chrift. The 
Apoftlc, I Cor. 13. fuppofeth that one may give his body tobe burnt , and yet want love : and, Gal. 3. 4. he 
fi)ppo'"cth that there may be much fufiering in vain. And certainly experience in all ages of the Church, 
hath made thisappear to be truth. 6 if we look further in reference to Gofpel duties , there may be fair 
tlourifhing in this rcfpedl alfo j as firft , convi^ilions of fin may be carried on a great length : Saul was often 
brought to fay, J haYc finned ; Felix trembleth , m hile Paul preacheth to h im, ^Si.2/^ ^25 . and even Simon 
iW.r^wisbro-.'ghttodefirc the helpof Prter/ prayers, as b.-ing convinced of his hazard, i^fl.8- 24. Secondly , 


Chap. J. Bo9\j>f the RepeUtion, lyj 

This conviction may be followed with fomethii g like Repentance , and forrow for the committing of fin : 
thus, even Ahab humbleth hinifelf, i King zi.'Yerf.2j.2g^ and thefe that are mentioned , ?falj%.'\>erfl\. &c. 
Aidfeek^ and ettfuirt after him who /kw them. And certainly there wants not forrow and bitterneffe in JudiU 
his repentance , Mat. 26- 3» 6cc. when he did really r»M' what he had done. Thirdly, There may b.- alio 
fomethinglike faith » whereby one may in part be brought to believe thcgenerall truths oftheGof pel con- 
cerning Chrift, &c. and to his own apprehenlion be perfwaded in himfelf, that he hath received himj andfo 
carry within himfelf as if indeed there were ground to expedt what is promifed in him. Tnis is clear alio 
fi-om the many inftancesot hiftoricall aud temporall faitn , that are recorded in Scripture: and in this re- 
fpe(5t, it is faid of the temporary Believer, That anom he Tecei)Kth the "ivord with joy* and ^oeth forth mt if all 
were well. Thus J^pipfa , is by the force of the Word ttimoft perfwaded to be a Chr^ian, A£l. 2<5. i8. Mid, 
//rf/. 48. 1, and 2. fomc are faid to call themfel>et of the h9ly ttty-, and jtay thetnfel^es on the Lord God 
of jfrael ("which fuppofeth an ejrercife of faith, at leaft in their account) and yet, it was not done in 
truth and hi rightcoufncffe. In the feyenth place, wetmy inflance itinihe commoa operations of the 
fpirit on the aftetftions within: we have ah^ady hinted Something of convift ions for fin, of fear ,ofwraib, 
and deftrudkionof the foul , which certainly may foroetimes affecSt many hypocrites* alfoof grief and 
wordly forrow , which may feaxe upon f uch > and in an high degree j who yet may have nothing of God in 
them : upon the other fide , there may be much of it aUb in refpedt ot the flafhes of joy , nendernefle , and 
mekings of heart , which hypocrites may have at onethne , eitherin fome publick Ordinances , or poflibly 
in lecretjOrotherwife; more than at other times j andyet there be nothing but the common operationsof 
the fpirit , fuch as were in many of John: Hearers , who fot a feafon rejoyctd in hit light , Job. 5 jf . and in 
temporary Believer, ^ was formerly cited; for, the Lord ibardifpc-nfeth the common gifts of the Spirit 
as He pleafeth, dothaifodifpenfeof thefe comnwn effedts of the Spirits operation , iiich as liberty jfear, 
joy, forrovi^,aridthc like, according to his Soveraign pleafure, without relped" to the eternallftate, good 
or bad of the perfon on whom He beftoweth them. Now (eing thefe thirds and fuch like nray be M'here 
yet fincerity is not , what wonder is there that a perfon be faid to have a name by others , or be thought to 
nave reality by himfelf » when yetindeed there is nothing but deadnelfe ? Oftentimes men ( that are ordiitar- 
ly admirers of tkemfelves and what is in themfelves ; are brought to think highly of themfelves , and of the 
fincerity of their own ftate, and that with great perfwafion, upon leffe grounds than thefe that areJad down^as 
We will find in the Epiftle to £r«mifV«4. 
If it be asked, ( fuppofing fuch things to be , ) fYhat can fttrther be defeBilpe to reality ? 
jtnfw. To fay no more , all thefe things may be > and yet there may be de f.tt in thefe three > which are 
fimply neceflary for the differencing of a fincere perfon from an hypocrite", Firft , There may be a want of 
the new nature , and the perfon not yet be born again , as it is , ^oh. 3 . 5. Secondly , All thefe may be , and 
yet the perfon not be brought really to deny his own righteoufnelTe, and pofitively to receive Chrift offered 
mthe Gofpcl, and to reft upon him, for the attaining oflife through His righteoufneffe and fatisfadion : 
although tney maybeconvinceditisgoodtodoitt andalthoightheymaythinkihey havedor.eit, (being 
blinded by their own prided and although they may fome way comfort themfelves as if they had done it in 
this their prefumptuous dream ; yet , really it is never done ; for fo , they could not but be faved , becaufe of 
the immutable tearms of Gods Covenant, which fay , lVhofoey>erbelie)feth in him shall not perish, biahaln 
eternal life. Thirdly , All thefe things may be , when yet there is defed in i he nature of the inward duties 
(to fay 10 ) and in the manner of performing what is outward, that is , they may be both without the 

?[ualification8 1 e<juired to the conltituting of fincerity and fincere adts Ipoken to , ( hap. 2. So thatltill thefe 
ruits are but fruits of the old tree and flesh , and are not brought forth by faith in lefus Chrift, without which 
nothing can be pleafingto Godj neither is His glory fingly aimed at in them, &c. without which the 
moft glancing fruits, will be but rotten before the Lord. 

Again , Secondly , confideringthis, Thou haft a name that thou Uteft , andandejd, with refpecStothe 
Minifter: it may be enquired, i. What kind of Minifter this is , who may be laid to have a name that ho 
liveth , and is dead, 2. Whatmay bethereafonsthatmakeevenMinilterstoreft fatisfiedinthe appiaufeof 
others , and in fuch things as may gain an approbation before men , without that which may make him ap- 
proveable before God ? 

To the firft , we fay , that in the defcribing of fuch aMinifter, wemufl:, i. look tofomethings which he 
bath » that give the ground of his having a name. And, 2. to fomeihing which he hath not , the want 
whereof, proveth himto have no more but aname. Firftihen, A Minilter may be in his particular con- 
dition fuch an one as was formerlydefcribedwithmany commendable things in his outward carriage. Se- 
condly , he may have fome good meafure cf gifts , and a pleafing quicknelfe and dextv'rity in Preaching and 

V mannngipg 

1 54 Ait ixpoptm 9f the Chap. 3. 

maniianging of other dacies th u belong to his Calling. T.iis ^ifc it feemeih was in many Church-otficers at 
Corinth , which made th^m appear exceeding eminent. Tnirdly, he m ly have a frequency , and accurate 
fornrulity in the dilchjrg.oFall duties} as bearing forth much diligence and faithfulnefle in ih^; difcharge of 
thein, with a Teeming fervour and earneftnelle. It is Uke that thelewho preached Chriltoutof envy, 
Philip- 1 . If. wanted no: a good m^afure of this. Fojrthly , he miy have a great plauliblnefl", and a famili- 
ar kind of hjmanity, and difcretion (to fpeak fo) in his converlation wiili others , which ofttn lendeih 
to giin applaufe from them, as if it were afpeciall fig'iof hjmiHiy> and an evidence oHove and re i'pedt 
whereby men oftentimes are engaged to elteem of fuch a Miniltcr , more upon fuch an account , to wit , as 
being particularly friendly to them , than for their works fake , as the word is , i Thcff. 5* 1 3. It is like* that 
ihefe rahe Teacners that got luch a name, as,whobuttbiy , in Corimfe and G4/<w<4 , had much of this way 
of infinuation : and alfo thefe mentioned , Philip. 1. cannot well be thought to be free in this refpe^fb , feing 
they Preached Chrift out of envie and ftrife, terf.i^. as minding to gain a name thereby beyond Paul. 
Fifthly, Sjch aMinifter may alfo have fccming countenance in his Miniftrie with Authority and refpeit 
amongft hispeople , and feeming countenance antl fruit in outward things, as in tlie bearing down of Error, 
the fuppremng of groff fcandals and out-breakings, and the bringing of his people to fome conformity in 
publick and private duties: in which refpe<StS| his Congregation may be more formal than many others. 
Upon thefe and luch like confiderations , aMinifter may have a name of a very eminent excellent Mini- 
fter, and yet there may b»muchunfoandncffeln tworefpedts. i. As to his own perfonal condition , he 
may be without life , or at the beft without livelincfle in any futable degree. 2. As to his publick Miniftrie , 
he may be in many things defcdtive as to the finccrity of his pradlice before God , even when he appeareih to 
be found and diligent before men , as it is h^re > yerj'. 2. 1 haye not found thy workj perfeU before God. Where 
We fliall confider this more particularly : and do therefore now leave this firft Queltion. 

Tne fecond ftueftion , is, IVhat may make a Minifterfo ready to please himfelfin the harping of Gifts , and a 
name before othtrs , when le; he mayfo fauUy before God ? 

^nfw. The deceits of mens hearts are very deep : and although it b: exceedingly to be regraied that Mi- 
niilers Ihould fall in this evil of refting in the applaufe of others, when in the mean time they want Gods 
approbation in agreacpirtatleaftj yet ic cannot be denied to be airuth: and what is written to the Angels 
of Ephefus, Sardu, and Lajdicea , doth abundantly confirm the fam;; : and thefe rcafons maybe given thereof, 
1. B^canle oftentimes Minifteis, efpecially fuch Minitters aim too much at the pleafingofmen, and at the 
gaining of refp^d: and applaufe amongft them: this may be atentation tothemoit fncere, but it is 
lealiy that which imfound men are fwayed with, as it is clear, Philip. 2 2 1. and therefore when what 
they principally defigned , is attained, it is no wonder that they reft therein. 2. Of all men in the world > 
Minifters are moft obnoxious to this tentation of vanity , and feeking approbation from others » becaule, 
molt of their appearances are in publick before others , and that in the exercife of fomeGifc of the mind, 
which is f jppofed to hold forth the inward worth of a perfon more than any other thing. Now , 
v'hen this mceteih with applaufe , it holdeth out a peoples eftimation ot fuch a perlons worth , which hath 
a great fiibtilty in its plealing and tickling of him, and fo is ready to incline him to reft fatisfied therein. 
5. Many Minifters are not travelling in birth to beget fouls , and to have fuccefl'e as to the Salvation of many* 
as well as outward fruits 5 but are ac beft ftudying to exoner themfelves as having been diligent in their duty. 
-Now 5 when fuch meet with applaufe from others , it is interpreted by them , as fome contirmation of their 
diligence and feal ot their exoneration in their Miniftrie : for , men being naturally willing to abfolve them- 
felves, arc eafily induced to admit of any teltimonie, which may fecm to confirm their own integrity. 
4- Oftentimes Minifters take more pains in external duties of their Miniftrie that arc obvious to the view 
ef others, than they do in the inward fccretduiiesof Chriftianity upon their own hearts, fuch asfelf-exa- 
mination , the making of their own calling and election fure, the keepingof themfelves in theloveofGod , 
thcexercilingof Faith, Repentance, ^c. whereby it comethto p^ffe, that often that m?y be their regrate 
which is fpoken , Song i. 6. They made me keeper of the vineyards , k$n my own vineyard balfe I not 
ksefcd. Awd from this It is, that though their condition be exceeding defevSlive before God: yet, they be- 
ing iinaccjuainted therewith , cannot be affe»5ted with th^ lame. And, no qucftion , many Minifters have much 
carnal quietneHe in their M:niftrie, who could not entertain the fame , if they knew how things were with 
rhtm before God. 5. This evil alfo is inicident to Minifters, and hath great influence upon the other, that their 
having' fuch Gift8,reeming fruits and approbation beforeothers, is oftentimes made ufeof to counterballance 
■ and bear down any challenge that may arife concerning theit own unlbundnelfe, as if all thefe were teftimonies 
80 the contraryranJ lb, as oftentimes outward profpcrity doth , through mens corruption, bear down challen- 
ges in.lbme privat peribns , which adverfity doth waken up in othersj fo an outward profperous Miniftrie ( to 


Chap. J. Beokofthe'Rtvtlatm. t^if 

fay Co ) doih often finoiher many challenges ot a mans inward iinlbundtu fll', which readily had been more 
taken notice of* had there not been fuch Gifcs, outward countenance in external dmies , and approbiiiioB 
from others. Hence we fee, that as often the molt tender Chriftian is under the crofle, fo it is the molt lively 
Mir.ifter wholabojreth moft under thefenfe of his own inlufficiencie and lliort-coming in Gifts , who hath 
moft grofle oit-brcakiugs in Errors, and profanity weighting him amongft his people ; who meeteth with: 
moft di ire fpefit, andmanieftdifappointments among the people and fuch likcithefeareofcenblcflTedotGod 
to keep fucK a perfon lively , when others without thcie do fit U p and forget theinfel vcs. O but Minifters that 
have a name, and fbme feeming countenance in the cxercife ot their Gifcs , great applaufe and acceptation a- 
mongft the people, had need to be humble and watchful, left they bj liable to this charge. Thou hajianame 
that thou liyefi , but art dead\ hn<i, noqueftion, many inadveruntly areflain by fuch things themlelves^ 
M'hen they preach to others. 

We come now to the fecond thing In the Body oftheEpiftle, which is the dircdiions that the Lord 
giverh both the Minifter and people, for the recovering of them out of that condition, Ver/i.J. Andbecaufe 
the reafons whertby he preffeth thelc directions , are intermiKed , we fhall fpeak to both in order as they ly.- 
Thedireiftionsareof twoforts. The firft refpedteth their prefent duty , and their carriage forthetimeto 
come, in reference to what might occur j the orh-r refpe^eth what was paft , and their carriage in reference 
to that. Thefirftisinthez. >rr/ comprehended in two diredlions : both which implie their former 
giiiltinefle. Tne firft is, be \9atchful .- which lookeih both to watchfulneffe in the private duties of Chriftia- 
nity, and alfo to a more watchful fympathizing manner of going about the duties of the Miniftrie : which 
inaplieth, that what ever name they had before others', that yet reail y there was much deadnefle and fccurity , 
unwatchf jlaeflb » and untendernelTe in borh thcfe refpedts before God. The (econd diredtion is, mjlreng- 
then the things that remain, v/hljj are ready to die : By things that remain and are ready to dicmay be underftood 
I. feme remainders ofths work of God in lome that were honert , which being through cardefnefle and 
fecurityexceedinglyweakned and brought very low, were in hazard to die out , if no: prevented ; tbisre- 
fpeAeth e fpecially thefe members who had declined from fomewhat which once they had been at. And al- 
though, no queftion, there were many in that Church who never had any thing j yet it is no marvcll that the 
Lord mould His directions with a fpeciall reference to fuch as had lome honefty in them. 2. Thefe words 
may be underftood as peculiarly fpoken to the Minifter j And fo the things that remai't , O'c. are fomc 
little flirtings amongft ihs People, as the fruits of his Miniftery , which now are like to die out , becaufe of 
his fo. mall way of carrying of himfelf in his duty ; or, it may look to the few honeft ones, which were a- 
mong them , ..who were not fed and nourished by him in their fpiritual conditions , and fo were like to 
ftarve, even when he was flouriihing in xhi exercife of his gifts to the admiration of oihers. The dire<3:ion , 
andftrengthen the things that remairt , mult be expounded with refpedt to both thefe : and fo with refpeft to. 
the firlt , it faith, they that ever had any thing of God, and now have taken a ftand , had need warmly and 
tenderly to nourish and confirm that which is behind ; that by the exe rcife of tendernefl'e , prayer, repen- 
tance, and other things that belong to the life of Religion, that fpunk may hi keeped from dying out. With 
refpedt to the fecond , to wit, the Minifter, it putteth him to a more carefull, painfull , and fympathizing 
way of looking to the Flock, and feeding them according to their feveral tempers , with what might be 
folide and nourishing to them ; left the bloflfoms of fruits, which he had in his Miniftery . should evanish , 
and beblafted. And thus he is reproved for taking pains polfibly in fitting his Sermons to the taftingnefleof 
fome curious and vain Hearers, by the bringing forth of high notions and great words , whereby himlelf 
might be accounted a great manj and that yet in the mean time there was no care had to provide food,or Phy- 
fick for hungry and fick foul?. . . 

This part of the diredtions, is backed by two Arguments. The firft is implyed in thefe words, that are rca* 
djtodie: which isinfum. ifye that are Ciiriftians be not diligent and ferieus* andyethatareMiniiiersbe 
not watchful! and faithf uU , ye that are private Chriitians are in hazard to have any beginnings thatare iti 
you extinguished : whichmay be underftood refpeftively, both of faving and common ftirriivgs : and ye that 
are Minifters may have your Miniftery blafted, ifthefe directions be not followed. This doth not iniply 
any uncertainty of the perfevering of the tr uely Godly i But doth fet out, Firft, the connexion which God 
hath made betwixt livelineffe and diligence : And, Secondly, it sheweth how God fometimes uleth t9 ftir 
up fecure Believers , to wir, by giving and blefling to them fbme sharp warnings. 

The (econd way by which he preifeth thefe diredtioas, is nxwe exprefly fet down in the end oClterf.iTor 1 
hate not found thy works perftB before God : which is, in a M'ord, what ever me*!! think ©f them as before 
them J yet I, havingtried them according as they are before God and in His fights w bo feeth further than 
men, have net found them to be perfect before Him. This word in the Greek i s TeTrAwf wfcsyct, a word 

V 2 tliat 

15* MExfofit'wHcfthe Chap.g. 

that is moft ordinarily ufed in reference to Miimtii s. and leicith forth integrity and fincerity in their Mini- 
ftrie, when they fulfiU or makg fool pr§of of ihcir Miniltery, as it is, 2 Tiw.d. 5. or when they fully preach the 
Gofpcloi Chrilt,as icis rendered, i{em.i<i.ig. and in other places. Therefore here it would leeinelpecially 
to relate to the defedts of theMiniltcr, even when he went about his Miniltcriall duties. And it importeth, 
I. That Miniftersminifteriall duties ought to be perfed before God. 2. That the Lord Jefus willefpeci- 
ally take notice ofrh^m and their minilteriail duties. 3. It importeth this » that there are many Minifters 
who arc very fair in their outward miniiteriall carriage belfore others , and cannot be lijble to any ch.irge be- 
fore men ; that yet, when Chrift cometh to try them, and reckon with them , will be found exceding defe- 
(fiive before God. And on this occafion it is fit toconlider, i. What is necefiarily requifitcaccording to this 
formof fpeech, that a Minifters yt>orkJ maybeperfeB btfore God. 2. What maketh a Minifter , that may be 
abounding in external! labours, yet tobe liableio thischari^e, that his works are not perfeSi before God. And 
this will dear a Qut ft ion, which we left imperfe«5t in thefirft>«r/tf , and not lb particularly anfwered. 

To the fii ft, that a M:niiters works may be perfeft before God : betide the frequency of them^ and what 
may al fo be in lis other perfonall carriage , thele things will be found to be required by venue of this expref- 
fion, I. That in publick minifteriall duties a man be a^ed out of zeal to the glory of God and aflfedion to ih2 
ioulsofthefe he preacheth to : this was Pauls pracflice in his fulfilling of his Miniftery, G»/-l .25. (where the 
fame word is ) being compared with whatgoeth immediately before> and wh^t foUoweth after. And this is 
the great commendation of Titmthy beyond others, Philip. 2. 20. that he naturalli^ cared for the ftate of the 
people, that is, he piirfued their edification, as a Mother will feek the (afety and good of her own child. Thi* 
15 a qualification of an hij^h price before G©d, without which, no diligence will be efteemed of. 2. That a 
iWinifters niinifteriall duties be thus perfeft , it is requifit that in them he extend himfelf according to his a- 
bilicy toiheutmoft for the peoples edification. That isio m(^ full proof of the Minijiery, zTim.j^, 5. when 
nothing is left uneffaycd which may put a mans gifts, time, ability, &c. to the utmoit, tor the Peoples good; 
fe that his dafign is ferioiifly to improve all for that end. 3. There muft not only be diligence and faiihful- 
nefle in externall duties j but there muft alio be a futablnefle to Gods minde, in the end, motives, and manner 
oFperforming thcfe duties, and alfo tendernefle and faithfulnefle in the performing; of I uch duties as are not 
obvious to men, to wit, praying for the People , lympathyzing with them in ftraits , grieving when they are 
wounded, and the like, which wc will find frequent inthepradticeofP^w/. Now, when a Minifter con- 
tenteth himlclf with th; performing of fuch duties as are before men , and maketh no conicience of thcfe , it 
looketh as if he aimed rather to be approven of men than of God : and therefore his works cannot be faid 
to be perfedi before Him. And totnis belongeth a Minifters carrying of himfelf in preacbing,admonition, 
and every duty as in the fight of God. 2 Corinth. 2.1 7. For v>e are not at many^ which corrupt the WordofGod : 
but m^ffmcerity, but di of Godwin the fight of God fpeakjwe in Chrifi. 4. This pcrted:ion takethinanearneft- 
neflC'and univerfality in all the dutiesof the Miniitrie , and that in reference to all times and perfons : fo the 
Minifter muft reprove, threaten and carry difpleafing melTages, as well as inftrud:, comfort , and preach that 
wbich may be more pleafing. He muft do this alio in reference to great men as well astothefewhoare 
mean, as well to thefe whom hi loveth, and who loveih him, as to others : and (o he is to be fearching the fe- 
cret faults of Profcflbrs, to wit, their Security, pride, hypocrifie, S^c.as well as the groflfe out-breakings of o- 
thers. It is hke, that this Angel was defed:ive in this refpe<5t:,and(earchednotin hisDodlrinefoastomake 
difcoverie of the hidden hypocrifie and corruption of hearts -, and that he did not faithfully rip up their 
wounds, pofTibly fearingrto lii pleafe them : for, oftentimes he that feeketh to heal the wounds molt fmcodi- 
iy, gaineth moft npplaufe from other;;. Now, where there is defeat in thefe, no miniiteriall duties can ever 
be accounted perfect before GoA. When Paul is putting Timothie to make perfect , or full proof of hi s Mi., 
raftrie, 2 TiOT.4. he thus proceedcth "^erfz. Preachthe word, be infiant infeafon, outoffeafoa, reproYey rebukf , 
exhort with all long fuff ring and doBrine. And fo he defcribeth himfelf to the fame purpofc , Col. \ . 28>29< 
IVaom we preach, warning elpery many and teaching e^peryman in all wifdom , that we man prefent e^erj man pet' 
pBin Chrifi [cfus. fi^hereunri> I alfo labour, ftri^ing according to hts working, whiib ivorketh in me mightiiy. 

From this now it will be eaC^ to anl wer to the lecond , to wit , what defe^^ts in minift;.riali duties nay 
make them not to be accounted pei fedt before God : for, if the former four be neccflary to make foch wo; ks 
perfcdt , then when there is dtkA in thefcjOr any of thef^', a Minifters works cannot but be found imperfe^: 
and therefore we ftiall fay no more of it. 

' The fecond fort of direvftions that fome way relate to their former carriage ,aswellastotheirpref:ntdu- 
tie,arefetdown, iJfr^j. In thm the Lord draweth them back to confider thetime of their efpoiifals ("as ii 
were) and the terms upon which they Contracted t02;ether ; what He propofed to them , and what they re- 
««ivedoftHi*hand, whentheWordcamearoongftthemj thatnow themfelves may fee if they have been 


Chap.^ Bo9k.ofthelLtvelAtm. ^y 

anfwerabk tofiich Engagements and Refolutions i andif there be not reafbn to repent ©'"•heirdedinings. la 
general, this diredlion putteth then:) to a back-learchof tbemfelves : which is an excellent mean of recovery, 
either of Minifter* or of People who have declined, as was cleared from the Epiftle to Ephelttt, Chap 2 5.But 
mojre particularly, there are tour words holding forth their dutie. 1 . Remenaber how chou rc<xt)fed : this im- 
poneth , Firlt, that there was an offer made to them of the Gofoel. Secondly , that they had in profeifion 
received the fame. Thirdly* When it is faid, how thou haft, dc. it importeth fome more than ordinary con- 
vivilionjOrwarmnefleinthattheirprofefledfubjeAion lothe propoled Gofpel. Itislike, (orrieohhem 
were as ]okn Biptift's hearers were, f oA.^. ^^.rejoycing in that lightfor a feafon ; but afterward becoming car- 
nail and fecure . And if there was any honefty, it was then more lively in exercife » than it continued to be 
thereafter : therefore, f^th the Lord* coniider what hath become of that now » and if the prelent deadnelfe 
be anfwerable to that lendernefle i and fo » upon that conlideration , be provoked to ftudy more livelineflK 
The fecond word is, how thou fjafi beard : this is almoft the fame with the former , and looketh to the terms 
which God propofed to them When He took them to be a Church, and what was their purpofe when they 
Submitted thereunto. As if the Lord had faid, did I propofe to you only to take on a name without reality ? 
or did yc engage only to be profeffors in Ihew, and not to be throughly fincere » See then how thiscondition 
of yours anfwereth my propolall, and your engagement. The third word is^andhddfi^ : which is not t© 
beunderftood, as if he were well pleafed with their prefent condition , as in the Epiftles to Thyatira & 'Phila- 
delphia : becaufe here He giveth them many directions and burdens ( to (ay fo ) belides this,which He doth 
not in the other two Epiftles : But it dorfiinnply thefe two, i. A neceflity of holding fafrthe little thing that 
was , left they Ihould run to the extremity ofdeclining ere long. 2. It refped;eth vi'hat they had received & 
heard ; and fo, the meaning is, that they would grip fafter to hold that than formerly they had done. Under 
thefe ditcvitions we may gather what hath been the ir guiltinefle» and the fteps by which they have come to 
fuch an hieght in this hypocrifieanddeclining. The laft word is,Repenu which is a general! cure for all evils, 
and is of fpcciall ufe for the preventing, and removing of fuch inward evils, as , declining from any good 
condition, fecurity , prefumprion, and iiypocrifie , as we may fee through all thcle Epiftles. For readily it 
cannot be evil with thefpiritual frame of a Chriltian when Repentance is in exercife , and it cannot hi well 
when it is otherwife. But of this we fhall fay no more now. 

The third ^ing in the Body of this Epiftle, to wit, the way how the Lord prefleth thele exhortations in 
this tetfe, is by fub j oy ning a iharp threatning , If there fore thou shah not vnatch , 1 mil come on thte m a thief y 
and thou shall not know : this threatning is general : but it is the more comprehenlivc and fharp. If we con- 
iider the fe two, I . That when He faith, He will come, iffc. He doth not fignifie any particular llroke He will 
bring on them, whereby they may gather, that there is no particular threatning; bat it may be comprehend- 
ed under this generall : and fo it may bi, I will come unto thee and remove thy Candleftick , or fight againft 
thee with the fword of my mouth, or call thee and thy people fome extraordinary way to a reckoning, and 
fuchlike. Thefinofhypocrifie,efpeciallyinaMinifter, is a moft dreadful I fin, and they who are guilty 
thereoF, are in a moft dreadfuU condition : for, their doom is blank , and God may fill therein all the threat- 
nings that are in this Book, asitisinDeitf-.29. 20. and /(e>. 22.18. Andtheythcmfelvescatmot tell how 
many evils they are liable unto atChrifts coming uponth*m. a. IfweconfiJer, that this coming of Cbriits 
is no friendly coming to them J but as the coming ofan enemie upon them ,and that in fome terrible man- 
ner, fuddenly and inexpedredly furprifing them. And fo it prefTeth them to the prelent exercife of R :pen- 
tance, becaufe the coming of the Lord would |je dreadful! unto them in that condition s and yet it was hard 
to know how fuddenly they might be furprized by the fame. 

The fourth thing in the Body of the Epiftle, is , the confolaiion laid down in reference to the handfull 
that had fome life : for, it they were but as two Or three on the tops of the uitermoft branches, the Lord will 
not negle<5t them. This confolation, Verf. 4. hath three pans.^ I. Theperfonsaredcfcriljed to whomit 
is fent. a. Theconfolation is laid down in a promife. 5. The reafon is given , why the Lord puCieth this 
difference betwixtthem and others. The perions are fevcral wayes defcribed > i . They are faid to h:fome 
names : this is according to the Scripture phrafe , to fhsw their eminenc/ and excellency beyond others , 
\\'ho by their integrity had, as it were, procured ttaenafelves a name in Chrifla account : fo this phrafe is un- 
derftood , AB i . 1 > . to wit , not only it fignifieth fome perfons limply , but fome perfons that are eminent, 
a. They are even in Sardis: and this commends their honefty, that had keeped fomewhat lively , even where 
Minifter and People were dead. 3. Theyav^afewnsmes: which flieweth, that in comparifon with ihe 
multitude of this Church, there were but few fincere Believers, at leaft in a lively condition , although out- 
ward things lookied exceeding fair, which alfo heightens their commendation. 4. In the defcription itis 
(aidytboubafi 9 relaang to the Angel : which faith, that a lifeleffe Miniftei may nave fome lively perfons 

V I under 

I $8 At Expofit'm ef thg Chap. 5. 

undwT his charge ; and ycc he is littleto be thanked tor it. W e conceive, ihatthTs doth not only rclpcct the 
title which he hath to all ihatare members ; but it feemeth to relate to a peculiar intci eft in thele few belide 
others j and (o they might be faid to be^ix, as being begotten by his Miniitrie : in which refped , he coild 
not be laid to have thele who had no lincerity at all. 5. They are dcfcribed by this , That tUy hate not defiled 
their garments : whic h reiateth not only to purity in outward pradlice > ( for it is like that was not lo rare a 
thing in Sardts ) but efpecially it reiateth to their inward livelintfle and freedom from ihefe evils , cfpecially 
oflecurity , formality, declining , hypocrifie, and I'uch like, that were common in the place. And thus , r# 
kfep thegatmemt, is often taken umverfjiUy, as relpeding mans inward condition, as well as that that is out- 
ward, and particularly,c/?«/).i6.1>er/'.i5. 

The confolation it lelf, is in this promile, they shall Vtialk,with me in ^vbite : which hath a t\<'ofold confo- 
lation in it , i. That they ihall walk M'ith Chriit, and fo eujoy his company and be made happy objedively 
bythepoffeiringofHisprcfence. 2. That in the enjoying oi Chriits company, they fliail be cloathed with 
white ; which we take to hold forth the unconceivable Glory which Ihail be put upon the fouls, and even 
the bodies alio of Believers , when they ftiallbe railed in Glory and bear iht Image of the heavenly , i$c. 
lCor.i$. and fhall be conformed to Chtifts glorious Body, Vhilip.^.ii. and fh.li Ihine as the Sun in the fir- 
mament > Matth.i^. Ii*a- called %vhite, 1. becaufe then there sbail bcnoj^ot amoiigft allthe Congregation of the 
firflbom. 2. VVben Chrift is on his conqueft, chap.i^. heappeareti* in ud i ; ana m this place , it is to 
Ihew forth the B.'lievers abfolute vidiory over all difficuitiesand enemies. j.Wiien Chriit was transfigured* 
His garments did fhine, fo faith he here> that the Believer , wboikeept.ii himiclf pure , Ihall walk in 
Chrilts livery , and , as it were , He fhall give them new cloaihs like unto His own j Tnus Ihali they be fub- 
jedively happy. 

Thereafonlubjoyned, isin the fe Words, foitbey areviotthy: we may take up worthinelfe under feveral 
confiderations, as, firft, when there is fuppoled to be in proper jult.ce a condignity between the deferving of 
the perfon , and the thing that is beftowed upon him: as when a workman is laid to be worthy of bis wages , 
rpeaking asamongft men : in thisrelpe(5t , S^otui, and many of the Schoolmen that follow him , denie that 
men can merit any thing before God: becaule there is fuch a diliance beiv^'een God and creatures, that no 
creature can make God his debtor, without refped to His own free engagement &■ promi(e : and alfo, be- 
caufe there is no due proportionablnelle betwe en the great happincffe ol Eternal life, and what men can do to 
procure the fame. This Dodrine is much oppofed by the generality of the Schoolmen , and later Jcfuites , 
as having thcfeabfurdities with it, i. That it deitroyeth all proper merit. 2. That it faith there is no con- . 
dignity in good works themfelves, without refped to Gods promife, whereas they fay, fuch and fuch works 
had been condignly meritorious although there had never been fuch a promife. 3. They fay, it is all one 
with the Hereticks opinion, andfuch like : of which, poflibly, we may lay a word fome-othcrwhere (if the 
Lord will) Yet, this firltacception of worthinefleor merit, cannot be admitted here : b:caul"e , i. it comrairs 
the end of Chrifts giving this promife , which is to expreiie the freencffe of His Grace in taking notice of 
fuch, and beftowing fuch an excellent priviledge on them beyond their deferving. 2. It is contrary to what 
is implied in the promile: for, if they had ablbluteperfedion for the time, fo as to merit to b^ thus dealt 
with, Then it would fuppole that they didalready walk in M'hite, and were fimplie tree of all blots j where- 
as Chrift doth difference their future happy condition from what they had for the time in this refped.thai al- 
ihoi'ghthcn they wanted not their own infirmities, albeit they were lincere , and free oKthe faults that o- 
thers were lying under i yet wanted they not all Ipots ; but at that time , when this promile fliould be ful- 
filled, thefefpotsfhould be wiped away, and they should walk fully in white. Secondly, fVorth, or me- 
rit, is fometimes taken as it refpedeth Gods gracious acceptation of a finner through Chriit jtfus : and 
thus a be lievihg finner may be laid to be worthy, and to have heaven beftowed upon him in Gods righteouf- 
nefleandfaithftjlncfle. i. Becaufe in Chrift he is accepted as worthy ; and fo they may be faid tobevi'or- 
thyinHim, astheyare juftandrighteousinHim, that is, through the imputation of Chrifts wortband 
righieoufnefle unto them : for , though it be faid here , that they are worthy -, yet it is not faid that they arc 
worthy in themfelves. 2. In this rel pcd , Believers may be faid to be worthy ; becaufe God hath freely 
eondefcended to promife fuch things unto tliem : andtherefore ( to fpeak fo) according to the terms of the 
Law of Grace, they may exped and claim the performance offuchpromiies from the righteous Judge, 
whocannotinHisjufticc butperform what He hath promifed, as if there were aty offtridjuftice by 
merit put upon him. And this agreeth with the Apoltles reafouing, 2Ti»i. 4, 7,8. In the third place, 
often this word which is rendrcd worthyhQTe, is tobeundeiftood ofameeinefTe and futablnefle which 
is in fuch a thing . without refped to any merit or proper jultice : thus it is rendred , Mat.^. 8. Bring 
forth therefore fiuitf meet for repentance. The word rendred meet there , is the fame that is rendred worthy 

here , 

Chap.g. Boak^of the Revelation. ij^p 

here, andimportL^th onlychatthereoiTghttobearutablntflouuheirfruitstorraeRepentince. Tniswui 
ajgree well to this place, as thefcope cleareth j The Lo d faith , they kept themfelves clean , when others 
were d*fited ; therefore they shall vval k with me in white , when others shall be polluted : and the reafon is 
fubjoyned , itis futable and meet it ihould be fo» that thefexhat difference themfelves in keeping clean from 
the fins of others, shoiild be by me brought to a condition where they shall have eternal and abiolute white- 
nelfe. And at the firft view, it is clear, that the promife is conceived in thefe terms , fo as it may carry i n it a 
lutablnelFe to their prefent honeft condition. And the Lordofcen uleth this expreffion , bothin His pro- 
mifesandthreatnings, vvhentieintendeth noctolliew whatis dueinftridtjufticej butonly, thatth:r,; 
is and will be a futeablneffe and proportionablnefli between meas carriage and His dealing with them , as 
we will after fiad, chap. i6.terf- 15,16. And this \ye reft in^ as the meaning of the place , and as moft clear 
fronuhe fcope thereof. 

The Conclufion foUoweth ; Wherein, I . there are fome encouragements given to the overcomer , yerf. 5. 
and then the common advertifement , Tperf. 6. which is in all the otner Epiftles. There are three promilts 
made to the o vercomer. The firft is , thejame shall be chathed in white raiment : which is , upon the matter , 
that fame which was promifed to thefe few fincere Members that were in Sardif. And is here propofed , to 
skew, that not only thefe in Sardis , but all that shall faithfully wreftle and overcome, Ihall be made parta- 
kers of that excellent priviledge formerly mentioned: Andyet Ifuppofe none can fay that all that fhall be 
cloathed in white , and admitted to heaven, are in ftrid and proper Jultice worthy of the fame j yet,upon the 
former Popish principles, this will follow , iffo be the proper worthinell'e of thefe in Sardtf , had been the 
thing that procured this priviledge unto them^ to wat , te walUn white. 

The fecond promife, is, jind 1 will not blot out his name out of the book^oflife. The Book of Life is frequent- 
ly mentioned in this Prophecie: and CGod-N^'illing) we may take occafion to fpeak fomewhat of it , c 'i^ap.zo. 
Only now vve fay , there are four Books figuratively attributed to God ( to mention no more: ) for , Gcd h ith 
neither need nor ulc of Books ; but after tue manner of men for helping us to take up His mind , He thus ex- 
preffeth Himfelf. Firlt, There is a Book that is more generall, andcomprehendeth His decrees : which ia 
His ordinary providence He executeth in the World from time to time. In this refped:, all His works are 
faidtobe known to Him from the beginning, asif He had hadaparticular roll of them all : and itiswirhre- 
fpeft toihis, ihztDatfid ( PfaLi^^.-perfAO-) faith , Thine eyes didfeem^fubfiance yet being imperfeSl , andin 
thy Book,a!l my members were written, which in continname werefashiomd , when at yet there was none of them. 
A fecond Book , is, of Gods Omnifcienee: which taketh in all things paft, pre lent, and to come, as if He had 
keeped a Diarie of every event, and had written up every word and adlion of men. In reference to this , the 
Books are laid to be opened in the day of Judgement, 2^Y>.20.12. AthirdBook, isofGoJsfpeciallcaieof 
His Church: whereby , as it were. He hath fet forth Himfelf to have a oeculiar care andoverfightof her , 
and whatconcerneth her. This is mentioned, Chap.^.lperf.i.^c. A fourth Book, is called the B jok of Life: 
which relateth only to the names of fuch as our Lord hath ordained to Glory , and doth import that they are 
as definitely and diftindtly determined and known by Him> as if they were by name and furname par ricular- 
ly recorded in a Book. Itisthis book, that is here cnWed the book^of life : Becaufe,!. The endth^eof is to 
ordain fo many to Life. And, z.becaufe there is a immutable connexion betwixt being written in thisBook 
ofLife, and obtaining eternall life: and fo, being the firft and fure door that maketh enterance unto life pof- 
fible and feafable, and gives the right to, and is the foundation of all that foUoweih j therefore delervedly ic 
getteth this name to be called the bookof life. 

Itreftsthentoconfider» wh^xziiisnottoblotout hisnumeout ofthe book^oflife: It is not to be under- 
ftood as if there were a fcraping out , and putting in into that Book , polterior to Gods eternall and immu- 
table decree : becaufe , Firft, in that refpedt , it could not be called the Book of Life : for fo, many might 
die who once were in it. Secondly , it is contrary alfo exprefly to the end and ufe thereof in the day of Judge- 
ment, where ( Chap.20.12) expreife mention is made of the opening of this Book , for tliis end, that who- 
ever were found from the beginning written therein , might be keeped from thelake »hat burneth with fire 
andbrimfton, asisfaidinthe 15 l?«r_/e of that Chapter. And if the connexion of being written in this 
Book, and the obtaining of life, were not peremptory , there could be no fuch reafon of openning this Book 
in the day of Judgement. Thirdly, Whatever this be , it is fomething to be performed after this life ; and 
feing it cannot be imagined that one can die withhisna?me intliisBjok, andafcerward have it blotted 
ou» : Therefore fuch a gloffe cannot be put upon this place. And who wpuld have further confirmation of 
thisy may have it in the Learned Gcmarus his digrefifion on this very Text. The words then are to be 
underitood thus, as importing more than they exprcffe, to wit, thatintheday of Judgement Chi iftwi^l 
«wn the overcomer , andprefenthimbeforeGod,asone.thatwa$inrolledintheBook ofLife, and given 


l«d Jtn Expojitm tftht Chap i 

to Himin thcljargain ef Redemption, for chis very end , that He might wife him up iathclalt uav and 
giveuntohimeternaIllife,asitis,3r«*.6.39,4o. ^' 

That this is the meaning, will appear by coDfidefirjg tothethird promife , But I v/HUonfefJi hit name fe- 
fore my father, and before hit Angels : which doch expreny hold forth what we aflcrt of Cm ilts lolenin and 
honourable owning of them as His and given to Hun in the great Djy rWhen all the holy Angclsshailfe'pre- 
fent. We shall fay nothing ot theother oartof th j Conduhon, which is fooften, but never needierty re- 
peated. 2^ow, we may take (omc few Obfervations from the Icvtrai pares of the Epiftlc, bcfidcs thefe chat 
are already hinted. 

Obfei\e,i. To have a name without reality , is an exceeding great «vil ,* yetaoefil incident both to Mini- 
fters and People. 2. Thefe that have bad once fomething , majr through unwatdif ulneflc be brought to a very 
low pofturei as it M'ere, to be ready inftantly to expire. 5. Folks may have lome extraordinary motions at 
lometimesiand yet afterwards &11 from theie, and forget them, as if they had never had fuch purpofes and 
refolutions. 4. There may be fome honeft, whereihtre is much deadnelle, even in the publick Ordinancesj 
and God may keep fome lively, even in fuCh a ^laCe as Smiit, when the ge neraiity are dead , and this tendeih 
exceedingly to their commencfttion. 5. A Church may have a great name for many profeflbrSjand yet the 
number of the truly fincere may be very few. 6. Godlinelfe is of gfeai value where ever it is , if it were a- 
mongft never fo few : it is like. Religion in-power was not much tiSiught ot in Sai^$ t yet v?hat advantage 
-wall thefe fewhave, beyond orhers that wereof thv greatcft name , when Chi iltihali come to judgement ? 
it will never be ^eHi tinderftood what advantage there is in true Holineflc beyond pro^tnity and hypocrifie 
till by Chrifts fecond coming this be manifefted. * * 

Befide thefe Obfervations and what hath been faid^ there are yet Ibme few Queflions tending to the fiirAer 
clearing of this Epiftle ;as Fitft, If an unlound hypoaiticall man may be a lent Minifter of Ctinft? Secondly, 
If fach a man nray have gifts in exerciie j or, if even a Believer may have gifts in exercife when his graceis 
in no good condinon ? Thirdly, If fuch a Minifter may have fruits ? Fourthly, If uiually fjch a Minifter with 
his gifts harfi many, or rather but few fruits ? And laftly , if by his deadnefle the Ordinances be io polluted 
to others as they cannot without fin partake of the lame with him ? to which , we shall ani wer shonly in or- 
der, by laying down fome Dodbrines from the Text. 

And to the firft we fay, thatmen that are unfound as to hean-honefty , may be defaSio Minifters in the 

in re- 

Church of Chrift, and, while continuing fuch, ought to bs lb accounted : What this Angel was fimply ii 
fped of his ft ate, we shall not determine j yet this is ceruin that although he had a name to be liVm? he vtM 
dead j and his works were not perfedt before God , what ever they were before men. And comparW this 
with the condition of the Angel ofLaodicea following, we conceive there is ground to fay, that men that are 
for their own cafe unfound, may yet be Minifters in Chrifts Houfe } and are to be efteatied fuch while thet 
continue in that room, feing our Lord Jefus doth (b here. And this is noi to plead for profane Minifters as 
if by this they themfelves might have peace in their difcharge of Miniltenall duties : or , as if others whofe 
place giveth them a hand in tlieadmitting unto, or keeping m the Miniftery,fuch asare,'or may b- discovered 
legally to be fo, might from this have any defence j there will no luch thing follow hence; But k is to plead 
fortheOrdinancc of the Lord Jefus Chrift, that ought not to fufter derogation inwhatfoever hands^tb- 
Hence doth the Lord ( Mattkiyi-^c.) recommend to Hjs Hearers to give due minitteriall refped to the 
Scribes and Pharifcc?, eVen when He is to difcover their rottenneife , that therby the peoples deroearin<» 
from the Lords Word in their mouib, while they fate in Mofes Chair and fpake truth nSght be prevenrecf 
Ojr Lords calling ofJwA** to be an Apoftle doth evince this (for He knew what fimply was necefTary to ji 
Minifter ) who, no qutftion, in his preaching, was to be accounted an Ambaffador of Chrift with the reft • 
tlie reafon is, becanfe it is not Grace that intitleth one to that Charge, but Chrift his Call and Commifllon • 
and feing it is certain thatthefe may be feparated, a Call from Grace, as Grace from a Call: h will follow 
therefore, that according to His Soveraignty He may make ufe of whom He will , who as He hath not chofen 
Holy finlcfl^^ Angels , but finfuU earthen Yelfels, to commit that treafure of the Gofpel unto , that it mtpkt be 
kno-^n that the excellency ofthefower, is not of men, but of God : fo may He make ufe of finfull men .even 
more finfull than others, that it may be known that the edification of fouls doth not neceflarily depend on 
the holincfTeof the Inftrument, as AFi- 5.12. Tnerefore we will find , that many who have b-en untender 
have hnd hand at this M'ork , as Matth.j.Z^. lAany f hall fay we hayeprophefiedinthyname, ^c- and Philip i* 
1 5. Somepre4ch chrift out ofenYuy and faith Paul C Chap.z.zj.) almolt of all, thejf€ek,the,r own tbinfr. [his 
ough[ to make both Minifters and People to tremble, and to Mvc to be in at the Itrait gate of Holinefle 
fei ng no place nor ftation, nor fhining gift can change our nature , and exempt from the fentence of Chrifti 
cuife in the laft day ; which ufe is made of it, Mafth.y. 22, 23. 


Chap. J. Btokpf tijf JReyeUt'm. li^t 

In Aiii wcr to the fecond Queftion , We may fee * that Gifts may be in Cjcercife , v here there is little bt 
none of inward Grace , or a great decay thereof. This Angel hath a name and isthought of, even while 
dead : this may be in unregenerate men , as in the former inltances ; and alfomay be in good men relpecSlive- 
ly. Itislike, ^ob; friends, foras excellently as they fpoke, yet had mrch defeat as to the inwardlife. And 
SeUmon remarketh of himfelf ( EcleJ. 2. ) that his wifdom remained with him , even when his heart was' 
bent upon vanity ; Gifts arc deceitful and deceiving both to men themjrelves and to others ; Grace isaiiotber 
thing, and althoughtlbmtiracs God will ftriketlje Idol-ftiepherd in his right eye , and make even his Gifts 
to wither , thereby tq (hew thcnacefllty ofnearnefle with him i yet fomtimes will He continue the exercite 
©f dbcm , that thereby His foveraignty may appear , and that men may not lay too much weight on a com- 
mon Gift, and alfo that checdification of others may be furthered. 

To the t^ird , we lay , That a man wbofe particular condition is not approyable before God • may notonl/ 
have gifts , and be called to be a Minifter : but alio he may have fruits, and fome fucceffc in his Miniftfie: this 
Angel hath a few names, even \a S4fitf : and, no queltion, fiudW in his Miniftrie wanted not fruit , feingone 
report is made pf all indifferently , M^rk. 6. Jo. And the Preaching of Chrift by the ln>ici;s ( Philip. 14.) 
feemeth to have had fucceffe: ocherwife, their Preaching hadbech no great ground of rejoycing to Pat4. 
This alfo is to Ihew the Lords foveraignty $ who will; make ufe of whom he will in His Wo?k : and al- 
though faving Grace do not alwayes accompanic common gifts of the Spirit i yet are they ^ivenioprcftVi4tfh^ 
«tf » I Ctrintk la. 7. And feing they do not al wayes nor often profit ihefe to whom they are given , and yet 
are not limpi le unprofitible when they arc fome way improve o. They milft therefore prbfi t others for m horaf 
they are given. 

Tothe fourth, we fay. That although fuch a Minifter may not be altogether alwayes without fruit 4 yet 
often great Gifts with an unfound frame of heart have but little fruit and few converts : he hath here nameS , 
but a few names, thought he himfelf had a great name: and certainly in part it is imputed to his unfound- 
ncflTe , wbofe works were not perfe(fl before God i fo that although men could not cenfure hiny yet before 
God he was not kindly and natively driving the defign of that peoples edification , whereof this , of hav ing 
a few names is a confequent , as the real honeftie , thought with a little mcafure of Gifts, of the Angel Oi Fhi^ 
UdelplM , did not want its own influence upon the fuccefs of his Mininftrie : This therefore fhcweth the dan- 
ger of an unfound Hfelefle Miniftrie, that often the fruits are exceeding few, where there are any at all. Hence 
thefe Scribes and Pharifees are » in Chriits account , as to fruit and to faving of fouls , Matth. 9. as almoft 
none at all, although he gave not people way at their own hand to call at them. And confidering ,that turning 
of men fi:om their evil way > and ftanding \n Gods counfel , Jer. 23. Ver/1 22. and v alking with God in eq- 
uity, and turtnngmany from their iniquity, Mal.i.lf erf* 6- go together. Icisno marvell thatthefe who 
are negligent in the one , be alfo It (Tw* blelfed with the other. 1 hele, we conceive, God hath wifely linked to- 
gether , that the more a man have of Him ,the more fruit his CommifTion in his mouth flibuld have. And al- 
though! this be not peremptory in allcafes, erpeciallyinthecomparativedegieeamongfthoneflmen} Yet, 
1. this connexion is more iuitable in it felf, Iperf. 12 that one who tenderly and lingly aimetbat fruit, 
fliould attain more than one who indeed intendeth but the feeding of himfelf. 2. The one hath a promifc 
and may claim it , iTiw. 4. i6. theother is judicially fmitten in this: for. as fruirs are in part fome reward 
of Grace to a faithful Minifter } lofniitleliielfe is ajuflflroakupontheother. 3. There is a connexion 
alfo in refped: of^ means ; tenderntflj in a Miniltet difpofeth to faithfulnetre , fympattiie, &c. and the want of 
it, unfitteth aMmifter to conceive experinnentally of many things i andfoheisindirpofed tofpeak them 
feafbnably : and it marreth that holy boldnefle > which immediate eyeing of God givcth ; and by it a Minifter 
is incapacitated to deal infecret with God for the people and is ap to lay itumbling-blocks before them; 
andfo, partly by wanting what heihouldhave, andpartly by being prone to foster their feairitie* or rifle 
their wounds untenderly , or ftumble them by his carriage, he, in thefe and many other refpedls , looketh ax 
one not fuited and fitted in an ordinary , at least a kindly , wayjforthc b^^ettiog of many : fo that what- 
ever in fome extraordinary cafes the Lord may do ; yet this is most ufeual : which should make people defire 
lively Ministers, and pray that they may be kept fo j and alfo should tnake Ministers confcionably lee to 
their own particular conditions , and that m reference to their Mmiftrie, leafl by their declining in their own 
Spiritual eftatc » and their negjedling thereof, they have no lefTe influence on the fruidelfenelle of their Mi- 
niflrie» than by the dired^ negle*5ting of proper minifterial duties. 

From this alfo wc may gather, inanluerto thelafl C^eftion, That no perfonall corruption in joynt 
worshippers doth pollute any of the Lords Ordinances to another j or, onthataccojnt , necefllrate af^- 
paration from them: for, if the corruption ot any had (ucfcinflueiice, then it were efpeclaliy the corroptl- 
9a of Miniftcrs i and if the corruption of Minitters did fo , tplen it were not to be t'hbui.bt that the Lord 

i6l An Expojitm of the Chap. J. 

wouldhave fuch ; even afcer their difcovery , tobcacknjwledg-^dftill tobeMinifters , which ye: here and 
and in the former inftances is clear. The Word anJ Sacraments admiiiiftred by fuch, ifrightly received and 
improven , are owned by Him as His Word and SacramentS; as well as when adminiltred by ihe moft Holy, 
as Jrom the confidering of the foimer^ioned infcanccs may appear. 

There areyettwo particular ciUefiions,which poflibly maybe defidcrated by rome,ro which weshall fpeak 
aword before we leave this Epiftle. The firli is , by what lymptoms aMiniirer may difccrn his own dwud- 
nefle while things feem to go well with him in plibllck ? or , what may give him occafion to fulpedt him- 
felf tobe under fuch a charge , as is given againfc this Angel here ? The I'econd is , Whit may be the means 
ot a Minifters preventing of fuch a condition , or, of recovering himfelf therefrom when fallen into it ? 

To the firft we fay , that even when things go well in publick befote others , a Minifters works may yec 
be liable to this charge of not being perfevft before God : and, we conceive , upon fcafch m iihin, and reflecti- 
on upon himfelf, may be difccrned by thefe or fuch like fymptoms, i. When there is a decay or lifelefncflTe 
in his own particular condition , that is >. whenthcreisnocxercifeof Repentance in himfelf as a Chriftian, 
nor freihnefle and tenderneffe in communion with God in feCrec prayer and other Chriftian duties : if in fuch 
a cafe he ihould preach as an Angel , yci cannot that be faid to be perfed: before God . 2. In fuch a fiame a 
Jdinifter ordinarly isnot kindly atfedked with thedifcharge of minifteiiall duties, nor with fympathy towards' 
the People J but he gojthlighdy under the burden of thefe, almoft indifferent whatcome ofthe fruit , if 
fairly and without any palpable difcovery of his infirmity fuch duties be put by. 5, Upon this it followeth * 
that if there be acceptation of the thing amongft the people , there is'but too much quiecneflc in the Miniftcr , 
without reflediing upon his own indilpofition and unfoundneffe , and without being taken up with the defirc 
©ffruitfulncffe among the people. This is fufpicious-like , when a Minifter fo acteth in minifteriall duties, 
asif tkere were no more called-for , than the throughing of what is publick before men. 4. Something of 
this may be gathered from the fcope and ftrain of!hisUottrine>thatis if their be any fecret aiming to commend 
iiimfelf by fuch Do5Vrine , or, if of its own nature it feem to tend more to that, than toedifie iand 
feed the fouls of Hearers. 5. If his own gift and prePent acceptation among the people be M'ellfatisfy- 
ing to him, fo as he be under little fear of fitting up , and ifhebeunfrequentandcoldinadreflestoGod 
for liveline ite and fuccefle: thefe and fuch Ukethmgs look not well. 6. Somevvhat may be perceived by 
Minifters inclination to converfe with unferious untender men though ibey be civil ; and to keep up general 
dilcourfes and queftions with them, ratherthantoconverfe with luch as are tender, and love to have their 
cxercifes and praQicall cafes for the matter of • their difcourfe: it cannot be well when it is lb. 7. It is not 
right M'ith a Mmifter , however it be in the exercifc of his gift , when he is not walking under the impre/Ti- 
onof finfijll defeifis , and unfinglcntfleand want of zeal as to his end and manner of carrying on the moft com- 
aiendable-likedutiesrforasitisnogood token a private Chriftian to be without the imjpre/Ticnofhisown 
corruptions and finfiiU infirmities; lo it cannot be right with a Minifter when his minifteriall defcifls are 
not fenfiblc to him : and when there is not an aituall exercile with the lelfishntffe > carnahiifle vanity , &c. 
that are in him , it'i too like thefe have too much fway with them. 

>Jow , tothefecond, to wit. What aMinifter ought to do in fuch a cjfefdf recovering of himfelf ? 
Anjw. The reading of this Epiftle ferioufly will indeed I'ati^ftethis : which wemay draw outin thefe diredi- 
ons, I . K'j neo, fTiiy thit a Minift :r oblerve his own condition, and take notice ofthe finful nefle and h iznrd 
ih.-reof: this is implied in the word remember , yerf.'i,. and indeed who cometh- to ponder andconfider 
1 ightly their own condition , are in a fair way of recoverie. 2. There will be a putting of every thing right 
ihatb:longethto aChriftiaa: oftentimes decaying in Chriftianity , biingethonthisdeadncfTein the Mnii- 
fter : and therefore there can be no better Hieanofrecoveriethanoncetoputthelb'jl in aright pofturein 
ihisrefped. 3. It will further this much, ihjt he begin with the ferioui exercife of Repentance of what 
is patt , andthat as to the defedts that cleave to him both as a Chriftian and as aMinifter: this makeihthe 
beginning of a recovery to be folid. Tlierefore it is commanded, ferf 3 . 4, There w ould be fpecial care had 
in the doing of minifteriall duties, that not only they be done , biK that they be done in a right manner : that 
fo every thing be done as in the fight of God , with an eye to this , that it may be' found perfed before him. 
Tnis is in the word beAvatchfuUy and implyed under this Angels chargeof not having his works perfefl be- 
fore God. y. There would be zeal and carefulncfTe iu the begetting and keeping ot life and li velineffe among 
the people, asin himfelf : and for thatcaufe,adoingpf every thing with refpec^tothatend. This was the An- 
gels fault in his deadneife , to wir, the negleding of tliis,and it is commanded to him, to ft: engthen what was 
ready to die, as a thing befitting his recovery. 1 his is in a condefcending way to feek to feed the people with 
what is profi'able, though thereby a Minifter should feem to fome tolofeofhis name and reputatbn. 
6. There is need in ail things to be denied , and to exercife faith in Him.that hath the feven Spirits of God , 


CIiap.-2. , 'Boof^ofthe'ReveUtm. ij"j 

and chefevenStajsalfo, without which thereis noattainingt )livelinefle: and for this end doth the Lord la 
.dcfcribe Himrc-H "n the Infcription of this Epiltlc Much dependence on Him.walking with Him, Handing 
in Hiscounfelj&c. and thatinthemcaneft.particulav fteps oFany minifteriallducie, as not daring to under- 
take any thing without Him , and fo an acicnoM'Iedging of Himin His grace* as to the fruit of every thing, 
xhis is a very -fountain of the life of a Minifter. 


Verr.7. ^niunto thi Angd-oftlK Church in VhVaddp'iiay write , Thefe thin^t faith he that it holy , hethat^ 
■mie, he that hath the key tfDa^Vidihe that openeth, and no man shtatith , and siwtteth , and no man openeth; 

8. I know thy works I Oeliold, J ha'pt\ct before thee an open door , and no man can sKut it ; for thou haji a litle 
frcngthy and ha[i kept my word, and haft not d nied my name. 

9. Beho'd, IwiUmakethemofthefynagogueofSatan^whit'yfaythe') arejewf,andarenotybtadolie)behg!d, 
1 willmakethem tocome and worship before thy feet, and to know that I halpe lol>cdthee. 

10. Becaufethtfu haft kept the word ofmj patience , lalfo will keep thee from ththour oftentatitm, 'h^hlchthaU 
•c«me upon ttUphewerldy to try themthatdwelluponthe earth. 

11. Behold , icome quickjyt holdthatfaft which thou haft , thatno man taks thy crown. 

12. Him that otercometb, wi'l I make a pillar in the temple of my God , and he shall go no more i>ut : and I 
ivill write uponhim the name ofmyGedyandthenatneofthecityefmyGod, which a the new ]efufalem , which 
•Cometh down out ofhcaTpenJTcm my God : and I will write upon him my new name. 

13. He that hath an ear, let (Am hear what the Spirit faith unto the Ckmches. 

THis fixth Epiftle, direded to PhiJadelplAa, hath the fam eDivifion with the reflate wit jthe Infcrip- 
tion , l^erf.y. the Body of the Epirtle, l?er/"8,9>i o, 1 1 .and the Gonclufion, \>erf.i 3. 
In the lofcriprion, the Lord , the direcler of this Epiltle , doth fet forth Himfeff in thele three , 
i.Hethat is holy, 2. He that is true : thefe are two cflential Attributes of the God-head , and shew 
that our Lord Jefus is God. Andhetak«th thefe ftiles to Himlel fin this place, that, i. He may shew unto this 
honeft Church , that their honcftie could not bat hz approven of Him, who was hclinelfe it felf. And 2. to 
ftrengthen their Faith in the exped:ation ot- the performance of His promifes , however they looked impro- 
bable-like , becauCc He who made them is true, and truth it felf. The third Title, is , He that hath the key of 
Valfid, he that openeth, and no man shuttethy andfhutteth,andnoman openeth : This refpeokethHisOrtice, 
andholdeth Him forth as the great Steward of the Houfe ofGod,whoisinirufted with themannagementof 
what concerneth the fame, and is in vefled with Power and Authority iutable th.-reunto.It alludeth to Ifa.22. 
20j2i, 22)C^c. 'vrhere the Lord, fpeaking of His.preferring £//4it<'« unto the government of Jer«/4/e/w and 
Judah, doth exprelfeit thus, 4«<i we i^y ^the houfe of DaVid will I lay upon his shoulder : So, He shall open, if 
none fhall shut, and He shaUthut, and none shali open. Nowthis, asattrib.itedhere toCh;ift, isnoctobe 
underftood principally of His effential and abfolute Dominion as God : for, that cannot b * called the key of 
the houfeofDrfVWj butit'stob^underftooJofHis MediatorieKingdomj wh:rtby He, as Mediator, is in- 
vefted with Power and Autliority for ordering the affairs of the h jule of God. And as it ftandeth in this Iferje^ 
it doth hold forth, i. that Chrift Jefus, as Mediator, hath a peculiar overl g'lt and Government of thcChwreh 
2. That in this Dominion of Ch rifts, is fulfilled the promife of perpetuating the power of the hojfcof D^ 
W : therefore ii*s-calledik icy ofthe houfe of DaVtd, which is committed to Him. 5. H^reis held forth the 
Soveraignity and abfolutenefleof Chrifts Dominion : therefore He shjuttetht and no man openeth j and openeth, 
andnoman shutteth: there is no marring of any of Hisorders : for, H,- having obt.uned this N.ime above eve- 
, ry NamebyGods exalting of Him thereunto, Philip.2.^. there can bi noimi-ginable competition with Him 
. in the exercife of this Power. 4. This being comp.ired with the former two titles . doth fhowthat He whois 
; intriift ^d with rhefupream Government of the Church, is God: He, is holy and true, and therefore cando no 
wrong to any, nor fail in the performance of what He promifeth: which is of great coiilbl; tion to HisPeopl .\ 
; This , laltly, is here mentioned»to encourageand ftrengthen this honell wean Angel and Church againlt the 
many difficulties v^'hich they had to wreltle with, as we will find in the Body of the Epiftle. 
4,... This Angel and Chutch, it's likehave been before others , farfromihat eftimationthar^^rt/jy was in : 
,for, they have but d //We ^rc«^t6> and many enemies j yet were they much more hone ft and commend iblc 
before God, and fruitfuli under the Ordinances they had; therefore the Lord indites a moft comfortaWc 
-Epiltle unto them. ; 

X 2 V 

j64 Anlxpoptmoftht cHap.j. 

]x\ the Body oFch; £piftle, we have thefe three things, i.Ttieir prefent condition , is in fcveral rcfpedts de- 
fcribed.. iTheircommendation is laid down. 3. So;Tie excellent encoar3g;;mencs and directions aregiven 
them for the time to come. Thefe three beini; interwoven, we muft open them as they lye. 

Bedde this general, i <^»»tv thy Vforks : which » iho-^gh common to all the reft of the Epiftles in fome re- 
(pedk > yet may b^ taken here as holding forth His particular approbation of this Ch jrchjbecau(e there is no- 
thing qtrarrelled in her. This will not indeed prove that (he was altomher free ; but thati bei ng honeft & 
free of grofle faults , the L ud doch not rigidly reckon with her. B;(idL*sthis, I fay , in the 8. >rr/this Chur- 
ches good condition is fet forth in thefe four, i . BeHold I ha'peftt hefoft thee an open door » and no man can shut 
IT', this is the fountain of all that is commendable in her, and from which it doth flow , to wit , Chrilts con- 
fcrrinjg fuch a mercy upOH her : and this is a main encouragement premitted for the ftrengthning of the ho- 
lieft, Angel 6f this Church. ForundcrftandingoFit, wemuftconfider, i. Whatismeantbyai)ofCf»</tf«r. 
i. WhatbyChriftslettingofitbefbretheAngelrfoasnomancanshutit. By an open door Afiuliy is under- 
ftood in the Scripture, the Lords making way for profitable preaching of the Gofpel , which llandeih not 
maihry in having accciTc and liberty, without any external reftraint , to preach the Gofpel j but efpecially it 
ftands in Gods giving; inward liberty to the Preacher , and in His countenancing of the Word , and making 
it effe<^uall and fuccelfefull upon the hearts of Hearers. This is called, Colof.^.^. ^ door of utterance ^whcn 
a JM inifter is not ftraitned in preaching the Gofpel, but, asitwere, the<looriscaftenopentohim. And, 
>a,C0r.2.i2. iVhen I came to Troas to preach Chr^s Gofpel , anda door ivof opened unto me of the Lord : which 
is fotne fpecial fignification of Gods lending him and removing of difficulties out of the M'ay, and making his 
Miniftery fuccclefull there, And, I Cor. 16.9. itis faid » aireat door andeffcSiuall itopenedumo me, and there 
are many adterfaries, So^that there may be an effe<5tuall door opened , even wh;re there is much oppolition. 
In fum , it imports thefe two or three , i. That there isa ftraitnednefle in Minifters who cannot bring forth 
.the Gofpel as it ought to be brought forth , and will when the Lord fendeih forth the Spirit and enlargeth a 
ttian with boldneffe to (peak thelame:in this refpe£l> a door of utterance is opened unto him.as in that place, 
Col.^.^.is (dear. 2 , That there is a further let befide this , to wit > when the ears and hearts of Hearers are fo 
locKetJt uj) that the Word hath no entrance , but is repelled. The Lord openeth this door, M'hen by the \vork 
ofHis Spirit upon hearts , as upon the heart o^Lydia* He doth make the Word to be received and admitted : 
in which rcfpe^, ( iTbeff'. 5.1) Paul defircth them to pray that the Word may have free courfe, that is , that 
there be no shijt doors to rnarr the prc^refle of the fame. Both thefe are underftood here, to wit, liberty 
(or the Minift^r to fpeak , and that with countenance and fucccfle among the People. We conceive alfo 
thz^thxs phr&(e o( an open door . doth take in a concurring of Gods providence, for the keeping of tlie Word 
miniftredj andPrdinanccs in f jch a place in both the refpeds that arc mentioned , notwithftahding of tl^e 
numepufnefle anij malicioufnefle of oppofers : and this agreeth well with that word, in this Iterfe, and no man 
shallsbutk. And this may be a third thing imported in this expreflion, though it be not of the lame kind with 
thefojrmertwo every way. 

. By'Chrifts fctring open of this door before the An»el, fo that none can shut it, is holdcn forth , l . Chrifts 

fapreamacie and ibveraignty in giving Gifts to men, liberty and inward freedom to improve them, and alfb 

aplefTing upon them in making o^thv;mfaccefefull. It is not Gifis, by which a man will be able to preach, 

if the Lord give not a door of utterance j yea, even the great Apoftle P4i//hathneed of thi«, Co/,4. 3. nor is 

it the having of utterance ihit will oht lin fruits among the people, if the Lord do not open an eftediual door, 

and give the Word free courfe among them. Hence it is, that fometimes where there is moft utterance 

_given, there may be lelfe f iccelfe than where there are fewer Gifts : becaufe he, whofe priviledge it is to fet 

.fip^n doors , doth open more fully the door of utterance to the one, and the effedtual door to th5 other, and 

.iptb not open bo:h equally to all. 2. Tliis importcth the nece/Tiiy ' and inevirablnefl'e of fuccefle ; whea 

Chrift thjs openeth the door, fuccefle cannot but follow : and no man , or devil can shot out Or impede the 

lame, when He pleaftth to countenance His Minifters,and to commend the Word to the hearts of hearers. 

, Now, it may appear M'hat the meaning of this part ofthe verfeis , .which relatcth efpecially to the Angel , 

to wit, I have called thee to this Miniftrie, and have given thee fome meafureo^" utterance! though thou haft 

iK)C m- ich ability, and efpecially, I have ordered matters fo as the Word from thee shall hkve free courfe and 

fucccfle. And, ragq \i'ho will, this fliill not be obftrucSled. By which alfo we may fee why the Lord took the 

Title to Himfclf, that doth immediatly go before this. 

The fecond thing in the verfe, is,yi»r thau haft a Utthftrength : by little ftrength here, is not to be underftood 
weaknefle in Grace ,• ( for, that is eminently commended) nor yet little countenance inthe dilchar^ ofMini- 
fterial duties, Bjt it looketh to his pares and abilities, which ; its like, were not many and great in compari- 
ton of what others had, that i«, it may be he was not able to (peak of 3 nor fearchinto fo many profound roy- 


Chap.;, look^oftbtXtyelat'toti. t&j; 

fteries, andfollowdoubtfulldifputations, asociiers were incapacity to do. This is not mentioned here as 
iany ground of opprobrie to him, nor yet as any ground of commendation , being confidered fimplieand in it 
felf; but it is mentioned for thele two rcafons» which being put together, will clear the Icope. i. Itisgiven 
as a ground of Chrifts opening the door b^foi e him, and as an evidence that what fuccefle he bad, was to be 
attributed to His countenancing of him.becaufethou thy felf haft butahttleftrength. And this Aeweth , 
that as oftentimes Chrift is moit tender to t^e weak Believers j Co alio to the weak Minifters, that are yet i^nt 
by Him, and honeft in the difchargeof their Commifllon. 2. It is mentioned here to heighten the co nmen- 
dation that foiloweth, to wit, that though thoa baft a little ftrength , yet th§u haji kfptmy i^ofd. It is the 
joyning of thele two together, that flieweth wherefore this is here taken notice of. 

The third and fourth expresfions, which moft exprefly hold forth the commendation , are, Twcw haji ksft 
my fVord . andhaji not denied my Name : by kfepini iftht IVtrd here-, is not only underltood the keeping • f 
puritie in Doilrine j b jt Specially thele two, i. A Keeping it in pra^ice , by being conform thereto in t h iir 
walk. 2- An avowed Preaching of the Truth by the Miniftcr , and bis adhering to and owning of the fame in 
his ftation> notwithftandingof all the reproaches which he met M'iih : for the fcope , relating efpecially to 
the Minifter,this keeping of the Word muft implie alibfomcthing peculiar to him, which is comnwnly ex- 
prefled in the Old Teftament by this Word ofkfeping the Lords charge. The laft word , thm hafi not denkd 
my Name , is to the fame purpofe j but doth import more than is aflerted » to wit, that notwithftan Jing ot t he 
many trials thou haft met with , yet thou not only haft not faintly denied my name j but haft openly and con- 
fidently avowed and confefled the fame. And thefe two , being compared with a little iirci^th which this 
Angel had, domake the evidences and commendation of his hondlie the more wonderful. In the p.and 10 
verles, the Lord giveth two fpecial encouragements unto them , having aUo fome teftimonie of their by-gone 
integrity included in them. It is like this honeft Church,hath been under a twofold perfecutioo.^as we have 
feen in fome of the former Epiftles ) i . From the corrupt and unbelieving Jevff , who, having Synagogycs 
in many place.vdid prove great perfecuters and reproachers of the Name of Chrift, and His Worshippers : 
This the Lord doth encourage them againft, inthe^.'perf. 2. From heathens: in reference to which, He com- 
forteth them, >er/io. 

The Conlolation, which is laid down, yerf.9. doth expreffi thefe three , i.^here is a defcriprion of thefe 
corrupt fews, they are faid to b^ ofthefynagogue of Satan, '^ho fay they are Jews andnre not, but do/h , th.<t 
is , they indeed call themfelves Jev^St and children o( Abraham, and Go is Coven inted p«©ple,C5c . b it they 
do lie , it is not fo, for now they bein^ broken ofFby their unbelief, are truely of the (ynago^^ue of Saian, and 
followers! of him, as we expounded ity cAj^. 2.>«r/" 9. 

2. There is the promile which the Lord maketn to this Church, Jvni make them to come and vconbip 
before thy feet , and to know thai Ihalftlifpedthee. In fum , it is this , thefe corrupt ]ev/s do now calumniace 
thee , as if thou wert not ot my Church nor beloved by mej but , faith he , by my inward Po«'er 1 will \o 
move and incline them , as they shall willingly come and worship b;fbre thy feet, and know indeed thu I 
have loved thee. 

Trte words of the promifemay hz two way es underftood , and we conceive tl»i both come vi'ell in here , 
I. They may bs underltood of fincereconverfi on j and fo the meaning is , I will convert many of th .teblai- 
phemers , and, as an evidence thereof, makethem come and worshipoefore thy feet, that is , really Worship 
God in th- Atfemblie with thee, like that word , Ifa. 60. 14. The fans alfo ofth;m that affliBcd t'oee , s':ail 
tome bending umo t'-^ee, and they that dejpife thee, shall bow t hemfel ves down at tbefoles of thy feet j andt'oey sba '/ 
tahhee > the city of the Lord, the hofy one ofljraet. And in this exprelTion, the Prophets Icope, is, to fcrttell 
the converfio.T of the Gemifci in the dayes of the Gofpel. The word in the firft language, is, J wilfgiye 
them , ^c. which doth exprefle more fignificantly both the nature of this work as to the Angel i ( it is a yery 
excellent and fin^ular gift to him to have blafphemers made converts^ a»d alio it sheweth the fruits ihereor, 
it being a Gift of Chrifts Grac^. This m'C conceive is to be taken as a paftot the meaning: Andisclear, 
1 .from the fcope, which is to (hew tb^fru't of Chrifts keeping the door open; before this Minifter for his en- 
couragement, to wk, His making the Word powerful for the captivating of gainlaye. s umo the obeJience 
ofChrift. 2. The word zMedy and they shall kn»^f hat I ha'peh'Ped thee, feemeih to import fomeihingofa 
kindly principle a(5ting them in this . 

Again, 2. The words may be underftoodas holding forth a fained fubmiffion of many unto thcOrdm-inces 
of Chrift i who from Chrifts clear owning of His Cb irch shall be made, being as it were aftonished, to 
acknowledge the fame, and to fay, doubtleJJeGodu amongftichapeof'eofatruth, as his, iCerimh.i^.2$. 
And this being a promife made to the Caurch , asapeice ofhertplendorandbappineflTe , tkai her enemies 
shall lie , of give fained obedience umo her , VeutAl.29. anda thing alfo that doth tend to the evi*lsn€in» of 

X 3 ikz 

ti6S M Expofitm »/ the Giap. 3. 

he Lords refpe(5l to His Church, we take icin under this promile likewifc. So the meaning wiii b.-, i will 
givefomeof chele Jcwjas real converts unto thee, and others of then shall be fo far convinced of MyVcfpcc^: 
to thee, as fliall make them counterificin their profeiTion , and give thc^ feme reverence alfo : for , if there 
were not fome converts, the promife would not be (b great as it is -, y^-t , it cannos: be expected that this rea- 
lity should be univerfal amongft thele corrupt ]ews. And according to the fornaer expolition , thele M-ords 
which follou' , and to kflow that I ha^e loted thee , are two way t s alfo to be underltood , to wit , either of 
fuch a Spiritual difcerningofth^ favingetfedtsofGodslovetofuch 3 people, which begetret ha charitable 
perfwarioii in them of the iinceritie of fuch an .1 fuch perfons i or , it is to h: underltood of ibtne coinmoa 
and general convift ion, flowing from fome ojt ward evidences of Gods favour , which often is m man/ 
hypocrites. . ' . 

The third thit^ in the verfe , is, the Lords making this promife (o obfervable t both by doubling aqd re- 
peating the fame j and alfo by prefixing a bchgld at every time thereunto : which shevyeth , i . That tne thing 
IS molt rare which is here promifed, 10 wit, to have blafphemcrs made converts. 2. That u is a molt excel- 
lent favour to a Minilter or Church when fuch amercy is bcftowtrd. And, g.that although it bedifficult-jikci 
yet inthiscafe itislure, feing for the confirmation of the Faith ofthisChurch the Lo.d hath repeated 
the fame. - - ■ , -. • ; 

The encouragement in reference to the other perfecutibn followeth, yerf. 10. VVhereiui i.there is a com- 
mon trial foretold. 2. There is a promiCe made to thsra in reference to the lame. And, 3. iome ground, as it 
were a reafonofthis promife, is premitted,Verf. 10. ; . . . 

The trial which is foretold > is feveral wayes fee forth, i . It is called a tentation. It is ufual in Scripture 
tx3 llile afflidion by the name oftentatiottt as Jaw. i. 2. Count it alljoy v»henyefaUin differs centations j and 
fo airo,l?«r/.I I. The reafon is, becaufe fuch aHlidions want never many circumttanceswairing upon them » 
wl>ich do indeed make themto be tentations ; and fo either men are tried by them, or, throjgh thejr own 
corruption, fnared upon fuch occafions. 2. It is an Atfw of tentation : to fignine both thed-finitnifleand 
shorcntfle thereof : which doth, carrie an encouragemeru in theixjfome of It. 3. It is a trial Vi>bich shalUome 
Upon allthe v/orld: By ivorW here, is noc to be underftood the Heathen world > ascontradiltuicl from the 
Church: for, that world is not tlic object of fuch trials > but is inftrumentall therein ; i t is ih;n the Church 
fpread up and down throughout the world, they shall be tried. And ufually it was lb, when perfecution was 
moved by the Heathen Emperours , it fpread through all the corners of^the world , where any part of the 
Church was. 4. The end thereof, is, to try themthat dwellapon the earth , thit is , " he Suincs -.hat live upon 
the earth : and fo earfh here , is not contradiftinguishedfiom theChjrch iimplic; b ic thereby the Church 
militant is contradifti'nguished from the Church-triumphant. For, the priviledge of PhihdclphU is not, that 
she shall be kept from ills that are common to the men of the worldj but this ^ that when the Churcli should 
be under perfecUtion generally , the Lord should fscretly and tenderly preferve her from the w^-ight oftbac 
trial, that o:hers were to meet with ; which is the fecoad thing to be coniidered in the verfe. " 

The promife, in reference to this trial, which is made to Philadelphia» is in thele words ./ willaljif kpep thee 
from the homoftematlony (Sc. It may two waycs be under'! ood , i. As being a promife to keep h^r from any 
prejudice by tliat trial, though she might meet vi-ith thejame : thij isindeed truth ,• but cannot be laid to be a 
peculiar priviledge to Philadelphia : for, all the Lo.ds people might plead and expert tb it, and yet fome per 
cdiar thing feemcth to be holden out as to Philadelphia in this promife. Therefore, 2. we underftandit tljus, 
when Others shall be under perfecution , thou shalt either hi altogether free from that particular tnal , which 
is to come j or , at leaft in a great meafure shall be kept from the extremities that others thereby shall be put 
unto. Andinthisrefpe£t, the promife bearethfomthing peculiar to X'^i/arffZ/r/w^; and therefore cannot be 
made ufc of by others as a ground to exped freedom from Cemporall erodes, except there be the like war- 
rand to apply the fame. 

The lalt thing in the verfe, ( though it be firftin order ) is the ground to^which the Lord doth knit this 

: great > 

focallcd the Kingdom and Patienceof J.f JsClirill , chap.iyerf.9. Their i«/>m^ of this word of Hispati- 
encc, doth import their owning of, and adhering to, this Gofpelwith much patience under many erodes atid 
much perfecution; 8c fo this connexion doth not imply any merit in them procuring this peculiar priviledgc'i 
bjtdoth expreffe Chriftstendernefire,and, to fay ib, Hiscondcfcendir^ cquitieinHisproceeding,who,f"eing 
thisChurch had a little rtrengihj.indyt liad born out more ftedfaftly and patiently under many tormer trials, 
than others who might be of grcat>?r abiliti;.-s, therefore, QUI of h^s tcnderncfll^, lie now promiftth to keSJC 
theta free in a peculiar maupcrfio.n a coming ftorm. T^*- 

Chap. 5. XeokoftheRevelatioit, 157 

The lait thing in the Body of the Epiftlcis the advertiicmcnt, y>erfAl . which hath thefe three* i. An al- 
fertioo of Chrifts coming, and that quickly , Behold 1 come quickjj : which sheweth ,, tiiar though he fcem now 
to:be?.br;T,t, and to delay Hiscomingj yet it will be found oiherwife. It is laid iobc.quickjj, i.BLcaufeitis not 
lon^; ill coniparilbn with Eternity. 2. B:caufe it will be Hidden tocnemies. 3.11 v li i^c leafonable to friend.-. 
It \vill noti>e one hour behind the due time: and .therefore may be laid to be q uickly . 4. He is for the prel'cnc 
hafting,and,to fay fo, making di Ipatch of what is to precede His coming j and lb may be laul 10 be coming 
qiiicxkly. This is here mentioned as a ground of encouragement lOthe Angel to continue ftedfaft upon the 
one lide> and as a watchword to icare them from declining on the other , leing Chrift was to come to. judge- 
ment,and thatshortly. Thelccond word,is,adiKi^k)nih0ldthat f aft which thou hafi: whichisinfuav, ye 
are in a good condition now, be diligent to.retain the lame,as ihe like exprelfion was expounded jC^^/?.2. 25. 
The third thing, is, a warning added to this direction, bold faft> Sec. that no man take thy CroVi/n: x\\ lum. it is 
thi^, thou art nowina royall condition, thy honelty is thy Grown before Ale and others , and ith^ath a pro- ' 
mife of a Crown alter this : therefore be diligent and ftedfaft , left by your declining ye be prejudged of ) ojr 
Crown. J t alludeth to running amongft men, where they that (it up in the v\'ay, though having for a time 
ran well, yet obtain not the Crown, b^caufefome other outftrips them, &: obtaineth the fame; here the fcope 
onlj'jis, tolhiWthaithcfe.whofitUD in the practice ot Chriftianity.fliallaslurelybedeprivedoftheCrown 
of Glovy } and it is here added, to Ihew how the Lord adckth fpurs to Hisnioft faithfuU feryants for pre- 
venting of their falling. 

Thefirft partofthe CoiKlufion* ( for weshall fay nothing of the fecondj is, Yerf.jz. comprehendii^ five 
priviledgestotheovercomer. Thefirftis yl will make him a pillar intheTemple of mj God: by theTe//ipk of 
my God, muft be hereunderftood Heaven, and fo, to be made a pillar , is to be hxed there in Heaven , as a 
Trophee of the V i^Sorie ofjefus Chrift , and as fingularly and eminently fitted for, furnished with, & fixed 
in the glory that is there. For , 1. The proporties that follow, will shew that this can only be underftood of 
Heaven. 2. Thusalio itcan only agree with allthe other proinifesthatare made to theovercomer, which 
principally relate to Heaven. 3. There is no othei thing that can be expeded by every cvercomer but 

The fecond thing, is, he shailgo no more out : the accede that Believers have to Gods company and Temple 
here hath interruptions j and the Believer is again loon down from any mount M'here Chrift may be t: anifi- 
gured before him : b jt ( faith the Lord ) when I Ihall make him a pillar in the temple of my God , and Untie 
him in Heaven, there shall no more be any interruption of communion,eiiher by Gods hiding of Himfeif up- 
on the one fide, or from the B.-lievers whoreiiig from Him upon the other ,• but he shall be by the poweifull 
grace of God eftabliflied there , and ihall go no more our. A nd this is added as a fpecial confolation to the 
Believer that is wearieof hisowngading and whoreing from God j that there is a time coming when that 
Ihall be broken off, and he shall ^» w wore ottf. 

The third ftep, is, and rwiU v/rite upon him the name of my God : pillars that were created as monuments 
of honour J were honourable according to the name or inlcription that was written upon them: Now, there 
can be none more honourable than to have the Name of God written upon them, and to be devoted toHim. 
We conceive alfo, it implietb a sharing and partaking of the glory of God in fome meafjre,as a po jr creat«:e 
is able to partake of the fame. 

The fourth thing, is, andthenametftbecityofmyGedf whicliisNewJeiufaUm, Vi/hkhiometh down out: 
ofheatenfrom my God. We mnft underftand, i. What is meaned by this Kew ]erufalem , before it can be 
underftood what it is to bear iisNaae. Bj ihe Kew Jerufakm arid city of my God , we underftand one of" 
two, cither, i. Heaven, which is the fear of the Church triumphant , called here the Kew ' erufalem, be- 
caufe ir lo far dorh s-xceed the fplendor and beaurie of the Church, or jcrulalem , here upon earth : and it is 
iaidio come down from HeaycfJi becaufc by the preaching oftheGoipel the Kingdom ot God is brought ~ 
near , even to the door. Or, 2. the congregation of the firlt-born that are already pei fedted in Heaven , called 
tite Kewjerujalem, bjcaufe though they beof that fame Church of Chrift , yet are they in refpedl of th.ir 
glorious qualifications and perfedtions , asit were, a new Church. And thus it is faid locome down from 
Heaten , not fo aiuch to fignifie any locall mutation , as to lliew where it is for the time .* and that their 
original! , as fuch, is from God. Both tbefe turn to one, and Ihcw that by this promife is underftood , th.ic 
the overcomer fhall be admitted as a free B jrgeife and Citizen to glory amongtt the reft of the Congrega- 
tion of the firft-born. And thus to have the name thereof written upon the overcomer , is to have Him , 
as it were, declared a free Burgefie and Citizen of that glorious Incorporation. That ic is th is to be un-, 
derftood of Heaven , andnot ofany ftate of the Church upon earth, the reafons before mentioned do 
«vinc€. Befide, it is a promife that is to be performed to every overcomer , and that after liis full V id:o: y 

hcr€ - 

E«S J^ Expojitmtft^s Ciiap: 

here , arid fo confajuenily after his death : and therefore can be unelcrftood of no other thing but he ven 

The latt thing, is, an^l v>iB v^ritc upnt himmr ncwmmu : the M.-diators neiv name, is , the exaltation' 
wh ich He had received after His RelurreCtioti and corapicat Victory , as is clear, Philip. z.^. The xvunint 
of this upon the oterc^mer , is , the making of Him a joync sharer ot that His Glory ; and 16 to fit upon oiie 
T.^ronc with: Himlelf , andeac and drink at one Table with Hun, and to behold Hia GJory,as Himlelt doth 
pray, feh. 17.22,23. 24. thedue and proportionable difference being alwayes kepc betwixt the head and mem- 
bers. Now. put thele togetberi and to the ovcrcomer (hill be glorious in himfelf ; For, (b, 1 . He shall be 
a pillar. 2 He shall partakeof the glory of God , and have His Noine upoahim. 3. He Ihall parukeof 
the glory of Heaven and the Saints that are there already. 4. He fliall partake of the Mediator* Ulor and 
bear His new Name : and what more can bi imagined ? Tiius the Lord shall be admired in all that btlieve 
irAe/.i.io.inthatday whcnev«ry Believer shall be as a fropheeere^^ed to the glory of the grace of God' 
and for a memoriall of the tove that our bleffed Lord Jefus bad unto, aud of the Victory He obtained for e- 
letSt finners by His redeeming of ihena. 

Ic refts now that weobferve fometbings funher from this Epiftlebefide what is already hinted : whereia 
it is not our purpofe to tn(ift. 

Obferre, 1 . There is difference betuixt gifts requisite to the being of a Minifter, and fiKceffe by thee:rer- 
cife of theie in the Miniftery. There is here a httk^rength, that rclpeCtah the fitfi^and au open do#f,wluck 
refpedteth the fecond ; and thcfc two are diftingmshed one from another. And thus we will find ihroiifih** 
oat Pduls Epiftles, that difference is nwde betwixt his liberty to preach Lpoa the one fide , and Gods o^- 
ing an effa^tuall door to him upon the other. 2. We fee that Chrilt is the giver of boih , to wir, or gitts to 
Minifters, and offjcceffc among the Peoplt\, 3. We lee that he diitributeth not to ail alike i but an open 
door is let before fome , more than before others, and wb^n not at all before others , as by comparing this and 
other Epiftles together is clear. 

It may be asked here, i . What way a Minifter may know if an eflfeduall door beopened to him amoi^ft 
the People, feing Paul fometimes aflerteth the faipe ? 2. How a Minilter, haying luch an opportuni^ , 
ought to carry in the improving thereof » 

To the firft v*'e (ay , that this cannot be dilcerned alanerly from a mans gift ; for , it may be shut M'hcrc 
great gifts are , as vi'C will fee hereafter. Befide, it is like I'aui had not al way this door open to him, at leaft 
It was more in one place than another. Nor is it meerly to be gathered from a mans freedom from externall 
crofle s in a place, nor yet from the great following he may have : for , there may be many adverfarici where 
this effcCtuall door is opened, i Cor. 16. 4. and there may be no luch thing, where there is great peace arid 
applaule. Yet, weconceive by thefe and fuch like charadters, this may be fome what difccrnablc, i.When 
a Minilter eetteth thedoor of utterance upon the one tide opened to him, and there is an opening of cars a- 
niong the People lo welcom the fame upon the other : which is not to be underltood of carnal itching after', 
or being tickled with a gift : butoflove to edification, and fimplicity and diligence amongft them : which 
flie weih that fuch a man and his gift is commended to them } and fo that they are in the greater capacity to 
get good of him. 2. Where this is» it hath reall changes following, andmuch folid work ; for , by it people 
are not made light, andnotionall; but are nude humble, ferious, tender, fruitful,Scc. 3. Where fuch a door 
is opened, the devil often ragetb, and fetteth himfelf to oppofe, traduce, or fome way to blaft the Miniftery of 
fuch a pcrlbn more than of many others. This poor A-igcl hath much affliction , whe n thz Minifters in Sat' 
dit and L4odicea are free. And fo when an effeCTuall door is opencdto Paul at Ephefus , this is added , that 
there are many advcrfarics , i Cor. 16. Yet, even under fuch attiiiitions there are many tryfts of providence 
to be marked in t!ic Lords way • for countenancing that Minillrie, and many evidences of refpeft to the fame 
from fuch as are tender. 4. It is a good token of an open door , when lome way ob'ervabl y the Lord de- 
fcateth the devil and profanity in a place, and is making him falllike lightning from heaven by the Preaching 
of the Word. 5. Tfie experimental proof that is molt lure , is an adlual gaining of ground upon the kingdom 
of the devil , and a bringing off of prilbners unto Jelus Chrift: which is the proof given here, wliere God pro 
mifeth new converts ; and is ever 1 uppofcd by Paaij when he mentioneth this door. 

No w to the fecond, to wit, how a Minifter ought to ufe fuch an opportunity ? Wefav, l. it istobe^^1- 
p• oven will all diligence in his duty , as a man that is to reap corn that is already ripe. 2. It is to be made ufe 
of with all humilitic andfeif-denial , left by being tik ltd therewith be prejudge the M;Uter of His Giory,and 
fo procure ftraitning to himfelf. 3. It would be M'ith much fear and watchfulnefle : with /tf^fj left he him- 
felf mifcarrie ; or any foul mifcarrie in the birth jbecaufe of his utiskiltulnefle : with watchfatncffiM^ the devil 
fivv tares u hile he is (Itcping ; and the conception prove falfe without realitie as to many hearers. This is 
Paids word, 1 ^rintb .2.3. I was among ji you in muib weskfr^i , and in much fegr and tnmbiing » which 


Chap^). Bookjf the HgpeUtM, i6^ 

ihevvcth ihe kindly impreflion which he had, both of his own and the peoples infirmities. 4. It xrould be 
improven :^calcu/ly , that is, To as the Authority of Chrift may appear upon his Ordinances both to adveifarics 
and friends. 5. /t would bcmade uTeof (to(aylb^/#/r(i/7,l>y makingthe foundation fure, bypropofihg 
folid;; food to Ibuls , as the fubftantial GofpeUtriiths , and the uncontrovefted duties offaolineffe: for , there 
is liazard too foon to bring fuch a people to the new wine of the moft fublinie things in Doi5trinc , or ths moft 
extraordinary pradlices of grown Chriftians; and it is better that they be fed upon milk, and**'hatis 
healthfuU and nourilhing , than that to pleafe theit appetites , they be diverted with uldefle Quefli- 
ons. 6. There would be much dependance upon God in fuch a cafe: lor He is the Mailer, and hath ap- 
pointed a great Steward over the houic who hath the keys laid upon His flioulder: and tke Mtnitter in fu^ 
a cafe , would know that he hath no Tack or Leafc of fuch a condition , but is at the Matters plcafure : and 
therefo c he would be acknowledged in every ftcp of the Work as it is done , or in doin^. Lattly , The^reat 
Aot of all Preaching M'ould be driven conftantly , both in publiek and priv«e , to wit * the edificaion and 
falvationof thepix>ple , and the forming ofChriit in them by travelling, asit wefe» in birth for that oflFec^. 
&bf. 4. 5^ometimes there may be greater fucceflfe unto mean Gifts , by Cnrilts countenancing the fame , than 
where Gifts are in themfclves more eminent and fhining : the reafon is, becaufe , tor the attaining of fiiccefle* 
i t is not only neceffary to have the exercife oi a Gift j but alfo to have a door opened to them by Chrift : and 
thefe two are fometimes Icparated , as was formerly faid. And by fo doing , the Lord would teach Miniftcrs, 
to know their own infufliciency for any fuch thing ; and alfo neccffiiate fcwih Minifters and Peopfc io tiie ac- 
knowledgment of Him. There is a notable inftance of the Power of mean Gifts beyond greater abilities in 
the Hiftorie of the Councel of Nicf r wherin a fubcile Philolophcr who had long keeped the Aflembly jangl- 
ing with difputes, at laft by a man of^ fmall pans f in refpei^ ofothers who had been di fputing) was convinced 
hy the fimple propounding of the Truth of the Gofpel, which he clofed thus , this « the Truth of Godt PhiUfop- 
her, belU'Pethtkw this ? W ho anfwered , he did. Then (aid the honeft confeflor ( for fo is he (tilled by the Au- 
thor ) If ib , then follow me , and be baptized : unto which the Philofopher yeelded, as if he had never leariv. 
cd to gain-fay 3 exprelfing thefe words to the hearers, andefpeciallyto fomeotherPhilolbphers thatwete 
with him , ft long at 1 wm dea^t with by vtwds » 1 did repeU words with words , but when power proceeded with 
%mds out of the ntouth of him that fpoks * I w^ not able , faid he , to reffithat ; and thereupon mftantly went 
out to be baptized. At firlt all the LXxitors were affrighted that the Truth fhould have fuffered j and there- 
fore hardly gave way to him to (peak j yet did that fimplicity prevail by Gods bleffing to the convi(flion and 
converfion of the Philofopher , when all thefe Scholaft ick debates did not. This is recorded by l^uffnuf in 
the third Chapter of his book , which is the firft added by him to Eufcbim his Ecclcliaftick Hiitorie. Obf f. 
That fome men of mean and fmall Gifts or Parts , and who are not able to do much by writing or disputing 
againftfubtileadverfariess do yet often prove more ftedfaft adherers to Truth in times ot perfecution , than 
others who in the former relpeils have gone far beyond them > and have been of greater d^eem as friends to 
Truth, both with themfelves and others. This Angels ftrength was not much; but his ftedfaftnelfe and pati- 
ence under affliction was great. Worthy Perkins, on the place giveth a memorable inftance of this in the time 
of the perfecution under i!^een Mark o£ England, to wit, that there was an honeft man of mean Parts, and no 
great efteem near to Cambridge, who did feai the Truth with his blood, when all the great Schollers and Do- 
ctors of that Univerfitie did miferably and Ihameflilly make defedion from the fame. Obf. 6.Thai oftentimes 
an honeft Minifter with mean Gifts, hath more countenance and lucctfl^in his Miniftrie than where greater 
Gifts M'ithout honefty are , as by comparing this Angel with the Angols of Sardis and Laodiaea in this fame 
Chapter is dear. For ( to fay no more ) he hath this advantage , that his works may be found perfeB before 
Go<i J wherein the others cannot but be defecftive. oH?- That a little meafureofGifts, being honeltly and 
faithfully improven , have their commendation from Jelus Chrift , as if they were of the h gheft meafure and 
degree: becaufe it is not Gifts that commendeth a Minifrer to Chrift , but faithfulnefle in improving the 
meafure which he hath : and fo if two talents be faithfully improven , it will be faid, well done to that fervant, 
and he M'ill be called yjii^it/«/ , even as well as he, who had five, oreven ten talents, beftowed upon him. 
And if this M'ere Well confidered, Minifiers might belefle anxious for the meafure of thdr Gifts, and 
more provoked tobe ferious and faithful in their Improving of the fame. Obf. 8. That it is afpecial mercy, 
even to be keeped from the common trials that others meet with : there is much mercyin Gods peoples 
being keeped free fi-omills, that other wayes they might be over-maftered with ; and it is not by chance ' 
or fortune, that the lot ofone Church or Perfonisroorceafiethanthelotofotticrs; but this comethfroiu 
the Lords over-ruling Providence > keeping them from that hour of tentation , which in His wifdom is or- 
dered for othersj who istherefore humbly and thankfully to be acknowledged in the feme. <>bf.Q. Thail 
ftedfafineire in honeftie and faithful adherence loChrili and his Truth, do ncvcrof themfelve* iDv^4vc5|t 

170 Aff Expofitm of the Chap. j. 

people in trials ani affliilions; bit , in Gods goo J providence, do ofcenpievent the fame: thcrerorcthis 
honcft and Zialojs C!iurch,is kept from a con:iiag ftonn, which \v3.i to try ail thj world befide. Obf. lo.That 
it is not impofliblc to Goi to make op.-n blalphemers real converts, and that fometimes He hath aduaily done 
and doth the fame. Obf. 1 1. That when he doth this , it is one of the rareft Gifts that can b.- b3fto\.\'ed up- 
on a Church, andoneofthegreareftconftrmaiionsthitanhoneft Minilter can meet with in his Minift.iej 
arid, in the ufual difpenfation of Gods PiOvidence , doth attend aMiniftershonelt , zealous and faithful 
difcharge of his duty in fimplicitie. Therefore both Minifters and People would not only be animated and 
encouraged to pray for the fame ; bat alio to love and follow honeft ftmplicitic and faiihfulncfll' , as the moft 
futable and probable Vk^ay for attaining the fame. Obf. I2. That as ufually true converfion toGod and linccre 
love to the Saints go together, fo alio isit found in experience that the more bicterneflfe hath been agaii.ft 
the Ordinances, Saints or Servants of our Lord Jefus , There will be, if converfion be true , the more full and 
imnifeft teitimonies of refpedt fhewed to them , even often beyond what are (hewed from thele that have 
iseen formerly fincere. Obf. 13, That profane men before their converfion, do nor look upon honeft fimple 
ahd Godly followers of God , as lo beloved of Him as indeed they are. Obf 14. It is a good token when 
men arc brought in (inceritie , to acknowledge, that it is neither the great men , nor the wife and learned men 
©f the world that are beloved of Godj but only the Godly, and all fuch, whatever their place or parts be . Obf. 
15, The rightimpreflionofGodlinell'ein aPerfonor Church is not to conceive fuch and fuch to be more 
deferying^ than others i but to be more b.^loved of God : whichis the great fountain ofall the reit. 

Concerning MmJIenall qualifications. 

IF we will compare the Angels of thefe three Churches in this Chapter together , we will find great diff- 
erence : thefe oiSardu and Laodicea , it is like , had many gifts , which made the firft get "a name from 
others > and the laft to efteem of himlelf i yet hath none of them a great commendation for grace but the 
conv:3TyyHeofSarduh3dinime,buzv/ai dead, and his works Cwhat ever they appeared to men ) were 
not perfect before God: what he o^Laodtcea was, that Epiftle alfo will clear. And for fruit, the Angel oiSat' 
dis hith\mk,b[ii a few names y and it is like he of Lafldjccahadlelfeornoneatall. The Angel of P/w/rfrf^/- 
fhia again, is in all thefe three contrary : he hath few parts , but a little frength ; yet liath a good teftimony of 
nonefty aad fuccefle. Whence may we not only gather, 1 . That there are different nieafures of gilts amongft 
Minifters. And, 2. That (omc arc more honcit than others And, g. That that the moft honeft have often 
the meaneft gifts in appearance ; and \A'ho have greateft gifts, c fcen are lealt confcionable in the improving of 
ihem. And, 4. That a fincere honeft Minifter may have very mean gifts , either confidercd in themlVlves . or 
as being compared \x'ith others ; and yet may be more faithful! in improving of rhem , be more accepted of by 
lefus Chrift with his fmall meafure , and have moe fruits and greater fucceflfe, than others of more shinii-^ 
gifts without tendern^fle in their walk : But we may alio have occafion to cnquire,what qualifications are re- 
quifitc in a Minifter of the G6:pel ? and particularly, if Learning be any way ufefuU to a Minifter ? or, if it be 
not rather hurtfull » fejr^ weak Pbi'adelpkiz isfo commended , when ethers are reproved? or, if grace ought 
to be reckoned amongft minifterial q' lalitications 9 There are here estrems , fome giving too much to Learn- 
ing , and to little to Grace , and others doing the contrary. Thefe are not then to be looked on as inconfiftenti 
but as agreeing well together for, it is not the Angel of Sard's his reproof, that he had a name or gifsj but that 
he was unanfwerable to them : nor is it P/nladelpbia's commendation , that he had a little ftrength ; but that 
he improved well that lictle which he had : otherwife , one talent may be hid and abufed as well as five. To 
fpeak a word therefore to the thing we conceive thet thiefe three areneceflary for the compleat qualifying of 
a Minifter, or , ofoneofthe Miniftcry , to wit, i. Gifts. 2. Learning. 3. Grace. The fecond helpeth to 
mannage the firft;. the ihirdfandifiethboth: and maketh them lavell at the right end and mark. Yet take 
thefe advertifements , i. Thac th. re are degrees in all thefe, and that we intend not to ftint to any rigid 
meafure or degree in any of them. 2. That although they be necefiary ; yet not equally, nor after the fame 
jnanrter , the hrft two being ncceffary to the ejfe , or being of minifteriall qualifications j the laft belonging to 
the bene ejje , or to the well and integrall being thereof, as will afterward appear. 

Byxi/w, we underftand a fitneffe given ofGod, whereby one is capacitated for fuch a CalKngand although 
by improving, ic may en«reaf e j )'et we conceive that it is in it felf no acquired thing fimply , but is like a 
5tock or a Talent that is given to Trade with in fuch a'Sration : and therefore by no pains , skill, or art , can 
be attained , wbere it is notgiven. Hince it is pecijiarly called a gift :and ofCirifts givins Bfhefj^. 1 2. 
iCvf. 11. and 14. 1 T/»i. 4. 1 4. and 2 Tiw. 16- The Apoltle comprehendeth it in that word «A;er<txT<xo<,apc 
loTeacb , 1 Tim. 3. And we may , take it up in thefe three , i. A capacity to -dircerne and conceive of the 
•••••■ . .' . , * things 

Chap.3» Boekofthe ReveUt'm, iji 

things of ood with (bmediftinflnefle; ifthisbsnot, therecanbe no progreffe to any other ftep ; and this 
vcizybzc^Wcdi the gift of l^novtUdge (. as there is a word ofknowledge which doihfuppole this gift* i Cor. 12,) 
whereby one is ibie to cake up the truths of the-Gofpel, which every one is not : this is prayed for to Timo' 
(by, 2 Tim Z.J- not as to a Chrifiian limply , but as to a Mm iter. 2. It takeih in a titnelic ro exprelfe and 
bring to th, for the edification of otheri, what they have conceived thcmlelves ; called by the Apoltle u'te- 
ranc&i Ctf/-4 3 ,4- and hethat hath it, S7J^ak}ik'o( . And it may becalled the ^vord ofwifdom or knowledge , 
w h.-rcby on is ficted profitably to I'peak to others : without which , no knowledge is lutficient. 3. There is 
alfo coaipreheiided in this ^itt , an energie, or efficacie , which bringeth out things in another manner , and 
with another ttamp than the Rhetorick and eloquence of men can do. Hence the J^rti and P#wcf in ik; 
Preaching oftheGofpcl arediftinguished, i«ConmA4.t9. 1 will knuw > nonhsir word, buttheir/^ffu-cf » 
( what the two great Divines Cul'Pin, and Martjr lay on the place, is excellent to this purpole ) and this, we 
conceive* is the main differencing thing of a mimlteriail gift * the former two being coinmon to men of all 
profeiFions in fome refpe(5t, but this is nor. Hence many m -• n may have much knowledge , and be able by 
great eloquence to exprefic it , and yet be far from th.it power and life which a native minifterial gift hath 
with it , as the corrupt Teachers ztConnth, who aboundedin humane eloquence, M'ere : which (as holy and 
learned Mr. Boyd oiTrochrege faith ) is to be tried, not ex dono , or, by the gift only i but , ex doni effieaUa , 
or , by the efpcacy of that gift m the impreifion of it upon conlcienccs. And , although this may be belt known 
to .1 1 piritual ear, which can try and difcern gifts , as the palac meats » y i t is the ining clear in Scripture ,• 
and often ( as it is more and lelfe) will be acknowledged by natural H carers : fuch as not a few of Chrifts * 
and John th^ Biptift's Hearers were , who yet notwithftanding di covered this power and efficacy in theif 
preaching, which they did not in the .^reaching of the Scnbj and Pharifees , Mat.j.i^. that is , when a prea- 
ching for matter & manner of expreffingexquifite, yet will lefle affe^, and have lelfe weight, than fome few 
words fpoken thus in fimplicitie by another. This efficacie confifteth not in natural fervour and outcrying : 
there may be much ofthat, andUttleof this, and contrarily : nor conliiteth itinanymeerexercifeofart, m 
difpofing ofthe matter fpoken, or chooiin^^ of taking exprelTions. Thefe things, itis true 1 when not afie- 
dled, may have their own ufe j b jt otherwayes (uch alFedtaiion of words , may well draw men to admire the 
carrier, or love their gift i but doth not engage to efteem of Him that (endeth , and chiefly tocommend the 
matter that is^oken, to ih -confciencei which is the native rule by which a true gift is difcerned & fquared. 
And we may confider it mainly in thele, i. In its fimpU plainnelle, or plain fimplicitie ; whereby the Truths 
of God are propofed like themlel vcs, having nothing mixed in to divert ihe hearer fro;n them; but ihey made 
as naked as can b^ tothem, for their underilinding of them : this fimplicitie is often fpoken of by Paul, and 
is oppoled to humane eloquence, as in the EpiftlesCotheCorirtr6iii»/w. 2. It confift.-th in eWewce Sc demon- 
ftration, a gift whereby one is fitted convincingly to propofc or prelie luch a thing , not fo much d0k5trinally 
in drawing conclufions from premifles, as by leaving the imprellion of fuch a thing upon the confcience, that 
itisbound withic : zhisiscAkdnhielfid.nceanddemonJirationof the Spirit and Power, 1 Coutuh.2.4. SThete 
is a powtfr and efficacie which accompanieth this, astoitsetfeds : this makcth thrcatnings loweighty, 
that PW will make Pe/ix to tremble j anditmaketh promifes Iweet and perfwahve, lb that ^?«pp<» 
will almoft be perfwaded to be a Chriftian : this will make even the idiot or Itranger ( i Corinth. 14. ; to 
(ay , Doubt leffe God K there. And chat is more than an ordinary difcojife, evenor fuchafubje'it, thus to 
commend the Word andourfelves to mens conlciences InthefightofGjd ; wh^nby hisasfiftance. He 
niaketh the Gofpel to triu;nph in every place, and to be a fweet favojr to Him in all, 2 Corimh.z. 14. 4.This 
minifterial gift taketh in a feafonable way of fpeaking as to the time, occafion , hearers , ^£. Thus it is a 
gift of right dividing theVV^rd ofTruth, zTim.Li^- foasneicher toftrengthen thevvicked, nor to 
taint and make fad the righteous,, but tolay batterie at the proud imaginations of naturall men, for 
taking in of thjie ftrong holds , andtopoureoyl in the wounds ofexerciled finnere, and that fo, as the 
one, may not by the Preachers fault , partake oftheallowanfle-, or be wounded with theftroak that is 
defigned for the other : this is indeed true learning, to ba able to condefcend and make plain a word in feafon 
tothewearie,I/^.50 4and fichaone, is a work-man that needcth not to be afhamed. 5. There is in this 
gifr a Tstf f'na-ict, or holy 6o/rf».^und freedom, whereby in an Authoritative way the Lords Word isfpoken 
as it ought to be fpokeni f ith ui is obferved to be in the chief P^ltor his Preaching, Maith.j.z^, it is called 
(f 0/4 5. and 4- ) a door ofutte. ance^and a fpeaking m it ought to be fpoken j or , as it is , i Pet. 4. i r . At the 
oradetofGod: fo that in lelfe or more » this gift ought tohave altamp ofch;Maj(.% ofGckiOnit , as 
His Word hath in it felf. And this rebuking with Authority, that none defpife this M;niltrie , is both often 
mentioned in Pauls prad:ice, qnd recommended by him to others> in the perfons of Timotbie and TUia : and 
it is Uke , fomthing of all hath been in this Angelof Philadelphia. And this $o\m is tiotany ^hiiig phyikaHy 

and iiifeparably united to the nrRarr, or to his Preaching , but is in him a fitncfle and dexterity given of ood , 
which He accompanieth with a fingular in:»preflion by His Spirit ordinarily on the hearts and confciences of 
hearers, thereby dilcoveringit to be of Him. 

For the fecond, to ^iiUamng, what to fay of it will be harder to decide, feingit hath many feveral accep- 
tionsj as, i. It auy be taken tor acquaintance with Scripture, and with divine and heavenly t hings in it , or , 
for acquaintance with humane literature, as knowledge of tongues , ans, (ciences, Cfc 2. We may confider 
learnir^, either materially in it feU, as it is a 6cnefle which a man hath to reafon for a truth againft an Error , 
to draw conclufions from premifles, to open hard places , or reconcile feeming contradi ding place s , and ro 
anfwer objedtions, \Se. or we may confider it in the manner how men come by this facultie , or acquire this 
fitnelfe to underftand tongues, to inyeftigate and fcarch into difficulties, We. and thereby come to be enabled 
to improve the gift ^ven, and to ftir it up ; which is either by an extraordinary illumination , as the Apoftles 
hadit, and Prophets of old, without any mediate pains or means; or by an ordinary and mediate way 
•f reading, ttudyit^f andlearningofthefeby mediate helps, which may conduce fw that end. No w,in an- 
fwer we lay, 

l.TbK learning confidered materiallv,or in it felf,as it implieth acquaintance with the things of God, that 
is fimplie neceffary. This all the Apoltles had, to wit, ability to real on againft gainfay ers , to open the my- 
ftericsoftbeGolpel,(?<;. This is required in all Minifters, i7rm.3.2.andT«/^ 1.9. xhiihebeofttoteach: 
and it is ufefull in reference «o the truths he hath to propound, whereof fomthings are hard and not eafily 
underftood, which the unlearned and ignorant, are ready to pervert to their own deftrudion, 2 Pel. 3. 1 6. A 
Minifterthen had need to be thus learned, left he fpeak, not knowing whereof he affirmeth, 1 Tim.1.7. and 
(being unable to hold faft the form of found words which himfelt hath learned, 2 Ttm. i . 1 3. ) he be turned 
•fide to foolifli unlearned queftions, chap.2.2^. h is alfo needful for his opening of Scripture , for his dea- 
ling with adverfaries j and that both to exhort and convince gain-fayers, Tk.i .9> 1 1. whofe mouths are to be 
ftopped by him , as , in many of the Epift les , we fee Paul did j and that in a learned and methodick way 
oFdifpute: and this did Tf«/>^f«, ^ff/ 6. and It is frequent in that ftory. Yea, there is even a learning 
required in reference unto tne wearie , unto whom words and expre/Iions by a fingular dexterity are to be 
Wailed, Jya.$o. 4. 

2, Forthemannerofacquirit^thislearningandability, wethinkit not fimplie neceflary to ty it to the 
ordinary mediate waves : for i God often did communicate it immediately j and if He had thought good , 
could have continued it in His Church in that manner. '^ 

Yet, 3. Sei^thi Lord nowgireih not thus acquaintance with Divine Truths, and ability to reafon , tSc. 
immediately 5 the way of ftudying,by reading, and being brought up by others inthe knowledge of ihefe > 
is now, upon thi«fuppofition,uiiipiie neceflary alfo : foj:,if it b: neceflary to know themyfterieof theGjfpel 
and men oy an immediate way do not attain it, then it is neceffary to follow the vvay,wher.?by it is attainable. 
Thatit is not now immediately communicated , we fuppofe is clear in experience : men cannot now fpeak 
with a ftrange tongue -, yea, not read their o\»'n tongue without teaching and learning: and can it bt fuppofsd 
that tfeey ihall be fit for prophefie , which is the greater gift ? Bifide, the Lord hath not left us His Word 
fo ly by us , b Jt that we fliould read it , as the command is exprelf;d, i Tiim.4. 1 3 , t^c. Qi^etbyfelfto reading: 
yea , He hath fo vailed many parts of H.s Word purpofly , that the reader (hoald be provoked to iearch into 
it , as is fcveral times infinuated in this fame prophefie : and feing there is a communication of gifts, & whiit 
is made known to one,mny and fhould (in a right nvanner ) be made k»own to others » and that by write » 
well as by word : what realbn can there be, that a Believer or Minifter now may not, and fhould not improve 
the knowledge that others before him had, ©r now at a diftancefrom him have , in the myfterie of God . as 
wellas by conference, he may make ufe of one that is alive , and prelent "> And what other way is there than 
by reading to attain that ? This cannot be denied to a private Chriftian, much lefle to a Minifter : and the 
many fad fruits of ignorance, error and confufion, which flow from the negleft of ftudie , fliew the necefllty 
ofthis. Neithirisitfornoughtthat parents are commanded to bring up their children in tlie knowledge 
and admonition of the Lord, which in Ximflf/bio education, is commended : which could not be, if thisway 
of acquiring knowledge were unlawful. And it is alfo confirmed by that property (given by the LordHim- 
, ielf ). of the Scribe, who is taught unto the Kingdom of God, Mattb.i ^. 52. that he bringeth out of his trea- 
. . ftae tk'ffgf ncvf andold : whereby it appeareib not only that he hath a trcafure or ftock laid up, but that he 
Ji4tl; in it > what is old . as having been of long time uleftil to the Church , and what is wew, and added there- 
, .Hotobyti^ownpainf^lneOe. 

4- ^ ^^ *^* knowledge of humane learning, and the ftudying thereof, fuch as tongues, fcicnces/niftoriejCf . 
although we conceive toem riot eff^ntial > and fimplie neceflary for the being of erery Minifter ^ fo as none 


Chap. J. Hook^oftheJitpelAtm, I*-. 

coiild be a Miniftcr without them j yet we conceive them utetiil exceedingly to al), and neceilary for the 
Church, being ukd in a right fubordinaiion le the great end of edification. For ahhougb the Lord gave 
giftsof many tongues : yet are the Scriptures in two original languages only ; and is it not ncceflary to be ac- 
quainted with thefe ' Yet hath the Lord made ufe of no extraordinary gift ot tongues to tranflate them into 
feveral languages ; but of men who by His blesfing in the way of ft iidie had acquired skill in thefe languages; 
which faith, that fuch a ftudie is neceflary to the Church : and indeed it that had been unlawful , many na- 
tions of the Cemilet had never had the Word, and lo never had been Churches, had not this been: that there- 
fore which is fuch a mean for the propagating ot the Gofp.'l , and lo bleflcd of God > cannot be difpleafing to 
Him, who could have appointed otherwife, and not left this ncceifity on us j if He had thought meet. Be- 
fide, the right ulit^ of al I icicnces ( even the fe wnich men by their corruption do moft abule) contribute ex- 
ceedingly to advance edification : not by furnishing new weapons ( the 5aipture is the only Swordj) buiby 
enaWing men to mannage the old. Thefe are to men, like skill to one that hath ftrer^h, to teach him how 
to handle his arms for his fafety j like Phyfick to the body, to make all the members avit to their feveral ufesj 
and like the pulling out bffomthing in the ear or eye, which marreth the hearing or feeing: So learning, is 
but the fitting of the natural faeultits of the foul* of reafon , and even of the gift formerly mentioned , to a^ 
neatly, and to be forth-coming accordingIy,andfubferviently to the ordwsanddicaatsofa fanftified judge- 
ment: whereas ocherwayes a natural and habitual indilpolition doth in much incapacitate men for the exer- 
ctfing even of that which they have. Neither can this be thought Itrange , leing men are not born skilful in 
any common occupation, till it be taught them : it is no marvel therefore that they be undeictrous as to the 
nuin things. And the writings of Heathens have been made ufe of for good ends by P4«/ , as his citing of 
them upon feveralloccafionscleareth, and can the reading thereof hurt us ? It is a good fimiUtude whichBa- 
Jihkih{Ora(.adadolefi.) that as Dyers when they are tody purple, do fir ft put fome common colour on 
the cloath to make it receive the purple the better; fo, humane learning , is ufeful for fitting one for the more 
profitable ftudie of Divinitie. Only we fay. This learning would be well regulated , fo as to be made ufe of 
only for edification , men not flying to that as if the principles of Heathen Philofophers were more fure and 
ftrong than plain Scriptures, or as if, loathing the Scripture phrafes and arguments, we would confirmTruths 
from more learned mediumt out of thefe : much lefle would we reconcile their principles and the Scriptures 
by afcribing fuch a meaning to the Scripture, as muft be confiftent with them , as loathcr to brangle them in 
their Authority than the Scriptures of God ; nor yet by uling their phrafes to derogate from Scripture-plain- 
neffe or fimplicity, ( as often the miferably blind Schoolmen do ) which is an high fault. It is abufed al fo 
when a Minifter thinketh himfelf lomthing becaaleof ir,and defpifeth thefe who are inferiourto him there- 
in,or, when hcaccounteth that in himfelf, or in others, futficient for quaUfication, or, when he ufeth it for 
oftentation or getting of a name amongft hearers j that is a poor learning , which maketh the melTage It flc in- 
telligible* and lefTe ufeful j and that is truely a learned Paftor , who can make Spiritual mylterious Truths 
moft plain and palpable to the fimpleft hearer,as Luther once laid, that he is the ableft Preacher who pueriih 
ter, triVialiter, populariter, <ir fimplieis/ime docet. MeU.Mam. in y'tt. Lutheri. Learning fervetb to enable one 
in fearching for Truth, to conceive what is lolide or inlblide , and to expreffe it plainly j whereas that , is a 
great abufe of learning ufed by the Schoolmen (follow them in it who will) to niake the plaineft Scripture > 
or praftical thing oblcure with many doubts, queftions, diverfe fenfcs, obje*5tions , and many frotbie unedi- 
fying notions, which have never profited them that have been occupied tnerein , and is contrary totbe true 
endoflearning, whichojghttobeedincation. And often the moft learned Preacher, in this fenle, hath the 
moft ignorant People. He is not the moft learned and skilful Lawyer ,Schcolmatter, iSc. whoknoweth 
moft Ipeculaiively, but he who can reduce it beft to pra^itice, as the nature ol bis Calling doth require ; So is 
it truely in the learning of a Minifter, he Who can inform, convince , or edifie o:hers witD molt dexterit ie , is 
the moft learned Minifter , though, it majr be, tfie lefle knowing man. 

3. We faid alfo, ihat Grace was neceflary , and that he that thus carrieth the Lords meflage now fhould be 
holy, as they were, who of old carried His veflels we do not rigid.-ly call tor this as for the former two , lo 
as if no man could bs a Minifter without faving Grace > and unltlL- he be truely regenerated ; what was faid 
ii^ the former Epiftle, doth guard againft this $ yet vve may aflert, that it is neceflary by neceflity of precept : 
for, holineflfe is a qualification in that fame roll withability to convince gain-i'ayers , T|>.i .8,q. And alfo by 
way of mids, it is ufefull and neceUary in many refpeds, l . For himfelt : he cannot have confidence of his 
Calling, or of his being approven of God in it, without this: though he may be called j yet he cannot ad as 
called of God, and fo muft be much incapacitated in that refpe(5ti 2. For die work; which is Ofthat na- 
ture that it requireth communion M'ith God and a ftandinginHis coun(el,?fr.2j.i8.22.otherwife, it may be 
accounteda ftea^ng of his word without acknowledging of him(clf,Tfr/. 50. And though thdV be ncctflary 

y. 3 iiv) 

17^ AH Exfofttion of the Chap.ji 

inany C iUiag,, y -^ th: wauirc oftUii; fh:.yvrtli tiiciu to b: iti aliiigulai'way. necsflary in it. %. There cannot 

thers.vvli^rewith they have been comforced themfelves , z Corinth, i .9. which is a main \\'ay wherfcby GoJ 
fitcech His Minirteriexperimemally j and even the Head, in ibme rcfped, was ch js qualified. From this, 
Luther laid, that thefc three, tentat'io, mtdhatio and oratio , were requific in a Minilt .r : and they who \\-anc 
this holinelfej are certainly exceeding dtf>;d:ive. Further, in refpcdt oFhis hiving f.uics, it is moft heceflary, 
thefe being okehblelfedofihi Lord wicn many ,and others with aril their learning,b.n with few.asinthefe 
two Churches appeareth/bjfxde a Minilters Prayers having influence on the hearers pro^ting , as well as his 
Preaching J andne being to Pray for them, and to accojnt their thriving tD be an an! wcr ofhis Praying, as 
wellasthefruitofhispreaching.asinPdu/xpradliceismanifeft : what can the unrenewed Minift;rdoherc ? 
Can he ly between the Porch §p the Altar? can he Itrive without ceafing in Prayer to God for ihem?5<; there-, 
fore maft he be much incapacitated to be profitable in this refped ? Yea, for the credit of the Mipittfie , itis 
requilit that he beef good report, even to tbjfe without, oth.-rwife his word will not have much \|Veight : and 
what will gainfucha good report without holinefle ^ Hypocrifie often is not much convincuig , neither is it 
continuing, whereas holinefle even in a cemmon fervant will adorn the Gofpel, much more in aMmiftir » 
who is a city fet on an hill, and cannot be hid. 

Again, wefay, that this qualification of holinefl'e ihouldbi greatly refpedtcd both in a peoples calling , or 

choofing of a M^niflier, and in aPi'esbyteries ordaining of on;, tor a People ; i'o that if they fhoUld rcfpe^ all 

other qualifications, and y et neve reni^ui re for this , they are excecduigfadty; andalthou^n holineliebc 

not limply necellary to a Miinfl:<ir> as it without it be were not to be accoi.ited o , when lawfally admitted * 

as is faid ; yet we conceive that neither a People, nor a Presbytery ihould palfe ovei that q lalification in their 

choice or Admisficm, lo as to make no enquiry lor it, or not to rcfpedt it, where , it may be,thcre is nothing to 

fvvay any to that opinion of the man in well grojnded charity, but fomewhat more to the contrary : for, the 

people are not left to call whom they will j if it were a Deacon, h.nstobeaman fjllofthehoiyGhoft, 

jiB.6. And this place being the fitft clear evidence of a peoples intereft in their callin; of a Mmiier , this 

rule for their proceeding mult b: of force alfo. Again> it being fuch a great Truft , as to be irttrufted with 

the Oracles of God, and with the louli of People, can he be thought fit to endeavo jr the faving of the fouls of 

others, who yetmaketh no confcience in taking heed to his o A'n "> This is the Apoltles reafontng , 1 Tim. 

2.2,3,4,5. If A man kflovi not how to tukhli o'^n haufe , hovi/ shaHhetakP care of the Church of God > which 

ispropofed by wayof Queftion, to fhew the unandverablnelfe ot that realoning , by which Heprefleth 

theobferving of the former qualifications. And certainly thefe two , are not without weighty reasons 

put together, ^^20. 28. and iTiw.4. 16. Take heed to tbjffelf, andtotheFiock^andDoSiritJc , But to 

(he w this , that who careth not for the one, will never natively and naturally care for the oth.r. Efpe- 

cially, that word , which followeth being conlidered , So shah thou fate thy felfandthofe that heat. thee , in- 

timating> that carelefenefle in his own walk, may not only marr his own fal vation ,, but alfo the falvation of 

his Hearers, feing thcfe two ordinarily are carned-onjoyntly, asinthisEpiltle: And , can people dilpencc 

with this , to have only a form of Ordinances, not caring whether ib.'ir Minifters have fruit amonglt them 

or not » or that the profit be to many or few ? and yet there cannot much beexpedted C what ever God 

may foveraignly do ) from a man that itandeth not in Gcds co Jnfel , ]er. 23. 22. 'and therefore tarneth 

not many from their iniquity : neither can any expert that the Lord will approve that he (hould be made 

aftewardinHishoufe, and an under-father to His Children , .'who yet upon no chafitable ground can 

be accounted achild himfelf , and what confidence can there be , that a man not efteancd gracious', fhall 

either Chriftianly Carrie in the outward form of Religion, or yet keep foundnelfe in the faith* and will 

they not be acceflbry to thefe evils > who have hazarded fo much on them , who arc riot worthy of any 

The confidering of this , as it relateth to a Presbyteries duty , will confirm it further. Wc ray,they ought 
not ( whoever call , or whatever ones parts be ) to proceed to admit men to the Minittcry » without re fpe A 
' to this qualification of hoUnefle : my meaningis not, that fearcji in extraordinary waycs Ihould be made for 
knowing of mens converfion, or, tha^ infallibility should be expcvfled in ihis.or, that any particular evidences 
in fuch a meafure or degree should be pitched ou, without which nothingis tobe fatisfying,{for there are de- 
grees,as was faid^ but becaufe, even SchoUcrs are naturally finftil, and gitcs do not mortifie corruption, nor e- 
difie, but as they are well improvenj 8r feing often by mens profanity^ good gilts do much hurtin theChurch 
and feing there can be no ground to expe£k the right improvement of gifts by one no: iuppofed to be gra 


Chap. J. 'Bookyfthe IReviUucn, l^- 

cious, therttore triall wouM be, i. to clear that In: be not profane , and that nothing can be charged on him. 
And, 2. that there are feme things making him look holy-likc , and giving ground, in a decerning charity / 
to elteem To of him, that what ever attervvard he prove, they may have peace in what they have done. And 
laltly, that fome fit lime and way be taken purpoleiy for trying or this. This is clear, i. From the many dire- 
(itions that are given to Minifters concerning this one thing, in the Epiftles of Paul to Timothy and Ti>w, 
where they are exprefly limited in their proceeding to this, that he be holy-, i Tiw.j.ij&c. and Tif . i.g. And 
this holinelfe is not only delcribcd negatively, thai he b^bkmckjje, mtgitento iviwe, CJc. Vei/!6. and 7. but po- 
litivelyj thazhc balpe agoodname, be fober,jt4fi, holy : which shevveth,th.ic it conliiteth not meerly in nega- 
tives, 2. It is evident that it is to be tried ; becaaie even a Deacon alio is to be proved, 1 Hot. 3. 10. (which 
alfo fuppoiieth , that a Mmilter is much more to be proved ) and then let him ule the office , it he be found 
( that is , after triall.; to be blameleff^^ : ancji lo there is a proo: to be had of this quali ftcaiion , as of others. 
J. It appeareth by his excluding of a NffV/w from this charge , tierj.6. (that is , one lately brought in to the 
faith ) as not being yet able to bsar it , or as not being well known what he might prove : and there being 
to us a proportionaDineflc> and likenefle in fiime refpeCt, betwixt the Novice then,(they being all accounted 
Believers ) and one that feemeth now to profeflTe more lerioufly than the generality of others , it faith , he 
would bi; of a ftanding profeifion that fhould be admitted to this Charge. And, 4. that which'is, Chap 5.2-1. 
Lay hands fuddenly on no man, CS'c. doth confirm this alio i and that is , not only left he be not ot parts I 
but left lie throagn untendernefle abufe his parts, and thou become guilty , as the rcafon fubjoyned , cleareth. 
And ( to meet that objedion which one might have, to wit. It i> not rashly done i for , nothing can be laid to 
his charge ) Paul faith fome mens fins are at the firft obvious j bat fome K laith he ) will fcfllow after • and 
theretore will take time before they bedifcovered. Therefore there is need of warineffe and trial to brine: 
them out , as Reverend Mr. Vickfin expounde th the place. And can this be fo to be flighted in Minifters 
proceeding, which Paul fo frequently prefleth , not only to obferve when it is palpable , but to fearch for 
it , where it is not fo obvious ? Andifitbeforequifire even tor a Peacon , what willitbe foraMinifter 
whofe Station leadeth him more immediately to the things of greateft concernment? AndastheApo- 
ftles appointed, fo pradifedthey, AB.6. Seek,^e out men fu! I of the holy Ghoji, thtm we will ordain intimat- 
ing, concerning others, that they would not ordain them , So is the qualification propofed for the^poftle , 
^S.i. although 3Fwri^ in Gods foveraign wifdomhadbeenioiployediyet there is an otherrule given them 
lb walk by, than he taketh to himfelf j they niuft take one of thele who had given beft proof of their inte- 
grity ,Vfr/ 25. And through all the Epiftles, when P^r// is recommending Minifters, there is ever fo^e evi- 
dence of their fanvflifi cation given : whereby he would let us know , what weight is truly in that qualifica- 
tion for commending of men tor the Miniftery 3 and what fort of men others should recommend after him. 
And there are alfo many reafons which may be gathered from wha: is faid , to make Minifters very carefull 
in this , that holinefle be well looked unto in Inftruments , as they would expeft an open door to be fet to 
them by the Lord, as he doth here. 

If any should fay, i. that this loakeih like the way of rigid trying of Church-members , andfeemethto 
favour that conceit, ^nfw. 1. lam not I peaking of the manner of proceeding , but of the thing , what 
ever way any Judicatory or perfons in Chrittian prudence shall take 10 latisfie ik-mfclves in "the particular 
that I conceive can be regulated by no certain directions : for, that will be fit inonecafe , which wiUnotb- 
in an other, &c. 2. Although there be a proving and trying here called-for ; yet it will not hold as neceffary 
to all members •• becaiife there is not the li ke ground s nay , nor fuch precepts nor pradices for triall of mem- 
bers, as there is in this: and wereitCoGlearformeinbers, 1 fjppoie it were hard to shift ir. Yea, 2 this 
doth overturn that rigidity and fcrupulofity concerning Church-members , it is fo far ftom ftrengthmne of 
it : for, if there be fomewhat fingular required of a Minilter , and if one that is already a Church-member be 
yet to be proved , if probably he be holy ere he be a Minifter ( fo that one may be a Church-member for his 
holinefle, and yet unfit , in rel'ped of his being defedive in this qualification , to be a Minifter i yea , a Dea- 
con ) Then is there not fuch rigid and accurate fearch to be made for pofuive evidences in everyChiirch- 
niember : for then , there could be no addition to it , or furcher length to go : But from this it is clear 
that fomething is required in the triall of an Intrant to the Miniftery , more than of one to be admitted into 
the Church: for one may be warraniably admitted to the Church , who yet may be unfit in this rerpe<5t to 
be a Minifter : therefore the extending of this conclufion to all tiie members indifterently,is unwarrantable • 
for, this new trying of them, fuppofeth the former not to be foexadt, and yet all this priation istobcof 
fuch as are within. 

If any should f Lirther objetft, that this laieth on that which is impofTble. jtinfip. There is no fuch thine in- 
tended. But, i.itismorethanisneedflilltoeveryChurch-mea.bet, 2. it is fomewhat that needethproot and 
triall, and is not to be taken on truft: but the manner cf triall we leave. 3. It is fcm^vThat ihr.t 


.176 ^f* £fffofitwt of the Chap.}. 

may WMtniil rite <X3:ifji<;ncc, «ot toilcrcrnnncmtauibly couceruing fuch a pcrfons ftate ; but conctniing a 
mails own aCt in a dchbcrat well ijrounded ccwicurring ui his ordination i So that tiiere bi no ground for a 
chaUcnge atcci ward, being put 10 (ay, it was ladJen,and fo to charge hiinlclf as acced ".ry unio^and guilty of, 
his (Ins alto, if afterward ti: milcarry: which ijiiHcended by chat^recept, i Tim 5 22, &:c. 

If ic bi obn-did farther, Tnen tacrc wo jld bcKvf Miuifrers cncered» and many Congregations would be, 
dclblace. Taac great Pacern and I'atron of Liarniug and Pietyt 1 r0threie, when he tnovct h this objedran 
to himielf < which (k^weth thai it hath been ordinary in all times 10 coduputcagainll this duty) Anfwereth, 
that it is not lb much to be refpedcd, quot, or, how many be in tb,- Minjftery, as quaUs & ^ui, that is , who, 
or at what qualifications they be. Therefore (laith he) it had been the advantage ot the Miniltrie that they 
had been ever£;wcr» rather tha.i that many who are in that ftitionih-juld have been adm;t;d to it; for (faith 
he) Ibme became not only ufelefle thcmtelves, but do incap^itate others, and make the Miuiftery dcfpicablc 
betoreall by their carriage. And indeed it is often found io , that many Congregation j had been better ilill to 
have waited for what providence might have ordered for them , than to have been planted as they were. 
Many excellent things hath he to thispurpofe,f<ij.il87-&c.particularly,/>4g 1107, &:c. 

We are perlwadcd, that whatever profane men think of hoiinefle , that y ct the people who defire to have 
their louls ft vcd, will be loath to have a blind Guide, who, by falling into the ditch , may hazard others , or, 
onethatmay heal their wound (lightly ; or at bcft, point ojc the way to them, batin little joy n with them 
in it. And efpeci^ly> that Minifters of the Gofpel, w ho know what clteem Cnnll hath oK lo jIs , and what 
difftculty it is for themfelves to walk fiogly in thii Miniltrie, even though they mind their own falvation s 
and what native and natural i/mpathy iscalled-for betwixt a Mini(ter and His Flocjc ; and who are well ac- 
quainted with the devices ofthe devil, who aimeth to make havock ot fouls by an ungodly, as well as by an 
erroneous Minillery; and alfo are laying to heart and ferioufly minding their reckoning to Jefus Chrift at 
His appearing, for the Ibuls of (uch Congregations, as they have had accelle to provide with Miniltcrs , 
M'hether 1^ Sheep were committed to a triend, or an enany, to one that bved him , and fo would feed the 
Limbs s or one thatloved andfought his own things , ( as all men in nature do ) and lb would feed bimfelf. 
We are perfwaded ( wc fay) that fudi u'iU tremble to beacceifory to fuch hainous etfronting of JefusChrilt, 
or fuch cruel betraying of poor louls in committing them to an ignorant, or untaithfull Guide, who nwy fall 
in the ditch with them. And feing this is of main concernment to the advancement of Chrifts Golpel, and 
the edification of peoples fouls, to have Minifters according to the Lords heart , and not mens, tofeed the 
people : and a fpedal promife fubjoy ned to His marrying ot a Land, /rr.j. i 4. and an evidence ot His dwel- 
ling with a people, Let all fuch therei ore, whether People or Minilters, who nave a hand in this,be obtcfted 
in flie fear of the Lord , and by the coming and appearance of our Lord jefus , the great Shepherd of His 
iheep thattheybe waricanddrcumfpetitinthismcsftconcctning-bufintfl^, as they would not in that day 
ke guilty ofthe bbud of many fouls , that unholy Miniltcrs cannot but be guilty of i and as they would not 
be ^counted partakers with them in all their lins. And, no queltion, this command amongO others,isim- 
plyed in that charge to Timothy, i Tim.6. 1 3.14.2 1. And it is very obfervable, that inithefe Epiftles, while 
he civeth directions loTtmothie, and Titw in the name of all Mmilters , which are to be obeyed to the end of 
the world, he fo often cAtfrX^*^ » more than in other Epiftles, that the le commands fliouldb* done without 
partiality j which certainly flievi'eth , that Miniltcrs mult elpccially reckon for their obferving thereof Yea, 
that c*«rfe, is particularly given in reference to this duty, l Tiw.5.2l.and22. 1 charge thee, ^c Do nothing 
by partiaUty: withal fubjoy nine, lAy bands fuddcniy gn m man : which ( as Calvin obfervcth ) is upon this 
cround given, becaufe men often are ready to be partiall in admiflions, therefore, faith the Apoftle, ^what- 
cver o - hers do , do not thou pattakf of that fm v»ith them. And though that Reverend forec ited Author Mr. 
^ri, be every way moft moderate* jct, fag.iioS. doth he cenfure the prepofterous moderation offome 
eood men, who are too charitable in the matter of admiflion of men to the Mmiftery i and diretitly aflfertcth, 
that in triall of Spirits for fuch an end, not only the Do^rinCt fed US animowm motus* conjilia. sonatus, are alfo 
to be proven. Andif nothing fatisfying appear which may hold forth Gods call , although it were for ma- 
ny years , it is to be forborn. Nee etum tarn refert quotfm hoc MinifletiofungenUs , quam quifmt . CS* quanta 
aimcuradeleBiatqueprobati yprteflasqut plurimts aUdicatif, \elu»tmt aliquem admitti, qui fit unut ex miile , ^c. 
ouam plurima indifferenter admisfs , ex miLe >i* unum, qualem cupi*t intenire. Ana thereafter , citeth our 
Lords practice, Ltt;^.9.5'7. who though molt tender of tiie Ckjrches edification, and in a time « hen the 
Harveflt M'as very great,' and the Labourers bat few, yet doth rejed two, who feemingly orfered themfelves 
with affedion to the work , and prefleth one, not fo leemingly forward as the other tMO. In all which , and 
in much more to this purpofe he doth excellently enlarge hirofdf asin a thing of molt grave concernment to 
the Churches edification . His famous Mafter alfo. Divine Mr. Ko^ocK* doth naoft pathetically prcfiie this ; 


Chap.;. Bookpf the ReveUtm, 177 

and partic! liarly in his Lc(5Vures upon the Lords laft Sermon and Iblemn Prayer , Job. 17. LtH 23, Although 
this DC true , and will not , we hope , by any be called in queftion $ yet there are cwo things which poffibly 
to fome may need more particularly to be fpoken to ; feingitiseafietoruninextreams. Thefirftis, What 
length may be attained , or is to be aimed at in this triall of a Minifters Sandification , by vertue of that pre- 
cept , Lay bands fitddently on no man ? Secondly , How it may be made to appear , that feing fo much is at- 
tainable in this ca(e, that as much is not to be fought after in the ttiall of private members? We Xhall therefore, 
before we leave this , fpeak a word to thefe. 

To the firft we fay, i . That by vertue ot that precept , there is no infallibility to be expe(5led nor pretend- 
ed unto: becaufe there is no fuch thing pofliblc: nor doth the Lord in His Word give luch fymptoms and 
evidences as may found fuch a judgment or decifion of an other perfons gracious eltate; nor is this to be en- 
quired for , as if the validity of a per ions ordination did depend upon the (ame : for, ordination may be valid, 
where no S 3n<^ification is , as was formerly faid ; But it is fuch a triall and probation asis oppofite to raihntfle 
and haftinefle , and may give ground of quietneffe unto thefe that go about this work , even though the per- 
fon ftiould not be found afterward anfwerable. Bjcaufe the ground of their peace , is not the reality or truth 
of the thing i but It is (tofayio j the reality offuch and fuch evidences , which after triall are found indeed to 
be (o, althoughpofllbly they be aot (incere. 

2. We fay, That negative evidences , or negative knowledged, that is, that we our felves know no evil of 
thepcrfon, and fuch like, will not be fufficient to exoner us in proceeding to ordination, according to this 

Erecept: for, that may be, where a man is not known at all. Befide that will not give ground to make him 
e accounted of good report, boly t fakhjull , isc. which are the qualifications required in him to whom the 
word oftruth is 10 becommittcd. Aifo the Scripture holdeth forth fuch qualifications as are pofitive , to be 
enquired for in this cafe : which were ufelefle , if negatives «>ere fufficient. And certainly there is a neguivc 
holinelfe at leaft required in a private member j yet it is clear that more is to be enquired for in an Otncerj 
yea, even a Deacon is not to be admittedwiihouifpeciolqualifications, M'hich are not requifite in ordinary 
members. Amongft other words,', i^iuirfl/claith on this place, nonenim fufficit fi ^necrimiM fit* quia merits 
ejus debcntpaire honorum cperum ut d^ntu (it ad ordinationtm. 

3. We fay then , That lomthing poficive is attainable, and is to be enquired for; which though it be not in- 
fallibly convincing of the perfons Itate j yet may be fufficient, to quiet the mind againft the challenges of rafli 
and fuddcn proceeding in that matter. Which , in the general , may be drawn to thefe three, i. That 
there be a fearch inthe external pofitives that are given iff the Wordj the knowledge whereof may be 
attained by fearch. 2. There may be fome obfervation of a mans way , and tratil of carriage, from which 
fome difcoverie may be made of a mans equablneffe jfinglneffc and fpiritualiiy in fuch duties. 3. There may 
be fome difcovery attained of a mans univerlality in thefe duties fo qualified , by confidering his carriage in re- 
ference to diverscafes and conditions and divers perlons, both fuch as are more tender, and cihers. That thefe 
are attainable cannot be denied , at leaft fo far asis neceffary for the fcope forfaid. And certainly , that pre- 
cept muft be underftood to require proof and trial in this, fofarasispoiTibly attainable ^otherwayes a man 
cannot be thought to befufficiently exonered in his duty ) as the realbn fubjoyned confirmeth : efpecially in 
fuch cafes where neither the good works , nor the evil of fome men, are open before hand. And thefe bemg 
attainable, asis faid. It will follow then that they are to be enquired into. Judicious and Learned Mr. IVoodvck 
his Peece againft Mr. Lockier , doth alTert, That there are fome more eminent outward v^orks and a^ing; in Tie- 
ligion , and Piety , by which , men {Jo far ^ is competent to men to judge ) mzy be warramably judged pofitiiely 
gracious i pag. 142. and fheweth now this is to be attained, /?4g. 152. 15-3. in chele words, Thereof requite 
fome feemingneffe of Spiritual fnceritie in a mans pfofefon^idejl , thathedothitfromaSpiritualprincipak, 
upon S piritual motives , and for a Spiritual end: but a meer fiber , not mocking , jeriou^ profejpon whoutmore, 
is not a poJiti)fe appearance of Spiritual fupernaturaljinceritie. Which iheweth, that fuch a thing ispoifiblej and 
experience alfo doth confirm this. 

4. We fay , that in this precept it is implied , that thefe pofitive evidences are not foon to be truftcd i but 
that men are ferioufly , and diligently to enquire in the reality of them, for the quieting of tbemfelves ration- 
ally in concluding chat he is foand fo qualified. And this we conceive is the great fcope of that precept: 
for the general , that a Minifter fliould be eminently qualified even in reference to Godlinefle , 1 fuppofe M'ill 
not be denied by any : The mifcarriage is ordinarily in the application, and that is not purpofedly to admit an 
unholy man to be a Minifter, but to account a man holy witnout ground , and thereupon fuddenly to proceed. 
The Apoftles fcope therefore is prindpaljy to guard againft this, thafuch thoughts of a perlons fit- 
neflebe not fuddenly and without trial admitted and entertathed. And we fuppofe, that ahhouj^hparticulat 
evidences be not infifted on, yet trisjl in the general, ferioufly and with circumfpedntfls: gipo-abovu will do 

^ much 

173 AuExfoftt'mofthi Chap. J. 

much to qnict the mind in reference to its own adt. And this is fo underftood by Chjfijlomc , ThiophiaSl , 
add others , as importing a coHinandto cry, and try again. 

If it were more particularly enquired , What thefe politive evidences are, which may be warrantably look- 
ed tbrinonethatisiobeadmittedtotheMimftrie "> Anfw. Although by proportion what may evidence one 
man to be gracious unto another ( To far as isrequilitforone man to judge ot another )Tnatwill hold here} 
and tho'igh there be fomc generals laid down, which include many particulars as to k /;o[y , fuU of the holy 
Ghoft, ABs 6. fuch as have given good proof of their faithfalnifT; and conftancie in Religion , A^i i. Ipcrf.i i . 
22. and fuch like i Yet behde thefe , the Scriptuie hath pitched upon fome particular characters for the dif- 
coverie of this. 

• Firft , He is to be a man that ruktb well his own houfe, i Ttm. 3. terf. 4. 5. which doth imply a mans faith- 
fulncffe and profitablncfle , as a Chrillian , in whatloever private Itation he hath been in formerly : fo it is to 
be looked , how he hath done the duty of a fon to parents ,of a ftudentin his {tudies,of a private Chriftian in 
his private walk with others, or how he hath behaved himfelf in families , or in other places wherein he hath 
had more near acceffe to be edifying, and fuch like. This one charad:erputteth to take trial, 1. of a 
Vnanszealandlinceritiein ftudying cdirication according to his place. 2. Of his prudence in mannaging and 
ordering vn'hat he may m.et v^'ith. And, 5. of his Authority , how probably he may be able to keep people 
in a kindly fubjedion to Chiifls Ordinances > as the particular obfervtngof th?t place will bear forth : which 
fpeaketh not only of hisfitnefs loteach; butalfotogaverninthehoufejof God. And it would feem that 
though alwayes the Church is not to be retrained f om calling one that is young , and without a family ; yec 
by a mans living fometime after his going through private fludies, before his coming to theMiniltrie , or hav- 
ing a familie to govern , there might be much more acctff: confidently to dilcern aCalled-minifterinrefpecft 
of this qualification : for , as the Apoftle reafoifeth, 1 Tim. 3. 5. Jfa rtiAn know not h0\v to rule his own houfe, 
bow shall he take care of the Church of God ? 

Secondly, He is to be tried according to thefe marks wherewith a Chriflian may be tried, fuch as to be Ti- 
l^ttiobefober, ( which looketh tofobriety in his whole carriage) not only to be Wawe/cyfe, but to be of 
foodbtba'^iour, gt'Pen to hofpi(a!it.y , x\o^.g>eedle or covetous, patient, e?c. i Tim. 7,. 3. Titus i. 7. 8. In which qua- 
Ufications , not only is to be tried what are mens practices ; but what a e their diflempers , or infirmities j 
what are their natural inclinations, and dilpofitions, and fuch like; and ifthefe be froward , except by the evi- 
dences of the oppofite Graces, there be hope that they fhallbe fubdued, there can be no confidence to proceed. 
For, a Minifler fliould be meek., gentle, no br^ler, ^c. 

Thirdly, Hq is one th^tmuli have a good report from them that are withottt, iTim. 3.7.whichimportetb 
a shining cminencie in his converfation, lo as to be convincing even to wicked men : from whom feriouliielfe 
and (incerity will get a teltimonie, when lightneli'c and luke-warmnefle will be abhorred even by tliem. 

Fourthly , he is to be aluy>er of good men, Titus i. 8. It is a mark of a Believer to love the Children of God; 
and here it is made a charadVer whereby one , that is to be called to the Miniftrie , ought to be tried : and ic is 
fuch a love to them as is demonflr. ble and evidenced to others , by their co.iverfing with tJnem , cftimation of 
them, and that in oppofition to others, whom in that refpcd they love not , though polfibly their naturnll 
ties to fuch may be moe, This ch.iradcr , doth firfl fuppoiie a capacity i n them to difcern good men be- 
fide others. And, fecondly, a principle within, making them to love and eiteem of fuch : which where they 
are in reality, are both commendable in themfelvcs , and cannot but be fome way dircernable to others ; and 
therefore may be the more warrantably obfervcdand laid weight upon, and when they are wanting>. proceed- 
ing may , yea > should be at the grent.r ftand and non-entry. 

A fifth evidence is , That he be no Novice , iTiw. 3. 6- which holdeth out that he ought to be offome 
fettled ftanding in the profefllon of Godlintfle i at leafl , there would be ground to think him fo : which can* 
not well be, if the man h;ive been but as others in his education , and pofiibiy come by reafon of the tho igbcs 
of a Miniftery to have fomc fairer outward carriage than others j when yet, as to the practice of Religion , he 
may be but a mere Novice, andfo give no ground to found a rationall charity for expefting any thriving of 
the work of Grace in his heart , or of the work ofthe Mmiilery in his hands. 

When thefe exiei nail evidences are found 1 Then Minifteisoughtto refled upon all to feeifany thing can 
be gathered concerningthe finceiity of their end , fpiriiualneife of their walk, and fuch like, as by the words 
of thefe two eminent Divines formerly cited doth appear. And becaufe this cannot be difcerned by one 
ad or two; or, in a mouth or two: thereforeitisnectffary to take time , andtoconfidertheequablneffe 
of f^-ich amanswayfor faisfyii^ of themfe^*:s concerning him. And though it is not like that each Mi-' 
niftcr can come to a well grounded knowledge? in reference to the Admiflion of every one, by hisown parti- 
•xulai acquaintance j yet in fuch a cafe> it is to be fuppliedby the ieftimony,of fuch, who being able to dilcern, 
•^ ... ... and 

Chap. J. *Bookjfth(Kevelation. tj^ 

and tiifo jgni) fatiificJ theinfelves upoai faliie grouuUs, dare confidently give tcftimony of che good beha- 
viour atui CWriltian carriiige of fuch a pcrlbn, accordijig to the tbnncr characters : and luch tcitimbny, u hen 
given, ojghc lo have weight. Therefore \»^e fee thac in Scripriire, che faithfull Servants of God ufed to 
cominetid luch , as were otclieir acquaintance, to others : and luch recouuncndations wanted never u^eigbt. 
Oniyconccrning tl)is, we fay , that feing rccommendauons and leftimonies may have much influence upon 
the good or i!I or the Church. This would nor b; overly gone about j bit thefe caveats v\'Ould be oblerved , 
I .Tnat when men telhfie politivcly luch and fuch cjualihcations to be in any, they would have g ound of far 
tisfia virion in their ov\'n conxi^-nces that fuch things are true, and confjftenc in their knowledge. 2. As this te- 
ftiuiony would be on knowledge » lb the matter teftified , would be weighty , and fuch as being true evi- 
denceth {on\i good beginning, or appearance of the work of Grace. There are many teftimonies given tho- 
ro w ^auk Epiltlcs to feverall perfons ; but we will (till find them have thcfe t wo , i . The thing teltified , is 
fomeching that doth indeed commend thein as Ghriltians j as having love to Go J, and to the edification of 
fouls, ana fuch like. 2.1t's upon knovvledge : yea oftentimes from llich evidences as were difcernableeven 
10 others, luch as fuffcring for Chrift> diltribu ing to the Saints, painfulnefle and diligence in what they have 
bv'en employed about, and fuch like. O.i the ochet fide » there is alfo need or taking heed what teftimonies 
be received, And> i.that the teftimony b«; full, bearing out thefe characters fufficiently in the bolbme thereof: 
other u'ife at can be no proof of them, whoever be the teftifier, and, it may be . it were not impertinent to do 
it in che Apoftles words. 2.RefpeClistobe had tochefe who givetheteltin^.ony. And, 3. To the ground 
upon which they give it , to wid ifit be oftheir own certain knowledge that chey do teltifie fuch things^ 
or , only upon the report of others , and fuch like confiderations. Wh:rein faithful! Presbyteries will em- 
ploy their zeal and prudence for the facisfying of themfelves j and fo there is the leff^; need to infitt particu- 
larly in them. - 

' Now, as to the fecond, ifnny should ask , what reafon there can be more to enquire thus in reference to 
Minifters, thanin reference to laicmbers > and if the one will not follow upon the grounds that are laid down 
for mf erring the other ? Weanfwer, Itisenojghiolay that this enquiry in reference to Miniilers is com- 
inandcd, and che other not. N.ither will any objeClor, I fuppofe, be able to give fuch precepts for the trial! 
of Church-members, as have hion laid down for this triall in reference to Minifters. It is obfervable which 
that great vindicater of this truth, concerning theadmisfion of Church-members without fuch exaCl triall , 
doth anfwer to this objedlion ; I mean learned Mr.ff eo^, in his Examination and Confutation oilAx.Lockjers 
Liiile-ftone)|)/<jr.8o.8l. Mr. Xoc^er had made the fame objeClion , which he anfwereth thus, <* nllth^u: 
" lAr.LociLyer here bringeth in concerning admitting perfons into Offices m the Church , is idiely and impcr- 
" linently alledged to the point in hand: we acknowledge that none o.ight to be put in fuch Offices,buc fucfi 
" as give evidences of all manner of Godly converfation i we have an exprelfe and full rule for this , i Tw« 3 . 
** And hands ought not to be laid upon any man, withouta foregoing triall and proof of thefe things. But 
" vt'here will ye shew us in all the Scrip ture from the one end to the otaer luch a