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Full text of "Truth's victory over error, or, the true principles of the Christian religion, stated and vindicated against the following heresies, viz. Arians ... Vaninians, &c. The whole being a commentary on all the chapters of the Confession of Faith, by way of question and answer: in which, the saving truths of our holy religion are confirmed and established; and the dangerous errors and opinions of its adversaries detected and confuted."

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Sfifc ?tv- 




Truth's Viftory over Error: 



O F T H E 


Statfd and Vindicated 
Againft the following Herefies, viz. 














Indep ndenti 




Vaninians, &? 9 



The whole being a Commentary on all the Chapters of 
the Confeffion of Faith } by Way of Qyeftion and An 
fwer: In which, the Saving Truths of our holy Reli- 
gion are confirmed and eihihlidied ; and the dange- 
rous Errort and Opinions of in Adversaries dete&etl 
and confuted. 

Written by the late Reverend and Learned 


Profeflbr of Divinity in the Univerflty of Edinburgh. 
To this Edition is prenVd 

A ftiort Account of the Author's Lite, 

By the late Reverend IV*r. ROBERT WODRQIV, 

Miniiier of the Gofpel at Eaftwood. 

G L A S G IV: 

Printed by John Bryce, and fold at his Shop ia th Q 

Salt -market, 1764. 


Qnifquis aves Sophiam Cosleftem uofccrc paucis, 
Hue ades, hie brcviter namque Libellus habet: 
Aureus eft certe firmat quia Dogmata faaa 
Codice Divino, falfa refellk i^eoi 




DOST thou defire this Treafure to be thiae 
Of facred Truths, and Oracles divine. 
A fiery Pillar radiantly bright; 
Come, it will guide thee in the darkefl Night : 
Thro' Seas, and Rocks, and Mountains on each 

Through Wildernefles to Canaan's Land, 
By Holy Writ the Truth it verifies, 
By Holy Writ confutes ail Ikrefics. 

A i Tfto 

[ iv ] 

Tho* fhorr, yet clear, for both do well agree 

To make thy Path unerring onto thee. 

As Ophirs Gold, which from Malacca ca me, 

Made Solomon on Earth the richeft Man ; 

So will this Book make rich thy Heart and Mind> 

With Divine Wifdom, Knowledge of all Kind: 

Thee richer make, than Croefus of great Nam^, 

Thee wifer make, than Solon of great Fame. 

Than all the feven wile Sages, Greece's Glory, 

I do proteft ? tis true, and is no ftory. 

A Shou 




Of the Reverend 


THE Printer of this Edition of Truth's, Vic- 
tory over Error , finding the Preface to 
the former Edition unfit to ftand before 
this, as containing feveral Things perfectly extra- 
neous, and perfonal, to the Author of it ; and other 
Things agreeable enough to the Difguife under 
which it formerly appeared : yet not fo to what the 
Printer would now have the Reader to know : He 
determined with himfelf to leave it out, and earneft- 
ly defired me to form fomewhat, that might ftand 
in the Place of it. 

My prefent Circumftances and Frailty do not per- 
mit me to prefent the Reader with any Thing that 
is exaft ; yet to gratify the Publifher, my FrieruJ, 
whofe Care &nd Pains to furnifh common Country 
People with this ViUuable Book, at a reafonable and 
A 3 eafy 

v'f Jifiort Account of the Life 

enfy Price, in my Opinion, ought to be commended 
stnd encouraged, efpecially now when the Bock is 
turning icarce, and ought to be in the Hands of many, 
and carefully read ; I lhall drop a few Hints, as to 
the former Edition of this Book, its Reverend Au- 
tfofizM its Vfefiilnefs, thro' the Blefiing of God, to 
iuch in whofe Hands it may coaie. 

This Book was firft publiGied in the Year 1684. 
by G. S. that is, Mr. George Sine/are, well enough 
Jknown by his fevera! Books published both in Latin 
and Ettgftfb* What led him to tranflate another 
Man's Book, and fend it abroad under the iaitial 
Letters of his own Name, I (hall not determine. I 
am willing to leive the Akhes of the Dead in quiet, 
efpecially thofe of a Perfon, who, in his Time, was 
taken Notice of with fbme Applaufe by Learned Men 
Abroad, as well as at Home ; and Wrote feverai 
Things in Philofophy, Mathematicks and Hiftory, 
in his own Way, not without their Uk in the Time 
when they were published. 

*[ knew him in his old Age and declining Years, 
uhea much decayed, yet fiill retaining the ferious 
and religious Difpofitions I hope he had thro* his 
whole Life ; and tho* I cannot intirely vindicate 
this low and mean Piracy ,in publifhing the Work of 
another, in fuch a Manner ; yet I hope it was his 
Regard to the great Truths in our excellent Con- 
ic (Tion of F aith> and his Defire that common Peo« 
pie, in a Time when we were In imminent Hazard 
of Popery, a bigotted Papift being on the Throne, 
fhould be guarded againft the Errors then breaking 
in like a Flood upon us ; that put this good Man to 
take the Pains to tranfuue the Diftates of the Lear- 
ned Profefibr Dick/on, from Latin to Englifh. 

It he had the poor View of a little Glory to him- 
felf. by publifhing thefe W his owa Name, It hap- 


of Mr. David Dickfoti. vli 

pened to him as generally it does to felf-feckin^ and 
private- fpirited Perfbns, even in this prefent State; 
their Naughtiness is.difcovered, and they mifc :: 
Mirk: But we (halt charitably fupjioje he ,ud 
higher and better Aims. 

There werefeveral Copies o< what the Revd. Mr, 
Dick/on had dilated to his Scholars, in Latin, upon* 
the Confeflion of Faith, in the Hands of Minifters 
and others; and it came foon to be known, that 
Truth's Viclory over Error was only a Tranflation, 
and the venerable Author's Name fuppreffed. This 
made one to dafh down the following Lines upon 
the Running Title before the Title Page iq ihe for- 
mer Edition, in pleafantry : 

Truth's Victory over Error. 
No Errors in this Book I fee, 
But G. 3. where D. D. fhould be. 

I do not queflionbut the Tranflator has kept clofe 
by his Author. I have never feen a full and exa/t 
Manufcript Copy of what Mr. Dick/on dictated to 
his Scholars, far lefs have I collated Mr. Sinclare*s 
Tranflation. This only I am allured, that the Pub- 
lisher of this hath fully re printed the former Edi- 
tion. Mr. Sinciare, in his Preface, feems to fuggeft 
that he has ufed fbme Freedom with the Shtakers, 
but adds, that it is only the Language they t hem/elves 
ufe to others: But whether, in thefe Queftions,. he 
has any Thing of his own, different from Mr. Dick' 
/on, I cannot fay. 

That the Reader of this Edition may not want a- 
ny Thing in the former Preface, that properly con- 
cerns the Book, or maybe of any Ufe to him, I 
fhall here infert what is worth preferving in it. 
Mr. Sine/are oblerves, " That in Times of Light, 
•* Satan cOrhes aot abroad ufually to deceive with 

" bis 

▼iii dtjhorl Account of the Life 

** hisgrofs Forgeries and cloven Foot, for every one 
" would difcem his Haltings, but with more myf- 
" tical, yet ftrongDelufions, wherewith he binds his 
" Captives the fafter to the Judgment of the great 
" Day. And therefore the Watch-word given in 
u the bright and Ihining Times of the Apoftles was, 
a Try the Spirits > Believe not every Spirit ; and 
€t take heed of Spirits ; who indeed were only fleftily 
" and corrupt Men, yet called Spirits, becaufe they 
" pretended to have much of the Spirit ; and their 
" Do&rine feemed only to advance the Spirit ! The 
" fitteft Cobwebs to deceive and inveigle the World 
u in thofe difcovering Times, that poflibly could 
" befpun out of the poifonous Bowels of corrupt 
" and felfifti Men ; for Herefy is a Work of the FleQi." 

He adds in his own Name too, " None can expeft 
" but that in this Treatife I mull have confulted o- 
*' thcrs, and gleaned of their Writings what Things 
u were needful. I cannot here, as in writing Philo- 
u fophy, or any fuch Science, fet up new Theorems 
*' or Axioms, which have not been heard of. This 
" were to make a new Religion, a new Syftem, and 
4i Body of Divinity, fuch as fome giddy-headed He- 
" reticks are thinking upon. I muft confine myfelf 
** to the good old Way, wherein Men of found Prin- 
*' ciples have walked before me. 

4< This Book (adds he) is not defigned for Men 
u of Knowledge and Learning, who are more con* 
" verfant in fuch Matters than I am, but for the 
" Unlearned and new Beginners, who need to be 
" inftru&ed with the found Principles of the Prote- 
* flant Religion. This Book will be ufeful for 
" undemanding the C&nfeJJion> and knowing the 
" Defignof it j for how many read, and commend 
u it, that never knew the Nature of it. Tho' there 
" be a Multiplicity of Quefticns, and many in Num- 

" ber, 

of Mr. David Dickfon. ix 

" ber, yet all of them, to my bdl Remembrance, are' 

V taken Word by Word out of the ConfeJJion. The 
u Anfwers are by Tes or No y to which are fubjoined 
" immediately the Proofs of the Confejfior. Thefe 
" Words which are often repeated, Well then do net 
u the Papijls err, are nothing elfe but fure Conclu- 
" fions drawn from two manifefl Propositions. 

" The Defign of this Treatife is good, the Me- 
u thod is plain and eafy, the ©rder of the Que- 
" ftions follow the Order of the Purpofes in the 
" Confejfwn, the Probations are fuch as are made 
M Ufe of in the Confejfwn, and by Orthodox 
" Divines againft the Adverfaries. They are either 
a the very Words of the Scripture in Termini?, or 
u fuch as by good and neceiTary Gonfequence are 
" drawn from the Scripture. They pafs reckoning 
11 for Number. Let no Man blame me for fpeaking 
" fomewhat for the Truth, becaufe another Man 
" hath fpoken better. -If I havefaid little in Defence 
" of it, I am fure I have faid nothing againft it ; 
" as the Apoftlcs fay, We can do nothing ogainjl the 
u Truth but for it. If I cannot pleafe all Men, I ftiall 
u endeavour at leaft to pleafe fome ; and if I can 
" pleafe none, I (hail not difpleafe inyfelf. I hope 
'* my Friends will cenfure favourable, if my Enemies 
u cenfure malicioufly. I expect as many Adverfa- 
" ries of one Sort, and of another, upon my Top, 
'* as a travelling Man hath Midges about his Head, 
11 in a warm Summer Evening. There are Efcapes 
u in Authors, whole Knowledge is beyond any 
£ Thing I can profefs. No Marvel then if a malici* 

V ous Critick, like a Viper from the Fire of Conten- 

V tion, fallen upon a Man's Hand. For the Author 
$ being intent upon all, cannot layout his whole In- 

* duftry upon every Line, which a fnarling Cur will 

* bark at. I fhall take it as a Favour to have Learn- 

* ed 

x *A Jhort Account of the Life 

H ed and Judicious Men to cenfure me. Reprove 
t( one, fays Solomon, that hath Under/landing , and he 
4< will under/land Knowledge. Some, perhaps, may 
w look awry upon me becaufe I have meddled with 
€h fome ticklifh Queftions, and have been too pofhive 
" in my Judgment. If any fuch Qucftions are, they 
€t have occured t© me in the Road, which I could 
€t not pafs by without a Salutation. But as all of 
€i them have been weighed in the Ballance of the 
'* Santfuary, fo thefe likewife which fome may call 
'* ticklifh, I durft not for a World have been pofi- 
" tive, if I had not judged them confonant to Truth. 

* Therefore let all Men, whatever Perfuafion they 
9t be of, judge charitably : For I have faid nothing 
" upon the Account of Feud or Favour, nor any 
" Thing which may caufe Divijion or Offence, for 
$c they that are fuch ferve not our Lord J ejus Chrijl, 
" but their own Belly, and by good Words nndfair 
fl Speeches deceive the Hearts of the fimple, Rom. xvj. 

* 1 8. But I wifh all that profefs to own the true 
M Proteftant Religion, were owning the found Prin- 
11 ciples of the ConfeJJion, and were fuitable and con- 
u fequential to them in their Opinions and Practices . 
u as the Method is plain and eafy, fo is the Stile, 
" I ufe only the plain and common Arguments. 
u Some perhaps might have expected a Dilution, or 
u anfwering Adverfaries Arguments ; it's hard to 
' ■ propofe them to their Palates, They complain 
€i their Arguments are enervate and clipped, neither 
u ,is it expedient to bring from the Devil's Armory, 
u his fiery Darts. In going through this Book, you 

* will find the Papifts confuted upon 74 feveral 
" Heads, the Quakers on 32; the Socinians upon 
€i 47 ; the Lutherans upon 13; the Antinomians 
" upon as many; the Anabaptifts upon 32; the 
" Arminians upon 27. The reft are confuted 

* fome 

of Mr. David Dickfon. xi 

" fome upon fewer and fome upon more Heads ; and 
11 by the Confutation of tbefe mentioned, you may 
° the more eafily confute the reft." 

This is all in Mr. SinclarSs Preface which needs 
be refumed here. Many Things arc faid meanly 
perfonating the Author, but fome Things worthy of 
our Notice, and relative to the Book, I thought 
might continue before it, fave the Tranflation and 
the Title, I know no more belongs to Mr. Sinclare 9 
unlefs it be the Alphabetical Lift of the Herejtes. This, 
tho' lean, dry, and unequal to the Subject, yet it may 
be of fome Ufe to the unlearned Readers, and fo 
is re-printed in this Edition. But I hope none will 
think it the Product of the learned Mr. Dickfon, 
which leads me forward to give fome Account of this 
great Man, the proper Writer of this Book, which I 
believe he never defigned for publick Ufe, but only 
that of his Scholars. 

The narrow Bounds of this Preface, will not al- 
low any large Accounts of this worthy Perfon. 
Neither indeed have I fuch Materials as I could wifh, 
for fuch a Work. If ever a Scots Biography, and the 
Lives of our eminent Minifters andChriftians, be pub- 
Hfhed, Mr. David Dickfon will fhine there as a Star 
of the firft Magnitude. Till fuch a neceilary Work 
appear, which would require able Hands, and much 
Help from fuch as have the Remains of our Worthies 
in their PofTeffion, I (hall drop a few Hints of what 
I have met with as to this good Man. 

Mr. David Dick, or Dick/on, was the only Son of 
John Dick or Dickfon, Merchant in Glafgow, whofe 
Father was an old Feuar,and PofTeflbr offome Lands 
in the Barony of Fintry, and Parifh of Saint Ninians, 
called the Kirk of the Muir. His Parents were Reli- 
gious Perfons, of confiderable Subfhnce, and many 
Years married before they had this Child, and he was 


xii o4 Jbort Account of the Life 

the only one ever they had, as I am informed. As 
he was a Samuel afked of the Lord, fo he was early 
devoted to him and-the Miniftry ; yet afterwards the 
Vow was forgot, till Providence, by a Rod and fore 
Sicknefs on their Son, brought their Sins to Remem- 
brance; and then he was piu to relume his Studies 
which he had left, and at the Univerfity of Glajgow 
he made very great Progrefs in them. 

Soon after he had received the Degree of Mafter 
of Arts, he was admitted Regent, or ProfefTor of 
Philofophy in that College, where he was very ufe- 
ful in training up the Youth in folid Learning ; and 
with the learned Principal Boyd of Trockridge, the 
worthy Mr. Robert Blair, and other pious Members 
of that learned Society, his Pains were Angularly 
blefled, in reviving decayed ferious Fiety among the 
Youths, in that declining and corrupted Time, a 
little after the impofing of Prelacy upon us. 

By a Recommendation of the General AfTembly, 
not long after our Reformation from Popery, the 
Regents were only to continue Eight Years in their 
Profeffion, after which luch as were found qualified, 
were licenfed, and upon Calls afterTrials, admitted to 
the holy Miniftry. By this Conftitution, this Church 
came to be filled with Minifters well ieen in all the 
Branches of Ufeful Learning. Accordingly Mr. 
Dick/on was, 1618, ordained Minifter to the Town 
of Irvine, where he laboured about Twenty-three 

That very Year, the corrupt AfTembly at Perth 
agreed to the five known Articles, palmed upon this 
Church by the King and Prelates, Mr. Dick/on had 
not much ftudied thefe Queftions, till the Articles 
were irnpofed by this Meeting ; then he clofely exa- 
mined them, and the more he looked into them, 
the more Averfion he found to them ; and when 


of Mr. David Dick Ton. xiii 

fome Time after, by a fore Sicknefs, he was brought 
within Views of Death and Eternity, he gave open 
Teftimony of their Sinfulnefs. 

When this came to take Air, Mr. Janus Law, 
Arch-Bifhop of Glafgow, fummoned him to appear 
before the High Commiffion, Jan. 29, 1622, Mr. 
Dickfoji, at his Entrance to his Miniftry at Irvine , 
had preached upon 2 Cor. v. 11. the firft part, 
Knowing the Terrors of the Lord, we perfnade Men; 
When at this Junfture he apprehended a Separation, 
at leafl for a Time, the Sabbath before his Com- 
pearance, he chofe the next Words of that Verfe, 
But we are made manifejl unto God. Extraordinary 
Pbwer, and lingular Movings of AfFedtions, accom- 
panied that parting Sermon. 

According to the Summons, Mr. Dickfon appeared 
before the Coiiimiilion, the Day named. His pru- 
dent Carriage, the Declinature he gave in, the 
railing of Arch-Bifhop Spot/wood thereupon, the Sen- 
tence of Deprivation and Confinement to Turrefpzi- 
fed upon him, with his Chriuian Speech upon the 
Intimation of it, are to be found in Mr. Calderwood's 

After much Interceffion with the Bifhops, and 
various Turns in this x^fFair, narrated by the lad 
named Hiftorian, he got Liberty to quit Turref and 
returned to his longing Flock July, 1623 where his 
minifterial Work was no more interrupted, until he 
was called to a more important Station, as we ftiall 

At Irvine, Mr. Dickfon's Miniftry was Angularly 
countenanced of God. Multitudes were convinced 
and converted ; and few that lived in his Day were 
more honoured tp Lj>e Inftruments of Converfion than 
he. People, under Exercife and Soul Concern, came 
from every Placeabout Irvine and attended upon 
B his 

xiv Ajhori Account of the Life 

his Sermons, and the moft eminent and ferious Chrif- 
tians, from all Corners of the Church, came and join- 
ed with him at his Communions, which were indeed 
Times of refrelhing from the Prefence of the Lord of 
thefe amiable Inftitutions: Yea, not a few came from 
diftant Places and fettled in Irvine, that they might 
be under the Drop of his Miniftry. Yet he himielf 
ufed to obferve, that the Vintage of Irvine was not 
equal to the Gleanings, and not once to be compared 
to the Harvcft at Air in Mr. John Welch his Time, 
when indeed the Gofpel had wonderful Succefs in 
Conviftion, Converfion, and Confirmation. 

Mr. Dick/on had his Week Day Sermons upon the 
Mondays, the Market-Days then at Irvine. Upon 
the Sabbath Evenings, many Perfons under Soul 
Diftrefs, ufed to refort to his Houfe after Sermon, 
when ufually he fpent an Hour or two in anfwering 
their Cafes, and directing and comforting thofe who 
where cad down, in all which he had an extraordi- 
nary Talent ; indeed he had the Tongue of the 
Learned, and knew how tofpeak a Word in Seafon 
to the weary Soul. In a large Hall he had in his 
Houfe at Irvine, there would have been, as I am in- 
formed by old Chriftians, feveral Scores of ferious . 
Chriftians waiting for him, when he came from the 
Church. Thofe, with the People round the Town, 
Ti?ho came in to the Market at Irvine, made the 
Church as throng, if not thronger, on- the Mondays, 
as on^ the Lord's Day, by thofe Week Day Sermons. 
The'famous Stewartown Sicknefs was begun about 
the Year i 630, and fpread from Houfe to Houfe for 
many Miles in the Strath where Stewartown Water 
runs on both Sides of it. Satan indeed endeavoured 
to bring a Reproach upon the ferious Perfons who 
were at this lime under the convincing Work of the 
fepint,by running fome, feemingly under ferious Con- 

of Mr % David Dickfon: xv 

ccrn, to Excefies, both in Time of Sermon and in 
Families. But the Lord enabled Mr. Diihjon, and 
other Minifters who dealt with them, to act fo pru- 
dent a Part, as Satan's Defign was ranch disappoint- 
ed, and iblid ferious practical Religion fiourifhed 
mightily in the Weft of Scotland about this Time, 
under the Hardships of Prelacy. 

About the Year 1632, fome of our Scots Minifters, 
Mr. Robert Blair, Mr. John Livingjloun, &c. fettled a- 
mongft the Scot sin the North of Ireland, were remark- 
ably owned of the Lord, and their Miniftry and Com- 
munions about the fix Mile Water, were made uiefal 
for reviving Religion in the Power and Practice 
of it. The Irijb Prelates, at the Inftigation of ours, 
got them removed for a Seafon, much againft excel- 
lent Biftiop UJber's Mind. When filenced and come 
over to Scotland about the Year 1638, Mr. Dukfon 
imployed MefTrs. Blair, Living ft can, and Cunningham % 
at his Communion ; for this he "was called before the 
High Commiilion. He foon got rid of this Trouble, 
the Prelate's Power being now on the Decline. 

I have fome of Mr. Dickfon 's Sermons at Irvine 
taken from his Mouth : They are full of folid fub- 
fhintial Matter, very fcriptural, and in a very famili- 
ar Stile, not low, but extremely ftrong, plain and 
afFecVmg. It's fcrncwhat a-kin to Mr. Rutherford -s, 
in his admirable Letters. I have been told by fom'e 
old Minifters,nhat fcarce any Body of that Time came 
fonear Mr. Dickfo n 's Stile and Method in preaching, 
as the Revd. Mr. William Guthrie, Minifter of Finwick, 
who equalled, if not exceeded him here. 

As Mr. Dick/on was fmgularly ufeful in his pub- 
lick Miniftrations, fo I could give many Inftances of 
his Ufefulnefs more privately, both to Chriftians 
in anfwering their perplexing Cafes of Confciencc, 
and Students who had their Eye to the Miniftry, 
B z while 

xvi *AJbort Account of the Life 

while he was at Irvine: his prudent Directions, 
Cautions and Encouragements, given them, were 
extremely ufeful and beneficial. I could alio give 
Examples of his Ufefulneis to his very Enemies, and 
the Lord's making what he fpoke to one that robbed 
him in the Road to Edinburgh of a confiderable Sunn 
of Money, the Occafion of the poor Youth's Change 
of Life, and at length of real Converfion. The Ac- 
count of which I have from a worthy Perfon, who 
had it from himfelf. But there is not Room here 
to enlarge on thefe things. 

It was Mr. Dick/on who brought the Presbytery 
of Irvine to fupplicate the Council, 1 637, for a Suf- 
penfion of a Charge given to Minifters to buy and 
ufe the Service-Book. At that Time four Supplica- 
tions from different Quarters, without any Concert 
in the Supplicants, met at the Council-Houfe Door, to 
their mutual Suprife and Encouragement. Thefe 
were the fmail Beginnings of that happy Turn of 
A /Fairs, that and next Year's, of which it were to be 
wifhed we had fuller and better Accounts than yet 
have been publifned 

In that great Revolution Mr. Dickfon bore no 
fmall Share. He was fent to Aberdeen, with MefTrs. 
Henderfon and Cant, by the Covenanters, to perfuade 
that City and Country about, to join in renewing the 
Lands Covenant with the Lord. This brought him 
to bear a great Part in the Debates with the learned 
Doctors Forbes, Barron, Sib b did, &c. at Aberdeen, 
which being in print, I fay no more of them. 

When the King was prevailed with to allow a 
free G. Aflembly at Glafgow, Novemb. 1638, Mr. 
Dickfon and Mr. Bailey from the Presbytery of lrvine y 
made a great Figure there. In all the important 
Matters before that grave Meeting, he was very ufe- 
fui, but Mr. Dickfon finalized himfelf in a feafon- 


of Mr. David Dickfon. xvii 

able and prudent Speech he had, when his Majefty's 
CommiiTioner threatened to leave the AiTembly. It's 
in mine Eye, but too long to ftand here, and too im- 
portant and nervous to abridge. In the i \th Sef- 
iion, Dec. 5. he had another mod learned Difcourfe 

* againft Armimanifin, which I alfo omit. 

The Reports of the Lord's eminent countenan- 
cing Mr. Dickfon's Miniftry at Irvine, had e'er this 
time fpread through all this church ; but his emi- 
nent Prudence, Learning, and holy Zeal, came to be 
univerfally known, efpeciatly to Minifters, from the 

^Part he bore in the aflembly at Glafgow : So that he 
was almoft unanimoufly chofen Moderator to the 
next G. Aflembly at Edinburgh, Auguft 1 639. Many 
of his Speeches, and Inftances of his wife Manage- 
ment at fo critical a Juncture, are before me in a 
M S. Account of that Aflembly. In the 1 oth Sef- 
fion, the City of Glafgow prefented a Call to him ; 
but partly becaufe of his own Averfion, and the vi- 
gorous Appearances of the Earl of Eglingtonznd his 
loving People, and moftly from the remarkable Ufe- 
fulnefs of his Miniftry i& that Corner, theG. Aflem- 
bly continued him at Irvine. 

But not long after, 1641, he was tranfported to 
be ProfeiTor of Divinity in the Univerfity of Glafgow, 
where he did great Services to the Church and Inter- 
efts of real Religion, by training up many Youths for 
the holy Miniftry. Notwithstanding of his labori- 
ous Work amongft them, he preached every Lord's 
Day Forenoon in the High Church there; and got 
in, and I think, had for his Colleague, the learned 

i and zealous Mr. Patrick Gillefpie. 

In the Year 1643, the Church laid a very great 

Work on him, Mr. HenJerfon and Mr. C-ildenvood, to 

form the Draught of a Directory for public Worihip, 

as appears by the Atts of Aflembly. When the. 

B 3 Pefti- 

xviii JLfaort Account of the Life 

Peftilence was raging at Glafgow, i 647. the Matters 
and Students of the Univeriity removed to Irvine^ 
upon Mr. Dick/en's Motion. There the holy and 
learned Mr. Durham palled his trials, and was ear- 
iieftly recommended by the Profcffor to the Presby- 
tery and Magiftrates of Gtafgow, and in a little Time 
ordained Manlier to that City. Great was the 
Friend(hip and Familiarity between thefe two emi- 
nent Lights of this Church there ; and among other 
EfFe&s of their familiar Converfation, which frill turn- 
ed upon profitable Subjects and Defigns, we have, 
the Sum of Saving Knowledge, which hath been fa 
often printed with our Confeffion of Faith and Cate- 
chifms. This, after feverai Conv&rfations, and think- 
ing upon the Subjeft and Manner of handling it, fo 
as it might be moll ufeful to vulgar Capacities, was 
by MefTrs. Dick/on and Durham di&ated to a Revd. 
* Minifter (who informed me) about the Year 1 650. 
It was the Deed of thefe two great Men, and though 
never judicially approven by this Church, deferves ta 
be much more read and confidered than I fear it is, 

About this Time, Mr. Dick/on had a great Share ir* 
the printed Pamphelts upon the unhappy Debates 
betwixt the Refolutioners and Protejlors* He was in 
his Opinion for the public Refolutions, and moft of 
the Papers upon that Side were written by him, 
Mr. Robert Bailey, and Mr. Robert Douglafs ; ap thofe 
upon the other Side were written by Mr. James Guth- 
trie, Mr. Patrick Gillefpie, and a few others. 

I have not inquired into the exaft Time when 
Mr. Dickfon was transported from the Profeffion of 
jDivinity at Glafgow, to the fame Work at Edinburgh ; 
but I takei to have been about this Time. It was, 
I think, at Edinburgh he diftated in Laiin to his Scho- 
lars, what is here prefented to * lie Reader in Englifh. 
There he continued his laborious Gaie of Students 


of Mr. David Dickfcm. xix 

of Divinity, the growing Hopes of a Church ; and 
either at Glafgow.ov Edinburgh mod Part of the 
Presbyterian Minifters, at leaft in the Weft, South, 
and Eaft Parts of Scotland, from the .Year 1640, to 
the happy Revolution, were under his Infpeftion* 
And from this very Book we may perceive his Care 
to educate them in the Form of found Words, and to 
ground them folidly in the excellent Standards of 
Doftrine agreed to by this Church. May it ftill be 
the Care and Mercy of the Church of Scotland, to 
preferve and hand down to Pofterity, the fcriptural 
pure Doffrine delivered by our firft Reformers to 
Mr. Dick/on and his Contemporaries, and from him, 
and the other great Lights in his Day, handed 
down to us now upon the Stage, without Corrupti- 
on and declining to right or left Hand 

Mr. Dick/on continued at Edinburgh, difcharging 
his great Truft with Faithfulnefs and Diligence, 
until the melancholy Turn by the Reftoration of 
Prelacy, upon King Charles's Return ; when, for re- 
fufing the Oath of Supremaq', he was, with many 
other Worthies, turned out. His Heart was broke 
with the heavy Change on the beautiful Face of this 
reformed Church. He was now well ftricken irv 
Years, his Labour and Work was over, and he ripe 
for his glorious Reward. 

Accordingly in December 1662, he -fell extreme- 
ly weak. Mr. John Livingjloun now fuffering for 
the fame Caufe with him, and under a Sentence of 
Banifhment for refufing the forefaid Oath, came to 
vifit Mr. Dick/on on his Death-bed. They had been 
intimate Friends near 50 Years, and now rejoiced to- 
gether as Fellow ConfeiTbrs. When Mr. Livingjloun 
afked the Profeflbr how he found himfelf ; his An- 
swer was, " I have taken all my good Deeds and all 
my bad Deeds \ -and caft them through each other 


xx 4/4 fhort Account of the Life 

in a Heap before the Lord ; and fled from both ; 
and betaken myfelf to the Lord Jefus Chrift ; and 
in him I have fweet Peace." Mr. Dick/arts youngeft 
Son gave my Informer, a worthy Minifter yet alive, 
this Account of his Father's Death. Having been 
very weak and low for fome Days, he called ail his 
Family together,andfpoke inparticular toeach of them, 
and when he had gone through them all, he pronoun- 
ced the Words of the Apoftolical Bleffing, 2 Cor. 
xiii. 14. with much Gravity and Solemnity ; and then 
put up his Hand and clofed his own Eyes, and with- 
out any Struggle or apparent Pain, immediately ex- 
pired in the Arms of his Son, my Brother's Informer. 

Mr. Dick/on married Margarate Roberton, Daugh- 
ter to Archibald Roberton of Stonehall, a younger 
Brother of the Houfe of Ernock, in the Shire of 
Lancrk. By her he had three Sons, John Dick/on, 
Clerk to the Exchequer in Scotland : Mr. Alexander 
Dickfon, ProfefTor of the Hebrew Tongue in the Col- 
lege of Edinburgh : And Mr. Archibald Dick/on, who 
lived with his Family in the Parifh of Irvine. By 
thefe he hath left a numerous Pofterity. 

It remains only now that I give fome Account of 
Mr. Dickfon's Writings and Works, he hath left be- 
hind him in Print and M S. which fpeak when he is 
dead. He was concerned in, and I am ready to think 
one principal Mover of that Concert among feveral 
•worthy Minifters of this Church, for publitliing 
fhort, plain, and practical Expofitions upon the 
whole Bible.. I cannot recover all their Names who 
•were engaged in this Work, but I know MefTrs. 
Robert Douglafs, Rutherford, Robert Blair, G. Hutche- 
^fon, James Fergu [on 9 Alexander Nisbit, James Dur» 
bam, John Smith, and fome others, had particular 
Books of holy Scripture allotted to them. The 
Labours of the moll of thefe are published, and the 


cfMr. David Dickfon. Xxy 

Works of others of them yet remain in MS. Mr. 
Dick/on, with whom at prefent I am only concerned, 

His Commentary on the Hebrews, Svo. 

On' Matthew, 4 to. 

-■ On the Pfalms, Svo. 

On the Epiftles, Latin and Engtifh, 

4to and Folio. 

His Therapeutica Sacra : Or, Cafes of Confci- 
ence refolved, in Latin 4to, in EDgliih 8vo, 

A Treatife of the Promifes, umo, Dublin. 
Befides thefe, he wrote a great part of the Anfwers 
to the Demands, and Duplys to the Replies of the 
Doftors of Aberdeen, 4 to. and fome of the Pam- 
phlets in Defence of the public Refolutions, as hath 
been obferved ; with fome fhort Poems on pious and 
ferious Subjects, which I am told have been very 
ufeful, when printed and fpread among country 
People and Servants ; fuch as, The Chrijiian Sacrifice* 
Mother dear Jerufalem! and on fome what larger 
8vo, 1649. entitled, True Chrijiian Love, to be 
fung with the common Tunes cf the Pfalms. This is 
all of his I have feen in print. 

Several of his MS. remain unprinted. Befides fome 
of his Original Letters, I have his Preparatio Tyronis 
Concicnaturi, which I fuppofe he di&ated to his Scho- 
lars at Glafgow. Surnmarium Libri Jefaice. His 
Letter on the Refolutions. His firfi Paper upon the 
Public Refolutions. His Reply to Mr. P. Gillefpy 
and Mr. James Guthrie, His No Separation of the 
iveil afftElcd from the Army. I am not fure but 
fome or thefe may be in print, they are generally 
pretty large Papers, of feveral Sheets in Writing. 
His Sermons at Irvine upon 1 Tim. 1. 5. 1 have men- 
tioned already, I doubt not but many more of his 


xxii AJhort Account of the Life 

valuable Papers are in the Hands of others : Such as 
his Precepts for a daily Direction of a Chriftian' s Con- 
v erf at ion. The Grounds of the true Chriftian Religion, 
by way of Catechifm for his Congregation of Irvine. 
A Compend of his Sermons upon Jeremiah and the La* 
mentations, and the firjl Nine chapters of the Epiflh 
to the Romans. Thefe I have not ieen, but I know 
they are in the Hands of Minifters. I do not men- 
tion his Prelecliones in Confejfwntm Fidei, fmce it fol- 
lows here in Englifh. 

Which would lead me to end this Preface with a 
few Hints of the Ufefulnefs of this Book the Reader 
hath now in his Hands. It would be Arrogance and 
infufferable Prefumption in me, to offer to recom- 
mend any Thing of the Reverend and Learned Pro- 
feffor Dickforis. His Praife is in the Churches, and 
particularly in this; any Thing of his is far above a 
Recommendation from fo meaaa Hand as mine, and 
needs no Elogiums from any. All I have in my 
"View, is, to point out the Care of this Church iince 
the Reformation ; about her Summaries of Do&rine 
and Confeffions of Faith ; and put the common Peo- 
ple, in whofe Hands this Book may come, in mind 
of the Benefits and Advantages they may have, by 
their careful Perufal of it, and comparing what is 
here with our excellent Confeffion it felf, and above 
all, with the Scripture upon which our Confeffion 
is founded, and by which it is proven ; which I am 
affured will be very great, if there be a ferious De- 
pendence upon the Father of Lights, through his 
Son, by a lively Faith, for the Spirit of Illumination, 
Wifdom and Revelation ; without whom there is no 
fpiritual, faving, or truly ufeful Knowledge of the 
Truth, as it is in Jefns. 

Our excellent Reformers began their Work 1650. 
with an excellent Summary of Chriftian Doftrine ; 


of Mr. David Dickfon. xxiii 

which both Minifters and ProfefTors harmonioufly 
f ubfcribed, and the Eftates of Parliament imbodied 
with the ftanding Laws of this Kingdom, as the 
public authorized Doctrine. About 20 Years after, 
upon the reftlefs and almoft conftant Attempts of 
Papifts againft our Scriptural and Reformation Efta- 
bliuhment, in Doctrine, "Worfhip, Difcipline, and 
Presbyterian Government ; our National Covenant, 
containing a negative Confeflion of Faith, efpecially 
levelled againft Popery, was formed by the King's 
Command, fworn and fubferibed by his Majefty and 
his Family; and then, by Aft of Council, and feveral 
Acts of G. Affembly, was fworn and fubferibed by 
all Ranks of Proteftants in Scotland, after it had 
been carefully explained and cleared up by Minifters 
to their People, in every Congregation. 

Thefe Confeffions continued as the public Stan- 
dards of the Doctrine of the Church of Scotland, 
and were fubferibed by the Minifters and other 
Church Officers, till Prelacy was forced in upon us. 
With this, a Deluge of Loofenefs in Principles and 
Practice came in. The Managers under Prelacy 
feemed to lay this down as a Rule in rheir Procedure, 
to depart as far as they coufcl with the Name of Pro- 
teftants, from the former Uftges and Practices of our 
Presbyterian Reformers ; and when they had got the 
Government, and Reformation- Difcipline folemnly 
engaged unto in the National Covenant, overturned, 
and after they had innovate our pure and fcriptural 
Woruhip by new Forms, in the corrupt Aflembly 
1 61 6, aud had gone greater Lengths this way two 
Tears after in their Meeting at Perth ; they found-it 
proper alio to draw up a New Confefflon of Faith. 
Matters as. yet were not ripened indeed for fuch Al- 
terations in Doctrine, as afterwards broke in ; and 
a? far as I have obferved, the Doctrine of their new 
ConfeiTion is pretty fafe ; and to that, likewife, Sub- 


xxiv A fliort Account of the Life 

fcriptionwas required. But when there is nofcrip- 
tural Government and Difcipline, the Hedges Chrift 
hath appointed for the Prefervation of the Truth, it 
appears to me impoffible, that the Doctrine of a 
Church can remain long in any tolerable State. 

Accordingly Popery and Pelagianifm, better known 
tinder name of Arminianifm, very foon overfpread this 
Church, with Prelacy. This is candidly acknow- 
ledged by our celebrated Hiftorian Bifhop Burnet, in 
his Memoirs : and what he hath faid might be fully 
vouched, and much enlarged from many Remains of 
that Period. It's now more than evident, that by 
the Influence of Bifbop Laud, and the Party where- 
of he was the Head, and the Reformation Doctrine 
in England, till then Antipelagian, and perfectly a- 
greeable to that of the reft of the Reformed Church- 
es, as well as ours in Scotland, by his intereft with 
our Bifhops, who were all at his Devotion, was 
brought to a terrible degree of Corruption. Pela- 
gian and Popi/b Tenets were then the only Road to 
Preferment, and fuch fell in with them were highly 
carefled ; all which was evidently done to poifon 
the Kingdoms with flavifh and arbitrary Principles, 
and to deftroy our civil Rights and Liberties, of 
which pure fcriptural Doctrine is a greater prefer- 
vative, than many in this loofe Age confider. 

When Matters were at this low Pafs in Scotland, 
and our All, as to Religion and Property, in the ut- 
xnoft Hazard, the known Struggles for both were 
made 1637, and, 1638, by our Nobility, Gentry and 
Minifters. They began, after regular Complaints 
and Supplications, with Renewing their, and the 
Lands Covenant with the Lord; and folemnly engag- 
ed themfelves to ftand by the Reformation Doctrine 
In the National Covenant, which necefTarily, natural- 
ly, and plainly, took in our own fcriptural Govern- 
ment and Difcipline, in Ufe and Practice. 


rfMr. David Dick ion. xxv 

This great Turn, in a few Years, grew up to a fo- 
lemn Contract and Covenant with \hzEngHJb Na- 
tion, and the Confequence of which was, Endeavours 
after Uniformity in Doctrine, Worfhip, Difcipline 
and Government, in order to which, the learned and 
grave Synod of Divines, who met at lVeJlminjlcr> was 
called: a Meeting for Piety, folid and extenfive Learn- 
ing, and all other Quaiites necdlary for the great 
Work they had to do, equalled by very few, and fur- 
patted by none fince the primitive Times of Chrifti- 
anity. By them, with the Afliftance of our Sects 
Commiffioners, was formed our prefent Confeffion of 
Faith,the belt Summary of Doctrine I know of in the 
Reformed Churches. This excellent Confeflion was, 
after mature Examination, unanimoufly agreed to by 
our G. AfTembly, in their Act 1 647, and received fo- 
lemnly as the Standard of Doctrine, profefled and 
preached by all the Members, Minifters, and Church 
Officers in this Reformed Church of Scotland, and 
that in Confequence of our folemn Dedication to 
the Lord as a Church and Land. And certainly it 
was one of the greateft Mercies to us and Poftei ity, 
that foon after the never to be forgotten Revolution, 
brought abont by that great Instrument of Divins 
Providence, the late Glorious King William, that ex- 
cellent Compofure was publickly examined and ap- 
proven, received the Sanction ot King and Parliament, 
and was made Part of our legal Conftitution and E- 
ftablifhment. God himfelf ftrengthen what he hath 
wrought for us, and create a Defence over all the 

The fcriptural Doctrine contained in thisoor ex- 
cellent Conieffioii is,what every one ought to perufe, 
underftand, and compare with the holy Oracles, the 
only Rule of Faith and Practice. OuiConfeffion of 
Faith is the Form of found Words, which we ought to 
C hold 

xxvi jiflioYt Account of the Life 

holdfafi in Faith and Love which are in Chrifi Jefus. 
Thefe Forms and Summaries of Chriftian Doctrine, 
drawn from the infpired Scriptures, have been ufed 
in the firfl: and pureft Ages of Chriftianity ; and 
iince the Reformation, not only by this Church, bat 
as far as I can obferve, by all who have feparated 
thcmfelves from the Abominations of Popery, and 
that with great Advantages, and for many excellent 
Purpofes. Thefe being founded upon the Scriptures, 
and fupported by them, cannot poffibly contain any 
Thing contrary to Chriftian Liberty, or our imparti- 
al Inquiry into the Mind of God difcovered in his 
•Word: but are excellent Helps, efpecially to com- 
mon People, to fearch the Scriptures, and put them 
in Cafe, t o give a Reafon of the Hope which is in them, 
to every one that asks it. If at this Day thefe excel- 
lent Summaries are ridiculed and oppofed by Dei/Is 
and Free-thinkers, by Socinians ^ Arians and Armmians, 
I fhould think this fliould be no ftrong Argument 
with fober and impartial Enquirers into the Truth, 
to lay them afide : but rather fhould raife our hear- 
ty Concern for them, as valuable Means for know- 
ing and fecnring the great Truths of Chriftianity, 
in fo loofe an Age, when the Foundations are in Ha- 
zard to bedeftxoyed. 

I hope, and pray, that this boundlefs Latitude may 
never gain Ground in this Church, which hath now 
near Two Hundred Years Experience .of the good 
Effects of this excellent Means for preferving the Pu - 
rity of Doftrine among us. No (mail Duft hath 
been lately raifed among our Neighbours againft Con- 
. feffions of Faith, as Engines of Popery, Shackles up- 
on Knowledge, and many other hard Epithets. The 
fair and candid Way in this Outcry had been, in my 
humble Opinion, to have above-board attacked the 
Dofirine of our Wejlminjler Confeflion, and proven 


of Mr. David Dickfbn, xxvii 

it inconfiftent with the Holy Scriptures, That it 
Teems, appeared a hard Task, and it was much eafier 
to make a general Cry of Impofuion, Inquifition, and 
the like. Any Thing like Argument, which I have 
noticed in this unhappy Debate, ftrikes againft 
Tranflations of the Scripture by Men not infpired, 
and at this Rate we muft go back to one of the worft 
Branches of Popery ! or it levels againft all Govern- 
ment, Order, and miniflerial Authority and Power 
in the Church as a fpiritual Society, fet up by the 
great God our Saviour ;, and thus we muft fall into 
Anarchy and Confufion, and by a licentious Liberty, 
every one be left to do what is good in his own Eyes, 
to the Ruin of real practical Chriitianity, and no 
imall Hazard to civil Society. Far be it from me to 
charge thefe Confequences upon the Oppofers of 
Confeffions of Faith. I hope when they come ta 
lay afide their prefent Bigotry and Heat, and im- 
partially weigh Matters, they will fee their Argu- 
ments prove too much, much mere than they defign, 
if they prove any Thing at all, and naturally lead 
to all the Excefles of Deifts and Free-thinkers, Let 
me only add, that a litle Reflection and cool Enquiry 
will alfo difcover, that the fubferibing the real Senfc 
of the Scripture, as well as the Words of it, mull 
be a reafonable and good Means to maintain the 
Doftrine and Truths in it. 

\\ r e are now fallen into the lafl: perilous Tiirr> t 
when damnable Errors are breaking out, and the 
Foundation Truths of our holy Religion are called 
in Queftion. It muft then highly concern all to be 
eftablifhed in the Faith, and the prefent Truth. la 
the firft and chief Room we ought to have our Un- 
derftandings opened, that we may underftand the 
Scriptures ; and to fearch and ftudy thefe with the 
greateft Sincerity, Diligence, and Dependence on 
C 2 the 

xxviii A Jbort Account of the Life, &c. 

the holy Spirit of Chrift: One excellent Help to this, 
at leaft as to fuch who cannot dip into the Originals, 
and make ufe of the larger and more learned Treatifes 
of great and good Men, will be a full and thorough 
Acquaintance with our Con fef lion of Faith ; there 
the fcriptural Truth, that makes us free, is brought 
down to the level of all ; and thofe Things, which 
for great and wife Ends are featured up and down 
t»he Word of God, are brought together in an eafy, 
plain, arid convincing Order ; and when compared 
with their Scripture Proofs and Foundations, cannot 
fail to be Angularly ufeful. 

The following Book, as it were, breaks the Truths 
in our Confeflion {mail, and prepares them for the 
meaneft Capacities. The learned Author brings in 
the different Errors under proper Heads, and, in a 
moft plain and folid Way, refutes them from the 
holy Scriptures. At once he difcovers the Defign of 
the particular Branches of our excellent Confeflion 
of Faith, he eftabiifhes the truth therein laid dowa, 
iind guards agafcft the Gangrene and Poifon of con- 
trary Errors, with Judgment and Perfpicuity, and 
in a Manner far above any Character I can give. 

I (hall only add my humble and earned Wifhes, 
that this Trcatife may, thro* God's Bleffing, be made 
ufeful to eftabliih thofe into whofe Hands it comes, 
in the Truth and Faith, for which we ought to con- 
tend earncftly ; to guard many againft the growing 
Loofenefs and Errors of this Time ; and tend to the 
lacreafe of folid real Knowledge of the Truth, which 
is according to Godlinefs ; which I am perfuaded 
was the worthy Author's View in writing of it. 

Skftwcod* Jan* 5. 

R< W. 

[ 2 9 ] 



Of the Holy SCRIPTURE. 

Question I. 

S the Light of Nature, and the Works of Crem- 
ation and Providence, fufficient to give that 
Knowledge of God, and of his Will, which 
M is neceilary to Salvation ? " 

No. i Cor. i. 21. and i Cor. 2. 13. 14. 
Well then, do not the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, That Men living according to the Law, and 
Light of Nature, may be faved ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe none can be faved, unlefs they be 

born, by the incorruptible Seed of the Word. 1 Pet. 

1. 23. 2d, Becaufe Chrift is the Way, the Truth, 

and the Life, and no Man cometh to the Father, 

but by {he Son, John 14. 6 3d, Becaufe there is 

none otruf Name under Heaven, given among Men, 

whereby \e muft be faved, but by the Name of Je- 

fus, Ads A 1 2. 4th, BecauieMen cannot believe iu 

Chrift without fupernatural Revelation : and there- 

j fore cannot bifanftified or juftified ; becaufe all JuC- 

tification, SgJ&ificatioD, and RemifEoa of Sins, are 

C 3 by 

3% Of the Holy Scripture. Chap. I, 

by God's Grace, and Faith in Jefus Chrift, Rom. 3. 
24, 25. Acts 26. 18. Neither can Men be fo faved, viz, 
by living according to the Light of Nature, becaufe 
Salvation is promifed only to Believers in Chrift, 
Afts 16. 31. John 3. 16. 5th, Becaufe all that know 
not God, will be punifhed eternally, 2 Thef. 1. 8. 
But Men without fupernatural Revelation cannot 
fa-vtngly know God, 1 Cor. 1. 21. Matth. n. 27. 
6th, Men deflitute of fupernatural Revelation cannot 
know their own Corruption and Mifery, by the firft 
Adam, nor the Remedy which is offered by Chrift, 
the fecond Adam. They are without God, with- 
out Hope, without thePromifes,\vhhout the Church, 
and Covenant of God : and the Myfteries of Faith 
are hid, and unknown to them allenarly, that perifli, 
and are loft, Eph. 2. 11, 12. Rom. 9, 4, 2 Cor. 4. 
3. Mat. 13, 11, 12. Mat. 11. 25, 26, 27. 

Qneft. II. " Are the holy Scriptures moft necef- 
" fary to the Church ? " 

Yes. 2 Tim. 3. 15. 2 Pet. 1. 19. 

Well, then doth not the Popifh Church err, that 
affirms the true Church to be infallible, in teaching 
and propounding Articles of Faith, both without-, 
and agaiufl the Scripture: and that their unwrit- 
ten Traditions arc of divine and equal Authority with 
the Canon of the Scripture r* 


Do not likewife the Libertines and Quaker? err^ 
affirming, that God doth teach, and guide the E- 
left into all Truth, by the alone Inftinft anrJ Light* 
of the Spirit, without any written Word whatfo- 
ever ? 


•By what Reafons are they confuted r 

lit, Becaufe the: Scriptures are the Foundation? 
upon which the Church is built, Eph, 2* 20, 2d, 


Chap. I. Of the Holy Scripture. £4 

Becaufe all Things are to be examined by the Rule 
of the Word; a- the noble Bereans did, A&s 17. 
11,12. 3d, Becaufe unwritten Traditions are fub- 
jeft and liable to many Con uption9, and are foon and 
quickly forgotten. 4th, Becaufe we have Life eternal 
in the Scriptures; therefore they mull be mod ne- 
cefTary to the Church, John, 5. 39. 5th, Becaufe 
the Scriptures are given, that the Man of God may 
be perfect, thoroughly furnifhed to all good Works, 
2 Tim. 3. 16, 17. and the Scriptures are written, 
that Men may believe, John 20. 3 f . 

Queft. III. " Are thefe former Ways of God's re- 
" vealing his Will unto his People now ceded ? M 


Well then, do not the Enthufiafts and Quakers 
err, who maintain, That the Lord hath not ceafed 
yet to reveal his Will as he did of old ? 


By what Reafbns are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe God, who at fundry Times, and in 
diver9 Manners, fpake inTimes pad: unto the Fathers, 
by the Prophets, hath in thefe laft Days fpoken un- 
to us by his Son, Heb. 1.1,2. The Apoftle calls the 
Time of the New TefUment the laft Days, becaufe 
under the fame, there is no more Alteration to be ex- 
pected, but all Things are to abide without adding, 
or taking away, as was taught and ordained by Chrlft, 
until the laft Day; See atfo Joel 2. 18. A6h 2. 17* 
The Ways and Manners of old were firft by Infpi- 
ration, i Chron. 15. 1. Ifai. 59. 21. 2 Pet. 1. 2\. 
Secondly, By Virions, Num. 12.^6, 8. Thirdly, By 
Dreams, J\j> 33. 14, 15^ Gen. 40. 8. Fourthly, By 
Urim-dnd T>wnwmn, Num. 27, 21. 1 Sam. 30. 7, #. 
Fifthly. By S^ns, Gen. 32, 24, Exod. 1 3. 21 . Sixth- 
ly, By audiblAvoice, Exod. 20. 1. Genf 22. 1 5. All 
which doendlin Writing, Exod. 17. 17, 14. which 

32 Of the Holy Scripture. Chap. L 

*3 a moft fure and infallible Way of the Lord's re- 
vealing his Will unto his People. 

Queft. IV. " Do the Books of the Old and New 
fe Teftaments come under the Name of the Holy 
u Scripture, and Word of God i " 


Well then, do not the Quakers err, who main- 
tain, That the Sc otures ought not to be called 
the Word of God? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe Chrift fays, if he called them Gods,un- 
to whom the Word of God came, and the Scripture 
cannot be broken, John io, 35. Here it is evident, 
that the Word of God, and the Scripture, are the 
fame. 2d, Becaufe the Predictions of the Prophets, 
are exprefly called the Word of God. Now in trie 
firft Year of Cyrus King of Perfia, that the Word of 
the Lord fpoken by the Mouth of Jeremiah might 
be accom pi ifhed, 2 Chron. 36. 22. Here we fee it 
is evident, that the written Prophefies of Jeremiah, 
which are Part of the Holy Scriptures, are called the 
Word of God. 3d, Becaufe what Chrift calls the 
Commandment of God, he calls the Word of God, 
Mark 7. 9, 10, compared with 5. 13. 4th, Becaufe 
the Apoftle calls the Sword of the Spirit, the Word 
efGoD. This Sword, is the Sword of the- Holy, 
Spirit, which he doth, as it were, put into our Hand, 
to refill: Satan, againft all his Temptations, Eph. 6. 
1 7. Therefore, by the Sword of the Spirit, mull be 
underftood the Scripture, not the Spirit itfeJf, as iome 
Quakers affirm. It is evident alio, from Matth. chap. 
4. where Chrift being tempted by the Devil, with 
three different Temptations, refifts h'm with three 
different Places of Scripture. And being asked by 
the Pharifees, why his Difciples cid pluck the 


Chap. I. Of the Holy Scripture. 33 

Ears of Corn upon the Sabbath Day; anfwered by 
Scripture, Matt. 12. 1, 2, 3, 4. Teaching us, 
that Satan's Temptations muft be carefully anfwer- 
ed, and that by Scripture, as the only Mean to over- 
come him, and his Inftruments. 5th, Becaufc the 
Word of God is quick and powerful, and fharp#r 
than any two edged Sword, Heb. 4. 1 2. This cannot 
be underftood of Chrift, becaufe Paul, in his other 
"Writings, doth not call the Perfon of Chrift by this 
Name, and therefore muft be underftood of the Word 
of the Gofpel, the Power whereof is defcribed, Rom. 
1 . 1 6. 6th, See thefe following Places of Scripture, 
Pfal, 119. 172. 1 Kings 16. 12. and 2 Kings 9. 36. 
and 23. 1 6. Ifa. 28. 13. Hof. 1. 1, 2. Ifa« 37. 22, 
Prov. 30. 5. By the Scripture, or the Word of God, 
we do not underftand the bare Letters, or the feveral 
M'ritten Words, of the Holy Scripture, which the 
Adverfaries may imagine we call the Word of God. 
Thefe are the only VeiTels, which carry and convey 
that heavenly Light unto us. But we underftand 
thereby, the Doftrme or Will of God revealed unto 
reafonable Creatures, teaching them what to do, be- 
lieve, or leave undone, Deut. 29. 29. 

Queft. V. " Are the Scriptures given of God to 
" be the Rule of Faith and Life ? 

Yes. Luke 16. 29*31. Eph, 2. 20. Rev. 22. 18, 
19. 2 Tim. 3. 16. 

Well then, doth not the Popifh Church err, who 
maintain their unwritten Traditions to be the Rule 
of Faith ? 


Do not Kkewife the Enthufiafts, and the Quakers 
err, who maintain, The Spirit within, that teaches 
the Cleft, to be the only Rule of Faith ? And that the 
Di&ates of Light within, are of as great Authority 
as the Scriptures? 


34 Of the Holy Scripture. Chap. I. 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufethe Scriptures are called a Rule, Gal. 
6. 1 6. 2d, Becaufe nothing is to be added to the 
Scriptures, Deut. 4. 2. and 12. 32. Prov. 30. 6. Rev. 
22. 19, 20. 3d, Becaufe we ought rather to follow 
the Scripture in this Life, than a Voice fpoken from 
Heaven, 2 Pet. 1 . 19, 21 . 4th, Becaufe the Scripture 
is written, that we may believe, John. 20. 31. 5th, 
Becaufe the Scripture is given for making the Man 
of God perfect, 2 Tim. 3. 17. 6th, Becaufe we 
mull betake ourfelves in the whole of Religion to the 
Law, and to the Teftimony, Ifa. 8. 20. 7th, Becaufe 
Chrift himfelf refers the greateft Queftion, that ever 
was, whether he be the Son of God, or not, to the 
Scriptures, John 5. 38, 39. Search the Sriptures, 
fays he, for they teftify of me. 8 th, Becaufe the 
Holy Ghoftdid never give fuch a Designation to his 
own Word, as an Hiftorical Rule, and dead Letter ; 
or as foaie Quakers call them, not the * principal 

* Fountain of Truth, and Knowledge, not the firft 
i Rul* of JYith and Manners,' but the Regula fe- 
cundaria, fubordinate to the Spirit; whence as they, 
affirm, ' the holy Scriptures have all their true 

* Worth, Excellency, and Certainty :' Whereas 
Paul fays exprefly, Faith comes by hearing, and 
hearing by the Word of God, Rom. 10. 14. 9th, 
Becaufe the Spirits cannot be known by any other 
Rule, than by the written Word. It is certain, that 
the Devil transforms himfelf into an Angel of Light, 
2 Cor. 11. 14. There is a Spirit of the World, 
1 Cor. 2. 1 2. A Spirit that rules in the Hearts of the 
Children of Difobedience, Eph. 2. 2. There is a ly- 
ing Spirit, 1 Kings 22. 22. And a Spirit of Error and 
Delufion, 1 John 4, 6. How fhall thefe be known 
to be fuch, or the Spirit, which the Quakers ob- 

Chap. I. Of the Holy Scriptvre. 35 

trude upon us, not to be one of them, but by the 
Rule of the Word ? 

Queft. VI. " Are the Books, commonly called 
u Apocbrypha, of divine Infpiration ? " 

No; Luke 24. 27,44,' Rom. 3. 2. and 2 Pet. 
1. 21. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who affirm, 
That the Books called Apochrypha, are of divine 
Infpiration, and of equal Authority with the un- 
doubted Word ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe they were never written in the He- 
brew Tongue, nor by any of the Prophets. 2d, Be- 
caufe they are never cited in the New Teftament 
by Chrift, or by any of the Apoftles, as the Books 
c of the Canonical Scriptures are. 3d, Becaufe they 
contain many fabulous, and impious Doftrines, 
and Hiftories. ift, Tobit 5. 12. The Angel fays, 
he was Azariah, the Son of Ananias. - This was a 
manifeft Lie, which cannot be attributed to a good 
Angel ; and therefore the Spirit of God hath not 
dictated this Hiftory. 2d, It is reported, Tobit 6. 
6, 7, 16, 17. that the Heart and Liver of a Fifri 
was good to make a perfume to drive away the De-' 
vil, if any Man was troubled with him, or with any 
evil Spirit. And it is faid, Tobit 12. 1 5. by the 
Angel, I am Raphel, one of the feven holy Angels, 
that preients the Prayers of the Saints. This is on- 
ly proper to Chrift. 3d, Becaufe the Fa£t of Sime- 
on and Levi, condemned by Jacob, afted by the Spi- 
rit of God, Gen. 34. 25. in killing the Shechemites, 
is commended by Judith, 9. 2, 3. 4th, Becaufe you 
will read of an Offering for the Dead, Prayers and Re- 
conciliation for the Dead, that they might be delivered 


36 Of the Holy Scripture. Chap. I. 

from Sin, 2 Maccab. 12.43, 44> 45- See what 
Contradiftions are in comparing together, 1 Maccab. 
6. 8. 2 Maccab, 1 5. 16. 2 Maccab. 9. 5. 

Queft. VII. " Doth the Authority of the Holy 
<i Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, and 
" obeyed, depend upon the Teftimoay of any Man, 
41 or Church V* 

No; 2 Pet. 1. 19. 21. 2 Tim. 3. 16. 1 Thef. 

Well then, do not the Popifti Writers err, who 
maintain The Authority of the Scriptures, to de- 
pend upon the Teftimony of the Church, as to us ? " 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Word is to be received by us, 
not as the Word of Man, but as the Word of God, 
1 ThefT. 2. 13. 2d, Becaufe the Dofrrine of 
Chrift, to be received by Believers, dependeth not 
upon Man's Teftimony, John 5. 34. 3d, Becaufe 
God only is true, and infallible, and all Men are 
Liars, Rom. 3. 4. Heb. 6. 18. He is of incom- 
prehenfible Wifdom, Pfalm 147.^. Of great 
Goodnefs, Exod. 18. 7. Rom. 11. 12. Pfalm 34. 
8. Of abfolute Power and Dominion, Gen. 17. 
I. Pfalm 56. 1,2. Of infallible Truth, who can 
neither deceive nor can be deceived, Rom. 3. 4. 
*Tit. 1. 2. Heb. 6. 18. Therefore he ought to be 
credited in all his Narrations, Promifes, Threat- 
nings, and Prophefies, and obeyed in all his Com- 
mandments allenarly, becaufe he himfelf hath faid 

Queft. VIII. " Is the whole Counfel of God con- 
" cerning all Things neceffary for his own Glory, 
" Man's Salvation, Faith and Love, either ex prefly 
u fet down in Scripture, or by good and neceffary 

Gonfequence, may be dedu&ed from it I " 


Chap. I. Of the Holy Scripture. 37 

Yes, 2 Tim. 3. 15. Gal. 1. 8, 9. 2 ThefT. 2. 2 

Well then, do not the Popifti Church err, who 
maintain, The Scripture to be an imperfeft Rule 
md therefore to Hand in Need of a Supply of ua 
written Traditions? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe all Scripture is given, that the 
Man of God may be perfeft, thoroughlyTurnifhed 
to all good Works, 2 Tim. 3. 16, gi7- 2d, Be- 
caufe the Pfalmift fays exprefly, the Law of the 
Lord is perfect, converting to the Soul, Pfalm 19. 
7, 8. 3d, Becaufe nothing is to be added to the 
Word of God, Deut. 4. 2. Prov. 30. 6. There- 
fore the Scriptures mufl be a compleat and per- 
fect Rule of Faith, and not an imperfect Rule, 
or but partly a Rule, as they teach. 

Queft. IX. " Is it warrantable to argue in Ar- 
" tides, or Matters of Faith, by Confequences na- 
u tively deduced from Scripture ?" 


Well then, v do not the Socinians, Quakers, 
Anabaptifts, and Arminians err, who maintain, 
That all Matters of Faith are fet down exprefly, 
and in fo many words in Scripture, and that no 
Matters of Faith (at leaft necefTary to Salvation) 
I can be built upon Confequences drawn from the 
! Scriptures ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lft, Becaufe Chrift himielf proves, that necef- 
fary Point of Faith, The Refurreftion of the 
Dead, from the Scripture by a Confequence, Mattb. 
2 3- 2 9> 3*> 3 2 - To be any one's God, is to give 
one eternal Life, Pfalm 33. 12. Pfalm 144. 15. 
Whence followcth, that thofe Patriarchs lived ftili 
D with 

38 Of the Holy Scripture. Chap. I 

-with God, in refpect of their Souls (which thefc 
Sadducecs alfo denied) A6h 23. 8. and fhould al- 
io rife in Refpeft of their Bodies, and live eter- 
nally: Seeing he is called a God, not of one 
Part of them only, but of their whole Perfons.. 
And in that fame Chapter, Verfe 43, 45. Chrift 
proves his Deity by a Confequence from Scripture 
againft the Pharifees. 2d, So doth Apollos, 
Afts 18. 28- and Paul, Acts 19. 22. prove from 
the Old Teftament, Jefus to be the Chrift: But 
it is not exprefly faid in the Old Teftament, that 
he is Chrift. Is not that which neceiTarily follows 
from Scripture, contained in it implicitly, and im- 
plicitly revealed by God, infallibly true ? 

Queft. X. " Is the inward Illumination of the 
*' Spirit of God, neceftary for the faving Under- 
" {landing of fuch Things, as are revealed in the 
M Word?" 

Yes, John 6.45. 1 Cor. 2. 9,10, 1 1, 12. 
Well then, do not the Socinians and Arminians 
err, who maintain, That Men without the Revela- 
tion of the Spirit, are able to underftand the Scrip- 
tures for their Salvation ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe the Difciples of Chrift were not 
able to underftand the Scripture, before he opened 
their Eyes, Luke 24. 45. 2d, Becaufe the Jews 
to this Day cannot underftand the Scriptures of the 
Old Teftament, until the 'Vail, by the Spirit of 
Cod, be taken away, 2 Cor 3. 14, 15, 16, 18. 
' 3d, Becaufe the Pfalmift David feeketh from 
God, the opening of his Eyes, that he may be- 
hold wondrous Things out of his Law, Pfaim 1 19. 



Chap. I. Of the Holy Scripture. 39 

Queft. XT. " Are all thefe Things, which are 
u neccftary to be known, believed, and obferved for 
" Salvation, fo clearly propounded, and opened in 
" fome Place of Scripture or other, that not only 
" the learned, but the unlearned, in a due Ufeof 
" the ordinary Means, may attain unto a fufficient 
" Underfhnding of them, for their Salvation ?" 

Yes, Pfalm 1 1 9. 105, 130. 

"Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That Things, neceftary to Salvation, are ob- 
fcurely and darkly fet down in Scripture; and 
that without the Help of unwritten Traditions, 
and the infallible expounding of the Church, the 
Scriptures cannot be underftood ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lit, Becaufe the word is a Lamp unto onr Feef, 
and a Light unto our Paths, Pfalm up. 105. 2d, 
Becaufe the Scriptures is a Light which ftu&eth 
in a dark Place, 2 Pet. 1. 19. 3d, Becaufe the 
Scriptures enlighteneth the Eyes, and maketh the 
Simple wife, Pfalm 19,7, 8. 

Queft. XII. " Hath not the Lord, by his fingu- 
* lar Providence and Care, kept pure in all Ages 
" the Old Teftament in Hebrew, and the New Te- 
*' {lament in Greek ? 

Yes, Matth. 5. 18. * 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, The Old Teftament in Hebrew, and the 
New Teftament in Greek, which are the Fountains 
to be corrupted, and that their common Latin Ver- 
fion is authentic ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Chrift fays, till Heaven and Earth 

pafs, one Jot, or one Tittle (hall in bo wife pafs 

D 2 from 

43 Of the Holy Scripture. Chap. I- 

from the Law, till all be fulfilled, Matth. 5. i8 # 
2d, Becaufe there can be no urgent Neceffity 
ftiown, why the Fountains are corrupted. 3d, If 
any fuch Corruption had been in the Scripture, 
Chrift, and his Apoftles, and the Orthodox Fa- 
thers had declared fo much, 4th, Becaufe they 
never have nor can make out any manifeft Cor- 
ruptions in the Fountains, albeit, moft manifeft 
and undeniable Demonftrations are given of the 
Corruptions of their Latin Verfion, which they 
make authentic. 

Queft. XIII. " Are the original Tongues, viz. 
" the Hebtew and the Greelc, to be tranflated in 
" the vulgar Language of every Nation into which 
" they cQmc?" 


Are we commanded in the Fear of God to read 
a^cl fearch the Scriptures ? 

Yes, John 5. 39. 1 Cor. 14, 6, 9, n, 12, 14, 
•24,27, 28. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, There is no neceffity of tranflating the O- 
riginal Tongues, the Hebrew, and the Greek, into 
the vulgar Language of every Nation, unto which 
they come, but rather a v^ry great Hazard, and 
Danger of Errors and Herefies ? 


Do not likewife the fame Papifts err, who fcr- 
bid the reading of the Scriptures in the vulgar 


By what Reafonsare they confuted? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Scriptures were given long fince 
to the Jews, in their own vulgar Language, that 
they might be read publicly and privately by all, 
Deut. 31. ig, ii, 12, Deut. 11. 18, 19, 20. 2d, 


Chap. I. Of the Holy Scripture. 41 

Becaufe the New Teframent was written in the 
Greek Language, which at that Time was moft 
generally known to all Nations. 3d, Becaufe 
Chrift bids all, promifcuoufly, fearch the Scriptures, 
John 5, 29. 4th, Becaufe the Prophets and Apo* 
ftles preached their Doflrines to the People and Na- 
tions in their known Languages, Jer, 46. 15, 16. 
Acts 2. 6. 5th, Becaufe immediately after the Apo- 
ftles Times, many Tranilations were extant. 6th, 
Becaufe all Things muft be done in the Congrega- 
tion unto edifying, 1 Cor. 14. 26. but an unknown 
Tongue doth not edify. 7th, Becaufe all are com- 
manded to try the Spirits, 1 Thef. 5.21. 1 Cor. 10. 
1 5. 8th, Becaufe the Scriptures teach the Way of 
Life, Prov. 2. 9, Luke 16. 19. Acts 24, 14. 9th, 
Becaufe the Scriptures fet forth the Duties of every 
Man in his Place, and Eflate of his Life, Deut. 17. 
8, 19, 20. Jo(h. 1.8. Pfalm 119. 24. 2 Chron. 23, 
1 1. 10th, Becaufe they are the Ground of Faith, 
Rom, 4. 20. 2 Chron. 20. 20. nth, Becaufe 
they are the Epiftle of God fent to his Church, Hof. 
8.12. Rev. 2. 1, 8, 12. 1 2th, Becaufe they are 
his Tefbment, wherein we may find what Lega- 
cies he hath bequeathed unto us, 2 Cor. 3. 14, 
16. Heb. 10. 16. John 14. 16. 13th, Becaufe 
they fire the Sword of the Spirit, Eph. 6. 17, 
14th, Becaufe being embraced, and known, they 
make a Man happy, Pftl 119. 07, 98. Luke 10. 
42. Luke 16.29. Plalm 1.2. Rev. 1. 3. 15th, 
Becaufe when the Scriptures are neglected, or 
contemned, they plunge Men into all Mifery, Heb. 
2. 3. Matth. 22. 20. Pfalm 50. 16. 

Queft, XI V. " When there is a Queftion about 
" the true Meaning, and full Senfe of any Scrip- 
" ture, muft it be known and fearched by other 
" Places which fpeak more clearly \ u 

D 3 Yes. 

42 Of th^ Holy Scripture. ' Chap. L 

Yes, 2 Pet. i . 2 1 . A&s 15.15, 16. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who maintain, 
The Scriptures not to be a fufficient Interpreter of 
itfelf, and that the Senfe of it cannot be gathered 
infallibly, when the Text is doubtful, from other 
Places which fpeak more clearly, but only from 
the magifterial Traditions, and unwritten Opini- 
ons of the Church of Rome ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becauie the noble Bareans compared Scrip- 
ture with Scripture, for finding out the true and 
iure Senfe of it, Afts 17. 11. 2d, Becaufe the 
Apoftle Paul did the fame, A6ls 28. 23. 3d, 
Becaufe the fame was done by the Council of the 
Apoftles and Elders, Afts 15. 15, 16, 17. 

Queft. XV. " Is the holy Spirit, fpeaking in 
u the Scripture, the Supreme Judge by which all 
" Controverfies of Religion are determined, and 
" all Decrees of Councils, Opinions of ancient 
" Writers,, Do£fr ines of Men, and private Spirits 
*? are to be examined, and in whofq Sentence we 
«< are to reft?" 

Yes, Matth. 22. 29, 31. Eph. 2. 20. A&s 28. 

Well then, do not the Papifts erf, whom|intain, 
That the Church of R.ome, and the Pope, are the 
fupreme Judges of all Controverfies of Faith: 
And that his Decrees, and Determinations, are 
to be believed without Examination, and implicit- 
ly to be believed by all Believers ? 


Do riot likcwife the Quakers err, who maintain, 
That the Light within, which teacheth the 
Fleft, is the only Judge of all Controverfies of 


Chap. I. Of the Holy Scripture. 43 


By what Reaions are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe God commands all Men to go to 
the Law and to the Testimony, in doubtful Mat- 
ters, Ifa. 8. 20. 2d, Bccaufc all Doubts in Reli- 
gion, are to be examined by the Rule of the Word, 
A6ls 17. 1 1. Gal. 6. 16. 3d, Becaufe Chrift, and 
his A pottles, did always difpute and reafon from 
the Scriptures againft the Enemies of the Truth, 
Matth. 22. 31. Gal. 3. 13. 4th, Becaufe the 
Church of God is founded upon the Writings of 
the Prophets, and Apoftles, Eph. 2. 20. 5th, 
Becaufe we are commanded to prove all Things, 
and to try the Spirits, 1 ThefT. 5. 2. 1 Joha 
4. 1, 6. 


Of GOT), and of the Holy Trinity. 

Question I. 

*' TS there but one only the true and living 
" 1 God?" 

Yes, Deut. 6. 4. 1 Cor. 8. 4, 6. 1 Thef. 1.7. 

Well then, do not the Trithetiae err, who 
maintain, Three Gods numerically diftindt, the Fa- 
ther, the Son, and the Holy Ghoft I 


Do not likewife the Manicheans err, who 
maintain, That there are two Gods, being di- 
verfe, and oppofite, as to kind, viz. One good, 


44 Of GOD, and of Chap. II. 

the Author and Caufe of all good Things, and 
of Things immaterial, being the God of the 
New Teftament. The other evil, viz. the De- 
vil, the Author and Caufe of all evil Things, and 
of Things material, being the God of the Gld 
Teftament ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted? 

i ft, Becaufe though there be a Plurality of 
Perfons mentioned in Scripture, yet it is ever God 
as one, as is evident from the firft Chapter of 
the Revelation, and the lad. For if that One 
God have in himfelf all Perfe&ions, there can be 
no Perfe&ion befide him, and fo no God but this 
one true God * For if there were; he fhould not 
be God, becaufe not infinite in Perfe&ion. And 
if God be infiaite in Perfection, then furely there 
cannot be a Multiplicity of Gods, feeing that 
■which is infinite, in that Refpeft, cannot be mul- 
tiplied. 2d, It is evident from Deut. 32. 3^. where 
the Lord fpeaketh of himfelf, * I even I am he,' 
and there is no God with me. 3d, Becaufe God 
is Omnipotent, and fo cannot be hindred by any 
other, in his working, Rev. 15. 3. 4th, It is evi- 
dent from Chrift's Words to the young Man of the 
Gofpel, ' there is none good but one, that is God.* 
5th, From the Words of Hanna in her Song, for 
there is none befide thee, O Lord, neither is there 
any Rock befide our God. 6th, From the Te- 
ftimony of the Apoftle, 1 Cor. 8. 6. To us fays 
he, there is but one God. 7th, From what Chrift 
faid to one of the Scribes, viz. ' the Lord our God 
is one Lord,' Mark 12. 29. 8th, Becaufe God 
is a moft abfolute, and moft perfect Being, and fo 
beyond all other Things, One: John 10. 29. 
Pfalm 145. 3. 147. 5.' 9th, Becaufe this one 


Chap. II. the Holy Trinity. 4; 

bleffed God is moft abfolutely fufficicnt, and fur- 
ni(hed with infinite Power, and Wifdom, for the 
Production, Converfation, and ruling all Things 
in Heaven and Earth. 10th Becaufe he is of 
all Things without himfelf, the firft and fupreme 
Caufe, from which all the Creatures vifible, or 
invifiblc, have their Rife and Beginning, nth, 
It is evident, Laftly, from the Teftimonies of the 
moft wife Heathens, who have been neceflltated 
to acknowledge but one God only. 

Queft. II. " Is God infinite in Being and Per- 
fection ?" 

Yes; Job n. 7, 8, 9. Job 26. 14. 

Well then, do not the Vorftians, Socinians, and 
Anthropomorphitans err, who maintain, That God 
is finite in Being, and Perfection ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe God hath a being from himfelf, 
and all Things have their Dependence from him s 
And therefore there can be nothing by which he 
can be limited, Rom. n. 36. 2d, Becaufe God 
is every where prefenr, in Heaven and in Earth, 
and beyond the Heavens, Jer. 23. 24. Iia. 66. i« 
2d, Becaufe the Scripture affirms, that the Per- 
fection of God is the higheft, is unmcafurable,- 
unchangeable, and infinitely great, beyond all 
Creatures: John n. 7, 8, 9. Pfalm 145. 3. Job 
26. 14. 

Qiieft. in. a Is the only living and true God, 
" a moft pure Spirit, invifible, without a Body 5nd 
" Parts?" 

Yes; John 4. 24. 1 Tim. 1. 17. Deut. 4. 15, 
16. Luke 24. 39. 

Well then, do not the Vorftians, Anthropomor- 
phitans, and Socinians err, who maintain, God to 


46 Of GOD, and of Chap. II. 

have a Body, and endued with Parts, aftd an out- 
ward Shape and Form ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe God is the Father of Spirits, Heb. 
12. 9. 2d, Becaufe God is invifible, 1 Tim. 1, 
1 7. 3d, Becaufe God is like to no bodily Thing, 
nor can he be reprefentedby any Image, or corpo- 
real Likenefs, Ifa. 40. 18- A&s 17. 29. 

Queft. IV. " Are therein the Unity of the God- 
4t head, three Perfons, of one Subftance, Power, and 
u Eternity ?" 

Yes, 1 John 5. 7, Matth. 3. 16, if. Matth. 28. 
19. 2 Cor, 13. 14. 

Well then, do not the Arians, and Socinians err, 
and others, Who deny the Godhead of the Son, * 
and Holy Ghoft ? 


Do not likewife the Trithetiae err, Who deny 
the Unity of the divine EfTence ? 


Thirdly, do not the Sebellians err, Who deny 
the real Diftinction of the Perfons ? 


And lafty, do not the Quakers err, who main- 
tain. There are no Perfons in the Godhead? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

I ft, From the Places of Scripture already cited. 
2d, From the Apoftolical Benedi&ion in which 
the three Perfons of the Godhead are called upon 
exprefly: 2 Cor. 13. 14. 3d, From 1 Cor. 12. 4, 
5, 6. Where the three Perfons are named Spirit, 
Lord, God. And From John 15.26. But when 
the Comforter is come, whom I will fend unto you 
from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth. 4th, 


Chap. II. the Holy Trinity. 47 

Becaufe there are three that bear Record in Hea- 
ven, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, 
1 John 5. 7. Thefe three mull be either three Per- 
fons, or three Gods. This laft, is the height of 
Impoflibility ; therefore they muft be three Perfons. 
Here they' are put to filence, and have nothing to 
reply ; fuch is the Strength and Power of Truth, 
which is able to flop the Mouths of the greateft 
Rebels againft Religion and Reafon. But there 
is good Ground for the Word Per/on, Heb. 1 . 3. 
where Chrift is faid to be the exprefs Image or 
Imprcffion of the Father's Per/on. Becaufe, the 
Perfon of the Son, perfectly reprefents the Perfon 
of the Father, as an Impreffion doth the Seal : 
wherefore he is alfo called the < Image of the in- 
vifible God, Col. 1. 15. The Greek Word is 
hypostasis, Subftance, or Perfon , whereby is 
underftood, the Perfon of the Father as diftinfr 
from the Son, and fubfift of himfelf, and in him- 
felf, and is, as the Original of the Perfon of the 
Son, by an * eternal and ineffable Generation/ 
That there are three Perfons in the Godhead ; it is 
further evident, ift, From all the Epiftles written 
to the feven Churches of Afia. For, as may be 
gathered from Rev. 1. 1. it is the Father that 
folds, it is the Son that gives John the Commif- 
fion, and it is the Holy Ghoft in the clofe, that is 
mentioned as joint Speaker, ad, Becaufe, in that 
Epiftle written to Thyatira, there are three di- 
ftinftly named, firft, the Father and the Son, in 
thefe Words, - Thefe Things, faith the Son of 
God.' Next, there is named in the laft Verfe of 
that fecond Chapter, the Spirit, * he that hath 
' an Ear, let him hear what the Spirit faith unto 
1 the Churches.'. 3d, Becaufe, in the Beginning 
of that Epiftle to the Church of Sardis, they are 


48 ef GOD, and of Chap. II. 

all three put together, ' Thefe Things, faith he, 
4 (viz. the Son) that hath the feven Spirits of 
4 God. 9 Here God, that is the Father, is di- 
ftinftly confidered as another Perfon. The 
feven Spirits are the Holy Ghoft. 4th, Be- 
caufe thefe three Perfons are moft fully and clear- 
ly diftinguifhed in the fifth Chapter. Firft, the 
Father fitting on the Throne. Secondly, the 
Lamb, or the Son of God : And Thirdly, the 
feven Spirits, or the Holy Ghoft, fo called from 
the pouring out of his Gifts upon the Churches, 
in that abundant Manner, as if he were feven Spi- 
rits, or feven-fold Spirit. 

It is evident alfo, that the Father, Son, and 
Spirit, are really diftinft from one another, and 
are three Perfons, They are indeed in refpeft of 
their EiTence, which is indivifibly communicable 
to them, One and the fame God ; but confidered 
Perfonally, they differ really, for the Father is 
not the Son, neither is he that fits upon the 
Throne the Lamb : Neither the Father nor the 
Spirit were incarnate, but the Son, who died, 
and was buried, which can be laid of none but of 
a Perfon. It cannot be faid that the Father died, 
or that the Spirit died : Next, Is not the Holy 
Ghoft the Spirit of God, as the Son is the Son of 
God ? And if that fuppofe a real diftintt Perfo- 
nality, this muft doit alfo. Now, if the Father 
be God, and the Son be God, and the Spirit God 
alfo, who have one and the fame divine Nature 
and EfTence indivifibly communicated to them ; 
and fo, if there be but one God, and yet thefe 
three really diftinft, then they muft be diftinft 
Perfons, in refpeft of their perfonal Properties, 
feeing they are Perfons, and diftintt. The Son, 
as was faid, is called 4 the exprefs Inage of the 

< Fa- 

Chap. IL the holy Trinity. 49 

4 Father's Perfoo,' which evidently fhews, that the 
Father, confidered as diftindt from the Son, is a 
Perfon, and fubfifts: If then thus it be, muft not 
the Son, as diftinft from the Father, and fo live- 
ly and exprefly reprefenting his Perfon, be a Per- 
fon alfo, having this from the Father : The fame 
muft be true likewife of the Holy Ghoft, who is 
God equal with both, yet different from both ; 
for he who proceedeth from the Father, and from 
the Son, muft differ from the Father, and from 
the Son ; as he who is begotten, muft be diftinft 
from him that begat him. 

Some Quakers, either ignorantly or perverfely, 
will have the Word hypostasis, tranflated 
SubJIance, as it is Heb. 1 1 . 1 . and thus they read, 
Heb. 1.3.' The Character or Image of God's 

* Subftanee,' which is to be underftood of Chrift, 
fay they, not fimply as God, but as Man : But 
they might as well have faid it fignifies confident 
or confidence* becaufe it is ib tranflated, 2 Cor. 9. 
4, and 2 Cor. 1 1 . 17. But they fpeak here confe- 
quentially to their own Tenets, who in effeft deny 
the Trinity, and all Diftin&ion between the Fa- 
ther, Son, and Holy Ghoft, not only in Words, 
but in very Deed. The Apoftle in this Place, is 
proving Chrift the Son of God, to be the Lord and 
Heir of all Things ; becaufe God created the 
Worlds by him, * He is the Brightnefs of his 

* Glory, the exprefs Image of his Perfon, up- 

* holdeth all Things by the Word of his Power.' 
Thefe Titles are here given to the Son of God, as 
a Creator, and a Preferver of all Things, which 
belong to him only, according to his Divine Na- 
ture : Therefore thefe Titles muft be underftood 
of Chrift, forafmuch as he is the eternal Son of 
God, and a Light from the eternal Light, of one 

E l ' ET- 

SO Of GOD and of Chap. II. 

Eflence and Glory with the Father ; neverthelefs 
diftinguifhed from the Perfon of the Father, by 
whom the Father executes his Operations, and 
fhews his Properties, even as the Sun by its Light 
doth (hine. 

Queft. V. " Is the Son of God of the fame Sub- 
" fiance, Power, and Eternity with the Father i " 

Yes ; i John 5. 20. Rom. 9. 5. Ifa. 9. 6. 

Well then, do not the Arians err, who main- 
tain, The Son to be a Creature, brought forth 
before the Foundations of the World ? 


Do not likewife the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, The Son to have had no Exigence, before he 
was conceived in the Womb of the Virgin Mary ? * 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, From the Scriptures above cited. 2d, Be- 
caufe the Son is Omnipotent, the Creator and 
Preferverof all Things, Rev. 1, 18. Col. 1. 16, 17. 
3d, Becaufe he is Omnifcient, and the Searcher of 
the Heart, Mat. 9. 3, 4. John 2. 25. and 21. 17. 

Queft. VI. " Is the Holy .Ghoft God ? " 

Yes; A£ts 5. 3. 1 Cor. 6. 19, 20. 1 Cor. 3. 
16, 17. 

Well then, do not the Macedonians, or Pneu- 
matomachians, Arians, Socinians, and many of 
the Anabaptifls err, who maintain, The Holy 
Ghoft to be a Creature, as do the Macedonians, 
or a Power, Virtue, or Efficacy of the Father, as 
many Socinians, and others do ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Holy Ghoft is to be wor- 
fhipped as God, Matth. 28. 19. 2 Cor. 13. 14. 
Rev. 1.4. 2d, Becaufe he is Omnifcient, and 


Chap. II. the Holy Trinity. 5; 

knoweth all Things, 1 Cor. 2. 10, 11. 3d, Be- 
caufe he is Omnipotent, the Maker, and Preferver 
of all Things, the Worker of Miracles ; and it is 
he that fanclifies, and juftifies the Believers, Gen. 
1. 2. Pfalm 33. 6. Matth. 12. 28. Compare Ifa. 
6. 9. with Acts 28. 25, 26, 27. 4th, Becaufe 
Ananias is faid to lie to the Holy Ghoft, Acts 5. 
3. and Verfe 4. he is faid not to lie to Men, but 
to God. 5th, Becaufe Believers are faid to be 
the Temple of God, 1 Cor. 3. 16, 17. And they 
are foid., 1 Cor. 6. 1 9. to be the Temple of the 
Holy Ghoft, therefore the Holy Ghoft is God, 
feeing to be the Temple of God, and the Temple 
of the Holy Ghoft are the fame. 6th, Becaufe 
none can be properly finned again d but the true 
God : Therefore the Holy Ghoft is God, becaufe 
many have been faid to have finned againft the 
Holy Ghoft, Matth. 12.31. 

Queft. VII. " Doth not the Holy Ghoft eter- 
" nally proceed from the Father, and the Son- : " 

Yes ; John 15. 26. Gal. 4. 6. 

Well then, doth not the Greek Church err, who 
maintains, The Holy Ghoft to proceed only from 
the Father ? 
p Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe he is fent by the Son, John 1 5. 16. 
Acts 2. 33. 2d, Becaufe all Things which are the 
Son's are the Father's,excepc the perfonalProperties 
by which they are diftinguifhed ; and all Things 
are communicated from the Father to the Son, and 
confequently the Holy Ghoft: John 16. 13, 14, 
15. Mat. 11.27. John 17. 16. 3d, Becaufe Chiiit 
gave to his Apoftles the Spirit by breathing it up- 
on them, John 20. 22. to fhew that he proceeded 
from himfelf. 4th, Becaufe he is the Spirit of 
E 2 the 

$2 Of God's eternal Decrees* Chap. Ill* 

the Son, no lefs than the Spirit of the Father : 
Gal. 4. 6. 5th, Bccaufe if the Holy Gh oft did 
not proceed from the Son, as truly as from the Fa- 
ther, he would not be a Ferfon really diftintt from 
the Son, which is contrary to John 14. 16, 17. 
6th, Becaufe it is faid, John 16. 14. He fhall glo- 
rify me, ' (namely by his Teftimony, Gifts, and 

* Miracles) for he fhall receive of mine, (that is 
i the Doctrine of Salvation which I have taught 

I you, he fhall alfo reveal it unto you, feeing he 

* ill all receive the fame from me:') and fhall 
(hew it unto you. And Rom. 8. 9. He is called 
the Spirit both of the Father, and of the Son. It 
is faid, if any Man hath not the Spirit of Chrift - 
that is, the fame Spirit which in the foregoing 
Verfe is called the Spirit of God, namely the Fa- 
ther, and is here alfo called the Spirit of Chrift, 
becaufe he alfo proceeds from Chrift, and is pro- 
cured for us by Chrift, John 14. 26. and 16. 7. 


Of GOT^s eternal 'Decrees. 

Question I. 

u TH\ID God from all Eternity, by the mod holy* 
M JL/ and wife Counfel of his Will, freely and 

II unchangeably ordain whatibever comes to pafs I " 
Yes, Eph. 1. 11. Rom. 11. 33. Heb. 6, 17. 

Rom. 9. 15, 18. 

Well then, do not the Socinians, Arminians, 
and Jefuits err, who maintain, The Things which 
come to pafs, in Time, to fall out, and come to 
pafs, without the Decree of God ? 


Chap. III. Of God's eternal Dca t 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, From the Knowledge of God, whereby, 
from all Eternity, he hath known all Things in- 
fallibly, which come to pafs, or (hall be in Time, 
Arts 15. 18. John 21. 17. Heb. 4. 13. But all 
Things which come to pafs in Time, could not 
have been infallibly known from Eternity, but in 
the Decree of his divine Will. 2d, From God's 
natural Way of working in Time; 1 Cor. 12. 6. 
Rom. 11. 36. Whence it is evident, that God 
worketh efTtttually, and immediately, in Time all 
Things which are done : But he worketh by his 
Will thole Things which he will have to be in 
Time (after that Manner, and in that Time, how, 
and when they come to pafs) Pfalm 115. 3. But 
that Act of willing cannot happen to God in Time, 
but hath been in him from all Eternity, becaufe 
God is unchangeable, James 1. 17. 3d, By enu- 
merating fevcral lnflances, concerning which the 
Scripture affirms particularly, that they have been 
decreed by God, as the Sufferings and Death of 
Chrift; A&s 2. 23. The Glory of thofe that 
are to befaved, Eph. 1. 4, 5. 1 ThefT. 5. 9. And 
the foreordaining the reft to Damnation to be pu- 
nifhed for their Sin, Jude 4, 5. The like may be 
laid of other Things, which come to pafs in Time; 
fee Pfal. 33. 11. and 115. 3. Ifa. 46. 10. Prov. 19. 
21. That the Liberty and the Freedom of the 
Will, and Contingency of Event?, is confident with 
the Decree, is clear liom Arts 2.23. and 3. 17, 
18. and 4. 27, 28, Gen. 45. 5. 

Queft. II. " Is the Decree of Predeftination 
11 (namely, the Decree of Election, and Reproba- 
u tion) abfolute, from the mere Good-will, and 
" Pleafure of God?" 

E 3 Yes 

54. Of Gad's eternal Decrees. Chap. IIL 


And is it particular concerning a certain Number 
of Perfons ? 

Yes, 2 Tim. 2. 19. John 13. 18. 

Well then, do not the Lutherans, and Armini- 
ans err, who maintain, The Decree of Predes- 
tination to be general and conditional, depending 
upon preferving Faith (which they affirm depend 
upon the Will of Man) and forefeen Infidelity, and 
Want of Faith? 


Do not likewife the Papifts, and Socinians err, 
who maintain, The Decree of Predeflination to be 
general, and to depend upon good and evil Works^ 
with Perfeveranee in them I 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, From the Apoftle Paul, who maketh the 
Good-will and Pleafure of God the only Caufe 
why this Man is chofen, and another as worthy ,. 
reje&ed, and eaften off, Rom. 9. 11, 12, 13, 14,. 
J 5. Where he moves an Objection againft the Ju- 
ftice of God, and anfwers it. 2d, Becaufe our 
blefled Saviour affigns it to the good Will and 
Pleafure of God, that, to fome, the Myfteries of 
Faith, for their Converfion are revealed, and that 
tbey are hid from many others, who are nothing 
worfe, but in fome refpett better ; Mat. 11. 25^ 
26. 3d, Becaufe a Man of himfelf hath no good- 
Thing in him, whereby he may be differenced 
from another, but what he hath freely gotten from 
God ; 1 Cor. 4. 7* 4th, Becaufe the Grace of 
Regeneration, Jullifying Faith, Effeftual Calling, 
2nd Perfeveranee to the End, are given to all the 
Eleft, and to them only, according to the eternal 
Decree of God : And therefore are Effe&s, not 


Chap. III. Of Gocts eternal Decrees. 55 

Caufes, or pre-required Conditions of Election, 
Rom. 8. 39. Afts 13. 48. Matth. 24. 2 Tim, 1. 
9. John 15. 16. Eph. 1. 3, 4, 5. Matth. 13. n r 
Rom. 1 1. 6, 7. 

Queft. III. " Hath it pleafed God, according to 
11 the unfearchable Council of his own Will, where- 
" by he extendeth or with-holdeth Mercy, as he 
" pleafeth, for the Glory of his fovereign Power 
" over his Creatures, to pafs by, and to ordain the 
" reft of Mankind to Difhonour and Wrath for 
" their Sin, to the Praifeof his glorious Juftice ■?" 

Yes ; Roin. 9. 17, 18, 21, 22. Jude 4, 5. Mat. 
11. 25, 26 2 Tim, 2. 19, 20. 

Well then, do not many of the Quakers, and 
others err, who maintain, That God never ordaia- 
ed any Man to perifh eternally I 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Chrift thanked his Father, Lord 
of Heaven and Earth, becaufe he had hid thofe 
Things from the wife :nd prudent, and had re- 
vealed them unto Babes, Matth. 11. 25, 26. 2d, 
Becaufe the Scripture faith unto Pharaoh, ' eveo 
* for this fame Purpofe have I raifed thee \ip, that 
4 I might (hew my Power in thee* and that my 
' Name might be declared throughout all theEarth.* 
Therefore hath he Mercy on whom he will have 
Mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth. Hath not 
the Potter Power over the Clay, of the fame Lump 
to make one VeiTel unto Honour, and another unto 
Difhonour? What, if God willing to (hew his 
Wrath, and to make his Power knowu, endured 
with much Long-iuffering, the VefTels of Wrath 
fitted to ckftrucYion; Rom. 9. 17,18,21,22. 
3d, Becaufe, in a great Houfe, there are ibme 
Veflels to Hoaour, foioc to Didionour, 2 Tim. 


50 Of God's eternal Decrees. Chap. III. 

2. 19, 20. 4th, Becaufe the Apoftle Jude fays, 
there are fomcwho of old were ordained to this 
Condemnation, ungodly Men. Note, That the 
Caufe of this Reprobation is not Man's Sin, but 
the abfolute Will and good Pleafure of God. 
Man's Sin indeed is the Caufe why God will'pu- 
■nifti, but no Oceafion why he did ordain to pafs 
by, or topunifti Man. This Decree is juft, be- 
caufe God has Power over Man, as the Potter 
hath Power over the Clay. Neither is the End 
of this Decree the Condemnation of the Creature, 
but the Manifeftation of God's Juftice, Laftly, 
Sin is the Effett of Man's Free-will, and Con- 
demnation is the Effefr of juftice, but the Decree 
of God is the Caufe of neither. 

Queft. IV. " Are any other redeemed by Chrift, 
u effeft ually called, juftified, adopted, fanftified and 
" faved, but the Elett only ? V 

No : John 17. 9. Rom. 8. 28. John 6. 64, 65. 
John 10. 26. John 8. 47. 1 John 2. 19. 

Well then, do not the Papifts, Quakers, Soci- 
nians, and Arminians err, whp maintain, Thar 
all Men, eveir Reprobates, are redeemed by Chrift, 
and that many Reprobates are effe&ualiy called, jus- 
tified, and adopted ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, From the golden Chain which cannot be 
loofed, mentioned by the TEpouie Paul, Rom. 8. 
30. ' Whom he did predeftinate, them he alfo 

* called ; and whom he called, them he alfo ju- 
1 ftified; and whom he juftified, them he alfo 

* glorified,' 2d, Becaufe thofe, and thofe only 
believe, whom God hath ordained to Life eternal; 
A&s 13. 48. Tit. 1. 1. 3d, Becaufe Chrifthim- 
felf fays to the Jews, but ye believe, not becaufe 


Chap. III. Of God's eternal Decrees. 57 

ye are not of my Sheep : My Sheep hear my 
Voice, and I know them; John 10. 26, 27, 28. 
Ye are not of my Sheep, that is of the Eleft, 
which the Father hath given me. 4th, Becaufe 
Chrift would not pray for the World, but for the 
Eleft only; John 17. 9. 5th, Becaufe the Elec- 
tion, or Eleft, have obtained it, and the reft were 
blinded; namely, who are not elefted, and effec- 
tually called ; Rom. n. 7. 6th, Becaufe Chrift 
fays, * Greater Love hath no Man than this, that 
1 a Man fhould lay down his Life for his Friends/ 
Such a Love he never had to Reprobates, whom 
he profeffes he never knew; John 15. 13. with 
Matth. 7. 23. 7th, Becaufe, according to the 
Scripture, Chrift_died only for his own Sheep, vizr. 
intentionally, and efficaciouily; John 10. 15. 
8th, Becaufe the Scripture often fays that Chrift 
died for many; Matth. 26. 28. Matth. 20. 28. 
9th, Becaufe there are many who lived under 
the Gofpel, as well as thofe who lived under the 
Law, who have not been fo much as outwardly 
called, being nothing worfe than others who are 
called. 10th, Becaufe to all, and every one, the 
Grace of Regeneration, which is fimply nece£ 
fary to Salvation, is not offered: Neither do all, 
and every one, get Remiffion and Pardon of their 
Sins; Eph. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14. Deut 29. 3. Matth. 
11. 25, 28. with Matth. 11. 13. nth, Becaufe 
the Grace of Regeneration is invincible, and of 
its own Nature, always Efficacious and Power- 
ful; Ezek. 11. 19, 20. Eph. 2. 1,5. Eph. 1. 1% 
1 2th, Becaufe the Grace of Regeneration can ne- 
, ver be loft, or fall totally, or finally; 1 Pet. 1. 5. 
1 John 3. 9. Whofoever are called and juftified 
are alfo glorified ; Rom. 9. 30. 


[ 58 ] 


Question L 

u T"^\^ God create, or make of nothing, the 
" jLJ World, and all Things therein?" 

Yes ; Genefis firft Chapter to the End, Heb. 
II. 3. Col. 1. 16. A&s 17. 24. 

Well then,- do not the Socinians, and other 1 
Heretics, with many of the old Pagan Philofo- 
phers err, who maintain, The World to have been 
made of fome pre-exiftent Matter, not capable 
of Produ&ion: And confequently, that Creati- 
on, or making fomething of nothing, is fimply 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, From theTeftimony of Mofes, Genefis firft 
Chapter. 2d, From the Teftimony of liaiah ; 
Ifa. 40. 2B. and 45. 18. 3d, From the Teftimony 
of the Author to the Hebrews ; Heb. 1 1. 3. Col. 
1. 16, 17. Rom. 11. 36. 4th, Becaufe the Scrip- 
ture attributeth to God only, Eternit}', and In- 
corruptibility ; Pfalm 102. 26, 27. Gen. 21. 33. 
1 Tim. 1. 17. 

It is reported of Socinus, by a very learned Man 
who had it from one of his Difciples, that he pri- 
vately denied the World to be made of nothing, 
left thereby he fhonld be neceffiated to acknowledge 
the infinitenefs of God's Power: which Tenet af- 
terwards was more publicly avowed, and main- 
tained by fome of his Followers. 


Chap. IV. Of Creation. 59 

Queft. II. " Did God create all Things, whe- 
" ther vifible or invifible ?" 

Yes; Col. 1. 16. A&S17. 24. 

Well then, do not fome Heretics err, who main- 
tain, That the Angels were not created by God i 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lft, From the Pfalmift David, Pfalm 33. 6. and 
148. 2, 5, 6. Col. 1. 16. Rom. 2. 36. Neh. 9. 6. 
2d, Becauie they are the Servants and Sons of 
God, Brethren, and Fellow Servants with us, wil- 
ling and ready to obey the Commands of God 
their Maker; Rev. 19. 10. Rev. 22. 9. Pfalm 
104. 4. 3d, Becaufe many of the Angels left 
their firft Habitation, and did not continue in the 
Truth, and fo made Defection from the Obedience 
of their Creator, and are referved in everlafting 
Chains, under Darknefs, unto the Judgment of 
the great Day ; Jude v. 6. 2 Pet. 2. 4. Matth. 25* 
41. John 8. 48. 

Queft. III. " Did God make Man Male and Fe- 
n male, with reafonable and immortal Souls ? " 

Yes; Gen. 1. 27. Gen. 2. 7. Ecclef. 12. 7, 
Luke 23. 43. Matth. 10. 28. 

Well then, do not the Sadducees, and the Epi- 
cureans err, who maintain, the Souls of all Men 
to perifh, and die for ever ? 


Do not likewife, very many of the Socinians and 
others err, who affirm, The Souls of Men to be 
extinguifhed or put out, till the Refurre&ion, and 
then to be brought to Life again ? 


Do not likewife the Anabaptifts, and many of 
the Arminians, and fome called Arabains, err, 
who maintain, The Souls of Men, after Death, 


Co Of Creation. Chap. IV, 

till the Refurreftion, to fall afleep, (that is to be 
without any Senfe or Motion, Thought or 
vital Operation,) whether it be in their Body or 
in fome Caverns of the Earth I 


By what Reaforis are they confuted ? 

i ft, From our blefled Lord and Saviour's Words ; 
Fear not them (fays he) which kill the Body but 
are not able to kill the Soul ; Matth, 10. 20. 2d, 
From the Teftimony of Solomon; then (hall the 
Duft return to the Earth as it was, and the Spi- 
rit (hall return to God who gave it, Ecclef. 12.7. 
3d, Becaufe Paul defired to be diflblved, truft- 
ing that his Soul, after Death, fhould have more 
near Communion with Chrift ; Phil, 1. 23. 4th, 
They muft be confuted from feveral and particular 
lnftances in the Scripture, as is clear, from the 
Souls of Dives and Lazarus, Luke 26. 22. From 
thefe Words of Chrift to the Thief, Verily, I fay 
unto thee, thou (halt be with me this Day in Pa- 
Tadife, Luke 23. 43. From the appearing of Mo- 
fes and Elias upon the Mount with Chrift, Matth. 

Queft. IV. " Did God create Man, Male and 
Female, with Righteoufnefs, and true Holtnefs, 
after his own Image, as being conatural to him ?" 

Yes; Gen. 1.26. Col. 4. 10. Eph. 4.24. 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, who deny 
this, and the Arminians, Who call this Righteouf- 
nefs fupernatural ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, From thefe Words fpoken by God himfelf, 
* Let us make Man in our own Image"/ Gen. 1. 
26, 27. 2d, From God's own Teftimony, affirm- 
ing the fame Thing ; Gen. 9. 6. 3d, Becaufe 


Chap. V. Of Providence. Si 

fore the Fall, both Adam and Eve walked na- 
ked and were not afhamed, Gen. 2. 25. 



Question I. 

" yXOTH God uphold, direct, difpofe, and 
*• \^J govern all Creatures, their Actions, and 
<c all Things from the greatcfr, even to the leaft i" 

Yes. Heb. 1.3. Dan. 34, 35. Pfalm 135. 6. 
Acts 1 7. 25, 26, 28. Job 38, 39, 40, 41. Chapters. 

Well then, do not the Socinians, Arminians, 
and that great Philofopher Durandus, with others 
calJed the Epicurean?, err, who deny, That God 
preferves all Things immediately ; to be the im- 
mediate Gaule of all Things, which fall out: to 
govern Things which are contingent, and the free 
Acts of the Will of Man, and evil Actions? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe it is God that worketh all in all ; 
1 Cor. 12. 5, 6. 2d, Becaufe he worketh all 
Things, according to the Counfel of his own Will ; 
Eph. 1. 11. 3d, Becanfr of him, and through 
him, and to him, are all Things, Rom. 11. 36. 

Quell. II. " Doth the almighty Power, unfearch- 
" able Wifdom and infinite Good nefs of God, fo 
f far manifefl: themfelves in his Providence, that it 
" extendeth itfelf, even to the firft Fall, and all 

■ other Sins of Angels, and Men, and not by a 

■ bare P'ermiflion, butfuch as hive joined with it, 

F a moft 

62 Of Providence. Chap. V. 

41 a mod wife and powerful bounding, and other- 
*' wife ordering and governing of them, in a ma- 
n nifold Difpenfation, to his own holy Ends?" 
Yes. Rom. n, 32,33, 34. 2 Sam. 24. 1. and 

1 Kings 21, 22, 23. 1 Chron. 10. 4, 13, 14. 

2 Sam. 16. 10. A&s 14. 16. Pfal. '76. 10. 2 Kings 
19. 28. Gen % 50. 20. 

Well then, do not the Luthereans, Papifts, Ar- 
sninians, and Socinians err, who maintain, That 
the Lord concurs only tofinful Actions, by a bare,- 
naked, and idle Permiffion ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ill, Becaufe the Scripture fays, God blinds 
their Eyes, and hardens* their Heart, even actively, 
and judicially ; John 12.40. Exod. 7. 3. Deut. 
2. 30. Rom. 9. 18. 2d, Becaufe God is faid to 
punifh one Sin with another; Rom. 1.24, 26, 
28. iTheiT. 2. 11, 12. 3d, From the Praftice 
of Job, and David, who, when they were afflidled 
and perfecuted, looked to God, and took it pati- 
ently, Job 1. 21. 

Queft. III. " Doth the finfulnefs of the Aftion 
" proceed only from the Creature, and not from 
" God ? " 

1 anfwer, From the Creature only, James 1. 
13,14,17. 1 John 2. 16. Pfalm 50. 21, 

Well then, do not the Libertines err, who af- 
firm, God (without Blafphemy beitfpoken) to be 
the Author and Caufe of all Sin ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted > 

1 ft, From David's Teftimony, Pfalm 5. 4. 
2d, From Mofes' Teftimony, Deut. 32 4. 3d, 
From Daniel's Teftimony, Dan. o. 14. 4th, From 
the Teftimony of James, Jam. 1,13. 5th, From 


Chap. VI. Concerning the Fall cf Man. ire. 63 

the Teftimony of John, 1 John 2. 16. and 1. 5. 
6th, From the Teftimony of Paul, Rom. 3.3, 4, 
5. 7th, From the Teftimony of Habakkuk, Hab. 
1.13. From Reafon, Firft, becaufe God is in the 
higheft Degree, efTentially and infinitely holy, and 
good, and therefore pure, and free from every 
Spot and Blemifh, Ifa. 6. 3. Pfaln^S. 41. 1 Pet. 
1. 15, 16. Lev. 11.44. Secondly, Becaufe God 
is abfolutely perfeft, and therefore he cannot fail, 
or be deficient in working. Thirdly, Becaufe God 
is the Judge of the World. He is the Forbidder, 
the Hater, and Revenger of all Sin and Unrighte- 
oufnefs, as contrary to his holy Nature and Law ; 
Exod. Chap. 20. Rom. 3. 5, 6. Gen. 18. 25. Rom. 
1. 17. Pfalm 5. 4. Fourthly, Becaufe by his own 
moft abfolute, and moft fupreme Dominion, So- 
vereignty, and infinite Perfection : He is in, and 
of himfelf, above all Law whatfoever, and under 
the Command of none in Heaven, or in Earth. 


Concerning the Fall of Man, of Sin, and 
the Punijbment thereof 

Question I. 

11 TS the Guilt of the Sm of our Parents imputed, 
■• -L and the fame Death in Sin, and corrupted 
fl Nature, conveyed to all their Pofterity, dc- 
" fcending from them by ordinary Generation ? " 

Yes. Rom. 5. 12, 15, to 20. 1 Cor. 1 5. 21, 22, 
45,49. Pfal. 51.5. Gen. 5.3. Job 14.4. and 15. 14. 

Well then, do not the Pelagians, and late Ana- 

baptifts, Quakers, and Socinians err, who deny, 

F 2 Origin 

64 Concerning the Fall of Man, &c. Chap. VF. 

Original Sin inherent ? 

Do not like wife the Dominicans, Francifcans 
and Jefuits err, who maintain, The Virgin Mary 
»©t to be conceived in Original Sin ? 


Does not laftly, a certain Ring-leader of the 
Quakers err, who maintains, That to Infants this 
Original Si* is not imputed, until, by aftual Sin, 
they join themfelves to it ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, From that well known Place of Scripture ; 
Rom. L Chap, which is the very Seat, and Foun- 
dation of this Doclrine of Original Sin. 2d, 
Becaufe unlefs a Man be born again, he cannot 
fee the Kingdom of God, John 3. 3. 3d, Be- 
caufe all Men, by Nature and Birth, are the 
Children of Wrath, Eph. 2. 3. 4th, Becaufe 
whatever is born of the Flefli, is flefhly, John 3. 
0. And who can bring a clean Thing out of an 
unclean ? Not one ; job 1 4. 4. and 15. 14. 5th, 
Becaufe all the Thoughts, and Imaginations of 
the Heart of Man (viz. of the natural, and unre- 
generate Man) are evil continually, Gen. 6. 5. 
6th, Becaufe David confefTeth, that he was fhapen 
in Iniquity; and in Sin did his Mother conceive 
him, Pfalm 51. 5. 7th, Becaufe Infants, that are 
guilty of noadtual Tranfgreffion, need a Remedy 
againft Sin, viz. Abfolution, by the Blood of Chrift, 
a Seal whereof was given, according to God's In- 
ftitution under the Law to Infants, namely, Cir- 
cumcilion, to which Baptiim, under the Gofpel 
fucceeds ; Dent- 30. 6. Rom. 2. 29. Acts 22. 19. 
Mark 1. 4. Col. 2. 12. Gen. 17. 12. Mat. 28. 16. 
8th, Becaufe all the Elect, (among which are In- 
fants, Matth. 18. 6. Mark 9. 42.) are redeemed 
by Chrift, and are fet at Liberty from Slavery, freed 


Chap. VL Concerning the Fall of Man, 6c 6$ 

from the Fault, and penal Punifhment, John r. 29. 
and 10. 15. 1 Tim. 2. 6. 9th, Becaufe Infants 
are liable to Death and other Miferies and Calami- 
ties, which are the Wages and Puniftiments of 
Sin, Rom. 6. 23. Gen. 3. 19. 

Queft. II. " Is this Corruption of Nature, al- 
" beit pardoned, and mortified thro' Chrift in fome 
" meafure in the Regenerate, both itfelf, and all 
* the Motions thereof, truly and properly Sin ? '* 
Yes; Rom. 7. 5, 7, 8. 25. Gal. 5. 17. 
Well then, do not the Papifts, Socinians, and 
Arminianserr, who maintain, That Concupifcence 
or Luft, and the firft Motions thereof, which have 
not gotten the Confent of the Will, are not pro- 
perly and truly Sin ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe they are forbidden by the moral, 
and natural Law, in the tenth Command, Exocl. 
20. 1 7. Deut. 5. 21. Rom. 7. 7. 2d, Becaufe 
Paul fpeaking of himfelf, while unregenerate, 
calleth Concupifcence and Luft (of which the Con- 
troversy is) oftentimes Sin and Evil, Rom. 7. 5, 6. 
; 3d, Becaufe it is a great Part of the old Man, 
I which he muft lay down, and muft be mortified, 
I Col. 3.5,6, 9. Eph. 4. 22. 

Queft. III. " Doth every Sin, both Original and 
i f 1 Actual, being a Tranfgreflion of the righteous 
I? 1 Law of God, and contrary thereunto, bring ia 
I " its own Nature Guilt upon the Sinner, wherebyhe 
\ " is bound over to the Wrath of God, and the 
" Curfe of the Law ; and made fubjeft to Death, 
il with all Miferies fpiritual, temporal and eternal?" ' 

Yes; 1 John 3. 4. Rom. 2. 15. and 3. 9, 19. 

Eph. 2. 3. Gal. 3. 10. Rom. 6. 23. Eph. 4. 18. 

Rom. 8. 20. Lam. 3.39. Mat. 25. 41. 2Thef. 1.9. 

F 3 Well 

66 Concerning the Fall of Man, &c. Chap. VI. 

Well then, do not many of the Papifts err, who 
maintain, That all Sins are not contrary to the 
Law of God, nor TranfgrefTions thereof? 


Do not all Papifts err, Who deny every Sin to 
be Mortal, or to deferve eternal Punifhment ? 


Laftly, Do not the Socinians err, Who deny 
that any Sin can deferve eternal Punifhment ? 


xft, Becaufe all Sins deferve eternal Death, 
Rom. 6. 23. Ezek. 18: 4. Rom. 8. 6. 13. 2d, 
Becaufe every Sin is a Tranfgreffion of the Law, 
1 John 3. 4. 3d, ■ Whofoever fhall keep the 
t whole Law, and yet offend in one Point, he is 
* guilty of all,' Jam. 2. 10, 11. and therefore he 
deferves eternal Punifhment. 4th, Becaufe thoie 
Sins of Infirmity and Ignorance; which the Saints 
are fubject to, and which the Papifts call Venial 
Sins, will notfuffer them to ftand in Judgment be- 
fore God, nor can the Saints bejuftified from 
them by Faith : And therefore in ftrict Juftice 
they merit and deferve Hell, Pfal. 143. 2. and 130. 
'}, 4, 8. 5th, Becaufe God commanded Believers 
under the Law, to offer typical Sacrifices, for 
making a Propitiation for fuch Sins; and Chrift 
did really, by his own precious Blood, purge them 
away; for by no lefs Price could they be pur- 
ged, he being made a Curfe for them, that he 
might liberate thofe from the Curfe of the Law\ 
which they had deferred for fuch Sins, as well as 
for others, Lev. 4. 2, 3, 14, 15, 20, 22, 24, 31. 
Lev. 5. 17, 18. Gal. 3. 13. Heb. 10. 10, 12, 14. 
Mcb. 9. 14, 22. 1 John 1. 7, 9. Eph. 5. 25, 26, 
27. 1 Pet. r. 18, 19. 6th, Becaufe every Sin is 
againft the fbpremeft Law- giver, againft his Ho- 


Chap. VII. Of Cod's Covenant with Man. 67 

Knefs and Goodnefs, againft his Infinite Majefty,and 
fioweth from a formal or virtual Contempt of God ; 
and therefore the lea ft Sin cannot Sut deferve God's 
Wrath and Curfe eternally, Jam. 2. 10, 11. Lev. 
10. 3. and 11. 44, 45. 1 John 3. 4. Eph. 5. 6. 


Of GO*D's Covenant with Man. 

Question I. 

*' "TV^ a ^ thefe Sacrifices, and other Types and 
" JLx Ordinances, by which the Covenant of 
11 Grace was adminiftred before our Saviour's In- 
" carnation, adumbrate, and forefignify Chrift to 
• c come I" 

Yes ; Heb. 8, 9, and 10 Chapters. Rom. 4. 1 1. 
Col. 2. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 5. 7. 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, That the legal Sacrifices did not forefignify 
the expiatory Sacrifice of Cluift, neither were 
Types nor Figures of it ; but that thofe Sacrifices, 
which the Jews offered for Sin, did really, and in 
very deed, purge away all the Sins for which they 
were offered ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

There are here two Parts co be confidered ; firfT, 
the Negative, " That the legal Sacrifices did not 
lt forefignify." The fecond, the Affirmative, 
€< That they did truly make a real Expiation and 
■*' Atonement." The firft is evidently confuted from 
Scripture Teftimonies ; for the Law having a 
Shadow of good Things to come, and not tho 
very Image of the Things, can never, with thofe 


68 Of God's Covenant with Man. Chap. VII, 

Sacrifices which they offered Year by Year con- 
tinually, make the Comers thereunto perfect, Heb. 
10. 4. The Apoftle calls here thefe legal Sacrifi- 
ces a Shadow: And Heb. 9. 9. he calls them a 
Figure; And Verfe 24, he calls them (antitypa 
toon alethinoon) Examplaria veroriim, the Figures 
of the true; and Col. 2. 17. he calls them a Sha- 
dow of Things to come, but the Body is of Chrift, 
which is nothing elfe, but that the Thing figni- 
fied is or Chrift ; that is to fay, fulfilled in Chrift. 
For all the Sadows of the Old Teftament, had a 
refpect to Chrift, and his Benefits ; by whole 
coming they aifo have an End. And John 1. 17. 
it is laid, ' That the Law was given by Mofes, 

* but Grace and Truth came by Jefus Chrift.' 
By Grace^ underftand the Grace of Redemption 
from the Curfe of the Law, Gal. 3.13. and of A- 
doption for Children, John 1. 12. Rom. 8. 15. 
By Truth, underftand the fulfilling both of the 
Promifes, 2 Cor. 1.20. and of the Ceremonies, 
and Types, Col. 2. 17. For this Caufo the A- 
poftles have always prefTed the Abrogation of 
the legal Rites and Ceremonies ; becaufe the 
Truth being exhibited, by the coming of the 
Anti-type, the Shadows of the Type ought de- 
fervedly to ceafe, and be no more ; according to 
that of Daniel 9. 27. 

The fecond Part is likewife evidently confuted ; 
namely, That the legal Sacrifices did truly and 
really purge away all Sins, for which they were 
offered, ift, Becaufe the Apoftle fays, 'The 

* Blood of Bulls, and Goats, cannot take away 

* Sin,' Heb. 10. 4. 2d, Becaufe, ' Thole Sacri- 
1 flees were not able to make him that did the 
4 Service perfect/ Heb. 9. 9. 3d, Becaufe thefe 
legal Sacrifices did leave the Sins of fuch as offer- 

Chap. VII. OfGocts Covenant with Man. 6$ 

cd unexpiated, until they were purged away by 
the Death and Blood of Chrift ; Heb. 9. 15. 4th, 
Becaufe the Sins of Believers, under the Old Te- 
ftament, were forgiven and pardoned after the fame 
Manner that our Sins under the New Teftament 
are pardoned; Acts 15. 11. 

Queft. II, " Was the Administration of the Co- 
" venant under the Old Teftament, fufficient for 
" the Time, and efficacious, through the Opera- 
u tion of the Spirit, to inftrudl and build up the 
" Elect, in the Faith of the promifed Meffiah; by 
•f whom they had a full Remiffion of Sins, and 
" eternal Salvation?" 

Yes; 1 Cor. 10. 1, 3, 4. Heb. 11. 13. John 8. 
5 6. 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, That Life eternal, under the Old Tefta- 
ment, was never promifed to the Believers „pf 
that Time, neither had they any promife to ex- 
pect it from God ? 


By what Realbns are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe there are Promifes extant in the Old 
Teftament of Life eternal ; I fa. 45. 17. where it 
lis faid, ' Ifrael (ball be faved with an everlafting 
1* Salvation,' fee Dan. 12. 2. 2d, Becaufe the 
Fathers under the Old Teftament, believed and ex- 
pected Life eternal; as Job 19. 25, 26. David, 
iPialm 17. 15. Abraham, Ifaac and Jacob, all 
of thefe waited for eternal Life; Heb. 1 1. 9, 10. 
3d, Becaufe fome at that Time were put into ac- 
tual PofTeflion of it, as Enoch; Heb. 11. 5. So 
was Elijah taken up into Heaven, and put into 
actual Poffeilion likewife; 2 Kings 2. II. 5. 4th, 
Becaufe the Scripture of the Old Teftament point- 
eth forth the Way to eternal Life, as Chrift wit- 


yo Of Got s Covenant with Man. Chap. VII. 

nefleth; John 5. 39. and Paul, 2 Tim. 3. 15. 
5th, Becaufe Believers under the Old Teftament 
were mod happy ; Pfalm 144. 19. 6th, Becaufe 
temporal good Things, were to them Pledges of 
fpiritual good Things, and Life eternal ; Heb. 1 1 „ 
8, 9. 

Queft. III. " Are there two Covenants of Grace, 
" Differing in Subftance ; or but one and the fame, 
f? under various Difpenfations?" 

One only: Gal. 3, 14, 16. Afts 15. 11. Rom. 
3/21, 22, 23, 30. Rom. 4. 3, 6, 16, 17, 23, 24. 
Heb. 13. 8. 

Well then do not the Socinians err, tf ho main- 
tain, A Subftantial, and not an Accidental Dif- 
ference between the Old Covenant and the 
New i 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe in both the Covenants there is the 
fame Promife of Grace, concerning Remiflion of 
Sin, and Life eternal, freely to be given to Believers 
for Chrift's fake ; Gen. 3.15* where the Seed of the 
Woman is promifed to bruife the Head of the Ser- 
pent : and Gen. 17.7. it is faid,' I will be thy God, 
1 and the God of thy Seed after thee •' and Gen. 
22. 18. it is faid, ' In thy Seed fhall all the Na- 
tions of the Earth be bleiTed: > And John 3. 36* 
it is faid, ' He that believeth, hath everlafting 
Life:' And Afts 15. 11. it is faid, ■ But we be- 
c lieve, that through the Grace of our Lord 
! Jefus Chrift, we fhall be faved, even as they/ 
2d, Becaufe one and the fame Faith and Obedi- 
ence, on both Sides, is required ; ' Walk before 
* me, and be thou perfeft;' Gen. 17. 1. and Mark 
1. 15, Chrift fays, after he came to Galilee, preach- 
ing the Gofpel of the Kingdom, The Time is 


Chap. VIII . Of Chrift the Mediator. 7 1 

4 fullfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at Hand; 
4 repent ye, and believe the Gofpel." 


Of C H R I S T the Mediator. 

Question I. 

** "PVD the Son of God, when the Fulnefs of 
" I J Time was come, take upon him Man's Na- 
" ture, with all theeflential Properties, and com- 
" mon Infirmities thereof, yet without fin; being 
" conceived by the Power of the Holy Ghoft, in the 
u Womb of the Virgin Mary, of her fubftance ? 

Yes; John 1. 1, 14. 1 John 5. 20. Heb. 2. 14, 
16, 17. Luke 1.27, 31,35. 

Well then, do not thofe Heretics called Mar- 
cionites, and the Anabaptifts err, who maintain, 
That Chrift is not a true Man, but only the Ap- 
pearance, Shape, or Form of a Man ? 


Do not likewife the Manicheans err, who main- 
tain, That the Body of Chrift is not of the Sub- 
ftance of the Virgin Mary, but a heavenly Body, 
brought from Heaven to the Womb of the Vir- 
gin ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Chrift is faid to be made of a Wo- 
man ; Gal. 4. 4. 2d, Becaufe the Word was 
made FJefh; John 1. 4. 3d, By an lnduftion 
of the efilntial Parts of a Man, and finlefs Infir- 
mities which were found in him. Firft, He was 
endued with a rational Soul ; John 12. 27. Se- 
condly, He had a real and fubftantial Body, and 


72 CfChriJt the Mediator. Chap. VIII. 

denied he was a Spirit only; Luke 24. 39. Third- 
ly, Chrift did hunger; Matth. 4. 2. Fourthly, 
He was wearied and thirfty ; John 4, 6. Laftly, 
He was fad : He groaned in Spirit, and was 
« troubled; John 11. 35. and Verfe 15. He 
€ wept.' None of which fmlefs Preturbations, 
can agree to an Appearance, Shape or Form of a 
Man. 4th, Becaufe He was made of the Seed of 
David according to the Flefh; Rom. 1. 3. and 
defcended of the Jews; Rom. 9. 5. 5th, Be- 
caufe the Promifes were made in the Seed of 
Abraham; Gen. 12. 3. and Gen. iS. 18. 6th, 
Becaufe he took not on him the Nature of An- 
gels, but took on rrim the Seed of Abraham, 
* Wherefore in all Things it behoved him to be 
c made like unto his Brethren;' Heb. 2. 16, 17. 
7th, Becaufe otherwife he could not have Satis- 
fied in our Place the Juitice of God : Seeing it 
had been unjuft for another Nature to have fuf- 
fered Punifhment, than that Nature which had of- 
fended and finned. 

Queft. II. " Are there two whole, perfect, and 
" diftinft Natures in Chrift, the God head, and 
" the Man hood, infeparably joined together in 
" one Per fan? 

Yes; 1 Cor. 8. 6. Eph. 4. 5. 

Well then, do not the Neftorians err, who 
maintain, the Union between the Divine and Hu- 
man Nature, not to be Hypoflatical, but only by 
Way of Affiftance : And that, as there are two 
Natures in Chrifl:, fo there are two Perfons, one 
proper to the Divine Nature, another proper to 
the Human Nature ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe unlefs Chrift-God-Man were but 


Chap. VIII. Of Chrift the Mediator. jrj 

one Perfon, the Merit of his Death would not bi: 
of fo great Value, as to redeem the Eledt from in- 
finite and eternal Punifhment : Seeing hence com 
eth all the Value and Worth of his Death, that 
the fame Perfon who was God, did fufter and die 
for us. 2d, Becaufe, otherwife, Chrift had been 
fwallowed up, and devoured by the Wrath or 
God, againft the Sins of the Eleft, which he him- 
felf undertook. 3d, Becaufe Chrift, if he had not 
been both God and Man in one Perfon, he could 
not have been a Mediator : For a Mediator muft 
be one, 1 Tim. 2. 5. 

Queft. III. " Is the Godhead and Manhood in 
11 Chrift united without Converfion, Compofition 
11 or Confufion ?" 

Yes, Luke 1.35. Col. 2. 9. Rom. 9. 5. 1 Pete 
3. 18. 1 Tim. 3. 16. 

Well then, do not thefeold Heretics, the Euty- 
chians err, who maintain, That as the Perfon 
of Chrift is one, fo hi? Nature is made one, by a 
Compofition, or Confufion of the two Natures 
together \ 


By what Rcafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe fuch a Compofition is impoffible, 
feeing the Divine Nature is moft perfeft, and 
(cannot lofe any of its own Perfection, unlefs we 
would affirm the Divine Nature to be mutable 
and changeable. 2d, Becaufe that fame Chrift,- 
who according to the Flefh defcended of the Jews, 
is over all, ■ God blefled for ever,' Rom. 6. 5. 3d, 
Becaufe this Dodrrine takes away all Means of 
Mediation : For, by taking away the Diftinttion 
between the Natures, thty take away the Natures 
themfelves: And fo neither could Chrift have 
fuffeied in our Place, becaufe not Man ; neither 
G could 

74 OfCbriJl the Mediator. Chap. VIII. 

could he have given any Virtue, Value or Worth, 
to his Sufferings becaufe not God. 

Queft. IV. " Did Chrift endure moft grievous 
" Torments immediately in his Soul i* 

Yes; Matt. 26. 37, 38. Luke 22, 44. Matth. 
27. 46. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That the Soul of Chrift, even from its firft 
Creation, was never affefred with any Sadnefs, or 
finful Perturbation of Mind ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

iff, Becaufe the Scripture teftifies, that his 
Soul was lad unto Death, Matth. 26. 37. 2d, 
Becaufe the Apoftle John teftifies, that when 
Chrift faw Mary weeping for her Brother Laza- 
rus, he groaned in Spirit and was troubled, John 
11. 33. and 12. 27. 3d, Becaufe his Soul was 
exceeding forrowful even unto Death, as was cited 
before, Matth. 26. 37. 4th, The fame Thing 
is proven from Chrift's Defertion, whereby the 
aftual Fruition, and enjoying of God's Favour, 
as to his Senfe, was interrupted, and broken in 
the midft for a Time, but in no wife altogether 
taken away, which made him cry upon the Crofs, 
€ My God, my God, why haft thou forfaken Me,' 
Matth. 28. 46. Eph. 5. 2. 

Queft. V. " Had the Lord Jcfus, by his per- 
* feft Obedience and Sacrifice of himfelf, which he, 
*' thro' the eternal Spirit, once offered up unto 
"• God, fully iatisfied' the Jufticeof his Father ?" 

Yes; Rom. 5. 9. and 3. 25, 26. Heb. 9. 14, 
16. and 10. 14. 

Well then, do not fome, other wife _Orthod ox 
err, who deny Chrift's Attive Obedience to be 

a Part 

Chap. VIII. Of Chrijl the Mediator. 7 5 

a Part of his Satisfaction, performed in our 

Place ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Active Difobedience of thefirft 
Adam made us all Sinners ; therefore we rnuft 
be made righteous by the Active Obedience of 
the Second Adam, Rom. 5. 19. 2d, Becaufe 
Chrift not only offered himfelf to the Death for 
us, but for their Sakes (that is, for the Elect's 
Sake) he fanclified himfelf, (that is, he gave_u|> 
himielf as a tnly Sacrifice) John 17. 19. 3c?, Be- 
caufe it behoved Chrift to fulfill all Righteoufnefs, 
Matth. 3. 15. 4th, Becaufe we ftood in Need, 
not only of the Expiation of Sin, for laving us 
from eternal Death, but of the Gift of Righte- 
oufnefs, for obtaining eternal Life, according to 
that Precept and Demand of the Law, * Do this, 

* and thou ihalt live.' And therefore Chrift is not 
only called our Ranfom, but the End and Per- 
fection of the Law, to every one that believeth, 
Rom. 10. 4. That is, the Aim of giving the 
Law by Mofes, is, that thereby Men being 
brought to the Knowledge of their Sin, fhould 
fly for Refuge unto Chrift and his Righteoufnefs, 
as he that hath perfectly fulfilled the Law for us. 
5th, Becaufe the paffive Obedience of Chrift, was 
not in itfelf merely and purely pa/live, but his ac- 
tive Obedience did challenge the chief and princi- 
pal Part ir it, Pfalm 40. 7. Then faid I, ' Lo, I 

* come ; in the Volume of the Book, it is written 

* of Me." With thefe Words, our Saviour Chrift 
declareth his willing Obedience to accept of, 
undergo, and execute the Mcdiatorfhip, by God 
impofed upon him. And Ifa. 53.7. he offered 
up himfelf a Sacrifice for Sin, and by one 

G 2 Obla- 

j6 Of Chrijl the Mediator. Chap. VIII. 

Oblation, he hath i perfected for ever them that 
* are fanclified,' Heb. 10. 14. 6th, Becaufe 
whole Chrift was given to us, with all his Bene- 
fits : otherwife, if only his paflive Obedience were 
imputed to us, it would follow, that half Chrift 
only were given; viz. Chrift fuffering, but not 
Chrift doing thofe Things which pleafed the Fa- 
ther ; taking away our Sin, and favingfrom Death 
only, but not bringing Righteoufnefs. But Chrift 
was not given, and born for himfelf, but for us, 
that he might beftow himfelf wholly upon us, by 
c'oing for us what we could not do, and by fuf- 
fering for us what we could not fuffer. 

Do not likewife the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, That this Orthodox Doclrine (namely, 
That Chrift did merit eternal Salvation to the 
Elecl, and hath ftnsfied divine Juftice for them,) 
is erroneous, falfe and abfurd i 

. By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Meffiah doth finiftithe Tranf- 
greffion, and maketh an End of Sins, and raak- 
eth Reconciliation for Iniquity, and fhall be cut 
off, but not for himfelf, as the Prophet Daniel 
hath foretold, Chap. 9. 24/26. 2d, Becaufe his 
own felf bc?re our Sins in his own Body upon the 
Tree, 1 Pet. 2. 24. 3d, Becaufe he hath recon 
ciled thofe to God, that were fometimes alienated, 
and Enemies in their Mind by wicked Works, in 
the Body of his Fiefh through Death, Col. 1.21, 
22. 4th, Becaufe now once in the End of the 
World, hath he appeared to put away Sin, by the 
Sacrifice of himfelf, Heb. 9. 26, 5th, Becaufe 
he hath given his Life, an (mti lytron) aprc> 
Hum redcmptionis , a Price of Redemption for ma- 
ny. 6th, Becaufe the Prophet Ifaiah fays, that it 


Chap. VIII. Of Chrljl the Mediatory 77 

pleafed the Lord to bruife him, and put him to 
Grief; and that he was wounded for cur Tranf- 
greflions, and that he bare our Iniquities, Chap. 
5i . 5, 10, 11. 

Queft. VI. " Did Chrift in the Work of Medi- 
" ation, aft according to both Natures, by each 
u Nature doing that which is proper to itfelf l H 
Yes; Heb. 9. 4. 1 Pet. 3. 18. 
Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That Chrift is a Mediator, only according 
to his human Nature ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe it was needful for perfecting the 
"Work of the Mediator, that Chrift fhould over- 
come Death ; which could not otherwife be done, 
than by his Divine Nature, 1 Pet. 3. 18. Where 
it is faid, he was put to Death in the Flefh, but 
quickned by the Spirit. 2d, Becaufe there are 
I very many Properties of the Mediator, which can- 
j not in any wife agree to the human Nature of 
j Chrift, * as undertaking and promiiing, that he 
' will raife him up at the laft Day, whom the 
j * Father has given him, John 6, 39.' Again, 
1 he could not lay down his Life, and take it up 
again, by the alone Strength of his human Na- 
! ture; but all theie are Works proper to the Me- 
diator ; as is clear from the tenth Chapter of John, 
Verfe 18. And 3d, The Application of thofe 
j good Things which he hath merited, is the proper 
' Work of the Mediator, which can only be done by 
- the Divine Nature. 4th, Becaufe Chrift is a 
Prophet, aPricft, and a King, according to both 
his Natures." —Ar Prophef, Matth. 11. 727. l No 
* Man knoweth the Father, iave the Son.' A 
Prieft, Rom. 5. 10. Heb. 9. 14. He is a King, 
G 3 Luke 

7& Of Free- Will. Chap. IX, 

Luke i. 32. All which Offices he executes accor- 
ding to both his Natures, 


Question I. 

HATH Man by his Fall into an Eftate of 
Sin, wholly loft all Ability of Will, to 

any iupernatural Good, accompanying Salvation: 

fo as the natural Man being altogether averfe 

from that Good, and dead in Sin ; is not able 

by his own Strength to convert himfelf, or to 

prepare himfelf thereunto ? " 

Yes; Rom. 5. 5. John 15. 5. Rom. 3. 10, 12. 
John 6. 44, 65. 

Well then, do not the Pelagians and Socinians 
trr, who maintain, That the natural Man with- 
out fupernatural and divine Grace, is able to con- 
vert himfelf to God by his own Strength ? 


Do not likewife the Semipelagians, Papifts, 
Arminians and Lutherans err, who maintain, 
That fallen Man, and corrupted with Original 
Sin, is partly able by his own Strength (the Grace 
of God aiTiiling him) to prepare himfelf, and turn 
himfelf to God ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, JBecaufe the natural Man receiveth not the 
Things of the Spirit of God, for they are Foolifh- 
nefs unto him, neither can he know them, becaufe 
they are fpirituaily difcerned, 1 Cor. 2. 14. Rom. 
8, 7, 9. 2d ; Becaufe all that thenatural Man doth, 


Chap. IX. Of Free-Will. 79 

is Sin, and cannot in any wife picafeGod, becaufe* 
his Works are not of Faith, not to the Glory of 
God, as the Law requires, Rom, 14. 23. Heb. 
11. 6. Titus 1. 15. Rom. 3. 10, 11, 12, Pkilm 
14. 3. Rom, 8. 8. 3d, Becaufe a Man hath no 
Good in himfelf, whereby he may be differenced 
from, the moft flagitious, nor any good Thing 
which he hath not received ; 1 Cor. 4. 7. 4th, 
Becaufe Converfation, Grace, and Salvation, are 
not of him that runneth or willeth, but of God 
that fheweth Mercy, ' and whom he will he hard- 
neth;' Rom. 9. 15, 16, 18. Rom. 11.7, S.Matth. 
11. 21, 22, 25. 5th, Becaufe the Converfion of 
a natural Man, is the quickning of one dead ; 
Eph. 2. 5. Col. 2. 13. It is a Regeneration, or 
bearing again John 3. 5, 6. It is the creating of 
a new Heart; Pialm. 51. 10. It is the taking 
away the Heart of Stone, and the giving of a 
Heart of Flefh ; Ezek. 11. 19. Ezek. 36. 25. And 
therefore as God raifed Chrift from the dead, fa 
alfo he railed us from the Grave of Sin, by his 
own proper Power: 1 Cor 6. 15. And 6th, Be- 
caufe God converts and calls Men, not by Works 
of Righteoufnefs, which they have done; Titus 
3. 4, 5, 6. but according to his own Purpofe and 
Grace which is given us in Chrift Jefus ; 2 Tim* 

Queft. II. " Doth a regenerate Man, after his 
" Converfion, perfectly and only will that which 
" is good ?" 

No; Gal. 5. 17. Rom. 7. 15, iS, 19, 21. 23. 

Well then, do not the Puritans, (I do not mean 
the old Non conformifts) Antinomians, Anabap- 
tifrs, and many Quakers err, who maintain, That 
all the Saints of God are free from every| Spot and 
Blemiih of Sin I 


80 Of Free-mil Chap. IX. 


Do not likewife fome of the Popifh Church, 
and Socinians err, who maintain, That fome Chri- 
ftians, that are more advanced, may come that 
Length, to be without any Spot, Blemifh, and 
Aft of Sin; Nay, that fome have really win that 
Length ? 


By whatReafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe in many Things we offend all, Jam . 
3.2, 2d, Becaufe Chrift commands us to feek daily 
Rem>ffion of Sins; Matth. 6. 12. Luke it. 4. 
3d, Becaufe there is not one juft Man upon the 
Earth, who doth not fin; 1 Kings 8. 46. Ecclef. 
7. 20, 4th, Becaufe there is a continual War 
between the Flefh and the Spirit ; fo that they 
(namely the Regenerate) are not able to do that 
which they are willing, and ought to do; Gal. 5. 
17. 5th, Becaufe the Regenerate are not able 
to fulfil the firft Command, namely, to love God 
with all their Heart, with all their Soul ; Matth. 
22. 37, 38. For we know here but in Part, and 
therefore we love but in Part ; 1 Cor. 13.9. Nei- 
ther are the Saints free of all thofe inordinate 
Motions of Concupifcence, forbidden in the tenth 
Command, as is evident from Gal. 5. 17. and from 
the Experience of Paul, and of all the other 
Saints. 6th, Becaufe if we fay we have no Sin, 
we deceive ourfelves, and the Truth is not in us; 
1 John 1. 8, 9, But when that fame Apoftle fays, 
Whofoever is born of God, doth not commit Sin, 
for his Seed remains in him, and he cannot fm, 
becaufe he is born of God, he mu ft mean in the 
firft Text, of Sin dwelling in the beft of Saints 
here- away; and therefore he exprefTes it by Ha- 
viartian Echein, peccatum habere, which iignt- 


Chap. X. OfEfft £lval Calling. 8 1 

fies, to have fin. In the fccond Text, he means 
of Sin, not only indwelling, but reigning in us, 
and made a Trade of, and gone about with the full 
and hearty confent of the Will, and is exprefTed 
by the Words Hamaritan poiein, to work Sin, 
and to m&ke a Trade of it, as Men do in any 
Employment they take Delight in. 7th, We fee 
it from the grievous Falls of the moft eminent 
Saints; as Noah, Lot, Abraham, Jacob, David, 
Solomon, Afa, Jehofhaphat, and the Difciples of 



Question I. 

" A RE all thofe whom God hath predeftinated 
" XjL to Life, and thofe only, in his appointed 
u and accepted Time, effe&ually called by his 
€< Word and Spirit, out of the Eftate of Sin and 
,f Death, in which they are by Nature to Grace and' 
11 Salvation, through Jefus Chrift ?" 

Yes; Rom. 8. 30. Rom. 1 1. 7. Eph. 1. 10, 11, 
2 Thef. 2. 13, 1.4. Rom. 8. 2. Eph. 2. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5. 2 Cor. 3. 3, 6. . 

Well then do not the Papifts, Arminians, 
and Lutherans err, who maintain, That Men not 
elefted, are iometimes effectually called ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Faith belongs to the Eleft only; 
Titus 1. 1, 2d, Becaufe whom he did predefti- 
nate, thofe only, and no other hath he called; 
Rom. 8. 30. 3d, Becaufe though many hear 


8* Of Effectual Calling Chap. X. 

the Gofpel, yet none believe, but fuch as are or- 
dained from everlafting Life; Acts 13.48. 4th, 
Becaufe the Apoftle teftifies, that the Elect have 
obtained it, and the reft were blinded; Rom. 11. 
7. 5 th, Becaufe Chrift manifefted his Father's 
Name, to thofe only whom he chufed out of the 
World, and gave to him; John 17. 6. 

Queft. II. " Doth God, whom he effectually calls, 
*' enlighten their Minds fpiritually, and favingly, 
" to underftand the Things of God ?" 

Yes; Acts 26. 18. 1 Cor. 2. 10, 12, Eph. 1. 
17, 18. 

Well then, do not the Arminiani err, who 
maintain, That no fupematural Light infufed in- 
to the intellective Faculty, and thereby elevating 
it, is requifite to the faving Underftanding of thefe 
Things, which are needful (in the Scripture^ to be 
believed, done and hoped for ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the natural Man receiveth not 
the Things of the Spirit of God ; for they are 
Foolifhnefs unto him, neither can he know them, 
becaufe they are fpiritually difcerned; 1 Cor. 2. 
14. 2d, Becaufe the carnal Mind is Enmity 
againft God, for it is not fubjeft to the Law of 
God, neither can itbe^ Rom. 8. 7. 3d, Becaufe 
all unregenerate Men are Darknefs, Eph. 5. 8. 
And Darknefs cannot comprehend the Light ; 
John 1. 5. 4th, Becaufe Chrift fays, T thank 
thee, O Father, Lord of Heaven and Earth, be- 
caufe thou haft hid thefe Tings from the wife and 
prudent, and haft revealed them to Babes ; Matth. 
11. 25. 

Queft. III. " Doth God take away from them, 
" whom he effectually calls, the Heart of Stone, and 

" give 

Chap. X. Of Effectual Catting. 83 

11 give unto them an Heart of Flefli, renewing their 
" Wills, and by his almighty Power, determining 
" them to that which is good, and effectually draw- 
M ing them to Jefus Chrift ?" 

Yes; Ezek. 36.26. Ezek. 11. 19. Phil. 2. 13. 
Ezek. 36. 27. 

Well then, do not the Arminians err, who main- 
tain, That the Will of Man, when he is regene- 
rate, is not renewed, nor furniftied with any new 
and fpiritual Qualities ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Mofes fays, God (hall circumcile 
thy Heart, and the Heart of thy Seed, to love the 
Lord thy God with all thine Heart, and with all 
thy Soul, that thou mayeftlive; Deut. 30. 6. 2d, 
Becaufe the Lord fays, A new Heart alfo will I 
give you, and a new Spirit will I put within 
you, and will take away the (tony Heart out of 
your Flefh, and I will give you an Heart of Flefh : 
And I will put my Spirit within you ; and caufe 
you to walk in my Statutes, and caufe you to 
keep my Judgments and do them; Ezek. 36. 26, 
27. 3d, Becaufe it is God that worketh in us 
both to will and to do, according to his own good 
Pleafure; Phil. '2. 13. 4th, Becaufe all the Fa- 
culties of the Soul are renewed; 2 Cor. 5. 17. If 
any Man rTe in Chrift, he is a new Creature; old 
Things are paft away, behold all Things are be- 
come new. 

Do not likewife the Arminians err, who main- 
tain. That when the Grace of God begins to 
make an infall upon the Heart, in order to a Man's 
Converfation, it is indifferent, and may be refilled 
and wkhftood ; fo that a Man be converted, or not 
converted by it ? 


84 Of Effettual Calling. Chap. X. 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe, if this Do&rine were true, a Man's 
Converfation would be of him that runneth, and of 
him that willeth, but not of God, that flieweth 
Mercy ; which is contrary to the Apoftle ; Rom. 
9. 15, 16, 2d, Becaufe by this Way, it fhould 
not be God that worketh in us both to will and 
to do; Phil. 2. 13. 3d, Becaufe by this Way, 
a Man himfelf fhould make the difference, and 
God fhould not make one Man differ from ano- 
ther, which is contrary to the Apoftle ; 1 Cor. 
4. 7. 4th, Becaufe if fo, a Man might glory, that 
he had in himfelf, what he had not received ; 
which contradicts, 1 Cor. 4. 7. 5th, Becaufe it 
is God that draws a Man before he comes to 
Chrift ; John 6. 44. 6th, Becaufe Converfation 
is a new Creation; 2 Cor. 5. 17. 7th, Becaufe it 
is a Refurre&ion from the Dead; Eph. 2. 5. 8th, 
Becaufe Converfion is no lefs than to be born over 
again; John 3. 3. 

Queft. IV. " Is this effe&ual Call of God's free 
€< and fpecial Grace alone, and not from any Thing 
€( at all forefeen in Man ?" 

Yes; Tim. 2, 9. Tit. 3.4, 5. Eph. 2. 4, 5, 8,9, 

Well then, do not the Papifts and Arminians 
«rr, who maintain, That an unregenerate Man, 
may, by the Strength of Nature and his Free-will, 
do fome good Works : Nay, oftentimes hath ac- 
tually done fuch good Works, as may prepare 
him, and difpofe him for the receiving of the 
Grace of God? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe an evil Tree cannot bring forth 
good Fruit ; Matth. 7. 17. 2d, Becaufe the car- 

Chap. X. Of Effectual Calling. 8 5 

rial Mind is Enmity againft God: For it is not 
fubjecl to the Law of God, neither indeed can it 
be; Rom. 8. 7. 3d, Becauie we have nothing in 
ourfelves, which we have not received, whereby 
we may differ from others; 1 Cor. 4. 7. 4th, 
Becaufe whatever is not of Faith is Sin ; Rom. 
14. 23. Heb. 11. 6. 5th, Becauie we are not 
able of ourfelves to think a good Thought, but 
all our Sufficiency is of God; 2 Cor. 3. <;. 6th, 
Becaufe before Converfation we were dead in Tref- 
pafTes and Sins ; Eph. 2. 2, 5. 7th, Becaufe not 
by works of Righteoufnefs which we have done, 
but according to his Mercy he faved us, by the 
wauhing of Regeneration, and renewing of the- 
Holy Ghoft; Tit. 3, 5. 8th, Becaufe we were 
fometimes, that is before Converfion, Darknefs ; 
Eph. 5, 8. 9th, Becauie Chrift fays, without me, 
ye can do nothing ; John 15. 5. 

Queft. V. " Is a Man in effectual Calling only 
" paifive, until being quickned and renewed B^the 
" Holy Ghoft, he is thereb) enabled to anfwerthis 
" Call, and to embrace the Grace offered and con- 
" veyed in it :" 

Yes; 1 Cor. 2. 14. Rom. 8. 7. Eph. 2.5. John 
6. 37. John 5. 25. Ezek. 36. 27. 

Well then, do not the Papifts and Artninians err, 
who maintain, That a Man in his Converfion is 
not paffive, but active? 
I Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
Before I do this, it is to be obferved, that when 
I fay a Man is paflive, in his Converfion, 1 do not 
think he is phyfically paflive, as a Stock or a 
Stone, while an Artift is about to make a Statue 
bf them: But morally, or rather fpiritually; as 
a Man is fpiritually dead, which is a true and 
H real 

36 Of Effectual Calling. Chap. X. 

real Death, though he be naturally living. The 
firft Reafon by which they are confuted is this, be- 
caufe we are dead in TrefpafTes and Sins ; Eph. 
2. i. 2d, Becaufe we are the Servants of Sin, 
until we be made free Men by the Son of God ; 
John 8. 34, 3 6. 3d, Becaufe we are, by Nature, 
under the power of Satan and of Darknefs ; Afts 
a6. iS. Col. 1. 13. 2 Tim. 2. 26. 4th, Becaufe 
5t is God that worketh in us both to will and to 
<!o, of his own good Pieafure ; Phil. 2. 1 3. 5th, 
Becaufe the Flefh lufteth againft the Spirit ; Gal. 
5.17. 6th, Becaufe the Scriptures afcribe that 
wholeWork to God, and no Part of it to Man, Eph. 

2. 8. 9. 

Queft. VI. " Are ElecT: Infants, dying in Infan- 
*' cy, regenerated and faved by Chrift through the 
" Spirit, who worketh when and where he pleaf- 
« eth ?" 

Yes; Luke 18. 15, i<6. Afts2. 38, 39. John 

3. 5. 1 John 5. 12. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptifts err, who main- 
tain, That no Infants are regenerated? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe John the Baptift was fiilcd with 
the Holy Ghoft, even from his Mother's Womb ; 
Luke 1. 15. 2d, Becaufe the Prophet Jeremiah 
was lancYified from his Mother's Womb ; Jer. 1 . 5. 
3d, Becaufe the Promife is made to believing 
Parents and to their Children conjunctly; Gen. 
17. 7. Afts 2. 39. 4th, Becaufe of fuch, fays 
Chrift, is the Kingdom of Heaven; Matth. 19 
14. 5th, Becauie the Apoftle calls Children, 
which are defcended but of one Parent, in Cove 
nant with God, holy; 1 Cor. 7. 14. 6th, Be 
caufe God hath promifed in the fecond Com- 

Chap. X. Of Effectual Calling. &7 

mand, i That be will (hew Mercy unto Thou- 
■ funds, that are defcended of believing Parents.* 
Exod. 20. 6. 

Queft. VH. " Can any not elected, altho* call- 
" ed by the Miniftry of the Word, and having fome 
u common Operations of the Spirit, truly come to 
" Chrift, and fo be faved i " 

No; Matth. 22. 14. Matth. 7. 22. Matth. 13. 
20, 21. Heb. 6. 4, 5. John 6. 64, 65, 66. John 
8. 24. 

Well then, do not the Arminians err, who 
maintain, That there is fufficient Grace given to 
all Men for their Conversation, to whom- the Gof- 
pel is preached ? 


Do notlikewife the Quakers err, who maintain, 
That every Man hath fo much Grace given of God, 
as, if he would improve it, would bring him to 
Heaven ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 If, Becaufe Chrift lays to his Difciples, To 
you it is given, to know the Myfteries of the 
Kingdom of Heaven, but to them it is not given ; 
Matth. 13. 11. 2d, Becaufe it is faid of the* 
Jews, they could not believe, becaufe God had ' 
blinded their Eyes and hardened their Hearts ; 
John 12. 39, 40, 3d, Becaufe Chrift faid to his 
Difciples, there are fome of you that do riot be- 
lieve : Therefore faid I unto you, that no Man 
can come unto me, except it were given unto him 
of my Father 5 John 6. 64, 65. 4th, Becaufe 
the Prophet Ifaiah complains, * Who hath be- 
* lieved our Report, and to whom is the Arm of 
4 the Lord revealed?' CUap. 53. 1. 5th, Becaufe 
many are called, but few are chofen ; Matth. 22. 
H x 14. 

88 Of Jujljfication. Chap. X. 

14. 6th, Becaufe Men in not difcern, 
neither can they know the Things of the Spirit of 
God ; 1 Cor. 2. 14. 7th, Becaufe the moft Part 
of the World are buried in grofs Darknefs, and 
have their Underftanding darkned, and are alie- 
nated from the Life of God, through the Igno- 
rance that is in them, becaufe of the Blindnefs of 
their Hearts ; Eph, 3*18. 


Question. L 

DOTH God freely juftify thofe whom he 
effectually calleth, not by infufing Righ- 
u teouihefs unto them, but by pardoning their Sins, 
i( and by accounting, and accepting their Perfons 
4S as righteous, not for any Thing wrought in them 
u or done by them, but for Chrift's fake alone V 

Yes ; Rom. 9. 30. Rom. 3. 24. 

Well then, do not the Papifis, Socinians and 
Quakers err, who maintain, That the Righteouf- 
nefs, whereby we are juftified before God, is not 
without us, but within us, and inherent i 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lit, Becaufe if inherent Righteoufnefs did juili- 
fy us, then good Works would juftify us, but the 
Scripture denies that; Rom. 3.20. 'Therefore, 
* (fays the Text) by the Deeds of the Law* fnall 
' no Flefh be juftified in his Sight \ y _ And ver. 28. 
therefore we conclude, that a Man is juftified by 
Faith without the Deeds of the Law. See Rom. 
41 6. Gal. 2. 16. Eph. 2. 8, 9- Tit. 3. 5. In all 


Chap. XL Of Jujlification. 89 

which Places, Works are fecluded exprefly from 
our Juftification. 2d. Becaufe the Righteoufnefs 
whereby we are juftified, is not our proper own; 
2 Cor. 5. 21. For he (viz. God) hath made him, 
to be Sin for us, who knew no Sin, that we 
might be made the Rightcoufnefs of God in him 
Phil. 3. 8, 9. And be found in irim, not having 
my own Right eoufnefs, which is of the Law, but 
that which is thro* the Faith of Chrift, the Rlgh- 
teoufnefs which is of God by Faith. 3d, Becaufe 
we are not juftified by the Lav/; Afts 13. 38,39. 
4th, Becaufe our Juftification is given to us free- 
ly ; Rom. 4. 4, 5. Rom. 11. 6. 5th, Bec.ufe 
our inherent Righteoufnefs is imperfect, 1 Kings 
8. 46. For this Scripture fays, there is no Man 
that finneth not. See that parallel Place, 1 John 
18. where it is faid, * If we fay we have no Sin, 
' we deceive our felvts, and the Truth is not in us.' 
6th, Becaufe if we were juftified by inherent Righ- 
teoufnefs, we would have Matter to boaft of which 
is contrary to Paul's Doftrine, Eph. 2. 9. Not of 
Works, left any Man fliould boaft. 7th, Becaufe 
the Righteoufnefs of a Chriftian Man, is the jus- 
tifying of the ungodly; Rom. 4. 5. 

Queft. II. " Doth God juftify Men by imputing 
" Faith itfelf, the Aft of believing, or any other 

Y Evangelical Obedience to them ; as their Righ- 

V teoufnefs?" 

No; Rom. 4. 5, 6, 7, 8. 2 Cor. 5, 19, 2 1. Rom. 
3. 22, 24, 25, 27, 28. Tit. 3. 5, 7. Eph. 1.7. Jer. 
23. 6. 1 Cor. 1. 30, 31, Rom. 5. 17, 18, 19. 

Well then, do not the Arminians err, who main- 
tain, That Faith itfelf, and the Aft of believing, 
is imputed to us for Righteoufnefs? 


By what Reafoas are they confuted ? 

H 3 ift, 

■$K>' Of J unification Chap. XL 

i ft, Becanfe Faith is that by which we receive 
Righteoufnefs; Acts 26. 18. Therefore if it be 
that by which we receive Righteoufnefs, it cannot 
be Righteoufnefs itfelf: becaufe that which is 
received, is far different, and another Thing from 
that, whereby we receive it. 2d, Becaufe we 
are not juftified by inherent Righteoufnefs, as is 
proven evidently againft the Papifts in the la ft 
foregoing Queftion ; all which Reafons do clearly e« 
vince, that we are not juftified by the Imputation 
of Faith itfelf, or by the Aft of believing, as our 

Queft. Hi. <( Is Faith, which is the alone In- 
" ftrument of Justification, alone in the Perfon juf- 
* ftifiedr' , 


" Is it ever accompanied with all other laving 
" Graces ; and is no dead Faith, but worketh by 
M Love?" 

Yes; James 2. 17, 22, 26. Gal. 5. 6. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That juftifying Faith may be truly and 
really feparated from Love, faxing Hope, and all 
the reft of the Chriftian Virtues ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becanfe as the Body without the Spirit is 
dead, fo Faith without Works is dead alfo; Jam. 
2. 26. 2d, Becaufe Faith worketh by Love ; 
Gai. 5, 6. that is, by (hewing forth the Works 
of Love in us, towards God and our Neighbour. 
3d, Becaufe Faith purities the Heart; Afts 15*. 
9. 4th, Becaufe he that hath Faith is in Chrift : 
but he that is in Chrift bringeth forth much 
Fruit; John 15. 5. 5th, Becaufe thofe who 
hare Faith, arc buried v/uh Chrift, and walk in 


Chap. If- Of Jujlification. 91 

Newneis of Life; Rom. 6. 4. that is, in Holinefc 
and Purity, vhich accompany Faith. 6th, Be- 
caufe he tlv t faith, I know GoS, and keepeth 
not 1 1 Liar, and the Truth 

is not in him ; 1 John 2 . 4. 

Queft. IV. '■ Did Chi ill by his Obedience and 
14 Death, fully difcharge the Debt of all thoie who 
€ are thus juftified, and did he make a proper, real, 
" and full Satisfaction to the Father's Juftice in 
« their Behalf?" 

Yes; Ropi. 5. 8, 9. iTim. 2. 5, 6. Dan. 9. 
24, 26. Heb. 10. 10, 14. Ifa. 53. 4, 5, 6, 10, 1 1, 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That Chrift hath not made a full Satif- 
faftion to Divine Juftice, for the Sins of thofe 
who are juftified: And that human Satisfac- 
tions do, in part, fatisfy the Juftice ot God for 
Sin ? 


Do not likewife the Socinians err, who deny, 
All true and proper Satisfaction to ChriiVs Suf- 
ferings ? 


By whatReafons are they confnted ? 

lit, Becaufe the Prophet fays, He hath born 
our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows, was wound- 
ed for our Tranfgreffions, was bruifed for our Ini- 
quities; Ifa, 53.4, 5. 2d, Becaufe by one Of- 
fering, he hath perfected for ever them that are 
fancYified; Heb. 10. 14. 3d, Becaufe human 
Satisfactions being finite, can never fatisfy in 
part, or in whole, the infinite juftice of God, for 
the Punilhment of Sin; Job 35. 6. 4th, Becaufe 
he hath blotted out the Hand-writing of Ordi- 

92 Of Jiiftification. Chap. XI. 

nances which was againft us, which was contrary 
to us, and took it out of the Way, nailing it to 
hisCrofs; Col. 2. 14. 5th, Becaufe, there is 
nothing more frequent in Scripture, than that 
Chrift was a ' Propitiation for our Sins;' Rom. 3. 
25. 6th, Becaufe Chrift fays, I lay down my 
Life for my Sheep, and no Man taketh it from 
me, but I lay it down of myfelf ; John 10. 1 £, 
18. 7th, Becaufe the Son of Man came to give 
his Life a Ranfom for many; Matth. 20. 28. 
1 Tim. 2. 6. Eph. 5. 2. Gal. 3. 13. Rev. 5. 9. 
1 John 2. 2. 

'Queft. V. " Are the Eleft juftified, until the 
" Holy Spirit, in due Time, actually apply Chrift 
il to them ?" 

No; Col. 1. 2i r 22. Tit. 3. 4, 5, 6, 7. 
Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That the Eleft are juftified from Eter- 
city, or when the Price of Redemption was pay. 
cd ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
ift, Becaufe all that are juftified, have been 
Strangers and Enemies to God, and Children of 
Wrath; Eph. 2. 3. Col, 1. 21. Tit. 3. 3. 1 Cor. 
6. 10, 11. 2d, Becaufe none are juftified, until 
they believe in Chrift; Gal. 2. 16. Knowing that 
a Man is not juftified by the Works of the Law, 
but by the Faith of Jefus Chrift, even we have 
believed in Jefus Chrift, that we might be jufti- 
fied by the Faith of Chrift. 

Queft. VI. li Can thofe who are juftified, by Rea- 
" fon of their Sins, fall under God's Fatherly Dif- 
" pleafure, and not having the Light of his Counte- 
" nance reftored unto thereuntil they humble them- 

|J felves, 

Chap. XL Of Juftification. 93 

u felves, confefs their Sins, beg Pardon, and renew 
" their Faith and Repentance ? " 

Yes; Pfalm 89. 31, 32, 33. Pfalm 32, 5. Pfalm 
51. 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, i2.Matih. 26. 75. 1 Cor. 1 1. 

3°> 32. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That God's Love and Favour towards 
thofe that are once juftified, cannot confift with his 
Anger and Chaftifement towards them ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Chrift fays, as many as I love, I 
rebuke and chaften; Rev. 3. 19. 2d, Becaufe 
David was chaftened for his Adultery and Mur- 
der; 2 Sam. 12. 10. 3d, Becaufe the Lord fays, 
If my Children forfake my Law, and walk not 
in my Judgments, then will I vifit their Tranf- 
greflions with the Rod, and their Iniquity with 
Stripes; Pfalm 89. 30, 31. 4th, Becaufe God 
was provoked with the Sins of the Corinthians, 
for which he punifhed them ; 1 Cor. 10. 22. and 
11. 30. 

Qneft. VII. " Is the Juftification of Believers, 
*' under the Old Teftament, one and the fame in 
" all Refpefts with the Juftificatioa of Believers, 
•■ under the New Teftament ? " 

Yes; Gal. 3. 9, 13, 14. Rom. 4. 22, 23. Heb. 

13. 8. 

Well then, do not the Socinbns err, who main- 
tain, That the Manner of Juftification is not one 
and the fame, under both the Teftaments ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Abraham was juftified by Faith 
in Chrift; Gen. 15 6. And he believed in the 
Lord, and it was counted to him for Righteouf- 


94 Of adoption* Chap. XII.' 

nefs. That is, God of his mere Grace, held him 
righteous and juftified, that had no Righteoufnefs 
in himfelf, whereby to fubfift and ftand before 
his Juftice Seat, and that through Faith in his 
Promifes, and in the promifed Mediator. 2d, Be- 
caufe Ifaiah teacheth, that both himfelf and other 
Believers were juftified by the Knowledge of 
Chrift, Chap. 53. 11. 3d, Becaufe the Holy 
Ghoft exprefly teftifies, that Chrift died for the 
Believers under the Old Teftament, Heb. 9. 1 5. 
4th, Becaufe the Juftiflcation of believing Jews 
under the Old Teftament, and Believers under the 
Hew, are compared between themfelves as equal ; 
A&s 15. 11. 


Question I. 
RE thefe who are taken into the Number, 

."A 1 

and enjoy the Liberties and Privileges of 
" r,he Children of God, and have his Name put 
u upon them, and receive the Spirit of Adoption, 
" are they (I fay) ever caft off? " 

" Are they fealed to the Day of Redemption, 
" and inherit the Promifes, as Heirs of everlafting 
« Salvation? ?• 

Yes; Lam. 3. 3. Eph. 4. 30. 1 Pet. 1. 5. 
Well then, do not the Lutherans err, who 
maintain, That the Children of God, fome-of them, 
may be caft oiF for a Time totally, though not fi- 
nally ; 



Chap. XI. Of Adoptkn. 95 

Do not likewife the Arminians, Quakers and 
Socinians err, who maintain, That thofe who have 
reteived the Grace of Adoption, may be caft off 
totally and finally? 


By what Reafons are they confuted \ 

lit, Becaufe all the Children of God are kept 
through Faith unto Salvation; 1 Pet. 1. 5. 2d, 
Becaufe Chrift hath prayed for the Perfeverance 
of all Believers; John 17. 20. John 11. 26. And 
all thofe that are adopted, are the Children of 
God by Faith ; Gal. 3. 26. 3d, Becaufe no 
Man that is born again, as are all the Children 
of Gpd, doth fin, that is, he fufFers not Sin to 
reign over him, for his Seed remaineth in him ; 
that is God'? Seed, whereby he is born again, 
namely the Word && God; 1 Pet. 1. 23. John 3. 
5, 6. l remaineth in him,' that is, doth not totally 
perifh, but abideth thence forward, working the 
Fruits of Renegeration once begun in them ; Phil. 
Ii. 6. See 1 John. 3. 9. 4th, Becaufe all the 
Children of God requeft the Father by the Son, 
that he may grant them Perfeverance to Salva- 
tion; Matth 6. 13. which Perfeverance is moil: 
needful to them for that End, Matth. 24. 13. But 
Believers, when they feek Things needfiii to Sal- 
vation, in the Name of Chrift, according to his 
Promife, are always heard, John 14. 13, 14. 
John 16. 23. 5th Becaufe, the Gifts and Call- 
ing of God are without Repentance; Rom. 11, 
29. 6th, Becaufe all thofe who are juftified are 
glorified ; Rom. 8.30. But thofe who are adop- 
ted are endued with Faith, and are juftified; 
Gal. 3. 26. 7th, Becaufe Chrift keepeth all his 
adopted ones, that none can pluck them out of 
his Hand, or his Father's Hand ; John 1. 27, 2S, 


96 Of Sanfiif cation. Chap. XII. 

29. 8th, Bccaufe Perfeverance is a Giftpromifed 
by God to all the Elect* in the Covenant of Grace ; 
Ezek. 36. 26, 27, 28. Ezek. 11 19, 20. Jer. 31. 
31, 32, 33. 9th Becaufe jnftifying Grace is a 
Well of Water. Springing up into .verlafllng Life in 
every Man to whom it is given, John 4. 1 4. And 
the Saints are like unto Trees, planted by the 
Rivers of Waters, which bring forth their Fruit 
in due Seafon; Pfalm 1.3, 


Question I. 

"ARE they who are effectually called, and 
*( JTx, regenerated, having a new- Spirit created 
4i in them further fanctified, really and perfonally, 
u through the Virtue of ChrifVs Death, and Refur- 
4i re&ion,by his Word and Spirit dwelling inthem:'* 

Yes; 1 Cor. 6. 11. Afts 20.32, Phil. 3. 10. 
Rom. 6. 5, 6. John 17. 17. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That thofe who are juftifjed, are fanc- 
tified only, by the imputed Holinefs of Chrift; not 
by infufing inherent Holinefs, or any fpiriiual 
Qualities into them, by the Help of which they are 
enabled to live holily ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe the Apoftle fays, Follow Peace and 
Holinefs with all Men, without which no Man 
(hall fee God; Heb. 12. 14, 2d, Becaufe the 
Fruit of the Spirit is Love, Joy, Peace, Long- 
fuffering, Gentlenefs, and Faith ; Gal. 5. 22. 3d, 


Chap. XIII. Of SanBificntion. ot 

caufe they who are in Chrift bring forth good 
Fruit, John 15. 5. 4?h, Becaufe they who be- 
long to Chrift have crucified the Flefti with the 
Affeftions and Lulls, Gal. 5. 24, 25. 5th, Be- 
caufe the Apoftle commands us to work out our 
Salvation with Fear and with Trembling, PhiL 
2. 12. 6th, Becaufe we ought to purify our 
felves from all Filthinefs of the Flefli and Spirit, 
perfecting Hoiinefs in the Fear of God, 2 Cor. 
7. 1. 7th, Becaufe we ought to grow in Grace, 
and in the Knowledge of our Lord and Saviour 
Jefus Chrift, 2 Pet. 3. 18. 8th, Becaufe the 
Lord circumcifes the Hearts of the E!e6h that 
they may love the Lord their God, and taketh away 
the Heart of Stone, Deut. 30. 6. Ezek. 36. 26, 27. 

Queft. II. (l Is Sanfrification imperfect in this 
(i Life, there being fome Remnancs of Corrup- 
%i tion abiding in every Part ?" 

Yes; 1 John i. to. Rom. 7. 18, 23. Pfalm3„ 
1 2. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians, and many 
of the Quakers err, who maintain, That thoic 
who are juftified, are perfectly fancYified ? 


Do not likewife the Papifts, Socinians, and 
I Anabapriils err, who maintain the fame, but dif- 
fer in the Manner ? 


By whatReafons are they confuted ? 

But fit ft confider, that the Antinomians defend, 
That the moft perfect Hoiinefs of Chrift is imputed 
to us, and is made ours, there being no inherent 
I Hoiinefs in us, nor required of us. 

But the Papifts, Socinians, Quakers, and Ana- 
baptifts affirm, and maintain a perfect inherent 
Hoiinefs in this Life. 
(1 I They 

9 8 Of Saving Faith. Chap. XIV. 

They are confuted. 

ift, Becaufe there is no Man that finneth not, 
I Kings 8. 46, 2d, Becaufe if we fay we have 
no Sin, we deceive ourfelves, and the Truth is 
not in us, 1 John 1. 8. 3d, Becaufe in many 
Things, we offend all, Jam. 3. 2. 4th, Becauie 
there is not a juft Man upon the Earth that doth 
Good and finneth not, Eccl. 7. 20. 5th, Becaufe 
we are all as an unclean Thing, and all our 
RighteoufneiTes are as filthy Rags, Ifa. 64. 6. 
6th, Becaufe the Pialmift prayeth, that God 
would not enter into Judgment with him, for 
in thy Sight (fays he) (hall no Man be juftified, 
Ffalm 143. 2. 7th, Becaufe no Man can fay, I 
have made my Heart clean, I am pure from my 
Sin, Prov. 20. 9. 8th, Becaufe the Apoftle com- 
plains heavily concerning indwelling Sin, Rom. 
7. 18, 23. 9th, Becaufe the Saints are obliged to 
leek Pardon of Sin every Day, Matth. 6. 12. 
10th, Becaufe the Lord fays, He that is Holy, let 
him be holy (till, Rev 22.11. 




Question I. 

S the Grace of Faith, whereby the Elect are 

enable^ to believe, to thefaving of their Souls, 

" theWorkof the Spirit of Chrift in their Hearts?" 

Yes ; Heb. 10. 39. 1 Cor. 4. 13. Eph. x. 17, 

18, 10, 

Well then, do not the Pelagians err, who 
maintain, Faith to be a Thing natural ; who at- 

€hap. XIV. Of Saving Faith. 99 

tribute the Being thereof to ourfelves, and to the 
Strength of our corrupt Nature ? 


Do not likewife the Arminians err,» Who 
though they grant Faith to be the Gift of God, 
yet they deny Faith to be given according to 
the precife Will of God, for the faving of fome 
Men ? 


By what Reafons are they confined ? 

1 ft, ' I confute the Pelagians, for Chrift fays, 
No Man can come to me (that is, believe) unlefs 
the Father that hath fent me draw him, John 6. 
44. 2d, Becaufe the Apoftle fays, For unto you 
it is given, in the Behalf of Chrift, not only to 
believe in him, but alfo to ftrflfer for his Sake ; 
Phil. 1.29. 3th, Becaufe that which is natural, 
is proper to all, but all Men have not Faith ; 
2 ThefT. 3. 2. 4^1, Becaufe Faith is reckoned 
up among the Fruits of the Spirit, Gal. $• 22. 
5th, Becaufe the very Defire itfelf of believing is 
from God, and not from ourfelves, PhU. 2. 13. 
6th, Becaufe Chrift is the Author and Finifher of 
our Faith, Heb, 12. 2. 

Bv what Reafons do you confute the Arminians ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Faith is given to the El eft only, 
and to fuch as are ordained to Life eternal, Tit. 
t.i. Afts 13 48. 2d, Becaufe he that believes, 
fhall be faved, Mark 16. 16. John 3. 15, 16, 
18, 36. 3d, Becaufe God wills precifely the 
glorifying; of all thofe whom hejuftifles, Rom. 
#. 30. But they who have Faith are jufti fled, 
Rom. 5. 1. 4th, Becaufe God wills precifely, 
the glorifying of ail thofe, whom he inwardly and 
efficacioufly calleth, Rom. 8. 30. But all that 
I 2 be- 

1 3 Of Saving Faith. Chap. X IV. 

believe in him, are powerfully called, 2 Theff. 
2. 13, 14. 5th, Becaure all the Children of God 
are Heirs of God, and Joint- heirs with Chrift, 
Rom. 8, 17. But how many foever believe in his 
Name, to them he gave Power to become the 
Sons of God, John 1. 12. 

Queft. II. <• Is Faith the Fruit of Chrift 's Pur* 
" chafe ?" 

Yes; Tit. 3. 5,6. Tit. 2. 14. Ezek. 36. 

S j^- 
Well then, do not the Arminians err, who 
deny, Faiihand other faving Graces to be Chrift's 
Purchafe, or the Fruits of his Death ? 

Do not llkewife others of the fame Kind err, 
"Who granting the Gift of believing, not to flow 
from Man's Free will, or from any fufficient 
Grace bellowed upon all, maintain, That it flows 
from God's Sovereign Good-will, thinking fit to 
inflow that Gift upoa iome whom he hath elefted, 
;uid not upon others, without Refpeft to the Me- 
rits of Chrift's Death? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe if this be all that Chrift hath 
purchafed by his Death, that God might lave 
fallen Man, upon Condition he believe ; then 
Chrift might attain his End in dying, and yet not 
one Sou! be faved by his Death. 2d, Becaufe it 
makes Chrift a Titular Saviour only, purchafing 
Salvation to all, without any full and certain In- 
tention of applying it to any. 3d, Becaufe it 
is promifed to Chrift the Mediator, as a fatiafafti- 
on to him for his fufferings, that not only many> 
through Faith in him, (hall be juftiried, but that 
certainly, he fhall fee his Seed, and the Fruit of 


Chap. XIV. Of Saving Faith. I o I 

his Soul, Ifa. 55. ic. 4th, Becaufe the warning 
of Regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghoft, 
under which all particular Graces may be com- 
prehended, are (aid to be fried on tis abundantly, 
through Jefus Chrift, Tit. 3. 5, 6. 5th, Be- 
caufe the Lord hath promifed to remove from us, 
the Heart of Stone, and to give us a new Heart; 
tocleanie us from all our Idols, and warn, us with 
clean Water: But thefe Promiies are in one Bun- 
dle with the Promifes of his pardoning our Ini- 
quity, aud remembring our Sins no more, Ezek. 
36. 25, 26. Jer. 31.33,34. 6th, Becaufe Chrift 
is made unto us Wifdom, Sanftiflcation, and Re- 
demption, no lefs than Righteoufnefs, under 
which, Faith, and all laving Graces needful to 
the working out of our Salvation, are comprehen* 
ded, 1 Cor. 1. 30, 31. 7th, Becaufe we are faid 
to be blefted with all fpiritual Ble/^ngs in Chrift 
Jefus, Eph. 1.3. which by his Merit are com- 
municated to us. And is not Faith and faving 
Grace to be accounted among the fpiritual Blef- 
lings ? 8th, Becaufe it is not a mere Poflibiiity 
of Redemption, but aftunl Redemption, that the 
iS.iintsin Heaven praifeand extol Chrift for, Rev. 
1 5. 9, 12. An Arminian cannot well fing a Part 
iof this Song, while he thinks in his Heart, *' He is 
'" more beholden to the Lamb for his Redempii- 
I on, than Cain and Judas.*'* 

Queft. III. " Doth a Chrlftian, by Faith, believe 
41 whatfoever is revealed in the Word, for the 
14 Authority of God (peaking therein ?" 

Yes; Joha4.42. 1 John 5. 10. A&s 24, 14. 
1 Theft. 2. 13. 

Well then, do not the PapUb err, who Com- 
mend and extol implicit Faith, and who define 
Faith; rather by Ignorance than by Knowledge ? 
I 3 ** 5 - 

1 02 Of Saving Faith. Chap. XIV. 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lit, Becaufe Faith cometh by hearing, and 
hearing by the Word of God; and therefore 
there can be no Faith without Knowledge, Rom. 
10. 1,7. 2d, Becaufe all Believers are taught of 
God, Ifa. 54. 13. John 6. 45. 3d, Becaufe Chrift 
fays, This is Life eternal to know thee, the only 
true God, and Jelus Chrift, whom thou haft lent, 
John 17. 3. 4th, Becaufe the Prophet Ifaiah 
lays, * By his Knowledge, /hall my righteous Ser- 
vant juftify many,' Chap. 53. n. 

Queft. IV. " Are the principal Afts of Saving 
u Faith, accepting, receiving, and refting upon 
€< Chrift alone, for Juftification, San&ification, 
** and eternal Life, by Virtue of the Covenant of 
" Grace ? " 

Yes; Johu I. 12. Afts 16. 31. Gal. 2. 20. 
A&s 15. ir. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, Faith to be nothing but a naked AfTent to, 
the Truth revealed in the Word ; it being placed ] 
by them in the Underftanding only. 


Do not Hkewifcthe Socinians err, who put no 
Difference between Faith and the Obedience of 
Works ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe to believe is to receive Chrift, 
which is an Aft of the Will, John 1. 12. 2d, 
Becaufe Faith is the Subftance of Things hoped 
for, ths Evidence of Things not feen. Or Faith 
is a firm Ground, or a firm Confidence ; that 
is which caufeth to fubfift, or (land firm, the 
Things which are promifed by God iu Chrift, 


Chap. XV. Of Repentance. 103 

and which therefore are expected by Hope, which 
is not done only by an AflTent to God's Promiies in 
our Underftanding, but alfo by tr lifting to the 
fame in our Will. I fay, Faith is a firm Ground 
of the Things which are hoped, and an Argument 
of Things not feen. Or a Conviction, in Greek, 

i Elengchos ; for Faith refpecling God's Revela- 
tion and Promife, convinceth and afTureth the 
Heart of Man, more ftrongly of the Truth of a 
Thing, than any other Argument, brought from 
natural Reafon, can do, Heb. 1 1 . 1. 3d, Becauie 
we are juftified before God by Faith, Rom. 5. 1. 
But we are not juftified by a bare arid naked Af- 

j fent to the Truth ; otherwife the Devils fhouki 
be juftified, Jam. 2. 19. Neither are we juftified 

j by the Socinian's Faith, which is every where con- 
demned in Scripture, Rom. 3. 20, 28. Gal. 2. 16. 
Eph. 2. 8, 9. Phil. 3. 9. Tit. 3. 4, 5. 



Question I. 

" TS Repentance unto Life an evangelical Grace, 
f 1 A the Doctrine whereof is to be preached by 
M every Minifter of the Gofpel, as well as that of 
" Faith in Chrift r 

Yes; Ezek. 12, 10. Acts 11. 18. Luke 24. 47, 
Mark 1. 15. Acts 20. 21. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That Repentance is not an evangeli- 
cal Grace, and that it ought not to be preached 
by any Minifter of the Gofpel, feeing it leads 


1 04 Of Repentance. Chap. XV. 

us away from Chrift, and is many ways hurtful 
and dangerous to us \ 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe God hath promifed in the Cove- 
nant of Grace, that he will pour out upon the 
Houie of David, and upon the Inhabitants of 
Jerufalem, the Spirit or grace and Supplication, 
which (hall caufe Chriftians under the Gofpel to 
repent and mourn for their Sins; Zech. 12. 10. 
2d, Becaufe Repentance is numbered among the 
faving Graces, which (hall be beftowed and con- 
ferred upon converts under the Gofpel, and is 
ibmetimes pnt for the whole Converfation of a Man 
to God; Atts 11. 15,16, 17, 18. 3d, Becaufe 
the Minifters of the Gofpel ought to inftruft thofe 
with Meeknefs, who oppofe themfelves, if God 
pei adventure will give them Repentance, to the 
acknowledging of the Truth ; 2 Tim. 2. 2 5. 4th, 
Becaufe \ Repentance from dead Works, 7 is among 
the Principles of the Do&rine of Chrift ; and is a 
Foundation which ought to be laid, before the 
Hearers of the Gofpel can go on unto Perfection; 
I fay, laid by the Minifters of the Gofpel ; Heb. 
6. 1. 5th, Becaufe Chrift himfelf appointed 
Repentance, no lefs to be preached through the 
World, than Remiffion of Sin?; Luke 27. 47. 
6th, Becaufe Chrift and his Apoftles preached 
Repentance, no lefs than Faith, Mark 1, 15. Matth. 
3, 2. Nay, the whole Sum of the Gofpel is 
placed in preaching Faith, and Repentance ; A&$ 
20. 20, 21. 

Quell. II. " Doth a Sinner (namely by Repen- 
u tance) out of the Sight and Senfe, not only of ths 
46 Danger, butalfoof the Fiithinefs and Odioufnefs 
*< of his Sins; as contrary to the holy Nature, and 


p. XV. Of Repentance. 105 

'•' righteous Law of God, and upon theApprehen- 
u fion of his Mercy in Chrift to fuch as are peni- 
" teat, fo grieve for, and hate his Sins, as to tura 
f from them all unto God ?" 

Yes; Ezek. 18. 30. Ezek. 36. 31. Ifaiah 30. 
22. Jer. 31. 18, 19. Joel 2. 12, 13. Amos 5. 15. 
Pfalm 119. 6, 59, 106. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, We ought not by Repentance, to hate 
our Sins, to mourn for them, and turn from them 
to God, but only to believe, that Chrift in our 
Stead and for us, hath repented ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Repentance, being a turning from 
our Sins and evil Ways, and a turning to God; 
and Chrift, being without Sin, could not be ca- 
pable to repent in our Stead ; 1 Kings 8. 35. Heb. 
7. 26, 27. Joel 2. 12, 13. 2d, Becaufe they that 
repent, confefs their Sins, and are grieved for them; 
Ezra 10. 1. Mark 14. 72. They hate their Sins; 
2 Cor. 7. 11 . They are afhamed, and confounded 
for them; Jer. 31. 19. 3d, Becaufe Repentance 
is a Sorrow after a godly Manner, in the fame ve- 
ry Perfons that repent, wrought by God, by the 
preaching of the Word ; 2 Cor, 7.9. Acts 11. 18. 
4th, Becaufe Repentance is called, a renting of 
the Heart; Joel 1. 12. And they that repent, 
hate and loath themfelves for their Abominations; 
Ezek. 36. 31. They are afhamed, and confound- 
ed ; Jer. 31. 19. They are grieved and pricked 
in their Reins; Pfalm 73. 21. 5th, Becaufe 
God promifing Repentance to the People of the 
Jews, being coverted to Chrift, after their Back- 
fliding, fays, I will pour out upon the Houfe of 
David, and upon the Inhabitants of Jerufalem, 


106 Of Repentance. Chap, XV. 

the Spirit of Grace and Supplication, and they 
fhall look upon me whom they have pierced, 
and they fhall mourn for him as one mourneth 
for his only Son, Zech. 12 10. And (hall be in 
Bitternefs for him, as one that is in Bitternefs for 
his firft born. But is any Man fo foolifk as to 
affirm, That when a Man doth mourn for his 
firft born, he believes only that another Man 
hath Mourned in his Stead ? 6th, Becaufe Faith 
is one Thing, and Repentance fpecially fo called, 
is another Thing, Mark 1. 15. Adh 20. 21. Heb. 
1 1. 6. In which Places, Faith and Repentance are 
numbered two diverfe Things. And it is evident 
likewife, That Faith is the Caufe of Repentance ; 
but nothing can be the Caufeof itfelf. 

Do not likewife the Papifts err, who maintain, 
That we are not by Repentance converted from 
our Sins to God; which they only make an En- 
duement, or Quality, fitting and difpofmg us 
for Converfion, and meriting it: which (fay they) 
confifts in Heart Contrition, Mouth Confeflion, 
Abfolution and Satisfa&ion. By the firft, they 
have Heart Sorrow for Sin. By the fecond, 
They confefs their Sins to the Prieft. By the 
third, (which can be no Part of Repentance, fee- 
ing it is not a Thing done by the Sinner) they are 
abfolved by the Prieft from their Sins. By the 
fourth, they make Satisfaftion for former Sins, 
in performing fome good Work willingly un- 
dertaken, or enjoined by the Prieft after Abfolu- 
tion; as faftings, chaftifing of their own Bo- 
dies, Pilgrimages, and hearing of many Maffes I 


By what Reafons are they confuted ; 

1 ft, Becaufe the Word of God aflerts no me- 

Chap. XV. Of Repentance. 107 

-itorious Work in us, to go before our Conver- 
fion. Not by Works of Righteouihefs which we 
have done, but according to his Mercy, he faved 
os, Titus 3. 4, 5, 6. 2d, Becaufe the only Me- 
rit of Chrift, is the meritorious Caufe of our Con- 
verfion, Htb. 9. 14. 1 Cor. 6. 11. 3d, Becaufe 
true Repentance is the infallible Antecedent, and 
Fore runner of Life, 2 Cor. 7. 10. A&s 11. 18. 
And they who truly repent have all their Sins 
pardoned, Atts 2. 38. Afts 3. 19. Nay, Re- 
pentance is a Piece of ihe Exercife of the Life of # 
Grace here, and worketh unto Life, and Salva- 
tion hereafter. But of no foregoing Difpofition, or 
Qualification previous to Repentance, can thefe 
forecited Places of Scripture be underftood. 4th* 
Becaufe Repentance, and turning to God, are 
! fometimes put for the fame Thing: And the 
Prophets, while they ftudy to excite and ftir up 
the People to Repentance, they fignify it by the 
\ Word Converjion and turning to Cod; Afts ii„ 
I 1 5, 16, 17, 18, 21. Joel 2. 12, 13. Ezek. 18. 31, 
■32. 5th, Becaufe whatfoever goes before our 
f Converfion to God, it cannot be of Faith, and 
H therefore it muft difpleafe God; Rom. 8. 8. 
Rom. 1 j. 23 But true Repentance is of Faith, 
and God delighteth in it; Jer. 31. 18, 19,20. 
6th, Becaufe in very many Places of Scripture, 
Repentance is defcribed by a departing from Evil, 
and a turning to God ; Ifa. 1. 16, 17. Ifa. 55. 7. 
1 "'.Pfalm 34, 14. Hof 6. 1. 7th, Becaufe Heart 
v Contrition, Mouth Conteffion, and Satisfaction for 
former Sins, which they call Penance, as they 
are explained by the Papifts, may be found in 
hypocritical Repentance, as is evident from the 
Example of Judas and Ahab; Matth. 27. 4, ? f 
6. 1 Kings zi, 2t. There may be true evangeli- 

1 08 Of Repentance. Chap. XV. 

eal Repentance, without Confeffion of the Mouth 
made to a Priefl, and without Penance. If the 
Mouth and Heart confefs to God only, it is fiiffi. 
cient, unlefs there be a public Scandal committed 
againft the Church of God. As for Abfolution, 
it can be no Part of Repentance, for it is not a 
Thing done by a Sinner, but (as I faid) confer- 
red by the Priefr. 

Queil:. lit " Is Repentance to be refted on, as 
" any Satisfaction for Sin, or Caufe of the Pardon 
" thereof ?" 

No; Ezek. 36. 13, 32. Ezek. 16. 61, 62, 63. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who -main- 
tain, That Repentance 1$ a Satisfaction for 
Sins, (viz. an imperfeft Satisfaction) and that 
it deferves the Mercy of God, and Pardon of 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

iff, Becaufe Chrift did fatisfy the Juflice of 
God to the full : And it is Blood ,only that 
purgeth us from all Sin, Ifa. 53. 4, 5, 6, 8, 11. 
1 John 1. 7. 2d, Becaufe to fatisfy for Sin, is. a 
Part of the Priefily Office of Chrift, which can- 
not be communicated to any, Heb. 2. 17. com- 
pared with Heb. 7. 23, 24. 3d, Becaufe the 
Lord pardoneth our Sins, not for our fake, but for 
his own fake, Ifa. 43. 25. Ezek. 36. 25, 31, 32. 
4th, Becaufe Pardon of Sin is an Aft of the 
free Favour of God, Hof. 14. 2. Eph. 1.7. BuHf 
it be of the free Favour of God ? then it is no* more 
of Works, and Repentance, as a Satisfaction for 
Sin ; Rom. 1 1. 6. 

Queft. IV. u Is there any Sin Co great that it 
€( will bring Damnation upon thoie who truly 
a repent V i 


Chap. XV. Of Repentance. I ©9 

No; Ifa. 59.7. Rom. 8. 1. Ifa. 1.16, 18. 
Well then, do not the Novatians, Anabaptiftp, 
and Puritans called Kathari err, who maintain, 

•That if any after Baptifm, and Grace received, 
fall into grievous Sins, offend willingly, there is 

'no Pardon remaining for them, even though they 
fhould repent ? 

' By what Reafons are they confuted ; 

1 ft, Becaufe God, under the Law, appointed 
daily Sacrifices, even for Sins that were com- 
mitted willingly, Numb. 28. 3. Lev. 6. 1. to 
the eight Verfe. 2d, Becaufe God in the Co- 
venant of Grace hath promifed, that he will not 

; utterly take from them (with whom he is in 
Covenant) his loving Kindnefs ; even though they 
have broken his Statutes, and not keeped his 
Commandments ; Pfalm 89. 30, 31, 32. 3d, Be- 

, ,caufe God invites the Galatians and Corinthians, 
who were guilty ofApofhcy, and of very -many 
grofs Scandals, to Repentance, from the Hope of 
Pardon, Gal. 3. 1. and 1. 6. and 4. 19. 1 Cor. 

1 1.11,12. and 1 Cor. 5. 1, 2. 7, 8. 2 Cor. 12 21. 

"4th, Becaufe the Apoftle John fays, even to fuch 
as have finned willingly, after Baptifm, and Grace 

: received, It we truly repent and confefs our Sins, 

: God is faithful and juft to forgive us our Sins, 
1 John 1. 9. fee 1 John 2. 12. 5th, Becaufe 

\ David, after Murder and Adultery; and Peter, 

1 after denying of his Mailer, obtained Pardon 

1 when they repented, 2 Sam. 12. 13. John 21. 19. 

1 Therefore there remaineth Pardon to fuch as, af- 
ter Baptifm, and Grace received, have fallen, and 

1 repented. 

Queft. V. <f Is every Mai* bound to make pri- 
X vate 

1 1 o Of Repentance. Chap. XV. 

" vate Confeffion of his Sins to God, praying for 
" the Pardon thereof? " 

Yes; Pfalm 51.4, 5, 7, 9. Pfalm 32. 5, 6. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians, Libertines 
and Anabaptifts err, who maintain, That thofc 
who are once juftified, are not any more obliged 
to confefs their Sins, to be grieved for them, or 
to repent of them ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe whofoever doth call upon God 
the Father, in their Prayers, they ought to feek 
daily Remiffion of Sin, Luke n 2, 3, 4. 2d, 
Becaufe God doth commend the ferious Confef- 
fion of Sins, and Grief for them, in juftified Per- 
fons, and delighteth therein, Jer. 31. 18, 19,20, 
Luke 7. 44. Iia. 66. 2. 3d, Becaufe Pardon of 
thofc Sins, which juftified Perfons (hall confefs, 
is promifed, Prov. 28. 13. Pfalm 32. 5. 1 John 
1. 9. 4th, Becaufe fuch are declared blefled 
that mourn, Matth. 5. 4. 5th, Becaufe in whom 
the Spirit dwelleth, it worketh in them, being 
greatly weighted with the Burden of their Sins, 
a continual Groaning and Sorrow for the fame ; 
Rom. 7. 23, 24. Rom. 8. 26. 6th, Becaufe true 
Repentance, is a renewing of the Image of God 
loft, at leaft greatly defaced, by the committing 
of Sin, which in San£tiricat5on is not perfected, 
but only begun, and doth dally iccreafe through 
the Virtue of Chrift's Death and RefurrecYion ; 
Eph. 4. 19, to 24. 7th, From the Example of 
juftified Perfons, as David, Jofiah, Peter ^and o- 
thers, who after Justification confeffed their Sins, 
grieved for them, and begged Pardon, 2 Sam. 12. 
13. Pfalm 51. 2 Kings 22. 19. Neh. 9. from the 
beginning, Mark 14.72. 

, (^ucft. 


Chap. XV. Of Repentance. 1 1 1 

Queft. VI. " Do thofe who confefs their Sins 
" privately to God, who pray for the Pardon 
41 thereof, and forfake them, obtain Mercy :" 
Yes; Prov. 28. 13. 1 John 1. 9. 
Well then, do not the Papifls err, who main- 

| tain, That befides Confeffion of Sins made to God, 

•and forfaking of them, an auricular Confeffion, 
an Enumeration of all particular Sins committed 
after Baptifm, muft be made to our own proper 
Prieft, as a necelTary Means for obtaining Remit- 

ffion of them. 

; Yes. 

By what Reafons nre they confuted ? 

! 1 ft, Becaufe the Pfalrnift fays, Who can un- 

, derftand his Errors; Pfalm 19. 29. and they be- 
ing more than the Hairs of our Head, how can 

j they be mumbled over to a Prieft ? Pdilm 40. 12. 
2d, Becaufe Chrift gave an Abfolution, without 
an Enumeration of every Sin, Matth. 9. 2. Nei- 
ther doth he demand an Enumeration of all oar 
feveral Sins, though we be obliged to reckon, and 

■ rehearfe all that we are able to remember, Luke 
7.48. Luke 18. 13, 14. 3d, Becaufe there is 
no Command, or Example in Scripture, for any 
Man to whifper, and round his Sins into the E3r 
of a Prieft : And therefore, it not being of Faith, 
it is Sin, Rom. 14. 23. 4th, Becaufe whofoever 
turneth from his Sin to God, and confeileth them, 
he findeth Mercy prefently, Ezek. 18. 21, 28. 
Prov % 2o. 13. 

Queft. VII. " Ought he who fcandalizeth his 
" Brother, or the Church of Chiift, to be willing, 
€i by a private, or public Coofeffion, and Sorrow 
" for his Sin, to declare his Repentance to thoie 
" who are offended?" 

K 2 Yes : 

112 Of Repentance. Chap. XV. 

Yes; James 5. 16. Luke 17. 3, 4. Jofti.7. 19. 
Pfalm 51. throughout. 2 Cor. 2. 8. 

Well then, do not the Novatians err, and o- 
thers too, who maintain, That thofe, who have 
offended their Brother, or the Church of Chrift, 
are not obliged to declare their Repentance to the 
Parties offended ; and that thofe who are offended, 
ought not to require any fuch Thing, as private 
or public Confeffion and Acknowledgment, but 
prefently they ought to be received, without do- 
ing any fuch Thing i 


Do not likewife fome Church-men err, who 
connive, and wink, at the public Scandals, efpe- 
cially of the richer, and better Sort i 


And laftly, do not many in thefe Times err, who 
jear, and make a Mock at all public Confeffion of 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe he that offendeth his Brother, 
ought to return to him, faying, I repent, Luke 
17. 3, 4. 2d, Beeaufe Chrift did even value fo 
much a private Man's Offence, that he was not 
to be admitted to the Altar with his Gift, until 
he was reconciled to his Brother, Matth. 5. 23, 
24. 3d, Becaufe the inceftuous Perfon was not 
received into the Communion of the Church of 
Corinth, before he had evidenced his Repentance, 
by fatisfying the Church, 2 Cor. 2. 6. 4th, Be- 
caufe public Confeffion of Sin glorifies God; 
Joffi. 7. 19. 5th, Becaufe thofe who fin, muft 
be rebuked before all, that others alfo may fear ; 
1 Tim. 5. 20. 

Queft. VIII. " Are thofe, who are offended, 

" bound 

Chap. XV. Of Repentance. 1 1 3 

" bound to be reconciled to the offending Party, 
u by declaring his Repentance, and ought they 
" in Love to receive him ? " 

Yes 5 2 Cor. 2. 8. 

Well then, do not the Novatians, and Ana- 
baptifts err, who maintain, That Profeftbrs of 
Religion, falling into public Scandal, efpecially 
in denying the Truth, in the Time of Perfecti- 
on, are no more to be received into the Church, 
even though they repent ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lft, Becaufe Chrift fays, If thy Brother tref- 
pafs againft thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, 
forgive him; and if he trefpafs againft thee fe- 
ven Times in a Day, and feven Times in a 
Day turn again to thee, faying, 1 repent, thou 
(halt forgive him, Luke 17. 3, 4. 2d, Be- 
caufe for a Heathen, and Publican (that is one 
caften out from the Communion of the Church) 
he only is fo to be efteemed, who negle&eth to 
hear the Church, Mat. 18. 17. 3d, Becaufe fuch 
as have offended the Church, after Submiffion to 
l>he Church's Cenfure, ought to be comforted; the 
Church ought to make their Love known to them ; . 
and receive them again into Communion, left hap- 
pily their Grief and Sorrow increasing, they be 
■{wallowed up,' 2 Cor 2. 7, 8 4th, Becaufe if 
a Man be overtaken in a Fault, they who are 
fpiritual, ought to reftore fuch an one in the Spi- 
rit of Meeknefs ; confidering themfelves, leaft they 
alfo be tempted, Gal. 6. 1. 5th, becaufe if 
Men, repenting of their Faults committed againft 
their Brethren, and fellow Chriftians, be not re- 
ceived into the Communion of the Church, both 
they and the Church are in Hazard, left Satan, by 
his Devices, gain an Advantage of them, 2 Cor. 
K 3 2. 10. 

U4 Of Good Works. Chap, X VX 

2. 10, ii. 6th, Becaufe Miriam, who for her 
Sedition againft Mofes, was fhut out from the 
Camp feven Days, was brought in again, Numb. 
i 2, i 5. So was the inceftuous Perfon received 
into the Communion of the Church, 2 Cor. a. 8. 



Question I. 

U A ^ £ ooc * Works on 'y ^ uc ^ as God hath 
€t Jljl commanded in his holy Word, and not 
i " fuch as without the Warrant thereof, are de- 
" vifed by Men, out of blind Zeal, upon any 
•' Pretence of good Intention :" 

Yes; Micah6. 8. Rom. 12.2. Heb. 13. 21. 
Matth. 15. 9. with Sam. 15. 21, 22, 23. lia, 
. 29. 13. 1 Pet. 1. 18. Rom. 10. 2. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That not only fuch Works are good, which 
fcre done according to the Will and Law of God, 
but others alfo, which are commanded by the pub- 
lic Authority of the Church, tho' over and above 
what the Law of God requires. And that thofe 
alio are good Works, which are done out of a good 
Intention, to advance God's Glory, or to perform 
Wcrfhiptohimjtho'thcybenot commanded byGod? 


Do not likewife the old and late Libertines tn\ 
who maintain, That the Difference between 
good Works, and evil, depends only upon the 
private and particular Opinion of every "JVian. 
For they think, that no Work ought to be cal- 

Chap. XVL Of Good Works 1 1 5 

led evil, but in fo far, as he that doth it, thinks it 
evil ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe good Works are defcribed by the 
Apoftle to befuch, as God before haih ordained, 
that we fliould walk in them ; Eph. 2. 10. 2d, 
Becaufe God exprefly commands, that every Man 
muft not do that which feems good in his owa 
Eyes, but only fuch Works as he hath command- 
ed, and muft neither add thereto, nor diminish 
from it, Deut. 12.8. 32. Jo(h. 1. 7. Prov. 30I 6. 
Rev. 22. 16. 3d, Becaufe the Lord openly te- 
| ftifles that in vain they do worfhip him, teaching 
. for Doctrines the Commandments of Men, not 
rcq Mring that Will worfhip which phentaftic 
Men would give him, Ifa. 1. 13. Matth. 15. 9. 
Micah 6. 6, 7, 8. Co!. 2. 23. 4th, Becaufe the 
Scribes and Pharifees are feverally rebuked by 
Chrift, that made the Commandments of God of 
TiO Effect, by their Traditions, Matth. 15. 6, 
And it is often mentioned in the Books of the 
Kings and Chronicles, as a Fault in the Kings of 
Judah, that the High-places were not taken 
away. And how feverely were the Ifraelkes 
punifhed, for their worfhipping of the Golden- 
I calf? Exod. 32. and for woiihipping the Calves 
which Jeroboam fet up at Dan and Bethd; all 
J know, 1 Kings 12. 28. 5th, Becaufe the Law 
c God is the perfect Rule and Square of good 
j Works, To die Law, and to the Teftimony, if 
, they fpeak not according to this Word, it is, be- 
i caufe there is no Light in them, La. S. 20. 6tb, 
i Becaufe without Faith it is irapofrlble to pleafe 
,: God, Hefc n. 6. But Faith hath always a Re- 
j fpeft to the Word of God. 
; Quell, 

1 1 6 Of Good Works. Chap. XVI. 

Qucft II. " Are good Works done in Obedience 
" to God's Commandments, the Fruits and Evi- 
u dences of a true and lively Faith ?" 

Yes; James 2. 18, 22T~ 

Well then, do not the Antinomies and Liber- 
tines err, who deny, That Believers ought to 
make evident to themfelves and others, the Truth 
of their J unification by good Works, as Fruits of 
a true and lively Faith ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Chrift lays, By their Fruits ye 
(hall know them : for a good Tree bringeth forth 
good Fruit, Matth. 7. 16, 17, 18. 2d, Becaufe 
we are commanded, to make fure our Calling and 
Eleftion by good Works, as by the Fruits of 
Faith, 2 Pet. 1. 5, 6, 10, 11. 3d, Becaufe in Scrip- 
ture there are delivered many undoubted and 
fure Marks of Regeneration, taken from the Fruits 
of Faith and good Works, 1 John 1. 6, 7. and 
2. 3, and 1 John 3. 9, 10, 14. 

Queft, III. " Is our ability to do good Works, 
• c wholly from the Spirit of Chrift, and not at all 
*' from ourielves." 


And that we may be enabled thereunto, befides 
the Graces already received, is there not required 
an aftual Influence of the fame holy Spirit, to 
work in us, both to will and to do. of his good 

Yes; John, 15. 4, 6, Ezek. 36. 26, 27. Phil. 
2. 1 $s 2 Cor. 3. 5. 

Well then, do net the Pelagians err, who main- 
tain, Thar good Works done by the Strength of 
C1 -, r Free-will, are conform to the Law of God, 
and worthy of the Kingdom of Heaven i 


Chap. XVI. Of Good Works 1 1 7 


Do not, likewife the Papifts err, who maintain, 
That good Works may be done by a mere general 
and common Influence from God ? 


Do not, laftly, the Arminians err, who main- 
tain, That good Works flow only from God as a 
Moral Caufe ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Ghrift fays, Ye can do nothing 
without me, John 15. 5. 2d, Becaufe of our- 
selves we are not able to think a good Thought, 
2 Cor. 3. 5. 3d, Becaufe it is God that work- 
eth in us, both to will and to do, of his good 
Pleafure, Phil. 2. 13. 

Queft. IV. " are they who are regenerated, to 
" grow negligent, as if they were not bound to per- 
f< form any Duty, unlefs by fpecial Motion of the 
jf Spirit? 


Ought they not to ftir up diligently the Grace 
of God which is in them ? 

Yes; Phil. 2. 12. Heb. 6. n, 12. 2 Pet. 1. 3, 
5, 10. Ifa. 64. 7. 2 Tim. 1. 6. Afts 26. 6, 7. 
jjude, ver. 26, 21, 22. 

Well then, do not the Quakers, Familifts, and 
other giddy-headed Perfons err, who maintain, 
That Believers ought not to perform any Duty in 
Religion, u»iefs the Spirit within move and excite 
them to thole Duties : And that we ought to for- 
bear when this is wanting ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Holy Ghoit forbiddeth us to 
be flow in performing fuch Duties : nay, com- 

u 8 Of Good Works. Chap XVI. C 

mands us to ftir up the Gift which is in us, and S 
ufe all Diligence to perform Duties commanded \ 
by himfelf; Phil. 2. 12. Jude yen 20. 2d, Be- \ 
caufe the Prophet confefleth that as the great Sin I 
of the Lord's People, that there is none that cal- 1 
Jeth upon his Name, that ftirreth up himfelf to 1 
take hold of him, Ifaiah 64. 7. 3d, Becaufe to 
neglect the worfhipping of God, is an evident 
Sign and Token of an Atheift, Pfal. 14. 4. PfaL 
53.4. 4th, Becaufe the Lord hath threatened to 
pour out his Fury upon the Heathen that know 
him not, and upon the Families that call not on 
his Name, Jer. 10. 25. 5th, Becaufe the twelve 
Tribes which hoped to come to the Promife made 
to the Fathers, inftantly ferved God Day and 
Night, Afts 26, 6, 7, And the Apoftles gave them- 
felves continually to Prayer, and to the Miniftryof 
the Word, Afts 6. 4. 6th, Becaufe Chrift him- 
felf who had always the Spirit, was very frequent 
in all thofe Exercifes and Duties, as all the Hi- 
ftories of the four Evanglifts do teftify. Thofe 
fanatick Recufants, either have the Spirit of God 
in them, or they want it. This lafl they will not 
grant. If then they have it, why do they refufe 
to perform Duties of Religion more than our blef- 
fed Saviour did, when Opportunity and Occafion 
did call him. They have the Spirit, but want the 
Irapulfe. But contrariwife, this Impulfe is never 
wanting when there is a Call. But the Spirit's 
Gall is never wanting when Opportunity is offer- 
ed. 7th, Becaufe Chrift will have the Gofpel 
preached to every Creature; Mark 16. 15. And 
hath commanded the Adminiftration of the Lord's! 
Supper, even* to his fecond coming; 1 Cor. 11. 
26. And will have the Work of the Miniftry tc 
continue in his Church, for the perfecting of the 


I, ;hap. XVI. Of Good Works 1 1 9 

Jaints, for the edifying of the Body of Cbrift, till 
:jve all come in the Unity of the Faith, &c. Eph. 
4. 11, i2 ? 13. 8th, Becaufe we are commanded 
a :o pray without ceafmg; 1 ThefT. 5. 17. That is 
1- upon all Opportunities, and in all our Ncceflities. 
'o.pth, Becaufe we are com man ded to truft in him 
it all Times ; Pfalm 62 . 8. 1 oth, If we (hall for-' 
K Dear outward Duties, as Prayer, and fuch like, 
-then ought we to forbear inward Exercifes, as Acts 
Df Faith, Love, and Fear, till we be moved therc- 

* unto, which is moft abfurd, for we are command- 
11 sd (as was cited) to truft in him always nth, 

What A durance can Men have, the next Hour, or 
l^to Morrow, more than in the prefent Time of 
^'the Spirit's Motion on their Souls; Or that they 
tfffiall be thus at a greater Advantage by puttiag 

* off the Duty, till they have fome inward Motion 
1,1 and Impulfe thereunto, than by waiting on the or- 
j t: dinary Call of the Word or of Providence? 

Queft. V. " Are they who in their Obedience, 
" attain to the greateft Height, which is poffible 
-" in this Life, fofar from being able to fuperero- 
3: " g ate > a °d to do more than God requires, that 
Hm they fall (hort of much, which in Duty they arc 
M« bound to do?" 
H~ Yes; Lukely. 10. Neh. 13. 22. Gal. 1 5. 17, 

Job 9. 2, 3. 
*Ci Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That a Man Regenerated cannot only ful- 
fil the Law of God perfectly, but may do alio 
r e good than the Law of God requires of him ? 
This is their mad Fancy of the Works of Supere- 
! ; rogation. 
! Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe do Man living is able to fulfil 


lao Of Good Works. Chap. XVI. 

the Law of God, Pfalm 143. 2. Ifa. 64. 6. 
ljohn 1.8. Far lefs is any Man able to do more 
than the Law require*. 2d, Becaufe we are 
obliged to feek Remiffien of Sins every Day; 
Matth, 6. 12. But to feek Pardon for Sin every 
Day, and to perform Works of Supererogation, are 
inconfiftent together. 3d, Becaufe Chrift lays, 
"When you (hall have done all Things which are 
commanded you, fay, we are unprofitable Ser- 
vants, we have done that which was our Duty to 
do; Luke 17. 10. 4th, Becaufe, according to 
this Do&rine of Works of Supererogation, wemuft 
accufe the Scripture, and Law of God, of Imper- 
fection, as if they were not a perfect Rule of Life 
and Manners, which is contrary to the Pfalmift, \ 
Pfalm. 19. 8. And contrary to 2 Tim. 3. 15, 17. | 
Deut. 4. 2. 5th, Becaufe whatfoever Things 
are true, honeft, juft, pure, lovely, of good Re- 
port, thefe are commanded, as Things neceflary 
to all Men : Therefore, either the Works, which 
the Papifts call Works of Supererogation, are true, 
honeft, juft and pure ; and if they be ftich, they 
are commanded by God in Scripture, and not 
Works of Supererogation: Or they are unhoneft, 
impure, unjuft; and iffuch, then no Man is fo 
mad as to call them good Works, much lefs 
Works of Supererogation, Phil. 4. 8. 

Queft. VI. " Can our beft Works merit Pardon 
<c of Sin, or eternal Life at the Hands of God ?" 

No ; Rom. 3. 20. Rom. 4. 2, 4, 6. Eph. 2. 8, 
9. Tit. 3. 5, 6, 7. Rom. 8. 18. Pfalm 16. 2. Job; 

Well then, do not the Papifts, and fomeof the 
Quakers err, who maintain, That the good Works 
of regenerate Men, do truly and properly merit, 
and deferve eternal Life I 


;, Chap. XVL Of Good Works. 1 2 1 

> Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 1 ft, Becaufe there is no Proportion between 
u cur imperfect Work and Life eternal ; between 
7 the Work and the Reward, 2 Cor. 4. 17. For 
e our light Affliction worketh for us, that is, brings 

2 forth, not of any iMerit, but of mere Grace, for 
r ! Chi ill's lake, fee Rom. 2. 18. and 3. 28. 2d, 
r . If by our good Works, we deferved the Pardon of 
[0 Sin, we might have whereof to boaft, for if Abra- 
t0 ham were juftified by Works, he hath whereof to 
H jglory, but not before God, Rom. 4. 2. But the 
r . Scripture faith, he that glorieth, let him glory 
.in the Lord, 1 Cor. 1. 31. 3d, Becaufe no 
I Creature, performing the moft excellent Works, 
! can deferve any Favour from God, or oblige him 
}$ 3 to give any Thing as due. And according to the 
1. Order of God's Juftice. he can receive no Favour 
, from us, nor any Creature confer any Benefit on 
bjjiim, rtalm 16. 2. Job 22, 2, 3. Truly, where 
" there is no Favour done, there can be no Merit : 

' For Merit prefuppofeth a Benefit accepted. 4th, 
.Becaufe our Works are imperfect, as well as to 
j Parts, as to Degrees, Gal. 5. 17. Ifa. 64. 7. 
r'jDeut. 27. 26. A Perfection of Parts is, when 
• we have a Part of every Grace, and are renewed 
" in fome Meafure in every Power and Faculty of 
the whole Man, though we be not come to the 
"* juft and due Meafure in any of them. A Perfec- 
j lion of Degrees, confifts in the complete Meafure 
uof our Conformity, and our exacT: Con efponden e 
to the Law of God, in refpect of all whatfoever 
. it requires. 5th, Becaufe Chrift fays, fo like- 
".wife ye, when ye (hall have done all thofe Things 
] which are commanded you, fay. We are unprofit- 
1 able Servants, we have done that which was our 
L Duty 

122 Of Good Works. Chap. XVI. 

Duty to do, Luke 17. 10. 6th, Becaufe the 
good Works which we do are npt ours, but it is 
God that worketh in us, both to will and to do, 
1 Cor. 5. 6. Gal. 5. 22. Phil. 2. 1 3. 7th, Becaufe 
that heavenly BlefTednefs which is to be given to 
the Saints, is exprefly attributed to the Mercy and 
Pity of God, Pfalm 103.4. Matth. 5. 7. Titus 
3. 5. Eph. 4. 6, 7, 8. 8th, Becaufe when the 
.Apoftle proclaims Death to be the Wages of Sin, 
he doth not affirm Life eternal to be the Reward 
of good Works but the free and gracious Gift 
of God, which we obtain by Chrift, even in oup 
Sanftification, whereof the Apoftle here, Rom. 
6. 23. Which free Gift hath, fcr its End, eternal 
Life, not that it merits this (for then it (hould 
not be a gracious Gift) but becaufe Chrift hath 
merited this for us, and {hall of free Grace give 
it to us, as the following Words, through Jefus 
Chrift our Lord, fhew. 9th, Becaufe God will 
have us to buy without Money or Price, Wme, 
Milk, Honey: That is, to receive all Things re- 
qoiifite and necefTary for our fpiritual Life, for 
nothing; and eternal Life itfelf, Ifa. 55.1,2, 
3 10th, Becaufe Chrift fhould not be a perfect 
Saviour, if any Thing from us were to be ad- 
ded to the Righteoufnefs of his Merit, but Chrift 
is a perfeft Saviour, Eph. 1. 7. and 2. 7, 
8, 9. 1 Jonn 1. 7. Afts 4. 12. nth, Becauie 
our beft Works have fuch a Mixture of Corrup- 
tion, and Sin, in them, that they deferve his Curfe 
and Wrath ; fo far are they from meriting, Ifa, 
6d. 6 But we are ail, faith the Prophet, as an 
nnckrm Thing, and all our Right eoufnefTes are 
like filth*' Rags. 12th, If the Works of Rege- 
nerated Men did deferve eternal Life, then ftiould 
the whole Contrivance of the Gofpel be fubvert- 


Chap. XVI. Of Good Works. 123 

cd, and the fame very Way of Life laid down 
which was in the Covenant of Works, as is clear 
from 2 Cor. 5. 21. The Gofpel is fo' contrived 
by the infinite Wifdom and Goodnefs of God, 
that there is a judicial transferring of our Sins, 'as 
a Debt on Chift the Cautioner, and a Tranflation 
of his Righteoufnefs and Merit to be imputed to 
us, for our J unification, without the leaft Refpeft 
to our Works. 

Qjjeft. VII. " Are Works done by the unrege- 
u nerateMen, altho' for the Matter of them they 
" may be Things which God commands, and of 
" good .Ufe, both to ihemfelves ar>d others, are 
" they (I fay) finful, and cannot pleafe God ?" 

Yes; Hag. 2. 14. Tit. 1. 15. Amos 5.21, 22. 
Hof. 1.4. Rom. 9. 16. Tit. 3. 5. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That not only all the Works of unregene- 
rate Men are not finful, but alio that fome. of 
their Works do indeed merit and defer ve fome- 
what from God, namely (as they fpeak) by Merit 
ofCongruity, that is, as they are agreeable to the 
Law of God ? 


There is alfo (as they fay) A Merit dt Con- 
dignity, by which the Works of the Regenerate, 
which follow Juftification, deferve eternal Life, 
not from the Imputation of Chrift's Righteoufnefs, 
but from their own intrinfic Worth, and Propor- 
tionablenels to the Reward ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe as a good Tree cannot bring forth 

evil Fruit, neither can a corrupt, rotten Tree bring 

forth good Fruit, Matth. 7. 18. 2d, Becaufe 

all unrcgenerate Men are dead in TrefpafTes and 

* L 2 Sin, 

124 Of the Perseverance Chap. XVII. 

Sin, Eph. 2.1. 3d, Becaufe all the Works of 
tin regenerate Men are done without Faith, and fo 
cannot pleafe Cod, Heb. 11. 6, Rom. 14. 23. 
4th, Becaufe if unregenerate Men were able to 
do good Works, or perform any Duty which de« 
ferved fomewhat from God, then would it follow, 
that a Man were able to do fome good of himfelf, 
which is contrary to John 15. 5. Phil. 1.13. 5th, 
Becaufe it is clear from Scripture, that before re- 
newing Grace, all are the Children of Wrath ; 
who of themfelves cannot have a good Thought, 
nor any affive Concurrence, or putting themfelves 
forth to the utmoft, for their own Gonverfion, 
a Cor. 3. 5. Therefore no Piea for Merit, by any 
Improvement of Mens natural Abilities ; fee Rom. 
9 . 15. 


Of the P erf ever ance of the Saints. 

Question !. 

«' /^AN they w T hom God hath accepted in his 
" \~J beloved, effe&ually called, and fanftified 
'* by his Spirit, either totally or finally fall away 
•? from the State of Grace ? " 
' No. 

" Shall they certainly perfevere therein to the 
" End, and be eternally faved ?" 

Yes; Phil. 1.6. 2 Pet. 1. 10. John 10. 28, 29. 
1 John 3. 9. 1 Pet. 1. 5, 9. 

Well then, do not the Papifts, Socinians, Ar- 
minians, and fome Ring-leaders among the Qua- 


Chap. XVIL of the Saints. 125 

kers err, who maintain, That the Saints may 
totally and finally fall away ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Became the Saints are built upon the 
Rock, and not upon the Sand : Therefore when 
Temptations of any Kind afTault, they can never 
fall, nor can the Gates of Hell prevail againft 
them, Matth. 7. 24. and 16. 16, 18. 2d, Be- 
caufe he that hath begun a good Work in the 
Saints, will finifh it, until the Day of Jefus Chrift, 
Phil. 1. 6. 3d, Becaufe Paul fays, ■ Nothing caa 
feparate us from the Love of God, Rom. 8.35, 
38, 39. 4th, Becaufe they that fall away, have 
never had true juftifying Faith, Luke 8. 13, i&. 
1 John 2. 19. 5th, Becaufe it is impoflible for 
the Elett to be feduced, Matth. 24. 24. I fay 
impoflible, not in refpedt of the Wiil,"and Power 
of the Eleft themfelves, but in refpeft of the Im- 
mutability of God's Decree concerning them, and 
of his Purpofe of keeping them powerfully againft 
Sedudtion, according to his Promifes, of which he 
1 cannot repent ; fee John 10.28. Rom. 8. 38, 39. 
1 1 Pet. 1. 5. 6th, Becaufe they that believe in 
I the Son of God have Life eternal, 1 John 5. 13. 
I John 6. 47, 54, 58. And they have paffed from 
' Death unto Life, and fhall never thirft, nor hun- 
I ger any more, John 6. 35. 7th, Becaufe God 
hath promifed in his Covenant, that though he 
I chaftife his own Children for their Faults, yet he 
^ will never take away his Mercy, and Loving-kind- 
nefs from them, Pfalm 89. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34. 
Jer. 32. 38, 39, 40. 8th, Becaufe that golden 
Chain, that Paul fpeaks of, cannot be broken ; 
Rom. 8, 30. * Whom he did predeftinate, them he 
; alfo galled/ &c. pth, Becaufe Chrift lays, This 
I- 3 is 

n6 Of the Perfeverance, wc* Chap. XVll. 

as the Father's Will, which hath fent me, that of 
all which he hath given me, I (hall lofe nothing, 
John 6. 49. 10th, Becaule we are kept by the 
Power of God through Faith unto Salvation, rea- 
dy to be revealed in the laft Time, 1 Pet. 1. 5. 
nth, Becaufe he hath prayed for us, that our 
Faith fail not, Luke 22. 32. John 17. 20. 

QueA. II. " Can Believers by Reafon of their 
" Sins and Failings, incur God's Difpleafure, and 
" grieve his holy Spirit; come to be deprived of 
*' fome Meafure of their Graces and Comforts ; 
i6 have their Hearts hardned, and their Confcien- 
" ces wounded ; hurt, and fcandalize others ; and 
f* bring temporal Judgments upon themfelves ? " 
Yes ; Ha. 64. 5, 7, 9. Eph. 4. 30. Pfalm 51. 
8, io, x2. Rev. 2.4. Cant. 5. 2, 3, 4, 6. Ifa. 63. 
17. Pfalm 37. 3, 4. 2 Sam. 12. 14. Pfalm 89. 
31, 32. Mark 16. 14. 1 Cor. 11.32. 

Weil then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That the Sins of the Regenerate, do 
not dilpleafe God, and cannot grieve his holy 
Spirit : And that Believers are not chaAifed in any- 
wifefor their Sins ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1A, Becaufe the Prophet fays, Thou art wroth, 
for we have finned, Ifa. 64. 5. 2d, Becaufe it 
is (aid, that the Thing which David had done 
(namely his Murder and his Adultery) difpleafed 
the Lord, 2 Sam. 11. 27. 3d, Becaufe the 
Sciiptures teftifies, that the Sins of Believers grieve 
his holy Spirit, Eph. 4. 30. 4th, Becaufe the 
Saiats, by Reafon of their Sins, are deprived of 
fome Mealure of Grace and Conlolations, Pfalm 
8. 9. Rev. 2. 4, 1. 5th, Becaufe the Lord hath 


Chap. XVIlI. Of Afurance of Grace, \ i 7 

inflicted temporal Punishments upon Believers for 
their Faults, Pfalm 89. 31, 32, 2 Sam. 12. 11. 
and 24 15. 1 Cor. 11, 30. 



Of Affurance of Grace, and Salvation. 

Question I. 

u "\/TAY they who truly believe in the Lord 
" x VJL Jefus, and Love him in Sincerity, and en- 
" deavour to walk in all good Confcience before 
* him; May they, I fay, be certainly aflttred in this 
" Life, that they are in^lfta^Tjf^Tace^ and 
4< being enabled by the Spirit te know the Things 
" which are freely given them of God, may they 
94 without extraordinary Revelation attain there* 
" unto?" 
J Yes; 1 John 2. 3. 1 John 3. 14, 18, 19, 21, 
24. I John 5. 13. Cor. 2, 12. Heb* 6. 11, 12. 
Eph. 3. 17, 18. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That no Man can be fure (namely, fare 
by divine Faith) of God's peculiar Favour to- 
wards himfelf, without extraordinary Revelati* 



By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becauie the Apoftle commands us, fay- 
ing, Brethren, give all Diligence to make your 
Calling and Election fure, for if you do thefe 
Things, ye (hall never fall ; for fo an Entrance 
fhall be miniftred unto you abundantly, into the 
everlafling Kingdom of our Lord and Saviour 
Jefus Chrift, 2 Pet. x, 10, 11. Ikb. 6. 11. 2d, 


U8 Of Ajjurance of Grace Chap. XVIlf. 

Becaufe the Apoftle commands the Corinthians 
to examine themfelves, whether they be in the 
Faith, 2 Cor. 13.5. 3d, Becaufe the Scriptures 
propofesand fetteth forth fure Marks and Tokens, 
by which a Believer may be infallibly allured 
that he is one of the Number of Chrift's Sheep; 
John 10. 4, 5, 27, 28. And that he is one of 
Chrift's Difciples; John 13. 3, 5, Nay, it is the 
Scope of the whole firft Epiftle of John topropofe 
fuch fure Marks to Believers, whereby they may 
know that they have Life eternal, 1 John 5. 1 3. 
4th, Becaufe the true Believer may be perfuaded 
that neither Death nor Life, nor any other Thing, 
can feparate him from the Love of Ch rift, Rom. 
*• 38, 39. Where the Apoftle not only fpeaketh 
of himfeif, but of them to whom he writes. 5th, 
Becaufe Believers have received the Spirit of Adop- 
tion, whereby they cry Abba, Father, and he 
himfeif witnefleth with their Spirit, that they are 
the Children of God, Rom. 3. 15, 16. 6th, Be- 
caufe Believers have received not the Spirit, of the 
World, but the Spirit which is of God, that they 
might know the Things that are freely given to 
them of God, 1 Cor. 2. 12. 

Queft. II. " Is this Certainty, aba?e conjeclu- 
" ral, and probable Perfuafion, grounded upon a 
" fallible Hope ?" 

No. , 

But is it an infallible AfTurance of Faith ? 

Yes; Heb. 6. 11, 19. Heb. 6. 17, 18. 

Well then, do not the Papifts and Arminians 
err, who maintain, That the AfTurance of Sal- 
vation, is only conjectural, or at the moft, only 
probable, which haih for its Foundatioo, a failing, 
and fading Faith ? 



Chap. XVIII. *nd Salvation. 129 

By what Reafons are they confute4 ? 

lit, Becaufe AfTurance is from the Tedimony 
of the holy Spirit, witnelTing with our Spirits, 
that we are the Children o£ God ; Rom. 8. 1 $♦ 
ad, Becaufe this AfTurance is founded upon the 
PrQmifes of God, who cannot lie ; Ifa. 45. 10. 
John 3. 36. 3d, Becaufe Believers are fealed 
with the holy Spirit of Promife, which is the 
Earned of their Inheritance ; but he that receiv- 
eth the Earned not only hath Right to the Pof- 
feffion, but knows afTuredly, that he hath that 
Right, and fhall be put in the aftual PofleiTion 
thereof; Eph. I. 13, 14. 4th, Becaufe God 
willing more abundantly, to (hew unto the Heirs 
of Promife, the Immutability of his Council, con- 
firmed it by an Oath, that by two immutable 
Things, in which it was impoffible to God to lie, 
we might have a drong Confolation, Heb. 6. 17, 

Queft. III. " Is the infallible AfTurance of 
11 Faith, founded upon the divine Truth of the 
" Promifes of Salvation, and upon the inward 
u Evidence of thofe Graces unto which thefe Pro- 
14 mifes are made ? ; * 

Yes; Heb. 6. 17, 18. 2 Pet. 1. 4, 5. 1 John 2. 
3. and 1 John 3. 14. 2 Cor. 1. 12. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That none ought, or can gather any 
Comfort or AfTurance of Salvation from his own 
Works of Holinefs; but that a Believer ought 
to lean and red upon the alone Tedimony of the 
Spirit, without any Marks or Signs ; from which 
Tedimony he may, fay they, be fully aflured 
of the Remiffion of his Sins, and of his own Sal- 
vation ? 




1 30 Of Affurance of Grace Chap. XVIII. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

iff, From the Example of the Saints, who ga- 
thered their Comforts from the Fruits of Faith, 
and Works of Holinefs, as David did, Pfalm. 119, 
6. And as Paul did; 2 Cor. 1. 12. 2d, From 
the reckoning up of Marks, which are held out 
in Scripture, by which Believers may be known 
from Unbelieveis, as mutal Love, John 13. 35. 
Obferving and keeping his Commandments, 
1 John. 2. 3. Doing of Righteoufnefs, 1J0IH13.14. 
And loving the Brethern. 3d, Becaufe unlefs 
Faith be proven by Marks, true Faith cannot be 
difcerned from Preemption, neither can Aflurance, 
rightly founded, be difcerned from a Delufion of 
Satan, ijohn 4. 2. 4th, Becaufe Reafon re- 
quires, that from the Knowledge of the Effedt, 
we fhould come to the Knowledge of the Caufe, 
according to that of Matih. 7. 16. 5th, Becaufe 
Marks of Grace have fo much Clearnefs in them- 
felves, that they will even beget in others a Judg- 
ment according toCharity,concerning the Election 
©f others, therefore much more in thefe fame very 
Perfons, who are able to difcern, and know better 
their own Hearts, 1 Thef. 1.3,4- 

Queft. IV. " Doth this infallible Aflurance be- 
u long to the Eflence of Faith i" 


* May a true Believer wait long, and conflict 
" with many Difficulties, before he be Partaker £>f 

Yes; 1 John 5. 13. Ifa. 50. 10. Mark 9, 24. 
Pfalm 88. throughout. Pfalm 77. to the 1 2. Vcr. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That the Aflurance of SaMtion is 
Faith itfelf ? And that Faith is nothing eMe but 
the Echo of the Soul, anfwering the Spirit, my 
Sins are forgiven me? 

A ap. XVIII. *nd Sdlvation. 1 3 1 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the fealing of the holy Spirit, 

which is the Earned, of our Inheritance, is givea 

to Believers after they have believed ; Eph. 1.13, 

14. 2d, Becaufe Believers may fometimes not 

know that they have eternal Life, 1 John 5. 13, 

3 'And he that fearcth the Lord, obeying the Voice 

• of his Servant, may walk in Darknefs, Ifa. 50. 10. 

' 3d, Becaufe if this AfTurance which takes away 

■ all doubting, (as the Antinomians affirm) were of 

1 the EfTence of Faith; there fhould not be any 

'Degrees of Faith, which is contrary to Mark 9. 

J24. Matth. 8. 10. Matth. 15. 28. 4th, Becaufe 

there are evident Examples in Scripture from 

the Experience of the Saints, as that of faithful 

i Heman, who thus complained: Pfalm 88. Why 

cafteft thou off my Soul ? Why hideft thou thy 

Face from me ? And of faithful Afaph, under very 

fadExercife, Pfalm 77. to the 10. Verfe. 

Queft. V. " Doth this AfTurance of Salvation, 
<c incline Men to Loofenefs V $ 

No. 1 John 2. 1, 2. Rom. 8. 1, 12. 1 John 3. 2/ 
3. 1 John 1. 6, 7. Rom. 6. 1, 2. Titus 2. 11, 12, 
14. 2 Cor. 7. 1. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who raain*J 
tain, That the Doftrine of AfTurance of Salvati- 
on, is of its own Nature hurtful to true Piety, 
and inclines Men to Sin and Wickednefs 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe the Apoftle Peter argues the con- 
trary Way, and infers a far other Conclufion; 
namely, Becaufe Believers know, they are redeem- 
ed by the precious Blood of Chrift, they ought to 
pafs the Time of their fojourning here in Fear ; 

I Pet, 

*3 a Of dffurance of Grace Chap. XVIII. 

i Pet. i. 17, 18, 19. 2d, Becaufe the Apoftle 
Paul who was certainly perfnaded of his Intereft 
in Chrift, rejects, and Abominates that Conclufion 
with Indignation and Wrath, Rom. 6. 1,2. 3d, 
Becaufe from the Prornife (hat God is the Father 
of Believers, the Apoftle exhorts the Corinthians 
by Confequence, to cleanfe themfelves from all 
filthinefs of the Flefh and Spirit, and to perfect 
Holinefs in the Fear of God, 1 Cor. 7. 1. 4th, 
Becaufe they who are in Chrift, (to whom there 
is no Condemnation) and are afTured of it, walk 
not after the Flefh, but after the Spirit, Rom. 8. 
1, 12, 38, 39. 5th, Becaufe a Believer knowing 
God to be merciful, concludes that God ought to 
be feared, Pialm 130.4. 6th, Becaufe whofo- 
ever hath that Hope, (namely, that he ftiall fee 
Chrift, and be made like unto him) he purifies 
himfelf, as he is pure, 1 John 3. 3. 7th, Be- 
caufe it is evident from the Example of thofe who 
were perfuaded of their Salvation, who yet lived 
pioufly and holily, as Paul, Rom. 8. 38, 39. 
compared with 2 Cor. it. 2. Atts 25. 26. Nex*» 
we have the Example of Abraham, Gen. 17. u 
compared with Rom. 4. 18, 19, 20. 

Queft. VI. " Are true Believers, when they fall 
il into fome fpecial Sin which woundeth the Con- 
" fcience, and grieveth the Spirit deftitute of the 
4i Seed of God, and Life of Faith ? 

No, 1 John 3. 9. Luke 22. 32. 

Well then, do not the Quakers and others err, 
who maintain, that true Believers falling into fome 
fpecial Sin,xan have nothing of the Life of Faith, 
and Seed of God in them ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted? 

ift, Becaufe whofoever is born of God doth 
tiot commit Sin, for his Seed remaiacth in him, 


Chap. XIX. Of the Law of Cod. 133 

and he cannot fin, becaufe he is born of God, 
1 John 3. 9. i For his Seed rcmaineth in him ;' 
that is, doth not totally perifh, but abidcth thence- 
forward, working the Fruits of Regeneration once 
begun in them, Phil. 1. 6. 2d, Becaufe although 
Peter fell into that grievous Sin ot denying his Maf- 
ter thrice, yet he itill retained that. Seed of God, 
and Life of Faith, and Love to Chrift ; becaufe 
Chrift had faid to him, ■ I have prayed for thee 
that thy Faith fail not,' Luke 22. 32. The like 
may be faid of David, and others of the Saints of 
God, who by falling into fome fpecial Sins, have 
pounded the Conscience, and grieved the Holy 
Spirit. * 


Of the Law of GOT>. 

Question. L 

u PV^ God give to Adam a Law as a Core- 
1 u l^J nant of Works, by which he bound him, 
j " and all his Pofterity, to perfonal, entire, exaft 
I u and perpetual Obedience ? " 

lt Did he promife Life upon the fulfilling ; and 
" did he threaten Death upon the Breach of it ? " 

" Was Adam endued with Power and Ability to 
" keep it?" 

Yes; Gen. 1. 26, 27. Gen. 2. 17. Rom. 2. 14, 
15. Rom. 5, 12, 19. Gai. 3. 10, 12. Ecclef. 7.29. 
Job 28. 28. 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, That God made no Covenant with Adam 
M in 

* 34 Of the Law of God. 

in his Integrity, in which he promifed to him 
and his Poiterity Life Eternal ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft-, From thofe Places of Scripture, where the 
Righteoufnefs of the Law is defcribed, Lev. 18. 
5. Rom. 10. 5. Gal. 3. 12. Ezek, 20. 11. 13. 
Whofoever therefore keepeth my Statutes and 
Judgments, faith the Lord, (hall live in them. 
And to whom Life is promifed for ever, upon 
their perfect Obedience, and Continuance in all 
Things written in the Book of the Law. And 
from thofe Places, in which Death is threatened to 
them, that in theleaft tranfgrefs the Law of God, 
Deut. 27.26. Gal. 3. 10. Eztk. 28. 4. 2d, From 
the Words of our Saviour, who fpoke to the 
young Man, according to the Covenant of Works, 
in which the Lord promifeth Life eternal, to fuch 
as (hall fulfil the Law, Matth. 19. 17. Luke 10. 
28. Obferve, that Chrift anfwereth here, accord- 
ing to the Queftion and Opinion of this young 
Man, who thought he was able to obtain Salva- 
tion, by his own good Works; and therefore 
Chrift diredls him to the Law, thereby to bring 
him to the Acknowledgment of his own Imper- 
fection, and afterwards to Faith in himfelf. 3d, 
Becaufe Man was created by God, in Righteouf- 
nefs, Holinefs and Immortality, according to the 
Similitude and Image of God, Gen. 1. 26. Gen. 
9. 6. Ecclef. 7. 29. Eph. 4. 24. Col. 3. 9, 10. 
And received from him the Law of Nature, natu- 
rally ingraven upon his Heart, Rom. 2. 14, 15. And 
befides this Law, a pofitive Law was fuperadded 
to it, that Adam (hould not eat of the Tree of 
Knowledge of Good and Evil : That by obeying 
the lame, he might give a Specimen, or Proof; of 


Chap. XIX, Of the Law of God. 13^ 

his Obedience to the Law of Nature, in the per- 
fect Obedience whereof, fo long as he fhould 
continue, he fhould live for ever. For the Lord 
threatened Death to him only, if he fhould fin : 
And Death is the Wages of Sin, which by Sin en- 
tered into the World, Gen. 2. 17. Rom. 6. 23. 
Rom. 5. 12, 13. 4th, From thofe Places of Scrip- 
ture, in which it is denied that Believers, under 
the Covenant of Grace, are juftified by the Law, 
ibut by Faith, and the Righteoufnefs of Chrift, 
jmanifefted in the Gofpel. For that the Law is 
(Weak, powerlefs, or impotent, through the Cor- 
ruption of our Nature, to juftify us, and give us 
rLife, Rom. 3. 20, 21, 28. Gal. 2. 16. Gal. 3. 
10, 11, 12, 13. Phil, 3. 9. Rom. 8. 2, 3. 

Queft. II. " Do the firft four Commandments 
" contain our Duty to God, and the other fix, 
j H our Duty towards Man ? " 

Yes; M-Uth. 22. 37, 38, 39, 40 
Well then, do not the Papifts and Lutherans 
J err, who maintain, That three only belong to 
; the Firft Table, and (even to the fecond: And 
• that, * Thou (halt not make unto thee arsv 
, graven Image, 5 with the foregoing, ' Thou (halt 
not have any other Gods be'ore me,' are bur one 
Command. And that, ' Thou ihalt not covet thy 
i Neighbour's Houfe; Thou (halt not covet thy 
Neighbour's Wife, nor his Man-fervant,' &c. 
are two diftinct Commands ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the two firft Precepts command 

- divers Things, the one teacheth us, Who is to 

be worshipped, viz. the true and living God, 

and no other. The fecond inftru&s us, How he 

is to be worfhipped, namely, according to his 

M 2 own 

136 Of the Law of God. Chap. XIX, 

own Appointment,, and not according to the Ap~ 
pointment and Pleafure of Men, as by Images? 
and fuch like. 2d, Becaufe it is one and the fame 
Concupifcence, which is forbidden in the tenth 
Command, the Sum whereof, Thou fhalt not 
covet, is cited by the Apoftle Paul, Rom. 7. 7. 
and which is fummarily expreft in the clofe of the 
tenth Command, * Nor any Thing which is thy 
Neighbour's.' 3d, If the tenth Command ought 
to be two, becaufe thefe Words, * Thou (halt not 
covet/ are twice repeated, then would it follow, 
there fhould be as many Commands, as there arc 
Things defired forbidden : Becaufe it is evident, 
that thefe Words, ' Thou (halt not covet/ are to 
be repeated with every Part. 
. Queft. in. « Are all the Ceremonial Laws 
u abrogated under the New Teftament ? " 

Yes; Col. 2. 14, i<>. Dan. 9. 27. Eph. 2. i£. 

- We'll then, do not the Judaifers err, who main- 
tain, That all the Ceremonial Laws remain in their 
former Strength and Vigour, and are obliging to 
Believers under the Gofpel, and not abrogated or 
difan nulled by thrift ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lft, Becaufe Chrift hath abolifbed the Law 
of Commandments, contained in Ordinances, that 
he might gather together both Jews and Gentiles, 
into one new Man, Eph. 2. 14, 15. Col. 2. 14. 
Note, that the Apoftle here fpeaks of all Belie- 
vers, both of Jews and Gentiles, as of one Man : 
Becaufe they being all under Chrift ihe Head, 
as Members of one fpiritual Body, are made up 
as one renewed Man. 2d, Becaufe the Apoftie 
fays, Let no Man judge you in Meat, or in Drink, 


;. Chap. XIX. Of the Law of God. 137 

r or in Refpeft of an Holy Day, or of the new Moon, 
s, or of the Sabbath Days: All which are Shadows 
\ of Things to come, but the Body is of Chrift, 
\ Col. 2. 1 6, 17. This Verfe is a Conclufion of the 
, t Apoftle's foregoing Difcourfe againft Ceremonies, 
: and Things commanded by the Ceremonial Law, 
c which by the coming of Chrift are aboliflied. He 
,. calls them in the 17 ver. a Shadow of Things to 
I come, but the Body, fays he, is of Chrift; that 
I is, the Thing fignificd, is of Chrift : For all the 
Shadows of the Old Teftament had refpeft to 
\ iChrift, and his Benefits, by whole coming they 
. alfo have had an End, John 1. 17. Gal. 3. 4, 5. 
] 3d, Becanfe the Apoftle fays, Believers are dead 
with Chrift, from the Rudiments of the World: 
, that is, from the Ceremonial Commands ; as is evi- 
dent from the Context. Why, fays he, as tho* liv- 
ing in the World, are ye fubjedr. to Ordinances ? 
That is, as if your Life, and Happincfs, confifted 
in thefe outward worldly Principles, but fufFer 
yourfelves to be burdened by fuch Teachers, with 
human Inftitutions and Ordinances. The Apoftle 
mdeed, in thefe laft Words, is reafoning againft 
the Inftitutions and Ordinances of Men ; from 
this Medium, which is an Argument from the 
greater to the lelTer ; If ye be dead with Chrift 
from the Ceremonies of the Law^ inftijtuted in the 
Old Teftament, by God himfelf, much more are 
ye free from the Inftitutions and Ordinances of 
IRcn, which are only grounded upon their own 
igood Pleafure, Col. 2. 20, 21. Gal. 4. 10, 11. 
4th, Becaufe the Apoftle affirms, that the Ob- 
servation, and ufjng of Circumcifion, cannot con- 
fift with true Faith in Chrift, now after the Gof- 
pel is fully publifhcd. And he exhorts the Cala- 
tiaas to abide in their Liberty purchafid by 
H 3 Chrift, 

138 Of the Law of Cod. Chap. XIX. 

Chrift, and not to fubmit themfelves to the Yoke 
of Mofaical Ceremonies, Gal. 5. 1, 2. 5th, Be- 
caufe thofe Teachers, who preffed the believing 
Gentiles, to be circumcifed and to obferve the Law 
of Mofes, (I mean the Ceremonial Law,) were 
condemned by the Council of Apoftles, A&s 15. 
34. 6ih, Becaufe Ceremonial Commands are nei- 
ther of the Law of Nature, nor are they injoined 
to Believers under the Gofpel, as things Moral. 
7th, Becaufe thefe appointed Ceremonies, were 
Figures only of Things to come, impofed upon 
the Jews until the Time of Reformation ; but 
taken away by Chrift, Heb. 9. 9, 10, 1 1, 12. and 
10. p. Wherein it is faid, He taketh away the 
firlr, namely, all Sorts of propitiatory Offerings 
which were ufcd in the Old Teftament, to fettle 
the fecond, namely, his Obedience to the Will 
of the Father. 8th, Becaufe they were given to 
the Ifraeiites to fore-fignify, and reprefent Chrifr, 
and his Death, and to be Marks of Difference 
between them, and the unbelieving Nations, 
Col. 2. 17. Eph. 2.14. Where it is faid, who 
hath made both thefe, namely, Jews and Gentiles, 
one; and hath broken down the middle Wall 
of Partition, whereby the Ceremonial Law is 
underilood, which* made a Difference between 
the Jews and the Gentiles. Now, fince Chrift 
hath fufferfcd Death, and the Gentiles are call- 
ed, all thefe Ceremonies which did fore-fignify 
\ is Death; and made that Difference, mull of 
Neceffity ceafe. 9th, Becaufe the Temple of 
juufalom, to which the Ceremonies were reflric- 
nd, is deiiroyed, and could never fince be re- 
build d. 
'Queft. IV. " Did the Lord by Mofes give to 
"~ .the 

B, :hap. XIX. Of the Law of God. 139 

< the Jews, as a Body Politic, fundry Judical 
. : ' Laws, which expired together with their State I" 

" Do they oblige any other now, further than 
c u the general Equity thereof may require ? " 

No ; Exod. 2 1 . from the firfl to the laft Verfe. 
i Exod. 22. 1. to Verfe 29. Gen. 49. 10. 1 Cor. 9. 
■A 8, 9, 10. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14- Matth. 5. 17, 38, 39. 
', Well then, do not forae err, though otherwife 
i Othodox, who maintain, That the whole Judicial 
a Law of the Jews, is yet alive, and binding all of 
t us, who are Ghriftian Gentiles ?" 
I Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe the Judicial Law was delivered 
: by Mofes to the Ifraelites to be obferved, as to a 
I Body Politic, Exod. Chap. 21. 2d, Becaufe 
this Law, in many Things which are of particu- 
lar Right, was accommodated to the Comrnon- 
wealth of the Jews, and not to other Nations 
j alfo, Exod. 22. 3. Exod. 21. 2. Lev. 25. 2, 3. 
Deut. 24. 1, 2, 3. Deut. 25. 5, 6, 7. 3d, Becaufe 
in other Things, which are not of particular Right, 
it is neither from the Law of Nature obliging by 
Reafon ; neither is it preiTed upon Believers un- 
der the Gofpel, to be obferved. 4th, Becaufe 
Believers are appointed under the Gofpel to obey 
the Civil Law, and Commands of thofe under 
whofe Government they live, providing they be 
juft, and that for Conscience Sake, Rom. 13. 1. 
1 Pet. 2. 13, 14. Tir. 3. 1. 

(Vieft. V. " Doth the Moral Lawfor ever bind, 
V as well juftified Perfons as others, to the Obe- 
" dience thereof,and that not only in Regard of the 
9 Matter contained in it, but alfo in Reipcft of the 
" Authority of God who gave it i n 


M° Of the Law of God. Chap. XIXc 

Yes ; Rom. 1 3. 8, 9, 10. Eph. 6. 2. 1 John 2. 
3,4,7,8. James 2. 10, 11. 

Well then, do not the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, That Believers, under the Gofpel, are 
not obliged to the Obedience of the Moral 
Law ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Chrift fays, He came not to de- 
ftroy the Law, and the Prophets; that is, to alter 
or difannul the Doctrine of the Law, or of the 
Prophets, Matth. 5. 17/ 2d, Becaufe he fays in 
the following Verfe, I fay unto you, till Heaven 
and Earth pafs, one Jot or one Tittle fhall in no 
wife pafs from the Law till all be fulfilled, 
Matth. 5. 18. 3d, Becaufe whofoever fhall break 
one of thefeleaft Commandments, and fhall teach 
Men fo, he fhall be called leaft in the Kingdom 
of Heaven : That is, fhall not acall be efteemed 
there, or fhall not enter thereunto, Verfe 1 9. 4th, 
Becaufe that after the Apoflie Paul hath con- 
cluded the Juftification of Believers to be of free 
Grace, he fubjoins, Do we then make void the 
Law through Faith, God forbid ! yea, we efta- 
b!i(h the Law, Rom. 3. 31. 5th, Becaufe all 
the Precepts of the Moral Law belong to the Law 
of Nature, naturally engraven upon the Hearts of 
Men, which cannot be abrogated, but oblige all 
Men perpetually, and necefTarily, from Natural 
Reafon itfelf, Rom. 2. t$. 6th, Becaufe all 
the Precepts of the Moral Law are repeated in 
the Gofpel, and enjoined to all Believers by 
Chrift, Matth. 19. 17, 18, 19, 20. Rom. 2. 13. 
7th, Becaufe Paul adjoineth and propofeth to 
Believers under the NewTeftomeut, both a Com- 
mand, and a Prcmife of the Decalogue, as pro- 

' s Zhap. X4X. if the Law of God. 1 4 1 

:: perly belonging to them; Eph. 6, 2, 3. 8th, 

Becaufe the Apoftle James fetteth forth to Belie- 

:c vers the Moral Law as the Rule of Life, which 

J ; they are obliged to obferve, and by breaking of 

-which they are convinced of Sins, Jam. 2. 8, 9, 

1 1 . 9th, Becaufe whofoever committcth any 

Sin againft the Moral Law, ihall never enter in- 

, to the Kingdom of God, 1 Cor. 6. 9, 10. Gal. 

; ' 5. 21. 10th, Becaufe this Tenet of the Anti- 

11 nomians, turns the Grace of God into VVanton- 

e nefs; overturneth the End ofChriftian Liberty, 

lI! and of the coming, and Death of Chrifr, and pav- 

11 'eth a Way leading to all Impiety, and the indulg- 

ing of the Lulls of the Flefh, and fofrering the 
• Dominion of Sin, contrary to thefe Scriptures, 
i Jude Verfe 4. ijohn 2. 16 . 2 Pet. 2. 18, 19, 

1 20. Rom. 6. 14, 15, 16. Luke j. 74, 75. Tit. 2. 
11, 12. 1 Tim. 6. 9. Rom, 9. 21, 23, 24. nth, 
Becaufe Believers ought to ftudy good Works, 
Tit. 3. 8. to they which are created in Chrifr, 
that they (houldwalk in them, Eph. 2. 10. I2tb, 
Becaufe Chrift will render to every Man, at his 
laft coming, both to the good and to the bad, ac- 
cording to their Works, Rev. 22. i2.Mattb. 25, 

34,35' 4i, 42. 

Queft. VI. u Are true Believers under the Law 
u as a Covenant of Works, to be thereby juftified 
li or condemned?" 

No ; Rom. 6. 14. Gal. 2. 16. Gal. % j 1 3. GaL 
4. 4, 5. Arts 1 3. 39. Rom. 8. 1 . 

Well then, do not the Papifts and Socinians 
err, who maintain, That Delivers under the 
■ Gofpel, are juftified by their Obedience to the 
Law of God, (the Law, I fay, either Moral, or 
Evangelical) and condemned for the Tianfgref- 
fion thereof? 


142 Of the Law of God. Chap. XIX. 


By whatReafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Recaufe by the Law is the Knowledge of 
Sin, Rom. 3. 20, 2d, Becaufe for as many as 
are of the Works of the Law, are under the Curfe, 
Gal. 3. 10. 3d, Becaufe there is not a Law given, 
which could have given Life to fallen Man; Gal. 
3.21. 4th, Becaufe Chrift is not dead in vain. 
For if Right eoufnefs be by the Law, then Chrift 
is dead in vain, that is without Caufe, Reafon, 
Need, or Fruit, Gal. 2. 21. fee John 15. 25. 
5th, Becaufe it was promifed by God, about 430 
Years before the Promulgation of the Law, that 
all the Nations of the Earth fhould be bleifed in 
the Seed of Abraham, Gen. 22. 18. Gen. 12. 3. 
with Gal. 3. 16, 17, 18. 6th, Becaufe Chrift is 
become of no Effect to them, that are juftified by 
the Law ; they are fallen from Grace, Gal. 5. 4. 
7th, Becaufe Believers ought to wait, through 
the Spirit, for the Hope of Righteoufnefsby Faith, 
Gal. 5. 5. 8th, Becaufe the Apoftle (though a 
ftrict Obferver of the Law) counted all his Works 
but Lofs and Dung, that he might be found in 
Chrift not having his own Righteoufnefs which 
is of the Law, but that which is through the 
Faith of Chrift, the Righteoufnefs which is of 
God by Faith, Phil. 3. 8, 9. 9th, Becaufe 
Chrift is made of God, to Believers, Righteoufnefs, 
1 Cor. 1. 30. 2 Cor. 5. 21. 10th, Becaufe they 
that feek their Righteoufnefs by Faith, but by 
their Works do not attain to it. And contrary- 
wife, that thqy feek their Righteoufnefs by Faith, 
and not by their Works, do not attain to it ; Rom. 
9» 3°> 3 I > 32« nth, Becaufe Chrift is the End 
of the Law for Righteoufnefs to every one that be- 
lieveth; Rom 10. 4. 12th, Becaufe the Jufti- 


Hhap. XIX. Of tht Law of God. 143 

Ication of Men under the Law, or Covenant of 
Works, is by the Law and by the Works of the 
Law : but the Juftification of Men umder Grace, 
i or the Covenant of Grace, is by Faith; Rom. 10. 
^5, 6, 8, 9, 10. Gal. 3. 1 1, 12. Lev 18,5. But 
e,. Believers now are not under the Law, or the Co- 
Vvenant of Works, but under Grace, or the Cove- 
i nant of Givce, Rom. 6. 14, 15. Gal. 5. 18. 
J. 13th, Becaufe Believers under the New and Old 
1 Teftament, are faved by the Grace of Jefus Ghrift, 
, and not by the Law, Whofe Yoke none were able 
• to bear. That is, none were able^perfe&ly to 
) ;keep, nor to be juftified thereby, Adts 1 5. 10, n. 
1 1 4th, Becaufe whofoever tranfgrefTeth the Law in 
i the leaft, is under the Curfe of it, Gal. 3. 10. 
Deut. 27. 26. and deferveth Death, and a Curfe, 
;Rom. 6. 23. Ezek. 18. 4, 20. But all Men, even 
the Regenerate, fin daily, and tranigrefs the Law 
of God, and fo are guilty of all, Jam. 1. 13. 
compared with Jam. 2. 10. and with 1 John 1. 
8. 1 5th, Becaufe Good Works do not go before 
Juftification, but follow after it, Tit. 1. 15. Hcb. 
1 1. 6. Rom. 14. 23. Rom. 3. 9, 10, 23. 16th, 
! Becaufe the Righteoufnefs of God, which is by 
I Faith in Jefus Chrift, is manifefted unto all, and 
J upon all, by Mofes and the Prophets. For all 
the Apoftles do witnefs, that whofoever believeth 
in Jefus Chrifr, (hall have Remiffion of Sins, 
Rom. 3. 21, 24, 25. Afts 10. 43. 17th, Becaufe 
Jollification is from the free Grace of God, Rom. 
3. 24. Not by the Works of the Law, other w^fe 
Grace (hould be no more Grace ; nor Work any 
more Work, Rom 11. 6. 18th, Becaufe the 
Good Works of Believers are unclean, and defil- 
ed, Ifa. 64. 6. Gal. ^. 17. 19th, Becaufe it is 
faid by the Spirit of God, the Juft fhall live by 



1 44 Of Chrijlian Liberty. Chap. XX. 

Faith, Heb. 2. 4, Gal. 3. n. 20th, Becaufe 
it is written, that Abraham believed God, and 
it was imputed to him for Righteoufnefs, Gen. 
15. 5. Rom. 4. 3. But to him that worketh not, 
but believeth on him that juftifies the ungodly, 
his Faith is counted for Righteoufnefs, Rom 4. 
5. 2 1 ft, Becaufe Believers muft not glory in 
themfeives but in God only, Rom. 4. 2. Rom. 
3. 27. 22d, Becaufe by the Obedience of one, 
many fhall be raade Righteous, as was foretold 
by the P» ophet, ifa. 53. 11. And is aiTerted by 
PauL Rom. 5. 17. 23d, Becaufe Juftifkation 
by Faith, and not by Works, is exprefly taught 
at large by the Apoftle, in that third to the Ro- 
mans, and third to the Galatians. 


Cf Chrijlian Liberty, and Liberty of Confcience. 

Question I. 

*' TS God alone Lord of the Conference, and hath 
" A left it free from the Doctrines, and Com- 
<* mandments of Men, which are in any Thing 
" contrary to his Word, or beiide it, in Matters 
"of Faith or Worfhip ?" 


Jam. 4. 12. Acts 4. 19, Acts 5. 29. Matth. 
23.8, 9, 10. 2 Cor. 1. 24. Matth. 15.6. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who contra- 
dict this, both in Doctrine (becaufe they teach 
that the Pope of Rome, and Bifhops in their 
own Dioceffes, may, by their own Authority, 
f racier Scripturam, befldes the Word make; 


Chap. XX. arid Liberty of Cortfcience. 145 

Laws which oblige and bind the Confcience, 
under the Pain of everlafting Death) and ia 
Practice ? (becaufe they have obtruded, and do 
obtrude many Ecclefiaftical Rites and Ceremonies, 
as neceffary in Worfhip, without any Foundation 
in Scripture?) 


By what Reafons are they confuted? 

ift, Becaufe there is one Law-giver, who is 
able to faveand to deftroy, Jam. 4. 12. There- 
Fore no Pope, no Prelate, nor any mere Man, can 
be a Law-giver. 2d, Becaufe Chrift rejefts the 
Commandments of Men from the Worfhip of 
God, Matth. 15. 9, 3d, Becaufe the Apoftles 
refufed to obey the Orders of the Council, fince 
they were contrary to the Commands of God, 
Acts 4. 19. and 5. 29. 4th, Becaufe the Lord 
threatens to do a marvellous Work among his 
People becaufe they drew near to him with their 
Mouth (as the moft Part of the cere nonial Ser- 
vice is but a drawing near to God with the 
Mouth,) but had their Hearts removed far from 
him, Ifa. 29. 13, 14. 5th, Becaufe Chrift ex- 
prelly forbids fuch Subjection and Obedience to 
the Commands of Men, Matth. 23.9, 10. iCor. 
J 7. 23. 6th, Becaufe the Apoftles rhemfelves 
forbid all W1II-W01 (hip, fuch as the Papifts Ce- 
remonies are, Col. 2. 18, 21, 22, 23. 7th, Be- 
caufe the Apoftle Paul withftood thefe falfe 
Brethren, unawares brought in, who came in pri- 
vily, to fpy out his Liberty which he had in 
Chrift Jefus, that they might bring him into 
Bondage ; to whom be gave Place by Subjection, 
no, not for an Hour ; that the Truth of the Gofpel 
might continue; where he lays fo much Weight 
upon Ghriftian Liberty, that, if that were tak-n 
N away, 

1 46 Of Chrijlian Liberty, \ Chap. XX. 

^way, 'the Truth of the Gofpel would perifti 
Sikewife, Gal. 2. 4, 5. 8th, Becaufe the Apo- 
ftle commands Believers to ftand faft in their Li- 
berty, wherewith Chrift hath made them free, and 
not to be intangled again with the Yoke of Boa* 
dage, Gal. 5. 1. 9th, Becaufe Ceremonies are 
fuperftitious, being a Vice oppofite to Religion 
in the Excefs, commanding more in the Worfhip 
of God, than he requires in his Worfhip. 

Queft. II. !? Is not the requiring of an implicit 
u Faith, and an abfolute and blind Obedience to 
" the Church, or any Man, a deftroying of Li- 
4c berty of Confcience, and Reafon alfo? " 

"Yes; Rom. 10. 17. and 14. 23. Ifa. 8. to. 
A&s 17. 11. John 4. 22. Hof. 5. 11. Rev. 13. 
12, 16, 17. Jer. 8. 9. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who require 
an implicit Faith to all the Decrees and Ordinan- 
ces of their Church and Pope : And a blind O- 
bedience to their Commands, without a previous 
Judgment of Difcretion i 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe no Man performing any Duty out 
of blind Obedience, can be perfuaded in his Mind 
of the Will of God therein: And fo he that 
doubteth is damned, becaufe it is not of Faiffi, 
Rom. 14. 23. 2d, Becaufe all Things muft be 
examined and proved by the Rule of the Word, 
Ifa 8. 2. 1 John 4. 1,2. 3d, Becaufe the Apo- 
ftle fays, Prove all Things, and hold faft that 
which is good, 1 ThefT. 5. 21. 4th, Becaufe 
blind Obedience makes us the Servants of Men, 
which is contrary fo 1 Cor. 7. 23. And againft 
the Command of Chrift, forbidding us to call any 
Man Father on Earth, Matth. 23. 9. 5th, Be- 

Chap XX. and Liberty of Confctence . 1 47 

caufe abfolute Obedience is* only due to God, 
whole Commands are all moft juft, himfelf being 
the alone Lawgiver, Jam. 4. 12. 6th, Becaufe 
every Man ought to be ready to render a Reaibn 
of the Hope which is in him, 1 Pet. 3. 1 5. This 
no Man can do, who receives the Commands of 
Superiors with an implicit Faith. 

Qneft. III. " Do they who upon Pretence of 
u ChriiHan Liberty, pra<Stife any Sin, or cherifh 
" any Luft, deftroy thereby the End of -Chriftiaa 
11 Liberty?" 

Yes; Gal 5 13. 1 Pet. 2, 1 6. 2Pet. 2.19. 
John 8. 34. Luke 1. 74, 75, 

Well then, do not the Libertines err, who 
maintain, That the true Chriftian Liberty, which 
we ought not to follow and ufe, is to take 
away all Difference between Good and Evil : 
To eiteem nothing of Sin ; nor to be touched 
with any Confcience, or Senfe of it : That every 
Man ought to follow the Swing of his own 
Lufts ? , 


Do not likewife the Antinomians err, who 
maintain, almofl, the fame very Tenet and G- 
pinion ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe we being called to Liberty, ought 
not to ufe our Liberty for an Occafion of the 
Fltih, Gal. 5. 13. And that with well doing, 
wrought to put to Silence ihe Ignorance of foolifn 
Men, 1 Pet. 2. 15. 2d, Becaufe they that fol- 
low the Liberty of finning, and promife Liberty 
toothers, are truly the Servants of Corruption : 
For of whom a Man is overcome, of the fame is 
he brought in Bondage, 2 Pet. 2. 19. 3d, Be- 
N 2 caufe 

14S Of Chrijfian Liberty, Chap. XX f 

caufe the End of that Liberty, which is purchaf- 
edVby Chrift, is, that being delivered out of the 
Hands of our Enemies, we might ferve him with- 
out Fear, in Holinefs and Righteoufnefs, all the 
Days of our Life, Luke i . 74, 7 5. 4th, Be- 
caufe whofoever committeth Sin is the Servant of 
Sin, John 8. 34. 5th, Becaufe the Moral Law 
obligeth Believers to perform Obedience, out of 
Gratitude and Thankfulnefs : For Chrift came not 
to deftroy the Law, but to fulfil it, Matth. 5* 
17. 6th, Becaufe whofoever fhall break one of 
thefe leaft Commandments, and (ha!) teach Men 
fo, he (hall be called the leaft in the Kingdom of 
Heaven, Matth. 5. 19. 

Queft. IV. " May fuch IVJen be lawfully called 
€i to an Account, and proceeded againft by the Gen- 
".fures of the Church, and by the Power of the 
" civil Magiftrate, who publifh fuch Opinions, or 
r * maintain fuch Practices, as are contrary to the 
" Light of Nature, or to the known Principles of 
u Chriftianky, whether concerning Faith, Wor* 
" fhip, or Converfation, or to the Power of Godli- 
u nefs, or fuch erroneous Opinions and Pra&ices, 
s< as either in their own Nature, or in the Man- 
H nerof publiftiing or maintaining them, are de- 
49 ftruclive to the external Peace and Order, which 
" Chrift hath eftabliftied in his Church ? " 


i Cor. 5. 1, 5, 11, 13. 2 John, Verfe 10, 11* 
1 Tim. 6. 3, 4. Titus 1 . 1 o, 1 1 , 1 3. Titus 3. 1 o. 
1 Tim. 1. 19, 20. Matth. 18. 15, 16,17. Rev„ 2. 
3, 14, I5i2°- Rev. 3. 9. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptiits err, who 
maintain, There fhould be no Ecclefiaftical 
Cen'ures ? 



Chap. XX. and Liberty of Confcicnce. 149 

Do not others alio err, who maintain, That 
Church Cenfures fhould not be inflicted upon 
Heretics ? 


Do not laftly the Lutherans, Anabaptifts, Ar- 
minians, Quakers, and all Sorts of Heretics and 
Sectaries err, who maintain, (under the Pre- 
text of Chriftian Liberty) That the civil Magi- 
ftrate is not in Duty to punifh any Man with the 
Sword, for Errors in Doctrine, but that they 
ought to be tolerated and iufFered, providing luch 
Peribns as own them, do not trouble or moleft 
the common Wealth ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Keys of the Kingdom of Hea- 
ven, are for this End delivered to the Mmifters 
. of the Church, that with Cenfures they may pur- 
fue fcandalous and offending Perfons, who will 
not obey Admonition, Matth. 18. 15, 17, 18. 
But luch alfo are Heretics, Gal. 5. 20. Tit. 1. 
10, 12. 2d, Becaufe an Heretic, after the firft 
and fecond Admonition, is to be rejected, avoid- 
ed or fhunned. That is, let him not remain iri 
the external Communion of the Church, Tit. 3. 
10. 3d, Becaufe Paul did excommunicate Hy- 
meneus, and Alexander, who had made Ship- 
wreck of the Faith, 1 Tim. 1. 19, 20. 4th, 
Becaufe if any Man obey not our Word by this 
Epiftle, note that Man, and have no Company 
with him, that he may be afhamed, 2 Thefl 3. 
14. 1 Tim. 6. 4, 5. Tit. 1. 11. 5th, Becaufe 
Chrift approves and commends the Paftors of -the 
Church of Ephefus, becaufe they could not fuffer 
them that are evil ; but had .tried them which fay 
they are Apoftles, and were not, aud had found 
N 3 them 

3 50 Of Chriftian Liberty, Chap. XX. 

them Liars, Rev. 2. 2. And Chrift, in that fame 
Chapter, accufes the Pallors of the Church of 
Pergamus and Thyatira, and threatneth them, 
becaufe they had fuffered Heretics to be in the 

The Lutherans, Anabaptifts, Arminians, and 
other Sectaries are confuted. 

1 ft, Becaufe it is evident from many Examples 
of Godly Magistrates, who did extirpate Idolatry, 
and inflift Punilhment upon Idolaters ; as did Ja- 
cob the Patriarch, who purged his Family of 
Grange Gods, Gen. 35. 2, 3, 4. Mofes like- 
wife took Punilhment with the Sword, upon thofe 
svho did worfhip the Golden Calf, Exod. 32. 26, 
27, 28. We have 2d, the Examples of Hezek'iah, 
2 Kings 18. 4. Of Jofiah, 2 Kings 23. Of Afa, 
who decreed that whofoever would not feek the 
Lord God of Ifrael (according to the Law of 
God, Deut. 13. 9.) ftiould be put to Death, 
whether fmall or great, whether Man or Woman, 
2 Chron. 15.13. Of Jehofaphat, 2 Chron. 1 7. 6. 
Of Nehemiah, Neh. 13. 15, 17, 35. 3d, Were 
xiot good Kings reproved, and was it not imputed 
to them as a Fault, that they did not take away 
the high Places? 2 Kings 12. 3. 2 Kings 14.^4. 
n Kings 15. 4. 2 Chron. 1 5. 17. Far more is it a 
Fault to iufFer Heretics. 4th, It is evident /rom 
the Office of the Magiftrate, who is the Minifter 
of God againft them that do evil, and bears not 
the Sword in vain, Rom. 13. 4- 5^, Be- 
caufe it is exprefly commanded in Scripture, that 
Puniftiment be infli&ed upon Idolaters, even by 
the neareft Relations. If then, the Father may 
kill the Son, may kill the Daughter ; the Husband 
the Wife of his Bofom ; and if one Brother may 
ftone another Brother with Stones, that he die, 


Chap. XX, and Liberty of Con/dence. *5* 

for being Idolaters ; much more may the civil Ma- 
giftrate do this, Deut. 13. 6. to the 13 Verfe, 
Deut. 17. 2. to the 7 Verfe, Lev. 24. 16. 6th, 
Becaufe it is foretold, that under the Ncv Tefta- 
ment, Kings (hall be nurfing Fathers to the 
Church, and Queens nurfing Mothers ; and that 
Heretics that were about to be hurtful to the 
Church, fhall be removed and taken away, Ifa. 
•49. 23. Zech. 13. 2, 3. And it fhall come to pafs 
in that Day, faith the Lord of Hofts, that I will 
cot off the Names of the Idols out of the Land, 
(that is all Idolatry whatfoever, fo that the fame 
Iball not be fo much as named any more among 
you) and they (hall no more be remembered. And 
I will alfo caufe the Prophets, (the falfe Prophets) 
and the unclean Spirit to pafs out of the Land: 
that is, the falfe Teachers who teach impure Doc- 
trines, through the Infpiration of the unclean Spi- 
rit the Devil. Compare with this 1 John 4. 1,2* 
3. For Confirmation, confider what is foretold by 
John, Rev. 17. 12, 16, 17. That the Kings of 
the Earth fhall eat of the Flefn of the Whore, 
and burn her with Fire. AW which are foretold, 
as Bleffings to be conferred upon the Church, 
^rth, It is evident from the Epithets whereby the 
pernicious and deftru&ive Nature of Heretics is 
fet forth in Scripture. They are called Wolves, 
not fparing the Flock, Thieves, Robbers, Trou- 
blersof the Church, and Seducers or Beguilers of 
poor Souls. They are like unto a Gangrene, or 
Canker in the Body. They are as Leaven, or four 
Dough, which leaveneth the whole Lump, A£t$ 
20. 29. John 10. 8. Atts 15. 24. Gal. 5. 12. 
2 Tim. 2. 17. Gal 5. 9. 8th, Becaufe Ezra did 
efteem it a great favour and Bleffing of God con- 
ferred upon the Church ; for which he thanked 


152 Of Religious IVorJhip, Chap. XXI. 

God, that had inclined the Heart ofArtaxerxes 
to publifh a Decree for the Punifhment of thofe 
that did not obferve the Law, whether it be (faith ' 
the Text) unto Death, or to Banilliment, or to 
Confiscation of Goods, or to Imprifonment, Chap. 
7*23,25,28. 9th, Becaufe we ought to pray 
for Kings, and ail in Authority, that under them 
we may lead a quiet and peaceable Life in all 
Godiinefs, and in Honefty ; which End cannot be 
attained, unlefs the civil Magiftrate bridle and tie 
up Heretics, i Tim. 2. 1 2. Thefe Words, in all 
Godiinefs, concern Religion, or the firft Table 
of the Moral Law, as the following Word Hone- 
Jly, or Civility, hath a Refpedt to the Commands 
of the fecond Table, and the Duties which we 
owe to our Neighbour, and to one another. For 
true Magiftrates are Keeperaand Defenders of both 
Tables of the Ten Commandments loth, Be- 
caufe the Toleration of Heretics, as we may read 
of the Anabaptifts in Germany, Thomas Muntzer, 
John of Leyden, and their Followers, firft by 
railing againft the Miniftry, as the Quakers do ? and 
raging againft Nagiftracy, brought both Church 
and State into Confufion, put the Country into 
burning Flames, wherein themfelves at length 
were confumed to Afhes. 


Of Religious JVorflftp, and the Sabbath "Day. 

Question I. 

" T^OTH the Light of Nature (hew that 
V 3lJ? theieisaGod, who hath Lcrd (hip, and 
" Sovereignty over ail? " 
Yes. , " Rom, 

Chap. XXL and the Sabbath Day . 153 

Rom. 1. 20. A &s 17. 24. Pfalmiip. 68. Jer. 
10. 7. Pfalm 31. 13. 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, who main* 
tain, That there is no Knowledge of God implant* 
ed naturally in the Minds of Men ? 


Do not Secondly, the Vaninians, and many of 
the Cartefians err, Who under the Pretext of 
maintaining a God head, have, in Effect, taught 
Men to deny there is a God ? 


Do not Thirdly, fome Bee-headed Men err, 
Who difpute againft the Being of a Godhead, 
becaufe they cannot find a Demonftration for it t 
called Dihoti ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

I ft, Becaufe the invifible Things of him from 
the Creation of the World are clearly feen, being 
underftood by the Things which are made, eveo 
his eternal Power, and Godhead : fo that they 
?re without Excufe, Rom. 1. 20. 2d. Becaufe 
the Pfalmift faith, The Heavens declare the GIo- 
*y of God, and the Firmament (heweth his Handy- 
work. That is, they give us Matter and Occa- 
sion to fpeak and difcourfe of his Omnipotency, 
Wifdom and Gooclnefs, Pfalm 19. 1, 2, 3. 3d, 
Becaufe the Knowledge of the Law of Nature, 
is naturally implanted in the Minds of all Men* 
Rom. 2, 14. Therefore fome Knowledge of, the 
Law-giver mull be implanted in the Minds of all 
Men. 4th, Becaufe in the mod Wicked and Un- 
godly, there are Terrors and Tortures of Con- 
science, wherewith, nill they, will they, they are 
haunted and pofleffed: Whence is evident, that 
in the Minds of all Men there is fome lively 


1 54 Of Religious Worjhip, Chap. XXI. 

Knowledge of God. 5th, Bccaufe Men had ra- 
ther worfhip a Stock or a Stone, than they fhould 
think there were no God, Acts 17. 23. 6th, 
What a brave Order and Gomelinefs Alines forth, 
with fo much Wifdom and Power, in the Govern- 
ment and Prefervation of Things above and be- 
low * that no Man can be in Doubt but there 
muft be a God who rules and preferves all thofe 
Things. 7th, Becaufe nothing can be the Caufe 
of itfelf: Becaufe then it fliould be both the 
Caufe and the Effect, both before and after itfelf; 
therefore all Things have their Beginning from 
one firft and fupreme Caufe, which is God. 8th, 
Becaufe the Exiftence of a God-head may be 
evinced trom the foretelling of Things to come; 
Ifa. 41. 23. And as Cicero fays, fieji divinatio, 
Junt Dliy if there be a foretelling, there muft be 
alfo a God that foretelleth. 9th; From the Af- 
faults and Suggeftions of Satan, we find there is 
a Devil. May we not then certainly conclude there 
is a God? The Devil labours by all Means to 
extinguifh the Light of the Gofpel, to lead Men 
on in Ignorance, Error and Prophanenefs, and to 
turn them out of the Path of Holinefs. Now, 
Why fhould Satan thus war againft God, his 
Word, and his Saints ? Why fhould hefeek God's 
Dishonour, and Man'« Deftruclion, if there were 
not a God, a Law, and an everlafting Life? 
10th, Becaufe the Mind of Man is not fatisfied 
with the Knowledge of all Things; nor the Will 
of Man, with the Enjoyment of all Things in this 
World but frill they feek and thiift earneftly af- 
ter feme higher Good. There is therefore a fove- 
reign Truth," and chief Good, which being per- 
fectly known and enjoyed, will give Contentment 
and Satisfaction to the Soul. In vain fhauld the 


Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. 1 5 5 

Powers, and Faculties of the Soul be capable of 
Happinefs, 01 of the chief Good, if there were not 
a chief Good to be pofTeffed and enjoyed. 1 ith, 
From the Wonders and Miracles which have been 
wrought, vifible and apparent Works extraordi- 
narily wrought, not only above the ordinary 
Courfeof Nature, but fimply above the Power of 
Na*we. Thefe Effects do convince, that there is 
an infinite Power, which is above, and over-ruleth 
all Things. For every principal and primary 
- Caufe, is more excellent than the Effects thereof. 
12th, From the being of Man, the curious Work- 
manfhip of his Body in the Womb, which is 
wrought moft Artificially; namely, with Sinews, 
Veins, Arteries, Mufcles, and other Parts of the 
Body, even as an Embroiderer fitteth, and joincth 
many Parcels, Stuff, and dyed Work of various 
Colours, very artificially and curioufly together, 
until there cometh forth fome goodly Portraiture, ' 
or other dainty Workmanfhip, Pfalm 139. 15. 
Job 10. 10. But efpecially from the Being of a 
Man's Soul, .which is immaterial, invifible, ra- 
tional, immortal, and which cannot be e traduce; 
from the Power of the Matter (as the fenfitive 
Souls of Brutes) neither doth depend on the Body 
in many of its Operations. Thefe, and all the 
Works which our Eye doth fee, or the Mind doth 
apprehend, do prove that there is "a God, who 
hath given a Beingfto them, and continueth them 
therein. 13th, Becaufe, feeing God is the firfc 
Caufe, there cannot be any Thing prior to him, 
by which, as a Caufe, his Exiftence can bedemon- 

Qucft. II. c< Is the acceptable Way of worship- 
ping the true God, inftitutedby himfelf, and fo 
limited to his own revealed Will, that he may 


if 56 Of Religious Worfhip. Chap. XXL 

f* not be worihipped according to the Imaginations 
** and Devices of Man, or the Suggestions of Satan, 
" under any vifible Reprefentations, or any other 
H Way not preiciibed in the hoiy Scripture ?" 


Deut. 12.32. Matth. 15. 9. A&s 17. 25. Qol 
a. 23, Exod. 20. 4, 5, 6. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who teach. 
That the Images of Chrift and the Trinity ought 
lo be worshipped, and that not improperly, but 
even properly, and per fe, with that fame Sort 
of Worftiip, wherewith Chrift and the blefled 
Trinity are adorned? 


Do not likewife the Greeks err, who tfcaintaia, 
That the painted Images of God may be ador- 
ed, but not the engraved or carved Images of 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe it is exprefly againft the fecond 
Command, Exod. 20. 4, 5. 2d Becaufe God 
is infinite, unmeafurable, incomprehenfible, and 
fpiritual : and therefore nothing can reprefent him, 
as the Prophet well infers, Ifaiah 40. 18, 25. 
3d, Becaufe every Reprefentation of God, by gra- 
ven Images, or Pictures, is a moft difgraceful 
changing of the Glory of the incorruptible God, 
Rom. r. 23. 4th, Becaufe Images and Pictures 
of this Kind are Lies and Vanities, which the 
Lord abhors and mocks at, with an holy Scorn, 
Ifaiah 44. from verfe 9 to 18. 5th, Becaufe the 
Lord exprefly forbiddeth the Ifraelites to re- 
prefent him under any Form or fhape, for (faith 
thi.* Text) ye faw no manner of Similitude on the 
Day that the Lord lpake to you iu Horeb, out of 


Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. 1 57 

the midft of the Fire, Deat. 4. 1 5. to Vcrfe 20. 
6th, Becaufe though the Ifraelites worshipped 
the true God by an Image (for Aaron built aa 
Altar, and made Proclamation, and faid to mor- 
row is a Feaft to the Lord) yet are they accufed 
of the Sin of Idolatry, and for that Caufe feverely 
punifhed, Exod. 32. 21, 27, 35. 7th, Becaufe 
Jeroboam, and the ten Tribes who worshipped 
the true God, by the Golden Calves, fet up at Dan 
and Bethel (for the Worfhip of falfe Gods by 
Images, was afterwards brought in by Achab, 
who is therefore faid to have provoked the Lord 
more than all the Kings of Ifrael before him, 
1 Kings 16. 31, 32.) are accufed for the Sin of 
Idolatry, and are feverely threatened, 1 Kings 12. 
29,30. and 1 Kings 13. 2. which Threatening 
was put in Execution by Jofiah, 2 Kings 23. 15, 
16, 20. 8th, Becaafe the Apoftle fays, * We 
ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto 
Gold or Silver, or Stone graven by Art and Man's 
Device, Afts 17. 29. 

C^ueft. III. " Is religious Worfhip to be given 
;< to God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, and 
u to him alone r" 

" Is religious Worlhip to be given to Angels, 
\i Saints, or any other Creature ?" 
J No. 

Matth. 4. 10. John 8, 49. 2 Cor. 13. 14. John 
;. 23, Col. 2 18. Rev. 19, 10. Roaa. 1. 25. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
ain, That not only God bui goo J Angels, and 
>aiius departed, being canonized by the Pope, 
)ught to be worshipped, and .alleJ '..pen, even 
IFter a religious Manner; but chieft) the V;r- 
Jia Mary, and that there is a divine Power 
O in 

1 58 Of Religious Worjloip, Chap. XXI. 

in the Relics of Saints, which therefore ought to 
be worihipped ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe the Lord our God, and he only, 
is to be worfhipped, Matth 4. 10. Deut. 6 13. 
2d, Becaufe the Object of Invocation and religi- 
ous Adoration is He only who is Omnipotent, 
Omnifcient, and Searcher of the Heart. For there 
is none that knows our Neceflities and Wants, but 
he that is Omnifcient ; and none can fuccour and 
help "us but he that is Omnipotent, But Angels 
are not Omnifcient, Eph. 3. 10. 1 Pet. 1. 12. 
Neither are the Saints departed Omnifcient, as is 
clear from Ifa. 6$. 16. Abraham is ignorant of us. 
3d, Becairfe they that are dead, know nothing of 
' our Condition, Eccl. 9. 5. 4th, Becaufe no Man 
ought to call upon him, in whom he doth not be- 
lieve, Rom. 10. 14. But no Man ought to believe 
in Saints, or Angels, but in God alone, Ifa. 26. 
4. Jer. 17. 5. 5th, Becaufe neither Saints alive, 
nor Angels, would fuffer Adoration and Worfhip 
ro be given to themfelves, Acls 10. 25. Rev. 22. 
8, 9. 9th, Becaufe the worfhipping of Angels 
doth derogate from the Honour of (Thrift, in whom | 
we haveBoidnefs, and Accefs, with Confidence by 
the Faith of him, Eph. 3. 12. 7th, Becaufe the 
worfhipping of Saints and Angels is like a Poly- 
theifmus, the having of many Gods. For the 
Papifts attribute to each one of their Saints and 
Angels a proper Power, as the Heathens did of 
old to their Idols and falfe Gods. 

Qtieft. IV. " Is any religious Worfhip given to 
" God, fince the Fall, without a Mediator ?" 

« Nor 

Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. I 50. 

" Nor in the Mediation of any other, but of 
4i Chrift alone ? " 

No; John 14. 6. 1 Tim. 2. 5. Eph. 2. 18. 
Col. 3. i 7 . 

Well then, doth not the Popifh Church err, 
who maintain, That Saints departed, but chiefly 
, the Virgin Mary, are Mediators and Interceflbrs 
between God and Man ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe the Scripture affirms exprefly, 

j That there is but one Mediator between God and 

Man, namely, the Man Jefua Chrift, 1 Tim. 2. 

j 5. 2d, Becaufe no Man cometh to the Father, 

but by Chrift, John 14. 6. and by him we have 

I Accefs to the Father. Eph. 2. 18. 3d, Becaufe 

ithe Scripture p/omifeth that they fh all be heard, 

that, in the Name of Chrift, feek inch Things as 

I arc: according to the Will of God : Cut there is no 

Pi ) aife in ail the Word, that they (hall be heard 

; that pray to Saints or xAngels, John 14. 13, 14. 

^ 1 John 5. 14. 4th. Becaufe the Apoftle fays, 

Wbatfoever ye do in Word or Deed, do all in the 

j Name of the Lord Jefus, not in the Name of 

SaV.ts, Col. 3.17. 5th, Becaufe Chrift who is 

called the Propitiation for our Sins, is alfo called 

4 our Advocate with the Father, 1 John 2. 1,2. 

j 6th, Bec-iufe Mediation is a Fart of the prieftly 

I Office of drift, which is only proper to himfeJf, 

and which cannot be divided between him and 

;i the Saints. 71b, Becaufe the S/ints are not to 

be called upon, as was proved in the foregoing 

j Que ft ion. 

Qaeft. V. " Is Praj'er, with Thankfgiving, one 
" fpecial Part of God's Worihip, required by God 
H of all Men J" 

O 2 Yes. 

1 60 Of Religious W rjhip % Chap. XXI. 

Yes; Phil. 4.6. Pfalm 65, 2. 

"Well then, do not the Adamites, and others, 
long iince, err, who denied, That God was to 
be called upon. For, fay they, God is Omnifcient, 
and beftows all Things upon us freely without 
our Prayer ? 


Do not like wife fome late Heretics err, who 
maintain, That unregenerate Men ought not to 
call upon God ? 


Do not alfo the Quakers err, who will not 
move in the commanded Duties of Prayer and 
Thankfgiving, unlefs there be fome inward Call 
and Motion on their Spirit ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lit, Becaufe there are extant many univerfal 
Precepts in the Word, by which the Duty of 
Prayer is commanded, Phil. 4. 6. 1 Theff. 5. 17. 
John 16. 24. Matth. 7. 7, 2d, Becaufe God is 
the Hearer of Prayer, and to him fhall all Flefh 
come, Pfalm 65. 2. 3d, We have the Example 
of David, Pfalm 55. 17. Of Daniel, Chap. 6. 
. 10. The Examples of thofe many, who were 
gathered together, praying in the Behalf of the 
Apoftle Peter, A&s 12. 12. The Example of 
. Chrift himfelf, John Chap. 17. 4th, Becaufe 
the Apoftle Paul bids Simon Magus, who was 
in the Gall of Bitternefs, and Bond of Iniquity, 
to repent and call upon God, A&s 8. 22. As 
to the Quakers, what Affuraace can they have 
the next Hour, or the next Day, more than now 
of the Spirit's moving on their Souls ? And arc 
we not commanded to pray without ceafing, 

1 Theff. 

Chap. XXL and' the Sabbath Day. 161 

i TheflT. 5. 17 That is, upon all Opportunities, 
and in all oar Ncceflities. 

Q^ieft. VI. " If Prayer be vocal, ought it to be 
,V in a kuown Tongue ?" 

Yes; 1 Cor. 14. 14. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That it is not needful, that public Prayers 
be in a known Tongue ; but that it is oftentimes 
expedient, that Prayers be performed in a Tongue 
unknown to the common People ? 

j By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Apoftle teaches exprefly the 
(contrary, 1 Cor. 14.9, 12. 2d, Becaufe Prayers 
, celebrated in^ an unknown Tongue, are not for 
Edification, 1 Cor. 14. 14. 3d,- Becaufe he that 
occupieth the Room of the unlearned (that is, 
who underftands not ftrange Tongues) cannot fay 
;Amen, 1 Cor. 14. 16. 4th, Becaufe the Lord's 
Prayer which is the fpecial Rule of all our Prayers, 
; ;was prefcribed in a Tongue, at that Time belt 

Qgoft. VII. " May we pray for the dead, or for 
j" thofe of whom it may be kno\yn, that they have 
u finned the Sin unto Death ? " 

No; 2 Sam. 12. 21, 22, 23. Luke 16. 25, 26. 
Rev. 14. 13. John 5. 16. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That Prayers, Alms, and MafTes ought to 
1 be appointed, and made for Souls departed, as 
1 itbefe which will really profit them ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Dead are either happy; and 

fo they need not our Prayers, Rev. 14. 13. Or 

they are damned, and fo our Prayers cannot pro- 

O 3 fit 

i6z Of Religious Worfljip. Chap. XXL 

fit them : For out of Hell there is no Redemp- 
tion, Luke 1 6. 12. 2d, Becaufe we read that 
David mourned, and fafted for the Child, fo long 
as it was alive : But when once the Child was re- 
moved by Death, ■ wherefore (fays he) fhould I 
faft? Can 1 bring him back again?' 2 Sam. 1 2, 
22, 23. 3d, Becaufe all our Requefts and Pray- 
. ers are either founded upon a Precept, or Promife 
of God to hear our Prayers. But there is nei- 
ther a Promife that God will hear us, in Or- 
der to the Dead, nor a Command to pray for 
them. 4th, Becaufe we are altogether ignorant 
of the State and Condition of the Dead ; and 
therefore we cannot pray for them in Faith, 
Rom. 14. 23. 

Queft. Vill. " Is the reading of the Scriptures 
" with godly Fear, the found preaching, and 
" corqfortable hearing of the Word, in Obedience 
" to God, with Underftanding, Faith and Revc- 
u rence ; are they (I fay) Part of the ordinary re- 
" ligious Worfhip .?*' 


u Are thefe, with the due Adminiftr.ition of the 
" Sacraments, viz. Baptifm and the Lord's Sup- 
u per, to continue in the Church of God, till the 
" End of the World, and the Day of Chrift ?" 
. Yes; Acts 15. 2i. Rev. 1. 3. 2 Tim. 4. 2. 
Matt-h. 13. 19. Jam. 1. 22. Heb. 4.2. Ifa. 66. 2. 
Afts 10. 33. - 

Well then, do not the Eathufiafts, Libertines, 
Anabaptifts, and other Sectaries err, who (under 
pretext of being infpired by the Holy Ghoft that 
teaches them all Things) defpife and contemn all 
reading of the Scripture, and public hearing of the 
Word preached? 



Chap. XXL and the Sabbath Day. 163 

Do not likewife the Quakers err, who are down- 
right Enemies to all the public Ordinances, 
which Chrift hath appointed to continue in his 
:• Church to the End of the World ? 
[ Yes. 
i, By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Chrift commanded his Apoftles, 
e and in them ail the Ministers of the Gofpel, to 
. whom he hath promifed his Prefence to the End 
. of the World, to teach all Nations, and to preach 
• the^.Gofpel to every Creature, Matth. 28. 10. 
: j.Mark 17.15, 16. 2d, Becaufe the public preaching 
|ij of the Word by a Minifter fent, and caHed, and 
the hearing of it, is a mean ordained, and appoin- 
ted by God, and according to the ordinary Man- 
ner, necefTary for begetting Faith, and therefore 
needful to Salvation, Rom. 10. 14, 15. 1 Cor. 1. 
21. 3d, Becaufe God hath promifed to his Co- 
venanted ones, to bring them to his holy Moun- 
tain, and make them joyful in his Houfe of Prayer; 
that is, in the public Meetings of the Saints and 
People, Ifaiah 56, 7. 4th, From the Example 
of thofe Believers, Acts 2. 42. who continued 
ftedfaftly in the Apoftles Doctrine. 5th, Be- 
caufe the Word of God is the perfect Rule of 
Life and Manners. And all Spirits are to be tried 
by it, 1 Tim. 3. ij. 1 John 4. 1. Ifaiah 8. 20, 
Neither ought we to follow or hear any Man, no, 
not an Angel, if he teach any Thing contrary to 
the Word, or Heterodox from it, 2 Thef. 2. 2. 
Gal. 1. 8. 6th, Becaufe the Word of God is 
that incorruptible Seed, by which we are born a- 
gain, 1 Pet. 1. 23. 7th, Becaufe God forbids 
exprefly Seperations from public AiTemblies (I 
mean fo long as the Word is truly and purely 
taught, by thofe who enter in by the right Door, 


1 64 Of Religious Worjhip. Chap, XXL 

that is Chrift, and the Way appointed by him in 
his Word, John 10. 7, 8.) Heb. 10. 25. 8th, 
Becaufe the Lord hath joined together thefe two, 
his faithful Servants, for teaching his People pub- 
licly. and the Promife of the Spirit to guide 
them, and affift them in their Work, Matth. 28. 
20. John 14. 16, 17, 26. 

For Confutation of the Quakers, two Things 
rnuft be made out : the one, that the Office of the 
Miniflry is of divine Inftiuuion. 

1 ft, Becaufe God hath particularly defigned 
fpme Perfons to the Work of the Miniftry. For if 
God appointed fome Perfons to be Judges over 
Ifrael, then muft the Office of judging If rati be 
of divine Inftitution. Chrift appointed not only 
Apoftles, the Seventy Difciples, Evangeliite, Pro- 
phets, whofe Call and rdfts were extraordinary, 
but other ordinary Paftors and Teachers, whofe 
Spirits were not infallible, whom the Scripture 
affirms to be as truly by divine Inftitution ; as 
the former, 1 Cor. 12. 28. Eph 4. 11. 2d, Be- 
caufe God hath given peculiar Names and Titles 
to the Perfons defigned for this Office, which he 
hub noc given to other Saints. The only wife 
God will not diftinguifh, where he himfelf hath 
made no DiftincYion or Difference. Thefe are 
called Paftors, Teachers, fuch as rule well, Sj£w- 
ards of the Myfteries of God, Preachers, RHhops 
or Overfeers of the Flock, Stars in Chrift's right 
Hand, Angels of the Churches. Chrift evidently 
put? a Difference between the Churches and the 
Angels fet over them, Rev. 2. 1, 8, 12, 17. Rev. 
3. 7. 14. 3d, Becaufe the Lord hath taken a 
fpecial Care to beftow peculiar Gifts and Qualifi- 
cations upon thefe Perfons fo defigned for the Mi- 
niflry ; and that for the Good of the Souls of his 


Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. 1 65 

People, above what is required in other Saints. 
"Would ever the Lord have bcftowed fuch Quali- 
fications, if he had not appointed fome for Tuch 
an Office ? Though Gifts, as Gifts, do not alone 
invert into fuch an Office, yet when they are ftrift- 
ly required, they argue that there is an Office, 
They muft be apt to teach others, iTim. 3. 2. 
and not only fo, but able to teach others, able to 
convince them that oppofe themfelves, Tit. 1 . 9. 
They muft be fuch as ftudy to (hew themfelves 
approven unto God ; Workmen that need not be 
afhamed, 1 Tim. 2. 15. And the Apoftle, ia 
Admiration of the Difficulty of this Employment, 
crieth out. Who is fufficient for thefe Things? 
2 Cor. 2. 16. 4th, Becaufe the Lord requires 
peculiar Duties of his Minifters, which he doth 
not require of Believers; therefore, there muft be 
fuch a diftinftJDffice by divine Inftitution. They 
muft take fpecial Care of the Church of God, 

1 Tim. 3. 5. 1 Pet. 5. 2, 3. They are not to ne- 
gleft the Gift which is in them, ^Tim. 4. 14. 
They are to meditate on thefe Things, and to 
give themfelves wholly to them, iTim. 4. 15. 
A&s 6. 2, 4. They are to preach the Word, to 
rebuke, to inftrutt Gainfayers, 1 Tim. 4. 2. 

2 Tim. 2. 25. To adminifter the Sacraments, 
Matth. 28. 19. 1 Cor. 11. 13. To ordain others 
fortheMiniftry, by Impofitionof Hands, 1 Tim. 
4. 14. To watch over the Flock, as thofe that 
muft give an Account, Heb. 13 17. 5th, Be- 
caufe Chrift requires peculiar diftincft Duties in 
the People, in reference to their Minifters, there- 
fore the Office of the Miniflry muft be of divine 
Inftitution. They muft know and acknowledge 
thofe that are over them in the Lord, 1 Thef. 5. 
1 2. Highly to efteem them in love for their 


1 66 Of Religious Worjhip, Chap. XXL cl 

Works fake, iThefT. 5. 13. To obey them, to id 
encomage them, Heb. 13. 7. To maintain 
them, Gal. 6. 6. To pray for them, 2 Theft 
3c 1. 6th, Becaufe God hath made peculiar 
Prornifes to his Miniflers, as, * Lo, I am with you 
1 aiway, even to the E»id of the World,' Matth. 
28. 20. The Promife of fpecial Affiftance, 
i Cor. 3. 5, 6. Of Protection and Defence in all 
AfTaults, Rev. 1. 20. The Promife of the Power 
of the Keys, which Promife was not limited to 
the Apoftles, as Apoftles, but was given to the 
Apoftles, as Minifters of the Gofpel, as is evident 
from Matth, 18. 17, 18. The Promife of fpecial 
Sympathy with them, Matth. 10. 40. Luke 10. 
16. John 13. 20. 1 Thef. 4. 8. Now, would 
ever the Lord have promifed to keep up, and 
maintain that Office in his Church, which he had 
not fet up and inflituted ? 

The other Thing to be made out, is, that the 
Office of the Miniftry, is perpetually necefTary. 

^uft, Becaufe the Ordinances are perpetually 
necefTary, by divine ..Inftitmion : Therefore the 
Office of the 'Miniftry, to difpenfe thefe Ordinan- 
ces, is perpetually necefTary, by divine Inftitution, 
For if God had only appointed the Ordinances 
to continue in his Church, then would Preach- 
ing and Adminiftration of the Sacraments fail ; 
becaufe that which is every Man's Work, is ufu- 
ally and effectually to Man's Work. The Lord 
doth not immediately adminifrer them himfelf, 
neither are Angels employed for this Work : But 
he hath committed this Service to Men, who are 
Stewards, and Difpenfers ot the- Myfteries. of God. 
It is evident that the preaching of the Word (hall 
continue to the End of the World, from Matth. 
28. 20. Eph. 4. 12, 13. It is evident of Baptifm, 


ihap. XXT. and the Sabbath Day. 167 

tgd rbt Loid's Supper\ which are conjoined in 
:he Inftitution of Chrift, wirh tic Ifflmfhj of 
:he Word. F< om he gave ComronTioa to 

d alfo he gave Commiffioa to adrni- 
aiiV r ihc Sacrament*. Baptiim is an Ordinance 
of the New TeftameQt, appointed by God hira- 
felf. For John wa Q1 <o baptize. God was 
ihe Author, John was only the Minifter. This 
wis to continue perpetually, as is evident from 
Chrift's Promife, and his Precept, Matth. 28.20. 
The Ends for which Baptifta was ordained were 
<not temporary, but moral, and fo perpetual. Do 
not all Chnftiaas now need thefe Means, as the 
Christians during the Times of the Apoftles ? Are 
not Cbriftians now baptised into his Death, buri- 
ed with him in Baptifrrj, that like as Chrift was 
raifed from the Dead by "the Glory of the Father, 
even fo we alfo fhould walk in Newnefs of Life. 
It is called by the Holy Ghoft, a Jiving Ordi- i 
nance, and is unto Believers and their Seed in the 
New Teftament, as the irk was to Noah and his 
Family in the Old World, who being in the Ark, 
was faved from perifhing in the Waters, when the 
reft were drowned : So Baptilm doth now fave 
us, not only or mainly the outward Part of it, the 
putting away the Filth of the Fle(h, (which is yet 
an Ordinance to further our Salvation) but when 
the Spirit of Regeneration effectually concurs, fo 
that we find there is a renewing of the Holy 
Ghoft, and thereby the Anfwer of a good Con- 
fcience towards God, 1 Pet. 3. 21. It is evident, 
that the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper is to con- 
tinue to the End of the Wocld. It was not only 
appointed for Apoftles, to whom it was firft ad- 
miniftred, but unto all Believers, both Jews and 
Centiles. And not only for that Age, but for all 


1 68 Of Religious Worjbip, Chap. XXI. p 

Generations fucceeding; Tor Believers are com- 
manded to fhew forth the Lord's Death till he 
come, b> c«anr* tKs Bread, and drinking this 
Cup. Therefore, if thefe Ordinances be appoint- 
ed by God to continue to the End, it follows evi- 
d.nriv, that he hadi defigned the Office of the 
Miniftry., to hold up, and hold forth his Ordinan- 
ces to the End of the vVord. 2d, Becaufe the 
Promifes which Chrift hath made to uphold the 
Miniftry are perpetual ; therefore the Office mud [al 
be perpetual, Matth. 28. 20. * Go teach and bap- 

* tize all Nations, and lo I am with you to the 

* End of the World.' This Promife cannot be 
limited to the particular Age, during the Lives of 
the Apoftles ; becaufe the Holy Ghoft ufeth three 
Expreffions, to declare the Perpetuity of this Pro- 
mife, Aion, that this Promife (hall continue fo 
long as the World continues. Secondly, Syntelda. 
Heos tes Jynteleis tu Aioncs^ that this Promife 
jfhall have no End, till the World be confummate, 
or brought to a Period. Thirdly, Pa/as tas 
Hemeras, all Days and Succeffions of Times. Not 
only Meth hymon hemeras kymon> not only with 
you, during your own Days, but all the Days of 
the Gofpel, till Time fhall be no more. And 
this Promife was not made to the Apoftles as 
Apoftles, not to the Apoftles as Believers, but to 
the Apoftles asMinifters and Stewards of the My- 
fteries of God. 3d, Becaufe t^e Eleft require the 
Office of the Miniftry perpetually. Our Nature is 
as bad as Jews and Pagans, Eph. 2. 3. Our 
Judgment full of D<»rknefs and Ignorance, 1 Cor. 
2.14. Our Wills ftubborn and rebellious, and 
fo alienated., that we rebel againft the Light, 
The Delufions of Satan are ftrong. The Multi- 
tude of falfe Teachers are very numerous, fo thac 


Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. 1 69 

they are ready to feduce the Eleft themfelves, if 
it were poflible. 4th, Becaufe the Ends for 
which Chrift hath appointed a Miniftry are per- 
petually neceflary. The Eleft oiuft be called and 
gathered, for there will be fome ftill in every Age 
to be added to the Church, of them that fhall be 
faved. There are many Sheep, which are not yet 
brought into his Fold : Many who belong to the 
Ele&ion, who are not yet effectually ca led, them 
ilfo will Chrift bring in, both Jews and Gen- 
files, that there may be one Fold, as there is but 
Dne Shepherd. Now, God hath revealed no other 
ordinary Way to convert and bring thefe into his 
Fold, but the Miniftry of his Word ; for how 
hall they believe without a Preacher ? There* 
ore if there be fome Eledt continually to be 
wrought into Fellowfhip with Chrift, and this 
2nd not fully attained till the End of the World, 
hen the Miniftry affigned to this End, mud be 
perpetually neceflary. 

Queft. IX. u Is finging of Pfalms with Grace 
c in the Heart, a Part of the ordinary Worfhip of 


Yes; Col. 3. 16. Eph. 5. 16. James 5. 13. 

Well then, do not the Quakers, and other 
lettaries err, who are againft the finging of 
j'falms, or at leaft tye it only to fome certain Per- 
jns, others being excluded ? 


By what Reafonsare they confuted ? 

lft, From the Practice of Chrift and his Apo- 
les, Matth. 26. 30. From the Example of Paul 
id Silas, Afts 16. 75. From Mofes and the If- 
lelites, £xod. 15. 2d, Becaufe the finging of 
falms was commanded under the Old Teftament, 
id that, not as a Type of any Subftance to come, 
P nor 

lyo Of Religious Worjhip, Chap. XXI . 

nor for any ceremonial Caule. Neither is it abro- 
gated under the New Teftament, but confirmed, 
Pfalm 30. 4. Pfalm 149. 1. 3d, From the general 
and univerfal Commands in the New Teftament, 
EpE 5. 19. Col. 3. 16. 1 Cor. 14. 15. 4th, Be- 
caufe the Apoille James fays, Is any Man airlift- 
ed, let him pray; is any Man merry, let him fing 
Pfalms, Chap. 5. 13, The Meaning is not, that 
none fhould ling but fuch as are merry : for then 
none fhould pray but fuch as are afflifted. 5th, 
Becaufe by finging of Pfalms we glorify God, 
we make his Praife glorious : We edify others 
with whom we fing as well as wc edify ourfelves. 
So the End to be propofed in finging, is teaching 
and admonilhing one another, in Pfalms, and 
Hymns, and Spiritual Songs, Col. 3.-i6 Laftly, 
wechear and refreih ourfelves, by making Melo- 
dy in our Hearts to the Lord, Eph. 5. 19. Which 
arifeth, firft, from our conscientious going about 
it as a Piece of Worfhip to God, and in fj doing 
we are accepted in that. Secondly, from its being 
a Part of Scripture, appointed for his Praife, whe- 
ther it agree with our Cafe or not. That being 
the End wherefore it was defigned to be fung, is 
a fufficient Warrant for our joining in the fmging 

Queft. X. " Is Prayer, or any Jther Part of re- 
€< ligious Worfhip now under the Gofpel, either 
" tied unto, or made more acceptable, by any 
" Place, in which it is performed, or towards 
" which it is dirtied?" " 

No; John 4. 21. Mai. 1. 11. 1 Tim. 2.8. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who con- 
fecrate Churches, and afcribe Holinefs to them, 
and 'o other Places far off, where they mumble 
their Preachings, and mutter their Prayers ? 



ap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. 17* 


Do not likewife many ignorant Perfons err, who 
think their private Prayers will be more accepta- 
ble to God, being faid in the Kirk, than in their 
own private Clofets ? 
! By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Lord fays, by the Mouth of 
1 \ his Prophet, that Prayers fhall be offered up to 
» him in ail Places, under the Time of the Gofpel, 
> Mai. 1. 11. 2d, Becaufe Chrift commands us 
1 when we pray, to enter into our Clofet, and the 
Door being (hut, to pray to our Father which is 
r3n fecret, left we fhould feem to defire Praife, and 
• Approbation from Men : Which Rite and Cere- 
mony of praying publicly, when we fhould 
pray privately, Chrift clearly condemns, Matth. 
6. 5, 6. 3d, Becaufe Paul wills that Men pray 
'e\ r ery where, lifting up holy Hands, without 
VWrath and doubting, 1 Tim. 2. §. 4th, Became 
Chrift fays, The Hour cometh, when we ihail 
neither in this Mountain, nor yet at Jerufalern, 
\ worfhip the Father, John 4. % 1. 

Queft. XI. " Hath God in his Word, by a pofi- 
tive, moral and perpetual Commandment, 
binding all Men in all Ages, particularly ap- 
pointed one Day in Seven, for a Sabbath, to be 
W kept holy unto himfelf ? " 

Yes ; Exod. 20, 8, 10, 11. Ifa. 56. 2,4, 6, 7. 
Well then, do not fome Men err, who main- 
tain, That God hath not under the Gofpel de- 
termined any certain Day for his own Worfhip, 
but only hath commanded that fome indefinite 
Time be deftined for public Worfhip, which 
Time (fay they) is left to be determined by the 

P 2 Ye?. 

172 Of Religious Worjhip, Chap. XXI 4 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

I ft, Becaufe the determining of an ordinary 
and fufficient Time for divine Wcrfhip, and as a 
Sabbath belongs to God only, and not to Man. 
For we do not read, that any fuch Power or Au- 
thority is granted to Man, either by the Law of 
Nature, or Scripture. Is it not a Thing of very 
great Moment ? Is it likely that the Wifdom of 
God would leave it uncertain ? This might ac- 
cufe the Scripture of Imperfeftion. It is not fuit- 
able to the Love of God, and his Care towards 
his Church. By fuch Men's Doftrine, the Church 
Univertal, and all oecumenic Councils, fhould 
be guilty of a dreadful Sin, which for fo many 
Ages have been deficient in their Duty. There- 
fore, it behoveth that there be one Day in feven, 
by virtue of the fourth Command, feeing no 
where elfe another neceflary Day is appointed, or 
prefcribed in the Word. 2d, Becaufe it is juft 
and equitable (as the Adverfaries grant) that one 
Day fhould be let apart for God, who hath freely 
given us fix. 3d, Becaufe in fix Days God made 
the Heavens and the Earth, and refted on the 
feventh : Not out of Neceffity, but to give us aa 
Example to do the like. 4th, Becaufe one Day 
of Ten, Twenty, or Thirty, cannot be thought 
convenient. Neither is fuch a Thing commanded 
in any Place of Scripture. And would it not ar- 
gue a Negledt of divine Worfhip, and the Care 
of Souls, if one Day of Ten, Thirty, or Forty 
were appointed ? Neither can the Fourth, Fifth 
or Sixth Day be appointed, feeing God hath 
commanded us to work fix Days. This would 
make our Yoke more heavy than the Jewiih 
Yoke, which the Adverfaries will not grant, cth, 


Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. i 7 j 

Becaufe it is the principal and chief Scope of the 

fourth Command, that one Day in feven, in refpect 

r>f us, be fet apart and confecrated to divine Wor- 

' diip. Not truly that fome indefinite Time be fet 

'apart. If this were true, the fourth Command 

°' (hould differ fubftantially from the other Pre- 

J.cepts of the Decalogue; and fo there behoved to 

[ ] be an ufelefs Precept, or at leaft a Tautology 

I .ought to be committed. 

Do not likewife the Anabaptifts, Socintans, 
" and Libertines err, with whom we may take in 
.' the Quakers, (and other Antifabbatarians, that 
. difown the Sabbath, as being carnal, and a Com- 
jj mand of the Letter) who teach, That whatever 
a is contained in the fourth Command is ceremo- 
' nial, and fo properly, as to the Matter and Sub- 
e ' "ftance which it holds out, abrogated wholly. And 
\ therefore (fay they) by virtue of this fourth Com- 

mand there is no Day to be fet apart for public 

1 divine Worfhip? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe the fourth Command, which ap- 
points one Day of Seven to be fet apart for God, 
is a pofitive, and moral Command, as to Sub- 
ftance ; feeing it was given to Adam in his Inte- 
'1 grity, before ever there was need of any Types 
1 and Ceremonies (hadowing forth Chrift, Gen. 2. 
' 2, 3. ad, Becaufe it was repeated, before the 
" Promulgation of the ceremonial Law, Exod. 16. 
2 3- 3^, Becaufe it was written with God's own 
Hand, and inferted into the Midft of the Reft of 
the moral Precepts, and was put into the Ark cf 
I the Teftimony, with the other Nine, which 
Honour was never conferred upon any Precept 
merely ceremonial. 4th, Becaufe all the Rea- 
P 3 fens 

i 7 4 Of Religious Worfhip, Chap. XXI. \6 

fons of this Command are intirely moral. He 
refted after fix Days, and allowed us fix Days to J. 
work, therefore in all Equity we ought to reft 
after fo many Days Work, and give God a Se- U 
venth, 5th, Becauie Chrift confirms this Com- | 
mand, in faying, Fray that your Flight be not in 
the Winter, neither on the Sabbath Day ; where 
the Lord infinuateth that as travelling is trouble- 
fome to the Body in Winter, fo would it be to the 
Minds of the Godly to travel on that Day, fpeci- 
ally and folemnly fet apart for God's Worfhip. 
!Now if there be no Sabbath to continue after 
Chrift's Afcenfion, or if it were not to be fanfti- 
fied, there would be no Occafion of this Grief 
and Trouble, that they behoved to travel on the 
Sabbath, and durft not tarry till that Day were 
by paft ; and fo no Caufe to put up this Prayer, 
which yet by our Lord's Exhortation feemeth to 
infer, that the Sabbath was to be as certain in its 
Time, as the Winter. And doubtlefs this cannot 
be meaned of the Jewifh Sabbath ; for that was to 
be abolifhed fhortly. Next, travelling on the Jew- 
ifh Sabbath was to be no Caufe of Grief unto 
them, if indeed all Days were alike, neither 
would it he fcrupled in fuch a Cafe by the Apo* 
flies, to whom he is now fpeaking. 

Queft. XII. " Was this one Day in feven, from 
(< the Beginning of the World, to the Refurrec- 
" tion of Chrift, thelaft Day of the Week ?" 

" And was it, from the Refurreclion of Chrift, 
" changed into the firft Day of the Week I" 

" And is it to be continued to the End of the 
" World, as the Chriftian Sabbath ? " 


Chap. XXI- and the Sabbath Day. 1 7 5 

Yes; Gen. 2. 2, 3. 1 Cor,. 16. 1, 2. A&s 20. 
7. Rev. 1. 10. Matth. 5. 17, 18. 

Well then, do not the Sabbatarians err, who 
maintain, That the Jewifh Sabbath, or the fe- 
venth Day from the Creation, is to be obierved ? 


Do not others likewife err, who maintain. 
That the Obfervation of the Lord's Day, is on- 
ly of Ecclefiaftic and Apoftolic Inftitutlon ? 


Thefe Authors (you fee) do confound, and 
make two Things really diftinft, to be but one, 
namely, Ecclefiaftic and Apoftolic Inftitution. 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe the fourth Command ftanding, 
wherein one Day of feven is appointed, the num- 
bering is left free to God himfelf, that the Right 
and Power may be referved to Chrift the Law- 
giver, and to his Spirit, for the Change of the Day, 
and to continue the Worfhip preicribed in the 
fourth Command. 2d, From the Name itfelf ; 
for our Sabbath is called the Lord's Day, Rev. 1. 
10. I was m the Spirit on the Lord's Day : or oa 
that Lord's Day, or Dominic Day, or Day which 
is the Lord's; pointing out a Day Angularly, 
and a Day, which in a particular and fpecial Man- 
ner is called His Day; even as the Lord's Prayer 
and the Lord's Supper are fo called, becaufe ap- 
pointed by Chrift the Lord. 3d, Becaufe God 
only can abrogate the Lord's Day (the Adverfa- 
ries granting fo much) therefore he that hath Pow- 
er to refcind, hath Power likewife to eftablifh. 
4th, Becaufe there is an implicit Command, con- 
cerning the Obfervation of the Lord's Day, 1 Cor. 

1 6. 2. As I have (faith Paul) given Order to the 


1 7 6 Of Religious Worfljip, Chap. XXI, 

Churches of Galatia, even fo do ye; the firft 
Day of the Week, letevery one of you lay by him. 
From which Place, we may reafon thus; that 
not the ieventh. but the firft Day, is the chief 
folemn Day for Worfhip after Chrift's Refurrec- 
tion, becaufe the A potties did pitch particularly, 
and eminently upon that Day, and that in divers 
Churches, as the fitted Time for exprefling their 
Charity. He doth not think it indifferent what 
Day it be done on, nor that all Days are alike, 
but pitched on the firft Day, not in one Church 
only, but in many. Next, this Command fuppof- 
eth them to be already acquainted with ibme fpe- 
cial Privileges of the firft Day beyond others, 
and there muft be ibme peculiar Thing in this 
Day making it fit, yea more fit, for fuch a Pur- 
pofe, rather than any other Day. 5th, Becauic 
as the feventh Day was inftituted in Remem- 
brance of the Works of Creation, fo the firft Day, 
after the Work of Redemption was finifhed, fuc- 
ceeded as moft convenient, for collating and com- 
paring both Mercies together. 6th, Becaufe 
Chrift, on the firft Day of the Week, appeared 
moft frequently to his Difciples, and blefTed it 
with his Prefence, Matth 28. 9. A&s 1. 3. John 
20. 19, 26. 7th, Becaufe on that Day the Holy 
Ghoft defcended upon the Apoftles. And on the 
fame Day Peter baptized three Thoufand, Afts 
2. 1,2,3,4,41. 8th, Becaufe the Church in 
the Time of the Apoftles did obferve this firft 
Day of the Week, as holy, Afts 20, 7. But the 
Practice of the Apoftles, approven in Scripture, 
is equivalent to a divine Inftitution. 9th, Be- 
caufe Chrift was feen of his Apoftles forty Days 
after his Refnrrefrion, and fpoke to them of the 
Things pertaining to the Kingdom of God, dur- 

Chap. XXI. and the Sabbath Day. 1 77 

ing which Time he hath taught them all Things 
needful to be known, and among the reft (it is 
probable) the Change of the Sabbath, and the* In- 
ftitutioa of the firft Day of the Week, and that 
immediately after his Refurreftion : He hath 
either immediately by himfelf inftituted that Day, 
or hath infpired his Apoftles to obferve it, from 
the fame very Time. 1 oth, Becaufe the Lord 
hath remarkably owned this Chriftian Sabbath, 
in being remarkably avenged upon the Breakers 
and Profaners thereof, as it is clear from feveral 

Queft. XIII. " Is this Sabbath then kept holy 
" unto the Lord, when Men, after a due Prepara- 
" tion of their Hearts, and ordering of their com- 
" mon Affairs before-hand, do not only obferve an 
11 holy Reft all the Day from their own Works, 
u Words, and Thoughts, about their worldly Em- 
" ployments and Recreations; but are alfo taken up 
a the whole Time, in the public and private Ex- 
" ercifes of his own Worfhip, except what is 
" fpent in the Duties of Neceflity and Mercy ? " 

Yes; Exod. 16. 23, 25,26, 29, 30. Exod. 31. 
15,16, i 7 . Ifa. 58. 13. Neh. 13.15, 16, 18,19, 
21, 22. 

Well then, do not fome err, who think, That 
after public Worfhip is ended, the Reft of the 
Lord's Day may be fpent in ordinary Excrcifes, 
Recreations, and fuch like Sports as are not un- 
lawful on other Days, unlefs they be forbidden 
by the Church, or Common-wealth wherein 
Men live ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe the Lords fays in the fourth Com- 
mandment, « In it thou (halt not do any Work/ 


r 7 8 Of lawful Oaths and Vows. Chap. XXI I. 

But ordinary Recreations, Gam^ and Sports are 
our own Wor&ll 2d, Becaufe Nature itfelf re- 
quires, that wc beftow as much of the Sabbath 
Day on God, who is the Lord of Time, and of 
all Things which we have, as we can, and ufe to 
beftow upon our own Affairs, on other Days. 
3d, Becaufe the Lord fays, If thou turn away 
thy Foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy Plea- 
fure on my holy Day, and call the Sabbath a 
Delight, and the Holy of the Lord honourable, 
and (halt honour him, not doing thy own Ways, 
nor finding thy own Pleafure, nor fpeaking thy 
own Words, then (halt thou delight thyfelf in the 
Lord, and I will caufe thee to ride on the high 
Places of the Earth, and feed thee with the Heri- 
tage of Jacob thy Father, for the Mouth of the 
Lord hath fpoken it, Ifa. 58. 13, 14, See Jer. 
17. 22. Deut. 5. 12, 13,15- Numb. 15.32, 33, 
36. And Neh. 13. 15. to Verfe 23. In thofe 
Days faw I in Judah fome trending Wine PrefTes 
on the Sabbath; and bringing in Sheaves, and 
lading Affes, as alfo Wine-grapes, and all Man- 
ner of Burdens which they brought into Jerufa- 
iem on the Sabbath Day, and I teftified againft 
them in the Day wherein they fold Viftuals. 



Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. 

Question I. 

" yS the Name of God that only by which 
V 1 Men ought to fwear ?" 

Yes; Deut. 6. 13. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who in 


Chap. XXII. Of Lawful Oaths and Vg-ws. i 79 

their fwearing join with their calling upon the 
Name of God, the calling on Saints departed 
and their Reliques ? 


By whatReafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe fwearing is a Part of Divine Wor- 
ship, which is only due to God, Deut. 6. 13. 
Deut. 10. 20. Ifa. 65. 16. 2d, Becaufe God on- 
ly is the Judge of hidden and fecret Truth ; and 
the Avenger to take Vengeance on them that do 
not fwear in Truth. Therefore he only is to be 
called on as Witnefs of thefe Things which are 
alTerted and promifed ; which was the Pra&ice of 
the Apoftle Paul, Rom. 9. 1. and 1. 9. Phil. 1. 8. 
3d, Becaufe God condemns fwearing by them that 
are no Gods, Jer. 5. 7. 

Queft. II. u Is an Oath warranted by the Word 
" of God, under the New Teftament, as well as 
" under the Old, in Matters of Weight and Mo- 
" ment?" 

Yes; Heb. 6. 16. Ifa. 65. 16. Gal. 1. 20, 
Rom. 1. 9. Rom. 9 1. 2Cor. 1. 18, 23. and 11. 
31. and 12, 19 1 ThefT. 5. 27. Rev. 10. 6. 

Well then, do not theQnaker and Anib^ptilV 
err, who maintain, That there is now lawful Ule 
of an Oath under the New Teftament ? 


Do not likewife the Papifts err, who make 
it a Degree of Perfe&ion, to abftain from all 
Oaths > 


B v.hat Rcafjns are they confuted ? 

1 ft. F> on lii. 65. 16. Where it is promifed un- 
der th e Time of the Gofpel, that the Nations, to 
be converted to Chrift, fhuil fwear by the Name 


1 Bo Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. Chap. XXII. 

of God, as is clear alfo from Jer. 4. 2. 2d, Be- 
caufe the calling upon the Name of God with 
due Fear and Reverence in fwearing, is command- 
ed in the Third Command, as the Profanation of 
his Name is forbidden : but Chrift came not to a- 
bolifti the Moral Law. 3d, From the approven 
Examples of the Saints, which occur in the New 
Teftament, Gal. 1. 20. Rom. 1. 9. and 2 Cor. 1. 
13, 18. Rev. 10. 6. 4th, Becaufe the End of an 
Oath is approven by God, and is in all Ages ne- 
ceflary to all Men, being the End of all Contro- 
verfy, Heb. 6. 1 6. 5th, Becaufe an Oath right- 
ly taken, is an Aft of Religion, whereby we glo- 
rify God, and adore his Attributes. We there- 
by, firft, folemnly acknowledge his Being and Exift- 
ence. Secondly, his Obiquity that he is prefent in 
all Places, and in all Times, and within our hear- 
ing, Pfalm 1 39. 7. His Omnifcience, that he is 
the Searcher of the Heart. The Apoftle calls 
him Kardiognoftes, Afts 15. 8. We acknow- 
ledge, fourthly, his Truth and Veracity : he is a 
"Witnefs brought into the Court that cannot lie, 
nor be impofed upon, as faith the Apoftle, * be not 
deceived, God is not mocked/ Gal. 6. 6. Fifthly, 
his Supremacy over all Creatures, for verily Men 
fwear by the greater, Heb. 6. 1 6. We acknow- 
ledge, lixthly, His vindiftive Juftice, as he is a 
Revenger of Perjury. Seventhly, we acknowledge 
his Providence, and Fatherly Care of the Concerns 
of Mankind, owning the Caufe of the Righteous* 
6th, Becaufe there being an exprefs Law for 
fwearing, (viz. rightly, Deut. 10. 20.) it muft 
either belong to the Moral Law, to the Judicial 
Law, or Ceremonial Law. The -Adverfarics will 
not call it a Part of the Judicial Law, which 
was given to the Jews, as a Body Politic, which^ 


Chap. XXII . Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. 1 3r 

expired together with the State of that People* 
It is no Part of the Ceremonial Law, for what 
was purely Ceremonial, was purely Typical : 
But the Law concerning an Oath was not a Type 
of any Thing to come. And if it was a Type, 
where will you find its Antitype in all the Gof- 
pel, or the Thing reprefented by it ? Therefore, it 
muft be a Part of the Moral Law, Deut. 6. 13, 
Jer. 4. 2. and confequen'ly perpetual, which 
Chrift came not to deftroy. It is confirmed hence, 
that it was of authentic Uk y and held facred 
among the Patriarchs, befoi-e the Delivery of the 
Levitical Law, as is clear from Abraham the 
Father of the Faithful, and Abimelech, Gen. 21. 
23, 24, 31. Confideralfo, that other Inftance in 
Abraham, Gen. 24. 2, 3, 9. who would not 
give his Servant an Oath raflily, nor exercife his 
Authority to impofe on his Confcience. It is evi- 
dent alfo from the Example of lfaac, who made 
a Covenant, and fwore to Abimelech, Gen. 26. 
28, 31. And from the Example of Jacob, who 
made a Covenant with, and fwore to his Uncle 
Laban, by the Fear of his Father lfaac, Gen. 
31.53. That is, by God, who is called our 
Fear, by Reafon of the filial Awe, and Fear, we 
Du^ht to ftind in before him, Ifa. 8. 13. 7th, 
Becaufe the Reafons and Ufefulnefs of Oaths are 
p;i potual, and the fame to us under the Gofpel, 
as they were to them under the Law. There is 
us much need of Oaths for en Jinq of Strife in tins' 
litigious Age, as there could be ia former Times. 
3th, Becauie Oaths were once lawful, therefore 
:hey are lawful XT" II ; Holds the Adversaries 
Drove them repealed ; which they muft do r not 
:>y ftealing out of the Scripture finrle Words by 
Jaemielves, making one Part couuadict another. 

1 8 2 Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. Chap. XXII. 

9th, Becaufe we need not fear to imitate any 
thing which is done in Heaven. Our Lord has 
taught us to .pray, < Thy Will be done on Earth 
as it Is in Heaven.' But the Angel (fays John, 
Rev. io. 5, 6.) which I faw ftand upon the Sea, 
and upon the Earth, lifted up his Hand to Hea- 
ven, * and fwore by him that liveth for ever and 
ever.* That Angel calls himfelf our Fellow- Ser- 
vant, and of our Brethren the Prophets, and of 
them which keep the Sayings of this Book, Rev. 
2 2. 9. And therefore the Angels being of the 
fame Fraternity with us, do not aft under different 
Difpenfations from us. 

Queft. HI. " Is an Oath to be taken in the 
" plain and common Senfeof the Words, without 
" Equity, or Mental Refervatioa ?" 

Yes; Pfalm 24. 4. Exod. 20. 7. Lev. 16, 12. 
Jer. 4. 2. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptifts err; who 
maintain, That it is lawful in fwearlng to ufe 
Words of Equivocation ? 

Do not likewife the Papifts err, who maintain, 
Mental Refervation, to be lawful in Swearing ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaule the Scripture requires from all 
Men in their common Dealing one with another, 
in their Difcourfe and Conferences ; Verity and 
Simplicity, Matth. 5. 37. Eph. 4. 25. Much 
mere are thefe Things required in Swearing, 
wherein God is called to be*Witnefs of the Truth 1 
of thefe Things which are afferted. 2d, Becaufe 
the Lord threatneth fuch as ufe Guile and Deceit 
in their Words, Pfalm 15. 4. and 24. 4. Gal. 

2. 11, 

Chap. XXII. Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. 183 

2. 11, 12, 13. 3d, Becaufe the Lord requires 
in every Oath, Truth, Righteoufnefs, and Judg- 
ment, Jer. 4. 2. 4th, Becaufe Equivocations, 
and Mental Refervations, are againft the very 
End of an approven Oath; which is to put an 
End to all Debate and Controverfy. 5th, Becaufe 
if Equivocations, and Mental Refervations were 
lawful, in vain fhould the Lord have made 
Laws againft Lying; for a Lie may be exculed 
by Mental Refervaiion. 6th, If Equivocations, 
and Mental Refervations were allowed, they 
would take away all Commerce among Men, and 

•c would make Bonds, Contracts, and Charter- Parties 

't of none EfFccl. 

Queft. IV. t( Is a religious Vow to be made to 

*• " God alone, and not to any Creature ? " 

Yes, to God alone, Jer. 44. 25, 26. Pfalm 76. 


Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, Vows may be made to Saints departed, and 
to Cenobiarchs, that is, to Priors of Monafteries, 
or Abbeys ? 

By what Reafons are*they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Vows are a Part of our Grati- 

|tude, and Thankfulnefs due to God only, for his 

i Favours and Mercies conferred upon us, Pfalm 

f > 50. 14. Pfalm 66. 13, 14. 2d, Becaufe we are 

commanded in the Word to make our Vows to 

|God, and perform them. But no where are we 

appointed to make our Vows to Saints departed, 

>Pfaim 58. 14. 3d, Becaufe God only is the 

Trier, and Searcher of the Heart: And it is he 

only that knoweth the Sincerity of the Man's 

Mind that voweth, and is able to punifli fuch as 

violate, and break their Vows, Deut. 23. 21. 

1 84 Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. Chap. XXII. 

4th, Becaufe the Lord thrcatneth thofe feverely, 
that had vowed to any other Gods but to him- 
felf alone, and accufes them of a very great Sin, 
Jer. 44. 25, 26. 

Queft. V. u Are Popifh Monaftical Vows of a 
" perpetual Tingle Life, profefled Poverty, and re- 
u . guJar Obedience, fo far from being Degrees of 
*' higher Perfection, that they are fuperftitious 
" and fingle Snares, in which no Chriftian may 
" intangie hirnfelf ?" 

Yes; Matth. 19. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 7. 2, 9. Eph. 
4. 28. 1 Pet. 4. 2. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, Monaftical Vows , of perpetual fingle Life, 
profefTed Poverty, and regular Obedience, to be 
Degrees of higher Perfection f 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe a Vow of a perpetual fingle Life 
is unlawful ; For no Man ought to Vow the Per- 
formance of that for which he hath not a Promife 
of Strength to perform. But no Man hath a Pro- 
mife of perpetual Continency, which is necefTarily 
required to a perpetual fingle Life: ^Jay, Chrift 
fays exprefly, that the Gift of Continency is not 
given to all Men, Matth. 19. 11. 2d, Becaufe 
Marriage is honourable among all Men, and the 
Bed vmdcfiled, Heb. 13. 4. 3d, Becaufe the 
Apoille bids every Man take his own Wife, f or 
fhunning of Fornication, 1 Cor. 7. 1, 2, 9, 4th, 
Becaufe the forbidding of Marriage is a DocVme 
of Devils, 1 Tim. 4. 1,3. 

Next, the Vow of profefled Poverty is un- 

1 ft, Becaufe the Lord did not allow Beggars 
to be among his People of old, Deut, 1 5. 7, ad, 

1 Chap. XXIII. Of the Civil Magi/irate. 1 8 5 

Becaufe, Augur wilhed that the Lord might not 
give him Poverty, lead he fnould ileal, and take 
1 the Name of God in vain, Prov. 30. 8, 9. 3d, 
Becaufe the Lord will have every Man eat his 
] Bread in the Sweat of his Face, Gen. 3.19. 4th, 
I Becaufe the Apoftle commands the The/falonians 
to work with their own Hands, 1 ThefT. 4. 1 \ . 
s 5th, Becaufe profefled Poverty hindreth a greater 
' Good, viz. our Charity, and Benevolence to- 
wards the poor and indigent Members of Chrifl, 
which is contrary to the Apoftle's Rule, Eph. 
4. 28. 

The Vow of Regular Obedience is likewife un- 

1 ft, Becaufe it makes us the Servants of Men, 
which is contrary to the Apoftle, ' Ye are bought 
with a Price, be not ye the Servants of Men/ 
viz. To do any Thing for the Service, or Obc- 
idience of Men (Superiors) which fhould be repug- 
nant to the Commands of the Service of God. Or 
fuffer not yourfelves in fpiritual Things to be 
J ^brought in Bondage by any Man, that you fhould 
not freely uie that which the Lord hath made 
free to us, 1 Cor. 7. 23. 



Of the Civil Magiftrate. 

Question. I. 

ATH God armed the Civil Magistrate 
with the Power of the Sword, for the 
Defence, and Encouragement of thim that are 
: u Good, and for the ptmifhmeot of Evil-doers ( M 
0^3 Yes. 


1 8 6 Of the Civil Magiftrate. Chap. XXIIf . 

Yes; Rom. 13. 1,2, 3, 4. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14, 
Well then, do not the Soeinians err, who main- 
lain, That it is not the Duty of the^Civil Magi- 
ftrate to punifli the Guilty with Death ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe God hath exprefty commanded, 
that tranfgreffing Idolaters be put to Death, 
Deut. 17. 7. and 19 21. 2d, Becaufe it apper- 
tains to the Office and Duty of the Magiftrate, tc 
punifli the Guilty with Death, Rom. 13.4. 1 Pet. 
2. 14. 3d, Becauie the Capital Punifhment of 
evil Doers makes others ftand in awe, and fear to 
offend, Deut. 13. u. and 19. 20. 4th, Be 
caufe, if the Magiftrate (hall neglect to inflict due 
Punifhment, the Lord himfelf will be avenged on 
that Magiftrate, 1 Kings 20. 42. Numb. 25. 4. 
5-th, Becaufe he that fmiteth a Man fo that he 
die, (hall furely be put to Death, Exod. 21. 12. 
6th, Becaufe all that take the Sword, (hall perifli 
by the Sword, Matth. 26. 52. Namely, with- 
Gift a lawful Call, or Order for it. They (hall 
peiifh, by Order and Command of the Magiftrate 
to whom the Lord hath given the Sword for this 
very fame End, to punifh evil Doers with Death, 
Gen. 9. 6. Rom. 13. 4. 

Queft. II. " Is it the Duty of the Civil Magi 
" ftrate to take Order, that all Blafphemies, and 
" Herefies be fuppreiTed all the Ordinances of God 
" duly fettled, adminiftred and obferved ; all Abu- 
*' its m \Vor(h''p, and Difcipline reformed, all ldo« 
11 laters, Gainfayers, and other obftinate Diflentcrs 
*' be pbliged and forced to quit their Tenets and 
* J Opinions, and conform themfelves to the true 
V Woifhip and Service of God according to hi 

" Law J" 

Yes ; 

Chap. XXIII. Of the Civil MagifiraU. i$7 

Yes; lia. 49. 23: 2 Clron. 15. 12, 13. and 
^4. 33. 2 Kings 18. 4. and 23. 1, to tie 26 
Verfe. Ezra 7. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28. Lev. 24. 16, 
Well then, do not the Quakers, and other Sec- 
taries err, who judge it Anrichriitian, and ihe 
Practice of the Church of Rome, that the Civil 
: Supreme Magiftrate, with the ^ffiiiance of the 
Church and her Ceniures, thou Id by his co- 
active Power, force and oblige ail his Subjects to 
a Reformation of Heligion, and to a Conformity 
to die true Worfliip, found Doctrine, and Dif- 
fi cipline of the Church ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becauie it is foretold by the Prophet Ifaiah, 
that in the Days of the Gofpel, Kings (hall be 
nurfing Fathers, and Queens nui ling Mothers 
to the Church of God, Chap. 49. 23. 2d, Be- 
caufe Artaxeixes, who was but a Heathen King-, ; 
was very careful to make a Decree, that what- 
foever was commanded by the God of Heaven, 
ihould be diligently done for the tioufe of the 
God of Heaven. And whoibever would not 
obey the Law of God and the King, Judgment 
was to be executed fpeedily upon him, whether 
by Death, Bapifhment, Confiication of Goods, 
or Imprifonment. For which fingular Mercy, 
Ezra blefTed the Lord God of his Fathers, who 
had put fuch a Thing in the King's Heart, Chap. 
7. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28. So did Nebuchadnezzar 
make a Decree, that if any People, Nation 01 Lan- 
guage fhould fpeak any Thing amifs agah ft 
the God of Heaven, they fhould be cut in Pieces, 
and their Houfes made a Dunghill, Dan. 3. 29. 
The like we read of Darius, who made a Decree, 


1 8 8 Of the Civil Magijlrate. Chap. XXIII. 

that all Men fhould tremble and fear before the 
God of Daniel, Chap. 6. 26. 3d, From the Ex- 
ample of Hezekiah, who removed the High Places, 
and brake the Images, and cut down the Groves, 
and brake in Pieces the Brazen Serpent, to which 
the Ifraelites did burn Incenfe, 2 Kings 18. 4. 
4th, From the Example of Jofiah, who made a 
thorough Reformation ; and made all Ifrael to ferve 
the Lord their God. The Word in the Original 
impoi teth, that he in a Manner forced, and com- 
pelled them to the pure Worfhip, and Service of 
God, as a Servant is forced and compelled to his 
Work. He, by his royal Power and Authority, 
kepi them in Order, forbidding Idolatry, and com- 
manding them to ferve God no otherwife, than 
according to his Word, 2 Chron. 34. 33. and 
15. 12, 13. They entered into a Covenant to 
feek the Lord God of their Fathers, with all their 
Hearts, and with all their Soul : That 7 whofoever 
would not feek the Lord God of Ifrael, fhould 
be put to Death, whether Small or Great, Man 
or Woman. 5th, Becaufe whofoever blafphemed 
the Name of the Lord, was furely put to Death, 
Lev. 24. 16. This blafphepiing was a piercing 
through, or ftabbing the Name of the Lord, as 
the Original Word properly fignifies, which 
may be done not only after this Manner, but 
by maintaining blafphemous Errors and Hereiies. 
6th, Becaufe the fupreme Magiftrate is cuftos 
ntriufque tabulae, a Keeper of both Tables of the 
Law of God : As well of the firft Table, which 
relates to Religion, and our Duty to God ; as of 
the fecond, which reiates to Righteoufnefs, and 
our Duty to our Neighbour. If then, he may 
punifh evil Doers, who offend againft. the fecond 
Table, and force and compel them to Obedience, 


[II Chap. XXIII. Of the Civil Mmgijlrate. 189 

:h e by the Sword of Juftice, which God hath put 
x . into his Hand ; much more may he punifh ldo- 
;s latcrs and Blafphemers, who offend againft the 
s firft Table, and force and compel them to O- 
\ bedience, feeing there are many Sins againft the 
I firft Table, which are more hainous and odious 
a than the Sins againft the fecond Table. And 
£ though it be the finful Practice of the Church of 
I Rome, to force Men and Women to be of their 
. Religion, which is Superftitious and Idolatrous ; 
f yet it is not fo to others, who have the true Reli- 
gion among them. And though our blefTed Sa- 
viour, and his Apoftles did not ufe fuch Means 
for propagating the Gofpel, referving the Glory 
cf conquering of Souls to himlelf, and the Power 
of his Spirit; yet has taught nothing to the con- 
trary, but that Kings and Magiftrates whom he 
has made nuriing Fathers to his Church, may, 
according to the laudable Examples of the good 
Kings of Judah, improve their Power for Refor- 
mation, and Maintainance of his own Religion. 
And though Religion hath been much advanced 
by fuffering, yet it will not infer, that a Chriftian 
Prince has not Power to reform his own Subjects, 
or to extirpate Blafphemers and Heretics. 

Queft. III. " Is it lawful for a Chriftian to ac- 
" cept and execute the Office of a Magiftrate, 
U when called thereunto:" 

Yes ; Prov. 8. 1 5, 1 6. Rom. 1 3. 1, 2, 4. 
Well then, do not the Anabaptifts eir, who 
maintain, That it is not lawful for Chiiftians to 
carry the Office of a Magiftrate ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe there is no Power but of God, 
and the Powers which arc, are ordained of God, 



190 Of the civil Magi/Irate. Chap. XXIII. (i 

Rom. 13. 1. 2d, Becanfe Solomon fays, * Byrne 
(that is, by the Lord) Kings reign, and Princes 
decree JuUice/ Prov. 8. 15. 3d, Becaufe the 
Magiftrate exercifes, and executes God's Judg- 
ments, Deut. 1. 17. 4th, Becaufe the Magi- 
ftrate receiveth all Things from God, which arc 
neceiTary for the Performance of his Office, Num. 
11. 17. 5 th, Becaufe the Lord hath promifed, 
that Magiftrates under the Gofpel, fhall be nurf- 
ing Fathers to his Church, lfa. 49. 23. • And 
fhall make the Whore defolate, naked, and (hall 
eat her Flelh, and burn her with Fire/ Rev. 17. 

Queft. IV. " May the Civil Magiftratenow un- 
** der the New Teftament, wage War upon juft 
44 and neceffary Occafions ? " 

Yes; Luke 13. 14. Matth. 8.9, 10. Rev. 17. 
14, 16. Acts 10. 1, 2. 

"Well then, do not the Quakers, Anabapifh, 
and Socinians err, who maintain, That it is al- 
together unlawful, now under the New Tefta- 
ment, to wage War ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe God appointed and commanded 
lawful War, Numb. 31. 2. For it is faid, < The 
Spirit of the Lord came upon Gideon, when he 
was to fight the Battles of the Lord, againft the 
Midianites and Amalikites,' Judges 6. 34. Nay, 
the Lord himfelf prefcribeth the Manner and 
Way of making of War, Numb. 10. and 31* 
27. Dcut. 20. 2. And giveth Knowledge and 
Ski'l to his Generals and Heroes, to fight his 
*wn Battles, Pfalm 18. 34. and 144. 1. All 
which are in nowife abrogated, and taken away 
under the New Teftament, 2d, Becaufe the 


Chap. XX11I. Of the Civil MagiJIrate. 191 

'• Centurion, that was converted to the Faith, did 
: e not lay down his Office of a Captain of a Hun- 
:s dred, which furely he would have c^one, if to 
ie war under the New Teftament had been unlaw- 
j. ful, Afts 10. i, 2,47. The fame may be faid 
i. of the believing Centurion, Matth. 8. 8, 9, 10. 
• 3d, Becaufe the Office of a Soldier is not repre- 
i, hended. and reproved, by John the Baptift, but 
1 rather approven, Luke 3. 14. 4th, Becaufe 
f. Oppofition, and Defence againft unj uft Violence, 
i which oftentimes cannot be done without War, 
] is the very Law of Nature. 5th, Becaufe it is 
foretold, that the Kings of the Earth fhall make 
War againft the Beaft, Rev. 17. 14, 16. 

Queft. V. u May the Civil Magiftrate aflume to 
I " himfelf the Adminiftration of the Word and 
" Sacraments, or the Power of the Keys of the 
* Kingdom of Heaven ? " 

No; 2 Chron. 26. 18. Matth. 18. 17. and 16. 
!; 19. 1 Cor. 12, 28, 29. Rom. 10 5. Heb. 5.4. 
Well then, do not the Eraftians err, who main- 
tain, That the Civil Magiffxate hath in himfelf 
, all Church Power ; and io may adminifter the 
I Sacraments, and preach the Word, and may ex- 
| ercife the Power of the Kingdom of Heaven ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
lft, Becaufe Chrift hath given no fuch Power 
to Magiftrates : As evidently appears from all 
thofe Places of Scripture, where mention is made 
of the Keys. There is not in them one Syllable 
of the Civil Magiftrate, Matth. 18. 17. and 16. 
15. 19. 2d, If the Power of the Keys of the 
Kingdom of Heaven agree to the Magiftrate, as 
Magiftrate, then ought it agree to every Magi- 
ate, though the Magiftrate were an Infidel, or 


j 92 Of the Civil Magiftrate. Chap. XXIII. 

a Woman, which is abfurd. 3d, A Magiftrate as 
a Magiftrate, is not a Minifter of the Church, 
as is evident from all the Catalogues of the Mini- 
flers of the Church. For in them, you will not 
find any Mention of the Magiftrate, Eph. 4. 11. 
Rom. 12. 7, 8. 1 Cor. 12. 8, 9, 10. 4th. Be- 
caufe, before ever there was a Chriftian Magiftrate 
in the World, the Church exercifed all A&s of 1 
Church Jurifdi£tion, and Government, The 
Church ordained Minifters and Paftors ; 1 Tim. 
4. 14. And inflifted the Cenfure of Excommuni- 
cation, 1 Cor. 5. 5. And relaxed the Penitent 
from Cenfure: called a Synod, and Stigmatized 
Heretics, Afrs 15. 5. 5th, Becaufe God hath 
put a Difference between the Church Government 
and the Civil, and hath appointed diftinft Go- 
vernors to them, 2 Chron. 19 8, 9, 10, 11. 6th, 
Becaufe God did feverely punifh Saul and Uziah, I 
for prefuming to offer Sacrifice, which was pro- j 
per to the Prieft only, 1 Sam. 13. 9, 10, 13. 
2 Chron. 26. 16. 19. 

Queft. VI. " Hath the Civil Magiftrate Power 
* c to call Svnypib, to be prefent at them, and to pro- 
" vide that whatfoever is tranfafted in them be 
" according to the Mind of God r " 

Yes; 2 Chron. 19. 8, 9, 10, n. and 2 Chron. 
29/30. Chapters. Matth. 2. 4, 5. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That the Judgment and Care of Religion 
doth not belong to theiCvil Magiftrate ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Cuftody, and keeping of the 
divine Law, is committed by God to the Civil 
Magiftrate, Deut. 17. 18. 2d, Becaufe it was 
foretold, that Kings (hould be nuriing Fathers to 

* the 

5hap. XXIII. 9f the Civil Magijlratt* 1 93 

he Church, Ifa. 49. 23. 3d, Bjcaufe it is the 
Duty of the Magistrate, to take Care that Sub- 

jefts may lead a quiet and peaceable Life, in all 

jiJodlinefs and Honefty, 1 Tim 2. 2. 4th, From 
he commendable Examples of the good Kings 

• >f Judah, 2 Chron. 29. 30. Chapters. 

: Queft. VI. " Doth Infidelity, or Difference irt 

f ' Religion make void the Magiftrat»es juft and 

si;' legal Authority ? M 

, No. 

" Doth it free the People from their due Obe- 

t:' dience to him \ " 

No; 1 Pet. 2. 13. Rom. 13. i, 2, 3, 4. Tit. 

! Well then, do not the Papifts, Anabaptifts, 

ind others err, who maintain, That Subject a 

t night not to fuffer a King that is an Infidel, or 

Itjbe'y that King in his juft Commands, that differs 

,. rom them in Religion ? 

, Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

r 1 ft, Becaufe we are commanded to fobmit bur* 

, elves to every Ordinance of Man, 1 Pet 2. 13. 

jNamely, in all that they command us, if it be not 

contrary to God and his Command : Other wife, 

according to Acts 4. io.> it is better to obey 

3od than Man. And it is faid, for the L'lift 

Sake, that is, becaufe it is God's Will to goteril 

is by them. 2d, Becaufe the Chriftians, which 

vert .a Rome, were commanded by the \poftle 

o fubjett themielves to the higher Powers and 

hat without Exception of Religion an <: Piety, 

. .nJ even to that Heathen the Roman Emperor, 

■J <om. 13. 1. 3d Becaufe the fame -\p file 

', vrittng to Titi.s, bid> him t xhon the: Ci'etian^ 

! lis Hearers, to obey* Magiftrate*, what Manner 

ft of 

794 Of the Civil MagiJIrate. Chap. XXIII. 

of ones foever they be, not only believing ones, 
but alfo thofe that are unbelieving, as then they 
-were yet moftof them, Tit. 3. i. 4th, Becaufe 
Vfhen the Apoftle Paul was purfued for his Life, 
and charged with Matters criminial he appealed 
unto Cefar, A&s 25. 10, n. 5th, Becaufe 
the Prophet Jeremiah did own the Power of Ze- 
dekiah, who had turned afide to a falfe Worfhip, 
and had defpifed the path which he had made 
to the King of Babylon, Ezek. 17. 16, 17. Now 
hear, I pray thee, fays the Prophet, * Omy Lord 
the King let my Supplication, I pray thee, be ac- 
cepted before thee,' Jer. 27. 20. 6th, Becaufe 
Chrift himfelf payed Tribute to Cefar, though he 
was free, being both the Son of God by Nature, 
iUid Son of Dtvid by Birth, Matth. 22. 21, 
Rom. 13. 7. 7th, Becaufe Paul did own and 
acknowledge the Power of King Agrippa ; A&s 
26. 2. 

Qutft. VII. " Is it the Duty of People to pray 
" for Magiftrates, and honour their Perfons ? " 

Y:S; 1 Tim. 2.1,2. and 1 Pet. 2. 17. 

Well then, do not fome errx who deny this? 

Yes. Y 

Ey what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ifr, Becaufe Samuel at the R.quefr of Saul, 
whom he knew the Lord had rejected, returned 
again after him, and honoured him before the 
People, 1 Sam. 15. 31. 2d, Becaufe the Lord 
having appointed Magiftrates to adminifter Ju- 
ftice and Judgment in his Name, is fo far pleated 
to honour them, as to call them Gods, and the 
Children of the moft Hi^h, Pfalm S2. i, 6. 3d, 
rkoufe the Apofhe Peter fays, k - Fear God, and 
honour the King,' parallel to what Paul fays, 
Reader to ali Mea ttair Dues, Honour to whotn 


Chap. XXIII. Of the Civil MdgijlraU. f o; 

Honourisdue, 1 Pet 2.17. Rom. 13. 7. 4th, 
r Becauie even Heathen Magistrates are called the 
Lord's anointed, lfa. 45. 1. And the L,ord calls 
Nebuchadnezzar his Servant, Jer. 27.6. If then 
lliuch Magiflrates ought to be honoured upon that 
i Account ; much more Chriftian Magiftrates. 5th, 
Becaufe if we be obliged not to fpeak evil of 
^Dignities, 2 Pet. 2. 11. nor revile the Gods; 
:!Exod. 22. 8. we are obliged to honour Dignities, 
1 for where a Sin is forbidden, the contrary Duty is 
commanded. 6th, Becaufe God commanded his 
People the Jews to feek the Peace of the City 
; (that is, the Welfare and Profperhy of Babylon) 
: whether he had caufed them to be carried away 
^.Captives, Jer. 29. 7. 7th, Becaufe the Prophet, 
the Man of God, befought the Lord in behalf of 
Jeroboam, 2nd prayed for him, a Man that had 
.made Apoftacy from the true Worfhip of God, 
and had made Ifrael to fin, 1 Kings 13. 3. 8th, 
> Becaufe our blefled Saviour fays, ' Render to 
Cefar the Things that are Cefars/ Matth. 22. 
21. But Prayers and Supplications are as due to 
'Cefar, as Cuftoro'and Tribute, 1 Tim. 2. r, 2. 
,9th, Becaufe the Apoftle commands us to pray 
for all that are in Authority, that we may lead a 
jquiet and peaceable Life; which is the Caufe 
iwherefore we muft pray for Magiflrates. For in 
the Apoftles Time, and long after, Magiftrate9 
iwere Perfecutors of the Church of God, and hun- 
dred the Members of Chrift to live in Peace and 
Godlinefs, 1 Tim. 2. 1,2. 10th, Becaufe Mofes 
cried unto the Lord in Behalf of Pharaoh, 
Exod. 8. 12. Abraham prayed unto God for 
Abimelech, Gen, 20. 17. Jacob blelTed Pba- 
raohy Gen. 47. 7, 10. nth, Becauie many 
bleUed Martyrs going to Death have prayed for 
K 2 their 

i()6 Of the Civil Magifirate. Chap. XXUll 

their perfecuting Magiftrates, following the Ex* 
ample, and Command of our bleiTed Saviour 
Luke 23. 34. Matth. 5.44. 

Queft. Vil. " Ought any Man at his owi 
" Hand, or at thelnftigationof other Men, to ai 
" {affiliate or kill a Magifirate, or any private 
" public Perion, under the Pretence they ar^ 
" Heretics, and Perfecutors of the Truth ?" 

No; Exod. 20. 13. Prov. 1. 10, 11. 

Well then, do not thofe Men of the Romifl 
Church err, and others, who own this dangeroa 

Tes. ' : 

. By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe all Sorts of Murder is exprefly for, 
bidden in the fixth Command 'Thou ihalt no, 
kill ;' Exod. 20. "13. Where there is a clear Di, 
{tineYicn made by Thou, between a private Man anc 
a public Magifirate that doth it by divine Authoj 
rity. 2d, Becaufe tho' Saul was a Man reje&ed 
God (1 Sam. 15. 26.) yet David fays to theAma! 
lekite, .' How waft: thou not afraid to ftretch forth 
thine Hand to defiroy the Lord's anointed/ 2 Sam^ 
i. 14. fee 1 Sam. 24. 5. and 26. 9. 3d, Becauf. 
whatever may be alledged from Phineas his Facl' 
Numb. 25. 8. from Ehud's Fact in ftabbinf 
Eglon, Judges 3. 41. from Samuel's Fart i^ 
killing Agag, 1 Sam. 15. 33. and from Elijah'.] 
Fact in killing the Pviefts of Baal, 1 Kings 141 
30. They will not by any means favour private 
Mens Affaffinatjons ; for certainly Phineas had '< 
Divine Motion, as Ehud had, itirring him up, 
which was evident by the Lord's approving the 
Facl, and rewarded it. Samuel (no doubt) wa* 
moved hereunto by an inward Motion and inftinc^ 
cf God, and the Conduct of his Spiiit, as was 

Elijah ; 

1 Chap. XXIII. Of the Civil Magljlrate. 197 

-Elijah: fo that their Facls, and fuch like, were 
1 iltogether particular, and cannot be abufed by 
imitation, and followed by every one, as Rules, 
'jvhofe Galling is not properly to ufe the Sword of 
fultice. 4th, Becaufe it would bring a Mafs of 
^onfufion, to the utter Ruin of all Societies, if 
;very Man at his own Hand might execute vin- 
iiftive Juftice upon Offenders, who deferve it, or 
lpon Pretence they defer ve it, which is ro fight a^ 
jainft God, who is the God of Order Politic, as 
veil as Ecclefiaftic, and not of Confufion. 5th, 
kcaufe the Wrath of Man workcth not the Righ- 
eoufnefs of God, Jam. 1. 20. 6th, Becaufe it 
s a Contempt of public Laws, and public Or- 
ler. It is an Ufurpation of the Magiftrates Sword, 
Vhich God hath put into his Hand f^r punifhing 
nd protecting. It is an Invafion of God's Right 
nd Prerogative of executing Vengeance, which he 
lath fo exprelly referved to himfelf, Pfalm 94. f£ 
lorn. 12. 29. Deut. 23. 35. Prov. 25. 21, 22. 
'th, Becaufe Solomon fays, 'My Son, if Sinners 
ntice thee, confent thou not ; if they fay, Gome 
Vith us, let us lay wait for Blood, let us lurk 
J'rivily for the Innocent, walk not thou in the 
*Vay with them,' Prov. 1, 10, 11. 8th, Becaufe 
righteous Man regardeth the Life of his Beafr, 
luch more ought a righteous Man to regard the 
/ife of his Neighbour, Prov. 12. 10. The Sin of 
Murder may be many Ways agravated. Firft, 
y the Quality of the Perfon murdered, whether 
e be a Superior, as a Magiftrate, or Minifler, or 
Wentor ; whether he be of a near Relation, as a 
kother, or near Kinfman. Secondly, from the 
lanner, extreme Cruelty being ufed, or fuddea 
nd unexpected Death, putting a Man into Etc * 
ity in the twinkling of an Eye. To >vhich we 
R 3 roay 

1 98 . Of the Civil Magijtrate. Chap. XXIH 

may add Deliberation and premeditate Murder, oi 
which Solomon fpeaks in the forecited Place. 

Quell. IX. u Are Ecclefiaftic Perfons exempted 
" from due Obedience to the Magiftrate ?" 
•No; Rom.. 13. 1. 1 Kings 2. 26. Acts 25. 9, 
10, li. 2 Fe&r 3. 1. 10, n. Jude verfe 8, 9, xo. 

Weil then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That the Clergy (as they call them) and 
their Goods are altogether free by the Law of 
God, from Secular Powers ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Command of Obedience is ge- 
neral, and univerfal, * Let every Soul be fubjecl/ 
Rom. 13. r. 2d, Becaufe Chrift commanded the 
Pharifees, who were of the Clergy, to render un- 
to Ctfar the Things which are Cefars, Matih. 22, 
21. Nay, Chrift himfelf payed Tribute Money, 
viz. a Stater, in value two Shillings, and three 
Pe,nce, which Peter found in the Fifh's Mouth, 
when he opened it, Matth. 17. 27. 3d, Becaufe 
Paul did acknowledge himfelf fubjeel to the Ma- 
gistrate, when he appealed unto Cefar, AcTs 
25, 1 1. 4th, From the Example of the Priefts 
who were fubjefted to their Kings. Did not 
Abi athar at Solomon's Command go to Anathoth? 

I $3ngs 2. 26. 

(jut ft. X. u Hath the Pope any Power or Ju- 

II -riidiclion over Magiftrates, in their Domini- 
"•■oi}S» or over any. of their People f 

No; Rev. 13. 15, 16, 17. 2 TheiT. 2.4. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That the Pope of Rome, as Pope, hath full 
Power, by Divine Right, over the whole World, 
as well in Matters Civil as Ecclefi aftical ? 


;;. :hap. XXIII. Of the Civil Magi/Irate. 1 9<> 

oi. Yes. 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
Til, Becaufe Chrift: expredy diicbarges his Di- 
fciples from taking to themfelves, any inch Power 
Dr Dominion, Match. 20. 25. Mark 10. 42. 2d, 
Becaufe the Kingdom of Chrift is not of this 
World, John 18.36. Neither ought the Pope's 
Kingdom to be of this World, who calls himfelf 
the Vicar of Chrift. That is, one who iupp'ieth 
'Chriil's Room, and taketh Paris for him, his De- 
pute here on Earth. 3d, Becaufe when the People 
would have made Chrift a King, he departed 
again into a Mountain himfelf alone, John 6. 
15. 4th, Becaufe the Apoftle Peter difcharged 
this Dominion, 1 Pet. 5. 1, 2, 3. 5th, Becaufe 
it is never heard that any of the Apoftles did ever 
ufe any civil Power or Command; or fat as 
Judges in civil Matters, but flood always to be 
judged by civil Powers, as is evident from the 
Hiftory of the Acts. 6th, Becaufe God hath 
put a Difference becween the Government of the 
Church, and the civil Government; and hath gi- 
. veil to each their own proper and diftinct Officers. 
I Neither can the one invade the other, without very 
(great Sin, 2 Chron. 19. 8, 9, 10, 11. 7th, Be- 
I caufe it is the Mark of Antichrift, to exalt him- 
•felf above all that is called God, 2 ThefT. 2, 4. 


Of Marriage and 'Divorce. 

Question I. 

u TS Marriage between one Man and one' 
ff A Woman ? ' 

Yes, « u 

150 Of Marriage and Divorce. Chap. XXIV * 

" Is it lawful for a Man to have more than on fl 1 
€i Wife, or for a Woman to have more than onf' 
m Hufband at the fame Time ?" 

No; Gen. 2. 24. Matth. 19. 5, 6. Prov. 2 

Well then, do not ihe Anabaprifts and Familift 
err, who maintain, That it is lawful for a Chrif 
tian, not only to have more Wives at the fam<; 
Time, but as many as he defires ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the having of two Wives, or ma- 
ny Wives, is contrary to the firft Inftitution of 
Marriage, for the Lord gave Adam one Wife on- 
ly," Gen. 2.24. 2d, Beeaufe the Law of God 
forbids expreily Bigamy, or two Wives, Lev. 18. 

18. 3d, Becaufe the Lord doth find Fault ftiarp- 
ly with Polygamy, or many Wives, Mai. 2. 14, 
15. 4th, Becaufe Chrift fays, i He that puts a* 
way his Wife (except in the Cafe of Adultery) 
and marries another, committeth Adultery, Mat. 

1 9. 9. But if it were lawful to have at one Time 
more Wives than one, he fhould not be guilty 
of Adultery in marrying another, whether he put 
away the former Wife or not. 5th, Becaufe Bi- 
gamy and Polygamy take away the true Peace of 
a wedded Life, as is evident from the Examples 
of Jacob, Gen. 30. And of Elkanah, 1 Sam. i. 
6. 6th, Becaufe the Invention of Bigamy was 
the Device of a wicked Man, Lamech, Gen. 4. 

Queft. II. * Is it lawful for all Sorts of People 
« to maYry, who are able with Judgment to give 
•' their Confent ? 

Yes ; Heb. 13 4. I Tim. 4. 3. 1 Cor. 7. 36, 
37, 38. Gen. 24, 57, 58. 

Well then, doth not the Popifli Church err, 


\tSpp. XXIV. Of Marriage and Divorce, tot 

r TJiat forbiJs and discharges Marriage to their 


► By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lit, Becaufe Marriage is honourable among 
ill Men, and the Bed undefiled, Heb. 13. 4. ad, 

-_,3ecaufe the Apoftle commands, for avoiding For- 
mication, every Man to have his own Wife, and 
every Woman to have her own Hulband, 1 Cor. 
7* 2. 3d, Becaufe the Apoftle reckons up the 
forbidding of Marriage, among the Doctrine* of 
Devils, 1 Tim. 4. 3. 4th, Becaufe a Bifhop 
mull be the Hulban.i of one Wife, 1 Tim. 3. 2, 
4. Tit. 1. 6. 5th, Becaufe the Apoftle reckon* 
•v T er the Qualifications which are requifite for 

.Biihops Wives, 1 Tim. 3. 11. 6th, Becaufe it 
can be gathered from Scripture, that fome of th«- 
Apoftles, and other Minifters of the Gofpel have 
been married Perfons. Concerning Peter, the' 
Matter is evident, Matth. 8. 14. Mark I. 30.* 
J^nd we read that Philip the Evangelift had four 
Daughters, all of them Prophetefles, Acts 21. 9. > 
And fays not the Apoftle, i Have we not Power to. 
lead about a Sifter a Wife, as well as other Apov 

(flies, and as the Brethren of the Lord, and Ce- 

|phas, 1 Cor. 9. 5. 

Queft. III. Ought Marriage to be within the v 
*t Degrees of Confanguinity or Affinity forbidden 

("in the Word?" 

V Can inceftuous Marriages ever be made law-/ 
*' ful, by any Law of Man, or confe.nt .of Parties, • 
M fo as thefe Perfons, may live together as Man, 
" and -Wife?" 

No; 1 Cor. 5. 1. Amos 2. 7. Mark 6. 18. Ler. 
18. 24, 2 j, 26, 27, 2S, 


«ot Of Marriage and Divtrte, Chap. XXI\ fc 
„ Well then, doth not the Popiffi Church en » 3 
That Ipeaks in the Decrees of the Council c * [ 
Trent after this Manner. If any Man affirms *■ 
that thefe Degrees only of Confanguinity or Af $ 
fimty, which are fer down in Leviticus, ma-'f 
hinder a Contract of Marriage to be made oift 
tnaydiffolve a .Marriage Contraft already made ^ 
And that the Church hath not Power to difpena^ 
with fome of thefe Degrees (that is to fay, peri 1 ? 
mit Inceft) or may not make new Laws, and 
confhtute far more forbidden Degrees, than ar^ 
cxpreft in Leviticus, let him be an Anathema* 
and accurfed ? < 

Yes. , ( ; 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

Before this be done, take notice, that there ( 
are here two Heads to be confidered. 

Firft, Whether or not we muft ftand to the 
forbidden Degrees of Confanguinity and Affinit 
txpreft in Leviticus ? 

Secondly, Whether, to thefe Degrees fet dowft* 
•s forbidden in Leviticus, new Degrees may be^ 
added by the Church of Rome, which will render 
a Marriage Inceftupus ? 

To which we anfwer, That it is not in the:*, 
Power of any Creature, to difpence (that is to fay, 
to fuffer that to be ufed, which is forbidden by I 
the Law of God) with any of thefe Laws in Le 
*iticus, which forbid Inceftuous Marriages. 

And next, wc affirm, neither is it in the Power 
©f any Creature, to add to thefe Degrees forbid- 
den in Leviticus, any other which are not for- 

i ft, Becaufe fuch a Power of difpenfing is 
not to be found in all the Scripture. 2d, Becaufe 
*he Lord fays exprefly. What thing foever 1 com- 


\ hap. XXIV. Of Marrtagi and THvcrct, sej 

, and you, obferve to do it ; thou (halt not add 
erefo, nor di mini (h from it, Dcut. 12. 32. But 
;[ ie Lord himTelf hath made thefe Laws, and efta- 
ft ifhed thefe Marches fo fure, that no Council, no 
tope, no Creature, can either difpenfe with any 
; k : them, or add new ones to them; fee Leviti- 
es 18. 3d, Bxaufe thefe Laws are of common, 
cr id perpetual Right ; and therefore cannot b« 
: fpenfed with. For the Breach of them is reckon- 
i I up amongft the Abominations wherewith the 
nations about polluted and defiled the Land, 
.,ev. 18. 24, 25, 27. . 

Qneft IV. ft Is it lawful to marry a fecond 

Wire, after the rirft is dead ? " 

j a Is it lawful after Divorce to marry another, 

as if the offending Party were dead ?" 
U Yes; M^tth. 5. 31, 32. Rom. 7. 2, 3. Matth, 

W 9- 

Well then, do not the Novatians, the Puritan* 
pfold, truly fo called: and the Tertulianiftserr, 
^ho abfolutely condemn fecond Marriages ? 
j Yes. 

This abfurd Tenet is confuted from Rom. 7. 
L q. and from 1 Cor. 7. 39. 
j Do not like wife the Papifts err, who deny, 
|f hat after Divorce, fecond Marriages are permit- 
ted to Chriftians i 
I Yes. 

But here by two DiftincYions they explain their 

Firft, They diftinguifli between Cohabitation, 
be Bed, and the Tie. 

: The fi -ft is, the dwelling together of Mao and 
i Woman in ooe Family* 


204 Of MarrVagc and Divorce. Chap. XXIV, 

The fecond is, the Right of giving, and re- 
quiring due Benevoknce. 

The thld is that, whereby both are made ont: 
whereby the one cannot but be the others while 
they are both living. 

They diftinguiih next, between Perfons that 
are Believers, and that are Unbelievers If then 
both Parties, or one of them, be Uubclievers, they 
grant that the Marriage is, both as to Coha- 
bitation, to the Marriage Bed, and to the Tie, 
er Bond- 

But if both Parties be Chrlftians they think 
that the Marriage may be diiToived, as to Bed- 
ding together, and Cohabitation, yet the Bond 
ftandeth fure, and abideth unloofeable : efpecial- 
ly, if the Marriage be contracted after Baptifm ; 
and therefore a fecond Marriage after Divorce is 
unlawful to any of them. 

But this is eafily confuted. 

ift, Bccaufe Chriil permitted Marriage after 
Divo'ce, Matth. 5. 31, 32. and 19. 9. Here 
Chrift forbidding a Man to put away his Wife, 
and to marry another, in exprefs Words excepts 
the Cafe of Fornication. Therefore he differs a 
M^n to put away his Wife in the Cafe of Forni- . 
cation, and to marry another. 2d, Bccaufe the 
Apoftle fays, 'But if ihe unbelieving depart, kt 
him depart, for a B/ other, or Sifter, is not tinder 
Bondage in fuch Cafes. 1 1 Cor. 7. 15. There- 
fore, if a Brother or a sifter, when there is fuch a 
wilful and obftiwate Defertjon, be not under Bon- 
dage, then furely ihe Bond is diiToived : and all 
Remedies being til t) in vain, for bringing feck 
the obftinate Pmy, I doubt nor, but theinnoj . t 
Party 'may marry anotherwiihou-t Blame. lr this 
•i'V be, 

Chap. XXIV. Of Marriage and Divorce. 2 ey 

be, then much more may the innocent Pcrfoa 
marry another, when a Divorce is obtained. 

Queft. V. a Is nothing but Adultery, or fuch 
u wilful Defertion, as can noway be remedied by 

* the Church, or civil Magistrate, a fufficient 

* Caufe of diflblving the Bond of Marriage ? n 
Nothing; Mat. 19.8,9. 1 Cor. 7. 15. Mat, 

19. 6. 

Well then, do not the Eotbufiafts and Farm- 
lifts err, who maintain, That it is free for a Man> 
to put away his Wife when he pleafeth ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe the God of Ifrael hateth putting 
awayj Mai. 3. 16. 2d, Becaufe, whofoever put- 
teth away "His Wife, except in Caie of Fornication, 
he caufeth her to commit Adultery, Matth 5. 
32. 3d, Becaufe the Apoftle fays> Art thou 
bound to a Wife, feek not to be looied, 1 Cor. 

Do not likewife the Papifts err, who main:aia, 
That there are other Caufes of Divorce, than A- 
duhery and wilful Defertion. 


• They firft tell us, that Marriage contrafted, and , 
*ot confummated, may be diflblved, viz. by a Mo 
naitic Vow of a perpetual (ingle Life. 

They tell us, Secondly,. that Infidelity, and f!e- 
refy are juft Caufes of Divorce. So fay the . na- 

And TWrdly, they tell us, that Mnrc'er com- 
mitted tipon the Hope of getting fuch a Match, i9 
aiiifli.ienr Caufe of divorce. 

That Coldnefs, p. r\v tual Impotency, °nd fuch 
like Fancn ifes ? 

By whv. Reafon> an thty confuted ? 

206 df the Church. Chap. XXV. 

i ft, Becaufe Chrift fays, What God hath jVin- 
£d together, let no Man put afunder, Matth. 19. 
6. But Marriage contracted, and ratified, iho J 
not confummated, is made by God, therefore it 
cannot be diflolved by Man. Neither ought any 
Man once married, to turn a Monk, for a fingle 
Life is only fit for thofe that have the Gift of 
Continency, for God commands them, that have 
it nor, to marry, 1 Cor. 7. 9. 2d, Neither can- 
Infidelity, or Herefy, be a Ground of Divorce, as 
is clear from 1 Cor. 7. 12, 13, If any Brother 
hath a Wife thatl)elieveth not, and (he be pleaf- 
ed to dwell with him, let him not pat her away. 
And the Woman that hath an Hufband that be-' 
lieveth not, if he be pleafed to dwell with her, let 
her not leave him. 


Of the Church. 

Question I, 

41 T~XOTH the Catholic, or Univerfal Church 
*< I J which is invifible, confifl: of the whole 
*' Number of Elect, that have been, are, or (hall 
4 < be, gathered into one under Chrift, the Head 
" thereof^" 

Yes; Eph. 1. 10, 22, 23, Eph. 5. 23. 27. CoU 
j. 18. 

Well then, doth not the Popifh Church err, 
who deny any catholic invifible Church, con- 
filling of the Elect only, effectually called: who 
maintain the catholic Church to be abfolutely vi- 
able, and as vifible a Society, as the Republic of. 
Venice, or the Kingdom of Fiance, and that it 



Chap. XV. Of the Church. 2«7 

coafifts no lefs of Reprobates Unbelievers, great 
and manifeft Sinners, void of all inward and true 
Graces, than of the Eleft effectually called I 
Yes. % 

By what Reafbns are they confuted ? 
i ft, Becaufe we piufefs to believe, according 
to the Creed, that there is a Church Univerfd, 
namely, fuch an one as we have now defcribed ; 
but what we believe muft be invifible, Heb. n. 
i. 2d, Becaufe the internal Form of the* Church 
(namely, her effectual Calling by the Word and 
Spirit, i Peter 2. 9.) is invifible. 2 Tim. 2. 19. 
1 Cor. 2. 11. 3d, Becaufe the Glory of the 
King's Daughter (that is, of the Univerfal Church, 
as the Adverfaries themfelves cor.fefs) is internal, 
and therefore hidden and invifible, Pfalm 45. 13. 
4th, Becaufe the Word tells us that there is a 
Church, even the Number of thofc whom Chrift 
hath loVed, for whom he gave himfelf to the 
Death; whom he hath fancYified, and wafhen 
and cleanfed, and redeemed with his own Blood, 
and whom at laft he will glorify, Eph. 5. 2.5, 26. 
27. 5th, Becaufe the Scripture tells, that there 
is a Church, which is the myftical Body of 
Chrift (and therefore invifible to the Eyes) 
which by a moft myftical, and moft marvel- 

j, lous Union, is conjoined, and united ftraitly with 
him, Ephef. 1. 10, 22, 23. 6th, Becaufe the 
Church Univerfal, ac to its internal Form, is a 

! fpiritual Houfe, built of lively Stones, in Chrift, 
1 Peter 2. 5. 7th, Becaufe the Members of the 

* Church Univerfal, confidered as to their internal 
State and Condition, are united, and conjoined 
together in one Body, by one Spirit, and by one 
Faith, 1 Cor. 12. 13. Ephef. 4. 4, 5. 8th, Be- 
S 2 caufe 

*o8 Of the Church. Chap. XXV. 

caufe the Members of the Church Univerfal, 
confidered the former Way, are the lively Mem- 
bers of Chrift, which he himfelf doth cherilh, with 
a lively and quickening Nouriftiment, Eph. 5. 29, 

t Qjieft. II, *S Is the vifible Church under the 
" NewTeftament Catholic and Univerfal?" 

Yes; 1 Cor. 1. 2. and 1 Cor, 12. 12, ij. Pfal, 
2. .8. Rev. 15, 9, 10, 11,12. 

Weil then, do not the Independents err, who 
maintain, " There is no vifible Church, under 
the New Teftament, except what may meet in 
one Place, and may perform all their holy Ser* 
vices in a pi ivate Church ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

lit, Eecaufe in very many Places of the New 
Teftament, the word Church (viz. vifible) is 
fo largely taken, that it cannot be reftri&ed to a*- 
SJ particular congregational Church, A£ls 9. 3. 
Gal. 1. 13. A€ts 2. 47, 1 Cor. 10. 32. Eph. 3. 
10. 1 Cor. 12. 28. 1 Tim. 3. 15. 2d, Becaufe 
it hath been foretold in many Places of the Old 
Teftament, that the catholic Church (hall be 
vifible, Pfal. 22. 22, 15, 27, 28. Pfal. 72, 8, 
9, 10, 11. Pfal. S6. 9. lfii. 2. 2, 3, 4, Zech. 14, 
9, 14. 3d, Becaufe the Donation, or the Gift 
of the Kingdom (that is of the Church Univerfal) 
made by the Father to the Son is Univerfal, and 
of all the World, Pfal. 2. 8. Pfal 72. 2. Ifa. 49. 
6. Dan. 7. 14, 4th, Becaufe the Gofpel of the 
Kingdom is Univerfal ; and according to the Stile 
of the Scripture, worketh the vifible Con verfion 
ef the whole World, and therefore the Church 
vifibly converted, and gathered together, is catho- 
lic and univerfal, Matth. 26. 13. Mark 14. 9, 


Chap. XXV. Of the Church. 209 

Col. 1. 16. 5th, Becaufe the vifible Charter, 
which conflitutes the Church, is Univerfal: and 
therefore fince one Charter conftitutes one Policy, 
or Government, all the vifible particular Churches, 
which are conftitute by that one catholic 
Charter, are one Church Univerfal, Matth. 28. 
19. Eph. 3. 6. 6th, Becaufe if there be Officers 
of a Church vifible Univerfal, there muft be a 
Church vifible Univerfal itfelf: but the firft is 
true, fince the Donation of the Miniftry, and the 
giving of it in a Gift, is made to the catholic 
Church, 1 Cor. 12. 28. Matth. 28. 18, 19. 7th, 
Becaufe there is a general outward Call, and a. 
general outward Covenant, into which all Chrifti- 
ans enter outwardly, by Virtue whereof all of 
them are knit, and tried altogether, A els 2. 39. 
8th, Becaufe that fajne individual Syftem, and 
Body of external Laws, proceeding from that fame 
Authority, in which all particular Churches are 
equally concerned, and by which they are ruled, 
is Univerfal, 1 Tim. Chap. 3. and Tit. 3. Chap. 
9th, Becaufe that external Union of Brother- 
hood, x>hich is amongft all the vifible Chrifthns 
in the World, is Catholic and Univerfal, Acts 
15.23. Acts 24. 14. Gal. 5.14. 10th, Becaufe 
the initial vifible Seal, Admittance and Enroll- 
ment, are things Catholic, and Ocumenical. 
For he that takes up his Freedom in a whole Cor- 
poration or Kingdom, is free of the whole, ^nd in 
every Part thereof, and hath Right to all the ge- 
neral Privileges and Immunities thereof. There 
is a Patent for Baptifm, < Go and Baptize all Na- 
tions. And by Virtue of the Privileges thereof, 
they that are Baptized in any one Church, are ac- 
counted vifible Subjects of ChrifVs Kingdom, ia 
all Places ot the Chriftian World, Matth. 28. 
S3 i» 

4* Of the Church. Chap. XXV'. 

19. nth, Becaufe all Churches are one Body; ; 
Rom. 12. 5. 1 2th, Becaufe Peter writing to 
the Strangers fcattered abroad throughout Pontus, 
Galatia, Cappadocia, Alia and Bithynia, cal- 
leth them all one Flock, 1 Pet. 5. 2. 13th, Be- 
caufa all the Churches of the World are one Sheep- 
fold, John 10. 16. 14th. Becaufe the viilblc 
Church is one great Houfe, 2 Tim, 2. 20. 

iQuett. III. « both the vifible Church confift of 
u all thofe throughout the World that profefs the 
11 Chriftian Religion, together with their Chil- 
u dren & 

Yes; 1 Cor. 1. 2. Pfal. 2. 8. 1 Cor. 7. 14. 

Well then, do not the Donatifts, Anabaptists* 
'and Puritans of old fo truly named, err, who af- 
firm, The vifible Church to confifl of thofe only 
that are pious and holy ? 


Do not likewife the Independents err, who 
think, None ought to be Members of the vi- 
fible Church, fave thofe who in the Judgment of 
Men, very Cpiritual and difcerning, are efleemed 
true Believers, and Saints who have giv^n ihffi* 
cLm Proof of their Knowledge in the Funda- 
mentals of Religion, who have reported in Or- 
der, and given a good Account of the Experimen- 
tal Work of the Cbnverfion, and effectual Call- 

■] ; who have Ihewed their Converfauon in 
the World, to have been without the Omiffion 
of amy known Duty, or Commiilion of ahy known 
Fault, and that for a confiderable Length of 
Time ? 

Do pot la/My the Quaker? err, who think, The 
«nly vifible Church of God on earth, to be them- 
felvcs \ and ail others not of their Proieffions, 


Chap. XXV. df the Church. <xi x 

and Pradlice, to be unregenerate, and wanting the 
Spirit ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

' i ft, Becaufe the vifible Church is compared to a 
Garner, in which there is not only Wheat, but 
Chaff mixed with it. To a Field, in which Tares 
and Darnel are mixed among the good Corn ; to a» 
Met, in which both good Filhes and bad are taken,. 
Maith. 13. To a great Houfe, wherein are not 
only Veffels of Gold and Silver, but of Wood, an J 
of Earth, 2 Tim. 2. 20. 2d, Becaufe Chrift will 
anfwer fome at the laft Day, who will fay to him r 
Lord, have not we prophefied in thy Name, and ia 
thy Name caften out Devils, and have we not eat- 
en and drunken at thy Table, ' 1 know you not/ 
This evidently mews, that many have been Mem- 
bers of the vifible Church, whom Chrift wiil not 
own at the laft day, Matth.7. 22, 23. 3d, From the 
Parable of the Ten Virgins, Five whereof were fool* 
i(h, Five wife, Matth. 25. 1. 4th, From the Parable 
of the Banquet/whereofonc was found at the Table 
without a Wedding Garment, Matth. 22. 11. 5th, 
Becaufe many are of the vifible Church, who are not 
of the invifible Church, 1 John 2. 19. 6th, Be- 
caufe the Apoftle calls the Church of Corinth, the 
Church of Chrift, notwithftanding of their grofs 
Enormities, 1 Cor. 1. 1 1. 1 Cor. 3. 3. 1 Cor. 5. 1. 
1 Cor. 6. 7. 7th, Becaufe Mofes did acknowledge, 
even then thofe then to be Members of the .vifible 
Church, to whom yet he knew the Lord had not 
given Ears to hear, nor Eyes to fee, nor a Heart 
to undcrftand, the great and wonderful Miracles 
which he wrought in their Sight, Deur. 29 10, 
11, 12, 13: compared with the Verfes 2, 3, 4* 
8th, Becaufe John the Baptift did admit many 


Chap. XXV. Of the Church. 1|* 

Thoufands, into the Communion of the vifible 
Church, without makinga narrow Search of their 
true Grace, and Conversion, Matth. 3. 9th, Be- 
caufe the Apoftles did inftantly, and without the 
delay of one Day, baptize all thoie that profeffed 
the Chriftian Religion, Adts 2. 38, 41. A6is 8. 
12. John 3. 26. 10th, Becaufe the Preaching 
©f the Gofpel, is appointed by God, as an ordi- 
nary Mean, no lefs for the Converfion of Men and 
"Women, than for the Advancement of thofe ia 
Grace that are converted, Prov. 9. 3, 4. 2 Cor. 5. 
18, 19, 20. 2 Tim. 2. 24, 25. nth, Becaufe wc 
are forbidden by the Apoftle, to judge the fpiii- 
tual State and Condition of our Neighbour, Rom. 
14. 4. 12th, Becaufe Chrift did acknowledge 
Judas the Thief and Traitor, as a Member of his 
vifible Church, whom yet he forefaw to be the 
Son of Perdition, Matth. 26. 23. 13th, Becaufe 
Chrift had a vifible Church on earth, many Hun- 
dred Years before ever there were fuch Cattle as 
Quakers in the World. Unlefs they will alledgc 
tlat the primitive Chriftians, and all the Saints 
fince the Apoftles Days, have been their Predecef- 
iors, and claim Kin to them, as the Samaritans 
did to Jacob, who were truly defcended of the 
Heathen, who were brought thither out of AfTy- 
ria, as the Quakers are defcended from the Enthu- 
(iafts in Germany, about 1 60 Years fince, as Ni- 
colas Storkins, John Matthias, and John of Ley- 
den, notorious Heretics, Blaiphemers, and bloody 

But how quite different the Quakers are to 
the primitive Chriftians, and holy Men of God 
then, and fince, will evidently appear hence, that 
they did not contemn thefe two great Ordi- 
nances of the Goipel initiiuted by Chrift, viz. 

Chap. XXV. Of the Church. if I 

Baptifm and the Lord's Supper. They had Bi- 
(hops and Deacons to govern and i.Hruft them* 
who were ordained to their Functions by Prayer 
and Impofition of Hands, whom they did not re* 
vile with the ugly Names of dumb .Dogs, .and 
Hirelings. Thefe primitive Chrifriansliad not ia 
their Affemblies Womeu Preachers, as the Qua- 
kers have, which is downright contrary to Paul's 
Injunctions, i Cor. 14. 35. Neither were filent 
Meetings ever heard of among the primitive Chrit 
tians. Nor did they ever, out of Contempt, call 
Churches, Places appointed for the public Wor- 
fliipofGod, Steeple Houfes; but reforted to them 
for performing their Devotions, and Service to God, 
as did our BiefTed Saviour and his Apoflles, John 
18. 20. Luke4 16. Acls 3. 1. Acts 13. 5. 

Do not likewife the Papifts and Lutherans err, 
who Will have none Members of the vifible Church 
that are unbaptized ? 


Do not laftly the Anabaptifts err, Who wiU 
have no Infants Members of the vifible Church I 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe that God commanded Infants an3 
little Ones fhould ftahd before him, and Should 
enter into Covenant with him, Deut. 29. 10, 11, 
2d, Becaufe Infants are called the People of God^ 
no lefs than Men and Women come to Age, Deut, 
29. 1 1, 12, 13. 3d, Becaufe the Promife of Gr a 
belongs to Children as well as to the Parents, 
A<£b 2. 39. 4th, If Children be not Members of 
the vifible Church, they muft be Members of the 
vifible Kingdom of the Devil, for there can be no 
midft, Eph. 2. 12, 13. And fo there (hall be np 
Difference between the Children of Believers, 


214 Of the Church. Chnp. XXV. 

and the Children of Turks and Pagans. 5th, 
Becoufe Infants under the Old Tl- (lament had 
Right unto the Covenant of Grace, Gen. 17. 7, 
12. And Children of Believers under the New 
Teftament, have loft no Right to that Covenant 
of Grace, which Children under the Old Tefta- 
ment had : feeing the Covenant of Grace now un- 
der the Gofpel, is not more ftriftly and fparing- 
ly adminiftred, than long fince under the Law, 
Heb. 8. 6. Rom. 11. 12* 6th, Becaufe Infantg \ 
are commanded to join themfelves to God's Ordi- 
nances, Joel 2. 16. 7th, Becaufe if Chrift, while 
an Infant, was Head of the viiible Church, then 
Infants may be his Members. But the firft is 
true, from Ifa. 9. 6. Therefore the fecond muft 
betruealfo. 8th, Becaufe they whom the falfe 
Apoftles would have to be circumcifed, after the 
Manner of Mofes, and therefore Infants were cal* 
led Difciples, Afts 15.10. 

Queft. IV. " Is there any ordinary Poflibilitjr 
•* of Salvation out of the vifible Church ?" 

No. A£ts 2. 47. 

Well then, do not the Enthufiafts, Quakers, 
and Libertines err, who affirm, That any Man 
may be a true Chriftian, and be faved, though he 
live within no vifible Church I 


By what Reafons arc they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe the Lord Jehovah, in his vifi- 
ble Church (ordinarily) commands the bleffing, 
even Life for evermore, Pfal. 133. 3. 2d, Be- 
caufe the vifible Church is the Mother of all Be- 
lievers, Gal. 4. 26. By Jerufalem which is a- 
bove, I underftand the ' True Chriftian Church/ 
which feeketh its Salvation, not by the Firft Cove- 
nant of the Law, namely, by the Works of the Law, 


Chap. XXV. Of the Churct. * 1 5 

but by the Second of the Gofpel, namely, by the 
Merits of Chrift embraced by a true Faith, which 
hath its Original from Heaven, by the powerful 
Calling of the Holy Ghoft. 3d, Becauft they 
that are without the vifible Church are without 
Chrift, Eph. 2. 12. 4th, Why are Men and Wo- 
men joined to the vifible Church, but that they may 
t>e laved ? Acts 2. 47. 5th, Becaufe they that 
are without the vifible Church are deftitute of the 
ordinary Means of Life and Salvation, Plal. 1 47. 
19, 20. 

Queft. V. " Hath Chrift given to this Catholic 
** Church vifible, the Miniftry, Oracles, and Ordi- 
" nances of God, for the gathering, and pe'rfeft- 
" ing of the Saints in this Life, to the end of th$ 
u World r 

Shall there always be a Church on Earth, t% 
worfhip God according to his Will ? 

Yes. 1 Cor. 12. 28. Eph. 4. 11, 12, i^.Matth. 
28. 19, 20. Matth. 16. 18. Pfal. 72. 17. Pfal. 102. 
28.1fa. 59. 21. 

Well then, do not the Socinians, Anabaptifts^ 
and Libertines err, who affirm, That the vifible 
Church may fail, and perifti out of the World. 

Do not likewife the Sceptics, commonly called 
Seekers, err, who affirm, That the whole Univer- 
ial Church which hath been upon the Earth, and 
all religious Worfhip, all external and outward 
Preaching of the Word, all Adminiftration of Sa- 
craments, and thelJfe of all other religions Things 
have perithed a little after the Apoftles Times, and 
are not to this Day reftored, until Chrift frora 
Heaven (hall fend new Apoftles, with an extraor- 
dinary Commiflion, for reftoring and railing up 
again the vifible Church, An4 

Zi6 Of the Church Chap. XX^, 

.And that in the mean Time, no Man hath Right 
or Power to drTpenfethe Word, or adminifter the 
SaCfameiits, or perform any ~Ecclefiaftical Duty: 
and thiit they who are now called the Preachers of 
4he Gofpel, are not (o i Yes. 

By what Reaibns are they confuted ? 

lft. Became the Lord hath promifed that his 
Church (hall endure fo long as the Ordinances of 
Heaven (hall continue, Ifa. 66. 22. 2d, Becaufe 
drift hath promifed that the Gates of Hell (hall not 
prevail againft his Church, Mat. 16.18. 3d, Becaufe 
there is no End to be put to the Kingdom of Chrift, 
Luke 1.33. And therefore no End to his Church* 
lia. 9. 7. 4th, Becaufe Glory will be to him in 
the Church by Chrift Jefus throughout all Ages, 
* World without End, Amen,' Eph. 3. 21. 5th, 
Becaufe Chrift who hath given Power to his Mi- 
aifttrs to teach his Church, and to adminifter the 
Sacraments, hath promifed to be with them to the 
End of the World, Matth. 28. 19, 20. 6th, Becaufe 
the Lord hath promifed to preferve a People tohim- 
feJf, to the End of the World, which be (bail rule 
and govern, by his Word and Spirit, lia. 59. 20/ 
21. Ifa. 9.6,7. 7th, Becaufe the Lordharhcholen 
Zion ; he hath defired it for his Habitation, where 
fee will reft, and dwell for ever, Pfal. 132. 13, 
14. 8th, Becaufe Chrift hath given forne to be 
Paftors aad Teachers, for perfecting of the Saints, 
till we all come into the Unity of the hYnh, and the 
Knowledge of C*od, Eph. 4. 14. Ar;ri he hath 
appointed aRiiniftry to continue after fhe .Apoftles 
Days, as is evident from 1 Tim. chap. 3. and 
Tit. chap. 1. where the Apoftle fets down the 
ordinary Qualifications of Minifteis, and the for tailing tiKm to the Miniftiy. 9th, 
Becaufe thctc is a general Rule fet down for ;he 


Chap. XXV. Of the Church. 217 

Government and Difcipline of ChriiVs Church: 
which Difcipline and Order is to continue in it, to 
the End of the World, Matth. 18. 18. 10th, Be- 
caufe the Lord commands, that we forfake not 
the aflembling of ourfelves together : and hath 
promifed to blefs, atter a fpecial Manner, any 
that are gathered together in his Name, any where; 
but our afllmblingfor hearing the Word of God, 
is done in the Name of Chrift, Heb. 10. 25. Matth, 
18 20, Matth. 28. 20. nth, Becaufe the Death 
of Chrift, in the laft Supper, is to be (hewed till 
he come, 1 Cor. 11. 26. 12th, Becaufe by the 
I Word (even preached, Rom. 10. 17.) we are born 
again, 1 Pet. 1. 23. James ir. 18. By Baptifm ; 
we are ingrafted into Chrift, Rom. 6. 3, 4. Gaf. * 
3, 27. In the Lord's Supper we have Communion 
with Chrift, 1 Cor, 10. 16. See more to this Pur- 
pofe, Chap. 2i.Queftion 8. 

Queft, VI. " Hath not % the Catholic Church 
, t( been fometimes more, fometimes lefs vifible ?" 
Yes. Rom. 11.3. 4. Rev. 12. 6, 14. 
Well then, do not the Papifts err, who affirm, 
That the Church hath been, is, and (hall be m >ft 
glorioufly viiible to all the whole World, far and 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
ift ; Becaufe the Church of God in the Pro- 
phet Elijah's Time was brought to that Pais that 
he thought none remained but himfelf, 1 Kings 
19. 10. Rom 11. 2, 3, 4. 2d, Becaufe ior a 
long Time Ifrael was without the true God, and 
without a teaching Prieft, and without the Law, 
2 Chron. 15 3. 3d, Becaufe the L^rd often 
complains, That his Church and People h:ive for- 
faken him, have not known him : that the htith- 
T ful 

2 1 8 Of the Church. Chap. XXV. 

ful City hath become a Harlot, that fcarce a Man 
Could be found to do juftice, and follow Truth; 
all which is inconfiftent with that glorious Con- 
dition of the vifible Church, which the Papifts 
dream of, Ifa. i. 3, 4. Jen 2. 29. Jer. 5. 1. 4th, 
Becaufe in the Time of the Ten Perfecutions, the 
vifible Church was much obfcured, and darkened. 
And after thefe Storms were over, arofe the Arians, 
who did fo much trouble the Church of Chrift, 
as is clear from Hiftory. 5th, Becaufe Two 
Wings were given to the "Woman, that is, to the 
Church of God, Two Wings (I fay) of a great 
Eagle, that (he might fly into the Wildernefs, to 
hide herfelf, Rev. 12. 14. 6th, Becaufe the Apo- 
tfie Paul did foretel that general Defection, and 
Apoftacy, of the vifible Church, mentioned, 2TheJ£ 
2. 3. 7th, Becaufe Chrift hath foretold, that be- 
fore his Second coming, he (hall fcarce find Faith 
on the Earth, Luke 18. 8. 8th, Becaufe the 
Church of God is always liable to Trouble and 
Perfecutions, while it fojourneth in this World. 
But Troubles and Perfecutions do much obfeure 
the Brightnefs and Splendor of a vifible Church, 
Luke 21. 17. John 16. 2. Pfal. 129. 1, 2, 3. 

Que ft. VII. " Are the pureft Churches under 
" Heaven fubjeft both to Mixture and Error ?" 

Yes. 1 Cor i3» 12. Rev. 2. and 3 Chap. Rev. 
1.8. 2. Rom. 11, 18, 19, 20, 21/22. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who af- 
, firm, That the Church cannot err, neither in Mat- 
ters abfolurteiy neceffary, neither in other Things 
which it propoies to be done and believed by 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
ift, Becaufe the vifible Church under the Old 


Chap. XXV. ' Of the Church. 219 

Teftament, oftentimes made Defection to Tdolatry ; 
Exod. 32. 8. Judges 3. 7. 2d, Becaufe as long 
as we are here, we know but in Part, and there- 
fore we are fubject and liable to Miftakes, 1 Cor. 
13.9, 12. 3d, Becaufe the Seven Churches of 
Afia, to which John did write, are accufed of 
Mixture and Errors, Rev. 2.4* 5- 4 th > Becaufe 
while Chrift was on Earth, the Difciples dream- 
ed of a worldly Kingdom : and for a Time, even 
after his RefurrecYion they did believe it, A&s 
1. 6. 5th, Becaufe before the Day of Chrift be 
at Hand, there fhall be a falling away of the vi- 
sible Church, from the true Orthodox Faith to 
Antichriftianifm, which in great Fart is already 
come to pafs and more than is to come between 
1 this Time and his Second coming, 2 ThefT 2. 3. 
Rev. 13. 3. 6th, Becaufe one of the chief Dif- 
ferences between the Church Militant, and the 
Church Triumphant is this, that the one can err, 
but not the other, 1 Cor. 13. 9, 10, 12. 7th, 
Becaufe Chrift hath foretold, that there (ball a- 
rife falfe Chrifts and falfe Prophets, and (hall 
(hew great Signs and Wonders, inf3much, if it 
were poffible, they (hall deceive the very Elect ; 
Matth. 24.' 24. 8th, Becaufe when the Son or 
Man cometh, he fhall fcarce find Faith on the 
Earth, Luke 18. 8. 9th. Becaufe the conver- 
ted Jews erred, in being zealous for the Law: 
thinking that the ceremonial Law ought yet to 
beobferved, not underftanding that the fame was 
abolifhed by Chrift, Afts 2 1\ 20. So did the 
Galatians err, in admitting Gircumcifion, Gal. 
1 . 6. And the Corinthians, in their Abufe of the 
Lord's Supper, 1 Cor. 1 1. 18. 

Queft. VIII. " Is there no other Head of the vi- 
" fible Church, but the Lord Jefus Chrift ?" 

T 2 No. 

220 Of the Church. Chap. XXV. 


" Cm the Pope of Rome, in any Senfe be the 
u Head thereof r 

No. Col. i. 1 8. Eph. i. 22, 
^Wellthen, do not the Popifli Church err, who 
h&fatatns, That not only Chjift is the univer- 
fal Hfad'of the Church, but that there is another 
vlfible Head under him, who, fay they, is the 
Pcpe of Rome, Chrift's Vicar, or Deputy under 
AUtt ? 


By what Rcafons are they confuted ? 

ill, Becaufe as not many Huffonds, but one • 
only, is Head of the Wife, fo Ghrift only is Head? 
of the Church, Eph. 5. 23. 2d, Becaufe the 
Church is efpoufed to one only, namely, to 
Jefus thrift, 1 Cor, ti. 3. 3d, Becaufe the 
Church is the Body of Chrift on)y, Eph. 1. 22, 
23. 4th, Becaufe among all the Ecclefiaftic 
Orders infrhuted, and appointed by Chrifl, we 
do not read of fuch a Creature, as an Univerfal 
Vicar of Chrift, Eph. 4. 11. 5th, Becaufe the* 
Church is one Body only : (unlefs it be a Monfter) 
but one Body cannot have two Heads. Rom. 12. 
4, 5.- 6th, Becaufe Chrift only can infpire, or 
breathe in Vigour, Seafe, Motion and ipiritual 
Life into his Members, Eph, 5. 29, 30. John 6. 
48, 50, 51. John 15, 1, 2. 7th, Becaufe there- 
mud not be Lord(hip and Sovereignty among 
them, that are under Chrift their Head and Lord, 
Luke 22. 25. 1 Pet. 5. 2, 3. 8th, If the Pope 
be not fo much as a Bilhop of a Particular Church, 
he cannot be Univerfal Bifaop. The Firft is true, 
becaufe he doth not perform the Office of a Bi- 
fhop, which is fet down^ 1 Tim. 3. 2. Tit, 1. 7, 
8, 9. 

Do not likewife the Eraftians and others, as 

Chap. XXV. Of the Church, 221 

Arminians err, who Make the fupreme Magi- 
ftrate the Head of the Church ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
i ft, Becaufe the Proteftant Religion, as it Is 
contained in the Harmony of Confeffions, efpeci- 
ally in the Confeffion of Faith, recorded in the 
Firft Parliament of King James the Sixth, lately 
ratified and confirmed, doth not acknowledge any 
fupreme Head or Governor in the Church, nei- 
ther Angel, Man, Pope, Prince nor Potentate, 
fave the Lord Chrift, from whom alone all fub- 
ordinate Power and Authority is derived to the 
Officers of his own Church. 2d, Becaufe if the 
fupreme Magiftrate be a Church Officer, he 
mud derive his Power from Chrift, and muft be 
a Spiritual and Ecclefiaftic Head and Governor, 
and not a Civil only. And if fuch, then Chrift 
hath devolved his own Place and Office upon 
him, which is without Scripture Proof. 3d, Be- 
caufe if the fupreme Magiftrate be Head of the 
Church, he muft have a Right to this Title, ei- 
ther by Human Law, or by a Divine Warrant. 
Laws of a Nation cannot make him Head of the 
: Church, becaufe fuch Laws cannot make hipi an 
I Ecclefiaftic and Spiritual Officer. There is no 
\ Divine Warrant or CommiiTion from Chrift, as is 
I clear from Matth. 18. 17. From the Epiitle to 
Timothy and Titus. From Eph. 4. 11. Rom. 
12. 7, 8. and from 1 Cor. 1 1. 28. 

Queft. IX. " Is the Pope that Antiehrift, that 
" M. n of Sin, and Son of Perdition, that exaheth 
" himfelf in the Church of God againft Chrift, and 
" all tVat is called God?" 

Yes, 2 Theft. 2. 3, 4, 8, 9. Rev. 13.6. Matth. 
23. 8 9 10. 

" . h jugh this be denied by the Church of Rome, 
T 3 ■ y<* 

222 Of the Communion of Saints. Chap, XXVI. 

" yet the true Defcription of Antichrft agrees to 
« him." 

i ft, Becaufe he is not one (ingle Man, but an 
Order and Race of Men, fucceding to one another, 
in that fame State and Office; which you will fee, 
bycompajin.iT i John 4. 3. 1 ThefT. 2. 7, 8. toge- 
ther. 2d, His coming is after the Manner of Sa- 
tan, 2 ThefT. 2. 9. 3d, As to his Name, he calls 
himfelf a Chriflian, but in very Truth an Adver- 
fary to Chrift : and by confequence, one that de- 
nies Jeius to be the Chrift, Rev. 17. 14. Rev. 19, 
19. 2 ThefT. 2. 8. 1 John 2. 23. 4th, He fitteth 
in the Temple of God as God, 2 ThefT. 2.4. 5th, 
He ruleth in the great City, and exercifes Domi- 
nion over the Kings of the Earth. 6th, He de- 
ceiveth them that dwell on the Earth, whh lying 
Wonders and Miracles, 2 ThefT. 2. 9. Rev. 13. 
14, 15. 7th, He caufeth all Sov*:s of Perfons to 
receive his Mark on their Right Hand, or on their 
Forehead, Rev. 13. 16, 17. 8th, To him 
agrees what Paul fays. And now ye know what 
withholdeih (Bamely the Roman Emperor) that 
he might be revealed in his Time, 2 ThefT. 3. 6, 7. 


Of the Communion of Saints. 

Question I. 

" A RE the Saints bound by Profeffion, to 
«< JLjl maintain in holy Fellpwfhip, and Comrou- 
4i ni^n n the Wo: (hip of G >d, in performing (bch 
" other Spiritual Duties, as tend to their mutual 
" Edification ?" 

\es; Heb. 10. 24, 25. Atts 2* 42, <|A Ifo 
2. 3. i Cor. 11. 2Q. 

* Well 

Chap. XX VI. Of the Communion of Saints. 223 

"Well then, did not the Donatifts of old, and 
Separates now err, who maintain, That Hypo- 
crites and wicked Men, do pollute and defile the 
Worlhip of God, not only to themfelves, but al- 
fo to others that Worfhip with*" them: and that 
therefore we mud fefwrate from Communion in 
the Worlhip of God, became of them? 


By what Reafons are they conf ated ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Church of the jews in Chrift 1 ? 
Time was very corrupt, Matih. 15. 7. Mark 6. 
7, 8, And yet both by his Practice, and his 
Command, he would not have his Hearers to fe- 
parate from it. For he both obferved the Feafls, 
and preached in their Synagogues, John 8. i # 
Luke 4. 15. John 10. 22. And he commands his 
Hearers to obferve what the Scribes and Phari- 
fees bade them do, Matth. 23. 2, 3, 2d, Becaufe 
the Apoftle is fo far from commanding Separation 
from theChnrc-h of Corinth, that hepraifes their 
Meetings, (1 Cor. 5. 4. 1 Cor. 11. 20. 1 Cor. 
14. 23.) notwithftanding of the many grofs Scan- 
dals which were among them, 1 Cor. 1. 11,12, 
1 3. 1 Cor. 5.1, 1. and 1 Cor. 15.12, 13. 3d, 
Becaufe the Apollle calls the Galaiians, « The 
Church of Chrift, Brethren and he Children of 
God,' who were yet. in f >me M^fure, removed 
Fiom God to another Gofpel. Nay, fays Paul, 
O foqlifh, (or fepfelefs) Gaiatians, who hatto be- 
witched yon, (thai is fo blin kd the liyesofyour 
Undet Handing, that ye cannot fee the right Truth, 
aj f he Juglers bewitch tbc outward Eves, ;.hat 
Men think they fee tha fee noc) that 

ye Ihould not obey eh;-' ! ruth, Gal. 3. 1. And 
yet, I ;e true Church, it • as 

hlsjudgtathtj I • be no Separatioo from 


224 Of the Communion of Saints. Chap. XXVI^ 

it, notwithftanding of all the forcfaid Faults. 4th, 
Bccauie the Church of Ephefus was a true 
Church, though they made Defection from their " 
firft Love. So was the Church of Pergamos, tho' 
there were in it who held the Do&rine of Ba- 
laam. So was the Church of Thyatira, not- 
withftanding that they fuffered Jezebel, that cal- 
led herielf a Prophetefs, and taught the Servants 
of Chrift to commit Fornication, and to eat Things 
facrificed to Idols. $th. If we muft feparate from 
the Communion of the Church in Things lawful, 
for the Faults of others, or for the Faults of Mini- 
fters, and if rheir Sins pollute the Worfhip of God 
to others, then we muft not keep Communion 
with any Church ; feeing there can hardly be a 
Church where there are not fome hidden Hypo- 
crites : nay, where there are not fome, who are 
known to be fuch by the Minifter. Yet fuch are 
not to be excluded, as Chrift himfelf teaches, 
Matth. 13. 24, to 31. Seethe 47 and 48 Veries 
of the fame Chapter. 6th, If the Worfhip be 
polluted to fome, for the Faults of others, with 
whom they Worfhip, then muft the Word and Sa- 
craments have their Efficacy and Worth from the . 
Peribns that Worfhip, and from the Difpenfers of 
them, which is abfurd. 7th, Becaufe wicked 
and evil men, do not pollute the Worfhip to 
others, but to themfelves only ; as it appears from 
the Man that wanted the Wedding Garment, 
Matth. 22. 11. And from thofe who did eat and 
drink unworthily at the Lord's Table. Such do 
not eat and drink Damnation to others, but to 
themfelves, 1 Cor. 11. 27 29. 

Queft. II. « Doth this Communion, which the 
J 1 Saints have with Chrift ; make them irv any wife 

« Par- 

Chap. XXVI. Of the Communion of Saints. 21 5 

» r Partakers of the Subftance o f hi* Godhead,, or 
11 equal with him in any Refpedt :" 
- No. 

u Is there a Mixture of the Divine EfTence, 
" with the Subftance of all the Creatures, becauie 
" the Divine EflTcucc is infinite, and every where 
** prftfentr 


) .:nh every regenerate Man that is united 
God, by virtue of thr Union, become God 
Maker of Heaven and Earth?" 


" Aie all the Afts of a Man's Will, and all bis 
1 4< Afrions, even hi* mod cur fed and wicked Ac- 
% tions wholly Divine, which to rtfift and coa- 
-l traditf is Rehdlion againft God V 9 

No; John 1.14. Col. 1. lb, 19 

Well then, do not the Familiftserr, who teach 
That the Saints are made God, and Chrift, by 
an eflcntial and corporal Union with themf 


Do not like wife the Manicheans err, who blaf- 
phemoufly taught, That the Divine EfTence, 
was mingled~with Soul and Body of every Man, 
and that therefore all his Actions were wholly 
Divine ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becnufc the perfonal Union is given to 
none but to Chrift only, John 1.14? The Word 
was SS3e rielh, that is, a true Man like unto us 
in all Things, yet without Sin. 2d, Becaufeia 
him dwelleth all the Fulnefs of the Godhead, bo- 
dily. Namely, by an eiTential Inhabitation of the 
Son of God in the human Nature, by the uniting 
of his Divine Nature with the human in the Uni- 

32* Of the Communion of Saints. Chap. XXVI. 

ty of his Perfon. Bodily, that is, Ptrfonally, 
EfTentially, and Truly. 3d, Becaufe the Union 
of the Saints with Chrifl is by Faith, not indeed 
by a perfonal Union, Eph. 3.17. 4th, Becaufe 
there is no Man that finneth not, 1 John 1. %, 
10. 5th, Becaufe God's EiTenee is rnoft fimple 
and fingle, and infinitely above and beyond all 
Creatures, Exod. 3. 14. 6th, Becaufe * Holy, 
Holy, Holy, is the Lord God of Hofts,' Ifa. 6. 3. 
7th, Becaufe Solomon in his Prayer, fays, be- 
hold the Heaven of Heavens cannot contain thee, 
how much lefs this Houfe which I have builded 
to thy Name, 1 Kings 8. 27. 8th, Becaufe the 
Prophet Ifaiah lays, Behold the Nations are as 
the Drop of a Bucket, and are as the fmalleft 
Dull of the Ballance efteemed, Chap. 40. 15. 
oth, Becaufe the Manichean Error, is the out- 
moft Stretch ©f Satan's Invention, beyond which 
he is not able to go. They deferve not Confuta- 
tion, but to be looked upon as Devils Incar- 

Queft. III. "Doth not the Communion of Saints, 
" which they have one with another, take away 
u or infringe the Title, or Property which each 
" Man hath in his own Goods and Fofleffions?" 

No; Ads 5. 4. Exod. 25. 14. Eph 5.28. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptifts err, who 
affirm, That the Goods and Poffeffions of the 
Saints ought to be in common ? 


By what Rcafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe in the Time of the primitive 
Church, no man was obliged out of Necefiity to 
deliever his Goods. Neither did Believers lofe 
their Right and Property which they had to 
them, Adts 5. 4. 2d, Becaufe the Eighth. Com- 

Chap. XXVIl. Of the Sacraments. 227 

mand, which is of perpetual Vie to all Men, fup- 
pofeth a Diftinftion and Propriety of Goods. 
For if all Goods were common, it were impoflible 
to fteal. 3d, Bccaufe there (hould be no giving 
«f Alms: there fhouid be no Hofpital it y, which 
is contrary to ,the Apoltle, Eph. 4. 28. Hefeu 
13. 2. 



Of the Sacraments. 

Question. I. 

4 < ARE the Sacraments holy Signs and Seals 
" l jl of the Covenant of Gra<:e, immediately in- 
" ftituted by God, to reprefent Chrift, and hi$ 
" Benefits and to confirm our Intereft in him V* 


" Do the Sacraments put a vifible Difference 
-" between thofc that belong unto the Church, 
" and the reft of the World ! ' 


u Do the Sacraments folemnly engage Men 
" and Women to the Service of God in Chrilr, 
u according to his Word V 

Yes; Rom 4. n. Gen. 17. 7, io.Matth. 28. 
19. 1 Cor. 11. 2 ;. 1 Cor. 10. 16. 1 Cor. 11, 
25, 26. Gal. 3. 7. Rom. 15. 8. Exod. 12. 48., 
Gen. 34. 14. Rom. 6.3, 4. and 1 Cor. 10. 16/ 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, with the 
Anabaptifts, who maintain, That the Sicra- 
ments are not Seals of the Covenant of Grace, 
initituted by God, to reprefent Chrill and his 

v <*28 Of the Sacraments. Chap. XXVIII. 

Benefits: but only bare Tokens and Tells of our 
Chriftian Profeflion ? 

Bv what Reafons are they confuted ? 
i ft, Becaufe Circumcifion is exprefly called a 
;Sigh or Seal of the Righteoufnefs of Faith, 
Rom. 4. ii. Now, if Circumcifion was a Seal, 
and Sign: why ought not Bapdfm, and the 
Lord's Supper to be Signs and Seals alfo ? 2d, 
Becaufe the Names and Properties of the Things 
fignified are given to the Sacramental Signs. Thus 
Circumcifion is called the Covenant, Gen. 17. 
10. The Bread is called the Body of Chrift, 
Matth. 26. 26. And Baptifm is called the wafti- 
ing of Regeneration, Tit. 3. 5. For no other 
Reafons, but becaufe they reprefent and confirm 
Things fpiritual to Bdievers. 3d, Becaufe the 
Cup of Bleffing in the Sacrament, is the Commu- 
nion of the Blood of Chrift ; the Bread is the 
Communion of the Body of Chrift, 1 Cor. 10. 
16. 4th, Becaufe the Sacraments bring into our 
Memories Chrift and his Benefits; and therefore, 
as it were, they fet him before our Ryes, and fo 
increafe and confirm our Faith, 1 Cor. 11. 24, 

Queft. II. " Is the Grace, which is exbibite 
$i in or by the Sacraments rightly ufed ; conferre 
f< by any Power in them ?" 

No; Rom. 2. 28, 29, 1 Pet. 3. 21. 

Well then, do not the Papifts and Lutherans 
err, who maintain, That the Sacraments of them- 
selves are true, immediate, and ef&£tual Caufes of 
our Juftification, and give Life t 


Bv what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the holy Scripture attributes our 




Chap. XXVII. Of the Sacraments. 229 

Justification to Fahh only, as an inftrumenta* 
Caufe, and to no other Thing, Rom. 1. 17. 
Rom. 3. 28. jGal. 2. 16. And therefore the Sa- 
craments cannot be the efficient C antes of our Juf- 
tification and Life. 2d, Becaufe the Scripture 
makes an exprefs Difference, becween the Work 
of a Man difpenfing the Sacraments, and the 
Work of the Holy Ghoft, Matth. 3. 11. 3d, 
Becaufe Signs and Seals of Grace cannot confer 
and effectuate Grace. But the Sacraments are 
but Signs and Seals of Grace ; becaufe to ilgnify 
and to have Virtue, and Power to do, differ in 
Nature and in Kind. 4th, Becaufe many are 
Partakers of the Sacraments, who are not yet Par- 
takers of the Grace of God ; as Simon Magus, 
Acts 8. 13. Ananias and Sapphira, Acts 5. 4, 
9. And how many Thodands do eat and drink 
unworthily, drinking and eating Damnation to 
themfelves, 1 Cor. 11. 29. 5th, Becaufe many 
have been juftified before ever they did partake of 
a Sacrament, as Abraham, Rom. 4. 11. And 
Cornelius with his Fellows, Ac~ts 10. 46. 

Queft. III. " Doth the Efficacy of a Sacrament 
t( depend upon the Piety or Intention of him that 
" doih adminifter it r" 

No; Matth. 3. 1 1. 1 Cor 12. 13. 

Well then, do not the Donatifb and Anabap- 
tifts err, who maintain, That the Sacraments 
diipenfed by a wicked and gracclefs Minuter are of 
no Virtue or Efficacy ? 


Do nor alfo others now a days err, who ar : not 
far from the tame opinion ? 


Do not luilly the Papifts err, who maintain, 

That to the Perfection of a Sacrament, the ao 

U tual 

23 © Of the Sacraments. Chap. XX VII. 

tual Intention of the ]\linifter,^ at leaft his vir- 
tual Intention of doing that, which the Church 
doth, is neceffary i 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe Judas, who was a Thief, and a 
Traitor, did according to the Command of Chrift, 
.baptize as well as the reft: yet Chrift never cal- 
led in Queftion his Baptifm. 2d, Becaufe the 
Efficacy of the Word doth not depend upon the 
.Piety, Goodnefs, Worthinefs or good Intention of 
the lnftrument, Phil. 1. 16. Therefore neither 
doth the Efficacy of a Sacrament depend upon the 
Intention of him that doth adminifter it. 3d, 
If the Efficacy of Baptifm depend upon the good 
Intention of the Minifter, then no Chriftian could 
be fure that he is baptized; feeing no Man can be 
fure of, or know the Minifter's Intention. 4th, 
Becaufe the Operation and r fficacy of the Sacra- 
ments, depend upon the Operation of the Holy 
£hoft, and the Word of Inftitution, Math. 3, 
ti. ) Cor. 12. 13, 5th, Becaufe the Papifts 
themfelves (which is Argumentum ad Homimim) 
cannot be fure that the Bread in the Eucharift is 
tranfubftantiate into the Body of Chrift. And 
therefore in their Adoration, and falling down to 
the Hoft, they commit moil damnable Idolatry in 
\vorfhipping that which is neither God, nor any 
Pivine Thing. I fay, they cannot be fure, be- 
caute the Pri eft's Intention may be deficient, while 
he is confecrating the Bread. 

Queft. IV. H Are there only two facraments, 
" ordained by Chrift in the Gofpel ?" I anfwer, 
Two only, namely, Baptifm and the Lord's Supper. 
. Matth. 28. 19. 1 Cor 11. 20, 23. 

Well then, do not the Romanifts err, who 


Chap. XXVII . Of the Sacraments. 7 3 1 

make feven Sacraments, by adding to Baptifm 
and the Lord's Supper, Confirmation, Penance r 
Extreme Unftion, Ordination, and Matrimo- 
ny ? 


By what Reafons arc they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe no other Sacraments, fave Bap- 
tifm and the Lord's Supper, are inftituted by 
Cbrift in all the holy Scripture. 2d, Becaufe 
the Defcription and Definition of a Sacrament, as 
you will find it in the firft Queftion, doth agree 
only to Baptifm and the Lord's Supper. 3d, 
Becaufe Chrift was a Copartner, and the Sharer of 
Baptifm and the Lord's Supper, which in his 
own Pcrfon, he did fan&ify, and by them did tef- 
tify and profefs his Communion wi:h his People 
of the New Tefhment, but never was a S.iarer of 
any of thefe five Baftard Sacraments. 

Queft. V. u May Baptifm, and the Lord's 
u Supper, be difpenied by any but by a Minifter 
a of the Word, lawfully ordained ?" 

No; Matth. 28. 19. 1 Cor. 11. 20,23. 1 Cor, 
4. 1. Heb. 5. 4. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptifts err, who 
maintain, That the Sacraments may bediipenfed, 
and adminiftred by any Believer ? 


Do not likewife the Papifts and Lutherans 
err, who maintain, That it is lawful for Lnics, or 
Women, toadminifter the Sacraments of Baptifm, 
in cafe of Neceffity ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Chrifl: gave the Power of difpenf- 

4ag the Sacran:ents to them only; to whom he 

gav£ the Power of preaching, Matth* 28. 19. 

U 2 but 

122 Of the Sacraments, Chap. XXVII. 

but the power of preaching is not given to all 
Men, Heb. 5. 4. 2d, Becaufe all that ever did 
difpenfe the Sacraments oi Baptifm in the New 
Teftament, were either called ordinarily, or ex- 
traordinarily ; as is evident from the Examples of 
John the Baptift and Difciples of Chrift. From 
the Example of Peter; A£b 2. 41. From the 
Example of Philip, Afts 8. 38. From the Ex- 
ample of Ananias, Afrs 9. 18. From the Ex- 
ample of Paul and Silas, A£ts 16. 15, 33. 3d, 
Becaufe it is unlawful for any Man to affix the 
Kings Seal to a Charter, or Letters-Patent, unlefs 
he be a Perfon authorized, and deputed by' the 
King for that ufe. But the Sacraments are Seals 
of the Covenant between God and his People, 
Pvom. 4. 11. 4th, Becaufe Women are not per- 
mitted to fpeak publickly in the Church : there- 
fore they have no Power to difpenfe the Sacrament 
of Bajnifm, 1 Cor. 14. 34. iTim. 2. } 2. 5th, 
Becaufe the Adverfaries grant that it is unlaw- 
hil to Women or Laicks, to adminifter the Lord's 
Supper, therefore it is as unlawful for them to ad- 
m miller Baptifm. Nojuft Caufe or Heafon of 
Difparity can be given. 6th, Becaufe the Bene- 
fit of Regeneration is not tied (as the Adverfaries 
may dream) to the outward Baptifm, as is clear 
and evident from the Converfion of the Thief up- 
on theCrofs. Andfrom 1 Pet. 3. 21. Therefore, 
there is no fuch Neceffity of Baptifm, as the Papifts 
and Lutherans do fancy. 

Queft. VI. " Are the Sacraments of the Old 
V Teftament, in regard of the fpiritual Things 
if 1 thereby fignified and exhibited, the fame for Sub- 
" ftance with thofeof the New?" 

Yes; 1 Cor. 10. 1, 2,3,4- j 


Chap. XXVII. Of the Sacraments. 233 

Well then, do not the Papifts and Lutherans 
err, who maintain, That the difference between 
the Sacraments of the Old Teftament, and the 
New, confiftsin this, that thofe did delineate and 
(hadow forth Grace ; thefe contain, offer, and con- 
fer Grace I 


By what Reafonsare they confuted 1 

1 ft, Becaufe the Apoftle-(i Cor. 10. 1, 2, 3.) 
exprefly fays, That the Cloud, and the patting 
through the Red Sea, did fignify thefe Things to 
the Jews, which Baptifm fignify to us. And 
that the Manna, and the Water from the Rock, 
did fignify the fame thing to them, which the 
Lord's Supper fignifics to us. 2d, Becaufe the 
Sacraments of the Old and New Teftament, did 
obfignate and feal up the fame Righteoufnefs of 
Faith, Rom. 4. 11. 3d, Becaufe the Scripture 
applieth to Believers, under the Old Teftament, 
the Sacraments of the New; 1 Cor. 10. 1, 2, 3. 
And on the other Hand, the Scripture applieth 
the Sacraments of the New Teftament, to Belie- 
vers under the Old, which is not done by reafon 
of the Sign, for the Signs are diverfe and diffe- 
rent : Therefore it muft be done by reafon of the 
Thing fignified ; and by confluence the Sacra- 
ments of the Old Teftament muft agree in the 
Thing fignified with the Sacraments of the New, 
4th, Becaufe the Sacraments of both Teftaments 
agree in the Word of Promife, Gen. 17. 7. A&s 
2. 38, 39. Rom. 4. 11, 12, 13. Gal. 3.29. 


234 Of Baptifm. Chap. XXVIII. 


Of Baptifm. 

Question I. 

" TS the Sacrament of Baptifm with Water, by 
" JL Chrift's Appointment, to be continued in 
his Church to the End of the World? 

Yes; Matth. 28 19, 20. 

Well then, do not the Quakers err, who main- 
tain, That Baptifm with Water is not an ordi- 
nance of divine Inftttutioo, and that there is no 
Gofpel Precept for it ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Chtift taking his Fare well of his 
Pifciples, gave them this Commiilion, ' Go ye 

* therefore and teach all Nations, baptizing them 

* in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy GhofV 
According to the original Word, ' make all Na- 

* tionsDifciples,' by your Doctrine,' baptizing them 

* in the Name of.' &c. All which Words arefpok- 
en by his own Breath. Whence it is clear, that the 
Jame very Perfons that were commanded to make 
all Nations Difci pies by their Doctrine, were com- 
manded to baptize them. But it was not in their 
Power to adminiiler the inward Baptifm, that is, 
to baptize with the Holy Ghcft, and with Fire. 
"Wen may well adminifter the Water, or external 
Sign, but it is Chnft that befrows the inward 
Grace, and thing ilcinified ; as is clear from Mat. 
3. it. where John the Baptift fays, I indeed 
bap tee boa with Wafer unto Repentance, but he 
tfcjt coracth after me, (hall baptize you with 


Chap. XXVIH. Of Baptifm. 235 

the Holy Ghoft, and with Fire. If any Man had 
received this Power of Baptifm with the Holy 
Ghoft, then fureiy John would have received it, 
whom Jefds fo highly commends, as that * there 
* was-not a greater than he born of Woman'; Mat. 
ii. ir. And though our Saviour fubjoins, he 
that is leaft in the Kingdom of Heaven, is greater 
than he, yet this will not inter, that any among the 
Teachers of the Gofpel, had the Power of baptiz- 
ing with the Holy Ghoft, which he had not, but 
only, that they did (hew Ch rift more clearly, as 
having moft perfectly accomplished whatfoevcr 
•was requifite to our Salvation; and did publifh 
this, not only to the Jews, but alfo to the Gen- 
tiles. And fo Chrift as the Mafter employed on- 
ly the difciples, as his Servants, to difpenfe and 
act minifterially in his Service, referving the bit fi- 
fing of their Employments to himfelf. Now, bap- 
tizing with the Holy Ghoft, is the greateft ble(- 
fing of the Gofpel, and fo cannot flow but from 
Chrift himfelf. 2d, Becaufe the Difciples of 
Chrift afted only minifterhliy under him in work- 
ing of Miracles, therefore they could not admini- 
fter Baptifm, with the Holy Ghoft, feeing this is 
a greater Power than the other. The curing of the 
Soul is a far greater Work, than to cure miracu- 
loufly the Body. The Work of Converfion and 
Regeneration, is a Work beyond the creating of 
Heaven and Earth. There was only here the in- 
troducing of a,newForm, but no contrary Form, 
or Quality to be expelled. But in this, the Heart 
of Stone muft not only be taken away, but a Heart 
of Flefh muft be given. That they acled only 
minifterially under Chrift, it is evident from what 
Peter lays, Ye men of Ifrael, why look ye fo ear- 
neftly on us, as though by our own Power and 


236 0f Baptifm. Chap. XXVIII. 

Godlinefs we had made this Man to walk ; Acts 
3. 12. And the fame Peter fays, Eneas, Jefus 
Chrift mak^th the whole, Acts 9. 34. See Mark 
16.17. 1 Cor. 12.10. 3d, Becaufeif thisCom- 
miffion empowered the Apoftles to baptize only 
with the Holy Ghoft, and not with Water; then 
they in the Exercife of this CommifTion, would 
only have baptized Men and Women with the 
Holy Ghoft, and not with Water, but the contra- 
ry is manifeft, (Acts 2. 38.) where Peter makes 
a Diftin&ion between being baptized in the 
Name of Jefus (Shrift, and receiving the Gift of 
the Holy Ghoft •, namely, the Gifts and Graces of 
the holy Spirit, which are common to all Belie- 
vers, and necciTary to Salvation. 4th, Becaufe 
if Baptifm with the Holy Ghoft be here meant, 
then all whom the Apoftles did baptize, were bap- 
tized with the Holy Ghoft, which is falfe: for Ana- 
nias and Sapphira could not have been Hypocrites 
if they had been baptized with the Holy Ghoft. 
And Simon was baptized, and yet not with the 
Holy Ghoft, as appears by Peter's Anfwer t& 
him, ver. 21. 32. of the fifth chapter. 5th, Be- 
caufe if GhriiVs Commiffion carry not a Warrant 
for baptizing with Water, whence then had the 
Apoftles a Warrant for baptizing with Water? 
Either they muft produce and let us fee another 
Commiffion for it, or elfe they muft acknowledge 
that the Apoftle did warrant ably baptize with Wa- 
ter. But another Commiffion the Quakers cannot 
ihew us from Scripture. 

Queft. II. il Is dipping of the Perfon (to be 
" baptized) into water necellary i" 


* Is Baptifm rightly adminiftred by pouring, or 
u fprinkling Water upon the Perfon?" 


Chap. XXVIII. O/Bapti/m. 237 

Yes; Afts 2.41. Arts 16, 33. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptifts err, who 
maintain. Dipping to bean abfoluteand neceflary 
Ceremony in Bap dim ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Greek Word in the Original 
fignifies, as well to pour and fprinkle Water, as 
it fignifies to dip; Mark. 7. 4. where it is faid, 
And when they come from the Market, unlcfs they 
wafb, or be baptized they eat n6t. ad, Becaufe 
we read of Three Thoufand baptized in one day,, 
in the Streets of Jerufalem, by Twelve Apoftlcs 
at the moft, where there was no River to dip 
them into, Acts 2. 41. And was not Jerufalem, 
and all Judea, and the region round about Jor- 
dan, baptized by John the Baptift himfelf alone, 
which could not be done to all and every one by 
dipping, Matth.3. 5,6. 3d, Were not many bap- 
tized in private Houfes, as we read in the Hiftory 
of the Afts, chapter 10. 47. and 18. 8. with 9, 
17. and 16. 33. 4th, Becaufe dipping of Infants 
into Water in thefecold Countries,would behurl> 
ful and dangerous to them. But God will rather 
have Mercy than facrifice, Matth. 9 1 3. 

Queft. III. " Are the Infants of one, or both bc- 
• c Hevin'g Parents to be baptized i" 

Yes. Gen. 17. 7,9. Gen. 3. 9, 14. Col. 2. n> 
1 2. Arts 2. 38, 39. Rom. 4. 11, 12. 

Well then, do not the Anabaptifts err, who 
maintain, That no Infante, tho' born of believing 
Parents, ought to be baptized ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe to covenanted ones (of which 
Number the Infants of Believers are no lefs thao 


238 OfBaptifm. Chap. XXVIII. 

their Parents, A&s 2. 38, 39. Afte 3. 25. Rom. 
11. 16. Gen. 17.7,22.) that Seal of the Covenant, 
of which they are capable, is not to be denied, 
Gen. 17. 7, 10, 11. ad, Becaufe the#utward Sa- 
crament of Water cannot be denied to fuch as have 
received the Spirit of Chrift, and to whom the pro- 
mifes of the New Covenant fealed up in Baptifm do 
belong, Aftsio. 47. Afts 11. 15, 16, 1 7. But to 
Some Infants of Believers, as well as to others come 
to age, the Spirit of Chrift hath been given, Jer< 1. 
c. Luke 1. 15. Mat. 19. 14. Mark 10. 13, 14. 
-And to them do thePromifes belong, A6ls 2. 39; 
3d, Becaufe the Infants of Believers are Members 
of the Church ; which is fanftified and cleanfed : 
with the wafhing of Water by the Word, Eph. 5. 
25, 26. Joel. 2. 16. Ezek. 16. 20,21. 1 Cor] 7. 14. " 
4th, Becaufe Infants no lefs than others come to ' 
age, were baptized in the Cloud and in the Sea, • 
1 Cor. 10. 2. 5 th, Becaufe Chrift commanded that * 
all Nations fhould be baptized, a great part where- 
of were Infants, Gen. 22. 18. Mat. 28. 19. 6th, ■ 
Becaufe Chrift commanded Baptifm to be admini- 
ftred to Difciples, (Infants alfo are here to be taken 
in, A6ts 15. 10.) Mat. 28. 19. The Word in the 
original is Mathet en/ate, teach, inftruft, or make 
Difciples, all Nations, or make Difciples among 
all Nations, baptizing them. The Signification 
of this Greek Word may be gathered from John 
4, 1. where it is faid, that the Pharifees had ■ 
heard that Jefus; made Difciples, So that Ma- 
tbeteueian. and Mathet as poicn, are both one 
Thing. 7th, Becaufe- the Children of Believers 
were, by a Divine Right, circumcifed under the Old 
Teftament: therefore the Children of Believers 
under the New Teftament ought to be baptized, 
becaufe the. one hath fucceeded the other. That 
.-... Baptifm 

Chap. XXVIII. €f Baptifm. 239 

Baptifm fucceeds to Circumcifion is evident, firfr, 
Becaufe they both feal up the very fame Thing. 
Next, as circumfion was the initiating Seal under 
the Old Teftament, fo is Baptifm under the New : 
and becaufe the Apofrles did adminifter it fo early 
to the Difciples at the firft appearing of their new 
Birth, and Interefl in the Covenant. Moreover, 
becaufe by Baptifm we are faid to put on Ghrift: 
Gal. 3. 27. That they both feal up the fame thing, 
is evident by comparing Rom. 4. 1 1 . with iMark 1 , 
4. Afrs 2. 28. Where Circumcifion is declared to be 
a Seal of the Righteoufnefsof Faith, and Baptifm is 
held forth to be a Pledge of theRemhTion of Sins,as 
alfo may be feen; Rom. 4. 6, 7, 8. fee Col. 2. 11, 
12. Where the Apoftlc teaches that our being 
, buried with Chrift in Baptifm is our Circumcifion 
in Chrifl ; which (hews that Baptifm hath fucceed- 
ed to us in the Room of Circumcifion. 8th, Be- 
caufe the Apoftle lays, that the Infants but of one 
believing Parent are holy, iCor. 7. 14. that is, are 
comprehended in the outward Covenant of God, 
and have accefs to Signs and Seals of God's Grace,as 
wellas theyare that are born of both believing Pa- 

Queft. IV. " Are Grace and Salvation fo infepa- 
i: rably annexed unto Baptifm, as that no Perloa 
" can be regenerated, or faved, without it i M 


" Are all that are Baptized undoubtedly regene- 
" rated?" 

No. Arts 8. 13, 23. 

Well then, do nor the Papifts and Lutherans 
err, ^ho maintain, That Baptifm is fimply ne- 
ceffary to Salvation, and that all, and thofe on- 
ly who are baptized, are moft furely regenerated- 
in that fame very Moment of Time Wherein Bap- 
tifm is adminiftred ? Yes,. 

340 Of Baptifm Chap. XXVIIL 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
i ft, Becaufe the Thief upon the Croft, and 
others were faved, that were never baptized, 
Luke 23. 43. 2d, Becaufe perfons unbaptized 
have had faving Faith, Acts 10 22, 44. 3d, 
Becaufe Infants that are predeflinated unto Life, 
though they die in their Mothers Belly, yet they 
cannot peril!) , Matth. 18.14. 4th, Becaufe fome 
Children before their baptifm have been belov- 
ed of God, whofe Love is unchangeable ; Rom.. 
9, 11, 13, Others have been regenerated by the 
Holy Ghoft, Luke, Chapter 1, verfe 1 5. and fome 
have been alfo comprehended within the Cove- 
nant of Grace, Acts 2. 39. 5th, Becaufe that 
Baptifm without Faith, and the inward Operation 
of the Holy Spirit, hath no Efficacy to Salvation, 
Mark 16. 16. 1 Pet 3. 21. 6th, Becaufe the 
Baptifm of the Spirit, at one Time goes before, 
at another Time follows Baptifm with Water, 
A6ts 10. 37. Matth. 3. 1 1. 7th, Becaufe very ma- 
ny that are baptized within the vifible Church 
are damned, Matth. 7. 13, 14. 8th, Becaufe in 
thofe that are come to age, Faith and Repentance 
are pre-required to Baptifm, and therefore before 
they be baptized, they have the beginning of Rege- 
neration: A&s 2. 38. 9th, Becaufe not all that are 
baptized are eleffed, Mar. 20 16. But all that arc 
elected by God, are in Time regenerated, 1 Pet. 
*. 2. 10th, Becaufe the Holy Ghoft is a moft free 
Agent, and Worker : /\nd rhei cfure his Operation 
(whence the Efficacy of Baptifm depends) where- 
by we are regenerated, is not tied to anyone Mo- 
ment of Time, John 3.8. nth, Becaufe Bap- 
tifm is not a converting, but a confirming Ordi- 
nance, even as the Lord's Supper is. 


Ghap. XXVIII. Of Baptifm. 241 

The Papifts do otberwife contradict the fecond 
Part, in affirming, That the Virtue and Effica- 
cy of Baptifm (as to the abolifhing and fealing 
up the Remiffion of more grievous Sins and 
Failing;;, which they ca!l Moral) doth not ex- 
tend itfelf to the Time to come, but to the Time 
part : fo that if the Pcrfon baptized, faJl into 
fome deadly and dangerous Sin, which wounds 
the Confcience, there is need of another Sacra- 
ment, viz. Penance, whereby the Remiffion of 
that Mortal Sin, as they call it, is fealed up unto 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe the Sacrament of Baptifm, after 
the Adminiflration thereof, doth not ceafe to be a 
Sacrament of the Blood of Chrift, which purgeth 
us from all our Sins, Mark 1. 4. 1 John 1. 7. 
2d, Becaufe Juftification by Faith (which is feal- 
ed up to us by Baptifm, Rom. 4. 11. Col. 2. 1 i f 
12.) is for all Sins committed before and after 
Baptifm, A<5rs 13. 36. 3d, Becaufe our Savi- 
our fays, He that believeth and is baptized (hall 
be faved, Mark 16. 16. 4th, Becaufe not only 
the beginning of our Salvation is referred to Bap- 
tifm, but alfo Salvation itfelf, and eternal Life, 
1 Pet. 3. 21. 5th, Becaufe the Scripture bring- 
eth Arguments from the Ufe and Remembrance 
of Baptifm, by which we that have been baptis- 
ed, are ftirred up to Holinefs and Newneis of 
Life, and to put off the Old Man, and confe- 
quently, all thofe Sins which the Adverfaries call 
Mortal, Rom. 3. 2, 3. Gal. 3. 27. Col. 2. 11, 

Queft. V. a Is the Sacrament of Baptifm but 
u once to be adminiflred to any Perfon?" 
Once only, Gal. 3. 27. Tit. 3. 5. 
Well then, do not the Marcionites err, who 
X main 


2 42 Of the Lord's Supper. Chap. XXIX. 

maintain, That Men after groficr Failings ought 
to be re- baptized ? 

Do not likewife the Hemerobaptifts err, who 
maintain, That Men according to their Faults 
every Day, ought every Day to be baptized ? 

Do not laftly, the Anabaptifts err, who main*- 
tain, That Children baptized, ought to be re- 
baptized when they come to Age ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
i ft, Becaufe Bapiifm is a Sacrament of Admif- | 
iion into the vifible Church, and of Regeneration, 
(which is one only, i John 3. 9.) 1 Cor. 12. 13. 
Tit. 3. 5. Eph. 5. 26. 2d, Becaufe there is a 
Command for repeating, and frequent ufing the 
Lord's. Supper, 1 Cor 22. 25, 26. But no Pre- 
cept, or Command for repeating Baptifm. 3d, Be- 
caufe Circumcifion (to which fucceeded Baptifm) 
was never repeated, as the Paflbver was. 4th, Be- 
caufe Baptilm is a Seal of Adoption, Gal. 3. 26, 
27. But whom God loveth, and hath once adop- 
ted, thofe he never cafteth off afterwards, Rom. 
11. 29. 5th, Becaufe the Apoftle fays, there is 
but one Baptifm, Eph. 4. 5. namely, not only in 
Number, but alfo in the Adminiftration upon us 
all, Rom. 6.3, 4. 


Of the Lord's Supper. 
Question I. 
'« TS the Sacrament ofChrift's Body and Blood, 
*' A called the Lord's Supper, an .Ordinance of 
" God, to be obferved in the Church, unto the 
« End of the World?" 

Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper 243 

Yes; 1 Cor. 11. 23, 24, 25, 26. 1 Cor. 10. 

16, 17, 18, 21. Matth. 26. Luke 22. 

Well then, do not the Quakers err, who main- 
tain, The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper to be 
no Gofpel-Ordinance, and that there is no Gof- 
pel-Precept, for the Admin iftration thereof until 
his Second Coming ? 

They look upon this Ordinance, as a Type on- 
ly and Figure, or Shadow of ChrifVs Body and 
Blood, which was commanded for that Time, 
and forfome Time to come, but not unto his Se- 
cond coming. Thus they abandon that mod pre- 
cious Ordinance of * taking and eating the Bread 
and drinking the Wine/ as they do Baptifm with 
Water, and all other Ordinances, to the introduc- 
ing of black AtheifiD into the World. They per- 
vert the true meaning of the Scripture, for the De- 
fence of their damnable Tenets, as by this one in- 
, fiance, ' Till he come, which is meant (fay they) 
not of his Second Corning at the laft Day, but of 
his Coming to dwell in his Difciples and Apoftles ; 
as if Chrift had not been in them, both before and 
1 after his Afcenfion; even as they deny Baptifm 
; in Chrift's CommifTion (Matth. 28 19 ) to his 
! Diiciples, to be meant of Baptilm with Water, 
I becaufe Water is not exprcft; they deny either 
j wilfully, as their Ring leaders do, or ignorantly, ' 
or by Ddufion from the Devil, as the moft Part 
do. the moll lure and evident Truths in Scripture, 
prattling and gaggling in their Difcourfe, Senfe and 
Nonfcnie, being oftner out of Purpofe, than in a 
Purpofe, flapping from one Subject to another, 
to fave themfelves from the Strength of Reafon, 
like fubtil Foxes, which when they are beaten 
from one Hole, fly into another. But while they 
X z arc 

244 Of the Lord's Supper Chap. XXIX, 

are obftinate, and pertinacious in maintaining 
Lies and Untruths, they ought to be confuted, 
as the Man was that denied Snow to be White. 
For it is not fo much blindnefs of Mind, or a 
Weaknefs of Judgment, as many well meaning 
People are milled by. as a wilful obftinate refif- 
ring of the Truth, as the perverfe Jews did, or as 
Jannes and Jarobres withftood Mofcs. They 
that are againft commanded Gofpel-Ordinances, 
and the Minifters of Chrift:, whom rhcy look up- 
on as the Pri^fts of Baal, would (if they durft) 
fhake off the very Scripture, and Word of God. 
And it is more than probable, that if they could 
ftiun the Odium of open Blafphemy, and the 
Hazard of (landing Laws againft Blafphemers, 
the moft Part of them would difown the Snip- 
tures, as many of them have done. For what 
*T.indnefs or Rdpett can they have for the Scrip- 
tures, butfuch as Men carry to Topicks or common 
Places, whence they draw Argument, to impugn 
others, or defend rbemfelvcs with. For they do 
not look upon the Word as their Rule, feeing (as 
they dream) they ■ have a Light within them,' be- 
yond that more fure Word of Prophecy, which the 
Apoftle Peter prefers to a Voice from Heaven. 
Nay, they have fo little Veneration for the 
Scriptures, that they will not fuffer them to be 
called the Word of God, contrary to many exprefs 
Places of the Scripture, as John 10. 35. 2 Chron. 
36. 22. Pfal. 119. 172. Mark 7. 9, 10. 13. 
1 Kings 16. 12. 2 Kings 9. 36. Ezra 1. 1. 2 Kings 
23. 16. Ifa. 28. 13 Eph. 6. 17. Ifa. 37. 22. 

Queft. II. " Is Chiift offered up to his Father 
" in this Sacrament ?" 


Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper. 24$ 

a Is there any real Sacrifice made at all, for 
" Remiffion of Sins of the Quick or Dead i n 

No; Heb. 9. 22, 25, 26, 28. 

Well then, do not the Papilts err, who main- 
tain, That in this Sacrament there is performed 
a true and real Sacrifice (commonly called the 
Mafs) wherein Chrift, under the Forms of Bread 
and Wine, without (bedding of Blood, is offered 
unto God by a Pricft, and facrificed for the Liv- 
ing, and for the Dead, to obtain Remiflion of 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the facrificing and offering up of 
Chrift, is a Part of his own Priefthood, Heb. 9. 
14. But the Priefthood of Chrift cannot be tranf- 
ferred from himfelf to any other, Heb. 7. 4. 
Therefore, no Prieft can offer him up under the 
Forms of Bread and Wine unto God. 2d, Be- 
caufe the offering of the Body of Chrift is once 
for all. It is but one fingle offering, and cannot 
l be repeated, Heb. 13, 10, J 2, 14. 3d, Becaufe 
the facrificing and offering up of Chrift is one on- 
ly, and of a moft perfect Merit and Efficacy, 
Heb. 9. 14. Heb. 10 14. But the repeating of 
the fame Sacrifice, and the Multitude of Priefts 
I are a Token of an imperfeel Sacrifice, Heb. 9. 
[25, 26. Heb. 10. 10, 1 1. 4th, If Chrift be often 
i offered, he muft often die and fuffer, Heb. 9. 2C, 
26. But Chrift being now raifect from the Dead, 
cannot any more luffer and die, Rom 6. 9. 5th, 
Becaufe that one and moft perfect Sacrifice of 
Chrift, did abrogate and take away all thofe ex- 
ternal Sacrifices, and caufed them to ceafe, Dan. 
9. i 7. 6th, Becaufe there can be no Propitiato- 
ry-Sacrifice for Sin, without flieddiag of Blood, 
X 3 Heb. 

246 Of the lord's Supper. Chap. XXIX. 

Heb. 9. 22. Neither doth he die any more, but 
is now in Heaven, to appear in the Prefence of 
God for us, and to Intercede in our behalf, Heb. 
1.3. Heb. 9. 24. Heb. 10. 12. 7th, Becaufe in 
every Sacrifice there ife required (and really is) 
a dying, and DeftrucYion of the Thing facrificed . 
but Chrift ftiil llveth, Rom. 6. 9. 8th, Becaufe 
no Man can offer Jefus up to God, but Chrift him- 
ielf, Heb, 9. 27. 9th, Becaufe in all external 
Sacrifices, properly fo called, there is neceflarily 
required, a vifible external Hoft, or Thing facri- 
ficed, as the Adverfaries grant. But the Thing 
which is faid to be offered up by the Mafs Prieft, 
namely, the Body of Chrift, is neither external nor 
vifible here, it being in Heaven, and not on Earth 
with Man, Acts 3. 21. 

Queft. III. " Are private Mafles, or the receiv- 
4< ing this Sacrament by a Prieft, or any other 
*' alone, as likewife the Denial of the Cup to the 
*' People, worshipping the Elements, the lifting 
** them up, or can ying them about for Adoration, 
" and the referring them for any pretended Reli- 
* c gious Uk: are thefe (I fay) contrary to the 
" Nature of this Sacrament, and to the Inftitution 
" of Chrift ?* 

Yes; Mark 14. 23. 1 Cor. 1 1. 25, 26, 27, 28, 
29. Matth. 15. 9. 

Well then, doth not the Romifh Church en\ 
v/hofe Mafs Priefls ftanding at the Altar, cele- 
brate private Maffcs ( the People either being 
sbfent, or ftanding idle) who take the Cup to 
themfelves only, and drink thereof: that ad- 
minifter the Lord's Supper privately to fick Per- 
sons, and bed-rid; that teach to adminifter the 
Communion to Laics, under both the Forms of 
Bread and Wine, is not only not neceffary, bat 

Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper. 247 

unlawful : who teach that for Adoration-caufb 
the Elements are to be lifted up, and carried about* 
and referved for Religious Ufes ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe Chrift did inftitute the laft Sup- 
per, not for one a-part, but for many together, 
Matth. 26. 27, 28. 2d, Becaufe Chrift in cele- 
brating the laft Supper, did not eat and drink 
himfelf alone, but the Difciples did alfo eat and 
drink with him, Matth. 26. 27, 23 3d, Be- 
caufe the Apoftle commands the Corinthians, 
that when they come together to eat, they tarry 
one for another, 1 Cor. 11.33. 4th, Becaufe 
the Lord's Supper is a Sacrament of Brotherhood, 
and Communion of„the Saints, 1 Cor. 10. 16, 17* 
1 Cor. 11. 33. 5th, Becaufe in the Days of the 
Apoftles, the Difciples and Brethren met together 
for breaking of Bread, Afts 20. 7. 6th, Becaufe 
Chrift when he had taken Bread, and diftributed 

.it, is faid to have likewiie taken the Cup, 1 Cor. 
11.23,24,25,26,27. 7th, Becaufe it is ex- 
prefly faid, and commanded (Chrift forefeeing 
this black Error, which is now in their Church) 
•Drink ye all of it,' Matth. 26. 27. 8th, Be- 
caufe the common People, which are Communis 
eants. gather more Fruit from both the Forms, 
than from one only, 1 Cor 10. 16. and 1 Cor. 
11. 26. 9th, Becaufe the Blood of Chrift, the 
Sign whereof is the Wine in the Cup. is not only 
fhed for apoftles, Preachers and Pallors, but alfo 
for Lay-Men, and thole that are not of the Cler- 

'gy, as the Popiih Church fpeaks, John 3 16. 
10th, Becaufe the Apoftles and Chriltians of the 
Primitive Church, did Communicate urd r b 1 h 
Forms, Mark 14, 22, 23. 1 Cor. iq, ii, Chap- 

248 Of the Lord's Supper. Chap. XXIX. 

ters. nth, Becaufe it is a Villany to detract 
and*withdraw any Thing from Chri It's Teftament : 
and therefore the Cup (which is left to us by Le- 
gacy, Matth. 26. 27, 28.) is not to be denied to 
any Communicant, Gal. 3. 1 5. 1 2th, Becaufe 
Chrift did not inftitute any Adoration of the Ele- 
ments ; therefore, this Adoration is to be condem- 
ned as Willrworihip, Matth. 15.9, 13th, Be- 
caufe the Adoration is founded upon the corporal 
Pre fence of Chrift's Body in the Sacrament, 
which is btafphemous; feeing Chrift now is at 
the Right Bind of God, Heb.-i. 3. 14th, Be- 
caufe this Popifti Adoration of the Elements, 
is a worshipping of the- Creature, together with 
the Creator* a moll abominable Idolatry, Dan. 
1 1. s 8. Matth 23,-16. toverfe23- 15th, Becaufe 
if the Elements ought to be adored, becaufe Chrift: 
is facramentally prefent in them, then ought Be- 
lievers (ill whom Ghrift dwelleth, John 14. 20,) 
to be adored, which is abfurd. Nay the Water 
of Biptifm ought to be worshipped, feeing the 
whole. Trinity is no lefs prefent there, than in the 
Supper. 16th, The worihipping of the Bread, 
Jince no Man (as the Adverfaries confefs) is able 
to know certainly that the Hoft is confecrated, is 
a Work done without Fakh, therefore a Sin, 
Rom. 14. 23. 17th, Becaufe Ghrift commanded 
the Element of Bread to be broken, eaten and di- 
flributed. But no where doth Chrift command 
the Bread to be referved, 1 Cor. 11. 23, 24. 
18th, Becaufe the Bread, which is the Commu- 
nion of the Body of Chrift, is the Bread which we 
break, 1 Cor. 10. 16. iyth, Becaufe the Bread 
and the Wine are not Sacramental Symbols, but 
in the very Action, 1 Cor. 11. 26. Here it isfaid, 
For as often as ye eat this Bread, and drink this 


Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper. 249 

Cup, but not, as often as ye referve this Bread. 
20th, Becaufe God commanded, that nothiog 
fliould be referved of the Pafchal Lamb (to which 
Bread and Wine in the Lord's Supper have fuc- 
ceeded) till the Morning, Exod 12. 10. That it 
might not be put to any other Ufe, whether for 
Idolatry, or common Food. 

Queft. VI. " Do the outward Elements in this 
" Sacrament, in Subftance and Nature remain ftill, 
11 truly, and only Bread and Wine, as they were 
11 before?" 

Yes. Matth. 26. 29. 1 Cor. 11. 26, 27, 28. 

Weil then, do-not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That the Bread and Wine, by the Power 
©f the Words of Confecration, ' This is my Body/ 
are truly tranfubftantiate into the very Body and 
Blood of Chrift ; nothing remaining but the out- 
ward Forms and Accidents of the Bread and 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Doftrine of Tranfubftantiati- 
on makes Chrift's Body every where prefent, 10- 
viiible, that cannot be handled, without Shape 
and Figure, without human Quantity, which is 
contrary to Matth. 2 6. 6. Here Chrift is only pre- 
fent in Bethany. And John 20. 27. Thomas - 
toucheth Chrift, and according to Afts 3. 21. the 
Heavens muft receive him ; and therefore cannot 
be every where. See Heb 2. 14. 17. 2d, Becaufe 
before and after Confecration, the Bread is called 
the Communion of the Body of Chrift : but no- 
thing is faid, or can be the Communion of its own 
felf, 1 Cor. 10. 16. 3d, Becaufe after Coufecra- 
tions, the Apoftle calls not the Bread, a Species, or 
Form of Bread, 1 Cor 11. 26, 27, 28, And al- 

0.5P Of the Lord's Supper. Chap. XXIX • 

ter Confecration, Gh rift calls the Wine the Fruit 
of the Vine, Matth. 26. 29. 4th, Bccaufe Chrift 
did inftitute the Supper to be a Memoiial of him- . 
felf until he come again. But a Memorial is not- 
of Things corporally prefent, but of Things ab-, 
fent, 1 Cor. 21, 25. 5th, Bccaufe that which is 
properly broken, is not the Body of Chrift, but. 
the Bread is properly broken, therefore, the Bread 
is not the Body of Chrift, 1 Cor. 10. 16 6th, 
Becaufe Chrift went up to Heaven bodily, and* 
is to tarry there until the End of the World, Afts 
3.12. 7th, Tranfubftantiation deftroys the ve- 
ry .Eflence and Being of the Lord's Supper. Firft, 
It deftroys the Sign, becaufe it takes away the 
Subftance of the Bread and Wine ; the Accidents 
and outward Forms only remaining. Secondly, It 
deftroys the Thing fignified, for it robs and fpoils 
the Body of Chrift of its true Quantity and Di- 
menfions (for according to that infallible Philofo- 
phical Maxim, Sublatis Dimenfionibus Corporis, 
tollitur ipfum Corpus: that is, by taking away 
the Length, Breadth and Thicknefs of any Phy- 
fical or Natural Body, you deftroy conftqtiential- , 
ly the very EfTence and Being of that Body, and 
introduce inftead of one Body, many Bodies. 8th, 
Becaufe Tranfubftantiation takes away the Sacra- 
mental Analogy : and fo when the Sign is turned 
into the Thing fignified, all Similitude between 
them is gone, and ceafeth. 9th, From this Doc- 
trine do follow many great Abfurdities inconfiftent 
with Reli ion, Senfcand Reafon. As Firft, That 
Chrift in the Supper, did both eat and drink hirn- 
ielf, that he was wholly in his own Mouth : that 
he had a double and twofold Body, one vifible, 
another invifible; that a Moufe, or Rat, may 
eat Chad's Body : That his Body being reierved, 


Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper. 251 

and laid up into a Cup board, in a (hort Time 
may turn into Vermine. Muft not Chrift's Body 
be in many Places at once? ,V:uft not his Body, 
and all the Parts thereof, his Head, Hands and 
Feet, be in the fmalleft, and leait Crumb of the 
Hoft ? Muft not Chrift's Body, having now that 
bignefs in Heaven, which he had upon Earth, be 
bigger than itfelf ; longer and thicker ? 

If Chrift's Body may be in divers Places at 
once, why may not a Man's Body be in divers 
Places at once ? (this is granted by the Ad verfa- 
ries) but a Man cannot be in divers Places at once. 

Can Peter, for Example, be both at Edinburgh 
and London, in the fame Moment of Time? He 
may then be both a Man and not a Man, at the 
fame Time; he may be a Man, becaufe living at 
Edinburgh ; and not a Man becaufe dead at Lon- 
don. May not Peter at Edinburgh go to York, 
and meet Peter there from London ? And what a 
merry meeting muft it be, when Peter fhakes 
Hands with Peter, and takes a Glafs of Wine, from 
him ? May not Peter from London be killed 
there at York, and Peter from Edinburgh be left 
alive ? May not Peter alive be re produced in a 
thoufand Cities at once, and marry there a thou- 
fand Wives, and beget in one Night a thoufand 
Sons and Daughters ? May not Peter be fo ma- 
ny Times re-produced, till he make up an hun- 
dred Thoufand fighting Men ? May not one Cap- 
die by Re production, be made as many as may 
give Light to the whole Univerfe? May not one 
Bottle of Water be made fo many, as may ferve 
an Army of an hundred Thoufand ? May not ope 
Guinea be re-produced as many Times as may a- 
mount to five and twenty hundred thoufand 
Pounds Sterling? A brave Invention for paying 


25* Of the Lord's Supper. Chap. XXIX. 

Five or Six Hnndred Thoufand Marks of Debt, 
Next, as the Adverfaries are engaged to maintain, 
that one Body may be in many Places at once, fo 
are they under Neceffity to affirm, that many Bo- 
dies may be kione Place together, by way of Pe- 
netration, for in every Crumb of the Hoft is 
Chrift's Body. From which Pofition it follows, 
That a Man's Body may be contained within a 
Nut-fhell. That a Snuff Box may contain Ar-" 
thur's Seat: the hollow of an Ox's Eye, the whole 
Globe of the Earth. That a Sparrow may fwal- 
low, one by one, the Seven Planets, feeing each 
one of them may occupy no more Bounds of Space, 
than a Grain of Barley-Corn doth : and yet the 
Sun, which is fwallowed, will be as big as at pre- 
fent ; for Chrift's Body in the Hoft, is as big and 
tall, as when he was on the Crofs, as the Adver- 
faries confefs. i oth, We never read of a Miracle 
wrought by God, but what was evident, and 
confpicuous to all, and evidently fcen to be fuch. 
As Mofes' Rod was turned into a Serpent, 
and became a Rod again, Exod. 4. 2, 3. Such 
were the Wonders of Egypt. Such was the di- 
viding of the Red Sea : the ftriking of the Rock : 
and the flowing out of the Water, Numb. 20. 
11. The Deftruftion of Korah, Dathan, 
and Abiram, was evident to all the IfraeU 
ites, Numb. 19. 31, 32. So were the Miracles 
which were wrought by the holy Prophets, fuch 
were the Miracles which Chrift and his Apoftles 
wrought. Was not the Water mod evidently turn- 
ed into Wine, John 2. 7, 8, 6. But after the 
Words of Confecration uttered by the Mafs Prieft, 
the Bread as to Senfe, is the fame Thing it was. 
The Bread hath the fame Tafte, the fame Smell, 
that fame Touch, that fame outward Form and 


Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper. 253 

Figure, that fame Colour, that fame Weight. It 
occupies that fame Space and Bounds, and hath the 
fame Quantity in all its Dimcnfions. But the 
Rod was feen a Serpent, and the Serpent was feea 
a Rod. The Water was feen Wine : it was known 
to be Wine by the Tafte, by the Smell, by the 
Colour. Chrift never wrought Such a Miracle as 
the Miracle of Tranfubftantia^ion. la all his Mi- 
' racles he appealed to our outward Senfes. And 
was it ever heard that Chrift wrought Miracles 
without a Neceffity ? 

Queft. V. •• Is the Body and Blood of Chrift 
M in this Sacrament corporally or carnally in, with, 
" or under, the Bread and Winer" 

No. 1 Cor. 10. 16. 

Well then, do not the Lutherans err, who main- 
tain, That the Body and Blood of Chrift are 
corporally in, with, and under the Bread and 
Wine": and that (as the Papifts alfo teach) his 
Body and Blood are taken corporally by the 
Mouth, by all Communicants, Believers and Un- 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Chrift was fitting with his B?dy 
at the Table. 2d, Becaufe he himfelf did eat of 
the Bread, and drink of the Wine. 3d, Becaufe 
he took Bread from the Table : he took not his 
own Body : he brake Bread, and did diftribute it, he 
brake not his own Body : fo he took the Cup, and net 
his own Blood. 4th, becaufe Chrift faid, the Cup 
was the New Tcftamcntin his Blood; but cheCupis 
not in, with, and underline Wine. 5th, Becaufe 
Chrift faid, the Bread war his Body, which was bro- 
ken : the ..Wine was his Blood which was fhed. 
But neither was his Budy broken under the Bread, 
nor his Blood fhed under the Wioe, feeing Chrift 

! y 

* 54 Of the herd's Supper. Chap. XXIX. 

as yet, was not betrayed, crucified and dead. 

In the next Place, the End of the Lord's Supper 
is, that we may remember Chrift, and declare his 
Death until he come, Luke 22. 19. 1 Cor. 11. 
24, 2$ 9 26. Therefore, if Chrift be now prefen* 
with his Body, in, with, and under the Bread* 
the Sacramental Remembrance of Chrift, and the 
declaring of his Death, ought to ceaie. 

This Doctrine of Confubftantiation is contrary 
to the Articles of our Faith. It is againft the 
Truth and Verity of his Human Nature, which 
is vifible, palpable, and in a certain Place circum- 
fcriptive. It is againft the Article of his ^fcen- 
fion : for it makes his Body, which is now m 
Heaven, until the laft Day, to be in^ with, and 
under a Piece of Bread. It is againft the fpiri- 
tual Communion of the Saints with Chrift the 
Head, which the Lutherans make by this Doc- 
trine a corporal and carnal Communion, contrary 
to 1 Cor. 10. 3,4. Eph. 1. 22. Eph. 4. 4. Rom. 
8i 9. 1 Cor. 6. 1 7. 1 John 4. 1 3. John 1 5. 5. 

It brings with it many and great Abfurdities, as, 
that the Body of Chrift, Non habet Partem ex- 
tra Partem, hath not one Part without another r 
but as if all the Parts of his Body were in one Part: 
which is contrary to the Nature of a true and real 
Quantum, which confifts efTentially, in three Di- 
mehfions; Length, Breadth, and Thicknefs. It 
makes in effect his Body to be no Body. It brings 
down the glorious Body of Chrift from Heaven, 
and put5 it under the bafe Elements of this Earth. 
It makes as many Bodies of Chrift, as there arc 
Pieces of Euchariftical Bread. It makes his Bo- 
dy to be broken in, with, and under the Bread, 
andbruifed wiih the Teeth. It fends his Body 
down to the Stomach, where it is turned into a 


Chap. XXIX. Ofibe Lord's Supper. 25s 

Man's Subftance, and afterwards thrown out. 

Moreover, all true eating brings Life and Sal- 
vation, John 6. 50, 51. but eating by the Mouth 
profiteth nothing, John 6. 36. Again, our Union 
with Chrift (and therefore our eating of his Body, 
from whence arifeth this Union) is not corpoial 
but fpiritual, Eph. 3. 17. and the Body and 
Blood of Chrift are Meat and Drink, not carnal 
but fpiritual, even as the Hunger, whereby we 
Jong for this Meat is fpiritual. And the Life to 
which we arc nourifhed is fpiritual, and the nu- 
triment is fpiritual. Laftly, According to this 
Doftrine of Confubftantiation, flifiy maintained 
by the Lutherans, it follows, That Chrift did eat 
his own Body, while he diu eat the Bread of the 
firft Supper. That his Difciples did eat their 
Lord and Matter's Body : that his Difciples were 
more cruel and inhuman to him than the Jews 
were that crucified him : that he is often buried 
within the Entrails of wicked Men. 

Quft. VI. " Is the Body and Blood of Chrift 
€# as really, but Spiritually prefent to the Faith of 
u Believers in that Ordinance, as the Elements 
€i themfelves are to the outward Senfes }" 

Yes. 1 Cor. 10. 16. 

Well then, do not the Socinians err, who main- 
tain, That the Body and Blood of Chrift in the Sa- 
crament of the Supper are not really prefent ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft. Becaufe the Body of Chrift in this Sacra- 
ment, is fpiritually eaten by Believers, and his Blood 
is fpiritually drunken. But a fpiritual Prefence, 
is a true and real Prefence; becaufe it comes and 
flows from true and real Caufes, namely, from 
Faith, and the Holy Spirit. 2d, Becaufe in the 
Y 2 right 

o,$6 Of the Lord's Sapper. Ghap. XXIX. 

right T^fe of this Sacrament, Chrift is united to . 
a Man by Faith, and by the Holy. Spirit, i Cor. 
10. 1 6. 3d, Becaufe the Body of Chrift, in fo , 
far as it was given to the Death, and was brokea 
for us on the Croft, and in fo fir as his Blood was 
filed for the Remiflion of our Sins; all thefe (I fay) 
are the internal Matter of this Sacrament, Luke 
22. 19. Matth. 26. 28. 1 Cor. 11. 24. 4th, Be- 
caufe thofe who eat and drink unworthily, are 
faid not to difcern the Lord's Body : and therefore 
to inch as eat and drink worthily, ihe Body and 
Blood of Chrift muft be truly prefent, according t,o 
their Spiritual Stnfe, namely, Faith, 1 Cor. n. \ 
24. 5th, Becaufe length of Time doth not hin- 
der, but that Faith may make Things paft and 
Things to come fpiritually prefent: and therefore 
Diftance of Place doth not hinder, but that Things 
moil: distant as to Place, may be made fpiritually 
and truly prefent, Heb. 11. 1. John 6. 56. Phil. 
3. ic. Heb. 11. 9. 

Queft. VII. " Are all ignorant and ungodly 
" Perfons, as they are unfit to enjoy Communion 
k( with Ghrift, unworthy of his Table ? 


<; Can they without great Sin againft Chrift, 
"• while they continue Tach, partake of thefe holy 
" Myfteries?" 


u And are not therefore Church Officers to debar 
" thofe whoappeargrofiy ignorant and fcandalous?" 

Yes. 1 Cor. 11. 27, 28, 29. and 2 Cor. 6. 14. 
1 5. and 1 Cor. 5. 5, 6 7, 13. Matth. 7. 6. 

Well then, do not fome Men err in their Prac- 
tice, if not in their Opinions, who fuffer many ig- 
norant, fcandalous, and ungodly perfons to come 

to the Tablq ? 


Chap. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supptr. 257 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe ignorant and wicked Men eating 
and drinking unworthily, are guilty of the Body 
and Blood of Chrift, and fo bring Judgment upon 
themfelves, 1 Cor. n. 29. 2d, Becaufe all were 
not admitted to eat of the PaiTover, aeither was 
it for all promifcuoufly to partake thereof, Numb. 
9. 6, 7. and 2 Chron. 23. 19. Ezek 22. 26. 3d, 
Becaufe it was not lawful for any Man to come to 
the Marriage Feaft that wanted the Wedding 
Garment, Matth. 22. 11. 4th, Becaufe Pearls 
are not to be caften before Dogs and Swine, Men 
manifeftly ungodly, and wicked, Matth. 7. 6. 
5th, Becaufe they who deferve to be excluded 
from the Fellowfhip and Society of Believers, 
ought not to be admitted to the Sacrament of inti- 
mate Communion and Familiarity with God : but 
fuch are all thofe who walk inordinately, 1 Cor, 
6. 16. 6th, Becaufe if the Church willingly and 
wittingly admit fuch Perfons, they flir up the 
"Wrath of God again ft themfeives, for fuffering 
God's Covenant, and his holy Symbols, to be open* 
ly profaned, 1 Cor. 11. 30. 7th, Btcaufe the 
Lord will not fuffer fuch as are manifeftly and 
contumacioufiy wicked, to take his Covenant in 
their Mouth : and therefore, to fuch Perfons, the 
Seals and Symbols of his Covenant, ought not to 
be offered, PjkL 50. 17. 8th, Becaufe igno- 
rant, profane and godlefs Perfons, ought to be 
efteemed as Heathens and Publicans, Matth. 1 8. 17. 



O/" Church Cenfures. 

Question. I. 

u TT ATH the Lord Jefus, as King and Head 
" JlI of his Church, appointed therein a Go- 
" vernment in the Hands of Church-Officers, dif- 
" tinft from the civil Magiftrate ?* 

Yes. Ifa.9.6,7. 1 Tim. 5. 17. 1 ThefT. 5. 12. 
Afts 20. 17, 18. Heb. 13. 7, 17, 24. 1 Cor. 12. 
28. Matth. 28. 18, 19, 20. 

Well then, do not the Eraftians and others err, 
who maintain, That in the holy Scripture there 
is no particular Form of Church Government fet 
down, and appointed by Chrift ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
I 1 ft, Becaufe the Lord Jefus Chrift hath deliver 
red to the Mtaffters of his Church, as to his own 
D legates and Ambaffadors (and therefore ac- 
cording to his own Laws) the whole Powei of go- 
verning the Church, which he himfelf received 
from the Father, to be managed, and put in Ex- 
ecution in his own Name and Authority, John 
96. 21. Matih. 28. 19. Acts 1. 2. Eph. 4. 7, 8, 1 i f 
id, Becsufe all the Subftantials of Church Go- 
vernment, under the New Ttftarnent, which either 
concern Minif ers, Ordinances, Cenfures, Synods, 
Councils, and their Power are propofed, and fet 
down in Scripture, namely, in the third Chapter 
of the fir ft Epiftle to Timothy, Afrs 15 Chapter. 
And 1 Cor. 1 4. 26, 40. 3d, Becaufe the Lord Je- 
fus Chrift hath looked to fhe: good of his Church, 
no lefs under the New TcAament, than under the 


Chap. XXX. Of Chuch Cenfures; \ *$* 

Old. Therefore, (lace the Church underlhe Oid 
Teftement, had a .moft perfeft Form of Govern- 
ment prefcribed to it : and fince there is as great, 
Need and Neceility of Church Order and Difcipiine 
under the New Teftament, as was under the Old, 
it muft follow, that there is a Pattern and Form of 
Church Government no lefs fetdown and prefcribed 
under the New Teflament, than was under the 
Oid, Heb. 3. 1,2, 3, 4, 5. Heb. 13. 8. 1 Cor. 
Chap. 5. 1 Tim. 5. 20. and 1 Tim. 1. 20. 4th, 
The End of the Church Government is fpiritual, 
namely, the gaining of Mens Souls to Chrift. Boc 
nothing that is meerly of human Authority can 
reach this End, Matth. 18. 1 5, 16, .17. 5th, Be- 
caufe all the Parts of Church Government, are 
particularly fet down in Scripture. As fir ft, thofe 
Things which concern the Key of Doctrine, as 
public Prayer, and giving of Thanks, 1 Tim. %. 
12. 1 Cor.. 1 4. 14, 15, 16. Singing of Pfalms, 
Eph. 5. 18, 19. Col. 3. 16. Public reading of 
the Word, Preaching and Expounding the fame, 
Acls 6. 4. Acts 13. 1 5, 1 7. Acts 5.21. 1 C^>r. 3. 
14. Matth. 18. 19, 20. 2 Tim. 4. n. Heb. 6. 1. 
Gal. 6. 6. 2dly, Thofe Parts likewife which coiv 
cern the Key of Difcipiine : namely, the Ordinati- 
on of Prelby ters, with the Impofition of the Hand$ 
of the Prefbytery, 1 Tim. 4. 14. and 1 Tim. 5, 
22. Tit. 1. 5. Afts 14. 21, 22. 3dly, The Aur 
thoritative giving of Judgment, and Sentence con- 
cerning Doclrine; and that according to the Word, 
Afts 15. 15, 24, 28. 4thly, Admonition and 
public Rebuking of thofe who have offended, 
Matth. 18. 15, 16, 17. 1 ThefT. 5. 14. 1 Tim. 5. 
20. Sthly, The Excommunicating of thole who 
are contumacious and ungodly, and who are con- 
vinced of maaifeft Crimes and Scandals, Matth. 18, 


26* Gf Church Cenfuns Chap. XXX. 

ij. Tit. 3. 10. 1 Tim. 1. 20. 1 Cor. 5. 2, 3, 4, 

5. Laftly, The receiving again into the Ftllowihip 
of the Church, Perfons cad out by Excommunica- 
tion, having testified their Repentance, 2 Cor. 2. 

6, 7, 8, 9. 

Do not the fame Eraftians err, who make no Dif- 
tinclion between Church Power and the Secular 
^Power ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe Chrift hath committed the Keys 
©f the Kingdom of Heaven to the Officers of hit 
Church, which are Governors diftinft from thecU 
til Magiftrate, Matth. 16. 18, 19. Matth. 18. 19. 
John 20. 21, 22, 23. 2d, Becaufe Church Power 
and Civil Power differ fpecifically. The Church, 
and the Common -wealth are Polities formally, and 
€ fltntially different. They are not, as fuch, Powers 
fubordinare, at leaft in aright Line, but co-ordi- 
nate, Ac>s 4. 10,20. 2Chron. 26. 18. Next, 
God the Creator and Governor of the World, is the 
Efficient of the Power of the civil Magiftrate, Rom # 
13. 1, 2, 4. But God Chrift, our bkfied Media- 
tor, and Lord of his Church, is the Efficient of the 
Church particularly, and of its Government. The 
Matter (Materia ex qua) of the civil Government 
is the fecuiar Sword ; but the Matter of the Church 
Government, are the Keys of the Kingdom of 
Heaven. The Matter of the civil Government 
{Materia in qua) may be a Senate, many People, 
the Perfon of one King, of a Child, a Woman. 
But the Matter of the Church Government is not 
of this Kind, Heb. 13. 22. 1 Tim. 3. 15. 1 Cor. 
14 34, 35 The Matter of the civil Government 
{Materia circa quam) are Men and Women, as 
Members ot the Common- wealth, without, as well 


Chap. XXX. Of Church Cenfurct. 261 

as within the Church ; but as Chrirtians and 
Members of the Church, they are not fuch, 1 Cor. 
5. 13. The formal Can ies of both are dif- 
tinft; the one inflicts Punifhments merely fpiri- 
tual, the other inflicts Punifhments merely civil. 
Laftly, the End of this, is the corporal and exter- 
nal Good of a Society; but the £nd of that, is 
the fpiritual Good of the Church and its Edifica- 
tion, Mat'th. 14. 15. i Cor. 5. 5. 2 Cor. 10. 8. 

Do not likewife the Socinians, Anabaptifts, 
Quakers, many Independents, and others err, 
who maintain, That the Key of Dottrine, or the 
public Preaching of the Word, is proper to any 
Man furnifhed with fuitable Gifts, tho* not cal- 
led and fent to that Employment ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe no Man can believe in Ch rift of 
whom he hath not heard, and how (hall he hear 
without a Preacher, and how lhall he preach un- 
lefs he be fent ? Rom. 10. 14, 15, 2d, Becaufe 
Women may have fuitable and competent Gifts 
of Preaching, and yet they are forbidden to fpeak 
in the Church, 1 Tim. 2. 12. 3d, Becaufe the 
Scripture blames fuch as have run, and yet have 
not been fent, Jer. 23. 21, 32. 4th, Becaufe no 
Man taketh this Honour to himfelf (that is, he 
ought not to take it) but he that is called of God, 
as was Aaron, Heb. 5. 4. 5th, Becaufe the Scrip- 
ture mentioneth, that God hathfeta part certain 
peculiar Minifters, for the Preaching of the Word, 
Rom. 1.1. Eph. 4. 1 1. Tit. 1. 3. 6th, Becaufe no 
Man can take the Office of a civil Magiftrate, or of 
a Deacon of the Church upon him, unlefs he be 
called thereunto, Luke 12. 14. Afts 6. 5. 1 Tim. 
3. 10. And therefore, po Man ought to take up- 

%(n pf Church Cenfure s. Chap. XXX- 

on him the public Preaching of the Word, unlefs 
he be called* thereunto likewife. 7th, Becaufe he 
that taketh upon him this Office, without a Call, 
he ufurpeth Authority in the Church, feeing 
Preaching is an Acl of Authority, 1 Theff. 5. 1 2. 
8th, Becaufe the Titles which are given to the 
Preachers of the Gofpel, are Names of Office, 
they are called the Ambafladors of Chrift, 2 Cor. 
5. 20. Stewards of the Word, Tit. 1. 7. The 
Men of God, 1 Tim. 6. 11 And Angels, Rev. 

2. I. 9th, Becaufe there is not one approver* 
Example in all the Word of God, for a gifted 
Brother to preach without a Call, and therefoie, 
feeing it Is not done in, Faith, it muft be Sin. 
Muft every Fellow that takes a Laxit in his 
Tongue, go up to the Pulpit and eafe himfelf ? 
10th, Becaufe there are Precepts and Rules fet 
down in Scripture, for all the Ages of the Church 
to the Fnd of the World, anent the Calling of 
Men to be Minifters of the Gofpel,' 1. Tim. 3. 2, 

3, 6, 7. and 1 Tim. 5. 21, 22. 

Do not likewile the Independents, Brounifts 
and Anabaptifts err, who maintain, That the 
Right and Power of governing the Church, be- 
longs no lefs to the Multitude and Community of 
Believers, than to the Officers of the Church ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Scripture exprefly teaches, 
that God hath committed the Government of his 
Church, and the Care of his People to certain 
chofen Perfons, and not to all and every one, 
Eph. 4. it, £2, 13. 1 Cor. 12. 28, 2d, Becaufe 
if the Power of the Keys were given to Believers 
in common, either they are given to them as Be- 
lievers, or as they are gifted by God with Gifts 


Chap. XXX. Of Church Cenfura. a6j 

and Qualifications above others, for governing the 
Church, and choien out of the reft, for perform- 
ing that Office. If the laft Part be affirmed, it 
follows that the Power, and Right of the Keys 
is committed not to a Community of Bclievers # 
but to fome feleft Perfons, which we own and 
maintain ; but the Independents deny. If the flrft 
be aiferted, then it follows, firft, that the Care 
of governing the Church'is committed to Women 
and Children, being Believers; and (b they muft 
neceflaiily have the Power of feeing, as being 
Eyts and Watchmen to the Church: the Power 
of hearing, as being the Ears of the Church ; 
and the Body of the Church muft be deformed : 
becaufe the whole Body is the Eye, and the 
whole Body is the Ear, and whofe many Mem- 
bers are made one Member, i Cor. 12. 12,13, 
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 2d, It follows, that the 
Power of the Keys is not only given to all, but 
to Believers only : but it is evident by the Exam- 
ple of Judas, and other Reprobates, that many 
in ChrifVs Name have preached, who were not 
Believers, Matth. 17. 22, 23. Phil. 1. 16, 17, 18. 
3d, Becaufe to whom Chrift has given the Power 
of governing the Church ; to them alfo he hath 
promifed to give Gifts and Endowments largely 
for performing that Office, John 20. 21, 22, 23. 
1 Cor. 4. 6, 7. Matth. 28. 19, 20. But to a Com- 
munity of Believers, God has never promifed a 
Spirit for the Miniftry, nor Gifts for that Em- 
ployment : nor did he ever beftow, or confer 
any fuch Endowments. 4th, Becaufe Chrift out 
Mediator appointed Ecclefiaftical Officers and 
Church Governors, before ever there was a forma! 
Church under the New Teftament gathered and 
fet up, Luke 9. 1. Luke 10. i, 2, 3. John 20. 


264 Of Church Cenfiires.. Chap. XXX. 

fci,22, 23.Matth. 28. 16, 20. This was all done 
before his Death. And befoie his Afcenfion he 
did the like, Eph. 4. 8, 11,12. Afts 2. 1 Cor. 
12. 28. Nov; it is evident, that ihere was no for- 
mal gathering together of a Church before the 
Feaft of Pentecoft, Acts 2. Ecclefiaftic Mini- 
flers and Officers were appointed for calling in, 
and gathuing together the myftical Body of 
Chrift, viz. his Members : therefore it was need- 
ful, that Minifters baptizing, ought to be before 
Perfons baptized. That Gatherers of the Church 
ought to be before Perfons gathered. That Cal- 
lers and Inviters to Chrift, ought to be before 
Perfons called and invited. 5th, This Demo- 
cracy or Popular Government, cannot but bring 
in great Confufion, whence many Abfurdities 
will follow. As the Church of God (hould not 
be an Organical Body. That Women who are 
forbidden to fpeak in the Church, muft have the 
Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven hanging at 
their Belt, forfooth. All mud govern, and none 
muft be governed. &\ muft attend the Govern- 
ment of the Church. All muft be rendered unca- 
pable for going about their particular Callings, 
which God calls them to every Day. Therefore, 
feeing this Sort of Government brings fo much 
Confufion with it, it is moft probable that it is 
not of God, who is a Cod of Order, and not of 
Confufion, 1 Cor. 14. 33. 

Queft. II. " Are Church Cenfures necefTary for 
tx reclaiming and gaining of offending Brethren, 
" for deterring others from the like Offences, for 
*i purging out of that Leaven, which might infect 
" the whole Lump, for vindicating the Honour of 
" Chrift, and the holy Profeflion of the GoJ^el, and 
c * for preventing the Wrath of God, which might 

" juftly 

Chap. XXX. $f Church Cenfitm. 26S 

m juftly fell upon the Church, iftheyfufferhis Co- 
u venant, and the Seals, thereof to be prophaoe<f 
u by notorious and obftin^fe Sinners?" 

Yes; iTim. 5. 20. iTim. 1. 20. 1 Cor. 11. 
27. to the End. Jude Ver. 23. 

Are the Officers of the Church, for the bettet 
attaining of thefe Ends, to proceed by AdiiionU 
tien, by Sufpenfion from the Lord's Table for 
a Seafou, and by Excommunication from the 
Church, according to the Nature of the Crinie, 
or fcandalous Offence, and Demerit of the Per- 

Yes; iThef. 5. 12. 1 Cor. 5.4, 5, f$. Matth. 
18.' 17. Tit. 3. 10. 

Well then, do not the Sccinians, Anabaptirts, 
Quakers, and other Sectaries err, who deny, That 
any Church Cenfures (hould befrjflifted upon Of- 
fenders ? 


Do not likewife the Eraftians err, who main- 
tain, There (hould be no Sufpenfion from the 
Lord's Table, or Excommunication from the 
Church ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe (he Power of the Keys, is given to 
the Minifters of the Church, wherewith not only 
by the preaching of theWord ; but alio to Church 
Cenfures, they open and ftiut the Kingdom of 
: Heaven; as will appear by comparing the fe Pla- 
ces of Scripture together ; Matth. 1 6. 1 9. Matth, 
iS. 17. 2d, Becaufe he that offends publickly, 
and after Admonition perfifis peftinacioufly in his 
Sin, (hould be efteemed as a Publican and Hea- 
then; Matth. 18. 17. 3d, Becaufe the Apoftie 
fays, If any Man obey not our Word by (his Epi- 
Z ilie. 

256 Of Synods and Councils Chap. XXXt^ 

ftle, note that man, and have no Company with 
him. Note him, that is, either by Excommunica- 
tion, or fome other Note of Church Cenfure, 2Thef. 
3,. 14. 4th, Becaufe the Apoftolic church, be- 
ing moved by the fame Reafons (which now are) 
ufed the Power of the Keys, and excluded from 
the Sacrament, Men that were manifeftiy v contu- 
macious and wicked, 1 Cor. 5. 2, 3. and 1 Tim, 
1. 20. 2 Thef. 3. 6, 14. 5th, Becaufe the Apo- 
ftle fays, them that Sin (viz. publickly) Rebuke 
before all, that others may alfo fear, iTim. 5. 
20. 6th, Confider the various Ends of Ecclefi- 
aftical Ce.nfures, as the reclaiming of offending . 
Brethren, and the reft of them which are fet down 
in the Queftion. 


v ; Of Synods aud Councils. 

Question. I. 

" /^\V GET there to be fuch AfTemblies for the 
" vJ* Government and further Edification of the 
%t Church, as are called Synods and Councils ?* 

Yes; A6h 15. 2, 4, 6. 

Are the Decrees and Determinations of Councils, 
and Synods, if confonant to the Word of God, to 
be received with Reverence, and Submiffion, not 
only for their Agreement with the Word, but al- 
fo for their Power, whereby they are made, as be- 
ing an Ordinance of God appointed thereunto in 
his Word I 


I. Of Synods and Councils. 267 

Yes'; Acts 15. 15, 19,24, 27, 28, 29,30, 3 1. 
Acts 16.4. Matth. 18. 17, 18, 19, 20. 

Well then, do not the Brounifts and Indepen- 
dents err, who maintain, That every particular 
Congregation, or Church, hath in itfelf the full 
Power of the Keys, without Subordination, or 
Subjection to any clafTical or fynodical Meeting : 
and that Prefbyteries, and Synods, have only a 
Power of counfelling, advifing, and exhorting, 
but no Powerof Jurifdiclion, to command or en- 
join any Thing in the Lord, to particular Church- 
es or Congregations? 


By what Renfons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becauie the Apoftiic Church referred all 
weightier Matters, which did equally concern ma- 
ny Congregations, to the free Suffrages and Votes 
of the -Apoitles, Pallors, and felecl Brethren, and 
not to the Determination of any one particular 
Church, or Congregation, Acts 15. -.23,-24, 25. 
Acts 6. 2, 3. 2d, Becaufe it is evident from 
Scripture, that there have been many particular 
Churches, and Congregations, fubordinate to one 
Preibytery. For in the Church of Jerufalem it 
is manifeft, that there were more than one Con- 
gregation. Firft, from the Multitude of Believers, 
who were of a greater Number than could be of one 
Congregation, for hearing the Word and Commu- 
nicating, Acts 2. 41, 42. Acts 5. 14. Acts 6. 1. 
2,3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Acts 21.20. 3d, From the Mul- 
titude of Paftors, and Minifters, whofe Pains and 
Labours many Churches required, Acts 1. 12, 13, 
14, 26, Arts 2. 1, 14, 37, 42. A6IS4. 31,34, 35, 
37, Acts 6. 2. Acts 8. 14. 4th, From the Diver- 
fity of Tongues among the Difciples at Jerufalem/ 
■which were given, not only for the Edification of 
Z 2 thofe 

27 3 &f Synods and Councils. Chap. XX XI. 

thofe that were of that Church ; but aifo for Sign § 
and Wonders to others, who were without, and 
not of that Church. 5th, It is manifefl: from this, 
fhat in thofe Days they had no Churches or Meet- 
ing Houfes built, but only met and conveened in 
private Houfes and upper Rooms. 

The fame is alfo true of the Church of Antioch, 
JEphefus, and Corinth, from the Acts sf the A- 
poftles, and other Places of Scripture. But all 
thefe Congregations were ruled and governed by 
one College of Paftors. 

1 ft, Becaufe, all of thefe particular Congrega- 
tions are called but one Church, Acts 18. 22. 
A&s 12. 5. 2d, Becaufe In that one Church, 
there were Church Prefby ters, who were called 
Governors, not of any one particular Congrega- 
tion, but of the Church, which was made up of 
many particular Churches, Acts 20. 17. Atts 15, 
■2, 3. Acls 13. i, 2, 3. 3d, Becaufe thefe Pref- 
b) ters did meet together for govt ruing the Church, 
and performed Acls of Jurifdiflion, which con* 
reroed the whole Chucch in common, Acls 1 1 . 30. 
compared with Chap. 4. 35, 37. And Acts zi. 18. 
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25. and Aits 13. 1, 2, 3, 4th, 
Aecaufe there is a particular Example of a Sy- 
nod, which had the Power of Jurifdiftion, and 
which confifted and was made up of Members 
cut of divers clafllcal Conventions : For when the 
Queftion about Circumcifion, and the keeping of 
iVlofes Law, which troubled the Churches of Sy- 
ria, Cilicia, Antic-ch, and Jerufalem, could not 
be determined in their own particular Churches, 
the Matter was referred to a Synod of Apoitjes 
and Preibyters, who met at Jerufalem, which 
decided the Conlroverfy, appoiuted their Decrees 
to be obligatory, and binding 10 all thefe forefaid 


Chap. XXXI, Of Synods and Councils. 279 

Churches, Acts 15. Afts 16. 4. Afts 21. i& 
6th, Becaufe the Jewifh Church, which was a 
politic Body, had, ia every City, Synagogues fu- 
bordinate to onefupreme Council, or great Syna 
gogue which was at Jerufalem, Dcut. 18. 8, 12. 
sChron. 19. 8, 11. Exod. 18. 22, 26. Seeing 
therefore, Dangers and Difficulties for preventing 
and healing of which, the Lord hath appointed 
and fet lip in that Church fuch a Government, 
may be as great, if not greater, in his Church, un- 
der the New Teftament, than was then : and feeing 
the Lord has no lefs confulted the good of his 
Church now, than he did of old; it follows, that 
there mull be Councils, no lefs under the New 
Teftament than under the Old, to which, particu- 
lar Churches ought to befubordinate. iff, From 
the Light of Nature and right Reafon : for the 
Law_o£ Nature directs to a Diverfny of Courts,, 
namely, where there is any Rule or Government 
in a City or common wealth, and orders the In- 
ferior Courts 'to be fubordinate to the fupericr^ 
the lefTer to the greater, and Appeals to be made 
fro n them to the greater. And in Bodies both 
Natural and Politic, the Parts ought to be fut>* 
jec~l to the whole for the good of both. Befides 
there are,, and will be, very many EcCiwiiuaic 
Affairs which will concern many Congregations 
equally and alike, which cannot he determined 
by any one. 2d, Becaufe the Paftors and Pref- 
byters of particular Congregations will ftand in 
need each one of anothers Helpand AiTiftance mu- 
tually. 3d, Becaufe Cafe and Difficulties may 
occur, more intangled and intricate than can be 
fettled and com poled by the Governors of any 
one Congregation. 4th, Seeing particular Con- 
gregations which ly b'\Q ] - -me to another, ought 
Z 3 \o 

2yo Of Synods and Councils. Chap. XXXI. 

to {hun Divifions, and Differences, and to live in 
Peace and Unity, it follows manifeftly, that there 
ought to be Synods or Councils, confiding of the 
Prefby ters of many particular Congregations,which 
ought to be fubordinate to thefe Councils and Sy- 
uods. 5ih, From Chrift^s own Precept and Com- 
mand, ; Tell the Church', Matth.18. 15, 16, 17. 
For it our blefled Lprd appointed that for a fingle 
Brother's Offence, (he irefpaffing againft God or 
his Brother, for gaining of him, and removing the 
Scandal) he be brought before the Church, it folr 
lows by Confequence, that the fame Courfe ought 
to be taken, when any one particular Congrega- 
tion offends againft another, and remains obftinate 
in their fcandalous Opinion and Practice. For 
oar bleffed Lord hath fufficiently prefcribed a Re- 
medy in this Place, for removing of all Scandals, 
and Offences, whether of one Brother againft ano* 
ther, or of one Congregation againft another. Nay, 
furely, fince Chrift hath confulted fo much the 
Coiverlion of one Brother that hath finned, and 
gone aftray ; much more will he look to the Good 
and Converfion of a whole Congregation. 6th, 
Becaufe any one fingle Congregation, with one 
Paftor only, hath not the Power of Ordination, 
an Inftance whereof cannot be given, either from 
Precept, or Practice, ia all the New Teftament. 
!>ay the Ordination of Minifters in the New Te- 
ftament, was always performed by a College of 
Paftor* affociafc together, Acts 6. 6. Acts 13. 1, 
2, 3. 1 Tim. 4. 14. 7th, Becaufe from this Doc- 
trine cf the Independents, thefe, and the like Ab- 
ftirdities will follow ; 

ift, That the Prophets muft be cenfured and 
iudged byway of Authority, not by other Pro- 
phets, but by the Multitude, aud Vulgar of the 


Chap. XXXI. Of Synods avd Councils. 27 1 

Congregation, which is contrary to 1 Cor. 14.32- 
2d, That all the Councils, in the Time of the 
ApofUes, which were convocated upon neccflary 
Occafions, for Matters which concerned many 
Churches alike, were but during the lime, and 
extraordinary, and fo not obliging fucceeding 
Churches, though the Occafions and Caufes why 
thefe Councils were convocated then, are, and 
will be to the End of the World. 3d, That pri- 
vate Believers mud be the Bifhops of their owq 
Bifhops, Watch-men of their own Watch-men. 
No Communion or Fellowfhip among Ecdefi- 
aftic M milters. That fingle and particular 
Churches though they have defiled, and puddled 
themfelves with the moft black and ugly Here- 
fies, with the moft abominable Faults and Vices, 
y^t are not liable to any Ecclefiaftic Cenfure, 
but muft be referred to the immediate Judgment 
of Chrift, at the laft Day. 4th, That a College 
of Paftors, and Prefbytersconveened together, from 
feveral Congregations, fhall have no more Power 
of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, than any 
one particular Man that is able to look to the 
good of his Brother. 5th, That a Paftor, out of 
his own Congregation hath no Power to admini- 
fter the Sacraments, or to preach the Word, or 
c;xerciie any Minifterial Aft. From which Abfur- 
dities it follows evidently, that this kind of 
Church Government labours under a manifeft De- 
fect of the Means of propagating the Gofpel. 6tb, 
That Chrift hath as many vifible Bodies, 35 there 
are particular Congregations. That Men and 
Women are to be accounted Members only of a 
particular Congregation, and not of the Church 
CadiQlic. And that thofe who are excommuni- 

iyi Of Synods una Councils. Chap. XXXI. 

cate 1 , are only caftenout of a particular Congre- 
gati n, not out of the Church Univei'al. 

Queft.ll. * k Ma_, not the Minifters of 'he Church, 
u of thernielves, by Virtue of their Office, meet in 
" Afllrnblies, with other fit Perfons. upon Dele* 
" gation from their Churches, when Magiftrates 
M are open Enemies to the ChrifHan Religion ?" 

Yes; A&s 15. 2, 4. 2 2, 23, 25 

Well then, do not the Eraftians err, who 
maintain, That the Minifters of the Gofpel 
have no Right or Power in themfelves, or by 
Virtue of their Office, to meet in a Synod or 
Council ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe the Church of God in the Primi- 
time Times had Power in themfelves to convo- 
care their own AiTttnblies, for Worfhip and Go- 
vernment, not only without, but againft the Con- 
fen t of the civil Magi finite, as is evident from 
the A&s of the Apoftles, and Church Hiftoiies. 
2d, Though the Power and Right of meeting In 
Church Aftemblies be vifible in the Conftitution, 
and Exercife, yet it is imrinfic, and within the 
Church, as well as the Power of Preaching. 

Queft. III. " May Magiftrates lawfully call a 
y Synod of Miniffers , and other fit Perfons to con- 
f< fult, and advife with, about Matters of RePgi- 



Yes ; Ifa 49. 23. 1 Tim. 2. I, 2. Matth. 2. 4, 
5. PtoV. 11*14. 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That the civil Magiftrate hath no Right 
or Power to convocate Synods cr Councils, but 
tha< it belor-rs to the Bifhop to corrvocare Dio- 
cefiun Synods; to the JVietn;pclitaa to convo- 

Chap. XXXI. Of Synods and Councils. 271 

cate Provincial Synods : to the Primate and Patri- 
arch to convocate National Synods : to the Pope 
only to convocate and call Oecumenic and Ge- 
neral Synods ? 

By what Reafons are they confuted ? 
1 ft, Becaufe under the Old Teftament, Coufi- 
cils and Synods were appointed and called by 
godly Kings, j Kings 8. 1. 2 Kings 23. 1. 
2 Chron. 29. 4. 2d, Becaafe it is the Duty of the 
civil Magiftrate, being born within the Church, to 
take Care that Peace and Unity be preferved and 
kept in the Church, that the Truth and Word of 
God be entirely, and foundly preached and obey- 
ed : that Blafphemies and Herefies be kept under 
and fuppreft, that all Corruptions in Worfhip 
and Discipline be reformed : that all God's Ordi- 
nances be lawfully eftablifhed, adminiftred and 
preferved. And if it (hould happen, that both 
Church and State Judicatories, (hould make an 
Univerfal Defection from the Purity of Doftrine 
and Worlhip received and acknowledged, it is the 
Duty of a godly King, by Virtue of his regal 
Power and Authority, to fet about a Work of 
Reformation, and to call and command all Ranks 
of People to return to the true Worfhip and Ser-* 
vice of God, lfa. 45. 23. Pfal. 122. 7, 8, 9. 
Ezra 7. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28. Lev. 24. 16. Deut. 
13. 5, 6, 12. 1 Chron. 13. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
9. 2 Kings 23. from the fir ft Vtrfe to the 36. 3d, 
From the Example of Conftantine, that did con- 
vocate the firft Nicene Council : from Theodofins 
the Elder, that did call the firft Council of Con- 
ftantinoplc: from Theodofius the Younger, that 
did call the firft Council at Ephefus ; from Mar- 
tianus, that did call the Chakcdon Council. / 


*74 Of Synods and Councils. Chap. XXXI, 

Queft. IV. " May all Synods and Councils 
" fince the Apoftles Days err ?" 


" And have not many actually erred V * 


Well then, doth not the Popifh Church err, 
who maintain, That Councils confirmed and 
folemnized by the Pope's Authority, cannot err, 
Beither in explaining Do&rines of Faith, uor in 
delivering Precepts, and Rules of Manners com- 
mon to the whole Church ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becanfe all the Priefts, Levites and 
Prophets of the Jewifh Church, who had the 
fame Promifes which the Chriftian Church hath 
now under the New Teftament ( i Cor. i o. 3, 4. 
2Sam. 7. 16. Ifa. 49. 15, 16.) together with the 
High Prieft, have fbmetimes erred, as is clear 
from the following Scriptures, lfa. 56. 10, 11. 
Jer. 6. fjj. Jer. 14. i|, Hof. 6. 7, 8, 9. Mic. 3. 
p. The Lord's Prophets that were immediately 
guided and infpired by him, muft be excepted, 
ad, Becaufe Councils under the Old Teftament 
lawfully called, have fometimes erred, 2 Sam. 6. 
2, 3. jer. 26. 7, 8, 9. 1 Kings 22. 6. And under 
the New Teftament, John 9. 35. John 11. 47, 
48, 52. Matth. 26. 57, 59, 6$, 66. Acls 4. 5, 6. 
17 18. 3d, Becaule the Pope cannot fhew a 
Proof of infallibility, Rom. 3, 4. 4th, Becaufe 
it is foretold in the New Teftament, that many 
Paftors and Teachers (hall become falfe Prophets, 
and turn Seducers: and that Antichiift (hall fit 
in the Temple of God, (hewing himfelf that he 
is God, Matth. 24. n, 24. A£ts 10. 29, 30. 
a Pet 2. 1.2 Theff. 2. 4. 5th, It is molt evident, 


Chap. XXX1I.0/ the State of Menafter Death, 27$ 

that many Councils approven and authorized by 
the Pope, have molt foully erred, and that fomc 
have openly contradicted others. 


Of the State of Men after Death, and of 
the Refurreftion of the T)ead. 

Question I. 

s< A RE theSouls of the Righteous, being made 
" l\ perfect in Holinefs, received into the high- 
u eft Heavens, where they behold the Face of 
" God in Light and Glory ?" 

Yes; Acts 3. 2i.Eph 4.10. 

Well then, do not the Greeks, Arminians, Ana- 
baptifts and Papifts err, who maintain, That the 
Souls of the Righteous are not prefently after 
Death, admitted to enjoy Happinefs, which con- 
fifts in feeing of God ; but are put into fome 
Manfion, tho' it be not a heavenly one ; yet a 
Place above Hell, where they enjoy, even until 
the Refurrection, fome heavenly Delight and Re- 
creation, without feeing of God ? 


Do not likewife the Socinians err, who affirm, 
That the Souls of the Righteous after Death, un- 
til the RefurrecVion, are extinguiftied, and put 
out, to fpeak fo ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the Souls of the Righteous after 
Death, are with Chrift in Heaven, and enjoy that 
bleffed ViiioD, Phil. 1. 23. Afts 3. 21. Eph. 4. 


27 6 Of the State of Men after Death. Chap. XXXIT. 

10. 2d, Becaufe the Spirits of jufl Men after 
Death return to God, and are received by God ; 
Eccl. 12. 7. Afts 7, 59. Note, that Solomop only 
fpeaketh of the People of God. Yet fome iinder- 
ftandit of the Souls both of Believers and Unbe- 
lievers, which are both fentenced by God, as fu- 
preme Judge, immediately when a Man dieth, e» 
very Man to his Place, the Souis of Believer; to 
Heaven, of Unbelievers to Hell. 3d, Becaufe the 
Saints departed, together with the Angels, are 
faid to fing perpetually Praifes and Thankfgivings 
before his Throne, Rev. 4. 6, 9, 10, 11. Rev. 5. 
8, 9, 10. Rev. 7, 9, 10. 4th, Becaufe Chrift 
promifed, that the Thief (hould be with him in 
Paradife, that very fame Day he died, Luke 
23. 43. Paul alfo calls it the third Heaven, 
2 Cor. 12, 2, 4. 5th, Becaufe the Spirits of juft 
Men are faid to be made perfect in Holinefs and 
Glory, and placed in the heavenly Jerufalem with 
the Angels, Heb. 12. 22, 23. 6th, Becaufe 
the Apoftle fays, that if our earthly Houfe of this 
Tabernacle were diflblved, we have a Building of 
God, an Houfe not made with Hands, eternal in 
the Heavens, 2 Cor. 5. 1, 2. 7th, Becaufe the 
fame Apoftle fays, Therefore we are always con- 
fident, knowing that whilft we are at Home in 
the Body, we are abfent from the Lord, 2 Cor. 
5. 6, 8. 8th, Becaufe the Souls of the Righte- 
ous after Death, arc comforted and carried into 
Abraham's Bofom, Luke 16. 12, 25. 

Queft. II. " Arc the Souls of the Wicked caft 
€< into Hell, where they remain in Torments and 
i% utter Darknefs, referred to the Judgment of the 
* great Day if 

Yes; Luke 16. 23, 24. Atts 1. 25. Jude 6, 7. 
1 Pet. 3* 19. 


Chap. XXXII. and of the Refurreflion, 6c. 277 

Well then, do not the Greeks and others err, 
who maintain, That the Souls of the wicked are 
not adjudged to Hell's Torments, till after the 
*Refurrec"tion ? 


Do not likewife the Socinians err, v/ho mala- 
tain, That the Souls ofthe wicked (hall never be 
tormented in Hell r 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

1 ft, Becaufe the particular Judgment of every 
fingle Man, follows immediately his departure out 
of this Life, Heb. 7. 27. 2d, Becaufe the Soul 
of the rich Gliuton, after it departed from his Bo- 
dy, was tormented in the Flames of Hell, Luke 
16. 22, 23. 3d, Becaufe the Souls of wicked 
Men departed, go to their own Place, that is to 
Hell, A&s 1. 25. 4th, Becaufe the Souls of 
wicked Men, arc no lefs pnniihed in Hell, than 
the Apoftite Angels, Jude, Ver. o, 7. 5th, Be- 
eaufe the Spirits of thofe v/ho in the Time of 
Noah were difobedient, are ft id to be in Prilbn, 
1 Pet. 3.19. This Prilbn is Hell, Matth, 5. 26, 

Queft III. " Doth the Scnpfurc acknowledge 
* any other Place than Heaven and Hell for Souls 
" departed from their Bodies ? " 


Well then, do not the Papifts err, who befides 
thefe two Places, have deviled other four. 

Firft, A Place cai lee] Limbiu pat rum, in which 
the Faithful, who died before ChrilVs Paffion, 
lave been (hut up as in a dark Prifon, under 
©round, and being without Torment, and for the 
rime wanting Happineis, have been kept clofe 
A a ihere 

278 Ofthefiate of Man after Death, Ch. XXXII. 

there until Chrift's Refurre&ion and Afcenfion in- 
to Heaven. 

Secondly, A Place called Limbus infantum, in 
which, Infants which die without Baptifm, fuffer 
the eternal Punifbmenr, not of Senfe, but of Lofs 

The Third is a moft pleafant Meadow, in 
which, as in a Royal Pi*fon, the Souls that are in 
it want Happinefs, yet fuffer no Punifhment oi 
Senfe, except what arifeth from the delay of Hap 
pinefs, but only of Lofs. 

This Place feems to be the Elifian Fields, taker 
out of the fixth Book ©f Virgil's iEneids. 

The fourth Place is called Purgatory, whicl 
is a middle place between Heaven and Hell, ir 
which are the Saints, who have departed from thi 
Life, without making Satisfaction by tempora 
Punifhments, for their Venial Sins, yet have gon 
thither for the Guilt of their Puniihment, *th 
Fault whereof is pardoned in this Life ; that whei 
they have fatisfied, and are well purged from eve 
ry Spot and Blemifh, they may be admitted to tha 
bleffed Vifion in feeing God for ever. 

Do not (I fay) the Papifts err, who befide 
Heaven and Hell, maintain other four Places fc 
Souls departed ? 


By what Reafons do you confute Limbi 
P atrium P 

1 ft, Becaufe the Souls of the Faithful that d 
parted before Chrift's PafTion, were made the Ii 
habitants of the fame Heavenly Jerufalem, with tl 
Angels, Heb. 12. 22, 23. 3d, Becaufe the Sp 
rits and Souls of the Faithful that died before Chri 
fuffered, returned to God who gave them, Ecck 
3.21. 3d, Becaufe the Virtue of Chrift's Sacrifi< 
did no left extend itlelf to Believers under the O 

, Teftame 

^hap. XXXII. andoftheRefurrettion, &c. 279 

Teftament, than to Believers under the New, Rev. 

1'I3» 8. 4th, From the Example of Enoch, and 

.Lpf Mofes, and Elias, which two, before the PafTion 
of Chrift, were feen upon the Mount with him, 
Gen. 5. 24. 2 Kings 2. 11. Luke 9. 30, 31. 

GHcb. 11. 5. 

By what Reafons confute you Limbus Infan- 

,tum P 

1 ft, Becaufe the Covenant belongs to the Chil- 
dren of Believers, tho' not baptized; in which 
Covenant, Glory and Life eternal are piomifed, 

:,Afts 2. 39. 2d, Becaufe Chrift faid, that the 

J Kingdom of Heaven belonged to little Children, 
tho' not baptized, Mat. 19. 14. 3d, Becaufe the 

: Infants of the Iiraelites dying before the eighth 
Day, were not {hut up in Limbus Infantum, as 
theAdverfaries themfclves confefs. But the Nature 
and EfTenceof Baptifm under the New Teftament, 
and the Nature and EfTenc^ of Circumcifion under 
the Old, are the fame. Col. 2. 11, 12. 4th; All 
the Arguments which are brought againft the ab- 
solute Neceffity of Baptifm, do clearly overturn 
this Fiction of Limbus Infantum. 

Thirdly, There is no fuch Place as a mod 
pleafant Meadow, in which as a Senator in Prifon, 
the Souls that are in it want Fencky, yet fufFcr 
no Punifhment of Senfe. This was made evident 
in the firft Queftion. Laftly, there is no fuch 
Place as Purgatory, ift, Because there is no 
fuch Thing as Venial Sin, as it is explained by the 
Popi(h Church, upon which falfc Foundation, is 
built this fancy ot Purgatory, Rom. 6. 23. 2d, 
Becaufe temporal Punifhiunts do not extend 
themfelves beyond this life, Rom. 8. 18. 2 Cor. 
4. 17, 18. 1 Pet. 5. 10. For in this Life only 
the godly receive their evil Things, as the wick- 
A a 2 ed 

280 Ofthe State of Man after Death, Ch. XXXIL 

cd receive their good things, Luke 16. 25. 3d* 
Becaufe, after the Fault is pardoned, there re- 
mains no Punifhment to be undergone, Ezek. 18. 
12. Pfal. 32. 1, 2. Mic. 7. 19. Rom. 8. 1, 33. 
4th, Becaufe the Thief upon the Crofs that was 
converted, did not fuffer afterwards any Punifh- 
ment in Purgatory, Luke 23. 43. Neither could 
his Death and ConfelTion upon the Crofs be accoun- 
ted a perfeft Satisfaction (as the Adverfaries affirm) 
becaufe he did acknowledge, he had received the 
due Reward of his Deeds, Luke 2, 43. He that 
fuffers as a Murderer, or as a Thief, or as an evil 
Doer, his Punifhment cannot be accounted a Sa- 
tisfa£}ion, 1 Pet. 4. 15. 5th, Becaufe they that 
4 die in the Lord, reft from their Labours;* Rev. 
14. 13. 6th, Becaufe (Thrift's Sa^isfa&ion for 
the Sins of Believers is moft full, compleat and 
perfe£t,and doth not need our imperfeft Satisfacti- 
ons, whether for the Fault or the Punifhment, Ila. 
53d Chapter. Titus 2. 14. 1 John 1.7. Heb. 10. 
14. Col. 1.20,21, 22. Neither by our Sufferings 
in Pugatory, is Chrift's Satisfaction applied to 
us. Fir ft, Becaufe our Sufferings there cannot be 
an Inftrument for applying Chrift's Merits to us. 
For on God's part we have the Word, Sacraments, 
and the Spirit, a*: Means, for applying his Merits 
to us. On our Part we have Faith. Was it ever 
heard of in the Word of God, that the Lord made 
ufe of exquifite Torments for applying his Grace? 
To apply Mercy by the executing of Juftice ? Is 
forgiving Debt, applied by exa&ing the Debt ? 
Shall Pardon be applied by the punifhing of 
us ? 

Queft. IV. " Will fuch as are found alive, at 
tl the laft Day, not die but be changed ?" 

Yes; 1 Thef. 4. 17. iCor. 15. 51, 52. 


Chap.TODUT. andofthe Refurreflion, &c. 281 

Well then, do not the Papifts err, who main- 
tain, That fuch as are found alive at the laft Day 
(hall die ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

ift, Becaufe Chrifl: is ordained of God to be 
Judge of Quick and Dead ; which Diftinctioa 
would be needlefs, if all truly died, Acts 10. 42. 
2d, Becaufe the Apoftle fays (as was cited) we 
ihall not all lleep but be changed: which place 
of Scripture is not to be read, We ihall all there- 
fore fleep, as the Papifts fay, putting in the 
Greek Particle oun, forw, therefore, for not; be- 
caufe this illative Particle oun, cannot agree fuffi- 
eiently with the Apoftle's Preface, Behold, I lhew 
you a Myftery : this Myftery is not Death itfelf, 
but a Change in Place of Death, which is a great 
Myftery indeed. 3d, As the Refurre&ion of ma- 
ny of the Bodies of the Saints, was a Preemble 
of the great RtfurrecYion of our Bodies, (Matth. 27. 
52.) So the Tranflation of Enoch, that he might 
not fee Death, feems to be a Preamble of this 
Change in Place of Death, Heb. 1 1. 9. 

Qoeft. V. " Shall the Dead be raifed up with 
" the felf lame Bodies, and none other, alt ho' with 
" different Qualities, which ihall be united again 
u to their fouls for ever V* 

Yes. Job 19. 26, 27. 1 Cor. 15. 42, 43, 44. 

Well then, do not the Socinians, Arminians, 
Anabaptifts, Photinians, and Marcionites err, 
who maintain, That the fame individual Body 
is not raifed up, which we carried about with us 
here, and laid down in the Duft, but another Bo- 
dy made of Air, or of fonie Matter more fubtile 
than Air, iltogether void of Flefh and Blood, made 
acew by Carift ? 

A a 3 Yes; 

282 Of the State of Man after Death. Chap. XXXlI, 


Do not likewife many of the Quakers err, who 
maintain alfo, That the fame individual Body is 
not railed again, but that there is a Change there- 
of in Subftance, as well as in Quality ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe it is evident from Scripture, Phil. 
3. 2T. that there (hall be a transforming of thofe 
vile Bodies at the Refurre<5Hon, to be fafhioned af- 
ter the glorious Body of Chrift ; and fo not the 
forming and making of a new one, which is hard 
to conceive, if the fame individual Body fhould 
not be raifed, and if this Change here fpoken of, 
be as well in Subftance as in Quality. 2d, Be- 
caufe the Apoftle fays, He that raifeth up Chrift 
from the Dead, (hall alf} quicken your mortal Bo- 
dies (and therefore not Bodies made of Air) by his 
Spirit that dwelleth in you, Rom. 8. 11. 3d, The 
fame Apoftle fays, For this Corruption mull put 
on Incorruption, and this Mortality muft put on 
Immortality, 1 Cor. 15. 53. 4th, Becaufe the 
Juftice of God requires, that the fame individual 
Bodies fhall receive Rewards or Puni foments, 
which have done Good or Evil while Life remain- 
ed, 7 Cor. 5. 10. Rom. 2. 6. Eph 6. 8. 5th, 
Becaufe the Body of Chrift, who is the efficient 
Caufe of our Refurrefrion (1 Cor. 15. 4, 12, 13, 
1 6.) rofe again that fame individual Body, Luke 

a 4. 39,40. * 

Queft. VI. " Shall the Bodies of the unjuft, by 
" the Power of Chrift, be raifed to difhonour } H 

Yen; A6te 24. 15. John 5. 28, 29. Phil 3. 21. 

"Well then, do not the Socinrans err, who main- 
tain, There (hall be no P*efurre£tion of the Un- 


Chap. XXXIIT. Of the bjl Judgment. 283 


By what Reafons are they confute*! ? 

iff, Becauie the 'Vpoftle fays, \\ e mul all ap- 
pear before the Judgm.nt- feat of Chrilt, that e- 
very Man may receive the Things done in the Bo- 
dy, 2 Cor. 5. 10. 2d, Becauie the Hour com- 
eth, in the which, all that are in their Graves (hall 
hear his Voice, and fh<dl come forth ; they that 
have done good, unto the RdurrecYion of Life; 
and they that have done evil, unto the Refurrecti- 
oa of Damnation, John 5. 28, 29. 3d, Becaufe 
the Apoftle fays, being accufed by Tertullius, 
there ihall be a Refurrcclion of the Dead, both of 
the Jutland Unjuft, Acts 2;. 15. 4th, Becaufe 
according to Enoch's Prophecy,. the Lord cometh 
with Ten Thoufands of his Saints, to execute 
Judgment upon all, and to convince all that are 
ungodly among them, Jude 1 4. 1 5. 5th, Becauie 
many of them that deep in the Duft of the Earth 
{hall awake, fome to everlafting Life, and fome to 
Shame and everlafting Contempt, Dan. 12. 2. 


Of the lafl Judgment. 

" O H A L L the wicked who know not God, and 
H k3 obey not the Gofpel of Jefus Chrift, be caf- 
" ten into everlafting Torments, and be puniihed 
" with everlafting DeftrucYion from the prefencc 
" of the Lord, and from the Glory of his Power?" 
Yes: Matth 25. 31. to the End. Rom. 9. 22, 
23. Afts3. 19. 2The(T. 1. 7, 8, 9. 

Well then, do not the Socinhns err, who, de- 
fining eternal Death to be the extinguishing of the 


284 Of the lajl Judgment. Chap. XXXIII. 

Body and Soul, maintain, That the wicked arc 
to fuffer no Torment in Hell; and that their 
whole Puniihment will be to be deprived of Eter- 
nity, or annhilated, that is, both Soul and Body 
turned into nothing ? 


Do not likewife the Origenifts, and fome Ana- 
baptifts err, who think, That not only the wick- 
ed, but the Devils thernfelves, after many Tor- 
ments in Hell, (hall be received by God into Fa- 
vour, and be made bleffed and happy ? 


By what Reafons are they confuted ? 

i ft, Becaufe the Apoftle affirms, almoft in fo 
many Words, that which we have aflerted, 
2' Theft. 1 7,8,9,10. 2d, Becaufe Life Eternal 
and Death Eternal, are in Scripture oppofed to one 
another in the fame Senfe, Matth 25. 46. But 
Life Eternal in Scripture, is not taken for being 
limply Eternal, but for being eternally Happy, 
or to be in a blefled eternal State and Condition, 
Pfal. 133. 3. Therefore, eternal Death muft be 
taken in Scripture not for Annihilation, or being 
turned into Nothing : but for an eternal, wretched, 
and miferable State and Condition. 3d, Becaufe 
the Scripture fays, Bur the Children of the King- 
dom ftiall becaften into outer Darknefs, there (hall 
be weeping and gnafhing of Teeth, Matth. 3. 12, 
13. 4th, Becaufe the Scripture affirms exprcfty, 
that the wicked are tormented in Hell, Luke 16. 
24. Next, there are fome Degrees of Torment 
there, but there are no Degrees in ncn ejfe, that is, 
in not to be. 5th, Becaufe Abraham fay? cx- 
prefty, there can no Man pais from the Place of 
Torment, to the Place of Biefs and Happinefs, 


Chap. XXXIII. Of the Loft Judgment. tt$ 

Luke 16.26. 6th, Becaufe the Torments of the 
Wicked are called a Worm that dieth not, a Fire 
that cannot be extinguished. 7th, Becaufe the 
Scriptures fay, that the Smoke of their Torment 
afcendeth up for ever and ever, Rev. 14. 11. 
Rev. 19. 3. 8th, Becaufe the Wicked will be 
carried into everlafting Fire prepared for the De- 
vil and his Angels, Matth. 25. 46 And the fame 
Wicked are to rife again to Shame, and everlaft- 
ing Contempt, Dan, 12. 2. And to fufFer the 
Vengeance of everlafting Fire; Jude 7. And now 
only is the accepted Time, and now is the Day of 
Salvation, 2 Cor. 6. 2. 


C 286 ] 

An Alphabetical Lift of the proper and pa- 
tronymic Names of the Authors of the 
old and late Herefies, confuted in the 
foregoing Treatife. - 

ADAMITES, fo called from one Adam; the 
Author of their" Seft, or from the firft Man 
Adam, whofe Nakednefs they imitate in their 
Stoves and Conventicles, after the Example of 
Adam arid Eve in Paradife. 

Anthropomorpbitans, fo called from two Greek 
Words, Anthropos, a Man, and Morphe, a Form, 
Figure or Shape, becaufe they maintained that 
God had a Body, and was endued with Humaa 

Arians, from Arius a Lybian by Birth, and a 
Preibyter of Alexandria by Profeflion. I his He 
. refy brake out under Conftantine 290 Years after 
Chrift, and over-ran a great Part of the World. 
It was condemned in the Firft famous Council of 
Nice, gathered by Gonftantine's Appointment, 
Anno 325. ^ 

: Arminians, fo called from James Arminins, 
Divini^y v ffitg ^g^j n Leyden, who, 1605, publi^i- 
ed and mainTamfd Five Articles, which have oc- 
cafioned great Troubles to the Church of (jod, 
being eagerly maintained by his Followers, called 
RemonfrYants. The Five Aarticles are concerorog 
PredefUnation, Redemption, God's GraCeV Ffee«v 
Will, and Perseveration 
v Ana- 

L 287 ] 

Anabaptifis, fo called from Re-fa prizing, had 
for their Author one Nicholas Storck, who pre 
tended Familiarity with God, by an Angel, pro- 
mifing him a Kingdom, if he would reform the 
Church, "and deftroy the Princes that would hin- 
der him. 

Antinomians, fo called from two Greek Words, 
anti, againft, and nomos the Law. They iprung 
up from one John Agricola, who affirmed, that 
the Moral Law was altogether needlefs; and that 
Chriftians were not tied to the Obfcrvation there- 
of. This Sett fprung up about the Year 1 535. 
, Arabians, fo named from Arabia, the Country 
where their Herefy was broached, and maintain- 
ed under Philip the Emperor, 217 Years after 

Broanifts, fo called from their Author, Mr, 
Robert Broun of Northamptonfhire in England, 
fometimes a School-mafter at Southwark, hold 
there is no other pure Church in the World, but 
among themfelves : as did the Donatifts of old. 
Dominicans, one of the Popiih Orders, fo cal- 
led from Dominicus, a Spaniard. They were in- 
flituted by Pope Innocent the III. Anno 1205. 
This Man, with Twelve Abbots, were appointed 
to preach down the Doctrine of the Albigenfes, 
who by their preaching did fo incenie the Princes, 
that they took Arms, and killed 100,000 of them. 
They were of the fame Religion with the old 
Non-conformifts in England, who were called 

Donati/is, from Donatus, born in Numidia, in 
Afric, who becaufe Cecilian was preferred. Bi- 
lhop before him, to the Bifhopric of Carthage, 


[ 288 ] 

accufed him, and all the Bifhops, which had or- 
dained him to be Traditores : that is, fuch as had 
delivered up their Bibles to be burned by Idolaters, 
'zander the Peilecution of Maximius. 

Epicureans, from one Epicurus, an old Hea- 
then Philofopher, who placed Mens chief Happi- 
nefs in the Pleafure of the Mind. He denied Pro- 
vidence, and taught the World was made by the 
Concourfe of Atoms. 

Eutychians, fo named from Eutyches, an Ab- 
bot of Cohftantinople. This Man's Herefies were 
condemned by the Fourth general Council held at 
Chalcedon, under the Emperor Martiauns, Anno 


Eraftians, fo called from Thomas Eraftus, a 
Pbyfician in Heidelberg in Germany, who fol- 
lowing this Man's Footfteps, having taken away 
from the Church all Difcipline and Government, 
and put it into the Hands of the civil Magi- 

Enthufiafls, fo called from the Greek Word, 
Enthufiadfo y or Enthujiao, in Latin Fanatico, I 
am infpired, or ailed, with a Piophetical or Di- 
rine Fury. 


Franeifcans, another Popifti Order, fo called 
from one Francis , an Italian Merchant, who be- 
fore his Converfion (as the Papifts fay) lived a 
wicked and debauched Life. He gathered many 
Difciples, Anno 1 198, and appointed them to be 
obedienuo Chrift and the Pope. 

Farnilijls, or, of the Family of Love, whofe 
Author was one Henry Nicholas, a Hollander. 
The flrft Founder was one David Geo?ge of 
Delft, who called himfelf the true David, that 


I 289 3 

fiould reftore the Kingdom to Ifrael. They 
maintained many dangerous Opinions. 
Greeks, are thofe who inhabit Greece, viz. Ma- 
cedon, Epirus, Bulgaria, Moldavia, &c. They 
place much of their Religion in the Worfhip of 
the Virgin Mary ; and of painted, but not car- 
ved, Images, 
i H 

Hemerohapilftsy fo called from two Greek 
"Words, Hemera, a Day, and Baptidfo, to bap- 
tize, becaule they maintained, that Men and Wo- 
men, according to their Faults committed every 
Day, ou ght every Day to be baptized. 
Jefuites, fo called from oitr bleffed Saviour's 
Name, Jefus, which they falfely a/Turne to them- 
felves. They were inftituted Anno 1 540, by Ig- 
natius Loyola, flrft a Solder; they are all well 
bred in Philofophy, and School Divinity ; and in 
many other Arts and Sciences, and therefore they 
are employed as Emiffaries from the Pope and 
his Conclave to advance the Popifh Religion. 

Judaifers, fo called, becaufe they think that 
all the Jewifh Ceremonies are ftill in Force, and 
binding us who live under the Gofpel. 

Independents, fo called, becaufe they will have 
'pvery particular Congregation to be ruled by their 
ovvn Laws, without Dependency upon any other 

Libertines, from the Liberty and Freedom they 
take and give to others to Commit Sin. Their 
5rft Author was one Quintinus, a Taylor in Pi- 
:ardy; who taught, that whatfoever good or evil 
wc did, was not done by us, but by God's Spi- 
Bb rit 

C 290 ] 

rit in us, and many other blafphemous Opi. 

Lutherans, who fo call themfelves, lyingly and 
falfely, from Martin Luther, that eminent Man of 


Manicheans, from one Manes, a Perfian by 
Birth, and a Servant by Condition. The Mani- 
chean Seft was the Sink of all former Herefies. 

Macedonians, fo called from Macedonus Bifliop 
of Conftantinople, 312 Years after Chrift. Their 
Herefy was condemned in the Second general 
Council, held at Conftantinople, by Gratian and 
Theodofius, Anno 380. His Followers were cal- 
led Pneumatomachians, Fighters againft the Ho- 
ly Spirit, Pneuma, a Spirit, and Machefthai, to 

Marcionites, from one Marcion, a Paphlago- 
nian, near the Euxine Sea, who was Cerdon's 
Scholar, a grand Heretic. He maintained Cer- 
don's Herefies at Rome, about 133 Years after 


Nejlorians^o called from Neftorius, Patriarch 
of Conftantinople, who broached his Errors under 
Theodofius the Younger, 400 Years after Chrift. 
They mack Chrift to have two Perfons, as he had 
two Natures. This Herefy was condemned by 
the Third genera] Council, held at Ephefus, under 
Theodofius the Younger, Anno 431. 

Novations, fo called from Novatus, who lived 
lander Decias the Emperor, 220 Years after 
Chrift. He was an African by Birth. 

Origenifts, fo called from famous Origin. His 


C *9* 3 

Errors began to fpread about the Year of Ghriit 
247, under Aureliao the Emperor, and continued 
above 334 Years. 


Pneumatomachians. See Letter M. 

Pelagians, from Pelagius, a Briton (as they 
fay) by Birth. A Monk at Rome, afterwards a 
Prefbyter, under Theodofius the Younger. 

Puritans, otherwife called Kathari, becaufe 
they efteemed themielves"purer, and holier, than 

Pkztimans, from Photinus, born in the kfTcr 
Galatia. He began to fpread his Hcrefies about 
the Year 323, at Syrmium, where he was Biihop 
under Conftantinus the Emperor. 

Papijls are too well known : they are to be 
found in every Page almoft of the Book. 


Quakers, fo called, becauie foiretimes they afe 
to qaake and tremble when they Propheiy, or 
when they are in a Rapture. 

Socimans, fo called from one Fauftus Soclnur, 
an Italian of Stena, they place all Religion in the old 
condemned Herefies, following their Mafter, a moil 
vile Heretic. 

Sabeliians. fo called from Sabclius, an African 
by Birth. His Herefies began Anno, 224, 

Separatifls, fo called, becaufe they withdrew 
themfelves from the Chriftian Communion, and 
followed others in the Worlhip of God. 

Sceptics, commonly called Seekers, maintain, 

That the whole Univerfal Church hath perifhed 

a little after the Apoftles Times, and are not to 

B b 2 this 

C 292 ] 

this Day reftored, until Chrift from Heaven flhall 
fend new Apoftles for raifingup again the Church 

Sabbatarians, fo called, becaufe they obferve 
the J^wilb Sabbath, imagining there is no Pre- 
cept or Example i^ the New Teftament, for ob- 
ferving the firft Day of the Week. 

Trit belts, or Tritheitae, fo called, becaufe they 
divided the indivifible EfTence of the Godhead 
)nto three Parts ; the one they called the Father, 
the other the Son, the third the Holy Ghoft. 

Tertullianijls, were fo called from that famous 
Lawyer r and Divine, Tertuliian, who lived un- 
der Scverus the Emperor, about 170 Years after 


Vorjliam, from one Vorftus, an old Heretic, 
who taught,, that God had a Body, and was en- 
dued with Parts, as the Anthropomorphitans af- 

VanintanSy from one Vaninus a great Promo- 
ter of Atheifm. He was publicly burnt at