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Full text of "The dying man's testament to the Church of Scotland, or, A treatise concerning scandal"


s CS * Uit 

* TheTtyingman'sT est ameht 
to the Church of Scotland ; 

OR, ♦ 

? A Treatife concerning Scandal. ± 

♦ Divided into Four Parts. 2^ 

^ I. Concerning Scandal inche general. 

¥ 2. Concerning Publick Scandals, or Scandals as they ^ 
«g> . are the objeft of Church-cenfures , and more par- - 


♦ ticularlyas they arc in praftice* j£ 

^ g. Concerning Do^rinalScandalsjorfcandalous errors, ^ 

«•&• 4* Concerning Scandalous Divi >ens. / <§£ 

*&► . ^ 

*gt In each of which there are not a few choice and ufeful Quefti- J£ 

«fr ons, very fhortly and fatisfy ingly difcuffed and cleared. ^ 

^ BY *- 

That Angularly faithfull and wife Servant of Jefus Chrift, j 

Mr. $ A M E S <D V %_ H A !M, ^ 

late Miniiter of the Gofpel in Glafgow, «^». 

Who being dead ( by tbk ) yet fped\eth : J* 

^ And publimed by tfobn Carfares, one 1 of tfte* Minifters «go 
*§► inGusGovv. 

^ To which is prefixed an excellent Preface of famous ^ . 

. <& Mr. c Biait y Miniftcr of the Gofpel at St ^Andrews, (wherein 4^ 

*&[ he alfo vigorou^y driveth the main defign of the blefled ^ 

^ Author in this latt Piefce of his Labours) ^ 

*j£ Together with a T a b l e of the C o n t e n t s of the ^r 

^JT feveral Chapters of each Part. <%+ 

^ . . / 4* 

«§t Matth. 1°\ 7 Wo unto the world becaufe of Offences -for it mufl needs be & 

t ■•§► that Offences-come t but too to that man by whom the Offenc cometb. ♦ 

**& 1 Cor. 1 . 1* Give none Offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gen- ♦" 

"•&► *//«, »cr to the Church.of Ujd. v" 

1 ^ Pfal. 1 ' " « * S Great -peace have all they which love thy Law : and nv - <€°* 
' ^ thing Jball offend them. 

*•»► ^ . — "*Er* 

<4r Printed for the Company of Stationers, 1659. 4p- 





r • 

itflVj l 

jihm The Trefact^. 

He rife of th^fubfequeftt Treatifc; 
the blcffed Author,in the very firft 
words thereof, declareth to b« the 
occafion he had from fyvel. 2. 00 
the Epiftle to the Church ofTerga- 
mos, to meditate on the nature and 
forts of Scandal. And before I fay 
any thing of this prefent work , I 
(hall hence take occafion, to (hew my thoughts of his 
Commentary on the Book of Revelation; In my hum- 
ble opinion, that which was fpoken of the vertuous wo- 
man, Prov. 30. v. 29. may well be applied to tht pains 
this Author barti taken on that Book: Many Writers 
have done worthily, bat thou excelled them all. The 
reafon of my fo high eftimation thereof, is taken from a 
threefold excellencie I find therein. The firft is, a 
brief, clear and accurate opening of the moft difficult 
Text in the whole Bible, applying with great fagacity 
and admirable dexterity, dark Prophecies to their hifto- 
rical events : and yet with judicious fobriety, not re- 
ftraining , as it were, to fingie ftars of ieveral perfons, 
that which rather relateth to conglobate conftellations 
of agents or patients : together with a modeft, yet a di- 
ligent fearch of thofe things which are not yetaccom- 
plifhed. Whoever would compendioufly have an ex- 
periment hereof, let him read the firft Le&urcOrr Chap, 
6. ( which parcel, with fome others, were fent to me by 
the Author, fome moneths before *he printing) And as 
herein I did find great fatisfaftion, by reafon of the 
clearneffe and potable coherence of tyhe Interpretation, 
and convincing grounds and arguments proving the fo~ 
lidity thereof, So may thou, Chriftian Reader, be fwcet- 
ly refreftied and ftrongly confirmed thereby. The 
A 2 faoni 

The <Pre 

..jWMcxcdlcticie hereof, is the great plenty of pra£tt- 
cal Divinity, relating to all Chriftians , but more efpe- 
cially to Minifters of the Gofpel. I cannoNname 
any Authors work, wherein I have perceived *Cd many 
edifying overtures , fo many fearching difcourfes and 
encouraging helps as this Commentary abounds with. 
From the firft Leffureon Cbap.j. both the carefull Chri- 
ftian and the well-gifted diligent Preacher , may be firft 
allarmed, and then well ftrengthened, by that fearching 
difcourfe on thefe words* Thou baft a name that thou livejl, 
but an dead. The *^></ excellency of this work, lieth 
not only in clearing and anfwering many doubts very 
fuccin&ly, butalfo in difcuffing more largely, by way 
of digreiiion, many weighty and important Truths-even 
to the number of twenty five : So that this Commentary, 
befides profitable opening of fuch a Text, and handling 
much practical Divinity, cleareth with great modefty, 
without any perfonal refleftions,and dilcuffeth edifying* 
ly as much darkened Truth, as if the whole work had 
been written to difputc and determine pertinent and im- 
portant queftions. 

But now, to fay no more of that Work, which fpeak- 
cth for it felf, being in the hands of many, and I wifh it 
be diligently perufed with a bleffing from Heaven : I 
come to fay fomethingof this Treatife of Scandal; 

And well was he fitted to write of this fubje$:, whofe 
exercife it was, to have alwayes a confeience void of of- 
fence toward God and toward men : and very fuccef- 
full was he in walking this way ; fori in a time where- 
in fcandals of all forts did abound exceedingly, few there 
were (if any at all) who did ftumble at his way, or he 
at the way of others > endeavouring ft ill and by all 
means winning and edifying. And whoever knew his 
way of walking , they will read the fame in this Trea- 
tife, (et forth to others.* 

In thefirft part thereof thou wilt find, Chr'iftian Rea- 
der, the nature of Scandal dcxteroufly opened , with 
the feveral forts of it, and the variety of wayes vvhereby 


it is both given and taken , with considerable ground^ tc 
make Chriftians loth and wary, both as co the giving 
of offence and taking. And withall, many intricate 
cafes are cleared , as namely, what is co be done when 
themattcris lawfull, and the offence doubifull : Alfo 
^vhac ought to be our carriage, when there is a real dif- 
ference between parties upon the account of a civil in- 
tereft : Alfo what behaviour is requific, when the com- 
mand of Superiours and the efchewing of offence, are in 
oppofition: Alfo that very important cafe, is accurady 
debated and wifely determined, what is to be done when 
offence is like to follow on either fide. And finally, 
what courfe both private Chriftians and Paftors ought 
to hold when fcandals and offences abound- The an- 
fwer to which alone, hojdeth forth a very excellent di- 
rectory for chriftian walking toward others. 

The fecond part treateth of Scandal as it ispublick, 
and falleth under, Ecclefiaftick cenfure, wherein there 
are many excellent overtures for the wife and right ex- 
ercifeof Church-difcipline. Among many, this is con- 
fiderable, That the faving grace of repentance, is not to 
be enquired into , as the alone ground upon which 
Church- officers arc to reft for removing an offence : but 
that a fober,ferious acknowledgment of the otfenccwith 
the expreflion of an unfeigned-like purpofe to walk in- 
offenfively is fuflkient. This is very accurately deba- 
ted, and folidly and fcundly determined. There is alfo, 
Chap. 12. a clear difcufling of that tickle Queftion, 
What ought to be done by privat perfons when Church- 
officers fpare fuch as are (candalous,to wic,upon fuppo- 
ficion chat there is a real defe£t (in the truth wherof ofcea 
there is a miftake ) yet private profeffors are to conti- 
nue in the difcharge of the duties of their ftations> and 
not to (eparatc from the Communion of the Church,but 
to count themlclvesexonered in holding faft cheirown 
integrity, mourning for offences, representing the iamc 
to Church-officers , and, if need be, to fuperiour Judi- 
catories. All this is ftrongly, convincingly, and very 
fatisfyingly proven by Scripture. A 3 The 

The third part is concerning Do&rinal Scandals, or 
Scandalous Errours , a Theme very neceffary for theft 
reeling times. If I fhould offer to pick out thence points 
very remarkable, I would far paffc the juft bounds of a 
Preface. Wherefore, I (hall only thereof fay this, That 
both Chriftian Magiftrates, Minifters and People, will 
find their duty laid before them, no leffe folidly than ac- 
curatly,what to do in the cafe of fpreading errour. And, 
O that the Moft High would ftrike in with His fove- 
raign Authority upon the hearts and confeiences of all 
forts, efpecially Magiftrates, in whofe hands this Tra- 
ftate (hall come / 

But now I come to fpeak a word of the fourth part of 
thisTreatife, and that fo much the more, i. Becaufek 
was the laft labour of this precious man of God, and 
fo it is his Stoan-liks fmg. The Only W ife thought it fie 
to recommend to all His People, efpecially wkhin this 
Land, in thefe diftra&ed times (when paffion and pre ju- 
dice makes it moft difficult, if not altogether impoflible 
to fpeak a word in feafon acceptably) the hatefulneffe of 
fcandalous divifion and the lovelineffe of a godly union 
by the words of a Meffenger, who was one of a thou- 
fandi known to bt^msderate, wife and faithfull, very 
far from fa&ioumW, fharply perceiving what was 
duty, and very impartially uttering the fame* At the 
di&ating of this Part, the infirmity of the decaying ta- 
bernacle was fo great, that he could not endure the la- 
bour of writing with his own hand,But being now ripe 
for glory, and having entered the fuburbs of Heaven, he 
breathed-out his wife and godly thoughts to a borrowed 

Next, I have the greater reafon to confider diligently 
this piece of the work ; and having confidered it> to re- 
commend it the more earneftly to all Chrifts People, and 
efpecially to my reverend and dear Brethren of the Mi- 
niftery,becaufe it was fent to me fealed from the Author, 
in the beginning of his laft fickneffe, as a ®epo(itum com- 
muted to me to make it ready for publifhing ; which I 


performed carefully and faithtuj!y,witndut the alterati- 
on of one material word : and having lately perufed the 
Copie the Printer makes ufe of, I hereby teftifie it is 
the fame for matter, order, fentences and words, the Au- 
thor lent to me and I tranfmicted to him a little before 
the Lord removed him* 

And now, upon the matter, I think verily that this 
healing Tra&ate is fo full of that wifdom,which is from 
above , firft pure^and then peaceable, that it will fpeak 
plainly the Author fitted of God to bring forth a fea- 
fonable word. At the firft reading thereof, my fpiric 
was greatly refrefhed , and my heart enlarged tobleflfe 
the Lord , conceiving that the Prince of peace, in com- 
panion over our putrified fores, had provided this mol- 
lifying oyntment and cleanfing plaitter, in order to a 
cure of the fame* And I doubt nothing but every true- 
hearted lover of Sions peace, who longs to fee the Lord 
exalted, in binding-up our hither-till incurable wounds, 
will magnifie the Lord with me and exalt his Name to- 
gether. Herein thou wilt find excellently difcovered* 
the rife of divifions, what hand the holy Soveraignty of 
God hath therein, and how the corruptions of men>even 
of the Godly, both raife and wonderfully heighten divi- 
fions ; and how great influence occafional means may 
have in the fame ; together with the fad and drcadfull 
effe&s thereof; and the neceffity of endeavouring unity 
herein. Thou wilt alfo find the cure and remedy fingu- 
larly opened, not only general grounds and preparatory 
endeavours for uniting , but alfo what things arc to be 
forborn, and what is to be done in order to uniting , and 
thacafwell in clofing doftrinal differences) not funda- 
mental, nor nigh the foundation , as for union in points 
notdo&rinal, arifingfromdiverfity in external admini- 
ftrations, and efpecially pra&ical dijfferenccs in Church- 
government, and about the Conftitutions andA&s of 
Synods, when the Authority thereof is declined and de- 
nied : Yea, remedies are propofed, of divifions arifing 
from the mifapplication of power, in cenfuring or fpa- 

A 4 ring 

ring Church-officers, real or fuppofed. And finally ^ 
againft the fears of mifgovemment for the time to come, 
overtures are prudently given- in : and allclofed with 
laying out briefly? and yet very effeftually, grounds and 
motives of the defired union. That which I conceive is 
moft eminent in this choice Treatife, lyeth in thefe two 
things : firft, That this our Cancer is moft tenderly 
handled, in a very abftraft way, never fo much as Ha- 
ting or particularly touching any difference among us, 
and yet> upon the matter, the whole difcourfe cometh 
home to the very point moft pertinently. Herein appears 
the finger of God to them that will have eyes to fee it. 
The next is this, That the holy Scriptures arc diligently 
fearched, both in order to the difeafe and remedy: <and 
the ancient Church- hiftory and purer Antiquity,is moft 
plentifully and fweetly made ufe of. The judicious and 
impartial Reader will, I think, fay Mxfcuit utile dulci, 
and that here are words fitly fpoken* like apples of gold 
in piftures of filvcr. One thing I (hall intreat, that the 
Reader judge not finally of any parcel or feftion thereof, 
till he read and ponder the whole. Stumble not at his 
afferting, That authoritative wayes at firft are not the 
beft to cure rents. * A rent would be handled as a broken 
bone or a diflocation, where anointing and ligatures are 
fo neceffary, as without thefe, healing cannot in hafte 
be attained. If the queftion be made, How a man in 
that cafe {hould carry himfelf? Ought he to flretch 
himfelf to the full and put forth his whole ftrength ? Or 
is that then impoffible ? And if through pafllon in a fit 
it be praftifed, is it not obftruftive to the recovery of 
ftrength and healing? Let the Reader remember this 
when he cometh to that part of the difcourfe, and he 
Will> upon that confederation, make the better ufe of the 
whole remedy as it is propofed. 1 (hall not detain much 
longer the Reader from theTreatife it felf, having added 
thefe few confederations, for advancing heart- uniting in 
the Lord, yvhich of all other* I conceive, ought to be 
fPyft ^eighty in thq judgment and on theaffeftionsofc 


all the lovers of our lord Jelus Chrifl. 
2. v.i 4 15 16 17. the great Peace-maker, in offer 
upHimfelf a iacrificeiorthefinsof the Ele&, intended 
with thcreconcilinp of dxm toCcd, to unite them in 
one body among themfelves 2 yea, even thole who vvere 
at furtheft diflance and preateft cnimityj^fr ard Gentile M 
and confequently other His Elcdt in their feveral diffe- 
rences and divifions throughout their generations* He 
took on Him the debt of their fins and their enimitics, 
and lifted up with Himfelf the^onHisCroffe,^^- 
tatiVely Virtually and meritorioujly, to expiate the m in His 
flefh : and by His Spirit efficiently to flay and abolifh 
them in due timeby making them one new man in him- 
fdf. Mark, I pray, from that Scripture cited, that this 
complex bufinefle is the great defign of our blefled and 
great Peace-maker. A lfo, fecondly, in the Sacrifice- fcaft 
of His Supper, this is ftill reprefented and exhibited, till 
He come again : So that this (landing Ordinance,defti- 
nated and appointed of God to carry-on and feal-up 
uniting with God, and one with another, till He come 
again ; at His coming will ftand up and teftifie againft 
all who comply not withChrift, but, following their 
own inclination, aft rather againft His defign. And, 
thirdly , in His folemn prayer, J oh, 17. which is a fieci* 
men of His future interceflion, He mainly prefleth after 
the falvation and fan&ification of thofe that are given 
Him,vcr.2l. That they alfo may be one, a* thou father art in 
we> and 1 tn thee, that they alfo way be one in m ; that the 
toorld may believe that thou haft fent me. Do notthefe 
words fignificantly and fhyfiingly hold out, what the 
Mediator is ftill about, and that uniting in God is His 
defign ftill ? And fourthly^pon this fame very ground, 
the gre3t Apoftle,ipeaking tojelta and Gentiles who had 
imbraced the Go(pel,and in them to all diilentients who 
Jove the Gofpel-truihs and Ordinances, faith,3(ow 4 t 5.7. 
Wherefore receive ye one another , to Ch>ifi alfo received us 
to the glory of God. Meritoricpfly and H tually the Eleft 
are received to the glory of God, and to the end they 

miy be aftttalty received, Receive one afiotheri faith the 
i Apoftle, as it were fufpending the one upon the other. 
And now upon thefe grounds>Chrift our Lord his grand 
defign being fo confpicuous, His Supper-ordinance ftaru 
ding as a Land-mark in the way, having this engraven 
upon it, intern Comrnanion, the glorious Mediator 
his interceffion running in that fame channel and the 
bleffed Apoftle making this the upfhot of his do&rine ; 
what lover of our Lord, well advifed and recolle&ing 
himfelf,dare ftiffly ftand out from complying with Hirw, 
to fatisfie their own inclination and habituated cuftom 
and carriage* My fear is, that every one of us will look 
to fome others rather than themfelves, as obftru&ing the 
defired uniting in the Lord. But upon mature after- 
thoughts, it will be found the mind of Chrift, that we 
narrowly fearch our felves,cvery one of us>how we have 
provoked the Holy One to fmite us fo in His difpleafure, 
and accuratly to try what yet remaines in us obftruftive 
to this union : and withall to flie to our flighted duty, as 
in a City they run to the quenching of a publick burn- 
ing , laying this evil to heart more than fword or pefti- 
lence. AH the writings and actings againft Prcsbyte-, 
rial-government) which is the wall of the houfe of God, 
have never wronged or hurt it fo much, as our ill raifed, 
and worfe- continued contefts. Our nakedneffe-difco- 
vering writings, what have they done but added oyl to 
the flame ? For Chrifts fake> my reverend and dear Bre- 
thren* hearken co this word in feafon, from the Oracies 
of God, and trcafures of pure Antiquity, pointing-out 
the way of a godly and edifying peace. It will be no 
grief of heart, but fwecc peace and confolation,whcn we 
are to appear before the Judge of the quick and dead* 
Now the God of patience and confolation,grant you to 
be like minded one towards anotheoaccording to Chrift 
Jefus ; So heartily prayeth 

St. Andrews, Tour Brother and felloK-ferVant, 

April. 28, 

1659. Robert Blair. 


•tB^ *^5^ Jfw^ 



Publifher to the Reader, 

Hfre 4re, Ifuppofe, fffr or none amongfi us 9 
or about us, fo great fir angers to the obfer- 
Nation of TroVidential Occurrents in Scot- 
land) ** to be altogether Without the kpo*fr~ 
ledge ofvpbat bath cometopafs kerf in tbefe 
UJ dayes, HoTi? the holy, juji and foVeratgn 
Lord, 'frho fometime lifted mup, batbnoft 
taft mdoifrni *tobo croMmedu* Kith glory and honour^ bath 
flriptm of our glory and made the cro^frn to fall from our 
bead, (though KebaVe not faid, Wo unto us, for *fre baVe 
finned ) ft bo fomctime made m a praife in the earth, bath 
no*fr made m a biffing, a by^frord and reproach to all that an 
round about us ; Ho'fr He, ftbo once by our unity and one- 
fhoulder -ferVice did ma\e us beautifull ^Tirza, comely as 
Jerufalem, and terrible at an Army "frith 'Banners, bath noft, 
alas, ( ftbicb u one of the moft imbntering ingredients in our 
tup) inftead of gibing m one heart and one 'fray, in His an- 
ger, divided, fub-divided, fteatyed, disjoynted and broken 
m • So that Judah Vexetb Ephraim, and Ephraim enVyeth 
Judah, and eVery mans hand ahnofl is again jl his brother ; 
and through our lamentable and moft unfeafonable interline 
jars and divifions *fre bite and devour one mother , and are 
lil(e to be confumed one of another ; tell it notinQuh^ 
publijh it not in the jlreets ofAskelon, left the daughters 
of the PhWiRmcs rejoyce , left the daughters of the uncir- 
cumcifed triumph \ that "frhen God bath caft m all dofr>n to- 
gether, "fre endeavour to keep dtffrn and tread upon one ano- 
ther , that "frhen He bath been juflly angry "frith our mother^ 
her children are finfully angry one "frith another, andfthen 
He hath cajl m all into the furnace, Tlr are eVen there flrug- 
ling and We [I ling one Kith another to the cncrcafmg of the 

flams i 


Wnl ; AM When brotherly hire and lothne.fi to gfot or ta\e 
offence , is in a fecial manner called-for, lo)>e did ne)>er Wax 
more cold, nor offences more abound. N?fc, when our Church 
thus in a manner dijiratted and drunf^ with the bine of aflo- 
ni/bment, is infofada pofture \ and but few of the fons /he 
bath brought forth to guide her or ta^e her by the hand, they 
all almojt fainting and lying at the head of every (Ireet as it 
Vterefo mtny Wild bulls in a net, full of the fury of the Lord 
and of the rebuke of our God; Then (leppetb forth (the 
Spirit of the Lord coming upon him) one of her fons, the 
Author of this excellent Treatife concerning Scandal (having 
mirfe fome feriom effayes before to ta\e his mother by the 
band, though but With fmall acceptance With many of his 
Brethren , for Which, it may be, the jealous Godwas in part 
pro\>ol{ed to remote him ) whereby, 04 by his latter Will and 
Tejlament,effncially to the Miaijlers of the Qbu"ch of 'Scot- 
land, he doth again renew his formerly fruitlejfe and un* 
fuccejs full attempt : In which Treatife as there breatheth a 
far more fweet and faVoury Jfirit, than in mofl, if not all 
of the Tapers publijbed upon occafimofour late lamentable 
differences , (Which I hope Will by none behoved up on as any 
reflection ) So there is throughout a mofl ftrong and fragrant 
fmell of more than ordinary piety , that it mty be averred 
of him, as once it Was of Cyril of Jerufalem, in his Ufl and 
bestdayes, heW.ts mi%nx(m$k\mo^iX vir, a man of emi- 
nent 'fanttity ; It plainly alfo jfea\etb forth fptchl acquaint- 
ance With tb? Scriptures (for, inallhisdifcourfes (a&irs 
[aid of Bifil) he doth exquifidy mingle divine testimo- 
nies of Scripture, that they are like precious fto ies> not 
fewed to, bu: bred in purple cloathes) and intimacy With 
the mind of God, as to whatmty be duty under the Vtrious 
difenfations of his providence, So that it mty be f aid of bin, 
beW.u a mmt\\\x. had mderftandim; of thetim:s, and 
knw what 0**1 ought to do ; for he dith With ainirable 
perfpictcity ta\? up, and With no lejjt dexterity direct unto, 
IWhat ought to be done in this, and that, and the other cife, 
as a mo% s\tlfull Anatomift dijJeBing the whole complex 
hodj of duties in reference to ordinary and extraordinary cafes 


emergent*, neVer mijjiri^ 
and like a left- handed Bcnjamite, that in f&V^fflMf/f'XR 
tricacics, and graVeft difficulties can (ling flones at an hairs' 
breadth and not miflc. It fivouretb lifaife ail- along of 
a mofl Jbarp, firing and pregnant "hit, in (vpptfittg cafes, 
propofmg pertinent overtures and expedients, in ajprjwgof 
arguments, f) amwgdijlintlhns, antnipativg cljitltons, in 
tiotioM guarding again ft mi \\ aU s tna incihVtvnrces &e m 
So that it's Verified of hm %hat Mas nee /aid oj Origcn* 
Origenis irgenium ftfiheitbat ad omnia perdifcenda, 
he had fuch pregnancy of wit that he cculd reach any 
thing; and of Jofcph Scaliger, he Tl^pcitcmcfi irge- 
tiii vir, a Iran of a flupendicus wit. h diJaVerctb 
yiithall fo \ery great ir fight in Church- biflory ana Writings 
of the ancient fatbers,n herewith it is every Mberemcft beau* 
tifully illuminate, that it may Xrellbe /aid of him , <vs once 
cf /Wf Buchcltzer, that orieTtouldhaVe thought univer- 
fam antiquitatcm in ejus pcflufculo latuifie rccorduam, 
that ail antiquity lay hid in his brcaft ; and of famous 
Mr. Holland, %egim Trofcfor of (Divinity in Oxford, 
Adcofamiharis erat cum Patribus ac fi ipfe pater, He 
was fo familiarly acquainted with the Fathers as if 
himfclf had been one of them. *As for his JliU and 
manner of exprefiinghimfelf it faVouretb Very much of the 
primitive and Gcffel-fimplicity , So that nhat ufto\en to 
the commendation of Bafil by a learned man, may fitly he 
applied to the Author, The Reader will find in him a fim- 
Tle and natural form of fpeech, flowing from his holy 
breaft, much drained of all humane paflFons ; And that 
nhich u faidcf Ambrofe, he (ludied non aures titillarc, 
fed corda pungcre , rot to tickle and pleafe ears, bnt to 
prick hearts : Js UkiKife that nbicb is [aid of another 
great man, His words were, nonirflantia fed inflam- 
mantia, not inflating but inflaming: He fihe^etbbxm- 
felf here many Mayes to bcVe been indeed a great man . but 1 
( having been hu Colleague in the Miniftery and of bis Very 
intimate acquaintance for fome years ) tyerr him to be Jlcb 
wore particularly and feVeral other Kayes , So tbat mile 1 


rememoranc^BSatl baVe fet„. 
and beard from bim, I am contained to fay, as once Urba- 
nus Regius ( a man mucb more able indeed to difcem ) faid 
if Luther, upon occafion of a conference with bim, Semper 
fuic mihi ougnus, ac jam mihi maximus eft ; vidi enim 
prxfens & audivi quae nullo calamo tradi polTunt al> 
fencibus, Hewasalwayestomeagreatman, but now 
very great ; for I faw and heard things when I was 
prefent with him > which can hardly by any pen be 
communicated to tliofe that were abfenc. In a Word % 
as to tbe Whole Treatife, it may J thinly, without any hypdfc- 
bole bejaid, that it u unfrer fully moji profitable and fea- 
fonably beautiful ; Vor, in tbe firft part of it concerning 
Scandal in tbe general (excellently commended and com- 
mended as all tbe rest are > by tbe (lately- fly ling, profound 
and precious Prefaces like-minded in all tbefe things With 
tbe bleffed Author y whofe fage mind in them, and not the 
hjfe becaufe oftbti co-incidency , Would be more laid height 
upon y left We be put out of time to lament alfo the loffe of 
fuch a Healer and Tiller in thisforely fic^andjhakgn Church) 
In the firft part? I fay, tbe ancient, primitive , long-dead, 
buried , and almofl-forgotien tendernejfe in the matter of 
Offence ( a ffecially -adorning requiftt to a Chriflian and. 
Gotyel-becoming confer fation ) is again ritibed'and por~ 
traied asrifen from tbe dead With a mofl amiable and come- 
ly countenance and taking afyeit , fo that it forcetb the 
ferious beholders to fay, Peace be upon as many as Wa\ac~ 
cording to this \ule 4 In tbe fecond part concerning Scan- 
dals M they are the object of Cburch-cenfureSy there is a y>ery 
tompleat and compact directory according to the Scripture* 
pattern for Church-officers bow to manage the great Ordi- 
nance ofVifcipline in its exercife, Wblch y if it Were diligently 
andconfciencioufly followed in the federal fleps of it, ( as it 
Ibasmofl convincingly fo h the Author himfelf) tyould un- 
doubtedly make that Worf^ both much more eafte and much 
more fucces full than it ufetb ordinarily to be. In ^e third 
part concerning Scandalous Errours , Wonderfully fuited 
fo this time of Jo gnat infection, fecfyejje and mortality, by 


the raging plague and hotcb oferrour, excetdingtygdli 

a head, ripened and made to, breaf^ and run out, to the pi 

felting, in a manner, of the Very air therein the Churches i 

thefe Kations breath, by the beat and WarmneJJe afforded to it 

from a lamentable liberty andvaji Toleration ; In f to third 

part, / fay> there is, as it Mere, a fhyfcians Shop, full of 

choice preferVatiVes againft, and foVeraign remedies of, poy- 

fonable errours and herefes. In the fourth part* concerning 

Scandalous Divifions, he doth, as another Irenaeus, *itb 

much meekpeffe ofwifdom and Jingular moderation ofjpirit, 

without any the lea/i reflation or irritation, mofi tenderly , 

Jlngly,unbyaffedly and impartially, and mofi ajfettionatly } as a 

man burnt With the offence thatWaiteth on divifions amongfi 

godly Miniflers especially, ftrongly endeavour an innocent 

and whole fom union and compofure, fo that ( as an eminent 9 

aged and experienced ferVant ofjefus Qhrifi, Whofe praife is 

in the Gofpel throughout all the fe Churches, when he fir ft 

faW this *2iece in Writ, faid ) it will be unwelcom to none 

but fuch as are led with a bitter fpiric ; to which may Well 

he added, that as it's reported of Nazianzen, he was of fuch 

authority in the Greek Churches , that whofoever durft 

oppofe his teftimony, was fufpe&ed to be an Heretick t 

So may it be faid of thepioufly and prudently-peaceable, and 

healing- Spirited Author , that he deferVeth to he of fuch 

authority, at leafl in the Scotti[h Qhurch, that Whoever fhall 

adventure to oppofe ( as it's hoped none Will) to wife, harm- 

leffe, holy and healing Overtures , may be fujpeifed to be no 

great friend to the union and peace of this afflitfed and rent 

Church. I Will not, Chriftian Reader, detain thee any longer 

from perufmg this notable Trait ate , but fhall only offer to thy 

heW as (but a Very little before his Uflficknejfe, and after his 
finijhing tbt three firfi parts) mofi unexpeltedly furprifed 
With a motion fuggefteito him anent the expediency of hand* 
UngfomeWhat of the Scandal of Divifions, it didfo ex~ 
wdingly affright him } and had fuch afionifhing influence up- 


The Pablifcr f o the R - 1 

'^mnnt Ihrough the apprehended difficulty and tic\lifhnef[c of 
the fubject ( fo tender V>as be) that (as himfelf did to fome 
afterward profeffe ) he funk down in his feac, and yet 
leing convinced of the nece ffity of faying fomewhat to it the 
Lord having Vvitball helped bim in the other parts, he dursl 
not forbear ; thereupon this choke difhourfe (for it V>as not 
divided In Chapters till afterward) did follow } much thereof 
1 knoty and am perfoaded did occur and KasgiVen unto him 
incer di&andurn. The other thing is, That [onetimes be- 
fore his death to fome friends, he did humbly and gravely 
tall it his Teftamencto the Church of Scotland ; V>hhh 
Teftament and Latter- will of a dead, but yet fyeaking- 
faithfull fervant of God y Mil, I hope, in 'due time ^con- 
firmed by all godly /judicious, fober, peaceable and unpreju- 
dicatemen, as containing in it a mofl excellent and enriching 
Legacy, Worthy to be put into the Churches Treafury. Koto, 
that it may go forth Kith a rich blejjlngfrom the God of truth 
and peace t to all the hone fl-bear ted lowers of the truth in 
peace, for the advancement of truth and aholy peace, is the 
defireofbim, Ho defireth to be 

Thine to ferve thee in the 
Gofpel of Peace* 

J. c. 


The Contents. 


He rife of the Treatifc , pag. I, i. The grounds 
of it, p,2, j. 


Concerning Sc&todalintbe general, Thcfumofit* />♦ 4. 

Chap. i. 

Concerning federal distinctions of Scandal, p. 4, j, 6, 7, 84 
9,10,11,11, 13,14. 

Chap. 2. 
Holding forth what offence is not, and what it is, paiy* 
i6 2 17. 

Chap. 3. 
Concerning the fevcral wayes that offence may be given, 
p. 17, 18, 19, 10, XI. 

Chap. 4. 
Concerning that upon which offence workethj or thefcVera! 
wayes by which it is taken, p. 11, 22, 23. 

Chap. 5. 

Concerning what ought to make men loth and wary as to the 
giving of offence, p. 23, 14, 25. 

Chap. 6. 

Holding forth the difficulty to lye mainly in praSice, and 
(hewing how far offence ought to have influence on a Chriftian 
in his walk, p. 2f, 26, 27, 18, 29. 
Chap. 7. 

Shewing what the Scandal of the Pharifees or malicious 
is, and clearing feveral other important qudhons, p. 20. as, 
What is to be done when menftand not to offend us, p. 30. 
What, when the matter is lawfully and the offence doubtfully 
P* 3°» 3 ** What, if fufficient pains have been taken to inform, 
for preventing of mens taking offence ? p. 3 1, ? 2. What is to 
qij done when there is a real difference betwixt parties upon 
aadic count of a civil iutereft ? p. j 2, 3 3 ♦ What it :o be done 

when the Commands of Magiftrates and Offence are inoppo^ 
fition ? p, $4, j f . What is 10 be done when offence is like to 
follow on either fide ? p. 3 5, 36, $7. What when doing will 
offend the weak and tender, and irritate the perverfe, (& contra ? 

Chap. 8. 
Holding forth what is called-for when offences abound, in 
feveral directions, p. 40, 41, 42, 4?, 44, 45,46, 47, 48. 
Chap. 9. 
Holding forth what ought to be the carriage of Ministers 
when offences abound, p. 40, 50, 5 1,52,53,44,5 5. 


Concerning Publicise an dais, or Scandals as they are the 

objeB of Church- cenfures ; and more particularly 

astbeyareprattical, or in practice. 

Chap. 1. 
C Hewing that every offence is not publick, and when it is fo; 
O p, ^ 57, 58 When a Scandal is to be brought to publick, 
p. 58, jo* Where offences are publick, yet difference is to be 
made, p. 6o, 6 1. 

Chap. 2. 
Concerning what order is to be keeped in the following of 
publick Scandals, p. 6*1. Herein the ends of difcipline would 
be refpe&ed, which are fet down, p# 6*, 6 $. All offences of 
the fame kind not alway to be equally dealt with, p. 6j, 64* 
What is to be guarded againft when there is a different way ta- 
ken for cenfuring of the fame offences, p.64,65. How Church* 
officers ought to carry in Cenfures, p. 6i,66,6j,68> How 
Difcipline is to be ordered fo,as it may not mar, but further the 
Word, p. 69 1 70. 

Chap. 3. 

Shewing that Chrifts order and method, Mitih. i*. is to be 
keeped, and what it doth imply, p. 71, 72, 7$, 74, 75, 
Chap. 4. 

Holding forth the frame wherewith Church-officers oughc 
to proceed in Cenfure, and helps towards the fame, p. 76,77, 
78. Church-orocefles would be carried«on with expedition, 
the reafens why, p. 79. 


Chap f. 

Concerning what is to be done when offending pcrfons pj ve 
no fatisfaftion, p. 80*81, 8 a, 8$. When is a perfon to be ac- 
counted obftinate, p, 8^,84. What is to be done when an 
offence is not grofle, and yet hath contempt with itj p. 8 j . 
Chap. 6* 
Concerning what is to be accounted fatisfying as to the filling 
of procefs and removing of the offence, p. 86. What kind of 
fatisfaction is not fufficient for making a Church-judicatory to 
fiffrheir proceffes, p. 86,87. How diffembling maybe difco- 
vered when a perfon maketh offer of fatisfac"tion, p. 87. 
Chap. 7. 

Shewing what is not neceflary to fatisfaftion; where it is 
cleared, that the faving grace of repentance, orgodiy fincerity 
therein, is not the alone ground upon which Church-officers 
are to reft fatisfied* p. 88,89, 9°> 9 r J 9*» 
Chap. 8. 

Holding forth what may be fatisfying , to wit, a[ober,feriop:z 
acknowledgment of the offence, with theexpreflionofanun- 
fained-like purpofe to walk inofFenfively for the time to come, 
P- 9** 94^ How moral ferioufnefs may be difcerned, p. 94, 95^ 
If alwayes charity mould judge a perfon fincere, who is thus 
morally fcrious, p«95> 96,97,98. If not, upon whataccounc 
is this morally- ferious profeflion to be accepted as fatisfying, 
p. 99. That this moral ferioufnefs is fumcknt, confirmed by 
feveral reafons , p. 100, 101, 101,10$, 104. Some differences 
betwixt the key of Doftrine and the key of Difcipline are aft 
figned for further confirming of this, p 104 10 5, 106, 107, That 
fuch a profeflion was fatisfying for admitting to Ordinances 
amongft the Jews after uncleannefs, and therefore ought to be 
fonow, proved , p. 107, 108. 

Chap. 9. 

Concerning what is to be done when men appear neither fe- 
rious nor obitinat, p. 109. How a publick rebuke is to be 
given, / bid. If it be al wayes neceflary that the offender (peak in 
juiblick when he is rebuked, p. no. How an offender is to be 
reckoned after a publick rebuke, p. in. I fan offence may at 
firftinftant be brought to publick, p.m. When an offence ik 
to be accounted publick, p. 11^,114,1^5, 116,117. 
Chap. io. 

Clearing whether in Church-proccffts an Accufer be aiwayei 
tacceilary, p. 1 18 3 1 vj % uo» 3 1 C h a p 4 

Chap. ii. 

Concerning what is to be done when the complaint is, fome 
injury done to the complainer, p. izi, 112,113. What istobe 
done when a Calumniator, being complained of, offereth to 
make out the thing , p, ii^, 114 What if a profane confeffing 
party refufe to give fatisfaftion, p. 1*5. 

Chap 12. 

Concerning what ought to be done by private perfons, when 
Church- officers fpare (uch as are fcandalous, p 126, 117, 128. 
They are to continue in the difcharge of the duties of their fta* 
tions, and not to feparate from the communion of the Church, 
nor withdraw from the Ordinances , but to count themfelves 
exonered in holding faft their own integrity, fince their con- 
fidences are not defiled by the prefence of fcandalous perfons, as 
is cleared by fcveral pregnant arguments , p. 128, 129, 130, 
1 3 1, 1 3 1> 1 3 3, 1 ?4, 1 3 ? • For further confirming of this, there 
is a particular confederation of iCer* 11. v. 17, 18, &c. p. 136, 

Chap. 13. 

Shewing more particularly what it is that private perfons arc 
called unto in fuch a cafe, p. 141, 14 2,. Why it is neceflary K> ac- 
quiefce in the Churches determination as to pra&ice, p. 143, 
144, 147 . which is confirmed by thofe three Njw-Evglani 
Divines, Cotton, Hoofer, and Norton, p. 145, 146, 147. 
C H A P. 14. 

Clearing whether the Ordinances of Chrift be any W3y pol- 
luted by corrupt fellow- worfhippers, p.i47 } 148, 149, 150,151. 

Chap. 15. 
Shewing if any thing further in any imaginable cafe be allow- 
ed to pri vat Chriftians, p. 151, 152,153* 


Concerning® ottrinaL Scandals, or Scandalous Errors, 
Chap. i. 

HOlding forth the expediency of handling this matter,p. 1 54. 
Errour vented by thofe who are corrupted therewith, is 
noleffe fcandalous, and no leffe to be accounted fothangtoffe 
praftices, p. 155, 156. 

Chap. 2. 
Concerning the if reading of errour 5 Gods difplcafurc at 


the fuffering thereof, and the fainting even of good men in re- 
Graining the fame, p. 157. What height deluGons of this kind 
may come unto, p. 15*, 1^9. with whatufe may be made of 
the fame, p. 1 59, 160. The tolerating of groffe errour is mort 
difpleafing to God, and why, p. <6o, 16 1. Sometimes thofe 
who want not affection are too condefcending to erroneous 
Teachers, and why, p. 162, 16 $. 
Chap, 3. 
If any of the People of God may be carried away with 
groffe delufions, p. 164. It is not fimply impoffibie but 
Tome may, in a great meafure, for a time be carried a way,i£/i. 
yet not fo eafily as unto groffe practical evils, p. *6%\\66. 
When any Believers fall in fuch evils,ufually the Lord Angularly 
chaftneth them for the fame, p. 166. Ordinarily corrupt Teach- 
ers fet more upon Profeffors to withdraw them than upon others 
that want profeflion, and why, p. 167, 168, 169, 
Chap. 4. 
How it is that groffe del ufions may come to fuch an height as 
they often do, p, 170. What hand the Lord may have in fuch a 
plague, cleared, p.i 7 i 5 i 7 i, , 7? , , 74 , 1?h i 7 6,i 77 . 
Chap. f. 
How errour may be known to ! be a judicial flroke, and why 
the Lord fmiteth with it, p. 177, i 7 8, i 79 , W hat caufesdo 
molt ordinarily procure this plague of delufion, p. 180, 18*. 
Chap. 6 
By what means, and how, Satan driveth on this plague 
amongft a people, p. 182,18$. What is Sarans method of 
P™ cee ^ in g>P-*S*- Howne P rofecu "thit l p.i8 4 ,i85 J i8^l8 7 , 
188- Ihe meani and arguments that are ufed to carry on this 
dehgn, 189,190,191, 191, i 9 i. The manner how this detign 
is earned on by Satan through corrupt Teachers his emiflaricsj 
p. 194. What acceffion a people may have to the bringing of 
this plague upon themfelvcs, cleared, p. 19 j, 196. 
Chap 7# * 
What is called for as du^y in fuch a cafe, p. 196. What 
is not the proper duty or remedy in fuch a cafe ; Sure an abfo- 
lute toleration of all errours and the promoters thereof is nor, 
P» ,0 7i ! S 8 * Extreaas here are to be efchewed, p. 198)199,200. 
Chap. 8. 
When fome errours are to be forborn,p. 201. Some neceffary 
andufcfull diftinclions hereanent, p. 201, 201, 20 j, 204, <OJ f 
106 9 io 7f Some things not at all to be forborn, p. 208. 

a } Chap, 

Chap. p. 
What is called-for from Church-officers in the cafe of 
fpreading errour, p. 109. What a Minifter is called unto, in 
reference to God and himfelf at fuch a time, p. 210, m, in, 
21$, 214. Union amongft Minifters, and their flocks, is 
carefully to be ftudied in luch a cafe, p. 21 j. What is the Mi- 
nifters duty in reference to the flock in general at fuch a time, 
p. 216, 217, 218, 2tp. What is fpoken of the duty of Minifters, 
doth by proportion agree toRuling-Elders according to their 
ftation, p. »io. What is a Minifters duty in reference to 
thofe that are (educed, ibid. Tryal and difcovery is to be made 
of what errours are maintained, and by whom ; Then the party 
is to be convinced, p 222, 223. 

Chap. 10. 

Whether at all times a publick debate be neceffary with fuch 
perfons upon thefe points, p. 12$. In what cafes it is called-for, 
ibxL and p. 2 14. In what cafes it is not called-for, p. 225. 
What is to be accounted the fufficient conviction of a gain- 
fayer, where it is cleared, that it is not only the putting of 
the adverfe party to filence, p. 216, 7.27, 328. How a publick 
debate is tobe managed when ncceflary, p, 229, 230. 
Chap. ii. 

Admonition is neceffary, andiiow to be performed, p« 231, 
The feveral fteps of admonition, p, 232. Some things ob- 
fcrvableiir the way of admoniming f p. 223. That rejecting 
of anobftinate Heretick, is to Church-officers a neceffary duty, 
and a mean to be made ufe of for the Churches edification, ibiii 
and p. 134. What if the perfon (educed, be judged to be truly 
gracious, p. 234. What if he be no fixed Member of any par- 
ticular Congregation, p. * $5. What it Civil Magiftrates con- 
cur not to the backing of the Sentence, ibid, and p. 1 36. Two 
limitations to be adverted to in the rejecting of Here ticks, p, 

23d, 237. 

Chap. 12. 

What is to be accounted a fatisfying and fuccesfull admoni- 
tion, p. *3 7. Some ufefuil dittin&ions of fatisfaftion are fet 
down for the clearing of this, jfo'i. and, p. 238, 139. Whether 
any thing be required of Minifters towards thofe that are re- 
jected as Hereticks, p. 239, 

Chap* 13. 
\Nh%t is required of Magiftrates for reftraining of feducing 


/pirits, p«240. They arc called, according to their places, to 
interpofe, p. 241. They are not meerly to look to outward 
order, p. 142, 24?. That the grounds againft Toleration con- 
cern Magistrates afwell as Minifters, p. 244, 245. That total 
forbearance is not like the Gofpel, cleared, p. 246, 247- It's 
Magiflratesduty to prevent the infection of the people under 
them by corrupt doctrine, p. 147* 

Chap. 14. 

What may be juftly acknowledged to be within the reach and 
power of the Magiftrate in fuch a cafe , and fo, what is his du- 
ty, p. 248. borne Cautions premitted , ibid, and, p. 249* 
The Magiftrates duty may be confidered, frft, with refpeft to 
God, p. 249, Secondly, with refpe&to themfelves, p. 250. 
Thirdly, with refpeel: to thofe that are yet free of infection, p* 
250, 2$ r, 252, 2?$. Fourthly, with refped to the Deluders, o* 
thofe that are deluded, p. 2?4> 2??, 256. It is not fufficient 
for a Magiftrate to maintain civil peace only, p. 2 56, 257. 

Chap. 15. 

What iscalled-for from people who are defirousto keep them- 
fclvs pure in fuch a time and cafe as the increafing of errors and 
feducers, p. 15^,2^9, 260,261, What is their 3uty in refe- 
rence to the perfons infe&ed, And if they ought to refrain from 
their fellowfbip, p. 262,16$, 264. A main part of the peoples 
dutylycth in countenancing and adding weight unto the feveral 
fteps of procedure by Church-officers, againft fuch perfons, p* 
264, 26J. 

Chap. id*. 

What further duty is required of private profeflbrs towards 
Hereticks that are cut-off, p. 26 J, 266, 267, Some Confide* 
rations to provoke Minifters and others to the faithful difchargc 
of their duty in all the fore-mentioned particulars, p, 268,269* 

Concerning Scandalous ®ivifiom> 
Chap. i. 

HOw HereGe, Schifm and Divifion differ , together with 
the feveral kinds of DiviGon, p. 270. The Introduction to 
to this Part, ibid. The Scandal and hurtfulneffe of Divi- 
fions, p. 271% The headsof this part of the Treatife , p. 27 2. 
a 4 Wha 

What Hcrefie is, ibid. What Schifm is, and the kinds thereof, 
p. 17}, 174* »7^ 2 7^> l 77- What is here meant by the word 
Viujion, the feveral kinds thereof, p. 178, 279, »8o. Divifion 
amongft the godly is a thing incident to the Church, p. 28 1. 
It may continue long and come to a great height, ibid. It is not 
eafily removed even when amongft fuch, p. 182. 

Chap. 2. 

Whence Divifibns do arife, and how they are foftered and in« 
crcafed , p. 281. Sometimes various apprehenfions of inferi- 
our truths have influence upon this , ibid. Sometimes the 
miftake of fome difpenfations, p« 28$. Sometimes different 
apprehenfions about perfons and things, ibid, and p, 284 ufu- 
ally heart-burnings at the credit of others, ibid, aggregingthc 
infirmities of others, p. *8 5. A factious vindicating of truth, 
ibid and p, 286. Undue cenfures, ibid, Leaving the matter t 
and falling upon refledions, p. 287. Studious engaging of 
others in the difference* ibid* Too much liking of corrupt men, 
becaufe of fome fair pretences, p. 2 8 8. Peremptorinefs without 
condefcending, ibid. Diflatisfadion about fome perfons, iWi. 
Encroachment upon the exercife of one another* power, p, 289, 
Much medling in extrinfick things, ibid. Novelty of notions 
and expreffions, ibid m 

Chap. 3. 

The height of evil that divifion bringetk, p. 290. as, heat 
and contention, ibid. Alienation in affedion, ibid. Jea- 
loufie and fufpicion, p. 291. Virulent expreffions, ibid. Per- 
gonal reflections, and condemning what formerly they com- 
mended in each other, & contra, ibid. Imprecations and in- 
fh'gations of the Civil Magifinteagainft one another, p. 291. 
Inflicting of (harp cenfures, ibid* Renting of whole Churches, 
ibid. Heat and fury amongft their refpedive followers, ibid. 
Furious madneffe of Divines , ibid. Diverfion of them from 
their main woik to the great advantage and fatisfadion of 
open adversaries, p. 29$. Both fchifm and hercfie often fol- 
low divifion, ibid. Both fides of the divifion are often faulty 
though not equally, 294, Divifion is yery hardly curable, ibid* 

Chap. 4. 

Thecaufes why divifion ulually cometb to fuch an height, 
p. 29 <• The Lord hath an holy foveraign hand in this, partly 
trying both good and bad , chaftifing alfo and pnniftung, ibid. 
yea, plaguing the world thereby , p. 296. \ Diyifion burdeneth 



ifcc godly, ibid. It hardcneth the adverfaries of the Truths 
p. 197. Some character* of judicial divifion, ibid, and p. 298. 
Men engaged in this divifion may have acceflion to it fe vera! 
wave-, p. 299. a , by former guiltinefs, ibtd. prefent diftem- 
pers, ibid. inconfiderat expreffions oc actings, p, $co. Too 
great U verity in Difcipline andCenfures, ibid. Sleighting of 
the pcrfons. writings or actings of others, ibid* Hunting after 
credit, ibid. Little condefcending to remove miftakes and pre- 
judices, ibid. Acts that lhte a Schifm, ibid, which are of fe- 
veral forts, p. $01. Some other wayes by which men may 
have acceflion to chis, ibid. 

C H A P. 5. 
What occafionall means may have influence upon divifion 
amongft the godly, p, 302. Tale- bearers, ibid, fears of Cen- 
fures in many, p. $04. Civil Powers may have influence upon 
this by pretending to fide with one party againit another, and 
by their weakning of Government and giving men liberty to do 
what they wi Ajbid. Peoples engaging 3nd Tiding in fuch diffe* 
rences doth not a little heighten and lengthen the fame, p« 304. 
Applications to Magistrates for ratifying or crushing of electi- 
ons,^/*/. Mifcari3gesofperfons differing, p. 30;, Occurring 
difpenfations of providence, are fometimes made ufe of for this 
end, p \o6. The itrength or the tentation inrefpectof fome 
other circumftances, As perfonal credit acting under the covcrc 
offcealforGod,p. $07. Evil grounded confidence, ibid. A 
judging of the matter in difference to be neceflary and of great 
moment when ir may yet be far otherwayes, p. 308. A par- 
ticular miftake of mens perfons and actions as they agrf c with, 
or differ from them, ibid. A conviction of finglenefs in pro- 
fecutingand adhering, p. 309. fear of lofing credit by relent- 
ing, p.$ 10. fear of hurting their refpective followers, p.uu 
Tfte tentation flrengthned,by looking upon the failings of op* 
pofits, ibid, and by the hope of the ceding of others, ibid. 

Chap. 6. 
What be the fad effects of divifion, and the necellity of endea* 
vouring unity, p. $*2, 31$, The neceffity of endeavouring 
unity, granted by all, ibid, and p.jM, 

Chap. 7. 
General grounds leading to unity, p. 514* The cure of di- 
vifion moil difficult, ibid. An abfolute neceflity laid upon a 
*em Church to unite, p. 3 1 j> j t6. Union a thing attainable 



fcm&ngft orthodox Divines or Minifters, p. $t£, J17, En- 
deavouring union doth not infer union in all points of judge- 
ment and pr'&ice, but may ftand with feveral defects, p. hj 3 
£18, $19. Union may ftand with fome defe&s in Worfhip, 
and manner of Government, p. $19. With what kind of de- 
feds anion may be midc up, cleared in feveral Rules, p. 310, 
a 2 1, } » 2. When inconveniencies are on all hands, what fide 
is to be followed, cleared, p. $21, Ji?. What may be accoun- 
ted fuch impediments as a tender confeience may be feared by 
from uniting, cleared, p. $ 2 $ , $ 1 4. Mutual condefcending at 
fucba time in a fpecial manner neceflary, p. 3*1. Wherein 
there muft be no condefcending, p. $ 1 5 . Condefcenfion ought 
to be mutual, r&ii. What fide ought to be molt condefcending , 
even that which is right and hath Authority, ibil. and p. 
316. They who did the wrong, ordinarily moftaverfe from 
condefcending, p. $ \6. Thofe who have condefcended molt, 
fcave alvyayes been thought the greateft friends to the Church, 
ibid. Yeelding in all particulars that do not involve any con« 
fent unto, or approbation of what is wrong, commendable, p« 
Si**, ;i3. Some negative Conclufions concerning the up- 
making of a breach 5 as, divifion not to be cured by deftroying 
any orthodox fide or party, p. $29. Divifion not to be cured 
by incapacitating any profitable Officer or Member to do his 
duty, ibid, Union not to be ftudied with any note of difrefpeel: 
upon either fide, ibid. No (imply authoritative way is the fie 
mean to begin the healing of a rent Church, p. $ 19, $$0. 
Though one fide fail in condefcending , the other ought not 
to fail, but to go the furtheft warrantable length, p. $ $o, $ $ c. 
Better any orthodox fide be practically condefcended unto in the 
fuppofed cafe than that divifion mould be keeped up, p 3 ; 1, 
It was the actings and not the formality of the conftitutiun of 
Synods that occafioned divifions of old, p« { ? * , g ? ? - Abates 
concerning Government moil difficultly removed, and whence 
it cometh to be lb, p. $$4. 

Chap» 8. 
Some preparatory endeavours for uniting, p.$$?. Walking 
under an imprefiion of the dreadfulneiTe of fuch a plague, ibii* 
and p. ^6. Divifion would be looked upon as having a fear- 
full (hare in it, p. $ } 6, $ $ 7 . Minifters and others wsuld di* 
ligently view their own inward condition, p. 5 57. There 
would be repentance lui table to what is found 9 p. $ 3 3, Union 


O N 

would by all warrantable means be commended unto, and prefl 
fed upon, thofe tbac differ, and by thofe that differ, one upon an- 
other, ibid The defign of union would be profecuted with 
fingleneffc and conftancy, p. <$o. Union would be endea- 
voured with all tenderneffe and refp^A to the pcrfons, actions 
and qualifications of men differing , ibid, and p. 3 40, Several 
particulars wherein this refpeft would be manifefted, fpoken 
unto, p. $ 41. ^ would be further manifefted in expreflions 
of mutual confidence, p, 541. kind vifits, ibid, abftainingof 
per(on3l rtfle&ions, even though there be much provocation 
given, ibid* ami p. ?4*. Infuch a cafe Ministers would in a 
fpecial manner ftir up themfci ves and others to the life and pra« 
ftice of R-ligion, p. ^44. There would at fuch a time be fo- 
lemn addreffes to God for his leading in the way to this defi- 
rable end, ibid* 

Chap. 9. 

What things are to be forborn in order to uniting » p. }4f« 
All things that weaken the reputation of others to be avoided, 
ibid. Evil counfel would be taken heed to 5 neither at fuch a 
time in this bufinefs would ail mens advice be indifferently 
laid weight upon, p. $46, $ 47- There would be a forbearing 
to engage judicially fro or contraband why, p. ^48^49, There 
would be abftaining from propagating different opinions facti- 
oufly, and why, p. $49> 3*o* All contrary afting would be 
abftamed, p. ^51. Separated meetings to be efchewed, and fe- 
parated fa lis, ibid. Ads and puncipks laying reftraints upon 
.either fide, would be abftained, p. $ s 2, 

Chap* 10. 

Wh3t is ro be done in order to uniting, p. $ { ii There would 
be a leeking after meetings and conferences, ibid. In fuch meet- 
ings there would be an offer made of fair conditions, p. $f$. 
There would be a right way of carrying-on fuch meetings, p. 
3 5 ?> $ f 4« Contentions about formalities, as alfo perfonal cri- 
minations, would be foiborn at fuch meetings, p. 3 5 4. There 
would be condefcending in fome circumftances though they 
(hould not fecm fo reafonible, p. $5 j. The moft tender of the 
Church moft condefcending , ibid and, p. $ 56. 
Chap. ii. 

What is to be dene in clofing doctrinal differences, p. $?7? 
The^r/iway of clofing doftrinall differences, when one par- 
ty bringeth the other to the fame judgement with them 1 

or , when both parties quit fomething of extremities , and 
joyn in a middle opinion, p. $?7- The (econd way of compo* 
fing fuch differences, by endeavouring to keep unity notwith*. 
ftanding thereof, by a mutual forbearance in things contro. 
verted, which is of two forts, p. 3?V??9- The*Wr4way 
of compofing fuch differences, is 9 When though there be fome 
medling with fuch queftions , and fo a fecn difference, yet it 
is with fuch forbearance as there is no fchifm nor divifion, but 
that is (erioufiy and tender J y prevented, p. 560,361, 361. 

Chap. 12. 

What to be done for union in points not doctrinal , but about 
matters of fad or perfonal faults, p. 3 6 }. Contefls about thefe 
are of feveral forts, As fometimes there is diflatisfa&ion with 
the conftitution of a Church as to its Officers and Members, 
ibid, and p. 364. A fecond fort of fuch contefts, is, when faults 
are alleaged, which either are not true, or cannot be proven, p, 
364, 365. Athirdforc of fuch contefts, is, whenthere i% a 
pleading for fuch perfons as arejuftly cenfured, or ccnfurable, 
p. 366. There is a threefold way of compofing thefe lad con- 
tefts, t. by clearing the juitnefs of the Sentence, 1, by recal- 
ling the Sentence when the perfon may be profitable, ibid. 
3»By the fentenced perfons Submitting themfelve*, p. ^Oy. 
A fourth fort of conteils of this kind is, when there are mutual 
upbraidings for failings in a time of darknefs and tentation, 
ibid Thefe moil fatisfyingly removed by forgiving one ano- 
ther, ibid* 

Chap. 13. 

What is to be done towards uniting in divifions arifing from 
diverfity of circumftances in external adminiftrations,and efpe- 
cially arifing from Church-government, p. 368. Condefcen- 
dency in fuch things, necefTary, p. 368, 399. In fuch things 
better to forbear fome new thing , than to alter the old, without 
fome confiderable rea(on,x'Wrf. Divifions about Church- govern- 
ment ordinarily moft bitter, and of many kinds, ibid* Con- 
cerning the form of Government, p 3 70- Practical difference 
herein maketh divifion, ibid. Characters of Governmentfic 
for uniting, p. 471,371. Debates about the Conftitution of 
Synods, p.37^. Defects in the constitution of a Synod, will not 
cafily annul without defect in the matter, ibid. In ancient 
Councils foundnefs of matter more regarded than formality or 



number, jfr/i, and, p. 374. What (hould be done for nntom 
when divifion arifeth about the conftitution of a Synod, p. } 7 $. 
It would be confidercd how little ulefull the thing controverted 
is, as to the Churches edification, ibid, and $76+ Thisdifto 
rencc is either in judgment and maybeforborn, p. $76. or, it 
relateth to practice » and Co fomewhat is to be tolerated, and 
fome what done, p 377, 378. What ufually hath beendonc 
when Authority was declined, p. $79. There is great diffe- 
rence betwixt declining of fynodical Authority fimply, and the 
conflitution of a particular Synod, p. 380, 

Chap. 14. 

What is to be done in order to union when divifions are about 
i'M final Determinations, p. 5 S 1 . Such Determinations are here 
understood as are in Doctrines not fundamental nor near the 
foundation, ibid. Some of which are meerly doctrinal, ib'iJL 
Others have practical confecjuents following upon them, fome 
of which again infer divifion, others but diver(ity,p.$ 8 2. Some 
determinations are of things daily practicable, others only 
for an exigence fear cely ever again occurring, p. $83. Some 
determinations are forMinifters practice, others are anfwers to 
the queftions of Rulers, p* $ 84. Meer doctrinal decifions about 
fmaller points, ought to make no divifion, p. 38?, $86,387. 
How the fmaller number mould in fuch decificnsyeeld to the 
greater, cleared, p.387, 388. 

Chap. 15. 

What mould be done in order to union about fuch decifions 
as have practical confluents following thereupon, p. $88. 
Contrary practices build a wall of fcparation , p. 389. There 
may bediverfity without divifion, ibid. It is great folly to 
make, or keep up'divifion for what is rarely or never practi- 
cable, ibid. Union is not impoflible notwithftanding diverfity 
of judgment, And though neither party mould acknowledge 
any offence, p. 390^ 391, What to be done when the decifion is 
a fimple declaration of the lawfulnefs of a thing, and where 
the matter determined concerneth fuch practices as actually are 
to be performed but in fome extraordinary cafe by civil powers, 
cleared, p. 392, 3^, 394. 

Chap. 16. 

The remedies of divifions arifing from the rnifa implication of 
Power inOidinatioo of MinUters,andadwttiflgunco,orcc- 


barring from, comnaunion, p. $9?. The ordination of a per* 
fon worthy of the Miniftery, ordained by Church-officers, it 
hot to be accounted null for Come defe&s , ibid. Union would 
not be fufpended upon the tryal of the worthiness or unwor* 
thinefs of fome perfons , but the rather endeavoured, that fuch 
tryals may be the better comparted, p. $96, 397. What to be 
done where there are contrary Ordinations, cleared, p. J97, 

Chap. ij. 

Remedies of divifions arifiog from the mifapplication of 
power, incenfuringorfparingMinifters, real or (uppofed, p* 
309, In what cafes extremities hcreanent are to be efchewed, 
ibid. Church- judicatories their wife remitting of rigour, of 
great advantage in fuch a cafe, p. 400. Corrupt, or grofle and 
profane men for no interpolation to be received, p. 40 1 . How 
to carry when debate falieth to he about conniving at guilty 
men, p. 40 %. Union is the rather to be followed r hat fatif. 
faction in this may be attained, p. 405, In times of divifion* 
rumours efpecially concerning eminent perfons, not* fo to be re- 
garded, p. 404. Zeal in juftly- centering, well confident with 
a (pirit of union, ibid. Yet union is to be preferred to the 
cenfuringof fome unfaithful I men , p*4o*. Union no pre- 
judice to the purging-out of corrupt Minifters, ibid, and, p* 
406. Purging not to be fo vehemently prefled till union be 
fixed, p. 406, 407. 

Chap» 18. 

The fears of mifgovetnment for the time to come, and .the 
remedies thereof, p. 408. The difference here, is either anent 
the perfons that are to govern, p. 409. or anent the ordering 
of things that may fall out, p. 410. The fatisfadtion here mull 
be fuch as neither party is fully fatisfied, ibid. The abftaining 
t>f union, will not prevent the inconveniences upon either fide, 
p 411. The thing feared in this cafe, is not the bringing- in 
of new Do&rine, nor a wrong Government, ibid Union is 
not to be fufpended till there be fatisfaction in every particular, 
p. 41 2, Some particulars to be referred to fome perfons accep* 
table to both fides, who may be trufted with the decifion of 
them, ibid, and, p. 41$ Such things are not to be decided 
by a meer authoritative way, ibid, and, p. 414. Better for a 
time to forbear many things, than to brangte union, p. 414* 
Doubtfull practices to be abftained in fuch a cafe, p. 41 u 


There would at fuch a time be many brotherly conferences for 
preventing of abrupt furprifals by things moved in Judica- 
tories, ibid. » Matters of difficulty rather to be committed to 
fome deputed perfons, than inftantly decided , "and why, p. 
416. It is not unfit fome perfons be defigned to compofe fucfa 
occafional differences as may arife, ibid, and, p. 417.. Thi* 
rendeth to recover flrength to Judicatories, p. 418. And is 
confiftent with Miniftcrial Church-authority, ibid., and, p« 
419. The great Apoftle often Iayeth afide authority, ibid. Se- 
veral other reafons alfo are brought to prove the confiftency, 
ibid, and, p. 410. 

Chap. 19. 
Some Advertifments concerning the Overtures propofed , p* 

Chap. 20. 

What is incumbent to Magiftrates and People for remedying 
this evil, p. 41 J, 414. 

Chap. ax. 

The grounds and motives of the defired union, p # 41^41^, 
4x7*4^8, 4i9,4? >4?»»4^' all pertinently, pathetkkly and 
pungently propofed and prefied. 

If there be any thing in the Colle&ion and frame 
of thefe Contents uvfuitable to- or unxonrtU* 

of thefe Contents unfuitable to 9 or unworthy 
of the precious Author , let it net be imputed 
to him % but to the Pnbhfher. 

S R R A T J. 

B ^ % A T A. 

Tag. tin* redd 

3$ *6 Jews for hearers 

41 10 an for and 

4? tilt aide, after taken 

46* 34 way/«f may 

60 32 light for like 

96 24 not to be 

S7 M evident 

100 6 recovering 

ibid 3* an for one 

ii} *7 dele it 

1*6 4 tfrfie, after thefe 

153 « * poffible 

160 55 ddde: after emrcd in 3°* 

P4g. toe read 

205 j one /or ail 

210 3$ his /or this 

219 4 alfe /w alfo 

228 11 for tbelajl an, one 

234 3 commended 

247 14 hath not made 

2$ 1 3 burying for burning 

16 1 j 1 rf<?/eand 

172 4 <k/o 2. 

189 7 ^if, after others 

*9 8 1 1 croffes for cafes 

joo $6 in for one 
27 fugg^ft^d 
* aim for mind 
^ notaswhatagreeth 

337 11 conftruftions 

339 3° of others 

3 * * l8 where /of when 

360 21 t he others 

ifoi 36 writings /. meetings 

377 1 par , After debating 

39* 5 dele &c. 


166 2 it for 10 

167 27 many /or away 
1 63 4 leavening 
171 10 Kom 1. 2i,<y<?. 
176 27 attw.4. 1 *^ 
19 J » 2 Cor. 
*97 4 Gal. 1-9* 
204 18 unto /or too 
ftii 27 alfe /or alfo 

p 4 g # J85 in the mat gent, read war forworn 

Any other fuch or ieffer cfcapes thou wilt eafily help as thou 
goeft through* 

The Rife of this following 
Treat i s e. 

~J|jAving had occafion to confider the 
" Book of the Relation, and being on 
the Epiftle to the Church of Pergamos 
in the fecond Chapter , ground was 
given to fpeak fomewhat of Scandal, 
by reafon of feveral do&rines clearly 
arifing from that place : upon this 
occafion I did firft effay the writing of fbmething of 
the do&rine of Scandal in general, intending only to 
have fpent a (heet or two thereupon, as elfewhere 
on forne other fybje&s : When this was brought to 
a dole, I found the place to give ground to fpeak of 
publick Church-offences, as they are the objeft of 
Church-difcipline and Cenfures * And being con* 
vinced , that that fubjeft was not impertinent to be 
fpoken of> I yeelded to fpend fome thoughts upon ic 
alfo, which did draw to a greater length than at firft 
was intended, or was fuitable for a digreflion : This 
being finiihed, as it is, and any moe thoughts of this 
fubjccHaid by, it occurred again to me to think of 
do&rinal Scandals > or of fcandalous Errors ; And 
confidering that theScandals,mentioned in that place, 
are of fuch nature , and that fuch are Very frequent 
in this time , I yeelded alfo to put together what 
thoughts the Lord would furniflh concerning the 
fame ; whereupon followed the third part of this 
Treat ife. When this was even at the doling, there 
was a fourth pare of the fame fubjeft that did occur 
B Mi 

to me to be thought on, which before that had never 
been minded , and that was concerning fcandalous 
Church-divifions : To this my mind and inclination 
was exceeding avetfe at fir ft , as knowing it not only 
to be difficult in it fdf to be medled in, but alfq ex- 
ceedingly above mc , who am altogether unfuitable 
to hazard on fuch a fubjeft : Yet,con(idering ?he rife 
of the motion, and how the Lord had helped- through 
the other parts, I did refolve to condefcend to follow 
it, at leaft fo far, till it might appear what was His 
mind to mc therein, and accordingly did follow it till 
it came to the period (whatever it be)that now it is at. 
This is the true rife and occafion of this Treatifc, 
and of the feveral parts thereof, and therefore I have 
continued its entry in the original mould thereof, to 
wit, in laying down fome general do&rines from that 
place of Scripture , and if there be afterward any 
more particular relation to the fecond and third chap- 
ters of the Revelation than to other Scriptures, this 
fimple narration of the rife thereof may fatisfie any 
concerning the fame : whereof we (hall fay no more, 
but, firft , lay down the grounds of all from that text, 
and then proceed in theTreatife , which is divided in 
four parts, upon the reafons formerly hinted at. 

The Grounds of this Treatifc. 

( A Mongft other things that troubled the Church 
f\ in the primitive times, Scandal, oxjffence, was a 
•*■ *■ chief one ; and the many direftions that are 
given concerning it , and the reproofs that are of it, 
(hew that it is a main piece of a Chriftians conver- 
fatton to walk rightly in reference thereto, and a 
great evidence of loofneffe where it is not heeded. 
On ver« 6. we (hew that this was a foul fault of the 
Nicolaitans to be carcleffe of offending , or of giving 
of offence, and not to regard Scandal ; and here the 
Lordholdeth it forth tobefo, by comparing it with 


A Trtafijrmtimng ilANDJrtf. 11 ^» 

Balaam's pra6lice> ver. 14* which it aggreaged f roni 
this, that he taught fidae t$ lay a /iumbling-bloc^ be- 
fore lfraei From which thefe do&rioes may be ga- 
thered, 1. That there is fuch a fault incident to men 
in their carriage, even to lay (tumbling- blocks before 
others, and to offend them. 2. That men ought to 
walk Co as not to offend others , or fo, as to lay no 
ftumbling-block before them : So that it is not 
enough not to ftumble themfelves, ( if this could be 
feparated from the other ) but alfo they ought to be 
carefull not to ftumble others. 3. The Lord doth 
take fpecial notice how men do walk in reference to 
others in this, and is highly provoked where He 
(eeth any guilty of it. 4. The devil hath ever endea- 
voured to have offences abounding in the Church, 
ind to make fome lay fuch ftumbling- blocks before 
cyhers. 5. It is moft hurtfull to the Church, and dc- 
ffruftiveto fouls where offences abound, and men 
walk not tenderly in reference to thefe ; fo that the 
Lord expreffeth it with a twofold wo, Mattb. 18. as 
being a wo beyond fword or peftilence- 6. We 
may gather, that corrupt do&rine never wanteth of- 
fences joyncd with it , and that ordinarily thofe who 
fpreadthat, arcuntender in this. 7. Thatoffences 
often accompany the rife and beginning of any work 
of Chrift's amongft a people , thefe tares of offences 
are ordinarily then fown. 8. That fome offences arc 
of a publick nature , and that Church-officers Giould 
take notice of fuch, and that it is offenfive toChrift 
when they are over-feen and not taken heed unto. 4 
9. Church-officers, even fuch as other wayes are ap- 
proved in their carriage and minittery* may fall ifct 
this fault , as by comparing the Epiftles to rergamos 
and Tbyatira, is clear. 10. When Officers fall iu 
this fault, it is yet no reprovable thing in members 
that are pure in refpc6l of their own pcrfonal carriage 
to continne in communion with fuch a Church, the 
Ordinances othervvayes being pure. 


>al. Parti. 


The fum of it. 

THefe do&rins being in the words, and Scan- 
dal being a great part of the challenge of 
the Nicolaitans, or at leaft a great aggrava- 
tion of their challenge , and alfo being a 
moft neceffary thing for a Chriftian's daily walk, to 
be carefully taken heed onto, there is ground here to 
fpeakto the fame, ( in a time efpecially wherein of- 
fences abound) and that in refpeft of what is callcd- 
fbr, both in private perfons and in Church- judica- 
corics ; on of private fcandals, and fuch as are pub- 
lick. We (hall draw what we would fay of the firft 
totbefefive, i. To (hew what zn offence is* 2. To 
fhew how it is given. 3. To (hew fome confedera- 
tions that ought to deter from giving of it* 4. To 
(hew what weight it ought to have on a Chriftian in 
his walk. S« Point at fome direftions neceffary to 
be adverted unto when offences are rife and multiply. 

Several Diftinttions o/ScandaV 

■■Of clearing of the firft two, we (hall premit fome 
diftinftions; and we would advert, that by 
offence here, is not underftood that which doth 
a&ually difpleafe or grieve another alway : for there 
is a great difference betwixt difpleafing and offend- 
ing; as alfo betwixt pleafing and edifying : for, one 
may be difpleafed, and yet edified ; well fatisfied,and 
firfltDu yet offended. Firft then, we are to diftinguifh be- 
ftinttion, wix< difpleafing and offending; for# here offence is 



Part I • A Treatife concerning SCANDAL. 

taken in oppofition, not to a man's being pleafed, but 
to his edification ; and fo offence or (tumbling in 
ftort here, is fomething that doth, or may mar the 
fpiritual edification of another* whether he be pleafed 
or difpleafed > as by comparing %w. 14. ver. 13, 
with ver* 20, and 2 1. is clear : for what he firft cal- 
leth a ftumbling-block, or an offence* heexpoundeth 
it afterward to be any thing that may be the occafion 
of a fall to another, and make him ftumble, or weak, 
or to halt in the courfe of holineffe, as fome block 
would hinder or put a man in hazard to fall in the 
running of a race ; And from this is the (imilitude 
drawn inthisphrafe. 

2. Scandal is either given only, or taken only, or Second<Di m 
both* Given only, is, when one doth lay (omc\hm% (linttion. 
before another which is apt of it felf to caufe him fall 
or fin; although the other do not fall by occafion of 
it, yet if it be induftive to fin of its own nature, it is 
an offence or ftumbling- block, as Chrift faith to 
Peter, Mattb. 16. Thou art m offence tome ; though 
there was nothing could flick to Him, yet that was 
in its nature fuch, which ^eter had given Him in ad- 
vice. 2. It is taken only , when no occafion is given, 
but when a man doth what is not only lawfull, but 
neceflary , and yet others from their own corruption 
do carp thereat, and ftumble thereon : Thus did the 
Pharifees offend at Chrift, Mattb. 15* 12. who did 
never give offence to any; and this is common to 
wicked men, that ftumble where no ftumbling-block 
Mj and, as it is faid, they fyoVb not thereat they ftumbk % 
2Vol\ 4. 19. This alfo is called paffiite offence, as the 
other is called attiVe. 3. It is both given and taken, 
when there is fomething aftive on the one fide, that 
is apt to draw another to fin, and fomething that is 
yielded unto on the othcrfidcand the bait is accepted; 
This was it in that ftumbling-block which Balaam 
laid before lfrael\ and thus ordinarily it is amongft 
men , vvho, haying corruption, are fbon inflamed in 
B J leffc 

$ A Treattfe concerning Scandal! Part i ? 

lcfle or more with every incitement. Thus, Gal i* 
Peter gave tiarnabat offence, and he took it, when he 
was alfo carried away to diflemble. It is this aftive 
Scandal that properly is to be enquired in, and is 
meant here, which is,in fhort, any deed or word that 
in it felf is apt to make another to fin , or to weaken 
them in their fpiritual courfc, either in refpeft of life, 
or comfort , and that whether the perfon be actually 
flumbled or not , or whether the perfon a&ually in- 
tend offence or not. In all this we are to understand, 
that one aft may be offenfive in many confederations, 
as one deed may be againft many commands, and be 
many wayes finfull. 
Third 3* There are doftrinal offences, and there are fome 

V)i[iinftion. ^ ac are practical r do&rinal, arefuchas flow from 
"matters of judgement, wherein men vent fomc un- 
truth, and fo lay a ftumbling-block before others, 
this is to break a Commandment and to teach others 
fo to do, Matth. 5. 19. And this is fometimes alfo in 
matters of praftice, when a corrupt pra&ice is de- 
fended, as thefe Wcolaitans ftrove to do theirs* Scan- 
dallin pra&ice, without any do&rinal defence, is, 
when doftrinc being kept pure, a perfon fallcth in 
fome praftice, that of it felf without any verball cx- 
preflion, isindu&ive to fin. Thus VaVid's adultery 
was a fcandal: and this was the fault of the Priefts, 
that made the people flumble at the Law : And thus 
every pubhek or known irregular aftion is offenfive, 
becaufe it is of ill example to others , or otherwife 

f may have influence on them to provoke to fome fin. 

fourth 4- We may diflinguifh offences according to the 

Qijlinhion, m *tter thereof. And, 1 ♦ fome are in matters that 
'arefimply finfull in themfelves, and have this alfo 
following on them : Thus all errors and publick fin- 
full pra&ices are offenfive. 2. Some matters are not 
fimply and in themfelves finfull, yet have the appea- 
fanccof evil, iTbeJf.f.ij. and thus dangerous and 
doubtfuUocpreflionsindoftnne, thathaye been, or 


Part i • A Trtattfc concerning Scanda ET" 7 

ufe to be, abufed ; and pra&iccs alfo that are not be- 
coming that honefty and good report which a Chri- 
ftian ought to ftudy, as it is Vbthp. 4. 8, 9. arc offen- 
fivc. In the firft refpeft , VaVui would not take the 
name of Idols in his mouth, Pfal. 16. becaufe others 
did too much reverence them : Of the lalt fort was 
Ttf^diflimulacion and withdrawing , Gal. 2. be- 
caufe, that appeared to ttrengthen the opinion of the 
continuing of the difference betwixt Jew and Gen- 
tile, &c for that caufe, taul would not circumcifc 
Tim, Gal. 1. 3. and did condemn eating in the Idol- 
temples. ?. Some offences are in matters otherwife 
lawfull and indifferent, though not neceffary, asthq 
eating of, or abftaining from meats, or what was 
offered to Idols in the primitive times, which was in- 
different to be done in the houfe of an Heathen, and 
fo was fometimes lawfull, but was not indifferent to 
be done in the Idol-temple , becaufe that had the ap- 
pearance of evil, as if he had had fome refpeft to the 
Idol ; nor was it to be done, if any weak Brother had 
been at table in the houfe, becaufe it grieved him, 
1 Cor. 8, and 10. It is thefe lafl two, ( and more efpe- 
cially the third) that are concerned in the doftrine of 
offences properly, and do rather arife from circum- 
ftances in the thing , as time , place , perfon, man- 
ner, &c. than from the deed considered in it felf. 

5. We may diftinguifh them in refpeft of the in* -Eifth ©i- 
tent of the work, or of the workers fome things may ftinffion* 
be offenfive in themfelves as fo ctrcumftantiated, and 
yet not be fo to the perfon that may give offence by 
them > I mean , not be efteemed fo ; and thus was 
Meters offence which he laid before Chrift, Maitb.16. 
And fometimes the perfon may intend the others ad- 
vantage, and yet may offend and (tumble him, as EH 
intended his fonsgood, but really by his too gentle 
reproof did (tumble them by confirming them in 
their offence ; And thus fome, by unfeafonable re- 
proofs or Qenfuresi and commendations alfo, mayre- 
B 4 ally 

* t ATreatijeconcer>nngScKKT>\Li Parti. 

ally make another worfe , although they intend the 
Sjxflb pi- 6. Whence arifeth another diftin&ion of offences* 
fltnfttw* y>i% : from the matter of apradtice, or from the man- 
ner of performing of it > or the circumftances in the 
doing of it : for, as it is not an a# materially good 
that will edific, except it be done in the right man- 
ner ; fo will not an a& materially good keep off of- 
fence, if it be not done tenderly, wifely, &c« And 
often we find circumftances have much influence on 
offence, as times, perfons, places, manner, &c. for, it 
isnotoffenfivetoone to pray or preach, butatfome 
times, as before an Idol, or on an Holy-day it may 
be offenfive. 
Seventh 7. As fins are diftinsiufhed in fins of omiflion 
fyiflinBion and eommiflion > So offences may be diftinguifhed 
alfo : for : feme give offence when they fwcar, pray 
irreverently, &c others> when there is no feeming 
rcfpe6^ to prayer at all, in the very form ; for this 
foftereth profanity as the other doth : And for this 
Daniel will open his window , left he fhould be 
thought to have forborn prayer : and this offence of 
omiflion, or omiffive offence* is not guarded againft 
only by doing what is duty, except there be alfo a 
doing of it fo as conveniently, and as becomes it may 
be known to be done , as in the former inftance : and 
this^^.6.9. is called the boldingoftbe Tejlimony ; and 
it is this mainly that is edifying to others , when the 
light of holineffe doth (hine ; and when that is vailed, 
others in fo far have darknefs to walk in,and fo it is as 
to them an occafion to ftumble, becaufe they hold not 
forth the li&ht unto them ; but ft ill this is to be done 
without affeftation or oftentation, left a new offence 
fhould follow thereupon. 
Eighth 8. Some offences contrare the graces of Gods 
tyijiintfion People, and thefc make them fad; fome fofter cor- 
ruptions, and thefe are too pleafant : thus, foft re- 
proofs, corrupt advices, flatteries, &q minifter matter 
to many to fall on, 9, 

Parti. -A Trcatife concerning^ c andai, 9 

9. Some offence* may be called per fonall, whena Nitfffc©** 
pcrfon committeth them in his private carriage, that ftin&lon. 
is, when his way of eating, drinking, living, &c. 
offendeth others , although he hath no medling with 
them, but live retiredly : Some again arc more dircft 
otrences ( as the firtt are indire6t and confequential ) 
that is>which flow from men in their publick aftings, 
or in their mutual convcrfe with others, which have 
more dircft influence to offend. 

10. Offences may be difhnguifhed as they hurt Tentbpi- 
folks either by pleating them in their corruptions and [Unttioru 
ftrengthening them in what is finlull, or when they 

hurt by irritating and ftirring up corruptions to vent. 
In thefirft refp.dt, too much gentlenefle in admoni- 
tions, rafhnefle or imprudence in commendations of 
what is good in one, or extenuation of what is evil, 
corrupt advice, and fuch like, do offend: Thusja- 
nadab offended Amnan, 2 Saw* 13. and Eli his fbns* 
Inthelaft, fleightingofmen, wronging of them, or 
not condeicending to remove a vcrong , or to vindi- 
cate our (elves, if there be a fuppofed wrong, doth 
grieve and offend ; fo do evil-grounded reproofs, or 
unadvertent admonitions that are not fcafoned with 
love> hard reports, &c. • 

11. We may confider offences with refpeft to the Eleventh 
party offended; and lo,firft, we offend friends in ma- $)jjlinBion 
ny refpe6^s, whom, it may be, we would not defire to 

grieve, yet unadvertingly we ftumble them, and hurt 
their fpnitual condition by unteuchfulneffe to them, 
carnalnefle in converfing with them,fiding with their 
infirmities, and many luch like wayes. Or, fecond- 
Iy> th?y are enemies , or fuch to whom we bear no 
fuch ref pect, thefe alfo are fcandalized when they are 
provoked through the carnalnefs of our way to judge 
hardly ohis, or ofRehgion for our lake, or to follow 
ibme carnal courfe to oppole what we carnally doj 
when we irritate them and provoke their paflion, &c« 
and thus men in all debates are often guilty, whether 


lo 'A Treatife concerning Scandal. Parr li 

their contcft be in things Civil, Ecclefiaftick or Scho- 
laftick* when, befide what may further their caufe 
(fuppofeittobe juft) they do not carry refpe&ively 
to the adverfary, and tenderly and convincingly, fo as 
it may appear they fcek the good of their foul, and 
their edification, even when they differ from them. 
Thirdly , we may look on offence as it offendeth 
wicked or profane men, poflibly Heathens, Jews, or 
Gentiles; they are offended when hardened in their 
impiety by the groflheffe and uncharitablenefle of 
thofe who are profeffedly tender : thus it is a fault, 
I £W. io, 32. to give offence either to Jews or Gen- 
tiles, as to the Church of God. Fourthly, Amongft 
thofe that are tender* fome are more weak, fome are 
more ftrong: the firft are often offended where there 
is no ground in the matter, as %om. 14. 1 Q>r. & <?c. 
and it venteth readily by ralh judging and cenliiring 
of others that areftronger than themfelves, forgo- 
ing beyond their light, or becaufe of their feeming to 
be defpifed by thcm,&c« which fheweth wherein the 
offence of the ftrong alio lycth 5 therefore thefe two 
arc put together, 5fyw. 14. 3. Let not bim that eatetb, 
(that is, him that is ftrong) defyife bim that eateth not : 
tAndlet not him that eatethnot (that is, the weak) 
judge him that eatetb. 
Twelfth l *♦ Offences may be confidcred as they dire&ly 
Viftinttion. incline or tempt to Neither in do&rinc or practice ; 
or, as they more indire&ly (care and divert from, or 
make more faint and weak in the purfuingof holi- 
neffe either in truth or pra&icc : Thus a blot in fome 
profeffor maketh Religion to be fome way abhorred ; 
this efpecially fallcth out when Miniftersand Pro- 
feflbrs that are eminent , become offenfive : For that 
is as a dead fly in the box of the Apothecaries oynt- 
ment, that maketh all to (link: Thus, OAd. 1 . the 
Priefts made the people ftumble at the Law ; as alio 
did the fons of Eli, 1 Sam. 2. and this is charged on 
©<*>#, that by his fall he made the Heathen blaf. 


part I . *A Trea tifc concerning Scandal. • ii 

pheme : and thus contention and divifion amongft 
Minifters and Difciplcs is infinuatcd to ftand in the 
way of the worlds believing in, or acknowledging of 
Chrift, as it is, Job.17.21. 

13. Sometimes Scandal is in immediate dutfes of Jhirteen^b 
religious worfhip, as praying, preaching, conferring, $ x n' m m mm 
fpeaking, judging of fuch things, &c. that is, either J 

by mifcarrying in the matter of what is fpoken, or by 
an unrcverent, light, paflionate manner, &c. or, it is 
given by our ordinary and common carriage in our 
eating, drinking, apparelling, manner of living , buy- 
ing and felling , ice. that is, when fomething of our 
way in thefe things giveth evidence of pride, vanity, 
unconftancie, covetoufneffe, addiftednefs to pleafure* 
carnalneffe,or tome fuch thing wherby our neighbour 
is wronged : Thus the husband may offend the wife, 
and the wife the husband by their irreligious con- 
verting together , whereby one of them doth ftreng- 
then the other to think exaftneffe in Religion not (o 
neceflary. And fo a fcrvant who hath a profeffion 
mayftumble a matter, if the fervantbe not faithful! 
and diligent in his fervice. 

14. Again, fome offences are oflfenfive, and are fourteenth 
given from the firft doing of the aft ion ; thus where Vlflinftim; 
there is any appearance ot evil, the offence is given in 

this manner. Again, offence may be at firft only 
taken and not given, and yet afterward become given, 
and make the perfon guilty, although in the firft aft 
he had not been guilty. This is, firft, when fuppofe a 
man eating without refpeft to difference of meats as 
he might do indifferently, if he were told by one that 
fuch meat were offered to an Idol, and therefore in 
his judgment jc were not lawfull to eat it, although 
before that , it were not offence given , but taken, 
(he not knowing that any wereprefent that would 
offend ) yet if. he (hould continue after that to do 
the fame thing, it fhould be offence given upon his 
fide. Secondly, If a man (hould know one to have 


A Treatifc concerning Scandal* Part i. 

taken offence at him, or his carriage, in a thing indif- 
ferent (although he had given no juft occafion there- 
of) and if, after his knowledge thereof, he fhould not 
endeavour totemove the fame according to his place, 
In that cafe the offence becometh given alfo, becaufe 
he removech not that flumbling-block out of his 
V ft a bKtthcrt way. 

<ntfy%> *5« Some offences are offenfive in themfelves, that 
PiJttnJton i SjW hcn the thing it felf hath fome appearance of evil, 
or a tendencieto offend in it felf. Again, fotfle but by 
accident inrefpeft of fome concurring circumftance 
of time, place, & c. Some offences alfo may be faid to 
be given of infirmity , that is, when they proceed 
from a particular flip of the party offending, when 
they are not continued in, ftuck to, or defended , or, 
when they fall into them , not knowing that they 
would be offenfive > and when that isknown,endea- 
vouring to remove them. Again , other offences are 
more rooted and confirmed, as when a perfon hath a 
traft in them,, is not much carefull to prevent them, 
or remove them, is not much weighted for them, but 
fleighteth them, or defendeth them, &c This di- 
ftin&ion of offences anfwereth to that diftinftion of 
fins, in fins of infirmity and fins of malice: which 
malicioufnefs is not to be referred to the intent of the 
perfon, but to the nature of the aft ; fo is it to be un- 
derftood here in refpe6t of offences. 

Sixteenth In ^ e la ^ P laGe > we may con ^ er &**> diftin&ion 
mm; ft- o( Scandals in private and publick: both which may 
vtjnnmon be tw0 mycs under ft 00 d . e i t h cr , 1. in refpeft of the 

witneffes ; or, 2. in refpeft of the nature of them* 
1. It is a private fcandal in the firft refpefowhich doth 
offend few* becaufe of its not being known to many, 
and fo a publick offence in this refpeft is a fcandal 
known to many. Thus the fame offence may be a pri- 
vate offence to one at one time, and in one place ; and 
a publick offence to another>or the fame perfon,in re- 
fpeft of thefe circumftances. In the laft refpeft, a pri- 


p jrt it tx/ Treat*! c concerning S c a n h A i< 

pat offence is that poffibly which doth ftumble many, 
pet is not of that nature, as publickly, legally, or ju- 
iicially it might be made out to be fcandalous, for the 
convincing of a perfon offending , or of others $ al- 
though it may have a great impreffion upon the hearts 
of thofe who know it. Thus the general traft of ones 
way and carriage (who yet may be civil, legal, and 
fair in all particulars) may be exceeding offenfive, as 
holding forth to the confeiences of thofe that are moft 
charitable to him, much vanity, pride, earthly- mind- 
edneffc, untendernefle , want of love and refpeft, 
and the like ; which faith within the heart of the be- 
holders, that there are many things wrong , when yet 
no particular can be inftanced wherein the perfon 
cannot have fair legal anfwers ; Of this fort arc un- 
feafonable ftarting ofqucftions, or doubtfulldifputa- 
tions, f%tf. 14. wherein poffibly the perfon may af- 
fert troth, yet by moving fuch things, at fuch times, 
and in fuch expreflions, he doth confound and (hake 
the weak : Thofe offences efpecially arifc from a fup- 
poled unftreightneffe in the end, exceffe in the manner 
of a thing , difproportionablenefle betwixt a man's 
way and his ftation, and fuch like, whereof a man 
may have much convi&ionin himfclf, from obfer- 
ving of fuch an ones way ; yet it is not a publick 
offence in the fenfe fpoken of here f becaufe there is 
no demonftrating of thofe. Thus sAlfolorrts insinuat- 
ing, felf-feeking way gave evidence of pride; and 
fuchasT^/fpeakethof, Philip. 1, and 2. that fome 
preached gut of enVie > and others fought their oltn 
tkings,&c. are of this nature, which byhisdifcern- 
ing he was convinced of, yet did not found any fen- 
tencc on them. 

Again, oppofitly to thefe , Offences may be cal- 
led publick, when there is a poffible way of bearing 
them out before others, or inftru&ing them in parti- 
culars to be contrary to the rule, as drunkennefle, 
fwcaring, &$♦ Thefe may be called ecclefiaftick or 


*£5Cand a t . Part r ; 

judicial offences , as being the objeft of Church* 
cenfurc, all the other may be called confcience, or 
charity-wounding offences, becaufe they are the ob- 
jeft of a perfons confcience and charity , and do 
wound them, and are judged by them, and may be 
the ground of a chriftian private admonition, but not 
of publick reproof; or rather may be called uncon- 
fciencious, and uncharitable offences* as being oppo-. 
fit to confcience and charity* 
Other ©i- Many other diftin&ions of Scandals may be given* 
fiintlionsof as, fome are immediate, that is, when we hear or fee 
Scandal. what is offenfive from the perfon himfeif ; Some 
again are mediate, and fo the very reporting of fome- 
thing that is true may be offenfive to thofe to whom 
it is reported; As, l; when it may alienate them 
from,or irritate them againft another perfon. 2. When 
k may occafion fome finfull diftemper* or incite to 
fome corrupt courfe , or any way provoke to carnal- 
neffe, thofe to whom it is reported ; and thus offence 
differeth from (lander : for , flarider affe&eth and 
wrongeth the party fpoken of, who, it may be, is ab- 
fent : Offence again, ftumbleth thofe who are prefent, 
although the fame aft in a perfon may be both a ca- 
lumny and ati offence upon different confidcrations* 
Thus Ziba calumniateth Mepbibojhetb , but really 
ftumbleth and offendeth ©4>irf, 2 Sam. 16* (although 
VaVid was not fo difplcafcd with him as Mepbibojhetb 
was) So alfo ®oeg calumniateth Vabid and the Priefts 
in a thin? which was true, but really offended Saul, 
as the effeft cleared, iSam. 21, and 22. Alfo fome " 
things offend others properly ; as when a Minifter 
faileth in giving of an admonition prudently, or fea- 
fonably* Again, fome things offend virtually, when, 
it may be, a Minifter giveth an advice in feafon, but 
in fomcthing hath not condefcended formcrly,where« 
by he hath not fuchacceffe with his admonition to 
edifie; ThusT<w/ prevented offence, when by be- 
coming all things to all, he made way for his being 


Part i^ "A TreAttJeconcernwg ScaiHSTt; 1 5 

icceptable in his Ration. Again, fome offences may 
[imply be offences, as having hurt with them* Some 
again may be comparatively ; fo it is when a thing 
a&ually hurteth, not by an emergent lofle , but when 
it keepcth from that growth and edification, that 
otherwayes might have been , it's a comparative 
lofle, and fo offenfive. 

Holding forth Vrhtt Offence it not,andVvhat it it. 

THefe generals may give a hint of what is fig- 
nified by Offence and how it is given. To 
addc a word more particularly to the fiift 
Queftion, Let us confider, i. what offence is not > 
2. what it is. i. It is not alwayes any huftfulland 
aftually difpleafing thing to the party that is offended} 
and fo is not to be conflrufted fuch, or not, from their 
pleafure, or difpleafure. 2. It is not alwayes to be 
judged by the matter ; for , an offence may be in a 
lawfull matter, that (imply is not to be condemned, 
as in eating , drinking , taking wages for preach- 
ing , &c. 3 « It is not al way to be determined by the 
effeft ; fometimes one may be offended, when no of- 
fence was given : fometimes again, offence maybe 
given, and the perfon be guilty thereof ( as hath been 
laid) whennoaftual ftumbling hath followed, but 
the thing of it felf was indu&ive thereto. 4. Nor is 
it to be judged by the perfon's intention 5 one may be 
without all dc%n of hurting , who yet may really 
wound, and offend another, and be guilty by ra(h- 
tieffe, omiflion, too much love and condefcenfion in 
fparing, unfaithfulneffe (it being much to be faith- 
full to one that we love, and, which is a pity, we are 
rcadieft to offend them, as injonadab's cafe to Jm- 
non; yea, in Job's friends to him, &c) inconfiderate 
zeal, imprudency, or falling in fome thing, that is as 

a dead 

Jrfreatife concerning^ c and a l . Part i. 

a dead fly, which may make much that is profitable, 
become unfavoury. 2. Scandal then muft be fome- 
thing accompanying fome external deed or word (for 
internal give not offence ) which being conlidered at 
fuch a time, in fuch a place, or in iuch a perfon. &c. 
maybe induftiveto fin, orimpeditive or the Ipiri- 
tual life or comfort of others. When this doth flow 
from a finfull aft , it is not fo difficultly difcernable, 
readily all aftions that are materially evil, are clear ; 
but the difficulty is when the matter is la wfull or in^ 
different in it (elf ; or when it is in the manner and 
other circumftances of a lawfull or neceffary duty, 
then to difcern when they become icandalous in fuch 
refpefts ; and accordingly to be 1 wayed to do or ab- 
ftain in the matter , and to do in this or fome other 
manner^ as may efchew the fame. This properly 
and ttriftly is that which is called offence, and is that 
wherein moft wifdom is to be exercifed in ordering 
and regulating us in the nfe of chriftian liberty ; and 
concerning this arc the great debates in Scripture, 
that men may know, that not only the Command is 
to be looked unto in the matter of the aft, fo that no- 
thing be done againft it in that refpeft, nor only that 
our own clearnefl'e be confidered , that we do nothing 
doubtingly, but that others be confirmed alfothat 
they by our deed be not in their fpiricual eftate wron- 
ged or hurt, that is, to door ibfiain for confcience- 
fake, not our own, but of him that fittethwith us, 
1 f0r.io.24.and 28. for,tf charity and love be the end 
of the Law,and men ought not only to feek their own 
things, but the things one of another, and love their 
neighbour as themfelves, then ought they to feek their 
neighbours edification as their own, and to efchew 
the prejudging of them. Hence Scandal is oppofit to 
that charity and love, and alfo to that refpeft which 
wc ought to carry to our brother, %$m, 14. V. 10, and 
ty. yea, ic is a fcandal and offence as it is oppofite 
to, and inconfiftent with, love to his fpiritual well- 
being 3 

>art It c^ Treafift concerning scanxSXJL. t J 

>eing ; and fo, in a word, that which is apt to make 
lim worfe in that refpeft, or that which may impede 
md hinder his fpirituall growth and advancement 
herein, is an offence and fcandal,5fyw. 14. 21. And 
;hus a fcandal differeth from an injury : for,this hurt- 
?th his perfon , name , or ettate, or fome outward 
:hing; that, again, hurteth his fpirituall condition, 
nther by wronging hislivelineffe,or aftivity, or com- 
fort, &c though the fame thing often, which is an 
injury* is an offence alfo, but not contrarily. 


Concerning the (ever all Vpajes that Offence may 
be given. 

IT is hardly poflible to fhew how many wayes one 
may offend another , there being fo many , yea, 
fo very many wayes whereby men both wrong 
therafelves and others ; yet, by confide ring the effe&s 
that offence given, hath, or may have upon others (al- 
though theeffeft follow not) and by confiderinp that 
upon which active offence worketh , and which ufual- 
ly is offended at in another , We may draw them to 
fome heads accordingly ; As, I. men may be drawn 
to fomefinfull aftion upon fuch anoccafion : thus 
an adtion materially lawfull and food in it (elf, be- 
cometh a fcandall, when by our deed another is fo- 
ftered in fome fin , or encouraged to commit it > as 
fuppofing himfelf to be ftrengthncd therein by our 
practice ; Or when it may occafion others to go be- 
yond our intent,or to do what we do in another man- 
ner which may make itfinfull: So, zeal inconfide- 
rately vented, may ftrengthen folks in pafTion ; and 
thus eating in Idols temples ( which in it felf was no- 
thing; was fcandalous when done publickly, b caufe 
it ftrengthned Idolaters to think fomewhat of cheir 
Idols, and made others who were weak, to continue 
C fornn 

^^^Wlfffonamng Scandal. Part u 

fome refpeft to them, becaufe they fu ppofcd fuch 
men, by fuch a practice to do fo; or made fome judge 
them to have refpeft co Idols, and fo to be leffe in their 
efteem ; or, caused others to eat with refpeft to the 
Idol, when they themfelves did it without it : Thus 
doubtfull expreffions in points of Truth, and uncir- 
cumfpeftnefle in not abOaining from all appearance 
of evil, or what doth appear to be evil to fuch a per- 
fon, and at fuch a time, &c„ may bcoffenfive ; as 
fuppofe one in their apparrel , diet> or othcrwayes, 
(hould by fome be conceived to go beyond their fta- 
tion, and what is fit at fuch a time , or be an occa- 
sion to fome others indeed to exceed , when, without; 
fuch mifconftrufting beholders, there might be no- 
thing offenfive in the deed it felf* and thus the deed 
of one perfon may be cffcnfive ( fuppofing him to be 
eftecmed proud ,covetous> unclean,& c ) which would 
not be fo in another : So alio, a thing will be offen- 
sive to one, and not to another. Wherefore, in refe- 
rence to Offence, men would have an eye on them- 
felves, and what generally they are reputed to be, and 
fo would abftain from the leaft appearance of what 
isfuppofedto be predominant in them, asalfothey 
would have refpeft to others that are prefent, or may 
be hearers or beholders , confidering what are their 
thoughts of them, or of fuch deeds, &c and accor- 
dingly would carry, although it were to abftain from 
fuch a place, apparrel, diet, &c. which inreafon,ab- 
ftraftly from offence, might be pleaded for, as becom- 
ing. Thus one walkinf abroad on the Sabbath, may 
be fanftifying it, yet by his example fome other may 
be provoked to vage and gad and caft off all duties of 
the day, and to neg!e6t what is called- for in fecret, or 
in the family ; in chat refpeft, it becometh offenfive to 
go abroad, although it be lawfull in it lelf to medi- 
tate abroad in the fields, as well as in the houfe. 

2. When a lawfull aft doth breed or occafion mif- 
conftruftioti ox ra(h judging in an other; then it be- 


Part i . A Treaiife concerning Scandal^ 19 

cometh offenfivc to him ; As, U when it makcth him ' 
think the thing unlawfully which is lawfull, thatis* 
(^fw.i4» 1 6.) to make our good to be evil fpoken of: 
Or, 2. when it occafioncth our (elves by that deed to 
be condemned as untender and unconfeienrious in the 
performing of fuch an aft , that is> to make one judge 
his brother raflily, %om. 14. .0. \Qor. 10. 30. Or, 
3. when it occafioneth our profeflion, or the Gofpel 
to be miftaken and mif-judged , or godlinefle to be 
accounted fancie, hypocri(ie ; &c Thus by the indis- 
creet ufe of liberty, the Gofj.«cl was evil fpokfen of by 
fome> as if it had given way to loofneffe , for Co thole 
that were zealous for the Liw did cfteem of it* 

3. The effeft of a Scandal, is to grieve and make ~ r -~ 
heavie others ; and fo any indifferent action which is 

apt to do that, is afcandal, as we may fee, fyw. 14. 
1 5. becaufe it marreth their fp-rrrual comfort, weak- 
neth them in love to us, fa math tftem in the doing of 
duty, at leaft marreth their chearfulncfll- in it* &c. 
and fb is againft charity, and becometh a breach of 
the fixth Command, %#. 14. 1 5. This is the notion 
that mod ordinarily we ufe to take up offence under, 
Vi%. when it may grieve fome to hear that we have 
done fuch a thing , when it may leffen their efleem of 
m, (and fo much incapacitate us to be proficable to 
them) or alienate them from us, &c. 

4. We may try Scandal by cur hazarding to dif- 
quiet the peace of our brother's confeience : that is* 
when by our .lawfull deed we engage or virtually 
perfwade him to follow our example , fuppoung him 
to doubt of the lawfulneffc of that pradlice, or to 
condemn the fame. Thus, 1 £V.8. 10. one is embol- 
dened to eat of things offered to Idols, with refpeft to 
them,becaufe he beholdeth another that is more ftfong 
than he to do the fame. And fo by his eating > he 
fciveth ground to his confeience afterward to chal- 
lenge him> for which caufe he that gave the example* 
is faid to wound his weak confeience. The like alfo is, 

C 2 %73. 

20 zA Treatife concerning Scandal • Part I • 

^om.14. 22 » 2 3* * n c ^ e ca ^ e °f doubting : for, fuppo- 
fing one to doubt whether fuch a thing belawfuilor 
not, meerly by our example to go before him, is to put 
him in that ttrait either to condemn our deed, or 
doubcingly to follow ; fo^ the meer example cf no 
man can warrant any other to follow, or fatisfie a 
confeience in the la wfulnefle of fuch and fuch a deed. 
This alfo may be when a weak man, having poflibly 
done fomething in another manner, (and that lawful- 
ly) than afterward he beholdeth one that i> Itrong to 
do, (which alfo may be lawful in it (elf) he is brought 
to look over his own pra&ice, and to condemn the 
fame as finfull, meerly becuife char other did it in an- 
other manner. For, though indiftcrency in the man- 
ner of pra&ices in lawfull things, is fometimes edify- 
ing, yet in fuch cafes whenthev have not fufficienc 
information joyned with them, they drive men on the 
extremities forefaid, and fo become offenhve,efpeci- 
ally then when fuch things are actually doubted of, 
ordifputated in their lawfulneffe. 

Jf. Things become offenfive when they prove ob- 
ftruftive to the edification ot others* and, as the word 
is, 1\om % £4. 21. do make them "toea/^, or Infirmeth tbem> 
not only by fainting and weighting them, as is faid 
before* but by confounding them in the Truth or pra- 
ctices of Religion, whereby they are either fhaken in 
their former aflurances, and fo weakened , or made 
doubtfull whether fuch things be Duties and Truths, 
or not; or, by fuch and fuch things, are diverted from 
the mme neceflTary pra&ices of Religion. This is the 
fcope of 5{pm 14. Ver. 1 , esre. and of other Scriptures 
elfwhere, wherby the Apoftle 2W doth guard againft 
doubtfull difputations, which do not profit them that 
are occupied therein, Heb. 13. 9. And thus, not only 
writing and reafoning for what is not Truth, but 
writing and fpcaking of Truth in a new manner, with 
new expreffions and multiplying moulds of thrfe, or 
doing it unfeafonably, paflionatly, contemioufly &c.< 



Part i • A Treat iff concerning Scandal." 2\ 

doth prove offenfive. Thus whit is noc a&ually edi- 
fying , is cffenfive ; and upon this account, Paul be- 
cometh all things to all, that he may gain fome, as in 
his circumcifing of Timothy that he might have accefs 
to edifie the Jews, and fuch like ; And thus often noc 
condefcending in indifferent things to pleafe others, 
doth much incapacitate them to be edified by u<?, or 
doth give them prejudice at the way of theGofpd, 
whereby their edification is obftructed and they of- 

<5. An aftion becometh offenfive when it ftirreth 
corruption, wakeneth paflion,or confirmeth jealoufic 
andfufpicion,&c. although that jealoufie andfufpi- 
cion be groundkfle. Thus Taufo taking of wages in 
the Church of Corinth, had been offenfive , becaufe ic 
had confirmed the fulpicion of his feeking of himfelf 
amongft them, and would have ftrengthencd his tra- 
ducers in their calumnie, and given them occafion of 
venting their carnall cheerfulncffe and infolency ; 
And thus, when one is unjuftly fufpefted of errour or 
inclination thereto, to difpute for fuch things , even 
when he difowneth them, to converfe with perfons of 
thatftamp, or fuch like, are offenfive, and are to be 
fhunned , though it may be there would be no fuch 
conrtruftion put upon another doing fo» 

CHAP. IV. H \ 

Concerning that upon which Offence ^crkfth } or % . 
the fever at \X>*jes by which it u taken, 

THe confidering of the fecond thing , to wit, 
that upon which Offence woiketh, and by 
which it is taken, will clear thh> more : For, 
fometimes, I. it affc&eth the weaknelTc of under* 
ftanding and light ; So,it raifeth doubts, mifconttru- 
ftions &c. 2. Sometimes through that it affeCteth 
the conicience j whence cometn judging and condem- 
C 3 ning 

r- 1 

*A Treatife concerning Scandau Part 1 1 

ning of others, and their deeds, and the awakening 
of challenges* &c. ?♦ Sometimes kftirreththe af- 
fcftions, either by awakening carnal joy , or carnal 
grief. 4. It affe$eth corruption* when men, from 
prejudice, are fretted or grieved upon fuch an occasi- 
on ; Thus often c!eed> become offenfive, when they 
confirm mens jealoufie. ttir their pride,emulation &c 
5. A deed may have influence on fome folks infirmity 
or impotencie ; So, fome that are more given to pafli- 
on> fufpicion, or fuch like , will be offended fooner 
than others, and fome things will be offenfive to them 
that are not fo in themfclves. (5. Men as they arc 
gracious may be off mded j forthough grace,as fuch, 
is not capable fintully to take offence, yet gracious 
perfbns may offend , or fome anions may have an 
aptitude to offend a gracious zealous perfon rather 
than another. Thus Peter's diffimulation might be faid 
to be offenfive tofaul^Gal. 2. though more properly 
. it was afcandal to Barnabas, yet it grieved and ftirred 
Paul, thouph in a fantfified manner he did vent that 
which poffibly fome other gracious perfon might ei- 
ther have been irritated with,or,out of refpeft toPeter, 
led away, as Barnaba* was; when an ungracious per- 
fon would not have laid any weight on Tcter's deed, 
as to any of thefe, that is, either to follow it, or be 
grieved with it. 

From what is faid, it may be fomeway clear how 
an indifferent or lawfull a£k may become offenfive, to 
wit, as it doth, or is apt to work any of thefe tffc&s 
upon others, whether they be weak or ftrong , gra- 
cious or prophane , and whether confeience or cor- 
ruption doth rife at the offence that is taken • for, as 
giving of offence, doih imply uncharitableneffe and 
pride to be in the giver, fo that -he neither loveth nor 
regardeth his brother as he ought to do , neither doth 
in this as he would have others do unto himfelf ; So 
offjnee taken>doth imply corruption and infirmity>(ac 
the beft ) to be in him that caketh it ; and therefore in 


Part 1 1 A Treati(e concerning Scandal. : 

•his matter of offence, rcfpcft would be had to the in- 
firmity and corruption of others, as well as to their 
gracioufnefle and aifeftion. The notobferying of 
which, maketh us take liberty in giving offence to 
many, becaufe we do cither efteem them to be wic- 
ked and prophane, or not aflfrttionat to us , or, at the 
beft, weak ; and therefore not much to be regarded 
whether they be fatisfied orjaot with our pra# ices, 
which doth evidently fhew> that there is defpifing and 
uncharhabl.eneffe in the hearti when there is this re- 
gardlefneffe in our pra6ticc> as may be gathered from 
%w. 14. )w.i,io,andiy. 


Concerning what ought to make men loath and 
Wary as to tloe giving Offence* 

TO come now to confider thofe things which 
ought to make men tender in this* we will 
find, firft, that there is not any duty in the 
matter thereof more commanded than this of giving 
no effence , nor any fin more condemned than unten- 
dernefie in this , as we may find from the Epiftles to 
tht^ovnanSyCorwthunSy&c . wherin whole chapters are 
fpent on this fubjeft : Yea> Att.\%. The A pottles and 
Elders thought the regulating of indifferent things foe 
preventing of fcandal, worthy to be enafted in the firft 
Synod and Council. Secondly, There is no fin that 
hath moe woes pronounced againft it, the Lord Him- 
fclf denounceth and doubieth a wo againft it, Maith. 
18.7. and the Apcftle confirmed* ki^?w. 14 20, &c m 
Thirdly, The hatefulncffe of it may appear in the rife 
thereof, it being, l. an evident fignof dif-refpeft to 
God> and wane of the impreffion of His dread, 2* of 
inward pride and felf-conceitcdneile, 3. of uncha- 
ritableneffe and regardlefncffe of others , and fetting 
them at nought , which may be gathered from %»• 
C 4 «4- 

H r A Treatife concerning S c a k d a l i Part ii 

14. 1 Cor,8, and 10. and can there be any thing more 
to be fliunned than thefe ? And upon this we will 
find,thar men are tender and confcientious in the mat- 
ter of offence, and the ufe of their chriftian liberty* 
as they are tender or untender in the material duties of 
Religion towards God, and towards others* Fourth- 
ly, There can be no worfe tffe&s than follow upon 
this, It brinfceth a V>o to the world > and is in Chrift'* 
account a moft .grievous ptague when abound ingj 
for, it hath deftrd&ibrfwith it to many fouls, fym. 
14. 20. It bringeth reproach upon the profeffion of 
Chriftianity, cooleth love among brethren, begetteth 
and fottereth contention and ftrife , marreth the pro- 
grefle of the Gofpel, and, in a word, maketh iniquity 
to abound , and often, in particular, ulhereth-in error 
into the Church , which may be gathered from the 
places cited, and from Matth 24.. to, 11,12. And we 
fuppofe when it is tried, it will be found, that unten- 
.derneffe in the matter of fcandal, hath been as pre- 
judicial to the Church of Chrift in refpeft of her out- 
ward beauty and peace, and the inward thriving of 
her members, as either errour or prophanity, which 
have been but the product of this. Fifthly, Unten- 
derneffe in this, openeth a door to all untenderneffe in 
the perfon that giveth offence, becaufe by it the con- 
fcience becometh lefle fenfible of challenges, and fo 
he hath the greater boldneffe to do things that are 
materially evil ; by this alfo he becometh habitually 
regardleffe of others. And although where refpeft to 
others is predominant, it be no good principle ; yet 
often hath it great influence in reftraining men from 
loofneffe, and in its own place ought to have weight. 
And doth not experience teach, that once liberty be- 
ing taken in this, even things materially finfull do of- 
ten follow ? Sixthly, Tenderncffe in this adorneth 
the Gofpel exceedingly, convinceth thofc we live 
among, entertaineth charity, and warmcth love, even 
as careiefneffe in this doth open mens mouthes , and 


Part i • *A Treatife concerning S c a n d a l J 25; 

make both profeflion and profeflbrs a reproach. Se- 
venthly) Untenderncffe as to offences, ftriketh at the 
root of Chriftian communion : there can be no free- 
dom in admonitions, little in conferences) and, it may 
be, no great fervour in prayers with, and fov others, 
where thefe abound ; And is it pofltble that Religion 
can be well where thefe are ? And may it not from 
thefe appear why Chrift hath faid, Wo to that man by 
tobom offences come i . 9 _ 

JJ CKjS&.U* 


Holding forth the difficulty to lye mainly in pra- 
ctice, andfbewing how far Offence ought to have 
influence on a Chriflian in hu Wall^* 

THe greateft difficulty is in reference to pra&ice; 
( for Scandal cannot but be accounted abo- 
minable ) We (hall therefore anfwer fome 
Queftions for the clearing of this. I* It may beque- 
flioned,How far offence ought to have influence on a 
Chriliian in his walk ? In anfwering of it, we would, 
I. confider the matter in which offence may be given 
or taken. 2. The perfons who may be offended. 
For, lome things in the matter are fimply (infull, (omc 
things are neceffary duties ; fome things,again, are in 
themfelves indifferent : So fome perfons are gracious 
and tender , fome are prophane and malicious, &c. 
We anfwer therefore in thelc Ajfertions, 

1. For no offence whatsoever fhould men forbear 
a neceflary duty, or commit any thing which is mate- 
rially finfull. Chnft would needs go up to Jcrufalem, 
although HisDifciples were difpleafed, and would 
continue in preaching the Gofpel, and in dojrg what 
wasintrurted to Him, although the Phaiifecs were 
offended, Mattb. 1 5. This is clear : For no e\tip?ouU 
be aone that goo dm ay come of it, Rom. }. 

2. Ajfext. Yet in other things there ought to be 


2$ tA Treatife concerning Scanda l . Part I • 

great refpeft had co offence , and men ought to be 
fwayed accordingly in their pra&ice, as the former 
reafons clear ; As,firft,Ifthe matter be of light con- 
cernment in it felf > as how mens geftures are in their 
walking , (fuppofe in walking foftly, or quickly, with 
cloak or without) men ought to do, orabftain as 
oiay prevent the conftruftion of pride, lightneffe, &c. 
or give occafion to others in any of thefe ; of fuch ibrt 
are falutations in the very manner of them : of this 
fort was womens praying with their head uncovered 
amongtt the Corinthians, it being then taken for an 
evil fign y yet, if it be neceffary, there is nothing little, 
as Mofes will not leave an hoof, Exod. io. nor Mor- 
decai bow his knee to Haman , becaufe that it looked 
like fauning on an accurfed enemy : Of this fort alfo 
are offences in the fafhions of cloathes, as fome mens 
wearing of ribbands, and fuch like, which being of 
fmall concernment , ought certainly ts^ be regulated 
by offence. Secondly, If it be indifferent, that is, in 
the matter thereof, fuch as may be done, or for born ; 
as eating or not eating fuch a meat for fuch a time, 
Cfor although no a&ion is indifferent when it is done, 
becaufe the circumftances of end, motive and manner, 
do determine them either to be good or bad , as they 
are agreeable or difagreeable to the Law when they 
are done i yet fome aftions in themfelves arc fuch ) 
in thefe aftions a Chriftian ought to do or abftaiti 
accordingly, as his doing or not doing may edifie or 
giye offence ; yea, in fuch things he may be for ever 
reftraincd, according to that word of Paul's, i Cor.8. 
I g, I bad rather not eatflejh Mobile the Tborld ftandetb, than 
ly my meat ma^e my brother to offend. This is to be- 
come all things to all men for their gaining , I Cor. 9. 
when our practice in fuch things is conformed to 
others edificicion rather than our own inclination or 
light ; And thus many things, which we are perfwa- 
dod arelawfull, and that we defireto do, are to be 
forbornout of confeience, conference, X tay, not our 


Part i . A Treatife concerning Scandal. 27 

own, but of fome others that have not fuch clear- 
nefic, as 1 C or - I0 « 2 ^> 29. Thirdly, In pofirive du- 
ties of worlhip and things that are neceffary by affir- 
mative precepts , Scandal ought to have weight to 
time them fo as not to give offence by them. For, al- 
though a Scandal cannot make duty to be no duty for 
ever, yet it may for a time (ufpend one from the ex- 
ercifeof a lawfull duty> although not alwayes : Thus 
to give alms, is a commanded duty , yet if there be 
hazard that an indigent perfon may abufe it, or others 
may take offence by that example either oftentatively 
in a (elfie way to give, or to account fo of him that 
dothgivc) or fuch like, in that cafe giving of alms 
is for that time to be forborn, except the perfons ftrait 
make it neceffary, or fome other circumftance, and 
a privat way afterward is to be taken : So, preaching 
to a Minifter , and hearing to a profeffour, are com- 
manded duties* Yet fuppofing that a particular mans 
preaching at fuch a time, would fiumble more than 
edifie, it is to be forborn. So in giving of admoni- 
tions, or in correcting of children, we are not to do 
thele when we, or others* are in paffion , although 
they be duties , but to take a fit time , left more hurt 
follow than advantage : That being a rule anent af- 
firmative pucepts, that they bind continually (or 
femper ) but not alway to the a&ual performing of 
them, ( or ad femper) Thus a fervant, or wife, or any 
other perlon are bound to pray alwayes , yet to do it 
then when the matter, husband, or family cailerh-for 
fome other thing neceffary , would be an offence- 
Fourthly, In neceffary things, offence ought to have 
weight according to the circumftantiat cafe, to fway 
one in the manner and circumftances of that neceffary 
duty ; Thus> fuppofing it neceffary to pray, a man is 
to choofe the place and pofture of praying according- 
ly ] Thus it is offensive in fome cafes to pray fo as 
we may be obferved, becaufe that looketh hypocri- 
tical like> arid is condemned; Mtfth. 6. Sometimes 


ag A Treatife concerning Sc A N b a l. Pare xl 

again, it is offenfive not to be known to pray , as was 
in Daniel's cafe, ©*». 6. becaufe his not evidencing of 
it by opening of his windows, had looked like his re- 
ceding from his former piety,&c. And in this refpeft, 
what is olfenfive at one time, may be edifying at ano- 
ther , And what is edifying now, may become offen- 
five afterward upon another occafion ,As by Vaul's 
circumcifing of Timothy, and refilling to circumcife 
Titus, doth appear. Sofbmetimes ( fuppofe it when 
Kebemiab is (landing before the King ) to kneel down 
to pray, would have been offenfive ; at other times 
for a man to pray and not to kneel in his chamber, 
(as in Daniels cafe) may be offenfive alfo. And in this 
fort of offence, cuftom guideth much in the indifferent 
circumftances ; an \ alteration in thefe, is often of- 
fenfive. Fifthly , In our particulars , in temporall 
things we ou?ht rather to cede in what is our own, 
than to offend others* and mar their fpiritual good. 
Thus Chnft condefcended to quit His priviledge. 
Mattb. 17.17. rather than to off nd , And thus Tad 
(hunned the taking of wages in Corinth, although he 
had right thereto , and did even then take from other 
Churches: Thereafon is, b-caufe the fpiritual edifi- 
cation of our brother is of more value than our tem- 
poral right ; much more is this to have influence in 
limiting and hedging us up from lawfull pleafures 
and contentments, or what our inclination and af- 
fe&ion leadech to, even though it be lawfull , if fo be 
the following thereof may be an offence to any. Ic is 
for this alfo that ?W, 1 Cor. 6. condemneth their con- 
tentious going to Law before Infidels, becaufe of the 
fcandal thereof , And toby (faith he) do ye not rather 
fujfer torong i Oa t Lord alfo, as was juft now hinted, 
went before us in this, Mattb. 17.27. when He payed 
Tribute , audi in that ceded His own right, left He 
fiiould offend j and it's like they were not of the moft 
tender men. 
3. JJfarti We fay that there is equal refpeft to be 


part 1 1 r A Treats fe conce rning Scandal^ 29 

had to all kind of perfons in the giving of oft encc , if 
the matter be equal, that is, we ought to (hun the of- 
fence of the weak as wc 11 asoftheftiong, of the pro- 
phage as of the gracious &c. For, 1. the command 
is general, I Cor/ 10,32. Give m offence, neither to 'jeto 
nor Gentile , nor to the Church of God, under which three, 
all forts of perlons are comprehended. 2. Ah we ought 
not to fin in reference to any pcifon , fo ought we not 
to give to any of them an occafion ot finning , be- 
cause that is never good. 3. If we leek to the good 
or ftrong , as we ought not to do any thing that is 
fintulltopleafethem, or abftain from anything that 
is neceffary to prevent their offence ; So ought we to 
do in reference to the weak and prophane. Thus &W 
would not give the falfe teachers of Corinth ground of 
(tumbling more than the Church- members , And in 
this reipeft we are debtors both to the Jrws and 
Greeks, to the unwifeastothe wife^.i.i^. Yea, we 
are in indifferent things to become alt things to all men, 
even to thofe that are weak and without Law (though 
ft 1! 1 we are to be under the Law ) that the moe may 
be gained, 1 Cor; 9. 20, at, &c. 


Shewing Vehat the Scandal of the Pharifees or nt*~ 
licioHi U y and clearing fcveral other important 

IF it be faid, What then is it which is called the 
Scandal of the Pharifees or the malicious, which 
ought not to be refpefted ? Wfc anfwer, 1. In con- 
ftru&ing any malicioufly to take offence,there is great 
need of fpiritualneffe, left we account men malicious 
becaufe of fome particular difference from us,or tome 
other perfons 5 even as from ftaVtd's imprecations 
againft his malicious enemies, we would not draw an 
example for regulating of our prayers, in reference to 


3 q A Treatife concerning Scandal, Part 1 1 

our enemies* 2. There is need alfo here to take heed 
whatfpirit vve be of in our accounting men to be 
fuch, as the Lord faid totheDifciples,£*4? 9. when 
they pretended Eli^vs example : for, to make a man 
malicious in taking offence in this refpcft* fo as not to 
be regarded* 1. It mult be a neceflary duty that he 
offendcth at", even thebeft, as the Pharifees did at 
Chrift's preaching of the Gofpel. 2. It muft not be 
out of ignorance or weakneffe that this ottence is 
taken. 3. It muft not arife from any perfonal ot par- 
ticular account, but from a man's being inftrumentall 
in furthering and advancing die Gofpel, and fo muft 
be very fib to the fin againft the holy Ghoft , and 
therefore ought not to be pretended in our ordinary 
****! If it be yet faid, that they do not ftand to offend 

when wen U s > therefore they are not to be regarded by us, when 
Jhmd not to fa thing we d j s lawfull. Anp. This were to ren- 
ejfendUA} d C r evil for evil, whenas wefhould overcome evil 
with good; and if it be a fin in them not to care for 
us in their practices, can it be otherwife in us ? and 
our meeting of them inrheir untender way, is to har- 
den them in it»and bring their bloud on our own head, 
whereas more tender dealingtnight edifiethem, and, 
as by heaping coals of fire upon their heads, foften 
them and make them more pliable* 
^ A \ If it be asked further* what one is to do in fuch a 
men the ca f e w | )en fa matter j s lawUill, and it be withall 
TawW rtr» doubtfull whether it can be off nfive or fcandalous to 
the offence any * Anfto. I. Bcfide the confederation of the 
AoubtfuUi t h ,n S» we would alio confider circumftances of time, 
perfon,occafion &c. 2. We would try what an afti- 
on, fo cironnftantiated, hath formerly been thought 
of in the cifc of others in former times; Ya, Jj 
whatufctobe our own thoughts of fuch aftionsia 
other perfons, it we have not counted them offen- 
five in them? for often men more impartially judge, 
efpccialiy of what is offenfive, in the perlons of others 


Part i • A Treat if* concerning Scandal; 31 

than in themfelves. 4. The confcience would be re- 
flected on what it faith ,• for often there is a murmur- 
ing in the confeience, which flheweth its fufpicion, 
thacfuch a thing is offenfivc and huttfull, before ic 
bcatted, which is yet often born down by the im- 
pctuolifncffe of mens inclination, 5. Others that 
may be more impartial would betryed; yea, the 
thoughts of thefe that we fuppofed to be the leaft ten- - 
dcrot us are not to beneglefted, for often the v are 
moft impartial in judging what is offenfive. Thefe 
things may have the more weight to lway one in their 
determination, becaufe the trial runneth not to know 
what is duty, or lawfull in it lelf, but whether or not 
fuch a lawfull praftice may be done or forborn with- . 
put wronging the fpiritual eftate of any. 6. If ic 
continue yet doub'full whether it be offenfive or not> 
the fame rule is to be followed, as if it were doubted 
whether it were lawfull or not? to wit, It is to be 
abftained from > becaufe as he that doubteth of the 
lawfulneffe of a thing > cannot do it in faith, becaufe 
he knowcth not but it may be finfull ; So neither can 
he that doubteth whether a lawfull thing be expedient 
-or not, dolt with perfwafion , becaufe he knoweth 
not but it may be fcandalous to fome > and fo cannot 
bjjt be finfull to him. Laflly, pains would be taken 
rightly to inform others, and to reftifie them that 
they may not take offence at things lawfyll in them- 

If ic be faid, that fufficient pains have been taken ptfjg^if 
to inform them already » and that therefore their efficient 
taking offence is inexcufable. ^w/*.i.Men would be- patns have 
ware of making this an excufe > for many have great been tdf^en 
ignorance and are not Toon capable of inftruftion, t$ inform? 
others have prejudice which is hardly rooted-out; 
Therefore I conceive it will not be eafie to be able 
to affert an exoneration in this cafe. 2. If the thing 
continue to be indifferent (which is the matter con- 
cerning which-the queftion is) there can be no tcrme 


32 A Treatife concerning Scandal.' Part u 

fettoit: It is the Apoftle's word, I Coy. 8. 13. if 

meat ma{e my brother to of end, I \bill not eat flejh y>bile 
the v>orldftandeth. If the cafe alter and the matter be- 
come neceffary by fome circumftances , as Daniel's 
opening of his window did , then that which for- 
merly was indifferent, becometh neceffary , and it 
would be otfenfive to omit it. 
What to U * c ma y be farther asked, What is to be done where 
don when ^ere is a real difference betwixt parties, fuppofefor 
thee it a a civil intereft ? for, a man, by feeking his own, may 
teal (Liffe- irritace another, and. Is there a nectfficy of abftaining 
rc-cc be* in that cafe? Anfa* 1, There is no queftion but in 
tmxt pat fome cafes a man is to cede in his particular right, ra- 
l|crf > u P° n cher than to give offence by a legal purfuit, as when 
cccoum $} u may oc<^fion the Gofpel tobecvil fpokenof, and 
u civil m- h ar d eri corrupt men in their hatred of the fame. On 
€Te " this ground, 1 Cor. 6. the Apoftle condemned! their 
going to Law before infijel Judges, and doth ex- 
preflv fay, )>er. 7, Why do ye not rather ta'^e the throng i 
and fujfer your fefoes to be defrauded i And though the 
cafe now be not every way the fame , yet we fuppofc 
Chriftians ought to lay weight on this , left in their 
pur fu its they give occafion to make theprofeffors of 
the Gofpel to be accounted contentious, covetous,&c« 
And therefore it would fcem, that y/hen they contend 
for civil things, it would be for fomething of moment 
atleaft tothepcrfon, which alfo is clearly, or may 
be made appear to be clearly theirs, and that after 
friendly wayes are effayed for attaining fatisfa&ion* 
2* We fay, it ought to (way Chriftians in their man- 
ner of purfuin? differences, foas there be not heat, 
paflion carnalneff 5, over- reaching and going beyond 
on- another , nay nor the appearance of th^Ie to be 
feen in their carriage , but ftill following a civil dif- 
ference with refpett to the fpiritual good of the ad- 
verfary, and that in fuch a mmner as may b; con- 
vincingly evidencing thereof both to him and others 
3» We fay, thac thefe cautions being obterved, this 


Part i • *A Treatife concerning Scandal^ 33 

do&rine of Scandal will not fimply bind up a Chri- 
ftian from purfuing of a civil difference, becaufe, in 
fome refpe£t> it may be a neceffary dutie for a man to 
recover his own in a legall way , as it is for a man to 
labour* andotherwifc by lawfull means to provide 
for his Family : for which end God hath appointed 
Judges and Magiftrates to hear complaints , and to . 
roftifie wrongs ; and to hear complaints is a main 
jflrt of their duty, without which humane fociety 
would turn liketothefifhesofthefea, Hab.i. There- 
fore we would diftinguifh here betwixt difplcafingj 
yea angering and offending, and would defire rather 
not to (tumble than ro pleafe ; for there may be anger 
when there is no offence given, as fuppofe one (hould 
fretbecaufe they get not cheir will vented unjuftly on 
fome other in their perfon or eftate. In that cafe* 
their fatisfaft ion is not their edification > nor their diC- 
pleafing their offence ; So is it in this cafe , where i 
man purfues his own in a due manner* there is no juft 
ground of offence given : becaufe* I. The thing ic 
(elf is neither evil, nor hath the appearance of evil, 
but hath an approbation from God who hath ap- 
pointed Magittratcs for that end to hear and redreffc 
wrongs, and cannot but be approven by others ; yea, 
the deed it felt" cannot but be approven in the confei- 
ence of him that is offended, feing it is taught to men 
by nature to keep thcmfelves from injury t and it is 
not in things fo clearly approven by God, and taught 
by nature, that offence is given, but where the aftion 
is doubted in confeience to be unlawfull , at leaft, as 
fo circumftantiat, which cannot be in this cafe. 2. Ic 
is no offence to complain to a Church- judkatorie of 
one that offendeth , if it be done in a right manner, 
though it anger him,bccaufe it is a le^al allowed way* 
Therefore neither is it fo here. }. To condemn this, 
were really to oftend many , even thofe , who from p*. 

their covetous and malicious humour might clearly 
be cmboldned to wrong others; wherefore we fee Paul 

D and 

34 A Tread fc concerning Scandal." 

and others do approve legal! defences for preventing 
or remedying of hurt, though, no queftion> malicious 
oppofers were fretted therewith. Yet where two arc 
Minifters, or eminent in profeffion, we fuppofe there 
ought to be more warrineffe , becaufc fo neceffarily it 
is implyed , that the one hath the wrong fide, which 
cannot but offend. 
Wh&t&Un ^ may be further moved, what is to be done wtei 
the Com- there feems to be an oppofition betwixt the commwH 
tnanii of of a Superiour , and the efchewing of offence, fo that 
Mdliftrates wc muft either difobey him or give offence in obey- 
ing Offence ing , as fuppofe a Magiftrate (hould command to 
are in $f{o* preach upon fome pretended holy day : the thing is 
#tfw ' lawful! upon the matter » but the doing of it is offen- 
five, either by grieving many, or ftrengthening others 
in the efteeming fomewhat of that day ? An fa. In 
that cafe, the Scandal is ftill aftive and given , and 
therefore no command or authority can warrand one 
in fuch a deed : for , as thefe two worthy Divines 
( dmes in his Cafes of Confcience, lib. 5. cap. 1 1 . and 
GilleFpit in his Difpute of Ceremonies, chap* 7. fett. %.) 
obfervc , no man can command either our charity or 
our consciences, or make up the hazard of a given of- 
fence h and therefore none can command us warrant- 
ably to hurt the fpiritual good of our neighbour,that 
being contrary to the command of love that God 
hath laid on. And we may add, that an indifferent 
a&iotii being involved withpffence, cannot but be in 
its praftifing finfull as it is complexly confidered* and 
therefore cannot be the objeft of a Magiftrats com- 
mand more than an afticn that is finfull in it felf# 
On this ground, many of the Saints in the laft perfe- 
anion, did choofe gather to fuflfer Martyrdom, than to 
be conftru&ed to have ceded , or delivered the Bible, 
and therefore they would not redeem their life by gi- 
ving of any piece of paper at the command of the 
Officers, left thereby they ftiould have been by others 
interpreted to have given up their Bible. It is to be re- 

Part i • A Trtdtifc concerning Scandal." J f 

mcmbcrcd that we fpakc not of difpleafing, fcing by a 
Superiours command chat may be done, but of Scan- 
dalizing , cither by (lengthening lbmcwhat chat is 
wrong , oc fceming co do (o , by wounding chc con- 
feiences of ochers , provoking them to judge us , or 
fome fuch way : And if it were not fo> the three chil- 
dren, 2>an. 3. might have cfcaped the furnace; for, to 
fall down at the Kings command, was not (imply fin- 
full (and had they done that, no more had been called 
for) but to fall down at fuch a time, in fuch place,&c* 
had at leaft the appearance of evil , and therefore 
there was no room left for obedience. And, no que- 
ftion, Joabs refitting, and in part nepjk&ing of 9>al>id$ 
command for numbering of the People, was more ap- 
provable than his obedience,yet was the thing lawful! 
in it (elf* but confidering it as circumftantiat>it tended 
to fofter Qavids pride , and to be (ubfervient in that 
which brought on wrath , Therefore was not to be 
obeyed to the confirming of him in his fin. The fame 
alfo may be faid,when doing fomething that is often- 
five may feem a way to prevent a croffe ; for, aftive 
offence being ever finfull in refpedt of the complex 
cafe, it is not to be allowed whatever perill follow, as 
we may fee in Daniels cafe who would not ftumblc 
others by (hutting of his window , although it ha- 
zarded his own life, and the welfare of the hearers: 
And in this cafe Paul faith, that it were better for him 
to die than that an y fhould make his glorying void, or 
make him an occafion for others to (tumble upon, 
I Cor. 9. 1 5. &c. 

It may be faid , that fometimes the cafe is fo dated, w j m ^ ' 
that whatever be done there will be offence, as if 2W$ tf ^ w ; a d 
take wages, heiscalledafelf-fecker, that is, one that cafe when of*. 
maketh gain of preaching the Gofpel, if he forbear, f me u life 
it is (aid he loveth not the Corinthians^ and therefore he to follow on 
takethnot from them; again, fome weak Jews are either fio, 
ready to ftumblc, and not receive the Gofpel if he cir- 
cumctfc not Timothy ; others again, arc readie to take 
D 2 advan* 

3 6 A Treatife concerning Scandal; Part i7 

advantage and to plead the neceflny of the ceremoni- 
all Law if he circumcife Titus : It may be asked,whac 
is to be done in fuch cafes ? In reference to which we 
anfwer, i. That we would ever lool^ what is 
mod expedient as to edification , it is like It diddif- 
pleafe Teter-and the J^rnore that he did not cir- 
cumcife^^, and the falfe Apoftles that he did not 
take wages, than if he had done it, yet he did what 
was moft edifying, and of it felf apteft to further 
their fpirituall good ? and a fpirituall difecrner will 
readily find what is moft edifying in it felf, or in that 
cafe, which is to be followed, although it maybe 
moftdifpleafing. 2. Refpeft would be had to thefe 
that are moft unbyafled ; prejudice poflefled the Jews 
and thefe corrupt Teachers , and therefore whatever 
*Paul did they ftumbled at it ; but it is like he had re- 
fpeft to others, and did what might moft wipe away 
the calumnies that were caft upon him and the Gofpel 
by thefe falfe Apoftles. ?♦ In fuch a cafe, a man 
would look to what is moft denied like, and it is ever 
fafeft to fway to that hand , as fuppofe a man were in 
hazard upon one fide to be thought negligent, if he be 
not painfull, and even fomeway rigorous in his deal- 
ings with men, as on the other fide, covetous, if he be 
but painfull. It is fafeft to hazard upon diligence 
without rigidity , although it flhould occafion him 
tobe accounted negligent : Becaute there is leaft felfi- 
neffe on that fide , and that hath leaft to commend ic 
unto mens corruptions. Thus Paul rather hazardeth 
upon what might follow upon his refufing to take 
wages than to take them , becaufe taking is of it felf 
more apt to give offence than refufing , and doth not 
look fo fingle-like , and there is not fo eafic accefle to 
vindicat chat againft clamorous mouths. 4. When 
the offence feemech to follow both from omitting and 
committing , faul choofeth often to commend for- 
bearance , as in the cafes of forbearing to eat meats, 
and to take wages, at leaft, in Corinth p feing he was 


Pa rt i . *A Trea tife concerning Scandal.' 

otherwife fupplied. So, when there is hazard of bet- 
ing accounted proud on the one fide > if men take fo 
and fo on them, or live in fuch and fuch a rank, on the 
other fide, they may be accounted filly, and of no fpi- 
rit. if they be fhort of that ; it is yet fafeft to efchew 
what may look like oftentatfon, becaufe the tenta- 
tion of (elf-feeking lyeth ncereft that. J. The pre- 
fent (tate of the time, and the temper of thole we live 
among, would be obferved ; as fometimes folks are 
ready to count an indifferent thing neceffaryj then it is 
to be abftained from ; Therefore 5W would not cir- 
cumcife Htm : Sometimes again the omitting of an 
indifferent thing may feem to import the condemning 
of fome neceffary duty , and therefore Daniel will not 
forbear his ordinary circumftanccs in prayer : thus 
it is to be obferved > to what fide ( to (peak fo ) the 
tide of offence doth run , and that is to be fhuned. 
6. The nature of the perfons is to be obferved,which 
we have to do with in the mentioned cafe. Some are 
weak, Socondefcendingedifieththem, and grieving 
of them might ftumble them at the Gofpel ,• others 
areperverfe> and condefcendingtothem,ftrcngthneth 
them in their oppofition , and fo proveth a Humbling 
to them. Upon this ground,circumcifing of Timothy 
to the weak at one time is edifying , and forbearing 
thereof had been a ftnmbling- block: at an other time, 
and to other perfons circumcifing had been an offence* 
as in the cafe of Titm inftanced> and fauh refilling 
to circumafe him, was not that he regarded not their* 
(tumbling, but fhat he knew the circumcifing of him 
would puffcthem up and ftrengthen them, and fo 
ftumble them indeed, therefore he would not do it. What, when 
If it be asked, what if the cafe ftand fo ftated,thatdo^ doing will 
ing will offend the weak and cender,no doing will dif- °ff en ^ tke 
pleafe and irritate the perverfe ? as fuppofe in the cafe ma ^ dn * . 
of eating things facrificed to Idols jor contrarily doing *?****' *™ 
offendeth the groffe , and no doing the tender , what iTnt&tc m 
is to be done in fuch a cafe ? Anfo\ As there is never y™!'** 

3 a 

5 g A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part I . 

a neceffity of finning, fo there is never a fleceffity that 
onefhould fall in an aftive offence, the offence there- 
fore upon the one fide muft be taken , and that is not 
to be regarded in comparifon of the other. As fup- 
pofe in feme cafes the weak be really offended , and 
the perverfe are but irritated , in that cafe their irrita- 
tion is not to be flood upon : for often they are really 
edified when they are diflatisfied , as in the inftance 
propofed; eating of things facrificed to Idols, was 
really offenfive to the Godly, as being ready to draw 
them to fin , but though it might poflibly difpleafe 
others that the Believers did not eat with them , yet 
was there nothing in that deed of it felf apt to fiumbie 
them, and induce them to fin ; Again, fometimes the 
Godly are difpleafed , and the perverfe and profane 
are really ftumbled , as when SW refufed to circum- 
clfeTltM, it is like his not doing thereof did really 
difplcafe many godly Jews that were zealous in the 
Law, yet his doing of that had really been a Rum- 
bling to many corrupt Teachers who did teach the 
neceffity oPcircumcifion , and would have been con- 
firmed by that practice. Therefore Taut will rather 
difpleafe the godly Jews than flumbie the pro- 
fane Teachers by a deed which had alfo been a real! 
(tumbling unto the Jews. This then is the firft rule, 
to wit , that we would look well upon what fide the 
aftive offence lieth , and upon what fide the difplea- 
fure only, and to choofe the efchewing of offence, who 
ever be difpleafed. 2, When the thing is in it felf in- 
different to be done , or not to be d&e , it is fafeft to 
forbear whoever be difpleafed , as we fee in the in- 
fiances given, Paul inclineth ftill to forbearance, he 
forbore to eat flefli, and to circumcife Titus , and to 
take wages, &c. when the cafe is fo ftated , becaufe 
Whoever be difpleafed,that is not of it felf fo indu&ive 
to fin,as doing is, Which either doth ftrengthen others 
to do doubtingly upon our example, or to judge us 
for doing what they account finfull, or fomc (uch like. 


Part U A Trettife * oncer ning Scandal. * 9 

Indeed, in fome cafes where there is no hazard of Of- 
fending by doing , we may do what is indifferent to 
prevent the irritating of any, that fo there may be the 
greater accede to edifie them : And therefore, Att.i6. 
2. Paul will circumcife^w^, left he make himfelf 
ungracious to the Jews in thofe parts ; yet, had there 
been any there to take advantage from that to confirm 
their crrour, he had not done it , as in the other in- 
ftance of Tim doth appear ; for fo it had not been an 
offence* but fomewhat which was difpleafing to thofc 
Jews. Yet, ?. fuppofing it to be fo,that neither have 
ground, but both m*y be difpleafed, Then the tender 
are to be refpefted , and the preventing their offence 
is to be preferred. I- Becaufe they are difpleafed out 
ofconfeience, and that is wounded; others are but 
irritat in refpeft of fome luft , and fo it is difpleafure 
fimply to them, but it's offence to the other, becaufe 
on a ground ofconfeience they are difpleafed. 2, The 
Lord is moft tender in the grieving , or not grieving 
of the godly fas is clear, Mattb m i%- ) Therefore oughc 
we to be fo alfo. Hence the Prophet profeffeth, 2 I{tn. 
$ 14. that had ir not been refpeft to Jebofapbat , he 
had not flood much on the difpleafing of others ; or, 
fuppofe fome prophane perfon fhould be difpleafed, 
becaufe a man doth not drink fo much, ( although ic 
be not inconfiftent with moderation ) and fuppofe 
fome tender perfon fhould think his drinking thereof 
inconfiftent with fobriety, 1 fay> in that cafe he fhould 
refpedt thslaft, becaufe this offence doth flow from 
a ground of confeience.* Laftly, it would be looked 
to in fuch a aCe, what may be moft in the upfhot or 
event for edification , fuppofing there (hould be in- 
volvements on all hands 5 for fome things being 
compared may be better difcemed, than 1 when they 
are abftra&lyconfidered in themfelvcs ; Now, edifi- 
cation and offence do never lie upon one fide : there- 
fore if it be found that fuch a thing comparatively be 
edifying, it is to be done, and what feemeth to oppofe 
it, is not to be accounted offence. CHAP. 

40 e^ Treatife concerning Scandal, Part I . 


Bolding forth What U called* for When Offences 

IT may be profitable to enquire what is called for 
from a Chriftian living in the time when offences j 
abound , and when there is too great a readinefle 
both to give and take offence ? Anpto. It is hardly j 
poflible to condefcend on 'all particulars here ; yet bc- 
caufe the thing is ufefull, and the Scripture is full in 
reference to this matter, in the fourteenth Chapter of 
the Epiftle to the Romans , and in both the Epiftles to 
the Corinthians, and elfewhere , We may Hazard to 
propofe thefe general directions. 

I. A man would not only refpett his own clear- 
nefle in confidence as to the lawfulneffe of a deed, but 
would even have refpc6i to the fatisfa&ion of the 
confeiences of others, as it is> I Cor. 10. 29. The 
negleit of this cafteth a door open to many evils ; and 
did this abound, that men were burning with any of- 
fence taken by others, as Was r fauh cafe, 2 Cor. 1 1 . 29. 
there would be fewer offences given. It ought to 
affedl us, as it were a pang or ftound at our hearts, to 
hear or fee of any that are offended. This is a prin- 
cipal remedy from an inward iympathie to ftudy this, 
and there will be direftions furnifhed where that 
touch is, Who is ^ea\ t and I am not^eaf^} 'tobo u 
ojfended, and I burn not i Sootier would we put our 
head in the fire than hazard to offend any, if this 

2. As men would be carefull not to give offence, fa 
alfo not to take offence , or to fiumble even when 
blocks are catt in the way. It is a piece of our folly 
fomecimes to be exclaiming againft the frequencie of 
offences and the givers of them, and yet not to be 
scjyertjng , but to be ftumbling at thele our fclves ; 


Part i . A Trettlfc concerning Scandal. 4* 

cither by waxing cold in our love to the Godly, or 
faint in duties, or ready to take liberty to fpeakand 
to judge of others, even ot their ftate that we offend 
at, or paflionately to be irritate to fome carnal re- 
venge,&c* for,(cldom ai e many offences given aftive- 
ly, but many alio are offended paflivcly, as Mattb.iq. 
10. and at fuch time, they are blcffed who are not of- 
fended inChrift, it being both a good thing, and a 
rare thing in fuch a cafe, Mrtth. 1 1. 6. for, as it is in 
carnal concerts often and ill reply bringeth on more 
fintull contention ; fo k is here : And offence taken 
by one, leadeth him to give another, as therefultof' 
thac, whereas were it our care not to Rumble our 
felves , yve might be keeped from giving occafion of 
that to others, and brook much more peace , as it is, 
TfaL II 9.165 Great peace ha\>e tbey ^bo loVe tby Lay> : 
and nothing [hall offend them. Sometimes, again, the 
falls of others are matter of mocking and mirth, and 
weare pufcupbecaufe of that, as if there were noc 
fuch corruptions in us : This was the Corinthians 
fault, 1 Cor. 5. 2, and many other wayes are there of 
ftumbling , and O but watchfulnefle is neceflary 
when folks walk thus in the midtt of lhares, and are 
fo ready to fall either upon one hand or another ! 

3. Folks would beware of defpifing or judging 
one another, but would by all means endeavour the 
entertaining and confirming of love, which is in this 
refpefit the bond of perfc&ion. The Apoftle giveth 
this direction, $(om. 14. 3. Let not htm that eateth, de- 
Jpife bim that eatetb not ; and lei not bim that eatetb not, 
judge him that eatetb. He thac eateth is the ftrong pro- 
feflor, who is through in the knowledge of what is 
right and what is wrong ; It is the fault of fuch rea- 
dily to condemn and defpife the weaker who cannot 
go alongft with them. Again, he that eateth noc, 
is the weak , who, wanting clearnefle in what the 
other is clear of, is ready to judge the other as an 
pntender perfon , becaufe he doth what he cannot 

42 " A Trtatife concerning Scandal P art t • 

do. Thefe evils are rife where offences aboundi and 
arc the oyl which nourifhcth them : for,if there were 
not pride and defpifing in fome , and untenderneffe 
and rafh judging and jealouiies in others that are 
weak , the plague that followeth offences would not 
be fo great in the world. But thefe two arc moft di- 
rc&ly oppofit to the rule of charity that ought to be 
amongft Chriftians, both in guiding us in doing of 
our own ads , and in eonftru&ing and judging of 
the aftions of others. And, in a word, love, that is 
the fulfilling of the Law, is the fulfilling of this pre- 
cept alfo* See x Job. 2. to. He that lti\>etb bis brother 
abidetb in the light, and there is none occajion of [turn* 
bling in him. Offences could neither be given nor 
taken if love to our brethren were frefti. 

4* We would beware of moving or foftering 
needleffe and perplexed drfputings , thefe hav^ ever 
proved exceeding hurtfull to the Church, and pro- 
portionally wronged edification , aserrour and pro- 
phanity have done. 1 1 is the Apoftle's firft dire&ion, 
%w.r4. t. Him that is weak receive, but not to doubt- 
full disputations ; for fuch breed ftrife , and often 
waken carnalneffe in the contenders rather than pure 
zeal. And in this cafe, it is better for fome to poffeffe 
clearneffe in their own judgment, and to condefcend 
in their praftice to others , than by venting their 
judgment unfeafonably, to confound others , that is 
the meaning of the word, %w.l4. 22. Haft thou faith? 
that is, clearneffe in fuch a particular , bd\>e it to thy 
felf, that is, make your own privat ufe of it with- 
out troubling others with the fame. And we will 
fee, that this fpirit of contention , and* the abounding 
of offences, have ever been together in the Church. 
For certainly fuch contentions cannot but obftruft 
the growth of the weak, and grieve the ftrong , and 
(tumble all. We conceive therefore, that at fuch at 
time it were more fafe to abffain the wakening of new 

tates, raifing of old, or ufing of new cxprefftons, 

Part 1* A Treatife concerning Scandal* 4J 

than to hazard upon the offence which may follow 
upon mens miftaking of them , or taking advantage 
by them, which will be more hurtful than any ad van. 
tage they can bring. We conceive alfothat it were 
fitter to overlook lome miftakes in fome Writings ac 
fuchatime , than unneceflarily to table a debate oq 
every thing chat (eemeth diffatisfying in the writings 
and exprcfilons of others , which is become too com- 
mon, and by this, profeffed enemies are let alone and 
have peace, and all the debates in the Church) are 
almoft amongft men that agree in fundamentals, be* 
caufe of fome lefler differences. 

5. There would be an abftinence from things that 
arc controverted either in do&rint or practice, if they 
be not neceflary things ; As we fee the Apoftle doth 
inthcEpiftlesto the 'Romans and Corinthians. The 

reafon is, be^ufe it is the ftrong who are clear to do, ; 

and it's the weak who are doubtfull. Now, it is 

more juft and fafe> that the ftrong (hould condefcend 

to the weak, becaufe that is within their reach, than 

that the weak ffiould be driven up to the ftrong , 

which were to overdrive them. 

6. At fuch a time folks would be much in the 
ftudy and pra&ice of the more neceflary and mate- 
riall things * which come nearer the life and power 
ofgodlinefle. We fee, when offences abounded in 
the primitive times , the Apoftle withdrawal* them 
from too much ferioufneffe in more circumftantiall 
things, to the working-out of their (alvation in fear 
and trembling, Philip. 2. 12, for, experience telleth 
us, that offences rife moft , yea cannot rife, but in 
things which may be done or forborn , as in eating , 
and fuch other things as troubled the primitive 
Church. We fee alfo, that where there is moft heac 
in thefe things , there is an overvaluing of them, and 
an undervaluing of faith, repentance, prayer, com- 
munion with God, &c. Hence it is, ( fym. 14, 17. ) 
that the Apoftle correfteth this fault, faying, The 

44 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 1 1 

IQngdom ofHeaVen (which is the Gofpel in its power) 
doth not confifl tn meat and drin{ , that is, in the eat- 
ing of, orabftaining from, fuch meats as were then 
difputable , much lefte in the difputes that were con- 
cerning them • but it confifteth tn rigbteoufne/S, peace , 
and joy in the boly Gboft , that is, in material duties. 
Therefore he addeth, that he that ferveth God in 
thele ( that is, righteoufnejje and peace and the more 
material things) « accepted of God, and approved of 
men. Which rfieweth , that they placed too much 
of religion in thefe extrinfick things, and in the mean 
time fleighcedthe main. For, in neceflary things 
there is'no hazard of offending , and few dually of- 
fend at thefe. 

7- At fuch a time great care would be had to en- 
tertain peace > even publick Church- peace , and re- 
fpe& to the Ordinances , particularly c* that of Dif- 
cipline, becaufe that is the proper remedy for remo- 
ving offence*, Matth.iS. 17. and without unity this 
hath no weight. Alfo offences of their own nature 
tend to make rents, and where unity is prefcrved 
many are keeped on their feet which otherwayes 
would have fallen. Therefore >^?^. 14. 19. that di- 
rection is given, Let m follow thofe things V>bicbma%e 
for peace r and things ^beWVnth one may edijie another j 
And often union and edification are joyned together, 
which (heweth, that it muft be a great reftraint to 
ofFences> which are fo oppofit to edification. 

8. When offences abound, it is often moft fafeto 
be leaft appearing , except a mans call be the more 
clear. and convincing : For*as in the multitude oftoords 
there toanteth not fin , So in much medling there wan*- 
teth not offence. This is alfo clear in experience, 
becaufe offences comt more ordinarily, and are more 
obferved when fomething is done , than when fome- 
thing is forborn. Yet this is not to be extended to the 
pmiflion of any neceflary duty , but is to have great 
weight in indifferent things, that are not neceflary, 


Part I • A Treatifc concerning Scandal 4,5 

cfpecially fuch as for the time are moft ordinarily the 
ftoneof ftumbling. Hence we find, that though in 
fome queftions the Apoftlc is full to difputc down 
adversaries, as in the cafe of Justification ; Yet there 
are fome other things that he ieeketh rather to have 
rcftrained than moved , fuch as he calleth doubtfully 
^om. 14. 1. endlejft, iTim, 1.4. that gender ftrife, 
and arc not edifying , but foolifh and unlearned 
queftions, 2?'iw. 2. 14, 16, 23. men are to flee, and 
tofiiun thefe, even when occafion is given. For, 
though every queftion hath a truth upon one fidc,and 
the fearching into neceffary truths be ed ify ing , yet as 
to fuch, considering the contention that waiteth on 
them, and the difficulties that arc about them, the 
Church gaineth more by filence in them, than by too 
fervent purfuing of them. 

9. Men at fuch a time would be diligent in the 
duties of their Rations* and keep themfelves within 
thefe ; and, as the Apoftle faith, 1 Cor. 7. 20. wonld 
abidq in the calling wherein they are called : for, by 
fo doing there is no occafion of offence. When a 
Magiftrate holdeth in the duties of a Magiftrate, 
and Minifters > Mafters, Servants, Husbands and 
Wives, and fo all forts contain themfelves within 
the bounds of their refpeftive Rations, that is a thing 
offenfive to none^ But when they exceed or give oc- 
cafion to others to think that they exceed, then itbe- 
cometh offenfive, and maketh the Gofpel to be evil- * 
fpoken of. For which caufcthe Apoftle commendcth 

to Subje&s, Wives, Servants, and all forts > the do- 
ing of the duties of their refpetfive Rations* as that 
which doth adorn the Gofpel, and flop themouthes 
of gainfayers. 

10. There would be mutual faithfulneffe , and a 
condescending upon their fide who are offended, 
freely and fQberly to admonifh thofe by whom they 
are offended ; and upon the otherfide, a condefcend- 
ing to fatisfie and remove any offence taken by thofe 


4^ A Trettifc concerning Scandal, Part i • 

who have given it, or at whom it is taken. This is 
our Lord's rule, Mat A. 18. 15. &c. There is no- 
thing more needfull , when offences abound, than 
thefe, and yet often there is little or no acceffe to 
them* or pra&ice of them when they are moft need- 
full* And this maketh offences to abound the more. 
And what thing is more unfuitablc than for one to 
take or keep offence at another , and yet never to 
endeavour his recovery who hath offended, and by 
fo doing to hazard both their fouls ? Or, when one 
hath given offence, and isadmonUhed > to refufe to 
come out himfelf, or to keep another out of this 

u* This endeavouring to have offence removed, 
ought to be followed convincingly, and that in the 
feveral ftcps laid down, Matth. 18. and if privat rea- 
foning and admonition prevail not, it is to proceed 
further till it come to the Church. But becaufe the 
Scandal then becometh publick > we (hall fpeak of it 
in the next branch. Only now it is to be adverted 
concerning thefe offences in reference to which we 
are to admonifh our brother, and thus to follow them 
in cafe of fleighting, jfc They are hot only wrongs 
done to the perfon immediatly or dtre&ly, but it may 
be his being ftumbled at his feeing a mansmifcar- 
riages towards others , So the injury may be to one, 
but the offence to another, 2. This duty is to be 
1 gone about* not only without all heat* prejudice, or 
contention, but with the fpirit of love, as a duty pro- 
ceeding there from for his good , even from that fame 
fpirit by which we pray for him $ they being b6th 
equally neceffary duties. And, 3. That this Order 
of Chrift's is not to be intervened by any, nor the 
publick gone to, till the private may be effc&ually 

12. There is a neceffity in every thing (efpccially 
at fuch a time) to be jfingle in our end, having the 
glory of God mainly in our eye. And that not on- 

Part i . A Tr*Ati{c concerning Scandal* 47 

lyfor our own peace, but alfo for the convi£Uon 
of others. It is often our unfinglcneffe that maketh 
us careleffe in giving offence, and alio the evidence 
or appearance of that, that maketh others readily to 
take offence at our carriage. Hence we fee, that the 
actions of fuch who are fuppofed to be fingle, are not 
fo readily Humbled at. And this dire&ion is ex- 
prefly laid down in reference to this end, I C or * *©• 
gt. Whether therefore ye eat or ye drinks or V»bate)>er ye 
do, do all to the glory of God : give none offence neither 
to JeV> nor Gentile, err. It were fit therefore at fuch 
a time, that a man (hould examine his own breaft, 
and try what leadeth him on fuch a defign, or aft ; 
for often by-ends and motives will fteal in, when 
we feem to our fclves to be moft fervently zealous : 
fclf-interefts had need to be much denied in fuch a 

1 3. Much care would be had to keep up the au- 
thority of all Chrift's Ordinances; they are the lights 
and means whereby men are to be dirc&ed, left they 
ftumble, and to be ftrengthened and comforted in 
their fpiritual confolajions : and hardly offences arife, 
but the Devil feeketh to difcredit thefe, becaufe then 
men are in the dark , and fo cannot but fall when 
blocks are in their way- Hence often are the Ordi- 
nances of life the very pretended rife of offences , as 
concerning a Miniftery, Raptifm, the Lords Supper, 
Sabbath Day, Singing of Pfalms, Conftitution of a 
Church, Difciplinej &c. becaufe by making thefe to 
be ftumbled at, or ftones of (tumbling, men can 
have acceffe to no other means* cither fpr direftion 
or confolation. On this ground Paul endeavoureth 
fo much to vindicate himfelf from what was impu- 
ted to him, 2 £ok 1 2. 19. And for this end fo many 
direftions are given for keeping up the credit of the 
ordinances in the moft difficult dark cafes,as Song i.& 
#/*-4.»M3- fltf.i3.7>8 > era.&i7. efpeciallyAf**. 
18. 17,18, ©v. And on the contrary, for efchewing 


48 tA Treatlfe concerning Scanuai. Part 1 .' 

corrupt teachers > and thofe who caufe divisions and 
offences contrary to the do&iine learned, &c '2{om. 1 6. 
17. Then ic is a time to try the fpirits , and to fear 
fnares , and to hate every garment that is fpotted with 
the flefti ; and we find in Scripture > and experience 
that ever thefe two go together , to wit, (Running of 
thofe who bring falfe do&rine , and the adhering to 
thofe who are faithfull on the other fide. 

14. Atfuch arime efpecially, Chriftians in their^ 
walk toward one another , ought to be of a fymp aW(| 
thizing and condefcendmg temper. This is to bear 
the infirmities of the weak and not to pleafe our felves* 
but our neighbour for his good to edification, even as 
Chrift pleafed not himfelf* &c, as the Apoftle hath 
it to the fame fcope, %w* 1 5. t, 2, 3. Tenacioufneffe 
and (elf- willedneffe do often breed offences > and con- 
tinually ftand in the way of removing of them , and 
although there is nothing more ordinary in a time of 
offences than that » to wit , for men to ftand to their 
own judgement and opinion as if it were a piece of 
liberty and confciencTe > not to condefcend in a thing 
that we judge la wfull, yet is there nothing more un- 
fuitable for Chriftians in fuchaVime: for, as Solomon 
faith, Only by pride cornetb contention, Prov. tg. 10. So 
this felf- pleafing humour is the great fomenter of of- 
fences in the Church. This condefcending was 'Paul's 
pra&ice in this cafe, 1 Corimh. 9. ver. I9>*°> &c. who 
becanife all things to all men, for their edification, be- 
ing in the ufe of indifferent things fo dependent upon 
the edification of others , and fo denied to his own 
pleafing and inclination ; yea, even to his own light* 
as if he had had none himfelf. And although this be 
incumbent to all Chriftians, yet thefe who are more 
eminent and ftrong, are efpecially called to this for- 
bearance and condefcend in?. , as it is 'fyw. 1 5. 1. We 
then that are flrong ought to bear, &c. Gal. 6. 1,2. It is 
a great miftake in Religion, to think , that in indiffe- 
rent circumftantiall things , the weak fhould follow 


Part i • tA Treatife concerning Scandal.' 

the ftrong > and upon that ground to undervalue the 
offending of them: Ic is quite contrary to Scripture, 
the ftrong are to carry to the weak as men do to brittle 
and weak veffels , ufing tenderneffe to them left they 
be crufhed. What is faid in all the dire&ions , doth 
therefore fpecially concern the more ftrong Believersi 
that in thefe they may go before others. 

g^ C H A P. I X. 

Holding forth what ought to be the carriage of 
Minifttrs when Offences abound. 

i ?• ' ■' *He laft dire&ion is, That then Minifters in 
f a fpeciall manner , are called to beftir 
"*- themfelves for draining this torrent of 
Offences, even as they are to fet themfelves againft the 
abounding of fins. And indeed we know no mean 
fitter and more comprehenfive for this end , than that 
Minifters cordially interpofe for the removing thereof. 
For , this is a fpeciall end for which they are given to 
the Church, as was formerlyfaid,and this is a fpecial 
part of their charge, to watch over fouls in reference 
to this. Hence we fee, that the Apoftle Paul doth not 
infift more in his publick doftrine , or in his private 
carriage* upon any thing, than upon thisi to wit, Thac 
the Church may be made and keeped free of offences, 
as what hath been obferved from him out of the 
Epiftles to the Romans , Corinthians , Galatians , &c 
doth evince. Nor doth he with any kind of perfons 
deal fomiffrto reft rain ftrifes, contentions, janglings 
about words, and fuch things which do gender of- 
fences, as in the Epiftles to Timothy and Titos, charging 
them, that not only in reference to their own carriage, 
but, as Minifters of the Gofpel, they would endeavour 
this in their charges ; and there can be no reafon of 
this, but becaufc the matter is of fuch concernment td 
the Church , and becaufe they by their ftations have z 
E tttaitf 


$6 r J Treat tfe concerning Scandal. Part i. 

main influence either on the reftraint or growth of 
fcandals and offences. Yea, doth not the blefled 
Prince of Paftors Himfelf, often take notice of offpnees 
in His fermons ? fometimes reproving them > fomc- 
times (hewing the ill of them, and often purpofly in- 
fifting in inftrudions for this very end , that His Dif- 
ciplesfliouldnot be offencjed, zsJob.i6. I. and in 
His pra&ice, condescending to prevent the offence, 
even of carnal men , Mattk 17. 27. and doth much 
infift on that do&rine > giving directions for prevent- ^ 
ing and removing thereof, Matth.\%. and particular- 
ly He giveth dire&ion for the promoving of mortifica- 
tion, by cutting off the right hand, and plucking out 
the right ey^> &c. which being given by the Lord, if 
well ftudied and praftifed, might be a compefld of all 
other dire&ions , it \% fo well chofen for that purpofe, 
as all His directions were. All which (he weth , that 
when offences abound , much doth ly upon Mini- 
ftcrs at fuch a time > and that both in reference to their 
ownperfonall carriage, and alfo in their miniftcriaJI 
ftations; and in fum , in their whole walk, both 
amongft themfelves, and towards others of all forts, 
which we may hint at in fome particular inftances : 
As, 1. that their converfations be then grave, fober, 
holy, denied, &c. and eminent in all that is called for 
from private Chriftians, at fuch a time. For,as their 
carriages are more obferved than others , So do fpots 
upon them more difcernably appear, and when ap- 
pearing , are more readie to Aumbie and harden 
others. It is for this, that a Minifter is to (hew him- 
felf a pattern and as a copie or example to theBeliever, 
in word, in converfation, in charity, in fpfft, &c. as 
it is, 1 Tim. 4. 1 2. Upon this ground alfo are they at 
fuch a time to flee youthfull lufts of contentions,flrife 3 
and fuch like, even when thefe feem to follow them 5 
and on the contrary, to purfue righteoufneffe, faith, 
charity, peace, &c even when thefe feem to flee from 
them, as it is, 2 Tjm t a, 22, Both which places relate 


Part i • A ^redttfe corner m #£ Scandal.' 

efpecially to perrillous times, asthefcopein the pre- 
ceeding words doth hold torch. And if this be not in 
Minifters, what can be expc&cd amongft the people ? 
and without this , can their carriage or publick Mini- 
fterybavc weight to this end? 2. Minifters would 
bewatchfull, not only over fins , but even over of- 
fences,yea,even over paflive offences,lcft any by them- 
felves,or any other be offended, which was our Lords 
way and the pra&ice of the Apoftles. as in the places 
cited. For, to be offended, is an infirmity andfick- 
nefle,even when the offence is meerly taken; and for a 
Minitter not to be affe&ed with that , doth hold forth 
a mod unminifteriall crudl difpoficion; that is fpoketi 
of by the Apoftle as a great part of the care of the 
Church, 2 Corinth. 1 1 » 18, 29. Who u x»eak, and I am 
not toeaftf 7*bo u ojfended t and I burn not ? Tlie hearing 
of a perfons ftumblingi ought to ftound and will 
ftound the heart of a fynipathizingMinifter, as if if 
were a fire in his bofome. And were this one thing 
in vigour, towk> native fympathiewiththofe that 
are offended, it would u(her-inallothet } dire&ions: 
This would make Minifters pray much tohavc it pre- 
vented, as our Lord doth, job. 17. and Paul doth> 
Sfyw. 1?. 5. This would make Minifters fparingto 
give offence, or to laugh at the offences of others, or 
to defpiie and fieight thofe that are offended , much 
leffe to fpread rumours , entertain contentions , or Co 
to aggregc mifcarriages in others, as thereby the floud 
of offences may rather be increafed than dried up by 
them. And it is found , that feldom offences have 
been in the Church, but Minifters have had a prime 
hand therein , as if it had been a part, of their duty to 
promove the fame : which fayeth , that efpccially 
they had need to be watchfull at fuch a time* ?. Mi- 
nifters would endeavour much unity amongft them- 
felvcs , and unity amongft Profeffours* There is no 
keeping off of offences without this ; for ftrife and 
contention are the fewell by which this plague of 
E a fcandal 

5 a A Treatift concerning Scandal. Part i. 

fcandal is kindled and entertained > when offences are 
abounding in Corinth; it is the fir ft direft ion that Paul 
giveth, I Epift. I chap.ver.io. lbefeecb you, brethren, 
by the name of our Lord Jefus Chri/i , that ye all fpea\ 
the fame things, that there be no divijions among you^c. 
And when he hath been large in two Epiftles > he 
doth almoft clofe with this, 2 Epift. chap. 15. 11. E- 
nally y brethren , farewell: $e per f eft , be of good com- 
fort , be of one mind , live in peace ; and the God of peace 
(ball be ^itbyou. And he not only exhorteth to it, But, 
tym. 15. 5. he prayeth for it upon the back of all his 
do&rine and directions concerning offences ; Yea, it 
was the way that our bleffed Lord Jefus took,to com- 
mend union , and to pray for it to His Difciples , left 
thereby the world (hould be ftumbled and keeped 
back from the acknowledging of Him, and the beau- 
ty of the Church (hould be obfeured > fo as the mem- 
bers thereof (hould not be known to be His Difciples, 
as may be at length feen in the Gofpel , and particu- 
larly, Jeb.ij. 4. Minifters would ftudy the di- 
verting of people from thefe things which ordinarily 
breed offences , as ftriving about words , and jang- 
ling in controverfies not matcriall , the judging and 
condemning of others,and fuch like ; and they would 
ftudy to be occupied themfelves, and to have others 
exercifed in thefe things that come nearer the power of 
Godlinefie and the life of Religion. We fee when 
the reft of the Difciples offend at Zebedee's children for 
their fuit> the Lord checks that, and propofeth to them 
the neceflky of humility and mortification, and fuch 
like> that he might put the unprofitable queftion, {bho 
foould be greate/li) out of their head, as it is in Mattk 
chap. 18. 1, &c and chap, 20. ver«2o, and2j,&c. 
A.nd this is frequent in Tauh Epiftles toTimothy and 
Titm % whereas upon the one fide » hodehorteth from 
ftrife, contention, vain jangling, following of fables, 
and fuch like, So he doth,upon the other fide>exhore to 
the exercife of godlincffe, and co the pieding of good 


Part i # " tA Treatife concerning Scandal. 53 

works > as good and profitable to men in oppofition 
to thefe, as may be gathered from 1 Tim. chap* U 
ver. 4, 5. and chap* 4. vcr. 7, 8. 2 Tim. chap. 2* ver. 
14,15,80:. r/^?.ver*8,9. Yea, the Apoftle will 
have Minitters (o ferious in this, as to charge and ob- 
teft their hearers (as he did his, l Corinth, 1. 10. and 
'Phili.i.) to efchew thefe things, and not to ftrive 
about words, 1 rim. 1. 3,4. iTim. 2. l4,&o Efpe- 
cially Minifters would beware of mentioning fuch 
things unneceflarily , as are the bone of contention, 
or which may fotter miftakesof, or grudges againft, 
others, or make themfelves to appear to be carnal,and 
to walk like men , But rather they would endeavour 
tohufhthemto filencc , as they would have blocks 
removed out of the peoples way, ocherwife they can- 
not but lofe of their minifteriall authority , and dif- 
compofe the frame of the people > which by all means 
(hould beefchewed by them. 

The conlidering of three Scriptures will give a view 
of Paul's carriage in reference to this , And O how 
commendable is it ! The firfl: is, 1 Corinth. 9. 19, 20* 
21, 22, &c. though I be free from all men, yet baVe I 
madt my felf ferVant unto all, that I might gain the more. 
And unto the ftV>s, I became <u a JeXb, that I might gain 
theje'tos', to them that are under the taK, <u under the 
Lafo y that I might gain them that are under the Laft> • 
to them that are without Late > a* Without La®>> (being 
not without Late to God, but under the Lav? to Qhrift ) 
that 1 might gain them that are without Late. To the 
V>ed{ became I astoedJ^, that I might gain the V?eaf^z 
I am made all things to all men , that I might by all 
means faVe fme. ~ Where , his condefcending to 
others, his infinuating by all means to win the 
affe&ion of people > his greedinefle to edifie and fave 
fouls , and his endeavouring by his own example to 
engage others to that fame condefcending way , are 
abundantly holden forth as an ufeful and excellent co- 
pic to be followed efpecially by Minifters* vvho (hould 
E 3 ftudic 

H A Trettlfc concerning Scandal; p art fc 

ftudie edification at fuch a time moft fcrioufly. 

The fecond is , i Corinth, 6. from ver. i . to ver. 1 1 . 
It is a great word that he hath ver. g. Giving no offence 
in any thing, that the miniftery be not blamed : ( for un- 
tendemeffe in offences maketh the Miniftery obnoxi- 
ous to contempt ) $ut in all things approving our fehes 
as the Minijlers of God ; that pointeth out a minifte- 
riall walk which ftudieth more the Matters honour, 
the credit of the Ordinances, and che good of fouls* 
both his own and others, than the pleafing of others, 
and the making thcmfelves acceptable only as men, or 
&$ familiar companions to thofe they converfe with. 
Then followeth > In much patience, in afiiSions, in ne« 
fejfities, indtftrejjes, in ftripes , in imprifonments , in 
tumults, in labours, in Patchings, in fa/lings , By pure* 
**lfe> by \no»ltdge , by long.fuffermg , bytqndnejje, by 
the holy Ghoft > by loVe unfeigned , IBy the t^ord of truth 
by the potyer of God , by the armour of righteoufnejse . on 
the right hand, and on the left 5 ®j> honour and difboflour, 
by evil report and good report ; a* deceivers^ and yet true ; 
JtsunfyoVw, andyeftoellkputon-, as dying , and behold', 
"toe live 1 aschaflened, and not filled; As forroftfull, yet 
ahvay rejoycing ; as poor, yet making many rich ; as hav- 
ing nothing , and yet pojptfing all things. Wherein, as 
in fo many fteps, he fetteth forth his minifterial walk* 
for the preventing of offence , being a moft excellent 
defcription of a patient , diligent, faithfully denied* 
impartially fingle ; powerfull preacher, driving and 
preffing the great defign of Reconciliation's his main 
fcope , as from the clofe of the former Chapter , and 
the beginning of this* is clear. And this is pointed 
out as his work at fuch a time, amongft fuch a people 
for fuch an end,as the preventing of offence. 

The third Scripture is, 2 Corinth, chap. 1 1 . ver* 28, 
29. which was formerly cited , and is worthy to be 
engraven on a Minifters heart. Sefide that tobicb 
wmeth upon me daily , the care of all the Churches. Who 
uwa{, andlamnoftow\} s k>bouoffended > and 1 bum 


part i . A Tnatife concerning Scandal. 

not i Never man was more ferious in quenching fire 
inhishoufe than Paul was in removing of offences, 
and in recovering fuch as were offendecj. He was noc 
only carefull not tbgive offrnce himfelf , nor only to 
keep others from giving offence , nor yet only for re- 
moving of fuch as were taken at himfelf ; nay, nor 
only to faeisfic tho'ethait were ftrong that had offend- 
ed, but the very (tumbling, although without caufe, 
of the moft weak, ignorant, filly perfons,aff .fted him 
more , than if it had pcirced himfelf. It is not like 
that he could have continued careleffe of mens con- 
ftru&ionsof him, of their being grieved and made 
weak, or of their being offended any other way, ( as, 
alas, it is like too many do now ! ) It was no matter 
of laughing to him to hear of the fadnefle of any, that 
did proceed even from cniftakes ; and there was no 
reft in his mind till fuch an infirmity was cured. 
Thefe three places and others, being fobcrly confidered 
in their matter and fcope, will give the ferious confei- 
encious Miniftcr infight in a great part of his duty, 
and (it may be) in no little part of his fin and chal- 
lenge at fuch a time. The Notes alfo of the Reverend 
Maffer fth^on upon the fame fubjeft, ("worthy to be 
tafkeh notice of) do more fully conform this. Happy 
were the J Minifters that were of fuch a frame and of 
fuch a practice ; And happy were the Church under 
their infpeCtiotw O that it may once thus b6 ! 




"reatife concerning Scandal; Part 2* 

PART ii. 

Concerning Publish Scandals , or Scandals as 
they are the ohjctt of Church* censures h and 
more f articular /y 3 as the) are pr attic al, 
or, in practice. 

IT reftcth now that we fhould fpeak fomething of 
Scandal as it is the objeft of Church-difcipline; 
for that is implyed here, to wit, That this fcan- 
dal> given by the N-iceUitans^zs fuch as ought 
to have been taken notice' of by the Church- officers: 
jfor,thenegle6t thereof is reproved by the Lord ; and 
in fuch a cafe privat admonitions are not fufficient. 
We may therefore (peak a word to thefe Queftions, 
I. When a Scandal is to be efteemed publick,that is,to 
be taken notice of by a Church- judicatory. 2. What 
Order is to be obferved in proceeding therein. 
3. What is to be accounted a fufficient ground for 
removing of fuch an offence , fo as it may fift all 
ccclefiaftick Proceffe , or may remove a Sentence 
when it is paffed. 4. What is the duty of private 
Chriftians, when Church-officers feem to be , and 
poffibly indeed are> defe&ive in reference to this ? 


Shtmng that every Offence is notfublic^ and 
When it is fo. 

Concerning the firft Queftion , we lay down 
thefe grounds, I. Every thing offenfive is not 
publick , or immediatly to be brought before 
a Church- judicatory. Of this fort are, U fins of 


Part 2* ts4 Treatife concerning Scandal. 57 

infirmity , which pofliblymay be offenfive for the 
time, Yet the perfons way being confidcred, they are 
to be thought to proceed from his infirmity, they 
being incident to fuch who are in fome lerious man- 
ner watchfull over their way; and therefore are not 
the objeft of Difcipline, which is to curb and reflrain 
the more grofle humours of Profeffors : Otherwayes 
the exercife of Difcipline, in reference to infirmities, 
would utterly prove an intanglement both to Officers 
and Members , and fo occafion more (tumbling , 
contrary to Chrift's fcope. 2* Offences that are in 
difputable pra&ices 3 or that flow from mifcarriage 
in things indifferent > are not properly the objeft of 
Church-cenfure , becaufc there is not folid acceffe of 
through convincing the party. Hence we fee,that in 
thefe difputes concerning indifferent things , or of 
praftices following thereupon > the Apoftles reprove 
mens untendernefle in them, but do never make them 
the ground of Ccnfure as fuch, except they be aggre- 
ged by fome other circamftance. Of this fort alio are 
offences that may proceed from mens carriage in legal 
purfuits and civil contrafts which may offend ; yet 
cannot they be legally convinced to have broken a 
rule, when the ftrain of their way is legal, although 
it may be finfull before God , and be to be reproved 
by private admonition where men have acceffe. 
3* Some offences are grofle , and, it maybe, known 
to fome to be true; yetpoflibly there is no convin- 
cing way of demonftrating the truth thereof too- 
thers : in that cafe, it's more fafe and edifying to for- 
bear publick mentioning of that fcandal,than to pro- 
fecute the fame, feing it may more irritate the perfon, 
and weaken the Church-authority, than edific. 
4. Some fcandals a re grofle, and may be made-ouc 
by two or three witnefles > yet are not immediatly 
to be brought to publick, except upon the fuppofi- 
tion of following obftinacy, and not fatisfying of 
chofe two or three , vvhich efpecially is to be con/i- 



5 8 c* Trettife concerning S c a n d a l J Part 2. 

dered ,if the perfons carriage beotherwayes cleanly; 
This is Chrift's expreffe rule, Mat. 18. and to bring ic 
immediatly to publick,is not confident with that love 
that we'ought to have to one another : For, charity 
requireththathefhouldbe admonifhed, and alio if 
he hear, that it (hould fift ; Ocherwayes, fuch being 
fatisfied as were offended, it were to waken afcan- 
dal, and not to remove one. But now efpecially we 
confider what is a publick fcandal in refped of its 
nature, and afterward we (hall enquire when it is 
fo to be accounted publick in refpe6l of its notority ; 
and fo when immediatly it is to be brought in pub- 
lick : for,it is certain, that thefe two may be divided, 
and fo are to be diftinguifhed »* as was formerly 
hinted. For, a fcandal may be publick, to fay fo, for 
its notority, but yet not! for its nature. 
When&fcdn- 2. Scandals may be of that nature , that it is fit 
datl U t$ be to take publick notice of them , and to follow them 
brought to with Church-cenfutes till they be removed. This is 
fublicb c fear in the Lord's reproving the negleft of publick 
Cenfure in thefe Churches ,- for, His finding fault that 
they bad fuch, zx\& fujferei fuch (as in the next Epi- 
ftle) can be conftru&ed no otherwayes, but that they 
did not by Church -cenfure cut them off from their 
fellowfhip , which is elfewhere abundantly clear. 
And it is true in thefe cafes, 1 . When a fcandal is of 
its own nature groffe and infe&ious, like a little 
leaven ready to leaven the whole lump. 2. When 
it i? clear and in the matter of faft cannot be denied : 
the firft is requifit to a publick fcandal for convincing 
of the confcience of the evil it (elf ; the fecond for 
making application of the confequents of fuch an 
evil to fuch a perfon* 3. An offence becometh pub- 
lick, though it be not of its own nature fo at firft, if ic 
be afterward aggreged by fuch circumftances as ob- 
ftinacy and contempt of private admonition, frequent 
relapfing therein , and fuch like > as Chrift's rule* 
Mattb. 18, and the general nature of offence doth 


Part 2. A Treat Ife concerning Scandal.' 59 

confirm : Scandals that are fo circumftantiated, and 
tbcy oniy, are to be taken notice of by Church- judi- 
catories as the proper obje6t of Church- discipline. 
Hence we may lee a great difference betwixt offence 
as it is the objeftof private difcretion, and as it is 
theobjeftof Church-difcipline. I^all themgroffe 
evils and of an infectious nature* which are againft 
a clear Law of God, and of that influence in a man's 
chriflian walk, as any fober man , acquainted with 
the Word of God , and refle&ing upon conference, 
cannot but acknowledge to be finfull, obftruft ive to 
the work of grace where they are> and tend ing to the 
marring the beauty of a Church, and the edification 
and f alvation of her members if they (hould fpread, 
fuch as Sabbath-breaking , fwearing, and what doth 
dire&ly contradict a moral command , thele things 
are obvioufly ccnfurable. And upon this occafionj 
cannot but much wonder at, and regrate the unwar- 
rantable exprc (lions , at leaft > in the matter of faft, 
of a Learned man, Mr. Baxter againft ®/*fa,/>*g. 130. 
his words are, In feme Countries, Cohere fome oaths are 
grofbn cuftomary and of no great e\>il repute, it ispojfible 
for a godly man to be longguilty of ihem , as it is kj*oT»n 
that many V>ell reputed of for godlinejfe are in Scot- 
land y &c, where he doth mifreprefent the Church of 
Scotland in a twofold miftake (to fay no more,) 1. as 
if fome fwearing were fo cuftomary in Scotland as to 
abound even amongft the Godly.' 2. As if it were 
not taken notice of, or of no evil repute or fcanda- 
lous : It is like this may be his information , but 
certainly Chriflian charity would have pleaded, that 
fuch information (hould not have been received 
againft a Brother, without fome convincing ground; 
much lefle to have been vented as a thing known 
againft a Chrifti in Church , which, however fhe be 
otherwife afflidted and rent,and fo obnoxious to much 
contempt and reproach , yet hatha witnefleboth in 
Heaven and Earth of zeal againft that fin > and in- 


'to *A Treatife concerning Scandal^ Part a* 

fiocencie in that rcfpeft , as to thefe that arc Godly, 
even but feemingly, There being nothing more ab- 
horred by a godly heart, and accounted a greater evi- 
dence of profanity amongft us , than cuftomary irre- 
verent medling with the holy Name of God , and 
fwearing of any kind : and although we be many 
wayes guilty before God , even in this refpeft ; yet 
we fuppofeftie may hold up her face therein, befide, 
and with^any Church on earth. 
Where e fen- 3. We faty , That even among thefe Scandals that 
ce< are pub» are in this fenfe publickly to be taken notice of, there 
Uct^yet dif- is many wayes difference to be made in the profecut- 
JennceutQ ingof them, and that in diverfe refpedts. Is So Tie 
t**de. fcandals are of fuch groffe nature and publicknefle in 
the fa&, that they cannot be paffed without fome 
publick rebukc,at leaft,even though the perfon (hould 
fcem fatisfyingly to refent his deed*, bec^ufe in this, 
refpeft is to be had to the edification of others , and 
not of the perfon only. 2. Some fcandals again arc 
fuch, as by authoritative admonition may be helped : 
and in this fenfe, if a perfon hear the Church-guides 
and take their admonition , there is no further pro- 
greffe to be made. Again, ?. fometimes perfons are 
to be followed with the bighefl cenfure of Excommu* 
nication , when open rebukes cannot do the bufinefle, 
as we fee in the cafe before us , and other praftices of 
Tads. And we fuppofe, that fuch a fcandal as hath 
this Sentence following upon it,wouid be in the grof- 
neffe of its nature , and clearnefle of its proof, con- 
vincingly made out both to the perfon himfelf, and 
toothers. Becaufe , U other wife it may make 
this great Ordinance contemptible , if upon like, or 
difputable grounds, it be drawn forth. 2. Neither 
can it have weight with the perfon to gain its end 
upon him natively , as a Church- ordinance ought to 
have, the firft ftep whereof is, convincingly to argue 
him to the fenfe of his fault, as the word is, Mattb, 1 8. 
!*• h Neither can it be expe&cd to have fuch 


part 2* -^ Treat i(e concerning Scandal. 6\ 

weight with others who ordinarily carry towards 
them that are under it , as they are convinced of the 
weightineffe or lightnefle of the ground of that Sen- 
tence. 4. The nature of this Ordinance eleareth this 
alfo; for (as Divines fay ) it is added to confirm 
Gods threatnings, as Sacraments do fcal the promifes; 
then it importeth,that there muft be a clear threatning 
ere this can be appended s and there canbenofuch 
threatning applyed* but where both the fin in its na- 
ture* and the faft in its notority are convincing ; and 
indeed all the precedents of this Sentence in Scripture 
are of this nature* to wit, they are both rare, and alfo 
upon mott convincingly grofle evils. I cannot ex- 
preffe it better than it is done by that Reverend Di- 
vine, Mr. Thomas Hooker of New England in his Hi- 
ftory> part %.\>ag< 39. Such eVtls, ( the words arc his) 
which are either heynom and abominable, a* fornication^ 
murther, adultery, inceft, treafon 3 &c. or, if not fo g) -ojj f, 
yet carry the face of evil in their forehead , upon tHe prjl 
ferious and Xt>ell grounded confideration of reafon ; and 
have been pertinaciouJJy and obflinatly perftfted in after 
the improvement of all means upon them for canVtmon 
and reformation • Thefe only deferVe Excommunication 
by the rules of Chrifl , 1 Cor. 5. Matth. 18. 17. thus 
far he. Advert , that what we fpeak here of a pub- 
lick fcandal, is fpoken in refped of the nature thereof; 
what is to be accounted iuch, in refpeft of its mani- 
feftnefle and notoritie > followeth afterward to be 
fpoken of. 


6 2 A Treatife concerning Scandal, Part 2. 

* * 

Concerning )tohat order is to be peeped in the fol* 
lowing of public^ Scandals. 

THe fecond thing, to wit, what order and man- 
ner is to be obferved in the following of pub- 
lick Scandals,is not eafily determinable, there 
being fuch variety of cafes in which the Lord exer- 
cifeththe prudence and wildomof his Church-offi- 
cers : and indeed the gift of Government ( to fpeak 
fo) doth efpecially kvrti in the rigiit managing of 
Difcipline, in reference to the ieverall humours and 
conftitutions 'to fay fo) wnich men have to do with. 
For, as in bodily difeafes the fame cure is not for the 
famedifeafe in all contticutions and feafons , and as 
Minifters in their Doftrine are to preffe the fame 
things in divcrfe manners, upon diverfe auditories ; 
So this cure of difcipline, is not to be applied equally 
unto all pcrfons ; nay , not to fuch as are in the fame 
offences. For,that which would fcarce humble one, 
, may crufh another ; and that which might edifie one, 
might be ftumhlingto another , of another temper. 
Therefore we fuppofe there is no peremptor determin- 
ing of rules for cafes here > but neceffarily the maa- 
nerof procedor in the application of rules , is to be 
left to the prudence and confeiehcioufneffe of Church- 
officers, according to the particular circumftanciate 
cafe. Yet we may lay down thefe generals , 
The wit jfc Allpublick procc fling of fcandalous perfons, 
of *Di(ci- or judiciall taking notice of fcandals, would be done 
fline. with refpeft to the ends for which Difcipline is ap- 
pointed, and fo as may attain the fame. This* I fup- 
pofe, cannot be denied : for,the miris muft be fuited to 
its end. Now, the ends of publickCenfuring, are* 
1. for vindicating the honour of Jefus Chrift, that 
fuffereth in the miicarriageof a member. 2* The 


Vltt i* A Treatpje concerning scandal. ej 

preferving of the authority of His Ordinances , and 
thechafteningof difobedience thereunto, Therefore 
it is called, a Corinth. 2. 6. The punifoment that was 
infixed, and chap. to. 6. This is faidto revenge all 
difobedience > it being appointed as an Ecclefiaftick 
whip to keep up His Authority in His Houfe, and 
thereby to note thofe that are unruly therein, 2 Thejfl 
3.6, t 4. 3, It is for the perfons good , asitisfaid, 
I Corinth. 5.5. for the deftruftion of the flefti, that the 
ipirit may be faved , that by this, admonitions, re- 
proofs, yea, threatnings, may have the more weight, 
for the perfons humiliation and up-ftirring: and the 
conftraining of them at leaft to a more orderly walk 
in the Church , as the Apoftle hath it , iThc/f. 5. 6, 
and 14. 4. It is for the good of the Church > that 
the leaven of profanity fpread not , and that ethers 
may thereby learn to fcar : This reafon is given, 
1 £>r. ?• 6>7 ice. and 1 Tim. 5. 20. Now, when we 
fpeak of the end of publick trial and cenfure , refpeft 
is to be had to all thefe, but efpecially to the more 
publick and generall ends , fo as the perfons particu- 
lar edification be not neglected ; and therefore in pro* 
cedor , particular and fpeciall refpeft would be had 
to that manner (whether by meckneffe>or rigidity,by 
forbearing or proceeding) which may mott attain 
thefe ends. 

Hence, 2. we fay , that the fanje offences , upon All offences 
the matter, are not equally nor at all times, nor in all oftbc fane 
perfons, and, it may be, in 3II places in the fame man- ki*d 9 notaU 
ncr, to be purfued and followed; andthereafen \%»*y*i*db 
clear, becaufe according to circumftanccs, that man- t0 .j£ * calt 
ner which is edifying at one time, and in one cafe, w 
may be deftru&ive in another, and (o is not to be fol- 
lowed , becaufe that poVber Vtobicb God hath given is for 
edification and never for deftruBion, 2 Corinth, l?. 10. 
And accordingly, we fet'Paul in fotjie cafes cenfuring 
corrupt men. a$Hymeneus and PhyletM , 1 Tim* 1. 20. 
Sometimes again, he threatneth and yet fpareth , al- 

6 4 -^ Trcatife concerning Scandal. Part 2. 

though the fcandal in it (elf deferved Cenfure,as when 
he faith, Gal. 5. I Vrifh they ibere cut of that trouble you, 
and yet doth it not,b:caufe he found not the Churches 
edification fo to require. Soalfo , 2 C 0Y 'm&* to. 4. 
and 6. Having in a readinejfe to revenge all difobedience, 
V>ben your obedience is fulfilled : which yet he thought 
not meet for the time to do,left it fhould have irritated 
to more difobedience , and have bred fome greater 
rent or fchifm, or have made the authority of the Or- 
dinances leffe weighty, and fo have marred his end, 
which was in all things ( and fo in this forbearing) 
their edification, as he expreffeth it, chap. 12. 19. 
Brethren, "toe do all things ( and fo this alfo ) for your 

When I fpeakof edifying , I do not fpeak of plea- 
fing the perfons (for , that may be often deftru&ive to 
them, and others alfo) But this is intended , that it is 
to be weighed in Chriftian prudence, whether consi- 
dering the time and place we live in, the nature of 
the perfon we have to do with , and of thofc alfo 
among whom we live , it be more fit to follow this 
way with fuch a perfon , at fuch a time , or another 
' way > and accordingly as it feemeth probable , that 
this way will honour God moft , more fully vindi- 
cate His Ordinances, gain the perfon from fin to holi- 
ne(Te,at leaft,to a regular walk,and edifie others moft; 
So accordingly oughtChurch- judicatories to take the 
Way that leadeth moft probably to that end. And 
therefore it ought not alwayes to be accounted parti- 
ality when fuch difference in Church- procedour is 
Mm is to obferved: Y e t thefe things would by all means be 
be guarded guarded againft. 

againfl , *• That nothing be done with refpefk to perfons, 

-when there or appear to be done fo ; that is > for outward , civil, 
is a different or naturall refpe&s, to be more gentle to one than to 
way ta^en another , than which nothing is more derogatory to 
in cenfuring ecclefiaftick Authority , and (tumbling to people. 
the fame 0/- 2, This difference of proceeding , would rather be in 
]***'• ihs 

Part 2. A l reanje tonctrmng scandal. c> 

the manner and circumftances of proceeding in refe- 
rence to fome offences > than in difpenfing with what 
feemcth to be materia II ; or, k would be in fuch of- 
fences where there is no fettled rule , and wherein 
Church: officers have more latitude : as for inflaqce, 
fome offences are of that publick nature that ufually 
they are followed with a publick reproof} fuch cannot 
be conveniently pafl-by in any ordinary conceivable 
cafe i fuppofe it be fornication, or fome fuch thing; 
yet, in the manner of citing and dealing with the per- 
fon, orexpreffing or timeing of the reproof, there 
mayAe condefcending ; but to omit it altogether, 
wouiahazard the cafting loofe of that Ordinance of 
publick reproof , which would mar the edification of 
the Church more than advantage any particular 
party : Other offences again, are more occafional, in 
reference to which>there is no definic law> or practice; 
fuppofe it be fpeaking , reproachful! words of fome 
perfons. Officers, or others, in fuch there is more li- 
berty to condefcend which way may be raoft con- 
vincing to the party . Laftly, in trying what may be 
moft edifying , we are not to look to one end alone> 
to wit , the perfons particular good only, or the pub- 
lick good only , &c but to put all together, and to 
try how joyntly they may be beft attained. 

3. From this alfo it will appear) that Church-offi- Howcburcb 
cers ought with fuchtendernefle, love and fympathic^cerjMgM 
to walk in publick Cenfures , as not only thev may to carry in 
have a tettimqny in their own Confciences , but alfo Ctnluru. i, 
thatthofe who have offended, and others that ob- 
ferve their way , may alfo be convinced of the fame* 
fbr,if this be not, what can their Cenfure gain ? and 
if it be needfull for a Minifter in preaching, to ftudy 
that , it is in fome refpeft more ncceffary here : be- 
caufe ordinarilyjmen out of their corruption,are more 
ready to miftake mens intentions in this : and we 
conceive, that in this a Church- judicatories proce- 
dour, ought difcernably to differ from a civil Court, 
F in 

66 ATrcatifeco* £ Scandal. Part 2';. 

in that they are noc ouy out of Juftice cenfuring the 
party, with a refpeft to the common body, for whofe 
good in fome cafes the moft penitent member muft be 
cut off, and cannot be reprived , but as endeavouring 
the Churches freedom from offences, that the offend- 
ing member may be thereby with ail tendernefle re- 
ftorcd and cured ; and in experience we fee,that often 
Church-cenfures have weight, as they are conftrudted 
to proceed from love. And we conceive , that the 
following of thefe and fuch like dire&ions, may have 
much influence for attaining of this* I. That no- 
thing be rafhly and haftily brought to publiA* but 
that which is a convincing Scandal in it (elf, clear in 
the matter of faft , and alfo after privat dealing with 
theperfon, andtriall of his carriage afterward : if 
the fcandal be not very grofle and publick » Haftie 
bringing to publick, irritateth : and if a private ad- 
monition of Minifter and Elders might gain a Bro- 
ther , what needeth further ? And by fo doing , a 
perfon is convinced, that that Min ifter, or Elder, de- 
fireth his amendment , and on that condition to cover 
his offence. 2. There would be no rigid infifting in 
what is perfonall , in reference to any of the Judica- 
tory > as fuppofe, they fhould fometimes get fnarling 
anfwers , or unbecoming words , or be met with by 
irreverent carriage : in that cafe, rkrre would be con- 
defcending, and what is offer'ive befide, would be 
infifted on , and thefe perfonali things forborn. It is 
true , the authority of the Ordinances would ever be 
kept up , yet that is not alwayes done by a rigid pro- 
fecucing of perfonal reflexions ; but on the contrary* 
it often looketh likeft Chrifts Ordinance, when meek» 
nefle is moft prevalent , and fo in the end , it cometh 
te have greater weight ; for,many cannot difcern be-, 
twixt Officers feeking their own authority , and the 
authority of the Ordinances,* and when the rife of 
the offence is from a mifcarriage to fome perfon im- 
mediately , it looketh to them to be carnall and vin- 

'art 2. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 6j 

^idtive like , and fo hath the appearance of evil and 
is to be eichewed. This we may obferve alio m Pauls 
carriage, and in thepra<3ices of moft zealous men, 
vvho never wronged the Ordinances by denying of 
their own refpeft in fuch cafes. And Church- officers 
would efpccially advert to this > becauic often in our 
hotcft fits, it is rather refpett to our own authority; 
than zeal for Chritt that afteth us> which appeareth 
by this,that a praftical contempt of the Ordinances in 
our own hands* will ftir more than many other groffe 
evils, or doftrinall blafphcmies , or contemptuous 
practices which immediately rcfle& on others, al- 
though thefe may be more difhonourable toChrift* 
J. For attaining this end , the rigidity and ftri&nefie 
of law would not be fluck to , as the perfons not ap- 
pearing at fuch a day, if afterward they condefcend *, 
their haftineffe in cxpreffing themfelves rafhly at one 
rime , or carrying themfelves irreverently, which af- 
terward they may paffe from : thefe and fuch like, 
I (ay, are not to be ftuck to, left Church-officers feem, 
under pretext of Church-difcipline, to take advantage 
of them •, and it is an evidence of the contrary,wheti 
they are condefcended unto in this. Advert , this is 
to be obferved in praftices that feem to flow from in- 
firmity; bur, fuppofe the perfon were fome fubtile, 
deceitfull, diflemblingone, ufing his pretexts of re- 
pentance for furthering his defign, this condefcenfion 
may be hurtfull to the Church of God, in leting fuch 
an occafion flip , and therefore is not to be admitted. 
4. It contributed tothisendalfo, that publick ap- 
pearances and publick rebukes be not frequent , nor 
in cafes bjat fuch as are in the nature and evidence 
thereof convincing , and that alio after private ad- 
monitions have been fruitlefly given. We fuppofe 
that midftep in Chrifts direftion , Matth.iS. doth 
warrandthis, Taf^e to thee tXbo or three before thou tell 
the Church. Haflie bringing to publick reproof , is 
conftru&cd by many to be a feeking of their fhame, 
F 2 but 

6$ A Treat ife concerning Scandal. Part 2 

but when it is rare , and done in the order forefaid, 
and alio with fome reafons why a publick rebuke in 
fuch a cafe is juft and expedient, feing other means 
have failed, and the condition of others calleth for 
that now, &c* it doth much allay that prejudice ; for 
every man hath reafon and a conicienccthough many 
often want the exercife thereof. We find alfo pub- 
lick rebukes rare in Scripture : And although fome- 
times, a publick appearing may be thought moft edi- 
fying to the Congregation; Yet, i. If they were 
very frequent, they would lofe their weight* 2. One 
publick rebuke in this manner and order , will edifie 
more than many otherwife : for,it is not the multitude 
of them that edifieth, but the convincingnels of the 
manner of proceeding. And therefore we conceive 
it is never fie to multiply publick rebukes , even fup- 
pofingthatfcandals were multiplied, but thac fome 
ftouldbe pitched-on that might moft convincingly 
edifie, and that private dealing with others for con- 
yi&ion be made the more weighty > which alfojs the 
judgement of the great Augufline. 3, Peoples o3~end- 
ing for the omiting of publick rebukes , is, when the 
fcandal thereof doth flow from this > that they con- 
ceive it to proceed from carlefneffe , negligence, par- 
tiality,orfome fuch thing in the Officers, whereas, 
if by cuftome it fhall be known to a people, that Offi- 
cers are diligent obfervers of thefe things, and are not 
defe&ive in dealing with fcandalous perfons for con- 
vincing of them , and do take this way as the moft 
loving and tender mean of their gaining , fuch man- 
ner of proceeding will be more convincing and edify- 
ing, than if the thing were inftantly brought to pub- 
lick 5 for, people generally approve of tendernefle 
and condefcending in Church-officers>as looking like 
love to the gaining of fouls, and fo lay much weight 
on their Cenfuring > even of others , when they fee 
them* ask were, conftrained thereto. Andonth^ 
contrary , there is nothing more offenfive to them 
* than 

Part !• A Treatife concerning Scandal. 69 

than wheti this tcndernefle is defiderated. It is to be 
guarded here, that this be not made a cloak to negli- 
gence and unfaithfulneffc ; for, diligence and freedom 
is to be no leffe ufed with the parties , yea more, than 
if they were brought to publick. Only , this fore- 
bearance is to be made ufc of as a mean for making . 
that diligence and freedom the more fuccesfull: other- 
wife , whether it be forborn or followed , it conti- 
nued ft ill to be hurtfull. Alfo , when one of thefe 
abounding fcandals,or fcandalous perfons is rebuked, 
then efpccially the Minitter would fo gravely and 
zealoufly agrcge that evil,that in fome refpeft all that 
are under it may be reproved , and his indignation 
at it may be fo difcernablc, that that one reproof 
may be in place of many , and yet the forbear- 
ance will give accede for fome to come off the 

4. Ic is alfo to be remembered, that this exercife of n m p lf 
Difciplinefor reftrainingof (candals, is to be fubfer- cifline U 1 
vienttothe preaching of the Word: which is the to be orde\ 
main and great edifying Ordinance; Therefore Dif- ed , n 
cipline would be ordered fo, as it may not mar, butftWo**" 
further that. In reference to which, thefe things are but furtbe 
to be adverted to, 1. That no cenfure would be the Word* 
blindly or implicitely made ufe of, but both in refe- 
rence to the party, and others, there would be inftru- 
ftion , exhortation, conviition , &c. by the Word, 
going before > or alongft with the fame. In which 
refpeft ( though improperly) Ccnfuresmay be fome 
way looked upon as Sacrament in a large fenfe in 
thefe particular cafes , becaufe there is in them both 
fome fignifying and confirming u(c; They being con- 
fidered with refpe<5* to the end wherefore they were 
appointed. 2. Church-officers , efpecially Mini- 
fters, would not make Diicipline the great uptaking 
bufineffe, (6 as it may prove an intanglementimto 
them > or diversion from the Miniftery of the Word: 
The great Apoftles, Alt. 6. thought not fit to be • 
F 3 diverted 

Jo A Treatife concerning Scan da tl Part 2. 

diverted with the ferving of Tables, but appointed 
Deacons to be chofen for that end , that they might 
give themfelves principally, and, in companion of 
other duties, fully { or as they fay themfelves, ver. 4. 
continually) to prayer, that is, to the private exer rife 
thereof; and the Mimflery of the Word , that is> the 
preaching thereof in publick. By vvhich we may fee, 
1. what a Minifters great task is, wherein he fliould 
be taken up, to wit, fecret prayer, ( under which arc 
comprehended, reading , meditation, and other du- 
ties meet for his own particular cafe, and preparation 
for the duties of his calling, as may be gathered from 
I Tim. 4. 13, 14, 15.) and the publick preaching of 
the Gofpel. 2. We fee alfo , that though Minifters 
are virtually both Eiders and Deacons , ( as the 
Apoftles were.) yet ought they to regulat their ex- 
ercifing of both thefe, with refpeft to the former two* 
And, 3. that Elders and Deacons ought in govern- 
ing y and overfeeing the poor , to have fpecial relpeft 
to keep Minifters from being burthened or toyled with 
thefe , that they may have freedom to follow the Mi- 
nifteryofthe Word, as the main thing : Yea, even to 
have much accefle to privacy and folitarinefle, which 
is bo"i moft neceflary for , and a well becoming duty 
toaMinifter; This is a fpecial end of the appoint- 
ment of thefe Officers, and in reference to which 
they arr helps , 1 Cor. 12. 28. both to the people and 
to the Minifters. A third thing to be adverted to, is, 
that contentious and irritating procefles be fo fol- 
lowed , as by thefe there be no prejudice laid before 
perfons \ to make them (tumble at the Word , or to 
render it the more unprofitable. It is true, fomecimes 
fuch things are neceflary for the good of the body, 
and for'thc vindicating of Chrifts Ordinances , yet 
as much as may be they would be (huned, and Mini- 
fters efpecially oueht to carry fo in the manner , as to 
keep room for the Word in the afteftions of the par- 
ries. And we conceive, that multiplying and length- 


Part a • A Treatife concerning Scandal. 71 

ningof procefles ( except where there is grave and 
weighty caufej and the way of mall of members, 
penitents , or fuch as are to be admitted to Sacra- 
ments, which is pleaded for by fome, if it were put in 
practice, could not but much intangleMiniftcrs, yea, 
become a more weighty and intolerable burthen to 
them, than the preaching of the Word: yea, could 
not but be obftruftive thereto, contrary to the nature 
of Difcipline, as faid is* 


Shelving that Chrifts order and ?w**M,Mittb.i S. 
it to be typed) and What it doth imply. 

THe fourth generall concerning proceeding in 
publick Scandals,which we would lay down, 
is,that Chrifts order, M*M8. be indifpenfab- 
ly kept. Which we conceive, being compared with 
other Scriptures, doth imply thefe things, I. That 
offences whether they be in Ieffer particulars , or in 
more grofle things , yet if they be but known to few, 
are not ipftantly to be brought to publick, (except 
fome circi;mftance necelTitate the fame for greater edi- 
fication ) and this order is to be obferved both by 
Officers and private perfons. It were not therefore 
unfit, when any delation cometh by an Elder, or com- 
plaint by a private Profeffor , to enquire if they had 
obferved this rule with fuch a party ? and if alone, 
and with fome others , friendly and rationally they 
have endeavoured to convince them ? and if not , 
that they be remitted to follow that way , and if they 
have done it, It would be enquired , if their fo doing 
have had no wejght? Or if the perfon hath conti- 
nued in the offence notwithftanding? If none of 
thefe can be faid , there is yet no ground for publick 
tabling of a fcandal : and thU we fuppofe would cut 
off many needleffe precedes, and prove more edifying* 

F 4 *• Ic 

7i tATreatife concerning Scandal" Part 2. 

2. It is clear from that place , that the offences to be 
complained of , are not injuries or wrongs to us un- 
der that notion as fuch, but what is offenfive in its na- 
ture and under that confideration,whether any wrong 
be intended to us in it or not. Ic is not fuitable to a 
Church-court to have only perfons complaining of 
wrongs done to themfelves, as if they be cui fed , de- 
famed, &c. and yet not to take nocice of what is of- 
fenfive, as wronging the honour of God , reflecting 
upon the profeffion of the Gofpel , and really laying 
a (tumbling- block before themfelves and others. This 
is to negleft fcandals , and to take notice of flanders> 
which, as we (aid, differ from thefe- Hence, fuch 
perfons ordinarily follow their complaints with much 
bitterneff? , a^d never feek to convince the party pri- 
vately . We conceive therefore, that fuch direft com- 
plaints,fo circumftantiate, ought not to be admitted,at 
leaft* upon that confederation 5 left the Ordinance 
of Chrift be made fubfervient to mens particular paf- 
fions and interefts. It is therefore more fit when fuch 
offences arife , that they be taken notice of abftradtly 
from fuch complaints, and that in the order that other 
fcandals are to come in , whereof now we are fpeak- 
ing. 3. Ic is clear from that order , Mattb. 18. chat 
when the perfon offending, doth accept of the admo- 
nition, there is no mention further to be made there- 
of 5 yea, it would not be fo much as reported private- 
ly, if ic be not other way es known. 4. if that pri- 
vate admonition prevail not ; then is the perfon to take 
two or three with Kim before it come to the Church, 
and this is not to be done fuperficially , and for exo- 
neration meerly , but convincingly , and for the per- 
fons edification. Therefore we fuppofe , that this is 
not to be aft rifled to one time, either in private, or 
before thefe two or three : for, once fpeaking may be 
but little ufefull ; and feing the Church is to continue 
in dealing with the perfon before chey give him over 
an4 proceed > and before they can account that he 


Part 2. id Treat if e concerning Scandal. 7 5 

heareth not them , So ought it to be in the preceeding 
twofteps, feing the words are the fame. Again, I 
fay , this would be done convincingly » they would 
argue ( as the word is) with the offending brother, 
and not reft fatisfied with fome pafling word or ad- 
monition. Further , chefe two or three would be 
chofen , foas may be moft fit for that purpbfc , and 
may have moft weight with him, (we think fome 
Elder, oneatlcaft, or two, were not unfit) and this 
would be done purpofly , gravely and ferioufly, as 
the words, Ta{e V>itb tbeel&c, import. All this is 
to preceed the bringing of a fcandal tapublick,which 
is to fift here if this prevail. Whence, 5. alfo we 
may fee , that every fcandal which is known to two 
or three, is not to be accounted a publick fcandal, and 
at the- firft inftant to be brought to the Church , be- 
caufe it is fuppofed, that thefe two or three may have 
knowledge of the fame fcandal, and yet may it war- 
rantably never come to publick, if the perfon hear 
them. It lookech unlike this way to bring fcandals 
to publick , wherein fcarce two witnefTes can be had. 
Indeed , after the fault noifed and flaerant, and the 
preemption is great, and the party lufpeft like, fuch 
things are publickly to be taken notice of, though the 
proof* be not fo pregnant. 6. If this do not the bu- 
finefle, but the perfon continu*ethobftinate> although 
totneconviftionof thofetwoor three afleffors, the 
faft be grofle, and the party guilty , then it is to be 
brought to publick* either immediately by the perfon 
that was ftumbled,or by an Elder, ( for which caufe, 
wefaid, it was not unmeet that one of thefe fbould 
be among the former witnefifes ) When it corned! 
to the Church, we conceive, that with the parties, ic 
were meet to call fome one, or moe of thofe who v\ ere 
w itnefles of the private admonition, that the Judica* 
tory may be informed by them of the cafe, feing 
probably they may be more irnpartiall than the 
other. And it will be conduccablc tor attaining 


74 A Trettife concerning Scakdai, Part 2. 

clearnefle in the thing, to know what hath preceeded, 
and where it left ; and this would make private ad- 
monitions and witneffes therein , to have the more 
weight with men; for, knowing that their carriage at 
fuch a time would be mad- manifeft to others, ic 
would have influence to make them at firft more ra^- 
tionall and fober, if they knew that what they faid 
then, would afterward be repeated to them before 
two or three j and what they fpokc before thofe, were 
to be again impartially reported to the Elderfhip. 
And we conceive, it is for this caufe amongft others, 
that Chrift calleth them witneffes , and fuch witneffes, 
as may eftablifh the matter, which muft bs rather in 
their teftifying to the Church , than in private ac- 
companying the offended party. For , when a per- 
fbn bringeth fuch an offence to a publick Judicatory, 
he muft make out thefe two , |U That fuch a perfon 
hath actually given offence, 2, That he hath effe- 
ctually admoniftied him , and he hath not heard 
him, nor fatisfied him. Now > though the firft be 
made out by other witneffes , yet the laft cannot be 
made out but by fuch as were called by him ; and 
therefore with refpedl to that , they are called tote* 
nejfes by our Lord, as is faid. 

When this is done, the convincing and recovery 
of the party is yet to be effayed;and for that end, pains 
are to be taken , with all patience , gentlencffe,and 
long-fuffering : if that prevail, there is no further pro- 
cedoiar called- for; if not, then publick admonitions 
and rebukes are to be added. If nothing prevail, the 
Sentence of Excommunication is to be added , the 
ground being convincingly fcandalous in its nature, 
and clear in its evidence, as was formerly faid ; and it 
will not be found often in a Church where that pro- 
greffe is keeped, that ic will come to this. 

If the offences be of that nature > that a publick re- 
buke be ncceffary , in refpeft of the circumftances 
and aggravations thereof, it is not to be negle&ed : 


Part i" *A Tred tife concerning Scandal. 7 J 

Yet, it is not neceffary that every offence that cometh 
to the Elderfhip , yea > even thefe that are known to 
many, ihould at all times be brought to a publick re- 
buke. For, if the Seflional or Elderfhips admoniti- 
on have weight with the party > what needeth more 
in reference to him ? And if there be no hazard that 
others be infc&ed by that deed , or provoked by that 
example j there is no neceffity alwayes in reference to 
them, efpecially, where it is known that fuch offences 
are not paffed. For, that isoneendof publick re- 
bukes, l Tim. 5. 20. That others may fear. Yea, much 
more we conceive that many offences may be brought 
the length of publick rebukes , which yet are not to 
be drawn out unto Excommunication > even though 
compleat fatisfaSion fecm not to be given. Becaufe> 
I. that Sentence is not to proceed, but upon weighty 
convincing caufes , as is faid , 2. Becaufc, if the 
caufe be convincing, the perfon offending may be cx- 
|>e6ted fometimes upon after thoughts to admit of con. 
viftion , though diftemper or prejudice may for a 
time keep it off, as experience doth prove. 

But where the cafe is fuch as hazardeth infeftion to 
others, and the perfons fuch as are contemptuous and 
ready to fpread their leaven , as was both in the cafe 
of the doftrine and deeds of thefe Nicolattans , the 
Sentence is to proceed, and that more fummarily: I 
fay, more fummarily in comparifon of what is paft, 
yet not altogether fummarily ; for , Paul allowech an 
Herecick to be once and again admoniftied, Tit. 3.1a. 
And in this Chapter, the Lord giveth Je^tbel rime to 
repent : and here, thofe corrupt perfons are exhorted 
to repent br fore He come to fight againft them with 
the fword of His mouth, ver. c6. which (as we take 
it) looketh to the fame Sentence. We will not be 
peremptory to deny what may be done when the 
crime is atrocious, the evidence palpable , the fcandal 
gr^at* the contemptuoufneffe of the party, by their 
former and prefenc carnage , rendering all hopes of 


7 £ tATreatife concerning Scandal; Part %i 

recovering fodefperate , that there is not Co much as 
accefle to gee a hearing* and a following of convicti- 
ons , and the hazard of the fcandal not admitting of 
delay : I fay > in fuch a cafe * we will not deny what 
maybe done for the Churches edification more fum- 
marily; yet we are fure,ordinarily the way laid down 
is to be fallowed. 


Holding forth the frame Wherewith Chttrch*Offi- 
cers jhould proceed in Qenfure^ And helps to- 
wards the fame* 

IN the laft placed mmner of proceeding in all this, 
k efpecially to be looked to, without which all 
the reft will be weightleffe. Therefore in all the 
procedure, the Church-officers efpecially would have 
a zealous, ferious, grave and authoritative manner 
of carriage, having weight and authority in their 
leaft looks and words, with all gravity : For, can 
that admonition have weight with others , thatap- 
peareth not to have weight with thofe that give it ? 
Or^canthefcandalous be ferious in hearing , when 
there is no convi&ion on them, that they are ferious 
and affe&ed that (peak ? Minifters therefore efpeci- 
ally, as alfo Elders in their place, would endeavour 
ferioufly and zealoufly with all tenderneffe to the per- 
, fon , to expreffe their indignation at> and abhorrency 
of fuch deeds ; as it is commended in Epbefm y ver. 6. 
that they hated the deeds of the Nicolaitans. Atid cer- 
tainly,^ Court of Chrifts ought to look like Him, and 
like that bufineffe intrufted to them, and to have a 
different ftamp from other Courts. And there is no- 
thing that weakneth the authority of a Sentence more 
than the want of this. For helping therefore to it* we 
propofe, 1. That the converfations of fuch as take 
notice of Scandals in others* fliQuld be (hining them- 


Part 2. A Treattfe concerning Scandal. 77 

ielves, There can be no weightineffe without this; 
becaufe the weight and authority that is to be ftu- 
diedhere, is that which may be convincing tocon- 
fciences, rather than compulfivc to the outward man : 
and upon this ground , it is not the moft honourable 
and rich that give Church- judicatories moft autho- 
rity , But thofe who are molt fhining and convincing 
in their carriage , particularly in reference to this 
truft : For, though outward place may gain more 
outward refpeft , yet this cannot but have more 
weight upon the confeience, which is efpecially to be 
affefted by this Church-authority. 2. We would be- 
ware of founding this authority upon carnal grounds, 
or to lay the weight of it there, fuch as the power 
and authority of men ; yea, or upon our own place, 
parts, or weight : and upon that account ( as it were) 
to boaft, rather than to perfwade or convince. This 
fometimes may have weight as to fome outward con- 
formity , but doth ever lofe more of its native weigh- 
tineffe : Therefore Minifters and Elders in the profe- 
cucing of this, would lay the weight here, that it is 
Chrift's Ordinance , and that they ad in Hh Name. 
3. They would even in that procedure aim efpecial- 
ly to deal with confeiences to convince them, rather 
than to wrangle with corruptions, or to throw the 
outward man. 4. The Mafters honour would ever 
bcrefpefted , yea, reverently and frequently menti- 
oned, that all of them may be put and kept in minde 
that it is His Ordinance, and appointed for fuch an 
end : and the more room He get in the meeting , the 
more weight will their procedure have. 5. Mini- 
fters,and Elders particularly, would pray for tjic blef- 
fingtoDHcipiine, as well as to the Word; and for 
the per Ions offending, even thofe that appear to be 
moft ftuborn , this becometh their minifterial autho- 
rity well to acknowledge Him, and is the way to 
have His preferrce in the midft of them, without 
vvhich they can expeft no weight ; and the more He 


^g A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 2. 

befeen that is the Matter, the more authority will 
they have who are the Servants. 6. It helps this alfo 
to have the matter and proofs convincing. There- 
fore particulars that look (elf-like , or fiding with in* 
teretts, or fuch as are involved in civil debates and 
contefts,aretobe(hunned, oratleaft, not to be in- 
fifted upon : for, readily a convincing weighty mat- 
ter, will have fome impreffion of it felf upon ednfei- 
ences. Hence, we will find in Scripture that gene- 
rally { if not alwayes) publick proceffesare tabled 
upon fcandals that flow from comrniffions , and that 
of fuch nature, as is faid. It is true, where an omif- 
fion is owned, as fuppofeone (houldrefufetopray, 
or where palpably defended , and is not of infirmity, 
as idleneffe was 'mTbeJfalonica, 1 Epift. chap. 3. fuch 
are by their circurnftances rather indeed comrniffions, 
and fo to be accounted after admonition, and upon 
juft ground are convincing. 7. There would be 
weight, gravity, impartiality, (elf deniedneffe, and 
aflfe&ion kything in every circunttance , that they 
may look like the fervants of Jdlis Chrift , who are 
feeking thee good of His people ; and fo foolifh fport- 
ing and laughing , idle and triviallqueftions, paffio- 
nate words, heat, or particular and perfonail rcfle- 
£iions,and the like, are moft derogatory to the autho- 
rity of a Church^ judicatory, and do mar the weight 
of any Sentence upon a confeience, as is evident in 
daily experience , where forneumes Cenfures in their 
giving and receiving , are, upon me matter, an irre- 
verent taking of the name of the Lord in vain. 
8. There would be in all this, an holy boldneffe, and 
an undauntoned fearlefneffe in refpetf of men. When 
it cometh to any difficulty , minding the authority of 
Him whom wereprefent? yet fo, as in this boldneffe, 
confeience of duty and zeal may both in our own 
confeiences, and to the convi&ion of others, be the 
ground , end and motive thereof, and not any car- 
nail fla(h of paffion or pride , or fit of naturall cou- 

Part 2. A TreAtife concerning Scandai, 79 

rage>which may make Church-offiars look like men, 
but not like their matter* for ,ns H is Kingdom is not of 
this world in their rcfpe<fts , fo ought His Officers to 
adminiftrate the fame o:herv\ ayes than a worldly au- 
thority ufeth to be ; our weapons are not carnalli but 
fpiriruall, and mighty through God, and therefore as 
fuch fhould be ufed* 

The laft general dire&ion concerning, this, is, that cbutcb-iro- 
when Scandals are thus to betaken notice of, thiso^cj muli 
proceeding ought co be with expedition: my meaning be tarrud- 
is not, that we fhould precipitate contrary to the for- on mtb co- 
rner dire&ions 5 But, 1. That after notice of an of--ff#iiw. 
fence, with all convcnicncy : the firft ftepsof this pro- 
cedure would be eflayed. 2. That there would not 
be long intervals betwixt thefe Reps •> although they 
may be frequently repeated. 3* That perfons would 
not be kept long under procefle,efpecially they would 
not have their appearances multiplied, except when it 
may be for good u(e. The reafons of all thefe, aret 
1. Bccaufe when offences are frefh, then often the 
parties offending, and offended, as alfo others, are 
moft affc&ed therewith ; whereas, if a long time in- 
terveen, that edge weareth away, and whatever the 
clofe be , it provcth not fo edifying to any. 2. Men 
weary, and fo fall from that zealous, ferious manner 
of carriage in it that becometh , for our fpirits are 
foonout of benlall, and that derogateth from the 
weight of the thing. 3, It proveth irritating and 
burthenfom to the parties offending , rather than con- 
vincing, and fo the end is miffed. 4. It hath alfo 
influence upon the confuting and burthening of Offi- 
cers when procefles are multiplied and lengthened, 
and it cometh fome way to look like mens civil 
Courts, and that in fuch things as they ufc to be grie- 
vous unto thefe who arc necefikate to wait on them. 

To clofe this , we conceive it were fit for the au- 
thority ot Church- judicatories, the weight of ad- 
monition , and the edification of perfons, that there 


$* A Treatife concerning Scandal. 7 Part tl 

were fome fpecially fee apart for government.although 
they were fewer: Ami, O chat this might be attained ! 
for, ordinary converfing of Elders in common and 
ordinary Calling9,doth not a little obfeure the weight 
of that Ordinance to many , except the converfation 
of the Elder in fuch things be Angularly convincing: 
And untill this be attained , there is the greater need 
for Church-officers to be as little in common bufineffe 
and difcourfes with thofe over whom they are let , as 
conveniently may be * that there may be the more ac- 
ceffe to converfe with them as becometh Officers; and 
when necefficy calleth to it , there is need of gravity 
and circumfpedineffe t that it mar not their weight 
in the duties of their office at any other time. And 
alfo,Church- officers in their meetings amongft them- 
Telves, would be alwayes grave and ferious , as being 
about an Ordinance of Jefus Chrift. 


Concerning tyfoat u to be done , when offending 
ferfons give no fatisfaftion, 

IF it be asked then , what is to be done > fuppofing 
perfons not to give any fatisf a&ion , even when 
they are brought to publick ? This is indeed a dif- 
ficulty, and will>no queftion, pufle any confeiencious 
Church-officer ; Yec, we fuppofe, we may clafle fuch 
offences that are brought to publick in thefe three 
forts, and then anlwer. I f Some offences are in 
matters that are lefle horrid and (candalous , and 
come neerer to fins of infirmity, which yet are fcanda- 
lous,being continued in,fuppo(e officious lying, angry 
paffionat words , and fuch like , where thefe are re- 
peated,the perfons are to be rebuked in fome cafes* yet 
if they be not contemptuous , or the ills otherwife 
aggreged , we fee not how there can be proceeding to 
Excommunication upon fuch grounds , becauie Ex- 

Part 2. A TreAtife concerning scandal. 82 

communication is a chaftifement for fome Angular 
offenders, and is not for offences that arc fo common* 
as hath beqn formerly faid. Of this fort may be the* 
fparingneflc of charity in Church- members,in giving 
little to the poor , or lefle than proportionally they 
(hould , though they do not altogether (hut theit; 
bowels; This may be the objeft of admonition, but 
we think hardly or Excommunication, except it have 
groffc contempt with it, and fo hazard of making 
void* by evil example, the courfe that Chnft hath ap- * 

pointed for overfeing the poor in His houfe,for which 
He hath appointed Deacons : and if publick charity 
upon any pretext were reftrained, that were to no pur- 
pofe ; which certainly highly rcfleSeth on Chrift^nd 
is a grievous fcandal. We find the Reverend Maftcr 
&oo\er, part i. cbap.i. pag. 57. lay thefetwoconclu- 
fions , I. That the Church is to ftint her Members* 
and determine the quota of their charity and freewill- 
offerings, and that of her felf. 2. That if after the 
Deacons private diligence, this be not given in, he is 
to follow the aftion before the Church. Although 
we think defeft of charity* in this refpeft, a great fin 
and an offence, and may be juftly reproved , and the 
perfon admonifhed that is defective palpably in that 
which is proportionable to his ability ; yet, that fuch 
a particular (tint (hould be made by Church-power, 
and exacted under fuch certification , we cannot yet 
find to be warrantable. Although we give the Ma- 
giftratethat liberty, and where he exerceth it nor* we 
acknowledge mutuall condefcenfion may do much* 
And we are fure , that if any fuch like thing (hould 
be found in the Presbyteriall way, it had been charg- 
ed with tyrannic and encroaching on the place of the 
Magiftrate long ere now : yet it may be ( when it is 
Well managed) no great corruption in a Church. 

A fecond fort of offences are fuch, as are of them- 
.felvesgrofle and publick; yet not atrocious, or ag- 
greged with contempt, fuch as fornication, fome afts 
G of 

ti *sf Treatife concerning S c a n d a i . Part 2. 

of drunkenneffe, and fuch like. The party, I fay> 
noc being obftinate, but ferioufly acknowledging his 
faulc , and promifing to abftain and amend > in that 
cafe there is no ground to proceed to the higheft Cen- 
fure , though there may be a publick rebuke ; yea, 
though their acknowledgment be not altogether fatif- 
fying ; yet, if after the publick rebuke, the perfon ab- 
ftain thefe evils , and renue not the offence , the pro- 
ceffe is to clofe, and to proceed no further : Becaufo 
1. In that cafe it cannot well be faid,that he hath re- 
futed to hear the Church when that abftinence fol- 
io weth. 2. The end of a publick rebuke is not al- 
wayes to be an evidence of the perfons full recovery, 
But, 1. to be a mean to recover him* 2. It is in it 
felf a publick acknowledgment of the fault, and a 
virtuall engagement to abftain. And, ?♦ it hath a 
warning force and certification with it for the party 
offending , if he continue in his offence : Now* if he 
continue not, it cannot be faid that he hath incurred 
the certification , or made the rebuke altogether inef- 
fectual! : And therefore in fuch cafes , a publick re- 
buke being accepted, it putteth a clofe unto fuch pro- 
cefles : for, fuch publick rebukes are not an exerci- 
fing of the keys for letting- in any to the Church, that 
was not a member formerly \ and therefore there is 
not fuch exa&neffe required here , as in the firft 
admiffion of heathens, yea, or in reftoring of Ex- 
communicate perfons , who have been bound and 
(hut out , but it is the warning of a member to pre- 
vent his being caft out. Seing therefore this rebuke 
loufeth nothing, there can be no neceffity alleged here 
of (earching into his acknowledgements or profeflion; 
ahd we make noqueftion , that offending perfons be- 
ing rebuked before all , and abftainmg from fuch of- 
f nces aftetward , were ftill to be accounted Church- 
members , capable of all priviledges , notwithftand- 
insofthc former offence. For, although he was 
offenfive before that rebuke* yet was he no* aftually 


Part 2 % c// Treatife concerning Scandal. S3 

bound or excluded from any Church priviledgc by 
that offence(bccaufeoftcnce giveth ground to exclude* 
if contempt folio w,but doth not a&ually exclude of ic 
felf) neither doth the rebuke bind and exclude any if 
no further Cenfure follow and be added thereunto, 
but is intended to prevent both, And therefore, I fay, 
that a perfon meerly rebuked for (uch an offence, and 
not continuing in,or renuing the fame,hath right to all 
Church-priviledges > feing he is by no Ordinance of 
Chrift excluded ; and that way of publick rebuking, 
is appointed to prevent the falling of others, by that 

A third fort of offences are fuch as of their nature 
arc groffe, and in their evidence clear* fuppofe drunk- 
enneffe , fornication , grofle fwearing , corrupt er- 
rours, &c. and the perfon offending,after much pains, 
doth yet continue obftinate , refufing to hear the 
Church \ in that cafe the rule is clear to proceed with 
the Sentence of cutting off, If no accidentall thing 
call for the fufpending thereof, for refpe& to the 
Churches good. 

If it be asked, when a perfon is to be accounred ob- When U s 
flinate and guilty of not hearing the Church ? We t er f on t0 be 
anfwer , It may be in thefe four cafes, 1. When *"*****& 
the perfons do contemptuoufly refufe , or decline ap- •ty" M ** 
pearance , that is, either to hear private admonition, 
or to anfwer for removing ot their offences before the 
publick Judicatory. This indeed is not to be aflri&ed 
to once or twice refufing , even when no reafonable 
excufe can be given : far, fometimes offenders are 
ticklifh for a time , while their dittemper continuethj 
and Church-officers would be favourable in admit- 
ting of excufes , and in their condelcending to them, 
(as edification maybe moft furthered ) as Mothers 
and Nudes will do to children : which (imilitudes the 
Scripture fometimes ufeth. 

2. It is contempt > fuppofing a perfon to appear, 

and yet either to juftifie hisotfence* as if it were no 

G 2 Wrong j 

84 A Treatlfe concerning Scandal^ Part 2^ 

wrong ; or to deny an evident faft , or to rcfufe any * 
way to remove an offence given. &c. yet in fuch 
cafes there is both forbearance and gentleneffe for a 
time to be eflayed , and the offence is to be made in- 
excufable both to the confeience of the party , and to 
the confeiences of others* 

3. Contempt may appear in this , when perfons 
offending appear > and do not deny the offence > yet 
by fuch proud carriage , haughty refle&ing , irreve- 
rent expreffions, *nd fuch like , do bewray contempt 
in the manner of their carriage* and thereby do give 
more offence than by their former mifcarriage,or than 
if they had not appeared at all : Becaufe , that doth 
reproach the Ordinance of Chnftmore , as it were 
in His prefence to affront Him, and like the foul- 
diers , to fay , Hail 9 IQng 0) the Je^s 3 and to 
mock Him. 

A fourth thing that may be judged contempt, and 
not hearing of the Church, is, when a perfon appear- 
ing, doth with fome feeming reverence acknowledge 
the faulc , fuppofe drunkeneffe > (lander , fornica- 
tion , &c. and yet doth notwithftanding continue in, 
or frequently reiterate the fame offence, for thefe can- 
not be judged fins of infirmitie, efpecially when they 
are fo frequent > and that after admonition ; for, the 
Churches admonition doth not only tend to draw 
forth an acknowledgement of the offence paft, but 
to prevent the like for time to come ; and where that 
is not , it cannot be faid that Chrifts Ordinance hath 
had weight. And in fuch a cafe, the accounting of 
verball acknowledgements enough , where there is 
a continuance in fome feen evils , were to make the 
Ordinance of Chrift obnoxious to reproach, and to 
fruftrate it of its end , which is to remove and pre- 
vent offences , ( for in that cafe they abound more ) 
and it would ftrengthen men that could diflemble , to 
continue in their profanitie, feing by that they might 
ever efcape the Sentence of Excommunication, and 

Part i. A TrcAtife concerning Scandal. $5 

fo profane perfons might abound in Chrifts Church 
to the difhonour of his Name , and the reproach of 
the Gofpel and yet there be no accefle to riis Offi- 
cers by His Ordinances to purge them out. And fe- 
ing this would be ridiculous in any humane Court, 
to account luch a man a receiver of admonitions , it 
were ablurd to alTert it here. 

If it be asked , what is to be done in cafes where ^ d U ^h*? 
the offence is not of a more groffe nature>and comcth an °ff €ni * ** 
neer to a fin of infirmity > and yet hath contempt not t u gro J ' 
added thereto, in one of theferefpefts ? ityfo.i. WcJ^JJ^S 
have faid already > that it is hard to ground Excom- ^ ? 
munication upon fuch a rife : Therefore, 2. Church- 
officers would warrily deal with fuch offenders, fo 
as there be no feeming occafion given them to con- 
temn ; and much forbearance, and even a kind 
of overlooking ( fo far as is confiftent with faithful- 
neffe ) is to be exercifed in fuch cafes, in reference to 
fome perfons, for it hath prejudice with it to take 
notice of fuch Scandals, and thereafter without fa- 
tisfa&ion to pafie from them , and it is difficult and 
not alwayes edifying to purfue them: we conceive 
it therefore more fir, not to take Judiciall notice (at 
leaft ) of them all , but to continue a ferious and 
loving dealing with fuch perfons in private, becaufe 
poffibly more rigid dealing might wrong them and 
the Church more than edifie, Yea, 3. If it come to 
publick , frequent trials would be taken of them be- 
fore it be judged contempt, that fo if it be found necd- 
full to proceed further , the contempt may Be fo ag- 
greged, that it may be fecn, that edification requireth 
the fame to be profecuted, and then it is the contempt 
that beareth the weight of the Sentence , and not the 
firft offence ; Therefore this would be fo manifeft, as 
it may be convincing to the confeiences of all to be 

G 3 CHAP. 


t$ A Trektife concerning Scandal, Part 2. 


Concerning what id to be accomted fatisfattion, 
or fattsfjwg. 

THe great Queftion is? when a perfon doth ap- 
pear and acknowledge his oftence, ahd fub- 
mit to a publick rebuke> what is to be judged 
fatisfying here , to, as a Church- judicatory tmy fift 
Proceffe , and reft fatisfied and admit the perfon to 
Church- priviledges, as if the former offence had not 
been? In anfwering of this , we (hall, firft, fhew 
What is notfatifsying. Secondly, what is notne- 
ceflary to be enquired after by a Church- judicatory, 
for this ecclefialtick fatisfa&ion. Thirdly, wefliall 
fliew what is neceflary and fatisfying* Then, anfwer 
a Queftion or two, for abfolving of this. 
. I* We fay , every v< rball acknowledgement of a 
Whdthtni f au l Cj even though it have a promife of amending, is 
*fJ M jt* m notfufficient; for, that may be in two of the cafes 
fufEcim f#r ^ ormer ^ mentioned, to wit, in a perfon that doth, in 
makini a ^ ls ^° ^ om ?> but mock the Ordinance ; or in a perfon 
cburcb-ju- cha ^ hath often relapfed after fuch a profeffion, or for 
dicatory to c ^ e c ' me doth continue in that or fome other groffc 
fjt *frwjr0. ev *l • * n ^at cafe to account fuch a profeffion of re- 
eejjeq pentance fatisfying > were to fall in the former incon- 
veniencies, and would prove a manifeft taking of 
theNamcof the Lord in vain , which we may ga- 
ther byffiis. Such a circumftantiat profeffion ought 
not tofatisfie a Brother in a privat admonition, fo 
that notwithftanding thereof ( yea, the rather ) he 
ought thereafter to rake two or three with him , as 
being more offended , and if they meeting with the 
fame, may put it to the Church, as not being well fa- 
tisfied with fuch mockinss s then much leffe ought 
the Church to be fatisfied therewith, becaufe they do 
more formally reprelent Jefus Chrift and His Au- 
thoricy,and therefore mocking* and contempt to them, 


Part 2 • e^/ Treat ife concerning Scandal. 87 

is the greater offence. And that place , where the 
Lord fpeaketh to Peter , LifuiJ* ?. of forgivii g his 
brother /rtw* riwi* J a ffcy, and elie where . fe^.nty times 
fi\en times a day y is not to be underftood to ipeak 
principally of fuch grofle publick offences , or of 
fuch difcernablc counterfeit turning ( for that is not 
turning at all ) but of private offences , or of the 
firft fort formerly mentioned , and alio where there 
feemeth to be ingenuity in the perfon > otherwife ic 
were to remove one offence by another; and in that 
the Lord ordereth men in reference to their private 
carriage for they ought to forgive wrongs , and doth 
not regulate Church-a&ings , as judicious £Wvw 
doth give warning upon the place ; Befide, the cha- 
flening, and humbling of the offending party , the 
nlaking of others to fear, and the turning away of 
the reproach that cometh to Chrifts name by offences, 
being the great ends of Church-cenfure , by admit- 
ting of fuch a profeffion as fatisfying, all of them 
would be utterly enervated and overturned, which 
were moft abfurd. 

If it be asked, how thisdiflcmbling, mocking pro- How map 
feffionmay bedifcovered? dnfo. 1. By fbmewhat dijjembliiig 
palpable in the very prefent geflure , words* cxpre- be tiff* 
fliotiSj&c. which evidence the fame, and leave no^ f ^' 
room for chanty ; as when men (as it were) with 
a word , fay Bail to Chrift > and at the next, Ipit in 
His face > it iseafic to fay, that their H^i/ was not 
ferious. 2. By comparing it with a perfons former 
carriage in fuch a cafe wherein fo much hath been 
profeffed • and yet he afterward hath been found to 
be mockingeven in the time of his ptoftffion, his for- 
mer carriage calleth men, at leaft > not to befoon fa- 
tisfied , if no difference be. 3. By fome words or 
cxpreffions in other Societies and Companies , which 
being vented during the time of this publick profefli- 
on > and that contrary thereto , cannot but evidence 
it to be a mocking* And, 4. When the fruit ap- 
G 4 peareth 

1 8 A Treatife concerning Scandal.' Part 5 

peareth to be contrary thereto in a habituall way, 
as hath been faid. Indeed if there be not convincing 
evidence of this mocking, but it be doubtfull ; or,if a 
perfon that at one occafion is irreverent, (hould after- 
ward appear more fober , we conceive in that cafe, 
determination is to be fufpended , till after carriage 
give more ground of clearneffe, either to the one hand 
or the other. 


? Shewing Vvhat is not neceffary to fitufatiion. 

TO the fecond thing , to wit, what is not ne- 
ceffary, or to be enquired for, by Church-offi- 
cers to beanecclehaftickfatisfa&ion for re- 
moving of an offence* We anfwer, That the faving 
grace of repentance* or godly fincerity therein in the 
perfon, is not to be enquired into > as the alone ground 
upon which they may reft fatisfied. For, i* That 
would put a Church- judicatory fo far as they could 
to determine of the ftate and gracioufneffe of every 
offending perfon before they were fatisfied , which 
wereabfurd, that not being the obj>6t of Church- 
difcipline, and it's nowhere to be found that men are 
called judicially to determine of the ftate of another. 
z. It would lay this ground, That none (hould be af- 
ter any offence recovered and admitted to priviledges, 
except they were thought really to be gracious; which 
would infer t that none (hould be admitted to the 
Church, but fuch; yea,tbat none (hould be continu- 
ed in the Church, but fuch ; becaufe readily there are 
none, but in leffe or more give offence, lb far as may 
be the ground of a private admonition, which doth 
once table them: and if nothing can befatisfying 
fcut what giveth ground to account them gracious, ic 
would come to that, that men are to be excommuni- 
cated becaufe they are not thought to be gracious* 


Part £• tA Treatife concerning Scan d a l • 8p 

and cannot give evidence of that. ?. So every per- 
fon that were received after an offence, would have a 
Sentence of a Church- judicatory ftanding to prove 
them to be converted > which certainly would prove 
offenfive,' and a (tumbling to many who are too ape 
to ground prelumption on a lefler occafion. 4. It 
would put Church-officers upon the rack, and prove 
a tortour to them : For, U There is no evidence 
given in the word whereby one may know the gra- 
cious eftate of one another infallibly ; And (hall that 
be only fatisfyingto us, which by no means we can 
know ? 2. God hath not given men dominion over 
confciences to fearch or cenlure them in their ends, 
motives> &c. but as appeareth in their outward acti- 
ons , and there being nothing that can evidence 
foundnefle in the outward aftioti it felf, becaufe Hy- 
pocrites may come that length , it cannot be that 
that muft be their task, to decide where there is no 
poffibility to attain to a fatisfyingdecifion. If it be 
laid, that they are to proceed as in charity they judge 
the perfon to be (in cere , Then we oppofe, proce- 
dure in Church-judicatories muft be according to 
fuch rules as a perlon that judgeth wrong may be 
convinced that he judgeth wrong , if a wronged 
party fhould complain ; But if the man's own 
thoughts and charity of fuch a man were the rule* 
whereby he is to judge , then fuppofe fome Judica- 
tories unwarrantably to admit, or to debar fome, 
there were no way to convince them that they had 
judged wrong, becaufe none could judge their fingle- 
nefle. Again, if it be faid, that that may be ga- 
thered from evidences, Then we defire to know what 
evidence is to charity a fufficient ground to make a 
man to be accounted gracious , and without which 
he is not to be accounted fuch ? If there be no fuch 
evidence , then the decifion lieth upon the perfons 
judgement and inclination , which falleth in the 
former inconvenience : If there be fuch evidences, 

1. It 

go A Trestifc concerning S C A N d A L I Part J; 

I. It will be hard to condefcend upon thettu 2. They 
are either fuch evidences as may be judicially demon- 
ftrated to be in fuch a perfon, or not to be in him : 
If they may be demonftrated to be in him, then it is 
110c charity that decideth, but a law, which we will 
acknowledge when it is difcovered, if they cannot 
be judicially demonftrated to be in fuch a perfon, or 
not to be in him ; then the redreffing of any corrupt 
decifion is ftill made impoflible , and there is no more 
but the conje&ures of fuch mens charity in fuch a 
cafe 5 Then, how can thefe abfurdities be anfwercd ? 
As, l, What if fuch Church-officers (hould be par- 
tial ? in that cafe their charity will either be too nar- 
row, or too broad , and can that be the rule of pro- 
cedure in Chrift's Houfe ? and yet Church-officers 
are men fubje& to fuch infirmities. 2. What if the 
perfon fhould think himfelf wronged by their ac- 
counting him not to be gracious, would that be fuffi- 
cient to convince himi becaufe they thought fo? and 
yet ic cannot be (aid, that according to Chrift's order 
Church-officers (hould Sentence an offending party, 
and not be able to convince him 5 and he cannot de- 
monftrate it to them fo as to convince them , and fo 
it is for ever undeterminable , which is raoft abfiird. 
What if he appeal to a fupream Judicatory ? how 
could they defend their Sentence ? Or,what if the fu- 
periour Judicatory judged him to be fincere? how 
could one of thefe Judicatories convince the other, if* 
charity only were the rule ? And yet it cannot be 
thought, that by Difcipline and Cenfures, which are 
appointed by Jefus Chrift for entertaining of union, 
that fuch inevitable grounds of divifion (hould be 
laid ? Again,could it be but irritating to a perfon ju- 
dicially to be declared unregcnerate> and would it not 
afterward both make fuch Sentences, and thofe that 
pronounce chem to have the lefle weight ? 3* Suppofe 
in the fame Judicatory fome perfons charity (hould 
be larger nor others , what is to be done in that cafe? 


Part !• <# Treatife concerning Scandal.' 91 

There is no poflibility for one of them to convince the 
other 3 yea, can it but ftir up new offences ? for, the 
one of them is ready to judge the other , either un- 
acquainted with fpirituall condition*, or untender; 
for, the judging upon the fincerity of grace, required! 
the exercife of a chriftian and fpiricual difcerning; artd 
therefore accordingly as it is exerci Ted differently, fo 
are men ready to account of others to be at beft 
Chriftians of different fiezes : and we fuppofethat 
in nothing a man's grace hath more occafion to vent 
than in his uptaking and judging of the gracious 
ertate of another , becaufe this (uppofes acquaintance 
and lympathy with, and experience of fincere grace, 
more than is either in preaching , prayer, or fuch ex- 
ercifes. And this certainly would be no little Rum- 
bling to Church- officers, to befo frequently put to 
five triall of their own gracioufneite , whereas 
if we walk by (etled rules, there is no fuch occafion 
to (tumble. 4 Do not we fee that one mans charity 
doth differ from another* and fo diverfemen in the 
fame extrinfick aftion of judging in a Church- 
court, fhould have diverfe rules to judge- by in che 
fame aft, poflibly leading them to judge contrarily, 
•which were ablurd. $« Doth not oftentimes the 
fame one mans charity differ from what it was at an- 
other time, and he will be more and leffe in extending 
it according to the frame of hisownfpirit, the dul- 
neffe or confufion of his mind, or poflibly according- 
ly as he hath fome relation or obligation to, or preju- 
dice attheperfon, which may fteal-in on his judg- 
ment , and ( as it is faid ) blind the eyes of the wife, 
and pervert the underftanding of the juft, and he 
really think himfelf (ingle in judging ? And can fuch 
a fleeting unconftant rule be that which Chrift hath 
appointed in His Church to order the removing of 
offences ? 6. Do we not know, that often mens cha- 
rity, in fnch cafes, is fwayed much by the judgment 
of fome one or other who is efteemed of ? and fo 


pi A Trextife concerning Scandal. Part 2. 

this way which pretendeth to give moft liberty, doth 
indeed bind up moft : For, men either in that cafe 
fatisfie themselves, that fuch a man is fincere, or 
not , becaufe fuch another faich fo , and fo he goeth 
on implicitly, noc doing what he doth in faith; or, 
hr hath his own fufpicions that others do not deter- 
mine rightly of fuch a perfon's (incerity , and then 
he is at this ftrait, either to contrary his own light, 
and ^ooii with the other, or to judge otherwayes, 
and by (o doing to give out his own fpiritual dif- 
cerning to be bryond that others, and therefore to 
judge him for miftakingin it. And contradiftion 
in this, is not as in other cafes, where only mens 
moral light and understanding do vary j but herej 
as we faid» it is in a thing that is moft purely fpi- 
wall, and peculiar to the People of God onely, 
whereof naturall men and hypocrites are not ca- 

What the Reverend and moft convincing Writer, 
Mr. Wood , hdtti in his Examination of Mr. £gc- 
Jyers Little-ftone, to prove that (incerity of true gt^ce 
is not to be enquired for , as the conftitution or 
complexion ( as Mr. Locker fpeaketh ) of vifible 
members in the vifible Church , doth fully make 
out this alfo ; for, there is the fame reafon againft 
the enquiring after the (incerity of grace , in rc- 
fpeft ot the impoflibility thereof in this cafe, as in 
chat; and there needeth nothing further to be ad- 
ded for confirming of thisi till thofe his pregnant 
Arguments beanfwered. 


Part «• lATreAtifc concerning Scandal. 9$ 

Holding forth whtt may be fttirfjing. 

THc ahfwering of the third Queftion, to wic f 
what is to be accounted fatistying, and what- 
istoberefted on in fuch a cafe by Church- 
officers > will clear and confirm this more. Before 
weanfwer, wepremit, I. That a difference is to 
be made between what is fatisfying to a Church- ju- 
dicatory, fo as to admit an offending perfon to all pri- 
viledgesi as if the offence had not been, and whac 
may be fatisfying to fift further pi occdor, and prevent 
Excommunication. For,l fuppofc»a perfons fatisfafti- 
on may not be fufficient as to the firft> which yet may 
be fufficient as to the fecond, as ( for inftance) it may 
be thought of Simon Magm , Act. 8. 24. who, after 
Peter's rebuke, carried fo, as he did not proceed to cafl: 
him out , yet may he well be efteemed of, notwith- 
standing of fuch profefled conviflion,not to have had 
the full priviledge of a Church- member inftantly ; 
and this may proceed either from the groffeneffe of an 
offence ( fuch as that was) or the unfatisfyingnefTe 
of a perfons fatisfa&ion , or both; in which cafes 
edification requireth fome time oftriall, before there 
be a proceeding either to an off-cutting, or to admit- 
ting to the former liberty. 2. We would diflingifh 
( which is fib to the former) between that which is 
rot fully fatisfying , and that which is altogether dif- 
fatifying % for there may beamids, as fuppofe, that 
a man by filence (hould accept a reproof; or ia 
words and carriage expreffe fomething which neither 
doth fpeak fenoufneffe, nor mocking, We fuppofe k 
is hard inftantly to judge that perton either to be ol>- 
ftinate, or yet to have full accede to all Ordinances. 
To the Qyeftion then wc anfwer that for full fatif- 


94 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part i # 

fa&ion, fo as to have accefle to all the privileges* 
there is requifit a fiber, ferioui acknowledgement of the 
offence with the expreflion of an unfeigned-like pur- 
pofe to walk inoffenlively, efpecially in reference to 
thefe former offences ; and where this is, we fay, it is 
iufficient. When we fpeak of a fiber Jenom acknow- 
ledgement we fpeak of it as it ftandech contradiftin- 
gtufhed upon the one fide from fincere grace j for, one 
may have this, and not have that : And, as upon ihe 
other fide, it is diftinguiihed, not only from grofle 
contempt and profane mocking > but from grofle dif- 
fimulation appearing to be luch , or from carnall in- 
difterencic and unferiouihefle. By Divines, thi* is 
called morall feriotifnejje, or fincerity, ( as it is diftin- 
guifhed from that which is gracious ) and uiually is 
in lubtile legall hypocrites, and (ometimes may be in 
fome grofle perfons in fits. It cannot be better ex- 
prefled , than it is by the forementioned worthy Au- 
thor Mr* Wood, part. I. pag. 30 that is > That 'tobicb 
is not openly and dtfcemably JimuUte, hiflrionic^ fee- 
nically and bypocrtticall inthathpocrifie *tokubugroJ$e : 
but all circumjlances being confidereu , by tobtcb ingenuity 
u eftimate amongft men, giving credit one to another , there 
appeareth no reafon Xbby the man may not and ought not 
to be efleemedydA to the matter 9 to thinly andpurpofe as be 
fpeafytb from V\t>b*tfie\>er babttuall principle it doth 
proceed, viz. whether from a faVmg principle, or "tobe- 
tberfrom a common operation of the f pint only, Thus 
far he. 
How morall ^ lt ^ e asked, how this ferioufnefle may be difcern- 
femufnefle c &. * c ma Y be again enquired , How ufeth a man to 
my be ii(- be thought ferious in his purfuit after any thing > I 
sernii* grant, this is not only to be gathered from his words, 
or carriage poffibly at one time, But, will not feri- 
oufnefle, even in a particular, kyth in a mans manner 
of urging it ? 2« It kyths in a mans ufing of fit 
means for attaining of it, which are luitableto that 
end* J* By his carriage, abftaining from fuch things 


Part i. A Treatife concerning Scandal* 95 

as may any way make his profcfliontobefufpeft- 
likc. And, 4. not doing this for a day , or upon a 
particular occafion, but for a time continuing con- 
ftant and inftant therein , with fuch affedionatenefle 
and earneftnefle in the circumftances that are necefla- 
ry , that whatever be the motive that fwayeth fuch a 
man, ycuhat he appeareth to be morally ferious and 
through in the thing, cannot be denied, So in this cafe, 
often there may be a conviftion that perfens are feri- 
ous, and are affefted fo, that we may expe&they 
will endeavour really the preventing of fuch an of- 
fence , and yet we may not be able to judge them (b 
convincingly fincere , becaufe to that there is more 
required, to wit, a new decifion whether that feri- 
oufnefle, be morall only , or gracious, according to 
- the principles, ends, motives, ice. which cannot be 
fo evidenced externally, as fenoufnefle in the general! 
may be. 

If any fay, that charity ought to judge fuch a man 7 r a mw 
fincere, feing it can have no more? dnf. 1. What may ^ flr/ ,;/ 
be a perfons privat thoughts upon thefe grounds we fkould judge 
are not to determine ; we only fay, that this acknow- a ferfon to 
ledgement comcth not to be judged by a Church- be ftveere, 
judicatory upon that account. And , Secondly. wboU tbm 
Thefe who defire more for the conflicting of Church menttj (** 
members, require befide this , evidences of the work ***** 
of grace upon the heart , and exprcflions and narra- 
tions to that purpofe. And indeed if the accounting 
of a perfon to be gracious and fincere, were the alone . 

account, upon which a perfon were to be admitted or 
rcftored to an aftuall right to the Ordinances » fuch 
a ferious profeflion would not be fufficient for the 
convincing of Church-officers of a perfons graciouf- 
neffe even probably ; for that which is to be accounted 
a probable figne of faving grace,muft be that which 
though it doth not alwayes hold and be convincing, 
yet for the moft part doth fo ; for if it doth more or- 
dinarily faihhanhold, it cannot be called probable* 


$6 A Trettife concerning Scandal, Part i. 

but experience in all times will confirm this,that more 
frequently fuch a profeflion faileth , and afterward 
the perfon is found not to be gracious; therefore it 
cannot be a probable figne ,. nor are wt to account it 
fuch : we fuppofe, that if all the Churches of Chrift 
that have been gathered , and all the penitents that 
have been received, were compared together . it will 
be found, that there have been many moe hypocrites 
than fincere Believers, yetinthefe cafes this ferious 
profeffion was called for* And, though it might be 
pleaded, that charity may conftruft the belt of a per- 
Ion, where the cafe is doubcfull , yet (to fpeak ab- 
ftra&Iyof a fiene) to account that a probable figne 
of Gncerity, and fuch which ought to fway charity 
to account a perfon gracious , when yet it is clear in 
reafon , that fuch a fign is ordinarily but an indicium 
or evidence of moral fincerky,but not of faving grace, 
were againft reafon ; for* even in bodily difeafes, 
that cannot be counted a probable figne of health, to 
ground a judgement of fuch a perfons livelineffe, with 
which many moe do die than recover. Nfor can it be 
called uncharitablncffe, becaufe the prbteffion is not 
fo accounted > for, it is charity here to account the 
perfon ferious ? and to think as he faith, and not be 
aiffembling therein , although it be not impoflible for 
a diffembler to come all that length in outward evi- 
dences and profeflion. But to believe that he is in- 
deed fo, as he faith, or thinketh , is not a thing which 
Charity is bound pofitively to conclude , but* at the 
moft, by judgeing nothing to the contrary to forbear 
any judgeing of the panic till time evidence more 
afterward. And* I fuppofe, there are few who have 
experience > but know that there are many cafes 
wherein they are fully fatisfied to judge the perfon fe- 
rious » and yet dar not determine of their fincerky 
and gracioufneffe > yea, even as to the probability 
thereof, although they dar not deny but it is poflible ; 
Yet durft they not found a Sentence of abfolution 


Part 2. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 97 

upon that as fuch , to their own /atisfa&ion , al- 
though upon the former account chcy can : whi< 
evidently (heweth that thefe two confederations may 
be feparated. 

Hence, the firft doth follow, that whatever be a 
private perfons account of iuch a ptofeflion , yet ic is 
not confidered by the Judicatory as the evidence of 
fincerity in their being latisfied with it: Bccaule, 
I. It can be no evidence thereof, as is faid ; and we 
would be neceflitated then to fay , ( if fincerity were 
the account upon which a Church-judicatory were 
to be latisfied ) that either they behoved to have that 
evidence proven, and made t vident to them , or they 
behoved to proceed, without any certain* yea, or 
probable evidence : for, certainly, that which giveth 
a Judicatory warrand to proceed to declare a per(bn 
to have right to any priviledge , mult both be a thing 
that is relevant in it felf, and evident in the proof 
thereof, in reference to that party ; But> none of thefe 
can be faid : Therefore the judging fuch a thing to be 
fincere>is not the account on which they proceed. This 
cannot be faid to be a certain proof of fincerity, yea, 
none will deny but it is difficult, if not impoflible, for 
one to have infallible proof of an others fincerity; 
Then it muft be faid , that it is but a probable proof 
that can be given of finceritity. To which we reply, 
I. That this profeflion formerly defcribed , cannot 
be called fuch, as hath been fhown , So it would fol- 
low, that a Church- judicatory doth account a man 
fincere , and doth admit him to fuch priviledgcs as 
they ought to admit only fuch unto > and yet it was 
not made fo much as probable to them that he was 
fuch* 2. Although it did probably evidence him to 
be fuch > yet that were not enough , if that were the 
alone account upon which they were to proceed , be- 
caufe no judicial! procedour in determining a mans 
right, will go upon probabilities, becaule the Law 
decideth not upon a probable, but upon a real right : 

H and 

p8 Part 2. A Treatife concerning Scandal; 

and indeed,if in this cafe fincerity were the ground of 
procedour , no man could judge but doubtingly and 
upon conjecture , and fo could he not have peace af- 
terward , becaufe it wasftill uncertain to him whe- 
ther he had determined warrantably or not : yea, if 
itfhould befaid, ( which yet will n6t be lufficient) 
that it may give a man peace, it in his charity he ac- 
count the perfon fincere > although indeed he be not 
fo : this will not quiet the mind , becaufe I put no 
queftion but experience will teach any that are tender, 
that there are many cafes, that if they were put to it, 
they durft not > even according to their own charity 
and opinion ,determine of a perfons fincerity, fo as to 
take upon them a decilion in that , either by deter- 
mining of the perfon to be fincere or not , and fo of 
his admiflion or fcclufion to, or from Church-ordi- 
nances and priviledges. 

2. The account upon which we admit , and the 
proof thereof alfo f rauft be proportionable and op- 
pofit to the account and proof upon which we debar : 
for, binding and loofing are both of the fame nature, 
afts of the fame power , in reference to the fame end, 
and the one of them anfwercth to the other* Now, 
when we bind a man for a Scandal, I. It is not ac- 
cepted as a ground of binding, untill it be proven 
and made evident , and not probably only, Therefore 
nothing can be the account upon which we can loofe 
but that which may be evidently proven alfo *, for, it 
looketh not fuitable-like to bind a man upon clear 
evidence* and to exclude him from a right, and to 
admit him again , only upon probabilities and pre- 
emptions , much leffe where the proof doth not 
amount fo high. Again, 2« When a perfon is (hut 
out, he is not (hut out upon the account that he is un- 
renued , or upon the account that fuch an aft was 
not fincere . or that he appeared to be fuch , But he 
is (hut out, becaufe it was fcandalous to others , and 
unbecoming the Gofpel , even though the perfons 


Part 2. A Tredtife concerning Scandal. ^p 

finccrity (hould not be queftioned : Therefore, by the 
rule of contrariesi it followech, that it is not fincericy 
which is the account upon which Church- officers 
are to loofc. 

If ic be asked then , under what notion, or upon 
whac account that morall ferious profeffion is to be 
accepted as fatkfying ? Weanfwer, upon this ac- 
count , as it is apparently ferious and edifying, with- 
out determining whether ic bz fincere or not, but as 
convinced that by fuch a profeffion the prejudice and 
offence that came by the former mifcarriage* and left 
a blot upon the Church , and a ftumbling-block be- 
fore others, may be removed. So, that as it was un- 
becoming a Church-member to commit fuch a fcan- 
dalous fin, So now by fuch a ferious profeffion > that 
blot of making Chriftianity to be accounted a f otter- 
ing of profanity is wiped away » that ftumbling- 
block of his example is taken out of the way , fo that 
this profeffion may be edifying to prevent the (tum- 
bling of any other upon his Scandal, and the ac- 
cepting thereof may look like a hopcfull mean of edi- 
fying the perfon for the time to come $ and recover- 
ing of him from that fnarehe was into; and fo as 
his fcandaldufneffe in thefe refpetts was the account 
upon which he was aftually , or was to have been 
Sentenced, So oppofitly thereto this ferious profeffion 
having a proportionable edification , or of it fclf a. 
tendencie to edifying, in all the refpe&s mentioned 
going alongft witn it , it is the account upon which 
it is accepted as fatisfying, without determining of the 
fincerity thereof > leaving the perfon to anfwer before 
God for that> and 1 before men to hing forth fruits 
meet for repentance, which was Johns way in deal- 
ing with fuch as came to his Baptifm, Matth. 3. upoi; 
whofe fincerity we chink its clear that he did no way 
decide ; but of this enough : We copne to confirm 
our anfwer. 

For confirming of this , to vvk> that fuch fober and 
H 2 feriorfsf 

ioo tA Treatife concerning Scandal I Part a. 

that thk ferious profeflion of repentance , isfufficient with- 
tnorall (eri- out further enquiry after che gracioufneffe of the fin- 
wfneffe is cerity thereof , We may confider thele grounds , 
(efficient, J# If fa^ a profeffion be diffident for admitting 
confirmed, members to the Church , Then fuch is alfo fufficient 
for the removing of offending members and continu- 
ing them in their former priviledges * for, no reafon 
can be given why there (hould be greater rigidity for 
readmitting to the aftuall ufe of Church- priviledges, 
aChrittain after he hath fallen in drunkeneffe , for- 
nication, &c. than was requifit for the admitting of a 
Heathen , poflibly guilty of thefe fame (ins befide ; 
But the firft is true.as is irrefragably and convincing* 
ly demonftrated by the forementioned worthy Au- 
thor Mr. W90A. Ergo, &c. 

2. ft may be fuppoled, that a gracious man, of 
whofe gracioufneffe there is no qucftion in the charity 
of any, doth fall in fome Scandal, what is to be ac* 
counted fatisfying in him? muft be fatisfying in others. 
Now, it is not any conviftion of the gracioufnefle of 
his ftate that can be fatisfying in this cafe , nor yet is 
that the account upon which we can proceed, becaufc 
that is never queftioned even when he is under the of- 
fence. If it be (aid , it muft be the fincerity and 
gracioufnefle of his particular aft of repentance. 
Jtnfo. i. It is difficult to give^ judgement ot the ftate 
of tly perfon , but more difficult to give judgement 
of the gracioufneffe of a particular aft. 2. Suppofe 
fuch a perfon had a particular acknowledgement fo 
circumftantiated as is formerly defcribed in this mo- 
rall fincerity > would not that be fufficiently fatisfy- 
ing ? And if it be fatisfying in one » in reference to a 
particular offence , why not in another? Becaufc, 

1. There is one rule given by Jefus Chrift to all. 

2. The removing of one offence relateth to the offence 
given y and not to the ftate of the perfon who gave it. 
Therefore if that fatisfaftion be fufficient to remove 

that particular offence in one, it muft alfo be fo in re- 

Part i% A Treatife concerning Scandal. ioi 

ferenceto another , becaufe the queftion here, is not 
what may be iufficient to evidence a perfoij to be gra- 
cious , but what may be fufficient in a perfon to re- 
move fuch a particular offence ? If it be (aid, that 
it is accepted of that gracious perfon as fatisfying, 
becaufe he is accounted to be gracious, it may ftill 
be urged , The Qjeftion is not > whether thepeifon 
be gracious , but whether that aft of repentance of 
hisDe fo, ornot? for, it cannot be denied, but a gra- 
cious perfon may have afts of hypocrifie > and in 
particular afts be carnall : either then fuch a perfon 
♦muft be excluded though he be gracious , and in this 
refpeft ferioufly doth profefle repentance, which were 
hard to do; or, he muft be upon that profeffion ad- 
mitted , and fothat muft be fufficient for Church-fa- 
tisfaftion, as is faid. 

g. That which ought to fatisfie a Brother in pri- 
vate , or after his taking of two or three witnefies 
with him, and which may be accounted a hearing of 
a private admonition ; that fort of repentance ought 
to be fatisfying to the Church- officers: Becaufe, tell 
the Church y fucceedeth to the contempt of private ad- 
monition , and therefore they are to obtain by their 
interpofing of authoritative rebukes , what the other 
did not obtain , and fo they are to reft fatisfied when 
that is obtained* as the gradation, Matth. 18. is clear, 
hearing of the Qhmch, being in refpeft of the tffefts, 
that fame which hearing of the private admonitions • 

is, to wit, the obtaining of fatisfadticn. But the for- 
mer is true, to wit, a Brother ought to reft fatisfied 
with fuch a fober ferious prefeflion and acknowledge- 
ment as giveth him ground to judge him really af- 
fected for his offending , and under a purpofe to ab- 
ftain and amend for the time to come : and who will 
fay, that a Brother in fuch a cafe can rationally com- 
plain of an other, as not having had his admonition ? 
So, neither can the Church proceeed further when her 
admonition hath that weight > feing there had been 
H \ l no 

X Q% A Treatife concerning Scandal. 1 Part i. 1 

ho acceffe for her judicially to have admouifhed , if 
fo much had formerly been obtained : and if it may 
be (aid , that fuch a private admonition <o fuccesfull, 
did gain the offending Brother, Is not that fame to be 
(aid of the Churches admonition having that fuc- 
ceffe ? and when he is gained, are not they to reft fa- 
tisficd? and yet we (uppofe, that none will fay, that 
by gaining in that place , real converfion is intended, 
and that a private Brother (hould infift to the utter- 
moft, till he be latisficd in that, 

4- We may argue thus : If fuch a profcflion, and 
a perfons amendement in the manner fpoken , be the 
hearing and gaining that is intended, Mattb. t8. Then 
are Church-officers to be fatisfied therewith ; But the 
former is true, as appeareth thus , The Churches fa- 
tisfa6tion muft be in refpeft to her fpeaking , her 
fpeaking to the party muft be with refpeft to the com- 
plaint made to her by a particular perfon ; that com- 
plainr,again,muft have relpeft to what offended him, 
which is fome particular a6l having offence with it ; 
and it was not the ungracious ttateofthe perfon, 
(for Co the word, If thy brother offend tbee&e. import- 
cth) Now,from the firft to the laft.fuch fatisfa&ion as 
is described, may be fatisfying in reference to fuch 
a particular offence, and be fufficient for removing 
the fame, andreftoringthe perfon to the efteem and 
condition which formerly he was into, And therefore 
ins to be accounted as fatisfying by the Church. And 
if more were to be enquired for , it were to make the 
fatisfa&ion beyond the offence, which were unjuft; 

5. That which may be accepted as a fatisfaftioft 
from an Heretick , as the fatisfying fruit of a publick 
admonition, cannot be refufed as fatisfattion in other 
cafes ; for, if circumfpeflneffe and rigidity be to be 
ufed in any cafe, it is in this : But a ferious acknow- 
ledgement of an error , and an abandoning of it in- 
deed , is to be accepted for Church* fatisfaft ion from 
an Heretick, and as the fruit of an publick admoniti- 

Part i • %s4 Treat ife concerning Scandal? i°3 

on, and he in that refpeft is fuppofedto be gained: 
ErgOt&c. That this is to be accepted from him, may 
be gathered from TU t 3. io. A man that u an benticl^, 
rejett after the jirjl and fecond admonition. Where th« fe 
things are clear , 1. That an Herctick that continu- 
ed foi and heareth not the Church, is to be lc/e&cd. 
2. That an Heretick renouncing his errors after ad- 
monition , and not continuing fuch , is not to be re- 
jected , and fo is not to be accounted an Herctick or 
under that fcandal of herefie, and therefore his dif- 
claiming of it , is to be accounted fatisfying as to the 
Church-orificers ; otherwayes, it would follow , that 
although he renounced his herefie in that ferious and 
morally fincere manner , yet were he flill to be dealt 
with a* fuch by the Church , except they were fatif- 
fied in the fincerky of his grace, which is contrary to 
Paul's direction, and the end of that publick admo- 
nition : which is not given him becaufe of his unre- 
nuedftatci but becaufe of his herefie. Now, that 
being taken away and fatisfied by his fubmifiion, the 
admonition muft be acknowledged to be fatbfiedt 
andfohe is neither to be dealt with as an Heretick, 
nor as obftinate, but as one who hath heard the 
Churches admonition. 

6. From the iTbeff* 3. 6, 14, i$ t we may gather 
the fame : for we have thefe things cle?.r > 1. That 
th*re were fomc there who walked dilotderly as to 
fome particular a&s. 2. That the Apollle account- 
eth that diforderiy walking to be fcandalous > and 
judicially to be taken notice of, if it be net removed, 
And, 3. what that fatisfs&ion is which removeth 
the fame, i> expreffed by him, ver. 1 4. If a man °^ e y 
not our x»ord bjf this epijlh* ($*c< So that it was afctuali 
amending of what was fcandalous, and thereby giv- 
ing obedience to his direction , which was fo to be 
accounted. And in that cafe , a brother offending, 
was neither further to be noted , nor to be efteemcct 
fcandalous, without any further enquiry to be had of 
H 4 the 

io4 tATreatife concerning Sc as d a tl Part a. 

thegracioufneffe of his ftate , or the principle ends or 
motives of his obedience. 

7. It may appear thus, That which may remove 
reproach from the Ordinances , and offence in refe- 
rence to theie that ate without, is to be accounted fa- 
tisfying, becaufe that is one of the ends of Difcipline 
to (top the mouths of fuch as are without : Now as it 
is not any thing within,or the wantoffincerity which 
doth offend them, and open their moutbs,So this mo- 
rally fincere and reail change, (to fpeak fo) is fuffici* 
ent to fati^fie them, at leaft, it cannot be faid that 
they can reach further. This argument alone we ac- 
knowledge might not feemto be cogent , yetconfi- 
dering, chat what is offenfive, is fome externall thing 
having a proportionable offenfivcneffe> both to thofe 
that are within , and alfo to thofe that are without, 
and a thing is offenfive, becaufe it is apt to offend 
fuch. There ought therefore alfo a proportionablncffc 
to be between what removeth an offence in reference 
to both. 
differences 8. If we confide r the proper objeft > nature and 
between the end of the key of Difcipline > as it is abftraftly confi- 
fa/ of Do- dered , as contra-diftinft from the key of Dofitwne, 
Urine and we will find that no more by it can be expe&ed. For, 
iDifctylm, 1. its proper objeft is fomewhat, that is fcandalous, 
and fo it reacheth only to reftrain, regulate, and 
judge the outward man, or fomewhat in the outward 
converfation firftly , though the fruit of that hath a 
further look mediately. The key of Do<5trine again, 
or the Word reacheth in, and becometh a judge of the 
thoughts and intents of the heart; and to make Difci- 
pline judge the inner- man , in this refpeft , were to 
confound thefe two keys which the Lord hath made 
diftindt: andtherfore, if Difcipline have any influ- 
ence upon the inner- man favingly, it is but mediately 
by condemning his outward practices , and him as 
fuch, or making of dire&ions, reproofs, &c. in the 
Word,morc weighty, t. The key of Difcipline doth 
' * '- only 

Part il A Trcatife concerning Scandal' ifoy 

only (hut from outward privileges , and doth no* 
(hut from any fpintuall interett inChrift, but as i c 
concurreth to confirm fomc threatninginthe Word> 
which debarrcth many from laving promifes and the 
things contained in them > which Difcipline may ad- 
mit to outward privilcdge*. 3. There is a difference* 
in refpeft of abfolucion alfo, to wit, the Word when 
it abfolveth , it doth abfolve from the cm fe of God, 
and giveth acceffe to the promifes , and a title to the 
things promifed ; Difcipline again> doth but abfolve 
from outward Cendires and reftraints, and doth but 
give right to Church- priviledges. 4. There are dif- 
ferent conditions and qualifications upon which thefe 
two keys bind and loofe : for, the Word openeth to 
none but upon condition ot fincere faith and re- 
pentance , and abfolveth none but reall Believers, 
pronouncing all unbelievers to be under the curfe ; 
Again, Difcipline (asfuch; cannot (hut out men 
fromexternall priviledp.es, becaufe they are not rege- 
nerate>and fincerely gracious , and fo in that refpeft, 
it muft have a different condition of (huting men 
out, or it muft corifider them upon another account, 
in excluding them from Church-priviledges, than the 
Word doth in excluding them from faving promifes, 
to wit, it confidereth them as fcandalous, and unbe- 
coming the Gofpel whatever their ftate be , and fo it 
may cenfure Believers, as the key of Dodtrine may 
(hut out the moft fubtile hypocrite which the other 
cannot reach. Therefore alfo muft it be a different 
account upon which Difcipline doth admit , or re- 
ftore men to outward priviledges, and abfolve men 
from outward Cenfures , than that upon which the 
Word doth admit to faving priviledges. And feing 
this laft is fincere faith and repentance, the other muft 
have fomewhat different from this, upon the account 
whereof it doth give right , which can be no other 
thing than the moral fincerity mentioned. 5. Upon 
thefc differences follows another (which doth con- 

1 06 A Trcttife concerning S c A N D A t . Part i. 

firm all the former ) to wit , a divcrfity that is in the 
manner of binding and looting by thefe two keys ; 
for, when a Minifter ufeth the key of Do&rine , he 
doth exclude from heaven and faying priviledges but 
conditionally, and he can warrantably exclude no 
particular profeffour abfolutely ; So no Minifter 
can abfolve abfolutely, by the key of Do6trine, but 
conditionally, to wit, if the pcrfon bclieveth that 
he fpeakcth unto ; for , it runneth on thefe tearms> 
If thou believeft, thou (hale be faved. But, again, 
in the exercife of the key of Difcipline it isnoc (o, 
no Church-judicatory doth debar a man from 
priviledges conditionally , if he believe not, but 
abfolutely he is debarred becaufe of fome prefent 
fcandal 5 and although the perfon were or (hould 
become a real Believer, yet he continueth bound 
from outward priviledges by the key of Difcipline, 
untill that fcandal be removed : So when they receive 
any into Church- communion, they do not abfolve 
them from their former Cenfure, and give them right 
to Church- priviledges upon condition they believe, 
but abfolutely that Cenfure is removed, and they are 
admitted unto thefe priviledges. 

If it be asked, What is chc rcafon of this difference 
betwixt thefe two keys? Jnfto. Itis>firft, becaufe 
the ground upon which we loofe and bind with the 
key of Difcipline, is fomething obvious to men's 
view , wherein they may warrantably judge and 
proceed , and therefore that is done abfolutely : But 
in the key of Dodtrine it is not fo; for, men cannot 
tell who really believe, and who not, and it cannot 
by judicial proofs be made-out, Therefore they can- 
not bind or loofe but conditionally. Secondly, God 
hath committed the outward man to be the objedt of 
Difcipline , but the inner man and confeience is re- 
ferved to the Word and Do&rine, and men have not 
gotten authority over confeiences arid hearts ; There- 
Fore what concerneth the outward man , and out- 

Part i. *A Treatife ctnctrning Scandal.' i 07 

ward priviledges,may be determined absolutely* Buc 
what concerncth the confcience and inner man only 
conditionally , becaule He hath referved the abfolutc 
decifionofthattohimfclf, Therefore there isafixth 
difference aHo. The word may and doth bind in- 
definite that is, perfons fo and fo qualified, without 
making application in binding or loofing to indivi- 
dual perfons, and doth not fo bind or loofe but con- 
ditionally, as is (aid ; But Difciplineftriketh at in- 
dividual perfons, and as fuch, doth not otherwayes 
affeft : for, fuppofe an indefinit Sentence of Excom- 
munication, againft perfons fo qualified > to be pro- 
nounced , it doth debar none from Church- privi- 
ledges,as ic is luch;and for what influence it hath fur- 
ther, it is as it cometh under the key of do&rinc, which 
doth bind or loofe luch, but not as it is under the key 
of Discipline, and that for the reafons mentioned. 

Fromthefe grounds we may fee how warrantable 
and neceffary it is to put difference betwixt laving 
grace, which is the condition upon which the key of 
Doftrine abfolveth , and ferious profefiion , and a 
fair inoff Mifive carriage , which is the condition up- 
on which the key of Difcipline abfolveth : And we 
may fee alfo what abfurdities would follow the con- 
founding ot thefe. And indeed we fee no other way 
how theie t wo keys may be kept diftin<ft, but this. 

To fum up this> from what is (aid, we may>ninth- 
ly, conclude , If every fimulat profefiion be not fuffi- 
cient,and if gracious Sincerity be not to be enquired 
for, Then this morall fincerity and amendment is to 
be accepted as fatisfying , and that which properly 
Church- judicatories are to enquire in, for a fourth 
cannot be conceived.But the former is truth.^V^tsX 

Laftly, That which was fatisfying for giving ac- 

cefle to the Ordinances amongftthe Jews after un- 

cleannefle, muft be fatisfying now for removing of 

' offences; Buc fuch a ferious profefiion was fatisfying 

then: For, 1. it cannot be denied that there was a 


108 v4 Treatife concerning Scandal. Part u 

feparatingof fome for uncleanneffc from the Ordi- 
nances ; and it is at large and ftrongly made-out by 
that learned vindicatcr of Church-government and 
Difcipline, Mr. Gillejpie, that there was feparation 
for moral uncleannefle ; But however, ceremonial 
uncleanntfle did then prove ground enough of ex- 
clufion , becaufe fo the Law of God had appointed 
it , even as now He hath appointed other grofle fin- 
ners tobecaft-out. 2. It is clear. That there was 
fome fatisfadtion required , as wafhing, offering of 
Sacrifices, and fuch like , before they could be ad- 
mitted. 3. It cannot be faid , that a mocking , pal- 
pable, irreverent manner of performing thefe things 
would have been accepted by thePrieft, but would 
have been more offenfive ; nor yet can any fay, that 
enquiry was made after their end, principles, or gra- 
cioufnefle of their aft > So the affumption is clear : 
Neither can the connexion of the minor be denied, if 
weconfider, 1. That there was nolefle moral holi- 
Siefle called- for from the Jews, than from us* 2. That 
mere was as great external ftrifitnefle for keeping-up 
Ine fanftity of external Worfhip. 3, If weconfi- 
der that their Ordinances and ours are materially the 
fame. 4. It we confider that Chrift, even in refpeft of 
the external adminiftration of His Kingdom and Dis- 
cipline, is not more rigid or reftrifted in His admit- 
ting to priviledges now, nor then , yea, that He is 
even in that more condefcending to us under the days 
of the Gofpel. 5. If we may reafon from the Lord's 
manner of admitting unto His Church then, to His 
admitting unto the Church now upon the fame qua- 
lifications that were fatisfying then, Then we may 
alfo conclude from what was fatisfying then for the 
admitting of perions excluded, unto the admitting of 
them now ; and this is fully made- out, befide others, 
by worthy Mr. Wood, in that fore-cited folid and 
learned Treatife , and before hirot (to which he re- 
lateth) by learned Mr. Baxter , in his difpute with 
Tombs, CHAP. 

Parti. A Tre4t$jeconcerm*gs caudal. < xoj 


Concerning What is to he done ,tt hen men appear 
neither ferioHs nor obftinat. 

]T may be now asked, Whac is to be done in refe- 
rence to thofe who, after fome grofle offence, can 
neicher be counted thus ferious, nor yet obftinat ? 
Anf* Such cafes may be frequent ; Concerning which 
we fay, i. That it is neither fit altogether to abfolve 
them, as being fully fatisfied, nor yet to proceed to 
thehigheft Sentence with them, nor to leave them 
altogether without a rebuke. But>in the fecond place, 
we fay. That it is fie to proceed to rebuke them ac- 
cording to the direftion, iTim. 5. 20. Becaufe, I. 
This rebuke may be a mean, through God's blefling, 
to humble them,and to reftrain fuch an offence. And, 
2. it is alfo ufefull in reference toothers, although 
the mans own carriage and acknowledgment be not 
every way (atisfying; for, theApoftle's direction to 
rebuke him openly, doth refpeft more the offence paft 
and the fruit that may follow to him and others, than 
any prefent (atisfying frame in the perfon to be re- 

When it is found meet thus publickly to rebuke, How U a 
the circumftances and manner are to be adverted to, fubltc^ rem 
I. Although the defigning of a particular place be Mpto be 
not in it felf heceffary , nor in every cafe expedient* £ IVC71, 
yetforthefolemnity of the reproof, it is notunfuit- 
able, it being fuch as is rather accommodated for the 
edification of the whole Congregation, than other- 
wife pointed at as a place of pennance or punifh- 
ment , or yet as a mark of reproach, and fuch like, 
which wrongeth the nature of Chrifi's Ordinance ; 
And circumftances would be fo orderci as the ap- 
pearance of that may be efchewed. 2. It would be 
gone about vvkh much gravity and reverence in rc- 


% x *A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part u 

fpeft of all chat arc concerned. The Minifter efpeci- 
ally is to carry weightily and authoritatively, having 
words fitted for the edifying of the Coneregation, the 
humbling of the perfon, the convincing of both, and 
for the credit and weight of Chrift's Ordinance be- 
fore all ; The party rebuked would minde whofe Or- 
dinance it is, and befuitably affe&ed as the receiving 
of a particular rebuke from Jefus Chrift doth call- 
for ; The on- lookers alfo would be grave, having re- 
fpeft to Chrift's Ordinance, tenderneffe to the perfon 
offending , but indignation at the offence ; and this 
would be teftified by their carriage, fo as thereby the 
authority and folemnity of all may have the deeper 
ftamp upon the perfon. And for attaining of this, 
fomething would be gravely fpoken to the hearers, 
as their ufe thereof, according to the cafe ; and it 
may be, that fome addreffe to God in prayer together, 
in reference thereto, before or after the rebuke* would 
not be unufefull for that end. 
If it be dU If it be asked, if fpeaking in publick by the perfon 
wow necef* rebuked be al wayes neceffary ? dnfto* 1 . Although 
fary that the j c ma y be f cen u fefull and expedient, yet in ordina- 
iffenda r y re bukes, for ordinary fcandals, where no contempt 
w ca v hath preceeded , we conceive it not fimply neceffary, 
I, Becaufe , though the rebuke be clear in the Word, 
yet is not this by the fame evidence , alwayes requi- 
red. 2. Their appearing to receive it , hath an im- 
plicit affent to, and acceptation of it. ?. The effe6l 
of the rebuke is rather to be gathered from their after 
carriage , for it hath with it an obliging weight to 
them , and a virtual! certification before the people* 
whether they expreflc any thing or not- Befide, eve- 
ry one cannot edifyinglv (peak, and in that cafe* the 
Minifters rebuke is appointed to edifie others* and to 
remove that offence from them. 

Yet thereare two cafes efpecially wherein wc think 
this is expedient and neceffary unto edification, 
i. When either by the atrocity of fome offence > or 


Part 2. -* Treattje ctnccrmng b c a n d a l . xu 

continuance in contempt > a pcrfon hath been in pro- 
cefle towards Excommunication ; or , when there 
is a relapfe after a former rebuke : in fuclvcafea it is 
for the edification of the people* to know upon what 
grounds the ERTcrfhip doth fift from proceeding j 
And engagements publickly and explicitly taken on 
before a Congregation , are often more weighty to 
the perfon. And if there be a failing, ^hcre is the 
greater evidence againft them for after proceeding. 

i. Suppofe there hath been fome Sentence binding 
or (huting out the perfon formerly , in that cafe , we 
conceive, fpeaking in publick to be ncceflary for con- 
firming the people in their love to him agaiu, which 
was hazarded by his former evident fall ; and an im- 
plicit accepting of a reproof is not fuftkient in fuch 
a cafe. 

There may be alfo other cafes, as fuppofe one hach 
been carried away with error > which he hath fre- 
quently vented before men , or in fome fuch cafe 
where it may be edifying to have it from the parties 
own mouth > efpecially if the perfon be in luch a 
frame, or of fuch ability, as by fo doing he may edi- 
fie. But this is to be decided by the prudence of the 

If it be asked again , how is he to be accounted of hw h an 
after this rebuke ? We anfwer, Even as by fome offender to 
competent continuance of time , he doth difcover the be reckoned 
ferioufneffe>or unferioufnefle of his profeflion, So that */w * rc- 
if he relapfe, he is the more inexcu fable , and to be MP- 
proceeded with in due manner : but if he take up 
himfelf, and carry to the view of others ferioufly, he 
is not to be accounted as fcandalous, becaufe it can- 
not be faid > that he hath refufed to hear the Church 
in that publick admonition : and a publick rebuke 
doth not of it felf bind any and (hut them out as 
fcandalous, (yea, it giveth not ground for it , if ob- 
ftinacy followeth not) but if it be hearkened unto,and 
received» it doth prevent that, it being a right fatil- 

i 1 2 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 2 . 

fying part of Chriftianity to admit of , and to im- 
prove a rebuke. Yet we think it incumbent to 
Church-judicatories,after fome competent time,to en- 
quire in the after carriage of (uch, and io accordingly 
to determine, whether they have fatisfyingly accep* 
ted of the admonition, or not. And that therefore 
the perfon fo rebuked , ought to have fuch a Sentence 
before he can plead full admiffion to all priviledges, if 
at the time his profeflion was not fatisfying. This is 
ufefull for the prrfons behove > when he knoweth he 
is ftill to be looked upon in a fpeciall manner , as a 
fickly member of the body. And it is alfo agreeable 
torealon ; for, if when a private perfon giveth an 
admonition he be to judseof the fruit of it , whe- 
ther it be fatisfying ; and if the Church- judicatory, 
when they admonifh judicially,be to weigh, whether 
the effc&s be fatisfying or not: So by the like reafon, 
when an admonition is publickly given > ought they 
to enquire what hath followed, and if that be fa- 
tisfying or not* | 
If an offence ^ xt ^ £ a5 ^> ^ in no ca ^ c an offender may be 
may at firti ^ rou Sht immediately to publick , but by the former 
injlant be ^ eps > anc * u P on /uppofition that thefe be fruitfeffe ? 
bnugkt to ^ n f* 't may be in thefe two or three cafes, 1. When 
tuMcfa c he offence > being of a grofle nature, is publick and 
open, fothat many are in hazard to beinfe&ed, in 
that cafe a private rebuke ^would not be fufficient : 
Becaufe , refpert is to be had to the good of others* 
And fo in fom* cafes , even though as to the perfons 
ownconvi&ionand carriage, a Church- judicatory 
may be fatisfyed ; vet there is a ncceffity for the rea- 
fon fdrefaid of a publick rebuke. Yet every offence 
that is known to moe than one is not to be accounted 
an offenceof this nature : Becaufe from that word of 
Chrifts v Ta\e V>itbtbee Wo or three V>itneJJes, &q. ic 
is evident, that even after thofe are made acquaint 
with the fcandal , it is not publick, except obftinacie 
follow* Yea, it would appear , that fuch a fcandal 


rare 2* •« * rcai^c concerning ocan jjali ii) 

might be known to others* when yet one private pe*- 
fon might only admonifh; and if the admonition 
were accepced, might fift. And in ca(e the fadt be de- 
nied , then he is thereafter to bring two or three con- 
junct witnefles, who may convince the party offend- 
ing of the truth of the fa£t , as well as of the nature 
thereof, by their joynt teftifying, that the party offen- 
ded had rcafon to (eek fatisfa&ion in fuch a thing: 
Otherwayes>if that were only a privat offence which 
is known to one, fuppofing the parcy offending to de- 
ny the fadi , there were no accefle to an offended 
brother to purfue the fame, and by witnefles to make 
it out, if his private admonition (hcutd be reje&ed. 
And this may beonereafon alfo why thofc two or 
three are called Witnejps, whofe part is to confirm 
the matter of faft, as the Law cited there to that 
purpofe doth evidence. Nor is it alway neceffarily 
thus publick when it is made known to a Church- 
officer or a Church- judicatory, becaufe in that cafe, 
even they may find it more edifying to admonifh pri- 
vately than publickly ; And it is their part rather to 
hinder thefpreading of a fcandal, than to make the 
fame needlefly more publick. An offence then that VPbtnu 
is to be accounted publick, that is, which is fo in re* offence u to 
fpeftof itsnotoricy or publ?cknefle, and fuch as i % be accounted 
not the objft of private admonition, but whereof a? ^ 
Church- judicatory is immediatly to take notice* may 
be confidered in refpect of its firft inftant, or in re- 
fpedtof fome following circumftance: for what is 
required in the nature of the fin it fclf hath been 
fpoken to already. It is publick in the firft refpeft, 

1. When it is done before fo many as probably can- 
not be fatisficd with private admonition , fo that 
thereby there is a hazard to many to be fcandalized. 

2. It is publick, w.hen it leemeth to be done with con- 
tempt and an high hand, as if a perfon were own- 
ing the fame } Thus a fcandal that hath fewer wit- 
nefles, may be accounted publick, when another, k 

I maj 


} 14 A Tretttife concerning Scandal, Part i. 

may be> aftually known to as many, is not to be ac- 
counted fuch, becaufe in this cafe there is no accefle 
to private admonition, the prrfon being like a fwinc> 
ready to turn on the admonifher. Thus (uppofe Ab- 
folorn's inceft had not beenaftually known to many, 
yet the very circumftances of his doing it openly, 
and purpofly that it might be known, made it of a 
publick nature : Thus fometimes it is more neceffary 
to take notice of an offence committed in a publick 
place, though, it may be, few know the fame, than 
of a thing done more privady , becaufe as to them it 
might have been publick to many ; and it (heweth an 
humour and corruption that is beyond privat admo- 
nition, when a thing is fo circumftantiated. 3. Some- 
times offences will have an horrour, and an indigna- 
tion wakened againft them, even in refpeft of luch 
circumftances, as to be drunk, lafcivious, and fuch 
like* are offences > but to be fo in a Market-place, or 
in publick Greets , even fuppofing it to be in a day 
when few do aftually fee it* doth waken an indig- 
nation in the hearts of fober men , as being an affront 
to Religion and Order , and inconfiftent with Chri- 
ftianity and Civility, much more than if it had been 
in a private place, or privatly ; for, that is before the 
Sun todofo, as Zimries aft was, which provoked 
Tbinectfs zeal. 4. An offence is publick, when it is 
generally accounted to be a certain truth , and not 
a fufpicion only; as being a thing in its evidence 
known to fo many(befide what is reported to others) 
that it cannot be fuppofed that an ingenuous mind 
can have accefle to deny orihifc the fame, without 
fomc indignation in the hearts of thofe that know it* 
?♦ Sometimes an offence is to be accounted publick 
when,though it may be,many are not witneiles there- 
of, yet when many are in hazard to be infedled there- 
by ; as fuppofe thofe witneffes to be fuch as cannot 
reft quiet in a private fatisfa&ion , but they have 
either fprcad it, or are in hazard to fpread k, and, it 


Part 2. «•? J reattje cenenning bCAKDAi. 115 

may be, long afterward they make it a ground of re- 
proach : In this cafe it becometh a fcandal not only 
tothefirft witnefles, but alfotothofc to whom it is 
reported ; So that although it was not at firft pub- 
lick, yet it becometh lb by the rumour thereof. This 
infe&toufnefs may alfo proceed from the time wh 
in it is committed, the perfon who committeth it, the 
nature of the faft that is committed, (which may 
more readily infnare others than fadts of feme other 
nature ) from tho(e alio before whom it was com- 
mitted; Therefore in fuch cafes it is ncceffary that 
publick notice be taken thereof. 

Therefore, in the fecond pbee, we faid that fome 
offences not very publick in refpeft of the faft , yet 
may, by fome concurring circumftances, be fuch as 
the bringing of them in publick, may be ncceflary 
for the edifying of the Church at fuch a time , then 
that way is to be taken ; As fuppofe, 1, that fuch a 
fin is in fome places fcarce counted a fin ; Or, 2. if ic 
be fecretly and frequently in ufe among others ; Or, 
3» if the perfon found guilty be generally fufpefled of 
loofe and untender walking in fuch things > although 
particulars be not publick } Or, 4. if they be under 
falfe pretexts of tenderneffe , ready to (educe others 
tofomethingfinfull, or in the like cafes. In which, 
though the faft be not fo publick, yet the fcandal, or 
hazard , and the benefit of a rebuke are publick 5 
and therefore that way is to be followed , Bccaufe 
they are necefiary for the edifying of the Church 4 
which is the end wherefore publick rebuks are ap- 
pointed. The fame may be faid of atrocious hor- 
rible crimes , which being but known to few, yet arc 
not to be> nor cannot be paft with a mccr private ad- 
monition, fuch as witchcraft, inceft, &c. which are 
defiling fins , the bringing whereof in publick doth 
honour God the avenger and difcoverer of fuch 
works of darknefie > fuppofe alfo, that the evidencing 
of fomewhat > may ferve to remove fome former 
I * pre* 

xi5 A Treaty e concerning scandal*- Part i. 

prejudice , as if it had been thought that an innocent 
perfon had been father of fuch a childe , or aftor of 
fuch a murther; if God bring it abouti thatthofe 
who truely are guilty be difcovered , it is not to be 
keeped clofe , becaufe it is the removing of a former 
ftumbling-block > and may keep others from finning 
inmif-judgeing an innocent > and it alfo glorifieth 
God whofe wife way is to be obferved in fuch dif- 

2. Although a faft be not publick > yea , in fome 
cafes although it be not true that there hath been any 
ground of offence given : Yet # i. If the report of 
fuch an aft be publickly rumoured ; Or, 2. if fuch 
preemptions thereof be publick > which are ready 
to leave the imprefllon of the thing ; Or > 3. if the 
fame or brute of fuch a thing be come to fuch an 

1 heighti that cither it be believed by many to be true, 
( and that by fuch who are neither too (imply credu- 
lous without all preemptions, nor malitious or in- 
fefted with prejudice in reference to the perfon ) Or, 
fuppofe that a perfon is accounted to be habitually in 
fecret evils , the riping up whereof might be edifying; 
in fuch and fuch like cafes, a Church- judicatory is at 
the firft inftant to meddle with , and enquire in the 
fame : becaufe > although poflibly there may be no 
ground, yet the offence is great, and may ftumble 
many as if it were fo : and the negle&ing thereof 
cannot but beoffenfive, whereas inquiry therein is 
ufefull , whether the fame be grounded or not. But 
* in this there would be great tenderneffe and prudence 
ufed in confidering > both upon whom , by whom, 
and upon what occafion the report is raifed and en- 
tertained , and whether dipping therein be edifying 
or not. 

3, Upon fuppofition that private perfons be de- 
feftive in giving admonitions, or following of them 
before a Church- judicatory , and yet there be preg- 
nant preemptions of mifcarriagas in fuch and fuch 


■«—-—— — «— ■ 

Part £• tA Treatise concerning Scandal. i*7 

perfons, although they be not publick; or, fuppofe, 
through fear, ill grounded affc&ion , or other carnall 
refpe&s , others ftiould concur to keep from publick 
view the offences of fome perfon, to the (tumbling 
of themfelves , in becoming partakers of their fin, 
and to the prejudice of others: I fay,in fuch like cafes, 
a Church- judicatory is to enquire into the carriage of 
fuch a perfon , and to put others to declare and tefti- 
fie therein , although they be not complained of, and 
although the Scandal be not fo every way obvious : 
Becaufe admonition is needfull both for the good of 
the perfon offending , and of others alfo : and when 
private perfons become defe&ive > Church officers 
are bound rather to interpofe immediately than to fuf- 
fer fuch a perfon to continue under fin , to the hazard 
of himfelf and others; for, they muft either do it, or 
it is to be left undone , which would be a Rumbling* 
block to many , and ftrcngthen wickedneffe exceed- 
ingly^ cafe untender men fell only to be acceflbry to 
the knowledge of the offences of each other (as often 
it is ) yet though it be neceffary for a Church- judi- 
catory to interpofe , it is not alwayes neceffary to 
bring the matter to a publick rebuke , but as from 
onfidcration of the thing, perfon, or, other circum- 
ftances it (hall be thought fit to reft in a private admo- 
nition or not. 

From which we may fee the neceflity of proceffing 
parties , and leading witneffes ( in cafe the matter be 
denied ) without any particular accufer or delater : 
becaufe in fuch cafes, either publick Scandal of the 
thing, the nature of the Church- officers over fight, 
or the edification of the body, which they are to pre- 
fer to every thing, do require that fuch a thing or 
perfon be put to triall. 

I 3 CHAP. 

I x g A Treat ife concerning Scandal. Part 2 '• 


CUarifng whether in Chnrch-procejfes an Accn* 
fer be dlwajes neccfiarj. 

IF ic be asked » concering ati accufer, Whether it be 
neceffary in all Church- proceffes, that one> under 
fuch a confideration, be fixed, before there can be 
proceeding againft any party, in reference to triall. 
We anfwer in thefe affertions# 
AJfer. i . Ic is not alwayes neceffary in every cafe that 
there fhould be a formall particular accufer , as may 
appear from the cafes formerly inftanced; for,that any 
offence or offender (hould paffe without being taken 
notice of, ( efpecially if offences be continued in ) is 
contrary to the end for which Church- Cenfures are 
appointed, and yet neither de faSo is there alwayes 
an accufer where there is an offence ; nor dejure can 
any be conftrained to be an accufer: therefore it is 
neceffary that in fome cafes there muft be a proceffe 
without an accufer, in this way of enquiry. 

AJfer. 2. Where an offended Brother followeth 
Chrifts way in purfuing of an offence , he is not to 
be accounted an accufer formally, as the terme of 
accufation ufeth properly to be taken : Bccaufe> i. To 
accufe, often is a thing that may be omitted , but this 
kind of purfuit is laid on as a neceffary duty. 2. To 
accufe, refpedts fome paticular wrong and injury ufu«* 
aliy, and the following thereof importeth a prejudice 
and hurt to the party accufed, But this which refpc&s 
offence without any particular injury, proceedeth 
from love> tendeth to the advantage and recovery of 
the party , and fo properly cannot be called accufa- 
tion. -Yea, 3. When a perfon hath followed thefe- 
condftep, and made out his private admonition by 
two or three witneffes,when he cometh to the Church 
with them, neither of them can be accounted accufers 


Part 2 • A Treatifc concerning Scandal. 119 

more than when he did privately fpeak to the perfon> 
or after that to thole witnefles , becaufe all is dutie» 
and a piece of that Chriftian mutuall communion, 
that brethren and members of the fame body, owe 
one to another > and to the body in common \ yet is 
he who foentereth a complaint, oblieged to make ic 
evident to the Judicatory ; and if he hath rightly per- 
formed the fecond ftcp > and made it appear before 
two or three, there is no hazard or difficultie in 
this 1 , but if he hath failed in that, he ought not to have 
proceeded to this. 

AjJtY. 3. We fay, that to have a formal accufer, 
feemeth not lo well to aeree to the nature of ecclefia- 
ftick procefies, and looketh liker a civil Court. For, 
1. If the offence be publick, there is no accufer need- 
full, as is faid. 2. If ic be privat, no accufer is to be 
heard, but in the ordinary method, becaufe Chrifts 
Ordinance is not to be fubfervient to mens paflions, 
or to be the mean of their feeking revenge for injuries: 
Anil therefore in fome cafes, though an accufer would 
undertake the purfuing of fomc proceffe againft a 
perfon, where neither the Scandal is flagrant, nor 
the party accufed, after private admonition and con- 
viction* obftinate, in that cafe the accufation might be 
rejected ; becaufe fo the accufer looketh not like a 
Brother, that is ftumbled, feeking the gaining of the 
other, and his own fatisfaftion upon that account,buc 
rather like a perfon that is irritate, vindiftive or mali- 
cious, to whofe humour Church-officers ought not 
to give way ; neither doth fuch an accufation become 
Chrifts Court. Yet, if the thing be indeed fcanda- 
lous, Church-officers are to enquire therein, and not 
tofleightany mean of evidence which may be had, 
left profane perfons mouths be opened ; but that rixal 
and contentious way ot following of proceffes by 
particular accufers, againft particular perfons, as ufeth 
to be in other Courts , we conceive no way becoming 
the gravity and convincing way that ought to be in 
I 4 this* 

lio sATreatife concerning S c a NDAii Part 5. 

this; And we fuppofc in experience is not often found 
to be edifying , but rather doth ingender hatred, pre- 
judice* contention, and (uch like* which is altogether 
contrary to Chrifts fcope< 

Again , on the other fide , there may be no parti- 
cular accufer againft the perfon,and yet it be neceffary 
that he be tricd,as hath been faid. 

40 er * 4- Thete may be fome cafes in which it is 
expedient to admit an accufer,and not to admit a pro- 
cefie without one. Asfuppofe one were under no 
ill report , and yet fome grofle fcandal were imputed 
to him , which were not of fuch tame , or had not 
fuch prefumptions > as to give ground for a Church- 
judicatory immediately to intcrpofe, and the fcandal 
being of fuch a nature as the trial thereof could nei- 
ther be omitted , norclofed in private; in that cafe, 
fuppofe one fhould complain of the Churches negli- 
gence in the fame , afferting the evidences to be clear, 
and offering to make them out 5 In fuch a cafe, I fay, 
the Church can hardly refufe to hear him» left they 
be thought partiall ; nor is there ground , nor is it fit 
for them immediately to purfue it : Therefore an ac- 
cufer is expedient,that fo, upon the one (ide>the Chur- 
ches impartiality may be vindicated , in refufing the 
complaint of no fober man, nor the uttermoft of any 
triall, that in well grounded reafon they may expeft; 
And, on the other i(ide,that the mouths of fome nced- 
Icffe and too importunate complainers may be flop- 
ped , and they themfelves found cenfurable , if either 
without caufe they traduce the Church-officers as ne- 
gligent and partiall, while there is acceffe to make 
out before them fuch a truth, if it be truth * or if prc- 
cipitantly and inconfiderately ( if not malicioufly ) 
they have tabled a fcandal againft another as a pub- 
lick fcandal, which they cannot makeout,and fohave 
necdlefly troubled a Church- judicatory in fuch a 
imtter, and finfully wronged their neighbour. 

For, aproceffe'w fuch cafes where it cannot be 


Part t. A Trettife concerning S c A N d a il \i\ 

made out,is fcandalous : there fore if a perfon reft not 
fatibficd, foastoabftaintillhehavetriall puc to the 
utmott , he is to be dealt with as a fcandalous perfon, 
left men take liberty , under the pretext of purfuing 
offences, to defame others, and abufe the Ordinance 
of Chrift. And though it be juft in fuch a cafe, that 
he be materially dealt with as un juft accusers ufe to 
be in civil courts , yet this doth not only flow from 
the confederation of fuch a perions being a formall 
decufer , but from the nature of the deed which is 
fcandalous in fuch a meafure, and that publickly, and 
therefore i^o be* t*ft rained , whether tHe perfon take 
on him that forn^all confederation or not, left yet, 
upon the maxter, h^continue publickly and importu- 
nately to prette the purluic. And we .conceive , the 
impofing the title of accifer in fuch a cafe, or the 
making of it peccflary, that one take on him that for- 
mall notion, is rather for coveniencieto reftrain mens 
inordinatenefife , and flop their mouths, and to add 
weight to the matter oK the (entence, if they fail, than 
as being (imply neceffary for making fuch a perfon to 
be accounted icandaJouSj if he come (hort. 


Concerning what u to be ione^hen the complaint 
id of (ome en jury done to the complainer* 

THere is one cafe yet to be enquired itiirf^how 
to account of a particular perfon his complain- 
ing or purfuing an offence which carrieth with 
it a particular enjury unto himfelf? As fuppofe, that 
fuch a perfon did calumniate him, calling him falfe, 
covetous, hypocrite, thief* or fuch like, or did im- 
precate curfes unto him ? Anfto.i If the way laid 
down were followed , and a publick complaint made 
the laft ftcp , it may be , there would be tew of thefe 
complaints. Of this we hayefpoken already. 2. Al- 

1 22 A Treatife concerning Scandal.^ Part i. 

though fuch enjuries have with them a fpirituall hurt 
alfo. audio indeed are real (tumbling- blocks to the 
fpirituall ftate of the party enjured. Yet , i. it is 
hard for men enjured > finely to abftraft the fcandal 
given them from the en jury done them , and lo to fol- 
low the offence with refpefit to their own and the 
others edification , as to entertain no thoughts of re- 
venge in the purfuing thereof : for certainly, often it 
is the reparation of a wrong , and to vindicate folks 
own name and credit, rather than edification, which 
in fuch cafes is aimed at : Therefore we find ever the 
moll irreligious, carnall and proud perfons, hoteft in 
fuch a purfuic, and with greateft difficulty to be fatif- 
fied; and the fatisfafkion intended by them, is not any 
Chiftfan gaining often , but fome pubhek fhame, or 
fuch like : And therefore if that follow, although the 
perfon fall over again in many other fcandals that 
are worfe, or others (hall fin rnoregrofly ; yet that 
ftirreth them not, neither are their complaints in fuch 
cafes heard of. 2. We find, that fuch a cafe hath often 
great difficulties with it , and readily much heat and 
carnalneffe ; yea,in things that are perfonall between 
parties, it is more difficult for them to abrtain from 
carnalneffe, or the appearance thereof , andalfofor 
Church- judicatories to walk fo as not to be thought 
partialltooneof the fides, andfo by intending the 
removall of one offence, more may be £iven* There- 
fore we would fuppofe filch a procedor to be fuitable 
to Chrifts order and ordinance , t< That as much as 
may be, thefe perfonal things may be waved by pri- 
vate perfons themfelves who are fb offended. Cer- 
tainly men lofe not by condefcending in their parti- 
culars , and it may afterward tend more to the con- 
vincing of the party and other$,and to the vindicating 
of themfelves that they forbear (atleaft, till the fer- 
vour be abated , both in them and in the^ offending 
party) than by kindling of their own paffions by the 
ffeffionsof others, to hazard upon more fin and of- 

Part £ ^/FTreMtife concerning Sckvdii* 1^3 

fence. 2. When fuch things occur/its fit that Church- 
officers ftiould endeavour to compofe and to remove 
them privately ; yea , if any complaint come in a 
perions heat, that yet notwithftanding , means be 
uled to compote and allay the fame h and it that fail, 
that the fcandal be brought to publiek , rather by the 
Elckrfhip it lelf, than by the party offended, hecaufe 
fo the thing, as icandalous>may be more abttraCtcdly 
confidered, the pcrfon cafilier convinced, and the heat 
of parties prevented , which often mar the beauty of 
the Ordinance , and fo there is nothing overfeen that 
oughctobcrcdrcfle-1. 3- If perfonswill needs en- 
ter'cheir own complaint, Then it would be enquired, 
1. Whether it be really the en jury to their name, or 
outward condition that fwayeth them? or, if it be the 
offence, that is, the ftumbling-block that eocch 
alongft therewith, and it is ready to hurt their fpin- 
tualleftate, that dochmove them? This queftion 
is fit for curbing of carnal! humours, and keeping 
the Ordinance of Chrift from being abufed,and made 
fubfervienttomensfinfullpaflions. _ 

If it cannot be hid 3 that it is the injury which affects 
them, Then would they be admonifhed for that , and 
remitted to follow their injury otherwife, and to par- 
. don it, as to any vindictive humour ; yet the thing as 
k is fcandalous,wou!d be ftill fallowed without them* 
2. It would b~ enquired , if they followed the privac 
fteps? And, 3. what fort of fatisfaft ion they aim 
at , and if it be the parties gaining that they feek with 
their own fatisfa&ion? 

Sometimes there arifeth a new difficulty in fuch in, a t s vhen 
•cafes, as fuppofeone complained of for calumniat- a calumnia~ 
ing another, fhould offer to make good his word, or tor comflai- 
whathehathfaid; In fuch a cafe it is difficult for a nedefrffer* 
Church- Judicatory to carry rightly, if probation be txb n wake 
refufed , the flanderous mouth is not flopped , And ** <""• 
to admit it, it feemeth neither pertinent nor profitable 
to any Church-end. This fometimes is one of the 



124 ^ TreAti(e concerning Scandal* Part 2? 

evils of making Church- judicatories the .ftage of 
mens paflions : Yet in fuch a cafe we fay , 1. That 
whether the thing be true or not , the cafting of it up 
at fuch a time* and with fuch circumftances, wai of- 
fenfive; and therefore no following probation can 
exempt the offender from being accounted fcandalous, 
becaufe the end of bringing forth that , was really 
the hurt of his brother, and neither private nor pub- 
lick edification* 2. Some manner of offered probation 
is indirect, (as alfo fome fort of (lander ing ) as>fup- 
pofe one would complain of another as guilty of 
thefcor fome other fin, and give for the ground there- 
of fome inftances of corruption or deceit in their 
trade of merchandizing, or taking fome advantage 
fay law or other wayes, to the hurt of another. Thefe 
are caufes and matters wherein properly Church-of- 
ficers are neither fit nor called to decide* and the 
event thereof doth depend upon fome civil conteft, 
therefore are not meet to be admitted as the ground of 
a complaint or probation in a Church- judicatory. 
Again, lome manner of probation is more direft, as 
fuppofe one would prove by witneffes dire& theft up* 
on another, Yet confidering that Church- judicatories 
are not to be fub-fervient to mens paffions, as hath 
been faid, and alfo , that their end ought ever to be 
edification > and there being no probable ground to 
expeefcitin fuch a procefle , we conceive it were fie 
akogethcr to wave fuch concerts. For, though there 
be a (haming of offenders allowed in Church- difci- 
pline , yet it looketh har(h-like to make it the mean 
of bringing civil fhame and infamie upon any ; Be- 
caufe fuch a blot, as to be accounted or declared infa- 
mousi even as to civil things > is a civil punifliment ; 
and therefore is not to be the effefifc of a Church- judi- 
catory, properly > Although we will not deny but 
by accident , thefe may be fometimes neceffarily 


Part 2. A I rcanje concerning scandal. 125 

It may be asked , What if an offending party ap- ^ at u ^ 
pearing, profefle repentance for their fault, &c. as w<we <?/- 
hath been defired , and (hould yet refufe to give obe- fending con- 
dience to fuch things and in fuch manner as is thought fejjmi forty 
fit to be done by the Church-officers for the removing fefu[et$iruc 
of the offence ? Anfo % \. It is not like that any who (athfaclioju; 
arc ferious in their profeflion of repentance , will 
ftand on fuch a thing; and where that is, it is too pro- 
bable-like an evidence of their diffembling , if feme 
convincing reafon cannot be given by them for fway- 
ing to that refufall. 2. Their difobediencc is either * 

in materiall things , or fuch as are but circumftanth- 
all. Again, it is either done with contempt, or with 
profeffed continued refpeft and a defire to fathfie. As 
for inftance, fome may refufe to receive a publick re- 
buke where edification rcquireth it? or to acknow- 
ledge their offence to an offended party » or they may 
be willing to appear, and willing to acknowledge 
their offence, but differ as to the time, place, manner, 
&c. Forthefirft, Though a Church- judicatory may 
wait for a time, yet can they not in fome cafes dif- 
penfe with them , becaufe otherwayes , they are not 
heard , nor is the end obtained 3 and therefore may 
proceffe proceed , efpecially if that difobedience look 
contemptuous- like : For the fecond fort of jdifobe- 
dieucc> to wit, in the manner or circumftances of 
giving fatisfaftion , although in this a!fo , thofc that 
are ferious to have offences removed , will not readily 
flick, yet if it be, there is difference between this and 
the former, if there be no difcernable evidences of 
contempt in it ; and in this, noqueflion, Church- ju- 
dicatories have a greater latitude to do as may edifie: 
wherein they are efpecially to take notice of thefe 
things> 1. That by too much rigidity in circum- 
ftances , they feem not unneceflarily to wrong them, 
or to lay too much weight of fatisfaftion upon fuch 
formalities. 2. That by too eafie paffing from fuch, 
they dp not ftrcngthen any to follow that example for 


— ., 1 .- 

126 A Treatife concerning Scanda l . Part 2. 

the time to come. And, 3. chat even in circum- 
ltances there be an equality in reference to theie fame 
icandals in all perfons. And if there be hazard in 
reference to any of thefe by condefcending, to alter or 
forbear a circumftance in a publick rebuke , we con- 
ceive it is fafer to abfta in from that forbearance, and 
not to yeeld it ; and yet not firaply upon that account 
to purfue a proceffe, but to continue dealing with the 
perlon , while either he be convinced and brought, 
tor the good of order and edification of the Church, 
to yeeld , or there be more clearnefle to do other- 


Concerning what ought to be done By private 
perfons, When Church-officers /pare fuch as 
are fcandalom. 

WE come now to the laft Queftion propofed, 
to wit , fuppofing that Church-officers 
mould be defective in trying and cenfuring 
icandalous perfons, what is the duty of private Chri- 
ftians in fuch a cafe , and if notwithftanding , they 
ought to continue in the communion of fuch a 
Church, or to (eparate from her > 

This Quettion hath troubled the Church, and been 
the occahon of many fchifms in many ages, the devil 
thereby under pretext of indignation ac offcnccs,hath 
made them to abound in the Church, as the Church- 
hiftories and Writings of the Fathers , inwhatcon- 
cemeth the Novations, Donatifts, and fuch like, do 
fully evince ; And although we have great ground to 
acknowledge Gods mercy, in the fobriety of His 
people amongft us , fo that we have unity, with pu- i 
rity ; yc*,feing in order this doth follow, we (hall 
anfwer flhortly, in laying down thefe grounds. 
1. It cannot be denied, but fuch a cafe may be ; and 


part 2. A TreMttje concerning scandal. i 27 

often ck fatto is , that Church -officers are defc&ive 
in the exercifing of Difcipline upon fcandalotis pcr- 
fons , what from negligence, what from unfaichful- 
nefle, what from fainting, or fome other finfull in- 
firmity at the befh as may be gathered from the fecond 
and third Chapters of the Relation. 

2. Though this be true , yet poffibly it is not al- 
wayes their fault when it is charged on them : as fup- , 

pofc, 1. That no private perlbn, or,pofl>bly even the 
complainer , hath admonifhed fuch perfens as are 
counted (candalous > nor have given- in Sufficient 
proofs of their fcandal to any Church- judicatory; 
or, it may be>many are counted fcandalous who can- 
not legally and judicially be found to be fuch ; for 
it is more eafie to affert a fcandal, than to prove, even 
often when it is true : and it being rather a ground of 
irritation than edification,whcna proa fie isentred* 
and not convincingly made- out , Therefore often in 
duty fome proccfies areabftained. Sometimes alfo 
Church- officers may be faithfully dealing with per- 
fons to recover them from fcandals, and yet not find 
it fit for edification to proceed to high Cenfures 5 In 
fuch cafes > Church-officers cannot reasonably be 
blamed > andthofewho complain would pole their 
own confeiences > if they have exonered themfelves 
and done their duty, and have put it co the Officers 
doors, before they account ic their fault : And it is 
moft unbecoming for perfons to charge others and to 
be dcfc&ive in their own duty> which neceflarily in- 
ferreth the other. And if it were as difficult and 
weighty a task to calumniate and groundlcfly to * 
charge Church-officers with this, as it is, faithfully 
to follow private admonition, there would not be fo 
much of the one, and fo little of the other. And if 
it be rightly looked to> it will nofr be eafie to charge 
. them with grofle defefts ( and if they be not grofle, 
the matter is notfo tobcftumbled at, they being in ± 
the exercife of Difcipline as in other things ) for, that 



128 -« Treats fe concerning >candal, Part z. 

muft be upon one of chefe accounts , either, I, Be- 
caufe fuch fcandalou> pertons, after refufing of private 
admonitions, were complained of to them, and that 
evidence of the faft was offered, and Church- officers 
refufed to put the lame to trial : Or> it murt be be- 
caufe when they did try , they did determine fuch 
a thing to be no fcandal or nor to be pi oven , or that 
( fuppofing it to be proven) thev did not e nfure it ; 
or, at leaft, when fcandals were open and obvious, 
and palpable, they did not take notice of them* 
Now> is it probable that fuch a Church-judicatory 
will frequently be found that will fail grofly either of 
thefe wayes ? And if they do, then there is acceffe to 
convince them % by an appeal to a fuperiour Court> 
which in that cafe is a duty. If it be faid > that 
their failing and neglect is, in fome covered manner* 
fo carried-on as there is no accefle to fuch legal com- 
plaints. Anpi* \. We fuppofe if the things be that 
groffe, and the fa& fo clear and frequent, as that there 
be juft ground to complain then there will be alfo 
acceffe to (uch a proof. 2 If it be fo carried and 
not owned, then it may be their fin before God ; but 
it is not to4s>e accounted a proper Church-offence in 
the fenfe before- mentioned » ieing they could not be 
convinced judicially even before the moft impartial 
Judge. And as in fuch a cafe we cannot account a 
private brother ecclefiaftically fcandalous , although 
the general ftrain of his way may be diffatisfying to 
us , So ought yve not to account this ; for, there is a 
great difference, betwixt that which may be offenfive 
to a perfons private difcretion, and put him poffibly 
in a christian way to defire fatista&ion , and that 
which is to be hoifed as a publick Church- fcan- 

Jffer. 3. Upon fuppofition that the defeft be true, 

yet private profeffors are to continue in the difcharge 

1 of the duties of their ftations and not to feparate 

from the Communion of the Church, but to count 


themfclves exoncred in holding faft their own inte- 
grity. It's true > ic cannot but be heavie to thofe 
that are tender, and, if it become fcandaloufly ex- 
ceflive, may give occafion to them to depart and go 
where that Ordinance of Difcipline is more vigo- 
rous ; and concerning that, there is no qucftion,it be- 
ing done in due manner ; Yet, I fay, that that can be 
no ground for withdrawing from the Ordinances of 
Chrift, as if they or their confciences were polluted 
by the prefence of fuch others. For, i. That there 
were fuch defers in the Church of the Jews, cannot 
be denied, and particularly doth appear in the in* 
ftancc of Elie's fans, who made the Ordinances of the 
Lord contemptible wich their mifcarriagcs ; yet thac 
either it was allowable to the people to withdraw* or 
7 aulty to joy n in the Ordinances, can no way be made 
out. If it be faid , there was but one Church then* 
Therefore none could feparatefrom the Ordinances 
in it? Anfr' % r. This doth confirm what is faid, 
to wit, that the joyning of fcandalous perfons in Or- 
dinanccs,doth not pollut them to others ; for if fo, the 
Lord had not laid fuch a neccfficy upon thofe thac 
were tender, that they behoved to partake of pol- 
luted Ordinances , or to have none 5 and if it did 
not pollute them then, fome reafon would be given 
that doth evidence it now to do fo. 2. If there be an 
unity of the Church now, as well as then, then the 
confequence muft be good; becaufe, fo where ever 
folks communicate, thofe many that communicate 
any where , are one bread , and one body , as the 
Apoftle fpeaketh,iCor.io.i7,compared with chap 12* 
13. And foby communicating any whercwe declare 
our felves to be of the fame vifible Church and poli- 
tick body, with thofe who communicatelfw here, even 
as by Baptifm we are baptized into one Church, and 
into communion with all the members of the body 
any where. And therefore , if this be considered, 
\% will aot be enough to efchevv pollution (if the ob- 
K jeftion 

-~ — 

1 50 ' e/* Treattfe concerning S c a n d a I \ Part il 

je&ion be crue and well grounded ) to feparate from 
one Society , or one particular Congregation, except 
there be a feparation from the whole vifible Church } 
for fo alfo Jews might have feparated from particu- 
lar Synagogues , or have choofed times for their of- 
ferings and facrifices diftin£t from others. Famous 
Cotton of New England , in his Holinejffe of Ckwtb- 
members, pag.21 ♦ grants that there were many fcanda- 
lous perfons in the Church of the Jews. 2. He^fuith, 
that that was by thePrieftsdefedt , for they ought 
not to have been retained. And, g. though be fay 
that that will not warrand the lavtfulnefle of admit- 
ting fcandalous perfons to the Church , yet he aflert- 
eth , that it may arpue the continuance of their 
Church-eftatenotwithftanding of luch a toleration ; 
and if fo^then it apptoveth continuing therein , and 
condemntth feparation therefrom ; and confequently 
a Church may be a Church, having the Ordinances 
in purity , and to be communicate in, notwithftand- 
ing of the former fault. ?. What hath been marked 
out of Learned Writers, for paralleling the conftitu- 
tion of the Church under the Gofpel> with that under 
the Law in eflentiall things, doth overthrow this ob- 
jection ; for now feparation is as impoffible as 

2. This defeft is to be obferved in feverall of the 
Primitive Churches , as we may particularly fee in 
the fecond and third Chapters of the %>*/**i0» , yet 
it is never found that any upon that account did with- 
draw > or were reproved for not doing fo , even when 
the Officers were reproved for defc6t : Yea , on the 
contrary, the(e who keeped themfelvcs pure from thefe 
Scandals , though continuing in that communion,are 
commended and approven, and exhorted to continue 
as formerly. Now, if coutinuing in communion in 
fiich a cafe* be of it felf finfull , and pcrionall inte- 
grity be not fufficient to profeflbursAvhere the defeft 
is finfull to the Officers % even though in other perfo- 


p4[£<£* SI * recti*}* lunvcr n*ng JtAMJALi gfl 

nail things and duties of their ftations they were ap- 
proveable, How can it be thought that thefaithfull 
and true Witneffe fhould (6 fliarply reprove the one, 
and (6 fully approve the other at the fame time ? 

3. The nature of Church-communion doth con- 
firm this , becaufe fuch influence hath the fcanda!ou£- 
nefle of one to make another guilty , as the approven 
converfation of the other hath to make the Ordi- 
nancefc profitable to him that is fcandalous , for we 
can no otherwife partake of the evil than of the good 
of another in Church- communion ; But it is clear > 
that the gracioufneffe of one cannot fan&ifie an Ordi- 
nance to one that is profane ; and therefore the pro- 
fanity of one cannot pollute the Ordinance to one 
that is tender. And , as he that examineth hJmfelf, 
partaketh worthily in refpeft of bimftlf and his own 
condition > but doth not fan^ifie communicating to 
another ; So, he that partaketh unworthily , eateth 
and drinketh damnation to himfelf, and not to ano- 
ther : and for that caufe , is both the precept and the 
threatning bounded , Let a man examine bimfelf ', <<n. 
For } be tbat eatetb and drtn\etb unworthily , catetb and 
drinketh damnation to bimfelf \ for,upon doing or omit- 
ting of duty in himfelf , doth follow worthy, or un- 
worthy communicating to him. And if in the moft 
near conjugall fellowfliip, the company of a profane 
Husband may be fanftified to a gracious Wife , even 
when hers is unfan&ified to him , ( becaufe that de- 
pended* upon the perfons own qualification and way 
ofufemakingof GodsOrdinanceof marriage J much 
more may it be here : this laft might be a diftinft ar- 
gument of it felf. 

4. If continuance in communion with fuch per- 
fons be finfulUThen it muft either be becaufe commu- 
nion with fuch as are profane indeed , whether we 
know or think them to be fo or not, is finfull ; or, it 
muft be becaufe we know them , or think them to be 
fuch ; But neither of thefe can be faid : Not the firft* 

K 2 becauft 


^Treatife concerning Scandal* Part 2. 

becaufe fo to keep communion with an hypocrite, or 
a Believer in a carnall frame, were finfull, although 
we thought them to be fincere , whjch cannot be 
pleaded: nor can it be fa id > it is becaufe we know 
them to be fo , Becaufe, 1 . If we knew a man to be 
fo, and another knew not > in that cafe, the Ordi- 
nances were pollutted to one , and not to another, at 
the fame time, though poflfiblyboth were exercifing 
the fame faich , and having examined themielves, 
were in the lame frame > which were abfurd* Yea, 
2. If it depended on our knowledge of it, Then our 
very fuppohng it to be lo > although it were not fo, 
would pollute the Ordinance; and what confufioti 
would be there, may be afterward hinted. Nor can 
it be faid , it is becaufe we think fo > becaufe, fuppo- 
fingfome to think otherwife, it would be ftill aft 
ordinance to them, and a duty to continue in it , and 
not to us, which is the former ablurdity; and this 
doth not flow from the binding nature of an errone- 
ous confeience (which may be alleged in other cafes) 
but from the difference of perfons light , charity , or 
other apprehenfions of things, whereby one is in- 
duced to efteem that fcandalous, which another doth 

5. If communion with profane perfons that are 
fuch to our knowledge be finfull > and polluteth Or- 
dinances , Then thefe things may be enquired, which 
will infer d iverfe abfurdities , 1 . Ought perfons to 
try all thofe that they keep communion with, whe- 
ther they b? profane or not ? For, if any profane per- 
fon be in that communion which they might have 
known if they had tried , then their ienorance can- 
not excufe. 2. It may be enquired , what degree of 
triall and fearch doth fufficiently exoner, becaufe pof- 
jfibly a further triall might have difcovered fome to be 
profane? 3. It may be enquired, what evidences 
may demonftrate perfons to be fcandalous> and make 
them to be fo accounted of ? if only fomeching Hen 


Part 2 . A Treat if e concerning Scandal: X33 

by themfelves, or if fomething reported by others; 
and chat whether it be judicially made out or only 
afferted ? and how raanics report is to betaken for 
proof; or if any that be fo reported of, be (oto be 
accounted > 4. What fort of fcandals are to be en- 
quired- in to make a perfon fuchas polluteth the Or- 
dinances ? If it be any kind of fcandal, or but fcan- 
dals of (uch a nature? If one fcandal be (ufficient, 
or if theie muft be many ? and how many are to be 
laid weight upon in this ? and fome fatisfying 
grounds how , and where to fix the difference, are to 
be laid down? 5. It may be asked, if one fcanda- 
lous perfon alone doth pollute the Ordinances? or if 
there mud be moe ? and if fo, How many ? 6. Sup- 
pofe fuch a fcandal were known to us alone, charity, 
and Chrifts command do fay. it is not to be publish- 
ed ; confeience faith in that cafe , the Ordinance is 
polluted, timeftraits either to communicate doubt- 
inply , or with offence to abrtain and hide the caiyfe, 
or contrary to charity to fignifiethc fame. Thefe 
and many fuch like things are requifitto fatisfieone, 
upon this fuppofition, that communion in fuch a cafe 
is finfull , Therefore it is not to be admitted. 

6» If the Ordinance be polluted to one that is 
clean,Then it is either the deed of the Church- officers 
that doth pollute it, or the deed of the fcandalous per- 
fon that doth communicate ; But neither of thefe can 
be faid : Not the firft , for that would fuppofe that 
all the Ordinances were polluted • although no fcan- 
dalous perfon were prefent a&ually > becaufe they 
were not actually excluded , and though they were 
abfent, yet there being no impediment made to them 
by Church-officers, asto their guile, it is the fame* 
Nor the fecond, Becaufe, fuppofing a perfon not to be 
debarred, it is his duty to communicate; and can it 
be faid, that he in doing of his duty upon the matter, 
ihouldmake that not to be a duty to us , which lieth 
on by a joynt command , which requireth eating 
K 3 from 

J 34 A Treatife concerning Scandai. 1 Part 2. 

^ from him and from us , as it requireth praying ? 

7. The Lords ordering it fo in His providcncc,thae 
He admitteth unfan&ified Officers to adminiftrate 
His Ordinances , and yet withalli accounting them 
Officers, and the Ordinances in their hands to be Hi9 
Ordinances, and that even when they are known to 
fae.unfound ( till in His own way they be removed ) 
doth demonftrate this > that pollution in joynt wor- 
ffiippers doth not pollute the Ordinances to others. 
For, if any did pollute them, Then moftof all fcan- 
dalous Officers; But thefe do not. Ergo,&c* We may 
fee it, firft, in the fcandaloufneffe of Priefts under the 
Law ; for we mutt either fay that there were no fcan- 
dalous Priefts, or that the people did then offer no fa- 
crifice and joyn in no worftiip , or that (infully they 
did it : All which are abfurd. 2. We fee in Chrifts 
time , the Scribes and Pharifees were pointed out by 
Him as fcandalous, Mat. 2 j. v. 5. Yet even there doth 
He require continuance in the Ordinances admini- 
ftrate by them, notwithftanding. 3. Doth not Paul 
fpeakof fome that preached out of envy > Philip, 1. 
15, which is a rooft groffe fcandal, and of others 
who fought their own things, and not the things of 
Chrift, PW/.2, 21 ? Both which are groffe, and clear- 
ly evidenced by his teftimony , yet is he content that 
people continue, yea , he fuppofeth that they may 
profit in communion with them , which he would 
not , had the Ordinances been polluted by them to 
others. And the fame may be faid of feveral Chur- 
ches in thefe fecond and third Chapters of the Rela- 
tion , where both groffneffe of Minifters, and of 
many Profeffors, is notified by Chrift to the Church, 
yet it cannot be fuppofed that that might have been 
made the ground of feparation afterward from them* 
more than not doing of it was rcprovable before. 

8. If known evil in any that doth communicate, 
pollute the Ordinances in themfelves, Then how can 
a Believer communicate with himfelf ? Becaufe, 

U he 

Part £ A Treat ife concerning Scandal' *35 

I. he hath corruption, 2. He hath as full knowledge 
of it as of any other mans, yea, that which may 
make him think it more than what heknoweth of 
any other man. ?. That corruption is as near him 
as the corruption of any. 4 The Law doth more 
particularly ftrike againft corruption in him as to 
himfclf > than that which is in any other. Yea, 
5. this corruption doth certainly, in fo far pollute 
the Ordinance to him- and make him guilty. Now 
the fame grounds that fay he may communicate with 
agoodconfeience , notwichftandingof his own cor- 
ruptions, will alfo fay, he may communicate not- 
wichftandingof that which is in another, much nftore: 
becaufe the fins that follow his corruption are his 
own fins , which cannot be faid of the fins of others. 
And it repentance for his own fin , refting upon 
Chrift, protefting againft the body of death (which 
yet are but the a6h of the fame perion, in fo far as re- 
nued, differing from hirafelf asunrenued) IWfay, 
fuch afts may quiet his confeience, and giro him 
confidence to partake , notwithftanding of his own 
corruption, and that even then when he as unrenued 
may be accounted guilty , may they not much more 
give him confidence in reference to the fins of another, 
which are not fo much as his deeds. 

9. In that direftory which Chrift giveth, Mat.iS. 
this is implied y becaufe he doth warrand an offended 
brother to bring obftinate offenders to the Church, as 
the laftftep of their duty > and as their full exonera- 
tion, Tell the Church y taith he; and no more is requir- 
ed by him after that , but conforming of his carriage 
to the Churches Sentence in cafe of obftinacie. And 
none can think, upon fuppofition that che Church did 
not their duty , that then they were from that forth, 
not to joyn in that Church , but to fepatate from 
them- as from heathens and publicans : becaufe fo a 
particular perfon might Excommunicate a Church, 
whom yet Chrift will not have to withdraw from 
K 4 com- 

£ %6 tyfTreatife concerning Scanda t . Part i< 

communion with a private member , till obftinacic 
and the Churches cenfuring interveen } Yea, by fo 
doing, a private pcrfon might account another a hea- 
then and publican without any publick Cenfure, 
which is contrary to Chrifts fcope, which fubjoyneth 
this withdrawing of communion from him to the 
Churches Cenfure* This will bind the more if we 
confider that Chrifts worcls have an allufion (as is 
commonly acknowledged ) to the Jewifh Sanedrim, 
which being but one, could not admit of any fcpara- 
tion from its communion , though there had been dc- 
fe<9: in this : What may be done in abftainingof per- 
lonall communion in unneceffary things? is ever to be 
acknowledged ; yet if feparation in fuch a fuppofed 
cafe, were called- for asaduty, thatdire&ion would 
not be a fuflficicnt dire&ion for an offended brother, 
becaufe it leaveth him without dire&ion in the laft 
flep: Yet Chrifts progrefle fo particularly from one 
ftepjp another, faith, that it is otherwayes in- 

Who would have more full fatisfa&ion in thisjtnay 
look the Learned Treatifes that are writtcen againft 
Separation, which will hold confequentially in this ; 
and therefore we may here fay the leffe, And (hall 
only add the consideration of one Scripture. 
'jtpmlcu* ^ or confirming of this Affertion then, we may take 
Igf confide- more particular confideration of one place, which 
tation tf feemeth more efpecially to relate to this purpofe, 
1 Cor, ii. That is, 1 Corinth. 11, from theiy.ver. foreward : 
jf7*&^» Where it dpth appear, firft, That there were divifions 
amongft that people, even in refpeft of communicat- 
ing together at the Lords Table, fo that fome of them 
would not communicate with others : for that there 
were divifions is clear. Now, thefe divifions are ex- 
preffed to be in the Church when they came together 
to eat the Lords Supper, ver. 18, and 19. and ferrfe 
did communicate at one time, and fome at another* 
without tarrying one for another, as is expreflcd, v??. 


part ^• d Trcatife concerning ScandAI^ 137 

Secondly , We may alfo gather what might be the 
realon of this divided communicating , or, at leatt, 
what fome might alleage why they would not com- 
municate joyndy with others : For. it is like, they 
fell in this irregularity deliberately > as thinking they 
did well when they communicated apart, and not 
with others. So much is infinuated in the Apoflles 
cxpofiulation, ver. 21. What, fhall I praifeyoutntbu i 
I praife you not. Now thefe reafons might be alleged, 
to juftifie their divided communicating , 1. Thatthe 
Ordinances were not reverently adminiflred,nor vt ith 
that gravity and difccrning of the Lords Body, as 
was fit. 2. That many unworthy perlons were ad- 
mitted to communion , even fuch as were drunken, 
ver. 21, &c. and therefore it might be alleged by 
them, that joynt communicating with fuch was to be 

Thirdly, It is evident al(b, Thatnotwithftanding 
of thefe grounds , the Apoflle doth condemn their 
praftice, and preffeth them to joynt communicating, 
as appeareth from ver. 22. and 33. From which, this 
clear argument doth arife , If the members of the 
Church of Corinth, who did feparate from the Ordi- 
nances, becaufe of the finfulneffe of thefe that did 
joyndy partake with them, were condemned by ?W, 
and required to communicate joyndy , and if it be 
made clear by him how they might do fo and not be 
guilty, Then feparation in fuch a cafe cannot be a du- 
ty but a fin ; But the former are true. Therefore, &c. 
I know nothing can beobjefted againft this argu- 
ment, but either to fay, Thatthe Apoflles fcope is in 
that eating together, to regulate their love teafts, and 
to condemn their praftice in thefe ; or, that he com- 
mends joynt communicating fimply , but not in fuch 
a cafe, becaufe it is not clear whether any of them 
did fcruple upon that ground or not : for, the remov- 
ing of thefe, we fay to the firft , That the main fcope 
of the place is to regulate them in going about the 


*3 8 A Treatife concerning S c A N D A l7 Part £ 

Sacrament of the Lords Supper : And therefore it is 
that the A pottle doth fo clearly and plainly infifl in 
clearing the mftitucion thereof, thereby to bring them 
back co the way that was laid down and delivered to 
him by the Lord. And for any ochet fort of eating 
or drinking , the Apoftle doth fend them to their 
houfcs , ver. 22, and more exprefly he repeateth 
thatdire&ion, that if any man hunger anddefire to 
eat his ordinary meat > Let him do it at home, ver. 54. 
So that no direftion for the time to come can be inter-* * # 
preted to belong to common eating in the Church, or 
in the publick meetings thereof, but fuch as is facra- 
mentall only. 

Tothefecond, to wit. if the Apoftle doth dip in 
this qucftion, with refpeft to that obje&ion of the im- 
purity of joynt communicants $ we do piopofe thefc 
things for clearing of the fame, 

Firft, We fay, that whether they did a&ually ob- 
ject that or not , yet there was ground for them to 
objedl the fame if it had weight, as the Text cleareth : 
Neither could the Apoftle, knowing that ground, and 
having immediately mentioned the fame f have ac- 
ceffe to preffe them all indifferently to communicate 
together , if his dire&ion meet not the cafe ; for this 
might ftill have flood in the way> that many of them 
were fuch and fuch , and therefore not to be commu- 
nicated with •, and if it be a fufficient reafon to keep 
them from joynt communicating, then the cafe being 
fo circumftantiated, it would alfo be a fufficient rea- 
fon to keep him from impofingthatasaduty upon 
them , at leaft, fo long as the cafe ftood as it was. 

Secondly, We fay, that it is not unlike there was 
fuch hefitations in fom? of them ; and that ( what- 
ever wis among them) it is clear, that the Apoftle 
doth exprelly peak to this cafe, and endeavour to re- 
move thac objedtion out of the way, to wit, that men 
fh \>uld not fcare at the Sacrament, becaufe of the pro- 
fanity of others : and that therefore they might with- 

Part £• is* Treatife concerning Scandal.' 139 

out fcruple as to that , communicate joyntly , and 
tarry one for another, which is his fcope, ver. 33. 
This will appear by confidering feverall reafons 
whereby he prefleth this fcope , for that, vcr. 33. 
Wherefore my brethren, Tbhenye come together, tame one 
for another, is the fcope laid down as a conclufion from 
the forjner grounds which he hath given. Now, 
when he hath corrc&ed their firft fault, to wit, their 
' irreverent manner of going about the Ordinance, by 
' bringing them to Chrifts inftitution, ver. 23,24, 25, 
i6 % 27. He cometh, in the laft place* to meet with this 
obje&ion , What if others beprefentwho palpably 
cannotdifcern the Lords Body, andfo cannot com- 
municate worthily ? Can it be fafe to communicate 
with fuch ? Or , is it not better to find out fome 
other way of communicating apart* and not together 
with fuch ? The Apofile giveth feverall anfwers to 
this, and reafons , whereby he cleareth, that their di- 
vifion was not warrantable upon that ground, from 
ver. 28. Andfoconcludeth, ver. 33. that notwith- 
ftanding thereof they might tarrv one for another. 

The firft reafon, is, ver. 28. ©wt let a man examine 
himfelf, and fo let him eat. Which (heweth, 1. That 
a mans comfortable preparation for this duty,is to ex- 
amine himfelf; and that the fruit may beexpe&ed, 
or not expe&ed , accordingly as it (haU be with 
himfelf: Otherwayes , it were not a fufficient di- 
rrftion for preparation, to put him to examine him- 
felf. Again, 2. thefe are knit together , Let a man 
examine bimfelj , and fo let him eat. Which is in fum, 
this, when a man hath in fome fincerity looked upon 
his own condition , and hath attained fome fuitablc- 
neffe to the Ordinances, as to his own private cafe, 
then, ( faith the Apoftle ) Let htm eat % without re- 
(pcfting the condition of others. Odierwaycs , a 
man haviug examined himfelf, yet could not eat, 
though his own difpofition were as it fhould be, if 
the cafe of others might hinder him in eating. And 


i4o A Treatife concerning S c a n d a l '. Part 2, 

we conceive > it is a main part of the Apoftles fcope, 
by knitting thefe two together f to wit, a mans eating 
with the examining of hirn(elf) purpofly to prevent 
fuch a debate. 

The fecond reafon which he giveth, will confirm 
thisalfo; for, faith he, ver. 29. He ftbo eatetb and 
drinketk unworthily , be eatetb and drinl(etb unto bimfclf 
damnttion, or judgement. Which is, in fum, this, a 
man that hath examined himfelf, may eat of the Sa- 
crament, though many peribns communicate unwor- 
thily with him, becaufe (faith he) he that eateth un- 
worthily , doth not bring damnation or judgement 
upon others, nor is his fin imputed to them that com- 
municate with him, but he doth bring it upon himfelf 9 
and therfore no ocher hath caufe to fcare at the Ordi- 
nance becaufc of that , if he hath examined himfelf. 
This reafon he again confirmeth from experience, 
ver, go, for this caufe (faith he) many are fic^ and 
many among you are "toeak^, &c. that is » not becaufe 
they did communicate with thole who are fcandalous 
being in good cafe themfelves; but for this caufe, 
faith he> many are fick,&c and have brought upon 
themfelves great plagues , becaufe by not examining 
of themfelves , they did communicate unworthily,- 
andfo, by their own fin, broughtthefeftroaksupon 

He gives a third reafon for making out of his fcope, 
ver. 3 U For* if Vn Mil judge our fefaes , *toe fbould not 
he judged, that is, men need not be anxious in this 
cafe, whether others judge themfelves or not ; for, 
faith he, Gods abfolving or judging of us, doth not 
depend Upon what they do, but upon what we our 
felves do. And therefore prefleth them ftill to look 
to themfelves , becaufe the judging and humbling of 
our felves before God, is the way not to be judged by 
Him, even in reference to that Ordinance, whatever 
others do* 

Now, when he hath fully cleared the reafons, and, 


Part %. tATreatifc concerning Scandal. 141 

as it were, made out this propofition , that if a man 
be right in his own frame , the fin of another joynt 
communkanf, cannot be hurtfull to him, or be ground 
to mar him in eating, and when by an interfetted pa- 
renthefis, he hath obviated a doubt, v. 32. he con- 
cluded, ver. 33. Wbtrefore , faidihe, my brethren^ 
( leing it is lb ) tarry one for another, and be not anxi- 
oufly beared to communicate joyncly ; Now, feing 
all alongft the Apoftle hath been giving fuch grounds 
as may clear a confeience in that cafe > and doth in 
thefe words lay down the dire&ion of tarrying one 
for another, or of joynt communicating, as a conclu- 
fion drawn from the former grounds , It cannot be 
thought, but that purpofly he intended thefe reafons 
to be grounds for the quieting of confcicnces, to 
obey that dire&ion in fuch a cafe;and that therefore ic 
cannot be warrantable to ieparate upon that ground. \ 

CHAP. X 1 1 1. 

Shewing more particularly What it is that pri^ 
vate perfons are called to in fuch a cafe. 

IF it be asked then, What is that which private 
perfons ought to do in fuch a cafe ? Jto/fr.They 
are certainly to contain themfelves within their 
Ration , yet fo, as fomc things are called-for at fuch 
a time more than at another time; As, firft, There 
is need of much circumfpeftnefle in our own perfonal 
walk and watchfulneffe > in obferving of oppor- 
tunities wherein we may edifie others, as Heb. 3. 1 3. 
Secondly, There is need of more frequency, and of a 
more weighty circumfpeft manner in giving private 
admonitions and exhortations, &c. Thirdly, There 
would be much exercife of prayer, and even fafting 
therewith (though in a fecret inoffenfive manner) 
both for the retraining of offences, which difiionour 
God , and for zeal to Officers to perform their duty; 


142 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 2V 

if in thisrefpeft, rivers of tears were running down 
our cheeks, bccaufe of the abounding of offences, 
there might be much more folid peace ( we are per- 
fwaded ) in keeping communion with others , that* 
without that to feparate with much, at leaft feeming 
pride and uncharitable cruelty in giving of offence 
to them , and thereby confirming them in their pro- 
fanity. Fourthly* It is private perfons duty to re- 
present fuch offences 4 with their evidences, to Church- 
officers, or Church- judicatories, thereby to put them 
to the removing of fuch offences. Fifthly > They 
may freely, though humbly and reverently, expoftu- 
late with Church-ofihcers, when they are defe&ive, 
and endeavour to convince them of that offence : 
The force of that precept, If thy brother offend thee, go 
and tell him, &c. warranteth fo much ; and this the 
Colofllans zveto (ay to AnbippMt that he be not de- 
fective in his Miniftery which he had received, &c* 
Col 4. 17. This decently and convincingly done, is 
ufefull. Sixthly, If all that prevail not> private per- 
fons may communicate it to other Church-officers ; 
and no redrefle following , it is their duty to follow 
It before the competent fuperiour Judicatories : for, 
Chrift's dire&iqn , Tell the Church , importeth and 
warranteth the fame. 

If it be asked* What further is to be done, if that 
fail? Anfo- We know no other publick redrefle; 
Chrift hath left it there, and fo may we alfo. Neither 
can it be infttufted from Scripture, that Chrift hath 
appointed feparation to be the next ftep of a private 
perfons duty for removing of offences, much leffe to 
go before thefe. Indeed the Scripture calleth for 
with-drawing from perfonall communion with 
grofle , fcandalous perfons? as a thing neceflary; 
as alfo from communion in the corrupt defignes 
and courfes of any, though they may have a form 
of godiineffe, as 2 Tim. 3, 4, 5, &*c. which doth 
belong to, and is comprehended under the firft parti- 

Part £. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 

culardire&ion. And if thefc be faithfully oblerved 
by private Chriftians, we are hopefull that either 
there would be lefl'e ground of complaint for the de- 
fett of Church- officers , or more accefle to remove 
fuch as continue unfaithfull, and more peace to the 
confeiences of particular private Chriftians , and 
leffe offence and more edification to all, than any 
other way whatfoever* 

That ic is thus neceflary for private perfons to ac- ^ y j t % 
quiefce in the Churches determination, in manner as nccejjaryt* 
is faid, may appear from theunfetlcdnefie and con- acquitfee in 
fufion, both in private and publick, which otherwife tbethurcbes 
would follow : For, either there muft be a fitting in Determine- 
this determination of the Church , or, there muft be tion as to 
fome other period to fix at, on there muft be no fix- traffic*. 
ing at all. Neither of the two laft can be faid, 
Therefore, &c Not the laft, to wit, that there is no 
fixing at all ; for fo a particular perfon that were of- 
fended, would not know what were duty? or what to 
follow ; and it would infer a defeft in the Lord's Or- 
dinance in reference to His Peoples dire&ion and 
peace in fuch cafes, which is moft abfurd. 

If the fecond be faid, Uq That there is fome other 
thing to fix on for quirting of confeiences in fuch a 
cafe, as to their exoneration beyond that publick de- 
cifion i We defire to know what that is which is 
called- for, and by what rule we are to proceed in it? 
It it be faid, that in fuch a cafe the duty is to fepa- 
rate from that Church , where the plurality of Offi- 
cers do admit fuch as are accounted to be fcandalous; 
Thenweask, I. What is next to be done? it muft 
either be to continue as no member of a Church, 
which is both impoffible and abfurd. It is impoflible 
that there can be any particular vifible baptized 
member, and not belong to the vifible body, at leaft, 
being confidered, as the Church maketh one integral 
vifible body. It's abfurd, becaufc it would fay, That 
either Chrift had no vifible Churcbi or,that He hath 


144 ^ TreAtife concerning Scandal. Part 2V 

an ordinary way of edifying by external Ordinances 
without His vifible Church , or, that a perfon might 
be regardleffe of, and without His Church and Ordi- 
nances, and be approven of Him, and expe& che be- 
nefit 5 yea, upon this iuppoficion. the unfa ithfulnefle 
of Church-officers in not carting -out of fcandalous 
men,would infer the aftual unchurching of thofe that 
were not fcandalous, and fo the fin of the one fhould 
be the punifhment of the other, which is abfurd. 
If it be faid that anotherChurch of more pure mem- 
bers is to bs gathered, in which perfonsin fuch cafes 
are to joyn for obtaining of pure Ordinances ; Thca 
we ask further, What if fuch a Congregation cannot 
be had ? Then, what is duty in that cafe ? Is there 
aneceffity of living without a vifible Church-ftate, 
wanting all Church-ordinances to our felves , and 
Baptifm to our children ? What can be the fruit of 
that ? Is it not a more uncontrovertible hazard to 
put our felves without all commnnion of Church- 
ordinances > than to enjoy them where they are pure, 
chough fome joynt partakers be offenfive ? Is not the 
other the way to make our children heathens, and for 
ever to be without Bapti(m , feing warrantably they 
cannot be entered where we cannot abide ? Doth not 
this alfo make way to make all the Ordinances con- 
temptible , and to be undervalued by the profane, 
feing fuch perfons do fo contentedly live without 
them ? 

Furtheri we ask, What if other perfons and we 
cannot agree upon joynt members; for, if it be left to 
mens particular difcerning , that rule is uncertain and 
various, being involved in many difficulties, as was 
formerly hinted : in that cafe, either there muft be no 
feparated Church, ordiverfe feparated Churches, ac- 
cording to the latitude of diverfe perfons charity. 
This being certain , that one will think a perfon fcan- 
dalous, which another doth not efteem fo ; and one 
Will approve that, vvhich another will condemn. 


Part 2. ATreatife concerning Scandal.' 145 

Again, we ask, What if fuch perfons that with- 
draw and feck to enter a more holy fociety, fliould be 
refufed? Then, how could they evidence their own 
holineffe, and convince thefe refufers that they were * 
gracioufly qualified , and (o to be admitted if that 
were ftuck upon, for whatever profeflion were made, 
it behoved ftill to be tried by no other rule, but by 
folks particular difcerning and charity ? 

Again, fuppofe this difficulty to be overcome* and 
fuch a congregation to be fettled, Is it not poffible that 
even fomeof thofe members fliould become fcanda- 
lous ? Then, fuppofing that by the plurality of that 
Church, fuch perfons were not accounted fcandalous, 
or not caft out, what were to be done ? According 
to the former grounds > thefe who fuppofe themfelves 
only pure , could not continue in communion , but 
behoved again to fcparate } and if fo > then upon the 
renuing of the former fuppofition, there behoved 
ftill to be a feparation in infinitum. For, there can 
no Church be expected on earth, in which thefe cafes 
are not fuppofable and poflible. And fo now we 
may refnme the conclufion , Either a private perfon 
muft acquiefce, as being exonered when he hath fol- 
lowed the a&ion before the Church, or he fliall have 
no ground of peace any where , till he be out of the 
world , or out of all vifible Churches. And fo al- 
fo there can be no other way of keeping publick 
order and ordinances , and of eviting fcandal and 

This truth is fully made out by thofe three worthy 
and pious Divines of New England, Cotton^ Hoo%er> 
and Norton : The laft whereof, by many rcafons 
evinceth this in his anfwer to dppokniom his laft que- 
ftion, pag, 162,163. and doth from the Church of 
Corinth in particular confirm this: u There (faith 
"he) was impurity or corruption in worftiip, for 
c< women taught in the Church ; There was corrupt 
'* DoStrinc, many denied the Refurreftion ; in man- 
L ftcrs, 

146 id Treat if e concerning^ c and al. Part 2 # 

u ners , (he was moft corrupt , there being Co many 
11 fornications, fe&s, palpable love of the world &c. 
" Yet (faith he) the Aprftledid not command thofe 
"that were worthily prepa ed to abftainfrom the 
"Supper, but, re&ifyingabufcs , he did command 
u every one to try hirntelf , and fo to eat & c A nd 
many odier things hath he excellently to this purpofe, 
and laieth this for a ground , that "per alt s indigne 
Ci accedentesnonpolluitur communion licet minuttur confo- 
<c lathy that is, the communion in worfhip is not pol- 
a luted , though the confolation be dimimfhed by 
JJ fuch joynt worfhipper . 

The fecond, to wit Mr. Hooker doth confirm this 
Maxime fully, parti, chap 9, pag. ti9,i2o* and doth 
call it irrationally that the fetoer Jhould ha judges of the 
deed of the plurality: and elfwhere, that to admit fepa- 
ration in fucb a cafe, V?ere to lay aground for feparatton 
in infinitum. Only, we may add thefe two obfervati- 
ons thereon , c. May not this be allowed to the 
Presbyteriall Church where the plurality of Church- 
officers think fit not to caft out ? 2« That the Pref- 
bytcriall government is upon this confederation, un*? 
jufily loaded with an abfurdity, as if neceflfarily up- 
on their grounds , the minor and better party being 
overfwayed ( fuppofe a particular Congregation 
were wronged by rhe plurality of a Presbycerie) 
could have no redreffc ; for>according to his grounds 
the fame would follow upon the congregationall 
way ? for, iuppofe the plurality of the Congregati- 
on lhou Id wron?forae officer, contrary to the vote 
of the minor and better party , there can be no other 
redrefle there , than for men to keep themfclves free : 
For, it ftill recurreth, if the minor part (hould claim 
to have their Sentence weighty, becaule it is upon the 
matter righr, which the other is not, he hath already 
determined in the place cited , that that is , contrary 
to all orderly proceeding and rules of reafon and 
layech open the gap to endleffc diflention , and the 


Part 2^ A Treatife concerning Scandal; 1 47 

annulling of all publick proceeding ; for , men in 
fuch cafes, being their own judges, are ever ready to 
think themfelves in the right. 

Bythefirft, to wit, Mr. Cotton, it il laid down as 
an iftiqueftionable agreed ground, with this note up- 
on the back of it , $y bajly withdrawing, '\eformatiun 
is net procured but retarded. Thus he, pag. 2. of the 
bolinefe of Cburcb-members. And hath not expe- 
rience confirmed this ? Might not Difcipline have 
been more vigorous in many Congregations , if this 
had not been ? And what can be expc&ed of Refor- 
mation in the body of the Chriftian world, if to the 
offence of the reft , thofe who fuppofe themfelves to 
be more tender y fhould inftantly withdraw from 


Clearing whether the Ordinances of Chrift be 
any Way polluted By corrupt fellow-wor flippers* 

BUt yet two things are to be fatisfied. r. Itmay 
be fajd , But are not the Ordinances of Chrift 
fomeway polluted by the un worth inefle of fuch 
fcandalous partakers ? and if fo, can polluted Ordi- 
nances be partaken of,without fin ? dnfih We may 
confider polluting of Ordinances in a threefold fenfe. 
%4 An Ordinance may be faid to be polluted, when 
the effentials and fubftantials thereof are corrupted, 
fo as indeed ic ceafeth to be an Ordinance of Jcfus 
Chrift : Thus the Maffe in Popery, is a fearfull abo- 
mination, and a corruption of the Sacrament: in 
this refpeft , the Ordinance ( if it may be called an 
Ordinance after that, for indeed it is not an Ordi- 
nance of Chrift) is polluted , and this may be many 
waves fallen into , and communion in this, is indeed 
finfull and cannot but be fo. 

2* An Ordinance may be faid to be poIlutcd>vvhca 
L % ic 


1 48 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 2." 

it is irreverently and profanely abufed, though effeft- 
tials be keeped : Thus the Lords Sabbath may be 
polluted , which yet is holy initfelf; So was the 
Table of the Lord polluted, Mai. 1 . And in this fenfe 
the Sacrament of the Lords Supper was indeed pollu- 
ted by the C 9r ^ nt ^ an5 > lCor * l * .when fome came drunk 
or otherwayes irreverently to the holy Ordinances; 
in this refpeft, an Ordinance may be faid to be pol- 
luted to him that fo goeth about it, becaufe to the un- 
clean all things are unclean ; but it is not polluted in 
itfelf> nor to any other that examine themfelves , as 
the former inftance doth clear > becaufe that polluti- 
on cometh from nothing in the Ordinance, ( it being 
in its effentials compleat) but doth arife from the fin- 
fulneffe of fuch and fuch perfons , and therefore muft 
be commenfurable with them. 

3. An Ordinance may be faid to be polluted , up- 
on this extrinfick confederation , to wit > when by 
fome circumttance in it, or mifcarriageof thofethac 
are about it, it is made common- like , and fo want- 
eth that lufter and honour ableneffe that it ought to 
have; by fuch a fault the Ordinance is made obnoxi- 
ous to 'contempt , and is defpifed by others* contrary 
to the Lords allowance. Thus the Pricfts of old 
made the offerings of the Lord vile and contemp- 
tible , which was not by corrupting them in effenti- 
als, nor making them ceafe to be Ordinances* but 
by their mifcarriages and corrupt irreverent way of 
going about them, they did lay that (tumbling- block 
before others , to make them account thefe Ordi- 
nances contemptible. This may be diverfe wayes 
fallen into, As, t* when the Officer,or Miniftcr,hath 
a profane carnall carriage , So he makcth the Ordi- 
nance of the Miniftery , and every other Ordinance 
vile in this fenfe: Thus, if an Elder or any others 
fhould take on them to admonifti while they arc in 
drunkenneffe or paffion , or fuch like , they do pol- 
lute that admonition , yet ftill thefe Ordinances are 


Part 2 • A Treat ife concerning Scandal. * 49 

Ordinances, and that admonition an admonition, 
2. It is fallen into, when an Officer doth indifcreetly 
and indifferently adminiftrate Ordinances to preci- 
ous and vile, as if they were common things. Thus 
a reproof may be polluted when a manifeft known 
contemner is reproved , becaufc > fo a pearl is caften 
before fwine, which is derogatory to the excellency 
thereof. Thus a Miniftcr may profane or pollute 
the mod excellent promifes or confolations of the 
Word, when he doth without difcretion apply the 
fame indifferently; or, without making difference 
between the tender and the untender and profane ; 
yea , even between the hypocrites and the truely god- 
ly. This is not to divide the Word of God aright, 
and is indeed that which the Lord mainly account- 
ed to be Not feparating o) the preciom from the Vile, 
when peace is fpoken to them to whom he never fpoke 
it. This isalfo committed, when grofly fcandalous 
perfons are permitted, without the exercife of D'Sci- 
pline upon them, to live in the Church, or are admit- 
ted to Sacraments , becaufe fo Gods inftitution is 
wronged, and the lufter thereof is leffened „ and men 
are induced to think lefle thereof. 3* This may be 
alfo by the irreverent manner of going about them, 
when ic is without that due reverence and gravity 1 
that ou^ht to be in His worfhip. Thus one may make 
the Word and Sacrament to be in a great part ridi- 
culous; and fofuppofe, that at the Sacrament of the 
Supper, in the fame Congregation , fomefhould be 
communicating at one place, fome at another, fomc 
(hould be palpably talking of other things , fome 
mifcarrying.by drunkenneffe, &c as its clear was in 
the Church of Corinth, AH thofe may befaid to 
pollute the Ordinances , as they derogate from their 
weight and authority , and mifcarry in the admini- 
ftration of them > and are ready to breed irreverence 
and contempt in others where the Lords Body in the 
Supper j or the end of His inftkntion in other Ordi- 
L 3 nances. 

l jo ATreatife concerning Scandal.' Part 2* 

nances,isnotdifcerned v andobferved : yetallthefe do 
not pollute the Ordinance in it fclf > or make it to be 
no Ordinance , nor do pollute it to any that doth re- 
verently partake of the fame, and doth not ftumble 
upon the block that is laid before him : Becaufe an 
hearer that were fuitably qualified, might comfort- 
ably receive and feed upon a fweet promife, even 
when it might be extended in its application beyond 
the Lord's allowance 5 yet doth not that alter the na- 
ture thereof to him : So may worthy Communicants 
that have examined them(elves> and do difcern the 
Lord's Body, partake of that Sacrament with His ap- 
probation, and to their own comfort ; Becaufe they 
might difcern Him and by that come to get the right 
impreffion of the Ordinances, although many blocks 
were lying in their way : for, it is not others cafting 
of fnares before them , but their ftumbling at them, 
that doth pollute the Ordinance to them. Hence we 
fee, that though all thefe were in the Church of Co~ 
rintb, fo that there was neither reverence in the man- 
ner, nor difcretion in refpeft of the Receivers (for/ 
fomecame drunken, and fome came and waited not 
on others, fome came hungry? and others full) yet 
was it ftill the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and 
unpolluted to thofe , who by examining of themfelves, 
and difcerning of His Body ( which others failed in) 
did reverently and duly partake of the fame. 

Befides thefe wayes of pollution mentioned , we 
cannot conceive of any other (for now legal and ce- 
remonial pollution , (uch as was by touching a dead 
body, &c. and was oppofic to ceremonial holinefle, 
is not ia this cafe to be mentioned ) yet we fee the firft 
cannot be alleaged here, and none of the other two 
ought to fcare tender perfons from the Ordinances of 

If it befaid. That communicating in fuchacafe* 
doth fecm to approve fuch an admiffion > and to con- 
firm thofe in fome good opinion of themfclvcs who 


Part 2 . A Treat if e concerning Scandal. 

are admitted, and fo there is a neceffity of abftain- 
ing , though not upon the account, that the Ordinan- 
ce! are polluted , yet, for preventing the forefaid of- 
fence* which might make us guilty. Jnf. If weight 
be-Jaid upon offence, we make no queftion but it will 
fway to the other fide. O what offence hath this way 
given to the Church of Chrift ! how hath it hardned 
thofe that had prejudice at Religion? How hath it 
opened the mouths of fuch as lie in wait for fome- 
thing of this kind ? How hath it grieved and weight- 
ed others ? how hath it made the work of Reforma- 
tion , profeflion of Holineffe > exercife of Difci- 
plinei &c« to ftink to many , and fo to be loaded 
with reproaches , as hath marred much that acceffe 
to keep the Ordinances unpolluted in the former rc- 
fpeft, which otherwife might have been ? 2. Is not 
reverent and exemplary partaking of the Ordinances 
at fuch a time* a more edifying and convincing tefti- 
mony againtt fuch untendernerfet than by withdraw- 
ing to give a new offence ? 3. The Lord's precept in 
fuch a cafe, Let a man examine bimfilf, and fo let him 
ett , dorh not leave the thing indifferent upon that 
ground ; And therefore that objeftion is not here 
to hive place* as the grounds formerly laid down do 
evince; For. we are not to be wife or holy beyond 
what the Lord hach commanded. 

Shewing if any thing further in any imaginable 
cafe be allowed to ftivat Chriftians. 

2. IT may be yet further moved , Can there be no 

more allowed in any fuppofable cafe ? Anfo m 

-* It is mod unfuitable, in a matter of pra6tice> 

when folks are not contending for cur iofity, but for. 

direction, toluppofe cafes hardly or rarely pofTible 

in a con(*itutcChurch,which is worthy of that name, 

or> upon that ground,to found a conteft in difpute, or 

L 4 fchifm 

i J 2 tA Treatife concerning Scandal \ Part "i." 

fchifm in pra&ice, in cafes palpably different \ Ac 
leaftjUhion (hould be kept till fuch a cafe come about. 
And is it likely , where the order formerly laid down 
isobferved, that there can be habitual admiflion of 
notorioufly or grievoufly fcandalous perfons, though, 
it may be,there be leffer failings of feveral forts : Yet, 
fuppofing that any, out of infirmity or affe&ion, not 
having fuch knowledge, or otherwife, (hould ftick to 
joyn in the Ordinances at fome times, or_ in fome 
places, upon fuch an account > who yet do not love 
feparation , or the ere&ing of a different Church, 
We fay further, 

l« That, in fuch a cafe, fuch perfons may remove 
from one Congregation to another, where fuch grof- 
neffe cannot be pretended to be; and the perfons being 
otherwife without fcandal, can neither be prefled to 
continue (they being fo burdened) nor yet refufed' 
to be admitted where orderly they (hall defire to joyn, 
feing this could not be denied to any. And, we fup- 
pofc, few will be (o uncharitable, as to think there is 
no Congregation whereunto they can joyn, or yet fo 
addi&ed'to outward refpecfcs, as to choofe feparation 
with offence to others,difturbance to theChurch,and, 
it may be,with little quietneffc to themfelves, whenas 
they have a remedy fo inoffenfive allowed unto them. 

2. Although feparation be never allowable , and 
feceffion be not alway at an inftant prafticable; yet 
we fuppofe, in fome cafes, fimple abftinence, if it be 
notoffenfive in the manner and circumftances , if it 
be not made cuftomary » and if the ground be fo con- 
vincing , and the cafe fo groffe that it will affe<St any 
ingenuous hearer , and fo evident that there is no ac- 
cefle to any acquainted in fuch places, to deny the 
fame* or that there be a prclent undecided procefle 
concerning fuch things before a competent Judge ; in 
fome fuch cafes, I fay, as might be fuppofed, we con- 
ceive abftinence were not rigidly to be mifconftruft- 
cd, it being for the time the burdcen of fuch perfons, 


Part £ A Treat tj e concerning Scand al 15 5 

that they cannot joyn ; and, it may be, having fome 
publick complaint of fuch a thing to make-out, and 
in dependence elfewhere : Although we will not 
ftrengthen any to follow this way, nor can it be pre- 
tended to, where the cafe is not Angularly horrid ; yet 
fuppofing it to be fuch we conceive it is the fafeft one 
way for the perfons peace , and the preventing of of- 
fence together ; yet, much chriftian prudence is to be 
exercifed in the conveying of the fame , if it were by 
removing for a time, or otherwayes, that there appear 
to be no publick contempt ; but we conceive this cafe 
is fo rarely incident, and poflibly that there needcth 
be little faid of it > much leffe Qiould there be any 
needlcffe debate or rent entertained upon the confede- 
ration or notion thereof And certainly,the cafe be- 
fore us of the admitting of the Nicolaitans and Jf- 
%ebel y considering their do&rine and deeds, is more 
horrid than readily can be fuppofed; and yet it would 
feem, that though this defeat (hould ftill have conti- 
nued, the Lord doth require no other thing of private 
profeffours, but their continuing- in> or holding faft 
of, their former perfonal purity , which is all the bur- 
den that He doth lay upon them. 

To (hut up all, we may fee what evils are to be 
cvitcd in the profecution of publick Scandals, and 
what a commendable thing it were to have this in 
the right manner vigorous; if private Chriftians were 
zealous, loving and prudent in their private admoni- 
tions; if Officers were diligent, fingle, grave, and 
weighty in what concerneth them ; if offending per- 
fons were humble and fubmiflive > and all reverent 
and refpe&ive of the Ordinances , and ftudious of 
priVate and publick edification , How beautiful and 
profitable a thing would it be ? Certainly this man- 
ner of procedure, would be more beautifying to the 
Ordinances of Chrift , more convincing to all on- 
lookers, more fweet and eafie both to Officers and 
People, and more edifying and gaining to all f and, by 


1 J4 c/fTreatife concerning Scandai^ Part 3. 

God's bit (Ting 1 w£re the way to make the miftaken 
yoke of Difcipline to be accounted eafie and light- 
And if all thofe ends bedefirable, and the contrary 
evils be to be efchewed, then unqueftionably the right 
manner of mannaging this great Ordinance of Dif- 
cipline, is carefully to be ftudied and followed both 
by Officers and people. 


Concerning DtcZrinafi Scandals , or Scan- 
dalous Errours. 


Holding out the expediency of handling this 

ALthough fomewhat hath been fpoken in re- 
ference to pra&icall Scandals, (to call them 
fo ) Yet there hath been little or nothing ac 
all fpoken ot Do&rinal Scandals , and what 
may be called for in reference to them. 

It is true > that thefe cafes are fo various and diffi- 
cult, that there can hardly be any thing particularly 
fpoken to them ; alfo what hath been faid , may, for 
the moft part,proportionably be applied to them: yet 
confidering that this place doth look lb direftly to 
fuch Scandals as are inDo&rine ; and that the ca(e 
of theft times doth call for fome confederation of fuch, 
lit what hath been formerly faid , be altogether de- 
fective as to this, it will not be impertinent to infift 
a litde on k a=:o, although already this Traftate hath 
drawn to a. greater length than was at firft intended. 

We imv in profecution of this , I. confider fome 
generall Do&riqest 2. Some generall Queftions. 

3. More 

Part 3* tATrtAtift concerning Scandal. 155 
3. More particularly fpeak to the feverall duties ac- 
cording to particular cafes and remedies that are 
called for. 4. Shew the neccflficy of orderly Judicial 
procedour here, in reference to fuch Scandals , as well 
as in reference to Scandals in practice formerly men- 

For Do&rines, we find here. 1. ThatErrour, 
vented by thefe that are corrupted therewith 3 is no lefl'e 
fcandalous , and no leffe to be accounted fo \ than 
grofle praftices \ for it is as ready to be an occafion of 
ftumbling, and to marr the fpirituall edification and 
well-being of the people of God, as any fcandalous 
practices : Which is confirmed, 1. By the confe- 
quents of Errour , it deftroyes the foul , 2 Vet* 2. r. 
iTbe/f, 2. 12. yea, it bringeth on fwift damnation, 
2'Pet* 2.1. overthrows the faith of many. 2 Tim. 2a 8. 
perverts the Scripture to mens deftruftion, 2^.3.16. 
deceives many , Mattb. 24, Therefore for this caufe, 
it is called alfo , 2. fet. 2. damnable, pernicious , and 
fuch like : which fheweth, that really it becomes a 
ftumbling block where it is. 

2. This will appear if we confider the titles that 
the holy Ghoft ufually giveth to fuch in Scripture, as 
are promotters of corrupt Dotfrme: there are not 
titles bearing greater indignation and abomination, 
given to any, than to fuch , as they are called <% f , 
evil Workers , Phil. 3. 2. Wohes y yea, grievous Wolves, 
Matth. 7. 1 5. Aft. 20. deceitfull Workers , mini/lets of 
Satan,zs ifexprefly they were commiflionated by him, 
2 Cor. 1 1. 1?. deceivers, liars. Rev. 2. ill men and fe- 
ducers y that Wax Worfe and Worfe, 2 Tim. 3, 1 3 # 

3. Confider the many threamings and woes that 
are in Scripture againft them , Mattb. 23. the many 
wartimes that are given to Minifters to watch againtt 
them. Acts 20. the plain dirc&ions that are to cen« 
furethem,Ttf. 3. 10. the particular examples of ccn- 
furing them recorded in Scripturei (as after wiilap- 
pear ) Chrifts commending it where it is, His repro- 

i}6 A Treatife concerning Scandal; Part 3; 

ving of it where it is not , as m thefe fecond and 
third Chapters of the Relation is manifeft : thefe and 
fuch like , do evidently make out how exceedingly 
fcandalous the venting of corrupt Doftrine is, which 
2(<?v # i. 6. the Lord faith, He hates , and therefore ic 
cannot but be loathfome and abominable. 

4. Confider the many warnings that people have 
co efchew fuch , and that upon this account as being 
offenfive , as %». i<5, 17. Aft. 20, 5PM/. 3.1,2. 2. J oh. 
10. which evidently fhoweth the fcandaloufneffe 

y. Gonfider the nature of Errour more particu- 
larly. 1 ♦ It is contrary to the truth of God > and 
therefore is a lie? as fcandalous pra&ices are contrary 
to theholineffcof God : now Gods truth and vera- 
city is no leffe an effentiall attribute than His holinefs. 
2. This is not only to lie , but it is to attribute that 
unto the moft High,by fathering thefe lies upon Him ; 
and faying, thus faith the Lord , when He hath faid 
no fuch thing but the contrary* 3. It teacheth others 
to lie , as it is , Matth. 5. 19. and that more forcibly 
and impudently than any pra&ice can do. 4. It hath 
its original from the devil, who was a liar from the 
beginning , and the father thereof, Job. 8. 44. And 
fpreadersof corrupt Doftrine, have fpecial influence 
on the upholding and fpreading of his kingdom. 
5. It is a fruit of the flefh , even as murther, adul- 
tery, witchcraft ; and feing it is (6 ranked by the 
A pottle. Gal. 5.19, 20. can it be but fcandalous ? 

6. The effe&s of it will evidence this. 1. It fpoil- 
cth the vines, Cant.2.x$. for, there is a wronging of 
purity where it is. 2. It fpoileth Government and 
order, it hath confufion with it. 3. It fpoileth unity, 
and it hath ever contention with it, and ( as it is. Gal. 
5.15.) a biting and .devouring one of another ; and 
contention cannot be efchewed but by harmony in 
evil»which is far more defperate. 4. Which follow- 
ed on all , it deftroyeth fouls ; and infedeth more 


part 3 . A Treatife concerning Scandal, 157 

fpeedily, dangeroufly and (preadingly than other 
prafticall Scandals 3 never hath the Church been (o 
defaced , nor fo many fouls defiroyed by any fcanda- 
lous practice , as by the venting of corrupt Do&rine; 
and however we take fcandal, as in the general was 
laid down, as that which is apt to flumble others, 
and occafion their fall , or to weaken the confidence 
and jumble the peace> and difquiet the minds of fome, 
or as it grieves the hearts of others, on as it maketh 
the wayes of God to be ill fpoken of, it will be ftill 
found, that fuchkind of errours, are ftill to be ac- 
counted fcandalous ; and that nothing opens mouths 
more againft Religion than that, See 2 Ptf . 2. 2. By 
all which it appeareth , that groffe errour is not only 
a fin , but a fcandalous fin, and that of a moft groffe 


Concerning the threading of SrroHr ; Cjods dif- 
flea fur c at the {uffertng thereof, and the faint* 
ing even of good men in refiraining the [ame* 

BEfidethis, there are three things confiderable f 
which from this and other Epiftles we have oc- 
cafion to obferve and enquire a little into, before 
we propound any particular queftion. 

The firft, is, concerning the (preading and increafe 
of Errour , and that of the moft unreafonable and 
abfurd Errours , even in the Primitive times. The 
(econd is, ancnt the Lords detefting of it, fo that the 
very fuffering of the fpreaders of it, is hatefull to Him 
in His Angels and Churches, thatotherwiic are ap- 
provable for their own particular carriages , as in 
Pergamos ; and their not induring thereof is com- 
mendable , even when their own inward condition 
is not altogether approvable, as may be fcen in Epbe~ 
fa. The third is > how that fomctirnes there may be 


xj8 A Trtatife concerning Scandal. Part j. 

fainting, as to zealous reftraining of Errour , even in 
mentbatarenotthe worft. 
JFbMt height For the fitft,Can it but be thought ftrange that de- 
delufious o/lufion (hould com r to this height fo foon : and it may 
tbh \ini make all to tremble at the impetuoufnefs thereof, I . It 
may come \ s a mo ft f ou i abfurd errour , this of the Nicolaitans, 
unto. evetl a g a i n ft natures light. 2.1t fpreadeth and encreaf- 

cth in feverall perfons and Churches : and Church- 
flory doth (how that it abounded , and no leffe is in- 
finuated in thefe Epiftles* 3. That it fpreadeth not 
only among heathens , but in the Church , and 
among Cbrijls Servants , who are feduced therewith ; 
which fheweth, that even fome of note were carried 
away with it* 4. This is in the Churches moft pure 
times, fome of the Apoftles (at leaft John) being yet 
alive when this was vented. $. It is catried-on by 
defpicable inftruments in comparifon of others , a 
woman calling her felf a propheteffe , fome fellows 
calling themfelves Apoftles and new lights, that men 
would think , (hould rather have been counted di- 
I ftra8ed>than to have been fo reverenced • 6. This is 
done againft the teftimony of their own faithful Mi- 
nifters,and in fuch Churches where God had witnef- 
fes keeping themfelves from that evil,yea, where ma- 
ny Profeflors were in that refpeft pure, yet others are 
following that errour,receiving and reverencing thefe 
feducers more than any faithfull Paftors. J. This 
is done where there neither wanted light nor authori- 
ty to convince them ; for, no queftion, both were, as 
may be gathered from the trial of thefe in Ephefm; 
yea, John writcth from the Lords own mouth to con- 
fute them ; and though there could be no exception 
againft the application of his Do&rine > yet it was 
adhered to for many years after that. 8. John or 
fome other Apoftle was the inftrument to convert 
them from Paganifm to Chriftianity, yet, now can 
he not recover them from a foul errour in Chriftiani- 
ty when they are bewitched therewith 1 and though 



Par t 3 • *d Treat* fe concemhg Scandal, 159 

no qur ftion his authority and arguments had kfle 
weight with them now than before they wereChi jfti- 
ans ; yet what can be thought of more force for 
their convirtion and reclaiming, than thefe conside- 
rations? The like was often TW'j cafe, whoatfirft 
had an eafie work with people, when they were hea- 
thens, in companion of what he had with the fame 
when they became Chnftians, and tainted with falfe 
doftrine, or lifleners to corrupt teachers, as in the 
Epiftles to the Cmnthiam and Galattans is clear. 
Which d<xh fhew, i.The unreafonablnefle and power 
of a deluding Spirit, that nothing can convince, 
when once people come to like that wav they go 
on , deceiving and being deceived, and>as Tettr iaith, 
2Tet. 3. 16- pervert the Scripture to their own de- 
ftruc5t:on ; And as may be gathered , they do fo by; 
corrupting, firft, that which doth appear to be more 
oblcure , and then they mould other Scriptures fo as 
may confift with their fancies , that they have con- 
ceived to have ground in the former,and fo they> firft, 
form notions out ofobfeure places, and thereafter 
conform the more plain Scriptures to thefe , whereas 
the juft contrary is moft fafe ; and when the ignorant 
and unftablefhall account themfelves the only learn- 
ed in the myfteries of God , what wonder is it that 
they be thus given up ? and when they think the 
plain truths, and duties wherein there is no fhaddow 
of a ground of Rumbling, are below them ? and thus 
they may attain fo much dexterity to wreft the Scrip- 
ture?, even the plaineft (as is implied there) as may 
be judicially fubfervient to their own deftruftion, 
and to prevent their being convinced, which might 
put them to (hame ; and occafion their abandoning 
of that. 2. Wo may fee, that it is no eafie thing to 
recover a miflcrd people inco errour; that peraaVcnture, 
2?w*. 2. 25. is not accidently pur in, buttofhow 
that it is a hundred to one if fuch get repentance, 
whereby the Lord would (care all from that evil, and 


I <5o A Treatife concerning Scandal. Pare 5 J 

the more groffe their error is , often men are the more 
unreasonable in the defence thereof, and obftinate in 
adhering thereunto , becaufe there is moft of a judi- 
ciall ftroak fcen there , in giving up men to fuch fool- 
ries , it is not credible that otherwife they could fall 
in them, and fo being fmitten of God , is it poffible 
. that any reafon can prevail with them , while that 
plague lieth on ? Was there any errour like to that 
of worfhipping flocks and ftones ? it being even 
againft fenfe and reafon > that men (hould burn a 
part thereof , and make feme common work of ano- 
ther portion > and of a third make a deity and fall 
downwind worffiip it, as the Prophet doth expoftu- 
late , Ifa. 44. 19- which upon confederation might 
befoundtobeabfurd: this is premitted as the reafon 
of fuch blockiftweffe , ver.18. For be bath float tbeir 
eyes that they cannot fee, and tbeir hearts that they cannot 
underfiand. 3. The unreafonablneffe of this Spirit in 
men, would not be thought ftrange in any of the for- 
mer refpefts,even although no perfon could flop their 
mouth,but they (hould feem to themfelves to triumph 
in the bringing-iri of unheard-of fenfes of Scripture ; 
the more they abound in that, it is the more judicial 
to them, even as the moe they carry after them, and 
the more they be forborn by others, it worketh the 
more to their deftruftion: men would keep a diftance 
from thefe infections , none can tell what they may 
turn unto if once entred in a giddy unftable foul, car- 
ried with the fpait of a fpirit of errour > and being 
given-upof God thereto for itching after it, and not 
receiving the love of the truth, may come to the moft 
horrible things , and that without fhame or remorfe, 
ere there be any end; and on-lookers would acknow- 
Tbefuffring l cc te e God's juftice in fuch ftroaks, and learn tore- 
•/ gro/ er- verence and fear him the more* 
ror is a moft The fecond cannot but be clear from this : for, if 
diff leafing errour be fuch an evil that thwarteth , 1. both with 
thing to Gods holinefle and truth j And, 2. that hazardeth fo 
Cbrijt. many 

Part 3 » A Treatife concerning Scandal. i6i 

many fouls, ( for. never a plague hath fo deftroyed 
the face of the vifible Church , nor carried fo ma- 
ny fouls to hell as errour hath done ) Then the dif- 
fering of it cannot but behatefull co Him who loveth 
His Church. }. There is no way bv which the devil 
reproacheth Ordinances and the Word more than 
this, by turning them to the quite contrary end , as* 
if he would out- (hoot the Lord in His own bow, 
(which is abominable to mention ) and invert His 
own means* and turn His own weapons on Him j 
and fufferingof this, is a conniving at his defign. 
4- There is no way by which the devil may fo win in 
onChrift's Servants to feduce them as by this > as 
in the Epiftle to Tbyatira isclear. And can there dan- 
ger come fo nigh to Chrift, and He not be difpleafed 
with what ftrengtheneth their fnares ? 5. This doth 
equal, yea, in forne refpeft, prefer the devil to Him, fo 
far as in us lieth, and fo cannot but provoke His jea- 
loufie;for,fo the devil hath liberty to vent his lies with 
Truth equally ; and there being many lies > though 
there be but one Truth , he hath bythis mpe doors 
opened to him than the Gofpei hath. 6. this doth 
mike even the Truth. Ordinances, and Religion it 
felf to bethought liehtof} when all thefe have tole- 
ration, it is, on the matter, a proclaiming an indiffe- 
rencyto be in thefe things , than which nothing can 
more reflcft on the jealous God , who in His Word 
putteth fuch a difference , and fhoweth fuch detefta- 
tion at indifferency. 7. This bringeth hudgc confu- 
fions on the Church. For, 1. If thefe errours and . 
corrupt teachers prevail, they carry fouls after them, 
and deftroy them ; and ought that to be thought light 
of? 2, If they prevail not, yet they erode, afflidt and 
offend them, and fo prove a fnare and burden to them 
of whom the Lord is tender. 8. Toleration doth 
either account little of errour* as being no hurtfull 
thing, and fo there can be no cfteem of truth ; or, it 
doth account little of the. deftrudion of foub: both 
M which 


102 tATreattfe concerning Sc an D a L. Part?. 

which muft be abominable* 9. Errour doth not only 

break God's Law,but doth teach others to do (o ; and 

fuffcring thereof, muft be a maintaining of Teachers 

to teach Tranfgreflion and Rebellion againft the 


* Sometimes The third thing obfervable, is, That though zeal in 

tbo{e who aMinifter, efpecially againft errour, be exceedingly 

want notaf- commendable > yet oftimes is there fainting, eyen 

fcftion , ate amon g Miniftets who are not of the woift : and the 

JJ tm €on ~ Angel is here reproved for fparing of thefe ^tcolau 

totrrontou$ tm ' al lea ** m being fainc and defe( ^ iv . e in P u rfu- 
Teacbers: m & ^em * n a m i n ifterial way, as JntipM is com- 
ani wbj ? men ded for his faithfulneffe , and the Angel of Epbe- 
fit* for his not fainting in profecuting of this trial; the 
Lord hath put thefe two together , the faithfull and 
wife Steward j and when they are carried equally 
on, O how commendable are they ! yet in the recko- 
ningjthe one is but mentioned, Well done thou good and 
Jaithfullfer\>ant, not to give a difpenfation in reference 
to the other , but to (hew the neceffity and excellency 
of this, that thereby Miniftersmay be put to it, left, 
under pretext of prudence, theyincroach upon that 
freedom and faithfulneffe which is called-for from 
them, whether in undertaking, or in profecuting of 
this charge, in which there will not want many dif- 
ficulties , that will be ready to occafion fainting > if 
they be not boldly in the Lord's ftrength fet againft, 
as we may inftance in thefe refpe&s » I. In refpeft ot" 
the time : there are fome evil times,wherein it is hard 
to know what to fay , for which the prudent may be 
faid to keep filence > and often that pretext may be the 
occafion of foftering too much fainting , when the 
Lord calleth-for faithfulneffe. 2. It may arifefroin 
a man's fenfiblenefle of his own infirmities and un- 
equalneffe for that charge, as feems to be in Jeremiah^ 
Jer. i, when a mans own felf, or thoughts of himfelf, 
without refpeft to his call, is made the rule whereby 
he proceeded^ 3. It may arife from the meffage 


Part 3 . A Treatlfc concerning Scandal* itfj 

which he is called to carry : fharp meflages are heavy 
and burdenfom, that maketh Jon<tt cofhift for a time 
to undertake that denunciation againft NtniVeb, elpe- 
cially confidcring thatthefe Mcffcngers ordinarily are 
not acceptable to hearers ; and that there are withall 
ulually not a few whofew pillows under arpi- holes ; 
and are ready to deftroy, in that refpedt, what others 
build. 4. It may arife from hearers, and that of di- 
vert tempers; fome are readyjike fwine» to turn back 
on the Carriers, as if they did hate them , as Micajah 
was met with by Mab> tlQng. 22. who yet had 
four hundred flittering liars in requeft. Some, again, 
are of an itching humour » and do not abide con- 
vincing doftrine and faithfulneffe, fuch are ready to 
breed a feparation from them that do faithfully re- 
prove , at leaft much to cool their affeftions to them, 
which ( as it is, 2 Tim. 4.) is no little piece of trial 
to a Minifter : Many alfo that are affe&ionate, are 
ycthafty, and cannot abide plain dealing ; and it is * 
no leffe difficulty to win to be faithful! to thefe, than 
to others who arc openly prophane. $♦ There is a 
fainting that arifeth fromdiftruft of God > as not be- 
ing confident of the performance of His proraife, and 
of their being countenanced in His work; and fo 
feeing it impoffible in rhemfelvcs and in their own 
eyes, they give it over as if it were fo (imply. (5. There 
is a fainting that arifeth from fuppofed events, cither 
as thinking there will'be no fruit of fuch a thing , or fi 
that fome inconvenience will follow it |Jt is like that 
Mofes was nor free of thefirfh when n# faiths Ifrati 
doth W0*,or, vviil not bear me ; dnd^bat toillTbaraobdo? 
And the laft is common when once flefh and bloud 
are admitted to confult of duty from the fuppofed in- 
conveniencies that will follow* then readily itdeci- 
dethi that it is not duty at all. It may be fomewhac 
of that was here > that the Angel feared the difqu feting 
of the Church > or fome fchifm that might follow on 
it j and the Lord's threatning to take another way of 
M a fighting 


A Tjreatife concerning Scandal Part 3 • 

fighting againft them with the %ord of His mouth' 
doth infinuate this : for, a carn^U (hift, to prevent 
fome inconveniences, often drawe&-on that which 
men feared, the more fpeedily. Other grounds of it 
alfo may be given, which yet are nofc^provable be- 
fore God. if 


If any of the TeopleofGod may be carried away 
)ft>itbgrojfe delufions* 

^Rom thefe Dodtrines feveral Queftions may be 

moved. And, 1. If any of the People of God 

may be carried away with fuch abominable er- 

rours in do&rine ? Wefliallanfwer in thefe Affer- 


It Is not Jtjfcrt* t. There is no errour fo grofle materially, 

fmply im~ but Believers may fall into it : For, although they 

fojjiblebut^ haveapromife that errour (hall not feparate wholly 

fome may, in betwixt Chrift and them, nor that finally they (hall 

a great mea* be carried away therewith ; ffet, feing they have cor- 

fure>1or d ruption that is capable to be tempted to all fin, and 

rTda C&f " ^° t0 c ^ s amoh § ot ^ er ^ ns > thzy cannot be exempted 
tm kv /. f t ^ m c ^ j s ne i t her is there any promife by which they 
can expeft abfolutely to be kept from herefie, more 
than murder or adultery, which are fruits of the fiefh 
with this : yea, except the fin againft the holy Ghoft 
and final impenitencie, there is no abfolute exemption 
to the Believrf from any fin ; which the Lord hath 
wifely ordered fo, to keep the Believer from fecurity, 
even in reference to fuch tentations : Befide, in expe- 
rience it is found j that grace exempteth not from error 
in judgment ; for, it is like, that Solomon, if he did not 
aftually commit idolatry hitpfelf > yet became too 
inclinable that way , as we may gather from what 
is in Scripture recorded concerning him ; Neither can 
we altogether, as to their ftate, condemn thefe in Co- 

Part 3 1 A Treatife concerning S can da l. *<>5 

rintb y in Galatia, and in other Churches, who were 
drawn from the Truth after their converfion , as if 
none but unregenerate profeffors had been fo. Yea, it 
ispoflible, if not , probable, that fome of thefe, whom 
the Lord calleth "His Servants, and yet were feduced 
in the Church ofTbyatira, were not ftill in theftate 
of nature. 

Jffert.i. Although we dare not altogether fay it's Ttf not ft 
impofliblc , yet we think that it is more rare for a Be- cAjilyM un- 
lievcrtofall in groffe errours, and for any confide- x ^ r f e * ra ' 
rable time to continue therein, fo as to be accounted v//; ' 

an Heretick, than in other fcandalous pra&ices. For, 
I. The Scripture doth more rarely mention tbis, than 
other fins of Believers, which are more frequently re- 
corded* 2. There are very fpecial prcmifes forpre- 
ferving of the Ele6t from being feduced by falfe chrifls 
and falfe teachers : and though it do not hold univer- 
fally in all particulars, except in as far as reaches their 
everlafting (late ; yet it may be extended in fome good 
meafure, even to fedu&ion it felf; and we fuppofe 
may be more clear from thefe confederations , I. Be- 
coming erroneous in fuch a manner, doth not proceed 
from fome fudden furprifing-fit of tentation, as groffe 
practices oftentimes may do; but it implieth a deli- 
berateneffe therein, which is not fo readily incident 
to a Believer , and it cannot fo well be called a fin of 
infirmity ; and therefore the Scripture doth ever fee 
out fuch teachers of falfe do&rine as moft abomi- 
nable, to wit,as notferVmg the Lord Cbriftfiut their oton 
bellies&om. 16.18.as being enemies to the crojje efCbriff, 
Phil* ?. 19. as being minifters of Satan, 2 Cor. 11.15. 
Other men (as it were) that are unrcnewed,are com- 
mon fubje&s and fervants to the devil • but corrupt 
teachers they are apoftles to him, and prime officers in 
his kingdom : Thefe titles,and fuch like, cannot well 
be applicable to Saints in refpe& of their infirmities ; 
and therefore, we think, that (at leaft) it is more rare- 
ly incident to them , to be carriers on and promoters 
M3 of 

J 66 tsf Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3* 

of corrupt do&rine. 2. It appearcth from this, that 
an Heretick is (aid to be (elf- condemned, Ttt. 3. ro. 
becaufe ere one can be fo denominated* there muft be 
a reje&ing of admonitions, which ftands not fo very 
well with the natareof a Saint* 3. This confede- 
ration will alfo make it evident, that the Scripture 
fpeaketh of repentance of, and recovery from corrupt 
do&rine* as a very rare and uncertain thing 1 Gal. 
4* 10 the Apoftle fears he did beftow labour in vain 
in this bufineffe ; and 2 Tim. 2. 25. the Apoftle doth 
put z per adventure upon this, If per adventure God "bill 
gtVe them (to wit, thofe that oppofe themfeves) repen- 
tance unt$ the acfyotoledging of the Truth. There is not 
fuch a per adventure put to any kind of fin : which 
fheweth that it muft be more difficult to be recovered 
from it, than from other fins; and that therefore Be- 
lievers, ordinarily at leaft, niuft be in a fpecial man- 
ner preferved from it. 4. Which doth confirm the 
former , This delufion is a main fpiritual plague ; 
and is often the punifhraent not of former fins of 
infirmity, but of not receiving the love of the Truth, 
and of hypocrifie and proud preemption ; and al- 
though the Lord is not to be limited and bound up 
from chaftening His own with this rod , yet we may 
fay from experience in the Word, and from the na- 
ture of the plague, and other grounds, It is neither 
the ordinary fpot nor rod of His Children ; and if at 
any time it be, it doth fpeakout readily much fpiri- 
tuall pride > felf feeking, lightnefle* fecurity, wan- 
tonneffeof fpirit, ignorance and conceitedneffe joyned 
with it>want of exercife,or fomeone thing or other of 
w , that kind. And, as we hinted, when they are ovcr- 

bel \ mfli £a ^ en> we wi 'l noc rcac ^Y find * n Scripture that fuch 
tniucb evils arc heads to promote and carry on the defign of error. 
uftudly the ^Jft rt 'l* When a Believer falleth in fuch an evil,the 
Lord Hnuu ^°rd ufually chafteneth him, either with more grofle 
larly cbaftc* out-breakingsi or with fomefharp way of reftoring, 
vetb ibcmjorot with removal under a cloud , without much (tta 
the (me. evi * 

Part l . A Trtatife concerning Scandal. J £7 

evidence of recovery, as we fee in the cafe of Solomon, 
who became fome way guilty of this ill, of whofc re- 
covery the Scripture is very filent, even though his fin 
be fully recorded, and the remainders of his idolatry 
are marked to be (landing in the dayes of Hc^fyab ; 
and indeed there is but little on record in Scripture of 
the recovery of thofe that have been carried fo away, 
though we may judge charitably of fome of them in 
the general : The Lord wifely ordereth this, partly>as 
a chaftcning to them , partly,as a warning to others, 
and to make all men, especially Believers, to fear, and 
to take heed left they fall 5 becau(e> recovery is not (b 
eafie, and even they that are Ipiritual may be tempted, 
Gallat.6. I. 

JJfer.q. Thefe that are fpreaders of errour,do moft vf ua u y COf ^ 
frequently fct upon thefe who have fome profeflion ru p t ttacher$ 
of Religion, more than upon others who walk not f e t mere ro- 
under that name. For* the fpreading of groffe errour, on profeflors 
although it do not carry away many really godly, to withdraw 
nor finally any at all, yet doth it often prove dnetbem than 
moft Searching triall to them, and doth prove exceed* others that 
ingly ftrong and fucceffefull againft many unhum-*^' fnfif* 
bled Profeflbrs. fion although 

There are two things comprehended here, i.That '* cb f may all$ 
this tentation to errour doth often prevail more b€ l an t on * 
among Profeffours , and doth prove a (tumbling to 
them.morc than any other groffe pra&ices ; they may 
ftand out againft thefe, and yet be prevailed over 
by it. 

2. Itcomprehendeth thisalfo , that this tentation 
of errour doth rather attempt the gaining of thefe 
that are eminent for profefTion> than others who have 
no fuch name, although fuch fometimes may be car- 
ried alio away therewith. We fee that thefe Nicolai- 
tans , and falfe Apoftles , and the propheteffe Je^?- 
hcl y are not teaching nor feducing heathens , but the 
Church of Chrift , and fuch as he calleth His Ser- 
vants, %v. i. 20. which may take in even fuch as 
M 4 eminently 

|68 ufTreatife concerning S cand al^ Part f. 

eminently gave out themfelves to be Chr ifts Servants ; 
yea, it is clear, that neither did this errour have fuch 
fucceffe amongft heathens, as amongft Chriftians, 
nor did the teachers thereof fo intend the leaving of 
them, as they did vehemently endeavour the corrupt- 
ing of the Church ; we fee it alfo in other Churches* 
Was there any Church more (hining with gifts than 
that of CWw*&? and yet there did falfe Apoftles 
breed great diftra&ions and opppfition to the Apoftle 
Paul, and that as taking occafion from the giftednefs 
and eminence of that Church beyond others, to 
drive on that defign. Again, was there any Church 
that did more tenderly receive the Gofpel> than thefe 
ofGalatia} as we may fee from chap* 4.1 4 1 5. They 
received him as an Angel of God , and as Chrift Je- 
fus , they would have plucked out their own eyes tor 
him; and yet there is no Church fo foonftiaken and 
infe6bd by corrupt teachers r and fo bewitched with 
them and their tentations , as we may gather from 
chap. 1 ♦ 6. chap. 3. 1,2. and throughout the Epiftle : 
It is like the devil took occafion of their warmneffe 
inflantly to fet upon them before their fetling, trore 
than on other places or Churches,where luck hopeful 
beginnings did not appear ; And thus we Ice in ex- 
perience daily , that where profanity aboundeth, 
there arc fcwer onfets to tempt to errour , and lefle 
fucceffe , than where the Gofpel hath had more wel- 
come and fruit ; as it were , the devil bendeth this 
tentation againft the laft, with more vehemencie and 
fubtilty, than he doth againft the former : for which 
we may give thefe Reafons , 1. His hatred is moft 
at them, and he would faineft have them overturned. 
2. Becaufe he hath other baits that are more fuitable 
to profane men : and fo long as they are his , he doth 
not fo much feek to engage them by this , for that is 
no gain to him. 3. Becaufe efpecially , thefe who 
have a form of Religion, if withall weak in know- 
led gcare moft capable, in fome reipeft, of acentation 


Part ?. tsfTreatifir concerning S c an da L. H$9 

toerrour ; for, profane men % care rot ( hkcGallio) 
what be truth , and what be erroui ,* buc a poor foul 
that hath fome confcicnce , is ready to debate > and 
defireth the truth to be cleared , and when not fo 
ftrongas to rid it felt , it is readily drawn away like 
thefe filly women Taut fpeakethof. zTtm. 3, 6 7. 
who were ever learning , and never able to come to 
the knowledge of the truth. 4. Becaufe grofleten- 
tations to profanity (wherewith others are carried 
away) are not fo taking with them, therefore the 
devil elfayeth the m with errour under colour of fome 
truth, or new difcovery of fome more ftrift and holy 
way , which often prevaileth when the other would 
not. 5. Becaufe it is moft advantagious toerrour, 
and make it digi ft with others, to have one of name 
or parts , or piety for it , this being ordinary among 
moft men to look more to theie who maintain fuch 
a thing, and what fuch a man thinkcthot it> than 
tothe thing it 'ft If. Therefore doth the devil drive 
this as a main defign whereby he may prevail over 
many ; this was ever a great mean made ufe of to in- 
duce to ej:rour> that many who were accounted god- 
ly > did imbrace the fame , a* may appear from the 
hiftoriesof the ^{oVatians^ ftonatifls and others, who 
called themfelves the pw e and holy Church of Martyrs, 
and took other fuch like titles in oppofition to the Or- 
thodox Church, whom they accounted carnall ; and 
by this mean they did branglc many. 6 He doth 
this alfo, that he may divert the exercifes of thefe that 
lookhoneft like from felf-fearching repentance t^c^ 
that if he cannot get them engaged to errour, he may 
bring them , at leaft, to difpure truth , whereby he 
effayeth to extinguifti the former conviftion, or to 
give it a wrong mould before it be fetlcd ; or to keep 
them, as it were? taken up about the (hell, while he 
intendeth to rob them of the kirnelland fo one way 
or other , if he gain not all, he doth yet difquiet 
them, and vveary them by wakening of queft ions 


170 ATrettife concerning S c A N d a 1 • Part 5 . 

and debates , which are without their reach , and 
poffibly alfo beyond their ftation. 


HoV? it is that groffe deltijions may come to fuch 
height % as they often do. 

IT may be alfo queftioned , How it cometh that 
fuch abfurd errours can come to fuch a height, 
and prevail fo againft the Church ? Or , what 
•way the devil by corrupt teachers doth fo delude 
Profeflbrs ? 

There are fome reafons that are more generall, and 
others more particular and ufefull in the confederati- 
on of them for pra&ice; that we may not be igno- 
rant of the devils devices,we (hall infift moft in thefe, 
all of them may be drawn to three heads. 1. The 
Lords over-ruling, holy, juft and wife (though of- 
ten fecret ) way of punifhing mens ingratitude. 
2. There is fomething in the devils way of carrying 
on the tentation. 3. There is fomething in the di- 
ftempcr of Churches and perfons to be confidered : 
Which three* being put together , will make it not 
feem ftrange that the moft groffe and abfurd errour 
prevail, Forthefirft, The Lord hath an over-ruling 
hand in fuch a defign, which is partly, to try his own, 
therefore hcreficsmuft be, 1C0r.11.19. partly,. to 
puniQi the generation of ungrate hypocrites > who 
receive not the love of the truth , as it is , 2 Thejf. 2. 
in both which he is to be glorified, cither in his grace, 
or juftice, or both : Now thefe being the Lords de- 
signs, the abfurder that the errour be, it attaineth his 
end the better • and appearcth to be the more judicial- - 
like, as by comparing^ 1/4.44.18,19. and %»*i.2i,, 
25, 28, &c. and zTbef. 2. 10, 11, 12. is clear. AH 
which places fpeak not only of the moft groffe fpiri- 
tuall abominations, but of the Lords judiciall hand 
therein. If 

■■ ■ ' 

Part 5. A Trettifc concerning Scandai] Tj\ 

If it be asked, What band the Lord can have in yyfaxbtnl 
fuch a plague ? Or , how He may be laid to fend it 'i X btUti msy 
jlnfto. It is not lo much to our purpofe here , to dif have in fuA 
pute the Qucttion of Gods providence in fuch a£ti* * {lagic* 
ons > But tor clearing of this realon, we may lay 
downthele grounds, 

1 . There are Ipiritual plagues , wherewith God 
juftly punifheth the ingratitude and other fins of peo- 
ple, afwell ai there are external and corporal plagues; 
thefc places cited, //i.44. 18, T9>%»,i.2i. iTfajJ.z. 
10,11. ^eV.7,8, and9» Chapters, and almoftthat 
whole Book doth confirm this: only this would be 
adverted , that moft ordinarily groffe praftices , as 
adultery, murther, unclcanncffe of all forts , are pu- 
nifhments for abufing the light of nature , as may 
be gathered from fywa.i. 21. 25. 28. But to be given 
up to ftrong delufion > and to believing of lies , is a 
plague that ordinarily followes the abuie of the light 
of the Goipel , as we may fee from 2 Tbej]\ 2. 9, 1 o. 
and this may be one reafon , why more commonly 
fuch groffe fcandals and pra&ices abound , where 
theGofpelisnot, oratleaft, isinleffe power, and 
why errour prevaileth moft , where theGofpel hath 
been, oris with more clearnefle* becaufc they are 
plagues to fuch refpe&ivcly. This J fay, it is moft ge- 
nerally, though it be not alwayes and univcrfally, 
efpecially where there arc fome other concurring rea- 
fons to make a difference. 

2. We fay , that the Lord is no leffe juft , holy 
and pure in punifhing men with fuch plagues , than 
when He maketh uic of lome other rods or judge- 
ments, neither is there any thing in this to be attri- 
buted to Him, that is unbecoming His abfolute pu- 
rity and holincffe. For, 1. He doth not punifh any 

with this plague, but fuch as have by their former 
abufeof light and other mifcarriages juftly deferved 
the fame. 2, He doth notinfufe any malicioufneffe 
in the heart, nor increase what was, but juftly permits 


4 ' — ' 

x 7 * A Trettift concerning S c a k D A i • Part 3 T 

what is to break out>and overules the fame forHis juft 
ends. 3. He doth not ftrain them to any fuch courfe, 
but doth make ufe of their own willingnefle there- 
unto, and of their free choofing to follow fuch a way 
for the glory of His juftice. 4* He doth not con- 
nive at, nordifpenfe with the finfull practice of any 
inftrument , but doth really abhor , and will alfo fe- 
verely puniffi the fame* So , that as the fame aflf 
hath a twofold confideration , to wit, as it is fin* 
full, and as it is penall, So it is diverfly to be afcribed, 
to wit , in the firft refpeft, to man only ; and in the 
laft, to Gods overruling providence , who can bring 
good out of evil , feing there is nothing fo evil , but 
He can bring fome good out of it > and make it fub- 
fervient to Him. otherwife He that is Omnipotent and 
only wife* would never fuffer it to be. 

$♦ We fay,although the Lord be not>neither can be 
acceffory to this delufion, as it is finfull, (for this im- 
poffibility belongeth to His infinite and bleffed per- 
feftion ) yet hath He a juft hand in the complexed 
defigne , which doth add exceedingly to the ftrength 
of the delufion. As , 1 . He may juftly give the de- 
vil way to fet on with his tentations, at one time, and 
on one perfon , more than at another time , or in re- 
ference to an other perfon , as by proportion we may 
gather from the cafe of Job. 2. He may furnifh 
men with gifts that are of themfelves good, and juftly 
permit them to ufe the fame , for the promoving of 
errour; this hath been often exceedingly inftrumen- 
tall , in the furthering of Satans defign in all ages, 
wherein he hath made ufe of fome great Schollers,and 
men of fubtile wits to oppofe the truth , and to per- 
vert the Scriptures of God, as is clear in all the he- 
refies that ever have been ; and this is no lefle juft in 
God, to furnifh with parts, an inftrument of a fpi- 
rituall plague , than to give ftrength and power to 
fome whom he imployeth, in temporall judgements* 
who alfo may be found guilty before him > for aba- 

part 3 • *A Thatife concerning Scandal.' 173 

fingof the fame Hence it is faid , 2 Tfreffl 2.2. that 
there is not only a Kord and letter to (hake the minds 
of people at fuch a time , but there is al(o a Spirit or 
gift in an eminent degree , and therefore it is called, 
ver. 10. All deceivableneffe ; and, noqueftion, thefe 
that called themfelves Apoftles , 2 Cor. n # 13. and 
made T <*«/'$ gifts to be accounted weak in refpeft of 
theirs , had more than ordinary gifts ; and in this re- 
foeft, fometime the Lord faith, a falfe Prophet might 
foretell fomething that wastocometopaffe; and fo 
truly have an extraordinary gift, when yet the Lords 
defign is by (iich, to try the peoples adherence to him, 
S)eut. x 3.1,2,3, Thus often promovers of errour may 
be gifted with ability to reafon , make querecs, fliift 
arguments and places of Scripture, preach well, pray 
well with a great deal of eloquence, and liberty of 
plaufiblc expreffions , yea , they may poffibly not 
want, as it were, figns and wonders ( as in the place 
formerly cited ) and yet the Lords end be to try , as 
is faid : of this .fort are fuch as are fpoken of, 2 Pep. 
3. 1 6» Who *foreft or pervert Scripture to their oVtn de~ 
jlruBion\ it is a ftrange word, they are unlearned and 
unftable, ( and, it may be, are crying down learning 
in others ) yet,faith he, they have a dexterity to Krefl 
the Scriptures , to coin new interpretations , poffibly 
never heard of before, to the admiration of others. 
And what is the confequent thereof? h is tkir$^n 
deflruttion. It had been advantage to many fuch 
themfelves and others alfo, that they had never had 
fuch a gift. 3. The Lord alfo may fomeway arme the 
devil , as H is executioner to carry on this defign , by 
furnithing him with fuch inftruments , giving him 
time, opportunities and occafions to tempt, andfuf- 
fering him in many things to prevail : thus, 2 Tbefa. 
Satan is faid to have a power, and to exercife the 
fame, by bringing forth of lying wonders ; and , no 
quefiion , the devil when he getteth way, may do 
much, when it is faid that he put it in the heart of Ju- 


1 74 *A Tredtife concerning Scandal. Part £ 

dds to betray his mafter, who yet was furnifhed with 
parts > and admitted into Chrifts company by Him- 
felf ; all which was fubfervient to carry on the devils 
and the Pharifees defign , of betraying the Lord ; 
which.notwithftanding, tended to the greater ruine of 
his own kingdom. 

4* In fiich a cafe alfo, the Lord doth juftly deprive 
mcn,whom He mindeth to plague with that delufion, 
of thefe means, which might be ufefull to difcern 
and refift the (ame. As, I. he may take away all 
outward reftraints , which ufually keep corrupt 
teachers from open and profeffed fpreading of their 
errours ; and in His providence , give them full way 
to multiply, and avowedly to purfue their defign. 
This is to pluck up the hedge , Ifa. 5. and co fuflfer the 
winds to blow, %i>. 7. which are ever great inlets 
to this judgement of delufion, when, to fay fo, there 
is a floud fpewed out, and there is no earth to help 
the woman* and to dry up thac floud. 2. He may 
take away prime lights and guides , which are ufe- 
full to keep people right ; or, if they continue, he may 
fuffer jealoufie, divifion and other things to interveen 
fo, that thereby their weight and authority is leffencd 
to fuch perfons : in which refpeft , Mob becometh 
jealous of Micajah , whereby the devil hath occafion 
to make the lies of the falfe Prophets the more to be 
commended to him. 3. The Lord may withdraw 
the light that perfons have (and, it may be,fome com- 
mon gifts of the Spirit ) and by depriving them of 
that, they become the more obnoxious to tentation, 
although it may be thev think themfelves wifer , and 
more underftandingthan they were: thus the Apoftle 
calleth the GaUHans foolifhand bewitched , Gal. 3. 
1,2. as having fallen from that light which at firft 
they had. 4. He may remove common conviftions 
of the Spirit.and challenges of a nacurall confeience* 
fo that they may go on in their delufion without a 
challenge; yea, (askisfaid, Job. 16. z.) think that 


Part 3. A Treat ife concerning Scandal. 175 

they do God good fcrvicc in fo doing : this is, to have 
the conference feared with an hot iron, iThn.q. 2. 
that waiteth upon feducing Spirits ; and thus we fee, 
that the moft vain and reafonlcffe confidence doth of- 
ten wait upon the foulcfterrours, as, I/i. 44. 9. unto 
20. This is called , GaL 5. 8. a perfodjion in refpeft 
of its confidence, which yet cometh not of (god. 
And the Lord may not only juftly deprive of fuch 
common gifts, but even of ordinary reafon and judg- 
men t, whereby men become, at leaft , in the prote- 
ction of their errours, abfurd and unreafonable, 
without all capablnefle of feeing the weight of a rea- 
fon , or receiving a conviftion , or obferving their 
own folly , and to carry without all refpeft to credit* 
honefty, good manners , and fuch things as are even 
refpefted among civil men ; yea, fometimes without 
refpeft to their own eftatcs, or their own pcrfons, as 
we may fee in the prophets of 2W, ilQng.1%. and 
many others in Antichrifts kingdom; thefe are called 
by the Apoftle, 2 Tbejf. 3. 2. unreafonable, or abfurd 
beaftly men, as if they wanted reafon : this is alfo a 
companion of delufion, and a piece of Gods judge- 
ment > as is clear from that of If a. 44. The Lord 
thinking good, for the abufe of light, to deprive men 
of reafon, as he did ^ebucbadne^ar, whereby the 
vileft and abfurdeft tentations have accefletometi, 
(that otherwayes may be reafonable ) to carry them 
on with greedineffe, and without all reluftance or 

5. When men are in the Lords juftice thus de- 
prived, and being fet upon with the tentation, which 
he hath letten loufe upon them , the Lord may in His 
providence trytt many things that may be abufed, for 
the carrying on of this judgement , As, ft« he may 
tryft fuch a perfon with fuch a tentation , to live in 
fuch a place, to have fuch acquaintance, &c. 2. He 
may tryft fuch a tentation to fall in fuch a time , as 
there is noexccrnall a\v- band to reftrain ; yea, in his 


Jj6 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part <(• 

vrifdom, ordT it fo, as that then there may be many 
occafionsof (tumbling amatg the Profeffors of the 
truth, what by fcandals in pra&ice , what by divi- 
(ion and other dift m^ers, as the way of truth may 
be ill fpoken of by many; and the Ordinances in 
that refp?& made vile , as is laid in the cafe of Elie*5 
fons, vSam. u Somnimehe miy tryft fuch tentati- 
ons with fome igiorant, unskilfiill indeKterous hands, 
who may ratner harden than help any in the remov- 
ing of their doubts : Th^fe and many fuch like things 
may the wile and jult Lord order in His providence, 
which may be as tnares and (tumbling-blocks to 
proud fecure hypocrits. who by their corruption may 
fallthereon; yea, fometimethe very Ordinances and 
theexercifing of them, to wit, the Word, Sacra- 
ments and Difcipline » may, through mens corrupti- 
ons, be (tumbled at more than if they were not ; in 
this fenfe , when the Lord reproveth the unfaithfull 
Prophets and Priefts, Jer. 6, 14. and the peoples not 
hearkening to his faithfull Prophets,ver.i7. although 
they keeped the form of Religion , ver. 20. he doth 
threaten to lay ftumbling-blocks before them, upon 
which they fhould fall . ver. u. All which and ma- 
ny moe wayes, (as fometimes following oferrour 
hath applaufe attending it, as, 2 Urn. 4. 1. Some- 
times it hath gain waiting upon it , as* 2*?^. 2. j. 
lTim. 6. 10. a-id Sal. 6 12. Philip. 3,19. ) beinsj 
tryfted in the Lords jutt providence, have often much 
influence, through mens corruption, to make delufion 
the more fucceffe full. 

6. Befidethefe, the Lord hath a judiciallupgiving 
of proud, corrupt men , unto the hands of fuch ten- 
rations : fo that when, as it were, the devil fetteth on 
by fuch a blaft of wind, and feeketh to winnow fuch 
and fuch per fons, the Lord doth, as a juft judge, fen- 
tence them to be committed thereto , as to the execu- 
tioner of His juftice ; in this fenfe, he is faid to gi\>e 
them up : and in this refpeft, fuch defe&ion, as it is a 


Part i* A Treafife concerning S c and a, vl 177 

punifhment, is judicially permitted and ordered by 
Him, who willingly and purpc fly Sentenctth luch 
perlbns to be lb given up, becauteof former fins, 
whereas others whom He doth not (o Sentence, arc 
not fo carried away with that fame tentation. 

Alfo the Lord, who is wondcrfull in counfl 1 , and 
whofc wayes and judgements arc paft finding out, 
may have many other wonderfull and inconceivable 
wayes in the carrying on of thi> judgement ", for, if all 
His judgements be a great depth , much more arc 
His fpiricuall judgements. It is upon this ground, to 
wit, the confidering of the Lords juft feverity of con- 
cluding all under tin, all in unbelief, of the rej^&ing 
of the Tews Src. that the A poftlc doth cry out, the 
depth of the ricbes y both of the "toifdom and kjiotyledge of 
God ! Hfllfo unfearcbable are bit judgements , and hU 
Ibayes pafi jindtng out ? Therefore we (hall fearch no 
further in this. Only , from what is faid, we may fee, 
that the Lord hath a jaft hand in the over-ruling of 
fuch delufions ; and alfo , that they cannot but be 
ftrong and fucceflefull which are guided fo , as to be 
executioners of His juftice 5 this alfo may make men 
tremble the more, confidering that the opening up of 
fluces, to let in the fpait of delufion , is no leffe Gods 
judgement* and no leffe to be feared, than the fending 
of Sword or Pettilencc , or the opening up the foun- 
tains of the great depths, to let in a deluge upon the 
earth ; and were men fo looking on it, and affe&ed 
with it, it might poffibly be much more bounded. 

How errour may be knoVen to be a judicial I ftrofa 
andrvhj the Lord fmiteth with it. 

IT may be asked here , 1. How errour may be 
known to be a judgement or judicial! ? And, 
a« for what caufe molt ordinarily the Lord doth 
lend fuch a judgment ? 

N Yti 

1 78 ji Treat ife concerning S c a n d a i • Part 3 1 

We cannot infift in every occurring Queftion.j 
Yet to the firft , We fayi 1. there is no crrour or de- 
lation, but may be well accounted penall and judici- 
ally either as to the pcrfons who fall therein , and 
vent the fame, or as to others who may be infefted 
therewith , ( although it may be but a triall in refe- 
rence to fome ) for* blindnefle of mind was a fruit 
2nd confequent of the firft fin , and followeth not 
only as a fin , but as a punifhment upon all the chil- 
dren of Adams houfe. And therefore as in fome re- 
fpeft, all following fins may be accounted pun ifh- 
mentsof the firft , this may be fo in a fpeciall man- 
ner. 2. Befide this generall confederation , it is of- 
ten the punifhment of fome fpeciall fins, and in fome 
cafes is more judiciall and penall than in other cafes, 
as may be gathered from thefe Gharaflers. I. When 
in the nature of it, k is very abfiird and unreafonable* 
asisfaid, fuch as thefe delufions of the Kkolaitam 
were,becaufe in fuch delufions the judgement of God 
doth efpecially appear, when they cannot be though* 
to be confequent in any reasonable way , or, to flow 
from common infirmity. 2. When the perfons that 
vent it, are, in refpe& of their converfation , parts* 
place drprofeffion, fomeway eminent > a9was for- 
merly cleared , becaufc fo the tentation feemcth to be 
armed of the Lord , which ufually is not for nought. 

3. When it is tryfted with fuch a time and with fuch 
circumftances as hath teen defcribed ; fonfuch things 
happen not by chance , but arc ruled by providence. 

4. When it breaketh in violently , and, it may be, 
carrieth away fome whom men would not have fuf- 
pe&ed , that is judiciall-like , when, as it were, ths 
Dragon with his tail and fubtility , doth bring ftars 
from heaven , and furprife fome that thought them- 
ftlves without the reach of fuch a tentation. 5. It 
may be known by the gifts ( to'fpeak fo) of fuch as 
carry on the fame 5 for, as in carrying on the work of 
the Gofpel, the Lord doth furniflh His Minifters, with 


Patt J . A Tr**tifc concerning ScANDAli *79 

fcifts and painfulncfs,when He hath to do witn c K m; 
So,upon the contrary, when He hath a work ot judg- 
ment on the wheels , and the devil a defign of carry- 
ing-on dclufion , the inftruments are ficte i propor- 
tionably , to wic > there is a zeal carrying them hre 
and che re , So that by all means , as it were , they 
compafle fca and land to make Profelytes ; there is 
dexterity , quicknefle and nimblneffe in ftarting of 
doubts* wrcftingof Scripture>&c. as is faid ; and 
there is a fort of patience in enduring , boldneffe and 
confidence in attempting, andjbme fuccefle, as in the 
cafeof thefal'ePiophetsastairfft Mica'jaby i l{ing % it. 
and againft Jeremiah % Jer. 29. When, I fay, cor- 
rupt inftruments are fitted by thefe and fuch like 
means, it is probable> that the Lord intrndeth ibme- 
thin? by them which they themfelves do not minde. 
6. It is judicull-ltke, when it tryfteth on the back 
of a peoples having the truth , and being unfruitful! 
under it, becaufe » fo it fpeaketh out the very end of 
its appearing ,. cfpecially , if there be in people an 
itching- new- fanglneffe after novelties, and if there 
have been needlels and atfe&ed itirings andqueftion- 
ings ai>out I Her truths, If then greater delufion come, 
it doth look judiciill like, as being a ftroke for their 
former unfettlednede ; 'hisi- to give men up to heap 
up teachers to themlelves , that have itching ears, 
3 Tim. 4. 3. and this is, to give men teachers accord- 
ing to their own hearts, that themmay be like people 
like priefts, which is often thwURned by che Lord. 
And thus of old, when che people began to milcarry 
in the wilderneffc , in reference to the fecund Com- 
mand, He gave them up to worfhtp the hoaft of hea- 
ven, and to mifcarry inthefirtt. as is memione3, 
Ach-j. 4,r. 7. It a^peareth to be judicial! indeed 
when it doth hurt, either by corrupting; ofr truth, or 
maringof uniry or wakening ot divifions,&c. which 
a e confequeuts of the full four trumpets that bring 
fciritual plagues, %*. 8. Theie and fuch like chara 

* So A Trcntife concerning Scandal: Part f. 

fters may fufficiently convince that the Lord isangry. 
Wbitcmfet r To the fecond we may foon anfwer : And, i. we 
d* moft «r- ky» ^ac fuch a plague is not theconfequent of com- 
dinarilypro- mon out-breakings and fins of infirmity ; Nor , 
gure this 2 - of ingratitude for , and abufe of , common 
fUgueof mercies j Nor, 3. ordinarily is it the punilh-s 
dclufm, ment of groffe fins of the fleflh, to fpeak fo ; for, this 
is rather a fruit of that : but it doth follow upon,; 
t. the abufe of fprkuall mercies, fuch as the light 
of the truth of the Gofpel , fleighted convi&ions , 
fmothcred challenges?, broken pfomiles made for fur- 
ther Reformation, ancf fuch like 1 as may be gathered 
from 2 Tbeffl 2. 9, 10. 2. It followeth upon fpiritu- 
allfins, fuch as Ipirituall pride, fecurity, hypocrific 
and formality , keeping up of the form without the 
power, having truth but not the love thereof, as in 
the place formerly cited , and elfewhere. 3. There 
are forne fort of diftempers , which efpecially procure 
this, befide others. As, 1. an itching humour, that 
beginneth to loath the fimplicity of truth, 2. A ha- 
ftie partial humour that cannot abide found Do&rine, 
if it benot fomeway curioufly dreft , efpecially if it 
reprove their mifcarriages: both which are fpoken o£ 
2 Tim.4. 3; 3. There is a proud felf- conceitedneffe, 
Whereof the Apoftle fpeaketh, 2Tw*. 3,4, w hcn 
perfons are felfie > proud , boafters, &c. fuch are a 
ready prey to fuch tentations. 4. Little refpedfc to 
faithfull Minifter^fept preach truth, may procure this 
plague , to get Paftors according to their own heart, 
and judgements that are not good, as the Lord threat- 
neth, £j^$. 20. and is threatned by the Lord, Job. 5. 
ver. 43. IbaVe come in my Fathers Name, and ye ba\>e not 
received me; if mother (hall come in his oWnnme, him 
Kill ye recehe. y. It may be procured by lightnefle 
and unftablneffe, when folks goe vainly beyond their 
reach to feek or meet a tentation, the Lord juftly may 
fmite them with their own fin; and thus reading of 
corrupt books, hearing of corrupt preachers , con- 

Part 3. 'A Treatife concerning S c A n d a t T I 1 * 

verfing with corrupt men , and fuch like, which the 
Lord nath comanded to efchew, doth not only prove* 
in Gods righteous judgement > a fnare or raids of 
folks infnaring>but alfo the procuring deferving caufc 
of being given up co that delufion, which they make 
themfelves obnoxious to, by going without His call, . 
although,at firft>po(Iibly there was no pofitive affe&i- 
on to that way , but, it may bcthe contrary ; even as 
fuppofe one hazarding, contrary to the Command, to 

§0 nigh the door of the adulterous womans houfe , 
lould for that caufe be given up to fall in her fnare 
and to enter, although at firfthe did not intend it* 
as thefe places do infinuatc > Pro*. 5« 8. and 6, 26,27, 
28. where he faith,to this purpofe, that a man cannot 
take fire in his bofome and not be burnt, &c And 
itisfaid, ^rov. 22. 14. fuch as arc abhorred of the 
Lord, (hall fall in chat pit. 6. There is a jangling 
queftioningftrain ; this often brings on this ill, when 
all truths are not received , but folks begin to caft at 
the leffer truths } this procureth delufion in a greater 
height , as is faid, becaufe every truth is precious, and 
when men become untender in the fmalleft truths, 
(if any may be called fo ) it is juft with God to de- 
prive them of all , even as fmaller fins in pra6tice, 
being connived at, do bring on more groffe outbreak- 
ing^ : and thus the vifible Church, by her declining 
from the truth , in the Primitive times, and becoming 
more to be taken up with Ceremonies and other un- 
neceffary debates , did draw on upon themfelves An- 
tichrifts delufion at length : of this fort are ignorance 
in the fundamentall truths , that doth proceed from 
negligence , little love to , and delight in, the Word 
and Ordinances , little bemoaning of the falls and 
mifcarriages of others , when we hear them to be 
overtaken with fuch fnares^and many fuch like things 
might be named , but we will not infift further. 

We come then to the fccond thing propofed , and 

that is to confider how corrupt Teachers Jo carry on 

N 2 their 

r jt8» A Tnatife concerning Scandal Part 3 » 

their defign \ and what means the dfcVil ufeth by them 
to prevail with poor fouls , tor tocaft at the truths of 
God, and to drink up the mottabfurd dciufions : 
and although we cannot reach Satans depths > he ha- 
ving much fubtilue, and many wiles, to carry on 
his deligne , as it is, 2 Cor. 11,3. and it is called, Epb m 
4^44., a cunning era ftinejfc, thereby they lye in "bait to 
deceive , Yet feing we ought not to be ignorant of his 
devices. 2 Cor. 2.1 1. We (hall gather fomethings from 
Scripture, that maybe ufefull to arm us againft the 
fame : and to take up his way the better , we may 
confider, !♦ The inftruments which he choofeth. 

2. The method that he keepeth in tempting by them. 

3. The means which he ufeth , or common places 
from which he draweth his arguments. 4. The man- 
ner howthefe are carryed on* 

Ty rvhat weans , and hoVv Satan drives on thii 
plague among people. 

I. £> Atan doth not act in this defign immediately I 
^S nor doth he aft indifferently by any inflru- 
•^ ment , but he hath his fpecial minijters, as it 
were> fet apart for that end ? as the A pottle fpeaketh 
2 Cor, 11.15. He hath many (ubjVcfcs indeed, but be- 
fidethefe, he hath fonie fpecial minifters for this dc- 
figne, as our bleffed Lord Jefus hath Minifters fpe- 
cially fet apart in His Kingdom. Concerning which 
wc: may obferve » 1 . That he employeth fome more 
eminenrly to traffique, as it were, in this very imploy- 
ment who,by compafling fea and land, and travelling 
to and fro, may further his defignc> fuch were thefe 
who were called falfe&poftlesj 2 Cor. 11. i*. '^fVe/. 
2> ?. and in the hiftory of the AiU we will find fuch 
coming from one pi ice to another , as from Jerufalem 
to Antk*h> Atl> 15. anddfewhere, purpofly to fpread 
their errours, as the A pottles did travel tor preaching 
the truth. 2. He hath particular in(huments,preach- 


Part 3 • A Treatife concerning Soandal. 1 8 J 

ing in particular places, that are* as it were, his mini- 
fters of (uch and fuch bounds, as in the place cited. 
3. Befidethefe, he hath ftickling underhand-dealers, 
who,not appearing openly, yet creep into houfe's, and 
ordinarily he hath fome women, who are fpecially 
employed in this , as he hath Jezebel the Propheteflfe 
in the Church of Tbydrir^Rty. 2. and fuch he had 
in the primitive herefies, particularly one of the Mon- 
tanifts, becaufe fuch are often vehement in what they 
are engaged in , and have accefle to pervert and fe- 
duce, which others cannot eafily have; his aflifting 
of them withall to fpeak fomctimes to the admirati- 
on of others,feemech more wonderful like; 4. Whom 
ever he maketh ufe of, they are fomeway fitted (to 
fay fo) for the defigns they are employed in, although 
their manner of carrying on thefe defignes may be 
diverfe, as experience fhoweth. 

2. In the method which he followeth , we will J^ dt * 
find this progrefle , I* He fetteth himfelf by all b f mtbo f 
means to make the Mini&rs of the truth odious and v P mw ** 
contemptible , and that either by crying down a Mi- * n & m 
niftery altogether , or making all indifferently to be 
Minifters, which is, upon the matter* one with the 
former : this vt?LsI(orab, (Datban, and dbirams fault, 
^timb.i6 9 which is applied to corrupt teachers, Jude 
11. or if that fail > he endeavoureth to make their 
perfons odious, who are in theflation : thus we fee, 
even Paul is traduced by thefalfe teachers of £V/W? 
and Galatia. The reafon of this, is, I. becaufe Mi- 
nifters are appointed , and gifts are given to men by 
JefusChrift,purpofely to guard the Church from be- 
ing toffed to and fro with corrupt Do&rinc , by the 
fleight of men , as it is Ephef. 4. 11, il, 13, 14. that 
he may therefore have the more eafily his will , he 
endeavoureth to brin^ the Watchmen in fufpicion, 
and to render them ufeleffe. 2. Teachers of the truth, 
and corrupt teachers cannot both together have 
peoples aifedtion , and no teacher readily will have 
N 4 Weight 

184 tATreatife concerning Scandal Part. 3 • 

weight , if he have not ajfe&ion from his hearers : 
Therefore he by all means endeavours to traduce Mi- 
nifters , that by excluding them > he may make way 
for his Emiffaries , for they are like corrivall wooers 
fuiting the fame Bride > So that both cannot have her 
afFe&ion , to this purpofe is the Apoftles word 9 Gal. 
4.17. they zealoufly affeft you, but not well > yea, 
they toould exclude yon; it is in the Originall, and on 
the Margent> they would exclude u&> ( that is, the true 
A pott les ) that you might ajfett them. And confider- 
ingthe great acceffe that the devil hath to deftroy, 
when once Miniftersare in contempt , it is no mar- 
veil he begin at the removall of this impediment out 
of his way; and feing he attempted this againtt the 
great ApoftleiW, fo often and frequently, it> can- 
not be thought ftrange that he feck to defame others. 
Uvw he ^ it be enquired how he profecuteth this ? We 
pr$jecutcihtttey obferve mele particular wayes ; As, I. Al- 
V. though he quefl ion not aMiniftery in the general* Yet 

he wakeneth Qucltions, 1. concerning the calling 
of fuch and fuchmen, if they be duly called Mini- 
sters or not ; thus Paul's Apoftleftiip is queftioned, 
becaufe he had not converfed^with the Lord; and for 
thhcaufe he is put, in theEpiftlestothe Corivtbians 
and GalattanSy fo largely to vindicate his Calling and 
Apoftlefhip, and to produce, as it were, not only his 
Commiflion, but the Seal thereof alfo , particularly, 
2 Cor. 3. 2, 3. and the occafion thereof is exprtfled, 
2 Cor. 1 g. 1. jince ye feek^ d proof of Qhrijl Jpea^ing in 
me- 2. He tndcavoureth the dilcrediting of their 
gifts, as if the nutter fpoken by them were common, 
their cxpnflions mean, and their carriage bafe and 
contemptible > as we may fee in the inftance of that 
fame great Apc<ftlc4W, 2 Cor. 10. 1. and 11. 6, he is 
called rude in fpecch* 3. This is efpecially by com- 
paring them with the fair ihewof corrupt teachers 
in their ffaur jfhing, fpiritual, ravifhing-like difcour- 
(ts, which arc by many counted myfteries, and are 


Part f. A Trtatife concerning S c a n d a 1 1 i 5j 

called depths, \rtel. 2. 24. The Lord indeed calleth 
them depths of Satan, but it is not to be thought that 
they themfelves meanedfo, who yet are (aid to give 
them the name of depths ; fometimes unconceivable 
non- fenle, will be admired, and plain truths and duty 
defpifed. 4. They cry- up cheir revelations and i pi- 
ritual attainments in an immediate manner beyond 
what is in the Minifters of Chrift: Therefore, 2 Cor. 
11.12. Paul is put to compare himfclf with them, and 
particularly in revelations and lingular manifeftati- 
ons of God to him« 5. They enclea vcur to make the 
Minifters of Chrift to be cftecmed covetous, felf-feek- 
ers, earthly-minded, and fuch like, becaufe of their 
taking wages to preach the Gofpel, as if they were 
qiaking a prey of the people, which is often obje&ed 
to the Apoftle, and anfwered by him in thefe Epiflles 
to the Corinthians. 6. When evidences fail, then they 
raife fufpicions of Minifters craftincfl'e and under- 
hand dealing , as if in every thing they were feeking 
their gain, as that Apoftle anfwerethit, 2^.12, 
16, 17. 7. Whatever the Minifters carriage be, they 
lie in wait to traduce it , if he be more meek and fa- 
miliar in his converfing , they fay he is a carnal man, 
a friend and lover of finners and corrupt men, as was 
faid of our bleffedLord ; if he be more auftere in 
checking their fauks,or retired in (hunning their com- 
pany,he is called intolerable and deviiifhly prcud, as 
was imputed to John ; if he take wages or gifts, he is 
accounted greedy and covetous ; if he refuie and ab- 
ftain,it is expounded to be want of love and refpeft to 
them,as was alfo faid of Paul vvhen he continued firm 
in his former refolution, 2 £br.i c.io ; 1 1. 8.They are 
ufually counted proud, exalters of themfelves above, 
and defpifers of, the people, and to take too much on 
them to the prejudice of the Flock , whofe liberty 
and priviledges corrupt teachers ordinarily pretend to 
vindicate againft Minifters tyrannous encroachments 
(as they fay ) This was pretended by I(orab } $>athan, 


I %6 A Trettifc concerning Scandal' Part 3 . 

and Jbiram againft Aaron , and was revived and fol- 
lowed in the primitive times by thefe compters, fpoken 
o^Jude 11. 9. They endeavour to have the people 
fufpe&ing the Minifters love to them, as 2 Cor. ttAti 
yea, that all his freedom to them, and his fpeaking 
againft their faults and errours is bkcerneffe , railing, 
and the like , which the Apoftle toucheth, Gal 4, 1 6. 
Am I therefore become your enemy, becaufe I tell you the 
truth i 10. It is ordinary to charge Minifters with 
lightneffe and changeablneffe,and that therefore much 
weight is not to be laid on them , for, they think one 
thing this year, (fay they ) and alter the next , when 
yet, it may be, edification hath moved them in fuch a 
change. 5 this hath been imputed to Paul, 2 Cor. 1 . 17. 
purpofedly to make his word to have little weight , 
and it is no marvell that that fame way be followed 
in reference to others* For this end alfo, where there 
is any perfonal fault in a Minifter, it is not paft over 
but exceedingly aggreaged ; yea, though it hath been 
in his youth, before his converfion or entry into the 
Miniftery, it is not forgotten, if it may fervc to defame 
the holy Calling : For preventing of this, it is re- 
quired of Minifters, that they be of good report y even 
among thofe that are without ; and it is like the falfe 
apoftles fpaired not to upbraid Paul with his former 
converfation and perfecution. n. Differences of 
judgement and divifions among Minifters, are much 
made ufe of for that end, even fometimes when they 
are but apparent : Thus Paul is faid to preach another 
doftnne, by the falfe teachers, than thofe at Jerufa* 
lem did , whereupon he is often put to (how the har- 
mony that was betwixt them , as particularly in the 
Epiftie to the Galatians • And Jofephus marketh, that 
jibab's falle teachers did oppofe Ehas his Prophecy 
(wherein it is faid that dogs (hould lick Mab's bloud 
at Je^reel ) to Micajah, who faid he ftiould die at %- 
moth-gilead ; Alfo, that others did harden Zedekia, by 
this that Ezctyel faid,thathe (hould not fee %abylov,znd 


Part 5 • e// Treatife cenccrning Scandal. i 87 

that Jeremiah faid he fhould be carried thereto; which 
they took to be contrary , and did thereby feek to 
defame the Prophets , and to weaken the efteemof 
their Prophecies ; and though there was no real dif- 
ference there, yet it (heweth how, and to what end, 
they lie in wait to aggreage the differences of God's 
Servants , though but apparent, which fhouid make 
Minifters carefully avoid thofe things* Again, fe- 
condly, Though , at firft, principal truths are not alto- 
gether and plainly denied , Yet by degrees he doth 
engage many , 1 . To rejed fome leffe fundamentall 
truths concerning Government , communion with 
others in the Ordinances 1 and fuch like. 2. He 
draweth them to fe par ate in praftice from the fellow- 
(hip of others, under the pretext of more purity and 
fpiritualncfle ; this feems to be expreft by Jude, v 19. 
Thtfe are tbeytobo feparatetbem[elVes } ftnfual, having 
not the Spirit , although it is insinuated that they did 
pretend to it : And indeed this way was followed in 
the firft herefies > which began at fmall things, as 
thofe of the NoVatians, 'Donattfls&c. who at firft only 
feparated to efchew the impurity of promifcuous 
communion. 3. He cometh then to quarrel exprefli- 
ons that are ufed by the Orthodox* and to commend, 
as it were, a new kind of language > for which caufe, 
the Apoftle commendeth the holding faft the form of 
found words, 2 Tim. 1 .1 3. And thefe corrupt teachers 
are faid to fpeak great fuelling toords of Vanity, and to 
have expreflions much more weighty like, than what 
formerly hath been ufed, Jade\6. Thus the Jrians 
will not admit the word o/xo*o7©-, or confubftantial, 
and a Council muft be called to lay by that : and fo 
they come toqueftion, in the next place, the Truth it 
felf, alleaging men arc tod confident to determine (uch 
things, It's not clear, much may be faid againftjr, 
and fuch like ; whereby, under pretext of doubting, 
they endeavour to awake fcruples in others, that they 
may be difpofed the more to admit of their rclolu- 



-f 8 S *A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part ?• 

tions* 4, Abfurdities arelaii down as confcquenccs 
that follow upon Truths and chus thedo&ritie of 
Providence* Ele&ion andReprobationv&c. are loa- 
ded with horrible confequences and abfurdities, pre- 
tended to follow on them,and fo the doftrine of Gods 
abfolutc Soveraignity,and Juftification by free grace, 
were loaded in the primitive times , as if thereby Paul 
had taught that men might do evil that good might 
come of it ; That the Law was wholly made void ; 
That men might fin fecurely , becaufe grace did fo 
much the more abound > as in the fecond, third, and 
ikth Chapters of the Epiftlc to the fymans, is clear. 
, j. He endeavoureth to dimintfh mens hatred and zeal 
againft errours and the moft abfurd opinions, that 
he may either obtain fome a&ual toleration to them, 
or, at leaft, keep offfuch hard conftru&ions of them ; 
for, if that be gained at firft , although errour get not 
a direct approbation, yet a great point is gained, if 
he can get fome to tolerate, and others to hear : Th js 
is condemned in the Church ofTbyatlra, that the Of- 
ficers fuffered Jezebel to teach , and that the people, 
who are there called Chrift's fervants, did counte- 
nance and hear her ; And it feems fome thing qf this 
was in Corinth , which maketh the Apoftle fay, that 
tVil communication corruptetb good manners , and that 
therefore men (hould not become cold in reference to 
errour , although they be not tainted with it, I Cor. 
I y, 33. And upon this ground the moft groffe Here- 
ticks of old and of late, as Socinians y Jrminians, thofe 
of the Family ofL&c y and others of that kind, have 
maintained a liberty in prophefying a problematick- 
neffe in the main truths of the Gofpel, and a tolera- 
tion in matters of doftrine, &c. as principles fub- 
fervient to their defign. 6* He proceedeth then to 
have the perfons of fuch as are tainted with errour, 
much bsloved and efteemed of by others , that there 
may be the more familiar acceffe to converfe with 
them , and the readier difpofition to receive their lea- 

Part 3 • A Treatife concerning S c a k d a l '. ^Rf! 

vcn from them : this he doth fometimes by making 
mens gifts in their quicknefle and nimblncfie to be 
commended > fometimes by the feeming gravity, au- 
ftcricy and holineffe of their carriage, for which 
caufe they are fa id to be Solves in /beeps cloatbing> Mat. 
7. and he is faid to transform himfelf into an angel of 
light, and his miniftcrs into the minifters of Chrift, 
2 Cor. 11. 14. Sometimes by flattery, and feeming 
fympathy and affeftion , for .which the lying Pro- 
phet is called the tail j and if it were by no other 
mean , he doth it by their reproaching of honeft 
and faithfull Minifters , and, it may be> hitting upon 
fome real ills among them , which is often but too 
too pleafing to the carnall humour of trie generality 
of people , as in the inftances formerly given is clear. 
Laftly , when this is obtained, then there is eafie ac- 
cede to make the moft groffe Doctrines and delufions 
to be drunken in , which at firft would have been ab- 
horred : by thefe degrees Antichrifts delufion came 
to its height, and by fuch fteps, fome, that at firft only 
Separated from the No^atians and Vonatifts y came at 
laft to that height of delufion , as to become Qmum- 
cellians ( a ftrange wild kind of delufion ) Antbro~ 
pomorpbits, and fuch like. 

3. The means and arguments that are ufed to carry ^ mgn 
on this delufion, are to be obferved , which are thefe ani ar . u<m 
or fuch like. I. The carriage and converfationof wcn u t b$t 
the abetters thereof, is made very plaufible, fair and ar e ufed t# 
approveable-like, that there may be no fufpicion of carry ontbic 
the devils influence on fuch a work ; Therefore they defign. 
are faid to be transformed into theMinifters of Chrift 5 
thus the Pharifees make long prayers, live auftere- 
ly»&c thereby to gain reputation to their traditions : 
for, the devil would mar all his defign, if he did not 
look like an Angel of light : yea, there will be much 
feeming like zeal, patience and fuffering in fuch, as 
may be gathered from 2 C0MI.23. and in experience 
it will be foundjthat the moft grofle Heretkks in do- 

ipd ATrettife concerning Scan dm. Part 5. 

ftrine,have had (at lcaft for a long time) a p reat (hew 
of holineffe before other*, as might beinftanced in 
the greaceft deluders. 

a. Ic is ufefull in thisdefign, to have fome that 
have Church- power, and beareth the name of Offi^ 
'w, engaged, that thev may come in , not under the 
name of Minifters of Sacan , but as it is , 2 C 0Y * l h 
*1* as Minifters of Ghrift ; and therefore! if no or- 
dinary call can be alleged by them , they readily dif- 
elaime all fuch > and yet pretend a calling to be 
Preachers of Chrift , of his Gofpel , and fuch like : . 
as we may fee by thefe falfe teachers of old, who cal- 
led themfelves Apoftlesand Propheteffcs , as having 
fome extraordinary call from God, thereby making 
Way for thetr delufionst 

3. They follow their defigns under a pretext of ad- 
vancing holineffe and fpirkuality, to a higher degree, 
and of having a more humble way of living, and of 
being a further length in high attainments, than other 
men can win at . 01 are capable of : thus fome are 
outwardly defpifers of all pride,and of giving refpeft 
to men , and that as the Affile faith, Col. 1. 18. by 
a fort of voluntary humility , and intruding upon 
things which they have nor feen»cafting, in the mean 
time, at common and plain truths. 

A 4. mean, is, the pleafi.ig of ears and itching 
humours, with great (welling words, new notions, 
and large difcourfes of non- fenfe delivered with great 
confidence , when as the Apoftle (aith , I Tim, 1. 7. 
They know not what they fay , nor whereof they 
affirm » yet often fuch difcourfes are fublimemvfte- 
rics to the ignorant,and fuch as loath the fimple truth. 

5. They make ufe of a pretext of good will and 
advanrage to thefe that they fpeak unto, as it is, 
${om. 16. 18. by good words and fair fpeaches they 
deceive the fimple, and by pretending to wilh their 
fouls well , and to pity their blindneffe and hafcard 
they are in > they cteep into their houtesand affefti- 

Part $. A Trutifi conctrttiMg Scandal, ij r 
ons> 2 Tiw* 5. 6. and lead fimple perfcns captive ; 
By this pretext, the fe rpent beguiled £ta atthefirfl, 

Sromifwg tome advantage by hearkening to hir»>and 
us way \> followed by corrupt teachers ttill> as it is, 
2 Cor. II. 3. 

6. Sometimes there is much more pretended flrift- 
neffe, efpecially in outward things: thus tome of old 
added the oblervacion of Mofts Law to the GofpeJ, 
as if that were a more perfeft and firjft way , and 
upon this ground have Jo many traditions been 
brought in into the Church. 
' 7. There is a pretending tomoreChriflian liber- 
ty and freedom from the bondage of Ordinances of 
whatever iort , To as men muft not be tycd to hear 
. preachings, keep Sabbaths > Pray, Prailfe andfuch 
like, which are (lay they) but formes and burthens 
to Saints, and unbecoming that freedom and fpiri- 
cualneffc that grown Believers fhould have. Thus 
fuch deceivers and thefe that are deceived with them, 
are fa id to promife liberty to whomfoever they pro- 
pofe their delufions , while in the mean time all of 
them are made fervants to corruption. 

8. There is great pretending to know Chrifts 
mind, and confident alleaging of the writings of His 
Apoftles, and that in a feeming convincing way; 
Thus , 2. Tbejf. 2. 2. there are mentioned Spirit, 
Word and Letter , as proceeding from^«/, whenas 
he himfelf is difclaiming fuch interpretations as they 
did put on him. 

9. They ufe to alleagc the authority of men, and 
to oppofe fuch to thefe who oppofe their errours: thus 
rhe Pharifees alleaged Mofes , and the N-icolaitans 
NicoUs $ and it is like* the falfe apoftles that came 
from jerufalem, did oppofe other Apoftles authority 
to tauk , as if they had preached nothing but what 
they preached in Jerufalem ; and very often the in- 
firmities of fome great men, are (tumbled upon , and 
made arguments againft truth. 

10. Many 

i?2 ts4 Treatifc concerning S c A * d a l . Part 3 \l \ 

10. Many are ftirred up to vent queries and capti- 
tious queftions, ( as often the Phanfees did, by fend- 
ing their eraiflaries to Chrift ) that feme advantage 
may be gotten that way > and thefe that are for truth 

if. Sometimes he maketh ufe of humane reafon, 
and cryeth down every thing that feemeth not con- 
fonant to it : upon which ground the refurrtftion was 
denied by the Sadduces, andfomcof the Corinthi- 
ans, 1 Cor. 1 5. and the moft fundamentall truths of 
the Gofpel > are by the Socinians and others unto this 
day. Sometimes again, all ufe of reafon , learning 
or prudence isdifclaimed ; in which refpe<5t 3 fuch men 
are called unreafonable , 2 Tbef, 3. and bruit beafts, 
sTtf. 2. zndjude,io 

12, They endeavour by all means to carry the fa- 
vour of the civil Magiftrates , and to have Minifters 
efpecially fuch as are zealous againft them, made 
hatefull and fufpe&cd unto them , and the gaining of 
this hath a double advantage with it to their caufe» as 
it ftrengtheneth it, and weakeneth the truth : this we 
feethefalfe Prophets did of old, 1 !(ing.2i. Jer.i6* 
jimos 7.10. and fo endeavoured the Scribes and Pha- 
rifees to engage the Romans againft Chrift , and 
againft His Apoftles ; So alfo did the Arrimt and 
other Hereticks , and fo hath Antichtifts emiffaries 
ever endeavoured to ftir up civil Magiftrates againft 
faithfull Minifters , as moft hatefull perfons: This 
they carry on by fuch like means. 1. They pretend 
to give the Magiftrates more fubmiflion , and charge 
faithfull Minifters with fleighting of their authority, 
for they know this to be a thing well pleafina to Ma- 
giftrates: Thus the faithfulnrffeofhoneft Minifters 
is accounted difobedience and hatred, and the lying 
flattery of fuch is given out for retpeft andobedi- 
tnee, fo was it in the cafe of MicajaK 2. They cry 
out upon faithfull Minifters , as factious and turners 
of the world upfide«down i fowers of fedition, as; 

Part 3 • A Treatife concerning Scandal. ' 193 

Ails 24. 5. troublers of the peace > who do keep the 
people in a continuill ftir,and croflc their defigns>and 
mur the abfoIutendTc of Migitiracy ; So, Elijah is 
counted an enemy co Abab, and a troubler of IfacU 
g. They venr many groundleffc calumnies againft 
them, as if they were guilty of many grofle evils; 
Thus Atbanaji/os and many others were charged by the 
jitidns, as murderers and a.lulcerets. and lome preten- 
ded proofs made thereof: Yea, it was ailcaged to Con- 
Jlantine, that A r t ban jjitu had medlcd with civil matters 
( which was derogatory to his authority ) by inhibi- 
ting all Corns to be exported from Egypt* 4. They 
bring the Mastltrates in tops with them, by appel- 
lations from Church- judicatories to them> and feem- 
ing to plead an abfolutenefle to Magtftrates in things 
Ecclefiartick 5 Thus Hereticks in all times havefhcl- 
tered themlelvcs under this pretext > till Magistrates 
declared againft them, and then they caft them off al- 
fb, as of lare in the practices of the Rodmans and Ay- 
minians hath been made out. 5. They reprcfent them 
to Magiftrates as utfufferable, in refpeft of their 
plain threatnings, and that fuch are not to be endured 
foto affront Authority, and to weaken thefe that 
profeffe fo much to ref pe& the fame ^ thus Amos is re- 
prefented , chap f 7. 1 o. by dma^tab Prieft of Bethel, 
and often Jeremiah is fo by the talfe Prophets in his 
time. 6* They propofe faithfull Minifters as unwar- 
rantably arrogating a kind of infallibility to them- 
felves, and thereby derogating from all others ; fo is 
that word , I f(jng. 22. What 'toay x»ent the Spirit of 
the Lord from me to you i and by a certain audacious 
confidence, feek, as it were, to put out faithfull Mini- 
fters as defpicable men , not worthy to be credited* 
as in the caie cited ; and Je**. 28. and elfewhere » and 
often by (uch means their insinuations and flitteries 
do exceedingly prevail tor promoving theirdtfigns. 
Jtugujline chargeth the Vonatt/ti with this, that in their 
- application to Julian , they ufed this phrafe , quoniam 

Ip^ sATrcatife concerning Scandal, Part 3; 

apud te folum juflitU babet locum: and this was (faith 
he ) when they knew he was an apoftat, Epift. \$. 
The manner The laft thing in this,is the manner how this defign 
ibw tbk de- is carried on by fuch corrupt teachers, which is not 
fignii earth alway the fame in all, and may in part be colle&ed 
cAm. from what is faid ; Yet we may name thefe particu- 
lars. I. It is covertly and fubt illy done > therefore 
they creep in with infinuations, looking far otherwife 
than they are. 2. It is done hypocritically, 1 Xjm.4. 
Tbeyjpea{ lies in hypocrite , and do pretend both to be 
Religious and friends to Religion and Truth, while 
they do fo. 3. It is done fomtimes vehemently, ask 
Were knocking with force at hearts , So it fhaketh the 
bearer by the bignefle of words , peremptorineffe of 
threatnings> confidence of Affertions, and vehemency 
in the manner , fo that it hath (as the Scripture faith) 
a ftrength and power with it , and therefore is com- 
pared to a fpait or flood, ^ev. 1 2. and is called ftrong 
delufion , 2 Thejf. 2. 4. This is done with all dili- 
gence, compaffing fea and land, leaving no mean un* 
effayed. And, JM with a kind of feeming fimplicity, 
zeal and finglnefTe , and with many profeffions there- 
of , as may be gathered from the inftances formerly 
given ; and from G4/.4, 17. where it is faid, they 
zealoufly affedi you , but not well , and from fym. 
10. 2. 6. This is done with great boldneffe , which 
appeareth , 1. In pretending to efchew no fuffering, 
or to fear no hazard that may follow on their opinion, 
if it were to give their body to be brunt , and, it may 
be, doing much in this. 2. It may be ftuck to by 
them at their fickneffe , even in their death beds , as it 
is not unlike it was with Jezebel and fome of her 
followers, %K 2. 21,22. for, neither is the devil 
filenced , nor corruptions removed by fickneffe or 
death. 3; It appeareth in confident undertaking to 
difpute with any • yea, oftentimes feeking occafion 
of that : Thus the Libertines arife and difpute with 
Stephen* Ms 6. and it is like,, the falfe teachers of 


Part 3 . A Treatife concerning Scan DAI. * 9 5 

Corinth, thatfaid of ?-«/, I C or >*° *0. chat his bo- 
dily prefence was weak, and his tpcach contemptible, 
would not have declined to have diiputcd even wich 
him. 4. It kyches in their confident ci tiding to their 
own judgements, and their undervaluing of all others- 
5. It appeared* in confident aflcrtingof any thing, 
and not only in the reproaching of any private pcr- 
fbn , but of Officers and Ordinances, i r Ptt* 2. 10 > 
thev are not aftraid to fpeak evil of dignities. 

By thele confiderations , wc may in part fee how ^ , 

delufion cometh to fuch ftrength and heighten refpift r Qk a Jf e 
of thefe who carry on this corrupt dotfrine. We w , bavtto 
come now toconfidcr a third thing, to wit, What^' hrinpnjr 
acceffion is from the peoples fide tor the promoving r rb^f/^we 
thereof, which we may draw to thefe three. I. Theie ppon tbm* 
is fomething finfull in a peoples former carriage feivcs* 
whereby delufion is exceedingly ftrengthencd againft 
them > when it cometh as a juft plague for former 
miscarriages ; But of thofc fins we have already 

2. A peoples prefent temper , or rather diftemper, 
may have much influence on this , and exceedingly 
difpofe them for > and caft thern open to , the tenta- 
rod. Asi firft, Iighmefleof mind, unfettlcdncffe in 
the truth ; ihefe the Scripture calleth unftable fouls, 
2^.2.14. 2 4 There is an itching new-fangle 
humour > defitous of lorac new thing , and loathing 
fimple Do&rine , as it is, zTim.q. 2. 3. There is 
too great facility in believing the (pirits, without try* 
ing of them, which its like hacli been in Galatia, 
whereby they were foon drawn away to another 
Gofpel, and to credit fome infinuaters toolifhly, as, 
chap. I. 6. and 3. t. 4, A fecure carnall frame, 
wanting exercife of confeic nee , is dangerous So are 
alfo proud prefumptuous perfons, (that have an high 
cttcem of themfelves, and fuch as are felf- willed, who 
arc mentioned, 2 P^.2.16.) in great hazard of this : 
The cencation will alfo fomctimes take advantage of 
O 2 * tome 

ip6 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3 ." 

fome perfons who are jumbled in mind , and under 
fome weight and heavineffe , and come in under pre- 
text of remedying the fame ; many fuch difiempers 
there are, whereof fome may be gathered from what 
. is faid of the finfull caufes that procure this , be- 
caufe that which doth meritorioufly defervc to be fo 
punifhed, provethofccnalfoadifpofingmidsfor re- 
ceiving of the tentation; Bat we forbear. 
. 3» People often by their carriage do promove this 
plague of delufion upon themfelves , carting them- 
felves in the fnare, 1. By needlefle familiar con- 
verting with fuch perfons- 2. Going to hear them, 
3. Purchasing or reading their books. 4- Hazard- 
ing to entertain their doubts, and to profecute their 
arguments and queftions, to plead for their opinions, 
and fuch like, Qiunning withall of fuch means and 
wayes as might recover them > and entertaining pre- 
judice at fuch as would aim thereat j and fuch like, 
whereby that of the Prophet is verified , The prophets 
teach lies, and my people loVe to have it fo. Now, if 
all thefe be put together , can it be thought ftrange to 
fee the greateft delufion prevail ? We have been the 
longer on thefe , not only for the confirming of that 
truth, but for drawing together in fome (hort view, 
a little map, as it were, of thefe wayes , whereby the 
devil driveth on his defign by the cunning craft of 
thefe that lye in wait to deceive. 


What is callcd^for a* duty in fuch a cafe, 

IT reftetb now that we fbould confider what is du- 
ty in fuch a time , or cafe , when delufion in leflc 
or more doth prevail, or is very like to prevail ? 
Ic cannot be denied, but that fomethingis calkd- 
for, and is neceffary where the danger is fo great; 
and alfo ic is evident, that fomething more thanordt- 


Part 3 • A Treatife concerning Scandal. 197 

nary is neceflary, becaufe the ill is more than ordinary. 
The remedy therefore muft be proportionable and 
timous ; for, a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump, 
G<*/.5,8. And experience proveth, that fuch ills do free 
and corrupt, as doth a gangrene, 2 Tim, 2. 17. The 
difficulty is in determining what is to be done, where- 
in, not only the piety , zeal and confcicnceof men 
will have exercife, but alfo their prudence and parts* 

The loofing of this queftion will relate to three 
ranks of men. I. ToChurch-officeM, efpeciallyto 
Miniflers. 2. To Magiftrates. 3. To people in 
private ftations. Yet before we pofitively fay any 
thing, We (hall, 1. (how what is not the remedy 
called-for. 2. We (hall (hew what is called-for,buc 
is not fufficient. 3. What feemeth to be called-for as 

As to the firft, There are two extremities to be 
(hunned , which we (hall lay down in two Affer- 

Ajfert. i. An abfolute and unlimited forbearance jyhtt w not 
and coleration of all errours , and of the promoters *)be fropcr 
thereof, is not the due remedy that is called-for in remedy or 
fuch a time, in reference to fuch evils* This, I fup- duty in fucb 
pofe is clear, if there were no more in Scripture than <* ca(u 
what is comprehended in thefeEpiftlcsj %v. 2. and 
3. For, l. the Angel of Epbefm is commended,. 
chap.2. 2. that he could not bear or endure them that 
.were evil , to wit, the falfe Apoftles : This enduring 
then cannot be the duty , feing Chrift commendeth 
the contrary. 2. He doth reprove ?ergamo$> ver. 14. 
becaufe they had fuch amonpti them that held thedo- 
ftrineof Balaam, that is, becaufe they fuffered them. 
And, 3. this is clearly- exprefied intheEpiftle to 
Tbyatira, ver. 20. I have a few things againft thee, 
becaufe thou fefiwft that woman Je^cbcl co teach 
and feduee My fervants. There can be nothing more 
clear than this; and it is the more obfervable , that 
this not-forbearing is commended in fybefm , where 
O 3 things 


l?3 t^Treaufe concerning Scandal* Part 3* 

things in their own particular condition arc not al- 
together right ; and the other Churches are reproved 
for negieft of this , even when their own particular 
conditions are right. Which fheweth , That the 
Lord lovcth zeal againft fuch fcandals , and abhor- 
reth forbearance of them. What was formerly laid 
in the Doftrine > What is clear in the pra&ice of 
Scripture, both in examples and commands that are 
given therein in reference to this , and what may be 
lurcher faid in the pofitive part of this direction, will 
clear this. 

And whatever humane prudence and carnal faint- 
ing would fuggeft concerning fuch a way , as that 
ic were fitted to deal with pc rfons in fuch a diftcroper, 
no othcrwayes than abloliuelyto forbear them> at 
lead, fofar as relateth to tlv ie diflempcrs as fuch; 
yet it is clear,this is not Gods Ordinance Co to do,nor 
the remedy that is by Him appointed : And therefore 
there is no promife by which we may expeft a blef- 
fingtoit, although fometimes the Lord, who is ab- 
folutely Soveraign, may condefcend without any 
means , to dry up and bound a floud of errour, even 
when men are guilty of forbearing : The c ffeft is 
not to be attributed to mens finfull forbearance, but 
to Gods gracious condefcendence* 
Extreams JlJft rt ' 2. We (ay on the other hand , That an in- 
u be tf- different, rigid* equal purfuing , or not enduring of 
chewed* every thing that is an errour, or of every petfon who 
may be in fome meafure tainted, isnotthefuitable 
remedy or duty that is called-for in reference to fuch 
a cafe. For , as neither all errours , nor all perfons 
are alike , So neither is the fame way at all times to 
be followed , becaufe , what may be edifying in one 
cafe, may be deftrudtive in another. And as there- 
fore there is prudent difference to be made, in refe- 
rence to fcandals in practice , and perfons in refpett 
of different fcandals , yea , even bf different tempers 
are divcrfly to be dealt with , So is it alfo to be here. 


Part 3 • *A Tret tifc concerning Scandal l99 
Men arc to walk , as they may moft probably attain 
the great end, edification, which ought to be the fcope 
in this , as in all other Ordinances : And therefore 
there can be no peremptory rule concluded , that will 
meet all cafes and perfons, as hath been faid : We 
fee even the Apoftles putting difference between per- 
fons andfcandals, according to the feverall cafes ; 
for, fometimes they Excommunicate, as in the in- 
ftance of fymeneus and Tthyletus , fometimes they in- 
ftruft doftrinally , as ^aul doth the Church-mem- 
bers of Corinth and Galatia - y others he threatenetli» 
and yet doth not actually Sentence them , as he doth 
falfe teachers in thefe Churches: Sometimes again, 
no particular Apoftle alone, doth decide the qucftion 
(although doftrinally they might ) but there is a Sy- 
nod called judicially and authoritatively, to decide 
the fame, as, Act. iy. 

The reafon of the I. is , becaufe thefe errours of 
Hymeneus and T/&ji/rt«f,were of themfclves groflq, de- 
ftroy ing the faith, and obftinately and blafphemouf- 
ly adhered to. 2. He inftru&eth and expoftulateth 
with the people of Corinth and proceedeth not to the 
higheft Cenfure , I . Becaufe they were not feducers, 
but were feduced by others. 2. They could not be 
accounted obftinate • but might be thought to have 
finned of infirmity , Therefore mere gentle and foft 
means are to be applied for reclaiming of them. 
3. They weje a numerous body , and therefore Ex- 
communication or cutting off, could not be expefted 
to attain ics end, 4. They were in a prelcnt diftemper, 
qucftioning the Apoftles auchorky ; he fecketh rather 
therefore to be a^ain acknowledged by them, that fo 
both his word and his rod might have weight,wherc- 
as if he had fmicten in their diftemper , they had ra- 
ther broken orf further from their fubjecftiom Thefe 
are clear v befide what may be faid of the natiue of 
the fcandal or errour. 

3. He threatneth the corrupt teachers with off- 
O 4 cutting, 

300 <& Treat I fe concerning Scandal.' Part 3 1 

cutting , becaufe they wr re leaders and feduccrs, and 
(o deferved to be more feverely dealt with, th an thofe 
that were feduced by thrm, although, poffibly, as 
drunk with thefe fame errout s : Yer, though he threa- 
ten, He doth fparefora time toftrike, not out of any 
rei'ped to thofe corrupt teachers, or from any con- 
nivance at their errour, but out of refpeft to the poor 
feduced people , for whofe edification Paul forbare, 
even when the weapons were in readineflc to avenge 
alldifobedience ; heabftaincd, I fay, becaufe fuch 
people having a prejudice at him , and bcinp be- 
witched by thefe teachers, might more readily in that 
diftemper have .cleaved unto them, and have for- 
faken Paul, which would have proven more defini- 
tive to them; he feeketh therefore, firft, to have 
their obedience manifefted, and fo not only forbeareth 
them , but even thofe corrupt teachers, for a time* 
for the peoples edifying, as may be gathered from 
2Cor.io6. and chap. n. v* 19. 

Laftly, I faid, Sometimes Synods or Councils are 
called, as in that place, Att. 1 5. which in other cafes 
we find not, 1. Becaufe then that errourwas new, 
and it's like wanted not its own refpeti from many 
of the Church, Therefore a Council ot Officers joy- 
ned together to decide it , which is not neceffary 
again, after that decifion is pall; butMinifters are 
do&rinally and by difcipline to maintain the famcas 
we fee Paul doth maintain, in the Epiftles to the %- 
manszn&Galatians , the conclufionof the former Sy- 
nods 1* This Synod is conveened not for want of 
light ("for, any of the Apoftles, as fuch, were infal- 
libly infpired to decide in the fame , and had in their 
preachings decided it) but it is to make it have the 
more weight with others , and therein to be a pre- 
cedent to us. 3. That was a fpreading errounwhich 
did nor sffeft one plac? only , but many Churches ; 
and it's like that many Believers were in hazard to 
be fluken therewith ; Therefore the raoft weighty 


Part 3. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 201 

remedy is called-for« 4. There was need now, not 
only of light to decide the dottrinal things, but there 
was alfo need of direftions for helping folks how to 
carry in reference to fuch times, foas toefchewthe 
fnare of errour on the one hand, and of giving offence 
upon the other , as we may fee by the decrees of that 
Synod : Therefore in fuch cafes not only would men 
feverally endeavour the duty of their ttations , but 
they would joyntly concur and meet judicially, or 
extrajudicially , as occafion calleth, to deliberate and 
confult in thefe things of fo great and common con- 
cernment : for, feing the Church is one city, and one 
lump, a little fire may hazard all, and a little leaven 
corrupt all , and un watchfulneffe at one part, or poft, 
may let in enemies to dettroy all# It is needfull there- 
fore! that in fome cafes there be mutual concurrence, 
although it be not neceflary at all times to have a 
judicial meeting, nor at any time is a prefent duty 
to be (ufpended by any perfon, if no fuch meeting can 
be had. What is faid doth demonftrat that there is 
a difference to be made in reference to errours, per- 
fons and cafes. 

When fome errours are to be forlorn. 

IF it fhould be enquired, how this difference is to 
be made ? or, how it may be known when with- 
out guilt there may be fome forbearance , and 
when not? Jnfs>. This is indeed difficult, and we 
will not undertake in particulars either to be fatif- 
fying or peremptory 5 yet we (upofc the confidering of 
thefe generall Dijiinciions will be helpfull , and the 
application of them neceflary, in this cafe. 1. Wt s r me nect f 
would diftinguifh betwixt fome errours and fcan- '/ 7/j^- 
dals and others , and that both in refpeft of their g/ „/, 
grofneffe and evidence : for, fome errours areas Veter 
f called 

201 ATreAtife concerning Scandal. Part 5, 

calleth them, 2'?^. 2.1,2* pernicious and damnable/ 
as ftriking againft the fpecial Truths of the Word of 
God , or inferring groffe pra&ices with them, as this 
of the Nicolaitans did, and hazarding the fouls of the 
maintainers of them , not as other fins of infirmity, 
but in refpeft of the principles which they imply ; 
and of this fort are many both errours and praftices. 
Again, Other things may be errours,that are contrary 
to Truth, but not deftru&ive unto, nor altogether in- 
confiftent with, the foundation , but fuch a thing , as 
poflibly many true Saints may be taken with, and yet 
have acceffe to God and may enter Heaven, although 
theyfhould die in that opinion ; of which fort arc 
many things that are debated annongft orthodox Di- 
vines ; and indeed there is nothing but it hath a truth 
or a falfhood in it , yet are not all of equal neceflicy 
and weight. Of the firft fort was thatcrrour, which 
the falfe apoftles endeavoured to bring- in, that is, the 
adding of the pra&ice of the ceremonial Law to 
Chrift in juftification, and the mixing-in of works 
moral and ceremonial therein, as from theEpiftleto 
the Romans and Gaktians may be gathered. Of the fe- 
cond kind, was the debate for meats and other things, 
mentioned, ^ow.14. and in the Epiftles tothetfwiw- 
tbians. Of the firft, wc fay, there ought to be no tole- 
rance, Therefore the Lord doth here reprove it ; and 
in the Epiftles to the Romans and CorintbiansfEaul doth 
plainly and powerfully refute them and reprove them, 
even when it was exceeding ill taken , and they were 
ready to count him an enemy, becaufe he told them 
the truth, Gal. 4. Yet will he not forbear, becaufe a 
little leaven of that fort will leaven the whole lump, 
and hazard the making of his labour among them to 
be in vain. 

Of the fecond fort, we fay, That there is a mode- 
ration callcd-for in it, and Minifters are not alwayes 
called either do&rinally, or by Difcipline, judicially 
to reprove or cenfure them : I will not fay but fome- 


part 3. ATrtstife concerning Scandal. 20: 

times it mav be mca to difcover the lea ft ertour, ahd 
it may be by circumHanccs lo aggrrgtd, that it may 
be necdfull judicially co take notice of it, as when it's 
involved with offence and ready to breed Schifm or 
Scandal, or in luch like cafes (in which reipeft there 
are Tome things mentioned in the decree>./#.i 5-which 
are not very material in thf mfelves, as the eating of 
things ftranglcd) yet, we lay. it is not (imply and al- 
wayes neceffary for Mmifters to preffe at the con- 
vincing of all who maintain Something different from 
truth, or which is fuppoied to be lo by them , if it be 
of things extra-fundamental, or, which have not di- 
rect or palpable 11 fluence upon the violating of faith, 
or corrupting of manners,much leffe to cenlure tor the 
maintaining of it. For, it is not of fuch that thefe 
fipiftles fpeak : And we fee, 5fym. 14. and in the 
Epiftlesto the Corinthians, in the debate about meats 
and eating of things faenficed to idols, and fuch like, 
wherein though there was ftill a. right fide and a 
wrong , yet doth he rather preffe the forbearing of 
thefe debates, than the dipping into them> not aftrift- 
ing men alwayes to follow this or that, providing it 
be done without breach of unity and charity. Hence 
ic is. that although there be fomethings he will give 
no forbearance unto, but authoritatively andmini- 
fterially he decideth in them, yet in the fame Epiftles 
there is fomething amoogft the Saints that he feck- 
eth rather to heal, and to bbtain mucuall forbearance 
in, than peremptorily to decide. See 2fyw* 14. 1 Qor. 
8. 2, % % &c % fhil. 2. 1. 

2. There are fome truths and practices evident , 
which by the light of the Word may be folidly de- 
monftratcd to an impartial! and unbyaffed fcarcher ; 
and fome contrary errours and (candals, that are at 
the firtt obvious (and, it may be, even to a naturall 
con(ciencc) to be fuch, fo that although men would 
ufetcrgiverfations, and fay as Hymeneus and Vhyhtus 
did , 2 Tim. 2. 17. that there were no rcfurreftion to 


t04 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3 . 

come, becaufe the Scripture fpeaketh of a fpiricuall 
refurre&ion , which in the Believer is patted already. 
And although many deluded perfons > who will not 
1 admit of diftin&ions according to reafon , in fuch a 
cafe , may be drawn away with them , and adhere 
(till to them ; yet are the things demonftrable to thefe 
that are even but of ordinary reach, by found grounds 
from the Scripture, and that convincingly : Other 
things, again, may be truths, and there may be to 
fome perfons a poflibility of reaching them by many 
confequences from Scripture, yet are they not fo clear 
to many ; whereupon it is, that men, yea,even learned 
and godly men, do differ in their apprehenfions of 
feveral truths , the Lord fo thinking good to bridle 
mens humours and to let us fee the neceffity of humi- 
lity and foberneffe, and this may be inthemeaneft- 
like things ; thefe the Apoftle, %w. 14. 1. calleth 
dokbtfutldifyutations, as being things wherein too ma- 
ny, at teaft^hcre is not fuch evidence attainable as to 
ftay the minds of ordinary people, or to refute the 
contrary affertions of any adverfary, of which are 
Genealogies, and other things that Paul mentioned* 
to Timothy, 1 Tim. 1.4,. and calleth them endlejffe, be- 
caufe there is no fetled ground to reft on , but one 
queftion doth generate another ; and fo the principle 
chatmuft be laid down for clearing fuch a thing to 
one 5 is alfo difputabl§ to another as the thing it felf is, 
and men know but in part, even thofe that are emi- 
nent , fo that an univerfal harmony in thefe cannot 
Well be expected : In reference to this, we fay, That 
greater peremptorinefle^ is required in the firft fort 
than in the fecond, wherein, by reafon of the practice 
of the Apoftles in Scripture, yea, and of neceffity 
there is a forbearance rdquifit , Yet we would beware 
of partiality in accounting truths, either evident or 
difputable, as men (according as they are judged) are 
too apt to do ; it is better therefore to try thefe by the 
common account that the Godly and Learned have 


Part l* tATreatife concerning ScandaI . 205 

had in all times of fuch truthes , if there hath been 
ftill difference,and yet moderation in thefe differences; 
Nor would this be tryed onely by an age or time 
(wherein a point may be more agitate than at another 
time) but more generally, efpccially when the argu- 
ments on either fide want that evidence that the 
1 eafons brought for other truths have, and ar^o ful- 
ly fetdown in Scripture, That amongft goS>y and 
learned men in all ages there hath been a general! 
con fen t« 
Again,g. We would diftinguifh betwixt errours and 
the confequents of them, or praftices following there- 
upon ; there may be fomethings truly errours that may 
and fhould be forborn in themfelves, yet their confe- 
quents ought not to be forborn , and this alio may be 
at one time , and in one Church more neceffary to be 
adverted to, than in another, becaufe confequents of 
fchifm, faftion, divifion , &c. may fometimes follow 
on the meaneft errours* And leing thefe are alwayes 
enemies to edification, even when they arife from 
the leaft ground , they are never abfolutly to be for- 
born ; for 3 to fay, I am of Paul'&nd I am o£#pollos,&nd 
for one to think fuch a man a better Preacher than an 
other , feemeth to be no great matter; yet when it be- 
ginneth to rent them , and to make faftions in Corinth, 
it is not to be forborn , but to be reproved : And in 
the former difference of meats » the Apoflle condem- 
ned alwayes the offence and Schifm that followed on 
it, although he did not psgmptorily decide any thing 
as to mens pra&ices, or cfflRurejfor the opinion it felf: 
thus one might think the firft day of the week not to 
be JureVhino, and this might poffibly be forborn. 
But if he were prefling the change of it, and refufing 
to obferve it, or venting it to offend others , that were 
intolerable ; thus the differences and errours con- 
cerning Church- government by Bifhops , and in the 
Congregational way, may,we conceive,in themlelves 
be forborn in perfons where they are not vented to the 


zo6 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3; 

fhaking and drawing away of ochcrs ; but if prcffcd 
in praftice > to the renting of a Church , and pre- 
ferred or equalled to the true Government that is 
eftablifhed by the Word , in that cafe they are not to 
beforborn , becaufe then truth is to be vindicated, 
and obftru&ions to edification in the renting or di- 
ftrafting of a Church to be removed , and at on time 
more Man at another , as luch an offence doth waken 
a Schifm, and difturb order and Union in one Church 
or at one time more than another : hence we fee, Aftt 
I y. fonaethings are put in that decree in reference to 
that time, only for preventing of Schifm and Scandah 
while the do&rine of the abolition of the ceremoniall 
Law was not fo clear ; And fomethings were for- 
born amongft theGentiles,which were not fo amongft 
the Jews for a time , as circumcifion and all the ce- 
remonies of the Law , which yet for a time the Jews 
obferved ; and experience and reafon make the thing 
clear, according to that of Paul » To the Jew I became 
asajefb, and I became all things to all men, &c. which 
is not to (how his counterfeiting, or his dallying in 
anyneceffary thing, but the fquaring of his praftice 
in lawfull things according to the feveral cafes of 
thefe he had to do with , which will be applicable 
both to perfons and Churches* 

4. We would diftinguiOi betwixt things, and per- 
fons > Sometimes it will be meet to cenfure a fault or 
crrour in perfons > as 'Paul doth in the C or ^ nt ^ ians and 
Galatians , and yet it not be fie to cenfure the perfons 5 
he doth indeed threaten thefe , but doth forbear, leaft 
thereby he fhould have Hurt moe by a fubfequent 
and following rent * than by his ftroak he had cured. 
So alfo are perfons to be diftmguiftied, fome whereof 
only erre » but others teach others fo 5 and in that re- 
fpeft are Hcceticks and Schifmaticks, which, had that 
been their own opinion only , could not have been 
imputed to them ; thefe latt cannot plead that for- 
bearance that ought to be had, towards the former. 


Part 3 • A Treatife concerning Scandal. 
Alfodiftin&ion is to be made in the manner of for- 
bearance ; it is one thinp: to forbear fimply and altoge- 
ther one that is infected with errour and Ipreadeth itjt 
is another thing to forbear, in fome refpetf, to wit, of 
cenfurc only, or it may be in refpeft of degree , fome- 
thing may be more gently cenfured , and yet not alto- 
gether forborn ; and one may Miniftet ialJy reprove a 
fault and perfon by the key of Dotfrine , in apply- 
ing of it , when yet he may fcrbear the cxercile of 
Difcipline and Cenfure , as in the forecited place , 
*laul is reproving falfe teachers in Corinth, yet fparing 
the rod for a time ; and fo , wifhing that fome were 
cut off in Galatia , yet not doing it ; and this is not fo? 
much refpeft to the perfons of thefe teachers, as to the 
Church and to the multitude of their followers, 
whom hafty Cenfures might rather have ftumblcd 
thznedifiedy which is the great end of that and of 
all other Ordinances : Therefore feeketh he firft to re- 
cover them, and again, to bring them back to the ac- 
knowledgement of his authority , and thereupon to 
exercife the weapons that he bad in readinefle for the 
avenging all difobedience , when their obedience is 
mademanifeft, 2 Cor. io.6. which he would not do 
before that, left they ( being addifted to thefe teach- 
ers) hadfided with them againft his authority, an^ 
fo it had been both more hurtfull to them and to the 
Church than edifying , by which alone he is fwayed. 
Thefe and other fuch considerations being had , Mi- 
uifters by chriftian prudence , are to gather when to 
be filent, and when to fpeak, when to Cenfure , and 
when to forbear 3 but by all means , are ever to be 
watchfull, left the grounds that plead for forbearance 
fometimes for the Churches edification upon the one 
fide , be not ftretched out (0 broad , as to foftcr our 
lukewarm temper, eoldneffe > and fainting cowardli- 
neffe in the things of God ; c and there is much need to 
try from what that moderation doth flow , and whe- 
ther even then the heart be hot with holy indignation 



io8 A Treat i[e concerning b c a n d a t . Part 3 ; 

againft thefe ; Even as on the other fide , trur zeal 
would be guided towards the fcope of edification, 
left that duty of exercifing Diicipline, which is ac- 
ceptable to God, andufefullto the Church, be re- 
jected of him, becaufe proceeding from our own fpi* 
rits> and prove more hurtfull than edifying in the ef- 
fects thereof; Some feOv inftances whereof have 
given fome occafionof fpeaking evil of this Ordi- 
nance of J -fus Chrift , to thefe who at all times ly in 
wait,to catch at what may be wrefted to the reproach 
thereof But to conclude this, without infifting on 
particulars , there muft be a finglc, impartial and 
prudentiall walking , fo as may attain edification, 
and as men may be anfwerable to Jefus Chrift in their 
truft, having an eye to thefe things that moft contri- 
bute to edification* 
Sme things ^ uc ' lm ^ w ^at is vented be blafphemous, and de- 
not at all to ftroyeth the foundations of faith,that comes not with- 
icforbtirn. in this debate* as in 2W's dealing with Hymeneus and 
Alexander , 1 Tim. 1.20. is clear ; tor zeal for the Maje- 
fty of God, and love to the falvation of fouls (which 
is the fubftance of the two great commandements of 
the Law) will admit of no forbearing in fuch a cafe 
3. If it corrupteth or defaceth the Church, and mak- 
cth her a reproach co the profane , it is fiot to be for- 
born.* 3. If the things become not the Ordinances 
of Chrift, but reflect on them, and confequently on 
Him whofe Ordinances they are, they arc not to be 
connived at. 4. If fuch things hazard the publick 
beautyi order and government of the Church, with- 
out which there is no keeping up the face of a vifible 
Church, thefe are nor to be over- looked. 5. If they 
mar the union and love that ought to be in the 
Church ( which is to be preferved » and every thing 
that may mar it, removed) they ought not to be tole- 
rated. 6. If they turn to be oflfcnfive and fcanda- 
lous, either by making the wayesof the Lord to be 
ill fpoken of, 2 ¥jt. 2. 2. or by grieviifg the godly , 

y or 

Part 3 . A Treatifc concerning Scandal. V09 

or by infe&ing others ; they are not the object of for- 
bearance, except fome circumftance concur, as hath 
been faid , in which cafe it cannot properly be called 
forbearance 1 By thefe and other thing* , this may be 
tried, when an errour is to be forborn and when not, 
in which , consideration is to be had both of the 
natnre of the errour, and ot the perfon that doth hold 
it, as alfo of the cafe of the Church and people, who 
may be edified or hurt by the forbearing or Cenfur- 
1 ing of fuch a perfon. 

What is needfull , but not fufficienc , will appear 
when we come to confider v>bat u called-for } for, 
what is leffe than what is required, muft be defe&ive 
and not fufficient : as it is requifite that men not only 
keep themfelves free, but alfo that by admonition and 
exhortation, means be ufed to reclaim thefe that have 
fallen ; yet thefe are not fufficient if there be no pub- 
lick mean, yea, though there were publick authorita- 
tive preaching and exercifing of the {ey of Vottrine, 
yet that is not fufficient , if there be not alfo cenfur- 
ingbydifcipline,andanexercifeof the fyy of Jurif- 
diction • and in fome cafes every cenfure will not be 
fafficient,if it be not extended to the utmoft, for Chrift 
hath not given that fcy for nought to His Church , in 
reference to all herfcandals, nor are men exonered 
till they reach themfelves to the uttermoft in their fta* 
tions , but this will appear more afterward. 


What u called-for from Church- officers in the cap \ 

of £f reading errour* 

WE begin now to fpeak particularly to the 
Church-officers duty, and what is called-for 
from them, efpecially from Mtfi/fcn,which 
we may confider in a fourfold refpe&. i.There is fome- 
thing called-tor from the Minifter in reference toGod. 
a. In reference to himfelf. ?• In reference to the Flock 
P and 

sio A Treatife concerning ScANDAii Part 3. 

and people who are not tainted , but* it may be, un- 
der the tentation. 4. In reference to thefe that are in 
the fnarc> efpecially the promotters of thefe evils. 

The firft two arc interwoven almoft , Therefore 
we (hall fpeak of them cogether : and we fay, 

1. When fuch a tentation fetteth on upon a people* 
What dMt~ an( j beginncth to infeft or hazard the infeftion of a 
M^"^*^ particular Flock> or of many together, (for, the ha- 
ference to " 2arc ' °f one > * s ^c hazard of many in fuch a cafe* as is 
Goi and k^ ) c he Minifter would look firft to God as the I 
bim(clf,at great over -ruler, even of thefe things that are evil'm 
fuel a time, the Churches ; and he would confider if things be in 

good cafe betwixt God and him, efpecially in refpett 
of his Miniftery ; for, fuch an infeftion in a Flock is 
a prime ftroak upon a Minifter , becaufe the fpread- 
ing thereof threatneth the unchurching of that Church 
andblaftingof his Miniftery, as, %v. 2, isthreatned 
againft the Angel of Epbefkt&nd it never cometh but 
it hath with it a fpirit and fpait of bittcrnefie againft, 
and many croffes , faintings and vexations unto, the 
Minifter ; he is therefore foberly and compofedly to 
look to God as his party, and is not to think,that fuch 
things come bygueffe, andfpring out of the duft, 
nor from the corruptions of fome giddie people only, 
but that there is a higher hand ; without this there can 
be no right ufe made of fuch a difpenfation ; and this 
is it that (hould humble the Minifter and make him 
ferious » left by the peoples fin, God may be fmiting 
him: Paul hath this word when he fpeaketh of the 
Schifms and contentious debates that were in Corinth, 
2 C or * 12. 20, 21, I fear, faith he $ left ^hen I come, my 
Godr^ill bumble me amongft you, he did fo conftruft 
of their mifcarry ing, as making for this humiliation: 
yet it is to be adverted , that it is not the Minifter or 
Flock that the Lord is moft difpleafed with, that al- 
wayes is fo affaulted and Ihaken, although it be ever 
matter of humiliation. 

2. When the Minifter is compofed to take up Gods 


Part 3 . A Trettife concerning Scandal I 2 1 1 

hand in the matter, then is he not only to look to Him 
for dirc&ion and guiding in his duty , and without 
fretting to reverence His difpenfation , but he is to re- 
flect upon himfelf, and toconfider his bygone car- 
riage, efpecially inhisMiniftery , if he may not be 
chargeable before God with fome finfull influence 
upon his peoples diftempers and mifcarriages. And 
particularly, he is to look to thefe four , I. If he be 
in good terms with God, in reference to his own par- 
ticular ftate and condition, and if there was that due 
tenderncfle and watchfulneffe at the time of the out- 
breaking of fuch an ill : I grant> it may be that things 
were right , as in the cafe of Job , Job $. 26. yet it 
becometh him to try ; for, fuch a thing may betryfted 
with fecurity and negligence * that thereby he may be 
awakned to fee his former defe&s. 2. -A Minifter 
would then refleft on his ciearneffe to that calhng,and 
particularly to fuch a charge } and though to both he 
may be called by God , yet it is his part to try , that 
he may m?et the reproaches with the greater confi- 
dence , as we fee 'Paul doth in the Epiftles often men- 
tioned 5 for, in fuch a cafe a Minifter will be put to it, 
and whoknoweth but poffibly expectation of eafe, 
quiet accommodation or credit in fuch a place * and 
traftablneffe in fuch a people , and fuch like* might 
have had weight with a good man to fvvay him to 
one place more than another ? and by fuch a difpen- 
fation the Lord doth chaften that , to learn Miniftcrs 
at their entry to be fwayed alone with the Churches 
edification. But , 3. to come nearer , a Minifter 
would try if he hath any finfull meritorious influence 
(to fpeak fo) in procuring that ftroak to the people, 
to be given up to thefe delufions; for, it is certain, a 
Minifter may be fmittcn in fome ftroak of this kind 
upon his people , as is clear from that threading to 
the Angel of Epbcfa, Rev- 2. even as a Magiftrate 
may befmitten by a ftroak that is immediately upon 
his people > as we fee in ®aVUs cafe , who thus pro- 
p a cored 

2 1 2 iA Treatife concerning Scandal. Part $ • 

cured the Peftilence,* Sam.24. becaufe, firft,the people 
themfelvs are not guildefs,fo chat there is no injuftice. 
And. 2. Becaufe there is a great fibneffe betwixt Mi- 
nifter and people, fo that a rod upon one, doth indeed 
prove a rod to both : he would therefore try if poffi- 
bly he hath been (bmewhat proud or vain of his au- 
thority, or refpeft amongft them, of their knowledge* 
orderly carriage , or dependance on the Ordinances, 
cfpecially if he have any way affe&ed fuch a thing, 
and hath withall fleighted the trying of their fpiritual 
cftate, and bettering of it,or if he hath been negle&ive 
to pray for them,and for their liability in the truth; if 
he hath been defe&ive to warn or to keep up the au- 
thority of the Ordinances, and of a Miniftery among 
them ; if he hath been too familiar and triviall in his 
carriage with them , and luch like; alfo, if he hath 
been aflfe&ed with zeal for Gods honour, when other 
Congregations have been infe&ed , if he hath fym- 
pathized with fuch MinifterSj and born burthen with 
others in fuch cafes ; or, if on the contrary, he hath 
been careleffe, or, it may be, puffed up becaufe himfelf 
was free : thefe and fuch like fins would be fearched, 
becaufe their is a Juftice, and, if I may fay, a con- 
gruity in Juftice, in punifhing fuch fins with fuch 
a rod ; for its often when the husband men are fleep- 
ing that the enemy doth fow fuch tares. 4. He would 
try if he hath had any finfull influence on fuch evils, 
as if he hath not been full and diligent in grounding 
them in the fundamentall truths, and clearing to them 
the Do&rioes of the Gofpel , as well as preaching 
duties , cafes, and fuch like ,. or if he hath needlefly 
foftered curiofity inftartingany queftions, or in gi- 
ving people way to follow them , if he hath made a 
(port of fomeerrours publickly or privately, if he hath 
laughen at, or lightly fpoken of, the errours and mit 
carriages of others, before them , if be hath not been 
faithfull to admonifh and reprove the firft gadings, or 
if he, hath fed the people with empty notions and 


Part f. A Treat tf e concerning ScandaI^ 2 1 3 

wind , and builded hay and ftfjbble upon the foun- 
' dation,and hath not fcrioufly ancovcred to them their 
guiltineffe, and hath not put them to the exercifeof 
Repentance for their corrupt inclinations thereby to 
prefl'e humility, fean watchfulneffe,diligence,&c. that 
lb their hand might be filled with a more folid work , 
and Chrift by them imployed to preferve them , even 
from this tentation. Thefe, I fay,and fuch like, would 
be tryed, becaufe where they are, the Minifter wants 
not acceflion to their fin ? as if in fome refpefit he had 
combined with thefe feducers. 

3. When this is done, the Minifter would beaf- 
fefted with his own guilt, and then his fympathy 
with the peoples* condition will be the more lively; 
and he would,/*r/£, endeavour the recovery ofhimfelf, 
and his reftoring to good tearms with God through 
Chrift Jefus. 2. As he would confeffe his own faults, 
fo alfo the faults of the people ; and as he would pray 
for pardon for himfelftfo would he do for them, who, 
it may be, do reproach and curfe him > yet would he 
notceafe to pray for them, having that word frefh 
under fuch a ftroak, A for tbefefbeep, Lord, V>bat h^Ve 
they done ? g # There would be fpecial dealing with 
God, and dependence on Him forfitnefle rightly to 
manage fuch a cafe ; for, the charge becomes more 
hcavie : God therefore fliould be acknowledged for 
obtaining fuitable furniture, even in reference to that 
particular : And Minifters would know,that it is not 
their abilities, gifts, nor parts that can do this; and 
if we cannot fpeak profitably to one that is not in 
fuch a diftemper, what can we do where the perfon is 
fo prejudged and diftempercd, if the Lord do it not? 
Minifters therefore would be in reference to every 
word , unto fuch perfons, in a holy fear and jealoufie, 
left, lippening to themfelves , they mar the Matter's 
work, and ftumble a poor foul rather than edifie the 
fame. 4. He would aim fcrioufly not only at ex- 
oneration, but at edification • and for that caufe would 
P 3 begin, 

Si4 idTreatifc concerning Sc and a il Part. 3* 

begin, by dealing^lth God for fucceffe, and that 
cither the Lord womd immediatly Himfelf convince 
or blefle His furniture to him for that end ; yea, He 
would be blyth if any mean were provided and blef- 
fcd, though in another hand than his own. 

4. The Mmifter would no^ ufe ordinary means 
for fitting of himfelf to difcover fuch errours as his 
people are guilty ot , that he maybe able folidly to 
convince them that are ftumbled , and to eftablifti 
others that ftatld 5 and pains would betaken in this, 
afwell as for preaching, or intheftudying of com- 
mon heads at the paffing of tryals , which is but a 
proof of the man's gifts in a more remote reference to 
fuch a cafe, which now is fpedally'to be put in exer- 
rife ; Therefore he would , fir (I , endeavour to be 
through in the wole body of Divinity and grounds, 
of Chriftian Religion ; for, there is fuch a connexion 
among truths, that when one is wronged, many arc 
wronged , and one errour may overturn many foun- 
dations : And if a Miniftcr have not fome gencrall 
im predion of the whole, he cannot with confidence 
fearch in, or undertake the refutation of, any one par- 
ticular errour : Neither ought a Minifter , who pof- 
fibly for a timenath forborn ftudies of that kind, , 
think it unbecoming him again to return to them, 
feingitisduty, and there is nofhame to be learning 
what may fie one for his duty ; And who knoweth 
but among other ends, this may be intended, that Mi- 
nifters may be put to more conftant ftudy and fearch * 
in the fundamental! truths of the Gofpel ? 2. He 
would then, like a wife Phyfician.endeavour to know 
the malady that hath infe&ed and diftempercd his 
people, what are the errours they maintain, what 
are the arguments that have weight with them, what 
are the tentacions they have had . or who are the 
tempters or inftruments that have feduced them, and 
fuch like ; What alfo is their natural humour, hafty 
or meek, proud or humble; What hath been their 


Part 3 • exf Treat ij e concerning Scandal. 215 

former way of walking , what are their parts and 
abilities,with whom they converfc, who hath weight 
with them , or are efteemed by them , that by thefe 
and fuch like means he may be in better capacity to 
know how to apply the remedie , and to deal with 
chemhimfeif, or to make ufe of others for that end. 
3. He would endeavour the furnifhing of himfelf, 
cfpccially in reference to thefe errours beyond others 
which they are tainted with, and for this caufe would 
provide fit Books, converle with others that are able 
to help him , and gather his own obfervations from 
Scripture and other grounds , that through Gods 
bleffing upon his labours he may be able to (peak of 
thefe things confidently as to himfelf, and convin- 
cingly as to others. It is to be obfervedi chat the for- 
mer order laid down , doth not require a fucceflion in 
' time, in reference to the feveral fteps ( for, in fome 
cafes a Minifter will be inftantly put to what is be- 
yond all thefe , and to deal by fome other means) but 
it (heweth the order of nature , and what way is to 
be followed according as there is acceffe and op- 

Further, Ic is necefiary for Minifters , at fuch a Vnicn *- 
timeefpecially, to endeavour union among themfelves mong(t CMi- 
and amongft the people of their flocks 3 for, often- ticftctsdrd 
times divifion and delufion are tryfted together , >***j* fl° c ^y 
wheneby the deluders are exceedingly ftrengthened, * in ^ a 
Truth, and'the Minifters thereof, made exceedingly C *I* ****]**- 
contemptible and put in an incapacity to edifie , or ¥°i c * m ~ 
have weight, till that be removed. Therefore we fee* C * 
that in the Churches of Cortnth, Galatid and Pbilippi, 
where Seducers were driving their defigns, and divi- 
fion had taken great footing , the Apoftle hath a fpe- 
cial regard to the recovering of their union at fuch a 
time : We may read it alfo in the Life of Safilius the 
great Antagonift of the Arum , who, being by fome 
divifion with Eufebius, then Bifhop of Cefaria, necef- 
fitatcd to withdraw for the Churches peace, Where- 
P 4 upon 


? \6 A Treatife concerning Scan dal Part g • • 

upon Faience the ^iawEmperour, and other Jtrians* 
thought that a fit opportunity to vent their crrour in 
Cefaria, which they could not fuccesfully do, while ~| 
union continued there. To difappoint this defign, 
Gregory Ka^ian^en advifed his return and uniting 
with Eufebiusy as the only mean to prevent the growth 
of that herefie amongft the people , which being ac^ 
cordingly done, and both of them forgetting their 
particular difcontents for the publick good, the 
Church was fo cftabli(hed,and the errour fo oppofed, 
that the forenamed enterprifers were conftrained {o 
give over their defign upon that union. 
. In the third place » We come to confider a Mini- 

WmtsbU ft crs ^y m rc f cr ence to the flock in generall (and 
ftrlutt* cerca j n 'y by proportion it may be gathered what fe- 
bfsfl$ch° xloxx fa&z, gravity and diligence ought to be amongft 
4 * 'Jtyling- elders in their concurring with him in fuch a 
cafe, who are alio to joyn with him according to 
to their places in the former fearch and triall of their 
carriage* and in fitting of thcmfclvcs for being ufe- 
full in fuch a time) tor. it cannot be denied, but fome- 
what peculiar is called* for from the Mimfter , in re- 
ference to his Miniftery in common amongft the 
peopld more than is called- for at another time. As, 
I. he is to be in relpe&of all Chriftian qualificati- 
ons in his carriage and all minifteriall duties in his 
charge, Angularly ferious and eminently exemplary, 
becaufe it is now a main and prime thing to have a 
teftimony of fincerity , faithtulneffe and love to the 
peoples edification in their own confeiences ; and 
this cannot be obtained at fuch a time without the 
fornper* For , in experience we fee that declining to 
errour, and falling from cfteemof the Minifter, go 
together : and where this is preferved , either the fall 
is prevented > or there is the greater accefle to recover 
the perfon that is fallen. Minifters therefore would 
efpecially ftudy that , as a main mean of the peoples 
edification. And for that caufe, would* obfervc, fc. If 

a a °y 

part jl A Trentlfe concerning ScANDAll , ? x 7 

any thing hath efcaped them in their way , which 
might have given offence , and would by all means 
endeavour to remove it. 2. It any thing hath been 
unjuftly imputed to them, they would condefcend to 
clear it. ?. They would take notice of what parti- 
culars they ufe to oe charpf d with, thoughjit may be, 
unjuftly, or what ufually Minifters are charged with 
by the corrupt men of the worid , as pride, cove- 
toufnefle, felf-feeking, hypoenfie and the like \ and 
at fuch a time ,. Minifters would not only efchew 
thefe evils, but alio the very appearance of them, 
which is a pan of fauh becoming all things to all, 
that he mipht gain and (ave fome, I C or *9* And, in a 
word, a Minifter would fo carry in that time, a? 
every look, word, aft ion , gefture* yea, as every 
thing leffeor more in hisMiniftery, in his family, 
diet, cloachs, and fuch like, may abide the triall of 
the moft narrow and watchfull obfervers, yea, of 
one that is a more high and narrow obferver than 

2. There are fome things wherein particularly he 
would infift and feek to have born in upon the 
people- As, r. to have them fenfible of the evil of 
errour , and of the hazard that cometh by it , alfo of 
the devils fubtilcy and craft in carrying on of fuch a 
bufinefle. 2. To have them inftru&ed and cleared 
in the truths of theGotpel , elpecially in fuch things 
as are controverted , that the errours and confequents 
following thereon j may bemadeasobvioufly clear 
and batefull as may be. ? This would be done fo 
as they be not diverted from praftice in the main du- 
ties of godlineffe by any fpeculation ; but, fearching, 
up-ftirring and materiall Do&rines, with power- 
full and convincing applications of all kinds , would 
be in a fpeciall manner preffed then, as we fee in 
thefe direft ions to Timothy and Titus is clear : where, 
upon the one fidp, the taking head to fables and vain 
janglings is dehor ted from > and convincing, exhort- 
ing , 

5 1 8 A Tnatife concerning S c a n d a t . Part 3; 

ing , reproving with all authority % preffing of good 
works, andcxercifingtogodlineffe, are, on the other 
fide exhorted unto. 4. People would be prefled by 
all means > to efchew fnares and the company of fe- 
ducers, which was both our Lords practice > and the 
praftice of His Apoftles. There is no duty more 
frequently prefled than that : It is true, this is fome- 
times miftaken by people, yet it is the duty of Mini- 
ftcrs to preffe it ; yea> they are charged to charge others 
in reference to this , as in the 1. to Tim. 4. n. and 6. 
1 3, being compared with the dire&ions that are given 
inthefeEpiftles. 5, It may be it were not unmeet 
in fuch a time , that fomething were done in wif, for 
clearing of thefe things which are efpecially contro- 
verted, and that fome in particular might be defigned 
for this part of the work : for, often feducers fpread 
their errours by writ, as we may in fee in Jer. 29.25. 
And fometimes there will be acceflfe to inftruft and 
edifie by frrif, when it cannot be done by Word, yea, 
fo, fome pcrfons may have objeftions moved and 
anfwered to them , before they be confirmed in fuch 
and (uch opinions , which poffibly they would have 
thought fhame to move till they had fettled in them ; 
andfo have been in a greater prejudice againft the 
truth , and in a greater incapacity to be gained from 
them ; and we fee > that the Apoftles ufed this way 
unto Churches andPeopIp , to confute materiall er- 
rours in torit, and fo alfo to confirm the truth againft 
all cavils of adverfaries , even as they did it by v>ord 
of mouth and preaching. 

3. In all this,the Minifter would take good heed to 
his manner of proceeding , that it be grave, weighty, 
ferious, loving, and in every thing fuch as may con- 
vince the people , 1. Of his own ferioufneffe > and 
being much affe&ed with fuch a bufineffe , There- 
fore light and mocking expreffions would be (hun- 
ned , but the Minifter would be affectionate and fe- 
rious , like one travelling in birth , while Chrift be 


Part 3 • -A Treatife concerning Scandal; ^~ 

formed in chcm again, as *W fpeaketh , Gal. 4. 19. 
2. To convince them of the evil of the thing, and 
for thatcaufe would io carry, as he may make errour 
alio hateful! and loathfome to the people > as any 
fcandalous pra$ia whatfotver ; for which caufe 
Mimtters would rather endeavour to ftir the peoples 
zeal againft tuch evils, by grave, convincing, affe- 
ctionate expreflions, regracesorexpoftulacions, than 
to move their laugnter with triviall mocks or taunts, 
in reference to (uch principles or perfons; for, (as 
holy Matter Greenbam ufed to fay) that doth but make 
fin ridiculous, when it ought to be made hatefull. 
|. He would endeavour to convince them of his 
iingleneffe in leektng of their good , and of love to 
them, and pitty co thefe that are milled ; for which 
caufe any thing that may make him be fuppofed to 
refent perfonall reproaches or indignities, or aim at 
upholding of his own credit, or to vent bitterneffe 
againft the perfons of others, would be carefully ab- 
ftained from : for, thele thines derogate much from 
the weight of what a Minifter can do; and we fee 
the great Apoftle VtuU doth not ftick to condefcend in 
fuch caies to vindicate himlelf from fuch miftakes, 
and to ufe great expreflions of love, yea, fometimes 
to atteft God as co the fincerity of his profeffions, and 
fuch like? which are frequent in the Epiftles to the 
CorinthiamzndGalatians, which may be an example 
to Minifters in fuch cafes. 4. Their whole carriage 
would be atfe<5honate,( ven to the perfons ofoppolers; 
for, nothing prej'udgeth more , than for a Minifter to 
be thought carnall and paflionate, whereas tender 
dealing and ufage to perions and to their outward 
eftates,doth prove as coals of fire to foften them, as in 
experience is found ; however its becoming of a Mi- 
nifter ; yet it is to be done without marring zeal and 
indignation againft their errours , and without pre- 
judice to his fecking to cenfure them lor thefe > or his 
reftraining them from venting of the fame. 


Sao *A Treatife concerning S c an da l7 Part $ 

It is here to be adverted, I. That what was fpokett 
of the manner of a Minifters carriage in reference to 
pra&ical fcandals, and of his duty in a time when 
offences abound* is alfo to be remembred here and 
in what followeth. a* That what is fpoken of Mi- 
nifters duty >W ill by proportion agree to %uling.Elders 
according to their Rations ; for, they (hould nolefle 
endeavour the preventing and fupprefling of corrupt 
do&rine than of other fcandalous praftices , and they 
efpeciallv are to endeavour to have the means ufed 
by the Minifter, made weighty amongft the people ; 
and for that end, are to endeavour to have himfelf 
weighty alfo. 
Vflw U a We come now to the fourth ftep of a Minifters 
tMmjlefs duty, and that is,as it relateth to thofe that are tainted 
duty in refc- with errour, (we mean groffe errours and delufions, 
fence totbofc f uc h as t h ls djfcourfe runneth upon ) We may con- 
tut arc (c-fifa jcinthcfe four fteps, as it relateth, I. to difco~ 
****** very , or try al, 2. to conYxtlion, 3. to admonition, 4. to 

For the firft, as the Apoftle faith of men in general, 
I Tim. 5. 24. Some mens fins are open before hand, 
going before to judgment , and fome mens follow af- 
ter : So here, fometimes errour difcovereth it felf, and 
there is no need of fearch ; yet fometimes alfo there 
will be many fecret obje&ions moved and harboured 
againft truths > which will not be avowed, though 
they be privately muttered ; yea, fometimes corrupt 
teachers will endeavour the vailing and hiding of 
their tenets, or errours, by many (hifts, even when 
they are ftudying to leaven others with their delu- 
fions. There is therefore a neceflicy in fuch a cafe, 
I. to try what opinions are held and vented, and to 
difcover the abfurdneffe and groffnefle of them 3 for, 
many will maintain the premiffes ignorantly , who 
will not know that fuch abfurd conclufions do fol- 
low thereupon ; It is fit therefore to lay by the names 
and expreffions ufed by feducers , and tocxpreffe the 



Part 3 . *A Trea tife concerning Scamdal. *""? 
thing as it is , cfpecially if it be the reviving of fome 
old abfurdity under fome new coat and pretext; 
Thus the Lord doth difcover the abomination of the 
KicoUitans doftrine, by comparing it unto , and evi- 
dencing it to be, upon the mater, indeed one and the 
fame with the practices of Balaam and Jezebel, %K 
2. 14 I5 v and 20. This way is alfd followed by Peter, 
2Epift. 2- and by Jude , vvho compared corrupt 
teachers to Balaam, , l{orab> <Datban 9 (<rc. thereby to 
take the viforn off old newly revived errours , that 
they may appear as they are ; for , often errour is 
commended to people under fome new reprefentation, 
and many will love it foreprefented , who yet will 
abhor former errours, which are ftill the fame,though 
under another name, which are two tricks of the de- 
vils fubtility , i. To make old errour paffe under 
the opinion and conftru&ion of fome new light* 
And, 2. for that end to difguife it in fome circum- 
ftances , and to change its name : And indeed, it is 
no little piece of fpirituall dexterity to remove that 
mask* Secondly , There is a difcovery to be made 
of the perfons wno hanker after fuch opinions > that 
k may be found who are infefted thereby j This 
would be done to reclaim the perfons, and to cure 
that diftemper,before it break out,or come to a height; 
for, it is more eafie often to cure one at the beginning 
than afterward : alfo, when itbecometh publick , it 
hath with it fome kind of engagement on the perfon, 
and he is more hardly recovered , left he (hould feem 
thereby to appear weak, erroneous, unftable, or fuch 
like. Befide, it is more gaining- like when the Mi- 
nifter privately findeth them out , and endeavoureth 
to recover them fecretly , before any publick notice 
be taken thereof, and often hath more fucceffe with 
it > than after debats , as feemeth to be held forth in 
that place > Gal. 2. 2* where 2W faith , that he com- 
municated with them of reputation, the Gofpel, firft, 
privately 1 left by any means he (hould have run in 


2 22 ^WtWBfJKnctrning S c aUTOH^ 7 " Part $ , 

vain. Therefore we conceive, perfons fafpeft of er- 
rour* would nor haftily be brought to publick , but 
in fome refpe& , the publickneffe of their offence, 
would be, as it were, ditiembled > or not pofitively 
fo publickly taken notice of, that-tljereby there may 
' be the fairer acceffe for them to retreat. ?. If there 

be any retreat* the perfbn would be waited upon al- 
though at firft it be not fully fatisfying , and all due 
care and diligence would be ufed to have his former 
errour buried , as if it had never been f without any 
publick hearing , except fome extraordinary circum- 
ftance perfwade to another way. For, (befides the 
reafons given) errour becometh not readily a publick 
fcaridal, except there be tenacioufneffe therein>or fome 
a&uall (tumbling- block laid before others thereby, 
which often the perfons reclaiming , will remove 
more than their cenfuring. Therefore, upon fuppofi- 
tion of a perfons recovery , therein no great fear of 
hazard in abftaining from bringing fuch a thing to 
publick, except he hath been inftrumentall to feduce 
others, or in fome fuch cafe which doth make his car- 
riage open before band ; as is faid. 4- This fecret dif- 
covery before things break out , is necdfull to prevent 
the defc&ion of others, becaule, if the perfons be not 
reclaimed, they maybe found oat to be dangerous, 
and may (b be noted, for the preventing of their be- 
ing a fn are to others > which they might have been 
more eafily , had they not been marked to be fuch, 
which is the reafon of that exhortation, %om. 16. 17. 
Marl( them that cauf$ dfoifions, and avoid them. When 
a perfon is difcovered and found to be tainted , then 
all means are to be ufed for his convittion by confe- 
rence, reafoning and other fuch means as may gain 
the end , this is a fpeciall qualification of a Minifter, 
27m. 9» that he may be able by found Do&rine to 
tonVmce gainfayers. And (as it is, 2 Tim. 2. 25. ) in 
meckneffe to inftruft thefe that oppofe themfelves z 
Which ftep may be confidered under diverfe refpe&s, 
• ' i.A* 

Part 3 ^ A Trecttfe concerning Scandal. 213 

i.As it tcndeth to the gaining of the perfon direftly,(b 
efpecially private debatings are rcquifit, which are to 
be carried on with all meekneffe and long-fuffering , 
although they meet with reproaches and reflexions 
in the profecuting thereof; 2. Although there be little 
hopes of gaining the perfon > yet there is need of 
fuch means for the flopping of his mouth, and the 
edification of others , that thereby he have not occa- 
fiontofeducethemj for, often fuch debatings folid- 
ly and judicioufly carried on > though they do not 
convince the perfon , foastomakchimfilent, yet do 
they convince others of the abfurdnefle of thefe er- 
rours, and the unrcafonablneffe of fuch a perfons 
carriage ; and experience hath proven 5 that often fuch 
debats have been blefled for the credit and vindication 
of the truth, in reference to many others, and by that 
place > Tit. 1. 9. feemeth to be clear duty , though 
there be little hopes of coming fpeed , as to the per- 
fons feduced. 


Whether at aB times apublick^debtte be neceffarj 
Vcith fuch perfons upon thefe points. 

IF it be queftioned here , 1. Whether in all cafes 
there be a neccflity of a publick debate? t. What 
is to be accounted conviftion ? 3. What is to be 
done, when the perfons are not filcnt ? 4. How this 
debate is to be managed? 

We (hall anfwer by laying downfome Aflertions 
promifcuoufly in reference to all thefe Queftions. 

AJJert. 1. We fay that there are tome times and in what 
cafes wherein publick debates are not altogether to be cafes it is 
(hunned j I will not fay, that every perfon is to accept called /w. 
of fuch a challenge , left thereby truth be wronged ; 
(neither is it alwayes the ableft man that manageth 
filch a bufineffe bed ) but in general the thing is nc- 


^24 <^4 Treatife concerning Scanda l • Part $ 

ceflary in thefe and fuch like calcs : As, I. when 
erroursfeem to be new among the people. ,2. When 
the promoters of them become infolent , as if they 
durft come to the light with their deeds. 3. When 
by forbearance and 'ilence, people are in hazard to 
think fomething of the(e infolent boafters, and of their 
opinions. In which cafes , I fay, and the like , there 
is fome neceflicv of this, for the Churches edification* 
as may appear from Tit. 1 9, 10, 1 1. There are many, 
faith the Apoftle.. v>ho are unruly and Vain tailors (fuch 
as vainly boart ofchdr own ability, to maintain their 
opinions ) v>ho[e mouths muft be flopped, left they get 
advantage to feduce others ; and this is given as the 
reafon why Miuillers fhould be qualified with abili- 
ties to convince gainfayers- becaule fometimes the in- 
folencie and vanity of fome fuch , doch neceflitate co 
this* and on this ground we will find our bleffed 
Lord Himfelf, and Stephen and Paul, frequently difpu- 
ting even in AfTmbhes and Synagogues. This will 
not infer a necelTi;y for every Mimfter to difpute at all 
times, even in fuch a cafe , but fometimes it may be 
referred,and put to others 5 for if trucn be maintained, 
anderrour be confuted, it may flop the gainfayers 
mouth, although every one do it not. 
j , Ajfert. 2. Yet there are fome cafes , when fuch en- 

cafc$ it is ter * n S °f debats is not neceflary nor expedient. As, 
»/* ^/&i x * fuppofing thefe things not to be new, but to have 
fa been fufficiently confuted formerly , and it may be in 

other places not far off, nor long before that > for, if 
there fhould be a continuing ftill to debate , there 
would be no truth acknowledged to be fetled , nor ac- 
ceffe to other and further duties. 2. When fome 
perfons are known vainly and purpofly to feek to put 
all in confufion, by multiplying fuch debats, and ir- 
reverently to profecute the fame » as if they made it 
their trade or vocation to do fo: The anlwering of 
fuch men according to their folly, would be an acrtfli- 
on co their guilt of taking chc bleffed Name of God 


Part 3 . A Treaty e concerning Scandal. 225 

in vain , and for fatisfa&ion to mens humours , and 
not for the great end of edification. ?. When men 
become unreafonable, and in their debating, (hew 
irrationall contradiction and blafphemy ; in fuch a 
cafe , it is to be forborn or broken off with indigna- 
tion , and with zeal to the glory of God , as we fee 
taul and Bartidbts do, Jtt.l$. 45 46. 4. Some 
erroneous perfons are fogrofleand abfurd , that they 
are not to be difputed with , but rather to be reproved 
and abhorred : and therefore we fee in thefe Epiftles* 
%v. 2. 3. there is no difputing againft the Nicoiaitanst 
as Paul ufeth in other cafes , becaufe, where fuch ab- 
furdities are owned, there is no accefle to fatten a con- 
viction from reafon, when men by fuch opinions ap- 
pear to be unreafonable. ?. When men deny prin- 
ciples, as the authority or fufficiency of the Scripture* 
or when they lay new principles , as alight within, 
revelations, enthufiafms, or fuch like; or, when they 
grofly and abfurdly wreft and pervert the Scripture, 
as Peter fpeaketh of fome, denying mod clear fenles, 
and forging fcnfes which are mod ridiculous : In 
fuch cafes, there is no accefle to difpute, not only be- 
caufe it cannot be done without admitting of them 
to blafphcrae , but alfo becaufe there is no mean by 
which they may be convinced , feing the Sword of 
the Spirit , which is the Word of God , is rendered 
ufelefle unto them : As for inftance , Hymeneu* and 
Alex&ndtr , faid , there was no refurre£tion to come, 
becaufe it was paft already; they wanted not dexteri- 
ty to abufc the Scripture , which faith, that there is a 
refurrettion from fin, and by the new birth Believers 
are raifed from the dead. Now, the applying of what 
is fpoken of the generall and fecond refurreftion to 
this particular and firft refurreftion, isfogtoffe, that 
2W doth not difpute with but Sentence fuch blafphe-* 
mers and abufcrs of the Scripture ; for, it is clear, 
that thty did not deny the Scripture , or a refurre6ti- 
on (imply, bucdidgroGy and irrationally mifapply 

Q^ cto 

*i6 tsf Treatife concerning Scandal. Part J. 

the fame : of this fort , are fuch as will admic of no 

diftin&ions, nor confequences, nor different accepti- 

ons of words and phrafes, and fuch like : fonaccord 1 

ing to chefe grounds > the Scripture is made todifa- 

gree from it felf, to give no certain found in any 

thing, and to infer many abfurdities , which is blaf- 

phemous to think. 

Wfato U to d/fert.^ It is not to be thought that that only \%con\>u 

bcaccoun. Stion,v9t\kh pucteth the adverfe party to filence,or that 

¥&** *^ C w " en convincing of gainfayers is commanded , that 

fwjicim c h ac on i y j $ intended: for,men of corrupt unruly ipiriw 

conviftm (as thc Apoftlc faUh ^ wax worfe and wor f c>and do rc- 

taV* m ' C ^ e t^uc ' 1, as 1 mnes anc * J am ^ res withftood Mofes, 
' J • 2 Tim. 3 8. and are therefore called reprobate concern- 
ing the faith ; yea, fometimes the more they be pinch- 
ed and bound , the more they cry out , and will not 
yeeld to convincing truth, as we fee, ^#.6. 9,10,11* 
and All 1 3. 45, 46. and certainly there were none of 
Paul's oppofers able to difpute with him , yet we will 
never almoft find his adverfariei filent , though he 
put them to filence > and did aftually convince them ; 
notwithftanding they are ftill muttering and contra- 
dicting, fo that oftentimes he breaketh off, Quaking 
the duft off his feet againft them, when arguments did 
not the bufineffe. Oftentimes a lfo , this continuing 
of contradidion with fome dexterity to pervert Scrip- 
ture to their own deftru&ion , is to them penallmd 
judiciall , as was formerly obferved , and doth follow 
upon their hazirding and daring to oppofe the mani- 
feft truth. And who would have thought , but that 
thefe Magicians that refifted M>/tt> fhouldhave been 
convinced by fo many miracles, not to have effayed 
further to oppofc him ? which yet notwithftanding 
they continue to do ; and if it was fo then, and with 
Paul and the other Apoftles afterward, can i.t be ex- 
pe&ed to be otherwayes now ? feing the fpirit of 
Jannes and Jambres, and the gainfaying of Core is 
marked by the Scripture to wait on fuch* 

Part J. A Treatifc concerning Scandal. 227 

If it be asked then, What cao be undcrftood by 
conviction ? and if a pcrlbn may be accounted con- 
vinced, who yet may be keeping the laft word, and 
confidently bragging of the vi&ory ? Jnfi>. That 
conViHion is not to be bounded with acknowledgment 
or filence in the party convinced , we fuppofe is al- 
ready cleared ; yea, thofe that are convinced, may, as 
it were, cry the others out of the company by multi- 
tude of words and confidence of expreflions, as thofe 
Jews did cry down Vaul and Barnabas* dtt. 13.46. 
Therefore we fee in that precept* Tit. 5. 10, 11. 
that the Heretick which is to be reje&ed, is both faid 
to refufe admonition* and alfo to be condemned of 
himfelf; yet it cannot be faid that he was put to filence 
by thefe admonitions, or did forbear to vent his er- 
rours : this therefore mutt be accounted certain , and 
is confirmed by 2l)m. 2.25. where the recovery of 
oppofers, even after fufficient inftru&ion, with meck- 
neffe, hath a peradtenture in it , as a thing moft rarely 
to be found. We muft therefore place condition in 
fome other thing than that: and foinanfwerto the 
queftion , What is to be accounted conUttlon ? Wc 
fay, T. it is when a perfon isfofar convinced, and 
the truth with his errour fo far cleared to be troth and 
errour refpeftively , that his continuing obftinate* 
cannot be fuppofed to be of infirmity , which often 
will evidence it felf in foolifh , weightleflc and un- 
reafonablc flnifts and anfwers, or when there cannot 
be weight in fuch an anfwer , to fatisfie a mans own 
reafon or confeience , if he were fober and at himfelf: 
upon this account, the Heretick is faid to be condem- 
ned of himfelf, Tit. 3. 11. not becaufe a&ually his 
confeience doth condemn him for diflRmulation ; fot 
even then it is fuppoled he may be in a dclufion,whidi 
keepeth* off fuch challenges ; and their confeiences 
are faid to be feared with an hot iron, 1 Tim. 4. 2. 
which importeth , they were not capable of pofitive 
conviftions within themfelves > but it muft be un- 
Q^ z dcrttood 

2 2 S d Treatlfe concerning Scandal. Part }• 

dcrftood thus , that they arc thecaufe of their own 
blindneffe , as wilfully and mahcioufly refuting and 
rejeding light when it is offered to them > andfo the 
cauie of their own damnation doth not flow from the 
negle&of others, in not holding forth to themfuffi- 
cient light, but from their own obftmacy , prejudice 
and malicioufnefle. 2. They may be (aid to be con- 
vinced when the thing is made clear to fober ferious 
men , even as fome ftupid ignorant perfon9 are inex- 
cufable in their ignorance, when they live under fuch 
means as others of ordinary capacity thrive by; al- 
though fuch plain preachings, difcourfes or db&rines 
be no way underftood by them , yet may it juftly be 
faid, that that light was fufficient to inftru&them, 
or that Gofpel to convince them, (eing others have 
been profiled by the fame. 3. They may be (aid to 
be convinced , even when they fpeak again , when 
there is no anfwer to purpofe in their fpeaking, but 
abfurd denying or afferting of things without any 
reafon> or when there is a granting of abfurd confe- 
rences, or an aflerting of an abfurdity, that poffibly 
is greater nor another which they would cfchew ; or, 
bitter railing againtt mens perfons, feeking to defame 
them for ftrengthening of their caufe , as the falfe 
teachers did 2W among the Corinthians and Galatians , 
and as the Liber tins dd to Stephen by venting calum- 
nies on him, and provoking others againft him, Atl.6. 
or, when in their anfwers or debates , they break out 
in blafphemy againft God , againft His Scriptures, 
againft His Ordinances ; fuch, in fuch cafes,are to be 
accounted fufficiently convinced, and their obftinacy 
is to be accounted malicious ; and this we may ga- 
ther, as from others places, fo from that , MK 13. 45, 
46. when they ccme to wilfull contradidtions and 
blafpheming, fad and fBamabM will reafon no more. 
And, Mts2$. 24, 25. fome Jews arc accounted to be 
fufficiently convinced, and their contradi&ion to pro- 
ceed from judicial! blinding, when they rejeft that 


Part 5 . %A Treat ik concerning Scandal.' 1 2# 

Word which did fufficiently, convince others. Alfa 
we fee, Ml. 17. p- when men begin to mock at the 
fundamental! things of Religion , or to fbift clear 
places of Scripturcby putting Grange and abfurd ex- 
pofuions upon them, as was formerly marked of Hjl- 
meneus and Alexander ; fuch perfons are not to be dis- 
puted with any more, but to be accounted abundant- 
ly convinced , Notwichftanding of the moft confi- 
dent contradi&ion : and what was faid of fome cafes, 
wherein publick debate was not to be admitted , the 
fame may be applied in this cafe , as being evidences 
of Sufficient convi&ion artd felf-condemnation of 
fuch perfons. 

Jjfert. 4. When any fuch debate is found neceffa- H 
ry, there is much fpiritual zeal and prudence required ijTfi 
in the managing thereof: in which, befide what is ge- £ t J £ ^ 
nerally required in the manner of every thing, thefe»<w w ^ 
things are to beobferved , 1. That it be not tumul- neccflary. 
tuary and confufed $ becaufe fo the Name of God is 
irreverently dealt with , and made obnoxious to re- 
proach : Therefore order and reverence , and what is 
needfull and fit for fuch an end, is to be provided for ; 
other wife , fuch confufed meetings are to be left \^jhen 
entered into, as difhonourable to the Name of God, 
and unbecoming the gravity that Minifters fhould 
follow, as we fee, ^#.13.45,46. and ^.i$Mo, 32. for, 
in fuch a cafe there is no 3ccefle to edification. 2. Men 
would den iedly undertake fuch a thing when called 
to it, as being convinced how difficult the task is , 
how feckleflfe thr y themfclves are , and how fubcile 
the principal! adverfary which they have to do with 
is. Therefore there would no: be an undertaking 
upon the account of gifts , parts, or learning, nor 
would it be managed only or mainly by fubtile ar- 
gument*, nor would advantage be much fought for, 
that way hue fiviiple truth would be plainly, gravely, 
and 2 aloufly propofed with refpeft to the affc&ing 
the confeience of the party* and of the hearers. 
Q^i And 

5j b A Treatife concerning Scandal Part y 

And as it is in preaching, not the fubtileft and learn- 
cdeft difcourfes do alwayes prove moft taking , So in 
debates that concern confcience, materiall plainnefle 
demonftrating the truth with power unto the confci- 
ence j hath often the clearcft evidence with it* There 
is a notable inftance recorded by fyjfinus, Ecclef. hift. 
lib. to. chap. 3. which was thus, at the Council I 
of N*Ve , great Schollers were conveened from all 
places* upon report of that famous meeting, to which 
alio did come fome chief Philofophers, of whom 
one moft eminent did difpute frequently with the 
greateft Schollers , who were never able to bind him, 
becaufefuch (faith he) was his nimbleneffe* that 
like an eel he flipped them , by one fhift or other, 
when arguments did feem moft conliringent. But 
God , that he might (how that His Kingdom did not 
confift in word, but in power ; one of the Confcffors, 
being a man of a moft fimple nature, and knowing 
nothing but Chrift Jefus and Him crucified, when 
he (aw the Phflofopher iniultingand boaflingof his 
quickneffe, defired liberty to (peak with him a little, 
others did fhun it, knowing the mans fimplicity, and 
fea^jng left he fhould become a reproach to fubtile 
men: notwithftanding, he pcrfifted, and began thus, 
Philofopher, in the Name of Jefus Chrift hear thefe 
things that are true > There is one God who made 
Heaven and Earth , and formed man out of the duft, 
and gave him a Spirit , who made all things which 
are feen and un(een , who fent His Son , born of a 
Virguijto deliver us miferablc (inners from everlafting 
death $ by His fuffering of death ; and hath given us 
lifeetetnallbyHis Refurre&ion , whom we expeft 
to come as Judge of what ever we do : Philofopher* 
believeft thou thefe things ? Then he, as if he had not 
known how to contradict, aftoniftied with the power 
of what was faid , and put to filence, only could an- 
fwer, that it appeared fo , that there V>as no other thing 
but truth in V>hat he had faid. Then faid the aged Con- 


Part J» A Trettife concerning Scandal; 2gl 

fefibr , if thou belieVe/l fo , rife and follow me to the 
Cburcb , and receive the feal of this faith : Then the 
Philofophcr turning to thefe that herewith him* and 
other hearers > (aid > Heir , Learned men , While the 
matter too* managed With me With Words y I oppofed Words 
to Words ; but When for Words Vertue proceeded out of the 
mouth of him tbatjpal(e, Words ( faid he) could not re- 
fill poWer, nor man God* And therefore* if any of you 
have felt What I ba\>e , let him believe inQbrifl> and fol- 
low tbti old man, in whom God hath fpoken. Thus far 
fyffinM : a ftory not unworthy to be obferved. 3. It 
would be known what principles may be laid down, 
or what rules may be binding , otherwayes there may 
be an affertine of any thing or denying of every thing. 
4. There would be ftill a minifterial gravity and au- 
thority prefer ved, left that Ordinance become defpi- 
cable, and fo Minifters would both improve their 
reafon, light, authority, and minifterial commiffion 
from Chrift upon the confeience of thofe they have to 
do with , as we fee Paul doth in his debates > even 
where his authority was much queftioned. 

Admonition is neceffarj, and how to be performed. 

THe third ftep> is Admonition , that is, when 
convidions have no fucceffe, then ought Mi- 
nifters to proceed to judiciall and authorita- 
tive admonitions) a9 the word is in thedire&ion, Tit. 
3.1©. A man that is an Beret'itk, rejett> after thefirjl 
and fecond admonition. This admonition hath no new 
reafon to inform the judgment, which is already pre- 
fuppofedtobe done, but it adderh thefe two, 1. Ic 
hath a concurring weight to affe& the confeience 
which hath withftood or fmothered the light ; and 
fo it is, with Gods bl fling, ufefull to make former 
defpifed light more fcrioufly and impartially to be 
Q^4 weigh- 

2 3 r tA Treats fe concerning Scanda 1 I Part. 3 • 

Weighed and confidered, when in Hh Name the ad- 
monition is particularly upon that account dire&ed to 
them. 2. Ic is a warning , giving advertifement of 
fome fadder thing coming, if they fhall continue to 
rejeft the Truth 9 and fo it is a (boring of them for 
that particular fauld before the ftroak be laid on, that 
cither, by Gods blefling , it may humble and (often 
them, and fo put them to endeavour the preventing 
of the coming ftroak 5 or, if they continue ftubborn, 
it may make them more inexcufable ; and thus there 
is the clearer acceffe to proceed to rejection. This ad- 
The feveral monition may be confidercd in thc(e three fteps, I. It 
jupsof al~ may k e f n private after the Minifter's conferring with 
monition. J .j le per f ons an j h j s fi nc }j n g t h cm guilty , he may not 
only inftru&them, but afterward, if they continue, 
admonifh them, andthatasaMinifter, in the Name 
and Authority of Jefus Chrift, which is more than 
the admonition of a privat perfon. 2* There is a 
ftep of this admonition to be pad judicially by a 
Church-judicatory when the perfon is brought be- 
fore them, whereby they judicially interpofe their au- 
thority to admomfh fuch a perfon of the evil of his 
way, and of the neceflity of the prefent duty of re- 
pentance for the fame > like that which fintully and 
mod abominably was mifapplied by the Priefts and 
Pharifees, Mt. 4, ?. yet, that in the general there is 
fuch an admonicion,is apparent. The ?♦ ftep is pub- 
lickiy before the people, wherein ( after the former 
h*th f died in reaching thedefired end) the party in- 
fe&ed is folemnlyand publickly admonifhed before 
the Congregation. In which ftep, 1. The parties 
good is to berefpefted, that now it may be tried if 
the admonition both of officers and people (who are 
fuppofed to joyn in this publick admonition) may 
have weight. 2» It is ufefull for the people to guard 
them a^ainft fuch an evil, and fuch a perfon. 3. If 
It fuccecd not, ic leaveth the perfon more inexcufable, " 
and convinces all of the jufticc and neceflity of pro- 

Part 3 • ATreatife concerning Scandal. 233 

ceeding further , and fo tcndcth to make the Sentefice 
to be the more refpefted by all. This, we conceive, is 
the admonition intended, Tit. 3. 10. andanfwereth 
to that publick rebuke, fpoken of, 1 Tim. 5. 20. 

In carrying-on thefe admonitions , thefe things Sme thi 
would be obferved, I, That there be no great haft- ^ r ^/ c f» 
ing , except the perfons readinefle and diligence to x y waj f 
infeft others require the fame, in which cafe there is adrnwifiing 
no delay to be admitted. 2. All thefe fteps of admo- 
nition would befocarried-onasbecometh an Ordi- 
nance ofChrift, and that the weight of them may lie 
there. 3. There is difference to be put betwixt giving 
of an admonition, and entering of a debate for con- 
ference ; Therefore there is no ncceflicy of fufpending 
an admonition, becaufe the perfon is abfent, more 
than there is of fufpending of a warning or citation : 
And, on the other fide , If the perlons were prefent, 
and ftiould comradift andoppofe themfelves, there is 
no neceflity nor conveniency of entering in debate 
again » becaufe that is not the prefent work , but 
authoritatively to admonifh thofe who have refifted 
fufficient convi&ion , and fo they are to be left under 
the weight of the admonition, from which the renew- 
ing of debate would diminiflh. 

The-fourth thing and that which followeth fruic- ^bet reieft* 
leffe admonition, is rejection, Tit. 3. io« A man that u i^^J^ y m 
an heretic fi> rejeit. This reje&ion is the fame with (that Here- 
Excommunication or delivering to Satan, 1 Tiro* *• 20. \u^ , j* r* 
Concerning which thefe things are clear, churcb-ofji- 

1. That a man, continuing an Herctick, may and eers aneuf* 
ought to be reje&ed and excommunicated as well as laryduty,&' 
for any other groffe Scandal : For> f . the precept is a m ,an t0 ^ 
plain in the place cited, A man that u an Heretu^rejecti ma ^e *f c °f 
which muft be a cafting of him out from Church- pTtheCbur^ 
communion,anda giving of him over in refpeft of the Hs € ^ QAm 
ufe of any further means for his edification, which MfU 
>i$ in effeft, to account him as an Heathen man and a 
Publican , which is called, 1 Cor, $♦ 13. a putting 


534 'ATridtife concerning Scandal. Part f. 

away from amongft our felvcs a wicked perfon, 
a. The example and precedent is clear, I Tim. i , 20* 
3. Where this is followed, ic is commanded) as in 
Epbefus, Ifyb. 2. and where it is for born, and corrupt 
teachers fuffered to be in the Church, it is very (harp- 
ly reproved, as in the Epiftles toT "ergamos and Tbya- 
tira % 4. The general grounds of Scandal and of Dif- 
cipline againft the fame, and the reafons which in- 
force the exercife thereof in any cafe, have weight 
here. For, I. It is fcandalous exceedingly. 2. It is 
hurtfull to the Church. ?, Difcipline* and particu- 
larly that Sentence, is appointed for remedying the 
hurts of the Church> and the removing of offences 
from the fame; which grounds have been formerly 
cleared, Therefore it palpably folio weth, that this 
Sentence is to proceed againft fuch : But for further 
clearing of this, there are fome Queftions to be an- 
fwered here, As, 
Whit if the I- '* ma ^ ^ e q uc fti° ne d> What if the perfon be 
perfon feda- Sodly, or accounted fo > Anfo>. I (hall not fay how 
ildbejudg- unlike it is that a really gracious man will be a 
tdto be tru. minifter of Satan, we have fpoken of that already > 
lygtActm. but, fuppofing it to be fo , I . If it be fcandalous in a 
gracious man, is not the fame remedy to be ufed for 
the Churches good? 2. That fuppofition of Vaul's 
Gal. 1 . 8> 9. doth put it above all queftion , Though 
*toe (faith he) or an Angel from Heaven, preach another 
GoJ}>el y lethimbeatcurfed. And, again, he faith it, to 
put this out of controverfic, If any manfball preach 
another Gojpel, let him be accurfed. And, if '?<*«/ will 
except no man, no, nothimfelf, nay, nor an Angel 
from Heaven, who can be excepted ? The miftake is 
in this , that Excommunication is not looked upon 
as an Ordinance of Chrift, ufefull through His blef- 
fing for humbling and reclaiming of a (inner more 
than if it were not applied ; whereas , if it were 
looked upon as medicinal in its own kind, it would 
not be foconftru&edof ; For, by comparing 1 Cor. 


par t 3 • A Treatife concerning Scandal* 235 

5. with 2 Cor, 2. we will find that it was more pro- 
fitable to the excommunicated perfon himfelf that 
this Sentence was paft than if it had been forborn. 

2. It may be asked, What if the perfon be no fixed }yb at jj fo 
member of any particular Congregation , who yet be no fixel 
doth infeft others ? Jnffo. This cannot be fufficient member of 
to exempt from Cenfure , Becauie, I. he is a mem- anypartictu 
ber of the Catholick Church, Therefore Cenfures^rco^rc- 
rouft fome way reach him : otherwayes, fuppofinga gfithn. 
man to difclaim all particular Congregations , he 

might be a member of the Church, who yet could be 
reached by no Cenfure. 2. He might claim the pri- 
viledges in any particular Congregation, it he (hould 
carry fairly as he is a member of the Church-catho- 
lick : Therfore it would fetm by proportion and rule 
of contraries, that Presbyteries may reach him with 
their Centres, if by his mifcarriages he become of- 
fenfive to the people. 3. We fee that the Church of 
Epbefiis, l(eVel. 2* did judicially try and cenfure thofc 
who called thcmfelves Apoftles, who> k\ like, being 
Grangers, obtruded themfelves, under that tide, upon 
them* and fo could not be accounted members of that 
Church ; And indeed, there is no Iefle needfull for 
the edification of the people of fuch particular Con- 
gregations, and for guarding them from the hurt that 
may come by vageing perfons>than that either they be 
cenfured fomewhere by one Congregation* or many, 
in affociated Church- judicatories; or, at leaft that 
(bmepublick note and mark be put upon fuch, that 
othersrnay have warning to eichew them, as the 
word may be taken, 2fy»*. 16.17, *8. and zTbeJf. 
3. 14. which is there fpoken of, bufie bodies and 
wanderers without any certain calling or (iation. 

3. It may be qucftioned> What if Magiftrates in WhattjCU 
their place concur not , or, if the cafe fo fall out, that vill CMagi- 
they be difpleafed with the drawing- forth of fuch z Jtrats concur 
Sentence > tAnfto. This may require the more pru- not f? r l ^ c 
dence, zeal and gircumfpeftnefie ? but ought not to ha ^g of 

mar t ^ e l cntcnfe ^ 

WT" r ■ I 

i?3 6 d Treatlfe concerning Scandal. 1 Part £ 

mar the progreffe : Becaiife, r. Excommunication is I 
an Ordinance inftituted by Jefus Chrift for the edifi- I 
cation of His Church, as Preaching and giving of thd | 
Sacraments art. 2. That fame might have been 
asked in the primitive times whenSW did excom- 
municate , and when the Lord did reprove the want 
thereof, %!*/. 2. There was then no. concurrence of 
Civil Power, Yea, 3. in this cafe it feemeth moft 
neceffary 5 and the greateft enemies of Church-difci- 
pline do allpw the Church to Sentence her members 
in luch a cafe, 4. The weight of this Scntence-doch 
not depend upon Civil Poweo but upon Chrift's In- 
stitution, Therefore the weight of it is to bfe laid here, 
whatever Civil-Powers do. 5. We will find the 
primitive Fathers hazirding upon Martyrdom even 
in this very thing , So that when corrupt Emperours 
have inhibited them, to excommunicate Mans and 
other Hereticks , they have done it notwithftanding ; 
and by defigning whom they, defired to have fuc- 
ceeding them in their places before they paft the . 
Sentence, did declare themfelves ready to fuffer,upon 
this account, any thing that might follow, and ac- 
cordingly fome of them have been immediatly put 
tofuftering. i . * , 

Ym limi- 2. We fay, That although an Heretick be to be re- 
tatons 10 j'e&ed, yet is there a tw9fold limitation to bead-, 
he aivttu verted to in that place, Ylt\ 3. 9. firft,Thatit is {iot 
ei m the CV ery erroneous perfon that is fo to be deajt with> but 
njtfaH he muft be an Beretic\- Which doth imply thefe 
*/hr * c ^ rce ' *• A pernicioufneffe and deftruftiveneffe in 
ev * the errour maintained. 2. An a&ual venting there- 
of, to the deftruftion of the Church , either by cor- 
rupting the doftrine, marring the order, or breaking 
the unity of the fame, or fome other way fpoiling the 
vines that have tender grapes. 3. It implicth a per- 
tinacy infuch evils. 

It is true, that fometimes leffer errours, in jrefpetf of 
their effetfs, and other aggravating circumftances, 


Part 3 • A Treat if e concerning Scandal. 237 

may become intolerable and to be proceeded againft 
by this Sentence, as was faid of leffer Scandal* in 
■ practice. Yet, we conceive, that properly ic is fome 
grofler errour than what may be accounted to be of 
infirmity ( fuch as many godly, fober, unprc judged 
men may have ) that is to be the ground of* fuch a 
Sentence. Therefore we refer tfredecifion of this to 
be gathered from the Diftinftions formerly laid 

3, We find it qualified by this, Thatthis reje&i- 
onbnot to prbceed hefiily, but to follow upon re- 
jected aid fit inbred admonitions : Therefore, if an 
admonition be received before, and the Church there- 
in be heard , time is fco furtf er ptQceeding to be in v 
in reference to this Sentence : Brcaufe, I. tbje limita- 
lion is exprtffe. i. The reafon is clear 5 for if the 
lcflVr cio the turn , and prevail to the recovery of the 
prrfon, and removing of the offence from the Churcb> 
What necdeth more?" 


What u to be accounted a fatisfjing and fuccejfe- 
- full admonition, 

IF it be asked , What is to be accounted a fatisfy- 
ing and (ucaflefull admonition ? And how.men 
'are to judge of, and wa k in reference to, the lame > 
Anfo. We would diliinguifti fatisfadtion or fucceffe 
ail to an admonition , which may be either full latis- 
fadtton or only partialis Full fatisfadtion is , When 
the perfon is to fully convinced of his ill , as not on- 
ly to forbear the venting thereof , and to give no of- 
fence for the time to come , but alfo fully ro abandon 
the fame as heinf grieved therefore, and willing to 
edifie others, by a fuitable acknowledgement. Sme u ( t r u ^ 

Again,wc calhhat a partial fatisfaftion or fuccefle, j)j(ij n ftjl ns 
when though there is not a fully fatisfying length ob- iffakfaili- 

caincd j ** 


S3 S A Treatife concerning Scandal* Part 3 . ' 

tained; yet can knot befaidtobe altogether fruit- 
leffe. Asfuppofe, 1. a perfon (hould not be brought 
wholly to difclaim hi* errours , yet (hould profeffe a 
convi&ion of the ill of venting them , and troubling 
the Church with them, and afterward (hould engage 
to abftain from offending in that kind. 2. Suppofe 
one (h6uld be convinced of the more groffe errours, 
and be content to difclaim thefe , yet (hould ftick at 
fome others, profefling fcruple in them. 

We would alfo diftinguifh thefe that give partiall 
fatisfa&ion. 1. Either they are fuch as appear to be 
fincere in the length they come, and in the profefiions 
they make > as alfo to be docile and ready to be in- 
formed ; or , they are fuch who difcover the want of 
ingenuity in their proceeding, andthemfelvesbutto 
belying at the wait to return to their vomit. 

Now to apply this, We fay, 1 . When this fatisfa- 
ftion is full , there is no queftion ; for , thereby 
not only all further proceffe is to be fifted> but the per- 
fon is to be admitted to have communion in Church* 

2, Where this partiall fucceffe is of the firft fort* 
We conceive it may be fufficient to fift proceffe tor a 
time ; and to continue the perfons under means with- 
in the Church , fo long as they contradift not their 
profeflion ; yet it is not fufficient to give them free ac- 
cede to all Church-privilcdgcs, as if the fcandal were 
fully removed. 

3. Where that fatisfaftion is but of the laft kind, 
that is, mocking and diffembled, We fay,that though 
it may put a Church-judicatory to try the evidences 
of thisdiffirnulation, and during that time poflibly 
to flop a little their proceeding; yet ought it not to 
mar the drawing forth of the Sentencc,left there be an 
acceffion to the hurt which is intended to the Church 
bythatdiffembler : And here we are to apply both 
chereafons againft , and charafters of, diflimulati- 
on, which were (poken to on pra&icall offences* 

4.- If 

Part 3 • %A Tnatift concerning Scandal. 139 

4. If there be no Teeming fatisfa&ion at all, then 
after admonitions given, the perfon defpifing the lame 
is to be re je&ed , as one that is infe&ious and unfit to 
have communion in the Church , or the benefit of 
any Church- pnviledge and Ordinance: And, in a 
word, to be, for hisfcandal, and obftinacy aeainft 
Chrifts Ordinances, declared to be Excommunicate, 
and caften out of His vifible Kingdom, as an out- law 
to the fame ; Which is to be done with fuch gravity, 
wcightincfle, fympathy and authority, as it may look 
like the Ordinance of Chrift, and have an impreflion 
of His dread and Majcfty upoa all that are witneffes 

If it be asked , Whether any further duty be re- Whttber 
quired from a Minifter towards fuch a perfon after the * w *W»g bt 
Sentence is part ? Anfo. He is not then properly un* fcquittd of 
der paftorall charge, fince he is no member of Chrifts Mi nl ftf f * 
vifible Church, atleaft, in that refgeft, as members lm x ^ % l € \ 
fall under common and ordinary actuaJl infpeftion, \* J*. 
Yet we conceive, 1. That the Minifter is to continue grc ' 
to deal with God for him ( at leaft in private ) if fo 
be he may be recovered out of this fnare , becaufe 
he is under the laft cure , which will either prove life 
or death ; Gods blefitng therefore to it. is to be fought ; 
and it becometh well the naturall care of a kmdly 
Minifter, that is thirfting for the blefling, to deal with 
God for it. 2. Alrhoogh there be not aftuall ac- 
ceffe to any thing ; yet ought there to be a lying at 
the wait to obferve any opportunity which may be 
for his good, and when it offereth, it would be care- 
fully improven. And therefore , ?• for that end, 
whatever indignation befhown againft a mans wayes 
orerrours, to make thefe loath fomc to others, yet 
ftill there would be evidence of tender refpt ft to the 
perfons, and, if need be, means ufed to fupply them, 
efpecially if they come to any ftrait , although in all 
this they would keep fuch a diftance as may keep up 
the weight of the Sentence > both to them and others : 


?49 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part g T 

But, by this way, their fufpicious miftakcs of Mini- 
ftcrs carnalncffle againft their perfons, are beft remov- 
ed, and acceffe is thereby made to be edifying unto 
them, Som j examples whereof are recorded in the 
life of Muf cuius, asto histenderneffetomoltdefpe- 
rately deluded perfons , when they were in affli&ion, 
and difcountenanced exceedingly by Magirtrates, 
which God blcffed in the end for their recovery ; this 
is ft 'table , feverity in Magiftrates , and tenderneffe' 
in Miaifters. And amongft other ills and fnares that 
that cruell indulgencie ( which is indeed cruell to the 
poor fouls , to whom it becometh a fnare ) hath fol- 
io ving it , this is one, That the Magiftrate is ac- 
counted mercifiill , and the zealous Mitiifter cruell, 
whereby they are put in an incapacity to be edified 
by the one , and in a capacity > as it were , to mif- 
carry as they will, by the indulgence of the other. 


WhM it require A of Magiftrates for reftraining 
of (educing jpirits* 

THe fecond thing that we propofed to fpeafc to 
in this remedy , was , as it relateth to Magi- 
ftrates > to wit > Whether any thing be ? or 
what it is that is called- for by the Word of God 
from them » to be performed in their ftations for the 
drying up of fucb a floud , and removing of fuch a 
plague ? It is not our mind to infift fo much in this 
as in the former , Yet it is fit that we fay fomething : 
A>id who knoweth but it may fall in the hand of feme 
Migtftrate, who may be defirous to hear and know 
his luty ? which we (hall lay down in an Aflertion, 
or two, thus, 

Ajjert. i. Although God hath not made Magi- 
ftrate** as fuch, Church officers, nor incrufted them 
with the Ecclcfiaftick Government of His Church 5 


Part 3. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 241 

yet doth he allow them , and call them to improve ^. 
their civil powir for the good of His Church in Ec- calLed acm 
clefiaftick things in (bmerefpcft, as well as in civil cor di n gto 
things. And therefore if a Magiftrate fee not to the fair placet 
providing of Minifters for a people, and of mainte-rp inter* 
nance to them, and fuch like, that are neceflary toxfefe. 
the being of a Church , as well as he provideth Offi- 
cers, and furnifheth them that arc ncedfull in the 
State, he is faulty and unfaithfull to his truft. For, 
the Lords defign in fetling of Societies, and appoint- 
ing of Magiftrates , is to he expounded as fubfervient 
to that great end of mens glorifying of God , and en- 
joyingbim. And certainly > Magiftrates are to have 
that as their own end, even in the aftions of their Na- 
tion , and to endeavour to promove that amongft 
thefe over whom for their good they rule. This is 
clear in all the Governments and Commonwealths 
that the Lord did immediately model Himlelf , Ma- 
giftrates had this for a fpeciall part of their task , to 
keep His Ordinances pure, and to reftrainthe cor- 
rupters of them : This is expreffed in the Morall Law, 
where Matters are no leffe to overfee their fervants, 
that they work not on the Sabbath , from refpeft to 
the Lord* than to dircft their work all the week from 
refpeft to themfelves ,• and by the rules of interpreting 
of thefe commands , what belongeth to a Matter to 
be done by him as a Matter, in reference to thefe over 
whom he hath power according to his ftation, that 
doth belong to all Magiftrates in reference to thefe 
under their charge, according to their ftations. Alfo* 
where one inftance is named; ail of that kind are 
comprehended. And therefore as this Ordinance of 
fanftifying the Sabbath, is to be overfeen by Superi- 
our«,fo alfo are all others: yea,ic is acknowledged aHb, 
that what is expreflcd in one command , in refpe£k of 
the extent thereof , is to be underftood in all. And 
therefore this obligation lyeth on Superiours, to make 
inferiours obfervant of Gods Ordinances in reference 

M* v* Treatife concerning Scandal. Part J. 

to all the commands ; this is not doubted of the du- 
ties in the fecond Table : yet there is no exprefllon in 
it inferring the fame, fp expreffe as is in the firft ; and 
this is a common affertion , Magiftrates ba)>e both 
Tables of the LaV> commuted to tf sir peeping. This is 
fully made out by many godly and learned men, and 
we need not to infift upon ic ; for, readily, no Magi- 
ftrate doth queftion his own power , but that he may 
do what is fie , all the matter is to confidcr what 
that is* 
dffert. 2. It is not a Magiftrates duty in the cafe of 
And not overfpreading delufion , mcerly to look to outward 
meetly to order and civil peace and enjury , and to give liberty 
looktoout' to any or man y { om f d an g Crous errours and delu- 
ward or- ^ ons t0 f preac j . or> t0 g j vc toleration unto the main- 
tained thereof, in their fpreading the fame. For, 
I. fuch errours, are ill deeds, and fuch fpreaders, are 
ill doers , bringing great prejudice to people , Gal. 5. 
20. 2 Epift. of John 1 1. 2. Magiftrates oupht to 
be a terrour to evil doers indefinitly ; and, I fuppofe , 
if the fword be born in vain in reference to them, the 
confeience will not have ground of quietnefle in the 
day of judgement , upon a diftin&ion of evil doers, 
when the Lord hath made none fuch in their commif- 
fion. ?.They ought to be zealous of His honour who 
is their Superiour, that His name be not blafphem- 
ed : and can fuch be tolerate without this conftru&i- 
on, upon the matter , that men have liberty to blaf- 
pheme the Naneof God> to abufe His truth, re- 
proach His Ordinances, and to take His Name in 
vain as they will ? Would any fupream Magiftrate 
take it well* to have fome inferiour officer > or Magi- 
ftrate of a Town or Province, to give fuch liberty to 
thefe under his j'urifdiftion in reference to him ? And 
is there any fuch diftance between the fupream and 
inferiour Magiftrate , as there is between the Majefty 
of God>and the moft fupream power on earth ? And 
what if He judge between Him and them out of their 


Part J . A Treatife concerning ScaNDAL. ^43 

own mouch > and, according to the mcafurc that they 
met out to others , met out to them ? 4. Arc they 
not to (eek the peoples pood ? And is there any fuch 
good, as their fpirituall good ? Or, are there any fuch 
enemies to that as feducers ? We conceive therefore* 
it will not be found agreeable to the intent of their of- 
fice and fcope which they ought to aim at therein, 
that Magiftrates fhould give this liberty or conni- 
vance to men , to vent and propagate fuch errours as 
may deftroy fouls, and a&ually overturn the face of a 
vifible Church > fo that if fomething overfpread uni- 
verfally, (as Popery, and tome other grofle errours 
and delufions have done in fome places of the world ) 
there fhould be no vifible Church within fuch domi- 
nions > And indeed, upon thefe principles* men can- 
not impute it to their own care, that it is otherwayes. 
Alfo, fuch loofnefle may overturn Ordinances , and 
fet up abominations in the room thereof, remove all 
Miniftery, Sacraments, Difcipline and Preaching, 
and all upon pretext of conlcicnce : fuch delufions 
have been in the world 5 and if bv Magiftrates con- 
nivance, they fhould overfpread a Nation, fo as there 
could be no remedy applied , would it be fatisfyiog 
or comfortable to him (fuppofing him to have a con- 
fcience) to fee his people under him in fuch a pofture? 
What if under pretext of confeience , Magiftracie 
(hould be denied to be an Ordinance of God } and 
he put therefrom, upon that account , that the people 
thought it unlawful] to obey him ? Would not rea- 
dily his confeience fay , That feinghe reftraincd not 
others from catting at thefe Ordinances, in which the 
honour of God , and good of (ouls were fo much 
concerned, that it was jutt with God to permit them 
to caft at that Ordinance alfo, wherein he is fo main- 
ly concerned ? And indeed , this hath not been un- 
f requently fcen > that thefe who have begun to caft ac 
Church- ordinances, have come at length ( as if they 
had been thereto difpofed by the former) to caft at 
R z Civil 

244 ^ Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3, 

Civil Ordinances (to fpeak fo) alfo ; and what won- 
der is it , feing there is no more clear warrant from 
God for the one than for the other ? 

That th ^ K ^ e ^^ " ^ at w ^ at ^ at ^ keen ^P°^ en in l ^ e 
^^dofitrine, and on thefe places > %V,2. concerning the 
fainft tote- not Offering of corrupt teachers to vent their errours, 
ution ceH-^oth belong to Minifters and Church-officers, and 
cern Af4£*- no t t0 Magiftrates. Anfy. i t If thou be a Magi- 
firetes as ftrate that movech this obj -ftion, pofe thy own heart, 
well k W/- if that which is fo difpleafing in Minifters and 
nificrs. Church- officers, to wit, toleration of corrupt men to 
fpread their errours * If, I fay,that will be well pleaf- 
ing and approven in Magiftrates , when Chrift Jefus 
fliallcometo judge both in reference to this thing; 
Or,if in that day when the great Judge will Sentence 
Minifters for tolerating in (uch a cafe. He will take 
another rule to proceed by, with the Magiftrate ? Or 
if it be like, that Chrift out of love to His Church, 
(hall pererhptorily require Minifters , not to fuffer 
felfe teachers, but to reftrain them, according to their 
fiations, and not to endure them to teach and feduce 
His Servants , and yet, that the fame Lord , for the 
good of His Church, ftiould require Magiftrates to 
tolerate and maintain the fame. 2. Gonfider if the 
grounds and reafons that bind this duty on Minifters, 
will not equivalently and proportionably bind all 
men according to their Rations ; for, the grounds are 
in fum, love to God , and love to the edification and 
falvation of others , which are the fubftance and ful- 
filling of the morall Law. 3. If in the Scriptures 
of the Old and New Teftament, or in Hiftory fince* 
thefe two be not ever joyned together , the moft com- 
mended Magiftrate, and one who is moft zealous 
againfl corrupt teachers ; the fathers of old were not 
to fpare their children, ^,13. nor fuffer them to 
teach or feduce to the diftionour of God, and hazard 
of fouls ; and can it be faid that fouls now are lefle 
precious, orerrcur nowleffe infectious and dange- 

Part 3. *s4TreMi[e concerning Scandal; 245 
rous, or thefe things leffc to be cared for now in the 
dayes of theGotpel than formerly, that concern the 
glory of God.and edification or deftru&ion of fouls ? 
4. Confider if in the Book of the Revelation, the 
fuffering of dnlichrifl to delude fouls, be not menti- 
oned as reproveable; and it the deftroying of that 
beajl, and putting him from corrupting the earth , be 
not fpoken of as a main piece of the commendation 
of fuch as (hall be inftrumentall therein. Now in 
the Scripture- language , all deluders and feducers are 
Antickrijls, being led with the fame fpirit, and driving 
the fame defign againft the Kingdom of Jefus Chri(t ; 
Can there be therefore any reafon to make fuch diffe- 
rence , where the Lord hath made it ? J. Confider 
if it can be accounted fingle z:al , that perfwadeth to 
permit the Name of God to be diflhonourcd , when 
any refleftion upon our own>doth fo much move us 5 
for, it cloth infer, that either there is an indifferency as 
to truth and errour > So that in the one , the Lord is 
not rfiore difhonoured than in the other , which will 
be found exceeding contrary to His own expreffing of 
Himfelf in Scripture, and will not, Ifuppofe, be 
pleaded in the day of judgement , when He will 
avenge Himfelf on fuch feducers ; or , it muft infer, 
that men are not to take notice of what difhonoureth 
Him, even though many things be within their reach 
to impede it- And indeed , if a confeience fcrioufly 
pondering the thing , will not be provoked out of 
Zeal to God, whole glory fuffereth, out of refpeft to 
the falvation of many fouls, that are hazarded and 
deflroyed by fuch means, and to prevent the many 
offences that wait neceffanly upon fuch ills, and the 
many inconveniencies,divi(ions> jealoulies, rents, &c* 
that follow in Families , Congregations, Cities and 
Nations , and the great prejudice that the Common- 
wealth fuffereth , by the dirtrafting of her membrrs 
amongft themfelves , the incapacitating of many for 
publick trufl: , the foftering of diverfe interefts and 
R 3 con- 

2^6 A Trtatife concerning Scandal. Part gi 

contrary principles in one body, to the marring of ho- 
ncft publick defigns : If by thefe, I fay, the zeal and 
co Science of thefe who are concerned , be not pro- 
voked, by what will, or can, they be ? 
That mall ^ lt ^ c ' a ^' That it looketh more Gofpel-likc, 
forbedrance anc * ^ or ^ 1C ^"herance of Chrifts Kingdom , that 
is not Ufa Magiftrates fhould leave men to follow their light, 
the Goffd. an d to be dealt with by the preaching of the Goipel, 
and force thereof. We (hall propofe thefe Confede- 
rations in reference to this, r. Confider if it looketh 
chriftian and tender- like, for men fo to ftand by m 
the Lord's Caufe, and to let Him do (as it were) for 
Himlelf: It was indeed once (aid of 2W, Judg.6. 
If be be agod> let him plead for bimfelf : But will a ten- 
der heart think or (peak fo reproachfully of theMa- 
jefty of God ? He indeed can and will plead for 
Himfelf * and it is not for defeft of power He maketh 
ufc of men* to defend His truth* or to reftrain errours ; 
yet it is His good pleafure to make ufe of Magiftrates 
therein, ( and thereby to honour them) as He doth of 
Gideon in that farpe place. 2. Confider if it look 
chriftian-likc, to give the devil equal acceffe to fol- 
low his defigns with JefusChrift in the (etcitig up of 
his kingdom: No^f abfolute toleration doth this, and 
more, becaufe there is but one Truth, and there are 
many Errours , and each of thefe hath that fame li- 
berty and indemnity (to fay fo) that Truth hath, and 
may with the fame confidence come forth to the open 
light as Truth may, in refpeft of any Civil reftraint. 
3. Confider the cafe of jinttcbrijl, there is no errour 
againft which the Lord hath more dire&ly engaged 
Himlelf to fight with the fword of His mouth, than 
againft this of Popery , and yet we fuppofe none will 
think that Kings might warrantably fuffer it to be 
fpread and preached to the infe&ing of their People, 
without adding or injoyning any reftraint by their 
Civil power ; certainly their bating oftbe Whore, and 
making her dt folate, doth imply lomc other thing : 


Part 3 . A Tnatife concerning Scandal. 1^7 

I And where-ever true hatred of Errour is, there will 
be more efte&uall ftreatching of mens power and 
places for reftraining the fame. 4. We may addc 
this Confederation, That hitherco toleration of Errours 
and diverfity of corrupt opinions have ever been loo- 
ked upon, and made 11 1 e of> as a moft fubtil mean for 
undermining and deftroying of the Church, It is 
marked of that skilfull enemy of the Kingdom of 
Jefus Chrift, Julian, That having improven his fub- 
tility to the utmoft to find out means to deftroy the 
Church by crafty which his prcdecefibrs by tiolencc 
could not obtain, amongft other means he concluded 
this, Not to raife open perfecutionbut to give liberty 
to all the diffenngBtfhops an 1 Teachers (which then, 
after the Council of Nice and C on ft a ^ ins death, were 
very many and bitter in their differences ) to follow 
their own way, and to vent their own opinions,with- 
out all fear of any reftraint : and therefore did call 
them that he might make intimation thereof to them 
for their further encouragement therein ; The words 
which he ufed to them, as they are marked by dmmi- 
anus and cited by LodoVicus Molineus,pt%. 560 are* 
Ut cenfopitis citilibus difcordiufuce quifque %ligioni fer- 
Viret intrepidus. that is in fum, That ey>ery on? for- 
bearing Ci)?tldifcords, Jhould Tfo orjhip in bu oV?n Religion 
without controle or fear: And is it like, that this (hall 
prove a mean ufefull for the good of the Church, 
which that expert childe of the devil did makeufe 
of to deftroy the fame ? 

Our third Affertion then is, That Magiftrates in % 
their places ought to prevent the infc&ionof their **' ' M *&- 
people under them by corrupt doftrine , and the re- *f rat€S y 
covery of them when they are infnared : and that ^/J^/^ 
therefore they ought to re fir am and marre corrupt 0H f t fr e ~ 
teachers from Spreading of their errours to feduce * W rfciiK- 
others. This Affertion, we fuppofe, is clear from the der tiiem. 
former two: for, if Magiftratcs be allowed to im- 
prove their power for the good of the Church 9 and 
R4 if 

248 A Treatife concerning S c a n d a t • Part i 

if it be not their duty to Rive common protection to 
Errour, and the venters thereof, with Truth : Thqp 
this will follow , that they ought to ufe their power 
to reflrain the fame, and, by the cxercife thereof, to 
procure the good of their people > in prefer ving of 
them from fuch a great evil. 


What may be ju(tlj acknowledged to be Vcithin the 
reach and purer of the Magiftrate in fuch a 
cafe % and fo 9 What is his duty. 

IT may be more difficult to explicate this, and to 
fhewwhat is within the Magiftrates reach, or, 
what wiy he is to follow this. Before we 
anfwer, we would premit, 

i. That it is not intended, that Magiftrates (hould 
rigidly and feverely (much lefle rqually) animadvert 
upon all that in their judgment are erroneous,or differ 
from what is truth, that is not called- for from Mini- 
fters* Therefore here the former diftin&ions are to be 
remembred and applyed : for, there is great odds be- 
twixt animadverting upon an abfurd errour, or ta- 
king notice thereof , as it is a thing of the mind, and, 
it may be, a fcruple in fome confeience, and as it is an 
external deed, having with it real offence, prejudice 
and hurt unto others ; in which cafe the Magiftratc 
forceth no mans confeience to another Religion, but 
doth keep his own confcience> by keeping one that 
is deluded from feducin? of others, or wronging the 
Name of the Lord or His Church. 

2. It is to be adverted, that wefpeak not hereof 
the Magiftrates duty in punching of corrupt teachers 
with civil or capital punifhments, (though we doubt 
not but in fome cafes their power doth reach to that) 
much lefle arethehigheft punifhments to be under- 
stood here ; whatever be truth in thefe, we do not 


Part 3. A Treat ife concerning Scandal^ 249 

now fearch into it, becaufe the Scope is according to 
the Aflertion, to confider what is called- for , tor the 
preventing of the fpreading of corrupt do&rine, and 
the preferving or recovering of a people therefrom. 

$. This doth not give way to Magiftrates to con- 
demn and reftrain what they think errour, or what 
others think errour ; for, Miniftcrs that oueht to re- 
jeft Hereticks,are not warranted torejeft whom they 
"account fo, but who indeed are to ; So is it here, it 
is what is indeed errour , and who are indeed the 
teachers thereof, that the Magiftrate is to reftrain, as 
thofe who teach rebellion againft the Lord. 

We come then to confider what maybe a Magi- 
ftrates duty when feducing fpirits afTault the people 
under their charge , and what is obvioufly in their • 
power to do for preventing of hurt by them, with- 
out infifting in any difficult or odious- like cafe. Their 
duty alio may be confidered in a fourfold refpeft , as 
that of Minifters was. I. It would be confidered 
with relpeft to God, and fo they ought to fear fome 
ftroak coming upon their people, and by looking to 
Him to endeavour to carry fo in reference thereto, as 
they may be countable to Him : for, if it be a privi- 
ledge for Magiftrates in the ChriftianChurch to have 
the honour of being nurfing fathers therein, If a. 49. 
23. thenitmuftbe a great credit, mercy and latif- 
faftion to them, to have their people oxfofter (to fay 
fo) the Church, flourifhing and thriving upon their 
breafts ; and if lb, then the mif-thriving of the 
Church by; unheakhfom milk of errour (hould and 
will exceedingly affeft them. And certainly that ex- 
predion doth both (hew what a Magiftrate's duty is, 
and how tenderly he ought to nourifh the Church 
and preferve her from any thing that may hurt her, as 
alfo it (howethhow nearly any thing that may hurt 
the Church, ought to touch and prick him. 

2, In refpeft of themfelves, they are to confider if 
by any guiltincffe of theirs the Lord beproyokedto 
^ _ let 

350 *sf Treatife concerning Scandal Part J. 

let loofe fuch a fpirit , as Solomons fins did procure the 
renting of the Kingdom, So might they be alfo coun- 
ted a caufe,bringing on that idolatry and defe&ion of 
Jeroboam from the Truth, as well as from him and 
his pofterity : Alfo if by their negligence in not pro- 
viding faithfull Teachers to inftruft the people, by 
their conniving at errours,or tolerating themor ocher- 
wayesthey may be charged with acceffion thereto: 
Thus Jeroboams appointing the meaneft of the people 
to be Priefts, and his beginning defe&ion by his ex- 
ample, C though he feemed not altogether to forfake 
the true God) difpofed the people for a further length, 
and had influence upon ther going a whoring after 
fBaal and oth?r Idols of the Nations : Thus alfo S0/0- 
*non was guilty of much groffe idolatry by his con- 
nivance at it, and taking himfelf to worldly pleafures 
and miskenning the things of God 3 although it's 
like he did not aftually fill in that grofle idolatry 
himfelf. And if Magiftrates were ferioufly rcfleft- 
ing on themfelves, and affe&ed with their own neg* 
ligence and carelefncfle in preventing of fuch things, 
whereof poffibly they might find themfelves guilty, 
this were a great length , and other queftions woulcf 
be the fooner cleared, and ferioufnefle would make 
them find out remedies for fuch an evil. 

3. Their duty may be looked upon in reference to 
others, wherein they may and ought to extend them- 
felves for preventing the fpreading of the infeftion 
amongft thefe that are clean , by fiich like means , 
As, 1. by their example, to fbow themfelves zealous 
againft that ill, and to abhor the quettioning and dif- 
puting of the truth ; thus the example of a Magiftrate 
is often of much weieht , yet can it not be accounted 
any coa&ion. 2. They ought to endeavour to have 
faithfull and honeft Minifters, who by their diligence 
and over(ip,ht may exceedingly conduce to the con- 
firming of thefe that ftand , and to the preventing of 
more hurt* 3. They may and ought to countenance 


part 3 • tA Treati fe concerning Scandal. a 5 * 

and ftrcngthen fuch as arc faithfull , whether among 
Minifters or people , vvhich often hath no little in- 
fluence upon the difappointing of feducers : thus it is 
faid, iCbron.^o. 21. that for promoving of Refor- 
mation , He^ekjab fpokt comfortably to all the LeVites 
that taught the good knowledge of the Lord* vvhich is 
added,to fhew,that by this encouraging of honcft and 
faithfull Minifters beyond others , he diddefignthc 
thriving of the work in their hands , both by heart- 
ning them to be zealous in it> and alio by making 
them to have the more weight with others : this is 
alfo marked of Conftantine and other good Emperours, 
that zealous and faithfull Minifters were particularly 
taken notice of, and honoured by them,beyond others. 
4. They may and ought to employ and make ufe of 
fomefit inftruments for the preventing of fedu&ion, 
and may provide fuch as may be fet apart for ftudy- 
ing fuch controversies, and confuting of fuch errours* 
that the truth may be the more clear. 5. They may 
and ought to endeavour according to their place, the 
compofure and allay ment of all the lefler and more pet* 
ty differences and heart-burnings that may be found 
amongft thefe that are, in the main,one for truth ,• for 
often ( as was faid ) a vehement fpirit of errour and 
delufion is tryfted with heart-burnings, divifions and 
offences in the Church , and amongft the Officers 
thereof: there were petty contefts in Corinth , biting 
and devouring one of another in Galatia, tryfted with 
the harmony that was amongft the followers of the 
feducers : and at the Councell of T^jce there was not 
only difference with Avians and other grofle here- 
ticks > but alfo there were petty differences and con- 
tefts amongft the Bifhops and Confeflbrs who flood 
for truth ; and thefe differences are moft advantagi- 
ous to the fpreading of errour , and the removing 
thereof is a great bulwark againft the fame. It is 
marked of Conftantine at that Councell of itice, that 
amongft other means which he ufcdto fuppreffe the 


5 5 * ATreatlfe cone erning Scandal. Part j; 

*/M<*h herefie , he did moft carefully endeavour the 
removing and burning of fuch differences and divi- 
sions, and by ferious Oration preffed the oblivion of 
all fuch , chat chev might the more unitedly and with 
the lefle diverfion be in capacity to oppofe the com- 
mon enemy. For certainly , when Minifters are 
armed one againft another upon fome lefle concern- 
ing , and more unprofitable debates, fas, alas ! too 
much of them is in the Chriftian re formed- Church 
at this time) there cannot but be the lefle ftrength, 
zeal, and vigilancy againft profeffed enemies in the 
moft fubftantiall things. 6. They may, and ought 
to interpofe their Authority , for inhibiting the re- 
ceiving and hearing, or converging with known and 
manifeft (educers : for, this is but to difcharge, and 
thereby to preferve the people from runing to their 
own hazard , even as men ought to be commanded 
to keep at diftance wiih a place or perfon fufpe&ed to 
be infeftious becaufe of the Peftilence ; neither could 
fuch a reftrainc be accounted any diminution of their 
juft liberty , yea this were but a putting to of their 
fan&ion to the clear dire&ion which the Lord layeth 
upon H/s people, and therefore there could be no 
hazird to mifcarry in it, efpccially where the appli- 
cation to fuch and (uchperfons, might be as clearly 
difcernable from the Word as the duty is. 7. They 
might and ought to give their countenance unto , and 
joyn their Authority with, fuch ecclefiaftick ftatutes, 
overtures , or means, as Church- judicatories or Offi- 

^ . cers might bz about to make ufe of for this end in 
their places ; and this can be no more prejudice to 
liberty , to countenance with their authoriry the Or- 
nance of Difcipline, than to confirm by their Autho- 
rity the Ordinance of preaching the GofpeL 8. They 
may and ought to prelerve the Ordinances from being 
interrupted , and the adminiftrators thereof from be- 
ing reproached , and might juftly cenfarc thefe things 
when committed. 9. In recovering a people > in a 


Part 3. ATreaufie concerning Scandal. 253 

reeling and daggering time, a Mrgiftrate may engage 
them to formerly received truth, and inteipofe his 
auchority for this end, as is recorded oijofiab, 2 Cbron. 
34.31,31,33. Alio, 10. He may and ought tore- 
move all falle worfhips , and endure no corrupt 
preaching, or writing, or meetings for that end , or 
adminifiratinp of corrupted Sacraments, or any Or- 
dinance other than what is allowed ; for, Jofiab did 
caufc the people fiand to the Covenant that was made, 
and having removed all Idolatrous worfhip, be made 
Ifrael to ferVe the Lord , that is, he made them aban- 
don corrupt woifhip , and waiton pure Ordinances, 
as keeping of the Sabbaths, offering of faenfices, &c. 
and that according to the manner prefcribed by the 
Lord. Neither was it a wronging of their liberty, 
to dofo: Becaufe, I* it was the prefervation of 
their liberty, to keep them from the abominable bon- 
dage of thefe evils. 2. It was their duty to abftain 
from thefe, and to follow the Ordinances purely, and 
the Magiftrate may well put people to that. 3. It is 
one thing by force to keep folks from diflionouring 
God in a corrupt Religion, ( as Jofiab did) another to 
force them to a Religion; the one belongeth to the or- 
dering of the outward man, the other to the inward. 
4. He might order them to keep the Ordinances , and 
in going about them to keep the rule, becaufe that is 
'but a conftraining of them to the means whereby Re- 
ligion worketh, and a making them, as it were, to 
give God a hearing , leaving their yeelding and con- 
fenting to him , when they have heard him , to their 
own wills , which cannot be forced ; yet it is reafon 
that when God cometh by His Ordinances to treat 
with a people, that a Magiftrate (hould fo far refpeft 
His glory and their good , as to interpofe His Autho- 
rity to make them hear. 5. Alfo, there is a diffe- 
rence between the conftraining of a circumcifed or 
baptized people, to worfhip God in the purity of Or- 
dinances , as they have been engaged thereto , which 


25^ ^ Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3 » 

was Jo/ias pra6tice> and the conftraining of a people 
to engage and be baptized, which were not formerly 
engaged; becaufe. a&uall members of a Church 
have not even that liberty as others have, to abandon 
Ordinances: and this putteth them to no new engage- 

aent in Religion, but prefleth them to continue under 
taer engagements » and accordingly to perform : 
Hence we fee , that both in the Old and New Tefta- 
ment , Church -members have been put to many 
things, and rcftrained from many things, which had 
not been pertinent in the cafe of others. See, 2 Cbron. 

In the fourth place , there are many things alfo in 
their power , in reference to thefe that are feducers or 
deluders, or actually deluded , which might be and 
ought to be improven for the Churches good ; (not to 
fpeak now of any thing that may infer civil or capi- 
tall punifihment, upon men for their opinions, or any 
way look like the enforcing of Religion upon con- 
fciences ) As > 1. Magiftrates might and ought to 
put Ministers and Church-officers and others to their 
duty (in cafe they be negligent) in trying, difcover- 
ring, convincing,, &c. fuch as by their corrupt do- 
ftrine may hazard others- 2. They may and ought 
to discountenance filch in their own pcrfons , and, by 
their authority, inhibit them to vent any fuch thing ; 
yea under certifications: yet this cannot be called a 
forcing of their confcience to any Religion , but is 
only the reftraining of them from hurting of the con- 
sciences of others. 3. When fuch certifications are 
contraveencd » he may and ought to cenfure the con- 
traveeners, and fo he may by his authority put them 
in an incapacity of having acceffe to infeft others ; 
yet this is not the cenfuring of a mans opinion , for 
he might poffeffe his opinion without cenfure , but ic 
is the cenfuring of his difobedience, and the preju- 
dice done by him to others: Nor is it the reftraining 
of him from perfonall liberty, becauleof it, but be- 

Part 3 . A Treatife concerning Scandal. iys 

caufe he doth not, nor will not ufe his perfonall liber- 
ty without prejudice to the whole body, which is to 
be preferred to him : even as a man, infc&ed with the 
peftilence, ought juttly to be reftrained, though 
againft his will • yet cannot that be accounted a re- 
ftraint of juft liberty ; for,it is no juft liberty to have 
liberty to hurt others. 4. They may and ought to 
deftroy fuch books as they ufe to (pread for the infe- 
cting of others, and inhibit and flop printing of them, 
or aftuall felling , fpreading or tranfporting of them, 
as they may flop carrying of fufpe&ed or forbidden 
goods. 5. They may and ought to reftrain idle and 
vagabound travelling of fuch fufpefted perfons,with- 
out repreftnting of their ncceffary bufineffe to fome, 
appointed for that eflfeft , in which cafe their doing 
hurt by fuch a voyage, might be prevented, and they 
have a paffe. Alfo, they might conftrainthem to 
follow (bme lawfull occupation', and to be diligent 
therein ; both thefe are well confiftent with ordering 
of a State , And yet it is fuch bujie bodies ( as the 
Apoftle fpcaketh ) and vagabonds , that go without 
their ftation , that often prove moft hurtfull to the 
Church , and inftrumentall to the devil , as being 
Apoftles to him in fuch a bufincfle. 6. They may 
and ought to reftrain and Cenfure all blafphemous 
and irreverent expreflions and fpeaches againft the 
Majefty of God and His Ordinances, and all calum- 
nies and bitternefle againft faithfull Minifters or Pro- 
feflburs that adhere to truth : for,thele are moral fins; 
and blafphcmy, calumny, and fuch like, are no more 
to be parted over without Cenfure in fuch , than in 
others who are not profefledly tainted witherrour: 
and the pretext of folio wing light and confciencc, can- 
not make thefe fins tolerable , more than the Nicolai- 
tans pretending the fame for their committing adulte- 
ry and other filthinefie: And this is not topunifh 
mens opinions, or force their conferences, but to pu- 
niflh their Yicesi even fuch as have been hatcfull unto, 


*t56 A'l reatt/e concerning scandal. part 5; 

and puniffied by , many naturall and heathen men; 
7. They may and ought by their authoricy to caufe 
them hear conferences orderly and reverently , give 
anfwersdifcreetly, wait on their trial, and fuch like, 
before EccleGaftick Affemblies* 8. They may and 
ought to make fuch incapable of publick places of 
truft, and remove them from fuch : Bccaufe, i.they 
cannot be fuppofed to imploy their power fingly. 
2. Becaufe fuch truft agreeeh not to men and fubje&s 
as fuch, but are voluntarily conferred as tokens of 
refpedt put upon men eminently qualified, and as may 
be for the good of the Commonwealth : And there- I 
fore it cannot be jufMy accounted a marring of their ' 
libercy as men or fub\etts. Upon this ground was 
Maacbah the mother of nAfa removed from being 
Queen , or having any government , 1 lQng. 15. 13. 
2 Qkron, 1 5. 16. yet it cannot be faid (he was wrong- 
ed when (he was fo dealt with- 

In thefe fteps mentioned, wc have not aimed to 
lay down what might be done to the utmoft in fuch a 
cafe, but u{hat we fuppofe cannot be in rcafon denied 
by thefe of the wideft principles in reference to this 
matter , if fo be they degenerate not utterly to loof- 

If it be faid, That it feemeth fufficient for the Ma- 

It is not (uf- jgfl; rate co maintain civil peace > and to reftrain civil 

ficient to a difturbances : We may look to thefe confederations 

Magijtrate j fl anfwcr t0 t ^ 1$} l; fhis is no more than what 

^Tllac* ? ulian dic * reftrain, as the place cited before* eleareth ; 

? " and certainly , he who ruleth for Chrift , will not 

think his example a good pattern* 2. This is that 

which heathens do out of meer refpedt to themfelves : 

and (hall Chriftian Magiftrates have no refpedt to 

Chrift but to themfelves ? or,do no more for Chrifti- 

anity than heathens who owned it not ? ?. Is it 

poffible to feparate growth in delufions and variety 

of abfurd errours, and civil fa&ion and difcord ? or* 

in experience have they ever been feparatcd > We fee 


Part 3 • A Treatife concerning Scandal 257 

they made men carnall in Corinth, they made them 
bite and devour one another in GaUtia , as , chap. j. 
of that Epiftle to them J yea, provoked t<*d< bates, 
envying, wraths, rtrifes, back-bitings, whilp$rings, 
fwellings^ tumults, 2 C or * l *• 2 °* and can (uch things 
be with the entertaining of civil peace ? For, doth not 
the interruption of civil pt ace, flow from hatred, bit- 
terneffe, alienation of mind, envy, contradictions, 
and fuch like ? And do not thefe neceflarily wait on 
debates, and diverfities of opinions ? For, it is not to 
befuppofed> that fuch differences, proceeding from 
want of light , can be in men that are altogether 
mortified , and without corruption : Therefore may 
it be expefted, that that corruption will flame out up- 
on fuch occafions; and that order is obiervable which 
the Apoftle hath , 2 Cor. 1 2. juft now cited , where 
he begmncth with debates , and proceedeth by diverfe 
fteps, till it clofe wich tumults : and thefe who are ac- 
quainted with the Hiftories of older and latter times, 
will acknowledge this to be a truth. 4. There is al- 
moft but very little in the foregoing particulars men- 
tioned, butwhatisneceffary for the preferving and 
reftoting of civil peace , or the preventing or centr- 
ing of the difturbance thereof, feing there can be no 
foiid ground whereupon to maintain peace, except 
the fprings of debates and tumults be flopped , and 
fuch dittempers from which they fpring , be either 
cured and purged away, or rcftrained. 5. It may 
be confidered in experience , if eve r fuch a way hath 
done good to the Church, (whole divifions aad of- 
fences have often thereby come to an height) or to 
thefe that were feduced , fein? thereby not only the 
tcntation was armed againft thcm ) but they, at lead* 
permitted to harden themfelves therein, as in a thing 
not fogrofs to wi(^States^men,as fome conceitie Mi- 
nifters would make it to appear : Orin the laft place, 
it may be confidered, if ever it hath4one good to the 
State, wherein it was permitted , or to the Magiftrates 
S who 1 

35 8 A Treaty e concerning Scandal. Part 3 ? 

who did permit the fame ; or, if thereby fecret jea- 
loufies, heart- burnings, divifions andfa&ions have 
not been foftered and brought up to fuch height as 
hath proven dangerous to the body, and hath haz- 
arded the eating out of the belly, where it was bred, 
or the flinging of the bofome that did give it heat. 


What U called -for from people who are defer out to 
keep themfelves pure in [uch a time and cafe 
as the increafeng of err ours and fednccrs. 

IT refteth now , that we fpeak fomething of a peo- 
ples duty, that are members of the Church where 
fuch delufions are vented : infpeakingto which, 
we (hall follow almoft the lame method as in the 

1. Then 1 people would be affe&ed upon the ap- 
pearance of fuch an ill , as upon the news of fword, 
famine or peftilence ; for then, as it were, the trum- 
pet foundeth like that Angels proclamation , %v. 8. 
13. Wo % Tfco, Vbo to the inhabitants of the earth, be- 
caufe of the Angels that are to found , when as yet all 
thefe Angels did principally forwarn of fpirituall 
plagues, and particularly of delufions* This would 
make people wary and ferious j this would curb va- 
nity, mocking, laughing and puffing- up ; this would 
make him that ftandeth, take heed left he fall , if the 
judgement were considered as a thing coming from 
God, and evidencing Him to be angry, and to threa- 
ten 1 and without this, there is little ground to expeft 
profiting by any other direftion- 

2. People would be ferioufly affefited with the fal- 
ling or hazard of the falling of any they hear of, as 
being touched with zeal for God, and fympathie with 
them, and for this caufe, would humble themfelves 


Part 3. ATreatifc concerning Scandal. 259 

before Cod to deprecate that flroak and plague as 
they would do fword, famine or peftilence. 

3. People would try in what tcarms thcmfeJves are 
with God , and if tilings inwardly be in good cafe, 
if there be any guiltinefle procuring, ordifpofing for 
the fame plague , fuch as little love to the truth, little 
ftudy of the knowledge of the truth, little zeal againft 
errour,or fimpathy with infefted Churches that arc at 
a diftance, laughing, it may beat fuch things without 
any other ufe making thereof, little prayer for others, 
or exhorting or admoniftiing of them, ( which is a 
mean for preventing of unftuifaftnefTe ) little indea- 
vour, according to mens places, to have others in- 
ftrufted , or to have faithful!, able, and godly Mini- 
fters for that end j but, it may be* on the contrary, 
much fpiritual pride, felf-conceitedneflTe, tenaciouf- 
neffe, and addi&edneffe to our own wills and opini- 
ons, prejudice at able and faithful Teachers, and rea- 
dineffe to hear every thing , and every perfon. Thefe, 
and fuch like, may be tried, and when found , ought 
to be mourned tor, as caufes of humiliation to them 
for their acaffion to fuch a plague. 

4. They would endeavour the firengthening ani 
confirming of chcmfelves in the knowlodp, e of necef- 
fary Truths , and would exercife themfelves in the 
praftice of uncontroverted Godlinefte > and, by all 
means, would elchew jangling debates in unneceffary 
things, knowing that that is a piece of the enemies > 
fubtility, once to engage, if it were but in the meaneft 
thiug ; for,thereby he doth not only divert from more 
neceffary things, and wcarcth away livelinefle, but 
doth difpofe for greater things, as was formerly 
marked in his method of dealing : For, as in corrupt^ 
pradtices, men are no: at firft brought to an height of 
propbanity, but by degrees ; So is it in corrupt do- 
ftrines : and therefore there is wartnefle callcd-for 
herein debating or queftioning the meaneft Truth, 
if any Truth be mean. 

S 2 . 5. If 

§<?o A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 3 . 

5. If any thing be really doubted of, means would 
be ufed in a fober prudent way for attaining infor- 
mation, either by providing and reading of fome fit 
Book, wherein often reafons are more deliberate and 
full, and may be more deliberately ftudied and di- 
gefted than in a tranfient difcourfe 4 , but in this,fpe- 
cial refpeft: would be had to a right choice , and for ■. 
that caufe the judgments of fuch as are found and 
able to difcern, would be followed in this ; or,where 
God giveth occafion, it may be done in fober and 
chriftian conference with others of ability and inte- 
grity, efpeciallywith Minifters, who ought neither 
to decline, nor rafhly mifconftruft the fame, but af- 
fcftionatly and tenderly to welcom any fuch fober 
perfons, left they be provoked to confult with others, 
who may prove Phyficians of no value. In this, 
people would not expreffe their doubts in all compa- 
nies at random, nor to,or before>fuchas may poflibly 
more eafily take up the doubt , and with more diffi- 
culty be brought off; when therefore fuch a doubt 
is to be moved , the party and the time would be deli- 
beratly chofen, that men may be ferious therein , and 
no doubt, would be moved for debatcbut either fuch 
as the mover can himfelf loofc, or in fuch company 
where he may expeft to have it loofed. 

6. People would endeavour exceedingly to have 
good efteem of their Minifters and Guides, and to be 
diligent and reverent obfervers of all Ordinances* 
efpecially at fuch a time ; for, Minifters are Guides, 
Beb. 13* 17. And Ordinances are appointed to keep 
people from being ftaggered^^.4. n, 12,13,14. and 
it is to fuch that the 'Bride is dirc&ed, to wit, to keep 
near the (hepherds tents , for being preferved from 
wandering, Song 1.9. And the more that the devil 
driveth to bear-in prejudice at Minifters, and blaft 
the Ordinances in their repute, the more are people 
to wreftle againft that, and, in fome refpeft, to be 
more blind and deaf to what may be feen and heard 


Part 3« ATreatife concerning Scandal. SiUr 

concerning Miniftcrs faults, not fo much for the Mi- 
nifters refpeft , as their own good : Therefore the 
Apoftle giveth this rcafon for hispreffingof obedi- 
ence andfubmiflion to Minifters, Heb. 13. 17, be- 
cause the want of thar, was not only prejudicial to 
the Minifter , but unprofitable to themfelves. 

7. People would have an eye upon the way that 
faithfull and eminently godly men have gone to Hea- 
ven by, before them ; This is to follow the foot-fteps 
oftbeflocf^, Song. I. 9, and the faith and patience of 
thofe that inherit the promifes, Heb. 6. 1 2. and readi- 
ly we will find fuch to be moft fober and ferious, and 
fartheftat a diftance from novelty, curiofity, orab- 
furd opinions. And it's no little part of the boldneffe 
and impudcncy that often accompanieth new delu- 
fions , that they generally condemn the generation of 
Gods People, as if no way were to Heaven but by 
their vain inventions , this will be no little ftick to a 
tender mind, at once to condemn the Religion and 
prafticeof fuch a cloud of witneffes. 

8. They would be carefull when they hear others 
queftioning things , or exprefltng their prejudice at 
Minifters, Ordinances, or cftablifhed Truths, to en- 
deavour the prefent flopping of the fame > and not to 
fofter any thing of that kind by moving new doubts, 
fufpicions, or giving new grounds of jealoufie againft 
Miniftcrs or others, but rather would gravely and 
wifely endeavour the removing of the fame. 

9. They would then be much and ferious in the 
cxercifeof chriftianfellowfhip, obferving or confi- 
dering one another , provoking one another > and, as 
the word is, Heb* 10. 24. and3«i*>i3* takingheed, 
left there be amongft them an evil heart of unbelief, 
and left any of them be hardened : but,exhort ( laith 
he) one another daily, as the remedy of that. There is 
no time wherein chriftian fellowfhip is more called- 
for , and wherein it may be more profitable, than at 
fuch a time, if it be rightly ordered and managed : I 

S I fay, 

167. tA Treaty e concerning Scandal. Part. 3 . 

fay, rightly ordered and managed ; for, often the pre- 
text of chriftian fellowfhip is abufed to the hatching 
and propagating of the moft abfurd opinions, when 
people turn light and frothy, taking up their time 
with vain janglmgs and diverting from the main 
fcope, to wit, edification. Thefe things-are indeed to 
be fhunned, but chriftian fellowfhip is not to be 
difclaimed, but wifely to be ordered in refpefit of the 
perfons with whom, and occafions upon which it is 
ufed , andj in refpeft of the matter and duties infifled 
on, which is to be the confirming of themfclves in 
fome truth, faithfull freedom in admonifhing one an- 
other of what is wrong , ferious endeavour to keep 
repentance, humility, felf-denial, and the like graces, 
frefh; Thefe and fuch like things are good and pro- 
fitable to men, when gravely > fingly> faithfully, ten- 
u?hdt*th > c ' er 'y anc * inoffenfively followed. 
ia^inrefe- In ref P e & °f Perfons infe&ed, the peoples duty may 
rence to the ^ c con fidetf d in thefe fteps , . 1 . As they are to be af- 
ferjons infe- fe&cd with their fault, and to pray for their recovery. 
tied, and. if 1 - As they have occafion, to teftifie their diflike of 
tbey ought to their way. 3. Such as are noted or known to be 
refrain from inftrutfiental in the carrying-on of novelties,ought by 
their com- all rrjeans to be fhunned ♦ As, 1. their company and 
Wh fellowfhip is to be avoided, %om. 16. 17, 18. Men 

are to beware of them, Mattb. j. Philip. 3. 2. Se- 
condly, They are not to receive fuch into their houfe, 
nor to give them a falutation,or bid them God-fpced, 
3 Epiflle of John, ver. 10. They are to have no com- 
pany with them, 2 Tbe£] 3. 14. We conceive there is 
no duty that is more preflingly urged upon the People 
of (3od,both in the Old and New Teftament, as may 
be clear by confidering,not only the fore- cited places, 
but many other places of Scripture 5 efpecially that 
place, *Pro)>. 19. 27. Ceafe y my fon,to bear the inftri&ti- 
on [ that caufeth] to erre from the Words of knowledge. 
And there is this double reafon for it, I. There is no- 
thing conduceth more to prefcrve thofe that are intire; 
# For, 

Part 3 . A Treatife concerning Scandal." 26 3 

For, it is hard to walk upon fire, and not be burnt, 
tfVoV. 7. 27, 28. and the experience of not a few con- 
firmed this; for, many had not declined, had they 
keeped diftance even from the garments that were fo 
defiled and infe&ed ; and it's a bearing of fuch in- 
ttruftion that caufcth,to erre from the way of under- 
ftanding. 2. There is nothing more ufefull to con- 
vince the perfons infected, and to make them afha- 
med ; which is another reafon why the Lord doth 
command this. And we may adde , that there is 
nothing that doth more evidence refpeft to God, and 
reverencing of Him; and nothing that is more be- 
coming a finner, that is fenfible that he hath corrup- 
tion , than that he ftandeth in aw to come near a feen 
tentation ; For, God is jealous, and will not abide 
mens hazarding of themfelves to be carried a whoring 
from Him : and men are not free of corruption, and 
fo readily are capable of what is corrupt. It may be 
that people do think that there is no ill and hazard in 
trying any thing, that fo, proving all things, they may 
hold faft what is good * and alfo/that it may be Mi- 
nifters fearing the diminifhing of their own particular 
refpeft, that doth make them prefle this , and that k 
proceedeth from their carnall paffion ; But fuch 
would confider, 

1. If our bleffed Lord Jefus, and His Apoftles, did 
rcflrain people from any due liberty , when they ex- 
prefly prohibit their companying with fuch, and 
hearing of fuch, efpecially where it is done pur- 
pofely, ufually and deliberatly. And, we fuppofe, 
that there is fcarce a direftion in reference to any 
particular in the Word more frequently, weightily, 
and peremptorily preffed than this, as the places al- 
leaged do clear. 

2. They may confider, if our bleffed Lord Jefus, 
or the Apoftles, had any fear of lofing their refpeft, 
or of inability to maintain their point againft any Se- 
ducers ; yet do they prefle this themfelves, and com- 

S 4. mand 

a £4 ATremfe concerning Scandal. Part j^ 

ffiand and charge other Minifters after them, to prefle 
this alfo upon their hearers. 

3. They would confider , if thefe ( to wit, our 
blelTed Lotd and the Apoftles J did fofter carnal paf- 
fion, whileas yet they fopreffed the people, and did 
reprove the fuffering of fuch to continue in fellow- 
ship ; Yea alio they did (o practife it them'elves, the 
Church-hiftory recordeth, that the Apoftle John ha- 
ving entered a Bath , where the herctick Cenntbws 
was, he did immediatly in haft go outt profefling 
fear to be ruined with him, if he (hould continue un- 
der the fame roof 

4. They would confider, if the meaning of fuch 
places, z%Tro\>e all things, Trytbejpirits, be fuch as 
neceflicates folks to give hearing unto every novelty." 
For, £♦ that is not poflible, that every perfon ihould 
enquire and put to trial every errour and every opi- 
nion. 2* The people are not in capacity to do fo. 
3. This dire&ly croffeth the letter and fcope of the 
former precepts, which were given even then, when 
this command of proving all things, was given. It 
muft be underftood therefore, as agreeing therewith, 
and to point- out that no do&rine (hould be admit- 
ted without proof, upon the truft of any bearer, but 
ought to be tried, if it be the Word of God, as the 2fe- 
ream did. Act. 17, but it doth not allow them posi- 
tively to try every thing , efpecially how groffe fo- 
ever it be, without trial , though it command them 
not to admit any thing without proof. 

Further, a main part of the peoples duty is to con- 
cur in their places , for countenancing and adding 
weight unto the refpeftive Sentences,and fteps,which 
are called- for from Minifters in their Rations : As, 
*• tp contribute what clearneffe they can forthedif- 
covery and triall of fuch perfons. 2. To add their 
teftimony to the truth,and thereby to make the means 
of conviction the more weighty to them* 3 By 
evidencing of their diflikedf the perfons obftinacy, 


Part 3. A 1 rean/e concerning scandal. ?oj 

end their acknowledgement of the juftice and necef- 
fity of drawing forth further Sentences againft them. 
4. In (hunning of their company, abftaining from 
familiarity, and otherwayes , to exprefle their indig- 
nation againft their way . 5. In carrying to them ac- 
cordingly as they are Sentenced, that lb they may ra- 
tifie the fame, and in their place, endc avour the mak- 
ing ot it weighty, and eft ftuall upon the perfons, 
that there bv, they being made afhamed , may the 
more readily be humbled > and turned therefrom. 
And people are by all means to fhun fuch familiarity, 
efpecially with Excommunicate perlons > as may leflen 
the weight of their Sentence , or mar their being 
afliimed, which indeed will make people euilty of 
defpifing the Ordinance of Chrift, and obftrutfting 
the fruit thereof unto a brother, and alfo make them- 
felves obnoxious to Cenfure, as being fcandalous by 
fo doing* 


What further duty is required of private Prof ef- 
fort towards heretickj that are cut off. 

IF it be asked, What duty further is called-for from 
private perfons towards a pcrlon cut off? 
Jnfa> % . I iuppofe thrfe thing* are called- for , 

1. Abftinence frorounnectffary civil fellowship, 
as, not to frequent their company > tovifitthem, to 
dine or fup with them, or to have them dining 
or fupping with us , or to u(e fuch familiaricy in fuch 
thing*, asufethtobe* with others, orpoffibly hath 
been with them : So it is, 1 Cov. 5. and it is no lefle 
the peoples duty to carry fo , that it may be a mean 
for their edification, than proportionally it is the Mi- 
niftersduty to inftrudt paffe Sentence, &c 

2. Their would be an abftinence from Chriftian 
fellowlhip 9 that is > vve would not pray with them, 


tATreatifecmvcrningScKKVKt. Part 3- 

read or confer of fpirituall purpofes, ( purpofly at 
Ieaft) nor do any fuch thing that belongeth to Chri- 
ftian-communion , that is, to rejeit bim in that fenfe 
from Chriftian fellowfhip, and to account bim as an 
heathen man or publican. In this refpeft, we cannot 
walk with an excommunicate man, as wc may walk 
with other Chriftians ; And, in the firft refped , we 
cannot walk with them, as we may walk with other 
heathens, that, it may be, are guilty of as groffe fins 
upon the matter ; for, the Word of the Lord, putteth 
this differeece exprefly between them and thefe who 
are (imply heathenSj I Cor. 5. 

3. Yet even then prayer may be made for them ; 
for, excommunication is no evidence, thataperfon 
hath finned the fin againft the holyGhoft; or, that 
their fin is a fin unco death , and their neccflities, if 
they be in want > may and (houldbe fupplied , be- 
caufe they are men, anditisnaturalltofupplyfuch ; 
they may be helped alfo againft unjuft violence, or 
fromany pcrfonall hazard, if they fall in it ; and as 
occafion oflfereth, folks may give a weighty ferious 
word of admonition untochem, and fuch like, be- 
caufc by fuch means , the end of the Sentence and its 
weight are furthered, and not weakened. 

4. Thefe that are in naturall relations, ought to 
walk in the duties of them, as Husbands and Wives, 
Parents and Children, Matters and Servants, Magt- 
ftrates and Subjefts>&c. for, what nature bindeth>the 
Church doth not loofe. 

5. lAzn may follow civil bufinefle , as paying or 
exafting payment of debts , buying or felling , and 
may walk in fuch things as are requifit for humane 
fellowfhip and fociety , becaufe , though Church 
Cenfures be to humble and (hame men , by bearing 
in on them cheir finfulneffe, yet it is not to undo them* 
and (imply to take away a being from them. 

6. Yet all thefe things would be done with them in 
fuch a manner, As, I, the perfons may (hew their in- 

Part 3 • A Treatife concerning S c a n d a i i 

dignation at their way, even when they expreffe teti- 
derneffe to their perfons. 2. It would be done in a 
different manner from what ufeth to be with others, 
not under fuch a Sentence , that fo they may bear out 
their refpeft to the Sentence , even when they fhew 
refpefl to them. Therefore, there would not be fuch 
frequencie in medling with fuch perfons , nor would 
it be with familiarity or many words , and long dif- 
courfes toother purpofes, nor with laughing , and 
with fuch chearfulnefie, intimacie or compiacencie, 
as is ufed with others. But, in a word, the bufineffc 
would be done, and other things abftained from. 
3. When* what is neceffary is paft , except it be on 
neceffity , folks would not eat or drink with them at 
the time of doing their buftnefle , or after the clofing 
of the fame \ becaufe that doth not neceffarily belong 
to them as men, and by fo doing , the due diftance 
would not be keeped ; and this is the great pra&ick, 
fo to carry to them as the weight of the Sentence be 
not leffenedj nor they prejudged of what otfiferwayes 
is neceffary to their being, but that fo every opportu- 
nity may be taken, whereby their edification may be 

If what is before faid , be confidered, We fuppofe 
there will be no great need to add arguments to pro- 
voke either Miniftcrs or others to be zealous in pro- 
fecuting their refpe&ive duties; Yctthefe fewconfi- 
dcrations may be taken notice of, and pondered to 
this purpofe, some Cettfi- 

I. That fcarcelyhath delufion, though never fo derations to 
groffe, ever broken in into a Church, and for a time povtkcMi- 
been forborn , but it hath carried away many there- nifters and 
with,and hath proven exceedingly indudive to much others to the 
fin,offence,reproach,divifion, bitterneffe and ills of all f*i*bfuldi(- 
forts into the Church of Chrift: Very little acquain- cb * r & °f. 
tance with the Hiftory of the Church , .will put this tb " * du jj £ 
out of qtieflion. mentioned "" 

, 0»6d«d-« chisfptooNdufion, is inafpe- ,„„„,„„. 

A Treatife concerning S candal. Part $• 

cial manner fore-prophe(iedof,to have a great revi- 
ving and ftrength in the latter dayes ; it is faid,i Tim. 
4.1. That the Spirit fpeaketh expre/Iy, That in the 
laft times, fome (hall depart from the faith: And 
why is that expre/ly added, but to give warning the 
more clearly, that men may be at their duty ? Again, 
2 Tim. .$♦ r. This know, that in the laft dayes, peri- 
lous times (hall come. It is the obfervation of a ho- 
ly and learned man , that in this place , it is the l*/l 
dayes • in the former, the laft times , as if this did re- 
late to a-time nearer the end of the world : and fo the 
firft looketh to the Popifh fuperftitions and abomi- 
nations, (and indeed, the nature of the Doftrines 
there reproved , doth feetmo favour this) and this 
laft place doth relate to the groffe dclufions , that un- 
der the pretext of the form of godlineffe, were to Suc- 
ceed to thefe ; And therefore men, according to their 
places , ought in thefe times to be fo much the more 
watchfull and zealous , feing the Trumpet hath given 
fo diftirift a found. 

5. The dreadfull effe&s which fuch ills neceffarily 
bring with them , may be confidered ; it is not ruine 
to bodies or eftates , but to fouls 5 it is not fimply to 
fin, and to permit that , but its rebellion ; and which 
is more, It is to ttacb rebellion, and to carry on the 
fame with a high hand againft God y and what will 
ftir zeal for God, or what will waken love to , and 
fympathie with , the fouls of others, if this do not ? 

4» It would be confidered, how often zeal, dili- 
gence and faithfulneffe of men in their feveral places 
(as hath been laid down) have proved exceeding 
helpfull for preventing and reftraining the growth of 
fuch evils , fo that thereby fuch a floud hath been 
dryedup, as it is %l>. 12. which otherwayes might 
have drowned the Woman and her feed 5 and,A4'tt&, 
13. it is mirked ,that filch tares are fown and fpring 
up , not while men arc watchfull and diligent , 
but while theyfleep and are defeftive in their duty, 


Part 3t vA Treatife concerning Scandal. V9 

ver. 25, for, diligence in the ufe of means, hath the 
blcflinp promifed which others cannot expeft ; and 
if wrath be come to fuch an height , as the Lord 
will not be intrcated in that matter , yet the per- 
fon that is diligent may look for his own foul for a 
prey , and to be kept on his feet in the midft of ten- 

5. It may be a provocation to humility and watch- 
fulnefle, to confider how great men have been car- 
ried away with the moft vile delufions : the Church 
of Corinth did abound in moft eminent gifts , yet cor- 
rupt teachers wanted not influence upon them* The 
Church of GalatU hath been moft fingularly zealous 
and tender , yet what an height delufion came to 
amongft them,is evident? (o that they were bewitched 
therewith, Galat. 3. 1. In Church-hiftory alfo it is 
evident, that moft eminent men have been carried 
away with thevaineft delufions: that great Light, 
Terttillian, became tainted exceedingly with the delu- 
fions of the Montanijls : and after- times haveletten 
us fee, that the eminentcft of men are capable of de^ 
fedlion ; and even Stars are often made to fall from 
heaven by fuch ftorms. 

6. It is dreadfull alfo to confider how difficultly 
men are recovered from thefe delufions. It's a rare 
thing to find in Scripture, or in Hiftory, any obler- 
vable recovery of a perfon that hath flipped in this 
kind. Sometimes indeed perfons, that through fear 
have been brought to deny Chrift, or to countenance 
Idolatry in a particular aft, are marked with much 
tendcrncfle and fatisfaftion to acknowledge their fail- 
ing , and to abandon it ; for, often fuoh a failing is 
the fruit of fome furprizal, and is of infirmity; but the 
recovery of a perfon, who hath with a kind of deli- 
beration drunken- in errour andrejefted convi&ions, 
is a moft rare thing > and hath a peradventure added 
thereto, 2 Tim. 2.2?. (as was formerly marked) which 
will not readily be found in any other cafe ; yea? of- 

^7° A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4." 

ten fuch perfons do toax toorfe and ^orfe l and one de- 
lufion draweth-on another till it come co the greateft 
height of abfurdity. 


Concerning Scandalous Diviftom. 

How here fie , fchifm and divifion differ , to vet 
With the feveral kinds of divifion* 



"Avingnow come this length, there is one 
thing of nigh concernment to what is paft, 
which pofltbly might be ufefull to be en- 
quired into , Concerning fuch fcandals as 
cannot be called in the former fenfe do&rinall , nor 
yet perfonall 3 becaufe there may be purity*in the. 
\pne, and regularity and orderlineffe in the other re- 
fpe£t> and yet aftually there may be a fcandal and an 
offence oroccafion of (tumbling lying in the way of 
many , and that is , by febifms and di\>ifions in the 
The intro. Church , or amongft the people of God. This we 
duttion, confefle is no kffe difficult to (peak to, than any of the 
former, becaufe there is often more that can be faid 
for both fides , and the fide from whence the offence 
rifetji, is not fo eafily difcernable, which rnaketh,that 
we are the more unwilling and leffe confident to un- 
dertake to (peak any thing in reference thereto *, Yet 
feing we have in providence been led to the former 
purpofes , without any previous defign ; and now, 
having this occuring to us * before we clofe, we (hall 
endeavour (hortlv to fpeak a word in reference there- 
to, in a generall abflrafted manner, without defcend- * 
ing to any particulars, which may be dangerous to 


Part 4» *s4 Treatife concerning Scandal. 271 

be touched upon; but (hall give fome generall hints 
concerning the fame, which wc are induced unto up- 
on thefc confederations , 

I. Becaufe fuch divifions are as really fcandalous ^ t (undid 
and hurtfull to the Church, as either (candals in pra- 6n( n urt j H i. 
ftice or dodtrine are. 2, Becaufe the Word of God ne fic of d> 
hath as fully difcovered and abundantly condemned v jj l0nt9 
the offenfiveneffe of this , as of any of the former. 

3. Becaufe there is fuch a connexion amongft thele 
forts of fcandals , that often one is not without the 
other. Hence we fee, l« that contention and offences 
and the wo that followeth them , are joyned together, 
Mattb. 18. 1,2, ?,&c 2. Divifions and corrupt 
doftrine,orherefies, are knic together , i£W.ii.i8, 
19. (o that feldome there is corrupt do&rine, but ic 
hath divifion with it ; and never is divifion, but k 
hath offence , As in the Epiftlestothefeof Corinth 
and Galatia is clear : Hence dogs' and e\il \\or\ers, 
that is , the fpreaders of corrupt doftrine , are alfo 
called the concifton, fbil. 3. 1, 2,&c. and in experi- 
ence we often find , that a (pint of divifion waiteth 
upon delufion, and oftentimes doth take up and pre- 
vail , even over thofe who have been preferved frcm 
the delufion ; As in a great ftorm > fome places 
have great and dreadfull blafts and drops > whoyec 
may be keep^d free from the violence of the tempeft ; 
Even fo, this deluge of errour> hath (howrs of divifi- 
ons waiting upon it, which often may affefit thefe 
who are preferved from the violence of delufion ic 
felf; which maketh, thatthefpeakingfomethingto 
this, doth not impertinently follow upon the iormer. 

4. Becaufe if this be wantinc, what is faid in the 
former cafes, is palpably defeSive, efpecially at fuch 
a time, when there is no leffe caufe to obferve this evil, 
than any of the former. This being, as to them, in 
fome refpefl a caufe that bringeth them forth and fo- 
ftcreth them , and, in fome refpeft > an eftcft which 
neeeffarily and naturally followeth upon them : for, 


i~ji tATreatife concerning Scandal. Part 4^ 

divifions breed both fcandals in pra&ice and do- 
ftrine ; And again, fcandal in thefe, do^h breed and 
entertain divifions. 
Tbebeadsof 2. What we would fay, (hall be drawn to thefe 
tbeenfuing four heads. 1. To confider whit divifion is, or of 
part oftbc w hat fort it is,which is properly to be fpoken of here. 
Ttmi[c. ^ ^[ lat are t h c cau f cs which do breed and fofter the 
fame. 3. What are the evil erfe&s which ordinari- 
ly flow from it. 4. What may be thought to be du- 
ty in reference to fuch a time,and what may be looked 
upon as fuitable remedies of fuch a diftemper. 

For the fit ft , We take it for granted , that there is 
fuch a thing as divifion in the Church ; which is not 
to be looked upon as any new or ttrange thing ; for, 
the Scripture maketh it clear, and the Hiftory of the 
Church putteth it out of queftion : Concerning 
which we may premit thefe few things , 

Ij That the divifion which is intended here, is not 
every conteft > and alienation of mind , and diffe- 
rence of pra& ice incident to men ; but that which is 
proper to the Church concerning Church affairs and 
fbistobediftinguifhed from civil debates and con- 
tentions. We would advert alfo , that there may be 
Church differences that fall not under the charge of 
Scandal as when in fome things, men of confcience 
are of d ifferent judgements, yet carry k without any 
offence or breach of chanty ; Or , when in fome 
pra&ices there is diverfity with forbearance , as was 
inPfl/ifttrpiadayfs, and the time of Irmem (about 
Bd/ler matters ) Thefe we fpeak not unto* 2. Al- 
though fometimes titles and cxprcflions may be ufed 
more generally and promifcuoufly ; yet, in this dif- 
courfe, we would diftinguifti between thefe three, 
Hcnpe, Schifm and Viyrifiofii without refpeft to what 
otherwayes ufeth to be done. 
Wbaihtn- And, firft, Herefee, is fome errour in do&rine,and 
fa ** that efpecially in fundamental! doctrine, followed 

with pertinacie , and endeavour to propagate the 


Part 4. *s4 Treatife concerning Scandal^ 273 
fame. Again , Scbifm may be where no herefic in 
doftrineis, buc is a breaking of the union of the 
Church , and that communion which ought to be 
amongft the Members thereof, and is either in Go- 
vernment or Worfhip. As, firft, in Government, 
when the common Government, whereto all ought to 
be fubjeft, is rent, and a Government diflmft, jet up. 
This may be, either when the Government is altered ; 
as, fuppofe fome fhould fet up Epifcopacy in op- jpj^ 
pofition to Presbytery, yet keeping ftill the funda-/^//^ &; 
mentall truths ; Or it may be, where the fame Go- and the 
vernment is acknowledged, but there be difference \i-nds 
concerning the perfons to whom the power doth be- thereof, 
long ; (b, fometimes men have acknowledged Pope- 
ry, yet followed diverfe Popes; So often, Sectaries 
have not difclaimed Councils and Bifbops, but have 
fet up their own, andrefufed fubje£tion tothefeto 
whom it belonged. The fiift kind implieth ado- 
ftrinall errour concerning Government ; The fecond 
may confift with the fame principles of Government, 
but differeth in the application of rhem, and becom- 
eth a fchifm, when men a6l accordingly in acknow- 
ledging diverfe fupream Independent Governments : 
Becaufe fo , when there ought to be but one Church, 
it becomcth, as it were, two : and this is exclaimed 
againft , and reflated by the Fathers , under the ex- 
preflfion of ercfting ahare contra altare , that is, altar 
againfb altar \ whenas the Lord allowed but one, 
even in reference to His own worfhip. 2. Schifm 
may be in worfhip , that is, when, it may be , both 
the fame Doftrine and Government is acknow- 
ledgcd>yet there i\ not communion keeped in Church- 
ordinances, as in Prayer, Word and Sacraments ; 
but a (eparate way of going about thefe is followed. 
It feemech, that this was in part the fchifmof the 
Qonntbidns (whatever was the rife thereof) that they 
had a divided way of communicating, and of going 
about other dutiesj and othei Ordinances, as rmy be; 
T gathered! 

$74 A l re *"l e concerning scandal. Part 4, 

gathered from 1 C or * u - 18, 19, 20, 2r. with ??; 
This kind of fchifm hath been frequent in theChurch, 
and hath flowed not fo much from diffatisfa&ion 
with the Do&rine and Government thereof, as with 5 
the conftkutionof the Members, or failings of the 
Governours. Thus it was in the cafe of the N.o\>ati- 
ans % Dqnatijhj Meletians, Catbari and others, of whom 
it is recorded, that their fault did not confift in fetting 
up any ftrange Doftrinc, or in reje&ingof the truth 
( at leaft at the fiift ) but in breaking the band ot *■ 
communion , as Augujline hath it often; for, faith 
he, bebifmaticos facit non dfterfa fides fed communions 
difrupta focietcts, contra £aujlum y lib. io. Again, he 
faith of the Donatifts , Ad ftomfae* Epift^o: Nee de 
ip fa fide )>ertitar qu*(lio, fedde fola communione infalU 
citer litigant, & contra unitatem Qbnfii rebellts inimici- 
tw\ perVerfitate fui erroris, exercent. And this fort 
of fchifm doth often draw witfy it the former > there 
being no way to maintain this without the other. Of 
this {chitai there are many kinds,according to its feve- 
ral rifes and degrees; and alfo,according as it extend- 
eth to the breaking of communion in whole , from 
Ordinances, or in part only from fome, or in fome 
Ordinances, as appeareth to have been in the Church 
of Corinth, where there hath not been a totall fchifm, 
though it hath been in that Ordinance of the Supper 
efpecially 5 and it is like alfo , that that fchifm hath 
been occafioned , becaufe of the corruption of fome 
members ? with whom others have feared to commu- 
nicate ; and therefore have not tarried for them : for, 
the Apoftledoth particularly condemn this > and ex- 
hort them to tarry one for another ; and to attain this* 
he doth clear them of what was neceffary for right 
partaking, to wit, the examining of themfelves, ver. 
28, and doth declare unto them , that who fo did eat 
unworthily, and did not prepare himfelf, did eat and 
drink damnation ; buttohimfelfi and not to others : 
wherefore* faith he, ye need not be fo anxioufly feli- 

Part 4. A Treat if* concerning Scandal.' 

citous how they be prepared, or of what fort they be 
that are with you, but examine your felves, and tar- 
ry one for another> that there be noc a fchifm amongft 
you. And this he fpeakcth, even when he hath been 
reproving drunkennefle among the Communicants, 
yet will he not admit that as an excufe, why private 
perfons (hould Communicate feparatcdly , which 
was their practice- This was ipoken of in die 
m firft part. 

This Sckifm, however it be underftood, hath ever 
proven exceeding hurtfull to the Church , and hath 
been an inlet and nurfery to the grcatcft errours ; It is 
moft preflingly condemned in the Scriptures, even 
with as great weight as corrupt doftrine and hercfie 
are, and it is attributed to that fameoriginall, to wit, 
the flefh, with witchcraft, idolatry, herefie, &a 
GaL'^. 20. It hath ever been moft weighting to faith- 
full Miniftcrs, moft offenfive to people of all forts, 
moft advantageous to the enemies of the truth, and 
hath made the Church moft vile and contemptible 
before the world, as we may fee in the fad complaints 
and writings of the Fathers, in reference to the N0V4- 
?ians , ftonatifls and others of that kind: Ithathalfb 
proven moft dangerous to chefe who have been en- 
gaged therein, and often hath been a fnare to bring ort 
tome fpiritual defertion>deadnefs of fpirit,fecurity>felf- 
confidence, or fomc other fpiricuall evils of that kind, 
or to difpofe for receiving a more gtofle tentation , as 
was formerly marked. Alfo, it maybe obferved, 
that fuch fchifms have fpread very fuddenly in fomc 
places of the world , but have not been eafily re- 
moved; for, thefe fchifms of the ^Vatians and ©0- 
natifls did trouble the Church for feverall generations, 
which mi^hc be enough to mike men think the 
breach of unity , in that rcfpc& , to be no little evil, 
and to make them fearfull to fall in the fame. But 
becaufe every fchifm properly doth imply fomeerrour 
in doSrinc , although it doth not arife from the fame, 
T a there* 

ij6 *A Trcatifc concerning Scandal.' Part 4. 

therefore we (hall forbear to fpeak any thing particu- 
larly to this, becaufe what hath been faid of errours 
in do&rine , may in part be applyed here : For, we 
will find, that fchifm doth imply one, or all of thofe. 
1. That fuch apprehended corruptions do cither 
make fuch a fociety to be no Church, or communion 
with that Church in other Ordinances, to be unlaw- 
full becaufe of fuch corruptions , or of fuch corrupt 
members. 2, That there may beadiftind erefted 
Church befide a Church, which yet may not be of 
communion with that other Church. 3. Thefe or 
fuch confequences > that either the Church of Chrift 
in the earth is not one, (which truth of the unity of 
the Gatholick vifible Church , is the main ground of 
all Church-union and communion ) Or, that that 
one Church may be of fuch heterogeneous or diflt- 
milary parts , as the one of them ought not to have 
communion with the other ; Or, at leafl this, that a 
perfon ought to feek his own (atisfaftion and con- 
solation , though to the prejudice and renting of the 
Church, and to the generall offence and (tumbling of 
all others; The faireft fchifm and feparation, muft 
imply one of thefe : for, it cannot be conceived , that 
otherwayes men would aft fo dire&ly , according 
to thefe principles , if they did not take them for 

It is to be adverted, that as there is an unjuft fchifm, 
that is, a feparation without any caufe at all \ fo there 
is a rafli and fcandalous fchifm , that is , when it is 
beyond the ground given ; or,when the ground given, 
is not fuch as will warrant fuch a feparation : Which 
maybe, 1. when the (eparation or fchifm is upon 
fome occafion, which is indeed a defeft in the Church, 
but not fuch as doth make communion therein finfull, 
as that in Corinth. Or, *. when, it may be, the fchifm 
is extended beyond the ground, that is > whenfup- 
pofe one could not communicate in the Lords Supper 
in fuch a Church, becaufe of fome finfull corruption 


Part 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal^ 5-- 

in that Ordinance, if, upon that occafion, one (hould 
feparate from communion in all Ordinances, that 
were to exceed the ground given. Or, 3. when no 
profefled (chifm is owned; yet when really and in- 
deed it is pra&ifed , fo as men can neither juftifie a 
fchifm , or feparation upon fuch aground, nor yet 
altogether vindicate their praftice from inferring the 
fame , in which refpeft , the fchifm and rent floweth 
from aflfe&ion , or inclination , and got from well 
grounded light , or reafon, and fo cannot be but rafti 
and unwarrantable* 4. It maybe, in the manner, 
precipitant , when either means have not been ufed 
to remove that ground if it be juft ; or, when men fo 
heighten fome lefler defeft in a Church by aggreging 
it with fuch circumftances, as may make it appear to 
themfelves or others, a ground diffident to bear and 
warrant feparation ; or, in fuch a way, to vent their 
diflatisfafihon with things , or perfbns, as thereby to 
hurt the unity of the^ Church , or to occafion a rent, 
or divifion , or fchifm in the fame, when, it may be, 
others befide their intention may thus conclude, A, 
Church io corrupted, &c. is not to be kceped com- 
munion with, (and , it may be , the propoficion is 
found and fo qualified , as it is acknowledged by all 
Divines) But this or that particular Church is fuch* 
This again, is offered to be made out by the tOQ vehe- 
ment aggravation of fome leffer defeft , which may 
feem to confirm that ademption : and in praftice , it 
may be obferved , that as fome will lay down pre- 
mifles concerning a fchifm, who yet dare not aft ac- 
cording to the condufion, and aftuallv feparate , So 
others will keep the conclufion, and a&ually feparate 
in pra&ice, who yet durfl not in 2^/*abfolutely 
maintain fchifm to be' lawfull upon fuch a ground. 
It is to be adverted , that fchifms and divifions are fo 
nigh in nature and names , that we may ufe inftances 
for illuftration of either promifcuoufly. 

The third word, is ®Mfion } which doth not at 
T 3 the 

278 A Treatife concerning Scandal.' Part 4. 

the firft view differ fromSchifm; yet we do take lC 
here as different, and to agree to fuch Divifions an^ 
Dimensions in the Church as are confiftent with com - / 
muniot} both in Government and WorChip , and 
have not a divided Government or Worfhip follow- 
ing them, as in the former cafe. Of luch there are 
many inftanees in Scripture and Church-hiftory, as 
we may obferve by confidering thefe Diftin&ions 
WbatU thereof. I. There is a 'Dottrinal Vtiijion, as when 
here meant the matter is not fundamental , nor yet is it pleaded- 
by the word for as fuch,tothc breaking off of communion arnongft 
Vivifion. t [ lc f e that differ > yet poflibly being ameer indiffe- 
rent matter, is followed with too much eager nefle, 
vchemency bitterneflc, &c. by thefe who owne the 
vfi 06 ' ^ ame re fp f( ^ ve W- Thus contentions were hot in the 
rail kinds pz\ m \z\ vt timcs f or meats* and fuch things which were 
wrcoj. ne j t } 1€r f chemlelves deftruftive to the foundation of 
Faith on either fide, at lcaft in that time, and (b 
were not heretical ; nor did they break off com- 
munion in Church-ordinances, and fo were not 
fchifmatical ; yet was the Church troubled there- 
with by divifion arnongft her members. Of this 
fort are the divifions that may be arnongft godly and 
orthodox men in fome points of Truth, when they 
too vehemently prefle their own opinion to be re- 
ceived with a kind of nccedity, or load the other 
with too many abfurdities beyond what will follow 
from the nature thereof. 

2. There are fome Divifions that may be called 
$railkdl y and do indeed imply fome difference of opi- 
nion, but do alfo infer fomewhat in pra&ice : Of 
this fort was the divifion about Eafter in primitive 
times before it came to a fchiim, fome keeping one 
day, fome another. And in after-times it abounded, 
when fome acknowledged the ordination of fuch a 
Biftiop, and others not ; when fome acknowledged 
the authority of fuch a Council, and others not, and 
(p had divided practices. 

3. Some 

Part 4« A Treats fe concerning S c a n d a l \ 1J9 

3. Some Divifions are betwixt particular men, 
fome have influence upon Churches , and are, as it 
were, one party againft another ♦ The firft is more 
properly a difference, and may be betwixt eminently 
godly and zealous men , fuch as was betwixt faul 
and $arnab<ts, Ait. 15. 39, and is called a conten- 
tion. Such alfo we will find in Church-hiftory be- 
twixt sAugufline and Jerome, Chryfojlom and Eptpba* 
nm s which indeed hath a contention wich it , and, 
if the Lord prevent not, is apt to make parties, and co 
rent the Church ; but the other, to wit, the afting of 
one party againft another, as hath been feen in many 
Councils, and appeareth to have been amongftthe 
Corinthians, when one adhered to one perfon, and one 
to another ; This, I fay, looketh like fc&ion, and is 
properly divifion. 

4. Divifion may be confidered in all thefe refpetrs 
as it is in judgment, or in ajfettion, or mpratfice. h 
is in judgment, when they are not of the fame mind, 
but have diverfe apprehenfions concerning Truths. 
2. Ic is in affeftion, when upon that difference of 
judgment alienation followeth , whereby that love, 
and atfe&ion, and charity that one oweih to another, 
is fornewhat cooled or difcompofed. 3. it is in 
praftice, when they fpeak and aft differently and op- 
pofidy ; as if it were an advantage to Truth for the 
one to croffe and undermine what the other doth : 
Thisdiftin&ion is clearly infinuatcd, i£V. 1.10. * 
befeecbyou, brethren, that there be no divijions amongft 
you • Which is branched-out in union in thefe three, 
to wit, Jpeakjng the fame thing, that relateth to a£iion j 
Of being perfettly joyned together in the fame mind, that 
relateth to affe&ion -, And of keing one in the fame 
judgment, that relateth to opinion : which fuppofeth 
that there were divifions oppofit to all thefe, which 
alfo often go together. 

5. There are fome Divifions, which (to fay fo; are 

negative , and are in the manner and circumftances 

T 4 of 

%%o ATreatife concerning Scandal. Part 4.^ 

of doing fome duties- Thus men may differ and take 
diverfe wayes , yet both of them be endeavouring 
the thriving of the work of the Gofpel, and no way 
labouring to erode each other, or to make one ano- 
ther leffe weighty and fuccesful. Thus Paul and $ar~ 
nab as, after their contention, did indeed differ in their 
manner of profecuting the work of the Gofpel, yec 
both of them did continue faithfull therein, and nei- 
ther of them did counterplot nor counteract to others* 
Again, fomedivifionsare pofitive (tofay fo) when 
men do not only differ from each other , but do op- 
pofe each other , and do not fet themfelves finely to 
profecute the work, which poffibly their oppofit may 
be profecuting with them ; but there is an endeavour 
to leflen the authority and mar the a&ings of the 
other , and to engage men in the approbation of that 
particular wherein they do differ, which favoureth 
ofdivifion and faftion properly , and is more hurt- 
full and intolerable when as the firft is more toler- 
able amongtt men who have their infirmities ; and 
it's like, that fuch were the divifions of Corinth when 
there was an endeavour to cry up one > and down 

6. Some are in dotfrine, for difference of judgment; 
fome are in government, for precedency h as fome- 
times was amongft the Difciples, a conteft who 
(hould be greateft : which is not fo much for Go- 
vernment abftraftly, and confidered in it Celf> or 
about what (hould be done , as it is for the perfons, 
who (hould be the governours and doers thereof ; as 
antangft the Difciples, it is not thequeftion, What 
kind of government (hall be ? or.What (hould be the 
Governours duty ? But, who (hould be chief and 
have the main hand in ruling ? 

7. Sometimes Divifions are more ftated and deep- 
ly rooted, when fome way mens defigns are croffe, 
though not in the main, yet in the manner of carry- 
i ig them on. Sometimes again, they are more occa- 


part 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 281 

fional, and arife from fome particular aft or circum- 
ftancc, wherein men may differ, and may be when 
neither fide draweth-on a divifion ; So that particu- 
lar of taking or not taking John Marl^ in the com- 
pany, was the occafion of that contention and divi- 
fion betwixt 'IW and fiarnaba*. All. 15. when other- 
wayes there was an harmony in the feries and firain 
of their whole way. 

8. Sometimes Divifions are betwixt godly and 
orthodox men upon the one fide , and corrupt men 
upon the other ; as were the divifions of the Church 
with the Arian Hercticks, and others of that nature. 
Sometimes again, they are amongft godly and ortho- 
dox men on both fides, and this is a main ingredient 
in f and aggravation ofthe fcandal of Divifion, when 
it is amongft Chnft's own Difciples '; and this is that 
which we would efpecially fpeak to : Concerning 
which we fay , 

I. That there is fuch a thing incident to the Church _. ,« 
as divifion amongft godly, able, and orthodox men. J^u* 
as betwixt taul and <Barnab<u 9 AH. 1 5. The Difciples qZu 
of Chrift anH the dilaplesof ?obn; yea, oftentimes 
betwixt the Difciples of Chrift amoneft themfelves. 
And afterward the inftanccs of Auguftine and Jerome, 
Chryfoftom and Epiphanem, with many others of later 
times, do demonftrat it. In the Old Tcftament we 
find 7 ob and his friends keeping up a long difpute 
right fharply. And>Namfr. 1 2. fomething is recorded 
of a divifion between Mofes, Aaron and Mniam. 

2. This Divifion may continue long and come to it may con. 
a great height, that is, it may be very (harp, although time long, 
it may be, the rife thereof be fmall ; for, contentions And come 
are, as the letting out of Waters, TroV. 17,14. and toagreat 
they of ten grow , even amongft good men, foas tobcigbt, 
provoke much (harpneffe againft each other, and that 
with much confidence , as the inftanccs given do 

3 Though it be frequent to them tocometoan 


282 tA Treaufe concerning Scandal*, Part 4. 

height, yet they are not eafily removed, even amongft 
the beft ; This being true, SfVoK 18. 19. That a bro- 
ther offended , u harder to be toon than a ftrongcity, and 
that their contentions are as the bars of a ca/lle, they are 
fo ftrongly rooted. Hence , we fee , that there is no 
breaking off between Job and his friends,till the Lord 
interpofe } there is no compofing of the matter be- 
t ween Paul and Barnabas, but their contention con- 
Aninot at-tinuethfo hot, that they muft feparate ; Neither is 
fily removed there any thing exprefly recorded of their meeting to- 
gether again , although they had long been of mod 
intimate fellowship as neareft colleagues in their 
journeying and travelling in the Lords work, and that 
appointed thereto , even by Himfelf extraordinarily, 
Jtfs 1 g. It is recorded, that Chryfofiome and Epipha- 
nem did funder fo imbittered one at the othcr>that Epi- 
phaneus did wiffi , That C^ r yf°fi ome fhould not die a 
Biflbop : He again did wi(h , That the other might 
not fee his home, to wit, Cyp rus > to which he was 
then making his voyage ; both which accordingly 
fell out : which is a dreadfull inftance of this evil, 
and looketh like the Lords making ufe of their pafli- 
on , to fignifie His difplcafure againft both their di- 


Whence 'Divifions do arife 9 and hoVe they are 
f after ed and encreafed* 

r His divifion doth frequently arife , and is con- 
tinued upon very fmall occafions ; for, it is 
not ordinarily groffe hereficsor palpable abo- 
minations , that do draw godly and learned men to 
fide in the defence thereof , but things of lcfiercon- 
Variom ap- cernment ; whjch we will find to be fuch as thefe, 
frebenpons !• Some various and different apprehenfions of 
of infetiour truths, that are leffe fundamental^ fuch. as was the.de- 
truths. bates 


Part 4. A Treat* ft concerning Scandal. 285 

bates about meats, genealogies, and other queftioiis 
in the primitive times, concerning which, there was 
no little jangling even amongft good men ; thus is it 
when Divines preffc too hotly fome truth, not fimply 
neceflary. It cannot be fupponed, that all men who 
yet Ice but in part, fhould be of that fame mind ; and 
the Lord hath left fome things , as it were , to be the 
matter of doubtfull ilifputations,as the Apoftlc fpeak- 
cth, %om. 14. 1. and though there be truth upon the 
one fide of every debate, yetconfidering that that is 
notalway cafily demonftfable , too peremptory de- 
ciding and preffing of fuch things, cannot butoc- 
cafion ftrife. 

2, Sometimes it floweth from the miftake of fome ^ w/ -^ c 
difpenfations, and thefufpeftingof the fincerity and ^ r me J£ 
integrity one of another ; whereby fometimes men ^nlations. 
are engaged ere they wit, to maintain their prejudice, 
and to lay the lcffe weight upon light holden forth by 
others, It was thus with Jobs friends, who,mif-in- 
terpreting Gods hand upon him, and concluding un- 
charitably of his ftate > are brought to maintain an 
unwarrantable Tbefe for making out of their point. 

3» It may arife from different apprehenfions about vifferm 
fomeperfons, or from a different manner of doing a ppnhcnfi~ 
the fame thing , or from the ufe- making of different 072i a b out 
pcrfons ; As when one would have fuch a man to be fome perfons 
a Minifter, another doth not think him worthy; anitbinis. 
When one doth think fuch a man deferveth not to be 
aMinifler, and another thinketh that he doth; when 
fuch different thoughts about perfons, means or man- 
ner of doing things >, ( which are incident to the beft 
of men ) are followed with different aftings accord- 
ingly, and none doth cede to another, then neceffari- 
iy followeth contention and divifion ; So 'Paul 
thought John Ma)\ not meet to be taken to the Mi- 
niftery again in their company , feing he had left 
them 5 Barnabas did think him meet and would have 
him , whereupon the contention and divifion fol- 

284 vi Treatife concerning S c A n d a l . Part 4» 

lowed. Often alfo, we find in the Church-hiftorys 
that good men have divided upon this , that fome 
would ordain fuch to be Presbyters or Bifhops,whom 
others did not think worthy of that office ; and that 
fome would not condemn pcrfons or writings, which 
others did condemn: for, learned men often think 
the condemning of a perfon or doftrine which is 
owned by them , or the refuting to condemn a per- 
fon or do&rine which they do condemn , to be a re- 
fle&ion on them, and that therefore they are engaged 
to deal with fuch , as with the principall party : It is 
marked , that the nfe of Cbryfoftome and Eptpbaneus 
their difference, was* That Chryfo/lome did not fo go 
alongs in the condemning of Origin, and his writ- 
ings as the other did *, and that fome of the Clergie 
ofConfiantinople had refufed the fame : whereupon 
Eptpbaneus began in preaching to enveigh againft the 
other , which came to that height that is faid. Alfo, 
fomtimes fome have been too favourable conflru&ers 
of deluders,as if they had been of fome honefty,wher- 
by difference hath grown with others who knew the 
deceit, As witneffe the firft Divifions that were. in 
Phrygia concerning Montanus , becaufe fome being 
fim^le, and not knowing that prophefie, in an extra-- 
ordinary manner, was laid afidebythe Lord, did 
difpute , that poffibly there might be fome more than 
an ordinary thing in his way , and that he might 
through acceffe to God do fuch things , when as yet 
they were not infe&ed with his errours: This did 
breed a fchifm ; when others neceffarily behoved to 
condemn the deeds , and alfo the perfons , as not 
ferving the Lord, but their own bellies, %om. 16. 
ver. 16,17. 
Heartburn* + Ic ufually arifech from fecret grudges at being 
inns at tjk Weighted, or heart-burnings at anothers credit and 
credit of 0- reputation beyond them, and fometimes indeed , not 
tbers. becaufe of the faft done , but becaufe fuch perfons 

were the doers thereof,and one way or other fpringeth 


Part 4« tA Treatife cor.ccrm»g Scandal. *$5 

from the root of pride » envy , or emulation , which 
hath many branches whereby it venteth its malignant 
dittempering difpofition in (undry (hapes. It is in- 
deed (ad that (uch things (hould be amongft the Dif- 
ciples of Chrirt yet often we fee> that this , Who 
foould be the greateft, was a bone of contention among 
them , cfpecially when fome had evidenced their too 
great pronenefle and inclination to prefer themfclves 
toothers ; This alfo had influence upon thatmuteny . 
which Aaron and Miriam didftirup againft A^/*;, 
Numb, 12. and it is the Lords word by the wife 
mouth of Solomon , Only by pride cometb contention. 

5. Too much infifting on, and aggreging of the tdggreging 
infirmities or opinions of others , and loadening and the infirmi- 
aggreging them with many fearfull confequences > ties oj ethers 
hath much influence upon this , efpecially where 

words arewrefted befide the intention andfenfcof 
the fpcaker , becaufe fuch an humour fheweth iittle 
love and refpeft to the perfon , and by the nature of 
the work,doth tend to hold him forth as odious, igno- 
rant > abfurd, or fome way defpicable; which even 
good men, being but men , are not eafily brought to 
digeft. We fee this in Job's friends > who frequently 
carp at his expreflions, and ftudy to aggregethem, 
which indeed were not alway altogether excufable ; 
yet their fcope (atleaft, in the work) was,torepre- 
fent them and him much more abfurd, than indeed 
they were. And this was in thefe debates between 
Augufline and Jerome , andufually is where fuch dik 
ferences are, as too many reproachfull and bitter 
differences now in the Church, almoft everywhere, 
do hold forth. 

6. They are occafioned by a carnal and faftious- 4 faSieut 
like pleading fori and vindicating even cf Truth. rj ' w ^f™g 
Often it is not the matter whereabout godly and *1 mt *' 
learned men debate, that makcth divifion, (for, there 

may be difference where there is no divifion) but it 
is a carnal manner of profecuting either fide of the 


2 %6 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4^ 

difference, even that fide whereon the truth doth lye, 
that doth engender the divifion; and often, we fee 
men differing about greater points than others do, 
and yet carrying fo as it cannot be called Divifion. 
It's marked, I Cor. 3. that fome were for ^W, fome 
for Ap olios , fome were for none but #M/i ; and yet 
I this is counted a fide of the fa&ion afwell as any of 

the other; not becaufe being forChrift is wrong, 
but becaufe that fa&ioufly they walked under that 
pretext : Which we may take up in thefe refpe&s , 
I. When a man too peremptorily prefleth his light 
upon others, or upon a Church , in a matter that is 
not fundamental, or neceffary , which is condemned, 
Sfyw.14.22. when men in thefe debates keep not their 
faith, or light, to themfelves , but do trouble and di- 
ftraft others therewith. 2. It is,when men too vehe- 
mently preffefuch a thing, as if the contrary there- 
of,or thofe who maintain the fame, were intolerable ; 
and fo in a fiery violent way feek to bear down that 
which is indeed an errour, though of infirmity. It is 
marked by fome that write Church-hiftory, and Ju- 
gufline is of that fame mind, That Stepbanus, Bifhop 
of 2(owe,did more hurt to the Church by his too vehe- 
ment oppofirig of Cyprian's crrour ( which was,Tbat 
thofe that were baptized by Hereticks, or Schifim- 
ticks, ought again to be baptized ) becaufe he did 
therby hazard the dividing and renting of theChurch, 
by refufing communion with fuch as were againft 
him, than Cyprian did in his maintaining of his cr- 
rour ; Becaufe,though it was ftill his opinion, he did 
meekly and condefcendingly carry in it, with refpeft 
to the unity of theChurch, 3. This is alfo, when 
Vndue things are followed with Sentences and Cenfures oil 
Confutes . c he oppofit opinion, and the abbetters thereof, as if it 
were a matter of Faith. It's known what influence 
thofe Sentences of fififor, Bifliop of ^pme, had upon 
renting of the Church , and ftating that divifive 
diftin^ion betwixt the Baft and Weft Church, and 


Part 4- A Treatife concerning Scandal. 287 

that for a matter of nothing , to wit, What day of 
themoneth precifely Eajler wastobekeeped 5 and he 
was for that (harply reproved, even by Irceneus, who 
was of that fame judgment with him : And many 
fuch inftances are in Hittory. 4. It is, when in the tctroing the 
profeouion of fuch things, men leave the matter, and ma tter and 
fall on perfonall reflections , and become bitter in falling upon 
thefe refpefts, as to caft-up pride and arrogancy : hy- teflcftionj. 
pocrific, ignorance>herefie> or erroneoufneffe, or fome 
other perfonal fault, if any be known or imputed to 
them> or one way or other to Height them and make 
them defpicable : So Aarm and Miriam murmur 
againft Mofes, Numb. 12. that he had married an 
Ethiopian woman, that he feemed to Height them, as if 
God had only fpoken by him, and not by them alfo; * 
Epipbaneus alfo did upbraid Cbryfoftem with hypo- 
crifie; Jerome hugely revileth Vigilantim , whofete- 
nents feem to be as near truth as his are; foitwas 
between Demetrius and Tbeopbilus , when in the mat- 
ter of fa& , each giveth to other the lie. J. It is, 
when the manner of carrying on a thing, is faSious, 
as endeavouring, to make fides and parties under 
hand , and indirect dealing to engage others in their Engaging 
differences, and to ftir up men by fuch means againft of others. 
others : It is like it was fo in Cerintb , even amongft 
the people who adhered not to falfe teachers ; It is 
marked alfo in that vehement bitter contention that 
was between Jerome and fyjfinus, that he did endea- 
vour by all means , to waken hatred againft Jeromes 
perfon , and to defame his writings more than in any 
convincing way to make out his point; and yet all 
this arofe from Jerome his alleaging the other to be a 
favourer of Origens herefic, becaufe he had tranflated 
fome books of Origens , which was indeed condem- 
ned by others as being dangerous ; yet feing { i{ujfinus 
did difclaim thefe errours, and deny that he approved 
them, there was no fuch ground to preffe him with it; 
and this became the occafionof thatirrcconciliable 


2 8 8 tA Treat* fc concerning Scandal. Part 4? 

hatred, which was never removed ; in which alio it 
is marked, that Jerome doth objeft to the other, ob- 
scurity, and harflmefle of (tile, adding withall ma- 
ny other flighting exprcflions. 
Too much 7 It may be by the imprudencie of fuch as have 
tilling of 8°od affe&ion: As, 1. exprefling too much good 
fome upon liking of fome corrupt men , becaufe they pretend 
fairpmen- fairly : Thus the Church was divided in fbrygia for 
us. Mwtatf «4,becaufe fome did too imprudently conftruft 

well of him, as if indeed he and his Propheteffes had 
truly had the gift of prophecy ; others again vehe- 
mently upbraided them for it. a. It is when things 
are preffed unfeafonably, or in an offenfive manner, 
without refpeft to the manner of things if they be 
Satisfied in the matter. There followed many divi- 
sions upon the back of the moft famous Councill, 
( which made Greg. 1>{a%ian%en to fay, He never de- 
fired to fee many Bifhops together) and the Centum- 
tors give this reaf>n or occafion , fturn quidarn fidem 
Niccnam imprudenter urgebant > alii earn acriter im- 
Peremptory ^ - ^ 00 muc ^ pcremptorineffe where there may be 
tiefs -without f° me condescending, hath much hand in this ; when 
condefcend- men become not all things (fo far as is lawful!) unto 
ing % others. It is marked in the Church- hiftory, That 

fometimes too tenacious adhering unto Canons and 
Councils, by fome who would not condefcend in a 
fyllable, when others did condemn the matter, hath 
been in this refpeft prejudicial ; Such was the caufe 
of the fchifm betwixt the Ea/l and Wefl Church, and 
particularly the tenacious adhering in all things,even 
as to the very manner, to the Council of C^alcedon, 
( which was indeed a famous and orthodox Council 
in the matter) The former inflance cleareth this alfo. 
nvr 9« Sometimes this doth come from diflatisfadtion 

Vif[atitta- j n f ome part i cu [ ar c f Government , as when fome 

fmelcriins tiave ^ een difpleatcd that fuch and fuch men,formerly 
/ me p r/ous ca fl. 0lu ^ (h ou y h avc b ecn Z g^ m admitted to com- 

Part 4* A Treattje concerting 5>candalw 289 

inunion; or, that a perfon, caftout of communion 
in one place, hath been admitted in another ; This is 
frequent* as after inftances may clear. 

10. Itisoftenoccafioned by the encroachment of MutnM 
one upon another in the exercife of their power, as to encroach* 
preach, ordain, and fuch like, within the bounds ofment. 
others befide, or without their knowledge* or againft 
their will- 

ir. Ic hath fometimes arifen from the Churches 
meddling in extrinfick or unneceflary thinps* and fel- Mcddlin* 
dome Church-men have been too much taken up and in cxtrin- 
occupied about fuch things, butk hath had fuch zficktbingu 
confequent: As when they are too much taken up 
about ceremonies and things not commanded , as 
Eafterwas; or about indifferent things, as the pre- 
ferring of forms in every thing, and fuch like ; Or, 
about precedency in Government , and what might 
conduce to the externall fplendor of the Church in 
immunities , priviledges , fabricks , dotations , &c« 
whereof inftances are very many. Or, when Church- 
men have become too pragmatickin civil things, or 
affairs of the world, thereby to carry on a temporal! 
grandour in the fpirituall Kingdom bf Chrift; which 
was often the rife and occafion of difference amongft 
theApoftles; and although there was fcarce acceflfe 
to this occafion in refpeft of praft ice while Magi- 
ftrates were heathens , yet in after times , this is evi- 
dent ; and fundry divifions followed upon fuch occa- 
sions, as the approving or condemning of fuch and 
fuch an Emperours E left ion } the transferring of 
the Empire from Eaft to Weft , or from one Family 
Co another. 

1 2. New manner of expreflions, or new moulds o( 
the Doftrine of the Gofpel, different from what hath *r ;. f 
been formerly delivered, have given occafion to this ; *™/w 
that is , when there is either a new form of fpeaking, ^ ^« 
and an affectation of novelty in words , different onu 
from the form of found words which Miniftcrs ought 

V » 

*?o ATreatife concerning Scandal. Part 4ii 

toholdfaft ; or, when things are fo propofed , as if 
all former moulds had been defe&ive , and all other 
Divines in their Preaching and Writings were no- 
thing to fuch. It feemeth that this newfangleneffe of 
fpeech had no leffe influence in dividing the Church 
of Corinth , and begetting fa&ions therein , than the 
diverfity that was in the matter* wherein they are not 
fo generally found guilty > as being carried away with 
errour » as, of being itched with a humane kind of 
eloquence in the manner of Preaching* This fame 
alfo may be in Writtings , and indeed when fome cry 
up one manner or mould, and fome others the con- 
trary , it may breed fiding and divifion, even as well 
as diverfity of Doftrine may do* And it is not for 
nought that the Lord hath commanded fimplicity in 
the manner , and the holding fafl of the form of found 
vtords 5 even as he hath commanded foundneffe in the 
matter 5 and oftentimes there doth arife no leffe tafti- 
neffe or itching amongft people, nor leffe emula- 
tion amongft Minifters, from the one than from the 


The height of evil that divifion bringtth. 

r Avingnowfeen a little the rifes of this evil, 
we may look to the height it hath come to 
from fuch beginnings: which we may con- 
mat gni fider in thefe fteps. 1 . It cngendereth heat,ftrife and 
ttutcntiottt contention; and in that refpeft, maketh men carnall, 
I Cor. 3. 2. It breedeth alienation in affeftion, and 
(eparateth thefe in fellowfliip that have been moft in- 
Alienation timate, as if their companying together had loft that 
fweetneffe and refrefhfulneffe that fometimes it had* 
and thereby even theirChriftian communion is in- 
terrupted j both thofe may be feen in chat ftrange 
and hot contention , which came to this height be- 


Part 4. *A Trtdtife concerning Scandal. 19 1 
twixt Paul and $arnah<u> Alt. 1 5. 5. It breedcth jca- fcalouflci 
Ioufic and fufpicion of one anothers aftions and in- 
tentions, yea, it may be, of the finccricy of their ftate: 
it brccdeth envy at one anothers profperity and re* 
fped , and makcth them lefle weighted with any 
crofle or adverfity that the other falleth into. Paul 
is fufpe&ed , not only by the falfe teachers , but even 
by the profeflbrs , to be an enemy to them> and not to 
be finglc in hisdefigne$ amongftthem: fome have 
counted others hypocrites , as Is before marked* 
4. It bringeth forth violent and virulent expreflions, virnlm 
and reflexions upon each other , and greater heat al- C xp Te jr i07l g t 
moft is not to be found than amongft differing Di- 
vines, that yet do aggree in the main. It is a won- 
der to read fome of the expreflions that are betwixt 
fereme and '%ujfin % and betwixt ©em^m^Bifhopof 
Alexandria , and Tbeopbilus Bifhop of Jerufalem, with 
many others $ or to confider the fad regrates that 
fBafilitti, Gregorim l^j^ean^enuA, and others , have of 
thefe differences ; fomething may be (ccn of it in the 
inftanccof Job and his friends. And what there is 
for the prefent amongft Orthodox Divines abroad, 
and in this Ifland > I fear, out of honour to the men, 
to mention them ; yet I fuppof* fuch things maybe 
read in the Prefaces and Writings of the moft emi- 
nent Divines , as may make the hearts of all to loath 
fuch divifions. 5. It hath come to that height, as p €f f ena ji 
not to fpare to publifh even perfonall refleftions 5 yea reflections* 
fomctimcs,it hath come to that,that men have condem 
ned deeds in others,after fuch begun differences, which 
formerly they did highly commend in them ; ( thus 
their eftimation & conftru&ion of their a&ions, doth 
ebb and flow according to their eftimation of their 
perfons) It is marked of ^emetrim of Alexandria, 
that whiles he and Origen did continue in fellowfhipi 
he was a great cpmmender of that deed of Origenl, to 
wit , his gelding of himfelf while he was young ; 
yet after difference arofe betwixt them J upon very 
V 2 toean 

%<) i A Tredtife concerning Scandal. Part 4, 

mean grounds* (Origen not being come to his groffe- 
. . nefle ) he did moft vehemently objeft that to him in 

insaU in. ^ is Writin 8 s * 6 - °^ en " ^ ath come *at length,thac 
ft/£#i aB0 V they have imprecated evil to one another, as in the 
tbtcivill inftanceof Cbryfojtom and Epipbanwy fometimes they 
jftjw, have informed and moft vehemently inftigated civil 
Powers againft one another, that they might procure 
their depofition , banifhment > and fuch like , as 
tityflinus did againft Jerome, theClergie at dntiocb 
againft FlaUanus, aTid (bme at Cov/linople, particularly 
. Seyerianus $ did ftir up the Emperour againft Chryfoflom. 
Sbdrpcen* j. Alfo, it hath been followed in Councels andSy- 
•( u !Zf/ Hm n °ds by the Sentences of Depofition and Excommu- 
fitSei. nication , as was frequent in the cafe of that debate 
about Eafter > and in that debate betwixt Stepbanuf 
and Cyprian; Tertullhn alfo was Sentenced upon a 
prejudice > without juft ground ; fo was Chryfojtome 
depofed even by Bifhops that were not heterodox;and 
_ t . r many others. 8. It hath extended to div ide Churches 
while although ic began amongft Minifters, and hath come 
Gbtircbct. t0 c ^ ac hcight> that they have withdrawn from the 
communion of one another , and havechofen diffe- 
rent Bifhops and Minifters without communion one 
with another » or without dependence one upon ano- 
ther * and yet neither of them have been Hereticks* 
nor profeffed Schifmaticks , but becaufc of fome di^ 
fatisfa&ion, it may be, with the perfon. or ordination 
of fuch aMinifter ; or upon fome miftakeof a par- 
ticular aft of a Councell , even when both did ac- 
knowledge the fame , as particularly is marked to 
have been betwixt Euftacbm of Antiocb , and Eufebius 
of Pampbilia ; and again at Antiecb in the cafe of Afl- 
. letus and faulinm • and again betwixt Vl&UnuA and 
Wuttt of ot h crs . w hich is marked to be in the fourth Century. 
tbeir Jol* ^ j c £ at k cxCell j cc i co great h cat anc J f ur j e f cven 

owc /# amongft the followers of each other ; whereby much 

Furious jealoufie » heat and diffention hath been occafioned. 

inainefs of to. In both thofe there hath been fuch a fervour, and 

Divine*. as 

Part 4« A Treatife concerning Scandal!' *9 J 

as it were fury , that there hath been no uptaking nor 
removing of the fame : And although we find diffe- 
rence to have arifen from little, even amongft good 
men , yet often we will find that moft difficultly it 
hath been removed, but for many generations it hath 
continued , when the firft authors have been away, 
and that with very great heat , as almoft in all the in- 
ftances given , fo thati that fweet and moderate Di- 
vine Melanilbon , did ufually call the difference of 
Divines rabies Jbeologorum , and at his death did 
blcffe himfelf , that amongft other fins and miferies 
he was to be fred from this rabies or furie of Divines, 
which was evermore fadder to him than any oppofi- 
tion of open adverfarics. lb Ufually, it hath di-_. - 
verted moft ferious Divines , both from the prefling J^ l £ 
of piety, and reproving of vice ; as alfo from main- j^^^, 
taining of truth againft open adverfaries , and the,^^^ 
purfuing of their errours. Augujtme doth complain 
of this to Jerome , and doth for this end, as it were, 
crave a ceffation ; and it cannot be otherwayes , for 
fuch debates do not profit thefe that are occupied 
therein. Heb. 13. ver. 9. and when mens edge is hoc 
and (harp againft others in fuch particular differences, 
it cannot but cool and blunt them in more weighty 
things, and is no little part of the devils fubtilty to 
make way for errour and profanitie, thus to entangle 
Minifters* Which occafion he hath ever taken to 
fow tares, which that great Father and Divine Vafu 
lit* doth condole to this purpofe , That while there 
was concord in every occupation, only in the Church 
and amongft Minifters there was diflention, and that 
fohot, that no commiferation of the Flock, which 
was fet upon, and drawn away by perverfe men, 
was prevalent with them , to abftain from fuch diffe- 
rences. 12. Hence, it hath followed , that though ^^r^\f m 
there hath been no con fider able difference upon the ^fjcrcfte 
matter at the firft , yet notwithstanding it hath grown j Uowmg 
and come to a height , and that in refpeft both of divifwn. 
V 3 Schifro 

• 3?4 A Treatife concerning Scamd a l^ Part 4, 

Schifm and hcrefie ; AnditisraretofindinHiftory, 
that a divifion hath continued long, but it hath turned 
to reparation in communion j and a Schifm ; and 
again, Schifm hath not continued long , but it hath 
brought forth herefie , for divided practices lead men 
to lay down and maintain fuch principles as may de- 
fend them, and the band of unity being broken, there 
isnoftayor hold, becaufe , as that forenamed Father 
Bajtlm faich, men take on them then to fpeak , write, 

h W L M rf* anc * ^° as l ^ P^ ea ^ c# l h Although fometime* the 
both fides f au i c f divifion may be more on one fide than ano- 
tbub t t ^ er, yet feldom is any fide free, at leaft, in the man- 
mily M ner °^ P r °fe cut i° n > anc * therefore often it turneth in 
^ ' h the clofe to the hurt of both, and the one fide becomes 
more fchifmaticall and erroneous, at leaft, in many of 
their members, as fell out in the cafe of the Novatians, 
and fionati/is. The other fide again, have often be- 
come more cold and fecure in the practice of holineffe* 
carnal! and formall in purfuing ceremonies and exter- 
nall things , with leffe affe&ion and life in the main, 
becaufe the edge of their zeal was bended toward 
thefe differences ; and generally people have been 
ftumbled and offended by them ; and by the mifcar- 
riageof fome affe&ionate perfons, men more formall 
and not very zealous in the main thing, have come to 
have more weight and fway in the Government of the 
Church ; and thus we fee that after thefe hot debates 
that were in the Church about leffer things , fchifms 
and herefies grew up on the one fide ; lukewarmneffe, 
formality, and inclination to ceremonies , and a for- 
mall lazie way of worQiip, did grow up and increafc 
7)ivifion ' m the Church, upon the other fide. 14. Though we 
bdUly cu fi n j men fadly regrate thefe , yet was there alwayes 
' f *' a difficulty to get them removed ; there being often a 

kind of inconfideratneffe whereby the publick good 
hath been overlooked , and men have walked too 
much by particular inclination and affeftion , and Co 
have come to hate whom formerly they praifed , and 

Part 4. A Treattfe concerning Scamdil 2 95 

Co praife whom formerly they hated ; by which the 
Ordinances have become weightleffe to all 5 and the 
Minifters, who fometimes were counted a gazing, a 
reproach and the off-fcouringof all men becaufe of 
affiiftions, have become much more defpicablc be- 
caufe of their own inteftinedivifions , as one of the 
Fathers doth pathetically expoftulate for the diflen- 
tions of his time > writing to ^ia^ean^tn. 


The canfes Vthy 'Divifion ufually ccmeth to fo 
great an heighu 

WE may now enquirewhat be the caufes why 
Divifions ufually come to fuch a height* 
and are fo difficulty removed, even amongft 
men that are affe&ioned in the work of Chritt , and 
otherwayes found, zealous, andfober 5 which is in- 
deed ftrange, efpecially confidering, that they do of- 
ten fee the evil > regrate it , and profefle their defire of 
a remedy themfelves ? In aniweringto this, we are 
to look , 1. to the Lords foveraign hand even in this. 
2. To what acceflton there is to it from thofe that 
differ. 3. To Tome occafionall accidentall caufes 
that concur therein. 4. We may confider the ftrength 
of the tentation in refpeft of foroe other circura- 

1. That the Lord hath a Soveraign hand therein, 
cannot be denied, and that in thefe two refye&s , not Thefcvc- 
to infill in all , 1. As it is a triall whereby both raignty of 
mens found neffe and unfoundneffe have occafion to Godtrjing 
be manifefted ; This is afferted, I £or. u. as a rea- good end 
fon of the neceffity of fchilms and divifions , as may W. 
be gathered by comparing,ver.i8, with 19. But this 
we infift not on- 2. The Lord hath a judiciall hand Cfollitfng 
in it , that is, as He ordereth divifions for the juft atfomd 
chaftifemene and punKhment of fome , even as was pxifiing. 
V 4 for- 

\$6 *s4 Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4. 

formerly faid of herefies and delufions ; and to this 
purpofe , we may confider that too which floweth 
from offences unto the world, to relate efpecially un- 
to divifions amongft Church-officers > as the fubjoy* 
ning thereof to the contention amongft the Apoftles 
doth evince ; and in the nature of it > and in rcfptft 
of the confequents that follow thereon, It is indeed a 
too, and a very great too unto the world , and an evi- 
dence of the Lords difpleafure ; when thus in His 
anger,divifions come amongft Miniftcrs or People, as 
it is> Lam.4.i6> Which we will find true in thefe re- 
ipefts. I. It looketh angry like againft Miniftcrs j 
for, thereby they become defpicable, the Lords coun- 
tenance and prefence feemeth to be withdrawn , and 
much carnalnefle of frame , and many other evils 
fteal in ; which do both eat up much of that inward 
livelrneffc which othcrwayes they might have , and 
alfodifcompofcthat tranquillity and compofednefle 
of mind , which love and unity entertain > and doth 

Kropofe Minifters unto people,as men deftitute of that 
adge j whereby they may be known to be the Lords 
Tea flagu« "Bikiplcs, to wit, loVe to one another. 2. It is often a 
ing the great fnare to many carnall Profeffors ; for, thereby 
world, fome are hardened in profanity,and become Atheifts, 
as if all that is fpoken by Minifters concerning Reli- 
gion , were not to be believed ; Therefore the Lord 
^prayethfor unity, and againft differences amongft 
j His Difciples, for this caufe , That the toorld might 
•.belie** that Cbrijl too* fent by God, and that thefe are 
\lo\>ed of him, Joh. 17. 21, 23. which importeth, 
i ; that this plague of Atheifm followeth in the world 
■ upon fuch divifionst Again, others are ftumbled fo, 
as they caft at the Truth preached by them>and there- 
by become a prey to be carried about with every 
jwind of do&rine > for preventing of which , Mini- 
. jfters, and union among Minifters are required > Epb* 
7)sviJion l^ I} 2j ?# w j t h ll% 12, 1 ^, 14. 3. It becometh an 

I 1 I!, burden* grief and offence to the weak , fuchdivifi- 
to*-"/.}- * on 

Part 4. A Treatife concerning S C A U D A I. 297 

on being a main {tumbling- block to the little ones 
that believe > Mattb.1%. i,and6. 4, Itprovetha wrdtnttB 
great confirmation and ground of hardenifig to the the adverfg^ 
adverfaries of the truth , who are thereby exceeding- tics of *bc 
ly hardened , and brought to applaud thcmfelves in truth. 
their own way, as if fuch divided inftruments could 
not be of the one body, the Church > which is guid- 
ed by one Spirit ; And this was caft up by heathens 
in the primitive times > as we may find by the apo- 
logies of many of the Fathers ; and the lame way 
hath been followed by Antichriftand his followers 
unto this day; theyinfultin nothing more than the 
divifions of the Orthodox > and «are more proud of 
nothing than their pretended unity* which they make a 
mark of the true Church. And when all thefe are confix 
dered,we fuppofe*it may be evident that fuch divifions 
are , when they are, a great plague unto the Church, 
and may juftly be called a *&* unto the world. 

We need not infift upon chara&ersof a judiciall- 
like divifion, feing hardly there is divifion in * 
Chnrcb , but it is judicial! in fome part ; Yet thefe 
things may be confidercd to this purpofe , 1 . When chmttm 
the divifion is amongft the more eminent and godly % f judicial* 
men, as amongft the Difciples. 2. If the matter be divifion. 
light comparatively for which the difference is keep- 
edup, zsJugufiine calleththat with fome Qonatifts, 
parva diflentio , as to the matter or occafion , which 
was yet great in its effefts, tyifl* 20 3. 3. If it be 
for dominion , or preheminence , or fuch things as 
may look carnall like before men , like that, Mattb. 
18. i, <?c. Or, 4, if the manner of following it be 
carnall, or irrationalMike without that refpeftive 
tenderneffe of edification and offence , which ratio- 
nally might be expe&ed from fuch men. 5. When 
there are many palpable convincing rcafons , and 
that in refpeft of the particular time and cafe, which* 
might draw men from fuch divifions. Or, 6. when 
fometimes healing is eflayed, and beyond probable 



3?8 A Treatife concerning Scanda ll Part 4, 

reafons and expectation , it doch break off and turn 
worfe, when it appeared to be near a clofe* 7. When 
ic fpreadeth , and comeeh to occupy and cake up Pro- 
feffors , it may b , beyond many more concerning 
things* This efpecialiy isdifcernable, whenchedi- 
vifion arifeth fuddenly upon the back of a great calm, 
and after fuch fins as may procure the interrupting 
thereof, and when ic cometh, in an unexpe&ed way, 
from fuch perfons , and upon fuch an occafion, as, it 
maybe, none could have looked-for, or thought of; 
whenic is under affli&ions, and other cafes and re- 
proaches, as the Jews divifions were, even when be- 
fieged by the Romans , and when under them , as /o- 
fepbus writeth. Thefe and fuch like may evidence 
fomewhat to be judiciall therein. Becaufe , 1. It 
doth fo further what is penall the more in all the for- 
mer refpe&s , and it cannot but have fuch efFe<5ta 
2* Becaufe there being no other- probable reafon how 
ordinarily fuch a thing may come to pafle, the Lords 
hand is to be acknowledged therein fo much the 
more , when even His Servants are drunken but not 
with wine, and He hath powred upon them the fpirit 
of deep (Iceland covered even the Prophets and Seers 
therewith , as the word is , tfa* 29. 9. 10. and when 
they are as fo many wild bulls caught in a net, full of 
the fury of the Lord, and of the rebuke of their God, 
as ic is, If a. 51. ver. 20. Whereby it cometh to pafle, * 
that neither one fort or other can particularly under- 
ftand the duty called-for in reference to their healing, 
more than if all vifions , and directions concerning 
the fame were fealed up, as, Ifa. 19. ver, 10, 1 1 . and 
l fal9* io* And none of all Z ions fons are in capa- 
city to take her by the hand, f/i.51. 18. ?. Befides 
thefe two , the Lord fometimes hath a wife defign for 
promoving of His work , even by occafion of fuch 
divifions, as thereby to make the Gofpel to be fpread 
further chin ocherwayes it had been ; for, by difcon- 
tents and differences , fometimes men have been puc 


Part 4. A Treatife cwcermng Scakdal, h$9 

to go clfwhere and preach theGofpel; and in that 
inftancc of Paul and %arnab<u their leparating, this is 
brought about ', the Gofpel is preached by both in 
their feverall journeys , which had not been fo ex- 
tended had they been together 5 but this, and others 
of this kind being only proper to the Lords foveraign 
wifdom, we will not infift on them, 

In the (tcond place > If we confider mens own ac- 
ceflion who are engaged in fuch divifions, that is ma- ^u^l : 
nifold* 1. Men by former guiltineffe may procure g ] »*\ ' 
the fame, as by abufe of former unity, carnalneffe in 
it, not improving of it for edification,pride and con- 
ceitednefs of it as if it could not be interrupted,not be- 
ing thankfull to God for it, nor praying for continu- 
ance of it* Thefe and fuch like , may draw on fuch 
a dreadfull ftrokc as divifion ; wherefore not only is 
there a too to the world becaufe of offences , but alfq 
to him by whom they come , Mattb. 18. even when 
notwkhftanding, the neceflity of them is afferted. 
2. Some prefent finfull diftemper in Miniflers frame* p^^^ 
or difpofition, may have influence upon this, ^itfiempcru* 
were difpofing them the fooner to take fire upon any 
occafion. As, 1. diftance with God, and coldneffe 
of love to Him, without which, love cannot be keep- 
ed up with others in Him. 2. Pride, conceitinefle, 
defire of preheminencie, refpeft and applaufc, which 
was amongft the Apoftles. g* Which followeth 
upon this, envy at the refpeft which is given to others* 
or the weight that they have in the managing of mat- 
ters, and carnall emulation at their perfons and afti- 
ons. 4. There is a fecret difcontentedneffe at mens 
being fleighted by others, or apprehending them- 
felves to be fo. J. There is a creduloufneffc and rea- 
dineffe to receive wrong imprcflions , a jealoufie or 
fufpicion of others in their defigns , ends , or parti- 
cular refpefts to them ; All which proceeding from 
want of charity ,that thinketh not^vil &c* they can- 
not but fomc way difpofc for divifion. 6. There is 


Joo A Trtatife concerning S c an da l • Part 4." 

ah itching newfangle humour , not after new Do- 
ftrines, but after new expreffions, formes, or changes 
in other things. 7* There is fometimes a prejudice at 
feverity and ftri&neffe > as if it were pride , ambiti- 
on, or fomething that is intolerable ; which is mark- 
ed to be the caufe of the Clergie o(Confian$inople 9 iheit 
diffention with Cbryfoftome their Bifhop : Of this 
kind, to wit , finfull and difpofing caufes , are igno- 
rance, imprudence, tenacioufnefie, or felf-wiiledneftj 
and fuch like ; whereby a M inifter is the eafilicr en* 
gaged, and the more difficuldy brought off. 

g. There are fome a&s whereby men have accefli- 
on to the raifing and heightening of divifion, and 
Imnjidctdt oftentimes they are mutuall : As, 1 . fome mens do- 
exprffsions ingof fome inconfiderate aft , or writing fomein- 
*r aftings. confiderate expreffion upon the one hand ; and others, 
too paffionatly and vehemently exaggerating fuch a 
fad, and condemning fuch an expreffion by a tortur- 
ing deduftion of abfurdkies therefrom, beyond what 
was intended ; So it was between Jerome and dugu- 
Seyerity injiine, &a 2. When fome preffe feverity in Difci- 
TDifcipUuc* pline and Cenfures, fome what too horely , others, 
Sleigbtingofwkh no leffe difcontent, repelling the fame. 3. When 
the pcf/b/w,m2nfleightingly expreffe their mind of the perfons, 
writings, or writings or a&ings of others; and they again are 
aftings ofo- engaged by the like refle&ions, to vindicate the fame. 
tbets. 4. When men ftudy not the inftru&ion of themfelve9 
Hunting df» 0!C others affeftionedly , but hunt after a kind of cre- 
ter credit. jj c c0 t hemfelves, though with the reproach of 
Littlecon* others. J. Little condescending to remove miftakes 
defending, and prejudices, abftinencefromfociety, andfellow- 
&> c , * (hip with fuch as they differ from in fome particular ; 
hafty preaching, and publishing differences of fmall 
moment , as Epiphaneus , and fome others* formerly 
ciced , did , no condefcending in particular fafts that 
Afts that might be caidefcendcd on, and fuch like. 6. Efpe- 
{Idtefcbiftn dally fuch a&* as flute a fchifm, and break commu- 
nion in Government! Worffiip, and other Ordi- 

part 4. A Treats fe concerning Scandal. 301 

nances, are exceedingly inflrumentall in this. Asj 
1. to have diftinft Bifhops or Minifters , Gover- 
nours or Officers , and fo to have oppofit Judicato- 
ries , and oppofit Ordinations , which is often found 
to be the reiult and great cherifhment of divifions in 
the primitive times. Whereupon followed* 2. divi- 
fion in adminiftration of Sacraments, when fuch and 
fuch could not acknowledge men fo ordained to be 
Minifters, and fo could not communicate with them, 
if they were ordained in oppofitibn to them , or fuch 
as were ordained by them : And this hath a connexi- 
on with fuch an aft , becaufe the acknowledging of 
fuch to be lawfully ordained, would queftion their 
own Ordination. Whence , 3. follow divided 
Congregations and meetings, according to the oppo- 
fition amongft Minifters, fome meeting in one place> 
and (ome in another, and fo withdrawing communi- 
on one from another , although both do continue in 
the fame Faith and Government ; As may be feen in 
feverall of thefe divifions mentioned at Antmb , Con- 
Jlantinopley&c. Upon which again followed, 4. oppo- 
fit preaching amongft Minifters , each condemning 
others as Schifmaticks, and not to be keeped commu- 
on with ; one calling that a duty which the other 
called a fin, and matter of humiliation , and contra- 
rily : As alfo, mutuall railing and reviling amongft 
the followers of fuch fides, which -often hath come 
to tumults s whereby it appeareth how great influ- 
ence fuch things have upon divifion. Yea> J. it hath 
come to divide families ; Often duguftine rcgrateth in 
hisEpiftles, thac their divifion made the man and 
wife whom one bed did contain , in an incapacity to 
be contained in the fame Church, where the fame 
faith was preached , and fo he urgeth it alfo in refe- 
rence to parents, and children, and to matters and 
fervants. There are many moe things might be 
named, as cenfuring of men upon fuch difference ; 
for, then often feme adhere to them > which makech 

302^ tATreatife concerning Scandal^ Part 4; 

a rent, as in thefe inftanccs of Bujiacbim and Cbryfo- 
fame is clear , urging the condemning of fome writ- 
ings and tenents not fundamentall ; Thus the preffing 
of the condemning of 0^»i writings (which are 
not fuppofed by fome to have been fo groffe as now 
thefe which are called his, are) did give much occa- 
fion of contention and divifion amongft men , who 
otherwayes did acknowledge all the fundamentall; 
truths comprehended in the generall Councels , and 
it is alike alfo , did not agree with him in his groffeft 
errours, yet would not judicially condemn him, and 
others fuch like. 


What occafionall means may have influence upon 
divifion amongft the godly. 

°X 7T TE come now in the third place to confi- 
. \/ \/ der, what occafionall means may have 

^ influence upon this divifion amongft 
TAkbwm godly men; And fuch may be, 1. Some talebearers 
and fccret whifperers, who may have much influence 
to alienate good mens affe&ions, by mifreprefenting » 
the words and actions of others, under pretext of re- 
fpeft to them»when> in the mean time, it may be fome 
particular difcontent that putteth them on ; It is 
marked, that one Serapion had much influence to alie- 
nate Cbryfojiome and Severing , who formerly were 
exceeding intire , who fuggefting to the firft , many 
evidences of the others difrefpeft to him> as if he had 
been endeavouring to draw rhc people^ affe&ions 
from him ; and for that caufe,picked out fome words 
of Se)>eriwis, which being confidered alone, did found 
grofly, but being confidered in the Sentence as fpoken 
by him, they were not of fuch ameaning. 2* Often 
when differences arife amongft honeft men, there 
wanteth not many, who out of particular defigns do 


Part 4- tsfTreatifc cdxcermng Scandal* 303 

then foment that fire , cfpecially fuch as from fome 
other fear > take oceafion to exaggerate fuch a diffe- 
rence, becaufe the foftering of that difference i9 the 
preventing of what they fear : As for inftancc, tyry- 
foftome had threatned the cenfuring of many, of his f ears j 
Presbyters for their faults > whereupon they took the^ wr , # 
oceafion of the differences betwixt him and Epu 
pbanius , SeVerinus , and others , to irritate and ftir 
up them againft him • and to fide with them in 
thefe differences; whereby the divifion againft 
him , and fuch as followed him, was maintained 
till it came to the height thereof, yet were nei- 
ther the differences betwixt him and thefe other 
men > nor the perfons of thefe other men his op- 
pofitcs refpe&ed by them , further than ferved to 
their end of bearing him down, and fo of preventing 
the threatned and feared cenfure. $♦ Sometimes Ma- j,, . -^ 
giftrates have had no little influence upon this, either mi J^^i 
by pretending to fide with one party in thefe diffe- ^ ot9 lrs^ 
rences againft the other , when yet it was not thefe 
differences but fome other prejudice, as from free 
fpeaking or the likc> which did engage them. It is 
marked in that fame cafe of CJnyfo/hme , that the 
Emperour and Empreffe did concur to bear down his 
followers., and thofc that fided with him > becaufe of 
fome particular difcontent at his free preaching, for 
which caufe they were zealous executers of the Synods 
Sentence ; As tbefe again that were oppofite to Cbry- 
foftomeof theClergie, did take no little advantage of 
thacjlifcontent , which they knew the Empreffe had 
at him. Or on the other fide, they are fometimes 
acceffory by weakening Government,and giving men 
acceffe to do what they will : when Bafilius hath 
rcgrated the great differences of the Church in Julian, 
and Salens their times , and fetting himfelf to find out 
the caufe thereof, he fettleth on this word in the Book 
of the Judges , In tbofe dayes there toas no IQng in Ifrael, 
\Oerymandidtohat fecmedgoodin bisoVm eyes: which 


3^4 tA Treatife concerning S c a n d a l 1 Part 4." 

he doth not fpeak (imply , as if there had been no 
Government ; but that by fuch as was > no courfe 
was taken , as the calling of Synods , or fuch like 
means , to reftrain fuch things , but rather they were 
Peoples e». entertained. 4. Sometimes alfo,the peoples engaging 
VVWi> anc * ^ing to fach differences, hath no little influence 
to heighten and lengthen the fame ; hence we find 
that in fome debates,wherein Church-men have been 
alone engaged, there hath been fome ftop ; but when 
it hath encreafed , to the Rating of parties amongft 
the people , it hath ever been more difficult ; becaufe 
fo Minifters were the more encouraged and engaged 
to be tenacious ; yea fometimes fear of difpleafing 
the people that adhered to them , hath not wanted 
its weight. Alfo, fo it turned more eafily to fchifm 
and fa&ion in pra&ice , when one part of the people 
would only call fuch a man of their Judgement; ano- 
ther part of the people* fuch another man of theirs ; 
whereupon followed great diffentions and fa&iouf- 
nefle in Eleftions , and oppofice ordinations , by Bi- 
fiiops of feveral judgements : Whereupon followed, 
*• a rent in that particular Church ; one part with- 
drawing with their Bifhop and Minifter , and the 
other part with theirs , and neither keeping commu- 
nion with, but feeking to overturn one another. And , 
2. a rent among neighbouring Biffiops and Mini- 
fters , according as they were pleafed to admit either 
fide to their communion , and acknowledge or con- 
demn either of the oppofite ordinations. And , 
r .?• Often alfo, there followed oppofite and eager ap- 
nu^ plications to the fupream Magiftrates and Emperourt 
fojteim co have chcir own re ^P c( ^ ive Elcftions ratified , and 
ratijine ^ at which was oppofice, by his Authority, crufhed ; 
ete#w«f« which often hath been followed with much bitter- 
nefs , and fometimes not without calumnies againft 
good men ; and alfo not without prejudice to the 
Churches liberty 1 and advantage to corrupt men or 
Magiftrates, that were not tender of truth; who 


part 4 » Jt -f rcauic concerning vandal, ju> 

thereby had occafion to intereft themfelves, and ad- 
vance their own ends the more ; and it is marked of 
dnaftafius the Emperour , who was a Monothelite, that 
he took occafion upon hot differences in the Church 
amongft Divines, ( who did in both fides differ from 
him , though one of them was but found ) without 
refpeft to right or wrong , equally to endeavour the 
fuppreflingof both by fending them into exile ; and 
whcnM agiftrates were more equal to and tender of 
the Church, as Tbeodofius , GratianM,&c. yet they 
were exceedingly troubled with fuch adreffes > and 
put to hear fuch complaints even amongft and againft 
men fully Orthodox and found , only differing in 
fome particulars which had brought on oppofite or- 
dinations , as in the cafes of Mtletius and Taulinus , 
Eujtachius and flaUanus , with their refpeftive com- 
petitors : all which concuring with that heat and fer- 
vour wherewith Churchmen do ufually of themfel ves 
follow their differences > did not a little contribute to 
the heightening and lengthening of divifions and 
rents, upon the fmalleft occafions. 5. Occuring ^if Gdn ^ 
mifcarriages of perfons differing, have often had in- a J p r 
fluence to increafe and continue a breach , that is, f Cr f Qns% 
when fome perfons on either fide become more groffe 
in other points of Doilrine , or in practice 5 or fol- 
,low their defifens by means that feemgroffe and un- 
warrantable to the other ; or when fome of one fide 
expreffe unjuft calumnies on the other : this doth ex- 
ceedingly alienate affe&ions , confirme jealoufies and 
fufpicions, and readily doth engender new Queftions 
and controverfies ; becaufe fome are led to oppofe 
and condemn , and others to defend fuch practices ; 
therefore there muft be oppofice principles fuitable 
thereunto > and fo they multiply from one ftep to ano- 
ther: whereby it cometh to pafle, that often where 
there is but one difference at firft , after a time many 
do arife, which dotbmake the removall of divifi- 
o»sto be al^ayes the longer the more difficult: 
K - Whcnct 

30D c>? Tremje concerning Sic a n r> a l ; Part 4* 

Whence we fee, that feldom one difference continued 
any time > but there was an addition of many , and 
that of greater concernment , that, it may be> ftuck , 
whenas the firft rife might have been removed. 
Occuring 6. Sometimes alfo occurring difpenfations in provi- 
dijperfati- dence will give occafion to this tenacioufneffe , as 
ens of pro* fuppofe there be a feeming advantage on the one fide 
vidence* to through their point, and bear down the other with- 
out uniting , it is fuppofed to be confeience and pru- 
dence to make ufe of the fame : Hence we will find 
in Hiftory men more or leffe inclinable to unite , as 
they apprehended their party to be more or leffe 
ftrong* fometimes alfo Tome lingular- like ftroak 
upon the perfons names or families of eminent op- 
pofers i proveth a confirmation to the others who 
efcape , as if their way were more approveable, and 
the others more remarkably condemned ; for (b are 
men ready to mifinterpret the moft occafionall thing, 
which for other ends may come upon any with whom 
they differ. Thus Zuinglius his death did not only 
prove matter of infulting to Papifts,but even by Luther 
and others was mifapplied ; and Carolofladim his foul 
defe&ion > afterward became an occafion to harden 
many , in condemning his condemning of keeping 
Images in Churches, though without any worfhip; 
becaufei upon the back of that debate, Luther had fet 
him forth as a light, unfettled , unftable perfon, 
whofe judgement was not to be valued ; which ac- 
cordingly falling out,made many keep up the opinion 
contrary to his , as if by his fail it had been ratified } 
And we think, that if either Chryfoflome or Epipbaneus 
their wtfhcs toother refpeftively had fallen oat but 
upon the one fide , it alfo might have had influence ; 
but feing both came to pafle , we conceive that there- 
by the Lord would keep men from being confirmed 
in their differences upon fuch difpenfations,and (hew 
himfclf angry at the carnalneffe of good men> even in 
their fmalleft difference on both fides* 


Part 4. *A Treat ife concerning S c a n d a l I '3 07 

In the fourth place 1 we have toconfider, wherein 
the ftrengthof the tentation to keep up divifion doth 
ly. in refpedof fcveral circumftances that may have 
influence, efpecially upon Church- men. 

1. There is engagement, credit, and fuch like, Pcrfonatl^ 
which fteal in, and vent in heat and tcnacioufrefie ndit »& 
under other appearances, as of zeal for Godb honour, ivg watt 
refpeft to the credit of the Mimftry , and of the Or- dvert of 
dinances : And in this it feemeth not to be any per- \** 1 1 0T 
fonall credit or reipc ft that fwayeth them , but zzz\9*& 

for, and refpeft to the Matter , as is infmuatrd in the 
Difciplcs carriage, Lu\. 9. in their feeking to be 
avenged on the place that would not receive Chnft, 
by fire from heaven, ver 54. and alfo in their for- 
bidding fome to caft out devils, even in his name, be-' 
caufe they thought it not for Chrifts honour 7 ibid, 
verf. 49. 

2, The tentation hath often with it great confi- Tv ^ 
deuce of the jultnefs and equity of their own M&znd ircun j ed 
of the unreafonablneffe ot their adverfaries. There % n jtdence. 
may be in part much ground for this, where the con- 
troverfie is fome doubcfull , d if putable thing : How 

great confidence have both Job and his friends in 
their debate , 80 that both of them are frequent in de* 
firing Gods decifion, when as neither of them in both 
matter and manner was fully approveablc. Some- 
times alfo there may be a perfwafion very Satisfying 
to the party, when yet it is not from God ; this was 
in Galatia, cap. T. ver. 8, it is like on both fides- even 
when they were biting and devouring one another ; 
for, we find often in cxperience,that a difputablcthing, 
being for a time pleaded for, will become as palpably 
clear , and altogether necrflary to theie who have 
difputed for the fame> beciufe engagement bribes the 
light > and pcrverteth even the wildom of the juft. 
Hence we fee 1 that the longer one plead for a thing, 
he becometh more confident therein, becaufe his own , 
pjeading fecretly prevaileth more with himfelP, 
X 2 tha« 

308 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part £ 

than reafons propofcd by any others to the con- 
trary can* 

3. There is a ftrength in the tentation , in this* 
that not only the matter is thought juft , but it is 
thought neceffary and of great concernment , if it be, 
I. a Queftion of the moft circumftantiall truth, (if 
we may fpeak fo ) it looketh out as neceffary > and a 
thing that cannot be quit yea, even thofe who are en- 
gaged to maintain that fide where the errour lies, will 
cry up the controverfie as in a high point of Chriftia- 
nity. Amongft the Fathers, thele that : maintained 
the Millenarie opinion , and Chrifts perfonall reign, 
thought it a point of high concernment ; Jujline Mar- 
tyr in his Dialogue with Trifo, faith , he is no Chri- 
flian, Orthodox in all things, who doth think other- 
wife ; and in later Popifh Writers , how is the ne- 
ceflity of oyl > chrifme , and fuch like pleaded for ? 
which (heweth what impreffion the appearing weigh- 
tineffe of fuch things will have on them, as if it were 
a main foundation of Religion. And, 2. if it be a 
matter of faflt or Government , it is thought of fuch 
concernment for the good of the Church that they 
cannot quit it , without being acceffory to the cor- 
ruption and hurt, or to the marring of the autho- 
rity thereof: Hence foofrcn are the faults and con- 
fequents of the adverfe part aggreged ; canons and 
constitutions alleaged to be broken , as we may fee 
( amongft other inftances ) in that debate betwixt 
fyme and C°nft<mtinople for precedency before Anti- 
chrift was revealed, onealleaging an aft of N/V?, 
the other , an a& of the Councel of Cbalcedon , and 
tityme pretending the intcreft of Saint feter , and the 
A panicu- good of the univerfall Church. And, 3. if it be a 
/drwj//fo^e difference about perfons , as who is to be acknow- 
ef mens ledged Bifhop or M«nifter, or if fuch be lawfully or- 
t e '( 0tts and da.ined , depofed,&c. then fuch as they oppofe, are 
tarns, conceived to be notorioufly hainous ; and fuch as 
they arc for , are believed to be incomparably fingu- 


Part 4. A Trcfitife concerning Scandal. 30? 

Iar and eminent , and therefore it is no wonder that 
they prefle vehemently their point > as thinking that 
much of the good or evil of the Church doth depend 
upon the admiflion, orrejeftion of (uch men refpe- 
dtively and this floweth inadvertingly from the for- 
mer differences \ becaufe, when they are confident 
that themfelves are ripht in a main point, they necef- 
fariiv muft think thefe wrong and untender who are 
oppofit in fuch a thing, and the hotter the oppofition 
grow , they think (till each other the more grofly ob- 
ftinare : By this alfo they are difpofed to hear and re- 
ceive reports and mil-informations concerning their 
opponents ; where-by they come verily to believe, 
that they are even in all other things , and in their ve- 
ry ends anddefipns, moft grofle. Andi Ifuppofe, 
that befide the inftances formerly given in all thefe re- 
fpefts, the differences that aroie fir ft betwixt Luther 
and CdrotofladiuStznd afterward betwixt him and fuch 
as followed him on the one fide, and Zutnglius, Qafo'in 
and others upon the other fide > do fully demonftrate 
this; How little were thefe beginnings at firft, and 
yet how were even the fmallett differences aggreged, 
and the perfons differing miftaken , even before thefe 
differences came to the height which they are at? 
And we may obferve alfo , that this miftake of mens 
perlbns and aftions , and bittcrneffe that foiloweth 
thereupon , is moft ordinarily difcernable to be upon 
that fiJe , where there is leaft to be faid in confciencc 
and equity for the defence thereof. 

4. Adde to thefe a conviftion of fingleneffe , that ^. €o7tv:m 
p ?rfons may fcem to themfelves to have in all the for- &* on '~ 
mer fteps, wherein there may be no pofitive, corrupt P n < lene P 
end propofed. nor any palpable diilimulation in their !^'™^j* 
profeffiijns, entertained or approven by them : but as adhering 
they have fome confidence of the equity of their fide; 
fo may there be an apprehended teftimony of their 
own fingleneffe in the following thereof: and there is 
a great ftrength in the tcntation to contipue divifion, 
X 3 that 

3 1 o A Treat l\e concerning Scandal. Part 4. 

that lyrch here ; for. when men apprehend their own 
fingleneffe and (heightneffe, and, it may be, have 
acceile to God, and have liberty to pray, even in re- 
ference to fuch things , it is not eafie for a man to 
flop himfelF in tbac way ; and yet it cannot be 
thought , but amongft the inftances of fuch divifions 
that are given, that men on both fides had a finglc end 
and mind , did pray snd had acceffe in prayer ; yea, 
no,q lettion, many of them might go to heaven with 
fuch differences on both fides ; for, we will find them 
continue zealous in fuch , even to death. Neither 
ought this to be thought Grange; for, thebeftbut 
know in part, and are fubjeft to miftakes, and their 
zeal and fingleneffe is fquared according to their 
knowledge : It was fuch zeal , that is not according 
to knowledge (though in the moft fundamental! 
things ) that made Paul and others , with a kind of 
fingleneffe, pcrtccute the Church ; therefore propor- 
tionally , there may be a zeal and fingleneffe in leffer 
things when there is ignorance of them. 
Fcdr of 5. After engagement the tentation is ftrengthened 
lofm* ere by this, left, by after- ceding, their former pra£hce in 
tit by re- being fo eager, be condemned, and they lofe the 
wmngi weight of their Miniftery in other things, and their 
refpeefcive followers, which poffibly may be more te- 
nacious and zealous than themftlves , (hould be irri- 
tated and provoked 5 which things look to them as 
greater prejudices , even to the work of the Gofpel, 
than their continuing divided. It is written of Lu~ 
ther in his life, That being in conference with Melan- 
titbon and others in his laH voyage , he did acknow- 
ledge to thcm> that he had been too vehement and 
peremptory in rhe Doftrincof the Sacrament ; and 
when they U: gcd him then to publifh (omcthing con- 
caning ta lame he replied. Thac he tcared by that 
to dinunifh the authority and weight of what he had 
ehe appeared into for God> a: therefore did forbear 
it; widiall, alio wing Mtlancfh.n after his death, to do 
in that as he thought flu 6. Some- 

Part 4» *A Treatife concerning Scandal. 3 1 i 

6 % Sometimes alfo , the tentation is ftrengthned by Fetrof 
apprehended confequents of hurt and prejudice to hurting 
thefe that fide with chern in fuch a thing from others, their fob 
in cafe there (hould be ceding in fuch and fuch parti- lowers* 
culars for union, or that by fo doing, they might 
make themfelves and their caufc odious to others, 
who poflibly may be thought to have more refpeSive 
thoughts of them, becaufe of their differing in fuch 
things from others. It is written of Luther , that he 
gave this as a main reafon why he keeped up the Sa- 
cramentary difference, and would not unit with £W- 
tin and others in that Head, becaufe, faid he,that opi- 
nion which the Sacranientartes ( as they were called ) 
hold , is generally more hatefull than that of Confab- 
jlantiation,znd will make the Princes and ochcrs more 
obnoxious to malice and hatred. 

v 7. It ftrengtheneth the tentation alfo i when men Tbt taitd- 
do not look upon the difference fimply in it felf , but tionftreng. 
comparatively with refpeft to the principles and car- tbened by 
riages of others their opponents* and by confidering ioo\ivg-on 
things that are difpleafing in them and their way, *be fad- 
they are made the more tenacious, and brought zo in & so f°2 m 
juftifie themfelves the more. Hence it is in fuch di- w ltu 
vifions, that the great ftreffe of debates lyeth in re- 
flections, criminations and recriminations, as if this 
were the only vindicating argument , They that are 
oppofit to us in many things of their carriage are 
wrong , Therefore our way is right, or we have rea- 
fon to divide from them ; And hence it is, that almoft 
neceflarily fuch reflections are ufed in fuch debates, 
where the matter is not of fuch moment and evi- 
dence, asthemoft convincing defenfive arguments 
upon either fide , as in thefe debates, between Jerome 
and %^^5, cited, where there is no difpute on either 
fide but criminations on bodi \ Alfo inthc Donttifts 
their reflj&ions, this may be obferved. 

8. In fuch differences alio, men are ready to think Hope of the 
1 that the other (hould and will cede to them» and will Miing of 
X 4 not ethers. 

Ji* *XTreatife concerning Scakdai. Part 4. 

not hazard divifion upon fo little a thing. Hence, 
many have been drawn on to dWifion from fmall be- 
ginnings, which they would not have yeelded to, 
had they known the confequents thereof, or had they 
not expe&ed that the other (hould have yeelded , 
wherein being difappointed, the engagement thereto 
becometh more ftrong,and the divifion more irrecon- 
ciliable. This is marked of Viftor , of whom it is 
faid , that he had not been fo peremptory > had he 
not fuppoled , that in fuch a thing the other fiiould 
have yeelded. 


What be the fadeffetts of Aivifion , and the nc- 
cejptj of endeavouring unity. 

HAving now fome way difcovered the nature 
and caufes of the evil of divifion , it may be 
eafily conjeftured what will be the effefts 
thereof, which ever have been moft deplorable, as to 
the torturing of thefe that are engaged, to the fcanda- 
lizing of the weak, to the hardening and breaking of 
the neck of many profane light perfons, to the fpoil- 
ing of the Church in its purity , Government, order 
and beauty of her Ordinances, and which is more,; 
to the wearing out of the life and power of Religion ; 
yea, which is above all , there is nothing that doth 
more tend to the reproach of the bleffed Name of our 
Lord Jefus, that makcth Chriftianity more hateful], 
that rendereth the Gofpel more unfruitful^ and more 
marreth the progreffe and inter eft of the Kingdom of 
our Lord Jefus , and, in a word, doth more (hut out 
all good, and let in by an open door every thing that 
is evil into the Church, than this wofull evil of di- 
vifion doth , according to the word, Jam. 3. \6. 
Where enty and jlrifets % there is confufion, andeVeryeVil 
^or\. And we are petfwaded , that who hath read 


part 4» A Treat If e concerning Scandal^ 313 

the Scriptures ,and the many and great motives where- 
by union is preffed , and have confidered the fathers 
what great weight they lay upon unity, and with 
whathorrour they mention divifion, even as maxi- 
mum malum , or the greatefl etil that can befall the 
Church; Or, have obferved inChurch-hiftory, the 
many fad consequents and effedts that have followed 
upon this, and the lamentable face of the Church 
under the fame : when friends thought fhame , and 
were made faint; enemies were encouraged and de- 
lighted, and on-lookers were either provoked to 
mock at, or pity the fame ; Or, who have had fome 
tafle in experience of the bitter fruits thereof, will, 
and if they be not altogether ftupid,cannot but be con- 
vinced of the many horrible evils, that arc in this one 
evil of divifion. Sure there is no evil doth more Sud- 
denly and inevitably overturn the Church than this ; 
which maketh her fight againft her felf > and eat her 
own flefh , and tear her own bowels : fori that a 
Kingdom divided againft it felf cannot ftand , is the 
infallible maxime of Him that was greater and wifer 
than Solomon. And when things are compared, it 
will be found , there is no more compendious way to 
blaft the fruit of Ordinances , when they cannot be 
removed or corrupted, and by fo doing, todeftroy 
and carrv fouls headlong, than this, That a Church 
in her Minifters and Members fhould be engaged 
thus > to bite and devour one another , and to coun- 
teract to the actings one of another ; This we fup- 
pofewill not be denied* 

It will alfo readily be granted , That ir is the duty 
of all Chriftians, eipecially of Minifters of the Gof- ™* J"ffi9 
pel , to endeavour the preferving of unity , and, the f € ™ cavQf - 
preventing of divifion , and the recovering of unity, '"*J^'ju 
and removing of divifion , by healing of the breach °^ ^ 
when it is made. Never did men run to quench fire 
in a City, left all fhould be deftroyed, with more di- 
ligence,than men ought to beftir thcmfelves toquench 


3 14 tA Treat* fe concerning Scandal. Part. "4, 

this in the Church ; never did mariners ufemore 
fpeed to flop a leak in a fhipjeft all (hoald be drown- 
ed, thaaMinifters efpecially, and all Ghriftian men, 
(hould haft to flop this beginning of the breaking in 
of thefe waters of ft rife , left thereby che whole 
Church be overwhelmed ; And if the many evils 
which follow thereupon , the many commands 
whereby union is prefled 5 yea, the many entreaties 
and obteftations whereby the holy Ghoft doth fo fre- 
quent! y urge this upon all, as a thing moft acceptable 
to Him , and profitable taus ; If, I fay , thefe and 
many other fuch confederations , have not weight to 
convince of the neceflicy of this duty , to prevent, or 
heal a breach , We cannot tell what can prevail with 
men , that profefle reverence to the great and dread* 
full Name of God, confeience of duty , and refpeft 
to the edification of the Church, and to their own 
peace at che appearance of the Lord in the great Day, 
wherein the peace-makers (ball be bleffcd ; for, they 
fliall be called the children of God. 


Cjeneral Grounds leading to Vnity. 

illt now, it may be of more difficulty , to fpeak 

particularly, to what indeed is, duty, at fuch a 

time when a Church lyech under rents and di- 

y , , f vifions. For, though the general be granted, yet of- 

divWonmoft cen > lt is di ^ cu ^ c to ta ^ c U P che particular cure , and 

difEGUit. yPC more difficult fingly to follow the fame : It being 

ftill more eafy to prefcribe rules toothers, than to foU 

low them our felves, efpecially in fuch a cafe, when 

fpirits are in the heat and fervour of contention, 

whereby they are fome way drunken with aflfeftion 

to their own fide, and prejudice at the others, and 

diftra&ed, as it were, with a fort of madnefle in pur- 

fuing their adYerfaries, as that great and mcekDivine 


P*rt4« A Treatlfc concerning Scandal. 31 J 

MehnBbon did exprefle it, fo that it is hard to get af-' 
fe&ions, that arc in fuch a temper, captivated to the 
obedience of light. And though we will not take 
on us to be particular and fatisfying in this, wifhing 
and hoping that it may be more effectually done by 
fome other ; yet, having come this length, we (hall, 
in an abftrafted manner, confider fome things in re- 
ference thereunto, and endeavour to hold forth what 
we conceive to be duty , elpecially to the Miniftersof 
the Gofpel* that have intereft in fuch a Church # , As 
alio what may be required of others, that may poffi- 
bly think themfelves lefle concerned therein : Where- 
in we (hall keep this order, 1. we (hall lay down 
fome general Grounds, which we fuppofe as granted. 
2. We (hall premit fome preparatory endeavours 
agreeable to the fame. ?♦ We (hall fpeak negative- 
ly to what ought not to be done, or ought to be for- 
born. 4. Positively to the healing means called- for 
in reference to feveral forts of divifion, with fome 
queftions incident thereupon. And laftly, We (hall 
confider the grounds that do preffe the ferious and 
condefcending application of thefe, or other healing 
means in fuch a cafe. 

The firjl generall ground , which we take for An abfolute 
granted, is this, That by way of precept there is an ncctjjityldi 
abfolute neceflity of uniting laid upon the Church, upon a rent 
(6 that it falleth not under debate, Whether a Church Cburcb to 
(hould continue divided or united in the Theft > un ^ 
more than it falleth under debate , Whether there 
(hould be preaching , praying , keeping of the Sab- 
bath, or any other commanded duty ; feing that uni- 
on is both commanded as a duty , and commended, 
as eminently tending to the edification of the Church, 
I and therefore is (o frequently joyned with edification? 
Nor is it to be asked by a Church, what is to be done 
i for the Churches good,in a divided way, thereby fup- 
j pofing a difpenfation, as it were, to be given to divi- 
| lionj and a forbearing of the ufc of means for the at- 

3*6 A Treatife concerning Scandal, Part4 % 

raining thereof } or rather fuppofing a Rating or 
fixing of divifion, and yet notwithftanding thereof, 
thinking to carry on edification ? It is true, where 
union cannot be attained amongft orthodox Mini- 
fters, that agree in all main things, (for, of fuch only 
we (peak ) Minifters are to make the beft ufe of the 
opportunities they have , and during that to feek the 
edification of the Church ; Yet, that men (hould by 
agreement ftate a divifion in the Church, or difpenfe 
therewith , and prefer the continuing of divifion, as 
fitter for edification than union, wefuppofe is alto- 
gether unwarrantable. I. Becaufe, that is not the 
Lord's Ordinance, and therfore cannot be gone about 
in faith ■ nor in it can the blcfling be expected, which 
the Lord doth com nand tothofe that are in unity, 
Pfal 13$. 2. Becaufe Chrift's Church is but one 
Body, and this were deliberately to alter the nature 
thereof: and although thofe who deny this Truth 
may admit of divifion ; yea, they cannot have union, 
that is proper Church-union, which is union in Go- 
vernment, Sacraments,and other Ordinances, becaufe 
union, or communion in thefe, doth refult from this 
principle ; yet it is impoffible for thofe that maintain 
that principle of the unity of the Catholick vifible- 
Church, toowne a divided way of adminiftrating 
Government or other Ordinances , but it will infer 
either that one party hath no intereft in the Church, 
or that one Church may be mmy ; and fo. that the 
unity thereof in its vifible ftate is to no purpofe: This 
then we take for granted. And though poflibly it 
be not in all cafes attainable, becaufe the fault may 
be upon one fide, who poflibly will not aft unitedly 
with others, yet is thisftill to be endeavoured, and 
every opportunity to be taken hold of for promoting 

Vnhna °^ c ^ e ^ ame * 
ibinrattain. The /<<^ ground which we fuppofe, is this, That 
ableamong zs union is ever a duty , So, we conceive, if men in- 
OrtbodoM cereffed will do their duty, there can be no divifion 
Vivincs* amongft 

Part 4. *A Trea ttfe ccncemmg Scandal 317 

amoneft Orthodox Divines or Minifters , buc it is 
poflible alfo to compofe it, and union is a thing at- 
tainable- For* 1. We are not fpcaking of cempo- 
fing divifionsthat are ftated upon the fundamentall 
things \ nor are we fpeakifig of removing all diffe- 
rences, as if all men were to be one in judgment in 
every point of Truth ,• there may be difference where 
there is no divifion,as hath been faid. Nor, 3. when 
we fpeak of mens doing their duty, do we mean a 
full up-coming of oyery thing in knowledge and 
pra&ice, and that in a fan&ified manner , though 
that ought to be endeavoured ; but it looketh prin- 
cipally to the doing of duty in reference to this par- 
ticular (if it may be called fo ) of attaining union, a 
great part whereof doth confift in outward obvious 
things, which do neither require fimply fan&ifica- 
tion in the petfon ( though in it felf moft defirable ) 
nor perfe&ion in the degree, fome whereof we may 
afterward mention ; fo that the meaning is , if we 
confider union in it felf, without refpeft to mens cor- 
ruptions, (which will make the leaft thing impoffible 
Ttfhen they are in exercife) it is a thing poffible, ac- 
cording to the acknowledged principles, that fober, 
orthodox men ufually walk by, as experience hath 
often proven, and reafon doth demonftrat in the par- 
ticulars afterward to be inflanccd. And this conside- 
ration ou*;ht the more prcflingly to ftir up the endea- 
vour of this duty, although oftentimes through mens 
corruption it hath been fruftrated. 

Thirdly , we premie , That in endeavouring union Eniedvou?^ 
and healing , men would not ftraiten it to an univer- j n g n vion 9 
fall union in every thing , in judgement and pra&ice. dotfmpt infer 
but would refblve to have it with many things de- union in all 
feftive that need forbearance in perfons that are unit- pints of 
ed, which me may take up in thefe particulars, /wfgem*/tf 
1. There may be difference of judgement m many ^f^'^ 
things, I mean in fuch things that are confident with 
the foundation , and edification ; and fuch a forbea- 

3x8 A Trratif* concerning Scandal. Part 4* 

ranee would be rcfolved upon, and to do otherwayes, 
Were to think that either men had no reafon at all , 
or that their understandings were perfect , or at 
Ieafl of equal reach. 2. There may be diffatisfa- 
&ion with many perfons > whether Officers or Mem- 
bers 5 and to expe& a Church free of unworthy Offi- 
cers, or Members, and to defer Church-union there- 
upon, is to cxpe& the barn- floor fhall be without 
chaff, and to fruftrate the many commands whereby 
this duty is preffed ; for , fo thi» command fhould be 
obligatory to no Church , but that that is trium- 
phant 5 yet certainly our Lord Jefus gave this com- 
mand to His Difciples when fuel** was amongfl: 
them ; and Paul gave it and pra&ifed it , when fome 
preached out of envy, Philip. 1. and when almoft all 
fought their own things, and not the things of Chrifl • 
And certainly, if people ought to carry even to cor- 
rupt Minifters who yet deftroy not the foundation, as 
Minifters > in the duties that becomes them to Mini- 
fters in coriununion with them , while they continue 
fuch, Then certainly Minifters ought to keep that 
communion with Minifters, that becometh their re- 
lations, feing they are ftill Minifters in that refpeft, as 
well as in the other. And if this corruption will not 
warrant feparation in other Ordinances,as wasfaid in 
the clofe of the fecond part, Then neither will it war- 
rant divifion in the ordinance of government. 5. It may 
alfo be confident with many particular failings , and 
defe&s in the exercife of government , as poflibly the 
fparing of fome corrupt Officers and Members ; yea, 
the Cenfuring of fome unjuftly , or the admiflton of 
fome that are unfit for the Miniftery , and fuch like ? 
Thefe indeed are faults, but they are not fuch as make 
a Church to be no Church ; and though thefe have 
fometimes been pretended to be the caufesof fchifms 
and divifions in the Church in prafticc, yet were they 
never defended to be juft grounds of fchifms and divi- 
fions > but vvere ever condemned by all Councek 


and Fathers, and cannot be in reafon fuftaincd. For, 
I. there fhould be then no union expefted here, ex- 
cept we fuppofed , that men that have corruption, 
could not fall in thefe faults. 2. It is not unlike, but 
fomc of thefe were in the primitive Churches ; fome- 
what is infinuated thereof, %&. 2. in thofe Church- 
officers, their tolerating of Jezebel and the NkoUi- 
tans to fed uce the people , and to commit fornication; 
yet neither is feparacion or divifion called- for , or al- 
lowed either amongft Minifters or people. Sure there 
were fuch corrupt afts of all kinds amongft the Jews 
Church-officers ; yet is it clear , that Nicodtmu* and 
Jo fepb of Arimatbea did continue to govern joyntly, 
notwithftanding thereof? who yet cannot be counted 
acceffory to any of their deeds; Becaufe (which is a 
third reafon ) men in fuch cafes have accefle, even 
when they are prefent , to difcountenance fuch cor- 
rupt aftsi by not confenting thereto , andteftifying 
againft the fame > (yea, they may by fo doing, ftand 
in the way of many wicked a<3s , which by dividing 
they cannot do) which is fufficient for their exonera- 
tion both before God and men : As we may fee in 
the inftances of Jofepb and Kkodemm mentioned, 
who continue united in the government , keeped the 
meetings even when Sentences paffe againft thofe who 
will acknowledge Chrift , and orders for perfecting 
Him and them; and yet they are declared free, be- 
caufe theydiffented from, and teftified againft the 
fame • yea , their freedom and exoneration by ver- 
tue of their diflent being prefent, is more folemnly 
recorded to their honour in the Gofpel, than if they 
had divided; And yet the unity of th<? Church now 
hath the fame ground, and no fewer motives to preffe Vnionmay 
it than it had then. 4. It may ftand with fomede-/^ ™ th 
fefts in Worfhip , manner of Government, and f° m *J e f' as 
rules that are ncceffary for good government in a ln y °W 
Church. It is like, that many things of that kind, Zr**Z* 
weredefaSiveinthe Church ofCgrwtb, where thc^ ■ 


5 2o *A Treatsje concerning Scandal. Part 4.' 

Sacrament was Co diforderly administrated fas hath 
been marked) confufion in many things of WorChip, 
andfome things ftill tobsfetin order 5 yet doth the 
Apoftle no where prefs union more than in thefeEpi- 
ftles > as formerly hath been marked ; neither can ic 
be thought that perfe&ion in all thefe is ever to be ex- 
pe&ed, or that union, untill fuch time is to be de- 
layed. And if there bz defe&s of chic kind , ic is 
union and not divifion that is to be looked upon as 
the commended mean for redrefling of the fame. 
Jff hl ?\ &t Jf ic be asked then , With what kind of defefts or 
\ini of ,«*-dilcontents may an union b^ made up? or, what 

Jc ™ Rules may be walked by therein? Foranfwer, We 
my bcmatlc fa thefe Cotl f ldcrations or Rulcs> 

^ 1. What cannot warrant a breach where there is 

union,that cannot warrantably be the ground to keep 
up a divifion ; Now there are many mifcarriagesor 
defe&s, which are really groffe >and yet will not war- 
rant a fchifm , as ali chat write thereon do clear , and 
is obvious to all. The reafon of the confequence is, 
Becaufe making up of a breach is no lefle a duty,than 
preventing thereof; And further , if it began upon 
fuch a ground, Then the continuing thereof upon the 
fame ground j is but the continuing in the fame fin; 
and it cannot be thought that any party by dividing 
upon an unjuft ground , can afterward be juftified 
upon the fame ground ; It remaineth therefore , that 
j if the ground was not fufficient atfirft to warrant a 
i feparation or divifion,it cannot be fufficient afterward 
I to continue the fame. 

k ^ule 2. Such defers as do not make communion in 
a Church , arfd in its Ordinances finfull , will not 
warrant a feparation or divifion from the fame; for, 
this folio weth on the former. It is acknowledged by 
£all , that there is no feparation from a true Church in 
j fuch Ordinances, as men may without fin communi- 
cate into, although others may be guilty therein ; as, 
ftippofementohaveacceffeto Government without 
y fuch 

A Tretttfe conctrmrtg scandal. Part 4. 321 

fuch bonds and engagements, and fuch like, as may 
mar their freedom in following the light of the Word, 
in deciding whatever tTiall come before them, even 
though others (hould ftepover the fame. 

Q(ule 3. Men may keep communion with a Church, 
when their calling leadcch them thereto upon the one 
fide, and they have accefle to the difcharge.of the 
fame upon the other ; this alfo followeth upon the 
former: for, if fome afitsofa man? ftation lead him 
to an united way of a&ing , ( as the duties of a fixed 
Minifter'do) then he is oblciged to follow the duties 
of his calling > whilft there is no phyficall or morall 
impediment barring him in the fame , and others be- 
ing defe&ive in their duty, will not abfolve him from 
his, which he oweth by vertue of his ftation. 

tyle 4. While the generall rules tend ibg to edifi- 
cation in the main are acknowledged , union is to be 
keeped, even though there be much failing in the ap- 
plication; becaufe, fo there are fit weapons to make 
ufeof, and who knowcth but fingle and zealous im- 
proving of them> may help the application thereof; 
and if there be a failing therein, it is the perfons d?ed, 
that by his vote fo mifapplyeth, and doth not involve 
any other in that guilt , befide that by joynt and 
united afting much of that mifapplication may 
through Gods blefling be prevented. 

diule 5. Then there may and ought to be uniting 
when the evils that follow divifionorfchifm , are 
greater and more hurtfulltothe Church, than the 
evils that may be fuppofed to follow on union. I 
fpeak not of ills of fin, (for, the ltaft of thele are never 
tobechofen) but of evils and inconveniencies that 
may indeed be hurtfull to the Church in thcmfclves, 
and finfull inrefpe&of fome perfons, yet are not fo 
to all: Now, in fuch evils the lefler is to be chofen, 
becaufe uniting and afting joyncly in a Church- way, 
doth belong to the policy and government of the 
Ohurch>wherein Chriftian prudence is to have a main 

3 * z zsl 1 reaiijc concerning SCANDAL. Fart 4. 

hand , So that when things cannot be done as men 
would (imply , they are to do as they may compara- 
tively! that is, to choofe and make ufe of what may 
be moft edifying , andleaft hurtfull to the Churches 
edification ( which is the great end that ought to 
fway in Government) amongft all thefe means that 
feem probable and poffible; So that the confeience 
raay have teftimonie in this , that the way that had 
feweft inconveniences* and manyeft advantages to 
edification, was chofen ; and though fome inconve- 
niencies fall out afterward, yet the confciencTe may be 
quiet on this ground: Becaufe, fomctimes the Lord 
in His providence will order fo in the matters of Go- 
vernment, that there is no fide can be chofen with- 
out inconveniencies ; Asfuppofe, there is not full fa- 
tisfa&ionjtlany way that occureth in planting fuch a 
Congregation, in removing of fuch an offence, heal- 
ing fuch a rent , and the like > but whatever fide be 
looked to , many hinderances to edification appear , 
yet fomething muft be chofen, and may be with peace 
to the confeience; becaufe we are to regulate our own 
aft fuitably to the providences , and cafes we meet 
with, and to the tempers of the(e wc have to do with ; 
but we are neither to regulate nor anfwer for provi- 
dences, and the diftempers of others. Indeed in fuch 
a cafe , the mind may be difquieted becaufe of fear ? 
andtheconfolationof the duty may be diminifhed* 
becaufe of fuch circumftanccs 5 and affe6tions may be 
grieved and jumbled, becaufe there is not full fatisfa- 
dtion ; yet may the confeience have quietneffe and 
peace in its duty notwithstanding ; and men are fpeci- 
ally to difcern and to put difference between peace of 
Wbcnin* confeience and the former difcompofures : other- 
convenien- vvayes there will be many cafes wherein it is impof- 
cicsare $n {fafe f or a 2e alous Minifter to have peace , whatever 
Al [ hai f! y fide he choofe, yea, whether he do or forbear. 
™ h fl ^ lt k° as ^ c ^ en ■ What way men may difcern 
Vmt "* c fide ^at is to be followed in fuch a cafe, when 


Part 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 323 

inconveniencies threaten on all hands ? Anfw. By 
thefe and fuch like wayes. I. Ic is to be lookcd> 
what fide hath the moft dangerous and dettrudtive 
inconveniencies. 2. What inconveniencies are moft 
certain and inevitable > and the greateft and moft ine- 
vitable inconveniencies are to be ftiunned , and men 
would not choofe a certain hurt to cfchew that which 
is uncertain. 5. Ic would be looked , what fide du- 
ty lieth upon , or to what the command doth preffc ; 
and although inconveniencies feem to follow that,yec 
it is to be followed as moft fafe. Now, as to all thefe, 
union hath the advantage o divilion : Btcaufe, 1. ic 
is a commanded mean rending to edification, which 
divifion is not. 2. Divifion hathnolefle nor fewer 
inconveniencies following ic> norlefle deftru&ive to 
the Church, than union in the cafe tuppoled ; yea, 
fchifm is one of the grcateft hurts that can come to an 
orthodox Church,it being next to herefie in Dottrine ; 
and therefore no particular evil can be laid in the 
ballance with it. 3. The ills of divifion are moft in- 
evitable) for the ills that follow union, through Gods 
bleffing may be prevented, it is nor impofliblep but 
in the way of divifion it is , becaufe it fclf is out of 
Gods way. 

1 %dt 6. When men may unit without perfonal! 
jguiie, or acceflion to the defedtsor giuU of others, 
there may and ought to be union , even though there 
be failings and defeats of feverall kinds in a Church, 
The realons before given will cleat this, becaufe men 
lareto reckon not for other mens carriages , but their 
|own , and no fuch Church-ftate is to be expected as 
is free of defeats. Befide > can it warrand a man to 
abftain from his duty becaufe others do not theirs ; 
whilcas there is no finfull impediment lying in the 
way of his acceffe thereto. If ic be asked, Whac 
may be accounted fuch impediments, as a tender con- 
fcience may be juftly fcarred by from unking ? It 
may be anfwercd in thefe and fuch like, 1. If a 
Y a peiforf 

3 24 A Treat Ife concerning Scandal. Part 4. 

perfon be put to condemn any thing he thinketh law- 
full in his own former pra&ice, or the pra&ice of 
others, or in fome point of Do&rine though never fo 
extrinfick, if it be to him a point of truth. 2, If he be 
put to approve the deed, and pra&ice of fome others 
which he accounteth finfull , or to affirm fomewhat 
as truth which he doth account an errour. g* When 
fome engagement is required for the future, which 
doth reftrain from any duty called- for , or that may 
afterward be called-for. Thefe and fuch like involve 
perfons in the fin of what is paft , and alfo maketh 
them acceffory to the inconveniencies which may 
come ; becaufe they are bound up with their own 
confent, from endeavouring the preventing thereof 
in the way of ducy > at leaft it is fo to them,, and fo 
defileth their confeience. Therefore fuch entangle- 
ments are by all means to be forborn ; but where no 
fuch thing is in condemning or acknowledging any 
thing chat is paft, nor any fuch reftraining bond in- 
confiftent with duty for the time to come , there may 
be accefle to union , even where there are many pub- 
lick defers , which is the thing i:aid down to be 
r MtutuaU In the fourth place we premie, That for attaining 
coniefcenL of union there would be , and there ought to be, 
i»l mef- large mutuall condefcending , that is , that both fides 
far/, ought to ftreach themfelves, not only to forbear what 

is finfull 5 nor only to condefcend to what may be 
thought fimply neceflary, and may be extorted as du- 
ty in any cafe; Nor yet ought condefcending to be 
upon one fide levelled according to the length that 
another goeth , but condefcending would be levelled 
mutually according as expedience calleth for, with 
• refpe&to the edification of the Church 5 for which 
end even many infirmities of others are to be forborn, 
and things otherwayes unreafonable in refpeft of 
thefe men we have to do with , yet refpeft to the 
Churches peace , ought to make men cede in thefe ; 

for ? 

Part 4. A Treanfe concerning Scandal* 325 

for , if there ought to be condefcending for private 
peace, much more ought it to be for Church-peace 
and publick edification : and though we cannot nor 
will not now be particular in this , yet concerning it, 
we may lay down thele con (iterations, 

1. In what may involve a man in fin, or in the ap- wbtrdn 
probation thereof in ochers , there is no condefcend- there muff 
ing, but what length may warrantably be gone>&* no son- 
even to cheutmoft border of duty, men ought to go defending 
for this end; fo that nothing ought to be a flop or 
march in condefcenfion , but this, i cannot do this 
and finagainftGod ,• other wayes, one ought to be 
all things to ochers. This confederation will be more 
clear , by comparing it with the former Rules , and 
what afterward may be (aid. 

2. This condetcenfion would be mutuall upon It ought te 
both fides , that is , one party would not expert full be mutual* 
fubmiflion from che other, for that is not union , but 
dominion. ; Hence the Apoftle in his preffing of uni- 
on in fuch cafes, doth ordinarily pray, and obteft 
both fides. And feing affeftion is the main ground 
of union, it is fit, there fliould be condefcenfion for 
mutuall teftifying of refpect each toother. This is 
alfo confirmed by an Epiftle of Cafaines to Mr. l(nox 
(afterward cited) wherein he preffeth that condef- 
cenfion be mutuall for removing of a divifion that 
was in his Congregation at Frantford. 

3. Even that party that feemeth to be righteft in^ Jt u c 
the matter , or to have authority on its fide , or to ou ^ t t0 ^ 
have countenance from others , ought yet to conde- mo ft £e ^ 
fcend , yea in fome things to be moft condefcending, legending 
becaufe fuch are in fomc fort parents and ftrong; they 
ought therefore the more tenderly to bear and cover 
the infirmities of the weak : and becaufe they are 
morefober and atchemfelves, they therefore ought 
to carry the more ferioufly toward others , whom 
they fuppofe to be in a diftemper,and not to be equal- 
ly groffe in handling the tender things of the Church, 
Y 3 whereof 

%i6 A Treattfe concerning Scandal. Part 4; 

£ n thit w ^ crco ^ utt i° n ls » «iain one : And confidering that 
which is au *hority * s 8 iven far edification 1 it is not unluitable 
r/zfo tfwi * Qr ,c to con«: ! cfccnd tor attaining its end ; for which 
batbautbo- cau k we find often TW, laying by his authority in 
f ity ^ fach cafcs,and intreating and wooing, as it were, even 

chemeaneft diffenters, in this matter of union , as 
we fee him > Pbtl.q. befecching Euodtas and Syntkbe 
(who were it is like but very private pcrfons) to 
be of one mind. And in ancient times we will find, 
1. fometimes the innocent party ceding and conde- 
fcending , as in the caie betwixt c Bafihus and Eufebius 
atCefarea: <BaJihus % though having the belt fide, and 
of greateft account, yet did firft cede, by withdraw- 
ing for the peace of the Church *, and afterward, for 
the good thereof* to wit? the preventing of its being 
tainted by the ArUn hcrefie, he did return, and con- 
defcend to be fubjeft to him who was in competition 
with him , which tended exceedingly to the good of 
that Church, to the removing of that Schifm, and 
the great praiie and commendation of his zeal and 
fingleneffe. 2. We find that oftentimes the moft 
tender and fincere > and thefe who were upon the 
Tbejwb* riRhtfide, have been moft condefcending > and of- 
did the tentimes thefe who did the wrong ( fuch as it was ) 
wrong, or- were moft averfe from condefcenfion , as in all the 
dinarily Schifms that have arifen upon frivolous grounds will 
mojt a- appear. 3. Thefe who condefcended moft in fuch 
virfc from things, have ever been thought the greateft friends 
poniiefw t0 c h e Church , even fometimes when they have been 
4* n & deepeft in the rife of the Schifm, and when their fide 
was not fo juftifiable as the other, yet by condefcend- 
ing they have commended themfelves more to the 
Churches friends than their oppofitcs. It is marked 
in that fchifm at Antiocb, betwixt Miletim and Vault- 
nttt , who were both Orthodox , yet had they di- 
vided governments,and Congregations in the Church, 
becaufe of different Ordinations which had keepeci 
them rent for fome time j and although Miletim his 


Ordination and entry was not fo juftifiable according 
to the Canons , as the others was ; yet the parties te- 
nac ousupon either fide being ttrong > there was ac- 
ccfle to fettle it by no authoritative decifion : where- 
fore it came to a treaty by means of thefc that were 
appointed Arbiters, that fo union and communion 
in the Ordinances might be made up in that Church ; 
at which conference Mile tins overtured, that they 
might joyn together as Bifhops to take care of one 
Flock while they lived , and after the death of either, 
he who furvived (hould be only Bifliop of the united 
Flock , unto whom one only fliould fuccecd to have 
charge of ail , for preventing oi divifion for the time 
to come ; to which overture, ^aulinus would not ac- 
quiefce , but flood to the formality of order without 
valuing the Churches peace , or propofing any juft 
ground of exception againtt Miktm perfon or Do- 
ctrine ; he , to wit, Taulinus was counted unworthy 
to govern fucha Church, and removed therefrom, 
and the other as more worthy becaufe of that his 
condefcending,was therefore alone invefted in the go- 
vernment therof. 4. We will find them fometimes • 
yeeld in all particulars that do not involve any con- 
tent unto > or approbation of what is wrong. It is 
marked by Augufiine in his Writings againft the ©P- 
natifls, that fometimes Councels that have condemned 
men , have for peace without any fatisfa&ion, again 
reflored them upon after thoughts; and he marketh ic 
as a great condefcenfion of the Bifhopj of Spain, chat 
they did fo in the cafe of Oftus when he was found in- 
nocent by the Preach: they did not (faith he) perti- 
nacioufly 'frith animoftty defend their former Sentences, left 
tbeyfhould fall in the furiledge of a Schifm, Ifrfsich doth 
» exceed all frichdneffe ; and "frith that humility, peace Xbas 
peeped , becaufe (faith he ) they had rather be cghivjl 
their olfrn Sentences , than the unit) of the Church. And 
he doth upbraid rhat principle of the jDonatifts eft the 
cafe of one Vrimitmt, who was refuted to be reftored 
Y 4 by 

328 txf Treanfe concerning Scandal. Part 4.' 

by an after Councell of theirs , becaufe a former 
pretended Synod of their own had depofed him , al- 
leging, and abufing that word of the Apoftles for 
that end, Gal.i. If I again build what I have de- 
ftroyed , then am 1 found a tranfgreffour ; and he 
doth more commend the pra&iee of Pretextaw and 
Velicianus, who being condemned (it is like unjuflly) 
by three hundrech and eighteen Bifhops , yet did , 
(faith he) for concords fake , return and joy n with 
thefe who did condemn them; and by them were 
Without all lofleor diminution of their honour > re- 
ceived into fellowship. And wat ever may be in the 
juftice or injustice of any of thefe former deeds, upon 
the matter , yet doth he only makeufeof them , to 
(hew what condefcenfion ought to be in fuch cafes 
for peace , both upon the part of Judicatories and 
particular perfons , how ever the matter doth appear 
unto them; tor he condemnetb not the rejc&ing of 
\Primianus becaufe he was unjuftly Sentenced, but be- 
caufe there was not due refpefthad to the Churches 
peace; nor doth he commend the Spanifh Bifhops for 
recalling an un juft Sentence, which ought to be done 
for Jufttce fake ; but that (though it is no qucftion 
they did think it juft ) they did condefcend to re- 
move it for preventing of a Schifm > when they faw 
their deed difiuisfving to others. And it is fo in the 
other cafealfo, it is thefe mens fubmifllon to thefe 
that condemned them , as it evidences refpeft to con- 
cord, and notasconfideringany equity of the Sen- 
tence which is commended by him 5 this is in what 
he writeth contra Epiftolaip Harmenkni. lib. i.eap. 
2.3,4 &c. 

From what is faid , we may lay down thefe nega- 
tive conclufionS;Concerning the upmakingofa breach 
amongft Godly and Orthodox men, where a Church 
hath harmony in the fundamcntall points , Faith, 
Worfhip and Government > and where the thriving 
of the Gofpel is mutually defigned. 

I. Divi- 

part 4. A Trettife conce rmvg Scandal^ 329 

I. Divifion ought not to be endeavoured tobere- vivi/innot 
moved in fuch a cafe , in fuch a way as dorh unc'o or to be <utci 
deftroy either fide , becaule that is not thtgeed of by deftryiitg 
the whole ', tor every part and fide in iuch a cafe, is a anyOrtbo- 
part of the body , although it may be not fo very dox fide *t 
confiderable , and it is no wifdom to cut off a mem- t art h 
btr of the body > and that way to cure a diftemper 
therein, wb npcffibly the purging away of corrupt 
humours from the body , or more gentle applications 
might recover the fame. 

2. We fay , that way of uniting is not to be ad- 
mitted, butfhunned, which may incapacitate any 
Minifter or member of the body that is fit for edify- 
ing of the fame, from having acceffe thereunto ; for 
fo the Church is prejudged , and men are rendred 
unable for edifying thereof. And this is not only 
when Sentences are paft, or restraints laid on 5 But 
it may be in fuch like cafes. As, 1. when by the 
terms of union (bene perfon is grieved and weighted, 
byannexinp of fome unneceflfary thing which may 
be for born , becaule by this, men eo about duty with 
heavinefle, which is unproficable ro the Church, vnionisto 
2. It maybe, when fomething that refle&eth upon be eQayed 
any fide, or perfon, unneceflanly > is interwoven ; with due re- 
becaufe fuch things ttill keep up fufpicion, and makeJpiftMch to 
the union the more heartlcfle, and doth both make other wnh- 
fuchper/ons more faint, and alfo in the leflercapa- ^tany not * 
city to have weight with others for their edifica- */^MP' 8 - 
tion , and doth leave a ground of diffatisfa&ion with 

fuch an agreement > that is ready afterward to break 
forth; Therefore union would be effayed with all 
due refpect from each to other, and without any note 
of difrdpedt, ^ r^ 

3. We mav gather, that no fimply authoritative AU tbmtal 
mean is the fit and only way ot healing a rent- the way U 
Church : That is indeed the way of governing an the ft mean 
united Church, but not the way of uniting a rent- to begin the 
Church , cfpecially a Church rent in particulars oibealivg of a 

praftice w£' ;wrcJ k 

330 A Treatife concerning Scan da tl Part 4. 

praftice and government ; becaufe the remedy muft 
be extenfive to both fides, and in fuch cafes, atleaft, 
as to thefe particulars, Authority ufually is declined ; 
and though it be unjuftly declined poffibly, yet when 
it is declined, it is unable to effeftuate this end ; and 
the remedy is to be applied, not as to what agreeth 
to a Church that is whole , but what agreeth to 
a Church in fuch a diftemper ; evenasafick body 
is to be nour ifhed not alwayes with the ftrongeft 
and wholefomeft meats which agree with fucf as 
are in health , but it is to be nouriftied with things 
fuitable to its diftemper , and are fit to cure it ; yea, 
fometimes, with fuch things as may pleafe thetafte, 
when more healthfull things are not admitted. Alfo 
when both judgments are to be informed, and affecti- 
ons are to be gained, there muft be prudentiall and 
affe&ionat wayes ufed for gaining thefe ends. Hence 
we fee, that not only in Church-hiftory, but in the 
Scriptures efpecially, the duty of union is more pref- 
fed by perfwafions, intreaties, reafons to move to it, 
ills that follow the want thereof, and fuch like , than 
by an authoritative way, fuch as is ufed in the con- 
demning of Hereticks, and other fcandalous perfons. 
And indeed union hath fuch conjunftion with the 
will and affe&ions, that it muft be perfwaded and 
cannot be fo commanded. And amon^ft fuch perfons 
as are fuppofed to be in this difference,privat and par- 
ticular condefcenfion is rnoft becoming that refpe& 
which each ought to other. 
Thouzb one F/ /^' Wepremit, That fuppofe fufficient conde- 
fide fail in fcenfion fhould fail upon one fide, yet ought the other 
€wdc[<;cnd~ to condefcend fully the length that is poflible. 
ingtbeotber U Becaufe Church-union amongft Church- men is 
ought not to no civil bargain to ufe prigging therein , but what is 
fiiL poflible is duty out of obedience to God, who com- 

mandeth peace in other things ( and fo, much more 
in this) as far as is poflible, or as in men lyes. And, 
2. becaufe refpeft is to be had to the Churches good, 


Part 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal' 331 

whole advantage we (hould fcek, even though others 
were dcfe&ive ; and often iuch condefcending gaineth 
more for the advantage of the Church, and commen- 
dation of the party condefcending , than if there had 
been more flicking, as we may fee in that praife- 
worthy inftance of B*ltlius his carriage , whoftuck 
on nothing, but abfolutely did lay by what was con- 
tended-for, without refpeft to his own right or in- 
jury, for the Churches good. And oftentimes it's one 
party their waiting for the others condcfccnfion, or 
taking occafion from their tenacioufnefle to ftick, that 
doth keep the diftance at a height. 

6. Oftentimes in fuch debates as are amongft or- 
thodox Divines and Mmifters, it Ieemeth they might 
be removed if one party fhould condefcend according 
to the qualifications and cautions formerly la id down; 
yea, it ieemeth it were fafcr for the Churches good in 
fuch a cafe, that either party fhould pra&ically con- 
defcend to the way of the other , than that divifion 
fhould be keeped up upon fuch grounds. For, 1. It 
is not fuppofed here> that there is any matter of faith 
inqueftion , amongft fuch , often there was full har- 
mony in the Confefiions of Faith, as in the inftances 
cited. 2. There is no queftion for Government 
fimply, nor for Councils and Canons, thefe al(b were 
acknowledged ; none did difclaim the general Coun- 
cils , nor their a&s. 3. The queftion often is not 
amongft them, Whether others (hould be brought to 
their opinion or not, I mean as to the ftick of the di- 
vifion ; But often it is either, 1 . upon fome miftaken 
exprefiion of another, or errour in fome leiTer point 
of Truth 5 And, in fuch a cale, it is that great Au- 
guftines word , ftijputable errours, or uncertain faults^ 
are not in their purfuit to be preferred to certain peace. 
Or, 2. it is for fome particular aft of Goverhment,or 
other mifcarriages by mifapplying of rules, or not 
walking according to them , or fomething of th3t 
]uad , as was in contrary Ordinations of orthodox 


332 iA Treatift concerning Scanda il Part 4* 

men* and fuch like : In which cafes, we fay, ( and it 
will be^ found from Hiftory ) That ic had been ever 
better for the Church, that either fide had practically 
condefcended to fuffer the other to rule and govern, 
and perfonally to have keeped themfelves free from 
accetfion to their guilt, whether of crookednefle neg- 
ligence, or the like, than to have raifed or entertained 
divifions upon fuch accounts. For, often orthodox, 
andotherwayes blamelefle men, have b-:en made, by 
fuch divifions, fa&ious and carnal in their carriage, 
and much unufefull ; who otherwayes,had they been 
free of that tentation, might have proved fober, and 
profitable; and, when the tentation was over, were 
found to be fuch. 

7. We may obferve, that though in the primitive 
times there were diverfe ichifms and divifions, con- 
cerning Synods and Government, yet we will find 
that thefe contefts and divifions did flow from the 
matter and particular a6is and aftings thereof , and 
that there was hardly ever divifion tabled upon the 
formality of the conftitution of a Council or Synod ; 
nor yet, that much difference was put betwixt decli- 
ning of their authority, and of the Ails or Cenfures 
paft by them. Concerning which we mayobferve 
thefe generals , 
J# xn$ the l * ^ e m:itcer was "fifct an( * fitisfyin^ that was . 
dtiinzs ani concluded by many Bifhops and Church m:n, there 
not the for- was an acquiefcing in the authority thereof 2. If 
rndityofSy-thc matter were difpleafing and hurtful!, of whatever 
nzlsth&ioc-fotm it was, and of whatever number, its authority 
cdftontd dl- wis no: much refpefted , becaufe it confifted only in 
vifionofoll adding weight to thefe things , as we may fee in the 
jtrUn Councils , which were often very numerous, 
and others alfo that were erroneous, and oeherwayes 
corrupt, although there was no formal deciinatour, 
of them, or protection againft them as null ; though 
there were (ometimes fome diflenticnts in them, yet 
was not their authority any way confirmed by the 


Part 4. A Treatije concerning scandal 33 

forbearing of fuch Proteftations or Declinatours* 
3. Somccimes we will find worthy men appearing 
before and anfwering unto moft corruptly confirmed 
Synods , as was in thofe fame times , and although 
they were fentenced and depofed by them, yet did 
chcy never efteem thefe Sentences to have the more 
authority, as we may lee in the ca(e of Mbanafus y 
Cbryfoftom, and many others. 4. Sometimes they 
did proteft againft Synods as null, when they (aw 
violence and iniquity prevail in them* as was done in 
the Council of dntiocb, in the cafe of Euftacbiut ; and 
was done in the fecond Council ofEpbefus by Fhvia- 
mis and zAnatolm. Sometimes alfo upon fcen ha- 
zard, and defigns of profefled corrupt enemies, Pro- 
teftations were drawn in writ antecedently,* as in 
that Proteflation which the Reformers in Germany 
gave out againft the Council of rmrt,after its indidi- 
on ; becaufe there was no probable acccfle for Truth > 
to have liberty in fpeaking , and equity in judgment ; 
AndasS/o>rfdtf hath icfetdown, they alleagedCpi/- 
luA for the firft pra&ifer of this, in the time that the 
Arians prevailed. This we may fee is their praftice 
when they have to do with profefled enemies ; not 
flicking on formalities , but on what was matcriall. 
And again, amongftthemfelves, the Orthodox ufed 
not to ftick upon the trying and fcanning of the for- 
mality of any of thefe Councils ( for certainly in 
fuch corruptions as were fo univerfal, Synods cor- 
rupt for the plurality of them, might have been had 
with all the formalities and folemnities that could be 
required in the external conftitution of any lawfull 
Synod) but when they had occafion to meet, they 
went to the doing of what was for the prefentgcod 
of the Church, condemning the matter of fuch cor- 
rupt Synods ; which they did account fufficicnt in 
fuch cafes: And for difference amongft themfclves, 
when they were of a right temper, they did alio en- 
deavour to redrefle fuch particulars as needed, and 


2 24 ** l reattjc concerning scandal, rare 4« 

torcftore perfons unjuftly fentenced, and the like; 
Whereby it appeareth chat the matter both in things 
of general and particular concernment, did ever bear 
mod fway. 
Debates con- ^' Although fuch debates concerning Govern- 
cetnint go* menc ^ cem mo ^ ea ^ e t0 ^ e rcmove d> yet often and al- 
vernment m0 ^ ever*they have been moft difficultly healed, and 
more Ai$- have been followed with prcateft bitterneffe atvi con- 
cultly rcmo- tention in the Church; for, different Judgements 
vci. (imply, and alio different Ceremonies, and different 

prattices in other things, may conlift without direft 
oppofition or counterafting , and may either be the 
more eafily born or removed : but when it comes to 
Government, whole Sentence (hall ftand> whofe Or- 
dination fhall be acknowledged, who (hall have 
place to decide fuch and fuch things, and the like? 
it is far other wayes. Hence it came to paffe that men 
could keep union and communion with others that 
differed from them in far greater points of Truth ; 
but to perfons that did not acknowledge their Autho- 
rity, or did acknowledge thofe that did controvert 
with them thereanent, they could by no means fo 
condefcend : Becaufe, i. in Government, mens own 
particular intereft is more concerned than in points 
of Truth, and that inadvertently ftcaleth in upon 
men. 2. Becaufe* in Government the queftion is not 
only for what is paft> but there is a fear of what may 
come : Hence men that have fom6 tettimony in 
themfelves that they are not ambitious of Govern- 
ment, yet having taken up a prejudice againft 
others, they are fufpicious that if fuch had power, 
they would mifcarry , not only in reference to them, 
but in reference to publick concernment ; And there- 
fore in removing fuch a divifion that is in point of 
Government, the great difficulty is not fo much to 
heal and remove what is paft, as to prevent the fear 
of what may come, if fuch continue to govern. And 
thismakech, that the refult of fuch diyifion is, That 


part 4- v*Treatt\c concerning scand al. 335 

cither chcy themfelves, or fuch as they have confi- 
dence in particularly , may have the weight of go- 
vernment upon them , which may indeed be aimed 
at with fome fincerity ; becaufe being fomeway alie- 
nated with prejudice > they do not think it fit for the 
good of the work, at leaft during that time, that any 
others fiiould have fuch truft ; and this made the 
heat of debates in the time of divifion , to break out 
mainly in the ordination of Bifhops , and planting 
of Churches ; becaufe by that means their intereft in 
the government was keeped up , whereby there was 
after- acceffe to the management of every other thing 
according as this fuccceded. 

Some preparatory endeavours for uniting. 

ALthough we have been fomewhat large in 
thefe generals > becaufe of the falling in of 
feverall things , yet we conceive it may be 
ufcfull to the point , and we may have the 
I fpeedier progreffe afterward in loofing this great que- 
ftion , What an orthodox Chucch divided in it felf 
in fome circumftantiall truths (tofpeakfo) or con- 
trary praftices and actings, when flill agreeing in 
the fundamentals of Do&rine, Worfliip, Difciplinc 
and Government > and having mutuall efteemof the 
integrity one of another : What, I fay, fuch are cal- 
led to do for the healing of that breach ? In refe- 
rence to which , thefe things , or this method would 
be followed. 

c. AlU efpecially Miniflers , would walk under ^^ 
the impreffion of the dreadfulnefle and terriblcneffc of ^ f a J*i m l 
fuch a plague ; It is like , if God were looked to as p H rr on f 
angry at a Church, and at Minifters in iuch a time, ffo dread* 
men would be in the greater fitnefle to fpeak concern- julntfie of 
jing a healing. Some time therefore would be be- (mb ttftgue 


33^ A Treatifls concerning Scandal. Pare 4/ 

flowed on this , to lee that confideration fink down 
in the foul , that the Lords hand may be taken up 
therein 5 the many fad confequents thereof would be 
reprefented to the mind > and the heart would be feri- 
oufly affe&ed and humbled therewith* asiffword, 
peftilencp or fire were threatened ; yea , as if the 
Lord were (pitting in Mimftcrs faces, rubbing fhsme 
upon them , andthreatning the making of them des- 
picable, the blafting of the Ordinances in their 
hands, the loofing the girdle of their loins, and au- 
thority amongft the people* the plucking up of the 
hedges to let in Boars and Wolves to fpoil the Vines, 
and deftroy the flock ; and, in a word to remove His 
candleftick, fo that Minifters or octier perfons in fuch 
a cafe , have not only men that are their oppofits to 
look to as angry at them > but they have the Lord to 
look to as their party * whofe anger hath thus divided 
them; and the not obferving of this, makethmen 
the more confident under fuch a judgement ; Where- 
as, feing it is a plague, men, even fuch as fuppofe 
themfelves innocent, as to the immediate rife thereof, 
ought to humble themfelves under the mighty hand 
of God, with refpeft to this as to other plagues. 

A fearfull 2 ' ^ en wou ^ a ^° '°°k u P on ll as a ^ narc > & 
fnare in dh ^ ow man Y tentations have fuch divifions accompa- 
vifion. nyi°g them, efpecally to Minifter* ; andalfohow 
many affli&ions, erodes and reproaches, upon the 
back of thefe ! Might it not make a Minifter tremble 
to think upon the matter of divifions > that now be- 
fide all his former difficulties and ftraits, there is a 
fnare and trial in everv thing ; in everv Sermon that 
he preache th it is thus , left his own affeftjon fteal in 
for the zeal of God, to make him hoter and more 
vehement againft thofe that oppofe him in fuch things 
that are controverted, than he ufeth to be in things 
more nearly concerning to the glory of God. and left 
by difcovering his carnalneffe, he make his Minifte- 
ry despicable before others , vvhen he hearech he is in 


rare 4. e^r 1 rea nje l oncer mng SCANDAL. 337 

hazard to be irritated by a contradi&ion; and though 
there be no contradi&ion , he is in hazard to lay the 
lefTe weight upon what might be for his edification, 
becaufe it is fpoken by one who in fuch and fucli 
things differeth from him. When he is in any Judi- 
catory , there is a tentation waiting on, by the leaft 
motion of fuch things, to difcompofe all , and make 
fuch meetings fcandalous and burdenfome; by this 
allconverfingalmoft becometh heardefle and com- 
forclefle, the moft intimate brother is either (ufpiciou?, 
or fufpeited ; all conftru&ion of mens ingenuity and 
fincerity in any thing,are> for the moft part, grounded 
upon mens interefts , as if men after that had no con- 
fcience of finning, there is a failing of fympathie 
amongft brethren, <srt. And may not thefe and ma- 
ny fuch like , make Minifters circumfpedt in fuch a 
cafe, that they may be flow to fpeak to what may 
foment divifion, and wary in hazarding upon fnares. 
Alas, it is unlike this, when men ufe more confidence 
and liberty in conftru&ing, fpeaking and afting, and 
with leffe tendernefle in times of divifion than at 
other times; and were men once impreffed with the 
fear of finning upon the occafions of divifions, they 
would be much more difpofed for fpeaking of union. 

3. Minifters and others would (oberly retire to ^^ m 
take a view of their own fpirituail condition, and v ' le Ji v * f 
fee if they have keeped their own vineyard : w& mirinwaU 
particularly, before the Lord, put themfelvcs ro thefe. condition. 
1. How union with him hatht)ecn prized , and if 
there hath bcen-ftudying to be, and abide, inChrift, 
and to keep themfelvcs in the love of God. 2. If 
there be any ground of quarrel! in the Jfrcfcnt ftrain 
or bygone praftice, that might have influence to pro- 
voke the Lord to fmke them in thcgcncralh Or> 
3. and efpecially, If by their negligence and unfaitb- 
fulnefle, imprudency > heat, paflion, tenacioufneffe, 
addi<3ednefle to other men, and too much loathntifc ^ 
to difpleafc chem ; prejudice at, and uncharitablnetfc 
7* tittcd 

33& * e/* i reattje concerning be and al. Part4» 

unto others, or the like, they have been any way ao 
ceffory to the bringing in of this evil; for which 
caufe they would take a view both of the fins that 
procure it, and the evils which do difpofe for it) and 
increafe it , ( which were formerly mentioned ) and 
would be impartiall and through in this; for, it is 
prepofterous for men to meddle in removing publick 
differences., while they know not how it ftandeth 
with themfelves. 
Repcntdnce 4, When that is done , there would be repentance 
(uitable. fuitable to what is found , and extraordinary humi- 
liation and fecret prayer to God , not only for them- 
felves and for their own particular condition, but 
for the publick , and particularly for healing of that 
breach, and that thereby God would fpare His peo- 
ple, and not fuffer His inheritance to be a reproach* 
, It is no little furtherance to union, to have men in a 
fpirituall > abftraded and mortified frame ; for, we 
are fure, if it remove not difference, it will in a great 
part moderate thedivifion, and reftrain the carnal- 
tieffe that ufually accompanied* it, and difpofe men 
to be more impartiall to hear what may lead fur- 
Vnhnmuld S- Men would not fift in this, but as they have in- 
ky all wif- tereft , and are led by their places , they would cn- 
rantable deavour foberly , warily and ferioufly, by fpeaking, 
i-earis be writing, obtefting and otherwayes, to commend uni- 
commended on to thefe that differ ; yea, even they that differ, 
uyto, and W ouid commend it to thefe that differ from them. 
puffed upon We f ee tJ)e Apoftles do this frequently in the New 
tbt(e xut Xeftament , and that not onely in the gcnerall to 
htbo'etbat Churches, but fome per fons arc particularly by name 
(irffet one °ktefted, as, Ibilty. 4. 2. And in the primitive times, 
«fon ant* Btfhops and Churches who were not engaged , did 
iter. ferioufly write , and fometimes did fend fome of their 

number to Churches and eminent perfons that were 
dividedyand often their interpofingdid prove effe6tu* 
all. And when that difference between dngujlw and 


Part 4 d Tredtiff concerning Scandal.' 339 

Jerome did come to fomc height , he ( to wit, dugu* 
pine) preflcd himfelf fo on the other,for the begetting 
of a better underftanding , and the abating of that 
difference, that he did prevail with him, and by their 
mutual 1 apologies, and better underftanding one of 
another, they came notwithftanding of their diffe- 
rence to have much refpeft one of another. For this 
end Policarpm came from Afi* to %orne , to ftay the di* 
vifion about E after 9 which prevailed fo far , that it 
. fitted for a time. Alfo men, efpecially of the fame 
judgement, would deal with others with whom in 
that they agree , to be condefcending , and ferioufly 
obteft them 5 and when they exceed , would objur- 
gate them for the Churches good* This is often of 
great weight , and often alfo , men that appear moft 
in a difference* will be hoter and carry things further 
than lefle engaged men of the fame judgement will 
allow* and fuch ought not to be filent in fuch a cafe* 
Thus Irenewi (though of Vitfors judgement in the 
matter of Eafter) yet did boldly expoftulate with 
him for his vehemency in preflmg of the fame, to the 
hurt of the Churches peace, charging him to forbear 
and to follow union notwithftanding; which aft of 
his, is ftill highly commended> and ( as Eufehim ob- 
fcrveth) counted anfwerable to his name. 

£♦ Serious and fingle thoughts of union would be ConfiAncf 
laid down, and that wduld be purpofly driven as the att ^fiH^ 
great duty ; fo that endeavours would not principal- **(* hereto 
ly tend to (lengthen a fide, or exoner themfelves, or 
get advantage to others, & c. but to make one of both ; 
and therefore when one mean or occafion fai!eth,ano- 
ther would be effayed ; neither would men weary 
or faint herein , although it prove often a moft faint- 
ing bufineflTe. 

7. Men would endeavour all this with tenderfteffe With ten- 
and refpeft to mens perfons , actions and qualificati- dernefsani 
ons ; for, oftentimes the rife of a divifion, is in the f *ft*& 
alienation of affe&ions betweeti fome perfons; which 
Z 1 afecs- 

340 ATreatife concerning Sc and al. Part ^ 

afterward difpofeth to conftruft hardly both of their 
opinions and a&ions : and indeed often the ftick is 
here , chat mens affe&ions are not fatisfied one with 
another, and that maketh them that they do not truft 
each other : Hence we fee , that in the Scripture , the 
commending of love , and of honouring and preferr- 
ing of others in honour to ourfelves, is ordinarily 
fubjoyned to the exhortations to union , or reproofs 
of divifion, as, fbilip. 2. Epb. 4. Mattb. 18. (?c. And 
we fee in the primitive times, when no mean could 
cure fchifms , one party (hewing refpeft to another, 
or to fome eminent head of the oppofit party, (it may 
be even after their death) did alley the fame, and en- 
gage thefe that formerly (bunned communion , to 
joyn with them. It is particularly obferved, That 
when at Conflantinople fome had continued feparated 
from the Bifhops government, and the Church there- 
of, after ^n/V^?w^depofition, for the fpace of thirty 
five years , and were called Jobanits ; ye: ^rocltit, 
who by fome interval fucceeded in that See, by re- 
cording C^/p/fo^'; name amongft eminent perfons, 
and making honourable mention of him, and bring- 
ing his body from the place where it was buried in 
his exile, and burying it honourably at Conflantinople 
in the great Church of the holy Apoftles, did fo ap- 
peal and engage thofe that had difclaimed all the in- 
terveening Bifhops, that inttantiy they did acknow- 
ledge him and joyn with the Church. The like alfo 
is mentioned to have been the end of that Schifm at 
Antiocb, becaufe of Euflacbitt&his removal from them? 
vjhtnCallaudion theBifhopdid return his body ho- 
nourably to be buried* and went out with his party 
to receive the fame folemnly fome miles from the 
Town ; thofe alfo, who out of refpeft to him (to 
wit Eufldcbim) had continued feparated from the fuc- 
ceeding Bifhops for above an hundred years , now 
feeing the adverfe party put refpeft on him , they alfo 
did from that time forth joyn with them, Both thefe 


Part 4. A Treatife concerning S c a nd a ii 34* 

are recorded in the fifth Century ; and if refpeft to 
dead men be prevalent to enpage affedtions, certainly 
mutual refpeft and evidences of confidence amongft 
men living , would be much more weighty. This 
giving of refpedt would be manifefted in thefe and 
the like. 1. Rcfpcftive mentioning in word or wric 
of the perfons, and what concerns thofe that differ, 
cfpecially fuch as are mott eminent and leading 
amongft them. 2. There would be good conftrufti- 
onsput upon their end and intentions, and (incerky, 
even in fuch actions as are difpleafing. 5. Mens 
opinions and anions would not be loaded with grofie 
abfurditics and high aggravations) rfpecially in pub- 
lick ; becaufe that tendeth but to make them odious, 
and ttandeth in the way of a future good underftand- 
ing , when one hath propofed another as fo abfurd 
and hatcfull a perfon. 4 All perfonal reflexions 
would beabftained, as alfo flcighting anfw?rs, dif- 
dainfull-likc words and falutations,. and fuch like» 
would be fhunncd ; But on the contrary,there would 
be love, familiarity, tenderneflc ", and if there have 
been any reflexion or bitterncfle to occafion miftake, 
yea,if it have been unjuflly apprehended, there would 
be condefcending to remove the fame. I have heard 
of a worthy perfon, who being led away in an hour 
ot tentation, was by many of his former friends after- 
wards difcountenanccd , whereby he was, as it were, 
engaged in a kind of difcontenc to defend his deed, 
and refent the difrefpeft of fuch perfons, which al- 
moll grew to a rent : but having occafion to encoun^- 
tcr one who was moft oppofic to his prefent way , who 
yet notwithstanding of all, did lovingly and famili- 
arly j as ever, imbracehim, without mentioning any 
fuch thing ; it is faid, That his heart melted infiantly 
with the conviction of his former oppofition, and fo 
any further procedure towards a rent was prevented, 
when he fa w there was yet again accefs to the affecti- 
ons of the moft eminent of thofc he did differ from. 
Z 3 5. There 


34a A Tnatife concerning Scandal. Part 4. 

tnfrejfu $ f There would be expreffions of mutual confidence 
ens ofmu. in one another, which would appear not only in per- 
tuallconfi* fonail refpefts, but with refpe& to the Miniftery of 
dincc. f uc h a s they differ from, endeavouring to ftrengthcn 
and confirm that> which was the thing that endeared 
( £afilim to Eufebius , that even while he differed, he 
endeavoured to have his Miniftery weighty amongft 
the people. 6, Refpeft would be (hewn to men of 
that judgment and fide ( it being fuch a difference as 
is fuppoled ) they would be helped and furthered* 
andcounted,notwithftanding thereof, (if otherwayes 
qualified ) fit for truft and charge > for, this is not 
only engaging of a particular perfon, but of all the 
party, and doth hold forth a confidence in them not- 
withftanding of that; whereas the contrary is dif- 
pbliging and irritating of all, becaufe it propofeth all 
of fuch an opinion or pra&ice to be unworthy of 
charge or truft> which no man can well digeft ; and 
k fome way ncceflitateth them in a divided way to 
endeavour fome other way of entering > and to in- 
creaie their diffidence of them who fo partially (in 
their efteem at leaft ) manages matters, and prefers 
the ftrengthening of a fide, to the edification of the 
Church ; as any different party cannot but ex- 
pound it , feing they fcem to themfelves to have 
ibme perfwafion of their own integrity in the main 
. , T work. 7. There would even be mutual vifits and 
H.Mvyiu f c |i ovv (hi pi c i v ii an d chriftian, as hath been ; yea, 
1 rather it would be increafed ; for if men have fome 
confidence that others love their per(bn^*ifpe£t them 
asMinifters, andeftecmof themasChrifiians, they 
will beeafily induced to truft the other as fuch alfo. 
8. If rtfleftions and bkternefle be vented by fome { as 
even good men are too ready to indulge to themfelves 
a liberty in debate to exceed in this ) yet there would,, 
be no fuch meeting given. Luther is cenfured for ex- 
ceeding in this, even by fuch as loved him j and it is 
a mod excellent adyertifement that #*Mw giveth to 

Part 4» A Treatife concerning Scandal. 343 

tBullenger and others, thus provoked by him, Epift.f7* 
That either they would not anfwer fuch a Paper ac 
all i or, in anfwering it, to remember, That the? 
had a moft eminent fervant of Chrift to anfwer, an" 
ib not to be provoked by his vehemency , feifr$ h c 
alfo had corruptions; and thus expreffcth his ow£ re - , 
folution, Etiamfi me DiabolumVocaset, me tamen hoc ill 1 
honoris babiturum, ut injignem { Dei fer\>um agnofcamgrc. 
It is upon this ground, that Auguftine and others, moft 
zealoufly affe&cd with the fchifm of the ^onatijis, yet 
becaufe they kecped in other things found in theFakh, 
they mention fuch of them as were fober, very ho- 
nourably, and carried to them very brotherly ; and 
particularly heu'ed to vifit their Bifhops, if he had 
been going elfe where for Ordination or other affairs ; 
and fome of them alfo ufed to vifit him, whom he en- 
tertained moft kindly, ever fpcaking to improve both 
for begetting a better underftanding, as may be ga- 
thered from inftances cited out of his Epiftles in what 
is before and after this. Sometimes alfo when he 
wrote to fome of them, hedefired them to write fo to 
himj as he might acquaint his people with both their 
Writings, and with his own, if they returned no An- 
fwer, that thereby he might conftrain them to rea- 
fonableneffe, yet faith, it (hall be part Vifcejjum viiti- 
turn, that it mi<>ht appear he intended not to make 
them odious. He doth alfo obferve* that a main thing 
that made the 'Donatifts averfe from yeelding to uni- 
on, was a fufpicion which they had, that the C at ^ 0m 
licbj would ftill perfecute them if they had occafion, 
(peaking of a Conference, Ej>ift.i6i. he faith, dictum 
trat t ( meaning by thedonattfls ) quod adbuc no/hi cos 
perfecuturi effent* which he with many words re- 
je&eth, (hewing bomEj>b. 4. that they had learned 
to keep union with forbearance : clfewhere alfo, as 
Epi(i 9 147. he excufeth the too great vehemenciebf 
thecxpreflions of fome that were on his own fide in 
that difference. All which fheweth the great necefli- 

z 4 ty 

544 *^4 Treatife concerning Scandal. Part/4. 

ty that there is to recover affe&ions in the preflingof 
union, and how far men ought to condefcend in re- 
ference thereto, both in order to what is paft, and for 
the preventingof what may be feared* 
Stirringup 8.;Then Minifters would not only in their own 
to the life pratfice, but in their do&rine, and otherwayes, ftir 
and pra- up others to the pra&ice and life of Religion. We 
ftictofRe* ever find the Apoftle ufeth this way upon the back x>f 
U&ion. his exhortations to union , to prefle the working out 
of their falvation with fear and trembling, &c. Ancf 
in the Epittles to Timothy and Tittvs , when he dehor ts 
Minifters from foolilh and jangling queftions,ftrifes 
and contentions , this remedy is either premitted or 
fubjoyned, that they would prefle the Believers to be 
Zealous of good works.and carefull to maintain thefe, 
2i>. 3. 8, 9. That they would follow after love, righ- 
teoufnefle, faith, peace with them that call on the 
Lord out of a pure heart, 2 Ttm. 2. 22, 23. for, when 
cither Minifters or Profeffors are exercifed and taken- 
up with thefe things, there is little accefle to other 
things: then alfo they difcern the neceflijy of union 
the more, and are the more difpofed for it themfelves, 
and others are the more eafily induced to unite with 
them. Befide, it is never in fuch things that godly 
and orthodox men do differ , but it is in diverting 
from thefe ; and therefore often much heat in parti- 
cular differences, carricth with it, a decay and hike-, 
warmneffe in more pradlicall things ; As on the con- 
trary, zeal in thefe materiall things? doth ordinarily 
alley and mitigate heat and fervour in the other. 
9. It is fit that there vverefolemn addreffestoGod 
Solemn ad- for direftine and guiding in the way to this end ; for, 
drfjjts to H e \ s the God of peace, and ought to be acknowledged 
& ■ in removing this great evil of divifion : Hence the 

, Apoftle fubjoyneth prayers for peace, unto his ex- 

hortations thereto h and we are commanded to pray 
for Jemfdlems peace* cVen Church-peace no lefle than 
Civil peace. It may be that the neglect of this is 
*» the 

Part 4» i<4 Treattfe concerning Scandal. 345 

the caufethat found* godly and peaceable men, who 
Jove the welfare ot Zion , do yet continue divided , 
and cannot fall upon means of healing, that thereby 
the neceflity of the Lords interpofing may be decer- 
ned , and that there may be purpofed addreffes for 
this fame thing, and thatmenmay not undervalue 
.the thing, nor their adverfaries in it, fo as not to ac- 
count it a rod, feing ic is God they have to "do with > 
nor be concent to lye under ic without aiming and 
dealing to have it removed by Him, as we would deal 
for the removal of any temporall plague , or cxpe6t 
. a blcfling upon this Gofpel. 


WhM things are to beforborn in order to uniting. 

HAving laid down thefe generall helps , we are 
no'v to confider what is yet to be foi born and 
abftained from in reference to union : For, as 
. ordinarily divifions rife and are fomented , from and 
by doing and driving ot feme things, which others 
cannot concur in, or come up to; So when /uch 
things are abftained from , there is the nearer acceffe 
to union ; at leaft,it ftoppcth the impetuoulnefs of di- 
vifion, and maketh it to look liker a difference, which 
( confidering humane infirmity ) is neither Co intole- 
rable in it felf, nor hurtfull to the Church. Be fide 
therefore what hath been (aid for abftainingof per- 
fonal reflections , or what may irritate pcrions, or 
parties, or what may entertain jealoufie or diffidence 
amongft therm whereof fomeching hath been touched 
upon, We fhall add thefe things further, 

I. All things that contribute to weaken the repute * .-j» * 
of others, or to beget an hard impreffion of them in a ^ ^f/ 
our felves or in others, in the general, would be for- % \ m WC ahcn 
born ; fuch as telling of reproachfull reports, even tbercputati- 
ihough they be true, much more if they be but re- on of others. 


346 t/s ireanje concerning ^cand ai. Fart 4. 

ported , yea, or the hearing of fuch with any delight, 
endeavouring to waken up difcontents in others 
againft oppofits , by fuch informations, folicitations 
and the like. Thefe are condemned in private mens 
carriages, and are the caufes of continuing fuch dif- 
ferences (for> where no tale-bearer is, ftrife ceafeth, 
Vro\>.i6.) much more amongft Minifters who ought 
not to walk as men. Alfo good heed would be taken 
to fuch as may have influence on advices, counfels 
and refoiutionstothat purpofe, left underhand- whif- 
perers, who really may mind fome further alteration 
in the Church , and may really be imbittercd at ho- 
neft men for their honefty, (hould yet infinuat them* 
Evilcwnfelklvcs with eminent men on both fides, and fo carry 
oh thedivifion, and difappoint the union ; As for 
inftance, Some, not altogether purged from Mamfm 9 . 
and imbittered at honeft Bifhops, as Atbmafim, Ofuu % 
and others, did fteal in upon the one fide of a debate, 
and held on the controverfie againft faithfull men; 
So Epipbanius was intangled byTbeopbilus of Alexan- 
dria to oppofe Cbryfjflom upon pretext of another dif- 
ference ; Sometimes again, on the other fide, fuch as 
inclined to the Nobatians , wanted not influence to 
ftrengthen the oppofic party, and to keep them at a 
greater diftance from the other, as being grofle in re- 
ceiving Traditores (as they called them) unto their 
fociety. Sometimes men juftly cenfured, or fearing 
cenfure from faithfull Bifhops* did fpread calumnies 
againft them , and made them odious , under pretext 
of their pride, arrogance, unfoundnefle and fuch like, 
even unto other orthodox men ; Sometinvs again, 
time- ferving men, by flattering Magiftrates did exe- 
cute their revenge againft faithfull Bifhops, by keep- 
ing up Divifions againft them , driving on Sentences 
of Depofition, and fuch like, under pretext of other 
faults ; whereby the Churches peace hath been often 
marred and her divifions continued , as is clear in 
thofc fchifms and divifions at Conftantinople, firft> in 


Part 4« A Treatife concerning Scandal. $47 

reference to ^ry/offom, and afterward in reference to 
Ignatius, who,by a fa&ion in theChurch,was depofed, 
really to pleafe the Emperour, whofe inceftuous mar- 
riage he would not approve as they did : therefore I 
fay in the removing of differences, and refolving of 
duties in reference to union, there is great need of cir- 
cumfpedtneflfc in trying and choofing whofe counsels 
are to be laid weight upon 5 for, all men love not 
peace, neither feek fingly the good of the Church* 
and want not their own prejudices and grudgings at 
particular eminent perfons, who (where men are not 
very denied and mortified) will eafily fteal- in to mar 
a publick good, under pretext of particular refpeft 
to the perfon, whom, by fo doing, they ftir up. It's 
marked by Sleydan as the caufe of that unreafonable 
and unnatural divifion that brake-out and grew in 
Germany, almoft to the undoing of Religion therein, 
betwixt the Elc&or of Saxony, and Maurice afterward 
Ele&or, that fome Counfellors not well-minded to 
Religion > but favourers of the wicked way of Henry, 
towhomMwwefucceeded, who for that caufe had 
hatred at the Eleftor and thofe who were eminent fcr 
Reformation, and now having taken on a profeflion, * 
and infinuated themfelves in the counfcls and affe&i- 
on of Maurice , and finding fome begun matter of 
diffemion in other particulars, did fo kindle and fofler 
it>till they brought the divifion to that height, that 
one part of the Protcftants wereiengaged with Anti- 
chrift and his followers to deftroy the other 3 and yet 
fo clofely carried, that the difference was never ftated 
upon the real account, which indeed fuch did intend. 
Alfo men not fo nearly concerned in the Churches di* 
vifions as fuppofe they be of another Church, or men 
not fo immediately concerned in the debates thereof, 
and the effe&s that follow thereupon ; As in that 
Council of Carthage, they ena& that tendernefle be 
ufed to the <DonatiJls, and means be ufed to reclaim 
shem; and for that end did acknowledge their Mini- 

34$ A Treatife concerning Scandal." Part 4.' 

fters, though ordained in a fchifm, to beMinifters, 
although the Church of ^ome did write otherwayes 
to them, and did aft otherwayes themfelves : Thefe 
would be looked unto. Sometimes alfo there are a 
fort of perfons who long not for union ; for, as there 
is an itching after new do&rine in fome, fo is there, 
for divifions and changes amongft others, who may 
be found in doftrine , who in this are to be ad- 
verted to. 

2. Men would efchew in fuch a cafe judicially to 
engage in fuch differences, either by pafling decifions 
Forbearing in thefe things pro or contra in Judicatories, or by 
to engage ceafuring, or noting with any reproach fuch as differ 
} T Ul QT ly fr° m tbem. For, 1. that maketh the divifion the 
pro rcon. m0 re difficultly removable in it felf. And, 2. itcn- 
gageth both fides the more , and proveth a let to re- 
tiring when men would , and heighteneth the diffe- 
rence exceedingly. In that difference that was be- 
tween Cyprian and Stephanas , and other Bifhops of 
Glome, concerning the rebaptizing of fuch v as had 
been baptized by Hereticks and Schifmaticks, It is 
marked that Stephanas did preffe the condemnation of 
•It t did cenfure and rehife communion with fuch as 
joyned with Cyprian in his opinion : On the contra- 
ry 9 Cyp rian did indeed call Synods and decide , but 
- neither preffed any nun to his opinion or praftice, 
nor Ccnfured any that differed in fuch a matter ; And 
becaufe his carriage is (o much commended by the 
Jncients„tCptcidMy by Augufline, againft the Donati/ls+ 
not becaufe he counted Cyprian right on the matters 
for, he difclaimed that, and owned the contrary opi- 
nion 5 but becaufe he carried in his opinion fo ten- 
derly to the Churches union and peace. We fliall 
obferye two or three paffages of his > andof ^«g«- 
ftines concerning him. 1. In hisEpiftle^ Jubian- 
num , H*ec refcripfimm , inquit , nemini prafcribentes 
aut J)r<ejudicantes quo minus umfquifque Epifcoporum, 
quodputat facia. Et m quifquam pdlendm I merorum 


Part 4. A Treat ife concerning Scandal. 3^ 

confortioVideretur (dictt) nos quantum in nobis t ft prop- 
ter kccrelicos cum collegis {$> CoepifcopU nojlm mn con- 
tcndimus , cum quiluA cjtinam concordiam &pactm tcne- 
mut. EtTaulopost, SerVentur (inquit) anobupatien- 
ter & icmter cbd)'it&s animi, collegii honor , Vinculum ji- 
dci , concordia facerdotit. Which words and many 
others aie cited by Jugujline de { Baptifmo y tik 6. cap. 17. 
And in another place , when he hath cited this fame 
laft Sentence and other words, giving the reaion 
which ihe Apoftlehath, itf?Mi. If any man-frill be 
contentious , *toe baVe no fucb cuttome , nor the Churches 
of God : after which a little, Auguftxne fubjoyneth this 
approbation of his carriage ; Ma\m qutppein eo ro- 
bur Vxrtutu eminuit, cum ifta qute/lio nondum difcujfja nu- 
taret y quod aliter fentiens quam multi college, tantam mo- 
derationem obtinuit, ut Ecclefite fiei fanilam focietatem f 
nulla fchifmatu labe truncarety quam ft omnia non folum 
Veraciter>fedetiam pariter fine ifta Virtute fentiret j De 
SaptifmOy lib. 5. cap. 1 7. This he faith, even though 
Qprians opinion was confirmed bydiverfe Councels 
of Carthage. Which fhewetb what influence fuch 
abttinence hath on the Churches peace , which is the 
more obfervable, that he ufed this forbearance when 
he had the generality of the Church of Africk , and 
the authority of their Councels for him; ar:dal(b 
was provoked by the vehemency of his oppofits,and 
their Cenfuring fuch as were of his opinion h yet he 
forbare, not becaufe he doubted of the foundnefle of 
his judgement, but becaufe he refpefled the Churches 
peace* and even then did he write fwertly in many 
Epiftles, and a particular trcatife , prefling the unity 
of the Church ; for which he is eminently efteemed 
of as an excellent pattern in fuch a cafe by all fober 
and judicious men. 

3. In fuch cafes when union is defircd, men would 

abftain the propagating of their opinions in any pur- 

pofed and publick way. This is not torcfirain a 

. mans fober, chriftian andneceffary vindicating of 


$ 5 o A Treati[e concerning Scandal. Part 4 • 

Abstaining himfelf in a due way. But $ 1. All unneceffary 
from propa*, traifick chat is principally for ftrengthening of a par- 
gdting their ty. 2. Publifhing in print, things to that purpofe, 
opinions fa. when there is no conveniency for the Churches good. 
Rioujly. 3 # Making motions in Judicatories that awakens 
fiding. 4. Infifting thereon in publfck preaching- 
And, laftly, (When there is fomc neceffity to fpeak 
or write on fuch things ) all refle&ions and irritati- 
ons, would be abftained ; yea, it is fit that fome- 
cimes every word fpoken , or written upon one fide, 
(hould be paft over by the other, without reply, for 
peaces fake. Becaufe, I. the broader fuch diffe- 
rences fpread, they take the deeper root, and increafe 
fiding more amongft the people. 2. Becaufe* 
they irritate more and keep off men from thinking 
of peace. ?♦ Becaufe the memory of thefe things is 
ready to riffle mens minds, Therefore moft eminent 
men have wifhed>that all Papers pro or contra in fuch 
differences might be buried; for, one difference be- 
gctteth another,and one paper draweth forth another? 
none being willing that his adverfary (hould have 
the laft word ; and oftentimes papers propagate a 
controverfie to a fucceding generation, to whom it 
had been good that many things had never been in 
writ. Alfo often , fuch writings prove edifying to 
few, and they but make Church-divifion the fubjeft 
of more difcourfe, and Minifters to be the more con- 
temptible y and do in themfelvcs often involve many 
contrradi$ionsagainft one another, which readily 
are not poflible to be cleared in matters of fa£ » and 
refleftions one upon another ; which derogateth ex- 
ceedingly from die honour of the Miniftery. It is 
marked of Con/lantine , that when at the Council of 
Nice, there were many oppofit papers of differences 
amongft Bifhops prefented, he took them, and hav- 
ing gravely admonifhed the Bifhops for their con- 
tending amongft themfelves , would not have one of 
them read, butfaid, he would cover fuch infirmities 

Part 4. A Tnatife concerning Scandal. 35 1 

as they were bringing to light , by their contradicti- 
ons, with his purple. • This way alfo hath been 
followed for flopping of divifions indiverfe reformed 

4. All contrary a&ing would be abftained , as in contrary 
Elections, Ordinations, or the like* becaufe thefe tf S/>g. 
fix, as with a nail* the difference, as may be gathered 
from hiftory* It were better many a time for the 
Churches good, that any one fide had fuffercd the 
BiQiop, ordained by the other, folely to poffeffe the 
place > or that none had been ordained at all , than 
thatoppofit Ordinations had been ; becaufe, that fo 
the Church was divided even in communion , and 
fuch particulars have been ever difficultly compofed, 
and ever exceedingly inftrumentall to continue a 
breach , and it led men in Congregations to be facti- 
ous , and to feek to gain men and affc&ions to their 
! party. 

5. All feparated and divided meetings would be sefarated 
efchewed , whether the feparation be totall in refpeft meetings $0 
of all Ordinances and communion ingenerall, as be effaced* 
fometimes divifions have come amongft orthodox 
men to fuch a height ; Or, whether it be partiall, 
fuppofe in Government , Sacraments, &c. or any of 
thefe ; becaufe fo not only way is made to a totall fe- 
paration , but thereby there is a divided Chape put 
upon the one Church , and occafion is given for one 
party to condemn another , and fo to beget more 
ftrife ; andefpecially, becaufe it habituateth men to 
think themfelves not of one body , and , as it were, 
ere<fteth a Church or Altar againtt another ( as che 
Fathers were wont to fpeak) and fo becometh a draton 
line of divifion, and doth really make the difficulty 
of uniting the more difficult ; becaufe ere union be 
made up , that partition muft be pulled down. It is 
fit therefore that either all fuch occafions of Fafts,&c. ^i ($&. 
.wherein all cannot joyn, (hould be forborn ; or that rated Fafit. 
they be fo ordered , as there may bee union in 
them, 6. Such 

3 52 A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4. 

6. Such aft? and principles as put ■ tint upon 
cither fide> making others incapable of Crturcfv 
or the like, or which declareth them to befo, would 
be prevented; and if eftab!i(hed> would be orderly 
removed; becaufefuch things make a partition be- 
twixt two. and heighten fuch a difference beyond the 
nature thereof: Alfo they evidence much prejudice 
and alienaiion of mind, and they feem to conftrain 
men to an,union, which is never right if it be not vo- 
luntary* flence we fee that the great friends of peace 
have ever endeavoured to prevent or remove fuch ; as 
in the inftances of'PolicarpJreneus and CyprianM clear, 
who did not only endeavour to remove Cenfures, but 
even cenfurableneffe from perfons fo differing. This 
alfo is very obliging to the oppofit party. In that 
1 63. Epiftle of Auguftines (which is much to this pur- . 
pofe) mention is made of one Cenethliu$> a Catholick 
Bifhop, who ( faith he ) was much efteemed of by 
the Donatifts , Quod conflituthnem datum contra eos s 
comprejftrit, &*ejfetfurn habere non fiver it ^ 

What u to be done in order to Vniting. 

NO w we may be the (hotter in fpeakinp to what 
is to be done in reference to particular diflfc- 
rences,feing much may be gathered from thefe 
generals premitted , and it is not our purpofe to be 
particular } Yet we fay, 

1. That it is the duty of fuch to be feeking union 
one with another* and for that caufe to be making 
offer of, and defiring meetings and conferences, and 
to be urging harmony one upon another. In that 
Council of Carthage, whereof J-urelius was Modera- 
tor, they did appoint Conferences to be fought for 
with the Vonatifts , although they had been long 
in a fchifmj and for that end did appoint Com- 


Part 4.1 A Treatife concerning SCandai.^ 35$ 

miffioners, and did gi" otions to go from place 

co place , and to ck ~^ a fettlement , whereof 
thefe were a part, That their former fchifm and fepa- And effir* 
ration (hould be prejudicial! to none; That.Mini- ing fair 
fteis and Biffiops (hould continue in their charges i{cQnditi$ns< 
otherwayes they were worthy, notwithftanding of 
their former feparation : which is obferved not to 
have wanted fruit. in many places, as the zAs and 
events are recorded by Balfamon. And this is accord- 
ing to the generall rule of following peace , even 
when it feemeth to flie from men ; And queftions that 
may engender ftrife are to be avoided and fled from, 
when they feem to follow after men, becaufe, as Paul 
faith, 2X/W.2. 22. &c; The fervant of the Lord mujl 
notftri\>e, &c. On this ground we find, that many of 
Juguttlnes Epiftles, direft to <Donatifts and others, are 
to this purpofe , craving friendly communings ; and 
when he hath had occafion to be in cities where ©0- 
natift-Siffops were , he ufed to vifit them , and enter 
conference friendly with them ; and if any hope was, 
he wrote to others to entertain the fame , as particu- 
larly may be gathered from Epifl. 147. where he ho- 
nourably mentioneth Promcliantit in the defire of a 
conference; andbecaufe he knew the too great ve- 
hemency of one Evodim, though of his own fide, 
had offended him , he did excufe ic, faying amongft 
other things," ldbominis ttatiignofcendum ejt>&c> The 
like he alio hath , Epifl. 163, when he mentioneth 
EortuniM) whom he had conferred with, with this te- 
ftimony to thefe he writeth to, Quantum enim arbkror 
difficilime poteflis iri\>eriire in Epiftopu Ve/im tarn utikm 
animum, (pyroluntatem, quam in iflo fene perjpexhnut 5 
And therefore preffeth them to entertain the begun 
conference, though he might not ftay. 

2. In carrying on fiich meetings, refpeft would be A **&* 
had to union in the ordering of every circumftance ; "^/^r- 

as in the ferfons chofen,that they may be men inclined y i % 
■ "he other party concerned taKL" 
A a ftt 1 * 

354 <*d Treatife concerning Scandal, Par 1 4* 

the Churches differences , and free of the fufpicions 
formerly hinted, andfuch like, left by an intended 
union there follow a greater rent and divifion , as of- 
tentimes hath been feen in conferencesamongft diffen- 
tient men. Here alfo a fpeciall reipeft would be had 
to the expreffing of mutuall benevolence in words 
and carriages* left fome hard m»preflion leizeon men 
at the entry. Choife alio would be nade of the/«&- 
ject firft to be ipoken of; as what may be thought 
moftfubje&tomiftake* heat or contention, would 
be left to the laft place ; and what may be conceived 
more plaufible-like to both, would be begun at, that 
it may be rather known wherein men agree , than 
wherein they differ , at the entry at leafl. Poffibly 
alfo union in fundamental! things,being accomed un- 
to, it may make way for moderating affeftions in 
other things lefle fundamental! ♦ This method was 
ever urged by Bucer , ®ezy and other ^formers, who 
keeped conferences at firft with the Lutheran party ; 
becaufe , beginning at fome point of Doftrine » or 
particular in pra&ice, wherein the difference is high- 
eft, doth often at the entry rifle mens humoursi and 
break off conferences abruptly with the more heat, as 
experience in thefe debates at that time did make too 
too manifeft. 
Contend ?• Such meetings for conference would be ferioufly 
on about and condefcendingly improved for the end defigned : 
formalities As, I. protra&ingsof time, or janglings about cir- 
to be for- cumftances would be efchewed ; as alfo tenaciouf- 
*or», neffe> and contentioufnefle about formalities of pro- 
ceeding, and particular infifting upon contradictions 
in matters of faft , becaule fuch things become not 
the gravity and ferioufnefl'e of men aiming at fuch an 
end, But the main bufinetfe would be foberly and fe- 
rioufly gone about , and that timeoufly ; for, mm 
fliould not meet to take advantage one of another by 
fuch formalities , but to procure the good of the 
Church. 2. Criminations , or obje&ing of pcrfo- 


part 4. A Treats fe conce rning S c A N i> A i • 355^ 

nail faults one Co another, or difference in particulars, cperfonaB 
would cither be altogether forborn , or left to the laft criminatj- 
place, and the main matter would be firft handled, cm. 
and particulars accordingly fquared. 3. Their 
would becondefcending to follow fome circuroftan- 
ces, even though they feem not foreafonable> left by 
the wilfull adhering of one party to a circumftancc* 
the end be difappointed ; yea, fometimes more ma- 
ter iall things , at left till there be a better underftand- 
ing begotten , are to be ceded in , when it may be 
without fin, if fo be it may contribute for the carry- 
ing on of fuch a defign, and we will almoft ever find 
thefe that are moft tender of the Churches good to be ™. m ^. 
moft condefcending in all thefe; As am^ngft other !l ^L^l 
inftances, we will find in that conference becvveen the ^ (0 £ m ' 
Catbolic\s and <Donati/ls, at which Augufiine was pre- A e Lcndin& 
fencand which is fee down by him; whereirsamongft 
other things, thefe are clear , U That not only the 
Qatholkks fought the meeting , but alfo prefled the 
fpeaking unto the mam bunnefle, which the other 
did fometimes deny , faying , It was not lawfull for 
the children of Martyrs to meet with the children of 
apoftate or wicked men ; and fometimes by formali- 
ties > jangling queftions , they protracted time to es- 
chew the main thing. 2. It is clear, that alfo the 
Catbolick condefcended to many ot their fuits , and 
yeelded to account them Bifhops, and did not con- 
tradi&, but cede at the entry, that Churches fhould be 
rendered to thefe from whom they were taken , if fo 
be that might have enclined them to union , and that 
even by benefits they might be mollified j and ftood 
on no circumftantiall thing with them. Such meet- 
ings have often been difappointed with luch vain 
janglings* efpecially when numbers have been con- 
fufedly admitted, and when each party hath charged 
another with former mifcarriages , As Jluguftineob- 
fervcth, Epiff. 163. and therefore hath that word to 
thenrf* Neque nos illit debere objicere fuorum fcelera, 
A a a nt$uc 

35^ A Treatife concerning Scandal Part 4, 
neque Mot nobis. And,becaule the ®onatifts upbraided 
the CatbolUk} ( as the orthodox are called in all thefe 
debates ) that they were guilty of perfecting them, 
becaufe they had proceeded to fome Sentences , and 
procured commifiion from Civil powers againft them 
to put them from their charges, ( Thefe times they 
called temporaMacarianaJjeoLukofiuch a perfon that 
was eminent in the executing thereof ) And again^hc 
Catholicks uled to object to them,befide their fchifm, 
Hcadineffe, irregular violences, and the like, becaufe 
of the pra&ices of the Circumcellions , who, having 
faliea off with the (Donatifts , went alio in many ab* 
furdities beyond them ; therefore when he is preffing 
a conference, #/#. 20^ Tollamm (faith he) inania 
objetidy nee tu objicM tempera Macariana , nee ego fe- 
Yttiam Circumcellionum. And in Epijl. 107. faith , that 
in his conference with Fortunim 9 ^Slacuit omnibus in 
talibus dtfputattonibus Violenta faHamalorum bominum 
nobis ah inVtcem objiei non debere. And there is no little 
furtherance or prejudice to a conference accordingly 
as this advice is followed or not , feing often fuch 
bygone particulars will heat more > than that which 
is of greater concernment in the main caufe. 

4. To make the inftances more particular , the 
matter concerning which debate arifesand falls to be 
the fubje& of the conference , may be diftinguifhed, 
and fo more clearly fpoken unto : Which is, I. ei- 
* ther a difference in fome dodtrinall thing. Or, 
2. fome particular praftice, or fome perfonall mif- 
carriage. Or, 3. fomething in Worlhip. Or, 
4. fomething in Government, or fuch like. 

C HAP., 


Part 4* A Trentife concerning Scandal! 357 

~ ffbdt u to be done in clofing dottrinal differences* 

1. "I — 'Or doitrinal differences of judgment, there 
f-f are three wayes to clofe them ; ( it is to be 
*■- adverted, that the difference is notfuppofed 
to be in any fundamental thins) & r ft> By fober and the firfr 
feriousconference,one party may bring another to the way of do- 
fame judgment with them ; or, both parties may quit fing dottru 
fomething of extremities, andjoyn in a middle opi- nail diffc- 
nion. This is the moft folid union, when men come fence*. 
to think and fpeak the fame thing , and fometime 
hath been attained. Yet concerning this, we fay, 
I. That all union is not to depend on this, as hath 
been faid. 2. It hath been very rarely attained, efpe- 
cially when difference hath fpread and rooted it felf 
by debating and contradi&ion i feing even good men 
have both infirmity and corruption. 3. We fay, 
that publick difpute, either by word or writ, hath ne- 
ver proven very ufefull, even amongft good men, to 
attain this end , But ordinarily fuch debates have 
beightned the controverfie, and engaged men more ; 
fo that if any thing prevail towards this, it is friend- 
ly , familiar conferences opening truth, rather than 
formal dated difputations ; becaufe in fuch, men are 
( as it were ) upon their guard, and fully do exercifc 
their wit ; in the otherwhere is more acceffe to inform 
the judgment, by a loving, grave, ferious manner of 
fpeaking of the truth, and that privatly to others,efpe- 
daily to fuch as are of reputation for parts and abili- 
ty, and that it be not done in vain, as Paul hath it, 
Gal. 2.2. And it's obfervable that he fpcaketh this in 
reference to his way* when he intended the evidencing 
of his agreement with the chief Apoftles in the mat- 
ter ofdoitrine. A Kb we find mee{nejfe zndinftruft* 
tflg put together,whcn there is any expedition to. re- 
A a 3 cover 

3*8 1st Treatlfe concerning Scanda l7 Part 4.' 

cover one from a difference, iTim.2.if. and con- 
vincing or diluting is more efpecially applicable to 
thefe of whom there is little hope, out of refpeft to 
the edification of others. Hence we find the Apoftles 
diluting with falfe teachers in fome points of truth, 
but rather intreating and exhorting Believers to have 
peace amongft themfelves, notwichftanding of leffer 
The fecotti Afecond way of compofure, is, when fuch agree- 
wayQfcom. ment in judgment cannot be obtained, To endeavour 
pfingfucb a harmony and keep unity notwichftanding of that 
differences difference, by a mutual forbearance in things con- 
troverted : which we will find to be of two forts* 
The fir (I is, to fay fo> total , that is, when neither fide 
dothfo much as doftrinally in word, writ, or Sen- 
tences of Judicatories, prefle any thing that may con- 
firm or propagate their own opinion, or condemn the 
contrary, But do altogether abftra& from the fame 
out of refpeft to the Churches peace, and for the pre- 
venting of fcandal ; and do in things wherein they 
agree according to the Apoftle's dire&ion, Philip. 3. 
1 6. Wal\ by the fame rule, and minde the fame things 
mutually, as if there were no fuch differences , and 
waiting in thefe till the Lord (hall reveal the fame 
unto them. This way is fafe, where the do$t ine up- 
on which the difference is,' is fuch, as the forbearing 
thedecifion thereof, doth neither mar any duty that 
the Church in general is called to, nor endanger the 
falvation of fouls through the want of clearnefs there- 
in , nor, in a word* infer fuch inconveniences to the 
hurt of the Church, as fuch unfeafonable awakening 
and keeping up of differences and divifions may have 
with it ; Becaufe the fcope of bringing forth every 
truth , or confirming the fame by any authoritative 
fan&ion,&c. is the edification of the Church; and 
therefore when the bringing forth thereof doth de- 
ftroymore than edifie, it is to be forborn. Neither 
can it be ground enough to plead for fuch decifions in 


Part 4.^ A Treattfe concerning Scandal. 35^ 

preaching , that the thing they preach -for is truth, 
and the thing they condemn iserrour. Becaufc, i* it 
is not the lawfulnefle of the thing fimply that is in 
queftion> but the neceflity and expediency thereof in 
fuch a cafe : Now, many things arc lawfull that are 
not expedient, 1 Cor. 10. 23. 2. In thefe differences 
that were in the primitive times concerning meats, 
dayes, genealogies, &c. there was a truth or aner- 
rour upon one of the fides , as there is a ripht and a 
wrong in every contradi&ion of fuch a kind, ycc 
the Apoflle thinketh fitter, for the Churches peace, 
that fuch be altogether refrained , rather than any 
way ( at leafl in publick ) infittedupon or decided. 
3. Becaufe no Minifter can bring forth every truth 
at all times, he rnuft then make choice ; And I fup- 
pofe fome Miniflers may die, and all do (b, who have 
not preached every truth, even which they knew, un- 
to the people. Befide, there are (no queftion) many 
truths hid to the moft learned. Neither can this be 
thought inconfifient with a Miniflers fidelity, who is 
to reveal the whole counfel of God ; becaufe, that 
counfel is to be underftood of things neccflary to 
mens falvation, and is not to be extended to all things 
whatfoever ; for, we find the great Apoflle expound- 
ing this in that fame Sermon, adff.20. ver. 20. / have 
keeled bac\nothtng tha t "toM profitable unto you 5 wh ich 
evidenced^ that the tohole counfel of God } or the things 
which he (hewed unto them, is the tobote, and all that 
was profitable for them , and that for no by-refpeft 
or fear whatfoever he (hunned to reveal that unto 
them. Alfo, it is clear, that there are many truths 
which are not decided by any judiciall a6t j and 
amongft other things , fparingneffe to decide truths 
that are not fundamentall judicially hath been ever 
thought no little mean of the Churches peace, as the 
contrary hath been of divifion. 

The third way (which is thefecond ^orc of the for- 
mer ) of compofure* is mixed, When there & torn? 
A a 4 mediiiig 

3 60 * Treaty e concerning Scandal. Part 4? 
The *bir& medling with fuch queftions , yet with fuch forbca- 
w&jtfcomr ranee, that though there be a feen difference, yet there 
fofing [tub is no fchifm or divifion , but that is ferioufly and 
differences tenderly prevented ; as upon the one fide, fome may 
cxpreffe their mind in preaching and writing on a 
particular queftion one way, others may do it diffe- 
rently ; yet both with that meekneffe and refpeft to 
thofe they differ from, that it doth beget no rent, nor 
give juft ground of offence » nor mar union in any 
other thing ; Or, it may poflibly come to be decided 
in a Synod, yet with fuch forbearance upon both 
fides, that it may prove no prejudice to union ; thofe 
who have authority for them, not preffing it to the 
prejudice of the opinion, names, confeiences of the 
other, or to their detriment in any refpeft ; but al- 
lowing to them a liberty to fpeak their minds , and 
walk according to their own light in fuch particulars: 
And on the contrary, the other refting fatisfied in the 
unity of the Church, without condemning them, or 
prcfling them to condemn themfelves ; becaufe fo in- 
deed their liberty is no lefle than others who have 
thedecifion of a Synod for them: And thus men 
may keep communion and union in a Church, even 
where by the Judicatories thereof, fome leffer not fun- 
damental errour, which doth alfo infer unwarranta- 
ble practices, is authoritatively concluded. We have 
a famous inftance of this in the Church of Africa 
inthedayes of Cyp ri * n > which by Ait Ancients hath 
ever been fo much efteemed of. There was a difference 
in that Church concerning the Rebaptizing of Here- 
ticks and Schifmaticks after their converfion , or, of 
fuch as had once fallen in to them ; Cyprian and the 
greateft part thought their firft Baptifm null , or, by 
their fall, made void ; others thought it notfo, who 
were the leffer part, yet right as to this particular; 
There was meetings on both fides for defence of their 
opinions. Alfo in a Council of near three hundred 
Bifhops, it is judicially and authoritatively conclu- 
ded ; 

Part 4» v4 Treatife concerning Scandal' 3^1 

dcd; yet that Synod carried fo, as they did not only 
not cenfure any that diffented, nor preffe them to con- 
form in pra&ice to their judgment ; but did alfo en- 
tertain moft intimat refpeft to them, and familiarity 
with them , as may be gathered from what was for- 
merly hinted. And upon the other fide, we do not 
find any in thatChurch making a fchifm upon the 
account of that judicial erroneous decifion (though at 
leaft by three feveral Synods it was ratified) but con- 
tenting themfelves to have their conicienccs free by 
retaining their own judgement f and following their 
own pra&ice, till time gave more light and more oc- 
casion to clear that truth. And we will never find 
m the Writings of any time, more affe&ion amongft 
brethren, and more refpeft to peace, than was in that 
Church at that time amongft thofe that differed ; And 
there is not any pra&ice more commended in all the 
Church- hiftory and Writings of the Rtf£w,thaa this 
practice ; as partly may be gathered from what was 
formerly touched out of Auguftine. And if we will 
confider the cafe rationally, we will find that it is not 
impoflibleto have union in a Church where there is 
in fuch a difference an authoritative ^ecifion, even 
fuppofing that fidc ; on which the crrour lyes^to be ap- 
proved* For, 1. There is no neceflity for fuch as have 
authority for them, to preffe others in their judgment 
or practice in fuch things ; neither can it be thought 
that fuch a decifion can of it felf fatisfie all fcruples, 
neither yet that mendoubtingly may follow ; Nor, 
laftly, that fuch controverfies can bear the.weiphc of 
troubling the Church, by cenfuring fuch* as other- 
wayes may be faithfull, fcing fometimes even unfaich- 
full men have been fpared with refpeft to the Chur- 
ches good, as hath beenfaid. And, fecondly, upon 
the other fide, fuch a conftitution of a Church, doth 
not involve all that keep communion therein, in the 
guilt thereof, if perfonally they be free ; as in the in- 

I fiance of the Jewifh Church is clear : where, no 

36i A Treatife concerning Scanda Li Party? 

qtteftion many corrupt a&s have been eftablifhed, yet 
did it neither make communion in Worfhip or Go- 
vernment to be unlawfull , where the macter and 
manner of carriage was lawfull. Befide> this would 
infer, that no Judicatory could keep union, where 
there were contrary votes, or a Sentence paft without 
unanimity: becaufethat is certainly wrong to them 
who think otherwayes, and iffo, there could be no 
Judicatory expe&ed either in Church or State 5 for, 
it cannot beexpe&ed, that they (hall be ftill unani- 
mous , or, that the greater part fhall cede to the Iefler, 
and refcind their own aft. Alfo, fuppofe there fhould 
be fuch a divifion upon one difference, can it be ex- 
pe&ed that thofe who unite upon the divided fides 
refpe&ively , (hall again have no more difference 
amongft themfelves ? and if they have, fhall there not 
be a new divifion ? and where (hall this end ? And 
feing men muft refolve to keep unity where there are 
faults of fuch a nature, or to have none at all, it is as 
good to keep it atfirft, as to be neccflicated thereto 
afterward* The Orthodox urge this argument againft 
tbfcfionati/is, who would not keep union with them, 
becaufe of pr<j|:ended corruptions in the proceedings 
of Judicatories and Ordinations ; yet were con- 
ftrained to bear with fuch amongft themfelves , and- 
particularly toreceivcand unite with the Maximinia- 
nifts , whofe communion they had once reje&ed, 
though a branch of their own fa&ion, becaufe they 
faw no end of divifions if they did not refolve to dif- 
penfe with fuch things amongft themfelves And 
jtugufline often afferteth, that they were never able to 
anfwer this argument when it was propounded to 
them, to wit, Why they did not give them that fame 
latitude, in keeping communion with them, which 
they had given to the Maximinianifts, who were guilty 
of fuch things as they imputed to them ? We con- 
ceive then, that even in fuch a cafe there may be union 
for profecuting the main work of the Gofpel , not- 


Part 4» A Treats fe concerning S c a n d a l i 365 

(landing of fuch a circumftantial difference, if men 
otherwayes fct themfelvcs co it ; and the gcnerall 
grounds, formerly laid down, do confirm this. 


What to do for union in points not ioftrinall , but 
about matters of fa ft or ferfonall faults* 

IV the difference be notdoftrinall in point of judg- 
ment > at leaft only , but being in matter of fa£t, 
as perfonall faults and corruptions ; whereby the 
one is ready to objeft to the other fome bypaft fail- 
ings, and mifcarriages : whereupon by inconfiderat 
upbraid ings, prefling of Cenfures, or condemnation 
of what hath been done > the Churches peace is in 
hazard to be broken , and men like to be rent and di- 
vided in their communion. And oftentimes fuch 
things prove exceeding fafhious, where men wilfully, 
or imprudently purfue fuch things without refpeft to 
the Churches peace. This often waited upon a time 
of darknette, or perfection, when men, being in the 
dark, and in a diftemper, were led away by tentati- 
on, and overtaken with many faults, andfometimes 
amongft others, made to juffle with, and trample one 
upon another ( as it were ) not knowing what they 
were doing ; and when this time was over , fome 
were ready to carp at what was part in the dark, and 
to quarrell at others for fuch juffling, when they were 
fo through-other. This indeed was ordinary, but 
moft unbecoming grave men, to make that a ground 
of contending, which inadvertently was done by Cme ff sgm 
others in the dark ( as the great Bajtlius faith ) In no- ^ mt ' thc ,~ 
Iturno tempore, & denfis tenebrk Such contefts are of m f( lv £ 
fo^ forts. ul forts. 

rirft % Sometimes in generall , there is a diffatif- 
faftion with the conftuution of the Church , in re- 



Bion from 
of Officers 

The ttUea^ 
ing of faults 
either not j 
true, or not 

*A Treatife concerning ScANDAii Part 4? 

fpeft of the groflenefle of the Officers and Members 
thereof. This cannot be removed upon the one fide 
only, becaufe tares cannot but be in the Church, and 
thatdifcernably, as Cvpfiw faith ; it is removed then 
by meekneffe and tendernefle upon the one fide to- 
wards fuch as have withdrawn , and by their yeeld- 
ing to return who have withdrawn , which when it 
came to pafle > hath been matter of gladneffe to all 
the Church. Amongft Cyprians Epiftles (tyift. 50. 
edit, famcli) mention is made of Urbanus, Maximus, 
and others of the Church of %ome , who being C0&- 
feffhrs and imprifoned in the time of perfection, and 
after their delivery finding many gtofle Members to 
be in the Church , and meeting with the do&rinc of 
Novatus that commended feparation to the godly for 
their more comfortable communion together, that 
chey came to be tickled therewith 1 and for a time to 
feparate from the communion o£Cornelius y and others 
of theClergy,pretending there could be no communi- 
on in fuch an evil conftituted Church*, but afterward, 
finding the great hurt that came thereby to the 
Church , they overcame their own affe&ions and in- 
clinations , and out of refpe& to the good of the 
Church, did unit, which was exceedingly welcomed 
by all, a$theirEpiftleto£yj^« , and his to them, 
do manifeft. And as their fall fheweth, that it is not 
impoffible , but that zealous Minifters , who have 
keeped out againft defe#ion, may be overtaken with 
fuch a fault ; So it giveth a fweet copie of Chriftian 
deniednefle and tendernefle by others to be followed 
in the like cafe* Their words to Cyprian are woithy 
the obferving . Ncis babito confilio utilitattbus Ecclefi<e, 
6r pacimaguconfulentes , omnibus rebus prcetermijfis , & 
Judicio (Dti ferVatis>mm Cornelio Epifcopo noftro, pari- 
ter & cum univerfo Clerepacem feciffe , cumgaudio etiam 
unil>erf<e Ecclefi* , prona etiam omnium cbarit/tle* 

A fecondbn of fuch contefts ,are > When faults 
arc alleaged which either arc not true , or cannot be 


Part 4» A Trettifc concerning Scandal. 365 

proven , although poffibly they may be both grofle 
and true , for both of thefe did the N.oy>atians and ©0- 
natifts trouble the Church , infilling long in charging 
many crimes upon men particularly upon Cealianus , 
andOfius, which they could never be able to make 
out, although they alleaged that fuch faults were 
cloaked by the Catbelkkj /and that they were not to 
be communicated with. In this cafe the Orthodox 
took three wayes to remove fuch a difference. 1 . By 
pleading forbearance of awakening fuch contefls, 
and exhorting rather to keep union , than to hazard 
to break it upon fuch grounds, and fo (zsdugu/line 
faith J ut qwedam incerta crimina pro certa pace (Deo di- 
tnitterentur , Cont. Epifl. Parm. lib, 1. cap ,3. 2. If 
that could not be acquiefced in , they admitted the 
thing to proof, over , and over again , that by law- 
full triall it might be decided , as we will find in the 
former inftances, the fame cafe of Cccilianus was of- 
ten tryed, even after he wasabfolved. It is true the 
ftonatifts did not acquiefce , but did ftparate, ( for 
which caufe they were ever accounted moft grofle 
Schifmaticks) yet is it of it fclf , a way wherein men 
may fatisfyingly acquiefce. A third way fometimes 
ufed,was, That when divifions were like to be occa- 
sioned by diffatisfafition with a particular perfon 
j againft whom things could not be judicially made 
J out fo as to found a Sentence, nor yet poffibly was 
! there fo full fatisfadtion with him in every thing, as 
i by owning of him to hazard a rent , where a people 
were (tumbled by him, they did without judicial! 
proceffing, orCenfuring, intcrpofe with the Bifhop 
to cede, and wrote to the people to choofc another. 
So in that Council of Carthage, Cdnon.gi. letters are 
written to Maximianus (called Epifcopus fBagunps) 
and the people, that he might cede the Bifhoprick, 
and they might choofe another ; yet there is no menti- 
on of any made-out accufation, or Sentence, but 
that for the good of the Church > Sywdo pUwit, &u 


366 A Treat*/ e concerning Scandal* Part 4, 

There is mention made elfwhere in hiftory of a Bi"» 
(hop of that place , of that name > who had been a 
(Donatift, and did return to the communion of the 
Church ; but> if this be hd or what was the caufe of 
this appointment, is neither certain* nor of great con- 
cernment in this* 
pleadingfor A third fort of contefts of this kind, are , Whea 
fucb at are crimes are groffe and clear , and men are either juftly 
mojt jujhy cenfurable, or Cenfured ; fome (pofltbly honeftly 
cen(ured,w minded) may be engaged to do for them* by their in- 
ccnfurabld finuating upon them* and giving mifinformations 
and prejudices , and lb be brought to endeavour the 
preventing or removing of Sentences againtt,or from* 
fuch as juftly deferve the fame* In this cafe we find 
- a threefold way of compofure. i. An endeavour 
Tbe ptnejs ^j tQ c ^ n tQ oz fe ts t he juftice of fuch a Sentence 
uJcetoTe when it hach been traduced. Thus when Vafilides, 
cleared. and Martiaiis > were juftly depofed by a Synod of Spain, 
they did, by falfe pretexts, engage the Clergieof%orne 
to owne them , and write for their recovery , which 
did exceedingly offend the Bifhops of Spain ; where- 
upon they wrote to Cyprian and thefe in Afrk\. for ad- 
vice, who, being met in the Synod,approved their de- 
poficion, and advifed them not to readmit them, be- 
caufe none fuch who had any blemifh and were not 
holy>ou£ht to minifter in the holy things,and that ra* 
ther they fhould bear with Stepbanus his miftake, who 
out of ignorance and mifinformation was led to fide 
with fuch: Thus Cyprian hath it in his Epiftles to the 
Church of Spain, Epi/l. <$8. So that fchifm was flop- 
ped , and the Churches continued to acknowledge 
the lawfully ordained Bifhops that fucceeded thefe- 
And the readmiffion of fuch > had neither been in ic 
felf lawfull, nor yet had compaffed the end of ob- 
Or the Sen- * a i n i n 5 P eace m c hefe Churches where the people was 
tence recaU ftumbled by their carriages. A fecond way was* 
led. vohenxbe When the men were orthodox and profitable, though 
^rof/^6r failing in fome groffe particular, yet v^hetf they were' 
befrofitabte ®Y~ 

part 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal 3 6y 

owned by others in the Church, Synods did not ftatid, 
ibr concordi to remove fuch Sentences 1 as was for- 
merly inftanced in the cafe of OJius* Mgujline alfo in 
a certain Epiftlc, 164. doth approve the not- cen- 
furing of one Optatus , left thereby a fchifm (hould 
be occasioned , becaufeof manies adhering to him* 
We will find alfo a third way, That when men have 
been Sentenced , and tome have continued to owne 
them , and others to oppofe them , fuch have been 
brought to fubmit themfelves, and fo thedivifion 
hath been removed ; It was fo in that hot conteft th*t 
continued Ion?, between theBifhops of ^Igtne&nd the 
Church of AfncK* in the cafe of fyiratus Bithopof 
Sica, &<;. w ho being depofed by the Synod of Car- 
thage , was preffed to be admitted by theBifhops of 
$\ome, whom by no means thefe of AftU\ would ad- 
mit; atlaft, thefe that were Sentenced , came to ac- 
knowledge the Sentence ; whereby the divifion was 

A fourth fort of contefts or divifiofts for matters of gM utua ji 
faft, is, When both fides have had their failings in a upbraiding* 
time of darkneffe and tentation, fome oneway', and ]w failings. 
fome another , and after fome breathing they fall, by 
mutual upbraidingsi to hazard the Churches peace; 
one cafting up this fault to him , and he again up- 
braiding him with another. The way taken to 
prevent this, is moft fatisfying, when bothjacknow- Removed by 
ledging their own guilt to other, did forgive one ano- * mutudU 
ther, and joyn cordially for the good of the work* [**&'&*&. 
In the debates with the Qonatifts there is much men- 
tion made , not without great commendation of the 
pra&ice of a Synod, which is called Concilium cir- 
tenfe , wherein the members did mutually confeffe 
their faults , and ( faith he % to wit, duguftine, in the 
conference formerly cited) Sibi inVtcem ignofcebant 
ne febifma fieret. And by the fcope of the Catholic^ 
in urging that example , and by the vehemency ufed 
by the Vomtifls in denying the fame , it would feem, 


368 iA Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4; 

that they looked upon this as a moft excellent and fa- 
tisfying way of removing differences amongft godly 
men* when every one acknowledgeth their own fault* 
and doth not upbraid but forgive one another , en- 
deavouring to have the rememberancc of by paft mis- 
carriages rather forgiven and buried inoblivion,than 
mentioned. Becaufe good men being but men, ufu- 
ally there are failings on boch fides, and the denying 
of it, provoketh others to infift the more thereon , as 
the acknowledging thereof doth flop the upbraiding 
of them with the fame ; and ufually it is to be feen, 
that the beft men had rather mention their own faults 
in their acknowledgements , than hear the fame done 
by any other. S^4, £/?*/£♦ 23. alfohathfuch an ad- 
vice as this to a Church that had fallen into divifi- 
on* Utinam utraque pars acqukfceremalitquamfi curiofe 
nimium & fthovuKM quis Jit in majori culpa, inqui^ 


What to do toward uniting in divifions ariftng 
from diver [it j of cirenrnftances in external ad- 
miniflrations 9 and efptciaUj ariftng from 
Church- government* 

A Third matter that occafioneth divifions > is, a 
diverfity in Worfhip > Ceremonies , or things 
that relate to excernall adminiftration of Or- 
mlTfaV* finances ■ w ^ en ^ ome fo^°w one way in Preaching, 
(trations. " adminiftratingof Sacraments, Catechifing, &c. and 
' * others, another. This ordinarily breedeth janglings, 

and oftentimes troubled the Church , as we fee in the 
bufineffe about Eafter and Ceremonies* It is not our 
purpofc to infift in this , becaufe ordinarily fuch de- 
bates pretend fome lawfulneffe , or unlawfulneffe in 
the thing contended for > and arc to be counted 


part 4» -« * reattje concerning scandal. 30? 

amongft the jangling debates that the men of God are 
toefchew. And alfo, bccaufe thefe things are often 
fully and clearly difcufled > We (hall only fay con- 
cerningthem. 1. That* as there is a neceflity of dif- 
fering fome difference in Do&rine , So is there alfo a 
neccflicy to bear with fome differences in circumftan- 
ces in the externall manner of Worfhip, &c. and 
men would not foon offend at every difference > nor 
be difplcafed if it proceed not from affectation of An- 
gularity, unfaithfulneffe> or fome other corrupt rife. 
And we will find great conde (tendency in the great- Conicfctn- 
eft men, both of old and late , in things that are not & m j tbcrt- 
finfull in themfelves, for keeping of union in the* 71. 
Church : And thus far, the Apoftles praftice of be- 
coming all things to all, will warrand. Ztmbim in 
an Epiftle to this purpofe,giveth both many examples 
of, and reafons for this. 2. We fay> that men espe- 
cially in a time of divifions would by all means en- 
deavour to keep the trodden and approven way that 
hath been ufed , and is in ufe in a Church in fuch ad- 
miniftrations ; bccaufe the leffe men be flicking in 
the manner of thefe things, and the more firnplicity 

j they ufe , and the leffe they differ from what is moft 
ordinary and approven , thekffe will the hazird of 

1 divifion be in thefe things, which doth arife from the 

multiplying of them 5 the changing of the old , or 

bringing in of a new manner , the condemning of 

the way and manner ufed by others , as having fome 

great abfurdity ink, and the preflmg of their way,* c '** r t0 

even in circumftances, upon others ; Thefe 2nd fuch-* r b€ ' 1 ''[ mc 

things are to be efchewed : and (o indeed there v is no JV* * ln P A 

• 1 r i_ • i_ r i. /••■ Wan to alter 

Way to peace in thele things but to forbear ; ior it is t fj eoU vit y m 

itioreeafie to forbear fome new thing , than to make *t[$rnic&* 

others alter what is old , except there be fome rca(on fiderablc 

in the matter to move to this. rcafon. 

The great> andufually the moft bitter contentions 

of a Church, as was fa id before > are in things 'Divifionsa- 

that belong to Government 5 which are of many *>Gutcbura^ 

B b kinds, *"**■** 


ing the 
form of 

herein m&- 
keib divU 

A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4. 

kinds, and have their own proportionable cures 
when bleffed of God, We (hall inftance in thefe 
five kinds of contefts in chis matter. Thefirft, is con- 
cerning the form of Government. The fecond, is 
concerning the formality of Church- judicatories. 
The third, concerning the matter ena&ed or decerned 
by them. The fourth, concerning particular miscar- 
riages and abiifes of power in Government. And 
the fifth, concerning the perfons who ought to govern, 
or to whom the Government is due > and whofe de- 
terminations are uktmatly to be obeyed. 

For the fifi , Debates about the nature and form 
of Government, may be confidered do&rinally, and 
foitisa difference of judgement; Some think one 
form of Government lawfull, and others not that, 
but another. If this difference be fairly carried , ic 
needed) make no divifion in the Church , as was in 
the foregoing part hinted. 2. It may be confidered 
pra6Ucally, that is > when men not only think fo dif- 
ferently in their judgement, but accordingly they aft, 
driving eppofit defi^ns , as if they were two parties, 
feeking to get one Church fubdued to them , and nei- 
ther of them doth acknowledge the other. This can- 
not be wichout divifion ; for, the ground of all union 
and communion in the vifible Church in all the Or- 
dinances of Chritt, is, the unity of the vifible Church; 
as even in old time Juguftine didpreffe: SoEcclefi- 
aftick union, muftbe made up and entertained in a 
Church, by an unity in the Government thereof; 
for though there may be a forbearance and a kind of 
peace where the unity of the vifible Church is denied, 
or where there are divided Governments that are not 
fubaltern ; yet there can be no Church- union, nor 
communion in Ordinances , of Word , Sacraments 
and Government, which refults from the former, 
and doth neceflarily prefuppofe the fame. We dare 
not, nor cannot offer any directions for makin up 
an union here, fayc tbat men would unite in one 


3 1 

Part 4. e/^ Treat i/i concerning Scandal. 371 

form of Government thac can extend coche whole 
, body , and thac in fuch a Government as is allowed 
' by Chrift , otherwayes it can be no union ; becaufe 
fo it were not a duty, as union is. 

If it were asked , What kind of Government that 
may be mod probably, wherei'i men ought to unite? 
jtnfa. We mind not to digreffe to a doftrinall debate; 
yetthele charaftcrsmay be given of it. I. It muft cbtraftcti 
be a Government that can extend unto , and reach all of Govern^ 
the body ; for, one main end ot Government is tuiir men* fo fit 
on, £^.4. 3,io>u,&c, and the removing of of- uniting 
fences which make divifions , Mattb % 18. And this 
union is not to be in this or that particular part of the 
body, but in the whole, 1 C° r * l2 » that there be no 
fchifm in the body : therefore it muft extend to all, or 
be in a capacity to do ta 2. It would be in a pro- 
portionable fitneffe to remove thefe caufes that breed 
divifions, ( for, there cannot be union in a Govern- 
ment that is not fitted for that) and therefore muft be . , 
able to purge corrupt teachers , and the leaven of 
corrupt do&rine out of the whole Church > or any 
part thereof. Hence, both in the Scripture, and pri- 
mitive times, and all alongs, there hath been ftill a 
joynt authoritative concurrence for removing thefe 1 

caufes of this evil in whatfoever place they did ap- 
pear. 3. It muft be fuch a Government as hath an 
unity amongft the whole Governours for this end* 
and fo it muft anfwer to the unity of the body: 
Hence, in the Bpiflle co the Galatians , Taul commend- 
eth theremeedingof that evill to them all in a joynt 
manner, as being one lump , without refpeft to their 
fubdivifionin particular Churches; and if this Au- 
thority did not imply unity amongft the Governours 
wherever they lived , and a capacity to aft unitedly 
upon occafion , there could be no acceffe authorita- 
tively to remove fuch evils from the Church, nor fuch 
weight in the mean applied. 4, It muft be a Go- 
I ternment wherein there is a coordinateneffc anaongft 
Bb 2 tht 

37i tATreatife concerning Scandal Part/4; 

the Governours 5 becaufe fo not only the union of 
the Church is made up, but her communion is repre- 
fented ; and to place the Government in one , as Pa- 
pifts do in the Pope > doth not make an union in the 
Government , which implicth a mutuall and kindly 
co-ordinatneffe and afiociating one with another ; 
but whatever they pretend of union in it » it is really 
buttyrannie, and fuch as the moll arbitrary ruler 
may have, when by violence he (eemeth to keep down 
all divifions under him, neither fo can that body be 
faid to be united in him* And we fee in the primi- 
tive times , even after ( Bift>ops and Patriarchs were 
brought in into the Church,that ftill the fupream Go- 
vernment, whereby union was entertained, did refide 
in a mutual co-ordination , and combination , even 
of (uch filfbops, Metrapolitans, ^SiitrUrchSy&c. afting 
in ati united and joynt way: whereby manifeftly it 
appeareth, that fuch a Government as is to be united 
into, muft be ejetenfive unto the body , at leaft be in 
capacity fo to b: extended , and it muft be in a co- 
ordination and confociation of many Church- offi- 
cers together ', and that fuch fubordinations as mar 
this coordination and equality, muft be fwallowed 
up, ere there can be an united Government for the 
prefervation of the union of the Church, becaufe the 
fupream Government and decifion mutt be in many; 
and many of different degrees and places, cannot be 
fo one as thele who are of the fame order, to fpeak Co» 
Yet we think , that where fuch an union cannot be 
had in Government , men that have liberty, without 
entanglement to their own confciences,to follow their 
ducy, ought to do it with all tender refped to the 
edification and union of the Church wherein they 
live, and to make the beft of their particular cafe that 
may be for that end. But feing the wifdom and 
goodnefle of God hath made it our lote in this Land, 
to live under a Government, to which the abovemen- 
tioned chara&ers do well agree 3 it is hopefull, if as 

Part 4. *A Treatife concerning Scandal. 373 

we ought we confciotiably adhere to the principles 
thereof we may, yea, (hall unite in the Lord. 

Secondly, Suppofing, that men agree in that fame 
fupream government, to wit> Councils and Synoas, there 
may be fome debate concerning the formal conftitution Debates a. 
thereof, what is co be accounted a rightly conftitute^'^ 07 '" 
Synod, and fuch as ought to be acknowledged fo ? I0™ mon °J 
cannot be denied,but that there is a right and a wrong JTt0 ^ s ' 
in this, and that there are rules to be keeped, and that 
alfo de fatto they may be broken, even where there is 
no failing in the mater* It is true alfo, that we will 
fometimes find worthie men quarrelling the conftitu- 
tion of Synods, and declining them, as was formerly 
hinted, refuting to appear before them, till fome per- 
fons were removed from them, as Cbryfoftom and 
fourty two Biftiops with him, did in reference to that 
particular Synod at Cbalcedom and fometimes their 
A(9s were declared void, becaufe the meetings were 
not numerous, as Balfamon doth inftance in the cafe 
of one Johannes Amatbuntus , whofe depofition was 
declared null, becaufe all the Biftiops of Cyprus were 
not conveened to his tryall, which might have been ; 
and becaufe, in ftrift reckoning, there was one fewer 
at his depofition than was allowed s by the Canons. 
Yet concerning this we fay, 1. That it will be found 
very difficult to pitch on fuch defeats in the corftieu- T,c ^ t vl 
tionofaSynod, as will make the fame null without **" /n<r/ ™ 
refpeft to the matter thereof, feing there may be man > c ™ n °n **'•*/ 
defeftsthat will not infer this. 2. Ic will behard ^ out ^ r $[ n 
gather from Church-biftory, or Writings of the jhtel t f )cmAtr l ( . Tt 
ents, ox C an ons of Councils, what hath been a perem- 
ptory rule to them to walk by in fuch a cafe. Their In anc ; ent 
pradtices in this are fo various, that it appeareth, thccuunccli 
matter hath ever been more headed by them, than the .ounaneflc of 
formality of the conftitution. And therefore, ?. We mattet more 
will find their pra&ice to be according to this ; Wncn w 7 
the matter was found and profitable, it was accepted than 
and the Synod was reverenced, although it hath had //>v or ***** 
B b 3 lclie^v 

$74 A Treatife concerning S can du, 1 Part 4; 

leffe formality > and hath been of a fewer number i 
So the Council of Say die a, Laodicea , and fome particu- 
lar Provincial Synods,have ever been of great autho- 
rity becaufe of their matter* when more numerous 
Synods, with moe formalities> have never been fo ac- 
counted of, nor reckoned amongft the General Coun- 
cils, although their number hath been far greater than 
many of thefe other. 4. When they come to deter- 
mine any thing after the clofe of corrupt Synods, they 
do not ufually fift the conftitution thereof, but exa*- 
mine and condemn the matter thereof, and do repeal 
their Sentences, and account them null from the be- 
ginning ; not becaufe of queftioning their Authority 
that did ft, but becaufe of their doing the fame un- 
juftly , as in the cafes ofdthanafim, Bujlacbiws, Cbry 
Jo/lorn, and Ignatim, that followed him in the fame 
See: All whofe depofitions were accounted null, be- 
caufe of the unjuft violence that was ufed in them. 
5. We fay then, that hardly it will be obferved ; that 
thisconfideration of a particular Synods conftituti- 
on hath been the rife or ground of divifion amongft 
godly and orthodox men agreeing in the fame Truth, 
Form of Government, and Rules for conflicting of 
Affembliesor Synods, But we will ever find where 
Declinators or Proteftations are mentioned. 1. That 
the party declined hath been palpably corrupt in fun- 
damental doftrines* Or, 2. palpably driving on that 
general defign, and violence againft particular per- 
fons, as fubferving the fame. And, ?• it hath been 
alfo, after many evidences of fuch corruptions and 
violences , as in the former inftances that are given of 
Declinators is clear ; where we find, that Synods 
have been acknowledged, and yet upon the difcovery 
of their corrupt deiigns and violence, have been de- 
clined and proteftcd againft as null, as thztfecond 
Council at Epbefti* was. Whereby it appcareth, that if 
their proceedings had been acceptable, their confti- 
tution and authority had not been called in que- 
ftion. If 

Part 4. A Treanfe concerning Scandal, 375 

If it be asked upon fuppofition, That a difference 
concerning che conflitution of a particular Synod,and 
a divifion upon that account fall to be amongfl godly 
and orthodox Divines > agreeing in the fame Truths, 
form of Government, general Rules, for conflicting 
of Synods, &o What fhould be done for union in 
fuch a cafe ? 

Anfa. It would feem there fhould be no great need &b*tjlmli 
togivedire&ions here, the difference being fo dm- be dove for 
row 3 certainly many of the Anctents % and alfoofour un '™> VPben 
Reformers ,and eminent Virtues, who have groaned and d '. vl m * m 
do groan under many fad preflures, corruptions, and ri J etb , m 
divifions in the Church, would have thought, wAfaSfa 
think ic a great mercy to have had, and to have the no £ t 
difference brought to fuch a point, and betwixt fuch 
parties; Yet, feing it is too too poflible to be flood 
upon , we do conceive ic is no fuch thing as may 
make union, amongft parties fo differing , impoflible. 
We fay therefore, 

1. That fuch would confider the little ufefulnefle Little ufe- 
and weightineflc, as to the main of edification ihttjulnefiut* 
is in the thing controverted whatever way it bedeci- *ht cbunbes 
ded : For, 1 . the declaring of fuch a Synod valid . or cdificatunin 
null, as to its conflitution, doth not corrupt any point * € thin Z 
of Truth, nor bring-in any new Form of Govern .. 'Mwer;- 
ment f nor alter any Rule concerning the Form agreed ti% 
in ; becaufe the queition is not in tbefi, what is the 
form and rule according to which a Synod ought to 
be confticuted ? that is agreed upon : But the queftion 
is, Whether fuch a particular Synod be agreeable to 
fuch a Rule ? and refpeft to the Rule makes the c 
that they cannot approve it , and the other that they 
cannot condemn it : And is it of great concernment 
to the main of the Churches edification to fay ic is 
fo, or not, confidering it abftra&ly, or fuppofingic 
fhould never be determined at all ? 2. We la vThac 
it is not of much concernment, even to Government, 
to fay chat fuch a particular Synod is right or wrong 
B b 4 con- 

*7<S A Treatlfe concerning S c A N d a i. Part 4? 

conftituted : for, though a Church cannot want Go- 
vernment, and thatcanupt becaften; yet a Church 
cannot lofemuch byqueftioning the conftitution of 
one Synod, luppofe rightly conftituted, abftrafting it 
from the confideration of its matter contained there- 
in ; and if its matter be warrantable, it hath weight 
in it ielf without fuch confederation of a conftitu- 
tion , if it be not warrantable, fuch a confideration 
of a lawfully conftituted Synod cannot make it war- 
rantable. Again, upon the other fide, The counting 
of a particular Synod to be rightly conftituted when 
it is not, cannot be of great hurt to the Church where 
the Rule is acknowledged. For, 1. It doth not alter 
the nature of the matter ; Nor, 2. doth it alter the 
manner of conftituting Affemblies> becaufe one par- 
ticular failing in mifapplying the Rule cannot inca- 
pacitate a Church for all time to come to keep the 
fame , efpecially if it be guarded that no precedent be 
drawn from that pattern, to bind any new fenfe upon 
the rule/3. We fay, that it would feem if any de- 
bate be fuch as decifion may be for born therein , this 
may be accounted of that nature , to wit, Whether 
fuch a particular Synod be rightly conftituted,or not ? 
becaufe, if more corruption and inconvenience, that 
may be feared s follow* there are more material things 
to debate* and to differ upon ; if more follow not, 
but that there may be acceflc to an united Govern- 
ment whereby thefe fufpicions may be put out of 
queftion , then it feemeth unfafe to mar that, and the 
fruit which may follow by the difputing of what 
is paft. 

But more nearly to take notice of fuch a difference, 
tbh iiffe- we may confider it two wayes. 1. As it implieth a 
rencc is et difference in judgement. 2. As it inferreth a difle- 
tbtr in rent pra6tice- ftrjl, then, As it inferreth the difference 
juigement, of judgement , there ought certainly to be a forbea- 
and may be ranee , feing fuch things arc often involved with ma- 
firfain* ny difficulties and contradictions in matter of fa&, 


Part 4. A Treatife coticermpg Scandai,' 377 

that it is not peflible, by debating fully, to convince 
cither party to aflent to the other > cfpecially where 
heat and prejudice hath lomtway fixed and preoccu- 
pied the judgement ; ar.d certainly, forbearance here 
cannot be incorfiftent with the duty of Minifies, 
although there were nor iuch a motive to periwade it. 
By forbearance we unc'cifiand, 1. That none pe- 
remptorily prcfle the other either to acknowledge the 
validity or nullity of fuch a conftitution. 2. There 
would be a forbearance of publick debating of it* 
or of any thing that may occafion the fame, aspref- 
fing of the A#s thereof, if no other ground fupporc 
the fame, but the Authority of fuch a Synod. And 
we conceive in the by, this occafion may be prevented 
by a mutual condefcending , or joynt authoritative 
cna&ing , that fuch and fuch things, as pcftibly may 
be ufefull afterward, be of force to all , if not by the 
former conftitution, yet by the prefent appointment, 
and fo both may agree in the matter. 3. A con- 
demning of others for approving or difapproving the 
former conftitution, would be forborn ; and feing the 
queftion is fo little and inconsiderable in it ftlfi ic 
would not be odioufly aggreaged or infifted upon. 

Secondly, Confidering it as ic relateth to praUice, q t it relates 
fomething is to be forborn , and fomething is to be to pattkc, 
done. 1. For forbearance, What might involve ei- and \o feme- 
ther party in the matter of tadt contrary to their judg- thing is to be 
ment, would be abftained ; and this forbearance in tclcrateatii 
praftice would be as broad as forbearance in judg- fo mt bi*& 
ment, that, as Cyprian faith> ( in another cafe) differ- ' 
ing brethren may both have their judgment and pra- 
diice in fuch things at their own free arbitrements, as 
to fuch reftraints. Neither can this forbearance mar 
the peace of any, becaufe if fuch things be indifferent, 
and although lawfull yet not neccffary,thc preferving 
of the Churches peace, and the preventing of what 
offence would follow , is ground enough to abftain 
from fuch things , out of refpeft to the conferences of 


378 *A Treatife concerning Scandal^ Part 4^ 

others. If the things be neceffary, then indeed ic is 
not to be forborn, neither is that pleaded- for here ; 
yet the doing of it upon the account of fuch an au- 
thority* is not neceffary ; but the matter of the thing 
or fome uncontroverted ground may be had for war- 
ranting the fame. 2* That which is to be done, we 
conceive, is this* That there be endeavours to have 
fome united , uncontroverted authority eftablifhed, 
by whofe authority things neceffary may be dond 
Without infringing the authority of what was paft 
in refpe& of thofe who acknowledge the fame , and 
alfo without leaving the weight of the authority up- 
on the former to thofe who queftion the fame : And r 
we conceive this being done* neither is there any con- 
fcience ftraitened , nor any thing neceffary for the 
Churches good omitted; yea, by this means there is 
accefs unitedly to feek the Churches edification, with- 
out any prejudice by the former contention ; becaufe 
by laying this new foundation pofteriour to the for- 
mer , the Church is put beyond that (tumbling* 
block , and carried over , or by the fame ; And 
therefore there is no reafon to fear falling upon fuch 
a difficulty, but rather with the greater (peed to make 
progreffe when men may win by it and leave it be- 
hind them. This was the way that the Jncients 
took in the primitive times , even when Synods in 
this refpeft might have been faid to have been cor- 
rupted , when God gave opportunity they fejc them- 
felves to re&ifie the matter, and to do upon it what 
was fie for the good of the Church, without men- 
tioning the nullity of the form thereof, or infifting 
thereupon. And indeed, the doing otherwayes fecms 
to lay too much weight upon the authority or conttk 
tution of a Church- judicatory , as if when the fame 
is every way regular, it could adds fomething, or 
ou$ht to have weight, where the matter is not ink 
felf approvable j which hath been cfchewed by Or- 
thodox Divines both of old and late ? who ever 


part 4» A Tnatife cotiarmngScAKVAz* 379 

therefore looked moft unto the matter determined or 

If it be asked, What ufually was done in fuch^^^j^ 
cafes where the Authority feemed to be declined >batb been 
From what is faid» the Anfwer may be gathered, iodine when 
wit , That both fides fatisfied themfelves with the tAuxhmtj 
reftifying of the matter wherein there was any grie- tern lali* 
vancc. And therefore , I* it will hardly be found, ntL 
when fuch a Declinatour was expreffed in one Synod 
that any mention is made thereof in the next enfuing 
Synod that did re&ifie the matter, but inftantly they 
fall upon that. 2. We will find, that where no ex- 

y^reffe Declinatour was, yet did not that any way 
ftrengthen fuch an Authority, nor mar the condem- 
ning thereof more than in other Synods where it was, 
and therefore neither is fo much weight to be laid up- 
on it, whether it be or not ; for, its ftanding doth not 

' weaken Authority where it is, and its removing or 
not being at all, doth not adde Authority where it is 
not, becaufe Authority muft ftand and fall accord- 
ing to its own intrinfick grounds and warrant* And 
we conceive that it is not fuitable to the Authority of 
Chrift's Ordinances , and the nature of His Courts, 
that either the removing or ftanding of fuch a Jegall 
formality, fhould be rigidly preffed, and itmakcth 
proceedings in Chrift's Courts to be involved in coo 
many fubrilties that are ufed in humane Laws. And 

! alfofuppofing, that a corrupt conftkution may be 

! without fuch a formal Protection , it feem^ to give 

I too much advantage thereto , as if there were lefle 
acceflTe afterward to condemn the fame; And upon 

j the other fide , fuppofing that a lawfully conftuueed 
Synod fhould be declined, as the Synod of ( Dm was 
lately by the drminian T^emonjlrants, the prelling too 
vehemently of the removing thereof, dQth liippofe 
fomeway th? conftkution tobcleffe vihd if fUcfa a 
thing fhould ftand. This is only to be underftood 

i in the cafe prefuppofedi to wic> Where the queftion is 


7 gS tA Treatife concerning Scand a l 1 Part 4* I 

GfC ^^_ not about the authority of Synods fim ply > but of this ! 
rence be* or that conftitution of a particular Synod : the firft 
tween the indeed, thatis, the queftioning of Synodical Autho- 
declining o/rity, hath been thought intolerable in all times, be- 
Synoiicall caufe it ftrake at the root of Church-government and 
nAmbotitf Order* without which the Church cannot fubfift ; 
fimplj,<t*i But the fecond, which acknowledgeth the fame Go- 
the con[titu- vernment in general* and Rules of Conftitution, and 
Muofafir- p ro f c (Tech refpeft to that fame Authority, is indeed 
ttcular ty- noc c t nl:o i era ble , becaufe it doth fuppone ftill the 
Church to have power > and the exercife thereof to 
be neceffary. Hence we will find, that in the primi- 
tive times they did utterly condemn appellations from 
Synods (imply, that is, the betaking them to ano- 
ther Judge , as more proper than, or fuperiour unto, 
fuch Synods ; and there are feverall Canons in the 
Councils of Jfric^ that threaten Excommunication 
to fuch as decline their Authority and appeal to %ome i 
or any forreign power as a fuperiour Judge ; Yet we 
will find, that the Councils do allow Appeals from 
a leffer number to a greater, or from particular 
Councils to a general. Yea, from their own parti- 
cular Synods to a more general hearing of others in 
the Province ; yea> they allow even adjacent Pro- 
vinces to be appealed to in cafe corruptions fliould 
be in one particular Province : This was enafted in 
the Council ofSardica, andBifhopsare requefted by 
feverall Canons not to think this derogatory from 
, their authority, becaufe this did confift well with re- 
fpefl to Church- authority and Government in it felf, 
but tended only to prevent or remedy exorbitances 
and abufe therein > which of it felt if it be not abu- 
fed, is not ill. 



part 4. A Treattfe concerning Scakdax, 381 


What U to be done in order to union about divifi- 
oris concerning dcttrinall determinations. 

THe Queftion may be concerning the matter 
enalted by fome Synod, even when there is no 
exception afcainft the conftitution thereof, 
that is, when the matter approven by it 3 isunfound, 
or when a truth is condemned, at leaft it is judged 
to be (0. Wc are not here fpeaking of fuch matter as 
is fundamentals but fuch as is confiftcnt with found- 2)acirivaU 
nefle of judgement in the main , and piety in thefc m % lunda- 
whomaybe upon either fide. Such as were thtfc wcnull, ct 
debates concerning the rcbaptizing of Hcreticks; and rigb the 
Schifmaticks ; or for the admitting them unto the ]cundavon* 
Church by confirmation only , and queftions of that 
nature, which may fall to be amongft orthodox men, 
1 fuppofe it were good, that judicial decifions cf fuch 
things, were not multiplied; yet upon luppohtion 
that they arepaft , fomewhat would belaid. Such 
determinations are of two forts. 

ftrft, Some are meerly do&rinall, and of this kind 
are fuch queftions as are concerning the obj- ft of 
Predeftination > order of Gods Decrees, and fuch 
like, and others, it may be, which are of lefler con- 
cernment than thefc. Thefe being meerly doftrinal 
and inferring no diverficyin praftice, orWotflhip, 
there is the eafier acceffe to union notwithftanding of 
fuch , refpeft being had to the mutuall forbearance 
mentioned, fothat none be conftrained to acknow- 
ledge what is enafted by vertue of fuch a decifion,be- 
caufe (u^h a determination in matter of Doftrine is 
but tt^ufteriall , and declarative: And therefore as 
one man may forbear another to fpeak his own mind 
in fome things that differ from his , and, it may be, 
from truth alto , and not inftantly divide from him, 


382 A Treanfe concerning xandai^ Part 4. 

or much contend with him ; So.oUght he to'bear with 
a Synod and not to divide from thefn upon that ac- 
count , he having acceffc fo to declare his own mind 
and the reafons thereof, and .other wayes^ to carry 
himfclf, as may keep him free of that apprehended 
guiltinefle ; and fo a Synod ought to bear with fome 
particular men that differ. But by adding the fecond 
kind, there will be ground to fpeak more. 

The fecond kind is of fuch determinations as have 
Somedoftri* notonly adoftrinall decifion > but alfo fome prafti- 
nal deci'ions call confequents following thereupon • which we 
infer dhifi- may again dirtiaguifh thefe wayes. 1. They are ei- 
en, others^ ther fuch confequents and practices as infer a divifion 
and oppofition, or a diverftty only ; fome confequents 
infer a divifion or feparation > As luppofe a Church- 
Synod fhould enaft,that no perfons fhould keep com- 
munion with fuch as they judge not to be godly, nor 
joyn in Ordinances > nor fo much as fit down with 
them ; Or that no perfons, thinking otherwayes, 
might lawfully be ordained Minifters , or admitted 
to that office, as fometimes appeareth, hath been de- 
termined in very numerous Synods of the fionatifts. 
Indeed the (landing of fuch Sentences in force , and 
having execution accordingly following them , are 
fuch, as there can be no union had upon fuch tearms* 
Again, fome pra&iccs imply no divifion in Worftiip, 
or Government , but only fomething which poffibly 
is in it felf unwarrantable, as that Aft of rebaptizing 
was > which was determined a:nd ena$cd by feverall 
Councils in AfricJ^ : which kind of determination 
may be confidered either as peremptory, and exclu- 
sive , that is , allowing none to do otherwayes , or 
to be admitted to Miniftery and Ordinances which 
fiiould not engage to do fo - y Or moderated* fo as 
though it held forth fuch a determination concerning 
the faft , yet doth not peremptorily preffe others be- 
yond their own light. Of the firft fort were the pe- 
remptory A&s of the Weft-chujqh concerning B after ^ 


part 4. A Treattfv tonccrmng scandal. 383 

holydayes and other ceremonies ; Of thelafl, were 
thefe A6ts of the Council of Jfric( concerning the 
rebaptizing of Schifmaticks wherein none were 
pteflcd beyond thir own judgement. 

Jtgaitij fucHconfcquents and praftices that follow Som ^ cttfm 
Church-determinations, may either be prefently nc mm iki\s 
ctffary to be pra&ifed and dayly prafticall, as fup- are oj thing* 
pofe a Church (hould make conttitutions tor admini- &a)lypadi~ 
ttration of Baptifm and the Lords Supper, by mixing cabtc y o$btfi 
in with the eflcntials thereof , fuch and fuch corrupt^ jot an 
ceremonies and additions ; Or , they may be fucb exigence, 
practices as are only fuppolable andpoffible,* but n^ancfyever 
may be exceeding improbable-like , at leatt for the *&*** 0[tiu1h 
future , chat there (hall be occafion to put them in r **& % 
aftuall cxirciic ; though> it may be, there was fome 
prefect exigent giving occafion to fuch a determina- 
tion, which poffibly may never recur; Asfuppofe, 
a Church fhould determine, that a converted Jett? , or 
Tw^fiiould not be baptized in the manner that others 
are baptized , but fome other way ; it may be there 
was fome JeV> or Tur[ to be baptized when that de- 
termination patted ; but that particular Ad being by, 
there is no probability that ever there may be accefle 
to put the fame in practice again , although it be not 
fimply impoflible. Now there is great odds betwixt 
thefe two ; and in efteft this laft cafe, doth look liker 
a doftrinall determation when the occafion thereof is 
paft, than any way to be pra&icall. 

further, we may diftinguifh thefe alfo in fuch pra- 
ftices, that are positively ena&ed to be prafiiifed > by 
an authoritative AA : ordaining in fuch poffible cafes, 
that it be fodone, that is. when fuch a cafe occurreth, 
men (hould be aftnSed to follow the fame , and Mi- 
niftcrs (hould accordingly afci ; Or they are fuch 
cafes , as do not ordain any practice to be done , but 
do declare fuch a thing to be lawfull ; As fuppofc 
they (hould declare > a Miniftcr might lawfully bap- 
tize a Jz*to fo as is formerly faid,wkhout any peremp- 

Some deter 

3 84 A TrcAUfe concerning S c a n d a lV Part 4? 

tory ordaining of the fame , which is ftill , rather a 
do&rinalldecifbnthan a potitive ordinance. 

We may yet^onediftin^ion more, which is this* 
determination is either to declare fuch a thing lawful 
anfo?Mi- to Church-men in fome Ecclefiaftick matter, asfup- 
niftlu pra-P 3 ^ C as was fometimes in the primitive pcrfecutions) 
tiice, others u P otl f° me Qwrle from fome Minifters , it flhould 
arc an 'vers be, cnaiked, that in fuch and fuch cafes Minifters 
to tbequcfti- might flic, fell the Church-goods, or ufe fuch and 
ens of Rh* fuch (hifts and means for their efcape and deliverancej 
for/, as others, it may be, would think unlawful!. Or it 

is , when the pra&ifing of the fuppofed cafe belongs 
to Magiftrates, or men in civil ftations; as fuppofe, 
upon fome Queries from Magiftrates or others , en- 
quiring if it were lawfull to admit JeV>s to dwell in 
fuch and fuch places meerly for civil traffick ; or if 
they might eat and drink with an Ambaflador of the 
Cbam oiTartaria ; or help Chinas againft the Tartars ; 
or fuch cafes, which polfibly , befide the occafion of 
the Querie, might never occur : now fuppofing the 
cafe to be decided affirmatively by a Church- judica- 
tory, and a rent to have followed thereupon, andco 
continue after the cafe is not probably pra&icall, be- 
caufe of the former decifion , and fo in the reft of the 
former fuppofitions, it is to be enquired, If? and, 
How union may be win at in them refpeClively ? 

Now thefediftinftions being prcmicced , we come 
to confider accordingly , How union may be made 
up, where divifion ftandeth upon fuch accounts ? 

In reference to all which, in the general , we fay, 
That peremptorinefle and fclf-willedneflc being ex- 
cluded (which areexprefly prohibited to be in a Mi- 
nifter) it is not impoflible to attain union amongft 
faithfull, fober, and orthodox men, who willac-. 
knowledge that mutuall condefcending and forbea- 
rance is neceflary ; which by going through the par- 
ticular fteps will appear : wherein we may relate to 
ihc former generall grounds bid down? and be the 


Part 4» A Trcafife concerning Scandal, 385 

(horter in inftaticcs and reafons, becaufe this drawech 
out in length beyond our purpofe ; and alfo> becaufe 
Verbum faptenti fatis eft : and thefe cfpecially that are 
concerned in this, need not by us either to be inftruft- 
ed, or perfwaded to their duty , many of whom the 
Lord hath eminently made ufe of to teach , convince, 
and perfwade others. We fhall only, as in all the reft, 
offer fome things to their view > which may oCcafion 
the remembering of what they know>and the awaken* 
ing of the zeal and affc&ion that they have , to a6t 

To come then to the fi'fl fort of determinations, Cttoredo. 
which are doftrinali; it may appear from what isftrindUe~ 
faid, that there can be no juft ground of divifion upon "ft™ 5 i* 
that account ; for, in fuch things a Church may for* /«?*«' 
bear particular perfons : and again , particular per- 1 oin * s 
fons may forbear a Church. It is not to be thought, cu &* t0 
that all orthodox Divines are of the fame mind in all ^j^ 
things that are decreed in the Synodof IDort, particular- i * 
ly in reference to the objeft of predeftination ; yet the 
Synod hath not made any divifion by Cenfuring of 
fuch, neither thefe whodifFer from that determination 
have broken off communion with the Church , but 
havekeeped communion : and union in the Church 
hath not been thereby interrupted ; yet thefe who ap- 
prehend themfelves to be right , cannot but think the 
other is in an errour : and if this forbearance be not 
allowed, there can never be union in the Church, ex- 
cept we (hould think that they behoved al! to be in 
the fame mind about fuch things>and that there (hould 
never be a decifion in a Church, but when there is ab- 
folute harmony ; for,fuppofing the plurality to decide 
right, yet thefe, whofe judgement were condemned, 
were obliged according to their light to divide > feing 
they are in their own judgments right* It is true,I fup- 
po(e that it is not fimply unlawful, or hurtful to truth 
for a Church- judicatory>out of refpeft to peace in the 
Church* co condefcend abftraftly to wave a minifies 
C < rial* 

3 S6 e/* Treaty e concerning Scandal. Part 4 • ] 

riall dccifion without wronging of the matter ; As 
fuppofe thefe in Afm\ , for peace had waved their ju- 
diciall decifion of the neceffity of rebapti^ing in fuch a 
cafe ; or thefe who determined the contrary , might 
have waved theirs, yet neither of them had hurt their 
own opinion. Or fuppofe, that in the decifions that 
were concerning Eafler y upon both fides of the contro- 
verfie* either had paft from their decifions, and left the 
matter in practice to mens arbitrement without any 
decifion, I fuppofe this had not been a wrong to truth 
(fuppofing it to have been on either fide) And indeed 
confidering what is written in the Hiftory, fome thing 
like this may be gathered. For, firft, It is clear? that 
there were determinations on both fides, and particu- 
larly, That the Weft Cburcb,znd thefe that joyned wnh 
them, did determine the Lords Day neceffarilytobe 
keeped for diftinguifihing them from the JeV>s. % It is 
alfo clear, That Poller ates 9 with many Biftiops in dfia, 
did judicially condemn that deed> appointing the 
fourteenth day of the month to be keeped, So chat ne- 
ceflarily both decifions could not ftand. And, 3. this 
is clear alfo, That the way that was taken to fettle that 
difference fo flated* was, That judiciall decifions 
ftiould be waved , and men left to their own arbitre- 
ment to obferve what day they thought good,whether 
in the Bafi or Weft Church , whereupon followed an 
union 3 and folkarjjuA did communicate with Anicetus 
at Glome upon thefe tearms, Ut neuter eorumfententiam 
fuam urgeret aut defenderet ( as the Ce7rt«n4Joj'jhave it 
out of lreneus ) that is , that neither of them ftiould 
urge or defend their own opinion: and upon this there 
followed peace notwithttanding of that difference. It 
brake up again more ftrongly in the time of Vittor, 
and although lreneus was of his judgment, yet did he 
vehemently preffe him not to trouble the Church by 
purfuing fuch a determination , and did exceeding 
weightily expoftulat with him for it ; He wrote alfo 
to the other party , that both of them might forbear 


Part 4. ATreatife concerning Scandal, 387 

the preffing of fuch deci(ions,and that the thing might 
be left to metis arbitrement, without' prejudice to the 
Churches union, as formerly it had been ufed : this is 
clear from Church- hiftory>and that word of Socmen, 
lib. 7. cap. 19. is weighty, FriVolum emm>& qtddem me- 
rito 9 judicaruntyConfuetudinis gratia, a, fe mutuo fegregari 
eos qui in prctctyuis religionis capitibtvs confentirent, that is. 
They judged it , and upon good ground, moft frivo- 
lous for men to be feparated or divided one from ano- 
ther, becaufe of a cuftorae, who did agree together iti 
the main points of Religion. And though this matter 
be of it felf no controverfie decided in the Word, ( at 
leaft as it was ftated ) yet confidering their thoughts 
of it, and the grounds which they alleage for it, it was 
not fo to them: and that peremptorines of ^#0^ who 
afterward would not be reclaimed from that fecond 
determination , is condemned by all , as being the 
ground of that following fchifm. And indeed in fuch 
cafes, where two parts of a Church are divided, hav- 
ing independent authorities as to one another , and 
there being contrary determinations in the fame que- 
ftion j it feemeth convenient and neceffary for peace, 
that either both fhould wave their decifions , or than 
both fhould permit the decifions of each other to 
ftand and be in force, to fuch only as (hould acquiefce 
therein, and willingly acknowledge the fame* 

Again, where there is nothing like a party or equi- #<,# tii 
' lity,but the divifion is in the fame oneChurch betwixt (matter 
a greater and fmaller number, and the greater will not number 
be induced to remove thek determination ; It is wojJmli 
wayfinfull to the lefferto joynwith themnotwith-^ce/iwt^ 
ftanding thereof, they having their own freedom andf rw *«\ 
liberty cautioned, as was formerly faid ; Yea, this 
feemeth not unexpedicnt that they (hould do for the 
good of the Church. 1. Becaufe it is not fo readily to 
be expected , that men who have fuch an advantage 
will cede to thefc who have it not. 2, It may have in- 
ccnyeniencies, if a fmaller diffenting number fhould 
C c 2 nea 

388 A Treatife concerning Scandal Part 4? 

neccflicat a Church to wave former determined truths* 
thotigh poflibly not fundamental, becaufe of their dif- 
fatisfa&ion therewith , who eftecm them not to be 
truths , and ftrengthen others in a fchifm , as if they 
could not keep union and communion with a Church 
where any thing contrary their mind were determin- 
ed* Alfoi 3. it feemeth moft agreeable to reafon, that 
in finlefle cedings, the lefler number fliould cede to the 
greater* And, 4. becaufe by fo doing, this accidental 
confirmation of an opinion,by having the plurality of 
a Church or Synod for it, is left open to the other fide, 
when they may be the plurality. Hence we fee gene- 
rally, that the minor part cedeth to the greater (if the 
not preffing of the removal of fuch a decifion be a ced- 
ing) yea, even when the plurality were wrong, as in 
that cafe of Africf^ , thefe who differed, did not preffc 
the refcinding of that determination ,having their own 
liberty : Nor did thefe that had the plurality then for 
them>impofc any bond to keep the other from refcind- 
ing their determinations, if they fhould come to be in 
fuch a capacity , but both keeped peace for the time ; 
and afterwards, in the dayes ofduguftine, we will find 
Councels of theCharch ofdfrk^ determining the juft 
contrary concerning that cafe of ^apti^ing , and yet 
ftill entertaining peace and communion amongft 
themfelves* although the authoritative decifion flood 
alwayes upon the fide of the plurality. 


What /hall be done in order to union about fuch de- 
cifions^ have practical consequents following 

TO come to the fecond cafe, to wit, anent (iich 
decifions as have fome prafticall confequents 
following thereupon } For the more fiiort an- 
fwcring, we fhall lay down thefe JjfMions. 


Part 4; tA Treatise co ncermng Scandal. 3 gp 

Affert. 1. In fuch praftices as are oppofit, and infer contrary 
divifion in the cafes mentioned, there can be no union * fa fti ccs 
or communion expe&ed, as we fee in all the cafes b u ju am u 
where tuch have been pra&ifcd , as of the KoVatians. of (cpara- 
(Donatijls , and fuch like ; chere may be more or lefle tion. 
heat and bkternefle betwixt men that differ fo : but 
there cannot be union, becaufe , fuch determinations 
and pra&ices do draw a line , and build a wall of fe- 
paration betwixt the one and the other, and fo makes 
one fide to be accounted as noc of the fame body. 

dffert.i. Where the confequents only infer fome ^i ver r lty 
difference, or are not peremptorily prcffed.they do not t ^ cre * ^ 
infer neceflarily a divifion , as we fee in the cafes o( w j t b m ^ m 
Afric\ y and others mentioned; and Socmen mthc v if 9tt9 
chapter cited , giveth many inftances of diverfities of 
this kind in Churches » without any breach of com- 
munion,and faith it is neceffary , becaufe, Heque eafdem 
traditknes per omnia fimiles, in omnibus Eccle {its, quamvu 
in omnibus confentknt , reperire Poffis , that is , Ye ^ill 
hardly find the fame traditions alike in all things in all the 
Churches , eVen though they agree in all things that are ma- 
terial. And, upon the matter, fuch determinations are 
but indeed as if they were do&rinall co fuch as ac- 
knowledge them not , and men are accordingly to 
walk in them. 

Aflert.^. In fuch praftices as are daily pra&icable, -» 

in refpeft of the occafions thereof, union is more dif- ^ * J° * 
ficult ( though not impoffible) than in fuch cafes, h € ^j^M 9n 
where the occafion of praftice is not probable , be- f or w hac is 
caufe there being no prefenc occafion to pra&ifc the rarely or ne- 
fame, it looketh moft unwife like, to bring in, or keep ve r frafli<- 
in, a more certain and greater evil in the Church, for cable, 
efchewingof what folks may never be put to; and 
fuppofe the cafe to be paft, that may probably never 
recurrc, it is more for the Churches good by abftain- 
ing the approbation of fuch an aft, and by not being 
involved in the apprehended guilt thereof, to make up 
again the communion of the Church, for the preven- 
C c 5 ting 

Jpo A Treatlfe concerning Scanda l ; Part 4^ 

ting of a greater hurt, becaufe that continueth to be a 
duty, and is necetfary to edification ; and the thing 
being paft* ought not to be the occafion of a prefent 
and following divifion, as was formerly faid. 

If it be (aid, How can there be union in (uch a cafe 
upon the principle fuppofed, till (as may be faid by 
one fide) thofe who have decided and afted corruptly* 
fliould repent , and ( as may be faid by the other) till 
thofe who have divided unjuftly from the Church, 
and wronged the authority thereof, (hould acknow- 
ledge their offence, without which there cannot be* 
union ? For anfwer to which we fay, 1 . What 
if neither party (hall ever be brought to repent or ac- 
knowledge an offence ? (hall the Church in fuch a 
cafe qever attain to union? Repentance implyeth a 
convi&ion, and this implyeth information and clear- 
. . nefs in the judgment that fuch a thing is wrong.Now, 
notimpof* lt b £ j n S °& m k en c h*c lt ls impoffible to get men of 
fible not- one judgment concerning fuch a thing, Muft there- 
witbltani- f° re union be impofiible till men be of one judgment ? 
ing diver- This hath been formerly difproved. 2. What if this 
]tj of had been the mind of the Churches and Servants of 
lodgment. God from the beginning of the world ? there had ne- 
ver been publick-ecclefiaftick , nor privat-chriftian 
peace ; for they were never all of one judgment : and 
to affert or write what is fuppofed to be an errour, is 
proportionably a fin and an offence* as to determine 
ic judicially $ and it would infer the neceffity of re- 
pentance, even in fuch cafes, for the attaining of peace 
and making up of differences ; And (hall we thus at 
once condemn the generation of Gods People, who 
have, without propofing , or, at leaft, preffing of fuch 
a thing, entertained peace and union amongft them- 
felves ? g.This would enervate all the former grounds 
that plead for union with forbearance, and fuch like, 
which , I fuppofe, will not be warrantably done. 
4. This way is indeed cither to make union the more 
impoffible, or if union be attained in any mcafure* 


Part 4. tATrettife concerning Sc anda l. 391 
both the lefle hearty amongft themfclves, and the Icffc 
profitable unto others, as hath been formely cleared. 
5. We arc not to refpeft in this, mens particular car- 
riage or defcrt ( which poffibly would not be thought 
of great concernment by others, not engaged in that 
debate,) but the Churches good is to be looked to, and 
what it doth require, as we may gather from what 
hath been formerly faid. And if Church-ccnfures 
(fucliasthe enjoyningof publick repentance, or ac- 
knowledgment of an offence, are) be to be abftained 
from, even in reference to open corrupt teachers fbme- 
times for refpeft to the union of the Church , and for 
the preventing the (tumbling of thofe that are weak, 
and prone to divide or mifcarry (if fuch fhould be 
cenfured ) as we fee in ¥aul*s abftaining to cenfurc 
the falfe teachers, Gal.$. and i Cor, 10. (fpoken to in 
the former part; much more are Cenfures of any fort 
to be abftained from upon that ground, in the cafe 
propofed, as it is confidered in its matter and pcrfons 
differing. Hence we may find what condefcendence 
hath been formerly ulcd in (uch cafes, when union 
hath been clofed,or propofed to be clofed, (in matters 
poflibly of greater moment than are fuppofrd ) Sine 
detriment*) bonom,aut cbaritatis, that is, without prejudice 
to reputation, or charity. 6. We therefore fay in op- 
pofition to that objeftion,That union is to be ftudied, 
by endeavouring to joyn in what is for the good of 
the Church, and by burying the refentment of each 
others wrongs, rather than (as ®e%a faith in that fore- 
cited Epiftie to Grindal concerning divifion ) There 
Jhould be too curiom y and, as it Were, contention- affecting 
enquiry made, Ivbo is mofl in the Vbrong , and thereby a 
bringing the matter to tbatpajje, that the Xthole body can* 
not be fd\>ed y but by cutting off 'of fome members. 7, We 
adde, If repentance be neceflary, will any think that 
divifion is the way or mean to attain the fame, which 
doth imbitter and confirm men in their opinion and 
oppofition refpe£tively,as formerly hath been faid i 
C c 4 It 

tATreatife concerning Scandal." Part 4. 

Ic will be now no great difficulty to anfwer in the 
lajl Vtoo cafesy to wit, When the decifion is a fimple 
declaration of the lawfulnefie of a thing, without any 
pofitive appointment that fuch a thing (hould be put 
in pra&ice, &c. For, if upon the former grounds 
union may be attained* and divifion removed in the 
former cafes, it may be much more in this ; moft of 
all>where the matter determined,concerneth fuch pra- 
ctices as a&ually are to be performed but in fome ex- 
traordinary cafe by Civil Powers. Becaufe in fuch 
cafes men may more eafiiy condefcend to forbearance, 
than in matters of greater neceffity and concernment ; 
and there can be but little prejudice alleaged to follow 
unto the Church ( to be put in the ballance with the 
Churches peace) either by condefcend ing that fuch a 
determination mould be waved , or ftand with the 
qualifications forefaid ; It's true that tenacioufneffe in 
the leaft particular, and peremptory refufing to con- 
defcend therein , will breed a rent and fchifm, and 
make union as impoffible, as if it were the greateft 
matter that were the ground of diftance; yet it would 
fecm,that in the cafe prefuppoled, (efpecially thefe laft 
three being put together ) that judicious, fober, and 
godly men (hould be very eafiiy induced to conde- 
fcend to each other , with the qualifications forefaid, 
for the Churches peace. 

For, 1 ♦ The matter, although it hath a right and 
wrong in it, yet it is among the leaft of the truths that 
may be accounted to relate to the foundation. 2. It's 
in a matter moft improbably practicable, and which 
may poffibly never occur. 3. It's a determination, or 
an exercife of Church-power that hath leaft influence 
upon Church-matters , feing it pofitively ordaineth 
nothing. 4. It's in a thing moft extrinfick, which 
might have been put in pra6tice, and ufually is put in 
pra&ice without the Churches intermedling therein, 
either pro or contra* It feemeth therefore unfuitable 
that fuch a determination in reference \q fuch practi- 

Part 4. A Treat if e concerning Scandal .^ 3? 5 

ces,(hould be greatly contended- for,when neither the 
ftandingof fuch a decifion can procure, nor there- 
moving thereof mar, the practices concerning which 
the decifion \%. 5. Suppofing the qualifications fore- 
said, the (landing of fuch a decifion doth not ftreng- 
then the affirmative opinion, becaufe it doth not infer 
any bond or obligation upon others who do not of 
their own accord acJ^uiefce in the fame ; nor doth ic 
give ground for alleaging fuch a decifion to any but 
to fuch as of themfelves are fwayed with the matter 
thereof: And therefore feing it hath no force to bind 
moe than would be bound with the matter if it were 
not ; nor can infer that it is the judicial decifion and 
judgment offuch a Church, more than this, to wit, 
That it is the judgfoent of the plurality for the time, 
yet fo as it is not acknowledged by others, and who 
are not to be conftrained to any alteration in their 
judgment* or in their pra&ice, by that determination, 
more than if it had never been ( which is a neceffary 
qualification of the forbearance mentioned ) and fup- 
pofing the faid decifion to be waved) thefe particulars 
would be true* Again, upon the other fide, The 

removing of that decifion doth not flrengthen the ne- 
gative (for that cannot be intended by fuch a compo- 
fure that either fide (bould be ftrengthencd) nor doth 
the (landing thereof weaken the fame ; becaufe, ac- 
cording to the qualifications forefaid, not only there 
can be no Cenfure following upon it, but even as to 
the Determination it felf, though it be not formally 
removed, to be no decifion (imply, it is no decifion to 
them , nor can be alleaged to them againft their opi- 
nion, more than if it were not : And thus it becometh 
of equall extent with thofe who approve the matter, 
and fo it doth bind only fuch as account themfelves 
bound ; and if men account themfelves bound, the 
removing of fuch a decifion,will not loofe them ; and 
if they account not themfelves bound otherwayes, the 
ftanding thereof in fuch a cafe, will not bind them; 


324 A Trtatife concerning Scandal. Part 4, 

and therefore,Hkon the matter* we fuppofe, it is hardly 
imaginable that there can be a lefler ground of divisi- 
on, (the qualifications neceflary for union in the cafes 
of greater concernment being granted in this) lure we 
are there was never divifion continued upon a lefler 
account, to whatfoever fide we look j for, in effect, it 
is for the time to come as if that decifion had never 
been, as to its efficacie and weight in producing any 
effeft. And we are fure that the great Divines that 
have fo eagerly purfued, and fo much coveted union* 
would have thought themfelves happy if they might 
have had it by condefcending and ycelding either to 
the one fide or the other. And though the moderate 
divine Bucer, was thought to thijft after peace in the 
Church fo vehemently, that fome zealous men faid, 
that out of love thereto he was like almoft baurlre fe- 
ces, that is> to drin^do^n the dregs titbit ; yet I am 
confident* that had the ftate of the controverfie come 
fo near, and in fuch matter, and amongft fuch men, as 
is formerly prefuppofed, he would not have been fo 
charged by the moft rigid, although for the peace of 
the Church he had drunken-over all thedreggs that 
might be in both the cups, the mentioned qualifica- 
tions being obferved ; For, I fuppofe> that the remo- 
ving or ftanding of fuch a decifion in the former re- 
fpcdfc, will neither be found inconfiftent with any 
Confeflion of Faith, even the moft full that ever was 
in any Orthodox Church ; nor with the Fundamen- 
tals of Religion chat are laid down in any Catechifms 
or Writings of any found Divines ; nor with the 
Conftitutions and Afts that have been thought necef- 
f ary to be inrolled amongft the A6b of any Council 
or Synod j nor, for ought we know, will be found to 
have been the matter of debate, even in the moft con- 
tentious times amongft Orthodox Divines : It would 
feem then, that if there be a latitude allowed without 
hazard for one to condefcend to another for the good 
of the Church in any thing, it muft be in the cafe 
prefuppofed. CHAP. 

Part 4« A Treatife concerning S c a NX) A Li 395 


The remedies ofdivifons 3 arifmg frctn mifappli- 
cation of power in ordination ofMintfters, and 
admitting to, or debarring from, communion. 

THe fourth matter of controvcrfie in reference 
to Government, is ufually fome mi f 'application 
of that power, or what is apprehended to be 
fo in fome particular a&s. As, 1. Ordaining fuch 
as were not thought to be worthy. 2. Depofing others 
(as was thought) unjuflly. 3. Admitting unco, or 
debarring from communion without ground refpe- 
ftively, and fuch like cafes. Upon the firtt ground 
arofe the £reat fchiim of the Donatifts, becaufe of the 
Ordinacion of decilianus, efleemed by them to be a 
Traditor. Of fuch fort alfo were the fchifms frequently 
at Jntiocby Conjlantinople, Alexandria, and other places, 
becaufe fome were ordained to the diffatisfa&ion 
of others. And fomctimes the diffatisfaftion was well 
grounded ; becaufe the perfons ordained, were not 
worthy: Sometimes it was groundlefle ; But often ic 
tended to double Ordination, and Separation in the TbeOrdi- 
clofe. Thefc things had need to be prevented, (b as nation ef a 
there be no juft ground of diffatisfaciion given by the ferfon tool 
Ordination of an unworthy man in fuch a time, nor thy of the 
any oppofic Ordination to fix a fchiim 5 be caufe thefc ^«*My, 
things are more difficultly removed, as hath been faid: ordained h 
Yet fuppofing them to be, thefe generals may be pro- £^r*k-Offz- 
pofed for healing of the fame. I. We will not find J" £* ^[/J 
an Ordination eafily counted to be null, even though ^g^or/owc 
done in a fchifm> as all the inftances do clear ; yea, fcf e fl u 
the Orthodox flood not to account the Bifhops and 
Presbyters ordained amongft the Vonatifts ,to be fuch, 
becaufe they had the eflentials of Ordination,and were 
ordained by Church-officers. 2. We fuppofe it need- 
full for peace, that there be no rigid flicking to have 


396 ATreatife concerning S c a n d a t • Part 4? 

fotne particular Ordinations re&ifiedjto the prejudice 
of the Church in general ,♦ efpecially, where the un- 
fitnefle or unworthinefs of the perfon is not eafily de- 
monftrable. 3. It fcemeth right and juft, that no 
Ordination of fuch a kind fhould eftablifh one that 
is unworthy in the Miniftery $ for, that is not to be 
difpenfed with ; although it be not a valid ground to 
keep up a divifion, where the removall of fuch a per- 
fon cannot be attained : and the moft unqueftionable 
Ordination for the form , cannot make one a worthy 
Minifter,whootherwayes is not a worthy perfon. In 
the conferences with the Ponatijls, the C a tbolicks offer- 
ed to quarrell the Ordination of none amongft them 
that otherwayes was worthy , nor to maintain any 
. amongft themfelves who were not worthy. 4. Yet 

»»'•»««« union would not be fufpended till this be done, but 

foended m * c * s co ^ c mac * c U P' t * iat lt may ^ e ^ one> as * n ^ e * n " * 
(ucbtryals, ft anc e formerly given. Becaufe, 1. this trial is the 
work of an united JCirk , and will require joynt 
ftrength and concurrence for the fame. 2. Becaufe 
union is a prefent duty, although there were defefil in 
fuch a trial , and a defeft in that, will not warrant a 
divifion. 3. It is not only a duty commanded, but it 
is a mids neceffary for promoving the triall and cen- 
furing of unworthy Minifters,for times of divifion are 
ever times of liberty , and thereby Authority is wea- 
kened,men are difcouraged to follow icand are other- 
wayes diverted, &c 4» Becaufe divifion can never 
be looked upon as the mean to effe&uate that tryall, 
but it ftrengthens the perfon who is to be tryed, and 
lefleneth the number of rsalous purfuers of fuch a de- 
fign, and incapacitates men for this duty, who other- 
wayes might be inftrumental therein. 5. Befide, if 
the guilt be not fo very palpable, as it may be demon- 
strated to be in perfons, at fuch a time,it is fafer to pre- 
serve certain peace in the Church, than to hunt for 
an uncertain crime, as hath been often faid. 
Fifthly, Where a perfons being in a place, is the - 


Part 4. A Treatife cencermng Sc and a it 3 97 

ground of contention, and things look dot fatisfying- 
like in his way, even though grofneffe be not demon- 
Rrablc , we think it not unbecoming the authority of 
Church- judicatories, which is given for edification, 
to appoint the removal of fuch a perfon from fuch a 
place, ( as was formerly hinted ) for, it looketh fad 
like , that a Minifter's being in fuch a particular 
place, fhould be moreobflru&ive to edification and 
to the Churches peace, than if he were not a Minifler 
at alK And it becoineth well that finglenefle that a 
Minifler ought to have in fcekingthe edification of 
the Church, to yeeld to fuch an advice and appoint- 
ment , or, of himfelf willingly to overture the fame* 
For,Mimfters are not to plead intereft in a Congrega- 
tion (imply, as a man doth his particular right ; be- 
caufe every thing of this kind ought to be done with 
refpeft to the edification of the body, the promoting 
whercof,ought to regulate both entries and removals. 
It's true, there would be warinefle hercleft dangerous 
precedents be given ; yet confidering, that a Minifler 
who may fomewhat peremptorily plead intereft, and , 
that jure in the.Miniftery> that yet cannot with thac 
fame flrength of reafon plead it in fuch and fuch a 
particular Congregation ; and confidering, that it is a 
publick sood that is refpe&ed , and not the fatisfa&i- 
on or diffatisfa&ion of Tome in a particular Congre- 
gation, we conceive the former affertion cannot be 
fimply denied. 

Where conjfiair Ordinations are, it is more diffi- 
cult ; Yet it would be confidered that all thefe things 
we fpeak of now, are but particular: and therefore 
although full fatisfaftion fhould not be obtained in 
themi yet ought they not to be ftumbled upon to the 
prejudice of: union ingenerall, in which the good of 
the Church is more eminently concerned, as hath been 
faid", Yet where peace is intended, we fuppofe this 
difficulty may be win over, one of thefe wayes, which 
haye been formerly in ufe in fuch cafes. As, I. Some- 

398 A Treatife concerning Scanda l . Pare 4 2 

times one perfon did willingly cede to another for the 
good of the Church; SodidS^/i&tf inacafe former- 
ly mentioned, for which his coadefcendency he is ever 
highly commended. Neither can this be thought to 
be a cafting by of the care of fuch a people, but rather 
the contrary, ic is more their good,that they (liould be 
united under one orthodox Minifter, though the more 
weak man, than to continue a diyifion with two that 
are more able. 2. Sometimes where two were* it was 
thought good to unite them in their meetings. and that 
the longeft liver fhould alone be acknowledged, if no 
other occafion o fered > and neither were unworthy of 
the place, as in a cafe at Antbcb formerly mentioned. 
3. Sometimes both have been laidafide> where nei- 
ther have been worthy , or faftions have been flrong 
for either party , and fo rooted prejudice of the adhe- 
rers to the one fide againft the other. This overture is 
offered by Augufline to the Vonatiftsfoz compofing that 
difference of oppofit Ordinations,which was frequent 
amongft them, each city almoft having two Bifhops; 
And this way hath been followed in compofing rrnny 
fchifms, even of late. 4. Sometimes the party offend- 
ed and wronged by an oppofi:Ordination,hath keep- 
cd divifion down in fome rerpe&, by ceding, or with- 
drawing, or hiding their offence,till fome probable or 
regular way hath occurred ; rather choofing never to 
poffeffe fuch a place than to do it by wronging of the 
Church>in keeping up an irregular fchifm,when there 
was no accefle orderly to redreffe it. Thus Eufeb'ws 
being offended that Lucifer had ordained Tatdinu* a 
Bifhopin y^iw&toaparty difclaiming him, who 
were called Eallacbidmfe moderated his carriage and 
withdrew, waiting to have had a lawful decifion>and 
refolving to be fubmiflire to that. Where men mind 
the good of the work, ic is not like but fome fuch way 
will comoofe the(e things ; and if thefe fail, we will 
find alfo adjacent Bifhops travelling to compofe the 
fame 5 Yea,fometimes men of authority coming from 


part 4. '</* Treat i/e concerning Scandal.' 399 

very far ; And alfo fomc by civil Authority appoint- 
ed to treat therein , as in the clofing of that fchifm at 
Jtntiech; for, fchifms,arifing from fuch difcontents, 
arc not ordinarily by meer Authority removed, bc- 
caufc there is often fomething both of affe&ion and 
confeience in the bufinefle : there is need therefore of 
mutuall friendly conferring for giving and receiving 
of fatisfa&ion therein. 


Remedies of divifions arifing from the mi/appli- 
cation of power, incenfuring, or /paring Mi- 
nifterS) reall or fuppofed. 

ANother part of the exercife of this power(wbich 
often in itsmifapplication,or its being pretend- 
ed to be fb,is the ground of Church-divifions) 
is The matter of cenfur'tng and rf^^wgofMinifters, 
and that two wayes. 
The one is,When fome good men are depofcd,or fuch 
as arc fuppofed to be fo, whereby perfons that appre- 
hend the in juftice of the fa&,do difclaim fuch a pow- 
cr,and adhere to fuch a perfon notwithftandin^ Thus 
did the fchifm at C on ft ari ^pople arife for the unjuft de- 
pofition of Cbryfoftom, and his adherents were called 
Iboannite , as if they had been of another Religion ; 
Such alfo was that of the Euftacbtans at Jntiochy 
which being driven againft honeft men,and there be- 
ing no condefcending, at leaft what was once con- 
defcended unto , being again recalled , there was no In w ^ Um 
flopping of fuch divifions, till in the manncr,formerly f es extremi- 
hintcd, and that being after both their deaths. In fuch ties are to be 
cafes extremities are to be (hunned , for, its extremity Jbunnc L 
that maketh rents, that is, too little condefcending on 
the one fide, and too much tenacioufnefs on the other. 
One extremity to be eiche wed, is, WhenChurch- 
judicatorics are too tenacious of a paft Sentence , or 


4oo *A Trean/e concerning® candal. Part 4^ 

the formality of fome legall advantage which fccmcth 
to juftifie the Sentence , as in that cafe of Cbryfojlotns, 
almoft all the weight was laid on this at firtt , That 
her efufed to appear before them,or acknowledge their 
Authority as they were conftituted : and although 
both the people and others did adhere to him , yet 
there was no condescending, which occafioned a great 
fchifm, and was exceedingly condemned by the gene- 
rality of faithfull men in thefc dayes. Another extre- 
mity is, upon the other fide, When for fatisfa&ion of 
a Judicatory too little is ceded ; or upon fuppofition, 
. even of an un juft Sentence, a fchifm is ftated , to the 
*™'^ wriw hurtof the Church. In this cafe we may obferve 
rimlwt'ru c ^ e thin S s > *• That fometimes the Judicatory hath 
.- m s condefcended to re-admit a perfon , otherwayes of 
efteem , although poffibly fome particular flip hath 
been, that in ftrift juftice might have deferved the 
Sentence : this was in the cafe of OJim formerly cited. 
It is true , there is no mention of the caufe wherefore 
/ the Synod of Spain did depofe him, nor is it clear whe- 
ther it be that famous Ofm % whom the Arum depofed 
and whipped till he approved Atbanaftm his depofiti- 
on ; yet this is clear, that he being a man efteemed of 
in theChurch,though poffibly out of infirmity having 
fallen in that fault, he was for concord reftored , Sine 
detriment honoris, without prejudice to his credit. 
2. Where men have been depofed upon the breach 
of fome legality >or contempt, if otherwayes they have 
been men of gifts, and approven integrity in the main, 
though poffibly thought proud and rigid by others,as 
in that cafe of Chryfojtom ; they were again received 
into the Church , and the Sentences with content laid 
by, as appeareth in the readmitting o(Cbryfo/iom after 
his firft depofition ( of the juftice of whofe Sentence 
of depofition > becaufe there was no convincing evi- 
dence to fatisfie the people, Se\>eAnm in preaching did 
lay, That his pride was reafon fufficenc) which for a 
lime removed the divifion , and brought a chearfutl 

Part 4. A TreAttfe conarmng Scandal, 4° * 

calmneffe* till fhortly after his old enemies interrupted 
it, and did enter a new procefle with him , becaufe he 
had re-entered his Bifhoprick being once depofed by 
a Synod > and not having their authority; (which 
wasgrounded even upon the constitutions ofJrian 
Councils) this being the fecond time driven- on againft 
the intreatics and obteftations of many worthy Bi- 
(hops and good people who adhered to him, did 
again renew and fix that fchifm. 3. When the men 
were other wayes corrupt, or difcoveredto be grofle ^ n/ ^ f - 
andprophane, although many other orthodox men l ro r^ au * 
did interpofe for them • yec by all means it was K'ncnfoPM 
fitted ; becaufe they ftill fuppoled fuch worthy men f^Lnt^ 
■ thatfided with fuch to be mif- informed. And it's^,/^^, 
obfervable* that the moft peaceable Synods who did^^f, 
moft for union, as thofe in Africk^ and that of Spain, 
who had received Ofius, becaufe of the Churches of 
France their interpofing , by that to prevent a fchifm> 
yet were they moft peremptory, as it were in this, and - 
refufed to receive $arjiltde$ and Martialti, as that of 
Canbage did refufe Jpiarim, norwithftanding that 
%ome interpofed for them, giving this rea(on,Thac 
there was a ncceflicy of having the Churches provi- 
ded with faithfull and holy Minifters. 4, Some- 
times, and oftentimes men fentenced, though poflibly 
with too much rigidity, if not with injuftice , have 
yet fubmitted with refpefil to the Churches peace* ei- 
ther totally, and upon that ground have again been 
admitted; or partially, by abftaining to aft any thing 
contrary to fuch a Sentence , but for reverence there- ' 
unto waiting for fome legal redreflfe, as in hiftory is 
frequent ; and it is fie it (hould be fo in fuch cafes 
where the hurt is particular, and proceedeth not from 
a common defign of undoing all faithfull Minifters ; 
becaufe the making of a fchifm, doth more hurt than 
the contending for their particular Miniftery doth 
cdifie in fuch a cafe ; and therefore fometimes though 
fome men haye been preffed to undervalue an unjuft 

t> d Seii' 

40 z tA Treattfe concerning Scandal Park 4 • 

Sentence,and to continue to officiate notwithftanding, 
Yet out of refpeft to Church-authority and order, 
have refufed till they (hould be admitted orderly unto 
the fame. Indeed when the Mans draveon the de- 
position of their moft eminent oppofers, it was other- 
wayes, becaufe fas is marked in the Cfetmti// offor- 
dica ) in bearing down of them, they endeavoured to 
bear down the truth which they maintained : But, 
where the controverfie is not fuch, but the men ortho- 
dox and found on both fides, though poffibly there 
may be fome particular faults or miftakes ; in fuch a 
cafe, ic is fafer for either fide to cede in part,or wholly, 
than to keep up a divifion : and we conceive, when 
one fide cedeth not, if the other fhould cede wholly, ic 
would be moft to the advantage of their caufe, and to 
the commendation and ftrengthening of their autho- 
rity in the Churches of Chrifh 
Debates ^e 9t ^ er OCC2L ^ on °? bebate in fuch Church- mat- 
about con- terSj * s u P on ^ e defeft, that is, when fome are really, 
mving at or are thought to be, connivers at guiltie men, or at 
£M#7iHflileaft defe&ive in putting of them to trial! : others 
again, may be thought too forward and precipitant 
in that, whereupon arifeth difference ; and ifone cede 
not to another, it becometh the occafion of divifion, 
as may be feen in inftances formerly given: Con- 
cerning which, we fay, 

1 . That men would remember, this is but one par- 
ticular of many, that tend to the Churches good, 
( though indeed a main particular ) and fo ought not 
to be the rife of a divifion, nor of continuing thereof, 
to the marring of the Churches peace in other things, 
but men ought fingly to do their duty, and therein 
to acquiefce, without partaking of the faults of others, 
whether it be by being defeftive, or by exceeding in 
that mater ; and feing there may be no corrupt defign 
in either who may be upon thefe extreames, it would 
not be fo highly aggreaged on either fide- 

2. We fay, that as often difference in this, may 


Part 4. *A Trettifc concerning Scandal.' 403 

breed divifions ; foagain,divifions do occafion mens 
differing more in this : and k cannot be expfftcd 
where divifion is, that men who are men and fubjeft 
to be byaffed, can be fo fingle in receiving teftimonies 
of the innocency of thefethat differ from them, or of 
the guiltineffe of thefe that agree with them, as if there 
were no divifion at all : And again , it is impoffible, 
that where there is a difference in fome other thing, 
that men can think others differing from them fo 
fingle and unbyafled, as they fuppofethemfelvesto 
be, but are ftill ready to conftruft their differing from 
them in this to be occafioncd from fome former preju- 
dice ; for,as was faid,divifion breedeth jealoufie, fuf- 
picion, and diftruft among men > and men are natu- 
rally inclined to fufpe<5t that others drive the defigh of 
ftrengthen'ing themfelves by the fentencing of fuch a 
perfon, whereby they are fecretly induced, even una- 
wares, todifappoint fuch a fuppofed unftreight end, 
which maketh them on both fides fufpeft every thing, 
difpute every thing, and readily rejeft everything 
that cometh from the other. 

3. We fay therefore,that union would not be fuf- Ww Ap- 
pended upon fatisfaftion in this, but rather union ther t0 bc 
would be preffed, that fatisfa&ion in this may be at- J° ll$1 * e & 
tained \ becaufe fatisfa&ion in this cannot be expeft- ™ a *f dtUm : 
ed till there be mutuall confidence of one anothers in- hcreinmti 
tegrity : and till there be fome walking together , and j, j ?a i ' 
fome further evidence of the finccrity of each other in 

the main bufineffe, this mutuall confidence cannot be 
expe&ed : and again , this cannot be obtained with- 
out an union, and fo confequently union would be 
laid as a foundation for attaining of facisfaftion even 
in this. 

4. It would be confidercd, that oftentimes fuch ap- 
prchenfions of extremities, which are imputed toho- 
neft and zealous men, are moft groundleffe ; but there 
being fomething in them as men,it is conceived on the 
other hand, becaufe of fecretly entertained icalcufic, 

d a id 

404 ! A Treatife concerning Scandal. Part 4^ 

to be much more. There was nothing morecaften 
up to the Orthodox by the KoVatians and fDonatifts, 
than that they were defe&ive in this , in admitting 
to, and retaining in the Miniftery, men that were cor- 
rupt, Yet after many trials they were never able to 
prove what they alleaged upon fome eminent perfons 
whenitcametotriall , even when fuch things were 
In times f generally accounted true amongft them. This would 
divihon> ^e *dverted,that every general rumour be not accoun- 
tumours te ^ a truth, efpecially in the times of divifion , for fo> 
concerning few of the moft eminent on both fides fhould beinno- 
tminent cent. Again, on the other fide, it occafioned much 
jcrfonsfiot heat againft Cbryfojiom, that he had cenfured many of 
to befo re* his Bifhops, and threatened many of his Clergie ; this 
garded. did exceedingly provoke envy againft him , and made 
fuch men to vent many calumnies on him,which were 
too much regarded, even by fome orthodox and good 
men, who differed from him upon another account 
( as Epipbanim did upon the occafion of Origens writ- 
ings) yet in no hiftory it is recorded, that he aimed at 
the cenfuring of any unjuftly , though he did cenfure 
with a naturall vehemency, as he did every other 
thing; but the hiftory faith , menfpake much of the 
number of thefe that were fentenced by him > and of 
the vehemency of his manner in reproving and cen- 
furing of their faults , which they accounted to be 
pride, not confidering the faults for which he did cen- 
fure them ; But men having conceived prejudice at 
him, were the readier to admit of their accufations 
againft him, as if they had been unjuftly dealt with 
by him, and upon that fame ground of prejudice at 
. . him, were the more inclinable to reftore them whom 
?*?/'* he fentenced. 

jujuy ten- $ I c is to be confidered alfo, That zeal againft 
imifflm ^ uc ^ as are ' u ^ty cenfurable, is moft confiftent with 
mtb a (pi- a ^P 1Vit °^ un * on * n c ^ c Church , as appeareth by the 
ritofuni- former inftances of men moft tender of union , and 
.#«, . yet moft zealous in this : yeai thefe two go together ; 


Part 4» A Treatife concerning Scandal' 405 

bccaufe zeal for the Churches edification,conftraineth 
to union, and doth alfo prefl'e the removing of corVupt 
unfaithfull Minifters, which, next todivifion in a 
Church, is the greateft plague of a Church. Therefore 
thefe things would be adverted, 1 . That the purging 
of the Church of fuch, and the work of union, would 
be joyntly rcfpe6led>otherwayes if union be flcigbted, 
it will hazard the falling in too nearly with the 
fchifmsof thcNoVatians and tDonatifts , which have 
been fo hurtfull to the Church. 2. Union when it is ret union u 
in competition with the depofing of fome unfaithfull to be pc- 
men, and both cannot be obtained together, it ought fared, to 
to be preferred, as we fee the Apoftle doth, 2 C or * *o. tkc cenfur* 
6* who will not cenfure in fuch a cafe , left he ftate a ingoffom^ 
fchifm ; for, the continuing of fuch in a Church, is in- m f^^l u ^ 
deed a hurt, feing they are ufelefle, and in a great part mcu * 
hurtfull, yetfo, honeft Minifters may have acceffe to 
do good befide them : but when fchifms enter ,the hurt 
thereof is more comprehenfive , and they do render 
unufefull the Miniftery both of good and bad. 3. It 
would beconfideredalfo, that the divifion being in 
the cafe fuppofed, where men are orthodox and pious 
on both fides, it is not fo exceedingly to be feared, that 
either men,palpably corrupt in doftrinejor conven- 
tion, (hould be entetrained upon the one fide or that 
men ufeful in the Church,and blameleffe in their con- 
ventions, fhould be crufhed upon the other. 4. It Vnitn^ no 
would follow alio, that union fhould be no prejudice t re J ud * ce 
to the ridding of the Church of corrupt Minifters, but t0 . ti)e ^ ur ^ 
that it (hould be ftudied where there is need, becaufe it & n & J*| *' 
is a fruit of the fame fpirit (to be zealous againft cor- €Qfru * ' 
rupt men) from which meekneffe and moderation to- 
ward thefe who are not fuch, do proceed ; and there- 
fore if there be any fuch obje6t of zeal, as an unfaith- 
full Miniftcr, (as it is not like that evct the Church 
wasi or (hall be free of fuch) then ought men to beftir 
themfelves faithfully in the removing of fuch. It is 
m arked and commended in the Angel of Epbefu5 f 
D d 3 %K 

4o<5 tATreatife conccrnlngSc akdai* Part 4. 

%v.2. v. 1,3. That he was eminent in patience and 
enduring) and yet to zealous in this, that he could en- 
dure no unfent Mimfter , but tryed fuch as called 
themielves Apoftles, &c. which contemperature or 
mixture is exceedingly commended : And in refe- 
rence to the fcope which we are upon > zeal in this* is 
not only a duty as at other times, but a fpeciall mean 
having influence on the procuring of union ; becaufe 
fo , one of the great ftumblings that hath been in the 
Church to make theMiniftery contemptible is remov- 
ed , and a prafticall evidence of mens zeal is given, 
which tendeth to lay a ground of confidence of them 
in the hearts of others ; fo, alfo men are kceped from 
falling under the tentation of luke-warmncffe > and 
forgetting of every duty , but the fupporting of the 
fide, at leaft, that which ufually is imputed in fuch a 
cafe, is removed ; and alfo by this , men would find 
the neceffity of bearing with many things in others, 
who may in the main be fuppofed to be honcft : And 
however 5 it is the way to be approven before God, 
and to have a tefiimonie in the confeiences of others. 
All which conduce exceedingly to union ; whereas 
univcrfall ceffation fronuhis, as if there were no fuch 
matter to work upon , and obftrufting formally,yea, 
or materially or virtually any thing thereof, doth ex- 
ceedingly tend 'Othe fixing of divifion,and cooling of 
the affe&ions of many that look on, without which, 
that is, warmed affeftions , there is little acceffe to 
hearty union* 
P . 6. We fay, that this duty of purging would not be 

not to be ^° * n * ts ve hcmency preffed, either under a divifion,or 
much prcf.whAe union is not confirmed, as when a Church is in 
fed M mi- a 8°°d condition ; becaufe > that were to give firong 
in be j5x- phyfick to an unfettled weak body, that might rather 
<si, liir the humours to the prejudice of the whole , than 

remove them : Therefore we conceive » that fobriety 
and prudence would be ufed here > in moderating of 
theexercifeof this duty, till the union be confirmed, 


Part 4. A Treattfe concerning scandal. ^°7 

and, as ic were , by preparations the body be difpofed 
for the fame : Therefore if faults be not grofl'e, evi- 
dences clear, and a perfons unfruitfulneffe or hurtful- 
neffe dcmonftrable , ( in which cafes no difference 
amongft fuch parties as are to be united, is to be fear- 
ed) It is fafer for the Church to abftain the fame, than 
to hazard the opening or ruffling of a wound fcarcely 
cured, by the unfeafonable prefling of fuch a duty. 
The Apoftle doth in feverall cafes fpare cenfures of 
unfaithfull men, out of reiped to the Churches pood, 
as hath been formerly hinted; and as the judicious 
divine Mr. Gillcff>y (who yet cannot be branded with 
luke- warmncfle in this duty) in his jfarons rod, mak- 
cth out, and doth give inftances of feverall cafes, 
wherein this forbearance iscallcd-for. Infum, we 
fuppofe that having to co in fuch a cafe with fuch pcr- 
fons,it is more fafe for men to do their own duty,keep- 
ing the peace of the Church, and co leave others to do C 
according to the manifeftneffe of things as they (ball 
anfwer before God,as to their feeking the good of His 
Church ; and if this prevail not with fuch men for 
ordering them in their duty, will any think that the 
keeping up, or threatening of divifion, will prevail ? 

La]lly y It would be confidered, if fuch ends as any 
fide would propofe* either in keeping in , or purging 
out of men who are thought fit or unfit refpedtively, 
can be attained without union, fo as with it. There- 
fore feing that is a thing which belongeth to Govern- 
ment,and men are to be fwayed in fuch Afts by what 
conduceth moft to edification , when they cannot at- 
tain the length they would ( as we fuppofe men (hall 
never do, in this matter of purging ) they then are to 
walk by this rule of choofing what comparatively is 
moft edifying, as was formerly faid. Sometimes alio 
difference hath been about the excommunicating of per- 
fons , or readmitting again to communion : but what 
concerneth this may be fomewhat undcrftood from 
the former grounds , wherein extremities would be 
D d 4 (hunned, 

4o8 ^4 Trcatifc concerning Scan da l • Part 4. 

fhunned, and the Churches peace , and the Authority 
of the Ordinances ftudied : Alio, we have otherwayes 
beyond our purpofe become fo long, (and poffibly ad 
naufeam ufque) in other things, we (hall therefore for- 
bear particular dcicending into this, but proceed in 
the generals propofed. 


The fears of mi(- government for the time to come, 
and remedies thereof* 

THe laft thing in Government > which was 
propofed, as that whereabout differences and 
divifions do arife, is, in reference to Govern- 
ment for the time to come, and refolves in this, Who 
(hall have chief hand in thedecifion of matters that 
after may fall out ; fuppofing the union to be made up. 
This refultech from the preient diffidence and preju- 
dice which each hath in reference toother, and from 
that impreffion that men have , that there will be a 
driving of fides, according to power, even under a 
concluded union : And indeed fomewhat may be 
feared and expe&ed, at leaft for a time , confidering 
mensdiflance in fucha cafe; for, if diffidence and 
fufpicion be cbme to that height under divifions, that 
one will not truft another in fome petty particular fa& 
that is paft 5 Or lay by jealoufie where no proof is, 
notwithstanding of all folemn atteftations 5 it's no 
marvel that in matters of greater confequence which 
are to come, they do not eafily give them credit. This 
is often the greateft bufinefle to be compofed in a dif- 
ference : hence it is, that fometimes bygones, which 
have been the rife of the divifion* maybe removed, 
when as yet this cannot be compofed, becaufe there 
is no way conceivable how both parties may have 
the chief hand in Government,and neither being wil- 
ling to qede to the other; either from a feqr« ground 


part 4. A Treattfe concerning Scandal; 409 

of fleighting one another, or from that root of Yufpi- 
cion whereby they conceive all loft that the other is 
able to carry over them , whereby from fear of ha- 
zarding the Churches good condition > they run here 
in a certain prejudice , and, in fome fenfe, tall in that 
inconvenience, which a Writer obferveth on the con- 
tending of two BiChops , expreffed in this as the 
ground of their divifion, tsntu utpreejjet alter nefub- 
ejfet,fed neuter ut prodefiet ; which isofcen-times, on 
the matter>too true in all luch contefts, this laft being 
a conkquent of the former two. 

This difference may be confidercd two wayes, 
Ii As it pretendeth adiffatisfa&ion with the perlons 
who are to govern ; tome, upon the one fide,thinking 
it unfit to joyn with prophane men ; fome, upon the 
other, difdaining to joyn with Schifmaticks. In this 
ftraitwere the Fathers of the Council of C aY ^age in 
their dealing with the® onatiffs 5 fome of them affert- 
ing, on the one fide, Thac there was no uniting with 
fuch as the generality of the Catholic^ were ; and Au- 
gufttne often citeth the word of Trimianttt, given- in to 
them as an Anlwer to the defire of a Conference, In* 
dignum eft ut in unum conveniant filii Martyrum, & pro- 
genies tradttorum ; that is, It is a motf mfiemly thing 
that the fins of Martyrs , and the brcod of Traditors 
Jhould ajjemble together in one place. On the other hand, 
they were preflcd from %ome and parts adjacent, not 
to unite with thefe Schifmaticks the flonatifts, as may 
befecn in that Council ; yet did they find it their duty 
to feek union with them notwithftanding, and to ad- 
mit, that luch of them as were put before from their 
Churches, (hould be repoffefled by him that was ap- 
pointed C°gnitor, and deputed by the Emperour in that 
Conference , Ut eo modo eos ad conferendum etiam bene- 
fitivs inVttaret • that is, That fo he might irMte them to 
conference at leajl by fuch benefits. This principle, we 
fuppofc, ought not, nor will not ftick in the hearts of 
fuch men, and in fuch a cafe , as is preluppofed, and 

. . . it 

4 1 o e^ Treatife concerning Scandal' Part 4.* 

it leadeth to a Theft, That there is no communion in 
Government to be kceped , where* upon any of the 
former accounts, men are difpleafed with fuch perfons 
as are joyned therein with them : and though aflfe&i- 
on, andfometimes inclination,being ftirred with pre- 
judice anddifcontent, will be ready tomakefome 
fuch praftices to be plaufible, which do infer this ; 
yeti I fuppofe, the Tbefis it felf will not be maintained, 
more than fuch a ground will warrant Separation in 
any other Ordinance ; and the grounds formerly laid 
down in feveral parts of this difcourfe, will not admit 
of fuch a principle, which,if admitted, would exclude 
union for ever, We (hall therefore paffethis. 

The fecond and main difficulty then, is, In the or- 
dering of things fo for the time to come, as the ends of 
union and government may thereby be obtained, and 
that nothing that may be juflly feared by one fide or 
other, may be altogether fleighted. In reference to 
this, it will not be expe6ted that we fhould be parti- 
% cular or fatisfying , yet not to leave it altogether im- 

perfect. We (ball, firft, propofe (orr^e general con- 
fiderations,to mollifie the (harpneffe of divifion upon 
this account- 2* Offer fome general helps, which in 
fuch cafes may be thought on. 3. Lay down fome 
advertifements upon fuppofition that full fatisfa&ion 
be not obtained. 

We propofe thefe confiderations to be thought on 

It mjlbe concerning this, 1. In fuch a thing it is impoflible 

fuch a (atk- that men on both, or either fide, can expeft full fatif- 

faShn at faction to their mind, or even (imply to their light; 

neither is becaufe men have not the carving out of what is good 

fully fatisfi* to the Church (imply before them, but comparatively 

ct> and in reference to fuch and fuch a circumftantiate 

cafe ; and therefore muft refolve, that refpeft muft be 

had to the fatisfa&ion of others as of themfelves ; 

for, ic is not the fatisfaftion of one fide that maketh 

up union, but of both : and therefore it muft be re- 

folvedtobe fuch a fatisfaftion to both, as neither is 


part 4t tA Treatife concerning Scandal. 411 

fully and (imply fatisficd therein 1 and for that caufe 
it's not to be expe&cd that in fuch a cafe all inconve- 
niences which are poffible, can be fatisfyingly pre- 
vented> or queftions concerning the fame anfwered. 
I doubt if in any cafe there will be full fatisfa&ion as 
to thefe. 

2. Let it be considered, if the abftaining of uniting 
will prevent thele inconveniences upon cither fide, 
and if it doth not rather bring on greater, and moe 
upon the Church ; and if inconveniences fway 5 which 
areleffer and more uncertain in the one cafe, thofe 
which are greater and more inevitable, ought to fway 
more in the other * for, it's already prefuppofed, that 
joyning doth not make one guilty in thefe inconve- 
niencies, more than abftaining doth. 

Yea, ?. Let it be confidered, if by continued di- 
vifion, men be not neceflarily guilty of the inconve- 
niences that follow it ; becaufe (to fay fo) they follow 
itperfe, or naturally and neceffanly , whereas the 
other follows upon union but by accident at the mod : 
Other confederation* , formerly mentioned, are alfo to 
have weight, and ought to be remembred here. 

We come now to confirier the helps which may in ^ e tW;/ - 
part be ufefull to prevent thefe fears. In reference tO/ cdr ^ ^ mt 
which we would, 1. confider, that the matter feared, corrupt do- 
is not the bringing- in of unfound doftrine in the ge- faine nor a 
neral, nor the altering of pradtical rules to the ftreng- hrong Go. 
theningof prophanity , But it is the mifapplicationitffjwiw. 
of good rules already made, efpecially in reference to 
thefe. 1. The admitting of unfit Officers in the 
Church. 2. The depofing of fuch as deferve the 
fame. 3» The decifion of Tome particular differences 
that may occafionally occur in the carrying-on of 
Church-affairs, wherein men may apprehend and 
fear partiality,as they fhall occur : which grounds of 
fear upon either fide, we may gather from what hath 
been formerly hinted. 
Concerning the matter of depofuion, we have fpo- 


4i i A Treatife concerning S can da * • Part 4; 

kcti already and (hall fay 110 more. Concerning the 
other two points, we may confidcr them either as they 
are concerning things paft, before the union be made- 
up during the divifion ; or, as they relate to what may 
occafionally fallout afterward. 

Concerning what is paft in fuch debated particu- 
lars we have fpoken already > and, it(cems> one of 
thefe three wayes muft be taken in reference therunto. 
•i. Either by waving of thefe things (if they be fuch as 
maybe waved) fo that without infifting in them, 
they may be buried ; or, by one parties ceding > or, 
by a mucual compofure, they may be iriftantly fetled. 
z> ' not 2# ^"'^ac cannoc be, the union is not to be fufpended 
tobe fufpcn* t ^ iereotl > ^ ut fome mutually may be appointed tola- 
ded Lon c- ^ om m ^ ^ ame afterward, that with confent it may 
very \mi- be brought to a point, which is not to be thought Je- 
adar. fperate, although it be not ended for the time. This 
way of mutuall conferring is natutail , as being an 
approven mean for compofingof differences of any 
Some parti* fort , in any place, at any time. 3, If that pleafe 
culars to be noz 9 or attain not the end, the matter may be ami- 
referred n ca bly referred to fome acceptable to both , who may 
^L*^fibe trufted with the ultimat decifion in fuch parti- 
•^* a *^ culars: neither is this unbecoming Church-autho- 
rity fo tocondefcend, nor Minifters in fuch matters to 
be fubmiffive. For, 1. it is no matter of doSrine 
wherein they are to decide, or wherein either party is 
toacquiefce, but it is in fome particular pra&icall 
thing. 2. The Submiffion is not in a difference be- 
twixt a thing finfull and a thing la wfull, but betwixt 
two things that arc la wfull, which of them compara- 
tively is the moft expedient to the Church in fuch a 
cafe ; wherein I conceive, it were not implicit walk- 
ing, though men fliould acquiefce in the judgment 
of fome others in fuch things,more than in their own. 
3. It would feem, that that advice of the Apoftle's, 
I C or * &• ( ft Mere not a ^ife man amongst you ? tsfc. ) is 
piopofed in the general, to prevent all fuch ftrife and 


Part 4^ A Treat %f e concerting Scandai. 4^3 
contention, as doth bring fcandal with it : and there- 
fore ought not to be excluded in this cafe , feing there 
is a gift of prudence and wifdom given unto the 
Church for the governing of her felf , and is more 
eminently given to one than to another , even as the 
gift of knowledge is for do&rine ; and therefore 
we conceive that in fuch cafes, fuch may warran- 
tablybe trufted with fuch particulars, feing it might 
be cxpe&ed that they would endeavour to make the 
beft thereof for the good of the Church. In that 
conference with theftonatifts y we find that the ®ona- 
tifts are defired to name one for themfe!ves,who might 
joyn with the Cognitor appointed to judge of fuch 
particulars and matters of facft, as were in debate be- 
twixt the Catbolicf^s and them; and their refufing there- 
of was looked upon as an evidence of their not defi- 
ring an end of the controverfie : Neither is it to be 
thought, that Juguftine and nigh 300. Bifliops with 
him who yeelded thereto , did undervalue the matter 
in debate between them, though they were content to 
have differences in fa£t fo decided. We find alfo, 
that for the removing almoft of all the forementioned 
fchifmsi there were particular men, either deputed by 
Synods, or commiflionated by adjacent Churches, or 
called by themfelves , for the compofing amicably of 
fuch praftical differences as were the occafion of their 
rents : And, it may be , that were this more ufrd for 
compofing of Church-differences, the height that of- 
tentimes they come to in particulars , might be pre- 

We here think not fit, that fuch things (hould b c Such thn f 
decided by Church- judicatories by a mecr authorita- ?^°*/$ a 
tivedecifion : not out of any dif-refpe6l to Church- J a r e aut l „ 
Judicatories; butbecaufe, as was formerly hinted in rim i vc 
the generall grounds , Church- judicatories are fitter wa y % 
for preventing fuch divifions than for removing of 
them: And further, a Church- judicatory being in 
all publick divifions a party , fuch deqifion would . 

look 1 

4 X 4 A Treatife concerning Scandal Part 4; 

Jookliker fubmiffion (which men are notfoeafily 
induced ifhco ) than union. Befide> fuch a way is 
more ready to breed heart- burnings in (uch things as 
have been the matter of conteft formerly , and (o is 
palpably in hazard to brangle an union fcarce begun 1 
Alfo, men will more eafily bear any decifion wherein 
themfelves have a content > though it were mediately 
by committing it to fome others , than where there is 
only a ncceffity of obeying • and efpecially where 
fuch prejudice is conceived to be in the Judge, as in 
the cafe fuppofed. This maybe clearer from what 
may be faid afterward. 
Better fet a ^ or re g u ' at i n 8 things which may occafionally fall 
time tljor- ouc ' ^ or c ^ e timt to come > wc ma y P ro P 0,c c ^efe ge- 
hear many derail helps to be confidered. I. That there be an 
things, than abftinencefrom what may readily feem to prove the 
to br angle occafion of any differences leaft for a time : and it is 
union. better to forbear many things » than to brangle union* 
or grieve a party with whom we have united 5 Yet 
generally it appeareth , that it is driving and not for- 
bearing, that breedeth divifion, and alfo grieveth men 
after union, and tempts them to rue the fame. Nei- 
ther is this a bar to any from a neceflary duty, it only 
regulateth men in the doing of neceflary duties , fo as 
they may efchew the guilt of renting the Church , or 
grieving of others ; or, atrnoft, krelatethbuttothe 
tyming, manner, or (ome other circumftance of a ne- 
ceflary duty : As fuppofe in the matcer of planting a 
Church , a divifion fhould in all appearance be like 
to arife , It is more fit that it fhould be for a time fuf- 
pended,and other endeavours for facilitating the fame 
ufed, yea, ere a breach be, chat even other perfons be 
fought out ; for , though it be duty to plant the 
Church, and that with none but fuch as are worthy, 
yet it is not alway a neceflary duty to plant fuch a 
particular Church, at fuch a time, and in (uch a man- 
ner , and with fuch a worthy perfon ; Yea , it were 
better for the Church* and more peace to the perfons 

Part4- ATreatife concerning Sc kkd At* 415 

mind , that fuch a particular place (houldvakc for 
fevcrall years, than that the peace of the Church , or 
compofedneffe of , her Judicatories, fliould be marred 
thereby* and fo in other matters wherein forbearance 
is called- for. 

2. In fuch a cafcdoubtfull practices would be ab- <D$ u btfull ' 
ftained ; and whatever fide men choofe in any occur- patthcs to 
ring particular, it would be fuch, and in fuch a man- be abfiawd* 
nerdone, as may be convincingly approvable umo fnm. 
any of whatfoever fide ; for , it is often uncertain 
things, or difputable at the moft,that breed differences 
amongft judicious fobcr men : men therefore would 
fomeway confine themfelves within unqueftionable 
things for a time , and not only have refpeft to their 
own confciences in fuch things » and to what is right 
in it felf, but alfo to others , who want not their own 
fufpicions and jealoufies > and who by their deed may 
either be foon tempted> or grieved ; both which they 
ought to (hun. 

g. We conceive, that it is ufefull in fuch a time to ^ avj i ro . 
have many brotherly confutations, and conferences, tbcrlyconie- 
concerning fuch things as may be moved, that things rences to 
come not in abruptly , for, fo fometimes men may be pnvtnt a- 
furprifed with fomewhatthey have not heard of, and brup \wt* 
become jealous where there is no ground : Alfo, it is {Tijais. 
an evidence of refpeft fo to communicate thoughts, 
and men may thus know what is fit to be moved, and 
what not; whereas otherwayes, men may be foon 
engaged in oppofition to a motion , and not foeafily 
brought off. This communication would not fo 
much be by appointment of others, as voluntary, and 
out of refpeft between particular perfons: Alfo, it 
would be refpeftively done to the perfon with fub- 
mifiion to his reafon, that is, if hefeem reafonably 
diflatisfied therewith, and do not rellifh the fame , the 
motion would be forborn, at leatt for a time , and 
the other waited upon therein, till he come up to ic, 
or at leaft connive at it ; this would breed confidence 


41 6 A Treatife concerning Scamda l • Part 4^ 

and make the defigns joynt. And this way that is to 
be followed in the firft moving of things, would alfo 
bs continued in the promoving thereof. 
Hdttets $f 4* Matters of difficulty would rather be committed 
difficulty ra« to deputed perfons than inftantly decided efpeciaily 
tber com- infuperiour Judicatories. The reaibns are* i» Be- 
miuei % tban caufe ordinarily fuperiour Judicatories cannot wait 
tnftantl/dc- the time that fretted fpirits will requite to bring bufi- 
dicL nefles of difficulty to any cordial cloie. 2. Itfeenjeth 

refpe&ive like when they are fd taken notice of, and 
flighting like when things are haflencd. 3. Neither 
fo are all after-murmurings and riiings of heart pre- 
vented! when things are not heard to the full. 4* Be- 
caufe time may do many things,and that may be eafie 
ere long which is difficult now- $♦ In fuch deputa- 
tions there is more accede to have refpe<St to the ap- 
pointing of fuch perfons, as may moft probably ef- 
fe&uate the thing for the Churches good ; and , no 
queftion , a Church- judicatory is to take the way 
which may do the thing beft, afwell as a particular 
perfon, and they are to abftain from debatable things 
and hafty conclufions, even as particular perfons are: 
and oftentimes experience teacheth , that fuch Com- 
miffions expede many things , which more frequent 
Affemblies could not fo well do. Hence we will find, 
that it was ordinary in the primitive time upon fuch 
grounds,to give Commiflion to tome few to do things, 
and particularly, that often-mentioned Council of Car- 
thage did think good to diflolve, and to depute fo ma- 
ny for deciding that, in matters of difcipline, which 
they could not by themfelves fo well be able to com- 
Not unfit, paffe. 
fomc prfons 5. \# e conceive alfo, that it were not unfit in fuch 
intt ie- ca f es ( for a time at leaft ) to have fome defigned by 
fignei for a mutual confent, who might cornpofe fuch occafional 
tmct$<om. difF erences as poffibly might ariie; or, who at leaft 
MUdtffu mi g^ c have fo much powrr as to reftrain and keep 
fciuei. " ^ owa £ he Tame from being a new ground of divifion 



par 1 4« A Treatife concerning Scandal^ 417 

to the Church , or matter of great grief to any party. 
This is not to conttitute anew Judicatory, bu: ac- 
cording to the light of nature to provide a mean for 
keeping up of order , and preventing of confufion, 
when, in refpeftof the prefcnt diftemper of fpirit, 
there is no poffibility for attaining^ that end by the 
conftituted Judicatory: Nature in fuch a cafe teaches 
all men to feek for order in every fociety , and it be- 
ing fuppofed that there cannot be a joyning in ordi- 
nary Judicatories without this, and that it might be 
attained with this, it's hard to think, that that is de- 
nied to the Church which agreeth to all other focie- 
ties ; or, that it can be faid, that it is better to wane 
union in Church- judicatories, than to have it fo qua- 
lified. Sure fome Churches would , and do think 
much to attain this length , as appeareth by the ma- 
ny voluntary affociations which worthy men have 
been led unto, for the keeping of order, and attaining 
of fbme union, who are yet good friends to Church- 
government ; and the reafon that warranteth them in 
their deed, to wit, the neccflity of union and order itl 
the Church, and the impoffibility that there is of any 
further mean for attaining the fame, will warrant this 
praftice in the cafe fuppofed ; for, the queftion is not 
(imply, What is t^c (rft conftituted Government of 
a Church in a good condition ? but it is, Whether a 
Government with fuch a qualification, be better than 
"500 Government, or a divided Government, it being 
fuppofed that no other in the circumftantiat cafe can 
be attained ? 

It would be confidered alfo, That fuch a voluntary 
reference to fuch perfons, doth not include any autho- 
;y> as to ordain Minifters, or depofe,&r*. but it is to 
Oe in matters of faft, as in thefitnefle or unficnefle of 
fuch a Plantation, of fuch a Procefle, and the like ; 
which was mentioned in reference to differences paft j 
for, what was faid there, is alfo binding here. 

Neither can this be thought any limitation or 
£ e wiakfting 

4lS ^4 Treatifc concerning Scandal, Part4J 

weakning of Church-authority and power : For* 
i. Ic doth make that authority and power ftronger 
than formerly it was without this s in the cafe fo cir- 
„ cumftantiate ; and the quettion ft ill is to be confi- 
rm tendeth dered not in theft, but in bypotbefi. 2. Becaufe this is 
to recover for the recovery and ftrengthening of an authority 
finngtb to that for the time is not in exercife, at leaft in fuch an 
tfudica* extent? and it is to give the fame a being, as it were, 
tones* and to bring it to its former luftre ; as if a weak man 
(hould be led, or get a ftaff in his hand till he recover; 
onas ifadisjoynted leg (hould be fenced about other- 
wayes than one that is whole, and fo be the fooner 
incapacity to walk without thefe. 3. This is but a 
temporary acceffory help , and is not pleaded-for as 
aneflential of Government > but only as a lawful! 
expedient when it cannot be wanted* 4 It may be 
con fidered that poflibly no ufe may be thereof, and 
if fo, it can be no encroachment ; aad if there be need 
thereof, fo as things cannot cordially becompofed 
otherwayes , Is is not expedient then, for the prevent- 
ing of a further inconvenience? 5. Ifuppofc it is 
not inconfiftent with Civil Authority , when union 
is made-up betwixt two Nations, or in the fame Na- 
tions,efpecially where Authority hath been brangled, 
that fome by joynt confent be chofen for deciding of 
fuch things as may occafion a new breach : and there 
are many inftanecs of this in hiftory ; for, the being 
of Authority is cumulative to the means that men 
are naturally fur nifhed with, for the prefervingof 
union and order, and therefore it cannot exclude fuch 
prudential confederations. 

Neither can it be thought inconfiftent with the na- 
ture of Church-authority and Government : For, 
I. If it be agreeable to the principles of nature and 
%AU u con- f ounc j rca f on> i c cannot be inconfiftent with Church- 
•Vi^-a • ii government, which hath its own policy grounded up- 
SCl oa thefe : And althou g h ^e form of Government be 
thM'm l • not to be gathered from thefe* nor the ends which they 
mnt ^ - (hould 

Fart 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal. 419 

fhould aim at who govern, yet the manner how fuch 
a Government is to attain thefe ends, is in pofitivc 
things to be regulated by them : hence fometimes men 
are to ufeintreaties and perfwafions, fomtimes threat-' 
nings and authoritative means* according as the end 
may be attained* 2. Although Church-government 
in the general be determined; and men be not free to 
affociateor not , yet there is much, as to theexercife 
thereof in afibciating, and the particular manner mu- 
tually agreed upon > which ftill may regulate circum- 
ftances, though they cannot alter the nature of the 
thing. 3. It is not neceflary that Church-authority 
fhould be al wayes exercifed in every thing 5 for, it is 
not to be exercifed but when it is to the. Churches edi- 
fication.and there is no fuchChurch-authorky as edi- 
fies not ; and therefore, if in fuch cafes the interpofing 
of Church-authority in the ultimat decifion of matters 
be not edifying , it is no encroachment upon it to fay 
it fhould not be exercifed in that cafe ; and fo at the 
moft>that which dependeth upon this reference, is, on- 
ly prudentially to difcern and judge? if in fuch and 
fuch a cafe, it be fie for the Churches edification, that 
Church-authority fhould decide in fuch a particular 
matter> wherein not the authority or power, but the 
prudence, zeal, and fakhfulnefle of fuch pcrfons are 
to be reipefted for the obtaining of a forbearance. 
4. We will find the great Apottle oftentimes conde* the great 
fcending to lay by his authority , and to intreat and Ap\\ie of* 
beteech, efpecially in the matter of union ; and fomo*" * loyctb. 
times to advife, when he<bought his intreatics might tf W^ tf - 
more kindly prevail ; or , when he thought hi* autho- ™ n tf« 
rity might be queflioned, or his authoritative afting 
hazard a fchifm: which grounds, being moral, may 
Warrant a Church in fuch a cafe unto the end of the 
world to follow his example. ?. Seing union is 
maintained when it is weak by the fame means by 
which it is begun> (for union is not compleated whcr\ 
fomc agreement is clofed ) and fcing , -as we faid, qn 

E Q 

4 io A Treatise concerning Scandal? Part 4V 

authoritative way is not ficteft for conceiving and 
bringing forth the fame ; So neither will ic be for 
giving of it fuck and milk till it be able co abide 
ftronger meat. 6, Seing Church -authority is pa- 
rental, and thac of the tendered fort, it is not unbe- 
coming that it condefcend even to the weaknefle and 
childifh diftempers of fome members; fuppofing there 
be fuch (landing in need thereof; and if (uch conde- 
fcending may joyn them in and keep them in, in their 
own place, and prevent even their fnares and mifcar- 
riages more effe&ually than authoritative means will 
do, which are for the time fufpefted by them j ought 
not fuch means to be followed ? And if they fhould 
continue in their infirmity to ftumble at the perem- 
ptory ufing of authoritative means and the denial of 
this ; will it be thought a fufficient ground to exoner 
men from having acceflion unto their fall ? or will it 
look like that tenderneffe and condefcendency which 
mothers and nurfes ought to have to children, even in 
their childifh and unreafonable moodes ? 7. This 
alfo mif-ftates the queftion , becaufe its here to be 
confidered (as was (aid) not what is the nature of 
Church-authority (imply, but comparatively, what 
is ficteft for procureing the edification of the Church, 
and for a time to be a mean for recovering her to a 
full authoritative manner of a&ing, which is now 
fuppofedto be brangled. Befide, if the recovery of 
Church- authority be a duty requiring means to be 
ufed fuitabie to that end ; then the ufe of this mean 
muft be a duty : becaufe, in the cafe fuppofed, it is 
the mofl: probable mean for attaining to that. If k 
be faid, that it is a more eafie way to acquiefce in the 
authoritative determination, and it were more fit for 
men to fubmit to that* Jnfto. That fuppofeth no 
prefent diftemper to be, and anfwereth not to the cafe 
ftated, which is upon the fuppofition that men do not 
that ; Is not this more fit for prefent edification, and 
more probable for attaining to a full authoritative 


part 4^ A Treat* fc concerning Scandal I 421 

way of a&ing, than the continuing of a divifioft 
without condefcending in this ? In the laft place* 
alfo it may be confidered , That the exercifing of 
Church-authority in particular cafes, hie & nunc, 
is an affirmative precept , and therefore doth not bind 
adfemper, according to the common rule of affirma- 
tive precepts \ it cannot therefore be unfuitableto it, 
or the precepts by which it is commanded , to adde 
fuch qualifications as arc mentioned in the cafe pre- 


Some advertifements concerning the overtures 

TO come now to fome advertifements accord- 
ding as we did propofe ; we muft (hortly put 
them together, left we be too prolix in every 

1. Then it would be adverted, That there is no pe- 
remptorindle urged in any of the former helps or re- 
medies > but if other means may be found more effe- 
ftuall , all thefe are to cede. Only this is intended, 
that if no more probable and effe&uall means be 
found out , or applied , that it is better on tuch like 
grounds to unite than to continue a divifion. 

2. It is to be adverted , That there may be* and 
ought to be fuch a condefcending, in the concluding 
of, and fixing on the means , ( especially for the time 
to come ) as by the expreffing of time > manner, and 
other particular circumftances of things , the fears of 
both may be fomeway guarded againft, and each by 
(hewing refpeit to other » may endeavour the remov- 
ing of their mutuall jealoufies ; for, feing jealoufies 
are mutuall , it will be too much for one fide to think 
that the other fhould wholly credit them , if there be 
no condefcending by them. 

E e 3 3« Al- 


42a %A Treatife concerning S c A N D A l J Part 4.' 

3* Although there fhould be fears that things fhould 
again break out> and that therefore it is to no purpofe 
to undertake a way of union , not every way fatisfy- 
ing ; yet it would be effayed, and if the Lord prevent 
that fear ? fuch an objection is loofed ; if fome inter- 
ruption come again to hazard an outbreaking , thefe 
who are acceflory thereto , will be the more guilty, 
and others who are innocent therein , may have more 
peace than if it had not been eflayed 

4. If union cannot be compleated in every thing, 
then their would be endeavours to fix it fo far as is at- 
tainable, and to prevent the increafing of divifion,that 
if there may not be a pofitive union, at leaft, a posi- 
tive divifion and oppofition may be Ihunned. 

5. It would be endeavoured, that notwithflanding 
of fuch divifions , men may mutually concur in that 
wherein there is no divifion for the edification of the 
Church : for,divifion in one particular ought not,nor 
will not warrantably hinder mutuall afting in other 
things where there is none : As for inftance , if iube 
an interruption in carrying on the work of God 
joyntly in Government , becaufe of fome difference 
concerning that -; yet if there be acceffeto promove 
the edification of the body by an united way oQ 
preaching i that is to be followed and improven , as 
we fee it is done in iome places where Government is 
not allowed. 

6. Whatever the cafe be , we fuppofe it is duty to 
make the beft thereof , when men cannot win the 
length they would. 

C H A P. 

Part 4. \A Treattfe concerning Scandal. 423 


What u incumbent to Magiftratcs and Teople. 
for remedying this evil. 

IT rcftcch now that we (hould fpcak fornething , to 
what is incumbent to Magtflrates and People, for 
remedying of fuch an evil in the Church ; but 
being keeped Co long on the former, we cannot enter 
on this ; We (hall only lay down thefe few generals, 
I, That neither of them ought to be offended or 
ftumbled ac fuchdivifions, or thereby be brought to 
have leffe eftrem either of the Gofpel, the Ordinance 
of Government, or Worfhip, or the Miniftery and 
Miniflers of Jefus Chrift ; much lefle would there be 
infulting over, or advantage taken againft, thefe upon 
this occafion , as is recorded to the infamy of feveral 
perfons ; but on the contrary* all would be atfe6ted 
-therewith, as with a moft dangerous fnare, and fear- 
full plague : And to this pmpofc Mgufline doth feri- 
oufly prefle his ( Boniface i Governour of Jfrici, that 
he mould not ftumble at the divifions of the Church* 
and particularly Bptfl. 50. 

'2. All would fearch if they have had anyfinfull 
influence upon the procuring of fuch a ftroke 5 for, 
if it be a plague and wo to them, they would look 
back to the rile thereof; who knows but the fins of 
Magiftrates or People in their fretting at the Ordi- 
nance of Government, defpifing of the Miniftery, not 
receiving of the Word nor walking anfwerably ther- 
to,and fuch like,may have procured this divifion from 
the Lord, as a judicial ftroke on them to harden them 
in their former fin, and thereby to ttrenptlcn their 
tentationtodefpife all the Ordinances more to their 
own ruin, as may b: gathered from what hath been 
fprm^rly fpoken ? 
3. All would be carefull toabftaiti from what may 
E e 4 further 

'424 tATreatlfe concerning Sc am d al Part 4* 

further or heighten the breach , and by all means en- 
deavour not to be engaged in fuch fidings ; for, that 
often cncourageth others , and rncrcafeth and fixeth a 
, rent ; and in experience it is feen f that thefe fchifms 
were ever moft dangerous.* and moft difficultly remo- 
ved, wherein people came to party, and fide with op- 
pofit fides in the divifion : and feing the Spirit in the 
Scripture, doth forbid people as well as Miniftersto 
divide, this muft be their duty , not to joyn in fuch a 
divifion* Alio, it unfits them to get good from Mi- 
nifters, or to do good for removing of a rent amorrgft 
them. And we are fure , If doubtfull difputations, 
vain /anglings , and fuch like queftions, that tend not 
to edification , be to be efchewed by people , then we 
conceive that fuch as are in the cafes preluppofed, may 
be fo efteemed of* 

4. They are by all refpeftive means ferioufly to 
preffe the abftaining from,and compofing of fuch dif- 
ferences, by their ferious reprefentations of the ills 
thereof, and exhortations, according to their places to 
have the fame remedyed. And were this more amongft 
people, upon occafions in due manner,toteftifie their 
ibber refentment of fuch evils in the general, and defire 
of union, and condefcendency for attaining the fame, 
fo far as is fir, it would much more become the fobrie- 
ty of tenderChriftians,and be much more efFe&ual for 
this end , than to be heightening and aggreging the 
mifcarriage of any one party to another , or carrying 
reports or informations true or falfcwhich may kindle 
humours to a flame that are hot and fmoaking alrea- 
dy. It would affefit a heart to hear the regraits and 
expoftulations that Conftantine, Gratian, and others* 
have anent the divifions of Church-men in their times 
and their exhortations to remedy the fame* 

5. All forts would endeavour to be in goodtearttis 
with God> in refpeft of their own particular conditi- 
ons: and when all failethj they would ftill be inftant- 
ly dealing with God by prayer for healing of the 

4 "" _ fame 

Patt 4« A Treatife concerning Scandal.* 425 

fame , as accounting it a great plague* even to them' 
while this continueth* 


The grounfo and motives of the de fired union. 

THelaft thing propofed tobefpokento, was, 
the grounds whereby union on fuch like 
tearms, in fuch cafes , might be preffed : but 
feing fomethings to this purpofc have been already 
here and there inferted, upon fcverall occafions ; and 
feing thefe who are mainly concerned in this, are fup- 
pofed to be moft tenderly zealous of the Churches 
good, and fo not to ftand much in need of many mo- 
tives to perfwadeto this which doth fo nearly con- 
cern the fame; and fearing to heap up too many words 
in a matter fo clear, we (hall forbear to infift, and on- 
ly propofe fome confideracions to the confeience of the 
tender Reader,efpecially in reference to fome particu- 
lar circumftances, which fometimes may occur in the 
cafeofdivifion. And let God Hirafelf, who is the 
God of peace, of love, and of order, put them home 
to confeiences with a ftrong hand. 
Brfty The confeiencious Reader may confider, when 
all is well weighed that is formerly propofed , with 
what may befides occur to himfelf,Ifthe ftudy of uni- 
on be not a moft neceffary thing , and it without the 
eflaying of thefe and fuch like means, according to his 
intereft and calling, he can have peace, as being fuffi- 
ciently exonered in his duty , in reference to this great 
end ; and if there can be folid quietneffe to continue 
divifion upon the grounds mentioned , and to fleighc 
the purfuing after union, if attainable, upon thefe or 
fuch like tearms as are propofed, efpecially in thefe 
and fuch other cafes. 

1. When a Church is under externall crofles and 
affliftjons , and by Gods difpenfation is caft into the 


425 A Treat^e concerning 5canoal» Part 4; 

furnace ; to be therein ftrugliag and wreftling one 
with another, and, as if it were in the time of the 
Churches greateft peace and calm , to be contending 
for matters of fuch concernment* O how unfuitable is 
it ! Though indeed condefcending be called-for ac 
anytime, yet certainly, much more and m an efpeci- 
all manner at fuch a time. The judicious, and great 
Divine £!i/vj«, doth, upon this account, exceedingly 
aggregethedivifionsamongft fome Bnglifh inF^w^- 
ford, who being banifhed in thedayes of Qaeen Ma- 
ry for the fame Religion , did even there contend for 
matters of little moment. This ( faith he, Bpijl. 200.) 
was exceeding intempeflb ?, or unrimous, and exceed-* 
ing offenfi ve to the Church of Chrift, and unbecom- 
ing their cafe : And although ht utterly difapprovecl 
thefe ceremonies.as unbecoming thcChurch of Chrift; 
Yet doch he ( Epift* 206.) prelfe moderation on both 
fides* ufing thefe words, Sicuti autem eos qui I \>obti dif* 
fentiebant bortatttA fum , ut qua pojjent moderathne in- 
flctieirent • itamibidijplicuit, nihil VuiJJlma parte Veflra 
recedi vd remitti , that is , A I did exhort thefe tybo Xbere 
not of one mind With you > to flretch themfehesy>itball 
pojjlble moderation • So it did difp'eafe me, that there V><u 
upon the other band by you, nothing ceded or remitted. 

The fecond cafe is, When a Church by divifion, is 
I lid open to groiTe hereticks , who wait the occafion 
of fuch a divifion , that they miy make (as it were) 
an infall upon her, Divifion fhould be fhunncdac 
any time, but in fuch a cafe , union (hould be at any 
race, of warrantable condefcendency, purchased* In 
; that difference between Eufebius and Bafilw, at firft it 
, was fufficient to cfchew divifion; for which end at 
$fy%ian%ens defire* ^afiiias removed; bttf when the 
jirians were like to take advantage .thereof , he did 
' again return , and by his condefcending made up a 
perfeft union, thereby to ftop the door againft the in- 
breaking of errour upon that people : Which fa6l is 
ever highly commended, even in refpeft of the feafa~ 
4 fonablnefle 

Part 4. A Treatife concerning Scandal 427 

fonablnefle thereof, in reference to that tentation. 

3. A third cafe wherein union would cfpecially be 
ftudied. is, When there is little help f rom without>to 
the luftaining of the Government and order of the 
Church; but men in thatrefpeCl, have and take li- 
berty ro aft as they will : becau(c then union is the 
only wall, and it that fall, there is nothing toguard* 
Hence it is , that nectflky > cipecially in fuch a cafe, 
bath made men think upon aflociations and mutual! 
bonds , for the eftabl idling and confirming of union. 

4. It is, when fome ohhe Ordinances , eipecially 
the Ordinance of Government, is queftioned,or whet* 
they arc defpifed , and fomeway made contemptible 
before men : in fuch cafes , for relpeft to the Ordi- 
nances of Chrid * men ought to condefcend to the ut- 
termod , and to endeavour the recovery of the Ordi- 
nances of Chrift to tneir former beauty, which isim- 
poflible to be attained without this > becaufe divifion 
maketh all to appear contemptible. 

5. ft is , when there feemeth to be fome fpeciall 
nick, or choak, or crifis ( to fpeak lb) that is, When, 
!if there be not prefent uniting and gripping, in all 
probability, the divifion and breach will grow great- 
er and wider, and be more difficultly removable. In 
fuch a cafe men ought to dretch themfelves V>itb all the 
moderation that it poffible (zs Cabins expreflion is ) if 
they may now, at Icad> through Gods good hand up- 
on them , come to fome agreement , and taking grip 
j(to fay lb) while it 15 poffible. And if each of thefe 
jalone> drongly prefle the dudy of union, even beyond 

what is ordinary ; O how very drongly will all of 
them, put together, prefle it ! And how a&ively 
fliould men, zealous for God and His precious Ordi- 
nances > and tender of the edification of fouls, bedir 
themfelves to follow after peace in fuch a vehemently 
urging cafe ? 

The fecond thing that would be ferioudy consider- 
ed and thought upon, is, What is the pollibility, and 

fea fable- 

42$ ^ Treatif? concerning S c a n d a f* Part 4; 

feafablenefle , and acccffe to attainment , of fuch a 
defirable end# It is true, tenacioufneffe in forae, may 
make union in the lcaft things impoffible, efpecially 
fuch as may by his grace, gifts, efteem^orthedepen- 
dance of others upon him becaufe of thefe, have fome 
fpeciall ftrokc and influence upon the thing : But the 
Reader would confider, 

1. If fomeway the ftick be not at himfelf, and if 
there be not fomething poflible to him, in reference to 
union , which yet he hath not condescended to ; for, 
although he hath not power over the wills of others, 
yet hath he over his own. 

2. Let him confider , If the ills that follow divifi- 
on be not great and certain: andiffo, if the flopping 
at any ftep of the condefcending called-for, will bear 
out the confeience againft the cryes of fo many re- 
proaches that are caften upon Ordinances by fome $ 
againft the many challenges that will arife upon the 
mifcarriages of others, that are occasioned by fuch di- 
vifions; and againft the impreffion that the weighting 
and fadning of many honeft hearts, will have with it 
one day ? And if he dare ftep in to judgment, without 
fear of being found faulty in any meafure in refpeft 
of the forementioned inconveniencies ; if his conde- 
fcending, as is called-for, might have prevented them. 

5. He would confider, if at the appearing of Jefus 
Chrift, when all fuch affe&ions (hall be laid by, and 
difpucings will not have place, nor recriminations be 
admitted; if, I fay, in fuch a cafe he may not have more 
peace in condefcending upon either fide , as is propo- 
ied , for the good of the Church, than by refufmg the 
fame to keep up the divifion. 

4i It would be ferioufly pondered, whether union 
by fuchcondefcendency, or divifion without it, may 
be moft profitable and edifying to the Church } and if 
any of chefe things be of fuch confequence,as to ftand 
in the way of the Churches further edification* 

S. The Reader may cpnfider, if ever in the pra&ice 


Part 4.' *A Trettife concerning S c a n d a 1 1 ^ 

of the primitive times, or in the writings of orthodox 
and fober Divines, old or late, any fo circumftantiat- 
cd divifion will be found warrantable , or if, out of 
the heat of debate, they would probably haveftuck 
at any condefcenfion that is here required upon ei- 
ther hand. 

6. Icmaybeconfidered, If all the prefcnt reform- 
ed Churches being appealed unco in fuch a cafe, were 
finglyand impartially to give jud&cmrnc thcrcanent* 
whether it could upon any ground be thought , that 
they would judge fuch condefcending unlawfull up- 
on either fide, if by it and no otherwayes union were 
to be attained ? 

7. It would be confidered , That if all that ever 
have written on this fubjeft of old or late were con- 
fulted, that (for ought I know) it will be found that 
the condefcenfion that they allow for attaining , and 
preferving of union in the Church, will be of a larger 
extent, than any thing in this cafe requind ; And, I 
fuppofe, hardly will it be found, that from fuch writ- 
ings there will be a flicking allowed upon any fuch 
thing as is propofed. And will it be fafe, at once to 
condemn fo many ? 

8. The Reader may refleft on himfelf, and try 
what are his thoughts of former divifions , and if he 
doth not approve moft ordinarily thefe that were 
moft peaceable, and alwayes thefe that in fuch a cir- 
cumftantiatedcafedidftudy condefcendency 3 and if 
he doth not within himfelf judge , that it had been 

I more for the Churches good, that fuch divifions had 
been removed upon fuch like tearms, than that they 
Ihould have been continued; and if there be not in his 
bofome a kind of indignation at the rigid drivers of 
fuch a divifion , whereby he may know anddifcern 
what is fit to be done in the prefent cafe, if he were as 
impartiall in it, as in the other* 

9. He may confider, If union be not made up up- 
•n fuch or the like tearms ; and if upon other tearms 

^Jo c4 Treatife concerning S c a n d a l. Part 4* 

it be impofli ile> What will follow > or what ufu- 
ally doth follow in fuch cafes? Doth not bitternefle 
growfo a height amongft orthodox men as if each 
of rhem were enemies to the crurhof Chrift , and 
enemies to one anothers perfons ? names alfo are • of- 
ten impofed upon each by the other , as if they were • 
not both of the fame body 5 or, as if it were goodi 
fervice to God, and advantage to the Truth, by fuch 
defignations to render one another odious , contemp- 
tible and ufeleffr : As thefe that refufed to joyn with 
the Church of ^ome in Edfler , were called Quarto- 
decimani ; whereupon folio weth abftinence in com- 
munion with one another , turning afide unto errour 
and novelty amongft fome ; indulgence if not conni- 
vance at ; and compliance with groflfe and corrupt 
men amongft others ; coldneffe i« zeal to God , and 
love one to another v and upfitting in the power and 
practice of podlinefle amongft all, and many fuch 
like wofqll cffc<5b. And fhall , alas, (hall the weight 
of all thefe fad and Rfligion-ruining confequcnts* be 
ftated upon the refuting of fuch condefcendency as is 
here called- for ? G d forbid. 

10. It would be'ferioufly confidered, what may 
be the thoughts of the generation that fhall fucceed ? 
Shall fuch a divifion be propagated to them, and they 
made heirs thereto ? Shall not they either continue 
miferable under fuch a condition, and that for ever, 
with fuch heightening circumftances as cannot but 
follow ? ( and will any ingenuous and pofterity- 
compaflionating Reader think of this, and not be 
affedied therewith? ) Or they muft endeavour the re- 
tovery of union with much more difficulty than it i 
may now be ; and if fo, certainly that generation I 
will be in hazard to curfe thefe that went before them, 
who did bring them forth under the neccflity of con- 
tinuing under the fin, fnare, and torturing- plague of 
divifions ; or, at leaft, of being in fo greatly- puzling 
and perplexing (traits, ere they could expedc them*- 
fclvesoutof tnefame* "• If 

Part 4. A Treatlfe conce'r^hg Scandal. 431 

11. If yet the Reader be not convinced pofitively 
to joyn and further union in iuch a cafe, let him yet 
confider if he hath (ufficient clearntfle to oppotc and 
cry dovvn the lame as finfull , and if he hath liberty 
anid freedom to cry down all that ever have approven 
or do approve the removing of a divifion upon fuch 
; terms as thefe propofed ? and if he dare with confi- 
dence from his own particular diflatisfaftion,mar the 
fame amongft others ? and if pcflibly he might not 
have more freedom negatively to lye by, and neither 
dirc&ly nor indirectly to be the occafion of fuch an 
offence > and if the Church might not have more 
profit, and he more peace in fo doing? and if he be 
fatisfied, he may confider whether it were not better 
to endeavour fuch a compofure , though to the difla- 
tisfaftion of jbme (who poffibly may afterward lay 
by their difcontent ) than out of prepofterous rer- 
fpeft to them, to hazard the ruine of all ? which is, 
as it were, to bring a leaking fhip to land in a ftorm, 
though fome of the company.upon feme miftakeop- 
pofethe fame. 

. 12. Let him confider, ifevercondefcending in fuch 
things hath been obferved to bring any hurt to the 
Church; whereas felfwillednefle ( whereof a Mini- 
ftcr efpecially fhould be free) hath alwayes been dan- 
gerous. ' It's true, *pwrU in points fundamentals 
fuch as that which Jnajlafim preffed, hath been moft 
2ealoufly oppofed as hurtful], becaufe thereby the 
foundation was ftrucken at, and crrour in fundamen- 
tal things got equal footing with truth ; But can ever 
this be faid in (Uch things as are fuppofed in the cale 
I laid down ? 

Laftly, The Reader may confider, if in foberneffe, \ 
I and in an abflra&ed manner extra <eflum difputatiovis, 
! he were giving his advice to a Church (o divided, 
I and immediatly thereafter to fiep in to judgment, he 
i would not readily incline to commend union on thefe 
I or fuch other terms , as neceffary for the good of the 


435 ATretnfe concerning Scandal; Part^ 

Church, credit of the Ordinances, and the removing 
of ftumblihg-blocks from before the people, efpecial- 
Jy in the cafes formerly mentioned ; and if he might 
not have more peace to ftcp to judgment after fuch an 
advice, than if rigidly hefhould inhibit fuch conde- 
fcenfion* And we (hall leave the judicious, con- 
fciencious, and tender Reader, to anfwer thefc and 
manvfuch things to himfelf, and accordingly to do; 
arid irany, out of prejudice, ( as we hope none will, 
and heartily ^i(h ftonemay) (hall not confeienci- 
oufly ponder the fame, we leave him to confider that 
he muft reckon to God therefore , and (hall only ob- 
teft him that he will have more refpeft to the Chur- 
ches peace, than to his own inclination ; and that he 
will at leaft by fome other lawfull, poffible and pro- 
bable mean effay the removing, or at leaft the pre- 
vention of the growth of fuch divifions ; and that he 
would with all conftru& well of the effayes of others, 
till we come all before the common Judge , who, we 
are perfwaded, loveth the Truth in peace , and hath 
joyned thefe together , which therefore ought by no 
man to be put afunder. 

F I 2^ I $•