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Full text of "The complete works of Thomas Brooks"

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NICHOL'S SERIES OF STANDARD DIVINES. 

PURITAN PERIOD. 



(Btmtisd 'Btdnct 



BY JOHN C. MILLER, D.D., / 

LINCOLN college; HONORAKY CAJiON OF WORCESTER; RECTOR OF 3T MARTIN's, BIRMINGHAM. 



THE 



WORKS OF THOMAS BROOKS. 

VOL. V. 



COUNCIL OF PUBLICATION. 



W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational 
Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. 

THOMAS J. CRAWFOED, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, 
Edinburgh. 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, 
Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM H. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church 
History, Reformed Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presby- 
terian Church, Edinburgh. 

45eneral 4SDitor. 
REV. THOMAS SMITH, D.D., Edinbubgh. 



THE COMPLETE WORKS 



or 



THOMAS BROOKS. 



BY THE KEV. ALEXANDER BALLOCH GROSART, 
LIVEKPOOL. 



VOL. V. 



CONTAININO : 



THE GOLDEN KEY TO OPEK HIDDEN TREASURES; 
PAE4D1SE OPENEiJj,^ \ 

/ AND '• V ' '■ 

,1 

A TIfOflJ) IN SEASON. \ \ 






EDINBURGH : JAMES NICHOL. 

LONDON : JAMES NISBET AND CO. DUBLIN : G. HERBERT. 



M.DCCC.LXVII. 



[■] 



CONTENTS. 



I. The Golden Key to Open Hidden Treasures, 

The Epistle Dedicatory, ..... 3-15 
Serious and Weighty Questions Clearly and Satisfactorily 

Answered, . ... . . . 16-61 

1. What are the special remedies, means, or helps against 

cherishing or keeping up of any special or peculiar sin, 
either in heart or life, against the Lord, or against the 
light and conviction of a man's own conscience ? . 16 

2. What is that faith that gives a man an interest in Christ, 

and in all those blessed benefits and favours that come 
by Christ ? or whether that person that experiences the 
following particulars, may not safely, groundedly, and 
comfortably conclude that his faith is a true, justifying, 
saving faith, the faith of God's elect, and such a faith 
as clearly evidences a gracious estate, and will certainly 
bring the soul to heaven ? . . . . 49 

3. Whether in the great day of the Lord, the day of general 

judgment, or in the particular judgment that will pass 
2ipon every soul immediately after deaih, which is the 
stating of the soul in an eteimal estate or condition, 
either of happiness or misery ; whether the sins of the 
saints, the follies and vanities of believers, the infirmities 
and enormities of sincere Christians, sliall be brought into 
the judgment of discussion and discovery, or no ? 
Whether the Lord will either in the great day of account, 
or in a marHs particular day of account or judgment, 
publicly manifest, proclaim, and make mention of the 
sins of his people, or no ? . . . . 52 

Pleas in answer to the third question, . . .61-261 

II. Paradise Opened. 

The Epistle Dedicatory, ..... 265-285 
Pleas continued from ' The Golden Key,' . . . 286-414 

III. A Word in Season. 

A general Epistle to all suffering saints, . . . 416-448 

Some words of counsel to a dear friend, . . . 449-455 

The signal presence of God with his people, . . . 456-597 



Z/r 30^3^7.' 




THE 



GOLDEN KEY 



OPEN HIDDEN TREASURES. 



VOL. V. 



NOTE. 



The 'Golden Key' forms Part I, of, spiritually, the richest and most nurturing of 
Brooks's larger treatises. Part II. follows in this volume. The title-page of the former 
will be found below.* It is interesting to compare Brooks's * Golden Key' with the 
earlier work of Francis Dillingham, entitled 'A Golden Keye opening the Locke to 
eternall Happiness : containing seven most sweete and comfortable directions to a 
Christian life,' 1609, 12mo.--G, 



* G0LDEI7 KEY 

TOOPEN 

Hidden Treasures, 



Several great Points, that refer to the Saints present blessedness, and their 
future happiness, with the resolution of several important questions. 

Here you have also 
The Active and Passive Obedience of Christ vindicated and improved 
against men of corrupt minds, d-c. Who boldly, in Pulpit and Press, contend 
against those glorious Truths of the Gospel. 

You have farther 
Eleven serious singular Pleas, that all sincere Christians may safely and 
groundedly make, to those ten Scriptures in the Old and New Testament, that 
speak of the general Judgment, and of that particular Judgment, that must cer- 
tainly pass upon them all immediately after death, s. , 

"^l^n^^/c '^^ f "u ^^.^"^"^'i ?f Christ, is here largely proved, and im- 
E./°Tv ^" Gamsayers, by what names and titles soever they are distin- 
mpS. on^ni^T"" ^^«"g ««• Sevejal things concerning Hell, and hellish tor- 
mente, opened cleared and improved against all Atheists, and all others that 
boldly assert, that there is no Hell, but what is in us. Som^ other points^f im- 
Z^hlTe.^Z^lT^"''^ opened, which other Authors (so fJr as he 1^. 
rn^Hnn nf fll^ "^^^f ''''''' ^^"'^ '"^ ^''^^^ ^^l^^^^' ^11 tending to the confir- 
mation of the strong, and support, peace, comfort, settlement and satisfaction 
of poor, weak, doubting, trembling, staggering Christians. sa"8taction 

By Tho. Brooks late Preacher of the Gospel, at Margarets-New-Fish-street. 

LONDON, 

^J'^^t S!-^°'*^°a" ^«'^«»' at the King's-Arms in the Poultrey: 
and at the Ship and Anchor, at the Bridg-foot, on Southwark ^I^il5. 

[4to.— G.] 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 



To his much honoured and worthily esteemed friend, Sir Nathaniel 
Herne, Knight, Sheriff of London, and Governor of the East 
India Company, i 

Grace, mercy, and peace be multiplied upon you and yours. 

Sir —Much might be said, were it necessary, for the dedication of 
books unto persons of worth, interest, service, and honour, this having 
been the constant practice of the best and wisest of men in aU the 
ages of the world ; and therefore I need not make any farther apology 
for my present practice. . ^ o j j 

What is written is permanent, litera scripia manet,^ and spreads 
itself farther by far, for time, place, and persons than the voice can 
reach. Augustine, writing to Volusian, saith, ' That which is writ- 
ten is always at hand to be read when the reader is at leisure. 
There are those that think— and, as they conceive, from bcripture 
grounds too— that the glory of the saints in heaven receives additions 
and increases daily, as their holy walk and faithful service when here on 
earth doth, after they are gone, bring forth fruit to the praise ot (xod 
amongst those that are left behind them. If this be so what greater 
encouragement can there be to write, print, preach, and to walk holily 

in this world ? , , . .i. i. r 

I must also confess that that general acceptation that my lormer 
labours have found, both in the nation and in foreign parts, and that 
singular blessing that has attended them from on High, hath been 
none of the least encouragements to me once more to cast m my mite 
into the common treasury.^ Besides, I am not unsensible of your 
candid esteem of some former endeavours of mine m this kind neither 
do I know any way wherein I am more capacitated to serve the glory 
of God, the interest of Christ, the public good, reproached truths, and 
the interest of the churches, in my generation, than this, as my case 
and condition is circumstanced; and I am very well satisfied that 
there is nothing in this treatise but what tends to the advantage, com- 

1 Cf. Herbert, as before.— G. 

2 Supposed to be a portion of a mediseval pentameter hymn.— u. 

* U^-LYiykVTmi.s, concerning his first portraiture, If it be liked, I .ill 
draw more besides this, if loathed, none but this. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY, 



fort, support, settlement, and encouragement of those whose concern- 
ment lies in peace and truth, in holiness and righteousness, through- 
out the nations. 

Sir, the points here insisted on are of the greatest use, worth, weight, 
necessity, excellency, and utility imaginable ; they are such wherein 
our present blessedness and our future happiness, yea, wherein our 
very all, both as to this and that other world, is wrapped up. It will 
be your life, honour, and happiness to read them, digest them, expe- 
rience them, and to exemplify them in a suitable conversation, Deut. 
XXX, 15, 19, and xxxii, 47, wliich, that you may, let your immortal 
soul lie always open to the warm, powerful, and hourly influences of 
heaven. 

Let it be the top of your ambition, and the height 'of all your de- 
signs, to glorify God,i to secure your interest in Christ, to serve your 
generation, to provide for eternity, to walk with God, to be tender 
of all that have aliquid Christi, anything of Christ, shining in them, 
and so to steer your course in this world as that you may give up your 
account at last with joy, Mat. xxv, 21, seq. All other ambition is 
base and^ low. Ambition, saith one, [Bernard,] is a gilded misery, a 
secret poison, a hidden plague, the engineer of deceit, the mother of 
hypocrisy, the parent of envy, the original of vices, the moth of holi- 
ness, the blinder of hearts, turning medicines into maladies, and reme- 
dies into diseases. 2 In the enthronisation of the pope, before he is set 
in his^ chair and puts on his triple crown, a piece of tow or wad of 
straw is set on fire before him, and one appointed to say Sic transit 
gloria mundi, The glory of this world is but a blaze.3 St Luke calls 
Agrippa s pomp ^era 7roXX^9 (fiavraaia^, a fantasy or vain show 
Acts XXV, 23,; and indeed all worldly pomp and state is but a fan- 
tasy or vam show, St Matthew calls all the world's glory J6^av an 
opinion, Mat iv, 8 ; and St Paul calls it ^xvf^"-^ a mathematical figure 
rT1^^^*■^Jl, ' ™^.i8 a mere notion, and nothing in substance. 
1 he word here used mtimateth that there is nothing of any firmness 
or sohd consistency in the creature ; it is but a surface, outside, empty 
thing; all the beauty of it is but skin deep. Mollerus,* upon that 
Ps. Ixxiii 20, concludeth, ' that men's earthly dignities are but as idle 
dreams, their splendid braveries but lucid fantasies.'S High seats are 
never but uneasy,_and crowns are always stufi^ed with thorns, which 
made one say of his crown, '0 crown, more noble than happy.^ Shall 
the Spirit of God, the grace of God, the power of God, the presence of 
vou 'pvAl? ""^Tt ^^1 °i^r '^^'' ^^^«' «^^^^«' ^^d temptations, as 

Peo^DlVTsaHv^r ^^^^^ *^^* f.^^' 'H«^°^^ ^^ t,efore the 
people, 1 bam. xv. 30; and he was a Jehu that said, ' Come, see my 

an?glS^;-b;t?ce7St/Sod'^' --^itiously labour, we count it our highest honour 

Aci?nf si^Toftr^^^^^^^^^ r '"^ "^"^ '^^ '^^ p^^ ^^ p^'-^^^^- f^°-] 

wa; l^t^:tZu'tLl^'':i^Z'AlZ^S^ *^°^P^^ <^^- *«^«^^-> ^ «t- that the 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 



7Pal for the Lord of Hosts,' 2 Kings x. 16 ; and tliey were^ three Irish 
Stfthat reMled in Henry the Second's days, being derided for 
thefr rude habits and fashions; and they were some of the worst 
of cLdTnalsTat when they were like to die, would give great sums 
mon Tfo^^^^^^ hat, that they might be so styled upon then- 

?ombs ' and they were the Komans and other barbarous nations that 
we^e most ambitious of worldly honour and gW; and he .^s a 
Tulius tear whose excessive desire of honour made him to be mor- 
faHvLted by t^^s and all others. God grants no man a 

patent for honour "durante vita, but durante henefacito, as the 
d^ers speak, during his life, but during his o- good pl^^^^^^^^^^ 
worldly honour and glory is subject to mutability. Honours, ricties, 
Ind X ures are the" three deiti'es that in these days a world of men 
adore and to whom they sacrifice, morning and evemng their best 
tWMs and tS, for their unparalleled vanity, may we 1 be called 
the viidt; of van^tie;, Eccles. i. % Worldly honours are but a mere 
conce" a'shadow, a Vapour, a feather in the cap without sub ance 
or subsistence, and yet the most powerfiU f f ^,^^^?^f ^^'^^^^^^ 
he lulls men to sleep in the paradise of fools; to cast them, wnen 
they a e awake into the bottomless pit of eternal woe. For had not 
SatL hdd them to be the strongest of all temptations he had not 
™d e^f^^ his last battery against the constency of our blessed 
Saw, as S did, Mat. iv. 8, 9. And although this roaring cannon 
TZ^ouX^ not p;evail against Christ, the ^^^^ o^ges. Mat -v^^ 
vpf bnw TTianv thousands in these days are captivated and deluaea oy 
the XriX^^lisS- of worldly honours ! Men of great honour and 
trldly g^^^^^^^^^^ in 4pery place^ Adonibezek, a mighty 

DrTnce was made fellow-commoner with the dogs Judges i. 7; and 
EdX^zar, a mighty conqueror, ^^ turned a-g^^^^^^^^^^^ 
the oxen Dan. iv. 28 ; and Herod was reduced from a conceitea goa 
to tWost loathsome of men, a living carr on, arrested by the vi st 
creatures, upon the suit of his affronted Creator, Ac s xi. 23. The lice 
did fully confute his auditory, and triumph over his thione. A g^^^^ 
Haman is feasted with the king one day, and made a feast for crows 
+V.P TiPvf Esth vii 10. In all the ages of the world (rod nam 
l^ken a iSs'toli^^ pride of all the glory of this lower world, 
Tea Yviii See it in a few instances : — 

'"vSn''the EciJiau emperor, fell from being - emp^-or te be a 
footstool to Sapor, king of Persia as often as he took ho^^^^ 

Bibulus the consul, riding m his ^rmmpliant chariot by the^ 
a tile-stone from a house was made a ^a^^^^, ^ff f^ A^d ^^^^^^ 
the canitol to offer up there the bulls and garlands he had prepared 
%uSnus, L Ro^an empeiw, brought .Tetncus hisjPO^^^^^^^^^^ 
the brave Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, m triumph to Eome m golden 



chains.^ 



SeTanus that prodigious favourite, on the same day that he was at- 
tended by the senate,%n the same day he was torn m pieces by the 

1 On ' there were «'-G. ' Erasmus writes that he knew some such cardinals. 

1 Qu. there were. u. p ^ j, yi^. Valerian; Eckhel, vu. 307.-G. 

1 ieS cTd";- Boze in EoL de I'Academie de Sciences et Belles Lettres, vol. 
xxiii.: Zenobia, as before.— G. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 



people. , Seneca, speaking of him, saith, that he who in the morning 
was swollen with titles, ere night there remained not so much as a 
mammock i of flesh for the hangman to fasten his hook in. 2 

Belisarius, a most famous general under Justinian the emperor, 
after all the great and famous services that he had done, he had his 
eyes put out in his old age by the Empress Theodora ; and at the 
temple of St Sophia forced to beg: Date partem Belisario, &c., Give 
a crust to old blind Belisarius, whom virtue advanced, but envy hath 
brought into this great misery. 3 

Henry the Fourth, emperor, in sixty-two battles, for the most part, 
he became victorious ; yet he was deposed, and driven to that misery 
that he desired only a clerk's place in a house at Spires, of his own 
building, which the bishop of that place denied him: whereupon he 
brake forth into that speech of Job : ' Miseremini mei, amid; quia 
manus Dei tetigit me, Have pity upon me, oh my friends, for the hand 
of God hath touched me,' Job xix. 21. He died of grief and want.^ 

Bajazet, a proud emperor of the Turks, whom Tamerlane a Tar- 
tarian took prisoner, and bound him in chains of gold, and used him 
for a footstool when he took horse ; when he was at table he made 
him gather crumbs and scraps under his table, and eat them for his 
food.5 

Dionysius, king of Sicily, was such a cruel tyrant that his people 
banished him. After his banishment he went to Corinth, where he 
lived a base and contemptible life. At last he became a schoolmaster ; 
so that, when he could not tyrannise any longer over men he miffht 
over boys.^ ° 

Pythias was pined to death for want of bread, who once was able 
to entertain and maintain Xerxes his mighty army 7 

Great Pompey had not so much as room to be buried in; and 
William the Conqueror 8 corpse lay three days unburied, his interment 
being hindered by one that claimed the ground to be his 

Caesar having bathed his sword in the blood of the senate and his 
own countrymen is after a while, miserably murdered in the senate 
by his own friends, Cassius and Brutus 

««'!^'°^.^''Fl!w*'-^ S^^""* MT^^ ^^^ ^^^^^1«' ^as brought so low 
as to entreat his friend to send him a sponge, a loaf of bread, and a 
harp; a sponge to dry up his tears, a loaf of bread to maintain his 
life, and a harp to solace himself in liis misery 8 

A Duke of Exeter, who, though he had married Edward the Fourth's 
sister, yet was seen begging barefoot in the Low Comitries 9 

Ihe Emperor Nero promoted Tigelenus to the greatest dignities of 
the Roman empire, but it was because he had been the privfte aSnt 
to his base and lascivious delights, for which he was justly Svefof 
his honours and hfe by Otho the emperor.io ^ ^ aeprived ot 

^ 'Morsel/ a Shakeeperian word: Coriolanus, i. 3 -G 
' Seneca, De Tranquillitate, cap. 11.— G 
^ Ci Lord Mahon's ' Belisarius.'— G ' 4 a „ u * 

" As before.— G * As before.— G. 

^ Turk. History, p. 220. [Knolles 1 8 4^"^— .^• 

» Philip de Comines saw him thus beg. Procopms reports this of him. 

'" See Tacitus in Otho's Life, f Annals tv ^7 ia „ j ^i 
But, L 72, and PluUrch am.. 2,'lS,"lt 19 "sS^'-oTh", 1 stTd'i'd.j"' ''"'"" 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 



By all these instances, and many more that might be produced it 
is most evident that worldly glory is but a breath, a vapour, a froth a 
Sasm a shadow, a reflection, an apparition, a very nothing Like 
the incurs or nightmare in a dream, you imagine it a substance, a 
weigSt you grasp at it and awaJ.e, and it is nothing Pljasurejid 
ifl iJii o^iflp n ^pnse or two— the one a touch or taste, the other a 
r^M^thl ts ; butto of glory can neither be felt seen, or under- 
s^Sod The phi osophers are at strife among themselves where to fix 
r'n any being or existence, whether in honorante, or m honorato 
the giver or thf taker. The inconstancy and shppermess of it is dis- 
cerrlble in the instances last cited. It hath raised some, bu hah 
ruined more ; and those commonly whom it hath most raised it hath 
^st ridned Sir, if there be anything glorious in the world, it is a 
S?nd that divinely contemns that glory ; and such a mind I judge and 
W God haTgiven you. I have hinted a little at the vamty of 
Sdly glory, because happily this tr^tise, passing up and down the 
wor d may fall into the hands of such as may l^^troubled with that 
S anf if so, who can tell but that that little that I have said may 
prove a sovereign salve to cure that Egyptian botch: and if so, I have 

"^^A nothing lie so near your heart in all the ^orld^« «Jf «^. ^^^^^ 
things- 1 Your sins, to humble you and abase you at the foot of God. 
2 Free and rich and sovereign grace, to soften and melt you down 
into the wUl of God. 3. The Lord Jesus Christ,to assist, help, strengthen 
andXence you to all the duties and services that are incumbent 
upon yo^^^^^^ The blessed Scriptures, to guide you and lead you, 
'and to be a lamp unto your feet, and a hght unto your paths, i 5. 
T^ JSicU^ns of'joseph! to draw out your « X^^'/^]^^^^^^^ 
pathy and compassion to men in misery. 6. The glory and naj^pi 
ness of another world, to arm you and steel you aginst all the ems, 
snares Tnd temptations that your high places, offices, and circuni- 
stenci may lay you open to. 7. The grand points in this treatise 
wS S h^d upo^your heart by the warm hand of the Spirit, 

^'t'tl^nZlZ%r2gnsly^ as to tell the world how many 
several score pounds of your money hath passed through my hands 
t^arisXre'^ief, refreshment, support and preservation of such who 
fortheh- piety and extreme poverty and necessity, were proper objects 
of your charity; but shall take this opportumty to te you, and all 
otC into who e hands this treatise may fall that of al the duties of 
reSn there are none, 1. More commanded than his of chanty 
pi V compassion, and mercy to men in misery <=f P'^<='''»y *? «;7 °* 
f the household of faith;' 2. There is no one duty more highly com- 

' Col. i. 10-13 ; PM. ■'"■ 12-"; G-l- "• 2« i 1 C»r. xv. 10 ; 2 Cor. xil. 10 ; P.. oxix. 105; 
Amos vi. 3-6; Nek i. 1-5. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATOKY. 



mended and extolled than this ; 3. There is no one duty that hath 
more choice and precious promises annexed to it than this ; 4. There 
is no one duty that hath greater rewards attending it than this.l 
Evagrius, a rich man, being importuned by Synesius, a bishop, to give 
somethmg to charitable uses, he yielded at last to give three hundred 
pounds ; but first took bond of the bishop that it should be repaid 
him m another world, according to the promise of our Saviour with 
a hundredfold advantage. Mat. xix. 29. Before he had been one day 
dead, he is said to have appeared to the bishop, deliverino- in the 
bond cancelled, as thereby acknowledging that what was pronnsed was 
m^ie good. It is certain, that one day's being in heaven will make a 
sufficient recompense for whatsoever a man has given on earth 

Neither shall I acquaint the world with those particular favours and 
respects which you have shewed to myself, but treasure them up in 
an awakened breast, and be your remembrancer at the throne of grace 
Only I must let the world know that I owe you more than an epistle- 
and If you please to accept of this mite in part of payment, and im- 
prove it for your soul's advantage, you will put a farther Obligation 

Let the lustre of your prudence, wisdom, charity, fidelity eenerositv 
and humi ity of spirit shine gloriously through all your plkfesoS' 
abih les, riches employments, and enjoyments; for^thTs Cthe Wht 
the! sTf Sof^r];- • ^/ ''1 '' .4^> -' --^-ber for everX 
ot bad, are always fixed upon you. God is all ear to hear aU hind fo 
punish, all power to protect, all wisdom to direct, all goodness To rdieve 
ter I' Pfd°^'/nd he is totus oc^dusMl ?ye to obse^^^^^^^^ 

stvirVYrn r^^fcrofThri '^.n^ ^^ "^' ^^^^^ -^ 

affirmeth, that God beh M e^en thf^er^fLJrAf' ""' ^?.^°' 
^SoTttl^&^t^^^^^^^^ 

Plai'n path,beci of t eneX^'k^^^^^^^^ '''^ ''' '^ ^ 

Hebrew, 'because of our obseW ^n T^l^ ^^ ' ^''. °f^'^^ *^^ 
there have been Sauls and ^nptJ it' J ^}^ J^^ ^^^^ «f ^^^ ^o^d 
with an evil eye^nd tlLf^e^^^^^^ ^'^'^ ^^^^« 

are multitudes that will be stV e,W nn^^^ '^'■\^^\ 1^' ^^^^^ 

offices, carriages, and Lversation n? ^"^^.P/^f ^ ^^to the practices, 
more it conct-ns themTw. T . "^^f'^'^}^' ^^d ministers, the 
earthly angels in the mid. f Z ' P"f^' ^^t, and walk like so many 
ration; PhriL?5 ""^ ^ ''''^'^' P^^^^^^^' ^^d froward gene- 

or^^rntStthT^^^^^^^^^ to a kingdom 

i, wnicn Jethro well understood when he gave Moses 

^ Prov. iii. 9, 10; Eccles xi 1 2 • f l • i 
'-JMPOJ^der upon it;] Mat. xxV. 34-41.^'" ' ^ ^''''- '''"' ^-^' ^"^ i^- 1.2; Isa. Iviii. 

of th/sc-hooiiie; ^ic^'eSin ^Del^st ?>i/i';i""- ^^ ' ^'^- ^^- ^'- I* i« a saying 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 9 

that good counsel, to make choice out of the people of grave and able 
men, ' such as feared God, men of truth, hating covetousness ; and to 
make them rulers over thousands, and rulers over hundreds, over 
fifties, and over tens/ i But in the nations round, how rare is it to 
find magistrates qualified, suitable to Jethro's counsel ! Alphonsus, 
king of Spain, coming very young to the crown, some advised that 
seven counsellors might be joined to govern with him, who should be 
men fearing God, lovers of justice, free from filthy lusts, and such as 
would not take bribes ; to which Alphonsus replied, If you can find 
seven such men, nay, bring me but one so qualified, and I will not 
only admit him to govern with me, but shall willingly resign the 
kingdom itself to him. Wicked policies are ever destructive to their 
authors; as you may see in Pharaoh, in Ahithophel, in Haman, &c., 
Exod. i. 10, 22 ; 2 Sam. xvi. and xxiii. 23 ; Esth. vii. 10. As long as 
the Roman civil magistrates, senators, and commanders of armies were 
chosen into places of honour and trust for their noble descent, their 
prudence and valour, their state did flourish, and did enlarge its 
dominions more in one century of years than it did in three after 
these places of honour came to be venal, and purchased by concession.^ 
For then men of no parts were for money promoted to highest digni- 
ties ; whereupon civil contentions were fomented, factions increased, 
and continual bloody intestine wars maintained; by which the ancient 
liberties of that state were suppressed, and the last government of it 
changed into an imperial monarchy. As long as the chief offices of 
the crown of France, and the places of judicature of the realm, were 
given by Charles the Fifth, surnamed the Wise, to men of learning, of 
wisdom, and valour in recompense of their loyalty, virtue, and merits, 
that kingdom did flourish, with peace, honour, and prosperity ; 3 and 
the courts of parliaments of France had the honour, for their justice 
and equity, to be the arbitrators and umpires of all the differences 
that happened in those days between the greatest princes of Christen- 
dom. But when these places of honour and trust were made venal, 
in the reigns of Francis the Second, Charles the Ninth, and Henry the 
Third, and sold for ready money to such as gave most for them, then 
was justice and equity banished, and that flourishing kingdom reduced 
to the brim of ruin and desolation by variety of factions and a bloody 
civil war. The wicked counsel given by the Cardinal de Lorraine, and 
the Duke of Guise his brother, to Charles the Ninth, king of France, 
to allure all the Protestants to Paris, under colour of the marriage of 
Henry de Bourbon with Margaret de Valois, the king's sister, to have 
them all as in a trap, for to cut their throats in their beds, as they did 
for the greatest part, proved fatal to the king, to the cardinal, and the 
duke ; for the king, by the just judgment of God, died shortly after by 
an issue of blood, which came out of his mouth, ears, and nostrils, and 
could never be stopped; and the cardinal and the duke were both slain 
by the commandment of Henry the Third in the castle of Blois.^ The 
barbarous policy of Philip the Second, king of Spain, to banish two or 
three hundred thousand Moors, with their wives and children, under 

* Exod. xviii. 21, 22. Magistratus virum indicat, is a maxim as true as old. 
« See Livius, Decades. ^ See the History of France. 

•» See the Massacre of Paris in the Inventorj- of France. 



10 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

colour of religion, on purpose to confiscate all their land, and to appro- 
priate the same to his demesnes, was fatal to him and to all the Spanish 
nation ; for by the just judgment* of God he was eaten up of lice, and 
the Spanish nation never thrived since, &cA Were it not for exceed- 
ing the bounds of an epistle, I might shew, in all the ages of the world 
how destructive the wicked policies of rulers and governors have been 
to themselves and the states and nations under them, &c. ; but from 
such pohcies God has, and I hope will for ever, deliver your soul. 
Sir, the best poHcy in the world is to know God savingly, to serve 
him sincerely, to do the work of your generation throughly, and to 
secure your future happiness and blessedness effectually, &c. 

Sir, I do not offer you that which cost me nothing, or little, Mai. i. 
13, 14 God best knows the pains, the prayers, and the study that the 
travailmg of this treatise into the world hath cost me, in the midst 
of trials, troubles, temptations, afilictions, and my frequent labours in 
the ministry. The truths that I oflfer for your serious consideration 
m this treatise are not such as I have formerly preached, in one place 
or another, at one time or another, but such as, at several times the 
Lord has brought to hand; and, I hope, in order to the service'and 
savmg of many, many souls.2 And should you redeem time from your 
many and weighty occasions, and live to read it as often over as there 
be leaves in it, I am apt to think you would never repent of your pains 
when you come to die and make up your account with God Sir I 
must and shall say because I love and honour you, and would have 
you happy to eternity, that it is your greatest wisdom, and should be 
your greatest care, to redeem time from your worldly business to 
acquaint yourself more and more with the great and main points of 
rehgion to serve your God, to be useful in yo^ dav, an^tomS sure 
and safe work or your soul to escape hell and to get heaven Eph 
V. 15 16; Col IV. 5; Eccles. ix. 10. Sir Thomas More one of the 
great wits of that day, would commonlv say, There is a devil r.l Pd 
^ot^uM, business, that carries more souls [o helTthrn aU th devils 
m hell beside. Many men have so many irons in the fire ^d Ire 
cumbered about so many things, Luke x. 40-42, that uponThe matter 
they wholly neglect the one thing necessary, thoughT hope X ter 
things of you.3 The stars which have the least circ,§t are nearest the 
po e, and men that are least perplexed with a crowd of worX busi- 
ness are commonly nearest to God. Sir, as you love God as vou W 
your sou , as you love eternity, as you would be found at Chris^riVht 
hand at last, and as you would meet me with joy in the S d^v of 
the Lord, make much conscience of redeemino- fimo Inf ? ^ 
secular affairs, to be with God in your cW ?n IT t ^^.^"T ^^"? 

^ See the Spanish History in Philip the Second's life 

ing hoTltSro^thX^^aTb: o';fn Ue^^f .If. '^^^ P-t > ^"t -t know. 

" When one presented Antip^atert^ng ^k^SnirUti' 'TT^'' '''' ^''''^■ 
ne^, h.8 answer was ou scholazo, I am n!t at Sre ThZ n i ^^'^ ^"'^""^ «^ ^^PP'" 
to do on earth, that he had no time to look up toTeavcn ^^^^ ^^^ '° "^"^l' 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 11 

morning dew. There is nothing puts a more serious frame into a 
man's spirit than to know the worth and preciousness of time. Time, 
saith one [Bernard], were a good commodity in hell, and the traffic 
of it most gainful ; where, for one day, a man would give ten thousand 
worlds if he had them. One called his friends thieves, because they 
stole time from him. And certainly there are no worse thieves than 
those that rob us of our praying seasons, our hearing seasons, our 
mourning seasons, &c. There was an eminent minister who would 
often say, that he could eat the flesh off his arm in indignation against 
himself for his lost hours, i 

It was good counsel that an ancient Christian, that is now trmmph- 
ing in glory, gave to another, who is still alive. Be either like Christ 
or Mary : the first was always doing good, the latter was still a-receiv- 
ing good. This is the way to be strong in grace, and to be soon ripe 
for glory. Certainly time is infinitely precious in regard of what 
depends upon it. What more necessary than repentance ? yet that 
depends upon time: Kev. ii. 21, ' I gave her space to repent of her 
fornications.' What more desirable than the favour of God ? This 
depends upon time, and is therefore called ' the acceptable time,' Isa. 
xlix. 8. What more excellent than salvation ? this likewise depends 
upon time : 2 Cor. vi. 4, ' Now is the accepted time, now is the day of 
salvation.' Pythagoras saith that time is anima coeli, the soul of 
heaven. But to draw to a close, what can there be of more worth, 
and weight, and moment, than eternity ? it is the heaven of heaven, 
and the very hell of hell ; without which neither would heaven be so 
desirable nor hell so formidable. Now this depends upon tune. Time 
is the prologue to eternity. The great weight of eternity hangs upon 
the small wire of time.2 Whether our time here be longer or shorter, 
upon the spending of this depends either the bliss or the bane of body 
and soul to all eternity. This is our seed-time, eternity is the harvest. 
Whatsoever seed we sow, whether of sin or grace, it cometh up in 
eternity ; ' Whatsoever a man soweth, the same shall he reap,' Gal. yi. 
7, 8 ; 2 Cor. ix. 6. This is our market-time, in which, if we be wise 
merchants, we may make a happy exchange of earth for heaven, of a 
valley of tears for a paradise of delights. This is our workmg time : 
'I must work the works of him that sent me; the night cometh, when 
no man can work,' John ix. 4. According as the work is we do now, 
such will be our wages in eternity. Though time itself lasts not, yet 
whatsoever is everlasting, dependeth upon it ; and therefore should be 
carefully improved to the best advantage for our souls, and for the 
making sure of such things as will go with us beyond the grave. _ 

Shall your lady live to be an honour to God, to be wise for eternity, 
to be a pattern of piety, humility, modesty, &c., to others, to be a joy- 
ful mother of many children, and to bring them up m the nurture and 
admonition of the Lord ? Shall you both live to see Christ formed up 

1 Blessed Hooper was spare of diet, sparer of words, and sparest of time. And Brad- 
ford counted that hour lost wherein he did not some good by his tongue, pen, or purse. 
A heathen could say he lived no day without a line-that is, he did something remark- 
able every day Cato was wont to say that there were three things which he abhorred : 
1. To commit secrets to a woman; 2. To go by water when he might go by land ; 3. To 
spend one day idle. — Plutarch. 

^ A favourite emblem : as before. — Q. 



12 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

in your offspring, and to see their souls floiu-ish in grace and holiness, 
and God bestowing himself as a portion upon them ? Shall you all 
round be blessed with ' all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in 
Christ,' and shall you all round be crowned with the highest glory, 
happiness, and blessedness in the world to come ? Shall you all live 
in the sense of divine love and die in the sense of divine favour ? l 
Now, to the everlasting arms of divine protection, and to the constant 
influences of free, rich, and sovereign grace and mercy, he commends 
you all, Gal. v. 22, 23 ; who is, 

• Sir, 

Your much obliged friend and soul's servant, 

Thomas Brooks. 

^ 1 Pet. iii. 3-5; 1 Tim. ii. 9, 10; Eph. vi. 4; Prov. ixxi. 1-3 ; Gal. ir. 19; 1 Tim. i 
5, 6; Isa. xliv. 3, 4, and iix. 21 ; Ps. cxii. 1, 2 ; Eph. i. 3. 



TO THE READER 



Christian Keader! — Some preachers in our days are like Herac- 
litus, who was called the dark doctor,^ hecause he affected dark 
speeches ; so they affect sublime notions, obscure expressions, uncouth 
phrases: making plain truths difficult, and easy truths hard, &c. 
They * darken counsel by words without knowledge,' Job xxxviii. 2. 
Men of abstract conceits and wise speculations are but wise fools: 
like the lark that soareth up on high, peering and peering, but at last 
falleth into the net of the fowler. Such persons commonly are as 
censorious as they are curious, and do Christ and his church but very, 
very little service in this world. 

The heathenish priests had their mythologies and strange canting 
expressions, of their imaginary unaccessible deities, to amaze and 
amuse 2 their blind superstitious followers ; and thereby to hold up 
their Popish and apish idolatries in greater veneration. The prudent 
reader can tell how to make application. 

If thou affectest high strains of wit, or larded, pompous, and high- 
flown expressions, or eloquent trappings, or fine new notions, or such 
things that thou mayst rather wonder at than understand, I shall not 
encourage thee to the perusal of this treatise. But, 

First, If thou wouldst be furnished with sovereign antidotes against 
the most dangerous errors that are rampant in these days, then seri- 
ously peruse this treatise : 2 Pet. iii. 16 ; 1 John iv. 1-3 ; 2 John 
7-11. 

Secondly, If thou wouldst be established, strengthened, settled, and 
confirmed in the grand points of the gospel, then seriously peruse this 
treatise : 1 Pet. v. 10. But, 

Thirdly, If thou wouldst know what that faith is that gives thee 
an interest in Christ and in all that fundamental good that comes by 
Christ, then seriously peruse this treatise: John i. 12, iii. 16, and v. 
24. But, 

Fourthly, If thou wouldst have thy judgment rightly informed in 
some great truths, about which several men of note have been mis- 
taken, then seriously peruse this treatise: 1 Cor. ii. 6, 7; Ps. cxix. 18. 
But, 

1 Heraclitus was a philosopher of Ephesus ; he was surnamed I^KOTeivhs, Obscurus, 
because he affected dark speeches. * As before : see Glossary, s. v. — G. 



14 TO THE EEADER. 

FifMy, If thou wouldst know what safe and excellent pleas to 
make to those ten scriptures that refer to the general judgment, and 
to thy particular day of judgment, then seriously peruse this treatise: 
2 Cor. V. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27. But, ^ , . . 

Sixthly, If thou wouldst have thy heart brought and kept m a 
humble, broken, bleeding, melting, tender frame, then seriously peruse 
this treatise : Ps. xxxiv. 18 ; Isa. Ivii. 15 ; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 27. But, 

Seventhly, If thou wouldst always come to the Lord's table with 
such a frame of spirit, as Christ may take a delight to meet thee, to 
bless thee, to bid thee welcome, and to seal up his love and thy pardon 
to thee, then seriously peruse this treatise, especially that part of it 
where the dreadful and amazing sufferings of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
both in body and soul, are at large set forth : Mat. xxvi. 26-28 ; Luke 
xxii. 19, 20 ; 1 Cor. xi. 23-30. But, 

Eighthly, If thou wouldst have a clear sight of the length, and 
breadth, and depth, and height of the love of Christ, then seriously 
peruse this treatise : Eph. iii. 18 ; Ps. cxlvi. 8. But, 

Ninthly, If thou wouldst have thy love to Christ tried, raised, 
acted, inflamed, discovered, and augmented, &c., then seriously peruse 
this treatise : Cant. i. 7, and viii. 5-7. But, 

Tenthly, If thou art a strong man in Christ Jesus, and wouldst 
have thy head and heart exercised in the great things of God, and in 
the deep things of God, and in the mysterious things of God, then 
seriously peruse this treatise : 2 Tim. ii. 1 ; Heb. v. 14 ; 1 Cor. ii. 6, 7 ; 
1 John ii. 14. But, 

Eleventhly, If thou art but a weak Christian, a babe, a little child, 
a shrub, a dwarf in grace, holiness, and communion with God, and in 
thy spiritual attainments, enjoyments, and experiences, then seriously 
peruse this treatise, especially the first part of it : 1 Cor. iii. 1 ; Heb. 
V. 13; 1 Pet. ii. 2; 1 John ii. 1, 12, 13. But, 

Twelfthly, If thou wouldst know whether thou art an indulger of 
sin, and if thou wouldst be stocked with singular remedies against 
thy special sins, then seriously peruse the former part of this treatise : 
Job XX. 11-14; Micah vi. 6, 7; Kom. xiii. 14; James iv. 3. But, 

Thirteenthly , If thou wouldst be rooted, grounded, strengthened, 
and settled in those two grand points of the gospel, viz., the active and 
passive obedience of Christ, and be daily refreshed with those pleasant 
streams, with those waters of life that flow from thence, then seriously 
peruse this treatise: 1 Pet. v. 10; Isa. liii. ; Heb. x. 10, 12, 14; Gal. 
iv. 4, 5; Kom. viii. 3, 4; 2 Cor. v. 21. But, 

Fourteenthly, If thou wouldst be throughly acquainted with the 
sufferings of Christ, in liis body and soul, with their greatness and 
grievousness, &c., and if thou wouldst understand the mighty advan- 
tages we have by his sufferings, then seriously peruse this treatise : 
Isa. liii. and Ixiii. 2; 1 Pet. ii. 21-24; John x. 11, 15, 17, 18. But, 

Fifteenthly, If thou wouldst be able strongly to prove, against the 
Socmians and the high atheists of the day, and such as make so great 
a noise about a light within them, that there is a hell, a place of tor- 
ment, provided and prepared for all wicked and ungodly persons, then 
seriously peruse this treatise: Mat. xxv. 41; Ps. ix. 17- Prov v 5 
But, 



TO THE READER. 15 

Sixteenthhj, If thou wouldst, in a scripture-glass, see the torments 
of hell, and know how to avoid them, and what divine improvements 
to make of them, and be resolved in several questions concerning hell 
and hellish torments, then seriously peruse this treatise. But, 

Seventeenthly , If thou wouldst be able strenuously to maintain and 
defend Christ's eternal deity and manhood against all corrupt teachers 
and gainsayers, then seriously peruse this treatise : 1 John i. 2, 14 ; 
1 Tim. ii. 5. But, 

Eighteenthly, If thou wouldst be rooted and grounded in that great 
doctrine of the imputed righteousness of Christ, and be warmed, re- 
freshed, cheered, comforted, and delighted with those choice and sin- 
gular consolations that flow from thence, then seriously peruse this 
treatise: Jer. xxiii. 6; Isa. xlv. 24, and Ixi. 10; 1 Cor. i. 30. But, 

Nineteenthly , If thou wouldst be set at liberty from many fears 
and doubts and disputes that often arise in thy soul about thy internal 
and eternal estate, then seriously peruse this treatise: Ps. xlii. 5, 11, 
and Iv. 5; 2 Cor. vii. 5. But, 

Twentiethly, If thou wouldst have all grace to flourish and abound 
in thy soul, if thou wouldst be eminently serviceable in thy genera- 
tion, if thou wouldst be ripe for sufierings, for death, for heaven, if 
thou wouldst be temptation-proof, if thou wouldst be weaned from 
this world and triumph in Christ Jesus when the world triumphs over 
thee, then seriously peruse this treatise: Ps. xcii. 12-14; Kom. xv. 
13; Acts xiii. 36; 2 Cor. xii. 9, 10; Rev. xii. 1; 2 Cor. ii. 14. 

Reader, if thou wouldst make any earnings of thy reading this 
treatise, then thou must — 1. Read, and believe what thou readest. 
2. Thou must read, and meditate on what thou readest. 3. Thou 
must read, and pray over what thou readest. 4, Thou must read, and 
try what thou readest. by the touchstone of the word. 5. Thou must 
read, and apply what thou readest ; that plaster will never heal that 
is not applied, &c. 6. Thou must read, and make conscience of living 
up to what thou readest, and of living out what thou readest.i This 
is the way to honour thy God, to gain profit by this treatise, to credit 
religion, to stop foul mouths, to strengthen weak hands, to better a 
bad head, to mend a bad heart, to rectify a disorderly life, and to make 
sure work for thy soul, for heaven, for eternity. 

Reader, in a fountain sealed and treasures hid, there is little profit 
or comfort. No fountain to that which flows for common good, no 
treasures to those that lie open for public service. If thou gettest any 
good by reading this treatise, give God alone the glory ; and remem- 
ber the author when thou art in the mount with God. His prayers 
for thee are, that thou mayest be a knowing Christian, a sincere 
Christian, a growing Christian, a rooted Christian, a resolute Christian, 
an untainted Christian, an exemplary Christian, a humble Christian, 
and then he knows thou wilt be a saved Christian in the day of Christ ; 
so he rests, who is thy cordial friend and soul's servant, 

Thomas Brooks. 

^ Acts xviii. 8, and xxiv. 14 ; Ps. i. 2, and cxix. 5, 18; Acts xvii. 11; Ps. cxix. 9; 
John xiii. 17 ; Ps. cxix. 105, 106. 



SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS CLEARLY 
AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 



The first question or case is this : — 

1st Quest. What are the special remedies, means, or helps against 
cherishing or keeping up of any special or peculiar sin, either in 
heart or life, against the Lord, or agaijist the light and conviction of a 
mans own conscience f 

Before I come to the resolution of this question, I shall premise a 
few things that may clear my way. 

1. First, When men's hearts are sincere ivith God; when they 
don't indulge, cherish, or keep up any known transgression in their 
hearts or lives against the Lord, they may on very good grounds plead 
an interest in God, in Christ, and in the covenant of grace, though 
their corruptions prevail against them, and too frequently worst them 
and lead them captive, as is most evident in these special scriptures, 
2 Sam. xxiii. 5 ; Ps. Ixv. 3 ; Kom. vii. 23, 25 ; Isa. Ixiii. 16, 17, 19 ; 
Jer. xiv. 7-9 ; Hosea xiv. 1-4, 8. 

But now, when any man's heart doth condemn him for dealing 
deceitfully and guilefully with God in this or that or the other par- 
ticular, or for connivings or winking at any known transgression that 
is kept up, either in his heart or life against the Lord, and against the 
light of his own conscience, which he will not let go, nor in good earnest 
use the means whereby it should be subdued and mortified ; it is not 
to be expected that such a person can come to any clearness or satis- 
faction about their interest in Christ and the covenant of grace and 
their right to the great things of that other world. When a person 
will dally with sin, and will be playing with snares and baits, and 
allow a secret liberty in his heart to sin, conniving at many workings 
of it, and not setting upon mortification with earnest endeavours ; though 
they are convinced, yet they are not persuaded to arise with all their 
might against the Lord's enemies, but do his work negligently, which 
is an accursed thing ; and for this, God casts such a person into sore 
straits, and lets him wander in the dark, without any sight, sense, or 
assurance of their gracious estate or interest in Christ, &c. The 
Israelites should perfectly have rooted out the Canaanites, but because 
they did it but by halves, and did not engage all their power and 



SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 17 

strength against them, therefore God left them to be as * thorns in 
their eyes, and as goads in their sides.' So when men have taken 
Christ's press-money and are engaged to fight with all their might 
against those rebels that war against him in their hearts, ways, and 
walkings, and to pursue the victory to the utmost, till their spiritual 
enemies lie dead at their feet, and yet they do but trifle and make 
slender opposition against their sins ; this provokes God to stand afar 
off, and to hide his reconciled face from them. 

It is true, when men are really in Christ, they ought not to question 
their state in him, but yet a guilty conscience will be clamorous and 
full of objections, and God will not speak peace unto it tiU it be 
humbled at his foot. God will make his dearest children know that 
it is a bitter thing to be bold with sin. Now, before I lay down the 
remedies, give me leave to shew you what it is to indulge sin, or when 
a man may be said to indulge or cherish, or keep up any known trans- 
gression in his soul against the Lord. Now, for a clear understanding 
of me in this particular, take me thus : — 

[1.] First, To hidulge sin or to cherish it, it is to make daily 
provision for it, Kom. xiii. 14. It is to give the breast to it, and to 
feed it and nourish it, as fond parents do feed and humour the sick 
child, the darling child ; it must have what it will, and do what 
it will, it must not be crossed. Now, when men ordinarily, habitually, 
commonly, are studious and laborious to make provision for ^n, then 
sin is indulged by them. But, 

[2.] Secondly, When sin is commonly, hxihitually, sweet and pleasant 
to the soul, when a man takes a daily pleasure and delight in sin, then 
sin is indulged. 2 Thes. ii. 12 you read of them that had ' plea- 
sure in unrighteousness ; ' Isa. Ixvi. 3, ' And their soul delighteth in 
their abominations ; ' Prov. ii. 14, ' Who rejoice to do evil,' &,c. 

[3.] Thirdly, When meti commonly, habitually, side with sin, and 
take up arms in the defence of sin, and in defiance of the commands of 
God, the motions of the Spirit, the checks of conscience, and the re- 
proofs of others, then sin is indulged. But, 

[4.] Fourthly, When men ordinarily, habitually, do yield a quiet, 
free, willing, and total subjection to the authority and commands of sin, 
then sin is indulged. That man that is wholly addicted and devoted 
to the service of sin, that man indulges sin. Now in none of these 
senses does any godly man indulge any one sin in his soul. Though 
sin lives in him, yet he doth not live in sin. Every man that hath 
drink in him is not in drink. A child of God may slip into a sin, as 
a sheep may slip into the mire, but he does not, nor cannot wallow in 
sin as the swine does in the mire, nor yet keep on in a road of sin, as 
sinners do : Ps. cxxxix. 24, ' See if there be any way of wickedness in 
me.' A course, a trade of sin is not consistent with the truth or state 
of grace : Job x. 7, ' Thou knowest that I am not wicked.' He doth 
not say, Thou knowest that I am not a sinner, or thou knowest that I 
have not sinned. No ! for the best of saints are sinners, though the 
worst and weakest of saints are not wicked. Every real Christian is 
a renewed Christian, and every renewed Christian takes his denomina- 
tion from his renovation, and not from the remainders of corruptions 
in him ; and therefore such a one may well look God in the face and 

VOL. V. B 



18 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

say, ' Lord thou knowest that I am not wicked ; ' weaknesses are 
chargeable upon me, but wickednesses are not chargeable upon me. 
And certainly that man gives a strong demonstration of his own up- 
rightness, who dares appeal to God himself that he is not wicked. 

That no godly man does, or can indulge himself in any course or 
way or trade of sin, may be thus made evident. 

[1.] First, He sins not with allowance. When he does evil, he 
disallows of the evil he does : Kom. vii. 15, ' For that which I do, I 
allow not.' A Christian is sometimes wherried ^ and whuled away by 
sin before he is aware, or hath time to consider of it. See Ps. cxix. 
1, 3 ; 1 John iii. 9 ; Prov. xvi. 12. 

[2.] Secondly, A godly man hates all known sin: Ps. cxix. 128, 
* I hate every false way.' True hatred is tt/jo? ra jevrj, against the 
whole kind. That contrariety to sin which is in a real Christian, 
springs from an inward gracious nature or principle, and so is to the 
whole species or kind of sin, and is irreconcileable to any sin what- 
soever. As contrarieties of nature are to the whole kind, as light is 
contrary to all darkness, and fire to all water ; so this contrariety to all 
sin arising from the inward man, is universal to all sin. He who 
hates a toad because it is a toad, hates every toad ; and he who hates 
a godly man because he is godly, he hates every godly man ; and so 
he who hates sin because it is sin, he hates every sin : Kom. vii. 15, 
' What I hate, that do I.' 

[3.] Thirdly, Every godly man would fain Jmve his sins not only 
pardoned hut destroyed. His heart is alienated from his sius, and 
therefore nothing will serve him or satisfy him but the blood and 
death of his sins, Isa. ii. 20, and xxx, 22 ; Hosea xiv. 8 ; Eom. viii. 24. 
Saul hated David, and sought his life ; and Haman hated Mordecai, 
and sought his destruction ; and Absalom hated Amnon, and killed 
him ; Julian the apostate hated the Christians, and put many thou- 
sands of them to death. The great thing that a Christian has in his 
eye, in all the duties he performs, and in all the ordinances that he 
attends, is the blood and death and ruin of his sins. 

[4.] Fourthly, Every godly man groans under the hurden of sin : 
2 Cor. V. 4, ' For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being 
burdened.' Never did any porter groan more to be delivered from his 
heavy burden, than a Christian groans to be delivered from the burden 
of sin. The burden of afiliction, the burden of temptation, the burden 
of desertion, the burden of opposition, the burden of persecution, the 
burden of scorn and contempt, is nothing to the burden of sin. Ponder 
upon that Ps. xxxviii. 4, and xl. 12 ; Eom. vii. 24. 

_ [5.] Fifthly, Every godly man combats and conflicts ivith all known 
sin. In every gracious soul there is a constant and perpetual conflict. 
' The flesh will be still a-lusting against the spirit, and the spirit 
against the flesh,' Gal. v. 17 ; Eom. vii. 22, 23 ; 1 Kings xiv. 30, 31. 
Though sin and g^-ace were not born together, and though sin and 
grace shall never die together, yet whiles a believer lives in this 
world, they must ive together; and whilst sin and grace do co- 
habit together, they wiU still be opposing and conflicting one with 
another. 

^ ' Tos83d • as in a ' wherrv.'— G. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 19 

[6.] Sixthly, Every gracious heart is still a-crying out against his 
sins. He cries out to God to subdue them ; he cries out to Christ to 
crucify them ; he cries out to the Spirit to mortify them ; he cries out 
to faithful ministers to arm him against them ; and he cries out to 
sincere Christians, that they would pray hard that he may be made 
victorious over them. Now certainly it is a most sure sign that sin 
has not gained a man's heart, a man's love, nor his consent, but com- 
mitted a rape upon his soul, when he cries out bitterly against his sin. 
It is observable, that if the ravished virgin, under the law, cried out, 
she was guiltless, Deut. xxii. 25-27. Certainly such as cry out of 
their sins, and that would not for all the world indulge themselves in 
a way of sin, such are guiltless before the Lord. That which a 
Christian does not indulge himself in, that he does not do in divine 
account. But, 

[7.] Seventhly, Tlie fixed purposes and designs of a godly man, is 
not to sin : Ps. xvii. 3, ' I am purposed that my mouth shall not trans- 
gress,' that is, I have laid my design so as not to sin. Though I may 
have many particular failings, yet my general purpose is not to sin : 
Ps. xxxix. 1, ' I said, I will take heed to my ways, that I sin not 
with my tongue ; I will keep my mouth with a bridle, while the 
wicked is before me.' Whenever a godly man sins, he sins against 
the general purpose of his soul. David laid a law upon his tongue. 
He uses three words in the first and second verses to the same purpose, 
which is as if he should say in plain English, ' I was silent, I was 
silent, I was silent ; ' and all this to express how he kept in his passion, 
that he might not offend with his tongue. Though a godly man sins, 
yet he doth not purpose to sin, for his purposes are fixed against sin. 
Holiness is his highway; and as sin is itseK a byway, so it is besides 
his way. The honest traveller purposes to keep straight on his way ; 
so that if at any time he miss his way, he misses his purpose. 
Though Peter denied Christ, yet he did not purpose to deny Christ ; 
yea, the settled purpose of his soul was rather to die with Christ than 
to deny Christ : Mat. xxvi. 35, ' Peter said unto him, Though I should 
die with thee, yet will I not deny thee.' Interpreters agree that Peter 
meant as he speaks. But, 

[8.] Eighthly, The settled resolutions of a gracious heart is not to 
sin : Ps. cxix. 106, ' I have sworn, and I will perform it, that I will 
keep thy righteous judgments ;' Neh. x. 28-31, dwell on it ; Job xxxi. 
1, &c. ; Micah iv. 5, ' For all people will walk, every one in the name 
of his god, and we walk in the name of the Lord our God for ever 
and ever.' So Daniel and the three children. 

Blessed Hooper resolves rather to be discharged of his bishopric 
than yield to certain ceremonies. 

Jerome writes of a brave^ woman, who, being upon the rack, bid 
her persecutors do their worst, for she was resolved that she would 
rather die than lie. 

The Prince of Conde being taken prisoner by Charles the Ninth of 
France, and put to his choice — first, whether he would go to mass ; or 
second, be put to death ; or thirdly, suffer perpetual imprisonment, an- 
swered, ' As for the first, I will never do, by the assistance of God's 
grace ; and as for the other two, let the king do with me what he 



20 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

pleaseth, for I am very well assured that God will turn all to the 
best.' 

' The heavens shall as soon fall,' said William Flower to the bishop 
that persuaded him to save his life by retracting,^ ' as I will forsake 
the opinion and faith I am in, God assisting of me.' 

So Marcus Arethusius chose rather to suffer a most cruel death 
than to give one halfpenny towards the building of an idol temple. ^ 

So Cyprian, when the emperor, in the way to his execution, said, 
* Now I give thee space to consider whether thou wilt obey me in cast- 
ing a grain of frankincense into the fire, or be thus miserably slain.' 
' Nay,' saith he, ' there needs no deliberation in the case.' There 
are many thousands of such instances scattered up and down in 
history. 

[9.] Ninthly, There is a real luillingness in every gracious soul to 
he rid of all sin, Kom. vii. 24 ; Hosea xiv. 2, 8 ; Job vii. 21. Saving 
grace makes a Christian as willing to leave his sin as a slave is will- 
ing to leave his galley, or a prisoner his dungeon, or a thief his bolts, 
or a beggar his rags. ' Many a day have I sought death with tears,' 
saith blessed Cooper, ' not out of impatience, distrust, or perturbation, 
but because I am weary of sin, and fearful of falling into it.' Look, 
as the daughters of Heth even made Eebekah weary of her life, (Gen. 
xxvii. 46 ;) so corruptions within makes a gracious soul even weary 
of his life. A gracious soul looks upon sin with as evil and as envious 
an eye as Saul looked on David when the evil spirit was upon him. 
' Oh,' saith Saul, ' that I was but once well rid of this David ;' and oh, 
saith a gracious soul, that I was but once well rid of * this proud 
heart, this hard heart, this unbelieving heart, this unclean heart, this 
earthly heart, this froward heart of mine.' 

[10.] Tenthly, Every godly man complains of his knoivn sins, and 
mourns over his known sins, and would be fain rid of his known sins, 
as might be made evident out of many scores of scripture, Job vii. 
21; Ps. li. 14; Hosea ii. 

[11.] Eleventhly, Every gracious soulse^s himself mostli/, resolutely, 
valiantly, and habitually against his special sins, his constitution sins, 
his most prevalent sins : Ps. xviii. 23, ' I was also upright before him, 
and I kept myself from mine iniquity.' Certainly that which is the 
special sin of a godly man, is his special burden ; it is not delighted 
in, but lamented. ^ There is no sin which costs him so much sorrow 
as that to which either the temper of his body or the occasions of his 
life leads him. That sin which he finds his heart most set upon, he 
sets his heart, his whole soul, most against. The Scripture gives 
much evidence that David, though a man after God's own heart, was 
very apt to fall into the sin of lying ; he used many unlawful shifts. 
We read of his often faltering in that kind, when he was in straits and 
hard put to it, 1 Sam. xxi. 2, 8, and xxvii. 8, 10, &c., but it is as clear 
in Scripture that his heart was set against lying, and that it was the 
grief and daily burden of his soul. Certainly that sin is a man's 
greatest burden and grief which he prays most to be delivered from. 
Oh, how earnestly did David pray to be delivered from the sin of 
lymg : Ps, cxix. 29, ' Keep me from the way of lying.' And as he 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 21 

prayed earnestly against lying, so he as earnestly detested it : ver. 163, 
' I hate and abhor lying.' Though lying was David's special sin, yet 
he hated and abhorred it as he did hell itself. And he tells us how 
he was affected, or afflicted rather, with that sin, whatsoever it was, 
which was his iniquity : Ps. xxxi. 10, ' My life is spent with grief, and 
my years with sighings ; my strength faileth, and my bones are con- 
sumed,' or moth-eaten, as the Hebrew has it. Here are deep ex- 
pressions of a troubled spirit ; and why all this ? Mark, he gives 
you the reason of it in the same verse, ' because of mine iniquity : ' as 
if he had said, there is a base corruption which so haunts and dogs 
me, that my life is spent with grief, and my years with sighing. He 
found, it seems, his heart running out to some sin or other, which yet 
was so far from being a beloved sin, a bosom sin, a darling sin, that it 
was the breaking of his heart and the consumption of his bones. So 
Ps. xxxviii. 18, ' I will declare mine iniquity, I will be sorry for my 
sin.' There is no sin that a gracious heart is more perfectly set against 
than against his special sin ; for by this sin God first has been most 
dishonoured; and secondly, Christ most crucified; and thirdly, the 
Spirit most grieved ; and fourthly, conscience most wounded ; and 
fifthly, Satan most advantaged; and sixthly, mercies most embit- 
tered ; and seventhly, duties most hindered ; and eighthly, fears and 
doubts most raised and increased ; and ninthly, afflictions most mul- 
tiplied ; and tenthly, death made most formidable and terrible ; and 
therefore he breaks out against this sin with the greatest detestation 
and abhorrency. Ephraim's special sin was idolatry, Hosea iv. 17 ; 
he thought the choicest gold and silver in the world hardly good 
enough to frame his idols of. But when it was the day of the Lord's 
gracious power upon Ephraim, then he thought no place bad enough 
to cast his choicest idols into, as you may see by comparing of these 
scriptures together, Hosea xiv. 8; Isa. ii. 20, and xxx. 22. True 
grace will make a man stand stoutly and steadfastly on Grod's side, and 
work the heart to take part with him against a man's special sins, 
though they be as right hands or right eyes. True grace wiU lay 
hands upon a man's special sins, and cry out to heaven, ' Lord, crucify 
them, crucify them ; down with them, down with them, even to the 
ground : Lord, do justice, do speedy justice, do signal justice, do 
exemplary justice upon these special sins of mine : Lord, hew down 
root and branch ; let the very stumps of this Dagon be broken all in 
pieces : Lord, curse this wild fig-tree, that never more fruit may grow 
thereon.' But, 

[12.] Twelfthly, There is no time loherein a gracious soul cannot 
sincerely say ivith the apostle in that Heb. xiii. 18, ' Pray for us, for 
we trust loe have a good conscience, in all things ivillingly to live 
honestly.' Gracious hearts affect that which they cannot effect. So 
Acts xxiv. 16, ' And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a 
conscience void of offence towards God, and towards men ; ' in all 
cases, in all places, by all means, and at all times. A sincere Chris- 
tian labom-s to have a good conscience, void of offence towards God 
and towards men: Pro v. xvi. 17, ' The highway of the upright is- to 
depart from evil,' that is, it is the ordinary, usual, constant course of 



22 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

an upright man to depart from evil. An honest traveller may step 
out of the king's highway into a house, a wood, a close ; but his work, 
his business, is to go on in the king s highway ; so the business, the 
work, of an upright man is to depart from evil. It is possible for an 
upright man to step into a sinful path, or to touch upon sinful facts ; 
but his main way, his principal work and business, is to depart from 
iniquity ; as a bee may light upon a thistle, but her work is to be 
gathering at flowers ; or as a sheep may slip into the dirt, but its 
work is to be grazing upon the mountains or in the meadows. 
But, 

[13.] Thirteenthly and lastly, Jems Christ is the real Christians 
only beloved ; he is the saint's only darling : Cant. ii. 3, ' As the apple- 
tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved' among the sons ; ' 
ver. 8, ' The voice of my beloved, behold, he cometh leaping upon the 
mountains, and skipping upon the hills ; ' ver. 9, ' My beloved is like 
a roe, or a young hart ; ' ver. 10, ' My beloved spake, and said unto 
me, Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away ; ' ver. 17, ' Turn, 
my beloved, and be thou like a roe or a young hart upon the moun- 
tains of Bother ; ' Cant. iv. 16, ' Let my beloved come into his garden, 
and eat his pleasant fruits.' Seven times Christ is called * the beloved 
of his spouse ' in the fifth of Canticles, and twice in the sixth chapter, 
and four times in the seventh chapter, and once in the eighth chapter. 
In this book of Solomon's Song, Christ is called the church's beloved 
just twenty times. I might turn you to many other scriptures, but 
in the mouth of twenty witnesses you may be very clearly and fully 
satisfied that Jesus Christ is the saints' beloved. 

1. When the Dutch martyr was asked whether he did not love his 
wife and children, he answered, ' Were all the world a lump of gold, 
and in my hand to dispose of, I would give it to live with my wife and 
children in a prison, but Christ is dearer to me than all.' 2. Saith 
Jerome, ' If my father should stand before me, and if my mother 
should hang upon me, and my brethren should press about me, I would 
break through my brethren, throw down my mother, and tread under 
foot my father, that I might cleave the faster and closer unto Jesus 
Christ.' 3. That blessed virgin in Basil, being condemned for Chris- 
tianity to the fire, and having her estate and life offered her if she 
would worship idols, cried out, ' Let money perish and life vanish, 
Christ is better than all.' 4. Love made Jerome to say, ' Oh, my 
Saviour, didst thou die for love of me, a love more dolorous than 
death, but to me a death more lovely than love itself. I cannot live, 
love thee, and be longer from thee.' 5. Henry Voes said, ' If I had 
ten heads, they should all off for Christ.' 6. John Ardley, martyr, 
said, 'If every hair of my head were a man, they should all suffer for 
the faith of Christ.' 7. Ignatius said, ' Let fire, racks, pulleys, yea, 
and all the torments of hell, come on me, so I may win Christ' 8. George 
Carpenter, being asked whether he loved not his wife and children, 
when they all wept before them, answered, ' My wife and children are 
dearer to me than all Bavaria, yet for the love of Christ I know them 
not.' 9. ' Lord Jesus,' said Bernard, ' I love thee more than all my 
goods, and I love thee more than all my friends, yea, I love thee more 



I 



I 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 23 

than Day very self.' 10. Austin saith he would willingly go through 
hell to Christ. 11. Another saith, ' He had rather be in his chimney- 
corner with Christ than in heaven without him.' 12. Another cries 
out, ' I had rather have one Christ than a thousand worlds ;' by all 
which it is most evident that Jesus Christ is the saint's best beloved, 
and not this or that sin. 

Now by these thirteen arguments it is most clear that no gracious 
Christian does or can indulge himself in any trade, course, or way of 
sin. 

Yea, by these thirteen arguments it is most evident that no godly 
man has, or can have, any one beloved sin, any one bosom, darling sin, 
though many worthy ministers, both in their preaching and writings, 
make a great noise about the saints' beloved sins, about their bosom, 
darling sins. I readily grant that all unregenerate persons have their 
beloved sins, their bosom sins, their darling sins ; but that no such 
sins are chargeable upon the regenerate is sufficiently demonstrated 
by the thirteen arguments last cited ; and oh that this were wisely 
and seriously considered of, both by ministers and Christians ! There 
is no known sin that a godly man is not troubled at, and that he 
would not be rid of. There is as much difference between sin in a 
regenerate person and in an unregenerate person, as there is between 
poison in a man and poison in a serpent. Poison in a man's body is 
most offensive and burdensome, and he readily uses all arts and anti- 
dotes to expel it and get rid ; but poison in a serpent, is in its natm-al 
place, and is most pleasing and delightful: so sin in a regenerate man 
is most offensive and burdensome, and he readily uses all holy means 
and antidotes to expel it and to get rid of it. But sin in an unre- 
generate man is most pleasing and delightful, it being in its natural 
place. A godly man still enters his protest against sin. A gracious 
soul, while he commits sin, hates the sin he commits. 

sirs ! there is a vast difference between a special and a beloved 
sin, a darling sin, a bosom sin. Noah had a sin, and Lot had a sin, 
and Jacob had a sin, and Job had a sin, and David had a sin, which 
was his special sin ; but neither of these had any sin which was their 
beloved sin, their bosom sin, their darling sin. That passage in Job 
xxxi. 33 is observable, ' If I covered my transgression as Adam, by 
hiding mine iniquity in my bosom.' Mark, in this text, while Job 
calleth some sin or other his iniquity, he denieth that he had any 
beloved sin ; for saith he, ' Did I hide it in my bosom ? did I shew it 
any favour ? did I cherish it or nourish it, or keep it warm in my 
bosom? Oh, no; I did not.' A godly man may have many sins, 
yet he hath not one beloved sin, one bosom sin, one darling sin ; he 
may have some particular sin, to which the unregenerate part of his 
will may strongly incline, and to which his unmortified affections may 
run out with violence to ; yet he hath no sin he bears any good-wiii 
to, or doth really or cordially affect. Mark, that may be called a 
man's particular way of sinning, which yet we cannot, we may not 
call his beloved sin, his bosom sin, his darling sin ; for it may be his 
greatest grief and torment, and may cost him more sorrow and tears 
than all the rest of his sins ; it may be a tyrant usurping power over 



24 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

him, when it is not the delight and pleasure_ of his soul. A godly 
man may be more prone to fall into some one sin rather than another ; 
it may be passion, or pride, or slavish fear, or worldlineps, or hypocrisy, 
or this, or that, or t'other vanity ; yet are not these his beloved sins, 
his bosom sins, his darling sins ; for these are the enemies he hates 
and abhors ; these are the grand enemies that he prays against, and 
complains of, and mourns over ; these are the potent rebels that his 
soul cries out most against, and by which his soul suffers the greatest 
violence. Mark, no sm, but Christ, is the dearly beloved of a Chris- 
tian's soul ; Christ, and not this sin or that, is ' the chiefest of ten 
thousand ' to a gracious soul ; and yet some particular corruption or 
other may more frequently worst a believer and lead him captive; but 
then the believer cries out most against that particular sin. Oh, saith 
he, this is mine iniquity ; this is the Saul, the Pharaoh that is always 
a-pursuing after the blood of my soul. Lord ! let this Saul fall by 
the sword of thy Spirit ; let this Pharaoh be drowned in the Ked Sea 
of thy son's blood. sirs, it is a point of very great importance 
for gracious souls to understand the vast difference that there is be- 
tween a beloved sin and this or that particular sin, violently tyran- 
nising over them ; for this is most certain, whosoever giveth up himself 
freely, willingly, cheerfully, habitually, to the service of any one par- 
ticular lust or sin, he is in the state of nature, imder wrath, and in 
the way to eternal ruin. 

Now a little to shew the vanity, folly, and falsehood of that opinion 
that is received and commonly avowed by ministers and Christians — 
viz., that every godly person hath his beloved sin, his bosom sin, his 
darling sin — seriously and frequently consider with me of these follow- 
ing particulars : — 

[1.] First, That this opinion is not bottomed or founded upon any 
clear scripture or scriptures, either in the Old or Neio Testament. 
\ [2,] Secondly, This opinion that is now under consideration runs 
counter-cross to all those thirteen arguments but now alleged, and 
to all those scores of plain scriptures by which those arguments are 
confirmed, 

[3.] Thirdly, This opinion that is now under consideration has a 
great tendency to harden and strengthen wicked men in their sins ; for 
when they shall hear and read that the saints, the dearly beloved of 
God, have their beloved sins, their bosom sins, their darling sins, 
what inferences will they not be ready to make ! What are these 
they call saints ? wherein are they better than us ? Have we our 
beloved sins ? so have they. Have we our bosom sins ? so have they. 
Have we our darling sins ? so have they. They have their beloved 
sins, and yet are beloved of God ; and why not we — why not we ? 
Saints have their beloved sins, and yet God is kind to them ; and why 
then not to us, why not to us also ? Saints have their beloved sins, 
and yet God will save them ; and why then should we believe that 
God will damn us ? Saints have their beloved sins, their bosom sins, 
their darling sins, and therefore certainly they are not to be so dearly 
loved, and highly prized, and greatly honoured as ministers would 
make us believe. Saints have their beloved sins, their bosom sins, 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 25 

their darling sins, and therefore what iniquity is it to account and call 
them hypocrites, deceivers, dissemblers, that pretend they have a great 
deal of love to Grod, and love to Christ, and love to his word, and love 
to his ways ? and yet for all this they have their beloved sins, their 
bosom sins, their darling sins. Surely these men's hearts are not right 
with God : with much more to the same purpose. 

[4.] Fourthly, If Christ he really the saints' beloved, then sin is not 
their beloved. But Christ is the saints' beloved, as I have formerly 
clearly proved ; and therefore sin is not the beloved. A man may 
as well serve two masters, as have two beloveds — viz., a beloved Christ 
and a beloved lust. 

[5.] Fifthly, Those supernatural graces or those divine qualities 
that are in/used into the soul at first conversion, are contrary to all 
sin, and opposite to all sin, and engages the heart against all sin ; and 
therefore a converted person can have no beloved sin, no bosom sin, 
no darling sin. Seriously weigh this argument. 

[6.] Sixthly, This opinion may fill many weak Christians with 
many needless fears, doubts, and jealousies about their spiritual and 
eternal conditions. Weak Christians are very apt to reason thus : 
Surely my conversion is not sound ; my spiritual estate is not good ; 
my heart is not right with God ; a saving work has never yet passed 
upon me in jx)wer ; I fear I have not the root of the matter in me ; I 
fear I have never had a thorough change ; I fear I have never yet 
been effectually called out of darkness into his marvellous light ; I 
fear I have never yet been espoused to Christ ; I fear the Spirit of 
God hath never taken up my heart for his habitation ; I fear that 
after all my high profession I shall at last be found a hypocrite ; I 
fear the execution of that dreadful sentence. Mat. xxv. 41, 'Go ye 
cursed,' &c. And why all this ? poor soul answer [not] i because 
I carry about with me my beloved sins, my bosom sins, my darling 
sins. Ministers had need be very wary in their preaching and writing, 
that they don't bring forth fuel to feed the fears and doubts of weak 
Christians, it being a great part of their work to arm weak Christians 
against their fears and faintings. But, 

[7.] Seventhly, This opinion that is now under consideration, is an 
opinion that is very repugnant to sound and sincere repentance ; for 
sound, sincere repentance includes and takes in a divorce, an aliena- 
tion, a detestatijon, a separation, and a turning from all sin, without 
exception or reservation. One of the first works of the Spirit upon 
the soul, is the dividing between all known sin and the soul ; it is a 
making an utter breach betwixt all sin and the soul ; it is a dissolving 
of that old league that has been between a sinner and his sins, yea, 
between a sinner and his beloved lusts. One of the first works of the 
Spirit is to make a man to look upon all his sins as enemies, yea, as 
his greatest enemies, and to deal with his sins as enemies, and to hate 
and loathe them as enemies, and to fear them as enemies, and to arm 
against them as enemies. Seriously ponder upon these scriptures, 
Ezek. xviii. 28, 30, 31 ; Ezek. vi. ; 2 Cor. vii. 1 ; Ps. cxix. 101, 104, 

^ The ' uot,' which I place in parenthesis, seems to have been dropped out, inasmuch 
as Brooks is arguing against any such answer.— G. 



26 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

128. _ True repentance is a turning from all sin, without any re- 
servation or exception. He never truly repented of any sin, whose 
heart is not turned against every sin. The true penitent casts' off all 
the rags of old Adam ; he is for throwing down every stone of the 
old building ; he will not leave a horn nor a hoof behind. The rea- 
sons of turning from sin are universally binding to a penitent soul. 
There are the same reasons and grounds for a penitent man s turnino^ 
from every sin, as there is for his turning from any one sin. Do you 
turn from this or that sin because the Lord has forbid it ? Why ! upon 
the same ground you must turn from every sin ; for God has forbid 
every sin as well as this or that particular sin. There is the same 
authority forbidding or commanding in all ; and if the authority ot 
God awes a man from one sin, it will awe him from all. He that 
turns from any one sin, because it is a transgression of the holy and 
righteous law of God, he will turn from every sin upon the same ac- 
count. He that turns from any one sin because it is a dishonour to 
God, a reproach to Christ, a grief to the Spirit, a wound to religion 
&c., will upon the same grounds turn from every sin. ' 

Quest. But luherein does a true penitential turning from all sin 
consist? Ans. In these six things; — 

First, In the alienation and inivard aversation and dratvinq off of 
the soul from the love and liking of all sin, and from all free and 
voluntarij subjection unto sin, the heart being filled with a loathino- 
and detestation of all sin, [Ps. cxix. 104, 128,] as that which is most 
contrary to all goodness and happiness. 

Secondly, In the zmll's detestation and hatred of all sin When 
the very bent and inclination of the will is set against all sin, and op- 
poses and crosses all sin, and is set upon the ruin and destruction of 
ail sm, then the penitent is turned from all sin Rom vii 15 19 21 
23; Isa XXX. 22; Hosea xiv. 8, When the will stands upon such 
terms o defiance with all sin, as that it will never enter into a league 
of friendship with any sm, then is the soul turned from every sin 

Ihirdly In the judgments turning away from all sin, by disap- 
proving, disallowing, and condemnirig all sin Rom vii 15 Oh ! 
saith the judgment of a Christian, sin is the greatest evil' in all the 
world ; it is the only thing God abhors, and that brought Jesus Christ 
to the cross, that damns souls, that shuts heaven, and that has laid 
the foundations of hell ! Oh ! it is the pricking thorn in my eye, the 
deadly arrow m my side, the two-edged sword that hath wounded mv 
conscience and slain my comforts, and separated between God and my 
soul. Oh ! sin is that which hath hindered my prayers, and imbittered 
my mercies, and put a sting into all my crosses ; and therefore I can't 
but disapprove of it, and disallow of it, and condemn it to death yea 
to hell, from whence it came. " w > 

Fourthly, In the purpose and resolution of the soul; the soul sin- 
cerely purposing and resolving never willingly, wilfully or wickedlv 

fll^iTif? T"T'/f ""^- '• ^^^ S-^'^1 purpose and res^ 
tion of my heart is not to transgress. Though particular failings may 
attend me, yet my resolutions and purposes are firmly set Sgainst 

.3 fT ' ?'lf ^""'V; ^^' true penitent holds up his purposes and 
resolutions to keep off from sm, and to keep close with God, though he 



CLEARLt AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 27 

be not able in everything and at all times to make good his purposes 
and resolutions, &c. But, 

Fifthly^ In the earnest and unfeigned desires, and careful endea- 
vours of the soul to abandon all sin, to forsake all sin, and to he rid of 
all sin, Rom. vii. 22, 23. You know when a prudent, tender, indul- 
gent father sees his child to fail and come short in that which he en- 
joins him to do ; yet knowing that his desires and endeavours is to 
please him, and serve him, he will not be harsh, rigid, sour, or severe 
towards him, but will spare him, and exercise much tenderness and 
indulgence towards him ; and will God, will God whose mercies reach 
above the heavens, and whose compassions are infinite, and whose love 
is like himself, carry it worse towards his children than men do carry 
it towards theirs ? Surely no. God's fatherly indulgence accepts of 
the will for the work, Heb. xiii. 18 ; 2 Cor. viii. 12. Certainly, a sick 
man is not more desirous to be rid of all his diseases, nor a prisoner to 
be freed from all his bolts and chains, than the true penitent is desirous 
to be rid of all his sins. 

Sixthly and lastly. In the common and ordinary declining, shun- 
ning, and avoiding of all knoivn occasions of sin, yea, and all tempta- 
tions, provocations, inducements, and enticements to sin, &c. That 
royal law, 1 Thes. v. 22, * Abstain from all appearance of evil,' is a 
law that is very precious in a penitent man's eye, and commonly lies 
warm upon a penitent man's heart ; so that take him in his ordinary 
course, and you shall find him very ready to shun and be shy of the 
very appearance of sin, of the very shows and shadows of sin. Job 
made ' a covenant with his eyes,' Job xxxi. 1 ; and Joseph would 
not hearken to his bold tempting mistress, * to lie by her, or to be 
with her,' Gen. xxxix. 10 ; and David when himself, would not ' sit 
with vain persons,' Ps. xxvi, 3-5. Now a true penitential turning from 
all sins lies in these six things: and therefore you had need look 
about you ; for if there be any one way of wickedness wherein you 
walk, and which you are resolved you will not forsake, you are no true 
penitents, and you will certainly lose your souls, and be miserable 
for ever. 

[8.] This opinion that is now under consideration, is an opinion that 
loill exceedingly deject many precious Christians, and cause them 
greatly to hang doion their heads, especially in four days. 1. In the 
day of common calamity ; 2. In the day of personal affliction ; 3. In 
the day of death ; 4. In the great day of account. 

First, In a day of common calamity, when the sword is drunk 
with the blood of the slain, or when the raging pestilence lays thou- 
sands in heap upon heap, or when fevers, agues, gripes, and other 
diseases carry hundreds every week to their long homes. Oh, now the 
remembrance of a man's beloved sins, his bosom sins, his darling sins — 
if a saint had any such sins— will be very apt to fill his soul with fears, 
dreads, and perplexities. Surely now God will meet with me, now 
God will avenge himself on me for my beloved sins, my bosom sins, 
my darling sins ! Oh, how righteous a thing is it with God, because 
of my beloved lusts, to sweep me away by these sweeping judgments 
that are abroad in the earth 1 On the contrary, how sweet and com- 
fortable a thing is it, when in a day of common calamity a Christian 



28 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

can appeal to God, and appeal to conscience, that though he has many 
weaknesses and infirmities that hang upon him, that yet he has no 
beloved sin, no bosom sin, no darling sin, that either God or conscience 
can charge upon him. Oh, such a consideration as this may be as 
life from the dead to a gracious Christian, in the midst of all the com- 
mon calamities that does surround him and that hourly threaten him. 

Secondly, In the day of personal affiictions, when the smarting rod 
is upon him, and God writes bitter things against him ; when the 
hand of the Almighty has touched him in his name, estate, relations, 
&c. Oh, now the remembrance of a man's beloved sins, his bosom 
sins, his darling sins — if a saint had any such sins — will be as ' the 
handwriting upon the wall,' Dan v. 5, 6, ' that will make his coun- 
tenance to be changed, his thoughts to be troubled, his joints to be 
loosed, and his knees to be dashed one against another.' Oh, now a 
Christian will be ready to conclude. Oh, it is my beloved sins, my 
bosom sins, my darling sins that has caused God to put this bitter cup 
into my hand, and that has provoked him to ' give me gall and worm- 
wood to drink,' Lam. iii. 19. Whereas on the contrary, when a man 
under all his personal trials, though they are many and great, yet can 
lift up his head and appeal to God and conscience, that though he has 
many sinful weaknesses and infirmities hanging upon him, yet neither 
God nor conscience can charge upon him any beloved sins, any bosom 
sins, any darling sins. Oh, such a consideration as this will help a 
man to bear up bravely, sweetly, cheerfully, patiently, and contentedly, 
under the heaviest hand of God, as is evident in that great instance 
of Job. Who so sorely afilicted as Job ? and yet no beloved sin, no 
bosom sin, no darling sin being chargeable upon him by God or con- 
science, [Job X. 7, and xxxi. 33,] how bravely, sweetly,*and Christianly 
does Job bear up under those sad changes and dreadful providences 
that would have broke a thousand of such men's hearts, upon whom 
God and conscience could charge beloved sins, bosom sins, darling 
sins 1 But, 

Thirdly, In the day of death ; Death is the king of terrors, as Job 
speaks ; and the * terror of kings,' as the philosopher speaks. ^ Oh how 
terrible will this king of terrors be to that man upon whom God and 
conscience can charge beloved sins, bosom sins, darling sins. This is 
certain, when a wicked man comes to die, all the sins that ever he 
committed don't so grieve him and terrify him, so sad him and sink 
him, and raise such horrors and terrors in him, and put him into such 
a hell on this side hell, as his beloved sins, his bosom sins, his darling 
sins ; and had saints their beloved sins, their bosom sins, their darling 
sins, ah, what a hell of horror and terror would these sins raise in 
their souls, when they come to lie upon a dying bed ! But now when 
a child of God shall lie upon a dying bed, and shall be able to say, 
' Lord, thou knowest, and conscience thou knowest, that though I have 
had many and great failings, yet there are no beloved sins, no bosom 
sins, no darling sins, that are chargeable upon me! Lord, thou 
knowest, and conscience thou knowest: 1. That there is no known sin 
that I don't hate and abhor. 2. That there is no known sin that I 
' Aristotle : cf. Sibbcs, vol. iv. note e, p. 78, and vii. 603, where the original is given 



\ 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 29 

don't combat and conflict with. 3. That there is no known sin that I 
don't grieve and mourn over. 4. That there is no known sin that I 
would not presently, freely, willingly, and heartily be rid of. 5. That 
there is no known sin that I don't in some weak measure endeavour 
in the use of holy means to be delivered from. 6. That there is no 
known sin, the effectual subduing and mortifying of which would not 
administer matter of the greatest joy and comfort to me!' Now, 
when God and conscience shall acquit a man upon a dying bed of 
beloved sins, of bosom sins, of darling sins, who can express the joy, 
the comfort, the peace, the support that such an acquittance will fill a 
man with ? 

Fourthly/, In the day of account, the very thoughts of which day, 
to many, is more terrible than death itself. Such Christians as are 
captivated under the power of this opinion, viz., that the saints have 
their beloved sins, their bosom sins, their darling sins, such cannot but 
greatly fear and tremble to appear before the tribunal of God. Oh, 
saith such poor hearts, how shall we be able to answer for our beloved 
sins, our bosom sins, our darling sins. As for infirmities, weaknesses, 
and follies that has attended us, we can plead with God, and tell him. 
Lord ! when grace has been weak, corruptions strong, temptations 
great, and thy Spirit withdrawn, and we off from our watch, we have 
been worsted and captivated ! But what shall we say as to our 
beloved sins, our bosom sins, our darling sins ? Oh, these fill us with 
terror and horror, and how shall we be able to hold up our heads 
before the Lord, when he shall reckon with us for these sins ! But 
now when a poor child of God thinks of the day of account, and is 
able, through grace, to say, ' Lord, though we cannot clear ourselves 
of infirmities, and many sinful weaknesses, yet we can comfortably 
appeal to thee and our consciences that we have no beloved sins, no 
bosom sins, no darling sins ! ' Oh, with what comfort, confidence, and 
boldness will such poor hearts hold up their heads in the day of 
account, when a Christian can plead those six things before a judg- 
ment-seat, that he pleaded in the third particular, when he lay upon a 
dying bed! how will his fears vanish, and how will his hopes and 
heart revive, and how comfortably and boldly will he stand before a 
judgment-seat ! But, 

[9.] Ninthly, This opinion that is now under consideration, has a 
very great tendency to discourage and deaden the hearts of Christians 
to the most noble and spiritual duties of religion — viz., 1. Praising of 
God ; 2. Delighting in God ; 3. Eejoicing in God ; 4. Admiring of 
God ; 5. Taking full content and satisfaction in God ; 6. Witnessing 
for God, his truth, his ordinances, and ways ; 7. To self-trial and 
self-examination ; 8. To the making of their calling and election 
sure. I cannot see with what comfort, confidence, or courage such 
souls can apply themselves to the eight duties last mentioned, who lie 
under the power of this opinion, viz., that saints have their beloved 
sins, their bosom sins, their darling sins. But now when a Christian 
is clear, and he can clear himself, as every sincere Christian can, of 
beloved sins, of bosom sins, of darling sins, how is he upon the advan- 
tage ground to fall in roundly with all the eight duties last mentioned I 
But, 



30 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

[10.] Tenthly and lastly, This opinion that is now under considera- 
tion, has a very great tendency to discourage multitudes of Christians 
from coming to the Lord's table. I would willingly know with what 
comfort, with what confidence, with what hope, with what expectation 
of good from God, or of good from the ordinance, can such souls draw 
near to the Lord's table, who lie under the power of this opinion or 
persuasion, that they carry about with them their bosom sins, their 
beloved sins, their darling sins. How can such souls expect that God 
should meet with them in the ordinance, and bless the ordinance to 
them ? How can such souls expect that God should make that great 
ordinance to be strengthening, comforting, refreshing, establishing, 
and enriching unto them ? How can such souls expect, that in that 
ordinance God should seal up to them his eternal loves, their interest 
in Christ, their right to the covenant, their title to heaven, and the 
remission of their sins, who bring to his table their beloved sins, their 
bosom sins, their darling sins? But now when the people of God 
draw near to the table of the Lord, and can appeal to God, that 
though they have many sinful failings and infirmities hanging upon 
them, yet they have no beloved sins, no bosom sins, no darling sins 
that they carry about with them ; how comfortably and confidently 
may they expect that God will make that great ordinance a blessing 
to them, and that in time all those glorious ends for which that ordi- 
nance was appointed shall be accomplished in them, and upon them ! 

Now, by these ten arguments, you may see the weakness and false- 
ness, yea, the dangerous nature of that opinion that many worthy men 
have so long preached, maintained, and printed to the world, viz., 
That the saints have their beloved sins, their bosom sins, their darling 
sins ; neither do I wonder that they should be so sadly out in this 
particular, when I consider how apt men are to receive things by tra- 
dition, without bringing of things to a strict examination ; and when 
I consider what strange definitions of faith many famous, worthy men 
have given, both in their writings and preachings ; and when I con- 
sider what a mighty noise many famous men have made about legal 
preparations, before men presume to close with Christ, or to give up 
themselves in a marriage covenant to Christ, most of them requiring 
men to be better Christians before they come to Christ, than com- 
monly they prove after they are implanted into Christ, &c. 

Now, though I have said enough, I suppose, to lay that opinion 
asleep that has been last under consideration, viz.. That the saints 
have their beloved sins, their bosom sins, their darling sins, yet for a 
close of this discourse, premise with me these five things : 

[1.] First, That all unconverted persons have their beloved sins, 
their bosom sins, their darling sins. The beloved, the bosom, the dar- 
ling sin of the Jews was idolatry. The beloved, the bosom, the dar- 
ling sin of the Corinthians was uncleanness, wantonness, 1 Cor, vi. 
15, 20. The beloved, the bosom, the darling sin of the Cretans was 
lying, Titus ii. 12. Jeroboam's beloved sin was idolatry, and Cain's 
beloved sin was envy, and Korah's beloved sin was gainsaying, and 
Esau's beloved sin was profaneness, and Ishmael's beloved sin was 
scoffing, and Balaam's beloved sin was ambition ; Simeon and Levi's 
beloved sin was treachery, Manasseh's beloved sin was cruelty, and 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 31 

Nebuchadnezzar's beloved sin was pride, and Herod's beloved sin was 
uncleanness, and Judas his beloved sin was covetousness, and the 
young man's beloved sin in that 19th of Matthew was worldly-minded- 
ness, &c. 

[2.] Secondly, Premise this with me, that the elect of God, before 
their conversion, had their beloved &ins. Manasseh's beloved sin was 
cruelty ; and Ephraim's beloved sin, before conversion, was idolatry, 
Hosea iv. 17 ; and Zaccheus his beloved sin before conversion was 
worldly-mindedness and defrauding of others ; and Paul's beloved sin, 
before conversion, was persecution ; and the jailer s beloved sin, before 
conversion, was cruelty; and Mary Magdalene's beloved sin, before 
conversion, was wantonness and uncleanness, &c. 

[3.] Thirdly, Premise this with me, viz., that after conversion there 
is no sin thai the heart of a Christian is more seriously, more fre- 
quently, more resolutely, and more perfectly set against than that 
which was once his beloved lust. The hatred, detestation, and indig- 
nation of a converted person breaks out and discovers itself most against 
that sin which was once a beloved sin, a bosom sin, a darling sin ; his 
care, his fear, his jealousy, his watchfulness is most exercised against 
that sin which was once the darling of his soul. The converted per- 
son eyes this sin as an old enemy ; he looks upon this sin as the sin 
by which God has been most dishonoured, and his own conscience 
most enslaved, and his immortal soul most endangered, and Satan 
most advantaged, and accordingly his spirit rises against it, Hosea xiv. 
8 ; Isa. ii. 20, and xxx. 22. And all Christians' experience confirms 
this truth ; but of this more before. 

[4.] Fourthly, After conversion, a Christian endeavours to be most 
eminent in that particular grace which is most contrary and opposite 
to that sin ivhich was once his beloved sin, his bosom sin, his darling 
sin, Zaccheus his beloved sin was worldliness and defrauding, but, 
being converted, he labours to excel in restitution and liberality ; the 
jailer's beloved sin was severity and cruelty, but, being converted, he 
labours to excel in pity, and courtesy ; Paul's beloved sin was persecu- 
tion, but, being converted, how mightily does he bestir himself to 
convert souls, and to edify souls, and to build up souls, and to strengthen 
souls, and to establish souls, and to encourage souls in the ways of the 
Lord — he gives it you under his own hand, ' That he laboured more 
abundantly than they all,' 2 Cor, xi. 23 ; Austin's beloved sin, his 
bosom sin, his darling sin, before his conversion, was wantonness and 
uncleanness ; but, when he was converted, he was most careful and 
watchful to arm against that sin, and to avoid all temptations and 
occasions that might lead him to it afterwards. If a man's beloved 
sin, before conversion, has been worldliness, then after conversion he 
will labour above all to excel in heavenly-mindedness ; or if his sin, 
his beloved sin, has been pride, then he will labour above all to excel 
in humility ; or if his beloved sin has been intemperance, then he will 
labour above all to excel in temperance and sobriety ; or if his beloved 
sin has been wantonness and uncleanness, then he will labour above 
all to excel in all chastity and purity ; or if his beloved sin has been 
oppressing of others, then he will labour above all to excel in piety 
and compassion towards others; or if his beloved sin ha^ been 



32 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

hypocrisy, then he will labour above all to excel in sincerity, &c. 
But, 

[5.] Fifthly, Though no godly man, though no sincere gracious 
Christian hath any beloved sin, and bosom, darling sin, yet there is no 
godly man, there is no sincere gracious soul, hut has some sin or other 
to which they are more prone than to others. Every real Christian 
hath his inclination to one kind of sin rather than another, which may 
be called his special sin, his peculiar sin, or his own iniquity, as David 
speaks in Ps. xviii. 23. Now the main power of grace and of upright- 
ness is mainly seen and exercised in a man's keeping of himself from 
his iniquity. Now that special, that peculiar sin, to which a gracious 
soul may be most prone and addicted to may arise — 1. From the 
temperament and constitution of his body. The complexion and con- 
stitution of a man's body may be a more prepared instrument for one 
vice rather than another ; or, 2. It may arise from his particular call- 
ing. Christians have distinct and particular callings that incline them 
to particular sins. For instance, the soldier's calling puts him upon 
rapine and violence : Luke iii. 14, 'Do violence to no man, neither 
accuse any falsely, and be content with your wages.' And the trades- 
man's calling puts him upon lying, deceiving, defrauding, and over- 
reaching his brother. And the minister's calling puts him upon flatter- 
ing of the gallants and great ones of his parish, and upon pleasing the 
rest by speaking of smooth things, Isa. xxx. 10, ' and by sewing of 
pillows under their elbows,' Ezek. xiii. 18, 20. And the magistrates', 
judges', and justices' employments lays them open to oppression, 
bribery, injustice, &c. If Christians are not very much upon their 
watch, their very callings and offices may prove a very great snare to 
their souls ; or, 3. It may arise from his outward state and condition 
in this world, whether his state be a state of prosperity or a state of 
adversity, or whether he be in a marriage state or in a single state. 
Many times a man's outward state and condition in this world hath a 
strong influence upon him to incline him to this or that particular sin 
as best suiting with his condition ; or, 4. It may arise from distinct 
and peculiar ages ; for it is certain that distinct and peculiar ages do 
strongly inchne persons to distinct and pecuhar sins. Youth inclines 
to wantonness and prodigality ; and manhood to pride and ambition ; 
and old age to covetousness and frowardness. Common experience teUs 
us that many times wantonness is the sinner's darling in the time of his 
youth, and worldliness his darling in the time of his age ; and without 
controversy. Christians' distinct and peculiar ages may more strongly 
incline them to this or that sin rather than any other ; or, 5. It may 
arise from that distinct and particular way of breeding and education 
which he has had. Now to arm such Christians against their special 
sins, their peculiar sins — whose sins are advantaged against them, 
either by their constitutions and complexion, or else by their particu- 
lar calling, or else by their outward state and condition, or else by 
their distinct and peculiar ages, or else by their particular way of 
breeding and education— is my present work and business ; for though 
the reigning power of this or that special peculiar sin be broken in a 
man's conversion, yet the remaining life and strength that is still left 
in those corruptions, will by Satan be improved against the growth, 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 33 

peace, comfort, and assurance of the soul. Satan will strive to enter 
in at the same door ; and by the same Delilah, by which he hath be- 
trayed and wounded the soul, he will do all he can to do the soul a 
further mischief. Satan will be still a-reminding of the soul of those 
former sweets, pleasures, profits, delights, and contents that have come 
in upon the old score, so that it wiU be a hard thing, even for a godly 
man, to keep himself from his iniquity, from his special or peculiar 
sin, which the fathers commonly call, though not truly, peccatum in 
deliciis, a man's special darling and beloved sin. Well, Christians, 
remember this once for all, viz., that sound conversion includes a 
noble and serious revenge upon that sin which was once a man's be- 
loved, bosom, darling sin: 2 Cor. vii. 11, ' Yea, what clearing of your- 
selves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement 
desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge.' You see this in Cranmer, 
who when he had subscribed with his right hand to that which was 
against his conscience, he afterwards, as a holy revenge, put that right 
hand into the flames ; so Mary Magdalene takes that hair of hers. Of 
all sins, saith the sound convert, I am resolved to be avenged on my 
once beloved, bosom, darling sins, by which I have most dishonoured 
God, and wronged my own precious and immortal soul, and by which 
I have most endangered my everlasting estate. 

Having thus cleared up my way, I shall now endeavour to lay before 
you some special remedies, means, or helps against cherishing or keep- 
ing up of any special or peculiar sin, either in heart or life, against 
the Lord, or against the light and conviction of a man's own con- 
science. 

1. First, Cherishing or keeping up of any special or peculiar sin, either 
in heart or life, against the Lord, or against the light and conviction of 
a man's own conscience, will hinder assurance these several ways : — 

[1.] First, It tvill abate the degrees of our graces, and so make them 
more undiscemible. Now grace rather in its degrees than in its 
sincerity, or simple being only, is that which gives the clearest evi- 
dence of a gracious estate, or of a man's interest in Christ. Sin, lived 
in, is like a vermin to the tree, which destroys the fruit. Grace can- 
not thrive in a sinful heart. In some soil, plants will not grow. The 
cherishing of sin is the withering of grace. The casting of a favour- 
able eye on any one special sin hinders the growth of grace. If a man 
has a choice plant or flower in his garden, and it withers and shrivels 
and is dying, he opens the ground and looks at the root, and there 
finds a worm gnawing the root ; and this is the cause of the flower's 
fading : the application is easy. 

[2.] Secondly, The cherishing of any special peculiar sin, or the 
keeping up of any known transgression against the Lord, and against 
the light of a man's own conscience, ivill hinder the lively actings and 
exercise of grace; it will keep grace at an under, so that it wiU 
hardly be seen to stir or act • yea, it will keep grace so down that it 
will hardly be heard to speak. When a special or peculiar sin is 
entertained, it will exceedingly mar the vigorous exercises of those 
graces which are the evidences of a lively faith, and of a gracious state» 
and of a man's interest in Christ. Grace is never apparent and 
sensible to the soul, but while it is in action ; therefore want of action 

VOL. V. c 



34 SEKIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

must needs cause want of assurance. Habits are not felt immediately 
but by the freeness and facility of their acts ; of the very being of the 
goul itself, nothing is felt or perceived, but only its acts. The tire that 
lieth still in the flint, is neither seen nor felt ; but when you smite it 
and force it into act, it is easily discernible. For the most part, so 
long as a Christian hath his graces in lively action, so long he is 
assured of them. He that would be assured that this sacred fire of 
grace is in his heart, he must blow it up and get it into a flame. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, The cherishing of any special sin, or the keeping up 
of any known transgression in heart or life against the Lord and against 
the light of a man's own conscience, so blears, dims, and darkeTis the 
eye of the soul, that it cannot see its own condition, nor have any clear 
knowledge of its gracious state, or of its intey^est in 'Christ, &c. Some- 
times men in riding raise such a dust that they can neither see them- 
selves nor their dearest friends, so as to distinguish one from another : 
the application is easy. The room sometimes is so full of smoke that 
a man cannot see the jewels, the treasures that lie before him ; so it is 
here. But, 

[4.] Fourthly, Cherishing of any special or peculiar sin, or the keep- 
ing up of any known transgression against the Lord or against the 
light of a man's own conscience, provokes the Lord to ivithdraiv him- 
self, his comforts, and the gracious presence and assistance of his 
blessed Spirit; without which presence and assistance the soul may 
search and seek long enough for assurance, comfort, and a sight of a 
man's interest in Christ, before it will enjoy the one or see the other. 
If by keeping up of any known transgression against the Lord, you 
set the Holy Spirit a-mourning, which alone can comfort you, and 
assure you of your interest in Christ, you may walk long enough with- 
out comfort and assurance, Lam i. 16. ' The Comforter that should 
relieve my soul, is far from me ;' so in that 1 John iii. 21, it is sup- 
posed that a self-condemning heart makes void a man's confidence 
before God. The precious jewel of faith can be holden in no other 
place, but in a pure conscience ; that is the only royal palace wherein 
it must and will dwell : 1 Tim. i. 19, ' Holding faith and a good con- 
science:' BBh. X. 22, 'Let us draw near with a true heart, in full 
assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience.' 
He_ that comes to God with a true, honest, upright heart, being 
sprinkled from an evil conscience, may draw near to God in full 
assurance of faith ; whereas guilt clouds, clogs, and distracts the soul, 
that it can never be with God, either as it would or as it should. 
Conscientia pura semper secura, a good conscience hath sure confi- 
dence. Conscience is mille testes, a thousand witnesses for or against 
a man. Conscience is God's preacher in the bosom. It is better, with 
Eyagrius, to lie secure on a bed of straw, than to have a turbulent con- 
science on a bed of down. It was a divine saying of Seneca, a 
heathen, viz., ' That if there were no God to punish him, no devil to 
toi-ment him, no hell to burn him, no man to see him ; yet would he 
not sin, for the ugliness of sin, and the grief of his own conscience.' 
But, 

[5.] Fifthly, Cherishing of any special or peculiar sin, or the keep- 
ing up of any known transgression, in heart or life, against the Lord, 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 35 

and against the light of a man's own conscience, will greatly hinder 
his high esteem and reputation of Jesus Christ, and so it ivill keep him 
from comfort, assurance, and sight of his interest in him, so that some- 
times his dearest children are constrained to ciy out, ' God is departed 
from me, and he answereth me not, neither by dream nor vision, nei- 
ther this way nor that,' 1 Sam. xxviii. 15. But, 

[6.] Sixthly, The greatest and most common cause of the want of 
assurance, comfort, and peace, is some unmortified lust, some secret^ 
special, peculiar sin, unto which men give entertainment, or at least, 
which they do not so vigorously oppose, and heartily renounce as they 
should and might. Hinc illce lachrymce, and this is that which casts 
them on sore straits and difficulties. And how should it be other- 
wise, seeing God, who is infinitely wise, holy, and righteous, either 
cannot or will not reveal the secrets of his love to those who harbour 
his known enemies in their bosoms ? The great God either cannot or 
will not regard the whinings and complainings of those who play or 
dally with that very sin which galls their consciences, and connive and 
wink at the stirrings and workings of that very lust for which he hides 
his face from them, and writes ' bitter things against them.' Mark, 
all fears and doubts and scruples are begotten upon sin, either real or 
imaginary. Now, if the sin be but imaginary, an enlightened recti- 
fied judgment may easily and quickly scatter such fears, doubts, and 
scruples, as the sun doth mists and clouds, when it shines in its bright- 
ness ; but if the sin be real, then there is no possibility of curing those 
fears, doubts, and scruples arising from thence, but by an unfeigned 
repentance and returning from that sin. Now, if I should produce 
all the scriptures and instances that stand ready pressed to prove this, 
I must transcribe a good part of the Bible ; but this would be labour 
in vain, seeing it seemeth to have been a notion engraven even on 
natural conscience, viz., that sin so defiles persons, that till they be 
washed from it, neither they nor their services can be accepted ; from 
whence arose that custom of setting water-pots at their entrance into 
their temples or places of worship. Let him that wants assurance, 
comfort, peace, and a sight of his interest in Christ, cast out every 
known sin, and set upon a universal course of reformation ; for God 
will not give his cordials to those that have a foul stomach. Those 
that, against light and checks of conscience, dally and tamper with 
this sin or that, those God will have no commerce, no communion 
with ; on such God will not lift up the light of his countenance : Kev. 
ii. 17, 'To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, 
and I will give him a white stone, and in that stone, a new name 
written.' These are all metaphorical expressions, which, being put to- 
gether, do amount to as much as assurance ; but mark, these are pro- 
mised, T&j vLKwvTL, ' to him that overcometh,' to him that rides on 
conquering and to conquer. Oh that Christians would seriously re- 
member this ! The dearer it cost any one to part with his sins, the 
more sweet and comfortable will it be to call to mind the victory that 
through the Spirit of grace he has got over his sins. There is no 
comfort, joy, or peace to that which arises from the conquests of sin, 
especially of special sins. When Goliath was slain, what joy and 
triumph was there in the camp ! So here. 



36 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

[7.] Seventhly, Cherishing of any special or peculiar sin, or the 
keeping up of any known transgression, either in heart or life, against 
the Lord, and against the light of a man's own conscience, will hinder 
the soul from that warm^ lively, fervent, frequent, seasonable, sincere, 
and constant way of duty, as contributes most to the increase of grace, 
peace, comfort, and assurance, &c. 

[8.] Eighthly, Seriously consider of the several assertions and con- 
current judgments of our best and most famous divines in the present 
case. I shall give you a taste of some of their sayings, i 

First, ' A man,' saith one, ' can have no peace in his conscience that 
favoureth and retaineth any one sin in himself against his conscience.' 

Secondly, Another saith, ' A man is in a damnable state, whatso- 
ever good deeds seem to be in him, if he yield not to the work of the 
Holy Ghost for the leaving but of any one known sin which fighteth 
against peace of conscience.' But, 

Thirdly, ' So long,' saith another, ' as the power of mortification 
destroyeth thy sinful affections, and so long as thou art unfeignedly 
displeased with all sin, and dost mortify the deeds of the body by 
the Spirit, thy case is the case of salvation.' But, 

Fourthly, Another saith, ' A good conscience stands not with a pur- 
pose of sinning, no, not with irresolution against sin.' This must be 
understood of habitual purposes, and of a constant irresolution against 
sin. 

Fifthly, ' The rich and precious box of a good conscience,' saith 
another, ' is polluted and made impure, if but one dead fly be suffered 
in it. One sin being quietly permitted, and suffered to live in the 
soul without being disturbed, resisted, resolved against, or lamented 
over, will certainly mar the peace of a good conscience.' 

Sixthly, ' Where there is but any one sin,' saith another, ' nourished 
and fostered, all other our graces are not only blemished, but abolished; 
they are no graces. 2 

Seventhly, Most true is that saying of Aquinas, ' That all sins are 
coupled together, though not in regard of conversion to temporal good, 
for some look to the good of gain, some of glory, some of pleasure, yet 
in regard of aversion from eternal good, that is God ; so that he that 
looks but towards one sin is as much averted and turned back from 
God as if he looked to all ; in which respect St James says, " He that 
offendeth in one is guilty of all,'" James ii. 10. Now, that ye may 
not mistake Aquinas, nor the scripture he cites, you must remember 
that the whole law is but one copulative, Exod. xvi. 18 ; Ezek. xviii. 
10-13. Mark, he that breaketh one command habitually, breaketh 
all ;^ not so actually. Such as are truly godly in respect of the habitual 
desires, purposes, bents, biases, inclinations, resolutions, and endea- 
vours of their souls, do keep those very commands that actually they 
daily break. But a dispensatory conscience keeps not any one com- 
mandment of God. He that wilUngly and wilfully and habitually 
gives himself liberty to break any one commandment, is guilty of all ; 
that is, 1. Either he breaks the chain of duties, and so breaks all the 

, t ^^^* °^ ^^^^ quotations, with many more of like sort, will be found in Spencer's fine 
folic of Things New and Old,' (1658.) Cf. under ' conscience' and ' sin.'— G. 
" Dyke, ' Of the deceitfulness of the heart,' c. 16 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 37 

law, being copulative ; or, 2. With the same disposition of heart, that 
he willingly, wilfully, habitually breaks one, with the same disposi- 
tion of heart he is ready pressed to break all. The apostle's meaning 
in that James ii. 10, is certainly this, viz., that suppose a man should 
keep the whole law for substance, except in some one particular, yet 
fey allowing of himself in this particular, thereby he manifests that he 
kept no precept of the law in obedience and conscience unto God ; for 
if he did, then he would be careful to keep every precept. Thus much 
the words following import, and hereby he manifests that he is guilty 
of all. Some others conceive that therefore such a one may be said to 
be guilty of all, because by allowing of himself in any ope sin, thereby 
he lies under that curse which is threatened against the transgi*essors 
of the law, Deut. xxvii. 26. 

Eighthly, ' Every Christian should carry in his heart,' saith an- 
other, ' a constant and resolute purpose not to sin in anything ; for 
faith and the purpose of sinning can never stand together.' This 
must be understood of a habitual, not actual; of a constant, not 
transient purpose. But, 

Ninthly, ' One flaw in a diamond/ saith another, * takes away the 
lustre and the price.' One puddle, if we wallow in it, will defile us. 
One man, in law, may keep possession. One piece of ward-land 
makes the heir liable to the king. So one sin lived in, and allowed, 
may make a man miserable for ever. But, 

Tenthly, One turn may bring a man quite out of the way. One 
act of treason makes a traitor. Gideon had seventy sons, but one 
bastard, and yet that one bastard destroyed all the rest, Judg. viii. 31. 
' One sin,' as well as one sinner, ' lived in and allowed, may destroy 
much good,' saith another. 

Eleventhly, ' He that favoureth one sin, though he forego many, 
does but as Benhadad, recover of one disease and die of another ; yea, 
he doth but take pains to go to hell,' saith another. 

Twelfthly, ' Satan, by one lie to our first parents, made fruitless 
what God himself had preached to them immediately before,' saith 
another. 

Thirteenthly , A man may, by one short act of sin, bring a long 
curse upon himself and his posterity, as Ham did when he saw his 
father Noah drunk : Gen. ix, 24, 25, ' And Noah awoke from his 
wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him, and he 
said. Cursed is Canaan, a servant of servants shall he be unto his 
brethren.' Canaan was Ham's son. Noah, as God's mouth, pro- 
phesied a curse upon the son for his father's sin. Here Ham is 
cursed in his son Canaan, and the curse entailed not only to Canaan, 
but to his posterity. Noah prophesies a long series and chain of 
curses upon Canaan and his children. He makes the curse hereditary 
to the name and nation of the Canaanites : ' A servant of servants 
shall he be unto his brethren,' that is, the vilest and basest servant ; 
for the Hebrews express the superlative degree by such a duplication 
as ' vanity of vanities ;' that is, most vain : ' a song of songs ;' that is, 
a most excellent song. So here, ' a servant of servants ;' that is, the 
vilest, the basest servant. Ah, heavy and prodigious curse, upon the 
account of one sin ! But, 



3d SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

Fourteenthly, Satan can be content that men should yield to God 
in many things, provided that they will be but true to him in some 
one thing ; for he knows very well, that as one dram of poison may 
poison a man, and one stab at the heart may kill a man ; so one sin 
unrepented of, one sin allowed, retained, cherished, and practised, 
will certainly damn a man. But, 

Fifteenthly^ Though all the parts of a man's body be sound, save 
only one, that one diseased and ulcerous part may be deadly to 
thee ; for all the sound members cannot preserve thy life, but that 
one diseased and ulcerous member will hasten thy death ; so one sin 
allowed, indulged, and lived in, will prove killing and damning to 
thee. 

Sixteentlily , 'Observe,' saith another, 'that an unmortified sin allowed 
and wilfully retained will eat out all appearance of virtue and piety. 
Herod's high esteem of John and his ministry, and his reverencing of 
him and observing of him, and his forward performance of many 
good things, are all given over and laid aside at the instance and 
command of his master-sin, his reigning sin. John's head must go 
for it, if he won't let Herod enjoy his Herodias quietly.' But, 

Seventeenthly, Some will leave all their sins but one ; Jacob would 
let all his sons go but Benjamin. Satan can hold a man fast enough 
by one sin that he allows and lives in, as the fowler can hold the bird 
fast enough by one wing or by one claw. 

Eighteenthly, Holy Polycarp, in the time of the fourth persecution, 
when he was commanded but to swear one oath, he made this answer : 
" Four-score and six years have I endeavoured to do God service, and 
all this while he never hurt me ; how then can I speak evil of so good 
a Lord and Master who hath thus long preserved me ! I am a Chris- 
tian, and cannot swear ; let heathens and infidels swear if they will, I 
cannot do it, were it to the saving of my life.' 

Ninteenthly, A wilKng and a wilful keeping up, either in heart or 
life, any known transgression against the Lord, is a breach of the holy 
law of God ; it is a fighting against the honour and glory of God, and 
is a reproach to the eye of God, the omnipresence of God. 

Tiventietlily, The keeping up of any known transgression against 
the Lord may endanger the souls of others, and may be found a fight- 
ing against all the cries, prayers, tears, promises, vows, and covenants 
that thou hast made to God, when thou hast been upon a sick-bed, or 
in eminent dangers, or near death ; or else when thou hast been in 
solemn seeking of the Lord, either alone or with others. These 
things should be frequently and seriously thought of by such poor 
fools as are entangled by any lust. 

Twenty -firstly, The keeping up of any known transgression against 
the Lord, either in heart or life, is a high tempting of Satan to tempt 
the soul ; it will also greatly unfit the soul for all sorts of duties and 
services that he either owes to God, to himself, or others; it will also 
put a sting into all a man's troubles, afilictions, and distresses ; it will 
also lay a foundation for despair ; and it will make death, which is 
the kmg of terrors, and the terror of kmgs, to be very terrible to the 
soul. 

Twenty-secondly, The keeping up of any known transgression against 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 39 

the Lord, either in heart or life, will fight against all those patterns 
and examples in Holy Writ, that in duty and honour we are bound 
to imitate and follow. Pray, where do you find in any of the blessed 
Scriptures, that any of the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, or saints are 
ever charged with a willing or a wilful keeping up, either in their 
hearts or lives, any known transgression against the Lord ? 

Twenty-thirdly , The keeping up of any known transgression against 
the Lord will highly make against all clear, sweet, and standing com- 
munion with God. Parents use not to smile, nor be familiar with 
their children, nor to keep up any intimate communion with them, in 
their neglects and disobedience. It is so here. 

Twenty-fourthly , The keeping up, either in heart or life, of any 
known transgi-ession against the Lord, will fight against the standing 
joy, peace, comfort, and assurance of the soul. Joy in the Holy Ghost 
will make its nest nowhere but in a holy soul. So far as the Spirit is 
grieved he will suspend his consolations, Lam. i. 16. A man will 
have no more comfort from God than he makes conscience of sinning 
against God. A conscience good in point of integrity will be good 
also in point of tranquillity. If our hearts condemn us not, ' then have 
we confidence towards God' — and I may say also towards men. Acts 
xxiv. 16 — oh, what comfort and solace hath a clear conscience ! he 
hath something within to answer accusations without. I shall con- 
clude this particular with a notable saying of one of the ancients. 
The joys of a good conscience are the paradise of souls, the 
delight of angels, the garden of delights, the field of blessing, the 
temple of Solomon, the court of God, the habitation of the Spirit. 
[Bernard.] 

Twenty-fiftlily , The keeping up of any known transgression, either in 
heart or life, against the Lord, is a high contempt of the all-seeing eye 
of God, of the omnipresence of God. It is well known what Ahasuerus, 
that great monarch, said concerning Haman, when coming in, he found 
liim cast upon the queen's bed on which she sat ; ' What,' saith he, 
' will he force the queen before me, in the house ? ' Esther vii, 8. There 
was the killing emphasis in the words, ' before me ;' ' will he force the 
queen before me ? ' What ! will he dare to commit such a villany, 
and I stand and look on ? sirs ! to do wickedly in the sight of God 
is a thing that he looks upon as the greatest affront and indignity that 
can possibly be done unto him. What, saith he, wilt thou be drunk 
before me, and swear and blaspheme before me, and be wanton and 
unclean before me, and break my laws before my eyes ! This, then, 
is the killing aggravation of all sin that is done before the face of God, 
in the presence of God ; whereas, the very consideration of God's omni- 
presence, that he stands and looks on, should be as a bar, a remora, 
to stop the proceedings of all wicked intendments, a dissausive rather 
from sin than the least encouragement thereunto. It was an excellent 
saying of Ambrose, ' If thou canst not hide thyself from the sun, 
which is God's minister of light, how impossible will it be to hide 
thyself from him whose eyes are ten thousand times brighter than the 
sun,' 1 God's eye is the best marshal to keep the soul in a comely order. 
Let thine eye be ever on him whose eye is ever on thee. ' The eyes of 

1 Offic. 1. i., c. 14. 



40 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good/ Prov. 
XV. 9. There is no drawing of a curtain between God and thee. God 
is totv^ oculus, all eye ; he seeth all things, in all places, and at all 
times. When thou art in secret, consider conscience is present, which 
is more than a thousand witnesses ; and God is present, which is more 
than a thousand consciences. It was a pretty fancy of one that would 
have his chamber painted full of eyes, that which way soever he looked 
he might still have some eyes upon him ; and he fancying* according 
to the moralist's advice, always under the €ye of a keeper, might be the 
more careful of his carriage. sirs 1 if the eyes of men make even the 
vilest to forbear their beloved lusts for a while, that the adulterer 
watcheth for the twilight, and ' they that are drunken are drunken in 
the night/ how powerful will the eye and presence of God be with 
those that fear his a^iger and know the sweetness of his favour ! The 
thought of this omnipresence of God will affrighten thee from sin. 
Gehazi durst not ask or receive any part of Naaman's presents in his 
master's presence, but when he had got out of Elisha's sight, then he 
tells his lie, and gives way to his lusts. Men never sin more freely than 
when they presume upon secrecy ; ' They break in pieces thy people, 
Lord, and afflict thy heritage. They slay the widow and stranger, 
and murder the fatherless/ yet they say, ' The Lord doth not see, 
neither shall the God of Jacob regard it,' Ps. xciv. 5-7. They who 
abounded in abominations said, ' The Lord seeth us not, the Lord hath 
forsaken the earth,' Ezek. viii. 9, 12. The wise man dissuadeth from 
wickedness upon the consideration of God's eye and omniscience. 
* And why wilt thou, my son, be ravished with a strange woman, and 
embrace the bosom of a stranger ; for the ways of man are before the 
eyes of the Lord, and he pondereth all his goings,' Prov. v. 20, 21. 
Joseph saw God in the room, and therefore durst not yield ; but his 
mistress saw none but Joseph, and so was impudently alluring and 
tempting him to folly. 1 have read of two religious men that took 
contrary courses with two lewd women whom they were desirous to 
reclaim from their vicious course of hfe. One of the men told one of 
the women that he was desirous to enjoy her company, so it might be 
with secrecy, and when she had brought him into a close room, that 
none could pry into, he told her, ' All the bars and bolts here cannot 
keep God out.' The other desired the other woman to company with 
him, openly in the streets, which when she rejected as a mad request, 
he told her, ' It was better to do it in the eyes of a multitude, than in 
the eyes of God.' Oh, why shall not the presence of that God who 
hates sin, and who is resolved to punish it with hell-flames, make us 
ashamed or afraid to sin, and dare him to his face ! 

Twenty-sixilily , There have been many a prodigal, who, by one cast of 
the dice, have lost a fair inheritance. A man may be killed with one 
stab of a pen-knife, and one hole in a ship may sink it, and one thief 
may rob a man of kU he has in the world. A man may escape many 
gross sins, and yet, by living in the allowance of some one sin, be 
deprived of the glory of heaven for ever. Moses came within the sight 
of Canaan, but for one sin — not sanctifying God's name — he was shut 
out. And no less will it be to any man that, for living in any one 
sin, shall be for ever shut out of the kingdom of heaven ; not but that 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 41 

there may be some remainders of sin, and yet the heart taken oiF from 
every sin ; but if there be any secret closing with any one way of sin, 
all the profession of godliness and leaving all other sins will be to no 
purpose, nor ever bring a man to happiness. 

Twenty-seventhly , As the philosopher saith, a cup or some such thing 
that hath a hole in it is no cup ; it will hold nothing, and therefore 
cannot perform the use of a cup, though it have but one hole in it. So 
if the heart have but one hole in it, if it retain the devil but in one 
thing, if it make choice but of any one sin to lie and wallow in, and 
tumble in, it doth evacuate all the other good, by the entertain- 
ment of that one sin. The whole box of ointment will be spoiled by 
the dropping of that one fly into it. By the laws of our kingdom, a 
man can never have a true possession till he have voided all. And in 
the state of grace, no man can have a full interest in Christ till all 
sin, that is, all reigning, domineering sin be rooted out. 

Thus you see the concurrent judgments of our most famous divines, 
against men's allowing, indulging, or retaining any one known sin 
against their light and consciences ; but that these sayings of theirs 
may lie in more weight and power upon every poor soul that is 
entangled with any base lusts, be pleased seriously and frequently to 
consider of these following particulars : — 

[1.] First, It is to no purpose for a man to turn from some sins, if 
he does not turn from all his sins, James i. 26. ' If any man among you 
seem to be religious, and bridle not his tongne, but deceiveth his own 
heart, this man's religion is in vain.' This, at first sight, may seem to 
be a hard saying, that for one fault, for one fault in the tongue, all a 
man's religion should be counted vain ; and yet this, you see, the Holy 
Ghost does peremptorily conclude. Let a man make never so glori- 
ous a profession of religion, yet, if he gives himself liberty to live in 
the practice of any known sin, yea, though it be but in a sin of the 
tongue, his religion is in vain, and that one sin will separate him from 
God for ever. If a wife be never so officious i to her husband in many 
things, yet if she entertains any other lover into his bed besides him- 
self, it will for ever alienate his affections from her, and make an 
everlasting separation between them. The application is easy. To 
turn from one sin to another is but to be tossed from one hand of the 
devil to another, it is but, with Benhadad, to recover of one disease and 
die of another ; it is but to take pains to go to hell. If a ship spring 
three leaks, and only two be stopped, the third will sink the ship ; or if 
a man have two grievous wounds in his body, and takes order only to 
cure one, that which is neglected will certainly kill him. It is so here. 
Herod, Judas, and Saul, with the scribes and Pharisees, have for many 
hundred years experienced this truth. But, 

[2.] Secondly, Partial obedience is indeed no obedience ; it is only 
universal obedience that is true obedience: Exod. xxiv. 7, 'All that the 
Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient.' They only are indeed 
obedient who have a care to do all that is commanded ; for to obey is 
to do that which is commanded because it is commanded. Though the 
thing done be commanded, yet if it be not therefore done because it is 
commanded, it is no obedience. Now if this be the nature of obedience, 

' As before : see Glossary. — G. 



42 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

tlien where obedience is indeed, it is not partial, but universal ; for lie 
that doth any one thing that is commanded because it is commanded, 
he will be careful to do everythmg that is commanded, there being the 
same reason for all. They that are only for a partial obedience, they 
do break asunder the bond and reason of all obedience; for all obedience 
is to be founded upon the authority and will of God, because God, who 
hath authority over all his creatures, doth will and command us to 
obey his voice, to walk in his statutes. For this very reason do we 
stand bound to obey him ; and if we do obey him upon tliis reason, 
then must we walk in all his statutes, for so hath he commanded us. 
And if we will not come up to this, but will walk in what statutes of 
his we please, then do we renounce his will as the obliging reason of 
our obedience, and do set up our own liking and plea;sure as the reason 
thereof. God has so connexed the duties of his law one to another, 
that if there be not a conscientious care to walk according to all that 
the law requires, a man becomes a transgressor of the whole law ; 
according to that of St James, chap. ii. 10, ' Whosoever shall keep the 
whole law, and yet offend in one point, is guilty of all.' The bond of 
all is broken, the authority of all is slighted, and that evil disposition, 
that sinful frame of heart, that works a man to venture upon the breach 
of one command, would make him venture upon the breach of any 
command, were it not for some infirmity of nature, or because his purse 
will not hold out to maintain it, or for shame, or loss, or because of the 
eyes of friends, or the sword of the magistrate, or for some other sinister 
respects. He that gives himself liberty to live in the breach of any 
one command of God, is qualified with a disposition of heart to break 
them all. Every single sin contains virtually all sin in it. He that 
allows liimself a liberty to live in the breach of any one particular law 
of God, he casts contempt and scorn upon the authority that made the 
whole law, and upon this account breaks it all. And the apostle gives 
the reason of it in verse 11 ; for he that said, ' Do not commit adultery,' 
said also, ' Do not kill.' Now, if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou 
kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law ; not that he is guilty 
of all distributively, but collectively ; for the law is copulative, there 
is a chain of duties, and these are all so linked one to another, that you 
cannot break one link of the chain, but you break the whole chain. No 
man can live in the breach of any known command of God, but he 
wrongs every command of God. He hath no real regard to any of the 
commandments of God, that hath not a regard to all the command- 
ments of God. There is one and the same lawgiver in respect of all 
the commandments ; he that gave one command gave also another. 
Therefore he that observes one commandment in obedience unto God, 
whose commandment it is, he will observe all, because all are his com- 
mandments ; and he that slights one commandment is guilty of all, 
because he doth contemn the authority of him that gave them all. 
Even in those commandments which he doth observe, he hath no 
respect to the will and authority of him that gave them ; therefore, 
as Calvin doth well observe upon James ii. 10, 11, ' That there is no 
obedience towards God, where there is not a uniform endeavour to 
please God, as well in one thing as in another.' 

[3.] Thirdly, Partial obedience tends to plain atheism ; for by the 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 43 

same reason that you slight the will of God in any commandment, by 
the same reason you may despise his will in every commandment ; for 
every commandment of God is his will, and it is ' holy, spiritual, just, 
and good,' Rom. vii. 12, 14, and contrary to our sinful lusts. And if 
this be the reason why such and such commandments of God won't 
down with you, then by the same reason none of them must be of 
authority with you. 

[4.] Fourthly, God requires universal obedience: Deut. v. 33, &,c., 
and X. 12, and xi. 21, 22, &c. ; and Jer. vii. 23, 'Walk ye in all the 
ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you;' 
Mat. xxviii. 20, ' Teaching them to observe all things that I have 
commanded you,' &c. 

[5.] Fifthly, Partial obedience is an audacious charge against God 
himself, as to his wisdom, or potver, or goodness; for those statutes of 
God wliich you will not come up unto, either they are as righteous as 
the rest, and as holy as the rest, and as spiritual as the rest, and as 
good as the rest, or they are not. If they be as holy, spiritual, just, 
righteous, and good as the rest, why should you not walk in them as 
well as in the rest ? To say they are not as holy, spiritual, righteous, 
&c., as the rest. Oh what a blasphemous charge is this against God 
himself, in prescribing unto him anything that is not righteous and 
good, (fee, and likewise in making his will, which is the rule of all 
righteousness and goodness, to be partly righteous and partly unrigh- 
teous, to be partly good and partly bad. 

[6.] Sixthly, God delights in universal obedience, and in those that 
perform it: Deut. v. 29, '0 that there were such a heart in them, that 
they would fear me, and keep all my commandments always.' Upon this 
account Abraham is called the friend of God in Scripture three times, 
Isa. xli. 8 ; 2 Chron. xx. 7 ; James ii. 3. And upon the very same 
account God called David ' a man after his own heart : ' Acts xiii. 22, 
* I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, 
which shall fulfil all my will,' — iravra ra OeX^fiara, all my wills, to 
note the universality and sincerity of his obedience. 

[7.] Seventhly, There is not any one statute of God but it is good 
and for our good; ergo, we should walk in all his statutes : Deut. v. 25, 
' Ye shall walk in all the ways which the Lord your God hath com- 
manded you, that you may live, and that it may be well with you.' 
What one path hath the Lord commanded us to walk in, but as it con- 
cerns his own glory, so likewise it concerns our good ? 

Is it not good for us to love the Lord, and to set him up as the object 
of our fear, and to act faith on him, and to worship him in spirit and 
in truth, and to be' tender of his glory, and to sanctify his day, and to 
keep off from sin, and to keep close to his ways ? But, 

[8.] Eighthly, Universal obedience is the condition upon ivhich the 
promise of mercy and salvation runs: Ezek. xviii. 21, 'If the wicked 
will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all his 
statutes, and do that which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, he 
shall not die.' 

[9.] Ninthly, Our hearts must be perfect tvitli the Lord our God: 
Deut. xviii. 1 3, ' Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God ; ' and 
Gen, xvii. 1, ' Walk before me, and be thou perfect.' Now, how can 



^ SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

our hearts be said to be perfect with God if we do prevaricate with 
nim ; It m some things we obey him and in other things we will not 
obey him if we walk in some of his statutes but will not walk in all 
nis statutes, it in some part we will be his servants and in other mrt 
of our lives we will be the servants of sin. But, ^ 

[lO.JTenthly I/the heart be sound and upright, it ivill yield entire 
and universal obedience: Ps. cxix. 80, ' Let my heart be sound in thy 
statutes, that 1 may not be ashamed ;' and verse 6, ' Then shall I not 
be ashamed when I have respect to all thy commandments/ Bv these 
verses, compared together, it appears that then the heart is sound and 
sincere, when a man has respect unto all God's commandments With 
out a umversal obedience, a man can never have that 'hope which 
maketh not ashamed. But, ^ vvmou 

. t/|-J Eleventhly, ^iVAer ive must endeavour to loalh in all the 
tlT^ f f ''^' "^ '^'' T must find some dispensation or toleration 
Jrom God to free us and excuse us and hold us indemnified, though 
we do not walk znall of them, Now, what one commandment is thTre 
from obedience whereunto, God excuseth any man, or will not punish 
him for the neglect of obedience unto it? The apostle sai?h ?That 
whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point he is 
gmlty of al ,' James n. 10. If he prevaricates with Godfas to anv 
one particular commandment of his, his heart is naught lei 
gudty of all, he hath really no regard of any of the rest of God's laws 

[12.] Twelfthly, The precious saints and servants of God whose 
examples are recorded, and set forth for our imitation, they have been 
very careful to perform universal obedience. Will you see it in IS 

ten'^rnH™ ''"^^ ^'.'T^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^11 ^i« Vl commands ? 
When God commanded him to leave his country, and his father's 
house, he did It, Gen. xii. When God commanded him to be circum- 
cised, though it were both shameful and painful, he submitted unoTt 
Gen. xvn When God commanded him to send away his son Ishmael 
though when Sarah spake to him about it, the thing seemed v^y 
grievous unto hnn yet as soon as he saw it to be the will of God he was 
obedient unto it, Gen. xxi. When God commanded him to sacrifice 
his son Isaac, his only son, the son of his old age, the son of the pro! 
mise the son of his delight ; yea, that son from whom was to proc^e^^^^ 
that Jesus in whom all the nations of the earth should be blessed 
and though a this might seem to cross both nature and grace both 
reason and religion, yet Abraham was willing to obey God inS also 
and to do what he commanded. Gen. xxii.° So David was 'a man 

t^Lu ^^22 ''TS^'^''''fff f ^^^"^"«'- *^^ original r?ns 
walked fn «n\. '* '' f'^ ""^ Zacharias and Elizabeth, that they 
walked in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord &c 
Lukei. 6 ; 1 Thes. ii 10, ' Ye are witnesses, and God also how holilv 
lli^f^^ '"' ""^'^"^^^^ "^ ^^-^d ^-r^elves among you that 

oi foil^rlw^/^^^^'^ '^'^'''''' '^'^^' o^t *^' 'irengt^ of 

vv 14 ' S ^'^^^''^' "f^ ^^/ rf ^^^^ of our friendship with Christ J ohi 
n^i}\ ^'^ ?I ^''^''^'' '^ y^ ^o whatsoever I command you ' That 
child shews most love to his father, that observes all his percepts ; and 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 45 

that servant shews most love to his master, that observes all his mas- 
ter's commands, and that wife shews most love to her husband, that 
observes all he requires in the Lord. So here, &c. 

[14.] Fourteenthly, Universal obedience will give most peace, rest, 
quiet, and comfort to the conscience. Such a Christian will be as an 
eye that hath no mote to trouble it ; as a kingdom that hath no rebel 
to annoy it ; as a ship that hath no leak to disturb it : Ps. cxix. 165, 
* Great peace have they which love thy law, and nothing shaU offend 
them.' But, 

[15.] Fifteenthlyj Mans holiness must he conformnhle to God's 
holiness: Eph. v. 1, 2, 'Be ye followers of God as dear children ;' Mat. 
V. 48, ' Be ye perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.' Now * God 
is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works,' and so ought 
all to desire and endeavour to be, that would be saved : 1 Pet. i. 15, 
' As he who hath called you is holy, so be ye also holy in all manner 
of conversation; ver. 16, because it is written, Be ye holy, for I am 
holy.' But, 

[16.] Sixteenthly, The holiness of a Christian must he conformahle 
to the holiness of Christ, * Be ye followers of me, as I am of Christ,' 1 
Cor. xi. 1. Now Christ was holy in all things. * It behoveth us,' said 
he, ' to fulfil all righteousness.' And this should be the care of every 
one that professeth himself to be Christ's, to endeavour ' to be holy as 
Christ was holy : ' 1 John ii. 6, ' He that saith he abideth in him, ought 
himself to walk even as he walked.' But, 

[17.] Seventeenthly, Servants must ohey their earthly masters, not 
in Sonne things only, hut in all things, to wit, that are just and lawful : 
Titus ii. 9, ' Exhort servants to be obedient to their own masters, and 
to please them well in all things.' What master wiU be content that 
his servant should choose how far forth he will observe and do those 
things which he doth require of him ? much less may we think that 
such arbitrary and partial performances will please that God who is 
our heavenly Master. 

[18.] Eighteenthly, The promises of mercy, hoth spiritual and tem- 
poral, are made over to universal obedience, 1 Kings vi. 12, 13; Deut. 
xxviii. 1-3; Ezek. xviii. 21, 22, 27, 28. Turn to all these promises 
and dilate on them, &c. 

[19.] Nineteenthly, One sin never goes alone, as yoti may see in the 
falls of Adam and Eve, Lot, Ahraham, Noah, Jacob, Joseph, Job, 
David, Solomon, Peter, Ahab, Juda^, Jeroboam. One sin will make 
way for more ; as one little thief can open the door to let in many 
great ones. Satan will be sure to nest himself, to lodge himself in the 
least sins, as birds nest and lodge themselves in the smallest branches 
of the tree, and there he will do all he can to hatch all manner of 
wickedness. A little wedge makes way for a greater ; and. so do 
little sins make way for greater. 

[20.] Twentiethly, The reasons of turning from sin are universally 
binding to a gracious soul. There are the same reasons and grounds 
for a penitent man's turning from every sin as there is for his turning 
from any one sin. Do you turn froiri this or that sin because the 
Lord hath forbid it? why! upon the same ground you must turn 
from every sin ; for God has forbid every sin as well as this or that 



46 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

particular sin. There is the same authority forbidding or command- 
ing in all ; and if the authority of God awes a man from one sin, it 
will awe him from all, &c. But, 

[21.] Twenty-firstly, One sin allowed and lived in will keep Christ 
and the soul asunder. As one rebel, one traitor, hid and kept in the 
house, will keep a prince and his subjects asunder ; or as one stone in 
the pipe will keep the water and the cistern asunder ; so here. But, 

[22.] Twenty-secondly, One sin alloived and lived in will unfit a 
person for suffering ; as one cut or shot in the shoulder may hinder a 
man from bearing a burden. Will he ever lay down his life for Christ, 
that can't, that won't lay down a lust for Christ? But, 

[23.] Twenty-thirdly, One sin alloived and lived in is sufficient to de- 
prive a man for ever of the greatest good. One sin allowed and wal- 
lowed in will as certainly deprive a man of the blessed vision of God, and 
of all the treasures, pleasures, and delights that be at Gods right hand, 
as a thousand. One sin stripped the fallen angels of all their glory ; 
and one sin stripped our first parents of all their dignity and excellency, 
Gen. iii. 4, 5. One fly in the box of precious ointment spoils the whole 
box ; one thief may rob a man of all his treasure ; one disease may 
deprive a man of all his health ; and one drop of poison will spoil the 
whole glass of wine : and so one sin allowed and lived in will make a 
man miserable for ever. One millstone will sink a man to the bottom 
of the sea, as well as a hundred. It is so here. But, 

[24.] Twenty-fourthly, One sin allowed and lived in ivill eat out all 
peace of conscience. As one string that jars will spoil the sweetest 
music ; so one sin countenanced and lived in will spoil the music of 
conscience. One pirate may rob a man of all he has in this world. 
But, 

[25.] Twenty-fifthly and lastly, The sinner loould have God to for- 
give him, not only some of his sins, but all his sins ; and therefore it 
is hut just andeqtcal that he should turn from all his sins. If God be 
so faithful and just to forgive us all our sins, we must be so faithful 
and just as to turn from all our sins. The plaster must be as broad 
as the sore, and the tent i as long and as deep as the wound. It argues 
horrid hypocrisy, damnable folly, and wonderful impudency for a man 
to beg the pardon of those very sins that he is resolved never to for- 
sake, &c. 

Objection. But it is impossible for any man on earth to walk in all 
God's statutes, to obey all his commands, to do his ivill in all things, 
to loalk according to thefidl breadth of God's royal laiv. 

Solution. I answer, there is a twofold walking in all the statutes 
of God ; there is a twofold obedience to all the royal commands of 
God. 

(1.) First, One is legal, when all is done that God requireth ; and 
all is done as God requireth, when there is not one path of duty, but 
we do walk in it perfectly and continually. Thus no man on earth 
doth or can walk in all God's statutes, or fully do what he command- 
eth. ' For in many things we offend all,' James iii. 2. So Eccles. vii. 
20, ' There is not a just man upon the earth, that doeth good, and 
sinneth not.' 1 Kings viii 46, ' For there is no man that sinneth not.' 
^ 'A roll of lint used in searching or cleansing a deep wound.' — G. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 47 

Prov. XX. 9, ' Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure 
from my sin ? ' Job xiv. 4, ' Who can bring a clean thing out of an 
unclean ? not one.' 1 John i. 8, ' If we say we have no sin, we deceive 
ourselves, and the truth is not in us.' 

(2.) Secondly, Another is evangelical, which is such a walking in 
all the statutes of God, and such a keeping of all the commands of 
God, as is in Christ accepted of, and accounted ofas if we did keep 
them all. This walking in all God's statutes, and keeping of all his 
commandments, and doing of them all, is not only possible, but it is 
also actual in every believer, in every sincere Christian, and it consists 
in these particulars : — 

[1.] First, In the approbation of all the statutes and coramxindments 
of God. Kom. vii. 12, ' The commandment is holy, and just, and 
good.' Ver. 16, ' I consent unto the law that it is good.' There is 
both assent and consent. Ps. cxix. 128, ' I esteem all thy precepts 
concerning all things to be right.' A sincere Christian approves of 
all divine commands, though he cannot perfectly keep all divine com- 
mands. But, 

[2.] Secondly, It consists in a conscientious submission unto the 
authority of all the statutes of God. Every command of God hath an 
authority within his heart, and over his heart. Ps. cxix. 161, * My 
heart standeth in awe of thy word.' A sincere Christian stands in 
awe of every known command of God, and hath a spiritual regard unto 
them all. Ps. cxix. 6, ' I have respect unto all thy commandments.' 
But, 

[3.] Thirdly, It consists in a cordial willingness and a cordial 
desire to walk in all the statutes of God, and to obey all the commands 
of God. Rom. vii. 18, ' For to will is present with me.' Ps. cxix. 5, 
'0 that my ways were directed to keep thy statutes !' Ver. 8, ' I will 
keep thy statutes.' But, 

[4.] Fourthly, It consists in a sweet complacency in all God's com- 
mands. Ps. cxix. 47, ' I will delight myself in thy commandment 
jA'hich I have loved.' Rom. vii. 22, ' I delight in the law of God after 
the inward man.' But, 

[5.] Fifthly, He who obeys sincerely obeys universally. Though 
not in regard of practice, which is impossible, yet in regard of affec- 
tion, he loves all the commands of God, yea, he dearly loves those 
very commands of God that he cannot obey, by reason of the infirmity 
of the flesh, by reason of that body of sin and death that he bears 
about with him. Ponder upon that : Ps. cxix. 97, ' how I love thy 
law!' Such a pang of love he felt, as could not otherwise be vented, 
but by this pathetical exclamation, ' how I love thy law,' vers. 113, 
163, 127, 159, 167. Ponder upon all these verses. But, 

[6.] Sixthly, A sincere Christian obeys all the commands of God ; 
he is universal in his obedience, in respect of valuation or esteem. He 
highly values all the commands of God ; he highly prizes all the com- 
mands of God ; as you may clearly see by comparing these scrip- 
tures together, Ps. cxix. 72, 127, 128, xix. 8-11 ; Job xxiii. 12. But, 

[7.] Seventhly, A sincere Christian is universal in his obedience, 
in respect of his purpose and resolution ; he purposes and resolves, by 
divine assistance, to obey all, to keep all. Ps. cxix. 106, * I have 



48 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

sworn, and will perform it, that I will keep thy righteous judgments,' 
Ps. xvii. 3, * I am purposed that my mouth shall not transgress. But, 

[8.] Eighthly, A sincere Christian is universal in his obedience, in 
respect of his indiTiation ; he has an habitual inclination in him to 
keep all the commands of God, 1 Kings viii. 57, 58 ; 2 Chron. xxx. 
17-20 ; Ps. cxix. 112, 'I have inclined my heart to perform thy sta- 
tutes always, even to the end.' But, 

[9.] Ninthly and lastly, Their evangelical keeping of all the com- 
mands of God consists in their sincere endeavour to keep them all ; 
they put out themselves in all the ways and parts of obedience ; they 
do not willingly and wittingly slight or neglect any commandment, 
but are striving to conform themselves thereunto. As a dutiful son 
doth all his father's commands, at least in point of endeavour, so your 
sincere Christians make conscience of keeping all the commands of 
God in respect of endeavours. Ps. cxix. 59, ' I turned my feet unto 
thy testimonies.' God esteems of evangelical obedience as perfect 
obedience. Zacharias had his failings, he did hesitate through unbe- 
lief, for which he was struck dumb ; yet the text tells you, ' That he 
walked in all the commandments of the Lord blameless,' Luke i. 6, 
because he did cordially desire and endeavour to obey God in all 
things. Evangelical obedience is true for the essence, though not 
perfect for the degree. A child of God obeys all the commands of 
God, in respect of all his sincere desires, purposes, resolutions, and 
endeavours ; and this God accepts in Christ for perfect and complete 
obedience. This is the glory of the covenant of grace, that God 
accepts and esteems of sincere obedience as perfect obedience. Such 
who sincerely endeavour to keep the whole law of God, they do keep 
the whole law of God in an evangelical sense, though not in a legal 
sense, A sincere Christian is for the first table as well as the second, 
and the second as weU as the first ; he doth not adhere to the first and 
neglect the second, as hypocrites do ; neither doth he adhere to the 
second and contemn the first, as profane men do. Christians, for 
your support and comfort, know that when your desires and endea- 
vours are to do the will of God entirely, as well in one thing as an- 
other, God will graciously pardon your failings, and pass by your 
imperfections. ' He will spare you as a man spareth his son that 
serveth him,' Mai. iii. 17. Though a father see his son to fail, and 
come short in many things which he enjoins him to do, yet knowing 
that his desires and endeavours are to serve him, and please him to 
the full, he will not be rigid and severe with him, but will be indulgent 
to him, and will spare him, and pity him, and shew all love and kind- 
ness to him. The application is easy, &c. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 49 

The second question or case is this, viz., What is that faith that 
gives a man an interest in Christ, and in all those blessed benefits and 
favours that come by Christ ? or lohether that person that experiences 
tliefolloioing particulars, may not safely, groundedly, and comfortably 
conclude tlmt his faith is a true, justifying, saving faith, the faith of 
God's elect, and such a faith as clearly evidences a gracious estate, and 
will certainly bring the soid to heaven ? Now, in answer to this im- 
portant question, we may suppose the poor believer is ready to express 
himself thus : — 

[1.] First, Upon search and sad experience, I find myself a poor, 
lost, miserable, and undone creature, as the Scriptures everywhere 
do evidence, Eph. ii. 1, 2, 5, 12 ; Col. ii. 13 ; Rom. viii. 7 ; Luke 
xix. 10. 

[2.] Secondly, I am convinced tlmt it is not in myself to deliver 
myself out of this lost, miserable, and forlorn estate. Could I make 
as many prayers as might be piled up between heaven and earth, and 
weep as much blood as there is water in the sea, yet all this could not 
procure the pardon of one sin, nor one smile from God, &c. 

[3.] Thirdly, I am convinced that it is not in angels or men to de- 
liver me out of my lost, miserable, and undone condition. I know 
provoked justice must be satisfied, divine wrath pacified, my sins par- 
doned, my heart renewed, my state changed, &c., or my soul can never 
be saved ; and I know it is not in angels or men to do any of these 
things for me. 

[4.] Fourthly, I find that I stand in absolute need of a Saviour to 
save me from ivrath to come, 1 Thes. i. 10, ' to save me from the curse 
of the law,' Gal. iii, 10, 13, * and to save me from infernal flames,' 
Isa. xxxiii. 14 \ so that I inay well cry out with those in Acts ii. 37, 
' Men and brethren, what shall we do ? ' and with the jailer, Acts xvi. 
36, ' Sirs, what shall I do to be saved ? ' 

[5.] Fifthly, / see and knoiu, th7'ough grace, that there is an utter 
impossibility of obtaining salvation by anything, or by any person, but 
by Christ alone, according to that of the apostle : Acts iv. 12, 'Neither 
is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name ' that is, 
no other person, ' under heaven, given among men, by which we must 
be saved.' I know there is no saviour that can deliver me from eternal 
death, and bring me to eternal life and glory, but that Jesus, of whom 
it is said, 'that he shall save his people from their sins,' Luke i. 21 ; 
and therefore I must conclude that there is an utter impossibility of 
obtaining salvation by any other person or things, &c. But, 

[6.] Sixthly, I see and knoiu, through grace, that Jesus Christ is an 
all-sufficient Saviour, that he is a mighty, yea, an almighty Saviour, 
a Saviour thai is able to save to the utmost all them that come to him,, 
as the Scripture speaks, Ps. Ixxxix. 19, ' I have laid help upon one 
that is mighty;' Isa. Ixiii. 1, ' I that speak in righteousness, mighty 
to save ; ' Heb. vii. 25, ' Wherefore he is able also to save them to the 
uttermost, that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make 
intercession for them.' I know that the Lord Jesus is mighty to save 
me from that wrath, and from that curse, and from that hell, and 
from that damnation that is due to me, by reason of my sins ; and 
that he is mighty to justify me, and mighty to pardon me, and mighty 

VOL. V. D 



60 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

to reconcile me to Grocl the Father, and mighty to bring me to glory, 
as the Scripture does everywhere testify. But, 

[7.] Seventhly, I know, through grace, that Jesus Christ is the only 
person anointed, appointed, fitted, and furnished hy the Father, for 
that great and blessed work or office, of saving sinners ^ souls; as these 
scriptures, amongst others, do clearly testify, Isa. Ixi. 1-4 ; Luke iv. 
18-21 ; Mat. i. 20, 21 ; John vi. 27. Certainly were Jesus Christ 
never so able and mighty to save, yet if he were not anointed, appointed, 
fitted, and furnished by the Father for that great office of saving poor 
lost sinners, I know no reason why I should expect salvation by him. 
But, 

[8.] Eighthly, I know through grace that the Lord Jesus Christ 
hath sufficiently satisfied, as mediator, the justice of God, and paAiified 
his wrath, and fulfilled all righteousness, and procured the favour of 
God and the pardon of sin, &c.,for all them that close loith him, that 
accept of him, as he is offered in the gospel of grace. Gal. iii. 19, 20 ; 
1 Tim. ii. 5; Heb. viii. 6; Heb. ix. 14, 15, and xii. 24; Heb. x. 12, 14; 
Mat. iii. 15 ; Kom. viii. 1-4, 33, 34, and v. 8-10 ; • Acts xiii. 39. 

[9.] Ninthly, I find that Jesus Christ is freely offered in the gospel 
to poor, lost, undone sinners, such as I am. I find that the ministers 
of the gospel are commanded by Christ to proclaim in his name a 
general pardon, and to make a general offer of him to all to whom 
they preach the everlasting gospel, without excluding any : Mark xvi. 
15, ' And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the 
gospel unto every creature.' And what is it to preach the gospel unto 
every creature, but to say unto them, as the angels did to the shep- 
herds, Luke x. 11, 'I bring you good tidings of great joy, which 
shall be to all people ; for unto you is bom this day, in the city of 
David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord' ? &c. 

[10.] Tentlily, I know, through graxie, that all sorts of sinners are 
invited to come to Christ, to receive Christ, to accept of Christ, and 
to close ivith Christ, Isa. Iv. 1, 2 ; Mat. xi. 28, 29 ; Jolm vii. 37 ; 
Kev. iii. 20, and xxii. 17, &c. But, 

[11.] Eleventhly, Through grace, I do in my understanding really 
assent to that blessed record and report that God the Father, in the 
blessed Scriptures, has given concerning Christ, 1 John v. 10-12. The 
report that God the Father has made concerning the person of Christ, 
and concerning the offices of Christ, and concerning the work of re- 
demption by Christ, I do really and cordially assent unto, as most 
true and certain, upon the authority of God's testimony, who is truth 
itself, and cannot lie. Now, though this assent alone is not enough 
to make a saving reception of Christ, yet it is in saving faith, and 
that without which it is impossible that there should be any saving 
faith. But, 

[12.] Twelfthly, lean say, throitgh grace, that in my judgment I do 
approve of the Lord Jesus Christ, not only as a good, but as the greatest 
good, as a universal good, as a matchless good, as an incomparable 
good, as an infinite good, as an eternal good, and as the most suitable 
good in heaven and earth to my poor soul ; as these scriptures do evi- 
dence, Ps. Ixxiii. 25, 26 ; Cant. v. 10, 45 ; Ps. i. 2 ; Phil. iii. 7-10 ; 
1 Tim. i. 15. I know there is everything in Christ that may suit the 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 51 

state, case, necessities, and wants of my poor soul. There is mercy 
in him to pardon me, and power in him to save me, and wisdom in 
him to counsel me, and grace in him to enrich me, and righteousness 
in him to clothe me, &c., and therefore I cannot but approve of the 
Lord Jesus, as such a good as exceeds all the good that is to be found 
in angels and men. The good that I see in Christ doth not only 
counterpoise, but also excel all that real or imaginary good that ever 
I have met with in anything below Christ. Christ must come into 
the will, he must be received there, else he is never savingly received. 
Now before the will will receive him, the will must be certainly in- 
formed that he is good, yea, the best and greatest good, or else he 
shall never be admitted there. Let the understanding assent never 
so much to all propositions concerning Christ as true, if the judgment 
doth not approve of them as good, yea, as the best good, Christ will 
never be truly received. God in his working maintains the faculties 
of the soul in their actings, as he made them. 

[13.] Thirteenthly, So far as I know my oiun heart, I am sincerely 
willing to receive the Lord Jesus Christ in a matrimonial covenant ; 
according to these scriptures, Hos. ii. 19, 20 ; 2 Cor. xi. 2; Isa. liv. 5; 
Isa. Ixi. 10 ; Isa. Ixii. 5 ; Cant. iii. 11, &c. Through grace I am, 

First, Sincerely willing to take the Lord Jesus Christ for my Saviour 
and sovereign Lord. So far as I know my own heart, I do through 
mercy give my hearty consent, that Christ, and Christ alone, shall be 
my saviour and Kedeemer. It is true, I do duties, but the desire of 
my soul is to do them out of love to Christ, and in obedience to his 
royal law and pleasure. I know my best righteousnesses are but ' as 
filthy rags,' Isa. Ixiv. 6. And woe would be to me, had I no other 
shelter, or saviour, or resting-place for my poor soul, than rags, than 
filthy rags. And so far as I know my own heart, I am sincerely 
willing to give up myself to the guidance and government of Jesus 
Christ, as my sovereign Lord and king, desiring nothing more in this 
world, than to live and die under the guidance and government of his 
Spirit, word, and grace. But, 

Secondly, I am willing, through grace, to give a bill of divorce to all 
other lovers, without exception or reservation. So far as I know my 
own heart, I desire nothing more in this world, than that God would 
pull out right-eye sins, and cut off right-hand sins. I am very desirous, 
through grace, to have all sins brought under by the power, Spirit, and 
grace of Christ ; but especially my special sins, my head corruptions. 
I would have Christ alone to rule and reign in the haven i of my heart, 
without any competitor. But, 

Thirdly, I am sincerely ivilling, through grace, to take the Lord 
Jesus Christ for better, for ivorse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness 
and in health, and in his strength I tvould go tvith him through fix 
and water, resolving, through his grace, that nothing shall divide betwixt 
Christ and my soul. So far as I know my own heart, I would have 
Christ, though I beg with him, though I go to prison with him, though 
in agonies in the garden with him, though to the cross with him. 
But, 

Fourthly, So far as I knoio my own heart, I am sincerely willing, 
1 Qu. ' heaven ' ?— G. 



52 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

First, to receive the Lord Jesus Christ presently , John i. 12. Secondly, 
to receive him in all his offices, as king, prophet, and priest. Col. ii. 6 ; 
Acts V. 31. Thirdly, To receive him into every room of my soul; 
to receive him into my understanding, mind, will, affections, &c. 
Fom-thly, To receive him upon his oion terms, of denying myself, 
taking up his cross and following of him wherever he goes, Mat. xvi. 
21 ; Kev. xiv. 4, &c. 

Fifthly and lastly. So far as I know my own heart, I do freely 
consent, 1. To he really Christ's; 2. To be presently Christ's; 3. 
To be wholly Christ's; 4. To be only Christ's ; 5. To be eminently 
Christ's; 6. To be for ever Christ's, &c. 

Certainly that Christian that has and does experience the particulars 
last mentioned under the second question, that Christian may safely, 
groundedly, boldly, and comfortably conclude that his faith is a true, 
justifying, saving faith, the faith of God's elect, and such a faith as 
clearly evidences a gracious estate, and will never leave his soul short 
of heaven. 

Now how many thousand Christians are there, that have this faith 
that is here described, which is doubtless a true, justifying, saving 
faith, that gives a man an interest in the person of Christ, and in all 
the blessings and benefits that comes by Christ, who yet question whe- 
ther they have true faith or no, partly from weakness, partly from 
temptations, and partly from the various definitions that are given of 
faith by Protestants, both in their preachings and writings ; and it is 
and must be for a lamentation, that in a point of so great moment the 
trumpet should give such an uncertain sound. 



The third question, or case is this, viz.. Whether in the great day 
of the Lord, the day of general judgment, or in the particidar judgment 
that will pass upon every soul immediately after death, ivhich is the 
stating of th& soul in an eternal estate or condition, either of happiness 
or misery ; luhether the sins of the saints, the follies and vanities of 
believers, the infirmities and enormities of sincere Christians shall be 
brought into the judgment of discussion and discovery, or no ? Whe- 
ther the Lord loill either in the great day of account, or in a man's 
particular day of account or judgment, publicly manifest, proclaim, 
and mnke mention of the sins of his people, or no ? This question is 
bottomed upon the ten scriptures in the margin,i which I desire the 
Christian reader to consult ; and upon the sad and daily complaints of 
many dear sincere Christians, who frequently cry out, ' Oh, we can 
never answer for one evil thought of ten thousand, nor we can never 
answer for one idle word of twenty thousand ; nor we can never answer 
for one evil action of a hundred thousand ; and how then shall we 
stand in judgment ? how shall we look the judge in the face ? how 
shall we be ever able to answer for all our omissions, and for all our 
commissions ; for all our sins of ignorance, and sins against light and 
knowledge ; for all our sins against the law, and for all our sins against 

^ Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14 ; Mat. xii. 36, and xviii. 23 ; Luke xvi. 2; Rom. xiv. 10, 
12 ; 2 Cor. v. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17 ; 1 Peter iv. 5. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 53 

the gospel, and for all our sins against sovereign grace, and for all our 
sins against the remedy, against the Lord Jesus, and for all the sins 
of our infancy, of our youth, and of old age ? Job. ix. 3 ; Ps. xix. 12, 
and clxiii. 2 ; Ezra xix. 6, &c. What account shall we be able to 
give up, when we come to our particular day of judgment, immediately 
after our death, or in the great and general day of account, when 
angels, devils, and men shall stand before the Lord Jesus, Heb. ix. 
27, whom God the Father hath ordained to be the judge of quick and 
dead. Acts xvii. 31 ? 

Now to this great question I answer, that the sins of ilie saints, the 
infirmities and enormities of believers, shall never he brought into the 
judgment of discussion and discovery ; they shall never he objected 
against them, either in their particular day of judgment, or in the 
great day of their account. Now this truth I shall make good by an 
induction of particulars ; thus, — 

[1.] First, Our Lord Jesus Christ, in his judicial proceedings in 
the last day, which is set down clearly and largely in Mat. xxv. 
34-42, doth only enumerate the good ivorJcs they have done, hut takes 
not the least notice of the spots and blemishes, of the infirmities or 
enormities, of the weaknesses or ivickednesses, of his people. God has 
sealed up the sins of his people, never to be remembered or looked 
upon more, Deut. xxxii. 4-6 ; Dan. ix. 24. In the great day the 
book of God's remembrance shall be opened and publicly read, that all 
the good things that the saints have done for God, for Christ, for 
saints, for their own souls, for sinners ; and that all the great things 
that they have suffered for Christ's sake, and the gospel's sake, may be 
mentioned to their everlasting praise, to their eternal honour. And 
though the choicest and chiefest saints on earth have, 1. Sin dwelling 
in them ; 2. Operating and working in them ; 3. Vexing and molest- 
ing of them, being as so many goads in their sides and thorns in their 
eyes ; 4. Captivating and prevailing over them, Kom. vii. 23, 24 ; Gal. 
V. 17 ; yet in that large recital which shall then be read of the saints' 
lives. Mat. xxv., there is not the least mention made either of sins 
of omission or commission ; nor the least mention made either of great 
sins or of small sins ; nor the least mention made either of sins before 
conversion or after conversion. Here in this world the best of saints 
have had their bids, their spots, their blots, their specks, as the fairest 
day hath its clouds, the finest linen its spots, and the richest jewels 
their specks ; but now in the judicial process of this last and universal 
assizes there is not found in all the books that shall then be opened, 
so much as one unsavoury ' but ' to blemish the fair characters of the 
saints. Surely he that sees no iniquity in Jacob, nor perverseness 
in Israel, Num. xxiii. 21, to impute it to them whilst they live, he 
will never charge iniquity or perverseness upon them in the great day, 
Eev. XX. 12 ; Dan. vii. 10. Surely he who has fully satisfied his 
Father's justice for his people's sins, and who hath by his own blood 
balanced and made up all reckonings and accounts between God and 
their souls, he will never charge upon them their faults and follies 
in the great day. Surely he who hath spoken so much for his saints 
whilst he was on earth, and who hath continually interceded for them 
since he went to heaven, John xvii. ; Heb. vii. 2.5 ; he won't, though 



54 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

he hath cause to blame them for many things, speak anything against 
them in the great day. Surely Jesus Christ, the saints' paymaster, 
who hath discharged their whole debt at once, who hath paid down 
upon the nail the ten thousand talents which we owed, and took in the 
bond and nailed it to the cross, Heb. x. 10, 12, 14 ; Mat. xviii. 24 ; 
Col. ii. 14 ; leaving no back reckonings unpaid, to bring his poor chil- 
dren, which are the travail of his soul, Isa. liii. 11, afterward into any 
danger from the hands of divine justice; he will never mention 
the sins of his people, he wiU never charge the sins of his people 
upon them in the great day. Our dear Lord Jesus, who is the 
righteous judge of heaven and earth in the great day of account, 
he will bring in omnia hene in his presentment, all fair and well, and 
accordingly will make proclamation in that higli court of justice, 
before God, angels, devils, saints, and sinners, &c. Christ will not 
charge his children with the least unkindness, he will not charge his 
spouse with the least unfaithfulness in the great day ; yea, he will 
represent them before God, angels, and men, as complete in him, as 
all fair and spotless, as without spot or wrinkle, as without fault before 
the throne of God, as holy and unblamable and unreprovable in his 
sight, as immaculate as the angels themselves who kept their first 
estate. Col. ii. 10; Cant. iv. 7; Eph. v. 27; Eev. xiv. 5. This 
honour shall have all the saints, and thus shall Christ be glorified in 
his saints, and admired in all them that believe, 1 Thes. ii. 10. The 
greatest part of the saints by far will have passed their particular 
judgment long before the general judgment, Heb. ix. 27, and being 
therein acquitted and discharged from all their sins by God the Judge 
of the quick and dead, 2 Tim. iv. 1, and admitted into heaven upon 
the credit of Christ's blood, righteous satisfaction, and their free and 
full justification, it cannot be imagined that Jesus Christ, in the 
great day, will bring in any new charge against his children when 
they have been cleared and absolved already. Certainly when once 
the saints are freely and fully absolved from all their sins by a divine 
sentence, then their sins shall never be remembered, they shall never 
be objected against them any more ; for one divine sentence cannot 
cross and rescind another. The Judge of all the world had long since 
cast all their sins behind his back, Isa. xxxviii. 17 ; and will he now 
set them before his face, and before the faces of all the world ? Surely 
no. He has long since cast all their sins into the depths of the sea, 
Micah vii. 19, — bottomless depths of everlasting oblivion — that they 
might never be buoyed up amy more ! He has not only forgiven their 
sins, but he has also forgotten their sins, Jer. xxxi. 34 ; and will 
he remember them and declare them in the great day ? Surely no. 
God has long since blotted out the transgressions of his people, 
Isa. xliii. 2.5. This metaphor is taken from creditors, who, when they 
purpose never to exact a debt, will blot it out of their books. Now 
after that a debt is struck out of a bill, bond, or book, it cannot 
be exacted, the evidence cannot be pleaded. Christ having crossed 
the debt-book with the red lines of his blood, Col. ii. 14 ; if now 
he should call the sins of his people to remembrance, and charge them 
upon them, he should cross the great design of his cross. Upon this 
foundation stands the absolute impossibility that any sin, that the 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 55- 

least sin, yea, that the least circumstance of sin, or the least aggrava- 
tion of sin, should be so much as mentioned by the righteous Judge of 
heaven and earth in the process of that judicial trial in the great day, 
except it be in a way of absolution in order to the magnifying of their 
pardon. God has long since blotted out as a thick cloud the trans- 
gressions of his people, and as a cloud their sins, Isa. xliv. 22. Now 
we know that the clouds which are driven away by the winds appear 
no more ; nor the mist which is dried by the sun appears no more ; 
other clouds and other mists may arise, but not they which are driven 
away and dried up. Thus the sins of the saints being forgiven, they 
shall no more return upon them, they shall never more be objected 
against them. 

[2.] Further, The Lord saiih, ' Though your sins he as scarlet, they 
shall be lohite as snotu ; though they he red like crimson, they shall he 
as ivool,' Isa. i. 18. Pardon makes such a clear riddance of sin, that 
it is as if it had never been. The scarlet sinner is as white as snow, 
snow newly fallen from the sky, which was never sullied. The 
crimson sinner is as wool, wool which never received the least tincture 
in the dye-fat. You know scarlet and crimson are double and deep 
dyes, dyes in grain ; yet if the cloth dyed therewith be as the wool 
before it was dyed, and if it be as white as snow, what is become of 
those dyes ? Are they any more ? Is not the cloth as if it had not 
been dyed at all ? Even so ; though our sins, by reiterating them, 
by long lying in them, have made deep impressions upon us, yet, 
by God's discharge of them, we are as if we had never commited 
them. 

[3.] Again, TJie psalmist pronounceth him * hlessed whose sin is 
covered^ Ps. xxxii. 1. A thing covered is not seen ; so sin forgiven 
is before God as not seen. The same psalmist pronounceth him 
' blessed to whom the Lord imputeth not sin,' Ps. xxxii. 2. 

Now a sin not imputed is as not committed. The prophet Jere- 
miah tells us that ' the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and 
there shall be none ; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be 
found,' Jer. 1. 20. Now is not that fully discharged which shall 
never be found, never appear, never be remembered, never be men- 
tioned ? 

Thus, by the many metaphors used in Scripture to set out forgive- 
ness of sin, pardon of sin, you plainly and evidently see that God's 
discharge is free and full, and therefore he will never charge their sins 
upon them in the great day, Jer. xxxi. 34 ; Ezek. xviii. 22. But 

Some may object and say. That the Scripture saith, that ' God 
shall bring every loork into Judgment, ivith every secret thing, whether 
it be good, or ivhether it be evil,' Eccles. xii. 14. How then can this 
be, that the sins of the saints shall not be mentioned, nor charged 
upon them in the great day ? 

I answer. This scripture is to be understood respective, &c., with a 
just respect to the two great parties which are to be judged, Mat. xxv. 
32, 33. Sheep and goats, saints and sinners, sons and slaves, elect 
and reprobate, holy and profane, pious and impious, faithful and un- 
faithful ; that is to say, all the grace, the holiness, the godliness, the 
good of those that are good, shall be brought into the judgment of 



56 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

mercy, that it may be freely, graciously, and nobly rewarded, and all 
the wickedness of the wicked shall be brought into the judgment of 
condemnation, that it may be righteously and everlastingly punished 
in this great day of the Lord All sincerity shall be discovered and 
rewarded; and all hypocrisy shall be disclosed and revenged. In 
this great day all the works of the saints shall follow them into 
heaven ; and in this great day all the evil works of the wicked shall 
hunt and pursue them into hell.i In this great day all the hearts, 
thoughts, secrets, words, ways, works, and walkings of wicked men 
shall be discovered and laid open before all the world, to their ever- 
lasting shame and sorrow, to their eternal amazement and astonish- 
ment. And in this great day the Lord will make mention, in the 
ears of all the world, of every prayer that the saihts have made, and 
of every sermon that they have heard, and of every tear that they 
have shed, and of every fast that they have kept, and of every sigh 
and groan that ever they have fetched, and of all the good words that 
ever they have spoke, and of all the good works that ever they have 
done, and of all the great things that ever they have suffered ; yea, 
in this great day they shall reap the fruit of many good services 
which themselves had forgot. ' Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and 
fed thee; or thirsty, and gave thee drink; or naked, and clothed 
thee ; or sick or in prison, and visited thee ? ' Mat. xxv. 34-41 . 
They had done many good works, and forgot them ; but Christ 
records them, remembers them, and rewards them before all the 
world. In this great day a bit of bread, a cup of cold water shall 
not pass without a reward, Eccles. xi. 1, 6. In this great day the 
saints shall reap a plentiful and glorious crop, as the fruit of that good 
seed, that for a time hath seemed to be buried and lost. In this 
great day of the Lord the saints shall find that bread which long 
before was cast upon the waters. But my 

Second reason is taken from Christ's vehement protestations, that 
they shall not come into judgment : John v. 24, ' Verily, verily, I 
say unto you, he that heareth my word, and belie veth on him that 
sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, 
but is passed from death unto life.' 2 Those words, ' shall not come 
into condemnation,' are not rightly translated. The original is et? 
Kpiaiv, ' shall not come into judgment,' not into damnation, as you 
read it in all your English books. I wiU not say what should put 
men upon this exposition rather than a true translation of the original 
word. Further, it is very observable that no evangelist useth this 
double asseveration but St John, and he never useth it but in matters 
of greatest weight and importance, and to show the earnestness of his 
spirit, and to stir us up to better attention, and to put the thing 
asserted out of all question and beyond all contradiction ; as when we 
would put a thing for ever out of all question, we do it by a double 
asseveration— verily, verily, it is so, &c., John i. 51, iii. 3, 11, and 
vi, 26, 32, 47, 53, &c. 

Thirdly, Because his not bringing their sins into judgment doth 
most and best agree tuith many precious and glorious expressions 

I See Wisdom, c. ii. throughout, and chap, v., from the first verse to the tenth. 
Vide Aquin, 87 ; Suppl. est. in 1. 4; Ser. dist., 47. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 57 

that we find scattered, as so many shining, sparkling pearls, up and 
down in Scripture ; as, 

First, With those of God's blotting out the sins of his people: 'I, 
even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for my own sake, 
and will not remember thy sins. I have blotted out, as a thick 
cloud, thy transgressions, and, as a cloud, thy sins,' Isa. xliii. 25, and 
xliv. 22. 

Who is this that blots out transgressions ? He that hath the keys 
of heaven and hell at his girdle ; that opens, and no man shuts ; that 
shuts, and no man opens ; he that hath the power of life and death, 
of condemning and absolving, of killing and making alive ; he it is 
that blotteth out transgressions. If an under officer should blot out 
an indictment, that perhaps might do a man no good ; a man might, 
for all that, be at last cast by the judge ; but when the judge or king 
shall blot out the indictment with their own hand, then the indict- 
ment cannot return. Now this is every believer's case and happiness. 

Secondly, To those glorious expressions of Gods not remembering 
of their sins any more, Jer. xxxi. 34 ; Isa. xliii. 25. ' And I will not 
remember thy sins : and they shall teach no more every man his 
neighbour, and every man his brother, saying. Know ye the Lord, for 
they shall all know me, from the least of them to the gi-eatest of them, 
eaith the Lord, for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember 
their sin no more.' So the apostle, ' For I will be merciful to their 
unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember 
no more,' Heb. viii. 12. 

And again, the same apostle saith, * This is the covenant that I will 
make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws 
into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them, and their sins 
and iniquities will I remember no more,' Heb. x. 17. ^ 

The meaning is, their iniquities shall be quite forgotten: I will never 
mention them more, I will never take notice of them more, they shall 
never hear more of them from me. Though God hath an iron 
memory to remember the sins of the wicked, yet he hath no memory 
to remember the sins of the righteous. 

Thirdly, His not bringing their sins into judgment doth most and 
best agree with those blessed expressions of his casting their sins into 
the depth of the sea, and of his casting them behindhis back. ' He will 
turn again, he will have compassion upon us, he will subdue our iniqui- 
ties, and thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea,' Mic. 
A-ii. 19. Where sin is once pardoned, the remission stands never to be 
repealed.- Pardoned sin shall never come in account against the par- 
doned man before God any more ; for so much doth this borrowed 
speech import. If a thing were cast into a river, it might be brought 
up again ; or if it were cast upon the sea, it might be discerned and 
taken up again ; but when it is cast into the depths, the bottom of 
the sea, it can never be buoyed up again. 

By the metaphor in the text, the Lord would have us to know 
that sins pardoned shall rise no more, they shall never be seen 

^ That which Cicero said flatteringly of Caesar, is truly affirmed of God, Nihil ob- 
livisci solet prater injurias, ho forgetteth nothing but the wrongs that daily are done 
him by his. 



5^ SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS" 

more, they shall never come on the account more. ^ He will so 
drown their sins that they shall never come up before him the second 
time. 

And so much that other scripture imports, ' Behold, for peace I had 
great bitterness ; but thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from 
the pit of corruption ; for thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back,' 
Isa. xxxviii. 17. These last words are a borrowed speech, taken from 
the manner of men, who are wont to cast behind their backs such 
things as they have no mind to see, regard, or remember. A gracious 
soul hath always his sins before his face, ' I acknowledge my transgres- 
sions, and my sin is ever before me,' Ps. li. 3, and therefore no wonder 
if the Lord cast them behind his back. The father soon forgets, and 
casts behind his back those faults that the child remembers, and hath 
always in his eyes ; so doth the Father of spirits. 

Fourthly, His not bringing their sins into judgment doth best agree 
with that sioeet and choice expression of Gods pardoning the sins of 
his people. 

' And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, whereby they have 
sinned against me ; and I will pardon all their iniquities, whereby 
they have sinned, and whereby they have transgressed against me,' 
Jer. xxxiii. 8. So in Micah, ' Who is a God like unto thee, that 
pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgressions of the remnant of 
his heritage ? ' — as though he would not see it, but wink at it — * he 
retaineth not his anger for ever, because he delighteth in mercy,' Mic. 
vii. 18. The Hebrew word — nose from nasa — that is here rendered 
pardoneth, signifies a taking away. When God pardons sin, he takes 
it sheer away ; that if it should be sought for, yet it could not be 
found, as the prophet speaks, Jer. 1. 20, ' In those days, and in that 
time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and 
there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be 
found, for I will pardon them whom I reserve ; ' and these words, 
' and passeth by,' in the afore-cited seventh of Micah and the ISth 
verse, according to the Hebrew Vignoher Gnal is, ' and passeth over,' 
' God passeth over the transgression of his heritage,' that is, he takes 
no notice of it ; as a man in a deep muse, or as one that hath haste of 
business, seeth not things before him, his mind being busied about 
other matters, he neglects all to mind his business. 

As David, when he saw in Mephibosheth the feature of his friend 
Jonathan, took no notice of his lameness, or any other defect or 
deformity ; so God, beholding in his people the glorious image of his 
Son, winks at all their faults and deformities, Isa. xl. 1, 2, which 
made Luther say, ' Do with me what thou wilt, since thou hast 
pardoned my sin;' and what is it to pardon sin, but not to mention 
sin? 

Fifthhj, His not bringing their sins into the judgment of discussion 
and discovery doth best agree to those expressions of forgiving and 
covering, ' Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is 
covered,' Ps. xxxii. 1. In the original, it is in the plural, blessednesses ; 
so here is a plurality of blessings, a chain of pearls. 

The like expression you have in the 85th Psahn and the 2d 
verse, ' Thou hast forgiven the iniquity of thy people, thou hast 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 5^ 

covered all their sin, Selah.' For the understanding of these scrip- 
tures aright, take notice that to cover is a metaphorical expression. 
Covering is such an action which is opposed to disclosure ; to be 
covered, it is to be so hid and closed as not to appear. i Some make 
the metaphor from filthy loathsome objects which are covered from 
our eyes as dead carcasses are buried under the ground ; some from 
garments, that are put upon us to cover our nakedness ; others from 
the Egyptians that were drowned in the Ked Sea, and so covered with 
water ; others from . a great gulf in the earth, that is filled up and 
covered with earth injected into it ; and others make it, in the last 
place, an allusive expression to the mercy-seat, over which was a 
covering. 

Now all these metaphors in the general tend to shew this, that the 
Lord will not look, he will not see, he will not take notice of the sins 
he hath pardoned, to call them any more to a judicial account. 

As when a prince reads over many treasons and rebellions, and 
meets with such and such which he hath pardoned, he reads on, he 
passeth by, he taketh no notice of them, the pardoned person shall 
never hear more of them, he will never call him to account for those 
sins more ; so here, &c. When Caesar was painted, he puts his finger 
upon his scar, his wart. God puts his fingers upon all his people's scars 
and warts, upon all their weaknesses and infirmities, that nothing can 
be seen but what is fair and lovely : ' Thou art all fair, my love, and 
there is no spot in thee,' Cant. iv. 7. 

Sixthly, It best agrees to that] expression of not imputing of 
sin. ' Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, 
and in whose spirit there is no guile,' Ps. xxxii. 2. So the apostle in 
that Kom. iv. 6-8. Now not to impute iniquity, is not to charge 
iniquity, not to set iniquity upon his score who is blessed and par- 
doned, &c. 

Seventhly, and lastly. It best agrees with that exp'ession that you 
have in the l\?>th Psalm and the l\th and 12th verses, ' For as the 
heaven is high above the earth, so great is his mercy towards them 
that fear him ; as far as the east is from the west, so far hath he re- 
moved our transgressions from us.' What a vast distance is there 
betwixt the east and west ! of all visible latitudes, this is the greatest ; 
and thus much for the third argument. The 

[4.] Fourth argument that prevails with me to judge that Jesus 
Christ will not bring the sins of the saints into the judgment of discus- 
sion and discovery in the great day is, because it seems unsuitable to 
three considerable things for Jesus Christ to proclaim the infirmities 
and miscarriages of Ms people to all the ivorld. 

First, It seems to be unsuitable to the glory and solemnity of 
that day, which to the saints will be a day of refreshing, a day of 
restitution, a day of redemption, a day of coronation, as hath been 
already proved. Now how suitable to this great day of solemnity 
the proclamation of the saints' sins will be, I leave the reader to 
judge. 

Secondly, It seems unsuitable to all those near and dear relations 
that Jesus Christ stands in towards his. He stands in the relation of 
' Sic velantur, ut in judicio non revelentur. 



60 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

a Father, a Brother, a Head, a Husband, a Friend, an Advocate, l 
Now, are not all these by the law of relation, bound rather to hide, 
and keep secret, at least from the world, the weaknesses, and infirmi- 
ties of their near and dear relations ; and is not Christ, is not Christ 
much more, by how much he is more a Father, a Brother, a Head, 
a Husband, &c., in a spiritual way, than any others can be in a natural 
way? &c. 

Thirdly, It seems very unsuitable to what the Lord Jesus requires 
of his in this world. The Lord requires that his people should cast a 
mantle of love, of wisdom, of silence, and secrecy over one another's 
weaknesses and infirmities, &c. 

Hatred stirreth up strifes, but love covereth all sins — love's mantle 
is very large. Love will find a hand, a plaster to clp,p upon every sore, 
Prov. X. 12, and 1 Pet. iv. 8. Flavins Vespasianus, the emperor, was 
very ready to conceal his friends' vices, and as ready to reveal their 
virtues. So is divine love in the hearts of the saints, ' If thy brother 
offend thee, go and tell him his fault between him and thee alone ; if 
he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother,' Mat. xviii. 15. As 
the pills of reprehension are to be gilded and sugared over with much 
gentleness and softness, so they are to be given in secret. Tell him 
between him and thee alone. Tale-bearers and tale-hearers are alike 
abominable. Heaven is too hot, and too holy a place for them, Ps. 
XV. 3. Now will Jesus Christ have us carry it thus towards offending 
Christians, and wiU he himself act otherwise ? Nay, is it an evil in 
us to lay open the weaknesses and infirmities of the saints to the 
world ? and will it be an excellency, a glory, a virtue in Christ, to do 
it in the great day ? &c. 

[5.] A. fifth argument is this. It is the glory of a man to pass over a 
transgression. ' The discretion of a man defer reth his anger, and it is 
his glory to pass over a transgression,' Prov. xix. 11. Or to pass by 
it, as we do by persons or things we know not, or would take no notice 
of. Now, ' Is it the glory of a man to pass over a transgression ?' and 
will it not much more be the glory of Christ, silently to pass over the 
transgressions of his people in that great day ? 2 The greater the 
treasons and rebellions are that a prince passes over, and takes no 
notice of, the more is his honour and glory ; and so doubtless it will 
be Christ's in that great day, to pass over all the treasons and rebel- 
lions of his people, to take no notice of them, to forget them as well as 
to forgive them. 

The heathens have long since observed, that in nothing man came 
nearer to the glory and perfection of God himself than in goodness 
and clemency. Surely, if it be such an honour to man, ' to pass over 
a transgression/ it cannot be a dishonour to Christ, to pass over the 
transgressions of his people, he having already buried them in the sea 
of his blood. Again, saith Solomon, ' It is the glory of God to conceal 
a thing,' Prov. xxv. 2. And why it should not make for the glory of 
divine love, to conceal the sins of the saints in that great day, I know 
not. And whether the concealing the sins of the saints in the great 
day, will not make most for their joy and wicked men's sorrows, for 

1 Isa. ix. 6 ; Heb. ii. 11, 12 ; Eph. i. 21, 22 ; Rev, lii. 7 ; John xv. 1 ; ii, 1, 2. 
* Non amo quinquam nini offendam, said a heathen. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 61 

their comfort and wicked men's terror and torment, I will leave you 
to judge, and time and experience to decide ; and thus much for the 
resolution of that ^reat question. 

I. Now, from what has been said, in answer to this third question, 
a sincere Christian may form up this first plea as to the ten scriptures 
in the margin,i that refer either to the general judgment, or to the 
particular judgment that will pass upon every Christian immediately 
after death. blessed God, Jesus Christ has by his own blood bal- 
anced and made up all reckonings and accounts that tvere between 
thee and me ; and thou hast vehemently protested, that thou wilt not 
bring me into judgment; that thou wilt blot out my transgressions as 
a thick cloud, and that thou wilt remember my sins no more ; and that 
thou luilt cast them behind thy back, and hurl them into the depth of 
the sea; and that thou wilt forgive them, and cover them, arid not 
impute them to me, &c. This is my plea, Lord, and by this plea I 
shall stand. Well, saith the Judge of quick and dead, ' I own this 
plea, I accept of this plea, I have nothing to say against this plea ; the 
plea is just, safe, honourable, and righteous, enter thou into the joy of 
thy Lord.' 

Secondly, Every sinner at his first believing and closing with Christ, 
'isjustijied in the court of glory from all his sins, both guilt and pun- 
ishment. Acts xiii. 39. Justification doth not increase or decrease, 
but all sin is pardoned at the first act of believing. All who are jus- 
tified are justified alike. There is no difference amongst believers, as 
to their justification ; one is not more justified than another, for every 
justified person hath a plenary remission of his sins, and the same 
righteousness of Christ imputed ; but in sanctification there is differ- 
ence amongst believers. Every one is not sanctified alike, for some 
are stronger and higher, and others are weaker and lower in grace. 
As soon as any are made believers in Christ, all the sins which they 
have committed in time past, and all the sins which they are guilty of, 
as to the time present, they are actually pardoned unto them in general, 
and in particular, 1 Cor. xii. 12-14 ; 1 John ii. 1, 12-14. Now, that 
all the sins of a believer are pardoned at once, and actually unto 
them, may be thus demonstrated. 

[1.] First, All phrases in Scripture imply thus much. Isa. xHii. 25, 
' I, even I, am he which blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own 
sake, and will not remember thy sins.' Jer. xxxi. 34, ' I will forgive 
their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.' Jer. xxxiii. 8, 
' And I will pardon all their iniquities whereby they have sinned, and 
whereby they have transgressed against me.' Ezek. xviii. 22, 'AH 
his transgressions that he hath committed, they shall not be mentioned 
unto him.' Heb. viii. 12, ' I will be merciful unto their unrighteous- 
ness, and their sins and their iniquities I will remember no more ;' 
ergo, all is pardoned at once. But, 

[2.] Secondly, That remission of sins that leaves no condemnation to 
the party offending, is the remission of all sins ; for if there were any 
sin remaining, a man is still in the state of condemnation ; but justifi- 
cation leaves no condemnation. Kom. viii. 1, ' There is no condemna- 

^ Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14 ; Mat. xii. 36, and xviii. 23 ; Luke xvi. 2; Kom. xiv. 10, 
12; 2 Cor. v. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17 ; 1 Pet. iv. 5. 



62 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

tion to them that are in Christ Jesus,' and ver. 33, ' Who shall lay 
anything to the charge of God's elect ? It is God that justifieth ;' and 
ver. 38, 39, ' Nor things present, nor things to come, shall be able to 
separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord ;' 
and John v. 24, ' He that heareth my word, and believeth on him 
that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemna- 
tion, but is passed from death to life ;' ergo, all sins are pardoned at 
once, or else they were in a state of condemnation, &c. i Thus you 
see it evident that there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ 
Jesus. Therefore there is full remission of all sins to the soul at the 
first act of believing. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, A believer, even lohen he sinneth, is still united 
to Christ, John xv. 1, 6, xvii. 21-23; 1 Cor. vi. 17, 'And he is 
still clothed with the righteousness of Christ which covers all his 
sins, and dischargeth him from them, so that no guile can redound 
to him,' Isa. Ixi. 10; Jer. xxiii. 6; 1 Cor. i. 30; Phil. iii. 9, &c. 
But, 

[4.] Fourthly, A believer is not to fear curse or hell at all, which 
yet he might do if all his sins were not pardoned at once ; but some of 
his new sins were for a while impardoned, &c. But, 

[5.] Fifthly, Our Lord Jesus Christ, by once suffering, suffered for all 
the sins of the elect, past, present, and to come. The infinite wrath of 
God the Father fell on him for all the sins of the chosen of God, Isa. 
liii. 9 ; Heb. xii. 14, and x. 9, 10, 12, 14. If Christ had sufi'ered for 
ten thousand worlds, he could have suffered no more than he did ; for 
he suffered the whole infinite wrath of God the Father. The wrath 
of God was infinite wrath, and the sufferings of Christ were infinite 
sufferings ; ergo. Look, as Adam's sin was enough to infect a thousand 
worlds, so our Saviour's merits are sufficient to save a thousand worlds. 
Those sufferings that he suffered for sins past, are sufficient to satisfy 
for sins present and to come. That all the sins of God's people, in 
their absolute number, from first to last, were laid upon Christ, who 
in the days of his sufferings did meritoriously purchase perfect remis- 
sion of all their sins, to be applied in future times to them, and by 
them, is most certain, Isa. liv. 5, 6. But, 

[6.] Sixthly, Repentance is not at all required for our justifi- 
cation — tuhere our pardon is only to be found — but only faith; 
therefore pardon of sin is not suspended until we repent of our sins. 
But, 

[7.] Seventhly, If the remission of all sins be not at once, it is 
either because my faith cannot lay hold on it, or because there is 
some hindrances in tJie loay : but a man by the hand of faith may lay 
hold on all the merits of Chrnst, and the icord reveals the pardon of 
all; and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper seals and confirms the 
pardon of all ; and there is no danger nor inconvenience that attends 
this assertion, for it puts the highest obligation imaginable upon the 
soul, as to fear and obedience : Ps. cxxx. 3, ' If thou, Lord, shouldest 
mark iniquities, Lord, who shall stand ?' ver. 4, ' But there is 

^ At a sinner's first conver8ioi\ his sins are truly and perfectly pardoned. 1. All as to 
sin already past ; 2. All as to the state of remission. They had a perfect right to the 
pardon of all their sins, past, present, and to come, though not an equal investure. 



CI.EARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 63 

forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared.' Forgiveness 
makes not a Christian bold with sin, but fearful of sin, and careful to 
obey, as Christians find in their daily experience.^ By this argument it 
appears clear, that the forgiveness of all sins is made to the soul at 
once, at the first act of believing. But, 

[8.] Eighthly, If neiu sins loe^-e not pardoned until you do repent, 
then we should be left to an uncertainty whiles our sins he pardoned, 
or when they icill he pardoned; for it may be long ere we repent, as 
you see in David, who lay long under the guilt of murder and adultery 
before he repented, and you know Solomon lay long under many high 
sins before he repented, &c., audit may be more long ere we do, or 
can know that we do truly repent of our sins. But, 

[9.] Ninthly, If all sins were not forgiven at once, then justification 
is not perfect at once, hut is more and more increased and perfected as 
more and more sins are pardoned, which cannot consist with the true 
doctrine of Justification. Certainly as to the state of justification, 
there is a fuU and perfect remission of all sins — considered under the 
differences of time past, present, and to come. As in the state of 
condemnation there is not any one sin pardoned, so in the estate of 
justification, there is not any one sin but is pardoned ; for the state 
of justification is opposite to all condemnation and curse and wrath. 
But, 

[10.] Tenthly, All agree that as to God's eternal decree or purpose 
of forgiveness, all the sins of his people are forgiven. God did not 
intend to forgive some of their sins and not the rest, but a universal 
and full and complete forgiveness was fixedly purposed and resolved 
on by God. Forgiveness of sins is a gracious act, or work of God 
for Christ's sake, discharging and absolving believing and repenting 
persons from the guilt and punishment of all their sins, so that God 
is no longer displeased with them, nor will he ever remember them 
any more, nor call tbem to an account for them, nor condemn them 
for their sins, but will look on them, and deal with them as if they had 
never sinned, never offended him. 

Thirdly, Consider, that at the very moment of a helievers dissolu- 
tion, all his sins are perfectly and fully forgiven. All their sins are 
so fully and finally forgiven them, that at the very moment of their 
souls going out from the body, there is not one sin of omission or 
commission, nor any aggravation or least circumstance left stand- 
ing in the book of God's remembrance ; and this is the true reason 
why there shall not be the least mention made of their sins in their 
trial at Christ's tribunal, because they were all pardoned fully 
and finally at the hour of their death. All debts were then dis- 
charged, all scores were then crossed, so that in the great day, when 
the books shall be opened and perused, there shall not one sin be 
found, but all blotted out, and all reckonings made even in the blood 
of Christ. 

Indeed, if God should pardon some sins, and not others, he would 
at the same time be a friend and an enemy, and we should be at 
once both happy and miserable, which are manifest contradictions. 
Besides, God doth nothing in vain ; but it would be in vain for 
God to pardon some sins but not all, for as one leak in a ship un- 



64 SEKIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

stopped will sink the ship, and as one sore or one disease, not healed 
nor cured, will kill the body, so one sin unpardoned will destroy the 
soul. 

Fourthly, God looks not upon those as sinners, whose sins are 
pardoned : Luke vii. 37, ' And behold a woman in the city which was 
a sinner.' A notorious sinner, a branded sinner. Mark, it is not said, 
behold a woman which is a sinner, but * behold a woman which ivas 
a sinner ;' to note that sinners converted and pardoned are no longer 
reputed sinners, ' Behold a woman which was a sinner.' Look, as a 
man, when he is cleansed from filth, is as if he had never been defiled ; 
so when a sinner is pardoned, he is in God's account as if he had never 
sinned. Hence those phrases in Cant. 4. 7, ' Thou art all fair, my 
love, and there is no spot in thee : ' Col. ii. 10, ' And ye are complete 
in liim, who is the head of all principality and power,' as though he had 
said, because in himself he hath the well-head of glory and majesty, 
the which becometh ours ; in that he is also the head of his church : 
Col. i. 21, ' And you that were sometime alienated, and enemies in 
your mind, by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled ;' ver. 22, * In 
the body of his flesh, through death, to present you holy and unblam- 
able, and unreprovable in his sight ; ' that is, by his righteousness 
imputed and imparted : Eph. v. 27, ' that he might present it to him- 
self a glorious church, not having spot or vsrinkle, or any such thing, 
but that it should be holy and without blemish.' The word ' present ' 
is taken from the custom of solemnizing a marriage ; first the spouse 
was wooed, and then set before her husband adorned with his jewels, as 
Kebekah was with Isaac's : Rev. xiv. 5, ' And in their mouth was found 
no guile, for they are without fault before the throne of God.' 1. 
They are without fault by imputation. 2. By inchoation. Hence 
Job is said to be a perfect man. Job ii., and David to be 'a man after 
God's own heart,' Acts xiii. 22. The forgiven party is now looked 
upon and received with that love and favour, as if he had never offended 
God, and as if God had never been offended by him, Hosea xiv. 1, 
2, 4 ; Isa. liv. 7-10 ; Jer. xxxi. 33, 34, 36, 37 ; Luke xv. 19-23. 
Here the sins of the prodigal are pardoned, and his father receives 
him with such expressions of love and familiarity as if he had never 
sinned against him ; his father never so much as objects any one of all 
his high sinnings against him. Hence it is that you read of such 
sweet, kind, tender, loving, comfortable expressions of God towards 
those whose sins he had pardoned : Jer. xxxi. 16, ' Refrain thy voice 
from weeping, and thine eyes from tears ;' ver. 20, ' Is Ephraim my 
dear son, is he a pleasant child ? ' Mat. ix. 2, ' Son, be of good cheer, 
thy sins are forgiven thee.' The schools say that the remission of sins 
is not only ahlaiiva mali, but collativa boni, a remotion of guilt, but a 
coUation of good. Look, as he that is legally acquitted of theft or 
murder, is no more reputed a thief or murderer, so here, Jer. 1. 20, 
' In those days, and in that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel 
shall be sought for, and there shall be none ; and the sins of Judah, 
and they shall not be found ; for I will pardon them whom I reserve.' 
Pardoned sin is in God's account no sin, and the pardoned sinner in 
God's account is no sinner, as the pardoned debtor is no debtor. 
Where God hath pardoned a man, there he never looks upon that man 



CLEAKLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 65 

as a sinner, but as a just man. Pardon of sin is an utter abolition of 
it, as it doth reflect upon the person, making him guilty, and obliging 
him actually to condemnation ; in this respect the pardoned man is as 
free as if he had never sinned. Therefore the believer, the penitent 
person, hath infinite cause of rejoicing, that God hath perfectly pardoned 
his sins, and that he looks upon him no more [as] a sinner, but as a just 
and righteous person. sirs ! what can the great God do more for 
your comfort and consolation ? and therefore, never entertain any hard 
thoughts of God, as if he were like those men who say they forgive 
with all their hearts, and yet retain their secret hate and inward malice 
as much as ever ; but for ever live in the faith of this truth, viz., that 
when God doth pardon sin, he takes it so away, as that the party 
acquitted is no more looked upon as a sinner. Now upon this con- 
sideration, what a glorious plea hath every sincere Christian to make 
in the day of account ! But, 

Fifthly, Forgiveness takes off our obligation to suffer eternal pun- 
ishment; so that, look, as a forgiven debtor is freed from whatsoever 
penalty his debt did render him liable to, so is the forgiven sinner from 
the punishment itself. In this respect Aristotle saith, ' To forgive sin 
is not to punish it.' And Austin saith, ' To forgive sin is not to in- 
flict the punishment due unto it.' And the schools say, ' To remit the 
sin is not to impute the punishment.' When a king pardons a thief, 
his theft now shall not prejudice him. The guilt obliging is that 
whereby the sinner is actually bound to undergo the punishment due 
to him by the law, and passed on him by the judge for the breach of 
it ; this is that which by the schools is called the extrinsecal guilt of 
sin, to distinguish it from the intrinsecal, which is included in the 
deordination 1 of the act, and which is inseparable from the sin. And 
if you would know wherein the nature of forgiveness immediately and 
primarily consists, it is in the taking off this obligation, and discharg- 
ing the sinner from it. Hence it is that the pardoned sinner is said 
not to be under the law : Rom. vi. 14, and not to be under the 
curse ; Gal. iii. 13, and not to be under the sentence of condemna- 
tion. And according to this notion, all Scripture phrases are to be 
construed by which forgiveness is expressed, Rom. viii. 1. God, when 
he forgives sin, he is said to cover them, Ps. xxxii. 1, Ixxxv. 2 ; Rom. 
iv. 7 ; ' to remember them no more,' Isa. xliii. 25 ; Jer. xxxi. 34; Heb. 
viii. 12 ; 'to cast them behind his back,' Isa. xxxviii. 17 ; 'to throw 
them into the depth of the sea,' Micah vii. 19 ; 'to blot them out as a 
cloud,' Isa. xliv. 22 ; ' and to turn away his face from them,' Ps. li. 9. 
By all which expressions we are not to think that God doth not know 
sin, or that God doth not see sin, or that God is not displeased with 
sin, or that God is not displeased with believers for their sins ; but 
that he will not so take notice of them as to enter into judgment with 
the persons for them.. So that the forgiven sinner is free from obliga- 
tion of the punishment, as truly, as surely, as fully, and as perfectly 
as if he had never committed the sin, but were altogether innocent. 
In every sin there are two things considerable : first, the offence which 
is done to God, whereby he is displeased ; secondly, the obligation of 
the man so ofiending him to eternal condemnation. Now, remission 
^ ' Disorder,' = unlawfulness. — G. 

VOL. V. E 



66 SERIOUS A^^) weighty questions 

of sin dotli wholly lie in the removing of these two ; so that when God 
doth will neither to punish or to be offended with the person, then he 
is said to forgive. It is true there remains paternal and medicinal 
chastisements after sin is forgiven, hut no offence or punishment 
strictly so taken. And is not this a noble plea for a believer to make 
in the day of account ? But, 

Sixthly, Consider that all the sins of believers were laid upon Christ 
their surety, Heb. vii. 21, 22. What is that ? That Ls, he became 
bound to God, he became responsible to him for all their sins, for all 
that God in justice could charge upon them, and demand for satisfac- 
tion: Isa. liii, 5, 6, ' Our salvation was laid upon one that is mighty;' 
Ps. Ixxxix. 19 ; Isa. Ixiii. 1. As Judah became a surety to Jacob for 
Benjamin, he engaged himself to his father : ' I will be surety for him, 
of my hand shalt thou require him ; if I bring him not unto thee, and 
set him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever,' Gen. xliii. 9 ; 
herein he was a type of Christ, that came of him, who is both our 
surety to God for the discharge of our debt and duty, and Gt)d's surety 
to us for the performance of his promises. ' Father,' saith Christ, ' I 
wUl take upon me all the sins of thy i people ; I will be bound to answer 
for them ; I will sacrifice myself for them ; at my hands do thou require 
satisfaction for their sins, and a fuU compensation unto thy justice ; I 
wiU die, I will lay down my life, I will make my soul an offering for 
sins ; I will become a curse, I will endure thy wrath.' Oh, what un- 
speakable comfort is this, that there is a Christ to answer for that 
which we could never answer ! Christ is a surety in way of satisfac- 
tion, undertaking for the debts, the trespasses, the sins of his elect. 
In this respect it is that Christ is most properly called a surety, in 
regard of his taking upon him the sins of his elect, and undertaHng 
to answer and make satisfaction unto the justice of God for them. 
Christ interposeth himself betwixt the wrath of God and his people, 
undertaking to satisfy their debts, and so to reconcile them unto Grod 
Christ had nothing of his own to be condemned for, nothing of his own 
to be acquitted from. He was condemned to pay your debt, as your 
surety, and therefore you cannot be condemned too. He was acquitted 
from it, being paid, as your surety, and therefore you cannot but be 
acquitted too. He appeared the first time with your sin to his con- 
demnation, he shall appear the second time without vour sin unto your 
salvation, Heb. ix. 28. God the Father says to Christ, 'Son, if' you 
would have poor sinners pardoned, you must take their debts upon 
yourself, you must be their surety, and you must enter into bonds 
to pay every farthing of that debt poor sinners owe ; you must pay all 
if you will undertake for them, for I will never come upon them for it, 
but on you.' Certainly these were some of those transactions that 
were between God the Father and G^ the Son from all eternity about 
the pardoning of poor sinners. If ever thv sins be pardoned, Christ 
must take thy debts upon himself, and be 'thy surety; 2 Cor. v. 21, 
'He made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin.' Christ was made 
sm for us— 1, by way of imputation, ' for our sins were made to meet 
upon him,' as that evangelical prophet hath it, Isa. liii. 6 ; and, 
secondly, by reputation, 'for he was reckoned among malefactors,' 

* Qu. 'mv'?— G. 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 67 

ver. 12. The way of pardon is by a translation of all our sins upon 
Christ, it is by charging them all upon Christ's score. That is a great 
expression of Nathan to David, * The Lord hath put away thy sin ;' 
but the original runs thus, ' The Lord hath made thy sins to pass 
over ;' that is, to pass over from thee to his Son ; he hath laid them 
to his charge. 

Now Christ hath discharged all his people's debts and bonds. There 
is a twofold debt which lay upon us. One was the debt of obedience 
unto the law, and this Christ did pay by ' fulfilling all righteousness,' 
Mat. iii. 15. The other was the debt of punishment for our trans- 
gressions, and this debt Christ discharged by his death on the cross, 
Isa. liii. 4, 10, 12 ; ' And by being made a curse for us, to redeem us 
from the curse,' Gal. iii. 13. Hence it is that we are said to be 
' bought with a price,' 1 Cor. vi. 20, and vii. 23 ; and that Christ is 
called our ' Ransom,' Xvrpov, Mat. xx. 28, and dvrlXvrpov, 1 Tim. 
ii. 6. The words do signify a valuable price laid down for another's 
ransom. The blood of Christ, the Son of God, was a valuable price, 
a suflficient price ; it was as much as would take off all enmities, and 
take away all sin, and to satisfy divine justice, and indeed so it did ; 
and therefore you read that ' in his blood we have redemption, even 
the forgiveness of our sins,' Eph. i. 7 ; Col. i. 14, 20 ; and his death 
was such a full compensation to divine justice, that the apostle makes 
a challenge to all : Rom. viii. 33, ' Who shall lay anything to the 
charge of God's elect ?' and ver. 34, ' Who is he that condemneth ? it 
is Christ that died.' As if he had said, Christ hath satisfied and dis- 
charged all. The Greek word avriXxrrpov is of special emphasis. The 
Vulgar Latin renders it redemptionem, redemption; Beza, redempHonis 
2yretium, a price of redemption ; but neither of them fully expressing 
the force of the word, which properly signifieth a counter-price, when 
one doth undergo in the room of another that which he should have 
undergone in his own person, as when one yields himself a captive for 
the redeeming of another out of captivity, or giveth his own life for 
the saving of another's. There were such sureties among the Greeks 
as gave life for life, body for body ; and in this sense the apostle is to 
be understood, when he saith that Christ gave himself dvriXvrpov, a 
ransom, a counter-price, pa}'ing a price for his people. Christ hath 
laid down a price for all believers, they are his ' dear bought ones,' 
they are his ' choice redeemed ones,' Isa. li. 11. Christ gave himself 
dvTiXvTpov, a counter-price, a i-ansom, submitting himself to the like 
punishrnent that his redeemed ones should have undergone. Christ, 
to deliver his elect from the curse of the law, did subject himself to 
that same curse of the law under which all mankind lay. Jesus Christ 
was a true surety, one that gave his life for the life of others. As the 
apostle saith of Castor and Pollux, that the one redeemed the other's 
life with his own death, i so did the Lord Jesus ; he became such a 
•surety for his elect, giving himself an dvriXvTpov, a ransom for them, 
John vi. 51; Tit. ii. 14; 1 Pet. i. 18; Rev. i. 51, and v. 9. Oh, 

^ The only reference in the New Testament to Castor and Pollux is found in Acts 
xxviii. 11, so that for 'apostle,' we must here read ' the poet,' or the like. For the old 
Greek myth of Castor and Pollux, see any of the classical dictionaries, under Dioscori 
or Polydeuces. — G. 



68 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS 

what comfort is this unto us to have such a Jesus, who himself bare 
our sins, even all our sins, left not one unsatisfied for, laid down a full 
ransom, a full price, such an expiatory sacrifice as that now we are 
out of the hands of justice, and wrath, and death, and curse, and hell, 
and are reconciled and made near by the blood of the everlasting cove- 
nant ! The blood of Christ, as the Scripture speaks, is ' the blood of 
God,' Acts XX. 28, so that there is not only satisfaction, but merit in his 
blood. There is more in Christ's blood than mere payment or satis- 
faction. There was merit also in it, to acquire and procure and pur- 
chase all spiritual good, and all eternal good for the people of God ; not 
only immunities from sin, death, wrath, curse, hell, &c., but privileges 
and dignities of sons and heirs ; yea, all grace, and all love, and all 
peace, and all glory, even that glorious inheritance purchased by his 
blood, Eph, i. 14. 

Kemember this once for all, that in justification our debts are 
charged upon Christ, they go upon his accounts. You know that in 
sin there is the vicious and staining quality of it, and there is the 
resulting guilt of it, which is the obligation of a sinner over to the 
judgment-seat of God to answer for it. Now this guilt, in which lies 
our debt, this is charged upon Christ. Therefore, saith the apostle, 
' God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing 
their trespasses unto them,' 2 Cor. v, 19 ; ' And hath made him 
to be sin for us, who knew no sin,' ver. 21. You know in law the 
wife's debts are charged upon the husband ; and if the debtor be dis- 
abled, then the creditor sues the surety. Fide-jussor, or surety and 
debtor, in law are reputed as one person. Now Christ is our fide- 
jussor. ' He is made sin for us,' saith the apostle ; ' for us' — that is, 
in our stead — a surety for us, one who puts our scores on his accounts, 
our burden on his shoulders. So saith that princely prophet Isaiah : 
Isa. liii. 4, 5, ' He hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows.' 
How so ? 'He was wounded for our transgressions ; he was bruised 
for our iniquities ; ' that is, he stood in our stead, be took upon him 
the answering of our sins, the satisfpng of our debts, the clearing of 
our guilt ; and therefore was it that he was so bruised, &c. 

You remember the scape-goat ; upon his head all the iniquities of 
the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins were 
confessed and put : ' And the goat did bear upon him all their iniqui- 
ties,' Lev. xvi. 21, 22. What is the meaning of this? Surely Jesus 
Christ, upon whom our sins were laid, and who alone died for the 
ungodly, Eom. v. 6, ' and bore our burdens away.' Therefore the be- 
liever in the sense of guilt should run unto Christ, and ofier up his 
blood unto the Father, and say, ' Lord, it is true, I owe thee so much ; 
yet. Father, forgive me ; remember that thine own Son was my ran- 
som, his blood was the price ; he was my surety, and undertook to 
answer for my sins. I beseech thee, accept of his atonement, for he 
is my surety, my redemption. Thou must be satisfied ! but Christ 
hath satisfied thee, not for himself — what sins had he of his own ?— but 
for me. They were my debts which he satisfied for ; and look over 
thy book, and thou shalt find it so ; for thou hast said, " He was made 
sin for us, and that he was wounded for our transgressions." ' Now, 
what a singular support, what an admirable comfort is this, that we 



CLEARLY AND SATISFACTORILY ANSWERED. 69 

ourselves are not to make up our accounts and reckonings ; but that 
Christ hath cleared all accounts and reckonings between God and us. 
Therefore it is said that ' in his blood we have redemption, even the 
forgiveness of sins,' Eph. i. 7. 

Quest. Whether it were not against the justice of God that Christ, 
who was in himself innocent, — loithout all sin, a Lamb without a 
spot, — should bear and endure all these punishments for us ivho were 
the offending and guilty and obnoxious persons only ? Or if you please 
thus, 

Whether Ood ivas not unjust to give his Son Jesus Christ to be our 
surety and mediator and redeemer and saviour, forasmuch as Christ 
could not be any one of these for and unto ws but by a willing suscep- 
Hon of our sins upon himself, to be for them responsible unto the justice 
of God, in suffering those punishments which were due for our sinsf 

I shall speak a few words to this main question. I say, then, that 
it is not always and in all cases unjust, but it is sometimes and in 
some cases very just, to punish one who is himself innocent, for him 
or those who are the nocent and guilty. Grotius in his book, De 
Satisfactione, gives divers instances ; but I shall mention only two. 

First, In the case of conjunction, where the innocent party and the 
nocent party do become legally one party ; and therefore if a man 
marries a woman indebted, he thereupon becomes obnoxious to pay 
her debts, although, absolutely considered, he was not obnoxious there- 
unto. But, 

Secondly, In case of suretyship, where a person, knowing the weak 
and insufficient condition of another, doth yet voluntarily put forth 
himself, and will be bound to the creditor for him as his surety to 
answer for him, by reason of which suretyship the creditor may come 
upon him, and deal with him as he might have dealt with the princi- 
pal debtor himself ; and this course we do ordinarily take with sureties 
for the recovery of our right, without any violation of justice. Now, 
both these are exactly applicable to the business in hand ; for Jesus 
Christ was pleased to marry our nature unto himself; he did partake 
of our flesh and blood, and became man, and one with us. And be- 
sides that, he did, both by the will of his Father and his own free con- 
sent, become our surety, and was content to stand in our stead or room, 
so as to be made sin and curse for us — that is, to have all our debts 
and sorrows, all our sins and punishments laid upon him, and did engage 
himself to satisfy God by bearing and suffering what we should have 
borne and suffered. And therefore although Jesus Christ, absolutely 
considered in himself, was innocent and had no sin inherent in himself, 
which therefore might make him liable to death and wrath and curse, 
yet by becoming one with us, and sustaining the office of our surety, 
our sins were laid on liim, and our sins being laid upon him, he made 
himself therefore obnoxious, and that justly, to all those punishments 
which he did suffer for our sins. I do confess, that had Christ been 
unwilHng and forced into this suretyship, or had any detriment or 
prejudice risen to any party concerned in this transaction, then some 
complaint might have been made concerning the justice of God. 
But, 



70 SERIOUS AND WEIGHTY QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 

[1.] First, There loas a ivilUngness on all sides for the passive work 
of Christ. First, God the Father, who was the offended party, he was 
willing, which Christ assures us of when he said, ' Thy will be done,' 
Mat. xxvi. 42 ; Acts iv. 25-28. Secondly, We poor sinners, who are 
the offending party, are willing. We accept of this gracious and 
wonderful redemption, and bless the Lord who ' so loved us as to give 
his Son for us.' And, thirdly, Jesus Christ was willing to suffer for 
us : ' Behold I come,' Ps. xl. 7 : ' And shall I not drink of the cup 
which my Father hath given me to drink ? ' John xviii. 11 : ' I have 
a baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened till it be ac- 
complished ? ' Luke xii. 50. He calls the death of his cross a baptism, 
partly because it was a certain immersion into extreme calamities into 
which he was cast, and partly because in the cross he was so to be 
sprinkled in his own blood as if he had been drowned and baptized in 
it. The Greek word, o-uye^o/^at, that is here rendered straitened, signi- 
fies to be pained, pressed, or pent up, not with such a grief as made him 
unwilling to come to it, but with such as made him desire that it were 
once over. ' There seems,' saith Grotius, ' to be a similitude implied 
in the original word, taken from a woman with child, which is so 
afraid of her bringing forth that yet she would fain be eased of her 
burden.' John x. 11, 'I am the good Shepherd. The good Shep- 
herd giveth his life for the sheep,' Christ is that good Shepherd by an 
excellency, that held not his life dear for his sheep's safety : ver 15, 
' I lay down my life for the sheep ' : ver. 17, ' Therefore doth my 
Father love me, because I lay down my life : ' ver. 18, ' No man 
taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself.' A necessity there 
was of our Saviour's death, but it was a necessity of immutability — 
because God had decreed it, Acts ii. 23 — not of coaction. He laid 
down his life freely, he died willingly. But, 

[2.] Secondly, No parties ivhatsoever ivere prejudiced, or lost by it. 
We lost nothing by it, for we are saved by his death, and reconciled 
by his death ; and Christ lost nothing by it : ' Ought not Christ to 
have suffered these things, and enter into his glory ? ' Luke xxiv. 26. 
' The Captain of our salvation is made perfect through sufferings,' 
Heb. ii. 10. You may see Christ's glorious rewards for his sufferings 
in that Isa. liii. 10-12. And God the Father lost nothing by it, for 
he is glorified by it : 'I have glorified thee on earth, I have finished 
the work which thou gavest me to do,' John xvii. 4. Yea, he is fully 
satisfied and repaired again in all the honour which he lost by our 
sinning — I say he is now fully repaired again by the sufferings of 
Christ, in which he found a price sufficient, and a ransom, and enough 
to make peace for ever. In the day of account, a Christian's great 
plea is, that Christ has been his surety, and paid his debts, and made 
up his accounts for him. 

II. Now, from what has been said last, a Christian may form up 
this second plea to the ten scriptures in the margin, i that refer either to 
the general judgment or to the particular judgment that wiU pass upon 
every Christian immediately after death. blessed Lord! upon my first 
believing and closing with Jesus Christ, thou didst Justify me in the 

1 Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14; Mat. xii. 36, and xviiL 23 ; Luke xvi. 2 ; Eom. xiv. 10, 
12 ; 2 Cor. v. 10; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii, 17; 1 Pet, iv. 5. 



OF THE ACTIVE OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST. 71 

court of glory from all my sins, both as to guilt and punishment. 
Upon my first act of believing, thou didst pardon all my siiis, thou 
didst forgive all my iniquities, thou didst blot out all my transgressions; 
and as icpon my first believing thou didst give me the remission of all 
my sins, so upon my first believing thou didst free me from a state of 
condemnation, and interest me in the great salvation. Upon my first 
believing, I luas united to Jesus Christ, and I tvas clothed with the 
righteousness of Christ, lohich covered all my sins and discharged me 
from all my transgressions, Kom, viii. 10 ; Heb. ii. 3 ; and remember, 
Lord, that at the very moment of my dissolution thou didst really, 
perfectly, universally, and finally forgive all my sins. Every debt 
that moment was disclmrged, and every score that moment tvas crossed, 
and every bill and bond that moment ivas cancelled, so tJmt there luas 
not left in the book of thy remembrance one sin, no, not the least sin, 
standing upon record against my soul ; and besides all this, thou 
knowest, Lord, that all my sins were laid upon Christ my surety, 
IJeb. vii. 21, 22, and that he became responsible for them all. He did 
die, he did lay down his life, he did muke his soul an offering for my 
sins, he did become a curse, he did endure thy infinite ivrath, he did 
give complete satisfaction, and a full compensation unto thy justice for 
all my sins, debts, trespasses. This is my plea, Lord ! and by this 
plea I shall stand. * Well,' saith the Lord, ' I allow of this plea, I 
accept of this plea as just, honourable, and righteous. Enter thou into 
the joy of thy Lord.' But, 

Seventhly, Consider, that ivJiatever we are bound to do, or to suffer 
by the law of God, all that did Christ do and suffer for us, as being 
our surety and mediator. Now the law of God hath a double chal- 
lenge or demand upon us ; one is of active obedience, in fulfilling what 
it requires ; the other is of passive obedience, in sufiering that punish- 
ment which lies upon us, for the transgression of it, in doing what it 
forbids. For as we are created by God, we did owe unto him all 
obedience which he required ; and as we sinned against God, we did 
owe unto liim a suffering of all that punishment which he threatened, 
and we being fallen by transgression, can neither pay the one debt, 
nor yet the other ; we cannot do all that the law requires, nay of our- 
selves we can do nothing ; neither can we so suffer as to satisfy God 
in his justice wronged by us, or to recover ourselves into life and favour 
again ; and therefore Jesus Christ, who was God, made man, did be- 
come our surety, and stood in our stead or room ; and he did perform 
what we should but could not perform ; and he did bear our sins and 
our sorrows. He did suffer and bear for us what we ourselves should 
have borne and suffered, whereby he did fully satisfy the justice of 
God, and made our peace, and purchased life and happiness for us. 
Let me a little more clearly and fully open this great truth in these 
few particulars. 

(1.) First, Jesus Christ did perform that active obedience unto the 
laio of God, which ive should, but, by 7'eason of sin, coidd not perform; 
in which respect he is said. Gal. iv. 4, ' to be made under the law, 
that he might redeem them that were under the law.' So far was 
Christ under the law, as to redeem them that were under the law. But 
redeem them that were under the law he could not, unless by dis- 



72 OF THE ACTIVE OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST. 

charging the bonds of the law in force upon us ; and all those bonds 
could not be, and were not discharged, unless a perfect righteousness 
had been presented on our behalf, who were under the law, to fulfil 
the law. Now there is a twofold righteousness necessary to the actual 
fulfilling of the law : one is an internal righteousness of the nature of 
man ; the other is an external righteousness of the life or works of 
man : both of these do the law require. The former, ' Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,' &c., which is the sum of 
the first table ; ' And thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself/ which 
is the sum of the second table : the latter, * Do this and live,' Lev. 
xviii. 5, * He that continueth not in all things, which are written in 
the book of the law, to do them, is cursed,' Gal. iii. 10. Now both 
these righteousnesses were found in Christ. First,' the internal : Heb. 
vii. 26, * He was holy, harmless, undefiled, separated from sinners ; 
Heb. ix. 14, ' And offered himself without spot to God ;' 2 Cor. v. 21, 
' He knew no sin.' Secondly, external : 1 Peter ii. 22, ' He did no 
sin, neither was guile found in his mouth ;' John xvii. 4, ' I have 
finished the work which thou gavest me to do ;' Mat. iii. 15, ' He 
must fulfil all righteousness,' Kom. x. 4; ' Christ is the end of the 
law for righteousness to every one that belieVeth.' Now concerning 
Christ's active obedience to tLe law of God, these things are consider- 
able in it. 

[1.] First, The universality of it : he did whatsoever his Father 
required, and left nothing of his Father's will undone. He kept the 
whole law, and offended not in one point. Whatever was required of 
us, by virtue of any law, that he did, and fulfilled. Hence he is said 
to be made under the law, Gal. iv. 4, subject or obnoxious to it, to all 
the precepts or commands of it. Christ was so made under the law, 
as those were under the law whom he was to redeem. Now we were 
under the law, not only as obnoxious to its penalties, but as bound to 
all the duties of it. That this is our being under the law, is evident 
by that of the apostle : Gal. iv. 21, ' Tell me, ye that desire to be under 
the law.' Surely it was not the penalty of the law they desired to be 
under, but to be under it in respect of obedience. So Mat. iii. 15. 
Here Christ tells you, that ' it became him to fulfil all righteousness,' 
iraaav BiKaioavvrjv, all manner of righteousness whatsoever ; that is, 
everything that God required, as is evident from the appHcation of 
that general axiom to the baptism of John. But, 

[2.] Secondly, The exactness and perfection of it. He kept the 
whole law exactly. As he was not wanting in matter, so he did not 
fail in the nianner of performing his Father's will. There was no 
defects, nothing lacking in his obedience ; he did all things well. 
"What we are pressing towards, and reaching forth unto, he attained ; 
he was perfect in every good work, and stood complete in the whole 
will of his Father. And hence it is, that it is recorded of him, that 
he was without sin, knew no sin, did no sin, which could not be if he 
had failed in anything. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, The constancy of it. Christ did not obey by fits, but 
constantly. Though we cannot, yet he ' continued in all things which 
are written in the book of the law, to do them.' This righteous one 
held on his way, he did not fail, nor was he discouraged ; yea, when 



OF THE ACTIVE OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST. 73 

persecution and tribulation did arise against him, because of his doing 
the will of his Father, he was not offended, but did always do the 
things which pleased his Father, as he told the Jews, John viii. 29. 

[4.] Fourthly, The delight that he took ' in doing the will of his 
Father;' Ps. xl. 8, ' I delight to do thy will, my God ; yea, thy law is 
within my heart,' or in the midst of my bowels, as the Hebrew runs. 
By the law of God we are to understand all the commandments of 
God. There is not one command which Christ did not delight to do. 
Christ's obedience was without murmuring or grudging ; his Father's 
commandments were not grievous to him ; he tells his disciples, that 
it was his ' meat to do the will of him that sent him, and to finish his 
work,' John iv. 34. But, 

[5.] Fifthly, The virtue and efficacy of it; for his obedience, his 
righteousness never returns to him void, but it always ' accomplishes 
that which he pleases, and prospers in the thing whereto he ordains 
it,' and that is the making others righteous, according to that of the 
apostle: Kom. v. 19, ' For as by one man's disobedience many were 
made sinners, so by the disobedience of one shall many be made 
righteous;' 2 Cor. v. 21, ' God made him to be sin for us, who knew no 
sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him ; ' and 
accordingly we are, ' for of God he is made unto us righteousness/ 
1 Cor. i. 30. 

The perfect complete obedience of Christ to the law is certainly 
reckoned to us. That is an everlasting truth, * If thou wilt enter into 
life, keep the commandments,' Mat. xix. 17. The commandments 
must be kept either by ourselves, or by our surety, or there is no enter- 
ing into life ; Christ did obey the law, not for himself but for us, and 
in our stead: Kom. v. 18, 19, * By the righteousness of one, the free 
gift came upon all men unto justification of life ; by the obedience of 
one, many shall be made righteous.' By his obedience to the law, we 
are made righteous. Christ's obedience is reckoned to us for righte- 
ousness. Christ, by his obedience to the royal law, is made righteous- 
ness to us, 1 Cor. i. 30. We are saved by that perfect obedience, 
which Christ, when he was in this world, yielded to the blessed law 
of God. Mark, whatever Christ did as mediator, he did it for those 
whose mediator he was, or in whose stead and for whose good he 
executed the office of a mediator before God. This the Holy Ghost 
witnesseth : Eom. viii. 3, 4, ' What the law could not do, in that it 
was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness 
of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh, that the righte- 
ousness of the law might be fulfilled in us.' The word ' likeness,' is 
not simply to be referred to flesh, but to sinful flesh, as Basil well 
observes ; for Christ was like unto us in all things, sin only excepted. 
If with our justification from sin, there be joined that active obedience 
of Christ, which is imputed to us, we are just before God, according 
to that perfect form which the law requireth. Because we could not, 
in this condition of weakness whereinto we are cast by sin, come to 
God, and be freed from condemnation by the law, God sent Christ as 
a mediator to do and suffer whatever the law required at our hands 
for that end and purpose, that we might not be condemned, but ac- 
cepted of God. It was all to this end, that the righteousness of the law 



74 OF THE ACTIVE OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST. 

might be fulfilled in us ; that is, which the law required of us, consist- 
ing in duties of obedience. This Christ performed for us. This 
expression of the apostle, ' God sending his own Son in the likeness 
of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh,' if you will add to 
it that of Gal. iv. 4 — * that he was so sent forth, as that he was yevo/xevov 
virb vofiov, ' made under the law ;' that is, obnoxious to it, to yield all 
the obedience that it doth require,— compares! the whole of what Christ 
did or suffered ; and all this, the Holy Ghost tells us was for us, ver. 
5, He that made the law as God, was made under the law as God- 
man, whereby both the obligations of the law fell upon him : 1. Penal ; 
2. Preceptive. First, The penal obligation to undergo the curse, 
and so to satisfy divine justice. Secondly, The preceptive obligation, 
to fulfil all righteousness. Mat. iii. 15. This obligation he fulfilled by 
doing, the other by d}dng. Mark, this double obligation could not 
have befallen the Lord Jesus Christ upon any natural account of his 
own, but upon his mediatory account only, as he voluntarily became 
the surety of this new and better covenant, Heb. vii. 22 ; so that the 
fruit and benefit of Christ's voluntary subjection to the law, redoundeth 
not at all to himself, ' but unto the persons which were given him of 
the Father,' John xvii., whose sponsor he became. For their sakes he 
underwent the penal obligation of the law, that it might do them no 
harm, ' He being made a curse for us," Gal, iii, 13 ; and for their 
sakes he fulfilled the preceptive obligation of the law, ' do this,' that 
so the law might do them good. This the evangelical apostle clearly 
asserts, ' Christ is the end of the law for righteousness, to every one 
that believeth,' Rom. x. 4, ' Christ is the end of the law,' t€\o9. What 
end? why Jinis perfectivus, the perfection and accomplishment of the 
law ; he is the end of the law for righteousness, that is, to the end 
that by Christ his active obedience, God might have his perfect law 
perfectly kept, that so there might be a righteousness extant in the 
human nature, every way adequate to the perfection of the law. And 
who must wear this garment of righteousness, when Christ hath 
finished it ? Surely the believer who wanted a righteousness of his 
own ; for so it follows, ' for righteousness to every one that believeth,' 
that is, that every poor naked sinner, believing in Jesus Christ, might 
have a righteousness, wherein being found, he might appear at God's 
tribunal, but his nakedness not appear, but as Jacob in the garment of 
his elder brother Esau, so the believer in the garment of his elder brother 
Jesus, might inherit the blessing, even the great blessing of justification. 
The only matter of man's righteousness, since the fall of Adam, 
wherein he can appear with comfort before the justice of God, and 
consequently, whereby alone he can be justified in his sight, is the 
obedience and sufi'erings of Jesus Christ, the righteousness of the 
mediator. There is not any other way imaginable, how the justice of 
God may be satisfied, and we may have our sins pardoned in a way of 
justice, but by the righteousness of the Son of God, and therefore is 
his name Jehovah, l^lpliJ, ' The Lord our righteousness,' Jer. xxiii. 6. 
This is his name ; that is, this is the prerogative of the Lord Jesus, a 
matter that appertains to him alone, to be able to bring in ' an everlast- 
ing righteousness, and to make reconciliation for iniquity,' Dan. ix. 24, 

^ Qu. ' comprises ' ? — G. 



OF THE ACTIVE OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST. 75 

It is by Christ alone, that they who ' beheve are justified from all 
things, from which they cannot be justified by the law of Moses,' 
Acts xiii. 39, 

III. Now from the active obedience of Christ, a sincere Christian 
may form up this third plea as to the ten scriptures in the margin,i 
that refer either to the general judgment, or to the particular judg- 
ment that will pass upon every Christian immediately after death. 

blessed God, thou knowest that Jesus Christ, as my surety, did per- 
form all that active obedience unto thy holy and righteous law that I 
should have performed, but by reason of the indwelling poiver of sin, 
and of the vexing and molesting power of sin, and of the captivating 
poiver of sin, could not. There was in Christ an habitual righteous- 
ness, a conformity of his nature to the holiness of the law : 1 Pet. i. 
19, ' For he is a lamb without spot and blemish.' The law could never 
have required so much righteousness as is to be found in him ; and as 
for practical righteousness, there was never any aberration in his 
thoughts, words, or deeds, Heb. vii. 25 ; ' The prince of this world 
Cometh, and hath nothing in me,' John xiv, 30. The apostle tells us, 
that ' we are made the righteousness of God in him,' 2 Cor. v. 21. 
He doth emphatically add that clause, iv avra, in him, that he may 
take away all conceit of inherence in us, and establish the doctrine of 
imputation. As Christ is made sin in us by imputation, so we are 
made righteousness in him by the same way. Augustine's place which 
Beza cites is a most full commentary, ' God the Father,' saith he, 
* made him to be sin, who knew no sin, that we -might be the righte- 
ousness of God, not our own ; and in him, that is in Christ, not in our- 
selves ; and being thus justified, we are so righteous, as if we were 
righteousness itself.' Oh, holy God, Christ my surety hath universally 
kept thy royal law, he hath not ofiended in any one point ; yea, he hath 
exactly and perfectly kept tlie whole law of God, he stood complete in 
the whole will of the Father ; his active obedience was so full, so per- 
fect, and so adequate to all the law's demands, that the law could not 
but say, ' I have enough, I am fully satisfied ; I have found a ransom, 

1 can ask no more.' Neither was the obedience of Christ fickle or 
transient, but permanent and constant ; it was his delight, his meat and 
drink, yea, his heaven, to be still a-doing the will of his Father, John 
iv. 33, 34. Assuredly, wliilstour Lord Jesus Christ was in this world, 
he did in his own person fully obey the law ; he did in his own person 
perfectly conform to all the holy, just, and righteous commands of the 
law. Now this his most perfect and complete obedience to the law 
is made over to all his members, to all believers, to all sincere Chris- 
tians ; it is reckoned to them, it is imputed to them, as if they them- 
selves, in their own persons, had performed it. All sound believers 
being in Christ, as their head and surety, the law's righteousness is ful- 
filled in them legally and imputively, though it be not fulfilled in them 
formally, subjectively, inherently, or personally; suitable to that of the 
apostle, that 'the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us,' Kom. 
viii. 4. Mark, not by us, but in us ; for Christ in our nature hath fulfilled 
the right of the law, and therefore in us, because of our communion 

^ Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14 ; Mat. xii. 36, and xviii. 23 ; Luke xvi. 2 ; Rom. xiv. 10, 
12 ; 2 Cor. v. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17 ; 1 Pet. iv. 5. 



76 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 

with, him, and our ingrafting into him.'l God hath condemned sin in 
the flesh of his Son, that all that which the law by right could require 
of us might be performed by him for us, so as if we ourselves had in 
our own persons performed the same. The law must have its right 
before a sinner can be saved ; we cannot of ourselves fulfil the right of 
it. But here is the comfort, Christ our surety hath fulfilled it in us, 
and we have fulfilled it in him. Certainly, whatsoever Christ did 
concerning the law is ours by imputation so fully, as if ourselves had 
done it. Does the law require obedience ? saith Christ, * I will give 
it,' Mat. iii. 15. Does the law threaten curses ? says Christ, ' They 
shall be borne,' Mat. v. 17, 18. The precept of the law, saith Christ, 
shall be kept, and the promises received, and the punishments endured, 
that poor sinners may be saved. Our righteousness' and title to eternal 
life do indispensably depend upon the imputation of Christ's active 
obedience to us. There must be a perfect obeying of the law, as the 
condition of life, either by the sinner himself or by his surety, or else 
no life ; which doth sufficiently evince the absolute necessity of the im- 
putation of Christ's active obedience to us. The sinner himself being 
altogether unable to fulfil the law, that he may stand righteous before 
the great and glorious God, Christ's fulfilling of it must necessarily 
be imputed to him in order to righteousness. There are two great 
things which Jesus Christ did undertake for his redeemed ones ; the 
one was to make full satisfaction to divine justice for all their sins. 
Now this he did by his blood and death. The other was to yield most 
absolute conformity to the law of God, both in nature and life. By 
the one he has freed all his redeemed ones from hell, and by the other 
he has qualified all the redeemed ones for heaven. This is my plea, 
Lord, and by this plea I shall stand. ' Well,' saith the Lord, ' I 
accept of this plea as honourable, just, and righteous; Enter thou into 
the joy of thy Lord.' 

(2.) Secondly, As Jesus Christ did for us perform all that active 
obedience which the law of God required ; so he did also suffer all 
those punishments which we had deserved by the transgression of the 
law of God, in which respect he is said, 2 Cor. ii. 22, ' To be made sin 
for us ; ' 1 Pet. ii. 24, ' Himself to bear our sins in his own body on the 
tree ;' 1 Pet. iii. 18, ' For Christ also hath once suffered for sin, the 
just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God ; ' Phil. ii. 8, ' To 
humble himself and to become obedient unto death, even the death of 
the cross;' Gal. iii. 13, 'To be made a curse, an execration for us;' 
Eph. V. 2, ' To give himself for us an offering and sacrifice unto God ;' 
Heb. ix. 15, ' And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testa- 
ment, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgres- 
sions that were under the first testament, they which were called 
might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.' Now concerning 
the passive obedience, or suff'ering of Christ, I would present imto 
you these conclusions. 

[1.] First, That the sufferings of Jesus Christ were free and 

voluntary, and not constrained or forced. Austin saith, that Christ 

' did suffer quia voluit, et quando voluit, et quomodo voluit : John x. 17, 

'•' ^ SiKaM/jM, which Beza well renders, Ut jut legis, that the right of the law might be 
fulfilled in us. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 77 

' I lay down my life ;' ver. 18, ' No man taketh it from me, but I lay 
it down of myself ; I have power to lay it down, and I have power to 
take it again ;' Gal. ii. 20, ' Who gave himself for me.' Christ's suf- 
ferings did rise out of obedience to his Father : John x. 18, ' This 
commandment have I received of my Father;' and John xviii. 11, 
' The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it ? ' 
And Christ's sufferings did spring and rise out of his love to us, ' who 
loved me, and gave himself for me,' Gal. ii. 20 ; so Eph. v. 25, ' As 
Christ loved the church, and gave himself for it.' And indeed, had 
Christ's sufferings been involuntary, they could not have been a part 
of his obedience, much less could they have mounted to anything of 
merit for us. Christ was very free and willing to undertake the work of 
man's redemption. When he cometh into the world, he saith, ' Sacri- 
fice and offerings thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared 
me ; then said I, Lo, I come to do thy will, God,' Heb. x. 5. It is 
the expression of one overjoyed to do the will of God. So Luke xii. 
60, ' I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened 
till it be accomplished.' There was no power, no force to compel 
Christ to lay down his life, therefore it is called the offering of the 
body of Jesus, Heb. x. 10. Nothing could fasten Christ to the cross, 
but the golden link of his free love. Christ was big of love, and 
therefore he freely opens all the pores of his body, that his blood may 
flow out from every part, as a precious balsam to cure our wounds. 
The heart of Christ was so full of love that it could not hold, but must 
needs burst out through every part and member of his body into a 
bloody sweat, Luke xxii. 44. At this time it is most certain that 
there was no manner of violence offered to the body of Christ ; no 
man touched him, or came near him with whips, or thorns, or spears, 
or lances. Though the night was cold, and the air cold, and the earth 
on which he kneeled cold, yet such a burning love he had in his breasts 
to his people as cast him into a bloody sweat. It is certain that Christ 
never repented of his sufferings: Isa. liii. 11, 'He shall see of the 
travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied,' It is a metaphor that 
alludes to a mother, who though she hath had hard labour, yet doth 
not repent of it, when she sees a child brought forth. So though 
Christ had hard travail upon the cross, yet he doth not repent of it, but 
thinks all his sweat and blood well bestowed, because he sees the man- 
child of redemption is brought forth into the world. He shall be 
satisfied : the Hebrew word, y2U}^, signifies such a satiating as a man 
hath at some sweet repast or banquet. And what does this speak out, 
but his freeness in suffering ? 

Obj. But here some may object, and say, ihat the Lord Jesus, when 
the hour of his sufferings drew nigh, did repent of his suretyship ; and 
in a deep passion prayed to his Father to be released from his suffer- 
ings : ' Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me ;' and that 
three times over. Mat. xxvi. 39, 42, 44. 

Ans. Now to this objection I shall answer, first more generally, 
and secondly more particularly. 

[1.] First, in the general, I say that this earnest prayer of his doth 
not denote absolutely his unwillingness, but rather sets out the great- 
ness of his willingness ; for although Christ as a man was of the same 



78 OF THE SUFFEEINGS OF CHRIST. 

natural affections with us, and desires, and abhorrences of what was 
destructive to nature, and therefore did fear and deprecate that bitter 
cup which he was ready to drink ; yet as our mediator and surety, and 
knowing it would be a cup of salvation to us, though of exceeding 
bitterness to himself, he did yield and lay aside his natural reluc- 
tances as man, and willingly obeyed his Father's will to drink it, as 
our loving mediator, as if he should say, ' Father, whatsoever be- 
coraeth of me, of my natural fear or desire, I am content to submit to 
the drinking of this cup ; thy will be done.' But, 

[2.] Secondly, and more particularly, I answer, that in these words of 
our Lord there is a twofold voice. 1. There is vox naturae, the voice 
of nature ; ' Let this cup pass from me.' 2. There is vox officii, the voice 
of his mediatory office ; 'Nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt.' 

The first voice, ' Let this cup pass,' intimates the velleity of the 
inferior part of his soul, the sensitive part, proceeding from unnaturaU 
abhorrency of death as he was a creature. The latter voice, ' Never- 
theless, not as I will, but as thou wilt,' expresseth the full and free 
consent of his will, complying with the will of his Father in that grand 
everlasting design of ' bringing many sons unto glory, by making the 
captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings,' Heb. ii. 10. 

It was an argument of the truth of Christ his human nature, that 
he naturally dreaded a dissolution. He owed it to himself as a crea- 
ture to desire the conservation of his being, and he could not become 
unnatural to himself, ' For no man ever yet hated his own flesh/ Eph. 
V. 29 : Phil, ii. 8, ' But being a son, he learned submission, and be- 
came obedient to the death, even the death of the cross ;' that shame- 
ful, cruel, cursed death of the cross, the suffering whereof he owed to 
that solemn astipulation, which from everlasting passed between his 
Father and himself, the third person in the blessed Trinity, the Holy 
Ghost being witness. And therefore, though the cup was the bitterest 
cup that ever was given man to drink, as wherein there was not death 
only, but wrath and curse : yet seeing there was no other way left of 
satisfying the justice of his Father, and of saving sinners, most willingly 
he took the cup, and having given thanks, as it were, in those words, 
* The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?' never 
did bridegroom go with more cheerfulness to be married to his bride, 
than our Lord Jesus went to his cross, Luke xii, 20. 

Though the cup that God the Father put into Christ's hand was 
bitter, very bitter, yea, the bitterest that ever was put into any hand, 
yet he found it sweetened with three ingredients. 1. It was but a cup, 
it was not a sea ; 2. It was his Father, and not Satan, that mingled 
it, and that put in all the bitter ingredients that were in it ; 3. It was 
a gift, not a curse, as to himself : ' The cup which my Father giveth 
me.' He drank it, I say, and drank it up every drop, leaving nothing 
behind for his redeemed but large draughts of love and salvation, in 
the sacramental cup of his own institution, saying, ' This cup is the 
new testament in my blood, for the remission of sins ; this do ye in 
remembrance of me,' 1 Cor. xi. 25 ; Mat. xxvi. 28. Thus, my friends, 
look upon Christ as mediator, in which capacity only he covenanted 
with his Father for the salvation of mankind ; and there was not so 

1 'Qu. ' a natural' ?—Eu. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 79 

much as a shadow ,of any receding from or repenting of what he had 
imdertaken. But, 

Ans. 2. Secondly, As the sufferings of Jesus Christ were very free 
and voluntary, so they were very great and heinous. What agony, 
what torment was our Saviour racked with! how deep were Ms 
wounds! how weighty his burden! how full of trembling his cup, 
when he lay under the mountains of the guilt of all the elect 1 How 
bitter were his tears ! how painful his sweat ! how sharp his encoun- 
ters! how dreadful his death! who can compute i how many vials of 
God's inexpressible, insupportable wrath Christ drank off ? In that 
53d of Isaiah you may read of despising, rejected, stripes, smitings, 
wounds, sorrows, bruising, chastisement, oppression, affliction, cutting 
off, putting to grief, and pouring out of his soul to death ; all these 
put together speaks out Christ to be a very great sufferer. He was a 
man of sorrows, as if he were a man made up of sorrows : as the man 
of sin, as if he were made up of sin, as if he were nothing else. He 
knew more sorrows than any man, yea, than all men ever did ; for the 
iniquity, and consequently the sorrows, of all men met in him as if he 
had been their centre ; and he was acquainted with griefs ; he had 
little acquaintance else, grief was his familiar acquaintance, he had 
no acquaintance with laughter. We read not that he laughed at all, 
when he was in the world. His other acquaintance stood afar off, but 
grief followed him to the cross. From his birth to his death, from his 
cradle to the cross, from the womb to the tomb, he was a man of sor- 
rows, and never were sorrows like his ; he might say. Never grief or 
sorrow Hke mine. It is indeed impossible to express the sufferings and 
sorrows of Christ ; and the Greek Christians used to beg of God, h' 
dyvcoa-rmv kottcov, that for the unknown sufferings of Christ he would 
have mercy upon them ! Though Christ's sufferings are abundantly 
made known, yet they are but httle known ; eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, nor hath it or can it enter into the heart of man to conceive 
what Christ suffered ; ' who hath known the power of God's wrath ? ' 
Christ Jesus knew it, for he underwent it ; his whole life was made 
up of suffering. He was no sooner born, but sufferings came troop- 
ing in upon him. He was born in an inn, yea, in a stable, and had 
but a manger for his cradle. As soon as his birth was noised abroad, 
Herod, under a pretence of worshipping of him, had a design to mur- 
der him, so that his supposed father was fain to fly into Egypt to 
secure his life. He was persecuted before he could, after the manner 
of men, be sensible of persecution ; and as he grew up in years, so his 
sufferings grew up with him. Hunger and thirst, travel and weari- 
ness, scorns and reproaches, false accusations and contradictions still 
waited on him, and he had not where to lay his head : 1 Pet. iii. 18, 
* For Christ also hath once suffered for sins.' This is the wonderment 
of angels, the happiness of fallen man, and the torment of devils, &c., 
that Christ hath suffered. The apostle's words look like a riddle, 
' Christ hath suffered ;' as if he should say, read thou if thou canst 
what he hath suffered ; as for my part they are so many, that in this 
short epistle I have no mind to record them ; and they are so griev- 
ous, that my passionate love won't suffer me to repeat them, and 

^ Misprinted ' impute.' — G. 



80 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 

therefore I content myself thus abruptly to deliver them, ' Christ 
hath suffered.' Christ's sufferings were unspeakable, his sufferings 
were unutterable ; and therefore the apostle satisfies himself with this 
imperfect, broken speech, ' Christ hath sufi'ered.' Oh, what woes and 
lamentations, what cries and exclamations, what complaints and sor- 
rows, what wringing of hands, what knocking of breasts, what weep- 
ing of eyes, what wailing of tongues belong to the speaking and hear- 
ing of this doleful tragedy ! Even in the prologue I tremble, and at 
the first entrance I am as at a non-plus, that I know not with what 
woeful gesture to act it, with what moanful voice to pronounce it, with 
what mournful words, with what pathetical speeches, with what em- 
phatical phrases, with what interrupted accents, with what passionate 
compassionate plaints to express it. The multiplicity of the plot, and 
the variety of the acts and scenes is so intricate, that my memory fails 
to comprise it ; the matter so important, and the story so excellent, 
that my tongue fails to declare it ; the cruelty so savage, and the mas- 
sacre so barbarous, that my heart even fails to consider it. Where- 
fore I must needs content myself, with the apostle here, to speak but 
imperfectly of it, and thinks this enough to say, * Christ hath suf- 
fered ; ' and well may I think this enough, for behold what perfection 
there is in this seeming imperfect speech. For, 

First, To say indefinitely, he * suffered ' without any limitation of 
time, what is it but to say that he always suffered without exception 
of time ? And so indeed the prophet speaks of him, namely, ' That 
he was a man of sorrows,' Isa. liii. 3. His whole life was filled up 
with sufferings. But, 

Secondly, To say only he ' suffered,' and nothing else, what is it but 
to say that he patiently suffered ; he never resisted, never rebelled, 
never opposed ? ' He was led as g, sheep to the slaughter ; and as a 
lamb dumb before the shearer, so opened he not his mouth,' Acts viii. 
32 ; Isa. liii. 7. ' And when he was reviled, he reviled not again ; 
when he suffered, he threatened not,' 1 Pet. ii. 23. But, 

Thirdly, To say precisely he ' suffered,' and no more, what is it but 
to say that he freely suffered, that he voluntarily suffered ? Christ 
was under no force, no compulsion, but freely suffered himself to suffer, 
and voluntarily suffered the Jews to m^ke him suffer, having power to 
quit himself from suffering if he had pleased. ' I lay down my Hfe, 
no man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself : I have power 
to lay it down, and I have power to take it again,' John x. 17. But 
of this before. 

Fourthly, To say plainly he ' suffered,' what is it but to say that he 
innocently suffered, that he wrongfully suffered ? For had he been a 
malefactor, or an offender, it should have been said that he was pun 
ished, or that he was executed ; but he was full of innocency, he was 
holy and harmless ; and so it follows in that 1 Pet. iii. 18, ' The just 
for the unjust.' But, 

Fifthly, To say peremptorily he ' suffered,' what is it but to say that 
he principally suffered, that he excessively suffered ? To say he ' suf- 
fered, what is it but to say he was the chief sufferer, the arch-sufferer ? 
and that not only in respect of the manner of his sufferings, that he 
suffered absolutely so as never did any, but also in respect of the mea- 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 81 

sure of his sufferings, that he suffered excessively beyond what ever any 
did. And thus we may well understand and take those words, ' He 
suffered.' That lamentation of the prophet, Lam. i. 12, is very appli- 
cable to Christ, ' Behold, and see if there be any sorrows like unto my 
sorrow, which is done unto me, wherewith the Lord hath afflicted me 
in the day of his fierce anger.' Now, is it not enough for the apostle 
to say that ' Christ has suffered ; ' but will you yet ask what ? But 
pray, friends, be satisfied, and rather of the two ask what not ? For 
what sufferings can you think of that Christ did not suffer ? Christ 
suffered in his birth, and he suffered in his life, and he suffered in his 
death ; he suffered in his body, for he was diversely tormented ; he suf- 
fered in his soul, for his soul was heavy unto death ; he suffered in his 
estate, they parted his raiment, and he had not where to rest his head ; 
he suffered in his good name, for he was counted a Samaritan, a 
devilish sorcerer, a wine-bibber, an enemy to Caesar, &c. He suffered 
from heaven, when he cried out, ' My God, my God, why hast thou 
forsaken me ?' He suffered from the earth, when, being hungry, the 
fig-tree proved fruitless to him. He suffered from hell, Satan assault- 
ing and encountering of him with his most black and horrid tempta- 
tions. He began his life meanly and basely, and was sharply perse- 
cuted. He continued his life poorly and distressedly, and was cruelly 
hated. He ended his life woefully and miserably, and was most 
grievously tormented with whips, thorns, nails, and, above all, with 
the terrors of his Father's wrath and horrors of hellish agonies. 

Ego sum qui peccavi : ' I am the man that have sinned ; but these 
sheep, what have they done ?' said David, when he saw the angel de- 
stroying his people, 2 Sam. xxiv. 17. And the same speech may every 
one of us take up for ourselves and apply to Christ, and say, ' I have 
sinned, I have done wickedly ; but this sheep, what hath he done ? ' 
Yea, much more cause have we than David had to take up this com- 
plaint. For, 

First, David saw them die, whom he knew to be sinners ; but we 
see him die, who, we know, ' knew no sin,' 2 Cor. v. 21. But, 

Secondly, David saw them die a quick, speedy death ; we see him 
die with lingering torments. He was a-dying from six to nine, Mat. 
xxvii. 45, 46. Now in this three hours' darkness, he was set upon by 
all the powers of darkness with utmost might and malice ; but he 
foiled and spoiled them all, and made an open show of them, as the 
Koman conquerors used to do, triumphing over them on his cross as 
on his chariot of state. Col, ii. 15, attended by his vanquished enemies, 
with their hands bound behind them, Eph. iv. 8. But, 

Thirdly, David saw them die, who, by their own confession, was 
worth ten thousand of them ; we see him die for us, whose worth ad- 
mitteth no comparison. But, 

Fourthly, David saw the Lord of glory destroying mortal men, and 
we see mortal men destroying the Lord of glory, 1 Cor. ii. 8. Oh, how 
much more cause have we then to say as David, ' I have sinned, I have 
done wickedly ; but this innocent Lamb, the Lord Jesus, what hath 
he done ? what hath he deserved that he should be thus greatly tor- 
mented ? ' Tully, though a great orator, yet when he comes to speak 
of the death of the cross, he wants words to express it, — Quid 

VOL V F 



82 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 

dicam, in'Ctmcem toUere? What shall I say of this death? saith he. 
But, 

Ans. 3, Thirdly, As the sufferings of Christ were very great, so ilie 
punishments loliich Christ did suffer for our sins, these were in their 
kinds and parts and degrees and proportion all those p>unishments 
which luere due unto us by reason of our sins, and which we ourselves 
should otherivise have suffered. Whatsoever we should have suffered 
as sinners, all that did Christ suffer as our surety and mediator, always 
excepting those punishments which could not be endured without a 
pollution and guUt of sin : ' The chastisement of our peace was upon 
him,' Isa. liii. 5 ; and including the punishments common to the 
nature of man, not the personal, arising out of imperfection and defect 
and distemper. Now, the punishments due to us for sin were corporal 
and spiritual. And again, they were the punishments of loss and of 
sense ; and all these did Christ suffer for us, which I shall evidence by 
an induction of particulars. 

I. First, That Christ suffered corporal punishments is most clear in 
Scripture. You read of the injuries to his person, of the crown of 
thorns on his head, of the smiting of his cheeks, of spitting on his face, 
of the scourging of his body, of the cross on his back, of the vinegar in 
his mouth, of the nails in his hands and feet, of the spear in his side, 
and of his crucifying and dying on the cross : 1 Pet. ii. 24, ' Who 
himself in his own body on the tree bare our sins ; ' 1 Cor. xv. 3, 
* Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures ; ' Kev. i. 5, ' And 
washed us from our sins in his own blood ; ' Col. i. 14, ' In whom we 
have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins ; ' 
Mat. xxvi. 28, * For this is my blood of the 'New Testament, which is 
shed for many for the remission of sins.' Christ suffered derision in 
every one of his offices. 

First, In his kingly office. They put a sceptre in his hand, a crown 
on his head, and bowed their knees, saying, * Hail, king of the Jews ! ' 
Mat. xxvii. 29. 

Secondly, In his priestly office. ' They put upon him a gorgeous 
white robe/ such as the priests wore, Luke xxiii. ll.l 

Thirdly, In his prophetical office. ' When they had blindfolded 
him. Prophesy, say they, who it is that smiteth thee,' Luke xxii, 64. 
Sometimes they said, ' Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil,' John 
viii. 48 ; and sometimes they said, ' He is beside himself, why hear ye 
him?' Markiii. 21. 

And as Christ suffered in every one of his offices, so he suffered in 
every member of his body : in his hearing, by their reproaches, and 
crying, * Crucify him, crucify him ; ' in his sight, by their scoffings 
and scornful gestures ; in his smell, in his being in that noisome place 
Golgotha, Mat. xxvii. 33 ; in his taste, by his tasting of vinegar 
mingled with gall, which they gave him to drink. Mat. xxvii. 33 ; in 
his feeling, by the thorns on his head, blows on his cheeks, spittle on 
his face, the spear in his side,^ and the nails in his hands. He suffered 
in all parts and members of his body from head to foot. His head, 
which deserved a better crown than the best in the world, was crowned 

^ Cf. Sibbes, vol. vii., p. 603, on note s, vol. ii., p. 195. — G. 

* An oversight, as the Saviour was dead before his side was pierce 1, John xix. o4.— G. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 83 

with thorns, and they smote him on the head. Osorius, writing of 
the sufferings of Christ, saith, ' That the crown of thorns bored his 
head with seventy-two wounds.' To see that head, before which 
angels cast down themselves and worshipped, as I may say, crowned 
with thorns, might well amaze us ; to see those eyes, that were purer 
than the sun, put out by the darkness of death ; to see those ears 
which hear nothing to speak to capacity, but halleluiahs of saints and 
angels, to hear the blasphemies of the multitude ; to see that face 
which was fairer than the sons of men, — for being born and conceived 
without sin, he was freed from the contagious effects of it, deformity, 
and was most perfectly beautiful, Ps. xlv. 2 ; Cant. v. 10 — to be spit 
on by those beastly, wretched Jews ; to see that mouth and tongue, 
that ' spake as never man spake,' accused for false doctrines, nay blas- 
phemy ; to see those hands, which freely swayed the sceptre of heaven, 
nailed to the cross ; to see those feet, ' like unto fine brass,' Kev. i. .15, 
nailed to the cross for man's sins ; who can behold Christ thus suffer- 
ing in all the members of his body, and not be struck with astonish- 
ment ? Who can sum up the horrible abuses that were put upon 
Christ by his base attendants ? The evangelist tells us that they spit 
in his face and buffeted him, and that others smote him with the 
palms of their hands, saying, ' Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, who is 
he that smote thee ? ' Mat. xxvi. 67, 68 ; and, as Luke adds, ' many 
other things blasphemously spake they against him,' Luke xxii. 65. 
What those many other things were is not discovered ; only some 
ancient writers say, ' That Christ in that night suffered so many and 
such hideous things, that the whole knowledge of them is reserved only 
for the last day of judgment,' Mallonius i writes thus, ' After Caiaphas 
and the priests had sentenced Christ worthy of death, they committed 
him to their ministers, warily to keep till day, and they immediately 
threw him into the dungeon in Caiaphas' s house ; there they bound him 
to a stony pillar, Avith his hands bound on his back, and then they fell 
upon him with their palms and fists.' Others add that the soldiers, 
not yet content, they threw him into a filthy, dirty puddle, where he 
abode for the remainder of that night ; of which the psalmist seems to 
speak, ' Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, and in the 
deeps, and I sink in the deep mire, where there is no standing,' Ps. 
Ixxxviii. 6, and Ixix. 2. But that you may clearly see what horrible 
abuses were put upon Christ by his attendants, consider seriously of 
these particulars : — 

[1.] First, ' They spit in his face,' Mat. xxvi. 67. Now, this was 
accounted among the Jews a matter of great infamy and reproach : 
Num. xii. 14, ' And the Lord said to Moses, If her father had spit in 
her face, should she not be ashamed seven days?' Spitting in the 
face among the Jews was a sign of anger, shame, and contempt : Job 
XXX. 10, ' They abhor me, they flee far from me, and spare not to spit 
in my face.' The face is the table of beauty or comeliness, and when 
it is spit upon, it is made the seat of shame. Spitting in the face was 
a sign of the greatest disgrace that could be put upon a person ; and 
therefore it could not but be very bitter to Job to see base beggars spit in 
that face that was wont to be honoured by princes. But this we are not 
' Query, Maldonatus ?— G. 



84 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 

to wonder at, for there is no indignity so base and ignominious but the 
choicest saints may meet with it in and from this evil world. Afflicted 
persons are sacred things, and by the laws of nature and nations should 
not be misused and trampled upon, but rather pitied and lamented 
over ; but barbarous miscreants, when they have an opportunity, they 
will not spare to exercise any kind of cruelty, as^ you see by their spit- 
ting in the very face of Christ himself : ' I hid not my face,' saith 
Christ, 'from shame and spitting,' Isa. 1. 6, 2. Though ' I was fairer 
than the children of men,' Ps. xlv. 2, yet I used no mask to keep me 
fair ; though ' I was white and ruddy/ ' the chiefest among ten thou- 
sand,' Cant. V. 10, yet I preserved not my beauty from their nasty 
spittle. Oh, that that sweet and blessed face of Jesus Christ, that is so 
much honoured and adored in heaven, should ever be spit upon by 
beastly wretches in this world ! 

[2.] Secondly, 'They struck him:' John xviii. 22, 'One of the 
officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, 
Answerest thou the high priest so ? ' Because our Saviour gave not 
the high priest his usual titles, but dealt freely with him, this impious 
apparitor, or sergeant, to curry favour with his master, strikes him 
with his hand, with his rod, say some, with his stick, say others : like 
master like man. Oh, that that holy face which was designed to be the 
object of heaven, in the beholding of which much of the celestial glory 
doth consist — that that face which the angels stare upon with wonder, 
like infants at a bright sunbeam — should ever be smitten by a base 
varlet in the presence of a judge ! Among all the sufferings of Christ, 
one would think that there was no great matter in this, that a vain 
officer did strike him with the palm of his hand ; and yet if the Scrip- 
tures are consulted, you will find that the Holy Grhost lays a great 
stress upon it. Thus Jeremiah : ' He giveth his cheek to him that 
smiteth him ; he is filled full with reproach,' Lam. iii. 30. Christ 
did patiently and willingly take the stripes that vain men did in- 
juriously lay upon him ; he sustained all kinds of vexations from the 
hands of all kinds of ungodly ones. Thus Micah, speaking of Christ, 
saith, ' They shall smite the Judge of Israel with a rod upon the 
cheek,' Micah v. 1. Hugo, by this Judge of Israel, understandeth our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who was indeed at his passion contumeliously 
' buffeted and smitten with rods upon the cheek,' Mat. xxvi. 67. By 
smiting the Judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek, they express 
their scorn and contempt of Christ. Smiting upon the face the apostle 
makes a sign of great reproach : 2 Cor. xi. 20, ' If a man smite you 
on the face.' ' There is nothing more disgraceful,' saith Chrysostom, 
'than to be smitten on the cheek. 'i And the diverse reading of the 
original word does fully evidence it : 'He struck him with a rod,' or 
' he struck him with the palm of his hand,' iScoKe paTria/xa. Now, the 
word paTTiafia, say some, refers to his being struck with a rod, or club, 
or shoe, or plantofle ; 2 others say it refers to his being struck with 
the palm of men's hands. Now, of the two, it is generally judged 
more disgraceful to be struck with the palm of the hand than to be 
struck with either a rod or a shoe ; and therefore we read the text 

1 Homil. 82 in John c. 18. 

' ' Plant,' = foot : plantofle = covering of foot, or a slipper. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 85 

thus, ' He struck Jesus with the palm of his hand," that is, with open 
hand, or with his hand stretched out. 

Some of the ancients, commenting on this cufF, say, Let the heavens 
be afraid, and let the earth tremble, at Christ's patience and his ser- 
vant's impudence ! ye angels ! how were ye silent ? how could you 
contain your hands when you saw his hand striking at God ? i ' If we 
consider him,' saith another,^ ' who took the blow, was not he that 
struck him worthy to be consumed of fire, or to be swallowed up of 
earth, or to be given up to Satan, and thrown down into hell.' 
Bernard saith, ' That his hand that struck Christ was armed with an 
iron glove.' 3 And Vincentius affirms, * That by the blow Christ was 
felled to the earth.'* And Ludovicus adds, * That blood gushed out 
of his mouth ; and that the impression of the varlet's fingers remained 
on Christ's cheek with a tumour and wan colour.' 5 If a subject should 
but lift up his hand against a sovereign, would he not be severely 
punished ? But should he strike hira, would it not be present death? 
Oh, what desperate madness and wickedness was it then to strike the 
King of kings and Lord of lords, whom not only men, but the cheru- 
bims and seraphims, and all the celestial powers above, adore and 
worship ? Rev. xvii. 16 ; Heb. i. 6. Those monsters in that Mat. 
xxvi. 67 did not only strike Christ with the palm of their hands, 
but they bufieted him also. Now, some of the learned observe this 
difference betwixt pdiriafia and Ko\a(f)09 ; the one is given with the 
open hand, the other with the fist shut up ; and thus they used him 
at this time. They struck him with their fists, and so the stroke was 
greater and more offensive ; for by this means they made his face to 
swell, and to become full of bunches all over. One gives it in thus : By 
these blows of their fists his whole head was swollen, his face became 
black and blue, and his teeth ready to fall out of his jaws. Very pro- 
bable it is that, with the violence of their strokes, they made him reel 
and stagger, they made his mouth, and nose, and face to bleed, and 
his eyes to startle in his head. 

Now, concerning Christ's sufferings on the cross, I shall only hint 
-a few things, and so close up this particular concerning Christ's cor- 
poreal sufferings. Take me thus, 

1. First, The death of Christ on the cross, it was a bitter death, a 
sorrowful death, a bloody death. The bitter thoughts of his suffer- 
ings put him into a most dreadful agony : Luke xxii. 44, * Being in 
an agony, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was as great drops 
of blood falling to the ground.' The Greek word that is here used, 
'Aycovia, signifies a striving or wrestling against, as two combatants 
or wrestlers do strive each against other. The things which our 
Saviour strove against was not only the terror of death, as other men are 
wont to do — for then many Christians and martyrs might have seemed 
more constant and courageous than he — but with the terrible justice 
of God, pouring out his high anger and indignation upon him on the 
account of all the sins of his chosen that were laid upon him, than 
which nothing could be more dreadful, Isa, liii. 4-6. Christ was 

^ Chrysostom, Horn. 81 in John c. 18. ' Augustine in Trail. 13. 

^ Bernard, Ser. de Pas. Vine. Serm. de Pas. 

* Comment, in Ep. ad Ebrceos. 1634, folio. — G. ' Ludov. de Vila Christi. 



86 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 

in a vehement conflict in his soul, through the deepest sense of his 
Father's wrath against sinners, for whom he now stood as a surety 
and Kedeemer, 2 Cor. v. 21. And for a close of this particular, let 
me say that God's justice which we have provoked, being fully satis- 
fied by the inestimable merit of Christ's passion, is the surest and 
highest ground of consolation that we have in this world ; but for the 
more full opening i of this blessed scripture, let us take notice of these 
following particulars : — 

(1.) First, ' Eis siveat ivas as it ivere blood.' Some of the ancients 
look upon these words only as a similitude or figurative hyperbole, it 
being a usual kind of speech to call a vehement sweat a bloody sweat, 
as he that weeps bitterly is said to weep tears of blood ; but the most 
and best of the ancients understand the words in ^ literal sense, and 
believe it was truly and properly a bloody sweat, and with them I 
close. But some will object, and say it was sicut guttce sanguinis, as 
it were drops of blood. Now to this I answer, first-, if the Holy 
Ghost had only intended that sicut for a similitude or hyperbole, he 
would rather have expressed it as it were drops of water,2 than ' as it 
were drops of blood ; ' for we all know that sweat is more like to water 
than to blood. But, secondly, I answer that sicut, as in Scripture 
phrase, doth not always denote a similitude, but sometimes the very 
thing itself, according to the verity of it. Take an instance or two 
instead of many : ' We beheld his glory, as the glory of the only be- 
gotten of the Father;' and ' their words seemed to them as it were 
idle tales, and they beheved them not;' the words in the original, 
ft)9, (Mo-efc, are the same. Certainly Christ's sweat in the garden 
was a wonderful sweat, not a sweat of water, but of red gore-blood. 
But, 

(2.) Secondly, He sweat great drops of blood, clotty blood, issuing 
through flesh and skin in great abundance, Opofi/Soi aLfiaTo<;, clotted 
or congealed blood. There is a thin faint sweat, and there is a thick 
clotted sweat. In this sweat of Christ blood came not from him in 
small dews, but in great drops, they were drops, and great drops of 
blood, crassyS and thick drops. Some read it droppings down of 
blood ; that is, blood distilling in greater and grosser drops ; and 
hence it is concluded as preternatural ; for though much may be said 
for sweating blood in a course of nature, according to what Aristotle 
affirms, and Austin saitli that he knew a man that could sweat blood, 
even when he pleased ; and it is granted on all hands that in faint 
bodies a subtle thin blood like sweat may pass through the pores of 
the skin ; but that through the same pores crassy, thick, and great 
drops of blood should issue out, — it was not, it could not be without a 
miracle.4 Certainly the drops of blood that fell from Christ's body 
were great, very great ; yea, so great as if they had started thi'ough his 
skin to outrun the streams and rivers of his cross. But, 

(3.) Thirdly, These great drops of blood did not only distillare,^ drop 
out, but decurrere, run down like a stream, so fast, as if they had issued 
out of most deadly wounds. They were ' great drops of blood falling 
down to the ground' ! Here is magnitude and multitude ; great drops, 

1 Misprinted ' opinion.'— G. * Misprinted ' nature.'— G. ' ' Thick,' ' fat.'— G. 

* Aritit. lib. iii., do Hist. Animal, c. 29 ; August, lib. 14, de Civit. Dei., c. 24. 
' Misprinted ' dillare.' — G. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 87 

and those so many, so plenteous, as that they went through his ap- 
parel, and all streamed down to the ground ; and now was the time that 
his garments were dyed with crimson red. That of the prophet, though 
spoken in another sense, yet in some respect may be applied to this, 
' Wherefore art thou red in thy apparel, and thy garments like him that 
treadeth the wine-fat ? ' Isa. Ixiii. 2. Oh, what a sight was here 1 His 
head and members are all on a bloody sweat, and this sweat trickles 
down, and bedecks his garments, which stood like a new firmament, 
studded with stars, portending an approaching storm; nor stays it 
there, but it falls down to the ground. Oh, happy garden that was 
watered with such tears of blood ! Oh, how much better are these 
rivers than Abana and Pharpar,^ rivers of Damascus, yea, than all 
the waters of Israel ; yea, than all those rivers that water the garden 
of Eden ! i So great was Scanderbeg's ardour in battle,2 that the 
blood burst out of his lips ; but from our champion's, not lips only, 
but whole body, burst out a bloody sweat. Not his eyes only were 
fountains of tears, or his head waters, as Jeremiah wished, Jer. ix. 1, 
but his whole body was turned, as it were, into rivers of blood. A 
sweet comfort to such as are cast down for that that their sorrow for 
sin is not so deep and soaking as they could desire. 

Christ's blood is put in Scripture by a synecdoche of the part, for all 
the sufferings which he underwent for all the sins of the elect, especially 
his bloody death with all its concomitants, so called. First, because 
death, especially when it is violent, is joined with the effusion of blood : 
' If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have been 
partakers with them in the blood of the prophets,' Mat. xxiii. 30. 
And so again, Pilate said, ' I am innocent of the blood of this just 
person,' that is, of his death, Mat. xxvii. 24. Secondly, Herein respect 
is had to all the sacrifices of the law, whose blood was poured out 
when they were offered up. ' Almost all things are by the law purged 
with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission,' 
Heb. ix. 22 ; so that the blood of Christ is the antitype aimed at in 
the blood of those sacrifices that were slain for sinners' sins. But, 

2. Secondly, as the death of Christ on the cross, was a bitter death, a 
bloody death, so the death of Christ on the cross was a lingering death. 
It was more for Christ to suffer one hour than for us to have suffered 
for ever ; but his death was lengthened out, he hung three hours on 
the cross, he died many deaths before he could die one : ' from the 
sixth till the ninth hour ' — that is, from twelve till three in the after- 
noon — ' there was^ darkness over all the land,' Mat. xxvii. 45. About 
twelve, when the sun is usually brightest, it began now to darken, and 
this darkness was so great that it spread over all the land of Jewry ; 
yea, some think over all the world. So we translate it in Luke, ' And 
there was darkness over all the earth,' Luke xxiii. 44, to show God's 
dislike of their horrid cruelty. He would not have the sun give light 
to so horrid an act. The sun as it were, hid his face that he might 
not see the Sun of righteousness so unworthily, so wickedly handled. 
It was dark : 1. To show the blindness, darkness, and ignorance of the 
Jews in crucifying the Lord of glory ; 2. To show the detestation of 
the fact ; 3. To show the vileness of our sins. This darkness was not 
a natural eclipse of the sun ; for, first, it cannot be so total, so general ; 

^ Bernard, * Bucholcer. 



88 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 

nor secondly, it could not be so long, for the interposed moon goetK 
swiftly away. Certainly this was no ordinary eclipse of the sun, seeing 
the passover was kept at the full moon, when the moon stands right 
opposite to the sun on the other side of the heaven, and for this cause 
cannot hinder the. light of the sun, but a supernatural work of God 
coming to pass by miracle, ' like as the darkness in Egypt,' Exod. x. 
22. The moon being now in the full, it being in the midst of the 
lunar month when the passover was killed, and so of necessity the 
body of the moon — which useth to eclipse the sun by its interposition, 
and being between us and the sun — must be opposite to and distant 
from the sun the diametrical breadth of the hemisphere, the full moon 
ever rising at the sun's setting, and therefore this eclipse could never 
be a natural eclipse. Many Gentiles besides Jews observed this dark- 
ness as a great miracle. Dionysius the Areopagite, as Suidas relates, 
could say at first sight of it, ' Either the world is ending, or the God 
of nature is suffering of this darkness.! Amos long before had prophe- 
sied : * And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will cause the sun 
to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day,' Amos 
viii. 9. The opinion of authors concerning the cause of this darkness are 
various. Some think that the sun by divine power, withdrew and held 
back its beams ; others say that the obscurity was caused by some thick 
clouds which were miraculously produced in the air, and spread them- 
selves over all the earth ; others say that this darkness was by a won- 
derful interposition of the moon, which at that time was at full, but by 
a miracle interposed itself betwixt the earth and sun. Whatsoever was 
the cause of this darkness, it is certain that it continued for the space 
of three hours as dark as the darkest winter nights. 

About three, which the Jews call the ninth hour. Mat. xxvii. 46, the 
sun now beginning to receive his light, Jesus cried with a loud voice, 
' Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken 
me ? ' And then, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, he said ' I thirst ; ' 
and when he had received the vinegar, he said, ' It is finished,' John xix. 
28, 30 ; and at last, crying with a loud voice, he said, ' Father, into thy 
hands I commend my spirit ; ' and having said thus, ' he gave up the 
ghost,' Luke xxiii. 46. Christ's words were ever gracious, but never more 
gracious than at this time. You cannot find in all the books and writ- 
ings of men, in all the annals and records of time, either such suffer- 
ings or such sayings as were these last words and wounds, sayings and 
sufferings of Jesus Christ. ' And having said thus, he gave up the 
ghost ; ' or as John relates it, ' He bowed his head and gave up the 
ghost,' John xix. 30. Christ would not off the cro*ss till all was done 
that was here to be done. 2 Christ bowed not because he was dead, 
but first he bowed and then died ; that is, he died freely and willingly 
without constraint, and he died cheerfully and comfortably without mur- 
muring or repining. Oh, what a wonder of love is this, that Jesus Christ, 
who is the author of life, the fountain of life, the lord of life, that he 
should so freely, so readily, so cheerfully lay down his life for us ! &c. 

About four in the afternoon he was pierced with a spear, and there 
issued out of his side both blood and water : ' and one of the soldiers 
with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there-out blood and 
^ Suidas in vita Dion. i Emisit, non amisit.— Ambrose. 



OP THE SUFFERINGS OP CHEIST IN HIS BODY. 89 

water,' John xix. 34. Out of the side of Christ, being now dead, 
there issues water and blood, signifying that he is both our justification 
and sanctification. 

Thus was fulfilled that which was long before foretold : ' They shall 
look upon me whom they have pierced,' Zech. xii. 10 ; thus ' came 
Jesus by water and by blood,' 1 John v. 6 ; thus was there * a foun- 
tain opened to the house of David, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem,' 
even to all the elect, ' for sin and for uncleanness,' Zech. xiii. 1. The 
soldier's malice lived when Christ was dead. The water and blood 
forthwith issuing out as soon as it was pierced with a spear, did evi- 
dently show that he was truly dead. The Syriac paraphrase saith he 
pierced his rib, that is, the fifth rib, where the pericardium lay. It is 
very likely that the very pericardium was pierced. Now the peri- 
cardium is a film or skin, like unto a purse, wherein is contained 
clear water to cool the heat of the heart, i The blood, saith one,^ 
signifies the perfect expiation of the sins of the Church, and the 
water, the daily washing and purging of it from the remainder of 
her corruption. ' Water and blood issued out of Christ's side,' saith 
another, ' to teach us that Christ justifieth none by his merit, but such 
whom he sanctifieth by his Spirit.' Christ was pierced with a spear, 
and water and blood presently issued out of his side, that his enemies 
might not object that he rose again because he was but half dead on 
the cross, and being so taken down he revived. To testify the con- 
trary truth, John so seriously afl&rmeth the certainty of his death, he 
being an eye-witness of the streaming out of Christ's blood as he stood 
by Christ's cross. gates of heaven ! windows of paradise ! 
palace of refuge ! tower of strength ! sanctuary of the just ! O 
flourishing bed of the spouse of Solomon ! Methinks I see water and 
blood running out of his side more freshly than these golden streams 
which ran out of the garden of Eden and watered the whole world. 
But here I may not dwell, &c. 

But to shut up this particular, about five, which the Jews call the 
eleventh and the last hour of the day, Christ was taken down and 
buried by Joseph and Nicodemus. But, 

3. Thirdly, As the death of Christ on the cross was a lingering death, 
so the death of Christ was a painful death. This appears several ways. 

[1.] First, His legs and hands were violently racked and pulled out to 
the places fitted for his fastenings, and then pierced through with nails. 
His hands and feet were nailed, which parts being full of sinews, and 
therefore very tender, his pains could not but be very acute and sharp. 

[2.] Secondly, By this means he wanted the use both of his hands 
and feet, and so he was forced to hang immovable upon the cross, as 
being unable to turn any way for his ease, and therefore he could not 
but be under very dolorous pains. 

[3.] Thirdly, The longer he lived, the more he endured ; for by the 
weight of his body his wounds were opened and enlarged, his nerves 
and veins were rent and torn asunder, and his blood gushed out more 

^ The whole subject is conclusively discussed by Dr Stroud in his ' Physical Cause of 
Christ's Death,' 1 vol. 8vo. 1847. And cf. the interesting correspondence of eminent 
medical men in Appendix to Dr Hanna's ' Last Day of our Lord's Passion.' 18G2. — G. 

' Ambro«e on Luke. 



90 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS BODY. 

and more abundantly still. Now the envenomed arrows of God's 
wrath shot to his heart. This was the direful catastrophe, and caused 
that vociferation and outcry upon the cross, ' My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ? ' The justice of God was now inflamed and 
heightened to its full aKf^rj : Eom. viii. 32, ' God spared not his Son ; ' 
God would not abate one farthing of the debt. But, 

[4.] Fourtlily, He died by piece-meals, he died by little and little, 
he died not all at once. He that died on the cross was long a-dying. 
Christ was kept a great while upon the rack ; it was full three hours 
betwixt his affixion and expiration ; and certainly it would have been 
longer if he had not freely and willingly given up the ghost. I have 
read that Andrew the apostle was two whole days on the cross before 
he died ; and so long might Christ have been a-dying, if God had not 
supernaturally heightened the degrees of his torment. Doubtless 
when Christ was on the cross he felt the very pains of hell, though 
not locally, yet equivalently. But, 

4. Fourthly, As the death of Christ on the cross was a painful death, 
so the death of Christ on the cross was a shameful death. Christ was 
in medio positus, he hung between two thieves, as if he had been the 
principal malefactor, Mark xxvii. 38. Here they placed him to make 
the world believe that he was the great ringleader of such men. Christ 
was crucified in the midst as the chief of sinners that we might have 
place in the midst of heavenly angels ; the one of these thieves went 
railing to hell, the other went repenting forth right to heaven, living 
long in a little time, Zech. iii. 7. 

If you ask me the names of these two thieves who were crucified 
with Christ, I must answer, that although the Scripture nominates 
them not, yet some writers give them these names, Dismas and 
Gesmas ; Dismas the happy, and Gesmas the miserable thief, accord- 
ing to the poet — 

Gesmas damnatur, Dismas ad astra levatur : 

that is, 

When Gesmas died, to Dives he was sent ; 
When Dismas died, to Abraham up he went.^ 

Well might the lamp of heaven withdraw its light and mask itself 
with darkness, as blushing to behold the Sun of righteousness hanging 
between two thieves ! He shall be an Apollo to me that can tell me 
which was the greater, the blood of the cross, or the shame of the 
cross, Heb. xii. 2. It was a mighty shame that Saul's sons were 
hanged on a tree, 2 Sam. xxi. 6. Oh, what a shameful death was it 
for Christ to hang on a tree between two notorious thieves ! But, 

5. Fifthly and lastly. As the death of Christ was a shameful 
death, so the death of Christ was a cursed death ; ' Cursed is every 
one that hangeth on a tree,' Deut. xxi. 23. The death on the tree 
was accursed above all kinds of death ; ' as the serpent was accursed 
above all beasts of the field,' Gen. iii. 14, both for the first transgres- 
sion, whereof the serpent was the instrument, the tree the occasion. 
Since the death of any malefactor might be a monument of God's 
curse for sin, it may be questioned, why this brand is peculiarly set 

^ Rather Dcmas, and Gestas, not Gesmas. Evangel. Nicod. i. 10: Narrat. Joseph, 
0. 3.-0. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 91 

upon tliis kind of punishment ; that he that is hanged is accursed of 
God. To which I answer, that the reason of this was, because this 
was esteemed the most shameful, the most dishonourable and infamous 
of all kinds of death, and was usually therefore the punishment of those 
that had by some notorious wickedness provoked God to pour out his 
wrath upon the whole land, and so were hanged up to appease his 
wrath, as we may see in the hanging of those princes that were guilty 
of committing whoredom with the daughters of Moab, Num.^ xxv. 4 ; 
and in the hanging of those sons of Saul in the days of David, when 
there was a famine in the land, because of Saul's perfidious oppressing 
of the Gibeonites, 2 Sam. xxi. 6. Nor was it without cause that this 
kind of death was both by the Israelites and other nations esteemed 
the most shameful and accursed ; because the very manner of the 
death did intimate that such men as were thus executed were such 
execrable and accursed wretches, that they did defile the earth with 
treading upon it, and would pollute the earth if they should die upon 
it ; and therefore were so trussed up in the air as not fit to live 
amongst men ; and that others might look upon them as men made 
spectacles of God's indignation and curse, because of the wickedness 
they had committed, which was not done in other kinds of death. 
And hence it was that the Lord God would have his Son, the Lord 
Christ, to suffer this kind of death, that even hence it might be the more 
evident, that in his death he bare the curse due to our sins, according 
to that of the apostle : ' Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the 
law, being made a curse for us ; for it is written. Cursed is every one 
that hangeth on a tree/ Gal. iii. 13. The Chaldee translateth, 'For 
because he sinned before the Lord he is hanged.' The tree whereon a 
man was hanged, the stone wherewith he was stoned, the sword where- 
with he was beheaded, and the napkin wherewith he was strangled, 
they were all buried, that there might be no evil memorial of such a 
one, to say, This was the tree, sword, stone, napkin, wherewith such a 
one was executed. This kind of death was so execrable that Constan- 
tine made a law that no Christian should die upon the cross; he 
abolished this kind of death out of his empire. When this kind of 
death was in use among the Jews, it was chiefly inflicted upon slaves, 
that either falsely accused, or treacherously conspired their master's 
death. But on whomsoever it was inflicted, this death in all ages 
among the Jews had been branded with a special kind of ignominy ; 
and so much the apostle signifies when he saith, ' He abased himself 
to the death, even to the death of the cross,' Phil. ii. 2. I know 
Moses' law speaks nothing in particular of crucifying, yet he doth in- 
clude the same under the general of hanging on a tree ; and some con- 
ceive that Moses, in speaking of that curse, foresaw what manner of 
death the Lord Jesus should die. And let thus much suffice concerning 
Christ's sufferings on the cross, or concerning his corporeal sufferings. 
II. I shall now, in the second place, speak concerning Christ's spirit- 
iial sufferings, his sufierings in his soul, which were exceeding high 
and great. Now here I shall endeavour to do two things : First, To 
prove that Christ suffered in his soul, and so much the rather because 
that the papists say and write, that Christ did not truly and properly 
and immediately suffer in his soul, but only by way of sympathy and 



92 or THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 

compassion with his body to the mystical body ; and that his bare 
bodily sufferings were sufficient for man's redemption. Second, That 
the sufferings of Christ in his soul were exceeding high and great. 
For the first, that Christ suffered in his soul, I shall thus demonstrate. 
(1.) First, Express Scriptures do evidence this : Isa. liii. 10, ' When 
thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed,' &c. ; 
John xii. 27, ' Now is my soul troubled ; and what shall I say ? 
Father, save me from this hour : but for this cause came I unto this 
hour ;' 'Mat. xxvi. 37, 38, ' He began to be sorrowful and very heavy.' 
These were but the beginnings of sorrow : he began, &c. Sorrow is 
a thing that drinks up our spirits, and he was heavy, as feeling a 
heavy load upon him ; ver. 38, ' My soul is exceedipg sorrowful, even 
unto death.' Christ was as full of sorrow as his heart could hold. 
Every word is emphatical, ' My soul ; ' his sorrow pierced his heaven- 
born soul. As the soul was the first agent in transgression, so it 
is here the first patient in affliction. The sufferings of his body were 
but the body of his sufferings ; the soul of his sufferings were the 
sufferings of his soul, which was now beset with sorrows, and heavy as 
heart could hold.i Christ was sorrowful, his soul was sorrowful, his 
soul was exceeding sorrowful, his soul was exceeding sorrowful unto 
death. Christ's soul was in such extremity of sorrow, that it made 
him cry out, ' Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass ;' and this 
was with ' strong cryings and tears,' Heb. v. 7. To cry, and to cry 
with a loud voice, argues great extremity of sufferings : Mark xiv. 33, 
Mark saith, 'And he began to be amazed, and to be very heavy;' 
or we may more fully express it thus, according to the original, km rjp^- 
aro cKdafji^eiaOaL, Kai aBrjfjiovelv, ' He begun to be gastred 2 with 
wonderful astonishment, and to be satiated, filled brimful with 
heaviness : a very sad condition ! All the sins of the elect, like a huge 
army, meeting upon Christ, made a dreadful onset on his soul : Luke 
xxii. 43, 44, it is said ' He was in an agony.' That is a conflict in 
which a poor creature wrestles with deadly pangs, with all his might, 
mustering up all his faculties and force to grapple with them and 
withstand them. Thus did Christ struggle with the indignation 
of the Lord, praying once and again with more intense fervency, ' Oh, 
that this cup may pass away ; if it be possible, let this cup pass away ! ' 
Luke xxii. 42, 43 ; while yet an angel strengthened his outward man 
from utter sinking in the conflict. Now, if this weight that Christ did 
bear had been laid on the shoulders of all the angels in heaven, it 
would have sunk them down to the lowest hell ; it would have cracked 
the axle-tree of heaven and earth. It made his blood startle out 
of his body in congealed doddered ^ heaps. The heat of God's fiery 
indignation made his blood to boil up till it ran over ; yea, divine 
wrath affrighted it out of its wonted channel. The creation of the 
world cost him but a word ; he spake and the world was made ; but 
the redemption of souls cost him bloody sweats and soul-distraction. 
What conflicts, what strugglings with the wrath of God ! the powers 
of darkness 1 what weights I what burdens ! what wrath did he 
undergo when his soul was heavy unto death ! * beset with terrors,' as 

^ Christ's soul was beleaguered, or compassed round, round with sorrow, as that word 
TtptXiTos sounds. ' ' Terrified.' — G. » ' Coagulated.' — Q. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS CF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 93 

the word implies, when he drank that bitter cup, that cup of bitter- 
ness, that cup mingled with curses, which made him sweat drops 
of blood ! which, if men or angels had but sipped of, it would have 
made them reel, stagger, and tumble into hell. The soul of Christ 
was overcast with a cloud of God's displeasure. The Greek Church, 
speaking of the sufferings of Christ, calls them cuyvo3(na iradrjiiara, 
' unknown sufferings.' Ah Christians ! who can speak out this sorrow ? 
' The spirit of a man will sustain his infirmity, but a wounded spirit 
who can bear ?' Prov. xviii. 14. Christ's soul is sorrowful ; but give 
me that word again, his soul is exceeding sorrowful ; but if that word 
be yet too low, then I must tell you that ' his soul was exceeding 
sorrowful, even unto death : ' not only extensively, such as must con- 
tinue for the space of seventeen or eighteen hours, even until death 
itself should finish it, but also intensively such, and so great as that 
which is used to be at the very point of death, and such as were able 
to bring death itself, had not Christ been reserved to a greater and 
heavier punishment. Of this sorrow is that especially spoken, ' Behold 
and see if there be any sorrow like unto my sorrow which is done unto 
me, wherewith the Lord hath afflicted me in the day of his fierce 
anger,' Lam. i. 12. Many a ^ad and sorrowful soul hath, no question, 
been in the world ; but the like sorrow to this was never since the 
creation. The very terms or phrases used by the evangelists speak 
no less. He was ' sorrowful and heavy,' saith one ; ' amazed, and very 
heavy,' saith another ; ' in an agony,' saith a third ; 'in a soul- 
trouble,' saith a fourth. Certainly, the bodily torments of the cross 
were much inferior to the agony of his soul. The pain of the body is 
the body of pain. Oh, but the very soul of sorrow is the soul's sorrow, 
and the very soul of pain is the soul's pain. 

(2.) Secondly, That lohich Christ assumed or took of our nature, 
he Ojssumed to this end, to suffer in it; and hy suffering, to save and 
redeem it. But he took the whole nature of man, both body and soul ; 
ergo, he suffered in both. First, the assumption is evident, and needs 
no proof ; that Christ took upon him both our soul and body, the 
apostle assures us, where he saith, ' That in all things it became him 
to be like unto us,' Heb. ii. 17 ; therefore he had both body and soul 
as we have. Secondly, concerning the proposition, viz., That what 
Christ took of our nature, he took it by suffering in it properly and 
immediately to redeem us. Now this is evident by that blessed word, 
where the apostle saith, ' Christ took part with them that he might 
destroy, through death, him that had the power of death, that is, the 
devil,' ver. 14, 15 ; ' and deliver them, who through fear of death 
were all their lifetime subject to bondage.' Hence I reason thus, that 
wherein Christ delivered us, he took part with us in ; but he delivered 
us from fear of death ; ergo, he did therein communicate with us. 
Now mark, this fear was the proper and inmiediate passion of the 
soul, namely, the fear of death and God's anger. And the text giveth 
this sense. Because the fear of this death kept them in bondage, but 
the fear only of the bodily death doth not bring us into such bondage ; 
witness that Song of Zacharias ; * That we, being delivered from the 
hands of our enemies, should serve him without fear,' Luke i. 74. 
This then is a spiritual fear, from the which Christ did deliver us ; 



94 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 

ergo. He did communicate wdth us in this fear ; for the apostle saith, 
' In 'that wherein he suffered, and was tempted, he is able to succour 
them that are tempted,' Heb. ii. 18. Certainly that fear which fell on 
Christ was a real fear, and it was in his soul, and did not arise from 
the mere contemplation of bodily torments only, for the very martyrs 
in the encountering with them have feared little. Assuredly there was 
some great matter that lay upon the very soul oi Christ, which made 
him so heavy, and sorrowful, and so afraid, and in such an agony. 

But if you please, take this second argument in another form of 
words, thus : ivhat Christ lock of ours, that he in suffering offered up 
for us, for his assuming of our nature, was for this end, to suffer for 
us in our nature ; but he took our nature in body and in soul, and he 
delivered our souls as well as our bodies ; and the sins of our souls did 
need his sacrifice as well as the sins of our bodies; and our souls 
were crucified with Christ as well as our bodies. Mens mea in Christo 
crucifixa est, saith Ambrose. Surely if our whole man was lost, then 
our whole man did need the benefit and help of a whole Saviour ; and 
if Christ had assumed only our flesh, our body, then our souls adjudged, 
adjudged to punishment, had remained under transgression without 
hope of pardon. Several sayings of the ancients doth further strengthen 
this argument. Take a taste of some. Si iotus homo periit, iotus 
heneficio salvatoris indiguit, &c. If the whole man perished, the whole 
man needed a Saviour.^ Christ therefore took the whole man, body 
and soul. If he had taken only flesh, the soul should remain addict to 
punishment of the first transgression, without hope of pardon. By the 
same reason, Christ must also suffer properly in soul, because not by 
taking oiu' soul, but by satisfying in his soul, our soul is delivered. 

' Suscepit animam meam, suscepit corpus meum,' [saith] Ambrose, 
* He took all our passions, or affections, to sanctify them all in him- 
self; but Christ was sanctified and consecrated by his death, and so 
doth he consecrate us,' [saith] Damascene. ' For by one offering, he 
hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified, Heb. x. 14 ; ergo, by 
his offering of our soul, and suffering in our soul, hath he consecrated 
our soul and affections. 

Suscepit affectum meum, ut emendaret, He took my affection to 
amend it, &c. Now he hath amended it, in that he consecrated it by 
his offering, Heb. x. 14 ; Illud pro nobis suscepit, quod in nobis amplius 
periclitabatur. He hath taken that for us,, which was most in danger 
for us, &c., that is, our soul as he expoundeth it: [Damascene] de 
Incamatio7ie, c. 7. But Christ hath not otherwise delivered us from 
the danger, but by entering into the danger for us ; this danger of the 
soul is the fear and feeling of God's wrath. 

(3.) Thirdly, Christ bore our sorrows, Isa. liii. 4. Now what sor- 
rows should we bear, but the sorrows due unto us for our sins ; and 
surely these were not corporal only, but spiritual also, and those did 
Christ bear in his soul. The same prophet saith, ver. 10, ' He shall 
make his soul an offering for sin;' ergo, Christ offered his soul as 
well as his body. Again, our Saviour himself saith, ' My soul is very 
heavy unto death,' Mat. xxvi. 38. Certainly it was not the bodily 
death which Christ feared, for then he should have been weaker than 

^ Augustine Conf. : Felician., c. 13. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 95 

many martyrs, yea, than many of the Komans, who made no more of 
dying, than of dining ; therefore Christ's soul was verily and properly 
stricken with heaviness, and not with the beholding of bodily torments 
only, as some dream. But, 

(4.) Fourtlily, That whereby Adam and we ever since, do most pro- 
perly commit sin, by the same hath Christ, the second Adam, made 
satis/action properly for our sin ; but Adam did, and we all do pro- 
perly commit sin in our souls, our bodies being but the instruments ; 
ergo, Christ by, and in his soul, hath properly made satisfaction. 

[1.] First, The truth of the proposition is confirmed by the apostle, 
* As by one man's disobedience we are made sinners, so by th6 obe- 
dience of one many shall be made righteous,' Kom. v. 19. Christ then 
satisfied for us by the same wherein Adam disobeyed. Now Adam's 
soul was in the transgression as well as his body, and accordingly was 
Christ's very soul in liis sufferings and satisfaction, and Christ obeyed, 
that is, in his soul; for obedience belongeth to the soul, as one ob- 
serveth upon those words of the apostle : Phil. ii. 8, ' He became 
obedient unto death, even the death of the cross : who doth not under- 
stand,' saith the same author, ' that obedience doth belong to the 
human will ? ' i 

That there is a kind of dying in the soul when it is pierced with 
grief, besides the death of the soul, either by sin or damnation, is not 
disagreeing to the Scripture. Simeon saith to Mary, ' A sword shall 
pierce through thy soul,' Luke ii. 35. Look as then the body dieth, 
being pierced with a sword, so the soul may be said to die or languish, 
when it is pierced with grief. What else is crucifying but dying ? 
Now, the soul is said to be crucified, as is evident by that passage of 
the apostle, ' I am crucified to the world,' Gal. vi. 14, when as yet his 
body was alive. So Ambrose doubts not to say, Men^ mea in (Jhristo 
crucifixa est, My soul was crucified in Clii'ist, that is, Christ in his 
soul was crucified, which he calleth our soul, because he did assume 
our soul and body ;^ or else where he saith, Mea est voluntas, quam 
suam dixit, &c. It is my will, which he calleth his ; it is my heavi- 
'ness, which he took with my affections ; yet was it properly and per- 
sonally Christ's soul and will, but ours by community of nature.^ 

[2.] Secondly, For the assumption. 1. Howsoever it be admitted 
that the body is the instrument of the soul, both in sinning and 
sufiering, yet the conclusion is this, that because sin is committed in 
the soul principally and properly, therefore the satisfaction must be 
made in the soul principally and properly. If tliis conclusion be 
granted, we have that we would ; for the bodily pains affecting the soul 
are not the proper passions of the soul, neither is the soul said to suffer 
properly, when the body suffereth, but by way of compassion and con- 
sent. 2. We grant that in the proper and immediate sufferings of 
the soul the body also is affected : as when Christ was in his agony in 
the garden, his whole body was therewith stirred and moved, and that 
it did sweat drops of blood. But it is one thing when the grief be- 
ginneth immediately in the soul and so affecteth the body, and when 
the pain is first inflicted upon the body and so worketh upon the soul, 

^ Agatlio Epist. ad Constantin. upon Phil. ii. S. 

* Ambrose, lib. v. iu Luc. ^ Ambrose, lib. ii., dc sid. c. 3. 



96 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 

there the soul suffereth properly and principally ; of ^yhich sufFerin^rs 
we speak here neither properly nor principally, which is not the thing 
in question. 3. It is not the reasonable soul that is affected with 
the body, for it is a ground in philosophy that the soul suffereth not, 
but only the sensitive part. But the grief that we speak of, that is 
satisfactory for sin, must be in the very reasonable soul where sin took 
the beginning, and so Ambrose saith i upon those words of Christ, 
* My soul is heavy to death,' Ad rationabilis assumpiionem animoe, 
&c.,naturce humancere/ertur affectum, It is referred to the assumption 
of the reasonable soul, and human affection. ^ 

Pride, ambition, infidelity began in Adam's soul, and had their de- 
termination there. In the committing of those sins the body had no 
part. Indeed with the ear they heard the suggestion of Satan ; but it 
was no sin till in their minds they had consented unto it. Wherefore 
seeing the first sin committed was properly and wholly in the soul, for 
the same the soul must properly and wholly satisfy. 

Because sin took beginning from Adam's soul, the satisfaction also 
must begin in Christ's soul, -as Ambrose saith, 2 Incipio in Christo vin- 
cere, unde in Adam victus sum, I begin there to win in Christ, where 
in Adam I was overcome. Then it followeth that the sufferings of 
Christ's soul took beginning there, and were not derived by sympathy 
from the stripes and pain of the body. We infer, then, that therefore 
Christ's soul had proper and immediate sufferings, besides those which 
proceeded from sympathy with his body, and all Christ's sufferings 
were satisfactory : ergo, Christ did satisfy for our sins properly and 
immediately in his soul. 

But if you please, take this fourth argument in another form of 
words, thus, The punishment lohich was pronounced against the first 
Adam, onr first surety, and in him against us, that same did Christ, 
the second Adam, our next and best surety, hear for us, or else it must 
still lie upon us to suffer it. But the punishment threatened and de- 
nounced against Adam for transgression, ivas not only corporal, re- 
specting our bodies, hut spiritual also, respecting our souls. There 
was a spiritual malediction due unto our souls, as well as a corporal, 
&c. V - 

ytjook, as God put a sanction on the law and covenant of works made 
with all of us in Adam, that he and his should be liable to death, both 
of body and soul, which covenant being broken by sin, all sinners be- 
came obnoxious to the death both of body and soul, so it was necessary 
that the redeemed should be delivered from the death of both by the 
Kedeemer's tasting of death in both kinds, as much as should be suffi- 
cient for their Redemption. sirs, as sin infected the whole man, soul 
and body, and the curse following on sin left no part nor power of the 
man's soul free ; so justice required that the Kedeemer, coming in the 
room of the persons redeemed, should feel the force of the cm'se both 
in body and soul. But, 

(5.) Fiftlily, 'He shall see of the travail of his soid,' Isa. liii. 11. 
Here the soul is taken properly, and the travail of Christ's soul is his 
sufferings ; for it follows, ' and he shall bear their iniquities.' But, 

(6.) Sixthly, Christ gave himself for his people's sins: '^Vho gave 

^ Ambrose dc Incarnat., cap. 7. * Ambrose, lib. iv. in Luc. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 97 

himself for our sins,' Tit, ii. 14 ; ' Who gave himself for us, that he 
might redeem us from all iniquities,' &c., Eph. v. 25; 1 Tim. ii. 6. 
But the body only is not himself ; ergo, the apostle saith, Phil. ii. 7, 
Christus eKevwae, exmanivit, Christ did empty or evacuate himself ; 
or, as Tertullian expounds it,^ exhausit; he drew out himself, or was 
exhaust, which agrees with the prophecy of Daniel, chap. ix. 26, 
* Messias shall have nothing, being brought to nothing by his death, 
without life, strength, esteem, honour,' &c. Hence we conclude that 
if Christ were exhaust upon the cross, if nothing was left him, that he 
suffered in body and soul, that there was no part within or without 
free from the cross, but all was emptied and poured out for our 
redemption. 

Again, we read that Christ, ' through the eternal Spiritj offered him- 
self to God,' Heb. ix. 14. Whatsoever was in Christ did either offer 
or was offered; his eternal Spirit only did offer; ergo, his whole human 
nature, both body and soul, was offered. Thus Origen witnesseth in 
these words. Vide quomodo verus pontifex Jesus Christus^ adsumpto 
hatillo carnis humance, &C.2 — See how our true priest, Jesus Christ, 
taking the censer of his human flesh, putting to the fire of the altar — 
that is, his magnificent soul, wherewith he was born in the flesh — and 
adding incense — that is, an immaculate spirit — stood in the midst be- 
tween the living and the dead. Thus you see that he makes Christ's 
soul a part in the sacrifice. 

(7.) Seventhly and lastly, Christ's love unto man, in suffering for 
him, was in the highest degree and greatest measure that could be; as 
the Lord saith, ' What could I have done any more for my vineyard 
that I have not done unto it ? ' But if Christ had given his body only, 
and not his soul for us, he had not done for us all he could, and so 
his love should have been greatly impaired and diminished ; ergo, he 
gave his soul also, together with his body, to be the full price of our 
redemption. And certainly the travail and labour of Christ's soul 
was most acceptable unto God : ' Therefore I will give him a portion 
with the great, because he hath poured out his soul unto death,' &c., 
' and bare the sins of many/ Isa. liii. 12. Doubtless the sufferings of 
Christ in his soul, together with his body, doth most fully and amply 
commend and set forth God's great love to poor sinners. Before I 
close up this particular, take a few testimonies of the fathers, which do 
witness with us for the sufferings of Christ, both in soul and body. 

Christ hath taken off3 us that which he should offer as proper for us, 
to redeem us ; and whatsoever Christ took off 3 us, he offered ; ergo, he 
offered body and soul, for he took both.* 

Another upon these words, 'My soul is heavy,' saith, 'Animapas- 
sionibus obnoxia, divinitas libera,' His soul was subject to passions, 
his divinity was free, &c,^ If nothing were free but his divine 
nature, then his soul was subject to the proper and immediate passions 
thereof. 

Ferspicmcm est, sicut corpus Jlagellatum,ita animam vere doluisse, 
&C.6 — It is evident that as his body was whipped, so his soul was verily 

^ Tertullian, Contra Marcian., lib. v. ' Origen, Horn. 9 in Levit. 

* Qu. ' of ?— Ed. *■ Ambrose de Incarnat., c. 6. 

" Concil. Hispalens., ii. c. 13. ^ Jerome in 53d cap. Isaiah. 

VOL. V. G 



98 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 

and truly grieved, lest some part of Christ's suffering should be true, 
some part false ; ergo, Christ's soul as properly and truly suffered as 
his body. The soul had her proper grief, as the body had whipping ; 
the whipping, then, of the body was not the proper grief of the soul. 
Whole Christ gave himself, and whole Christ offered himself ; ergo, 
he offered his soul, not only to suffer by way of compassion with his 
body, as it may be answered, but he offered it as a sacrifice, and suffered 
all passions whatsoever incident to the soul. The same author ex- 
pounds himself further thus: 'Because this God took whole man, 
therefore he shewed in truth in himself the passions of whole man ; 
and having a reasonable soul, what infirmities soever of the soul with- 
out sin he took and bare.^ If Christ, then, did take and bear all the 
passions of the soul without sin, then the proper and immediate grief 
and anguish thereof, and not the compassion only with the body. To 
these let me add the consent of the Keformed churches : 2 * Christ did 
suffer both in body and soul, and was made like unto us in all things, 
sin only excepted.' 

Thomas [Aquinas] granteth that Christ, secundum genus, passus 
est omnem passionem humanam, in general, suffered all human suf- 
ferings, as in his soul heaviness, fear, &c.^ 

Now the testimonies of the fathers, and the consent of the Eeformed 
churches, affirming the same, that Christ was crucified in his soul, 

and that he gave his soul a price of redemption for our souls 

Who can then doubt of this, but that Christ verily, properly, imme- 
diately suffered in his soul, in all the proper passions thereof, as he 
endured pains and torments in his flesh ; and if you please, this may 
go for an eighth argument to prove that Christ suffered in his soul. 

2. Secondly, That the sufferings of Christ in his soul were verp 
high, and great, and wonderful, both as to the punishment of loss, and 
as to the punishment of sense; all which I shall make evident in these 
four particulars : 

[1.] First, That Jesus Christ did suffer dereliction of God really; 
that he was indeed deserted and forsaken of God is most evident: 
Mat. xxvii. 46, ' My God,Jmy God, why hast thou forsaken me ?' But 
to prevent mistakes in this high point, seriously consider, 1. That I 
do not mean that there was any such desertion of Christ by God as 
did dissolve the union of the natures in the person of Christ.^ For 
Christ in all his sufferings still remained God and man. Nor, 2, do 
I mean an absolute desertion in respect of the presence of God. For 
God was still present with Christ in all his sufferings, and the God- 
head did support his humanity in and under his sufferings. But that 
which I mean is this — that as to the sensible and comforting mani- 
festations of God's presence, thus he was for a time left and forsaken 
of God. God for a time had taken away all sensible consolation and 
felt joy from Christ's human soul, that so divine justice might in 
his sufferings be the more fully satisfied. In this desertion, Christ is 
not to be looked upon simply as he is in his own person, the Son of 

^ Fulgentius ad Thrasimund., lib. iii. 2 French Confess. Harm., p. 99, § 6. 

' 3 par., qu. 46, artic. 5. 

* Forsaken, 1. By denying of protection ; 2. Bv withdrawing of solace : Non solvit 
unionem, sed suhiraxit visionem, The union was'not dissolved, but the beams, the in- 
fluence was restrained. — Leo. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 99 

the Father, Mat. iii. 17, in whom he is always well pleased, Mark i. 
11, but as he standeth in the room of sinners, surety and cautioner, 
paying their debt ; in which respect it concerned Christ to be dealt 
with as one standing in our stead, as one guilty, and paying the debt 
of being forsaken of God, which we were bound to suffer fully and for 
ever, if he had not interposed for us. There is between Christ and 
God, 1. An eternal union natural of the person ; 2. Of the Godhead 
and manhood ; 3. Of grace and protection. In this last sense, he 
means forsaken according to his feeling. Hence he said not. My 
Father, my, Father, but. My God, my God; which words are not 
words of complaining, but words expressing his grief and sorrow. 
Our Lord Christ was forsaken, not only of all creature comforts, but 
that which was worse than all, of his Father's favour, to his present 
apprehension, left forlorn and destitute for a time, that we might be 
received for ever. Christ was for a time left and forsaken of God, as 
David, who in this particular was a type of Christ's suffering, cried 
out, Ps. xxii. 1, ' My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? why 
art thou so far from my help ? ' He was indeed really forsaken of 
God ; God did indeed leave him in respect of his sense and feeling. "^ 
So was Christ truly and really forsaken of God, and not in colour or 
show, as some affirm. Athanasius, speaking of God's forsaking of 
Christ, saith, ' All things were done naturally and in truth, not in 
opinion or show.' ^ Though God did still continue a God to David, 
yet in David's apprehension and feeling he was forsaken of God. 
Though God was still a God to Christ, yet as to his feeling he was 
left of God, to wrestle with God, and to bear the wrath of God, due 
unto us. Look, as Christ was scourged, that we might not be scourged, 
so Christ was forsaken, that we might not be forsaken. Christ was 
forsaken for a time, that we might not be forsaken for ever [Ambrose]. 

Fevardentius absolutely denies that Christ did truly complain upon 
the cross that he was forsaken of God ; and therefore he thus object- 
eth and reasoneth: ' If Christ were truly forsaken of God, it would 
follow that the hypostatical union was dissolved, and that Christ was 
personally separated from God, for otherwise he could not be forsaken.' 3 

To what he objects we thus reply, first, If Christ had been totally 
and eternally forsaken, the personal union must have been dissolved ; 
but upon this temporal and partial rejection or dereliction there fol- 
loweth not a personal dissolution, or general dereliction. But secondly, 
As the body of Christ, being without life, was still hypostatically united 
to the Godhead, so was the soul of Christ, though for a time without 
feeling of his favour. The dereliction of the one doth no more dissolve 
the hypostatical union than the death of the other. If life went from 
the body, and yet the deity was not separated in the personal conse- 
cration, but only suspended in operation, so the feeling of God's favour, 
which is the life of the soul, might be intermitted in Christ, and yet 
the divine union not dissolved. Thirdly, Augustine doth well shew 

^ ' My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me.' Christ spake these words that 
thereby he might draw the Jews to a serious consideration and animadversion of his 
death and passion, which he underwent, not for his own but for our sins. — Pet. Gal., lib. 
viii. c. 18, p. 343. [Pet. Galesinus.— G.] 

^ Eelinquit Deus dum non relinquit, saith TertuUian. 

^ Fevarden., p. 473, confut 1. [Franciscus Fevardentius. — G.] 



100 OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 

how this may be when he saith, Passio Christi dulcis fuit divinitatis 
somnMS,!— That the passion of Christ was the sweet sleep of his divi- 
nity; Uke as when in sleep the soul is not departed, though the opera- 
tion thereof be deferred ; so in Christ's sleep upon the cross the God- 
head was not separated, though the working power thereof were for a 
time sequestered. Look, as the elect members of Christ may be for- 
saken, though not totally or finally, but ex parte, in part and for a 
time, and yet their election remain firm still ; the same may be the 
case of our head, that he was ex parte derelictus, only in part forsaken, 
and for a time, always beloved for his own innocency, but for us and 
in our person, as our pledge and surety, deserted. 

There are two kinds of dereliction or forsaking ; one is for a time 
and in part ; so the elect may be, and so Christ was forsaken upon the 
cross : another which is total, final, and general ; and so neither Christ 
nor his members never was nor never shall be forsaken. Christ, in 
the deepest anguish of his soul, is upheld and sustained by his faith, 
* My God, my God,' whereby he sheweth his singular confidence and 
trust in God, notwithstanding the present sense of his wrath. 

Quest. But how can Christ be forsaken of God, himself being God ; 
for the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are all three but one and the 
same God ? Yea, how can he be forsaken of God, seeing he is the 
Son of God ? and if the Lord leave not his children, which hope and 
trust in him, how can he forsake Christ, his only-begotten Son, who 
depended upon him and his mighty power ? 

Ans.l. First, By God here we are to understand God the Father, 
the first person of the blessed Trinity. According to the vulgar and 
common rule, when God is compared with the Son or Holy Ghost, 
then the Father is meant by this title God ; not that the Father is 
more God than the Son — for in dignity all the three persons are equal 
— but they are distinguished in order only ; and thus the Father is the 
first person, the Son the second, and the Holy Ghost the third. 

Arhs. 2. Secondly, Our Saviour's complaint, that he was forsaken, 
must be understood in regard of his human nature, and not of his 
Godhead ; although the Godhead and manhood were never severed 
from the first time of his incarnation ; but the Godhead'of Christ, and 
so the Godhead of the Father, did not shew forth his power in his 
manhood, but did as it were lie asleep for a time, that the manhood 
might suffer. 

Ans. 3. Thirdly, Christ was not indeed utterly forsaken of God in 
regard of his human nature, but only as it were forsaken — that is, 
although there were some few minutes and moments in which he re- 
ceived no sensible consolations from the Deity, yet that he was not 
utterly forsaken is most clear from this place, where he flees unto the 
Lord as unto his God, ' My God, my God,' as also from his resun-ec- 
tion the third day. 

_ Ans. 4. Fourthly, Di'tdnes say that there are six kinds of derelic- 
tion or forsakings :— 1. By disunion of person; and 2. By loss of 
grace ; and 3. By diminution and weakenings of grace ; and 4. By 
want of assurance of future deliverance and present support ; and 5. 
By denial of protection ; and 6. By withdrawing of all solace and 
* August., lib de essen. divin. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST IN HIS SOUL. 101 

comfort. Now it is foolish and impious to think that Christ was for- 
saken any of the first four ways, for the unity of his person was never 
dissolved, his graces were never either taken away or diminished, 
neither was it possible that he should want assurance of future deliver- 
ance and present support that was eternal God and Lord of life ; but 
the two last ways he may rightly be said to have been forsaken, in that 
his Father denied to protect and keep him out of the hands of his 
cruel, bloody, and merciless enemies, no ways restraining them, but 
suffering them to do the uttermost that their wicked hearts could 
imagine, and left him to endure the extremity of their fury and malice ; 
and, that nothing might be wanting to make his sorrows beyond mea- 
sure sorrowful, withdrew from him that solace and comfort that he 
was wont to find in God, and removed far from him all things for a 
little time that might any way lessen and assuage the extremity of his 
pain. 

[2.] Secondly, That Jesus Christ did feel and suffer the wrath of 
God lohich was dice unto us for our sins. The prophet Isaiah, chap, 
liii. 4, saith, ' That he was plagued and smitten of God ' ; and ver. 5, 
' The chastisement of our peace was upon him.' To be plagued and 
smitten of God is to feel and suffer the stroke of his wrath ; and so to 
be chastised of God, as to make peace with God or to appease him, is 
so to suffer the wrath of God as to satisfy God and to remove it. And 
truly how Christ should possibly escape the feeling of the wrath of 
God incensed against our sins, he standing as a surety for us with our 
sins laid upon him, and for them fully to satisfy the justice of God, is 
not Christianly or rationally imaginable. 

And whereas some do object that Christ was always the beloved of 
his Father, and therefore could never be the object of God's wrath : 

I answer. By distinguishing of the person of Christ, whom his 
Father always loved, and as sustaining our sins, and in our room 
standing to satisfy the justice of God ; and as so the wrath of God 
fell upon him and he bore it, and so satisfied the justice of God, that 
we thereby are now delivered from wrath through him. So the apostle, 
Eom. V. 9, ' Much more, being justified by his blood, we shall be saved 
from wrath by him;' 1 Thes. i. 10, 'And to wait for his Son from 
heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us 
from the wrath to come.' 

It is a groundless conceit of some learned heads, wh.o^dd!iy"the cause 
of Christ's agony to be the drinking of that cup of wrath that was 
given to him by his Father, John xviii. 11, sajn^ng that the sight of it 
only, and of the peril he saw we were in, was the cause of hb agony ; 
for the cup was not only shewed unto him,; and the great Wrath due 
to our sins set before him, that he should -eee it and tremble at the 
apprehension of the danger we were in, but it was poured not only on. 
him, but into him, that he for the sins of his redeemed ont^s should 
suft'er it sensibly, and drink it, that the bitterness thereof might affect 
all the powers of his soul and body • for the Scripture does sufficiently 
testify that not only upon the sight and apprehension of this wrath and 
curse coming on him the holy human nature did holily abhor it, but 
also that he submitted to receive it upon the consideration of the divine 
decree and agreement made upon the price to be paid by him, and 



102 THAT JESUS CHRIST DID SUFFER TORMENT, 

that upon the feeling of this wrath, this agony in his soul, the bloody- 
sweat of his body was brought on.i 

Quest. But how could the pourings forth of the Father's wrath 
upon his innocent and dear Son consist with his Fatherly love to 
him ? &c. 

Ans. Even as the innocency and holiness of Christ could well con- 
sist with his taking upon him the punishment of our sins ; for even 
the wrath of a just man, inflicting capital punishment on a condemned 
person, put case it be his own child, can well consist with fatherly 
affection towards his child suffering punishment. Did you never see 
a father weep over such a son that he has corrected most severely ? 
Did you never see a judge shed tears for those very persons that he 
has condemned? There is no doubt but wrath and love can well 
consist in God, in whom affections do not war one with another, nor 
fight with reason, as it often falls among men ; for the affections 
ascribed unto God are effects rather of his holy will towards us, than 
properly called afiections in him ; and these effects of God's will about 
us do always tend to our happiness and blessedness at last, however 
they are diverse one from another in themselves. 

[3.] Thirdly, That Jesus Christ did feel and suffer tJie very torments of 
hell, though not after a hellish manner. I readily grant that Jesus Christ 
did not locally descend into hell, to suffer there amongst the damned, 
neither did he suffer hellish darkness, nor the flames of hell, nor the 
worm that never dies, nor final despair, nor guilt of conscience, nor 
gnashing of teeth, nor impatient indignation, nor eternal separation 
from God. These things were absolutely inconsistent with the holi- 
ness, purity, and dignity of his person, and with the office of a mediator 
and redeemer. But yet I say that our Lord Jesus Christ did suffer in 
his soul for our sins such pain, horror, terror, agony, and consternation, 
as amounted unto cruciatus infernales, and are in Scripture called 
' The sorrows of hell' ' The sorrows of hell did compass me about,' 
Ps. xviii. 5, or the cords of hell did compass me about, such as where- 
with they bind malefactors when they are led forth to execution. 
Now these sorrows, these cords of hell, were the things that extorted 
from him th^t passionate expostulation, ' My God, my God, why hast 
thou forsaken me ?' Mat. xxvii. 46. Christ's sufferings were unspeak- 
able, and somewhat answerable to the pains of hell. Hence the Greek 
Litany, ' By thine unknown sufferings, good Lord deliver us,' A I 
a/yvcbarcov <tov Tradrjfjbarcov. Funinus, an Italian martyr, being asked by 
one why he was so merry at his death, sith Christ himself was so sor- 
rowful ; ' Christ,' said he, ' sustained in his soul all the sorrows and 
conflicts with hell and death due to us ;' by whose sufferings we are 
delivered from sorrow and the fear of them all. 2 It was a great saying 
of a very learned man, that setting iniquity and eternity of punishment 
aside, which Christ might not sustain, Christ did more vehemently 
and sharply f;3el the wrath of God than ever any man did or shall, no 
not any person reprobated and damned excepted ; and certainly the 
reason annexed to prove this expression is very weighty, because all 
the wrath that was due for all the sins of the elect, all whose sins 

t Heb. V. 7; Mat. xxvl 38, 39, 42, 44; 1 Cor. vi. 20, and vii. 23. 
' [Foxe] Acta and Mon., fol. 853. 



THOUGH NOT AFTER A HELLISH MANNER. ' 103 

were laid on Christ, Isa. liii. 6, was greater than the wrath which 
belonged to any one sinner, though damned for his personal sinning : 
and besides this, if you do seriously consider those sufferings of Christ 
in his agony in the garden, you may by them conjecture what hellish 
torments Christ did suffer for us. In that agony of his, he was afraid 
and amazed, and fell flat on the ground, Mat. xiv. 33, 34. He began 
to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy ; and saith unto them, ' My 
soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death,' Luke xxii. 44 ; and his sweat 
was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. He 
did sweat clotted blood to such abundance, that it streamed through 
his apparel, and did wet the ground ; which dreadful agony of Christ, 
how it could arise from any other cause than the sense of the wrath of 
God, parallel to that in hell, I know not. 

Orthodox divines do generally take Christ's sufferings in his soul, 
and the detaining his body in the grave, put in as the close and last 
part of Christ's sufferings, as the true meaning of that expression, ' He 
descended into hell,' not only because these pains which Christ suffered 
both in body and soul were due to us in full measure, but also because 
that which Christ in point of torment and vexation suffered was in 
some respect of the same kind with the torment of the damned. For 
the clearing of this, consider, that in the punishment of the damned 
there are these three things : 1. The perverse disposition of the mind 
of the damned in their sufferings ; 2. The duration and perpetuity of 
their punishment ; and 3. The punishment itself, tormenting soul and 
body. Of these three, the first two could have no place in Christ : not 
the first, because he willingly offered himself a sacrifice for our sins, 
and upon agreement paid the ransom fully, Heb. ix. 14, and x. 5-8 ; 
not the second, because he could no longer be held under sorrows and 
sufferings than he had satisfied divine justice, and paid the price that 
he was to lay down, Acts ii, 24. And his infinite excellency and glory 
made his short sufferings to be of infinite worth, and equivalent to our 
everlasting sufferings, 1 Pet. ii. 24 ; 1 Cor, vi. 20, The third, then, 
only remaineth, which was the real and sensible torments of his soul 
and body, wliich he did really feel and experience when he was upon 
the cross, sirs! what need you question Christ's undergoing of 
hellish pains, when all the pains, torments, curse, and wrath which 
was due to the elect did fall on Christ, and lie on Christ till divine 
justice was fully satisfied. Though Christ did not suffer eternal death 
for sinners, yet he suffered that which was equivalent, and therefore the 
justice of God is by his death wholly appeased. 

It is good seriously to ponder upon these scriptures : Ps. xviii. 51, ■ 
'The sorrows of hell did compass me about;' Ps. Ixxxviii. 31, 'My 
soul is filled with evil, and my life draweth near to hell ;' Ps, Ixxxvi. 
13, ' Thou hast delivered my soul from the nethermost hell.' In these 
places the prophet speaks in the person of Christ, and the Papists 
themselves do confess that the Hebrew word sheol, that is here used, is 
taken for hell properly, and not for the grave ; therefore these places 
do strongly conclude for the hellish sorrows or sufferings of Christ. So 
Acts ii. 27, ' Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell.' If Christ's soul be 
not left or forsaken in hell, yet it follows it was in hell ; not that 
Christ did feel the sorrows of hell after death, but that he did feel the 



104 THAT JESUS CHRIST DID SUFFER TORMENT, 

very sorrows of hell in his soul while he lived. Certainly the whole 
punishment of body and soul which was due unto us, Christ our 
Kedeemer was in general to suffer and satisfy for in his own person ; 
but the torments and terrors of hell, and the vehement sense of God's 
wrath, are that punishment which did belong to the soul ; ergo, Christ 
did suffer the torments and terrors of hell. By the whole punishment 
you are to understand the whole kind or substance of the punishment, 
not all the circumstances, and the very same manner. The whole 
punishment then is the whole kind of punishment — that is, in body 
and soul — which Christ ought to have suffered, though not in the same 
manner and circumstance. 1. Neither for the place of hell locally ; 
nor 2. For the time eternally; nor 3. For the manner sinfully. 
"When we say Christ was to suffer our whole punishment, all such 
punishments as cannot be suffered without sin, as desperation [and] 
final reprobation, are manifestly excepted. Christ did bear all our 
punishment, though not as we should have borne it ; that is, 1. Sin- 
fully ; 2. Eternally ; 3. Hellishly. But he did so bear all our punish- 
ment as to finish all upon the cross ; and in such sort as God's justice 
was satisfied, his person not disgraced, nor his holiness defiled, and yet 
man's salvation fully perfected. Col. ii. 14, 15 ; Heb. ix. 14, and x. 
15. We constantly affirm that Christ did suffer the pains of hell in 
his soul, with these three restrictions: — 1. That there be neither in- 
iignity offered to his royal person ; 2. Nor injury to his holy nature ; 
3. Nor impossibility to his glorious work. All such pains of hell then 
as Christ might have suffered : — 1. His person not dishonoured ; 2. 
His nature with sin not defiled ; 3. His work of our redemption not 
hindered, we do steadfastly believe were sustained by our blessed 
Saviour. Consider a few things. 

First, Consider the adjuncts of hell, which are these four : 1. The 
place, which is infernal ; 2. The time, which is perpetual ; 3. The 
darkness, which is unspeakable ; 4. The ministers and tormentors — 
the spirits and devils, which are irreconcilable. Now these adjuncts of 
hell Christ is freed from. For the dignity of his person, it was not fit 
that the Son of God, the heir of heaven, should be shut up in hell, or 
that he should for ever be tormented, who is never from God's presence 
sequestered, or that the light of the world should be closed up in dark- 
ness, or that he who bindeth the evil spirits should be bound by them, &c. 

Secondly, Consider the effects, or rather the defects, of hell, which 
are chiefiy these two : First, The deprivation of all virtue, grace, holi- 
ness ; Secondly, The real possession of all vice, impiety, blasphemy, 
. &c. Now the necessity of the work of Christ doth exempt him from 
these effects ; for if he had been either void of grace, or possessed with 
vice, he could not have been the Eedeemer of poor lost souls ; for the 
want of virtue he could not have redeemed others ; for the presence of 
sin he should have been redeemed himself ; and from fretting indigna- 
tion and fearful desperation, the piety and sanctity of his nature doth 
preserve him, who, being without sin, could neither by indignation 
displease his Father, nor by desperation destroy himself. So that, 
if you consider either the adjuncts of hell or the effects, then I say we 
do remove all them as far off from the holy soul of Christ as heaven 
is from hell, or the east from the west, or darkness from light, &c 



I 



THOUGH NOT AFTER A HELLISH MANNER. 105 

Thirdly, Consider the punishment itself. Now, concerning this, we 
Bay that our blessed Saviour, as in himself he bare all the sins of the 
elect: so he also suffered the whole punishment of body and soul in 
general that was due unto us, for the same which we should have 
endured if he had not satisfied for it ; and so consequently we affirm 
that he felt the anguish of soul and horror of God's wrath, and so 
in soul entered into the torments of hell for us, sustained them 
and vanquished them. One speaking in honour of Christ's passion, 
saith. Cum iram Dei sihi propositum, videret, When he saw the wrath 
of God set before him, presenting himself before God's tribunal loaden 
with the sins of the whole world, it was necessary for him to fear the 
deep bottomless pit of death. i Again saith the same author, 2 Cum 
species Christo ohjecta est, &c., Such an object being ofi'ered to Christ's 
view, as though God being, set against him, he were appointed to 
destruction ; he was with horror afirighted, which was able a hun- 
dred times to have swallowed up all mortal creatures, but he, by the 
wonderful power of his Spirit, escaped with victory. ' What dishonour 
was it to our Saviour Christ,' saith aiiother,3 ' to suffer that which was 
necessary for our redemption,' — namely, that torment of hell which we 
had deserved, and which the justice of God required that he should 
endure for our redemption ; or rather, what is more to the honour 
of Christ, than that he vouchsafed to descend into hell for us, and 
to abide that bitter pain which we had deserved to suffer eternally; 
and what may rather be called hell than the anguish of soul which he 
suffered, when, he being yet God, complained that he was forsaken 
of God ? sirs, this we need not fear to confess, that Christ, bearing 
our sins in himself upon the cross, did feel himself during that combat 
as rejected and forsaken of God and accursed for us, and the flames of 
his Father's wrath burning within him ; so that to the honour of 
Christ's passion we confess that our blessed Kedeemer refused no part 
of our punishment, but endured the very pains of hell, so far as they 
tended not neither to the derogation of his person, deprivation of his 
nature, destruction of his office, &c. 

Here it may be queried whether the Lord Jesus Christ underwent the 
idem, the very self-same punishment that we should have undergone, 
or only the tantundem, that which did amount and was equivalent 
thereunto ? To which I answer, that in different respects both may be 
affirmed. The punishment which Christ endured, if it be considered 
in its substance, kind, or nature, so it was the same with that the 
sinner himself should have undergone ; but if it be considered with 
respect to certain circumstances, adjuncts, or accidents which attend 
that punishment, as inflicted upon the sinner, so it was but equiva- 
lent, and not the same. The punishment due to the sinner was death, 
the curse of the law, upon the breach of the first covenant. Now this 
Christ underwent, for ' he was made a curse for us,' Gal. iii. 13. The 
adjuncts attending this death were the eternity of it, desperation going 
along with it, &c. These Christ was freed from, the dignity of his 
person supplying the former, the sanctity of his person securing him 
against the latter; therefore in reference unto these, and to some 

1 Calvin, in Mat. iivi. 39. * Calvin, in Mat. iivii. 46. 

' Fulk. in Act ii. sec. 11. [Fulke or Fulkius or Fulcones. — G.] 



106 THAT JESUS CHRIST DID SUFFER TORMENT, 

other things already mentioned, it was but the tantundem, not the 
idem; but suppose there had been nothing of sameness, nothing be- 
yond equivalency in what Christ suffered, yet that was enough, for it 
was not required that Christ should suffer every kind of curse which 
is the effect of sin, but in the general accursed death. Look, as in 
his fulfilling of the law for us, it was not necessary that he should 
perform every holy duty that the law requireth ; for he could not per- 
form that obedience which magistrates or married persons are bound 
to do — it is enough that there was a fulfilling of it in the general for 
us : so here it was not necessary that Jesus Christ should undergo 
in every respect the same punishment which the offender himself was 
liable unto ; but if he shall undergo so much as may satisfy the law's 
threatenings, and vindicate the lawgiver in his truth, justice, and 
rio-hteous government, that was enough. Now that was unquestion- 
ably done by Christ. 

Object. 1. But some may object and say, How could Christ suffer the 
pains of the second death without disunion of the Godhead from the 
manhood ? For the Godhead could not die. Or what interest had 
Christ's Godhead in his human sufferings, to make them both so short 
and so precious and satisfactory to divine justice for the sins of so 
many sinners, especially when we consider that God cannot suffer ? 

Ans. 1. I answer. It followeth not that because Christ is united 
into one person with God, that therefore he did not suffer the pains of 
hell ; for by the same reason he should not have suffered in his body, 
for the union of his person could have preserved him from sufferings 
in the one as well as in the other, and neither God, angels, nor men 
compelled him to undertake this difficult and bloody work, but his 
own free and unspeakable love to mankind, as himself declares, John 
X. 17, ' Therefore my Father loves me, because I lay down my life;' 
ver. 18, ' No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself.' If 
Christ had been constrained to suffer, then both men and angels might 
fear and tremble ; but as one [Bernard] saith well, Voluntas sponte 
morientis placuit Deo, The willingness of him that died pleased God, 
who offered himself to be the Redeemer of fallen man, Isa. liii. 12 ; 
Ps. xl. 7, 8 ; Heb. x. 9, 10. 

Ans. 2. But secondly, I answer from 1 John iii. 16, * Hereby per- 
ceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us.' The 
person dying was God, else his person could have done us no good. 
The person suffering must be God as well as man, but the Godhead 
suffered not. As if you shoot off a cannon in the bright air, the air 
suffers, but the light of it suffers not. Actions and passions belong 
to persons. Nothing less than that person who is' God-man could 
bear the brunt of the day, satisfy divine justice, pacify divine wrath, 
bring in an everlasting righteousness, and make us happy for ever. 
But, 

Ans. 3. Thirdly, I answer thus, Albeit the passion of the human 
nature could not so far reach the Godhead of Christ, that it should in 
a physical sense suffer, which, indeed, is impossible, yet these suffer- 
ings did so affect the person, that it may truly be said that God suf- 
fered, and by his blood bought his people to himself ; for albeit the 
proper and formal subject of physical sufferings be only the human 



THOUGH NOT AFTER A HELLISH MANNER. 107 

nature, yet the principal subject of suiferings, both in a phj^sical and 
moral sense, is Christ's person, God and man, from the dignity whereof 
the worth and excellency of all sorts of sufferings, the merit and the 
satisfactory sufficiency of the price did flow, Acts xx. 28 ; 1 Pet. i. 
18-20 ; 1 Cor. vi. 20, and vii. 23. 

sirs ! you must seriously consider, that though Christ as God in 
his Godhead could not suffer in a physical sense, yet in a moral sense 
he might suffer and did suffer. For he being * in the form of God, 
thought it not robbery to be equal with God, but made himself of no 
reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made 
in the likeness of men ; and being found in fashion as a man, he 
humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of 
the cross,' Phil, ii. 6-8. Oh, who can sum up the contradictions, the 
railings, the revilings, the contempts, the despisings and calumnies 
that Christ met with from sinners, yea, from the worst of sinners ! 

Object. 2. But how could so low a debasing of the Son of man, or of 
the human nature assumed by Christ, consist with the majesty of the 
person of the Son of God ? 

Ans. We must distinguish those things in Christ, which are 
proper to either of the two natures, from those things which are as- 
cribed to his person in respect of either of the natures or both the 
natures ; for infirmity, physical suffering, or mortality are proper to 
the human nature. The glory of power, and grace, and mercy, and 
super-excellent majesty, and such like, are proper to the Deity ; but 
the sufferings of the human nature are so far from diminishing the 
glory of the divine nature, that they do manifest the same, and make 
it appear more clearly and gloriously; for by how much the human 
nature was weakened, depressed, and despised for our sins, for our 
sakes, by so much the more the love of Christ, God and man in one 
person toward man, and his mercy, and power, and grace to man, do 
shine in the eyes of all that judiciously do look upon him. 

Object. 3. How could Christ endure hell fire without grievous sins, 
as blasphemy and despair, &c. ? 

Ans. 1. 1 answer, That we may walk safely and without offence, 
these things must be premised: First, That the sorrows and suffer- 
ings of hell be no otherwise attributed to Christ, than as they may 
Btand with the dignity and worthiness of his person, the holiness of his 
nature, and the performance of the office and work of our redemption. 

[1.] First, then. For the soul of Christ to suffer in the local place of 
hell, to remain in the darkness thereof, and to be tormented with the 
material flames there, and eternally to be damned, was not for the 
dignity of his person, to whom for his excellency and worthiness both 
the place, manner, and time of those torments were dispensed with. 

[2.] Secondly, Final rejection and desperation, blasphemy, and the 
worm of conscience, agreeth not with the holiness of his nature, ' Who 
was a lamb without a spot,' Heb. ix. 14 ; 1 Pet. i. 19, and therefore 
we do not, we dare not ascribe them to him. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, Destruction of body and soul, which is the second 
death, could not fall upon Christ ; for this were to have destroyed the 
work of our redemption, if he had been subject to destruction. But 

[4.] Fourthly and lastly. Blasphemy and despair are no parts of the 



108 THAT JESUS CHRIST DID SUFFER TORMENT, 

pains of the damned, but the consequents, and follow the sense of 
God's wrath in a sinful creature that is overcome by it. But Christ 
had no sin of his own, neither was he overcome of wrath, and there- 
fore he always held fast his integrity and innocency, Rev. xvi. 9, 11. 
Despair is an unavoidable companion, attending the pains of the second 
death, as all reprobates do experience. Desperation is an utter hope- 
lessness of any good, and a certain expectation and waiting on the 
worst that can befall ; and this is the lot and portion of the damned 
in hell. The wretched sinner in hell, seeing the sentence passed 
against him, God's purpose fulfilled, never to be reversed, the gates of 
hell made fast upon him, and a great gulf fixed betwixt hell and 
heaven, which renders his escape impossible; he now gives up all, 
and reckons on nothing but uttermost misery, Luke xvi. 26. Now 
mark, this despair is not an essential part of the second death, but 
only a consequent, or, at the most, an effect occasioned by the sinner's 
view of his irremediless, woeful condition. But this neither did nor 
could possibly befall the Lord Jesus. He was able, by the power of 
his Godhead, both to suffer and to satisfy and to overcome ; therefore 
he expected a good issue, and knew that the end should be happy, and 
that he should not be ashamed, Isa. 1. 6, 7, &c. ; Ps. xvi. 9, 10 ; Acts 
ii. 26, 28, 31. Though a very shallow stream would easily drown a 
little child, there being no hope of escape for it unless one or another 
should step in seasonably to prevent it, yet a man that is grown up 
may groundedly hope to escape out of a far more deep and dangerous 
place, because by reason of his stature, strength, and skill he could 
wade or swim out. Surely the wrath of the Almighty, manifested in 
hell, is like the vast ocean, or some broad, deep river ; and therefore 
when the sinful sons and daughters of Adam, which are without 
strength, Rom. v. 6, are hurled into the midst of it, they must needs 
lie down in their confusion, as altogether hopeless of deliverance or 
escaping. But this despair could not seize upon Jesus Christ, because, 
although his Father took him and cast him into the sea of his wrath, 
so that all the billows of it went over him, Isa. Ixiii. 1-3, seq., yet 
being the mighty God, with whom nothing is impossible, he was very 
able to pass through that sea of wrath and sorrow, which would have 
drowned all the world, and come safe to shore. 

Object. 4. But when did Christ suffer hellish torments ? They are 
inflicted after death, not usually before it ; but Christ's soul went straight 
after death into paradise. How else could he say to the penitent thief, 
* This day shalt thou be with me in paradise' ? Now, to this objection 
I shall give these following answers : 

Ans. 1. First, That Christ's soul, after Ms passion upon the cross, 
did not really and locally descend into the place of the damned, may 
he thus made evident : 

[1.] First, All the evangelists, and so Luke among the rest, intend- 
ing to make an exact narrative of the life and death of Christ, hath 
set down at large his passion, death, burial, resurrection, and ascen- 
sion ; and besides, they make rehearsal of very small circumstances ; 
therefore we may safely conclude, that they would never have omitted 
Christ's local descent into the place of the damned, if there had been 
any such thing. Besides, the great end why they penned this history 



THOUGH NOT AFTER A HELLISH MANNER. 109 

was, that we might believe that * Jesus Christ is the Son of God; and 
that thus believing we might have life everlasting,' John xx. 31. 
Now there could not have been a greater matter for the confirmation 
of our faith than this, that Jesus, the son of Mary, who went down to 
the place of the damned, returned thence to live in all happiness and 
blessedness for ever. But, 

[2.] Secondly, If Christ did go into the place of the damned, then 
he went either in soul, or in body, or in his Godhead. Not in his 
Godhead, for that could not descend, because it is everywhere, and his 
body was in the grave ; and as for his soul, it went not to hell, but 
immediately after his death it went to paradise — that is, the third 
heaven, a place of joy and happiness : ' This day shalt thou be with 
me in paradise,' Luke xxiii. 43 ; which words of Christ must be under- 
stood of his manhood or soul, and not of his Godhead ; for they are an 
answer to a demand, and therefore unto it they must be suitable. The 
thief makes his request, ' Lord, remember me when thou comest into 
thy kingdom/ ver. 42 ; to which Christ answers^ ' Verily I say unto 
thee. To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise.' ' I shall,' saith 
Christ, ' this day enter into paradise, and there shalt thou be with 
me.' Now, there is no entrance but in regard of his soul or man- 
hood, for the Godhead, which is at all times in all places, cannot be 
properly said to enter into a place, Ps. cxxxix. 7, 13; Jer. xxiii. 
23, 24. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, When Christ saith, ' To-day shalt thou be with me in 
paradise,' he doth intimate, as some observe, a resemblance which is 
between the first and second Adam. The first Adam quickly sinned 
against God, and was as quickly cast out of paradise by God. Christ, 
the second Adam^ having made a perfect and complete satisfaction to 
the justice of God, and the law of God, for man's sin, must imme- 
diately enter into paradise, Heb. ix. 26, 28, and x. 14. Now to say 
that Christ, in soul, descended locally into hell, is to abolish this analogy 
between the first and second Adam. Butj 

Atis. 2. Secondly, It is not impossible that the pains of the second 
death should he suffered in this life. Time and place are but circum- 
stances. The main substance of the second death is the bearing of 
God's fierce wrath and indignation. Divine favour shining upon a 
man in hell, would turn hell into a heaven. All sober, seeing, serious 
Christians will grant, that the true, though not the full joys of heaven 
may be felt and experienced in this life : 1 Pet. i. 8, ' Whom having 
not seen, ye love ; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, 
ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory,' or glorious ; either 
because this their rejoicing was a taste of their future glory, or because 
it made them glorious in the eyes of men. The original word, SeBo- 
^a/jLevrj, is glorified already ; a piece of God's kingdom and heaven's 
happiness aforehand. Ah, how many precious saints, both living and 
dying, have cried out, Oh the joy ! the joy ! the inexpressible joy that 
I find in my soul ! Eph. ii* 6, ' He hath made us sit together in 
heavenly places, in Christ Jesus.' What is this else, but even while 
we live, by faith to possess the very joys of heaven on this side heaven ! 
Now look, as the true joys of heaven may be felt on this side heaven, 
so the true, though not the full pains of hell, may be felt on this side 



110 THAT JESUS CHRIST DID SUFFER TORMENT, 

hell ; and doubtless Cain, Judas, Julian, Spira, and others have found 
it so. That father hit the mark, who said, Judicis^ in mente tua sedes; 
ibi Deus adest, accusator conscientia, tortor timor, The judge's 
tribunal-seat is in thy soul, God sitteth there as judge, thy conscience 
is the accuser, and fear is the tormentor, i Now if there be in the soul 
a judge, an accuser, and a tormentor, then certainly there is a true 
taste of the torments of hell on this side hell. 

Ans. 3. Thirdly, The place hell is no pari of the payment. The 
laying down of the price makes the satisfaction. This is all that is 
spoken and threatened to Adam, ' Thou shalt die the death,' Gen. .ii. 
17; and this may be suffered here. The wicked go to hell as their 
prison, because they can never pay their debts, otherwise the debt 
may as well be paid in the market as the jail. 2 Npw Christ did dis- 
charge all his people's debts in the days of his flesh, when he offered 
up strong cries and tears, Heb. v. 7, and not after death. Look, as a 
king entering into prison to loose the prisoners' chains, and to pay 
their debts, is said to have been in prison ; so our Lord Jesus Christ, 
by his soul's sufferings, which is the hell he entered into, hath released 
us of our pains and chains, and paid our debts, and in this sense he 
may be said to have entered into hell, though he never actually entered 
into the local place of the damned, which is properly^called hell ; for in 
that place there is neither virtue nor goodness, holiness nor happiness, 
and therefore the holiness of Christ's person would never suffer him 
to descend into such a place. In the local place of heaven and hell, 
it is not possible for any neither to be at once, nor yet at sundry times 
successively, for there is no passing from heaven to hell, or from hell 
to heaven, Luke xvi. 26. The place of suffering is but a circumstance 
in the business. Hell, the place of the damned, is no part of the debt, 
therefore neither is suffering there locally any part of the payment of 
it, no more than a prison is any part of an earthly debt, or of the pay- 
ment of it. The surety may satisfy the creditor in the place appointed 
for payment, or in the open court, which being done, the debtor and 
surety both are acquitted, that they need not go to prison. If either 
of them go to prison, it is because they do not or cannot pay the debt ; 
for aU that justice requires is to satisfy the debt, to the which the 
prison is merely extrinsecal. Even so the justice of God cannot be 
satisfied for the transgression of the law, but by the death of the 
sinner ; but it doth not require that this should be done in the place 
of the damned. The wicked go to prison because they do not, they 
cannot, make satisfaction ; otherwise Christ, having fully discharged 
the debt, needed not go to prison. 

Object. 5. But the pains and torments that are due to man's sins 
are to be everlasting, and how then can Christ's short sufferings 
countervail them ? 

Ans.l. That Christ's sufferings in his soul and body were equiva- 
lent to it ; although, to speak properly, eternity is not of the essence 

^ Augustine in Ps. Ivii. 

» Peter saith, the devils are cast down to hell, and kept in chains of darkness. 2 Pet. 
ii. 4. And Paul calls the devil the prince that ruleth in the air, Eph. ii. 2. The air 
then is the devil's hell. "Well, then, seeing this air is the devil's present hell, vre may 
safely conclude that hell may be in this present world ; and therefore it is neither im- 
possible nor improbable that the cross was Christ's hell. 



THOUGH NOT AFTER A HELLISH MANNER. Ill 

of death, which is the reward of sin and threatened by God ; but it is 
accidental, because man thus dying is never able to satisfy God, there- 
fore, seeing he cannot pay the last farthing, he is for ever kept in 
prison, Mat. xviii. 28, 35. Look, as eternal death hath in it eternity 
and despair necessarily in all those that so die, so Christ could not 
suffer, but what was wanting in duration was supplied — 1. By the 
immensity of his sorrows conflicting with the sense of God's wrath, 
because of our sins imputed to him, so that he suffered more grief 
than if the sorrows of all men were put together. Christ's hell-sor- 
rows on the cross were meritorious and fully satisfactory for our ever- 
lasting punishment, and therefore in greatness were to exceed all other 
men s sorrows, as being answerable to God's justice. 2. By the dignity 
and worth of him that did suffer. Therefore the Scripture calls it the 
blood of God. The damned must bear the wrath of God to all eternity, 
because they can never satisfy the justice of God for sin. Therefore 
they must lie by it world without end. But Christ hath made an 
infinite satisfaction in a finite time, by undergoing that fierce battle 
with the wrath of God, and getting the victory in a few hours, which 
is equivalent to the creatures bearing it and grappling with it ever- 
lastingly. This length or shortness of durance is but a circumstance, 
not of any necessary consideration in this case. Suppose a man in- 
debted £100, and likely to lie in prison till he shall pay it, yet utterly 
unable, if another man comes and lays down the money on two hours' 
warning, is not this as well or better done ? that which may be done 
to as good or better purpose in a short time, what need is there to 
draw it out at length ? The justice of the law did not require that 
either the sinner or his surety should suffer the eternity of hell's tor- 
ments, but only their extremity. It doth abundantly counterpoise the 
eternity of the punishment, that the person which suffered was the 
eternal God. Besides, it was impossible that he should be detained 
under the sorrows of death. Acts ii. 24. And if he had been so de- 
tained, then he had not ' spoiled principalities and powers, nor 
triumphed over them,' Col. ii. 15, but had been overcome, and so had 
not attained his end. But, 

Ans. 2. Secondly, The pains of hell which Christ suffered, though 
they were not infinite in time, yet were they of an infinite price and 
value for the dignity of the person that suffered them. Clirist's tem- 
poral enduring of hellish sorrows was as effectual and meritorious as 
if they had been perpetual. The dignity of Christ's person did bear 
him out in that which was not meet for him to suffer, nor fit in respect 
of our redemption ; for if he should have suffered eternally, our re- 
demption could never have been accomplished. But for him to suffer 
in soul as he did in body, was neither derogatory to his person nor 
prejudicial to his work. Infinitely in time Christ was not to suffer. 
As one well observes,! Christ died secundum tempus, in time, or ac- 
cording to time. Tempora in mundo sunt, &c., Times are in the 
world where the sun riseth and setteth. Unto this time he died. 
But where there is no time, there he was found, not only living, but 
conquering. Christ, God-man, suffered punishment in measure in- 
finite, and therefore there is no ground why he should endure it 

^ Ambrose in 5 ad Rom. vi. 



112 THAT JESUS CHRIST DID SUFFER TORMENT, 

eternally ; and indeed it was impossible that Christ should be holden 
of death, Acts ii. 24, because he was both the Lord of life and the 
Lord's Holy One, 1 Cor. ii. 8; Acts ii. 27. But, 

Am. 3. Thirdly, If the measure of a man's punishment were in- 
finite, the duration needs not be infinite. Sinful man's measure of 
punishment is finite, and therefore the duration of his punishment 
must be infinite, because the punishment must be answerable to the 
infinite evil of sin committed against an infinite God. sirs, con- 
tinual imprisonment in hell arises from man's not being able to pay 
the price ; for could he pay the debt in one year, he needs not lie two 
years in prison. Now the debt is the first and second death ; and be- 
cause sinful man cannot pay it in any time, he must endure it eter- 
nally. But now Christ has laid down ready pay upon the nail to the 
full for all his chosen ones, and therefore it is not required of him that 
he should sufier for ever, neither can it stand with the holiness or 
justice of God to hold him under the second death, he having paid the 
debt to the utmost farthing. Now that he hath fully paid the debt 
himself, witnesseth John, chap. xix. 30, saying ' when he had received 
the vinegar, It is finished ; ' so ver. 28, ' After this, Jesus knowing 
that all things were accomplished.' Though there are many interpre- 
tations given of this place by Augustine, Chrysostom, Jansenius, and 
others, yet doubtless this alone will hold water — viz, , that the heavy 
wrath of the Lord which did pursue Christ, and the second death 
which filled him with grievous terrors, is now over and past, and man's 
redemption finished. He speaketh here of that which presently should 
be, and in the yielding up his ghost was accomplished. 

And thus you see that Jesus Christ did feel and sufifer the very tor- 
ments of hell, though not after a hellish manner ; and you see also 
that Christ did not locally descend into hell. Shall we make a few 
inferences from hence : 

1. Firsts then, Oh, how should these sad sufierings of Christ for 
us endear Christ to us! Oh, what precious thoughts should we 
have of him ! Ps. cxxxvi. 17^ 18. Oh, hoW should we prize him ! 
how should we honour him ! how should we love him ! and how 
should we be swallowed up in the admiration of him! As his 
love to us has been matchless, so his sufferings for us has been 
matchless. I have read of Nero, that he had a shirt made of a sala- 
mander's skin, so that if he did walk through the fire in it, it would 
keep him from burning. So Christ is the true salamander s skin that 
will keep the soul from everlasting burnings, Isa. xxxiii. 14 ; and 
therefore well may Christians cry out with that martyr, [Lambert], 
* None but Christ, none but Christ.' Tigranes, in Xenophon, coming 
to redeem his father and friends, with his wife, that were taken prisoners 
by Cyrus, was asked among other things, what ransom he would give 
for his wife. He answered, ' He would redeem her liberty with his 
own life ;' but having prevailed, as they returned together, every one 
commended Cyrus for a goodly man ; and Tigranes would needs know 
of his wife, ' What she thought of him.' ' Truly,' said she, ' I cannot 
tell, for I did not so much as look on him, or see him.' ' Whom then,' 
said he, wondering, ' did you look upon ? ' ' Whom should I look 
upon,' replied she, ' but him that would have redeemed my liberty 



THOUGH NOT AFTER A HELLISH MANNER. 113 

with his own life ? ' So every believer should esteem nothing worth 
a looking on, but that Jesus who hath redeemed him with his own 
blood, 1 Cor. vi. 20 ; Acts xx. 28 ; 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. Plutarch tells 
us,i ' That when Titus Flaminius had freed the poor Grecians from 
the bondage with which they had been long ground by their oppres- 
sions, and the herald was to proclaim in their audience the articles of 
peace he had concluded for them, they so pressed upon him, not being 
half of them able to hear, that he was in great danger to have lost his 
life in the press ; at last, reading them a second time, when they came 
to understand distinctly how that their case stood, they so shouted for 
joy, crying crcorrjp, a-MTr^p, a saviour, a saviour, that they made the 
very heavens ring again with their acclamations, and the very birds fall 
down astonished.' And all that night the poor Grecians, with instru- 
ments of music, and songs of praise, danced and sang about his tent, 
extolling him as a god that had delivered them. But oh, then, what 
infinite cause have we to exalt and cry up our dear Lord Jesus, who 
by the hellish sorrows that he suffered for us, hath freed us from that 
more dreadful bondage of sin, Satan, and wrath that we lay under ! 
Oh, prize that Jesus ! Oh, exalt that Christ ! Oh, extol that Saviour, 
who has saved you from that eternal wrath that all the angels in 
heaven, and all the men on earth could never have saved you from ! 
The name of Jesus, saith one, [Chrysostom,] hath a thousand treasures 
of joy and comfort in it, and is therefore used by Paul five hundred 
times, as some have observed. The name of a Saviour, saith another, 
[Bernard,] ' is honey in the mouth, and music in the ears, and a jubilee 
in the heart,' Dulce nomen Christi. Were Christ in your bosom as a 
flower of delight, for he is a whole paradise of delight, saith one, [Justin 
Martyr.] ' I had rather,' saith another, [Luther,] * be in hell with 
Christ, than in heaven without him, for Christ is the crown of crowns, 
the glory of glories, and the heaven of heaven.' One saith, [Austin,] 
' that he would willingly go through hell to Christ.' Another saith, 
[Bernard,] * he had rather be in his chimney-corner with Christ, than 
in heaven without him.' One cried out, ' I had rather have one Christ 
than a thousand worlds.' Jesus, in the China tongue, signifies the 
rising sun, and such a rising sun was he to Julius Palmer, that when 
all concluded that he was dead, being turned as black as a coal in the 
fire, at last he moved his scorched lips, and was heard to say, ' Sweet 
Jesus,' Mai, iv. 2. It was an excellent answer of one of the martyrs, 
when he was offered riches and honours if he would recant : ' Do but,' 
said he, ' offer me somewhat that is better than my Lord Jesus Christ, 
and you shall see what I will say to you.' Now, oh that the hellish 
sorrows and sufferings of Christ for us, might raise in all our hearts 
such a high estimation, and such a deep admiration, as hath been 
raised in those worthies last mentioned ! It was a sweet prayer of him 
who thus prayed, ' Lord, make thy Son dear, very dear, exceeding 
dear, and only dear and precious to me.' Whenever we seriously 
think of the great and sore sufferings of Christ, it will be good to pray 
as he prayed. But, 

2. Secondly, If Jesus Christ did feel and suffer the very torments of 
hell, though not after a hellish manner, then let me infer that certainly 

1 Plutarch in vita Tit. Flam. 
VOL. V. H 



114 ' THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 

there is a hell, a place of torment provided and prepared for all wicked 
and ungodly persons.^ Danseus reckons up no less than nineteen 
several sorts of heretics that denied it ; and are there not many erro- 
neous and deluded persons that stoutly and daily assert that there is 
no hell but what men feel in their own consciences ? Ah, how many 
are there that rejoice to do evil, and delight in their abominations, and 
take pleasure in imrighteousness ! 2 But could men do thus, durst men 
do thus, did they really believe that hell was prepared and fitted for 
them, and that the fiery lake was but a little before them ? Heaven 
is a place where all is joyful, and hell is a place where all is doleful. 
In heaven there is nothing but happiness, and in hell there is nothing 
but heaviness, nothing but endless, easeless, and remediless torments. 
Did men believe this, how could they go so merrily on in the way to hell? 
Cato once said to Ccesar, Credo qmx, de inferis dicuntur falsa esse exis- 
timas, I believe that thou thinkest all that is said of hell to be false 
and fabulous. So I may say to many in this day. Surely you think that 
all that is spoken and written of hell is but a story. Don't you look 
upon the people of God to be of all men the most miserable, and your- 
selves of all men the most happy ? Yes ! Oh, but how can this be, 
did you really believe that there was a heaven for the righteous and a 
heU for the wicked ? It is an Italian proverb. Qui Venetias non vidit, 
ncm credit, &c,, He who hath not seen Venice will not believe ; and 
he who hath not lived some time there doth not understand what a city 
it is. This in a sense is true of hell. But now for the Quod sit, that 
there is a hell, that there is such a place of misery prepared and ap- 
pointed for the wicked, I shall briefly demonstrate against the high 
atheists and Socinians of this day, and therefore thus, 

[1.] First, God created angels and men after his ovm image. Man 
must be so much honoured as to be made like God ; and no creature 
must be so much honoured as to be made like man. The pattern 
after which man was made is sometimes called image alone. So ' God 
created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him,' 
Gen. i. 27. Sometimes likeness alone: Gen. v. 1, 'In the day that 
God created man, in the likeness of God made he him.' Sometimes 
both : Gen. i. 26, ' Let us make man in our image, after our likeness ;' 
which makes a prudent interpreter think that when they are joined it 
is by hendiadys, and that the Holy Ghost meaneth an image most hke 
his own. 3 It is exceeding much for man's honour that he is an epit- 
ome of the world, an abridgment of other creatures, partaking with 
the stones in being, with the stars in motion, with the plants in grow- 
ing, with the beasts in sense, and with angels in science. But his 
being made after God's image is far more. You know, when great 
men erect a stately building, they cause their own picture to be hung 
upon it, that spectators may know who was the chief founder of 
it. So when God had created the fabric of this world, the last tiling 

^ All the hell Socinians grant is annihilation, by reason it is said, they shall be 
destroyed, vide Socinus, Racov[ian] Cat[echism], Crellius, Biddle, liichardson, &c. 

^ Jer. xi. 15 ; Prov. ii. 14 ; Isa. Ixv. 3 ; 2 Thes. ii. 11 ; Mat. xxv. 41 ; Isa. xxx. 33. 
Andr. Rivet, in Gen. Exercit. 4. Nihil est in mcecrocosmo magnum prater micro- 
cosmum, There is nothing in the vast world of creatures truly great, except the little 
world of ma.n.—Favorinus. [It takes another form— There is nothing great on earth but 
man, and there is nothing great in man but mind.— G.] 



THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 115 

he did was the setting up his own picture in it, creating man after his 
own image. When the great Creator went about that noble work, that 
prime piece of maldng of man, he doth, as it were, call a solemn council 
of the sacred persons in the Trinity : ' And God said, Let us make man 
in our image,' &c.. Gen. i. 26. Man before his fall was the best of 
creatures, but since his fall he is become the worst of creatures, i He 
that was once the image of God, the glory of Paradise, the world's 
lord, and the Lord's darling, is now become an abomination to God, a 
burden to heaven, a plague to the world, and a slave to Satan. When 
man first came out of God's mint he did shine most gloriously, as being 
bespangled with holiness and clad with the royal robe of righteousness ; 
his understanding' was filled with knowledge ; his will with upright- 
ness ; his afiections with holiness, &c. But yet, being a mutable crea- 
ture, and subject to temptations, Satan quickly stripped him of his 
happiness, and cheated and cozened him of his imperial crown — as 
we use to do children — with an apple. If God had created angels and 
men immutable, he had created them gods and not creatures; but 
being made mutable we know they did fall from their primitive purity 
and glory ; and we know that out of the whole host of angels he kept 
some from falling ; and when all mankind was fallen he redeemed 
some by his Son. Now mark, as he shews mercy upon some in their 
salvation, so it is meet that he should glorify his justice upon others 
in their condemnation, Rom. vii. 21-23. And because there must be 
distinct places for the exercise of the one and for the execution of the 
other, which are in God equally infinite by an irrecoverable 2 decree 
from the foundation of the world, a glorious habitation was prepared 
for the one, and a most hideous dungeon for the other. ' These shall 
go into everlasting punishment, and the righteous into life eternal,' 
Mat. XXV. 46 ; yea, so certain are both these places that they were of 
old prepared for that very purpose. ' Inherit the kingdom prepared 
for you from the foundation of the world ; ' and so, ' Depart, ye cursed, 
into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels,' ver. 41. 
Look, as God foresaw the different estates and conditions of men and 
angels, so he provided for them distinct and different places. Doubt- 
less, hell was constituted before angels or men fell. Hell was framed 
before sin was hatched, as heaven was formed and fitted before any of 
the inhabitants were produced. But, 

[2.] Secondly, That there is a hell, both the Old and New Testament 
doth clearly and fully testify. Take some instances : Ps. ix. 17, ' The 
wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.' 
In the Hebrew there are two 'intos,' 'into, into' hell; that is, 'The 
wicked shall certainly be turned into the nethermost hell;' yea, they 
shall forcibly be turned into the lowest and darkest place in hell.^ 
God will, as it were, with both hands thrust him into hell. If Sheol 
here signify the grave only, what punishment is here threatened to 
the wicked, which the righteous is not equally liable to? Doubtless, 
Sheol here is to be taken for that prison or place of torment where 

^ Man, saith one, in his creation is angelic; in his corruption diabolical ; in his reno- 
vation theological ; in his translation majcstical; an angel in Eden, a devil in the world, 
a saint in tiie church, a king in heaven. 

' = irreversible. — G. 

^ Sheol is often put for the grave, Ps. xvi. 10, but not always. 



116 THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 

divine justice detains all those in hold that have all their days rebelled 
against him, scorned his Son, despised the means of grace, and died 
in open rebellion against him.i The psalmist, saith my author, 
[MoUerus,] declares the miserable condition of all those who live and 
die in their sins: 'jEtemis punientur pmiis,' They shall be everlast- 
ingly punished. And Musculus reads the place thus: 'Animi im- 
piorum cruciatihus debitis apud inferos piinientur,' The souls of the 
ungodly shall be punished in hell with deserved torments. Certainly, 
the very place in which the wicked shall lodge and be tormented to 
all eternity — viz., hell, the bottomless pit, a dungeon of darkness, a 
lake of fire and brimstone, a fiery furnace, — will extremely aggravate 
the dolefulness of their condition. 2 sirs, were all the water in the 
sea ink, and every pile of grass a pen, and every l^air on all the men's 
heads in the world the hand of a ready writer, all would be too short 
graphically to delineate the nature of this dungeon, where all lost 
souls must lodge for ever. Where is the man who, to gain a world, 
would lodge one night in a room that is haunted with devils ; and is 
it nothing to dwell in hell with them for ever ? So Solomon, Prov, v. 
5, saith of the harlot, ' that her feet go down to death, her steps take 
hol3 on hell.' Here Sheol is translated hell, and in the judgment of 
Lavater is well translated too : Foveam vel infernum passus ejus 
tenebunt; which, saith he, is spoken not so much of natural death as 
of spiritual, and that eternal destruction which followeth thereupon ; 
and he gives this for a reason why we should understand the place so, 
because whoredom being an abominable sin, defiling the members of 
the body of Christ, dissolving and making void the covenant between 
God and man, must needs be accompanied with an equivalent judg- 
ment, even excluding those that are guilty thereof, without repent- 
ance, the kingdom of heaven, into which pure and undefiled place no 
unclean thing can enter.3 And mark those words of the apostle, 
' Whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.' If men will not 
judge them, God himself will, and give them a portion of misery an- 
swerable to their transgression. * Though the magistrate be negligent 
in punishing them, yet God will judge them. Sometimes he judges 
them in this life, by pouring forth of his wrath upon their bodies, 
, souls, consciences, names, and estates ; but if he do not thus judge 
1 them in this life, yet he will be sure to judge them in the life to come ; 
which Bishop Latimer well understood when he presented to Henry 
the Eighth, for a New-year's gift, a New Testament, with a napkin, 
having this posie about it, ' Whoremongers and adulterers God will 
judge; '5 yea, he has already adjudged them 'to the lake that burn- 
eth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death,' Eev. xxi. 8. 
' Nothing,' saith one, ' hath so much enriched hell as beautiful faces.' 
The Germans have a proverb that ' the pavement of hell is made of 
the skulls of shaved priests and the glorious crests of gallants.' 

^ In tenebras ex tenebris; infeliciter exclusi, irifelicius excludendi.— -4w£rMs<me. 

* Vide Bellarmine de Eter. Fselic. 

" By death and hell is in this place meant not only temporal death and the visible 
grave, but also eternal death and hell itself, even the place of the damned.— T'/ic Dutch 
Annotations. 

♦ 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10 ; Gal. v. 19-21; T^ev. xxi. 27; Heb. xiii. 4. 
» [Foxe] .\ct. and Mon., 1594. 



THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 117 

Their meaning is, that these sorts of persons being most given up to 
fleshly lusts and pleasures, they shall be sure to have the lowest place 
in hell. The harlot's feet go down to death, and her steps take hold 
on hell.^ Wantonness brings men to hell. ' Whoremongers shall 
have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone/ 
Kev. xxi. 8. ' For fornication and uncleanness the wrath of God 
Cometh on the children of disobedience,' Col. iii. 5, 6. The adulterer 
herself goes thither; and is it not fit that her companions in sin should 
be her companions in misery ? * I will cast her into a bed, and them 
that commit adultery with her into gi*eat tribulation,' Kev. ii. 22. 
She hastens with sails and oars to hell, and draws her lovers with 
her. All her courses tend towards hell. Strumpets are the founda- 
tions and upholders of hell ; they are the devil's best customers. Oh, 
the thousands of men and women that are sent to hell for wantonness ! 
Hell would be very thin and empty were it not for these. Other sins 
are toilsome and troublesome, but wantonness is pleasant, and sends 
men and women merrily to hell. I have read a story, that one asking 
the devil which were the greatest sins ? he answered, ' Covetousness 
and lust.' The other asking again, whether perjury and blasphemy 
were not greater sins? the devil replied, that in the schools of 
divinity they were the greater sins, but for the increase of his 
revenues the other were the greater. Bede,2 therefore, styleth 
lust, Filiam diaboli, ' the daughter of the devil, which bringeth 
forth many children to him.' Oh that all wantons would take that 
counsel of Bernard, ^ ' Ardor gehennce extinguat in te ardorem luxuricB, 
major ardor minorem superet;' let the fire of hell extinguish the fire 
of lust in thee ; let the greater burning overcome the lesser, 1 Tim. v. 6. 
Ponder upon that Prov. ix. 18, ' But he knoweth not that the dead 
are there, and that her guests are in the depths of hell.' To wit, those 
that are spiritually dead, and that are in the high way to be cut off, 
either by filthy diseases, or by the rage of the jealous husband, or by 
the sword of the magistrate, or by some quarrels arising amongst those 
that are rivals in the harlot's love, and are as sure to be damned as if 
they were in hell already. A metaphor from a dungeon. He knoweth 
not that the dead are there, and that her guests are in the depths of 
hell. Aben Ezra will have the original word D^ ibi, ' there,' to be 
referred to hell ; * and the meaning of the whole verse to be more 
plainly thus, He knoweth not that her guests being dead are in the 
depth of hell. But the Hebrew word here used and translated dead, 
is Bephaim, which word, Rephaim, properly signifies giants, and to 
that sense is always rendered by the seventy <ylyavT€<;. The meaning 
of this place seems to be no other, but that the strange woman will 
bring them who are her guests to hell, to keep the apostate giants com- 
pany, — those mighty men of renown of the old world, whose wicked- 
ness was so great in the earth, that it repented and grieved God that 
he had made man. Gen. vi. 4, 5 ; and to take vengeance on whom he 
brought the general deluge upon the earth, and destroyed both man 

^ This is a catachrestical metaphor : they are sure to bring her thither, as a man hath 
that in possession on which with much delight he takes fast hold. 
^ Bede, in Prov. xxx. ^ Bern. Serm. 23, ad soror. 

* Aben Ezra, in hunc vers. 



118 THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 

and beast from the face thereof. These giants are called in Hebrew 
Nephilhn, such as, being fallen from God, fell upon men, and by force 
and violence made others fall before them, even as the beasts of the 
field do fall before the roaring lions. These great oppressors were first 
drowned, and then damned, and sent to that accursed place which was 
appointed for them. Now to that place and condition, in which they 
are, the harlot will bring all her wanton lovers. Take one scripture 
more : Pro v. xv. 11, ' HeU. and destruction are before the Lord ; how 
much more then the hearts of the children of men.'i Some think the 
latter is exegetical of the former ; some by Sheol understand the grave, 
and by Abaddon hell. There is nothing so deep, or secret, that can 
be hid from the eyes of God. He knows the souls in hell, and the 
bodies in the grave, and much more men's thoughts here in this place, 
Prov. XV. 11. The Jews take the word Ahaddon, which we render 
destruction, for Gehenna, that is, elliptically for Beth-Abaddon, the 
house of destruction. Though we know not where hell is, nor what is 
done there — though we know not what is become of those that are 
destroyed, nor what they suffer, yet God doth ; and if the secrets of 
hell and devils are known to him, then much more the secrets of the 
hearts of the children of men. The devil, who is the great executioner 
of the wrath of God, is expressed by this word ; as hell is called 
destruction in the abstract, so the devil is called a destroyer in the 
concrete. ' And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the 
bottomless pit, or hell, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, 
but in the Greek tongue hath his name ApoUyon,' Kev. ix. 11. Both 
the one and the other, the Hebrew and the Greek, signify the same 
thing — ^a destroyer. The devil, who is the jailer of hell, is called a 
destroyer, as hell itself is called destruction. Oh, sirs ! hell is destruc- 
tion ; they that are once there are lost, yea, lost for ever, Kev. xiv. 11. 
The reason why hell is called destruction, is because they that are cast 
to hell are undone to all eternity. * If hell,' said one, ' were to be 
endured a thousand years, methinks I could bear it, but for ever, that 
amazeth me.' . Bellarmine, out of Barocius,^ tells us of a learned man, 
who after his death appeared to his friend, complaining that he was 
adjudged to hell-torments, which, saith he, were they to last but a 
thousand thousand years, I should think it tolerable, but alas ! they 
are eternal. The fire in hell is like that stone in Ai'cadia I have read 
of, which being once kindled, could not be quenched.^ There is no 
estate on earth so miserable, but a man may be delivered out of it ; 
but out of hell there is no deliverance. It is not the prayer, no, not of 
a Gregory, though never so great, whatever they fable, that can rescue 
any that is once become hell's prisoner. I might add other scriptures 
out of the Old Testament, but let these suffice. 

That there is such a place as hell is, prepared for the torment of the 
bodies and souls of wicked and impenitent sinners, is most clear and 
evident in the New Testament as well as in the Old. Amongst the 
many that might be produced, take these for a taste : Mat. v. 22, 
' But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without 
a cause' — rashly, vainly, and unreasonably — ' shall be in danger of the 

^ Destruction is put as an adjunct or epithet of hell. 

^ i)e arte bene moriendi. [Qu., 'Baronius' ? — G.] ^ As before, * asbestos.'- G. 



THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 119 

judgment ; and whosoever shall say to his brother, Kaca, shall be in 
danger of the council ; but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in 
danger of hell fire,' — G7\, to, or in the Gehenna of fire. 

In this scripture our Lord Jesus doth allude to the custom of pun- 
ishing offenders used among the Jews. Now there were three degrees 
of punishments that were used among the Jews. 

First, In every town where there were a hundred and twenty 
inhabitants, there was a little council of three, which judged smaller 
matters, for which whipping or some pecuniary mulct was imposed. 

Secondly, There was a council consisting of three-and-twenty ; seven 
of these were judges, fourteen assessors, who were mostly of the Levites; 
and to these were added two supernumeraries, which made the twenty- 
three, which the Hebrews generally say was the number that made up 
the second council. Now this council sat in the gates of the city, 
and did judge of civU matters, having also power of life and death, 
[Josephus,] 

Thirdly, There was the great synedrion, or high court of judicatory, 
which consisted of seventy-and-two, six chosen of every tribe. Now 
this council sat in the court of the temple, and had aU matters of 
greatest moment brought before them, as heresy, idolatry, apostasy. 
Sometimes they convented before them the high priest, and sometimes 
false prophets, yea, sometimes a whole tribe, as my reverend author 
thinks, [Beza.] Now look, as there is a gradation of sin, so there is a 
gradation of punishment pointed at in this scripture ; for the opening 
of which, consider you have here three degrees of secret murder, or of 
inward heart murder. And, 

[1,] The first is rash anger. Now this brings a man in danger of 
the judgment. By the judgment he means not the judgment of the 
three, who judged of money matters, but by judgment he means the 
council of the tliree-and-twenty men. Now they are called ' the judg- 
ment,' because they judged of murders, and inflicted death, &c. Now 
he that shall rashly, vainly, causelessly, unseasonably be angry with 
his brother, he shall be liable to the punishments that are to be inflicted 
by the j udges. Look, what punishments they in the Sanhedrim inflicted 
upon actual and apparent murderers, the same were they liable to, and 
did deserve at the hands of God, who were guilty of this secret kind of 
murder, viz., rash anger. From the different degrees of punishments 
among the Jews, Christ would shew the degrees of punisment in an- 
other world, according to the greatness of men's sins. As if he should 
say : Look, as among you Jews there are dififerent offences — some are 
judged in your little council of three, and others are judged in your 
council of three-and-twenty, and others in your great Sanhedrim — so 
in the high court of heaven, some sins, as rash anger, are less punished, 
and others are more sorely punished, as when your rash anger shall 
break forth into railings, &c. In these words, ' Whosoever is angry 
with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of judgment,' you 
may see that Christ gives as much to rash anger as the Jews did to 
murder ; as if he should have said, * You Pharisees exceed all measure 
and bounds in your anger, and, with a malicious heart, you rail upon 
the most innocent persons, upon me and my disciples ; but I would 
have you take heed of rash anger, for you shall have greater torments 



120 THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 

in hell for your rash anger than those that murderers sufifer by your 
council of three-and-twenty/ But these words, ' he shall be in danger 
of judgment/ do contain the reward and punishment of unlawful anger; 
as if our Saviour had said, ' Kash anger shall not escape just punish- 
ment, but shall be arraigned and summoned before God's tribunal at 
the dreadful day of judgment, when the angry man shall not be able 
to answer one word of a thousand/ 

[2.] The second kind of secret murder is to say to our brother, Kaca, 
that is, say some, ' vain man ' ! Others say, it signifies a brainless 
fellow ; and the learned Tremellius saith, it signifies one void of judg- 
ment, reason, and brains. Some will have this word Kaca come of 
the Greek paKto^, Bacos, cloth, as though one should call a man a base 
patch, or piece of cloth, or beggarly. i Kaca signifies an idle head, a 
light brain; for so Bik in the Hebrew, to which the Syriac word 
Bacha agreeth both in sound and sense, signifieth light or vain, Kacha 
is a Syriac word, and signifies, say some, these three things: — 1. 
Empty, as empty of wealth, or poor ; or as some, empty of brains or 
wit; or, as others, a light-head or cock-brain, wide 2 and empty of 
wisdom or understanding. 2. It signifies spittle or spit upon ; to 
signify that they esteemed one another no better than the spittle they 
spat out of their mouths. 3. It signifies contemned, vile, despised, 
abject, and in this signification one, in his proem of the Syriac Gram- 
mar, [Michael Maronita,] thinks it to be taken. The Ethiopian ex- 
pounds Bacha thus, ' He that shall say to his brother. Be poor by con- 
tempt, and of torn garments, shall be guilty of the council ; ' such a 
one, saith our Saviour, ' shall be in danger of the council,' that is, 
contract as great guilt unto himself, and is subject to as severe a 
judgment in the court of heaven, as any capital crime that is censured 
in the Sanhedrim or high-court of the Jews. But, 

[3.] The third kind of secret murder is an open reviling and 
reproaching of a brother in these words, ' But whosoever shall say, 
Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire.' ' Thou fool,' this is a word 
of greater disgrace than the former, ficope signifies unsavoury, or with- 
out relish ; a fool here is, by a metaphor, called insipid, Hebrew r\^w 
Sote, which we call Sot, ' shall be in danger of hell-fire,' or to be cast 
into Gehenna. Gehenna comes from the Hebrew word Getttnnom, 
that is, the valley of Hinnom, lying near the city of Jerusalem ; in 
which valley, in former timeSj the idolatrous Jews caused their children 
to be burned alive between the glowing arms of the brazen image of 
Moloch, imitating the abominations of the heathen. Josh. xv. 8. And 
hence the Scripture often makes use of that word to signify the place 
of eternal punishment, where the damned must abide under the wrath 
of God for ever, 2 Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. vii. 31, xxxii. 35, and xix. 
4, 5, 6. There were four kinds of punishments exercised among the 
Jews,— 1. Stranglings ; 2. The sword ; 3. Stoning ; 4. The fire. Now 
this last they always judged the worst, as Beza afiirms upon this very 
place. In these words, ' shall be in danger of hell-fire,' Christ alludes 

^ Whether the word Raca be Hebre-w, or as some say Syriac, or as others say Chaldee, 
it matters not; for all agree in this, that it is a word that notes scorn and contempt, 
&c.— Vide Lapide, Weemes, &c., on the Judicial Law of Moses, and Dr Field, 'Of the 
Church. ' 2 Query, ' void ' ?— Ed. 



THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 121 

to the great Sanhedrim, and the highest degree of punishment that 
was inflicted by them, namely, to be bm*ned in the valley of Hinnom, 
which, by a known metaphor, is transferred to hell itself, and the 
inexpressible torments thereof. For as those poor wretches being 
inclosed in a brazen idol, heat with fire, were miserably tormented in 
this valley of Hinnom ; so the wicked being cast into hell, the prison 
of the damned, shall be eternally tormented in unquenchable fire. 
This valley of Hinnom, by reason of the pollution of it with slaughter, 
blood, and stench of carcasses, did become so execrable, that hell itself 
did afterwards inherit the same name, and was called Gehenna of this 
very place. And that, 1. In respect of the hollowness and depth 
thereof, being a low and deep valley. 2. This valley of Hinnom 
was a place of misery, in regard of those many slaughters that were 
committed in it through their barbarous idolatry ; so hell is a place 
of misery and infelicity, wherein there is nothing but sorrow. 3. 
Thirdly, by the bitter and lamentable cries of poor infants in this 
valley, is shadowed out the cries and lamentable torments of the 
damned in hell. 4. In this valley of Hinnom was another fire which 
was kept continually burning for the consuming of dead carcasses, and 
filth, and the garbage ^ that came out of the city. Now our Saviour, by 
the fire of Gehenna, in this Mat. v. 22, hath reference principally to this 
fire, signifying hereby the perpetuity and everlastingness of hellish pains. 
To this last judgment of the Sanhedrim, viz., burning, doth Christ 
appropriate that kind of murder, which is by open reviling of a 
brother, that he might notify the heinousness of that sin. Mark, in 
this scripture, judgment, council, and hell-fire do but signify three 
degrees of the same punishment, &c. 

See also Mat. v. 29, 30, ' And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it 
out, and cast it from thee ; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy 
members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast 
into hell. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it 
from thee ; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should 
perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell-fire. ' Julian , 
taking these commands literally, mocked at [the] Christian religion, as 
foolish, cruel, and vain, because they require men to maim their mem- 
bers. He mocked at Christians because no man did it ; and he 
mocked at Christ because no man obeyed him. But this apostate 
might have seen from the scope that these words were not to be taken 
literally, but figuratively. Some of the ancients, by the right hand, 
and the right eye, do understand relations, friends, or any other dear 
enjoyments which draws the heart from God. Others of them, by the 
right eye, and the right hand, do understand such darhng sins that 
are as dear to men as their right eyes or right hands. That this hell 
here spoken of is not meant of the grave, into which the body shall be 
laid, is most evident, because those Christians who do pull out their 
right eyes, and cut off their right hands — that is, mortify those special 
sins wliich are as dear and near to them as the very members of their 
bodies — shall be secured and delivered from this hell, whereas none 
shall be exempt from the grave, though they are the choicest persons 
on earth for grace and holiness. Death, like the Duke of Parma's 

^ Spelled ' garbid-e.'— G. 



122 THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 

sword, knows no difference betwixt robes and rags, betwixt prince and 
peasant. ' All flesh is grass,' Isa. xl. 6. The flesh of princes, nobles, 
counsellors, generals, &c., is grass, as well as the flesh of the meanest 
beggar that walks the streets. ' The mortal scythe,' saith one, ' is 
master of the royal sceptre, it mows down the lilies of the crown, as 
well as the grass of the field.i Never was there orator so eloquent, 
nor monarch so potent, that could either persuade or withstand the 
stroke of death when it came. Death's motto is, NuUi cedo. It is 
one of Solomon's sacred aphorisms, ' The rich and the poor meet to- 
gether,' Prov. xxii. 2, sometimes in the same bed, sometimes at the 
same board, and sometimes in the same grave. Death is the com- 
mon inn of all mankind. ' There is no defence against the stroke of 
death, nor no discharge in that war,' Heb. ix. 27; Eccles. viii. 8. 
Death is that only king against whom there is no rising up, Prov. 
XXX. 31. If your houses be fired, by good help they may be quenched ; 
if the sea break out, by art and industry it may be repaired ; if princes 
invade by power and policy, they may be repulsed ; if devils from hell 
shall tempt, by assistance from heaven they may be resisted. But 
death comes into royal palaces, and into the meanest cottages, and 
there is not a man to be found that can make resistance against this 
king of terrors and terror of kings. Death's motto is, Nemini parco, 
I spare none. Thus you see that by hell in Mat. v. 29, 30, you may 
not, you cannot, understand the grave ; and therefore by it you must 
understand the place of the damned. But if you please you may cast 
your eye upon another scripture, viz., Mat. x. 28, ' Fear not them 
which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul ; but rather fear 
him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.' The word 
' rather' is not a comparative, but an adversative. We should not 
fear man at all when he stands in competition with God. So Victo- 
rian, the proconsul of Carthage, being solicited to Arianism by the 
ambassadors of King Hunnerick, answered thus, 2 ' Being assured of 
God and my Lord Christ, I tell you, what you may tell the king. Let 
him burn me, let him drive me to the beasts, let him torment me with 
all kinds of torments, I shall never consent to be an Arian;' and 
though the tyrant afterwards did torture him with very great tortures, 
yet he could never work him over to Arianism. The best remedy 
against the slavish fear of tyrants, is to set that great God up as the 
object of our fear, who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. 
Mark, he doth not say to destroy soul and body simply or absolutely, 
so that they should be no more — for that many that love their lusts, 
and prize the world above a Saviour, would be contented withal, 
rather than to run the hazard of a fierce, hot persecution — but to 
punish them eternally in hell, where the worm never dieth, nor the 
fire never goeth out. Now by hell in this Mat. x. 28, the grave can- 
not be meant, because the soul is not destroyed with the body in the 
grave, as they both shall be, if the person be wicked, after the morn- 
ing of the resurrection, in hell, Eccles. xii. 7, and Phil, i, 3. From 
the immortality of the soul, we may infer the eternity of man's future 
condition. The soul being immortal, it must be immortally happy or 

1 Horat. 1. 1, Ode 28. [Qu. rather 1. 1, Ode 4 ?-G.] 

' Victor. Uticens. 1. 3. Wandal. Persecut. [Clarke, as before. — G.] 



THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 123 

immortally miserable. It was Luther's complaint of old, ' We more 
fear the pope, with his purgatory, than God, with his hell ; and we 
trust more in the absolution of the pope from purgatory, than in the 
true absolution of God from hell.' And is it not so with many this 
day, who bear their heads high in the land, and who look and long 
for nothing more than to see Eome^ flourishing in the midst of us ? 

Take one scripture more, viz., 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20, ' By which also he 
went and preached unto the spirits in prison ; which sometimes were 
disobedient, when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of 
Noah.' 2 That is, Christ by his Spirit, in the ministry of Noah, did 
preach to the men of the old world who are now in hell. In Noah's 
time they were on earth, but in Peter's time they were in hell. Mark, 
Christ did not preach by his Spirit, in his ministry, or any other way, 
to spirits who were in prison or in hell while he preached to them. 
There are no sermons in hell, nor any salvation there. The loving- 
kindness of God is abundantly declared on earth, but it shall never be 
declared in hell. Look, as there is nothing felt in hell but destruction, 
so there is nothing found in hell of the offers of salvation. One offer 
of Christ in hell would turn hell into a heaven. One of the ancients 
hath reported the opinion of some in his time who thought, that 
though there be destruction in hell, yet not eternal destruction, but 
that sinners should be punished, some a lesser, others a longer time, 
and that, at last, all shaU be freed. ' And yet,' saith he, ' Origen was 
more merciful in that point than these men, for he held that the 
devil himself should be saved at last.' Of this opinion I shall say no 
more in this place, than this one thing which he there said. These 
men will be found to err by so much the more foully, and against the 
right words of God so much the more perversely, by how much they 
seem to themselves to judge more mercifully ; for indeed the justice of 
God in punishing of sinners is as much above the reach of man's 
thoughts as his mercies in pardoning them are, Isa. Iv. 7-9. Oh, let « 
not such who have neglected the great salvation when they were 
on earth, Heb. ii. 3, ever expect to have an offer of salvation made to 
them when they are in hell ! Consult these scriptures. Mat. xxv. 30, 
xiii. 41, 42 ; Eev. ix. 2, xiv. 19, 20, xx. 1-3, 7. I must make haste, 
and therefore may not stand upon the opening of these scriptures, hav- 
ing said enough already to prove both out of the Old and New Testa- 
ment that there is a hell, a place of torment, provided and prepared 
for all wicked and ungodly men. But the third argument to prove 
that there is a hell, is this, — 

[3.] The beams of natural light in some of the heathens have made 
such impressions on the heart of natural coTiscietice, that several of 
them have had confused notions of a hell, as ivell as of a judgment to 
come. Though the poor blind heathens were ignorant of Christ 

^ Spelled ' Room,' and thereby showing the pronunciation of the day ; on which, as 
illustrated by this word, see various communications in 'Notes and Queries' for 1866. — G. 

^ Spirits, that is, the souls departed, not men, but spirits, to keep an analogy to the 
18th ver., ' Christ suffered, being made dead in the flesh, and made alive by the Spirit ; 
in which Spirit he had gone and preached to them that are now spirits in prison, because 
they disobeyed, when the time was, when the patience of God once waited in the days of 
'Soa.h.—Broughton, in his Epistle to the Nobility of England. Augustine, lib. i. d« civ. 
del. cap. 17. 



124 THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 

and the gospel, and the great work of redemption, &c., yet by the 
light of nature, and reasonings from thence, they did attain to the 
understanding of a deity, who was both just and good ; as also, that 
the soul was immortal, and that both rewards and punishments 
were prepared for the souls of men after this life, according as they 
were found either virtuous or vicious. Profound Bradwardine, and 
several others, have produced many proofs concerning their appre- 
hensions of this truth. 1 What made the heathen Emperor Adrian 
when he lay a-dying, cry out, '0 animula vagula hlandula,' &g. 
my little wretched wandering soul, whither art thou now hastening ? &c. 
Oh, what will become of me ! live I cannot, die I dare not ! but some 
discoveries of hell, of wrath to come ? Look, as these poor heathens did 
feign such a place as the Elysian fields, where iihe virtuous should 
spend an eternity in pleasures ; so also they did feign a place called 
Tartarum, or hell, where the vicious should be eternally tormented. 
Tertullian, and after him Chrysostom, affirmeth that poets and philo- 
sophers, and all sorts of men, speaking of a future retribution, have 
said that many are punished in hell. Plato is very plain, that whoever 
are not expiated, but profane, shall go into hell to be tormented for 
their wickednesses, with the greatest, most bitter and terrible punish- 
ments, for ever in that prison in hell. And Jupiter, speaking to the 
other gods concerning the Grecians and Trojans, saith, — 

If any shall so hardy be, 
To aid each part in spite of me ; 
Him will I tumble down to hell, 
In that infernal place to dwell.''' 

So Horace, speaking concerning Jove's thunderbolts, says, — 

Quo bruta tellus et vaga flumina, 

Quo Styx, et invisi horrida Taenari sedes, &c. 

With which earth, seas, the Stygian lake, 
J And hell with all her furies quake.' 

And Trismegistus affirms concerning the soul's going out of the 
body defiled, that it is tossed to and fro with eternal punishments. ^ 
Nor was Virgil ignorant thereof when he said, — 

Dent ocyus omnes, 
Quas meniere pati — sic stat sententia — pcenas. 

They all shall pack, 
Sentence once past, to their deserved rack.* 

The horror of which place he acknowledgeth he could not express, 

Non mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, .... 
Omnia psenarum percurrere nomina possim. 

No heart of man can think, no tongue can tell, 
The direful pains ordained and felt in hell.^ 

It was the common opinion among the poor heathen that the wicked 
were held in chains by Pluto — so they called the prince of devils— in 

^ Bradw. de causa del, i. 1, cap. 1, &c. " Iliad, viii. 10-13 G 

=* Odes 1, 34, 10.— G. 

* One of the many opinions ascribed to Trismegistus, who, like Socrates, left no 
writings. — G. 

* Not Virgil, but Ovid, Met. Tiii. 3.— G. e Virgil— ^Eneid, vi. 625.— G. 



THAT THERE IS MOST CERTAINLY A HELL. 125 

chains which cannot be loosed. To conclude, the very Turks speak of 
the house of perdition, and affirm that they who have turned the grace 
of God into impiety, shall abide eternally in the fire of hell, and there 
be eternally tormented, i I might have spent much more time upon 
this head, but that I do not judge it expedient, considering the persons 
for whose sakes and satisfaction I have sent this piece into the world. 
But, 

[4.] Fourthly, The secret checTcs, gripes, stings, and the amazing 
horrors and terrors of conscience, that do sometimes astonish, affright, 
and even distract sinful luretches, do clearly and abundantly evidence 
that there is a hell, that there is a place of torment prepared and ap- 
pointed for ungodly sinners.- Doubtless, it was not merely the dissolu- 
tion of nature, but the sad consequent, that so startled and terrified 
Belshazzar wben he saw the handwriting on the wall, Dan. v. 5, 6. 
Guilty man, when conscience is awakened, fears an after-reckoning, 
when he shall be paid the wages of his crying sins proportionable to 
his demerits. 

Wolfius 3 tells you of one John Hufmeister that fell sick in his inn 
as he was travelling towards Augsburg in Germany, and grew to that 
horror that they were fain to bind him in his bed with chains, where 
he cried out that ' he was for ever cast ofi" from before the face of God, 
and should perish for ever, he having greatly wounded his conscience 
by sin,' &c. 

James Abyes, who suffered martyrdom for Christ's sake and the 
gospel's, as he was going along to execution he gave all his money and 
his clothes away to one and another to his shirt, upon which one of 
the sheriff's attendants scoffingly said that ' he was a madman and a 
heretic ; ' but as soon as the good man was executed this wretch was 
struck mad, and threw away his clothes, and cried out that ' James 
Abyes was a good man, and gone to heaven, but he was a wicked 
man, and was damned ; ' and thus he continued crying out until his 
death. 4 

Dionysius was so troubled with fear and horror of conscience, that, 
not daring to trust his best friends with a razor, he used to singe his 
beard with burning coals, [Cicero.] 

Bessus having slain his father, and being afterwards banqueting 
with several nobles, arose from the table and beat down a swallow's 
nest which was in the chimney, saying they lied ' to say that he slew 
his father,' for his guilty conscience made him think that the swallows, 
when they chattered, proclaimed his parricide to the world. ^ 

Theodoricus the king having slain Boetius and Symmachus, and 
being afterwards at dinner, began to change countenance, his guilty 
conscience so blinding his eyes that he thought the head of a fish 
which stood before him to have been the head of his cousin Symmachus, 
who bit his lip at him and threatened him, the horror whereof did so 
amaze him that he presently died.^ 

» Alcoran, Mahom. c. 14, p. 160, and c. 20, p. 198. 

* Stia quemque exagitant furice, Ever}' man is tormented with his own fury, that is 
his conscience, saith the philosopher. 

* AVolf. Lectiones, Memor. tom. 2, &c. ■* Foxe, as before. — G. 

" Plut. de sera {numinW] vindicata. [Misprinted 'Bossus,' cf. Plutarch, Alexander, 
42, 43, &c. — G.] * Sigonius de occid. Imper. 



126 THAT THE TORMENTS OF HELL ARE 

Nero, that monster of nature, having once slain his mother, had 
never more any peace within, but was astonished with horrors, fears, 
visions, and clamours which his guilty conscience set before him and 
suggested unto him. Imo latens in prcedio, famiUares suspectos 
habuit, vocem humanam horruit, ad catuli latratum, galli cantum, 
rami ex vento motum, terrehatur ; loqui non ausus, ne audiretur : He 
suspected his nearest and dearest friends and favourites, he trembled 
at the barking of a puppy, and the crowing of a cock, yea, the wagging 
of a leaf, and neither durst speak unto others nor could endure others 
to speak to him, when he was retired into a private house, lest the 
noise should be heard by some who lay in wait for his life.i- 

Now were there not a hell, were there not a place of torment where 
God will certainly inflict unspeakable miseries and intolerable torments 
upon wicked and ungodly men, why should their consciences thus 
amaze, torture, and torment them ? Yea, the very heathen had so 
much light in their natural consciences, as made such a discovery of 
that place of darkness, that some of them have been terrified with 
their own inventions concerning it, and distracted with the very sense 
of those very torments which their own persons have described. As 
Pygmalion doted on his own picture, so were they amazed with their 
own comments. The very flashes of hell-fire which sinners do daily 
experience in their own consciences in this world, may be an argument 
sufficient to satisfy them that there is a hell, a place of torment pro- 
vided for them in another world. 

[5.] Fifthly, Those matchless, careless, and endless torments that 
God ivill certainly inflict upon the bodies and souls of all ivicked and 
ungodly men, after the resurrection, does sufficiently evidence that there 
is a hell, that there is a place of torment pi^ovided, prepared, and fitted 
by God, wherein he will, ' pour forth all the vials of his wrath upon 
wicked and ungodly men : ' Isa. xxx. 33, ' For Tophet is ordained of 
old, yea, for the king it is prepared ; he hath made it deep and large, 
the 2)ile thereof is fire and much wood, the breath of the Lord like a 
stream of brimstone doth kindle it.' This place that was so famous 
for judgment and vengeance is used to express the torments of hell, 
the place of the damned. Tophet was a place in the valley of Hin- 
nom ; it was the place where the angel of the Lord destroyed the host 
of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, Isa. xxx. 31, 33 ; and this was the 
place where the idolatrous Jews were slain and massacred by the 
Babylonian armies, when their city was taken and their carcasses left, 
for want of room for bm-ial, for meat to the fowls of heaven and beasts 
of the field, according to the word of the Lord by the prophet Jere- 
miah, Jer. vii. 31-33, and xix. 4-6. And this was the place where 
the children of Israel committed that abominable idolatry in making 
their cliildren pass through the fire to Moloch ; that is, burnt them to 
the devil, 2 Kings xxiii. 10 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6 ; for an eternal de- 
struction whereof king Josiah polluted it, and made it a place exe- 
crable, ordaining it to be the place whither dead carcasses, garbage, and 
other unclean things should be cast out. For consuming whereof, to 
prevent annoyance, a continual fire was there burning, 2 Kings xxxiii. 
8. Now this jjlace, being so many ways execrable for what had been 

^ Xiphil. in Nerone, &c. [Xipilinus of Trapezus, abridgment of Dion. Cassias.— G.] 



MATCHLESS, EASELESS, AND ENDLESS. 127 

done therein, especially having been as it were the gate to eternal de- 
struction, by so remarkable judgments and vengeance of God there 
executed for sin, it came to be translated to signify the place of the 
damned, as the most accursed, execrable, and abominable place of all 
places. The Spirit of God, in Scripture, by metaphors of all sorts of 
things that are dreadful unto sense, sets forth the condition of the 
damned, and the torments that he has reserved for them in the life to 
come. Hell's punishments do infinitely exceed all other punishments ; 
no pain so extreme as that of the damned. Look, as there are no joys 
to the joys of heaven, so there are no pains to the pains of hell, Ps. 
cxvi. 3. All the cruelties in the world cannot possibly make up any 
horror comparable to the horrors of hell. The brick-kilns of Egypt, 
the furnace of Babel, ^ are but as the glowing sparkle, or as the blaze 
of a brush-faggot, to this tormenting Tophet that has been prepared of 
old to punish the bodies and souls of sinners with. Hanging, racking, 
burning, scourging, stoning, sawing asunder, flaying of the skin, &c., 
are not to be named in the day wherein the tortures of hell are spoken 
of. If all the pains, sorrows, miseries, and calamities that have been 
inflicted upon all the sons of men, since Adam fell in Paradise, should 
meet together and centre in one man, they would not so much as 
amount to one of the least of the pains of hell. Who can sum up the 
diversity of torments that are in hell 1 In hell there is, 1. Darkness ; 
hell is a dark region. 2. In hell there are sorrows. 3. In hell there 
are bonds and chains. 4. In hell there is pains and pangs. 5. In hell 
there is the worm that never dies. 6. In hell there is a lake of fire. 
7. In hell there is a furnace of fire. 8. In hell there is the devil and 
his angels ; and oh, how dreadful must it be to be shut up for ever with 
those roaring lions ! 9. In hell there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. 2 
Certainly, did men believe the torments of hell, that weeping for ex- 
tremity of heat, and that gnashing of teeth that is there for extremity 
of cold, they would never ofier to fetch profits or pleasures out of those 
flames.3 10. In heU there is unquenchable fire, Mat. iii. 12, ' He will 
burn the chafi" with unquenchable fire ;' in hell there is ' everlasting 
burnings,' Isa. xxxiii. 14. ' The sinners in Zion are afraid, fearfulness 
hath surprised the hypocrites ; who among us shall dwell with the de- 
vouring fire ? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings ? ' 
Wicked men, who are now the only jolly fellows of the time, shall one 
day go from i3urning to burning ; from burning in sin to burning in 
hell ; from burning in flames of lusts to burning in flames of torment, 
except there be found true repentance on their sides, and pardoning 
grace on God's. ^ sirs ! in this devouring fire, in these everlasting 
burnings, Cain shall find no cities to build, nor his posterity shall have 
no instruments of music to invent there ; none shall take up the 
timbrel or harp, or rejoice at the sound of the organ. There Belshazzar 

1 Babylon.— G. 

'i Jude 13; Ps. cxvi. 3; 2 Pet. ii. 4; Jude 6; Mark ix. 44; Rev. xx. 15; Mat. xiii. 
41, 42, XXV. 41, xxiv. 51, xxv. 30, xiii. 42. 

^ Who would give, saith Bernard, to my eyes a fountain of tears, that by my weeping 
here I may prevent weeping and gnashing of teeth hereafter. Some devout personages 
have caused this scripture to be writ in letters of gold upon their chimney-pieces. — 
Bishop of Belly in France in his ' Draught of Eternity.' [Camus, as before. — G.] 

* Gen. iv. 17 ; Amos vi. 7 ; Job xxi. 12 ; Dan. v. 21 ; Amos vi. 4. 



128 THAT THE TORMENTS OF HELL ARE 

cannot drink wines in bowls, nor eat the lambs out of the flocks, nor 
the calves out of the midst of the stall. In everlasting burnings there 
will be no merry company to pass time away, nor no dice nor cards to 
pass care away ; nor no cellars of wine wherein to drown the sinner's 
grief. By fire in the scriptures last cited, is meant, as I conceive, all 
the positive part of the torments of hell ; and because they are not 
only upon the soul but also upon the body. As in heaven there shall 
be all bodily perfection, so there shall be also in hell all bodily miseries. 
Whatsoever may make a man perfectly miserable shall be in hell ; 
therefore the wrath of God and all the positive effects of this wrath is 
here meant by fire. 

I have read of Pope Clement the Fifth, that when a nephew of his, 
whom he had loved sensually and sinfully, died, he sent his chaplain 
to a necromancer to learn how it fared with him in the other world. 
The conjuror shewed him the chaplain lying in a fiery bed in hell ; 
which when it was told the Pope, he never joyed more after it, but, 
within a short time after, died also.i Out of this fiery bed there is 
no deliverance. When a sinner is in hell, shall another Christ be 
found to die for him, or will the same Clmst be crucified again? 
Oh, no! 

sirs, the torments of hell will be exceeding great and terrible, 
such as will make the stoutest sinners to quake and tremble ! If the 
handwriting upon the wall, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin, made Bel- 
shazzar's ' countenance to change, his thoughts to be troubled, and his 
joints to be loosed, and his knees to be dashed one against another,' 
Dan. V. 5, vi. 25; oh, how terrible will the torments of hell be to 
the damned ! The torments of hell will be universal torments. All 
torments meet together in that place of torment. Hell is the centre 
of all punishments, of all sorrows, of all pains, of all wrath, and of all 
vengeance, &c. One of the ancients saith, [Bernard,] that the least 
punishment in hell is more grievous than if a child-bearing woman 
should continue in the most violent pangs and throes a thousand 
years together, without the least ease or intermission. 

An ancient writer mentioned by Discipulus, de tempore, goeth much 
further, affirming that if all the men which have been from Adam's 
time till this day, and which shall be to the end of the world ; and all 
the piles of grass in the world were turned into so many men to 
augment the number; and that punishment inflicted in hell upon 
any one, were to be divided amongst all these, so as to every one 
might befall an equal part of that punishment ; yet that which would 
be the portion of one man would be far more grievous than all the 
cruel deaths and exquisite tortures which have been inflicted upon 
men ever since the world began. 2 A heathen poet, speaking of the 
multitude of the pains and torments of the wicked in hell, affirmed, 

^ Jac. Reu. Hist. Pontif, Rom. 199 [tiic: but Query, * Platina Historia de Vitis Pon- 
tificum Romanorum. Colon : 1626, 4o ' ? — G.] 

* Tytius his vulture, though feeding on his liver, is but a flea-biting to the gnawing 
worm that is in hell [Qu. 'Prometheus the Titan' '^ — G.] — Ixion his wheel is a place 
of rest, if compared with those billows of wrath, and that wheel of justice which is in 
hell brought over the ungodly [Cf. Schol. ad Horn.; Od. xxi. 303; Serv. ad Virgil, ^En. 
vi. 601; Georg. iii. 38, iv. 484. — G.] — The lash of Danaiis his daughters is but a sport 
compared to the torture of the damned in hell [Pindar. Xem. x. 7 ; Ovid : Met. iv. 462 ; 
Horat. Carm. iii. 11, &c. — G.] 



MATCHLESS, BASELESS, AND ENDLESS. 



129 



* that although he had a hundred mouths, and as many tongues, with 
a voice as strong as iron, yet were they not able to express the names 
of them.' But this poet spoke more like a prophet than a poet. The 
poets tell you of a place called Tartarum, or hell, where the impious 
shall be eternally tormented. This Tartarum the poets did set forth 
with many fictions to affright people from vicious practices, sufch as 
of the four lakes of Acheron, Styx, Phlegethon^ and Cocytus ; i over 
which Charon, in his boat, did waft over the departed souls ; of the 
three judges, ^acus, Minos, and Khadamanthus,2 who were to call 
the souls to an account, and judge them to their state ; of the three 
furies, Tisophone, Megsera, and Alecto, who lashed guilty souls to 
extort confession from them ;^ of Cerberus, the dog of hell, with three 
heads, which would let none come out when once they were in ; and 
of several sorts of punishments inflicted, as iron chains, horrid stripes, 
gnawing of vultures, wheels, rolling great stones, and the like. In the 
chapel of Ticam, the China Pluto, the pains of hell were so deciphered 
that could not but strike terror into the beholders, — some roasted in 
iron beds, some fried in scalding oil, some cut in pieces, or divided in 
the middle, or torn of dogs, &c. In another part of the chapel were 
painted the dungeons of hell, with horrible serpents, flames, devils, 
&c.* 

' In hell,' saith Mahomet, [Alcoran,'&c.,] ' there is the floor of brim- 
stone, smoky, pitchy, with stinking flames, deep pits of scalding pitch, 
and sulphurous flames wherein the damned are punished daily.' There 
the wicked shall be fed with the tree Ezecum, which shall burn in their 
bellies like fire ; there they shall drink fire, and be holden in chains of 
seventy cubits. In the midst of hell, they say, is a tree full of fruit, 
every apple being like to the head of a devil, which groweth green in 
the midst of all those flames, called Zoaccum Aga£ci, or the tree of 
bitterness ; and the souls that shall eat thereof, thinking to refresh 
themselves, shall so find them, and by them and their pains in hell, 
they shall grow mad, and the devils shall bind them with chains of 
fire, and shall drag them up and down in hell ; with much more which 
I am not free to transcribe. Now, although most of those things which 
you may -find among many poets, heathens, and Turks, concerning the 
torments of hell, are fictions of their own brains ; yet that there is such 
a place as hell, and that there are diversity of torments there, the very 
light of nature doth witness, and hath forced many to confess, &c. 

And as there are diversity of torments in hell, so the torments of 
heU are everlasting. Mark, everything that is conducible to the tor- 
ments of the damned is eternal. 1. God himself that damns them is 
eternal, Deut. xxxiii. 27; 1 Tim. i. 17. 2. The fire that torments them 
is eternal, Isa. xxx. 33, and Ixvi. 24 ; Jude 7. 3. The prison and 
chains that hold them are eternal, Jude 6, 7, 13 ; 2 Pet. ii. 17. 4. 

^ Homer : Od. x. 513 ; cf. Paus. i. 17, sec. 5. Rather Pyriphlegeton. — G. 

- jEacus; Ovid, Met. xiii. 25; Horat, Carm. ii. 13, 22; Plato, Gorg. and Apolog. — 
Minos: Homer, H. xiii. 450, xiv. 322; Od. xi. 321, 567, xvii. 523, xix. 178.— Bhada- 
tnanthus: ApoUod. ill. 1, sec. 2, ii. 4, sec. 11; Horn. Od. iv. 564, vii. 323; Piniar. 
ol. ii. 137.— G. 

* Eather Tisiphone : Orph. Arg. 966. Megsera and Alecto ; Orph. Hymn 68 ; Virg.. 
Mn. xii. 845 ; Cerberus : Horn. 11. viii. 368 ; Od. xi. 623.— G. 

* Purchas his Pilgrims, 3d vol., pp. 407, 408. 

VOL. V. I 



130 THAT THE TORMENTS OF HELL ARE 

The worm that gnaws them is eternal, Mark ix. 44. 5. The sentence 
that shall be passed upon them shall be eternal, Mat. xxv. 41, ' De- 
part from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire.' You know that fire is 
the most tormenting element. l Oh, the most dreadful impression that 
it makes upon the flesh, everlasting fire !_ There is the vengeance and 
continuance of it. You shall go into fire, into everlasting fire, that shall 
never consume itself, nor consume you. Eternity of eternity is the 
hell of hell. The fire in hell is like that stone in Arcadia, which being 
once kindled could never be quenched. If all the fires that ever were, 
or shall be in the world, were contracted into one fire, how terrible 
would it be ! Yet such a fire would be but as a painted fire upon the 
wall, to the fire of hell. For to be tormented without end, this is that 
which goes beyond all the bounds of desperation,. Grievous is the 
torment of the damned, for the bitterness of the punishments, but it is 
more grievous for the diversity of the punishments, but most grievous 
for the eternity of the punishments.^ If, after so many millions of 
years as there be drops in the ocean, there might be a deliverance out 
of hell, this would yield a little ease, a little comfort to the damned. 
Oh, but this word eternity, eternity, eternity ; this word everlasting, 
everlasting, everlasting; this word /or ever, for ever, for ever, will even 
break the hearts of the damned in ten thousand pieces ! Oh, that 
word never, said a poor despairing creature on his death-bed, breaks 
my heart. ' The reprobate shall have punishment without pity ; 
misery without mercy, sorrow without succour, crying without com- 
passion, mischief without measure, and torment without end,' [Drexe- 
lius.] Plato could say, ' That whoever are not expiated, but profane, 
shall go into hell, to be tormented for their wickedness, with the greatest, 
the most bitter and terrible punishments for ever in that prison of hell.' 
And Trismegistus could say, ' That souls going out of the body defiled, 
were tossed to and fro with eternal punishments.' Yea, the very Turks, 
speaking of the house of perdition, do affirm, ' That they who have 
turned God's grace into wantonness, shall abide eternally in the fire 
of hell, and there be eternally tormented.' 3 A certain religious man 
going to visit Olympius, who lived cloistered up in a dark cell, which 
he thought uninhabitable, by reason of heat, and swarms of gnats and 
flies, and asking him how he could endure to live in such a place, he 
answered, ' All this is but a light matter, that I may escape eternal 
torments : I can endure the stinging of gnats, that I might not endure 
the stinging of conscience, and the gnawing of that worm that never 
dies ; this heat thou thinkest grievous, I can easily endure, when I 
think of the eternal fire of hell ; these sufi'erings are. but short, but the 
sufierings of hell are eternal.' 4 Certainly, infernal fire is neither toler- 
able nor terminable. Impenitent sinners in hell shall have end with- 
out end, death without death, night without day, mourning without 
mirth, sorrow without solace, and bondage without liberty. The 
damned shall live as long in hell as God himself shall live in heaven. 

^ Melanchthon calls it a hellish fury. Of this fire, see more in my ' London's Lamen- 
tation on the late Eiery Dispensation,' part ii. pag« 105-131. [Vol. vi. — Q.j 
' Dionys. in 18. Apocalyps. fol. 301. 

* Alcoran Mahom. c. liv. p. 160, &c. ; c. xx. p. 198, &c. 

* There is no Christian which doth not believe the fire of hell to be ererlasting. Dr 
Jackson on the Creed, lib. xi. c. 23. 



MATCHLESS, BASELESS, AND ENDLESS. 131 

Their imprisonment in that land of darkness, in that bottomless pit, is 
not an imprisonment during the king's pleasure, but an imprisonment 
during the everlasting displeasure of the King of kings. Suppose, say 
some, that the whole world were turned to a mountain of sand, and 
that a little wren should come every thousand year and carry away 
from that heap one grain of sand, what an infinite number of years, 
not to be numbered by all finite beings, would be spent and expired, 
before this supposed mountain could be fetched away ! Now if a man 
should lie in everlasting burnings so long a time, and then have an 
end of his woe, it would administer some ease, refreshment, and com- 
fort to him ; but when that immortal bird shall have carried away 
this supposed mountain, a thousand times over and over, alas, alas, 
sinful man shall be as far from the end of his anguish and torment as 
ever he was ; he shall be no nearer a-coming out of hell, than he was 
the very first moment that he entered into hell, l If the fire of hell 
were terminable, it might be tolerable ; but being endless, it must 
needs be easeless, and remediless. We may well say of it, as one doth, 
Oh, killing life ! oh, immortal death ! 2 

Suppose, say others, that a man were to endure the torments of hell 
as many years, and no more, as there be sands on the sea-shore, drops 
of water in the sea, stars in heaven, leaves on trees, piles of grass on 
the ground, hairs on his head, yea, upon the heads of all the sons of 
Adam that ever were or are, or shall be in the world, from the be- 
ginning of it to the end of it, yet he would comfort himself with this 
poor thought. Well, there will come a day when my misery and tor- 
ment shall certainly have an end. But woe and alas, this word, 
' never, never, never,' will fill the hearts of the damned with the greatest 
horror and terror, wrath and rage, amazement, and astonishment. 

Suppose, say others, that the torments of hell were to end, after a 
little bird should have emptied the sea, and only carry out her bill- full 
once in a thousand years. Suppose, say others, that the whole world, 
from the lowest earth to the. highest heavens, were filled with grains 
of sand, and once in a thousand years an angel should fetch away one 
grain, and so continue till the whole heap were spent. Suppose, say 
others, if one of the damned in hell, should weep after this manner, 
viz., that he should only let fall one tear in a thousand years, and 
these should be kept together, tiU such time as they should equal the 
drops of water in the sea ; how many millions of ages would pass, 
before they could make up one river, much more a whole ; and when 
that were done, should he weep again after the same manner, tUl he 
had filled a second, a third, and a fourth sea. If then there should be 
an end of their miseries, there would be some hope, some comfort, that 
they would end at last ; but that they shall never, never, never end, 
this is that which sinks them under the most tormenting terrors and 
horrors. 

You know that the extremity and eternity of hellish torments is set 
forth by the worm that never dies ; and it is observable that Christ, at 
the close of his sermon, makes a threefold repetition of this worm : 

^ An often recorring illustration with the Medieeval preachers ; as are also those that 
follow.— G. 
^ Bellar. de arte moriendi, lib. ii. c. 3. 



132 THAT THE TOBMENTS OF HELL ARE 

Mark ix. 44, * where their worm dieth not ;' and again, ver. 46, ' where 
their worm dieth not ;' and again, ver, 48, ' where their worm dieth not, 
and their fire goeth not out.' Certainly, those punishments are beyond 
all conception and expression, which our Lord Jesus doth so often in- 
culcate within so small a space. 

Now if there be such a diversity, extremity, and eternity of hellish 
pains and torments, which the great God will certainly inflict upon the 
bodies and souls of all impenitent persons, after the day of judgment ; 
then there must certainly be some hell, some place of torment, wherein 
the wrath of God shall be executed upon wicked and ungodly men. 
But, 

[6] Sixthly, The greatest part of wicked and ungodly men escape 
unpunished in this world. The greatest number of men do spend 
their days in pride, ease, pleasures, and delights, in lust and luxury, 
in voluptuousness and wantonness : ' They take the timbrel and harp, 
and rejoice to the sound of the organ ;' ' They chant to the sound of the 
viol, and invent to themselves instruments of music;' ' They di-ink wine 
in bowls ; ' ' They lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon 
their couches, and eat the lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of 
the midst of the stall ;' and therefore there will be a time when these 
shall be punished in another world, Ps. Ixxiii. 3-13 ; Job xxi. 12 ; 
Amos V. C. 

God doth not punish all here, that he may make way for the dis- 
playing of his mercy and goodness, his patience and forbearance. Nor 
doth he forbear all here, that he may manifest his justice and right- 
eousness, lest the world should turn atheist, and deny his providence, 
Eom. ii. 4, 5 ; 2 Pet. iii. 9-15. He spares that he may punish, and 
he punisheth that he may spare. God smites some sinners in the very 
acting of their sins, as he did Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and others, 
Num. xvi. ; not till they have filled up the measure of their sins, as 
you see in the men of the old world. Gen. vi. 5-7. But the greatest 
number of sinners God reserves for the great day of his wrath. Mat. 
vii. 13. There is a sure punishment, though not always a present 
punishment, for every sinner, Eccles. viii. 12, 13. Those wicked 
persons which God suflFers to go uncorrected here, he reserves to be 
punished for ever hereafter, 2 Thes. i. 7-10. Sinners, know your 
doom, — you must either smart for your sins in this world, or in the 
world to come. That ancient hit the mark that said, ' Many sins are 
punished in this world, that the providence of God might be more 
apparent ; and many, yea, most, reserved to be punished in the world 
to come, that we might know that there is yet judgment behind.' 1 

Sir James Hamilton, having been murdered by the Scottish king's 
means, he appeared to the king in a vision, with a naked sword drawn, 
and strikes off both his arms, with these words, ' Take this, before thou 
receivest a final payment for all thy impieties ;' and within twenty- 
four hours two of the king's sons died. 2 If the glutton in that historical 
parable being in hell, Luke xvi. 22-24, only in part, to wit, in soul, 
yet cried out that he ' was horribly tormented in that flame,' what 
think ye shall that torment be when body and sonl come to.be united 

^ AugtBtine, Epist. 54. 

' Mr tnox in his History of Scotland. [See Laing'a ' Works ' of Knox, i. n.— Q.] 



MATCHLESS, BASELESS, AND ENDLESS. 133 

for torture! It being just with God, that as they have been, like 
Simeon and Levi, brethren in iniquity, and have sinned together des- 
perately and impenitently, so they should suffer together jointly, 
eternally, Gen. xlix. 5. The Hebrew doctors have a pretty parable to 
this purpose : A man planted an orchard, and going from home, was 
careful to leave such watchmen as both might keep it from strangers 
and not deceive him themselves; therefore he appointed one blind, 
but strong of his limbs, and the other seeing, but a cripple. These 
two, in their master's absence, conspired together ; and the blind took 
the lame on his shoulders, and so gathered the fruit. Their master 
returning, and finding out this subtlety, punished them both together. 
So shall it be with those two sinful yoke-fellows, the soul and the body, 
in the great day ; they have sinned together, and they shall suffer at 
last together, 2 Cor. v. 10, 11. But now in this world the greatest 
number of transgressors do commonly escape all sorts of punishments ; 
and therefore we may safely conclude that there is another world, 
wherein the righteous God will revenge upon the bodies and souls of 
sinners the high dishonours that have been done to his name by them. 
But, 

[7.] Seventhly, In all things natural, and supernatural, there is an 
opposition and contrariety. There is good, and there is evil ; there 
is light and darkness, joy and sorrow. Now as there are two several 
ways, so there are two distinct ends : Heaven, a place of admirable 
and inexpressible happiness, whither the good angels convoy the souls of 
the saints who have, by a holy conversation, glorified God, and adorned 
their profession, Luke xvi. 22 ; and hell, a place of horror and con- 
fusion, whither the evil angels do hurry the souls of wicked, incor- 
rigible, and impenitent wretches, when they are once separated from 
their bodies. ' The rich man also died and was buried ; and in hell he 
lifted up his eyes, being in torments,' ver. 22, 23 ; ' and these shall 
go away into everlasting punishment, and the righteous into life 
eternal,' Mat. xxv, 46. In these words we have described the differ- 
ent estate of the wicked and the righteous after judgment, * They 
shall go away into everlasting punishment, but these into life eternal.' 
After the sentence is past, the wicked go into everlasting punishment, 
and the righteous into life eternal. Everlasting punishment, the end 
thereof is not known, its duration is undetermined. Hell is a bottom- 
less pit, and therefore shall never be fathomed. It is an unquenchable 
fire, and therefore the smoke of their torments doth ascend for 
ever and ever, Kev. xiv. 11. Hell is a prison from whence is no 
freedom, because there is no ransom to be paid. No price will be 
accepted for one in that estate. And as there is no end of the punish- 
ments of hell, into which the wicked must enter, so there is no end of 
the joys of heaven, into which the saints must enter. ' In thy presence 
is fulness of joy, and at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore,' 
Ps. xvi. 11. Here is as much said as can be said, for quality, there 
is in heaven joy and pleasures ; for quantity, a fulness, a torrent ; for 
constancy, it is at God's right hand; and for perpetuity, it is for 
evermore. The joys of heaven are without measure, mixture, or end. 
Thus you see that there are two distinct ends, two distinct places, to 
which the wicked and the righteous go. And, indeed, if this were not 



134 THAT THE TORMENTS OF HELL ARE 

80, then Nero would be as good a man as Paul, and Esau as happy a 
man as Jacob, and Cain as blessed a man as Abel. Then as believers 
say, ' If in this Hfe only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men 
most miserable,' 1 Cor. xv. 19 ; because none out of hell ever suffered 
more, if so much, as the saints have done ; so might the wicked say, 
' If in this life only we were miserable, we were then of all men most 
happy.' But, 

[8.] Eighthly, and lastly, You kjiow that all the princes of the world, 
for their greater grandeur and state, as they have their royal palaces for 
themselves, their nobles and attendants, so they have their jails, prisons, 
and dark dungeons for rogues and rohhers,for malefactors and traitors. 
And shaU not he who is the King of kings and Lord of lords, Eev, 
xix. 16 ; he who is the Prince of the kings of the earth, Eev. i. 5 ; 
he who removeth kings and setteth up kings, Dan. ii. 21 ; shall not 
he have his royal palace, a glorious heaven, where he and all his noble 
attendants, angels, and saints shall live for ever ? Shall not the 
great king have his royal and magnificent court in that upper world, 
as poor petty princes have theirs in this lower world? Surely he 
shall, as you may see by comparing the scriptures in the margin 
together. 1 And shall not the same great King have his hell, his 
prison, his dungeon, to secure and punish impenitent sinners in? 
Surely yes. And doubtless, the least glimpse of this hell, of this place 
of torment, would strike the proudest, and the stoutest sinners dead 
with horror. sirs ! they that have seen the flames, and heard the 
roarings of ^tna, the flashing of Vesuvius, the thundering and burning 
flakes evaporating from those marine rocks, have not yet seen, no, not 
so much as the very glimmering of hell. A painted fire is a better 
shadow of these, than these can be of hell torments, and the miseries 
of the damned therein. Now these eight arguments are sufficient to 
demonstrate that there is a hell, a place of torment, to which the 
wicked shall be sent at last. Now certainly, Socinians, atheists, and 
all others that are men of corrupt minds, and that believe that there 
is no hell, but what they carry about with them in their own con- 
sciences ; these are worse than those poor Indians that hold that there 
are thirteen hells,2 according to the differing demerits of men's sins ; 
yea, they are worse than devils, for they believe and tremble, James ii. 
19. <f>pi<7(Tovcrt ; this Greek word signifies to roar as the sea ; from 
thence, saithEustatius, it is translated to the hideous clashing of armour 
in the battle. The original word seemeth to imply an extreme fear, 
which causeth not only tremblings, but also a roaring and shrieking 
out. Their hearts ache and quake within them, they quiver and shake 
as men do when their teeth chatter in their heads in extreme cold 
weather, Mark vi. 49, and Acts xvi. 29. The devils acknowledge four 
articles of our faith : Mat. viii. 29, ' And behold, they cried out, 
saying. What have we do with thee, Jesus, thou son of God ? Art thou 
come hither to torment us before the time.' 1. They acknowledge 
God ; 2. Christ ; 3. The day of judgment ; 4. That they shall be tor- 
mented then. They who scorn the day of judgment are worse than 
devils ; and they who deny the deity of Christ are worse than devils, 

* Eph, ii. 3 John xiv. 1-4 Luke xii. 32; Ken. ix. 6; 1 Kings viii. 27 ; Heb. viii. 1 ; 
Eev. iii. 21, ^ Purchas his Pilarrima.so. 



MATCHLESS, EASELESS, AND ENDLESS. 135 

[Piscator.] The devils are, as it were, for a time respited and re- 
prieved, in respect of full torment, and they are suffered as free 
prisoners to flutter in the air, and to course about the earth till the 
great day of the Lord, which they tremble to think on ; and which 
they that mock at, or make light of, are worse than devils. The devils 
knew that torments were prepared for them, and a time when these 
torments should be fully and fatally inflicted on them, and loath they 
were to suffer before that time. Ah, sirs, shall not men tremble to 
deny what the devils are forced to confess ! Shall I now make a few 
short inferences from what has been said, and so conclude this head ? 

1. First, then. Oh labour to set up God as the great object of your 
fear. This grand lesson Christ commands us to take out, ' Fear not 
them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul ; but rather 
fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell ; yea, I 
say unto you, fear him,' Mat. x. 28. Christ doubles the precept, that 
it might stick with more life and power upon us, Luke xii. 5. As 
one fire, so one fear, drives out another. Both the punishment of loss 
and the punishment of sense may be the objects of a filial fear, the 
fear of a son, of a saint, of a soul that is espoused and married to 
Christ. The fear of God, and the fear of sin, will drive out the fear 
of death, and the fear of hell, 2 Cor. xi. 2 ; Hos. ii. 19, 20. sirs, 
will you not fear that God that hath the keys of hell and death in his 
own hand, that can speak you into hell at pleasure, that can by a 
word of command bring you to dwell with a devouring fire, yea, to 
dwell with everlasting burnings ? Rev. i. 18. 

Ah, friends, will you fear a burning fever, and will you not fear a 
burning in hell ? Will you fear when the house you live in is on fire, 
and when the bed you lie on is on fire, though it may be quenched, and 
will you not fear that fire that is unquenchable ? Isa. xxxiii. 14. When 
men run through the streets and cry, Fire, fire, fire ! how do your 
hearts quake and tremble in you'; and will you not fear the fire of hell ? 
will you not fear everlasting fire ? Mat. iii. 12, xxv. 41. Sir Francis 
Bacon, in his history of Henry the Seventh,! relates how it was a by- 
word of the Lord Cordes, who was a profane, popish, atheistical French 
lord, that he could be content to lie seven years in hell, so he might 
win Calais from the English ; but had this popish lord lain but seven 
minutes under unsupportable torments, he would quickly have re- 
pented of his mad bargain. It was good counsel that one of the 
ancients gave, Descendamus in infernum viventes, ne descendamus 
morientes, Let us go into hell while we are. alive, by a serious medita- 
tion and holy consideration, that we may not go into it when we be 
dead, by real miseries, [Bernard.] God can kill, and more than that, 
he can cast into hell. Here is both temporal and eternal destruction, 
both rods and scorpions. He can kill the body, and then damn both 
body and soul, and cast them into hell ; and therefore it becomes every 
one to set up God as the great object of their fear. Yea, I say unto 
you, fear him ; yea, I say unto you, fear him. This redoubling of the 
speech adds a greater enforcement to the admonition. It is like the 
last stroke of the hammer, that rivets and drives up all to the head. 
Thus David uses this ingemination, ' Thou, even thou, art to be feared, 

^ As before. See Index sub nomine. — G. > 



136 THAT THE TORMENTS OF HELL ARE MATCHLESS, ETC. 

and who may stand in thy sight ; when thou art angry, thou canst 
look them to death, yea, to hell,' Ps. Ixxyi. 7. And it is worth the 
observing, that this ingemination and reinforcement liere annexed is 
to the affirmative clause, not to the negative. Oar Saviour saith not, 
' Yea, I say unto you, fear not them ; ' but he places the reduplication 
upon the affirmative precept, ' I say unto you, fear him.' sirs, tem- 
poral judgments are but the smoke of his anger, but in hell there are 
the flames of his anger. That fire burns fiercely, and there is no 
quenching of it Excuse me, saith the father, thou breakest i bonds 
and imprisonments, emperor, but God's threatenings are much more 
terrible. He threatens hell torments and everlasting damnation ; and 
certainly, where there is the greatest danger, there it is fit that there 
should be the greatest dread. But, 

2. Secondly, Then /?ee/rom ^7ie4f;ra^^ ^0 CO we. Mat. iii. 7.^ sirs, 
that you would seriously and frequently dwell upon those short hints ! 

[1.] Wrath to come is the greatest lorath, it is the greatest evil that 
can befall a soul. ' Who knows the power of thy wrath ?' Ps. xix. 11. 
Wrath to come is such wrath as no man can either avoid or abide, 
and yet such is most men's stupidity, that they will not believe it till 
they feel it. As God is a great God, so his wrath is a great wrath. 
I may allude to that which Zebah and Zalmunna said to Gideon, ' As 
the man is, so is his strength,' Judges viii. 21. So may I say, as the 
Lord is, so is his wrath. The wrath of an earthly king is compared 
to the roaring of a lion, Prov. xix. 12 ; Heh., of a young lion, which, 
being in his prime, roars most terribly. He roars with such a force 
that he amazes the creatures whom he hunts, so as that they have no 
power to fly from him. Now if the wrath of a king be so terrible, oh 
how dreadful must the wrath of the King of kings then be ! The 
greater the evil is, the more cause we have to flee from it. Now 
wrath to come is the greatest evil, and therefore the more it concerns 
us to flee from it, Kev. xvii. 14. But, 

[2.] Secondly, Wrath to come is treasured-up lorath. Sinners are 
still ' a-treasuring up wrath against the day of wrath,' Kom. ii. 5. In 
treasuring there is, 1. Laying in; 2. Lying hid; 3. Bringing out again 
as there is occasion. 

Whilst wicked men are following their own lusts, they think that 
they are still adding to their own happiness ; but alas, they do but 
add wrath to wrath, they do but heap up judgment upon judgment, 
punishment upon punishment. Look, as men are daily adding to 
their treasure more and more, so impenitent sinners are daily increas- 
ing the treasures of wrath against their own souls. Now, who would 
not flee from treasures of wrath ? But, 

[3.] Thirdly, Wrath to come is pure wrath. It is ' judgment with- 
out mercy,' James ii. 13. The cup of wrath which God will put into 
sinners' hands at last will be a cup of pure wrath, all wrath, nothing 
but wrath, Eev. xiv. 10, ' The same shall drink of the wine of the 
wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of 
his indignation ; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone 

^ Query, ' threatenest ' ? — Ed. 

* Though destruction by the Romans is not here excluded, yet the principal thing 
that he means by wrath to come is hell-fire, Mat. xxiii. 33. 



A FIVEFOLD IMPROVEMENT OF HELLISH TORMENTS. 137 

in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the lamb.'l 
Look, as there is nothing but the pure glory of God that can make a 
man perfectly and fully happy, so there is nothing but the pure wrath 
of God that can make a man fully and perfectly miserable. Eepro- 
bates shall not only sip of the top of God's cup, but they shall drink 
the dregs of his cup. They shall not have at last one drop of mercy, 
nor one crumb of comfort. They have filled up their lifetime with 
sin, and God will fill up their eternity with torments. But, 

[4.] Fourthly and lastly. As wrath to come is pure wrath, so wrath 
to come is everlasting wratli : Rev, xiv, 11, ' And the smoke of their 
torment ascendeth up for ever and ever.' ' Would to God,' saith one, 
[Chrysostom,] ' men would everywhere think and talk more of hell, 
and of that eternity of extremity, that they shall never else be able to 
avoid, or to abide.' See the scriptures in the margin.2 ' The damned,' 
saith Gregory, ' shall suffer an end without end, a death without 
death, a decay without decay ; for their death ever liveth, their end 
ever beginneth, their decay never ceaseth, they are ever healed to be 
new wounded, and always repaired to be new devoured ; they are ever 
dying and never dead, eternally broiling and never burnt up, ever 
roaring in the pangs of death, and never rid of those pangs ; for they 
shall have punishment without pity, misery without mercy, sorrow 
without succour, crying without comfort, mischief without measure, 
and torment without ease, " where the worm dieth not, and the fire is 
never quenched.'" The torments of the damned shall continue as 
many worlds as there be stars in the firmament, as there be grains 
of sand on the sea-shore, and as there be drops of water found in the 
sea ; and when these worlds are ended, the pains and torments of hell 
shall not cease, but begin afresh, and thus this wheel shall turn round 
without end. 

Oh the folly and vanity, the madness and baseness of poor wretched 
sinners who expose themselves to everlasting torments for a few fleshly 
momentary pleasures ! sirs ! who can stand before his indignation, 
and who can abide in the fierceness of his anger .? ' His fury is poured 
out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him,' Nahum i. 6. 
Now how should these things work poor sinners to flee from wrath to 
come by fleeing to Christ, ' who alone is able to save them from 
wrath to come,' 1 Thes. i. 10. Themistocles, understanding that King 
Admetus was highly displeased with him, he took up the king's young 
son in his arms, and so treated with the father, holding his darling in 
his bosom, and by that means pacified his wrath.^ Ah sinners, sinners, 
the King of kings is highly ofi"ended with you, and there is no way to 
appease his wrath, but by taking up Christ in your arms, and so pre- 
sent your suits to him. But, 

3. Thirdly, If there be a hell, tlien don't let fly so fiercely against 
those faithful ministers who seriously and conscientiously do all they 
can to prevent your dropping into hell, 2 Cor. v, 20, xii. 15. Don't 
call them legal preachers who tell you that there is a hell, and that 

^ This drinking of the wine of the wrath of God, without mixture, notes summam 
pcsncE severitatem. 

* 2 Thes. i. 8 ; Jude 6, 7 ; Mat. xxv. 46 ; Tsa. xxxiii. 14, &c. 

* Plutarch in vita. 



138 A FIVEFOLD IMPROVEMENT OF HELLISH TORMENTS. 

there is no torments to hellish torments, if either you consider their 
extremity or eternity. Be not so hot nor so angry with those ambas- 
sadors of Christ who are willing to spend and be spent that they may 
keep you from running headlong to hell. ' To think of hell,' saith 
one,i ' preserves a man from falling into it ; ' and, saith the same 
author, Utirvam ubique de geJienna dissereretur, I could wish men would 
discourse much and oft of hell. It was a saying of Gregory Nyssen, 
who lived about thirteen hundred years ago, ' He that does but hear of 
hell is, without any further labour or study, taken off from sinful plea- 
sures.' But what minister can say so now ? Surely men's hearts are 
grown worse since, for how do most men run headlong to hell, and 
take a pleasure to dance hoodwinked into everlasting burnings ! 2 Oh, 
had but the desperate sinners of this day who swear and curse, drink 
and drab, and drown themselves in fleshly pleasures, but one sight of 
this hell, how would it charm their mouths, appal their spirits, and 
strike fear and astonishment into their hearts ! 

I cannot think that the high transgressors of this day durst be 
80 highly wicked as they are, did they but either see or foresee what 
they shall one day certainly feel, except there be sound and serious 
repentance on their sides, and pardoning grace on God's. Bellarmine 
was of opinion that one glimpse of hell were enough to make a man, 
not only turn Christian and sober, but monk too : to live after the 
strictest rule that may be. And yet, he tells us of a certain advocate 
of the court of Eome, who being, at the point of death, stirred up by 
them that were about him to repent and call upon God for mercy, he, 
with a constant countenance, and without sign of any fear, turned his 
speech to God, and said, Lord, I have longed much to speak to thee, 
not for myself, but for my wife and children ; for I am hasting to hell, 
I am now a-going to dwell with devils, neither is there anything that 
I would have thee to do for me ; and this he spoke, saith Bellarmine, 
who was then present and heard it, Animo tarn tranqtdllo ac si de 
itinere ad villam loqueretur, with as placate, serene and tranquil a 
mind, as if he had been speaking of going to the next town or village. 
Ah, who can read or write such a relation without horror and terror ! 3 
But, 

4. Fourthly, If there be a hell, then do not /ret, do not envy the 
prosperity and flourishing estate and condition of wicked and ungodly 
men; for God has given it under his hand, that they shall be turned 
into hell : ' The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations 
that forget God,' Ps. xxxvii. 1, 2, Ixxiii. 21; Prov, iii, 31; Ps. ix. 17. 
It was a wise saying of Marius to those that envy great men their honour, 
Let them, saith he, envy them their burdens. I have read a story 
of a Koman, who was by a court-martial condemned to die for break- 
ing his rank to steal a bunch of grapes ; and as he was going to exe- 
cution, some of the soldiers envied him, that he had grapes, and they 
had none. Saith he, Do you envy me my grapes, I must pay dear for 

^ ChrysoBtom, hom. xli7. in Mat. 

' Look, as he said that nothing but the eloquence of Tully could sufficiently set forth 
Tully's eloquence, so none can express these ererlasting torments but he that is from 
everlasting to everlasting. Millions of years multiplied by millions, make not up one 
minute to this eternity ; but who considers it, who believes it ? &c. 

' Bellar. de arte moriendi, lib. ii. cap. 10. 



A FIVEFOLD IMPROVEMENT OF HELLISH TORMENTS. 139 

them ! Ah sirs ! do not envy wicked men's grapes, do not envy their 
riches, their honom-s, their greatness, their offices, their dignities ; for 
they shall one day pay dear for their things. High seats to many are 
uneasy, and the downfall terrible : ' How art thou fallen from heaven, 
Lucifer, son of the morning ! ' Isa. xiv. 12. It is spoken of the 
Chaldean monarch, who, though high, yet had a sudden change befell 
him. It is not a matter of so great joy to have been high and honour- 
able, as it is of grief, anguish, and vexation to be afterwards despicable 
and contemptible: 'Come down, and sit in the dust,' Isa. xlvii. 1. 
Babylon was the lady of kingdoms ; but, saith God, ' sit in the dust ; 
take the mill-stones, and grind,' ver. 2 ; ' The Lord of hosts hath pur- 
posed to stain {Heb., to pollute) the pride of all glory, and to bring 
into contempt all the honourable of the earth,' Isa. xxiii. 9 ; ' He shall 
bring down their pride together,' Isa. xxv. 11 ; ' Woe to the crown of 
pride : the crown of pride shall be trodden under feet,' Isa. xxviii. 1, 3. 
God will bring down the crown of pride to the dust, to ashes, yea, to 
hell ; and, therefore, do not envy the crown of pride. Croesus was so 
puffed up with his crown of pride, with his great riches and worldly 
glory, that he boasted himself to be the happiest man that lived ; but 
Solon told him that no man was to be accounted happy before death. 
Croesus little regarded what Solon had said unto him, until he came, 
by miserable experience, to find the uncertainty of his riches, and all 
worldly glory, which before he would not believe. For when he was 
taken by King Cyrus, and condemned to be burned, and saw the fire 
preparing for him, then he cried out, Solon, Solon ! Cyrus asking 
him the cause of the outcry, he answered, that now he remembered 
what Solon had told him in his prosperity — nemo ante ohtfum felix — 
that no man was to be accounted happy before death. Who can sum 
up those crowns of pride that in Scripture and history God has brought 
down to the dust, yea, to the dunghill ! Have not some wished, when 
they have been breathing out their last, that they had never been kings, 
nor queens, nor lords, nor ladies .? &c. Where is there one of ten thou- 
sand who is advanced, and thereby anything bettered ? Solus impera- 
torum Vespasianus in melius mutatus. Few men believe what vexations 
lie under the pillows of princes. You look upon my crown and my 
purple robes, saith Artaxerxes ; but did you know how they were lined 
with thorns, you would not stoop to take them up. Damocles highly 
extolled Dionysius his condition. Dionysius, to convince him of his 
mistake, provides a royal feast, invites him to it, commands his ser- 
vants to attend him. No meat, no mirth, no music is wanting ; but 
withal caused a sharp sword to be hung overhead by a horse hair, 
which made Damocles tremble, and to forbear both meat and mirth. 
Such, even such, saith Dionysius the Sicilian tyrant, is my life, which 
thou deemest so pleasant and happy. sirs ! there is a sword of 
wrath which hangs over every sinner's head, even when he is sur- 
rounded with all the gay and gallant things of this world. 

Outward prosperity is commonly given in wrath, as you may see by 
comparing the scriptures in the margin together, i Prosperity kills 
and damns more than adversity. The Germans have this proverb, 

* Hos. liii. 11 ; Ps. Ixxiii. and Ixxviii. 30, 31; Prov. i. 32 ; Luke xii. 16-22; Eccles. 
V. 12, 13. 



140 A FIVEFOLD IMPROVEMENT OF HELLISH TORMENTS. 

That the pavemsnt of liell is made of the glorious crests of gallants. 
It had been infinitely better for the great men of this world that they 
had never *been so great, for their horrid abuse of God's mercy and 
bounty will but increase their misery and damnation at last. That 
ancient hit it, [Augustine,] who said, Because they have tasted so 
liberally of God's kindness, and have employed it only against God's 
glory, their felicity shall be short, but their misery shall be endless ; 
and therefore to see the wicked prosper and flourish in this world is 
matter rather of pity than envy, it is all the heaven they must have.i 
These are as terrible texts as any in the whole Book of God : Mat. vi. 
2, ' Verily I say unto you, they have their reward ; ' Luke vi. 24, ' Woe 
to you that are rich, for you have received your consolation ; ' James 
V. 1-3, * Go to, now, ye rich men, weep and howl for ,your miseries that 
shall come upon you. Your riches are corrupted, and your garments 
are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver is cankered : and the rust of 
them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were 
fire.' Gregory, being advanced to places of great preferment, professed 
that there was no scripture that went so near his heart, and that struck 
such a trembling into his spirit, as that speech of Abraham to Dives, 
Luke xvi. 2.5, ' Son, remember thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good 
things.' They that have their heaven here, are in danger to miss it 
hereafter. It is not God's usual way, saith one, [Jerome,] to remove 
a deliciis ad delicias, from delights to delights — to bestow two heavens, 
one here and another hereafter ; and doubtless hence it was that David 
made it his solemn prayer, ' Deliver me from the wicked, from men of 
the world, which have their portion in this life, and whose belly thou 
fiUest with thy hid treasure,' Ps. xvii. 14. It is a very hard thing to 
have earth and heaven too. God did not turn man out of one paradise 
that he should here provide himself of another. Many men with the 
prodigal cry out, ' Give me the portion that belongs to me,' Luke xv. 
12 — give me riches, and give me honour, and give me preferment, &c, , 
and God gives them their desires, but it is with a vengeance ; as the 
Israelites had quails to choke them, and afterwards a king to vex 
them, and a table to be a snare unto them, Ps. Ixxviii, 24-32, When 
the Israelites had eaten of their dainty dishes, justice sent in a sad 
reckoning which spoiled all. Ah friends, there is no reason why we 
should envy the prosperity of wicked men. Suppose, saith one, 
[Chrysostom,] that a man one night should have a pleasant dream 
that for the time might much delight him, and for the pleasure of 
such a dream should be tormented a thousand years together with 
exquisite torments, would any man desire to have such a dream upon 
such conditions ? All the contentments of this life are not so much to 
eternity as a dream is to a thousand years. And, oh, how little is that 
man's condition to be envied, who for these short pleasures of sin must 
endure an eternity of torments ! sirs ! do wicked men purchase their 
present pleasures at so dear a rate as eternal torments ? and do we envy 
their enjoyment of them so short a time ? Would any envy a man 
going to execution, because he saw him in prison nobly feasted and 

^ The whole Turkish empire is nothing else but a crust cast by our Father to his dogs, 
and it is all they are likely to have, let them make them merry with it, said Luther. ^ 



OF THE PLACE WHERE HELL IS. 141 

nobly attended and bravely courted ? or because he saw him go up the 
ladder with a gold chain about his neck and a scarlet gown upon his 
back? or because he saw him walk to execution through pleasant 
fields or delightsome gardens? or because there went before him 
drums beating, colours flying, and trumpets sounding, &c.? Surely 
no. Oh, no more should we envy the grandeur of the men of the 
day, for every step they take is but a step to an eternal execution ! 
The sinner is cursed, and all his blessings are cursed ; and who in their 
wits would envy a man under a curse ? Oh, how much more worthy 
of our pity than envy is that man's condition who hath all his hap- 
piness confined to the narrow compass of this life, . but his misery 
extended to the uttermost bounds of an everlasting duration ! Mai. 
ii. 2. But, 

5. Fifthly, If there be a hell, then, Christians, spend your days in 
admiring and in being greatly affected with the transcendent love of 
Christ, in undergoing hellish punishments in our steads. Oh pray, pray 
hard that you ' may be able to comprehend with all saints what is the 
breadth, and length, and depth, and height of that love of Christ which 
passeth knowledge,' Eph. iii, 18, 19, — of that love of Christ that put 
him upon these corporeal and spiritual sufferings which were so ex- 
ceeding great, acute, extreme, universal and continual, and all to save 
us from wrath to come, 1 Thes. i. 10. Christ's outward and inward 
miseries, sorrows, and sufferings are not to be paralleled, and therefore 
Christians have the more cause to lose themselves in the contemplation 
of his matchless love. Oh, bless Christ ! oh, kiss Christ ! oh, embrace 
Christ! oh, welcome Christ ! oh, cleave to Christ ! oh, follow Christ! 
oh, walk with Christ ! oh, long for Christ ! who for your sakes hath 
undergone insupportable wrath and most hellish torments, as I have 
evidenced at large before, and therefore a touch here may suffice. ^ 
Oh, look up to dear Jesus, and say, blessed Jesus, thou wast accursed 
that I might be blessed, Gal. iii. 13 ; thou wast condemned that I 
might be justified, Isa. liii. ; thou didst for a time undergo the very 
torments of hell, that I might for ever enjoy the pleasures of heaven, 
Eom. viii. 30, 34 ; Ps. xvi. 11 ; and therefore I cannot but dearly love 
thee, and highly esteem thee, and greatly honour thee, and earnestly 
long after thee ; and this is all I shall say by way of inference. 

But, for a close, you will say, ubi sit? where is hell ? where is this 
place of torment? where is that very place that is so frequently 
called hell in the Scripture? That there is a hell, you have suffi- 
ciently proved ; but, pray, where is it ? where is it ? Now, to this I 
answer, 

[1.] First, That it becomes all sober, serious Christians to rest satis- 
fied and contented with those scriptural arguments that do undeniably 
prove that there is a hell, a place appointed where the wicked, the 
damned, shall be tormented for ever and ever, though they do not 
know, nor for the present cannot understand, where this hell is. 
But, 

^ Ps. ciii. 1, 2, and ii. 12; Cant. iii. 4; Eev. xiv. i, 5; Isa. Ixiii. 8; Gen. vi. 9 ; Cant. 
Tiii. 14. 



142 OF THE PLACE WHERE HELL IS. 

[2.] Secondly, I answer, Curiosity is one of the most dangerous 
engines that the devil uses to undo souls withal. When Satan 
observes that men do in good earnest set themselves to the obtaining 
of knowledge, then he strives to turn them to vain inquiries and 
curious speculations ; that so, if they will be knowing, he may keep 
them busied about unprofitable curiosities, l The way to make us 
mere fools is to affect to know more than God would have us. Adam's 
tree of knowledge made him and his posterity fools, Gen. iii. 5, 6. 
Curiosity was the bait whereby the devil caught our first parents, 
and undid us all. Curiosity is the spiritual adultery of the soul.^ 
Curiosity is spiritual drunkenness. So that, look, as the drunkard, 
be the cup never so deep, he is not satisfied unless he see the bottom 
of it ; so the curious searcher into the depths of God, he is unsatisfied 
till he comes to the bottom of them, and by this means they come to 
be mere fools, as the apostle saith, Kom. i. 22. Adam had a mind to 
know as much of God as God himself ; and by this means he came 
to know nothing. Curiosity is that green-sickness of the soul, whereby 
it longs for novelties, and loathes sound and wholesome truths ; it is 
the epidemical distemper of this age. Ah ! how many are there who 
spend their precious time in nice and curious questions ! ^ As, what 
did Christ dispute of among the doctors ? Where did Paradise stand ? 
In what part of the world is local hell ? What fruit was it that Adam 
ate, and ruined us all ? What became of Moses his body ? How 
many orders and degrees of elect angels are there? &c. Oh that 
we could learn contentedly to be ignorant- where God would not 
have us knowing, and let us not account it any disparagement to 
acknowledge some depths in Gt)d's counsels, purposes, decrees, and 
judgments, which our shallow reason cannot fathom, Rom. xi. 33. 
It is sad when men will be wise above what is written, and love to 
pry into God's secrets, and scan the mysteries of religion by carnal 
reason, Rom. xii. 3, and 1 Cor. iv. 6. God often plagues such pride 
and curiosity by leaving that sort of men to strange and fearful 
falls. When a curious inquisitor asked Austin what God did 
before he created the world, Austin told him he was making hell 
for such busy questionists, for such curious inquirers into God's 
secrets. Such handsome jerks are the best answers to men of curious 
minds. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, I answer. It concerns us but little to know whether 
hell be in the air, or in the concave of the earth, or of what longitude, 
latitude, or profundity it is.* Let hell be where it hath pleased God 
in his secret counsel to place it, to men unknown, whether in the 
north or in the south, under the frozen zone, or under the burning 
zone, or in a pit or a gulf. Our great care should be to avoid it, to 
escape it, and not to be curiously inquisitive about that place, which 

1 Curious inquirers haye always lain under the lash of Christ, as you may sec by com- 
paring these scriptures together : Job xxi. 22 ; Acts i. 6, 7 ; Luke xiii. 22, 24. 

* August. Epist. 77. 

' Basil saith divers questions may be made about a very fly, which no philo- 
sopher is ever able to answer ; how much rather about heaveu, hell, or the work of 
grace ? 

* Let us not be inquisitive where hell is, but rather let our care be to escape it, saith 
Chrysoatom. 



OF THE PLACE WHERE HELL IS. 143 

the Lord in his infinite wisdom hath not thought fit clearly to reveal 
or make known to the sons of men. 

In hell there 's nothing heard but yells and cries ; 
In hell the fire never slacks, nor worm never dies. 
But where is this hell placed ? ' My muse, stop there : 
Lord, shew me what it is, but never where ! 

To worm and fire, to torments there, 
No term he gave, they cannot wear.^ 

Look, as there are many that please themselves with discourses of 
the degrees of glory, whilst others make sure their interest in glory ; 
so many please themselves with discourses of the degrees of the tor- 
ments of hell, whilst others make sure their escaping those torments ; 
and look, as many take pleasure to be discoursing about the place 
where hell is, so some take pleasure to make sure their escaping of 
that place ; and certainly they are the best and wisest of men who 
spend most thoughts, and time, and pains how to keep out of it, than 
to exercise themselves with disputes about it.^ But, 

[4.] Fourthly, I answer, That it has been the common opinion of 
the fathers, that hell is in the bowels of the earth ; yea, Christ and 
the blessed Scriptures, which are the highest authority, do strongly 
seem to favour this opinion, by speaking of a descent unto hell, in 
opposition unto heaven ; and, therefore, we may as well doubt whether 
heaven be above us, as doubt of hell being beneath us.^ Among other 
•scriptures ponder upon these : Ps. cxl. 10, ' Let them be cast into the 
deep pits, that they rise not up again. Bring them down into the pit 
of destruction ;' Prov. ix. 18, ' Her guests are in the depths of hell ;' 
Prov. XV. 24, * The way of life is above to the wise, that he may 
depart from hell beneath.' Sheol is sometimes taken for a pit, some- 
times for the grave, and sometimes, and that significantly too, for 
hell, all downwards. One saith^ that Sheol generally signifies all 
places under the earth; whence some conclude that hell is in the 
heart of the earth, or under the earth. Without doubt it is below, 
■ because it is everywhere opposed to heaven, which is above. It is 
therefore called A byssus, a deep pit, a vast gulf ; such a pit as, by 
reason of the depth thereof, may be said to have no bottom. The 
devils entreated Christ that he would not send them to this place, 
Luke viii. 31, in Abyssum, which is, saith one, Immensce profundit- 
afis vorago, quasi absque /undo : A gulf of immeasurable depth, &c.5 
The apostle, 2 Pet. ii. 4, speaking of the angels that sinned, saith, 
' God cast them down into hell.' So Beza, in his Annotations, telleth 
us the Greeks called that place which was ordained for the prison 
and torment of the damned. And reason itself doth teach us that it 
must needs be opposite and contrary to that place in which the spirits 
of just men made perfect, Heb. xii. 23, do reside, which, on all hands, 
is granted to be above ; and hell therefore must needs be below, in 

^ A Pentelogia, dolor inferni. — Prudentius the poet. 

' As in heaven one is more glorious than another, so in hell one shall be more miser- 
able than another. — Augustine. 

* Infernum est locus subterraneus, Tertul. lib. 3. de Anim. 

* Mercerus upon Gen. xxxvii. [Comment, on Genesis, 1598, folio. — G.] 
' Beza upon Mat. 



144 OF THE PLACE WHERE HELL IS. 

the centre of tlie earth, say some, which is from the superficies three 
thousand five hundred miles, as some judge. Hesiod saith, hell is as 
far under the earth as heaven is above it. Some have been of opinion 
that the pit spoken of, into which Korah, Dathan, and Abiram went 
down alive, when the earth clave asunder and swallowed them up, 
was the pit of hell, into which both their souls and bodies were im- 
mediately conveyed, Num. xvi. 33. As we know little in respect of 
the height of heaven, so we know as little in respect of the lowness of 
hell. Some of the upper part of the earth is to us yet terra incognita, 
an unknown land ; but all of the lowest parts of hell is to us an un- 
known land. Many thousands have travelled thither, but none have 
returned thence, to make reports or write books of their travels. 
That piece of geography is very imperfect. Heaveiji and hell are the 
greatest opposites, or remotest extremes : ' Thou, Capernaum, which 
art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell !' Mat. xi. 23. 
Heaven and hell are at farthest natural distance, and are therefore 
the everlasting receptacles of those who are at the farthest moral dis- 
tance — believers and unbelievers, saints and impenitents. And it is 
observable, that as the height of heaven, so the depth of hell, is 
ascribed to wisdom, to shew the unsearchableness of it. ' Oh the 
depth,' as well as ' Oh the height,' ' of the wisdom of God ! how un- 
searchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out !' Kom. xi. 
33. Certainly God's depths, and Satan's depths, and hell's depths, 
lie far out of our view, and are hard to be found out, 1 Cor. ii. 10, 
and Kev. ii. 24. Though I ought religiously to reverence the won- 
derful wisdom of God, and to wonder at his unsearchable judgments, 
yet I ought not curiously and profanely to search beyond the com- 
pass of that which God hath revealed to us in his word. The 
Romans had a certain lake, the depth whereof they knew not ; this 
lake they dedicated to victory. Doubtless hell is such a lake, the 
depth whereof no man knows; it is such a bottomless pit that no 
mortal can sound. But, 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly, I answer. Some of the learned are of opinion, 
that hell is without this visible world, which will pass away at the 
last day, 2 Pet. iii. 10-13, and removed at the greatest distance from 
the sedes beatorum, the place where the righteous shall for ever inhabit : 
Mat. viii. 12, ' But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into 
outer darkness.' Mat xxii. 30, ' Then said the king to his servants, 
Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer 
darkness.' Mat. xxv. 30, ' And cast ye the unprofitable servant into 
outer darkness.' Into a darkness beyond a darkness, into a dungeon 
beyond and beneath the prison. i The darkness of hell is compared to 
the darkness of those prisons, which were oftentimes out of the city ,2 2 
Pet.ii.4; JudeG; Actsxii.lO. By outer darkness, the Holy Ghost would 
signify to us that the wicked should be in a state most remote from 

^ In tenebras ex tenebris, infeliciter exclusi, infeliciua excludendi. — Augustine. 

* This prison was without the gate, near mount Calvary, and it was the loathsomest 
and vilest prison of all, for in it the thieves who were carried to Calvary to be 
executed were kept; and Christ alludeth to this prison in that Mat. viii. 12, and 
that Mat. xxii. 13, and that Mat. xxv. 30, ' Cast him into utter darkness;' which al- 
lusion could not be understood, unless there had been a dark prison without the city, 
where was utter darkness. 



THREE IMPROVEMENTS MORE TO BE MADJE, ETC. 145 

all heavenly happiness and blessedness ; and that they should be ex- 
pulsed out of the blessed presence of" God, who is mentium lumen. It is 
usual among the Greeks by a comparative to set forth the superlative 
degree. By outer darkness we are to understand the greatest darkness 
that is, as in a place most remote from all light. They shaU be cast into 
outer darkness, that is, they shall be cast into the corporal and palpable 
darkness of the infernal prison ; immediately after death sinners' souls 
shall be cast into the infernal prison, and in the day of judgment both 
their souls and their bodies shall be cast into outer darkness. Dark- 
ness is no other thing than a privation of light. 

Now light is twofold, viz. — 1. Spiritual, as wisdom, grace, truth. 
Now the privation of this light is internal darkness, and ignorance in 
the spirit and inward man. 2. There is a sensible and corporal light, 
whose privation is outer darkness ; and this is the darkness spoken of 
in the three scriptures last cited. For although there be fire in hell, 
yet it is a dark and smoky fire, and not clear, except only so as the 
damned may see one another, for the greater increase of their misery, 
as some write. Now I shall leave the ingenuous reader to conclude as 
he pleases concerning the place where hell is, desiring and hoping 
that he will make it the greatest business of his life to escape hell, and 
to get to heaven, &c. 

6. Sixthly, If Jesus Christ did feel and suffer the very torments of hell, 
though not after a hellish manner, then let me infer that certainly the 
papists are greatly out, they are greatly mistaken, and do greatly err, 
loho boldly and confidently assert that Christ's soul in substance loent 
really and locally into hell. Bellarmine takes a great deal of pains to 
make good this assertion,! but this great champion of the Komish 
church may easily be confuted. First, Because that limbus patrum, 
and Christ's fetching the fathers from the skirts of hell, about which 
he makes so great a noise, is a mere fable, and not bottomed upon any 
solid grounds of Scripture. Secondly, Because upon Christ's dying, and 
satisfying for our sins, his soul went that very day into paradise — as 
Adam sinning was that very day cast out of paradise — and his soul could 
not be in two places at once. Thirdly, Because this descent of Christ's 
soul into hell was altogether needless, and to no end. What need 
was there of it, or to what end did he descend ? Not to suffer in hell, 
for that was finished on the cross ; not to redeem or rescue the fathers 
out of hell, for the elect were never there, and redemption from hell 
was wrought by Chi'ist's death, as the Scriptures do clearly evidence ; not 
to triumph there over the devils, &c.,2 for Christ triumphed over them 
when he was on the cross.^ Christ, in the day of his solemn inaugura- 
tion into his heavenly kingdom, triumphed over sin, death, devils, and 
hell. When Christ was on the cross, he made the devils a public 
spectacle of scorn and derision ; as Tamerlane did Bajazet the great 
Turk, whom he shut up in an iron cage made like a grate, in such 

^ Bellar. de Christ, anima. lib. iv. cap. 10-16, torn. 1 . Vide Calvin in Institut. lib. 
'ii. cap. 16, sect. 9. 

=* Luke xxiii. 43; Gen. iii. 23, 24 ; John xviii. 30 ; Heb. ix. 12 ; 1 Tbes. i. 10; Eph. 
: iv. 8 ; Heb. ii. 14, 15 ; Col. ii. 14, 15. 

' It is a plain allusion to the Roman triumphs, where the victor ascended to the 
Capitol in a chariot of state, the prisoaers following on foot with their hands bound be- 
hind them, &c. 

VOL. V. K 



146 THREE IMPROVEMENTS MORE TO BE MADE 

sort as that he might on every side be seen, and so carried him up 
and down all Asia, to be scorned and derided by his own people, i By 
these few hints you may see the vanity and folly of the papists, who 
tell you that Christ's soul and substance went really and locally into 
hell. I might make other inferences, but let these suffice at this 
time. 

7. Seventhly, As Jesus Christ did feel and suffer the very torments of 
hell, though not after a hellish manner, so Jesus Christ was really, 
certainly made a curse for us. Jesus Christ did in his soul and body 
bear that curse of the law, which by reason of transgression was due 
to us. ' Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us ; for it is written. Cursed is every one that hangeth 
on a tree,' Gral iii. 13, He saith not Christ was cmsed, but a curse, 
which is more : it shows that thfi curse of all did lie upon him. The 
death on the tree was accursed above all kinds of deaths, as the serpent 
was accursed above all the beasts of the field, Gen. iii. 14. This scripture 
refers to Deut. xxi. 33, ' His body shall not remain all night upon the 
tree ; but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day, for he that is 
hanged is accursed of God.'^ The holy and wise God appointed this 
kind of punishment, as being the most cruel and reproachful, for a 
type of the punishment which his Son must suffer to deliver us from 
the curse. Hanging on a tree was accounted the most shameful, the 
most dishonourable, the most odious and infamous, and accursed, of 
all kinds of death, both by the Israelites and other nations, because 
the very manner of the death did intimate that such men as were thus 
executed were such execrable, base, vile, and accursed wretches, that 
they did defile the earth with treading on it, and would pollute the 
earth if they should die upon it, and therefore were hanged up in 
the air, as persons not fit to converse amongst men, or touch the sur- 
face of the ground any more. But what should be the reason why the 
ceremonial law affixed the curse to this death rather than any other 
death ? I answer, first, because this was reckoned the most shameful 
and dishonourable of all deaths, and was usually therefore the punish- 
ment of those that had by some notorious wickedness provoked God 
to pour out his wrath upon the whole land, and so were hanged up to 
appease his wrath ; as you may see in the hanging of those princes 
that were guilty of committing whoredom with the daughters of Moab, 
Num. XXV. 4 ; and in the hanging of Saul's seven sons in the days of 
David, when there was a famine in the land because of Saul's perfidi- 
ous oppressing of the Gibeonites, 2 Sam. xxi, 6-9 ; and in Joshua's 
hanging of the five kings of the Amorites, Josh, xvi. 26. But, secondly 
and mainly, it was with respect to the death Christ was to die. God 
would have his Son, the Lord Jesus, to suffer this kind of death, that 
hence it might be the more evident that in his death he bare the curse 
due to our sins, according to that of the apostle, Gal. iii. 13. Christ 
was certainly made that curse which he redeemed us from, otherwise 
the apostle does not reason either soundly or fairly, when he tells us we 

^ [KnoUes,] Turk Hist. 220. 

* Not that all that are hanged should be damned, for the contrary appears in that 
Luke xiiii. 43. Neither is hanging in itself, or by the law of nature, or by civil law, 
more execrable than any other death. 



OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 147 

are redeemed from the curse because Christ was made a curse for us ; 
he remitteth that curse to us which he received in himself. That 
father hit the mark who saith^i Chrisius suppUcium nostrum sine 
reatu suscepit, ut solveret reatum, et Jiniret siipplicium, Christ hath 
taken our punishment without guilt, to loose the guilt and end the 
punishment. We were subject to the curse, because we had trans- 
gressed the law ; Christ was not subject, because he had fulfilled it. 
Earn ergo execroiionem suscepit, cui obnoxius nan erat, quum suspenr 
susfuit in ligno, ut eocecrationem solveret, quce adversus nos erat, He 
therefore took that curse, to the which he was not subject, when he 
hanged upon the tree, to loase the curse which was against us. 2 
Such a curse or execration was Christ made for us, as was that from 
which he redeemed us ; and that curse from which he redeemed us 
was no other than the cm-se of the law, and that the curse of the law 
included all the punishment which sinners were to bear or suffer for 
transgression of the law, of which his hanging on the cross was a sign 
and symbol ; and this curse was Christ made for us, that is, he did 
bear and suffer it to redeem us from it. Christ was verily made a 
curse for us, and did bear both in his body and soul that curse, which 
by reason of the transgression of the law was due to us ; and therefore 
I may well conclude this head with that saying of Jerome, Injuria 
Domini, nostra gloria, The Lord's injury is our glory. ^ The more we 
ascribe to Christ's suffering, the less remaineth of ours ; the more pain- 
fully that he suffered, the more fully are we redeemed ; the greater his 
sorrow was, the greater our solace ; his dissolution is our consolation, 
his cross our comfort ; his annoy our endless joy ; his distress in soul 
our release, his calamity our comfort ; his misery our mercy, his ad 
versity our felicity, his hell our heaven. Christ is not only accursed, 
but a curse ; and this expression is used both for more significancy and 
usefulness, to note out the truth and realness of the thing, and also to 
shew the order and way he took for bringing us back unto that 
blessedness which we had lost. The law was our righteousness in our 
innocent condition, and so it was our blessedness ; but the first Adam, 
falling away from God by his first transgression, plunged himself into 
all unrighteousness, and so inwrapped himself in the curse, James i. 
24. Now Christ the second Adam, that he may restore the lost man 
into an estate of blessedness, he becomes that for them which the law 
is unto them, namely, a curse ; beginning where the law ends, and so 
going backward to satisfy the demands of the law to the uttermost, he 
becomes first a curse for them and then their righteousness, and so their 
blessedness, Rom. x. 24. Now Christ's becoming a curse for us stands in 
this, that whereas we are all accursed by the sentence of the law because 
of sin, he now comes in our room, and stands under the stroke of that 
curse which of right belongs to us ; so that it lies not now any longer 
on the backs of poor sinners, but on him for them and in their stead ; 
therefore he is called a surety, Heb. vii, 22. The surety stands in the 
room of a debtor, malefactor, or him that is any way obnoxious to the 
law. Such is Adam and all his posterity. We are by the doom of 
the law evil-doers, transgressors, and upon that score we stand indebted 
to the justice of God, and lie under the stroke of his wrath. Now the 

^ Bede in Gal. iii. ' CEcumenius in Gal. iii. ' Jerome in Gal. iii. 



148 THREE IMPROVEMENTS MORE TO BE MADE, ETC. 

Lord Jesus, seeing us in this condition, he steps in and stands between 
us and the blow ; yea, he takes this wrath and curse off from us unto 
himself. He stands not only or merely after the manner of a surety 
among men, in the case of debt ; for here the surety indeed enters bond 
with the principal for the payment of the debt ; but yet he ^ expects 
that the debtor should not put him to it, but that he should discharge 
the debt himself : he only stands as a good security. No, Christ Jesus 
doth not expect that we should pay the debt ourselves, but he takes it 
wholly to himself. As a surety for a murderer or traitor, or some other 
notorious malefactor, that hath broken prison and is run away, he lies by 
it body for body, state for state, and imdergoes whatsoever the male- 
factor is chargeable withal for satisfying the law ; even so, the Lord 
Jesus Christ stands surety for us runagate malefactors, making him- 
self liable to all that curse which belongs to us, that he might both 
answer the law fully and bring us back again to God. As the first 
Adam stood in the room of all mankind fallen ; so Christ the second 
Adam stands in the room of all mankind which is to be restored ; he 
sustains the person of all those which do spiritually descend from him, 
and unto whom he bears the relation of a head, Eph. i. 22, 23. Christ 
did actually undergo and suffer the wrath of God, and the fearful effects 
thereof, in the punishments threatened in the law. As he became a 
debtor, and was so accounted, even so he became payment thereof ; he 
was made a sacrifice for sin, and bare to the full all that ever divine 
justice did or could require, even the uttermost extent of the curse of 
the law of God. He must thus undergo the curse, because he had 
taken upon him our sin. The justice of the most high God, revealed 
in the law, looks upon the Lord Jesus as a sinner, because he hath un- 
dertaken for us, and seizeth upon him accordingly, pouring do\\Ti on his 
head the whole curse, and all those dreadful punishments which are 
threatened in it against sin ; for the curse folio weth sin as the shadow 
the body, whether it be sin inherent or sin imputed ; even as the bless- 
ing follows righteousness, whether it be righteousness inherent or 
righteousness imputed. But, ' 

8. Eighthly, He that did feel and suffer the very torments of hell, 
though not after a hellish manner, was God man. Christ participates 
of both natures, being @edv6p(07ro<i, God and man, God-man. Such a 
mediator sinners needed. No mediator but such a one who hath in- 
terest in both parties, could serve their turns or save their souls, and 
such a one is the Lord Jesus ; he hath an interest in both parties, and 
he has an interest in both natures, the Godhead and the manhood. 
The blessed Scriptures are so express and clear in these points, that 
they must shut their eyes with a witness against the light, that cannot 
see Christ to be God-man, to be God and man. I shall first speak 
something of Christ, as he is God. Now here are fathomless depths 
and bottomless bottoms, if I may so speak ; here are stupendous and 
amazing mysteries, astonishing and confounding excellencies, such as 
the holy angels themselves desire to pry into.i God is ^w? oUcbv 
cLTrpoaiTov, dwelling in inaccessible light: 1 Tim. vi. 16. Here are 
such beauties and perfections that had I, as the poet speaks, a hundred 

^ 1 Pet. i. 12, irapa.K'ufai.. The word signifies to look wishly and intently, as the 
cherubims of old looked into the mercy-seat, Exod. xxv. 18, 19. It signifies prying into 



CHRIST S ETERNAL DEITY PROVED. 149 

tongues, a liimdred mouths, and a voice of steel, yet I could not suffi- 
ciently describe them. Nevertheless give me leave to say something 
concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, who is one eternal God with the 
Father, and with the Holy Grhost. I might produce a cloud of wit- 
nesses in the case, but it is enough that we have the authority of the 
sacred Scriptures, both in the Old and New Testament, confirming of 
it ; and therefore I shall lay down some proofs or demonstrations of 
the eternal godhead of Christ, which I shall draw out of the blessed 
Scripture. This is a point of high concernment, that Christ is God ; 
so high as whosoever buildeth not upon this buildeth upon the sands. 
This is the rock of our salvation, ' The Word was God,' John i. 1. 
Concerning this important point, consider — 

1. First, That the godhead of Christ is clearly asserted, and mani- 
fested both in the Old and Neio Testament. Take a taste of some of 
those many scriptures which may be cited : Isa. xliii. 10-12, ' That 
ye may know and believe, and understand that I am he, I, even I am 
Jehovah, and besides me there is no Saviour:' and Isa. xli. 21-25, 
' There is no God else besides me : a just God and Saviour, there is none- 
besides me. Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth, 
for I am God, and there is none else. To me every knee shall bow. 
.... In Jehovah have I righteousness. ... In Jehovah shall the seed 
of Israel be justified.' i Compare this with Kom. xiv. 10, 11. And the 
Socinians may as safely conclude, that there is no other God but Jesus 
Christ, as they may conclude that there is no God but God the Father, 
from the 17th of John. But they and we ought to conclude from, 
these scriptures, that Jesus Christ is not a different God from the- 
Father, but is one and the same God with him. So he is called ' The 
mighty God, the everlasting Father,' Isa. ix. 6. Take a few clear 
places out of the New Testament, as that in Rom. ix. 5, ' Of whom as 
concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever- 
more.' Christ is here himself called God blessed for ever. So Titus 
ii. 13, ' Looking for that hope, and the glorious appearance of the 
great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ.' Who is it that shall ap- 
pear at the last day in the clouds, but Christ ? who is called the great 
God and our Saviour ? ' God blessed for ever,' saith Paul to the 
Eomans ; ' The great God,' saith Paul to Titus : 1 John v. 20, ' And 
we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an under- 
standuig, that we may know him that is true ; and we are in him that 
is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and 
eternal life: ' Phil. ii. 6, ' He was in the form of God, and thought it 
no robbery to be equal with God:' and Col. ii. 9, ' In him dwelleth 
the fulness of the Godhead bodily : ' John xx. 28, ' My Lord, and my 
God:' 1 Tim. iii. 16, ' God manifested in the flesh :' ' To which of 
the saints or angels did God say at anytime. Thou art my Son ?' Heb. 
i. 1. ' The heir of all things, the illustrious brightness of my glory, 
and lively character of my person.' ' Thy throne, God, is for ever 
and ever, and all the angels of God shall worship thee.' Certainly he 

a thing overveiled and hidden from sight, to look, as we say, wishly, [' wistfully' — G.] 
at it, as if we would look even through it. 

^ Compare these scriptures of the Old Testament with these in the New. Heb. i. 
2, 3 ; 1 John i. 7 ; Acts iv. 12 ; Eph. iv. 8 ; Rom. ix. 30 ; [and also] Jer. xxxiii. 23 ; 
Ps. vi., Ixviii. 18-20. 



150 CHRIST'S ETERNAL DEITY PROVED. 

who is Grod's own proper, natural, consubstantial, co-essential, only- 
begotten Son, he is Grod ; wherever this sonship is, there is the deity or 
the divine essence. Now Christ is thus God's Son, therefore he is 
God. What the Father is as to his nature, that the Son must also 
be ; now the first person, the Father of Christ, is God ; whereupon he 
too who is the Son must be God also. A son always participates of 
his father's essence, there is betwixt them evermore an identity and 
oneness of nature. If therefore Christ be God's Son, as is most evi- 
dent throughout the Scripture he is, then he must needs have that 
very nature and essence which God the Father hath, insomuch that if 
the second person be not really a God, the first person is but equivocally 
a Father. These scriptures out of the Old and New Testament are so 
evident and pregnant to prove the godhead of Christ, that they need 
no illustration ; yea, they speak so fully for the divinity of Christ, that 
all the Arians and Socinians in the world do but in vain go about to 
elude them. But, 

2. Secondly, Let us ponder seriously upon these scriptures: John 
iii. 13, ' And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came 
down from heaven, even the Son of man, which is in heaven ;' ver. 31, 
' He that cometh from above is above all : he that cometh from heaven 
is above all ;' John viii, 23, ' Ye are from beneath, I am from above;' 
John xvi. 28, * I came forth from the Father, and am come into the 
world ; and again I leave the world, and go to the Father.' Now 
from these blessed scriptures we may thus argue : he who was in heaven 
before he was on the earth, and who was also in heaven whilst he was 
on the earth, is certainly the eternal God; but all this doth Jesus Christ 
strongly assert concerning himself, as is evident in the scriptures last 
cited -, therefore he is the eternal God, blessed for ever. But, 

3. Thirdly, Christ's eternal deity, co-equality, and consubstantiality 
with the Father, may be demonstrated from his divine names and titles. 
As, 

(1.) First, Jehovah is one of the incommunicable names of God, 
which signifies his eternal essence. 

The Jews observe that in God's name Jehovah, the Trinity is implied. 
Je signifies the present tense, ho the preterperfect tense, vah the future. 
The Jews also observe that in his name Jehovah all the Hebrew letters 
are literoi quiescentes, that denote rest, implying that in God and from 
God is all our rest. Every gracious soul is like Noah's dove, he can 
find no rest nor satisfaction but in God. God alone is the godly man's 
ark of rest and safety. Jehovah is the incommunicable name of God, 
and is never attributed to any but God : Ps. Ixxxiii. 19, ' Thou whose 
name alone is Jehovah.' Jehovah is a name so full of divine mysteries, 
that the Jews hold it unlawful to pronounce iti Jehovah signifies 
three things : — 

1.] That Gt)d is an eternal, independent being of himself. 

2. 1 That he gives being to all creatures, Acts xvii. 28. 

3.] That he doth, and will give, being to his promises. God tells 

* Eiod. IV. 3 ; Gen. ii. 4. The Jews called it nomen Dei ineffabile. But this nama 
Jehovah is not unspeakable in regard of the name, but in regard of the essence of God, 
aet forth by it, as Zanchy [Zanchius] noteth. This name was alwavs thrice repeated when 
the priest blessed the people, Num. vi. 24-26. 



Christ's eternal deity proved. 151 

Moses, Exod. vi. 3, that he ' appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and 
unto Jacob by the name of El Shaddai, God Almighty, but by my 
name Jehovah was I not known to them/ The name Jehovah waa 
known to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not mysterium nominis, the 
mystery of the name.i This was revealed to Moses from God, and from' 
Moses to the people. It is meant of the performances of his great pro- 
mises made to Abraham. God did promise to give the land of Canaan 
to Abraham's seed for an inheritance, which promise was not performed 
to him^ but to his seed after him ; so that this is the meaning, God 
appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, El Shaddai, God Almighty, 
in protecting, delivering, and rewarding of them, but by his name 
Jehovah he was not known to them. God did not perform his promise 
made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but unto their seed and posterity 
after them. This name Jehovah is the proper and peculiar name of 
tlie one, only true God, a name as far significant of his nature and 
being as possibly we are enabled to understand ; so that this is taken 
for granted on all hands, that he whose name is Jehovah is the only 
true God. Whenever that name is used properly, without a trope or 
figure, it is used of God only. 

Now this glorious name Jehovah, that is so full of mysteries, is 
frequently ascribed to Christ : Isa. vi. 1, he is called Jehovah, for there 
Isaiah is said to see ' Jehovah sitting upon a throne,' &c. And, John, 
xii. 41, this is expressly by the holy evangelist applied to Christ, o£ 
whom he saith, that ' Isaiah saw his glory, and spake of him.' Exod. 
xvii. 1, the people are said to ' tempt Jehovah ;' and the apostle saith,, 
1 Cor. X. 9, ' Let us not tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted,; 
and were destroyed of serpents.' It is said of Jehovah, ' Of old hast- 
thou laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works^ 
of thy hands ; they shall perish, but thou shalt endure,' &c., Ps. cii. 
25, 26 ; and the apostle clearly testifies, Heb. i. 10, that these words 
are spoken of Christ. So Jehovah rained fire and brimstone from 
Jehovah out of heaven, Gen. xix. 24 ; that is, Jehovah, the Son of 
God, that stayed with Abraham, Gen, xviii., rained fire and brimstone 
from Jehovah the Father; and Christ is called Jehovah-Tsidkenu, 
the Lord our righteousness ; and in that Zech. xiii. 7, Christ is called 
the Father's fellow. The Lord Christ is that Jehovah, to whom every 
knee must bow, as appears by comparing Isa. xlv. 21-25 with Kom. 
xiv. 9-12 and Phil. ii. 6, 9--11. I might further insist upon this argu- 
ment, and shew that the title of Lord, so often given to Christ in the 
New Testament, doth answer to the title of Jehovah in the Old Tes- 
tament. And, as some learned men conceive, the apostles did purposely 
use the title of Lord, that they might not offend the Jews with fre- 
quent pronouncing of the word Jehovah : ' Thou shalt fear Jehovah 
thy God.' Deut. vi. 13 and x. 20 is rendered by the apostle, ' Thou 
shalt worship the Lord thy God ;' and so Deut. vi. 5, ' Thou shalt love 
Jehovah thy God,' is rendered. Mat. xxii. 37, ' Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God.' Thus you see that in several precious scriptures 

* Gen. XX. 14, 'Abraham called the name of the place Jehovah-Jireh, the Lord will 
Bee, or provide.' Besides, the fathers of old are said not to have known God by his 
name Jehovah, in comparison of that which their posterity knew afterwards ; for to 
them God made himself more clearly and plenarily known. 



152 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

Jesus Christ is called Jehovah ; and therefore we may very safely and 
confidently conclude that Jesus Christ is very God, God blessed for 
ever. But, 

(2.) The second name or title which denotes the essence of God is 
Ehieh, ' I am that I am,' or, I will be what I will be, Exod. iii. 14.i 
It hath the same root with Jehovah, and signifies that God is an eter- 
nal, unchangeable being. Some make this name to be Gods extra- 
ordinary name. Damascene saith this name containeth all things in 
it, like a vast and infinite ocean without bounds. This glorious name 
of God, I AM THAT I AM, impHcs these six things. [1.] God's incom- 
prehensibleness : as we use to say of anything we would not have 
others pry into, it is what it is, so God saith here to Moses, I am 
WHAT I AM. [2.] It implies God's immensity, that his being is with- 
out any limits. Angels and men have their beings, but then they are 
bounded and limited within such a compass ; but God is an immense 
being that cannot be included within any bounds. [3.] It implies 
that God is of himself, and hath not a being dependent upon any 
other. ' I am,' that is, by and from and of myself. [4,] It implies 
God's eternal and uncJiangeahle being in himself. It implies God's 
everlastingness. ' I am before anything was, and shall for ever be.' 
There never was nor shall be time wherein God could not say of him- 
self, ' I am.' [5.] It implies that there is no succession of time with 
God. And, [6.] It implies that he is a God that gives being to all 
things.'^ In short, the reason why God nameth himself, ' I am that I 
AM,' or will be that I will be, is because he is the Being of beings, 
subsisting by himself ; as if he should say, I am my being, I am my 
essence ; my existence differeth not from my essence, because I am 
that I am, and as I am, so will I be to all eternity,' ' the same yester- 
day, to-day, and for ever.' ' There is no shadow of change, no vari- 
ableness at all in me.' 

Now this glorious name is given to Jesus Christ : Kev. i. 8, ' I am 
Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, 
which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.' 3 This 
kind of speaking is taken from the Greek alphabet, in which language 
John wrote this book. A, called Alpha by them, being their first 
letter, and 11, which they call Omega, the last. The sense is, I was 
before all creatures, and shall abide for ever, though all creatures 
should perish ; or I am he from whom all creatures had their begin- 
ning, and to whom they are referred, as their uttermost end. Christ, 
in calling of himself Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, and 
that absolutely, doth therein assume unto himself absolute perfection, 
power, dominion, eternity, and divinity, which is, and which was, and 
which is to come. Christ assumeth all those epithets here to himself 
by which John, ver. 4, described God ; and what wonder is it if Christ, 
who is God, doth take to himself whatever is due to God ? The 
Almighty : this is another epithet proper to God, which Christ also 

* The Hebrew Ehieh, after Ehieh, properly signifies, ' I will be that I will be.' The 
Septuagint renders it 'Eyui et/it 6 wi>, I am he that is ; and in that Rev. xvi. 5, God is 
called, He that is, and that was, and that will be. 

■■' Every creature is temporary and mutable. Ko creature can say, Ero qui ero, I will 
be that 1 will be. 

" In this verse you have a clear and pregnant proof of Christ's deity. 



Christ's eternal deity proved. 153 

-taketh to himself, shewing that he is the true, eternal, and omnipo- 
tent God, in all things equal and co-essential with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost. This being the seventh argument which John makes 
use of to prove the deity of Christ, is three times repeated. He is 
the first and the last, which is, was, and is to come, and the Almighty, 
and therefore he is, without a peradventure, God eternal ; for so Jeho- 
vah saith of himself, ' I the Lord, the first and the last, I am he ; I 
am the first, and 1 am the last, and besides me there is no God ; I 
am God Almighty. i But Christ doth challenge, as due to himself, all 
these divine attributes ; therefore he is Jehovah, that one, eternal, and 
omnipotent God with the Father and the Holy Ghost. Oh, the stateli- 
ness and majesty of our Lord Jesus Christ ! What an excellent and 
stately person is he, there being not a property attributed to God but 
is agreeable to Christ ! Every word in this Rev. i. 8, is a proper 
attribute of God. He is infinite in power, sovereign in dominion, and 
not bounded as creatures are. And that this is clearly spoken of 
Christ is most evident, not only from the scope, John being to set out 
Christ, from whom he had this revelation, but also from the 11th and 
17th verses following, where he gives him the same titles over again, 
or rather, if you please, Christ, speaking of himself, taketh and re- 
peateth the same titles.2 Heb. xiii. 8, ' Jesus Christ, the same yester- 
day, and to-day, and for ever.' ' Yesterday,' that is, the time past, 
before his coming in the flesh ; ' to-day,' while in the flesh ; ' and for 
ever,' that is, after. The same afore time, in time, and after time. 
'Jesus Christ the same,' that is, unchangeable in his essence, pro- 
mises, and doctrine. Jesus Christ was always the same, and is still 
the same, and will abide for ever the same, as being one selfsame 
God, and one selfsame Mediator, as well in the Old as in the New 
Testament. John viii. 58, ' Jesus said unto them. Verily, verily, I 
say unto you, before Abraham was, I am.' According to my divine 
nature, which is from everlasting, before Abraham was, I am. I who, 
according to my humanity, am not above fifty years old, according to 
my divine nature am eternal, and so before Abraham and all the crea- 
tures, Micah V. 1, 2. I have a being from all eternity, and so before 
Abraham was born ; and therefore, as young as you take me to be in 
respect of my age here, I may well have seen and known Abraham, 
though he died above two thousand years since. But, 

(3.) The third name or title which denotes the essence of God 
is Elohim, which signifies the persons in the essence. It is a name of 
the plural number, expressing the trinity of persons in the unity of 
essence ; and, therefore, it is observed by the learned that the Holy 
Ghost beginneth the story of the creation with this plural name of 
God, joined with a verb of the singular number, as Elohim Bara, Dii 
creavit, the mighty Gods, or all the three persons in the godhead, 
created, Gen. i. 1,2. So Gen. iii. 22, ' And Jehovah Elohim said, 
Behold, the man is become as one of us.' It is a holy irrision of 
man's vain aff'ectation of the deity. God upbraids our first parents for 
their vain aff'ectation of being like unto him in that ironical expres- 
sion, ' Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil ;' 

^ Isa. xli. 4, xliv. 6, and Gen. xvii. 1. 
* See Rev. xxi. 6, and xxii 13. 



154 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

meaning, that by his sin he was become most unlike him. This name 
Elohim, by which God expresseth his nature, denotes the power and 
strength of God ; to shew us that God is strong and powerful, and that 
he can do great things for his people, and bring great desolations and 
destructions upon his and his people's enemies. sirs, God is too 
strong for his strongest enemies, and too powerful for all the powers of 
hell ! Though Jacob, a worm in his own eyes, and in his enemies' 
eyes, yet Jacob need never fear ; for Elohim, the strong and powerful 
God, will stand by him, and help him, Isa. xli. 10, 13, 14. 

Now this name is also attributed unto Christ : Ps. xlv. 6, ' Thy 
throne, God, is for ever and ever : the sceptre of thy kingdom is a 
right sceptre.' ' Thy throne, God,' Hebrew QTl'^'i* gods — ' Thy 
throne, Gods,' Elohim. It signifies the trinity pf persons in the 
unity of essence, as I have before noted. The prophet directs his 
speech, not to Solomon but to Christ, as is most evident by the clear 
and unquestionable testimony of the Holy Ghost : Heb. i. 8, ' But 
unto the Son he saith. Thy throne, God, is for ever and ever : a 
sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.' Christ is 
called God, not by an excellency only as the angels are, nor by office 
and title only as magistrates are called gods, nor catachrestically and 
ironically as the heathen gods are called, nor a diminutive God, in- 
ferior to the Father, as Arius held, but God by nature every way, 
co-essential, co-eternal, and co-equal with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost.i Hold fast all truth, but, above all, hold fast this glorious 
truth, that Jesus Christ is God blessed for ever. 

(4.) The fourth name or title which denotes the essence of God 
is El Gibbor, the strong and mighty God. God is not only strong in 
his own essence, but he is also strong in the defence of his pec^le, and 
it is he that giveth all strength and power to all other creatures, 
2 Chron. xvi. 9. There are no men, no powers, that are a match for 
the strong God. 

Now this title is also attributed to Christ : Isa. ix. 6, ' El Gibbor, 
the strong God, the mighty God.' The word ^^, signifying God, doth 
also signify strong. He is so strong that he is almighty, he is on'e to 
whom nothing is impossible. Christ's name is God, for he is the same 
essence with God the Father. This title, ' the mighty God,' fitteth 
well to Christ, who hath all the names of the deity given to him 
in Scripture ; and who, by the strength and power of his godhead, did 
satisfy the justice of God, and pacify the wrath of God, and make 
peace, and purchase pardon and eternal life for all his elect. 

(5.) The fifth name or title which denotes the essence of God is El 
Shaddai, God omnipotent or all-sufiicient. Gen. xvii. 1. He wanteth 
nothing, but is infinitely blessed with the infinite perfection of his 
glorious being. By this name God makes himself known to be self- 
sufficient, all-sufiicient, absolutely perfect. Certainly that man can 
want nothing who hath an all-sufiicient God for his God. He that 
loseth his all for God, shall find all in an all-sufficient God, Mat. xix. 
29. Esau had much, but Jacob had all, because he had the God 
of all, G^n. xxxiii. 9-11. Habet omnia, qui habet habentem omnia. 
What are riches, honours, pleasures, profits, lands, friends, yea, millions 
^ Ps. viii. 5, compared with Heb. ii. 6-8, and Ps. Ixxxii. 16. 



Christ's eternal deity proved. 155 

of worlds, to one Sliaddai,,God Almighty, God All-sufficient ? [Augus- 
tine.] 1 This glorious name Shaddai, was a noble bottom for Abraham 
to act his faith upon, though in things above nature or against it, &c. 
He that is El Shaddai is perfectly able to defend his servants from all 
evil, and to bless them with all spiritual and temporal blessings, and 
to perform all his promises which concern both this life and that which 
is to come. 

Now this name, this title Shaddai, is attributed to Christ, as you 
may clearly see by comparing Gen. xxxv. 6, 9-11, and xxxii. 24-30, 
with Hosea xii. 3-5.* That angel that appeared to Jacob was Christ, 
the angel of the covenant. Mark, you shall never find either God the 
Father or the Holy Ghost called an angel in Scripture ; nor was this 
a created angel, for then Jacob would never have made supplication to 
him ; but he was an uncreated angel, even the Lord of hosts, the 
Almighty God, who spake with Jacob in Bethel. He that in this divine 
story is said to be a man, was the Son of God in human shape, 
as is most evident by the whole narration. The angel in the text is 
the same angel that conducted the Israelites in the wilderness, and 
fought their battles for them, Exod, iii. 2 ; Acts vii. 30 ; 1 Cor. 
X. 4, 5, 9, even Jesus Christ, who is styled once and again the 
Almighty, Bev. i. 8, and iv. 8. In this last scripture is acknowledged 
Christ's holiness, power, and godhead. Ah Christians ! when will you 
once learn to set one Almighty Christ against all the mighty ones 
of the world, that you may bear up bravely and stoutly against their 
rage and wrath, and go on cheerfully and resolutely in the way of your 
duty. 

(6.) The sixth name or title is Adonai, my Lord. Though this 
name Adonai be given sometimes analogically to creatures, yet pro- 
perly it belongs to God above.^ This name is often used in the 
Old Testament ; and, in Mai. i. 6, it is used in the plural number to 
note the mystery of the holy Trinity, ' If I be Adonim, Lords, where is 
my fear ? ' Some derive the word Adonai from a word in the Hebrew 
[]1N] that signifies ywdtcare, to judge, because God is the Judge of the 
world ; others derive it from a word which signifies basis, a founda- 
tion, intimating that God is the upholder of all things, as the founda- 
tion of a house is the support of the whole building. 

Now this name is given to Christ : Dan. ix. 17, * Cause thy face to 
shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate, for Adonai, the Lord Christ, 
sake.' Daniel pleads here no merits of their own, but the merits and 
mediation of the Messias, whom God hath made both Lord and Christ. 
So Ps. ex. 1, ' The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand 
until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'* Christ applies these words 
to himself, as you may see in that Mat. xxii. 24, ' Jehovah said,' that 
is, God the Father said, >y\'iih La-adoni, ' unto my Lord,' that is, to 
Christ ; ' sit thou at my right hand,' sit thou with me in my throne. 
It notes the advancement of Christ, as he was both God and man in 

^ This name Shaddai belongeth only to the godhead, and to no creature ; no, not to the 
humanity of Christ. 

' See my treatise on closet-prayer, opening that Gen. xxxii., and that Hosea xii., pp. 
48-61, where you have four arguments to prove that Jesus Christ is the angel, the 
man, that is there spoken of, &c. [Vol. ii., pp. 139, seq. ' The Privy Key of Heaven.' — G.] 

'<> Query, 'alone'?— G. * Acts ii. ; Luke i. 43, and ii. 11, 12 ; Heb. i. 13. 



156 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

one person, to the supremest place of power and authority, of honour 
and heavenly glory. Mat. xxviii, 18 ; John iii. 35. God's right hand 
notes a place of equal power and authority with God, even that he 
should be advanced far above all principality, and power, and might, 
and dominion, Eph. i. 21 ; Heb. i. 3 ; Luke xxii. 69. Christ's reign 
over the whole world is sometimes called ' the right hand of the 
majesty,' and sometimes the 'right hand of the power of God/ ' Until I 
make thine enemies thy footstool.' This implies, [1.] That Jesus 
Christ hath ever had, and will have enemies, even to the end of the 
world. [2.] Victory, a perfect conquest over them. Conquerors used 
to make their enemies their footstool. Those proud enemies of Christ, 
who now set up their crests, face the heavens, and strut it out against 
him, even those shall be brought under his feet. [3.] It implies 
ignominy, the lowest subjection. Sapores, King of Persia, overcoming 
the Emperor Valerian in battle, used his back for a stirrup when he 
got upon his horse ; and so Tamerlane served Bajazet. [4.] The foot- 
stool is a piece of state, and both raiseth and easeth him that sits on 
the throne ; so Christ will both raise himself and ease himself by that 
vengeance that he will take on his enemies, &c. 

Now from these divine names and titles which are given to Jesus 
Christ, we may thus argue. He to whom the incommunicable titles of 
the most high God are attributed, he is the most high God ; but the 
incommunicable titles of the most high God are attributed unto Christ, 
e7yo, he is the tnost high God. But, 

4. Fourthly, Christ's eternal deity, co-equality, and consubstantiality 
with the Father may be demonstrated from his divine properties and 
attributes. I shall shew you for the opening of this that the glorious 
attributes of God are ascribed to the Lord Jesus. I shall begin, — 

(1.) First, with the eternity of God. God is an eternal God. 'From 
everlasting to everlasting thou art God,' Ps. xc. 2 ; ' The eternal God 
is thy refuge,' Deut. xxxiii. 27 ; 'He inhabits eternity,' Isa. Ivii. 15. 
He is called ' the ancient of days,' Dan. vii. 9 ; and he is said to be 
' everlasting,' and to be ' king of old,' Ps. Ixxiv. 12. This sheweth 
he had no beginning. In respect of his eternit}'', after time, he is called 
* the everlasting God,' Eom. xvi. 26 ; ' An everlasting king,' 1 Tim. 
i. 17. That there is no succession or priority or posteri[ori]ty in God, 
but that he is from everlasting to everlasting the same, we may see Ps. 
cii. 26, 27, ' The heavens shall perish, but thou shalt endure ; yea, all 
of them shall wax old like a garment, and as a vesture shalt thou 
change them, and they shall be changed ; but thou art the same, and 
thy years shall have no end.' There is no succession or variation in 
God, but he is eternally the same. Eternity is an interminable being 
and duration before any time, and beyond all time ; it is a fixed dura- 
tion, without beginning or ending, i The eternity of God is beyond 
all possible conception of measure or time. God ever was, ever is, and 
ever shall be. Though the manifestations of himself unto the crea- 

^ Eternity ia taken three ways. [1.] Proprie, properly, so it notetli to be without 
beginning and end, so God only is eternal ; [2.] Improprie, imjiroperly, so it noteth to 
have a beginning but no ending; so angels, so the souls of men are eternal ; [3.] Abusive, 
so some things are said to be eternal which have had a beginning, and shall also have 
an end. They are called eternal in respect of their long continuance and duration ; so 
circumcision and other Mosaical ceremonies were called eternal or everlasting. 



Christ's eternal deity proved. 157 

tures are in time, yet his essence or being never did nor shall be bound 
up by time. Look backward or forward, God from eternity to eternity, 
is a most self-sufficient, infinite, perfect, blessed being, the first cause 
of our being, and without any cause of his own being ; an eternal 
infinite fulness, and possession to himself and of himself. What 
God is, he was from eternity, and what God is, he will be so to 
eternity. Oh, this glorious attribute drops mirth ^ and mercy, oil and 
honey ! 

Now this attribute of eternity is ascribed to Jesus Christ : John i. 
1, ' In the beginning was the Word ;' ' was ' notes some former dura- 
tion, and therefore we conclude that he was before the beginning, before 
any creation or creatures, for it is said he was God in the beginning, 
and his divine nature whereby he works is eternal, Heb. ix. 14. He 
is ' the first and last,' Kev. i. 17. Hence it is that he is called ' the 
firstborn of every creature,' because he who created all, and upholds 
all, hath power to command and dispose of all, as the firstborn had 
power to command the family or kingdom, Col. i. 15-17 ; compare 
Isa. Ixvi. 6, with Kev. xxii. 13. John xvii. 5, ' Father glorify thou 
me with thine own self, with the glory I had with thee before the world 
was.' Such glory had the Lord Christ with his Father, viz., in the 
heavens, and that before the world was. This he had not only in 
regard of destination, being predestinated to it by God his Father, as 
Grotius would evade it, but in regard of actual possession. ' The Lord 
possessed me in the beginning of his way,' saith Christ the Son of God, 
Prov. viii. 22. And as his Father possessed him, so he was possessed 
of the selfsame glory with his Father before the world was, from 
eternity. ' His goings forth have been from Of old, from everlasting,' 
from the days of eternity, saith the prophet Micah, speaking of the 
Messiah, Micah v. 2. See the eternity of Christ further confirmed by 
the scriptures in the margin. ^ But, 

(2.) Secondly, As the attribute of eternity is ascribed to Christ, so 
the attribute of omniscience is ascribed to Christ ; and this speaks out 
the godhead of Christ. He knows all things : John xxi. 17, ' Lord, 
thou knowest all things,' ra irapovTa koX ra fjueWovra, all things pre- 
sent and future ; what I now am, and what I shall be, saith one, 
[Chrysostom] on the words : John ii. 25, ' He needed not that any 
should testify of man, for he knew what was in man.' Shall artificers 
know the nature and properties of their works, and shall not Christ 
know the hearts of men, which are the work of his own hands ? Eev. ii. 
23, ' And all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth 
the reins and hearts.' Now of all a man's inwards, the heart and the 
reins are the most inward. Christ is nearer to us than we are to our- 
selves. The Greek word epevvwv, that is here rendered searcheth, 
signifies to search with the greatest seriousness, exactness, and dili- 
gence that can be ; the word is metaphorically taken from such as use 
to search in mines for silver and gold. He is also frequently said to 
know the thoughts of men, and that before they bewrayed themselves 

1 Spelled 'myrth': query, 'myrrh'?— G. 

2 John viii. 58, and xvii. 24 ; Rev. i. 8, 17 ; Heb. i. 10-12, and vii. 3 ; Isa. ix. 6, &c. 
Christ is without beginning of days or end of time, and without all bounds of precession 
or succession. 



158 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

by any ontward expressions, l Now this is confessedly God's peculiar, 
* God which knoweth the hearts.' He is the wisdom of the Father, 
1 Cor. i. 24. He knows the Father, and doth, according to his will, 
reveal the secrets of his Father's bosom. The bosom is the seat of 
love and secrecy, John i. 18. Men admit those into their bosoms, 
with whom they impart all their secrets ; the breast is the place of 
counsels ; that is, Christ revealeth the secret and mysterious counsels, 
and the tender and compassionate affections of the Father to the world. 
Being in the bosom implieth communication of secrets : the bosom is a 
place for them. It is a speech of Tully to a friend that had betrusted 
him with a secret, crede mihi, &c., Believe me, saith he, what thou 
hast committed to me, it is in my bosom still, I am not ungirt to let 
it slip out. But Scripture addeth this hint too, where it speaketh of 
the bosom as the place of secrets : Pro v. xvii. 23, ' A wicked man 
taketh a gift out of the bosom, to pervert the ways of judgment,' speak- 
ing of a bribe : Prov. xxi. 14, ' A gift in secret pacifieth anger, and 
a reward in the bosom expiateth wrath.' Here is ' secret' and ' bosom' 
all one, as gift and reward are one. So Christ lieth in the Father's 
bosom ; this intimateth his being conscious to all the Father's secrets. 
But, 

(3.) Thirdly, As the attribute of God's omniscience is ascribed to 
Christ, so the attribute of God's mnnipresence is ascribed to Christ ; 
Mat. xviii. 20, ' Where two or three are gathered together in my 
name, there am I in the midst of them ;' and chap, xxviu. 29, 'I am 
with you alway, even to the end of the world.' He is not contained 
in any place, who was before there was any place, Prov. viii. 22, and 
John i. 1, 3, and did create all places by his own power. Whilst 
Christ was on earth in respect of his bodily presence, he was in the 
bosom of his Father, which must be understood of his divine nature 
and person. He did come down from heaven, and yet remained 
in heaven, 2 Christ is universally present, he is present at all times 
and all places, and among all persons ; he is repletively everywhere, 
inclusively nowhere. Diana's temple was burnt down when she was 
busy at Alexander's birth, and could not be at two places together ; 
but Christ is present both in paradise and in the wilderness at the 
same time, uhi non est per gratiam, adest per vindtctam, where he is 
not by his gracious influence, there he is by his vindictive power.3 
Empedocles could say that God is a circle, whose centre is everywhere, 
whose circumference is nowhere. The poor blind heathens could say 
that God is the soul of the world ; and thus, as the soul is Ma in toto, 
and tota in qualihet parte, so is he, that his eye is in every corner, &c. 
To which purpose they so portrayed their goddess Minerva, that which 
way soever one cast his eye, she always beheld him. But, 

(4.) Fourthly, As the attribute of God's omnipresence is ascribed 
to Christ, so the attribute of God's omnipotency is ascribed to Christ, 
and this speaks out the Godhead of Christ, ' All power is given unto 

^ Mat. ix. 24, and xii. 25; Luke v. 22, vi. 18, xi. 17, and xxiv. 38, &c. 

' John i. 18, iii. 13 ; Ps. cxxxix. 7-11. 

" Greg, in Ezek. Horn. 8, Aug. medit. c. 29, where two are sitting together, and con- 
versing about the law, there is Shechinah, the divine majesty, among them, Grotius on 
Mat. xviii. 20. 



cheist's eternal deity proved. 159 

me, in heaven and in earth,' Mat. xxviii. 18 ; John v. 19. ' What 
things soever the Father doth, these also doth the Son,' Phil. iii. 21. 
He is called by a metonymy ' the power of God,' 1 Cor. i. 24. * He 
is the Almighty,' Eev. i. 8, ' He made all things,' John i. 3. ' He 
upholds all things,' Heb, i. 3. ' He shall change our vile body,' 
saith the apostle, ' that it may be like unto his glorious body, accord- 
ing to the mighty working whereby he is able to subdue all things 
to himself,' Phil. iii. 21. Now from what has been said we may thus 
argue, He to whom the incommunicable properties of the most high 
God are attributed, he is the most high God ; but the incommunicable 
properties of the most high God are attributed to Christ, ergo, Christ 
is the most high God.i But, 

5. Fifthly, Christ's eternal deity, co-equality, and consubstan- 
tiality with the Father, may be demonstrated from his divine ivorks. 
The same works which are peculiar to God are ascribed to Christ. 
Such proper and peculiar, such divine and supernatural works as none 
but God can perform, Christ did perform. As, [1.] Election. The elect 
are called his elect, Mat. xxiv. 31 ; John xiii. 18. ' I know whom I 
have chosen,' John xv. 16. 'I have chosen you, and ordained you, 
that you should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should 
remain;' ver. 19, ' But I have chosen you out of the world, therefore 
the world hateth you.' [2.] Redemption. sirs, none but the great 
God could save us from wrath to come, none but God blessed for ever 
could deliver us from the curse of the law, the dominion of sin, the 
damnatory power of sin, the rule of Satan, and the flames of heU.2 
Ah, friends, these enemies were too potent, strong, and mighty for any 
mere creature, yea, for all mere creatures, to conquer and overcome. 
None but the most high God could everlastingly secure us against 
such high enemies. [3.] Remission of sins. Mat. ix. 6, ' The Son of 
man hath power to forgive sins.' Christ here positively proves that 
he had power on earth to forgive sins, because miraculously, by a 
word of his mouth, he causes the palsy man to walk, so that he arose 
and departed to his house immediately. Christ he forgives sin autho- 
ritatively. Preachers forgive only declaratively, John xx. 23, as Nathan 
to David, ' The Lord hath put away thine iniquity,' 2 Sam. xii. 7. I 
have read of a man that could remove mountains, but none but the 
man Christ Jesus could ever remit sin. AU the persons in the Trinity 
forgive sins, yet not in the same manner. The Father bestows for- 
giveness, the Son merits forgiveness, and the Holy Ghost seals up 
forgiveness, and applies forgiveness. [4.] The bestowing of eternal life. 
John X. 28, ' My sheep hear my voice, and I give unto them eternal life.' 
Christ is the prince and principle of life, and therefore all out of him 
are dead whilst they live. Col. iii. 3, 4. Eternal life is too great a gift 
for any to give but a God. [5.] Creation. John i. 3, ' All things are 
made by him;' and ver. 10, 'The world was made by him.' Col. i. 16, 
' By him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in 
the earth, visible and invisible.' Now the apostle telleth you ' he that 
built all things is God ; ' Christ built all things, ergo, Christ is God.3 

^ See Col. i. 16, 17, Ps. cii. 26, compared with Heb. i. 8, 10, John i. 10. 

* 1 Thes. i. 10; Gal. iii. 13; Kom. vi. 14, and viii. 1 ; Luke i. 68-80. 

• Justin Martyr quoteth two Greek verses out of Pythagoras to prove there is but one 



160 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

The argument lieth fair and undeniable. The all things that were 
created by Christ, Paul reduceth to two heads, visible and invisible ; 
but Zanchius addeth a third branch to this distinction, and maketh it 
more plain by saying that all things that were made are either visible 
or invisible, or mixed — visible, as the stars and fowls and clouds of 
heaven, the fish in the sea, and beasts upon the earth ; invisible things, 
as the angels, they also were made; then there is a third sort of 
creatures which are of a mixed nature, partly visible in regard of their 
bodies, and partly invisible in regard of their souls, and those are men : 
Eph. ii. 9, ' Who created all things by Jesus Chiist ; ' Heb. i. 2, ' He 
hath, in these last days, spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath ap- 
pointed heir of all things ; by whom also he made the worlds.' This 
may seem somewhat difficult, because he speaketh of worlds, whereas 
we acknowledge but one ; but this seeming difficulty you may easily 
get over if you please but to consider the persons to whom he writes, 
which were Hebrews, whose custom it was to style God Rabboni, 
dominus mundorum, the Lord of the worlds. They were wont to speak 
of three worlds— the lower world, the higher world, and the middle 
world ; the lower world containeth the elements, earth and water and 
air and fire ; the higher world that containeth the heaven of the 
blessed ; and the middle world that containeth the starry heaven. 
They now being acquainted with this language, and the apostle writ- 
ing to them, he saith that God by Christ made the worlds — those 
worlds which they were wont to speak so frequently of. And whereas 
one scruple might arise from that expression in the Ephesians, ' God 
created all things "6y" Jesus Christ,' and this to the Hebrews, ^by 
wliom he made the worlds,' as if Christ were only an instrument in 
the creation and not the principal efficient ; therefore another place in 
this chapter will clear it, which speaketh of Christ as the principal 
efficient of all things: Heb. i., compare the 8th and 10th verses to- 
gether, ' To the Son he saith, Thy throne, God, is for ever and 
ever ; ' then Christ is God. Then, ' And, Thou, Lord,' ver. 10, ' hast 
laid the foundation of the earth ; and the heavens are the works of 
thy hands.' Namely ' thine,' that is, the Son, which he spake of be- 
fore. Christ is the principal efficient of the creation ; and in this sense 
it is said, ' By him were all things made,' not as by an instrument, but 
as by the chief efficient. [6.] The preservation and sustenfation of all 
things: Col. i. 17, ' By him all things consist.' They would soon fall 
asunder had not Christ undertaken to uphold the shattered condition 
thereof by the word of his power. All creatures that are made are 
preserved by him in being, life, and motion : Heb. i. 3, ' He upholdeth 
all things by the word of his power.' Both in respect of being, excel- 
lencies, and operations, sin had hurled confusion over the world, which 
would have fallen about Adam's ears had not Christ undertaken 
the shattered condition thereof, to uphold it. He keeps the world 
together, saith one, as the hoops do the barrel. Christ bears up all 

God : et Ii/jli 6eb%, &c., saith Pythagoras, If any will assume to himself and say, I am God, 
except only one, let him lay such a world as this is to stake, and say, This world is mine ; 
then I'will believe him, not otherwise, Heb. i. 2, Ai Zv, not propter qnem, as Grotius would 
evade the text ' for ' whom he made the worlds, hut per quem, by whom ; so the apostle, 
to put it out of all doubt, putteth them together : Col. i. 16, ' All things were created 
by him and for him,' dl airrdv /cat eU avrbv. 



chkist's eteknal deity proved. 161 

things, continuing to the several creatures their being, ordering and 
governing them, and this he doth by the word of his power. By this 
word he made the world, ' He spake, and it was done.' And by this 
word he governeth the world, by his own mighty word, the word of his 
power. Both these are divine actions, and being ascribed unto Christ, 
evidence him to be no less than God. Now from what has been said 
we may thus argue, he to whom those actions are ascribed, which are 
proper to the most high God, he is the most high God ; but such 
actions or works are ascribed to Christ, ergo, he is the most high God. 
But, 

6. Sixthly, Christ's eternal deity may be demonstrated from that 
divine honour and loorship that is due to him, and hy angels and 
saints given unto him. The apostle sheweth, Gal. iv. 8, that religious 
worship ought to be performed to none but to him that is God by 
nature ; and that they are ignorant of the true God who religiously 
worship them that are no gods by nature ; and therefore, if Christ 
were not God by nature, and consubstantial with the Father, we ought 
not to perform religious worship to him.i Divine worship is due to 
the second person of this co essential Trinity, to Jesus Christ our Lord 
and God. There is but one immediate, formal, proper, adequate, and 
fundamental reason of divine worship or adorability, as the schools 
speak, and that is the sovereign, supreme, singular majesty, indepen- 
dent and infinite excellency of the eternal Godhead ; for by divine 
worship we do acknowledge and declare the infinite majesty, truth, 
wisdom, goodness, and glory of our blessed God. We do not esteem 
anything worthy of divine honour and worship which hath but a finite 
and created glory, because divine honour is proper and peculiar to the 
only true God, who will not give his glory to any other who is not 
God. God alone is the adequate object of divine faith, hope, love, and 
worship, because these graces are all exercised, and this worship per- 
formed, in acknowledgment of his infinite perfection and independent 
excellency ; and therefore no such worship can be due to any creature 
or thing below God. There is not one kind of divine honour due to 
the Father and another to the Son, nor one degree of honour due to the 
Father and another to the Son ; for there can be no degrees imaginable 
in one and the same excellency, which is single because infinite ; and 
what is infinite doth excel and transcend all degrees and bounds. And 
if there be no degrees in the ground and adequate reason of divine 
worshij), there can be no reason or ground of a difterence of degrees in 
the worship itself. The Father and the Son are one, John x. 30, — one 
in power, excellency, nature, — one God, and therefore to be honoured 
with the same worship, ' that all men should honour the Son even as 
they honour the Father,' John v. 23. Every tongue must confess that 
Jesus Christ, who is man, is God also, and therefore equal to his 
Father, Phil. ii. 6, 11, 12 ; and it can be no robbery, no derogation to 
the Father's honour, for us to give equal honour to him and his co-equal 
Son, who subsists in the form of God, in the natm-e of God. Thus 

^ This is a clear and full evidence that Jesus Christ is, and must be more than ^tXos 
AvOpuwos, mere man, or j'et a divine man, as Dr Liishington styles him in Heb. vii. 22. 
[In his anonvmous ' Expiation of a Sinner, in a Commentary upon the Epistle to the 
Hebrews.' 1646. Folio.— G.] 

VOL. V. L 



162 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

you see the divine nature, the infinite excellency of Jesus Christ, is an 
undeniable gi-ound of this co-equal honour ; and therefore the worship 
due to Christ as God, the same God with his Father, is the very same 
worship, both for kind and degree, which is due to the Father. But, 
for the further and clearer opening of this, consider, 

(1.) First, that all inward worship is due to Christ. As, 
[1.] Believiiig on him. Faith is a worship which belongs only to 
God, enjoined in the first commandment, and against trusting in man 
there is a curse denounced, Jer. xvii. 5, 6. But Christ commands us 
to believe in him, John i. xii. John xiv. 1, * Ye believe in God, be- 
lieve also in me.' John iii. 16, ' For God so loved the world, that he 
gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should 
not perish, but have everlasting life.' Ver. 36, ' He that believeth in 
the Son hath everlasting life, and he that believeth not the Son, shall 
not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.' John vi. 47, 
' Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that believeth on me hath everlast- 
ing life.' The same respect that Christians give unto God the Father, 
they must also give unto the Son, believing on him ; which is an 
honour due only to God. Other creatures, men and angels, may be 
believed, but not believed on, rested on. This were to make them 
gods ; this were no less than idolatry. 

[2.] Secondly, Loving of Jesus Uirist loitli all the heart, com- 
manded above the love, nay, even to the hatred, of father, mother, 
wife, children, yea, and our own lives, Luke xiv. 26. He who is not 
disposed, where these loves are incompatible, to hate father and all 
other relations, for the love of Christ, can be none of his. I ought 
dearly and tenderly to love father and mother — the law of God and 
nature requiring it of me, — but to prefer dear Jesus, who is God blessed 
for ever, before all, and above all, as Paul and the primitive Chris- 
tians and martyrs have done before me. Your house, home, and 
goods, your life, and all that ever you have, saith that martyr,^ God 
hath given you as love-tokens, to admonish you of his love, to win 
your love to him again. Now will he try your love, whether you set 
more by him or by his tokens, &c. When relations or life stand in 
competition with Christ and his gospel, they are to be abandoned, 
hated, &c. But, 

(2.) Secondly, All ouiiuard worship is due to Christ. As, 
[1.] First, Dedication in baptism is in his name. Mat. xxviii. 19, 
' Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost :' ek to ovofia, into the name, by that rite initiating 
them, and receiving of them into the profession of the service of one 
God in three persons, and of depending on Christ alone for salvation. 
Baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, is the consecrating of them unto the sincere service of 
the sacred Trinity. 

[2.] Secondly, Divine invocation is given to Jesus Christ. Acts 
vii. 59, ' Stephen calls upon the Lord Jesus to receive his spirit.' 
1 Cor. i. 2, ' All that in every place call upon the name of Jesus 
Christ our Lord.' 1 Thes. iii. 11, ' God himself and our Father, and 
our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you.' Eph. i. 2, ' Grace 
1 Master Brad[ford], Acts and Mon., fol. 1492. Phil. iii. 7, 8. 



Christ's eternal deity proved. 163 

be to you, and peace from God our Father, and from our Lord Jesus 
Christ.' It is the saints' character that they are such as call on the 
Lord Jesus, Acts ii. 21 ; Acts ix. 14.1 But, 

[3.] Thirdly, Praises are offered to our Lord Jesus Christ: Rev. 
V. 9, ' And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take 
the book, and to open the seals thereof ; for thou wast slain, and hast 
redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, 
and people, and nation.' Ver. 11, 'And I beheld, and I heard the 
voice of many angels round about the throne, and the beasts, and the 
elders ; and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thou- 
sand, and thousands of thousands.' 2 Ver. 12, ' Saying with a loud 
voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, 
and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.' Ver. 
13, ' And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and 
under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, 
heard I saying. Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto 
him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and 
ever.' Here you have a catholic confession of Christ's divine nature 
and power. All the creatures, both reasonable and unreasonable, do 
in some sort set forth the praises of Christ, because in some sort they 
serve to illustrate and set forth his glory. Here you see that Christ 
is adored with religious worship by all creatures, which doth evidently 
prove that he is God. Since all the creatures worship him with reli- 
gious worship, we may safely and boldly conclude upon his deity. 
Here are three parties that bear a part in this new song: 1. The 
redeemed of the Lord ; and they sing in the last part of the 8th verse, 
and in the 9th and 10th verses. Then, 2, the angels follow, verses 
11th and 12th. In the third place, all creatures are brought in, join- 
ing in this new song, ver. 13. That noble company of the church 
triumphant and church militant, sounding out the praises of the 
Lamb, may sufficiently satisfy us concerning the divinity of the Lamb. 
But, 

[4.] Fourthly, Divine adoration is also given to him : Mat. viii. 2, 
* A leper worshipped him.' Mark saith he kneeled down, and Luke 
saith he fell upon his face, Mark i. 40 ; Luke v. 12. He shewed re- 
verence in his gesture. ' Lord, if thou wilt thou canst make me clean.' ^ 
He acknowledged a divine power in Christ, in that he saith he could 
make him clean if he would. This poor leper lay at Christ's feet, im- 
ploring and beseeching him, as a dog at his master's feet, as Zanchy 
[de jRed.] renders the word, which shews that this leper looked upon 
Christ as more than a prophet or a holy man ; and that believing he 
was God, and so able to heal him if he would, he gave him religious 
worship. He doth not say to Christ, Lord, if thou wilt pray to God, 
or to thy Father for me, I shall be whole ; but ' Lord, if thou wilt I 

^ Ponder upon these scriptures : 2 Cor. xii. 8, 9 j 1 Thes. i. 1 ; 2 Thes. i. 1, 2 ; 
2 Cor. i. 2. 

'■^ This is taken out of Daniel, chap. vii. 10, whereby the glory and power of God and 
Christ is held forth, they being attended with innumerable millions of angels, which 
stood before the fiery throne of God, &c. 

^ So tliat he touched Christ his feet, as the word'yowirerw;' signifies; not kneeled, as 
the word is translated, Mark i. 40. This leper came to know Christ was God, 1. By in- 
spiration ; 2. By the miracles which Christ did. 



164 Christ's eternal deity proved. 

shall be whole.' He acknowledges the leprosy curable by Christ, 
which he and all men knew was incurable by others, which was a plain 
argument of his faith ; for though the psm^a or scabbedness may be 
cured, yet that which is called lepra physicians acknowledge incurable ; 
for if a particular cancer cannot be cured, much less can a universal 
cancer. As Avicenna^ observes: Mat. ii. 11, ' Though the wise men 
of the east, who saw Herod in all his royalty and glory, worshipped 
him not, yet they fell down before Christ.' No doubt but that by 
divine instinct they knew the divinity of Christ, hence they worshipped 
him, not only with civil worship, as one born king of the Jews, but 
with divine worship ; which was, it is like, the outward gestui'e of 
reverence, and kneeling, and falling down, for so the Greek words 
signify. Is it probable that they would worship a young babe, that 
by reason of his infancy understands nothing, except they did believe 
some divine thing to be in him ? and therefore not the childhood, but 
the divinity in the child, was worshipped by them, [Chrysostom.] 
Certainly if Christ had been no more than a natural child, they would 
never have undertaken so long, so tedious, and so perilous a journey 
to have found him out ; principally, considering, as some conceive, they 
themselves were little inferior to the kings of the Jews. It is uncer- 
tain what these wise men, who were Gentiles, knew particularly con- 
cerning the mystery of the Messiah ; but certainly they knew that he 
was something more than a man, by the internal revelation of the 
Spirit of God, who by faith taught them to believe that he was a 
king though in a cottage, and a God though in a cradle ; and there- 
fore as unto a God they fell down and worshipped him, &c. But, 

[5.] Fiftlily, When Jesus Christ luas declared to the world, God did 
command even the most glorious angels to worship him, as his natural 
and co-essential Son, ivhowas begotten from the days of eternity, in the 
unity of the Godhead; for, when he brought in his first-begotten and 
only-begotten Son into the world, he said, ' And let all the angels of God 
worship him,' Heb. i. 6, — the glorious angels who refuse divine honour 
to be given to themselves : ' See thou do it not,' saith the angel to John, 
when John fell at his feet to worship him, ' I am thy fellow-servant,' &c., 
Rev. xix. 10, and xxii. 9 ; yet they give, and must give, divine hon- 
our unto Christ, Phil. ii. 9. The manhood of itself could not be thus 
adored, because it is a creature, but as it is received into unity of person 
with the Deity, and hath a partner agency therewith, according to its 
measure in the work of redemption and mediation. All the honour 
due to Christ, according to his divine nature, was due from all eternity ; 
and there is no divine honour due to him from and by reason of his 
human nature, or any perfection which doth truly and properly be- 
long to Christ as man. He who was born of Mary is to be. adored 
with divine worship ; but not for that reason, because he was born of 
Mary, but because he is God, the co-essential and eternal Son of God. 
From what has been said we may thus ai'gue, He to whom religious 
worship is truly exliibited, is the most higli God. But religious wor- 
ship is truly exhibited unto Christ, ergo, Christ is the most high God. 
But, 

7. Seventhly, Christ's eternal deity may be demonstrated from Christ's 

^ Or Ibn-Sina.— G. 



Christ's eternal deity proved. 165 

oneness luWi the Father, and from that claim that Jesus Christ doth lay 
to all that belongs to the Father, as God A Now, certainly, if Jesus 
Christ were not very God, he would never have laid claim to all that 
is the Father's, as God. The ancients insist much upon that : John xvi. 
15, ' All things that the Father hath,' as God, ' are mine.' The 
Father hath an eternal godhead, and that is mine ; the Father hath 
infinite power and wisdom, and that is mine ; the Father hath infinite 
majesty and glory, and that is mine ; the Father hath infinite happi- 
ness and blessedness in himself, and that is mine, saith Christ. The 
words are very emphatical, having in them a double universality. 
[1.] ' All things : ' there is one note of universality ; [2.] ' Whatsoever : ' 
there is another note of universality. Well, saith Christ, there is 
nothing in the Father, as God, but is mine, ' All that the Father hath 
is mine ; ' the Father is God, and I am God ; the Father is life, 
and I am life ; for whatsoever the Father hath is mine : John x. 30, 
' I and my Father are one ;' Ave are one eternal God, we are one 
in consent, will, essence, nature, power, dominion, glory, &c., ' I and 
my Father are one ; ' two persons, but one God. He speaketh this as 
he is God, one in substance, being, and deity, &c. As God, he saith, 
* I and my Father are one ;' but, secundum formam servi, in respect 
of the form of a servant, his assumed humanity, he saith, John xiv. 
28, ' My Father is greater than I :' John x. 37, ' If I do not the works 
of my Father, believe me not:' ver. 38, 'But if I do, though ye 
believe not me, believe the works,' &c. The argument of itself is 
plain. No man can of himself, and by his own power, do divine 
works, unless he be truly God ; I do divine works by my own power, 
yea, ' I do the works of my Father ;' not only the like and equal, but 
the same with the Father. Therefore I am truly God ; neither deserve 
I to be called a blasphemer, because I said I was one with the Father ; 
1 John V. 7, ' And these three are one,' one in nature and essence, one 
in power and will, and one in the act of producing all such actions, as 
without themselves any of them is said to perform. Look, as three 
lamps are lighted in one chamber, albeit the lamps be divers, yet the 
lights cannot be severed ; so in the godhead, as there is a distinction 
of persons, so a simplicity of nature. From the scriptures last cited 
we may safely and confidently conclude that Clirist hath the same 
divine nature and godhead with the Father, that they both have the 
same divine and essential titles and attributes, and perform the same 
inward operations in reference to all creatures whatsoever. To make 
it yet more plain, compare John xvii. 10 with John xvi. 15. ' All 
things that the Father hath are mine,' John xvi. 15 ; ' Father, all 
mine are thine, and thine are mine,' John xvii. 10. That is, whatso- 
ever doth belong to the Father, as God, doth belong to Christ ; for we 
speak not of personal but essential properties. Christ doth lay claim 
to all that is natural, to all that belongs to the Father, as God, not to 
anything which belongs to him as the Father, as the first person of the 

•^ Never did any mere creature challenge to himself the honour due to God, but 
miscarried and were confounded. Witness tlie angels that God cast out of heaven, 2 Pet. 
ii. 4; and Adam tliat he cast out of paradise, Gen. iii. 22-24 ; and Herod, whom the 
angel smote with a fatal blow, Acts xii. 23 ; and those several Popes that we read of in 
ecclesiastical stories ; and therefore had Jesus Christ been but a mere creature, divine 
justice would have confounded him for making himself a God. 



166 THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 

blessed Trinity. ' All things that the Father hath are mine,' This he 
speaketh in the person of the mediator, ' Because of his fulness we all 
receive grace for grace,' John i. 16 ; and herein sheweth the unity of 
essence in the holy Trinity, and community of power, wisdom, sanctity, 
truth, eternity, glory, majesty. Such is the strict union of the persons 
of the blessed Trinity, that there is among them a perfect communion 
in all things, for ' all things that the Father hath are mine.' And let 
thus much suffice for the proof of the godhead of Christ. 

Concerning the manhood of Christ, let me say, that as he is very 
God, so he is very man : 1 Tim. ii. 5, ' the man Christ Jesus,' Christ 
is true man, but not mere man ; verus, sed non merus. The word is 
not to be taken exclusively, as denying the divine nature. Christ is 
0edv9po)iTo<;, both God and man ; sometimes denominated from the 
one nature, and sometimes from the other ; sometimes called God, and 
sometimes man ; yet so as he is truly both, and in that respect fitly 
said to be a mediator betwixt God and men, having an interest in and 
participating of both natures. This title, ' the Son of man,' is given 
to Christ in the New Testament four score and eight times, the design 
being not only to express a man, according to the Syrian dialect then 
used, i^^2 12, bar nosho; nor only to express Christ's humanity, who 
was truly man, in all things like unto us, sin only excepted ; nor only 
to intimate his humility, by calling himself so often by this humble 
name ; but also to tell us to what a high honour God hath raised our 
nature in him, and to confute their imaginations who denied him to 
be very man, flesh, blood, and bones, as we truly are ; and who held, 
that whatever he was, and whatever he did, and whatever he suffered, 
was only seeming and in appearance, and not real ; and to lead us to 
that original promise, the first that was made to mankind, ' The seed 
of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head,' Gen. iii. 15, that so he 
might intimate, saith Epiphanius, that himself was the party meant, 
intended, and foretold of by all the prophets, who was to come into 
the world, to all nations in the world, Jews and Gentiles originally 
alike descended of the woman, who both had a like interest in the 
woman and her seed, though the Jew^s did and might challenge greater 
propriety in the seed of Abraham than the Gentiles could, Rom. iii. 
1,2; but they having been a long time, as it were, God's favourites, 
a selected people, a chosen nation, did wholly appropriate the Messias 
to themselves, and would endure no co-partners, Exod. xix. 6 ; 1 Pet. 
ii. 9 ; nor that any should have any right, title, or interest in him but 
themselves ; and therefore they would never talk otherwise than of the 
Messias, the King of Israel, the son of David, never naming him once 
the light of the Gentiles, the expectation of the Gentiles, the hope and 
desire of the eternal hills, the hope of all the ends of the earth, the 
seed of the woman, the Son of man, as descending from Eve, extracted 
from Adam, and allied unto all mankind. i And it is observable that 
the evangelist Luke, at the story of Christ's baptism, when he was to 
be installed into his ministry, and had that glorious testimony from 
heaven, deriveth his pedigree up to the first Adam, the better to draw 
all men's eyes to that first promise concerning the seed of the woman, 
and to cause them to own him for that seed there promised, and for that 
^ Isa. xlii. 6; Hab. iii. 6 ; Vs. Ixv. 5 ; Gen. iii. 15; Luke iii. 23, to the end. 



THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 167 

effect that is there mentioned of dissolving the works of Satan, And 
as that evangelist giveth that hint when he is now entering this quarrel 
with Satan, even in the entrance of his ministry, so doth he very fre- 
quently and commonly by this very phrase give the same intimation for 
the same purpose. No sooner had Nathanael proclaimed him the Son of 
God : John i. 49, * Nathanael answered, and said unto him, Kabbi, 
thou art the Son of God, thou art the King of Israel :' but he instantly 
titles himself the Son of man, ver. 51 ; not only to shew his humanity, 
for that Nathanael was assured of by the words of Philip, who calls 
him Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph, ver. 45 ; but also to draw 
the thoughts of the hearers to the first promise, and to work them to 
look for a full recovery of all that by the second Adam which was lost 
in the first. Though the gates of heaven were shut against the first 
Adam by reason of his fall, yet were they open to the second Adam : 
ver. 51, 'And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you' — this 
double aisseveration, ' Verily, verily,' puts the matter beyond all doubt 
and controversy — ' hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels 
of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man,' — the Jacob's 
ladder, the bridge that joineth heaven and earth together, as Gregory 
hath it.^ This 51st verse doth greatly illustrate Christ's glory, and 
further confirm believers' faith, that Christ is Lord of angels even in 
his state of humiliation, and hath them ready at his call, as he or his 
people shall need their service, to move from earth to heaven, and from 
heaven to earth. This title, ' the Son of man,' shews that the Son 
of God was also the Son of man ; and that he delighted to be so, 
and therefore doth so often take this title to himself, ' the Son of 
man.' 

Now concerning the manhood of Christ, the prophet plainly speaks : 
Isa. ix. 6, ' Unto us a child is born, and unto us a son was given.' 
Parvulus, a child, that noteth his humanity ; Filius, a Son, that noteth 
his deity. Parvulus, a child, even man of the substance of his mother, 
born in the world. Mat. i. 25 ; Filius, a Son, even God of the substance 
of his Father, begotten before the world, Prov. viii. 22 to the end. Par- 
vulus, a child : behold his humility, ' she brought forth her first-born 
son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger,' 
Luke ii. 7 ; Filius, sl Son: behold his dignity ; ' when he bringeth his first- 
begotten Son into the world, he saith. And let all the angels of God 
worship him,' Heb. i. 6 ; to prove that he was man, it is enough to say, 
that he was born, he lived, he died. God became man by a wonder- 
ful, unspeakable, and inconceivable union. Behold God is offended 
by man's affecting and coveting his wisdom and his glory — for that 
was the devil's temptation to our first parents, ' Ye shall be as gods,' 
Gen. iii. 5 ; and man is redeemed by God's assuming and taking his 
frailty and his infirmity. Man would be as God, and so offended him ; 
and therefore God becomes man, and so redeemeth him. Christ, as 
man, came of the race of kings ; as man he shall judge the world. Acts 
xvii. 31 ; as man, he was wonderfully born of a virgin. Mat. i. 23 ; Isa. 
vii. 14 ; called therefore by a peculiar name, Shiloh, which signifies a 
secundine or after-birth. Gen. xlix. 19, The word comes of r\biD, 
which signifies tranquillum esse, intimating that Christ is he who has 
^ He alludes to Jacob's ladder, Gen. xxviii. 12. 



168 THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 

brought US peace and tranquillity ; and that he might be our peace- 
maker, it was necessary that he should be Shiloh, born of the sanctified 
seed of a woman without the seed of man. The apostle expounds the 
name where he saith of Christ that he was ' made of a woman/ not of a 
man and woman both, but of a woman alone without a man, Gal. iv. 

4. Christ as man was foretold of by the prophets, and by sundry 
types. Christ as man was attended upon at his birth by holy angels, 
and a peculiar star was created for him, Luke ii. 13, 14; Mat. ii. 1, 
2. Christ as man was our sacrifice and expiation ; he was our 
avTikurpov, a counterprice, such as we could never have paid, but 
must have remained, and even rotted in the prison of hell for ever. 
Christ as man was conceived of the Holy Ghost, Mat. i. 18. Christ as 
man is ascended into heaven. Acts i. 9, 10. Christmas man sits at the 
right hand of God, Col. iii. 1. Now what do all these things import, 
but that Jesus Christ is a very precious and most excellent person, 
and that even according to his manhood ? Christ had the true pro- 
perties, affections, and actions of man. He was conceived, born, cir- 
cumcised ; he did hunger, thirst ; he was clothed ; he did eat, drink, 
sleep, hear, see, touch, speak, sigh, groan, weep, and grow in wisdom 
and stature, &c., as all the four evangelists do abundantly testify. 
But because this is a point of grand importance, especially in these 
days, wherein there are risen up so many deceivers in the midst of us, 
it may not be amiss to consider of these following particulars, — 

(1.) First, Of these special scriptures that speak out the certainty and 
verity of Christ's body : John i. 14, ' And the Word was made flesli ; ' 1 
Tim. iii. 16, ' Without controversy, great is the mystery of godliness, 
God manifested in the flesh.' Christ is one and the same, begotten of 
the Father without time, the Son of God without mother ; and born of 
the Virgin in time, the Son of man without father ; the natural and 
consubstantial son of both ; and, oh ! Avhat a great mystery is this ! 
Heb. ii. 14, 16, ' Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh 
and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same, that through 
death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the 
de\dl : for verily he took not on him the nature of angels : but he 
took on him the seed of Abraham : ' according to the Greek iirlXa/u,- 
^dverat, He assumed, caught, laid hold on, as the angels did on Lot, 
Gen. xix. 16 ; or as Christ did on Peter, Mat. xiv. 31 ; or as men use 
to do upon a thing they are glad they have got, and are loath to let go 
again. sirs ! this is a main pillar of our comfort, that Christ took 
our flesh, for if he had not taken our flesh, we could never have been 
saved by him : Kom. i. 3, ' Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, 
who was made of the seed of David according to the flesh : ' Kom, ix. 

5, ' Whose are the fathers, and of whom, as concerning the flesh, 
Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.' This is a 
greater honour to all mankind, than if the greatest king in the world 
should marry into some poor family of his subjects. Christ saith, ' My 
flesh is meat indeed,' and I say his flesh was flesh indeed ; as true, 
real, proper, very flesh as that which any of us carry about with us : 
Col. i. 22, ' In the body of his flesh through death;' Heb. x. 5, 
' Wherefore when he cometh into the world he saith. Sacrifice and offer- 
ing thou wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepared me.' KarijpTiaco : 



i 



THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 169 

It is a metaphor taken from mechanics, who do artificial!}',! fit one 
part of their work to another, and so finish the whole ;, God fitted liis 
Son s body to be joined with the deity, and to be an expiatory sacri- 
fice for sin : 1 Pet, ii. 24, * Who his own self bare our sins in his 
own body on the tree,' &c. The word avro^, himself, hath a great 
emphasis, and therefore that evangelical prophet Isaiah mentions it no 
less than five times in that Isa. liii. 4, 5, 7, 11, 12. Christ had none 
to help or uphold him under the heavy burden of our sins and his 
Father's wrath, Isa. Ixiii. 3. It is most certain, that in the work of 
man's redemption Christ had no coadjutor. He who did bear our 
sins, that is, the punishments that were due to our sins, in his own 
body on the tree ; he did assume flesh, cast into the very mould and 
form of our bodies, having the same several parts, members, linea- 
ments, the same proportion which they have. Christ's body was no 
spectrum or phantasm, no putative body, as if it had no being but what 
was in appearance and from imagination — as the Marcionites, Mani- 
chees, and other heretics of old affirmed, and as some men of corrupt 
minds do assert in our days — but as real, as solid a body as ever any 
was. And therefore the apostle calls it a body of flesh. Col. i. 22 — a 
body, to shew the organisation of it, and a body of flesh, to shew the 
reality of it, in opposition to all aerial and imaginary bodies. Christ's 
body had all the essential properties of a true body ; such as are 
organicalness, extension, local presence, confinement, circumscription, 
penetrability, visibility, palpability, &c., as all the evangelists do 
abundantly witness. Take a few instances for all : Luke xxiv. 39, 
' Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself, handle me and 
see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have.' Christ 
here admits of -tlie testimony of their own senses to assure them that 
it was no vision or spirit, but a true and real body risen from the dead, 
which they now saw. Certainly whatever is essential to a true glori- 
fied body, that is yet in Christ's body. Those stamps of dishonour 
that the Jews had set upon Christ by wicked hands, those he retained 
after his resurrection, partly for the confirmation of his apostles, and 
partly to work us to a willingness and resoluteness to suffer for him 
when we are called to it : 1 John i. 1, ' That which was from the 
beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our 
eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of 
the word of life.' He alludes to the sermons which he and the other 
apostles heard from Christ's own mouth, and also to the glorious 
testimony which the Father gave once and again from heaven to 
Christ. He alludes also to the miracles that were wrought by Christ, 
and to that sight that they had of his glory in the mount, and 
to his resurrection and visible ascension into the highest heaven, 
Mat. xvii., Acts i. He alludes to the familiar conversation which 
the apostles had with Christ for about three years, and also to that 
touching, when after the resurrection Christ offered himself to the 
apostles that believed not in him to touch him, Luke xxiv. The 
truth of these things were confirmed to them by three senses — hear- 
ing, seeing, handling, the latter still surer than the former ; and this 
proves Christ to be a true man, as his being from the beginning sets 
1 Artfully = skilfully.— G. 



170 THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 

out his deity. Christ had also those natural affections, passions, in- 
firmities, which are proper to a body, as hunger : Mat. iv. 2, ' When 
he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterwards an hun- 
gered.' All Christ's actions are for our instruction, not all for our 
imitation. Matthew expressly makes mention of nights, lest it should 
be thought to be such a fast as that of the Jews, who fasted in the day, 
and did eat at the evening and in the night, [Chemnitius.] He would 
not extend his fast above the term of Moses and Elias, lest he should 
have seemed to have appeared only, and not to have been, a true man. 
He was hungry, not because his fasting wrought upon him, but be- 
cause God left man to his own nature, [Hilary.] It seems Christ felt 
no hunger till the forty days and forty nights were expired, but was 
kept by the power of the Deity, as the three children^ or rather cham- 
pions, from feeling the heat of the fire, Dan. iii. 27. Christ fasted 
forty days and forty nights, and not longer, lest he might be thought 
not to have a true human body ; for Moses and Elias had fasted thus 
long before, but never did any man fast longer. When Christ began 
to be hungry the tempter came to him, not when he was fasting. The 
devil is cunning, and will take all the advantage he can upon us. 
During the forty days and forty nights the devil stood doubtful, and 
durst not assault the Lord Jesus, partly because of that voice he heard 
from heaven, ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased,' 
Mat. iii. 17, and partly because his forty days and forty nights' fast did 
portend some great thing : but now, seeing Christ to be hungry, he 
impudently assaults him. Christ was not hungry all the forty days ; 
but after, he was hungry, to shew he was man. Some think that 
Christ by his hunger did objectively allure Satan to tempt him, that 
so he might overcome him, as soldiers sometimes feign a running 
away, that they may the better allure their enemies closely to pursue 
them, that so they may cut them off, either by an ambush or by an 
orderly facing about : so the devil tempted Christ as man, not knowing 
him to be God ; or if he did know him to be God, Christ did as it 
were encourage his cowardly enemy, that durst not set upon him as 
God, shewing himself to be man. And as Christ was hungry, so 
Christ was thirsty : John iv. 7, ' There came a woman of Samaria to 
draw water: Jesus saith unto her, Give me drink.' Here you see that 
he that is rich and Lord of all became poor for us, that he might make 
us rich, 2 Cor. viii. 9 ; and he that gives to all the creatures their 
meat in due season, Ps. civ. 27, he begs water of a poor tankard-bearer 
to refresh himself in his weariness and thirst : John xix. 28, ' Jesus 
saith, I thirst.' Bleeding breeds thirsting. Sleeping : Mat. viii. 24, 
he was asleep, to shew the truth of the human nature, and the weak- 
ness of his disciples' faith. Christ was in a fast and dead sleep, for so 
much the Greek word, eKcidevSe, signifies : his senses were well and 
fast bound, as if he had no operation of life, and therefore the disciples 
are said to raise him, as it were from the dead. The same Greek word 
is used in many places where mention is made of the resurrection, as 
you may see by comparing the scriptures in the margin together, i He 
was asleep, [1.] By reason of his labour in preaching and journey he 
slept ; [2.] To shew forth the truth of his human nature. Some think 

^ John ii. 19 ; Mat. xxvii. 52; 1 Cor. xv. 12. 



t 



THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 171 

the devil stirred up the storm, hoping thereby to drown Christ and his 
disciples, as he had destroyed Job's children in a tempest before, Job 
i. 18, 19 ; but though Satan had malice and will enough to do it, yet 
he had not power ; yea, though Christ slept in his human nature, yet 
was he awake in his deity, that the disciples being in danger might 
cry unto him more fervently, and be saved more remarkably. And as 
Jesus slept, so he was also weary: John iv. 6, ' Now Jacob's well was 
there ; Jesus therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the 
well : and it was about the sixth hour,' about noon. In the heat of 
the day Christ was weary. Christ took on him not only our nature, 
but the common infirmities thereof, and he is to be as seriously eyed 
in his humanity as in the glory of his godhead. Therefore it is re- 
corded that he was weary with his journey ere half the day was spent ; 
and that through weariness ' he sat thus on the well ;' that is, even as 
the seat offered, or as weary men use to sit, &c. But, in a word, he was 
conceived, retained so long in the virgin's womb, born, circumcised, 
lived about thirty years on earth, conversed all that time with men, 
suffered, died, and was crucified, buried, rose again, ascended, and sat 
down with his body at the right hand of God, and with it will come 
again to judge the world. Now what do all these things speak out, 
but that Christ hath a true body ? and who in their wits will assert 
that all this could be done in, and upon, and by, an imaginary body ? 
But, 

(2.) Secondly, The several denominations that are given to Jesus 
Christ in Scripture do clearly evidence the verity and reality of his 
human nature. He is called (1.) The son of the virgin, Isa. vii. 14: 
(2.) Her first-born son, Luke ii. 7 : (3.) The branch, Zech. iii. 8, and 
vi. 12: (4.) The branch of righteousness, Jer. xxxiii. 15, and xxiii. 5 : 
(5.) A rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots, 
Isa. xi. 1 : (6.) The seed of the woman. Gen, iii. 15: (7.) The seed 
of Abraham, Gen. xxii. 18 : (8.) Tlie fruit of David's loins, Ps. Ixxx. 
36, and cxxxii. 11 ; Acts ii. 30: (9.) Of the seed of David according 
to the flesh, Eom. i. 3 ; 2 Sam. vii. 2 : (10.) The lion of the tribe of 
Judah, Rev. v. 5: (11.) The seed of Jacob, Gen. xxviii. 14: (12.) 
The seed of Isaac, Gen. xxvi. 4 : (13.) A son born to us, a child 
given to us, Isa. ix. 6 : (14.) The son of man. Mat. viii. 20, andxvii, 13; 
Rev, i. 13 ; Dan, vii. 13 ; John iii. 13 : (15.) He is called the man 
Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. ii, 5 ; 1 Cor. xv. 21, ' Since by man came death, 
by man came also the resurrection of the dead.' God's justice would 
be satisfied in the same nature that had sinned: (16.) God's Son 
made of a woman. Gal. iv. 4 : (17.) Man, 1 Tim. ii. 5 ; the man 
Christ Jesus : (18.) The son of David, Mat. i, 1 ; Mark xii. 35. ' How 
say the scribes, that Christ is the son of David ?' In that the scribes 
and Pharisees knew and acknowledged, according to the Scripture, 
that Christ should be the son of David — that is, should be born and 
descend of the stock and posterity of David according to the flesh, 
— hence we may easily gather the truth of Christ's human nature, 
that he was ordained of God to be true man as well as God, in one 
and the same person; for else he could not be the son of David. 
Now, that he must be . the son of David, even the scribes and the 
Pharisees knew and acknowledged, as we see here ; and this was a 



172 THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 

truth which they had learned out of the Scriptures ; and not only 
they, but even the common sort of Jews in our Saviour's time : John 
vii. 42, some of the common people spake thus, ' Hath not the Scrip- 
ture said that Christ cometh of the seed of David?' And the Mes- 
siah was then commonly called the son of David, Eom. i. 3. So then, 
Christ being of the seed of David after the flesh, he must needs be 
true man as well as God ; for which cause he was incarnate in the 
due time appointed of God ; that is to say, he being the Son of God 
from everlasting, did in time become man, taking our nature upon 
him, together with the infirmities of our nature, sin only excepted, 
John i. 14. Now thus you see that the eighteen denominations that 
are given to Christ in the blessed Scriptures do abundantly demon- 
strate the certainty of Christ's human nature. But, , 

(3.) Thirdly, Christ took the lohole human nature. He was truly 
and completely man, consisting of flesh and spirit, body and soul ; 
yea, that he assumed the entire human nature, with whatever is 
proper to it. Christ took to himself the whole human nature, in both 
the essential parts of man, soul and body. The two essential and con- 
stitutive parts of man are soul and body ; where these two are, there 
is the true man. Now Christ had both, and therefore he was true 
man. 

[1.] First, Christ had a true human and reasonable soul. The 
reasonable soul is the highest and noblest part of man. This is that 
which principally makes the man, and hath the greatest influence 
into his being and essence. If, therefore, Jesus Christ had only a 
human body without a human soul, he had wanted that part which 
is most essential to man, and so he could not have been looked upon 
as true and perfect man. sirs ! Christ redeemed and saved nothing 
but what he assumed. The redemption and salvation reach no 
further than the assumption. Our soul then would have been never 
the better for Christ, had he not taken that as well as our body. 
Hence said Augustine,^ Therefore he took the whole man without sin, 
that he might heal the whole of which man consists, of the plague of 
sin. And Fulgentius, to the same purpose : 2 As the devil smote by 
deceiving the whole man, so God saves by assuming the whole man. 
If he will save the whole man from sin, he will assume the whole 
man without sin, saith Nazianzen. The Scriptures do clearly evi- 
dence that Christ had a real human soul : Mat. xxvi. 38, ' My soul 
is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death.' Every word is emphatical : 
' My soul; his sorrows pierced his soul, and 'sorrowful round about,'even 
to death, irepikviro'i — that is, ' heavy round about,' Ps. xxii. 16. Look, 
as the soul was the first agent in transgression, so it is here the first 
])atient in affliction. * To death;' that is, this sorrow will never be 
finished or intermitted but by death. ' My soul is exceeding sorrow- 
ful.' Then Christ had a true human soul ; neither was his deity to 
him for a soul, as, of old, men of corrupt minds have fancied ; for 
then our bodies only had been redeemed by him, and not our souls, 
if he had not suffered in soul as well as in body. The sufferings of 
his body were but the body of his sufferings ; the soul of his suffer- 

^ Aug. de civ. Dei, lib. x. c. 27, p. 586. 
* Fulgent, ad Thrasymund, lib. i. p. 251. 



THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED. 173 

ings were the sufferings of his soul, which was now beset with sor- 
rows, and lieavy as heart could hold : John xii. 27, ' Now is my soul 
troubled, and what shall I say ?' The Greek word signifies a vehe- 
ment commotion and perturbation ; as Herod's mind was troubled 
when he heard that a new king was born. Mat. ii. 3 ; or as the dis- 
ciples were troubled when they thought they saw a spirit walking 
on the sea, and cried out for fear. Mat. xiv. 26 ; or as Zacharias, 
Luke i. 12, was troubled at the sudden sight of the angel. The rise 
and cause of Christ's soul-trouble was this : the Godhead hiding itself 
from the humanity's sense ; and the Father letting out, not only an 
apprehension of his sufferings to come, but a present taste of the 
horror of his wrath, due to man for sin. He is amazed, overwhelmed, 
and perplexed with it in his humanity ; and no wonder, since he had 
the sins of all the elect, laid upon him by imputation, to suffer for. 
And so this wrath is not let out against his person, but against their 
sins which were laid on him. Now though Christ was here troubled, 
or jumbled and puzzled, as the word imports, yet we are not to con- 
ceive that there was any sin in this exercise of his, for he was like 
clean water in a clean vessel, which, being never so often stirred and 
shaken, yet still keeps clean and clear. Neither are we to think it 
strange that the Son of God should be put to such perplexities in this 
trouble as not to know what to say ; for considering him as man, 
encompassed with our sinless infirmities, and that this heavy weight 
of wi-ath did light upon him on a sudden, it is no wonder that it did 
confound all his thoughts as man. sirs ! look, that as sin has in- 
fected both the souls and bodies of the elect, and chiefly their souls, 
where it hath its chief seat, so Christ, to expiate this sin, did suffer 
unspeakable sorrows and trouble in his soul, as well as torture in his 
body ; ' for my soul is troubled,' saith he. Though some sufferings 
of the body be very exquisite and painful, and Christ's in particular 
were such, yet sad trouble of mind is fai' more grievous than any 
bodily distress, as Christ also found, who silently bare all his outward 
troubles, but yet could not but cry out of his inward trouble, ' Now 
is my soul troubled.' Isa. liii. 10, ' Thou shalt make his soul an 
ottering for sin,' Isa. liii. 7 ; 1 Pet. ii. 24. When Christ suffered 
for us, our sins were laid upon him, ver. 5, 6, as by the law of sacri- 
ficing of old, the sinner was to lay his hands upon the head of the 
beast, confessing his sins, and then the beast was slain, and offered for 
expiation. Lev. viii. 14, 18, 22 ; thus having the man's sins as it were 
taken and put upon it, and hereby the sinner is made righteous. 
The sinner could never be pardoned, nor the guilt of sin removed, 
but by Christ's making his soul an offering for sin. What did Christ 
in special recommend to God, when he was breathing out his last gasp, 
but his soul ? Luke xxiii. 46, ' When Jesus had cried out with a loud 
voice, he said. Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit ; and hav- 
ing said thus, he gave up the ghost ;' that is. To thy safe custody and 
blessed tuition I commend my soul, as a special treasure or jewel, most 
charily and tenderly to be preserved and kept : Luke ii. 52, ' He in- 
creased in wisdom and stature ;' here is stature for his body, and 
wisdom for his soul. His growth in that speaks the truth of the 
former, and his growth in this the truth of the latter : liis body pro- 



174 THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST PROVED, 

perly could not grow in wisdom, nor his soul in stature, therefore he 
must have both. There are two essential parts which make up one 
of his natures, his manhood, viz., soul and body, but both of these 
two of old have been denied. Marcion divests Christ of a body, and 
Apollinaris of a soul; and the Arians held that Christ had no soul, 
but that the deity was to him instead of a soul, and supplied the office 
thereof, that what the soul is to us, and doth in our bodies, all that 
the divine nature was to Christ, and did in his body ; and are there 
not some among us, that make a great noise about a light in them, that 
dash upon the same rock ? But the choice scriptures last cited may 
serve sufficiently to confute all such brain-sick men. But, 

[2.] Secondly, As Christ had a true human and reasonable soul, so 
Christ had a perfect, entire, complete hody, and everything ivliich is 
proper to a hody ; for instance, (1.) He had blood : Heb. ii. 14, ' He 
also took part of the same,' that is, of flesh and blood. Christ had in 
him the blood of a man. Shedding of blood there must be, for with- 
out it there is no remission of sin, Heb. ix. 22. The blood of brute 
creatures could not wash away the blots of reasonable creatures, Heb. 
X. 4, 5, 10 ; wherefore Christ took our nature, that he might have our 
blood to shed for our sins. There is an emphasis put upon Christ 
as man, in the great business of man's salvation, * The man Christ 
Jesus,' 1 Tim. ii. 5 ; the remedy carrying in it a suitableness to the 
malady, the sufferings of a man to expiate the sin of man. (2.) He 
had bones as well as flesh : Luke xxiv. 39, ' A spirit hath not flesh 
and bones, as ye see me have.' (3.) Christ had in him the bowels of 
a man, Phil. ii. 8, which bowels he fully expressed when he was on 
earth, Mat. xii. 18-20 ; nay, he retaineth those bowels now he is in 
heaven ; in glory he hath a fellow-feeling of his people's miseries : Acts 
ix. 4, * Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ? ' See Mat. xxv. 35, to 
the end of that chapter. Though Christ in his glorified state be freed 
from that state of frailty, passibility, mortality, yet he still retains his 
wonted pity. (4.) He had in him the familiarity of a man; how 
familiarly did Christ converse with all sorts of persons in this world, 
all the evangelists do sufiiciently testify. Man is a sociable and familiar 
creature ; Christ became man that he might be a merciful high priest, 
Heb. ii. 17 ; not that his becoming man made him more merciful, as 
though the mercies of a man were more than the mercies of God, but 
because by this means mercy is conveyed more suitably and familiarly 
to man. But, 

(4.) Fourthly and lastly. Our Lord Jesus Christ took our infirmi- 
ties upon him. When Christ was in this world he submitted to the 
common accidents, adjuncts, infirmities, miseries, calamities, which are 
incident to human nature. For the opening of this, remember there 
are three sorts of infirmities ; (1.) There are sinful infirmities : James 
V. 7 ; Ps. Ixxvii. 10. The best of men are but men at the best. Wit- 
ness Abraham's unbelief, David's security. Job's cursing, Jonah his 
passion. Thomas his unbelief, Peter's lying, &c. Now these infirmities 
Jesus Christ took not upon him ; for though he was made like unto 
us in all things, yet without sin, Heb. iv. 15. (2.) There are personal 
infirmities, which from some particular causes befall this or that per- 
son ; as leprosy, blindness, dumbness, palsy, dropsy, epilepsy, stone, 



REASONS WHY CHRIST DID PARTAKE ^F BOTH NATURES. 175 

gout, sickness. Christ was never sick. Sickness arises from the unfit 
or unequal temperature of the humours, or from intemperance of labour, 
study, &c., but none of these were in Christ. He had no sin, and 
therefore no sickness. Christ took not the passions or infirmities 
which were proper to this or that man. (3.) There are natural in- 
firmities which belong to all mankind since the fall ; as hunger, thirst, 
wearisomeness, sorrowfulness, sweating, bleeding, wounds, death, 
burial. Now these natural infirmities that are common to the whole 
nature, these Jesus Christ took upon him, as all the evangelists do 
abundantly testify. Our dear Lord Jesus he lay so many weeks and 
months in the Virgin's womb ; he received nourishment and growth in 
the ordinary way ; he was brought forth and bred up just as common 
infants are ; he had his life sustained by common food, as ours is ; he 
was poor, afflicted, reproached, persecuted, tempted, deserted, falsely 
accused, &c. ; he lived an afflicted life, and died an accursed death ; 
his whole Hfe, from the cradle to the cross, was made up of nothing 
but sorrows and sufferings ; and thus you see that Jesus Christ did 
put himself under those infirmities which properly belong to the com- 
mon nature of man, though he did not take upon him the particular 
infirmities of individuals.! Now what do all these things speak out, 
but the certainty and reality of Christ's manhood ? 

Quest. But ivhy must Christ 'partake of both natures? was it 
absolutely necessary that he should so do ? Ans. Yea, it was absolutely 
necessary that Christ should partake of both natures ; and that both 
in respect of God, and in respect of us : (1.) First, in respect of us : 
and that, * 

[1.] First, Because man had sinned, and therefore man must he 
punished. By man came death, therefore by man must come the 
resurrection of the dead, 1 Cor. xv. 21. Man was the offender, there- 
fore man must be the satisfier ; man had been the sinner, and there- 
fore man must be the sufferer. It is but justice to punish sin in that 
nature, in which it had been committed. By man we fell from God, 
and by man we must be brought back to God. By the first Adam we 
were ruined, by the second Adam we must be repaired, Rom. v. 12. 
The human nature was to be redeemed, therefore it was necessary that 
the human nature should be assumed. The law was given to man, and 
the law was broken by man, and therefore it was necessary that the 
law should be fulfilled by man. But, 

[2.] Secondly, That by this means the justice of God might be 
satisfied in the same nature ivhich had sinned, tuhich was the nature of 
man. Angels could not satisfy divine justice, because they had no 
bodies to suffer. The brutish sensible creatures could not satisfy the 
justice of God, because they had no souls to suffer. The sensible 
creatures could not satisfy divine justice, because they had no sense to 
suffer. Therefore man, having body, soul, and sense, must do it ; for 
he had sinned in all, and he could suffer in all. 

(2.) Secondly, There are reasons both m respect of God and in 
respect of ourselves, why Jesus Christ should be God, and God-man 
also ; and they are these five : — 

[1.] First, That he might be a meet mediator between God and 
^ Printed curiously * indiriduums,' the Latinised and transition form. — G. 



176 REASOXS WHY CHRIST DID 

man. Christ's office, as mediator, was to deal with God for man, and 
to deal for God with man. Now that he might be fit for both these 
transactions, for both i)arts of this office, he must partake of both 
natures. That he might effectually deal with God for man, he must 
be God, ' If a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat for him ?' 
saith Eli to his sons, 1 Sam. ii. 25. And that he might deal for God 
with man, he must be man. He must be God, that he may be fit to 
transact, treat, and negotiate with God ; and he must be man, that he 
may be fit to transact, treat, and negotiate with man. AVhen God 
spake unto Israel at Mount Sinai at the giving of the law, the people 
were not able to abide that voice or presence, and therefore they 
desired an Intei^uncius, a man like themselves, who might be as 
a mediator to go betwixt God and them, Exod. x;x. 18, 19. Now 
upon this very ground, besides many others that might be mentioned, 
it was very requisite that Jesus Christ should be both God and man, 
that he might be a meet mediator to deal betwixt God and man, Heb. 
xii. 18. Jesus Christ was the fittest person, either in that upper or in 
this lower world, to mediate between God and us. There was none 
lit to umpire the business between God and man, but he that was God- 
man. Job hit the nail when he said, ' Neither is there any days-man 
betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us both,' Job ix. 33. There 
was a double use of the days-man, and his laying his hand upon them : 
(1.) To keep the dissenting parties asunder, lest they should fall 
out and strike one another ; (2.) To keep them together, and compose 
all differences, that they might not depart from each other. The 
application is easy. Man is not fit to mediate, because man is the per- 
son offending ; angels are not fit to mediate, for they cannot satisfy 
divine justice, nor pacify divine wrath, nor procure our pardon, nor 
make our peace, nor bring in an everlasting righteousness upon us. God, 
the Father, was not fit for this work, for he was the person offended ; 
and he was as much too high to deal with man, as man was too low to 
deal with God. The Holy Ghost was not fit for this work, for it is his 
work to apply this mediation, and to clear up the believer's interest in 
this mediation. So then there is no other person fit for this office but 
Jesus Christ, who was a middle person, betwixt both, that he might 
deal with both. Christ could never have been fit to be the mediator 
in respect of his office, if he had not first been a middle person 
in respect of his natures ; for, saith the apostle, Gal. iii. 20, ' Now a 
mediator is not a mediator of one ; but God is one.' ' A mediator is not 
a mediator of one,' that is, of one party, but is always of two differing 
parties to unite them ; ' not of one ;' that is, (1.) Not of one person, 
because mediation implies more persons than one ; it necessarily 
supposes different parties betwixt whom he doth mediate. Christ, 
to speak after the manner of men, lays his hand upon God, the Father, 
and saith, blessed Father, wilt thou be at peace with these poor 
sinners ? wilt thou pardon them ? and wilt thou lift up the light 
of thy countenance upon them ? If thou wilt, then I will undertake 
to satisfy thy justice, and to pacify thy wrath, and to fulfil thy royal 
law, and to make good all the wrong they have done against thee. 
And then he layeth his hand upon the poor sinner, and saith, Sinner, 
art thou willing to be changed and renewed ? art thou willing to come 



PARTAKE OF BOTH NATUEES. 177 

under the bond of the covenant ? art thou willing to give up thy heart 
and life to the guidance and government of the Spirit ? Then be not 
discouraged, for thou shalt certainly be justified and saved. (2.) Not 
of one nature — the mediator must necessarily have more natures than 
one — he must have the divine and human nature united in his single 
person, or else he could never suffer what he was to suffer, nor never 
satisfy what he was to satisfy, nor never bring poor sinners into a state 
of reconciliation with Grod ; and it is further observable that the 
text last cited saith, ' God is one,' 1 Tim. ii. 5 ; viz., as he is 
essentially considered, and therefore as so he cannot be the mediator ; 
but Christ, as personally considered, he * is not of one,' that is, not of 
one nature, for he is God and man too, and therefore he is the 
only person that is fitted and qualified to be the mediator ; and it 
is observable that, when Christ is spoken of as mediator, his manhood 
is brought in, that nature being so necessary to that office : 1 Tim, ii. 
5, ' For there is one God, and one mediator between God and man, the 
man Christ Jesus.' Jesus Christ was God and man ; as man he 
ought to satisfy, but could not ; as God he could satisfy, but ought not. 
But consider him as God and man, and so he both could satisfy 
and ought to satisfy, and accordingly he did satisfy, according to what 
was prophesied of him : Dan, ix. 24, ' He did make reconciliation for 
iniquity, and brought in everlasting righteousness.' He did not begin 
to do something and then faint and leave his work imperfect, but 
he finished it, and that to the glory of his Father : John xvii. 4, 
* I have glorified thee on the earth, I have finished the work which 
thou gavest me to do.' And it is good to observe the singularity and 
oneness of the person mediating ; not many, not a few, not two, 
but one mediator between God and man. There was none with 
him in his difficult work of mediatorship, but he carried it on alone. 
Though there are many mediators among men, yet there is but 
el? fx€aLT7)<}, one only mediator betwixt God and men: and it is as 
high folly and madness to make more mediators than one, as it 
is to make more Gods than one, Isa. Ixiii. 3. ' There is one God, 
and one mediator betwixt God and men ;' for look, as one husband 
satisfies the wife, as one father satisfies the child, as one lord satisfies 
the servant, and one sun satisfies the world, so one mediator is enough 
to satisfy all the world, that desire a mediator, or that have an interest 
in a mediator.! The true sense and import of this word fieatrr}^, a 
mediator, is a middle person, or one that interposes betwixt two 
parties at variance, to make peace betwixt them. Though /ieo-iVi;?, a 
mediator, be rendered variously, sometimes an umpire or arbitrator, 
sometimes a messenger betwixt two persons, sometimes an interpreter 
imparting the mind of one to another, sometimes a reconciler or 
peace-maker ; yet this word, /j,eaiT7]<i, doth most properly signify a 
mediator or a middler, because Jesus Christ is both a middle person, 
and a middle officer betwixt God and man, to reconcile and reunite 
God and man. This of all others is the most proper and genuine 

^ I confess the word fiecxirrjs is given to Moses, in that Gal. iii. 19, but Moses was but 
a typical mediator, and you never find that Moses is called a mediator in a way of re- 
demption, or satisfaction, or paying a ransom ; for so dear Jesus is the only mediator : 
so the word fjLecirrjs is used in that 1 Tim. ii. 5; Heb. yiii. 6-8, ix. 14, 15, and xiL 
22-24. 

VOL. V. M 



178 REASONS WHY CHRIST DID 

signification of this name fi€aiTrj<;, Jesus Christ is the middle, that is, 
the second person in the Trinity, betwixt the Father and the Holy 
Ghost. He is the only middle person betwixt God and man, being in 
one person God-man ; and his being a middle person fits and capaci- 
tates him to stand in the midst between God and us. And as he is 
the middle person, so he is the middle officer, intervening or interpos- 
ing or coming between God and man by office, satisfying God's justice 
to the full for man's sins by his sufferings and death, and maintaining 
our constant peace in heaven by his meritorious intercession. Hence, 
as one observes, [Gerhard,] Jesus Christ is a true mediator, is still 
found in medio, in the middle. He was born, as some think, from 
Wisd. xviii. 14, about the middle of the night ; he suffered, Heb. 
xiii. 12, in the middle of the world, that is, at Jerusalem, seated in 
the middle of the earth : he was crucified in the midst, between the 
two thieves, John xix. 18 : he died in the air on the cross, in the 
midst between heaven and earth : he stood after his resurrection in 
the midst of his disciples, John xx. 19 ; and he has promised, that 
where two or three are gathered together in his name, he will be in 
the midst of them. Mat. xviii. 20 : and he walks in the midst of the 
seven golden candlesticks, Eev. ii. 1, that is, the churches: and he 
as the heart in the midst of the body, distributes spirits and virtue to 
all the parts of his mystical body, Eph. iv. 15, 16. Thus Jesus Christ 
is the mediator betwixt God and man ; middle in person and middle 
in office. And thus you have seen at large what a meet mediator 
Jesus Christ is, considered in both his natures, considered as God-man. 
But, 

[2.] Secondly, If Jesus Christ he not God, then there is no spiritual 
nor eternal good to be expected or enjoyed. If Christ be not God, our 
preaching is in vain, and your hearing is in vain, and your praying is 
in vain, and your believing is in vain, and your hope of pardon and 
forgiveness by Jesus Christ is in vain ; for none can forgive sins but a 
God. Christ hath promised that ' believers shall never perish ; ' he 
hath promised them ' eternal life,' and that he will ' raise them up at 
the last day,' he has promised ' a crown of righteousness,' he has pro- 
mised ' a crown of life,' he has promised ' a crown of glory,' he has 
promised that conquering Christians shall ' sit down with him in his 
throne, as he is set down with his Father in his throne :' he has pro- 
mised that they shall not be hurt of ' the second death.' i And a thou- 
sand other good things Jesus Christ has promised ; but if Jesus 
Christ be not God, how shall these promises be made good ? If a man 
that hath never a foot of land in England, nor yet worth one groat in 
all the world, shall make his will, and bequeath to thee such and such 
houses, and lands, and lordships in such a county or such a county ; 
and shall by will, give thee so much in plate, and so much in jewels, 
and so much in ready money ; whereas he is not, upon any account, 
worth one penny in all the world ; certainly such legacies will never 
make a man the richer nor the happier. None of those great and 
precious promises, which are hinted at above, will signify anything, if 
Christ be not God ; for they can neither refresh us, nor cheer us in 

1 Mark ii. 7; John iii. 10; John x. 28; 2 Tim. iv. 8; James i. 12; 1 Tct. v. 4; Rev. 
iii. 21, and ii. 11. 



PARTAKE OF BOTH NATURES. 179 

this world, nor make us happy in that other world. If Christ be not 
God, how can he purchase our pardon, procure our peace, pacify divine 
wrath, and satisfy infinite justice ? A man may satisfy the justice of 
man, but who but a God can satisfy the justice of God ? ' Will God 
accept of thousands of rams, or ten thousands of rivers of oil, or the 
firstborn of thy body for the sin of thy soul ?' Micah vi. 7. Oh, no ! 
he will not, he cannot. That scripture is worthy to be written in 
letters of gold : Acts xx. 28, ' Take heed therefore unto yourselves, 
and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you 
overseers ; to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with 
his own blood/ This must needs relate to Christ, and Christ is here 
called God, and Christ's blood is called the blood of God ; and with- 
out a peradventure Christ could never have gone through with the 
purchase of the church, if the blood he shed had not been the blood 
of God. This blood is called God's own blood, because the Son of 
God, being and remaining true God, assumed human flesh and blood 
in unity of person. By this phrase, that which appertaineth to the 
humanity of Christ is attributed to his divinity, because of the union 
of the two natures in one person, and communion of properties. The 
church is to Christ a bloody spouse, an Aceldama or field of blood : 
for she could not be redeemed with silver and gold, but with the 
blood of God, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19 : so it is called by a communication of 
properties, to set forth the incomparable value and virtue thereof. 
But, 

[3.] Thirdly, If Christ he not God, yea, God-man, then we shall 
never he able to ansiver all the challenges that either divine justice or 
Satan can make upon us. Whatsoever the justice of God can exact, 
that the blood of God can discharge. Now the blood of Christ is the 
blood of God, as I have evidenced in the second reason. By reason of 
the hypostatical union, the human nature being united to the divine, 
the human nature did suffer, the divine did satisfy. Christ's godhead 
did give both majesty and efficacy to his sufferings. Christ was sacri- 
fice, priest, and altar. He was sacrifice as he was man, priest as he 
was God and man, and altar as he was God. It is the property of the 
altar to sanctify the tiling offered on it, Mat. xxiii. 19 ; so the altar of 
Christ's divine nature sanctified the sacrifice of his death, and made it 
meritorious. Man sinned, and therefore man must satisfy. Therefore 
the human nature must be assumed by a surety, for man cannot do it. 
If an angel should have assumed human nature, it would have polluted 
him. Human nature was so defiled by sin that it could not be assumed 
by any but God. Now Christ being God, the divine nature purified 
the human nature which he took, and so it was a sufiicient sacrifice, 
the person offered in sacrifice being God as well as man. This is a 
most noble ground upon which a believer may challenge Satan to say 
iKs worst and to do his worst. Let him present God as terrible, yea, 
as a consuming fire, Heb. xii. 29 ; let him present me as odious and 
abominable in the sight of God, as once he did Joshua, Zech. iii. 2, 3 ; 
let him present me before]the Lord as vile and mercenary, as once he did 
Job, chap. i. 9-11 ; let him aggravate the height of God's displeasure, 
and the height and depth and length and breadth of my sins, I shall 
readily grant all, and agamst all this I will set the infinite satisfaction 



180 REASONS WHY CHRIST DID 

of dear Jesus. This I know, tliat though the justice of God cannot be 
avoided nor bribed, yet it may be satisfied. Here is a proportionable 
satisfaction, here is God answering God. It is a very noble plea of 
the apostle, ' Who is he that condemneth ? It is Christ that died,' 
Eom. viii. 34. Let Satan urge the justice of God as much as he can, 
I am sure that the justice of God makes me sure of salvation ; and the 
reason is evident, because his justice obligeth him to accept of an 
adequate satisfaction of his own appointing, 1 John i. 7-9. The 
justice of God maketh me sure of mine own happiness, because if God 
be just, that satisfaction should be had, when that satisfaction is made, 
justice requireth that the person for whom it is made shall be received 
into favour. I confess that unless God had obliged himself by promise, 
there were no pressing his justice thus far, because noxa sequitur 
caput. There was mercy in the promise of sending Christ, out of 
mercy to undertake for us, otherwise we cannot say that God was 
bound in justice to accept of satisfaction, unless he had first in mercy 
been pleased to appoint the way of a surety, Gen. ii. 15.i Justice indeed 
required satisfaction, but it required it of the person that sinneth : Gen. 
ii. 17, ' But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not 
eat of it ; for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die' — or 
dying thou shalt die ; or, as others read the words, thou shalt surely 
and shortly or suddenly die ; and, without controversy, every man 
should die the same day he is born. ' The wages of sin is death,' Rom. 
vi. 23 ; and this wages should be presently paid, did not Christ, as a 
boon, beg poor sinners' lives for a season : for which cause he is called 
the Saviour of all men, 1 Tim. iv. 10 — not of eternal preservation, but 
of temporal reservation. It was free and noble mercy to all mankind, 
that dear Jesus was promised and provided, sealed and sent into the 
world, John vi. 27, that some might be eternally saved, and the rest 
preserved from wrath for a time. Here cometh in mercy, that a surety 
shall be accepted ; and what he doth is as if the person that offended 
should have done it himself. Here is mercy and salvation surely 
bottomed upon both. Ah, what sweet and transcendent comfort flows 
from this very consideration, that Christ is God ! But, 

[4.] Fourthly, The great and glorious majesty of God required it, 
that Christ should he God. God the Father being a God of infinite 
holiness, purity, justice, and righteousness, none but he who was very 
God, who was essentially one with the Father, could or durst inter- 
pose between God and fallen man, John x. 30, and xiv. 9-11, &c. The 
angels, though they are glorious creatures, yet they are but creatures ; 
and could these satisfy divine justice, and bear infinite wrath, and 
purchase divine favour, and reconcile us to God, and procure our par- 
don, and change our hearts, and renew our natures, and adorn our 
souls with grace ? and yet all these things must be done, or we undone, 
and that for ever ! Now if this were a work too high for angels, then 
we may safely conclude that it was a work too hard for fallen man. 
Man was once the mirror of all understanding, the hieroglyphic of 
wisdom, but now quantum mutatus ah illo, there is a great alteration ; 
for poor sorry man is now sent to school to learn wisdom and instruc- 

^ Had net Christ stepped in between man's sin and God's wrath, the world had fallen 
about Adam's ears. 



PARTAKE OF BOTH NATURES. 181 

tion of the beasts, birds, and creeping things, he is sent to the pismire 
to learn providence, Prov. vi. 6, to the stork and to the swallow to 
learn to make a right use of time, Jer. viii. 7, to the ox and the ass to 
learn knowledge, Isa. i. 3, and to the fowls of the air to learn con- 
fidence, Mat. vi. Man that was once a master of knowledge, a 
wonder of understanding, perfect in the science of all things, is 
now grown blockish, sottish, and senseless, and therefore altogether 
unfit and unable to make his peace with God, to reconcile himself to 
God, &c. But, 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly, TJiat Christ's sufferings and merits might he 
sufficient, it ivas absolutely necessary that he should be God. The sin 
of man was infinite, I mean infinitely punishable ; if not infinite in 
number, yet infinite in nature, every offence being infinite, it being 
committed against an infinite God. No creature could therefore satisfy 
for it, but the sufferer must be God, that so his infiniteness might be 
answerable to the infiniteness of men's offences. There was an abso- 
lute necessity of Christ's sufferings, partly because he was pleased to 
substitute himself in the sinner's stead, and partly because his suffer- 
ings only could be satisfactory. Now, unless he had been man, how 
could he suffer ? and unless he had been God, how could he satisfy 
offended justice ? Look, as he must be more than man, that he may 
be able to suffer, that his sufferings may be meritorious, so he must be 
man, that he may be in a capacity to suffer, die, and obey ; for these 
are no work for one who is only God. A God only cannot suffer, a 
man only cannot merit ; God cannot obey, man is bound to obey ; 
wherefore Christ, that he might obey and suffer, he was man ; and 
that he might merit by his obedience and suffering, he was God-man ; 
just such a person did the work of redemption call for. That Christ's 
merits might be sufficient, he must be God ; for sufficient merit for man- 
kind could not be in the person of any mere man, no, not in Christ him- 
self, considered only as man ; for so all the grace he had he did receive 
it, and all the good he did he was bound to do it ; for he ' was made of 
a woman, and made under the law,' Gal. iv. 4 — not only under the cere- 
monial law as he was a Jew, but under the moral as a man, for it is 
under that law under which we were, and from which we are redeemed, 
Gal. iii. 1 3 — therefore in fulfilling it he did no more than that which 
was his duty to do ; he could not merit by it, no, not for himself, much 
less for others, considered only as man ; therefore he must also be God, 
that the dignity of his person might add dignity, and virtue, and value 
to his works. In a word, Deus potuif, sed non debuit; homo debuit, 
sed non potuit — God could, but he should not ; man should, but he 
could not make satisfaction ; therefore he that would do it must be 
both God and man. Toi'ris erutus ab igne? as the prophet speaketh; 
' Is not this a firebrand taken out of the fire ?' Zech. iii. 2. You know 
that in a firebrand taken out of the fire, there is fire and wood insepa- 
rably mixed, and in Christ there is God and man wonderfully united. 
He was God, else neither his sufferings nor his merits could have been 
sufficient ; and if his could not, much less any man's else ; for all other 
men are both conceived and born in original sin, and also much and 
often defiled with actual sin, and therefore we ought for ever to abhor 
all such Popish doctrines, prayers, and masses for the dead, which 



182 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

exalt man's merits, man's satisfaction : * For no man can by any 
means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him ; for the 
redemption of their soul is precious, and it ceaseth for ever,' Ps. xlix. 
7, 8. And therefore all the money that hath been given for masses, 
dirges, trentals,! &c., hath been cast away; for Jesus Christ, who is 
God-man, is the only Redeemer, and in the other world money beareth 
no mastery. Let me make a few inferences from what has been said ; 
and therefore, 

1. First, Is it so, that Christ is God-man, that he is God and man ? 
Then let this raise our faith, and strengthen our faith, in our Lord 
Jesus Christ. Faith is built on God; 1 Pet. i. 21. Now, Jesus Christ 
is very God, and therefore the fittest foundation in the world for us to 
build our faith upon. ' God manifest in the flesh' is a firm basis for 
faith and comfort. ' He is able to save to the uttermost,' Heb. vii. 25. 
Christ is a thorough Saviour, he saves perfectly, and he saves perpe- 
tually ; he never carries on redemption work by halves. 2 Christ being 
God as well as man, is able, by the power of his godhead, to vanquish 
death, devils, hell, and all the enemies of our salvation ; and by the 
power of his godhead is able to merit pardon of sin, the favour of God, 
the heavenly inheritance, and all the glory of the other world ; for this 
dignity of his person addeth virtue and efficacy to his death and suff'er- 
ings, in that he that suffered and died was very God ; therefore God 
is said to have ' purchased the church with his own blood/ Acts xx, 28. 
Christ having suffered in our nature, which he took upon him, that is, 
in his human soul and body, the wrath of God, the curse, and all the 
punishments which were due to our sins, hath paid the price of our 
redemption, pacified divine wrath, and satisfied divine justice, in the 
very same nature in which we have sinned and provoked the Holy One 
of Israel, so that now all believers may triumphingly say, ' There is 
no condemnation to us that are in Christ Jesus,' Bom. viii. 1, Christ 
having, in our nature, suffered the whole curse and punishment due 
to our sins, God cannot in justice but accept of his sufferings as a full 
and complete satisfaction for all our sins, 1 John i. 7, 9 ; so that now 
there remaineth no more curse or punishment properly so called for us 
to suffer, either in our souls or bodies, either in this life or in the life 
to come, but we are certainly and fully delivered from all ; not only 
from the eternal curse, and all the punishments and torments of hell, 
but also from the curse and sting of bodily death, and from all afflic- 
tions as they are curses and punishments of sin, 1 Cor. xv. 55, 56. 
That Jesus, who is God-man, hath changed the nature of them to us, 
so that of bitter curses and heavy punishments, they are become 
fatherly cliastisements, the fruits of divine love, and the promoters of 
the internal and eternal good of our souls, Heb. xii. 5-7, and Eev. 
iii. 19. Oh, how should these things strengthen our faith in dear 
Jesus, and work us to lean and stay our weary souls wholly and only 
upon him who is God-man, ' and who of God is made unto us wisdom, 
righteousness, sanctification, and redemption,' 1 Cor. i. 30. Among 
the evangehsts we find that Christ had a threefold entertainment 
among the sons of men : some received him into house, not into heart, 
as Simon the Pharisee, who gave him no kiss nor water to his feet, 

^ * Thirty masses.' — G. * Ad lilenum, saith Erasmus; ad perfecium, say others. 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHKIST. 183 

Luke vll. 44 ; some neither into heart nor house, as the graceless, 
swinish Gergesites, Mat. viii. 34, who had neither civility nor honesty ; 
some both into house and heart, as Lazarus, Mary, Martha, &c., John 
xi. 16. Certainly that Jesus who is God- man deserves the best room 
in all our souls, and the uppermost seat in all our hearts. But, 

2. Secondly, If Jesus Christ be God-man, very God and very man, 
then lohat high cause have we to observe, admire, loonder, and even 
stand amazed at the transcendent love of Christ in becoming man ! 
Oh ! the firstness, the freeness, the unchangeableness, the greatness, 
the matchlessness of Christ's love to fallen man in becoming man I 
Men many times shew their love to one another, by hanging up one 
another's pictures in their families ; but, ah, what love did Christ shew 
when he took our nature upon him ! Heb. ii. 16, ' For verily he took 
not on him the nature of angels, but he took on him the seed of Abra- 
ham;' 'ETTiXa/jb^dverat, he assumed, apprehended, caught, laid hold on 
the seed of Abraham, as the angel did on Lot, Gen. xix. 16, as Christ 
did on Peter, Mat. xiv. 31, or as men do upon a thing they are glad 
they have got and are loath to let go again. sirs ! it is a main 
ground and pillar of our comfort and confidence, that Jesus Christ took 
our flesh ; for if he had not took our flesh upon him, we could never 
have been saved by him. Christ took not a part, but the whole nature 
of man, that is, a true human soul and body, together with all the essen- 
tial properties and faculties of both ; that in man's nature he might die, 
and suffer the wrath of God, and whole curse due to our sins, which 
otherwise, being God only, he could never have done ; and that he might 
satisfy divine justice for sin, in the same nature that had sinned, and 
indeed it was most meet and fit, that the mediator, who was to recon- 
cile God and man, should partake in the natures of both parties to be 
reconciled, Heb. ii. 14. Oh, what matchless love was this, that made 
our dear Lord Jesus to lay by for a time all that ' glory that he had 
with the Father before the world was,' John xvii. 5, and to assume our 
nature, and to be ' found in fashion as a man,' Phil. ii. 8. To see the 
great God in the form of a servant, or hanging upon the cross, how 
wonderful and astonishing was it to all that believed him to be God- 
man ! God ' manifested in our flesh ' is an amazing mystery, 1 Tim. 
iii. 16, a mystery fit for the speculation of angels, 1 Pet. i. 11, that the 
eternal God should become the man Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. ii. 5 ; that a 
most glorious creator should become a poor creature ; that the ancient 
of days, Dan. vii. 9, 13, 22, should become an infant of days. Mat. ii. 
11 ; that the most high should stoop so low as to dwell in a body of 
flesh — is a glorious mystery, that transcends all human understanding. 
It would have seemecl a high blasphemy for us to have thought of such 
a thing, or to have desired such a thing, or to have spoken of such a 
thing, if God, in his everlasting gospel, had not revealed such a thing 
to us. Among the Eomisli priests, friars, Jesuits, they count it a 
great demonstration of love, a high honour that is done to any of 
their orders, when any nobleman or great prince, who is weary of the 
world, and the world weary of him, comes among them, and takes any 
of their habits upon him, and lives and dies in their habits. Oh, what 
a demonstration of Christ's love is it ! and what a mighty honour 
Lath Jesus Christ put upon mankind, in that he took our nature 
\ 



184 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

upon him, in that he lived in our nature and died in our nature, and 
rose in our nature, and ascended in our nature, and now sits at his 
Father's right hand in our nature ! Acts i. 10, 11. Though Jacob's 
love to Kachel, and Jonathan's love to David, and David's love to 
Absalom, and the primitive Chiistians' love to one another was strong, 
very strong ; yet Christ's love in taking our human nature upon him 
does infinitely transcend all their loves, I think, saith one speaking 
of Christji he * cannot despise me, who is bone of my bone, and flesh of 
my flesh ; for if he neglect me as a brother, yet he wiU love me as a hus- 
band ; that is my comfort.' ' my Saviour,' saith one, [Jerome,] ' didst 
thou die for love for me ? a love more dolorous than death, but to me 
a death more lovely than love itself ; I cannot live, love, and be longer 
from thee,' I read in Josephus,2 that when Herod Antipater was ac- 
cused to Julius (?) Csesar as no good friend of his, he made no other 
apology, but stripping himself stark naked, shewed Caesar his wounds 
and said, let me hold my tongue, these wounds will speak for me how 
I have loved Cassar. Ah, my friends, Christ's wounds in our nature 
speak out the admirable love of Jesus Christ to us ; and oh, how 
should this love of his draw out our love to Christ, and inflame our 
love to that Jesus who is God-man blessed for ever, Mr Welch, a 
Suifolkshire minister, weeping at table, being asked the reason, said, it 
was because he could love Christ no more,^ Ah, what reason have we 
to weep, and weep again and again, that we can love that Jesus no 
more, who hath shewed such imparalleled love to us in assuming of 
the human nature ! Et ipsam animam odio haberem, si non diligeret 
meum Jesum, I must hate my very soul, if it should not love my 
Jesus, saith Bernard. Ah, what cause have we even to hate ourselves, 
because we love that .dear Jesus no more, who is very God and very 
man. But, 

3. Thirdly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man ? Then ive may very safely and roundly assert that the ivork of 
redemption was a very great iv.orkA The redemption of souls is a 
mighty work, a costly work. To redeem poor souls from sin, from 
wrath, from the power of Satan, from the curse, from hell, from the 
condemnation^ was a mighty work. Wherefore was Christ born, 
wherefore did he live, sweat, groan, bleed, die, rise, ascend ? Was it 
not to bring ' deliverance to the captives, and the opening of the 
prison to them that are bound' ? Was it not to ' make an end of sin, 
to finish transgression, and to bring in everlasting righteousness/ and 
' to destroy the works of the devil,' and to ' abolish death/ and to 
* bring life and immortality to hght,' and to ' redeem us from all ini- 
quity, and to purify us to himself, and to make us a peculiar people, 
zealous of good works' ? Certainly the work of redemption was no 
ordinary or common thing; God-man must engage in it, or poor 
fallen man is undone for ever. The greater the person is that is 
engaged in any work, the greater is that work. The great monarchs 
of the world do not use to engage their sons in poor, low, mean, and 

^ Bernard sup. Cant. ser. 20. * Jos. Bel. Jud. 1. 1, c. 8. * As before, ' Welsh.'— O, 
* Consult these scriptures, Isa. Ixi. 1; Dan. ix. 24; 1 John iii. 8; Luke i. 74, 75; 
Tit. ii. 14; 1 Pet. i. 4. 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 185 

petty services, but in sucli services as are high and honourable, noble 
and weighty ; and will you imagine that ever the great and glorious 
God would have sent his Son, his own Son, his only-begotten Son, his 
bosom Son, his Son in whom his soul delighted before the foundations 
of the earth was laid, to redeem poor sinners' souls, if this had not 
been a great work, a high work, and a most glorious work in his eye ? 
John i. 18, and Pro v. viii. 22-33. The creation of the world did 
but cost God a word of his mouth, ' Let there be light, and there was 
light,' Gen. i. 3 ; but the redemption of souls cost him his dearest Son. 
There is a divine greatness stamped upon the works of providence, 
but what are the works of providence to the work of redemption ? 
What are all providential works to Christ's coming from heaven, to 
his being incarnate, to his doings, sufferings, and dying ; and all this 
to ransom poor souls from the curse, hell, wrath, and eternal death ? 
Souls are dear and costly things, and of great price in the sight of 
God. Amongst the Komans, those their proper goods and estates 
which men had gotten in the wars with hazard of their lives, were 
called Peculium Castrense, of a field purchase. Oh, how much more 
may the precious and immortal souls of men be called Christ's Pecu- 
lium Casirense, liis purchase, gotten, not only by the jeopardy of his 
life, but with the loss of his life and blood ! ' Ye know,' saith the 
apostle, ' that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as with 
silver and gold, from your vain conversation, received by tradition, 
but with the precious blood of the Son of God, as of a lamb without a 
spot,' 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. Christ, that only went to the price of souls, 
hath told us that one soul is more worth than all the world. Mat. 
xvi. 26. Christ left his Father's bosom, and all the glory of heaven, 
for the good of souls ; he assumed the nature of man for the happiness 
of the soul of man ; he trod the wine-press of his Father's wrath for 
souls ; he wept for souls, he sweat for souls, he prayed for souls, he 
paid for souls, and he bled out his heart blood for the redemption of 
souls. The soul is the breath of God, the beauty of man, the wonder 
of angels, and the envy of devils. It is of an angelical nature, it is a 
heavenly spark, a celestial plant, and of a divine offspring. It is cap- 
able of the knowledge of God, of union with God, of communion 
with God, and of an eternal fruition of God, John xiv. 8, and Ps. 
xvii. 15. There Is nothing that can suit the soul below God, there is 
nothing that can satisfy the soul without God. The soul is so high 
and so noble a piece that it scorns . all the world. What are all the 
riches of the East or West Indies, what are rocks of diamonds, 
or mountains of gold, or the price of Cleopatra's draught, to the price 
that Christ laid down for souls ? It is only the blood of him that is 
God-man that is an equivalent price for the redemption of souls. 
Silver and gold hath redeemed many thousands out of Turkish bond- 
age, but all the silver and gold in the world could never redeem one 
poor soul from hellish bondage, from hellish torments. Souls are a 
dear commodity. He that bought them found them so ; and yet at 
how cheap a rate do some sinners sell their immortal souls ! Callenu- 
ceus tells us of a nobleman of Naplas that was wont profanely to say 
that he had two souls in his body, one for God, and another for who- 



186 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

soever would buy it ;l but if lie hath one soul in hell, I believe he will 
never find another for heaven. A person of quality, who is still alive, 
told me a few years since, that in discourse with one of his servants 
he asked him what he thought would become of his soul if he lived 
and died in his igno^-ance and emnity against God, &c. He most pro- 
fanely and atheistically answered that when he died, he would hang 
his soul on a hedge, and say. Run God, run devil, and he that can run 
fastest let him take my soul. 2 I have read^ of a most blasphemous 
wretch that, on a time being with his companions in a common inn, 
carousing and making merry, asked them if they thought a man had 
a soul or no ; whereunto when they replied that the souls of men are 
immortal, and that some of them after death lived in hell and others 
in heaven — for so the writings of the prophets and apostles instructed 
them — he answered and swore that he thought it nothing so, but 
rather that there was no soul in man to survive the body, but that 
heaven and hell were mere fables and inventions of priests to get 
gain ; and for himself, he was ready to sell his soul to any that would 
buy it. Then one of his companions took up a cup of wine, and said, 
sell me thy soul for this cup of wine ; which he receiving, bade him 
take his soul, and drank up the wine. Now Satan himself being there 
in man's shape, bought it again of the other at the same price, and by 
and by bade him give him his soul, the whole company affirming it 
was meet he should have it, since he had bought it, not perceiving the 
devil ; but presently, he laying hold of this soul-seller, carried him 
into the air before them all, to the great astonishment and amazement 
of the beholders ; and from that day to this he was never heard of, but 
hath now found hj experience that men have souls, and that hell is no 
fable ! ^ Ah, for what a thing of nought do many thousands sell their 
souls to Satan every day ! How many thousands are there who swear, 
curse, lie, cheat, deceive, &c., for a little gain every day ! I have 
read that there was a time when the Romans did wear jewels on their 
shoes. Oh that in these days men did not worse ! Oh that they 
did not trample under feet that matchless jewel, their precious and 
immortal souls ! sirs, there is nothing below heaven so precious 
and noble as your souls, and therefore do not play the courtiers with 
your poor souls. Now the courtier does all things late. He rises 
late, and dines late, and sups late, and goes to bed late, and repents 
late. Christ made himself an offering for sin, that souls might not 
be undone by sin ; the Lord died that slaves might live ; the Son dies 
that servants might live ; the natural Son dies that adopted sons may 
live ; the only-begotten Son dies that bastards might live ; yea, the 
judge dies that malefactors may live. Ah, friends, as there was never 
sorrow like Christ's, so there was never love like Christ s love ; and of 
all his love, none to that of soul love. Christ, who is God-man, did 

^ As before.— G. * This pioua gentleman was with me in May 1673, at my house, 

' Discipulus de temp. Serm., 132. 

* We laugh at little children to see them part with rich jewels for silly trifles, and yet 
daily experience tells us that multitudes are so childish as to part with such rich and 
precious jewels as their immortal souls for a lust, or for base and unworthy trifles ; of 
whom it may be truly said, as Augustus Caesar said in another case, they are like a man 
that fishes with a golden hook ; the gain can never recompense the loss that may be sus- 
tained. 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 187 

take upon him thy nature, and bare thy sins, and suffered death, and 
encountered the cross, and was made a sacrifice and a curse, and all 
to bring about thy redemption ; and therefore thou mayest safely con- 
chide that the work of redemption is a great work. But, 

4. Fourthly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man ? Then let this encourage poor sinners to come to Christ, to 
close with Christ, to accept of Christ, to match with Christ, and to 
enter into a marriage union and communion with Christ. The great 
work of gospel ministers is like that of Eliezer, Abraham's servant, 
to seek a match for our Master's Son. Now our way to win you to 
him, is not only to tell you what he has, but what he is. Now he is 
' God-man in one person.' He is man, that you may not be afraid of 
him ; and he is God, that he may be able to save you to the utter- 
most ; he is ' the Prince of the kings of the earth ;' he is ' Lord of 
lords and King of kings ; ' he is the ' Heir of all things ; ' he is ' fairer 
than the children of men ;' he is ' the chief est of ten thousand ;' he is 
' altogether lovely.' i There is everything in Jesus, who is God-man, 
to encourage you to come to him. If you look upon his names, if 
you look upon his natures, if you look upon his offices, if you look 
upon his dignities, if you look upon his personal excellencies, if you 
look upon his mighty conquests, if you look upon his royal attend- 
ance, — all these things call aloud upon you to come to Christ, to 
close with Christ. If you look upon the great things that he has 
done for sinners, and the hard things that he has suffered for sinners, 
and the glorious things that he has prepared and laid up for sinners, 
how can you but readily accept of him, and sweetly embrace him ? 
Though thou hast no loveliness nor comeliness, no beauty nor glory, 
Ezek. xvi, 4, 5, and Isa. Iv. 1, 2 ; though thou hast not one penny in 
thy purse, nor a rag to hang on thy back, yet if thou art but really 
and heartily willing to be divorced from all thy sinful lovers, and 
accept of Christ for thy sovereign Lord, he is willing that the match 
should be made up between thee and him, Hos. iii, 3, and Rev. xxii. 
17. Now shall Clu-ist woo you himself, shall he declare his will- 
ingness to take you with nothing, shall he engage himself to pro- 
tect you, to maintain you, and at last, as a dowry, to bestow heaven 
upon you, and will you refuse him, will you turn your backs upon 
him ? sirs ! what could Christ have done that he has not done to 
do you good, and to make you happy for ever ? Lo ! he has laid 
aside his glorious robes, and he has put on your rags ; he has clothed 
himself with your flesh ; he came off from his royal throne, he hum- 
bled himself to the death of the cross, and has brought life, immor- 
tality, and glory to your very doors; and will you yet stand out 
against him ? Oh, ' how shall such escape who neglect so great sal- 
vation,' Heb. il 3 ; who say, ' This man shall not rule over us,' Luke 
xix. 14 ; who ' tread under foot the Son of God' ? Heb. x. 28. Oh, 
what wrath, what great wrath, what pure wrath, what infinite wrath, ^ 
what everlasting wrath, is leserved for such persons ! John iii. 36. 
Doubtless, Turks, Jews, and Pagans will have a cooler and a lighter 
hell than the despisers and rejecters of Christ, John v. 40, and Mat. 
xxiii. 13, 14. The great damnation is for those that might have 

1 Heb. vii. 25 ; Eev. i. 5, and xvii. 14 ; Heb. i. 3 ; Ps. xlv. 1 ; Cant. v. 10, 16. 



188 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

Christ, _ but would not. And no wonder ! for the sin of rejecting 
Christ is not chargeable upon the devils. Ah sinners, sinners ! that 
you would labour to understand more, and dwell more upon, the pre- 
eminent excellencies of Christ ! for till the soul can discern a better, 
a greater excellency in Christ than in any other thing, it will never 
yield to match with Christ. Oh, labour every day more and more to 
take the height and depth and breadth of the excellency of Christ. 
He is the chief est and the choicest of all, both in that upper and in 
this lower world. The godhead dwells bodily in him ; he is full of 
grace ; he is the heir of glory ; the holy one of God ; the brightness 
of his Father's image ; the fountain of Hfe, the well of salvation, and 
the wonder of heaven. Oh, when will you so understand the super- 
lative excellency of Christ as to fall in love with him, as to cry out 
with the martyr, ' Oh, none but Christ ; oh, none to Christ ! ' i It is 
your wisdom, it is your duty, it is your safety, it is your glory, it is 
your salvatiqn, it is your all to accept of Christ, to close with Christ, 
and to bestow yourselves, your souls, your all on Christ. If you 
embrace him, you are made for ever; but if you reject him, you perish 
for ever. Bernard calls Christ, Sponsus sangumum, the IBridegroom 
of Bloods, because he espoused his church to himself upon the bed of 
his cross, his head begirt with a pillow of thorns, his body drenched 
in a bath of his own blood. To turn your backs upon this bridegroom 
of bloods will certainly cost you the blood of your souls ; and there- 
fore look to it. But, 

5. Fifthly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man ? Oh, then, honour him above all. Oh, let him have the pre- 
eminence, exalt him as high as God the Father hath exalted him. It 
is the absolute will of the Father that ' all should honour his Son, 
even as they honour himself:' 2 for he having the same nature and 
essence with the Father, the Father will have him have the same 
honour which he himself hath ; which whosoever denies to him reflects 
dishonour upon the Father, who will not bear anything derogatory to 
the glory of his Son. Certainly there is due to Christ, as he is God- 
man, the highest respect, reverence, and veneration, which angels and 
men can possibly give unto him. Oh, look upon the Lord Jesus 
as God ; and according to that honour that is due to him as God, 
so must you honour him. The apostle speaks of some who, ' when 
they knew God, they did not glorify him as God,' Kom. i. 21 ; so 
several pretend to give some glory to Christ, but they do not glorify 
him as God. sirs, this is that which you must come up to, viz., to 
honour Christ in such a manner as may be suitable to his natures, and 
as he is the infinite, blessed, and eternal God ; and ah ! what honour 
can be high enough for such a person ? Christ's honour was very dear 
to liim, who said, Lord, use me for thy shield to keep off those wounds 
of dishonour, which else would fall on thee, [Bernard.] Luther, in an 
epistle to Spalatinus, saith, ' They call me a devil, but be it so, so long 
as Christ is magnified, I am well a-payed.' The inanimate creatures 
are so compliant with his pleasure, that they will thwart their own 

^ Lambert, as before. — G. 

*_CoI. i. 18 ; Phil. ii. 6-10 ; John v. 23. This text looks sourly on Je^rs, Turks, Papists, 
Socinians, and others. 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 189 

nature to serve his honour ; fire will descend, as on Sodom and 
Gomorrah, Gen. xix. ; and water, though a fluid body, stand up like a 
solid wall, as in the Ked Sea, Exod. xiv. 22 ; if he do but speak the 
word. Oh, let not the inanimate creatures one day rise in judgment 
against us for not giving Christ his due honour. If we honour Christ 
we shall have honour, that is a bargain of Christ's own making ; but 
if we dishonour him, he will put dishonour upon us, as Scripture 
and history in all ages do sufficiently evidence, 1 Sam. ii. 30. In his- 
tory we read of an impostor that gave it out that he was that star 
which Balaam prophesied of, which was a prophecy of Christ, Num. 
xxiv. 17 ; this fellow called himself Ben-chomar, the son of a star. 
This man professed himself to be Christ, but he was slain with thunder 
and lightning from heaven, and then the Jews called him Ben-cosmar, 
which signifieth the son of a lie.i Learned Buxtorf tells us that the 
Jews call Christ Bar-chozabh, the son of a lie, a bastard ; and his 
gospel Aven-gelaion, the volume of lies, or the volume of iniquity ; and 
hath not God been a-revenging this upon them for above this sixteen 
hundred years ? Kabbi Samuel, who long since writ a tract in form 
of an epistle to Kabbi Isaac, master of the synagogue of the Jews ; 
wherein he doth excellently discuss the cause of their long captivity and 
extreme raisery, and after that he had proved it was inflicted for some 
grievous sin, he sheweth that sin to be the same which Amos speaks 
of ' For three trangressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn 
away the punishment thereof; because they sold the righteous for 
silver, and the poor for a pair of shoes,' Amos ii. 6. The selling 
of Joseph he makes the first sin, the worshipping the calf in Horeb the 
second sin, the abusing and killing God's prophets the third sin, and 
the selling of Jesus Christ the fourth sin. For the first they served 
four hundred years in Egypt, for the second they wandered forty years 
in the wilderness, for the third they were captives seventy years in 
Babylon, and for the fourth they are held in pitiful captivity, even 
to this very day. Oh, how severely has God i-evenged the wrongs and 
indignities done to Christ the Lord, by this miserable people, to 
this very hour ! and yet, oh, the several ways, wherein this poor people 
do every day express their malice and hatred against the Lord Jesus ! 
Oh, pray, pray hard, that the veil may be taken away that has been so 
lopg before their eyes. Herod imprisons Peter, and killeth James 
with the sword, Acts xii. 1-4 ; this God puts up, but when he comes 
to usurp the honour due to Christ, he must die for it, ver. 23. Herod 
might more safely take away the liberty of one, and the life of another 
than the glory due to Christ. Long before his death, being in chains 
he met with a strange omen ; for, as he stood bound before the palace, 
leaning dejectedly upon a tree, among many others that were prisoners 
with him, an owl came and sat down in that tree to which he leaned • 
which a German seeing, being one of those that stood there bound, he 
asked who he was that was in the purple, and leaned there ; and 
understanding who he was, he told him of his enlargement, promotion 
to honoiu-, and prosperity ;_ and that when he should see that bird 
again he should die within five days after.2 Now when Herod 

^ Synag. Jndaica, cap. 5 and 36. 

* Joscphus of the Autiquitiea of the Jews, lib. iviii. pp. 475, 4/6, and 510, 511. [More 



190 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

had imprisoned Peter, and slain James with the sword, he went down 
to Caesarea, and there he made sports and shows in honour of Csesar ; 
and, on the second day, being most gorgeously apparelled, and the sun 
shining very bright upon his robe of silver, his flatterers saluted 
him for a god, and cried out to him, ' Be merciful unto us ! hitherto 
have we feared thee as a man, but, henceforward, we will acknowledge 
thee to be of a nature more excellent than mortal frailty can attain to/ 
The wretched king reproved not this abominable flattery, but was 
well pleased with it ; and, not long after, he espied the owl which the 
Grerman had foretold to be the omen of his death. And suddenly he 
was seized with miserable gripings in his belly, which came upon him 
with vehement extremity ; whereupon, turning himself towards his 
friends, saith, Lo, he whom you esteem for a god is doomed to die, and 
destiny shall evidently confute you, in those flattering and false 
speeches which you lately used concerning me ; for I, who have been 
adored by you as one immortal, am now under the hands of death ; 
and his griefs and torments increasing, his death drew on apace ; 
whereupon he was removed into the palace, and all the people put on 
sackcloth, and lay on the ground, praying for him ; which he, behold- 
ing, could not refrain from tears ; and so after five days he gave 
up the ghost.i Thus you see how dearly they have paid for it 
that have not given Christ his due glory; and let these instances 
of his wrath alarm all your hearts so, that we may make more con- 
science than ever, of setting the crown of honour only upon Christ's 
head, ' for he only is worthy of all honour, glory, and praise,' Kev. 
xiv. 10, 11. But, 

6. Sixthly, Is Jesus Christ God-man? is he very God and very 
man ? Then from hence as in a glass you may see the true reasons why 
the death and sufferings of Christ, though short, very short, yet have a 
sufficient poioer and virtue in them to satisfy God' s justice, to pacify 
his lorath, to procure our pardon, and to save our immortal souls — 
viz., because of the dignity of his person that died and suffered for us, 
the Son of God, yea, God himself There was an infinite virtue and 
value in all his sufferings ; hence his blood is called ' precious blood,' 
yea, ' the blood of God.' ^ Did man transgress the royal law of God ? 
behold God himself is become a man to make up that breach, and to 
satisfy divine justice to the uttermost farthing, Rom. viii. 2-4. For 
the man Christ Jesus to stand before the bar of the law, and to make 
full and complete reparation to it, was the highest honour that ever 
was done to the law of God. This is infinitely more pleasing and de- 
lightful to divine justice than if all the curses of the law had been 
poured out upon fallen man, and than if the law had built up its 
honour upon the destruction of the whole creation. To see one sun 
clouded is much more than to see the moon and all the stars in heaven 
overcast. Christ considered as God-man was great, very great ; and 
the greater his person was, the greater were his sorrows, his sufferings, 
his humiliation, his compassion, his satisfaction to divine justice. Had 

accurately xix. 8, 2 : cf . 2 Mac. ix. 9, and Jortin, Eccles. Hist. ii. 320, with a note 
of Gibbon, c. xiv. : TertuUian ad Soap. c. iii., §. 20. Michselis i. 65. — G.J 

^ All as quaintly told by Clarke in his ' Life' of Herod.— G. 

» Heb. ix. 14; 1 Pet. i. 19; Acts xx. 28; Gal. iv. 4-6. 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 191 

not Christ been God-man, he could never have been an able surety, 
Heb. vii. 25 — he could never have paid our debts, he could never have 
satisfied divine justice, he could never have brought in an everlasting 
righteousness, Dan. ix. 24, he could never have ' spoiled principalities 
and powers, and made a show of them openly, triumphing over them 
on the cross,' Col. ii. 15 — a plain allusion to the Koman triumphs, 
where the victor ascending up to the capitol in a chariot of state, all 
the prisoners following him on foot with their hands bound behind 
them, and the victor commonly threw certain pieces of coin abroad to 
be picked up by the common people. So Christ, in the day of his 
solemn inauguration into his heavenly kingdom, triumphed over sin, 
death, devils, and hell, * and gave gifts to men.' And had he not been 
God-man, he could never have merited for us a glorious reward. If 
we consider Christ himself as a mere man, setting aside his godhead, 
Eph. iv. 8, he could not merit by his sufferings ; for, 1. Christ as he 
was man only, was a creature. Now a mere creature can merit nothing 
from the Creator. 2. Christ's sufferings, as he was man only, were 
finite, and therefore could not merit infinite glory. Indeed, as he was 
God, his sufferings were meritorious ; but, consider him purely as man, 
they were not. This is wisely to be observed against the papists, who 
make so great a noise of men's merits ; for if Christ's sufferings, as he 
was mere man, could not merit the Igast favour from God, then what 
mortal man is able to merit, at the hand of God, the least of mercies 
by his greatest sufferings ? But, 

7. Seventhly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man ? Then from hence ive may see the greatest pattern of humility and 
self-denial that ever loas or will he in this world. That he who was 
the Lord of glory, that he who was equal with God, that he should 
leave the bosom of his Father, Phil. ii. 6 ; John i. 18, which was a 
bosom of the sweetest loves and the most ineffable delights, that he 
should put off all that glory that he had with the Father before the 
foundation of the world was laid, John xvii. 5, that he should so far 
abase himself as to become man, by taking on him our base, \dle 
nature, so that in this our nature he might die, suffer, satisfy, and 
bring many sons to glory, Heb. ii. 10, — oh, here is the greatest 
humility and abasement that ever was ! And oh that all sincere Chris- 
tians would endeavour to imitate this matchless example of humility 
and self-denial ! Oh the admirable condescensions of dear Jesus, that 
he should take our nature, and make us partakers of his divine nature ! 
2 Pet. i. 4, that he should put on our rags, and put upon us his royal 
robes ! Rev. xix. 7, 8, that he should make himself poor that we might 
be rich ! 2 Cor. viii. 9, low that we might be high ! accursed that we 
might be blessed! Gal. iii. 10, 13. Oh wonderful love ! oh grace un- 
searchable ! Ah, Christians, did Christ stoop low, and will you be 
stout, proud, and high ? Was he content to be accounted a worm, a 
wine-bibber, an enemy to Caesar, a friend of publicans and sinners, 
a devil, and must you be all in a flame when vain men make little 
account of you? Was he willing to be a curse, a reproach for 
you, and wdll you shrug, and shrink, and faint, and fret when 
you are reproached for his name ? Did Jesus Christ stoop so low 
as to wash his disciples' feet, John xiii. 14, and are you so stout 



192 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

and sturdy that you cannot hear together, nor pray together, nor 
sit at the table of the Lord together, though you all hope at 
last to sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom 
of heaven? Mat. viii. 11. Shall one heaven hold you at last; and 
shall not one house, one bed, one table, one church, hold you" here ? 
Oh, that ever worms should swell with such intolerable pride and 
stoutness ! He who was God-man, was lowly, meek, self-denying, and 
of a most condescending spirit ; and oh that all you, who hope for 
salvation by him, would labour to write after so fair a copy. Bernard 
calls humility a self-annihilation. The same author saith that humility 
is conservatrix virtutum. ' Thou wilt save the humble,' saith Job, 
chap. xxii. 29 ; in the Hebrew it is, ' him that is of low eyes,' Q'^y^ n^l- 
A humble Christian hath lower thoughts of himself than others can 
have of him. Abraham is ' dust and ashes' in his own eyes. Gen. xviii., 
Jacob is ' less than the least of all mercies,' Gen. xxxii. 10 ; David, 
though a great king, yet looks upon himself as a worm ; ' I am a worm, 
and no man,' Ps. xxii. 6. The word in the original, Tolugnath, signi- 
fieth a very little worm, which breedeth in scarlet ; a worm that is so 
little, that a man can hardly see it or perceive it. Oh, how little, how 
very little was David in his own eyes ; and Paul, who was the greatest 
among the apostles, yet, in his own eyes, he was ' less than the least 
of all saints.'^ Non sum dignus did minimus, saith Ignatius, ' I am 
not worthy to be called the least.' ' Lord 1 I am hell, but thou art 
heaven,' said blessed Cooper : ' I am a most hypocritical wretch, not 
worthy that the earth should bear me,' said holy Bradford : Luther, 
in humility, speaks thus of himself ; ' I have no other name than 
sinner ; sinner is my name, sinner is my surname ; this is the name by 
which I shall be always known ; I have sinned, I do sin, I shall sin, 
in infinitum.' Ah, how can proud, stout spirits read these instances 
and not blush ! Certainly the sincere humble Christian is like the 
violet, which grows low, hangs the head down, and hides itself with 
its own leaves ; and were it not that the frequent smell of his many 
virtues discovers him to the world, he would choose to live and die in 
his self-contenting secrecy. But, 

8. Eighthly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man ? Then hence we may see how to have access to God; namely, hy 
means of Christ's human nature, which he hath taken upon him, to 
that very end, that he might in it die and suffer for our sins, and so 
reconcile us to God, and give ^^s access to him, Kom. v. 1, 2; Eph. 
iii. 12, and ii. 18. ' By him we have access to the Father.' The 
word is 7rpoaaycoy7)v, ' a leading by the hand,' an introduction, an 
adduction : it is an allusion, saith Estius, to the customs of princes, 
to whom there is no passage, unless we are brought in by one of their 
favourites, Esth. i. Though the Persian kings held it a piece of 
their silly glory to hold off theu- best friends, who might not come 
near them, but upon special licence ; yet the great King of heaven and 
earth counts it his glory to give us free access at all times, in all 
places, and upon all occasions, by the man Christ Jesus : 1 Tim. ii. 5, 
' There is one mediator between God and us, even the man Christ 

^ Eph. iii. 8. See my ' Unsearchable Riches of Christ' uuon that text. [Vol. iii. pp. 
1-232.— G.] 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 193 

Jesus.' Christ was made true man, that in our nature he might 
reconcile us to God, and give us access to God, which he could never 
have done, had he not been very God and very man. Without the 
human nature of Christ, we could never have had access to God, or 
fellowship with God ; being by nature enemies to God, and estranged 
from God, and dead in trespasses and sins, Kom. v. 10, it is only by 
the mediation of Christ incarnate that we come to be reconciled to 
God, Eph. ii. 1, 12-14, to have access to him, and acceptance with 
him. In Christ's human nature God and we meet together, and have 
fellowship together, 1 John i. 1-3. It could never stand with the un- 
spotted holiness and justice of God, who is ' a consuming fire,' Heb. 
xii. 29, to honour us with one cast of his countenance, or one hour's 
communion with himself, were it not upon the account of the man 
Christ Jesus. The least serious thought of God out of Christ will 
breed nothing in the soul but horror and amazement ; which made 
Luther say, Nolo Deum ahsohitum, let me have nothing to do with an 
absolute God. Believers have free and blessed access to God, but still 
it is upon the credit of the man Christ Jesus, Heb. iv. 15, 16. ' Let 
us come boldly to the throne of grace,' saith the apostle, speaking of 
Christ, ' that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of 
need.' The apostle's phrase is fiera irapprja-ia';, a word which signifies 
liberty of speech, and boldness of face ; as when a man with a bold 
and undaunted spirit, utters his mind before the great ones of the 
world without blushing, without weakness of heart, without shaking 
of his voice, without imperfection and faltering in speech, when 
neither majesty nor authority can take off his courage, so as to stop 
his mouth, and make him afraid to speak. With such heroic and un- 
daunted spirits would the apostle have us to come to the throne of 
grace ; and all upon the credit of Christ our high priest, who is God- 
man. But, 

9. Ninthly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man? Then you may be very confident of his sympathising loith you in 
all your affiiction^, Ezek. xxxv. 10-13; Isa. xxxvii. 23, 24; then this 
Tnay serve as a foundation to support you under all your troubles, and 
as a cordial to comfort you under all your ajffiictions, in that Christ 
partaking of the same nature, and having had experience of the in- 
firmities of it, he is the more able and ivilling to help and succour us 
Heb. ii. 17, ' Wherefore in all things it behoveth him to be like his 
brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things 
pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people : ' 
so Heb. iv. 15. If one come to visit a man that is sick of a grievous 
disease, who hath himself been formerly troubled with the same 
disease, he will sympathise more, and shew more compassion than 
twenty others, who have not felt the likeil so here, from Christ's 
sufferings in his human nature we may safely gather that he will shew 
himself a merciful high priest to us in our sufferings, and one that wiU 
be ready to help and succour us in all our afilictions and miseries, 
which we suffer in this life, inasmuch as himself had experience of 
suffering the like in our nature ; ' for in that he himself hath suffered, 
being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted : ' and this 

^ As the brazen serpent was like the fiery serpent, but had no sting. 
VOL. V, N 



194 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

should be a staflf to support us, and a cordial to comfort us in all our 
sorrows and miseries. It is between Christ and his church as it is 
between two lute strings that are tuned one to another ; no sooner is 
one struck but the other trembles :i Isa. Ixiii. 9, 'In all their afflic- 
tions he was afflicted.' These words may be read interrogatively 
thus : was he in all their afflictions afflicted ? Christ took to heart the 
afflictions of his church, he was himself grieved for them and with 
them. The Lord, the better to allure and draw his people to himself, 
speaks after the manner of men, attributing to himself aU the affec- 
tion, love, and fatherly compassion that can possibly be in them to 
men in misery. Christ did so sympathise with his people in all their 
afflictions and sufferings, as if he himself had felt the weight, the 
smart, the pain of them all. ' He was in all things made like unto 
his brethren,' not only in nature, but also in infirmities and sufferings, 
and by all manner of temptations, that thereby ' he might be able,' ex- 
perimentally, ' to succour them that are tempted.' He that toucheth 
them toucheth not only his eye but the apple of his eye, which is the 
tenderest piece of the tenderest part, 2 to express the inexpressible 
tenderness of Christ's compassion towards them. Let persecutors take 
heed how they meddle with God's eyes, for he will retaliate eye for 
eye, Exod. xxi. 24 : he is wise in heart and mighty in strength, and 
sinners shall one day pay dear for touching the apple of his eye. 
Christ counts himself persecuted when his church is persecuted ; 
* Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ?' Acts ix. 4. And he looks 
upon himself as hungry, thirsty, naked, and in prison, when his 
members are so. Mat. xxv. 35, 36 ; so greatly does he sympathise 
with them. Hence the afflictions of Christians are called varepi]- 
fiara, ' the remainders of the afflictions of Christ,' Col. i. 24 : such as 
Christ, by his fellow-feeling, suffereth in his members, and as they by 
correspondency are to fill up, as exercises and trials of their faith and 
patience. Christ gave many evidences of his sympathy or fellow-feeling 
of our infirmities when he was on earth, as he groaned in his spirit 
and was troubled, John xi. 33 ; when he saw those that wept for 
Lazarus he wept also, ver. 35 ; as he did over Jerusalem also, Luke 
xix. 41. It is often observed in the Gospel that Christ was moved 
with compassion ; and that he frequently put forth acts of pity, mercy, 
and succour to those that were in any distress, either in body or soul. 
Christ retaineth this sympathy and fellow-feeling with us now he is in 
heaven ; and does so far commiserate our distresses as may stand with 
a glorified condition. Jesus Christ grieves for the afflictions of his 
people ; ' the angel of the Lord answered and said, Lord of hosts, 
how long wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem,' Zech. i. 12. The 
angel here is that Jesus who is our advocate with the Father, 1 John 
ii. 1, 2. He speaks as one intimately afi'ected with the state and con- 
dition of poor Jerusalem. Christ plays the advocate for his suffering 
people, and feelingly pleads for them ; he being afflicted in all their 
afflictions, it moved him to observe that God's enemies were in a 
better case than his people ; and this put him upon that passionate 

^ Tf we perish, Christ perisheth with us. — Luther. 

' Zech. ii. 8, Ishon of /sh, it is here called Bath, the daughter of the eye, because it 
is as dear to a man as his only daughter. 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 195 

expostulation, ' Lord of hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy 
on Jerusalem ! ' Alexander the Great applied his crown to the soldier's 
forehead that had received a wound for him; and Constantine the 
Great kissed the hollow of Paphnutius's eye that he had lost for Christ. 
What an honour was it to the soldier and to Paphnutius that these great 
men should have fellow-feeling of their sufferings, and sympathise with 
them in their sorrows ! but, oh then ! wiiat an honour is it to such 
poor worms as we are, that Jesus Christ, who is God-man, who is the 
Prince of the kings of the earth, that he should have a fellow-feeling 
of all our miseries, and sympathise with us in all our troubles ! Kev. i, 
5. But, 

10. Tenthly, Is Jesus Christ God-man ? is he very God and very 
man ? Then from hence you may see the excellency of Christ above 
man, above all other men, yea, above Adam in innocency. Christ, as 
man, was perfect in all graces: Isa. xi. 1, 2, 'And there shall come 
forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his 
roots ; and the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of 
wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit 
of knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord.' God gave the Spirit of 
wisdom to him not oy measure ; and therefore, at twelve years of age, 
you find him in the Sanhedrim disputing with the doctors, and asking 
them questions, John iii. 34 ; Luke ii. 46, 47 ; John i. 16, ' And of his 
fulness have all we received grace for grace ;' Col. i. 19, ' For it pleased 
the Father that in him should all fulness dwell ;' ii. 3, ' In whom are 
hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.' The state of inno- 
cency was an excellent estate, it was an estate of perfect holiness and 
righteousness, Gen. i. 27. By his holiness he was carried out to know 
the Lord, to love the Lord, to delight in the Lord, to fear the Lord, 
and to take him as his chief est good, Eph. iv. 22-24. A legal holi- 
ness consists in an exact, perfect, and complete conformity in heart 
and life to the whole revealed will of God ; and this was the holiness 
that Adam had in his innocency, and this holiness was immediately 
derived from God, and was perfect. Adam's holiness was as co- 
natural to him as unholiness is now to us. Adam's holiness was as 
natural, and as pleasing, and as delightful to him as any way of un- 
hoHness can be natural, pleasing, and delightful to us. The estate of 
innocency was an estate of perfect wisdom, knowledge, and under- 
standing. Witness the names that Adam gave to all the creatures, 
suitable and apposite to their natures, Gen. ii. 20. The estate of 
innocency was an estate of great honour and dignity. David brings 
in Adam in his innocent estate with a crown upon his head, and that 
crown was a crown of glory and honour : ' Thou hast crowned him with 
glory and honour,' his place was ' a little lower than the angels,' but far 
above all other creatures, Ps. viii. 5. The estate of innocency, it was 
an estate of great dominion and authority, man being made the sove- 
reign lord of the whole creation, Ps. viii. 6-8. We need not stand 
to enlarge upon one parcel of his demesnes, namely, that which they 
call paradise, sith the whole both of sea and land, and all the creatures 
in both, were his possession, his paradise. Certainly man's first estate 
was a state of perfect and complete happiness, there being nothing 
within him but what was desirable, nothing without liim but what was 



196 ELEVEN INFERENCES DRAWN FROM 

amiable, and nothing about him but what was serviceable and com- 
fortable ; and yet Jesus Christ, who is God-man, is infinitely more 
glorious and excellent than ever Adam was ; for Adam was set in a 
mutable condition, but Christ is the Rock of ages. He is steadfast and 
abiding for ever ; he is ' yesterday, and to-day, and the same for ever/ 
Heb. xiii. 8. He is the same afore time, in time, and after time ; he 
is the same, that is unchangeable, in his essence, promises, and doc- 
trine. Christ is the same in respect of virtue, and the faith of believers ; 
even his manhood, before it was in being, was clothed with perfection 
of grace, and so continueth for ever. And again, Adam was a mere 
man, and alone by himself; but in Christ the human nature was 
hypostatically united unto the divine ; and hence it comes to pass that 
Christ, even as man, had a greater measure of knowledge and revela- 
tion of grace and heavenly gifts than ever Adam had. The apostle 
tells us that in ' Christ dwells all the fulness of the Godhead,' <j(ofia- 
TiKm, bodily, that is, essentially ; that is, not by a naked and bare 
communicating of virtue, as God is said to dwell in his saints, but 
by a substantial union of the two natures, divine and human, the 
eternal Word and the man, consisting of soul and body, whereby 
they become one, v(l>iardfievov, one person, one subsistence.. Now 
from this admirable and wonderful union of the two natures in 
Christ, there flows to the manhood of Christ a plenitude and fulness 
of all spiritual wisdom and grace, such as was never found in any 
mere man, no, not in Adam whilst he stood in his integrity and 
uprightness. But, 

11. Eleventhly, Is Jesus Christ God-man? is he very God and 
very man? Then this truth looks very sourly and froiuningly upon all 
such as deny the godhead of Christ; as Arians, Turks, Jews. How 
many be there in this city, in this nation, who stiffly deny the divinity 
of Christ, and dispute against it, and write against it, and blaspheme 
that gi'eat truth, without which, I think, a man may safely say, there 
is no possibility of salvation. In ancient times, near unto the age of 
the apostles, this doctrine of Christ's godhead, and eternal genera- 
tion from the Father, was greatly opposed by sundry wicked and 
blasphemous heretics, as Ebion, Cerinthus, Arius, &c. , who stirred up 
great troubles, and bloody persecutions against the church, for main- 
taining this great truth of Christ's godhead. They asserted that 
Christ had no true flesh ; it was only the likeness of flesh which he 
appeared in, and that his body was only a fantastic imaginary body ; 
but had the body of Christ been only such a body, then his conception, 
nativity, death, resurrection, are all too but imaginary things ; and 
then his sufferings and crucifixion are but mere fancies too ; and if 
so, then what would become of us, what would become of our salva- 
tion ? then our faith would be in vain, and our hope would be in vain, 
and our hearing, preaching, praying, and recei%ang, would all be in 
vain ; yea, then all our religion would vanish into a mere fancy also. 
When a man's conscience is awakened to see his sin and misery, and 
he shall find guilt to lay like a load upon his soul, and when he shall 
see that divine justice is to be satisfied, and divine wrath to be pacified, 
and the curse to be borne, and the law to be fulfilled, and his nature to 
be renewed, his heart to be changed, and his sins to be pardoned, or 



1 



THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 197 

else his soul can never be saved : how can such a person venture his 
soul, his all, upon one that is but a mere creature ? Certainly, a mere 
man is no rock, no city of refuge, and no sure foundation for a man to 
build his faith and hope upon. Woe to that man, that ever he was 
born, that has no Jesus, but a Socinian's Jesus to rest upon ! Oh, it 
is sad trusting to one, who is man, but not Grod ; flesh, but not spirit. 
As you love the eternal safety of your precious souls, and would be 
happy for ever ; as you would escape hell, and get to heaven, lean on 
none, rest on none, but that Jesus who is God-man, who is very God 
and very man. Apollinaris held that Christ took not the whole nature 
of man, but a human body only, without a soul, and that the Godhead 
was instead of a soul to the manhood. Also Eutyches, who confounded 
the two natures of Christ, and their properties, &c. Also Apelles and 
the Manichees, who denied the true human body, and held him to have 
an aerial or imaginary body. Though the popular sort deified Alex- 
ander the Great ; i yet, having got a clap with an arrow, he said, ye 
style me Jupiter's son, as if immortal ; sed hoc vulnus clamat esse 
liominem ; this blood that issues from the wound proves me in the 
issue a man : this is ai^ia tov avOpwirov, the blood of man, not of God, 
and snielling the stench of his own flesh, he asked his flatterers if the 
gods yielded such a scent. So may it be said of Jesus Christ our 
Saviour, though myriads of angels and saints acclaim he is a God, 
ergo, immortal ; and a crew of heretics disclaim him to be man, as the 
Marcionites averred that he had a fantastical body, and Apelles who 
conceived that he had a sidereal substance, yet the streams of blood 
following the arrow of death that struck him, makes it good that he 
was perfect man ; of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting. 
And as this truth looks sourly upon the above-mentioned persons, so 
it looks sourly upon the papists, who, by their doctrine of the real pre- 
sence of Christ's body in the sacrament, do overthrow one of the pro- 
perties of his human nature, which is to be but in one place present at 
once. This truth also looks sourly upon the Lutherans or Ubiqiii- 
taries, who teach that Christ's human nature is in all places by virtue 
of their personal union, &c. I wonder that of all the old errors, swept 
down into this latter age, as into a sink of time, this of the Socinians 
and Arians should be held forth among the rest. sirs, beware of 
their doctrines, shun their meetings, and persons that come to you with 
the denial of the divinity of Christ in their mouths. This was John's 
doctrine and practice. Irenfeus saith, that after he was returned from 
his banishment, and came to Ephesus, he came to bathe himself, and 
in the bath he found Cerinthus, that said, Christ had no being till he 
received it from the Virgin Mary ; upon the sight of whom, John 
skipped out of the bath, and called his companions from thence ; say- 
ing, let us go from this place, lest the bath should fall down upon us, 
because Cerinthus is in it, that is so great an enemy to God.^ Ye see 
his doctrine, see his words too : 2 John 10, 11, 'If any come to you, 
having not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid 
him God speed : for he that biddeth him God speed, is partaker of his 
evil deeds.' What that doctrine was, if you cast your eye upon the 
scripture, you shall find it to be the doctrine of the divinity of Christ. 

^ Plutarch, in vita. * As before. — G. 



198 ELEVEN INFERENCES DEAWN FROM 

Shew no love where you owe nothing but hatred : ' I hate every false 
way,' saith David, Ps. cxix. 118. And I shall look upon Auxentius as 
upon a devil, so long as he is an Arian, said Hilarius. We must shew 
no countenance, nor give no encouragement to such as deny either the 
divinity or humanity of Christ. 

I have been the longer upon the divinity and humanity of Christ, 
1. Because the times we live in require it. 2. That poor, weak, stag- 
gering Christians may be strengthened, established, and settled in the 
truth, as it is in Jesus. 3. That I may give in my testimony and 
witness against all those who are poisoned and corrupted with Socinian 
and Arian principles, which destroy the souls of men. 4. That those 
in whose hands this book may fall may be the better furnished to 
make head against men of corrupt minds ; who, ' by sleight-of-hand 
and cunning craftiness, lie in wait to deceive,' Eph. iv. 14. 

[6.] Sixthly, As he that did feel and suffer the very torments of hell, 
though not after a hellish manner, was God-man, so the punishments 
that Christ did sustain for us must he referred only to the substance, 
and not unto the circumstances of punishment. The punishment 
which Christ endured, if it be considered in its substance, kind, or 
nature, so it was the same with what the sinner himself should have 
undergone. Now the punishment due to the sinner was death, the 
curse of the law, &c. Now this Christ underwent, for ' he was made 
a curse for us,' Gal. iii. 13. But if you consider the punishment 
which Christ endured, with respect to certain circumstances, adjuncts, 
and accidents, as the eternity of it, desperation going along with 
it, &c., then, I say, it was not the same, but equivalent.! And the 
reason is, because, though the enduring of the punishments, as to the 
substance of them, could, and did agree with him as a surety, yet the 
circumstances of those punishments could not have befallen him unless 
he had been a sinner ; and therefore every inordination in suffering 
was far from Christ, and a perpetual duration of suffering could not 
befall him, for the first of these had been contrary to the holiness and 
dignity of his person, and the other had made void the end of his 
suretyship and mediatorship, which was so to suffer, as yet to conquer 
and to deliver, and therefore, though he did suffer death for us in the 
substance of it, yet he neither did nor could suffer death in the circum- 
stances of it, so as for ever to be held by death ; for then, in suffering death , 
he should not have conquered death, nor delivered us from death. Nei- 
ther was it necessary to Christ's substitution that he should undergo in 
every respect the same punishment which the offender himself was liable 
unto ; but if he underwent so much punishment as did satisfy the law, 
and vindicate the lawgiver in his holiness, truth, justice, and righteous- 
ness, that was enough. ' Now that was unquestionably done by Christ, 
as the Scriptures do abundantly testify. It must be readily granted 
that Christ was to suffer the whole punishment due unto sin, so far as 
it became the dignity of his person and the necessity of the work ; but 
if he had suffered eternally, the work of redemption could never have 
been accomplished ; and besides, he should have suffered that which 

^ "Whether the work of man's redemption could have been wrought without the suffer- 
ings and humiliation of Christ is not determinable by men; but that it was the most 
admirable way which wisdom, justice, and mercy could require, cannot be denied. 



- THE DIVINITY AND HUMANITY OF CHRIST. 199 

could noways beseem him. And therefore the apostle saith, Heb. ii. 
10, • It became him to be consecrated through sufferings/ Christ was 
only to pass through such sufferings as became him who was ordained 
to be the prince and captain of our salvation. It became him to be 
man, and it became him in our human nature to suffer death, and it 
became him to sustain for us the substance of those punishments that 
we should have undergone ; and accordingly he did. What our sins 
did deserve, and what justice might lay upon us for those sins, all that 
did Christ certainly suffer or bear. Jesus Christ did so suffer for our 
sins, as that his sufferings were fully answerable to the demerit of our 
sins. And I think I may safely say that Grod, in justice, could not 
require any more, or lay on any one more punishment than Jesus 
Christ did suffer for our sins ; and my reason is this, because Christ 
bare all our sins, and all our sorrows, and was obedient unto the 
death, and made a curse for us, Isa. liii., and Gal. iii. 13 ; and more 
than this the law of God could not require. And if Christ did suffer all 
that the law of God required, then certainly he suffered so much as did 
satisfy the justice of God, viz., as much punishment as was commen- 
Burated with sin. But, 

[7.] Seventhly and lastly. The meritorious cause, the main end, and 
the special occasion of all the sufferings of Christ were the sins of his 
peopled Christ was our surety, and he could not satisfy for our sins, 
nor reconcile us to God without suffering : Isa. liii. 5, ' But he was 
wounded for our transgressions.' The Hebrew word for wounded, 
bbr\i2i liath a double emphasis : either it may signify that he was 
pierced through as with a dart, or that he was tormented or pained, 
as women or other creatures are wont to be that bring forth with pain 
and torment, at the time of their travail ; for the word in the text last 
cited comes regularly from a root that signifies properly to be in pain, 
as women are when they bring forth. It was our transgressions that 
gave Christ his deadly wounds ; it was our sins that smote him, and 
bruised him. Look, as Zipporah said to Moses, Exod. iv. 25, ' Surely 
a bloody husband art thou to me,' so may Christ say to his church. 
Surely a bloody spouse hast thou been to me. Christ's spouse may look 
upon him and say. It was I that have been that Judas that have be- 
trayed -thee ! It was I that was the soldiers that murdered thee ! It 
was my sins that brought aU sorrows and sufferings, all mischiefs and 
evils upon thee 1 I have sinned, and thou hast suffered ! I have eaten 
the sour grapes, and thy teeth were set on edge ! I have sinned, and 
thou hast died 1 I have wounded thee, and thou hast healed me ! 
It is the wisdom, and oh that it might be more and more the work 
of every believer to look upon a humble Christ with a humble heart, 
a broken Christ with a broken heart, a bleeding Christ with a bleeding 
heart, a wounded Christ with a wounded heart ; according to that, 
Zech. xii. 10, Christ was wounded, bruised, and cut off for sinners' sins. 
When Christ was taken by the soldiers, he said, ' If ye seek me, let 
these go their way:' Christ was willing that the hurt which sinners 

^ Isa. liii. i, 5. There were other subordinate ends of his sufferings ; as, (1.) To sanctify 
sufferings to ua. (2.) To sweeten sufferings to us. (3.) To succour us experimentally 
under all our sufferings, Heb. ii. 17, 18. (4.) That he might be prepared to enter into 
his glory, Luke xiiv. 26. (5.) That he might be a conqueror over sufferings, which 
was one piece of his greatest glory, &c. 



200 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

had done to God, and the debt which they owed to him, should be set 
upon his score, and put upon his account ; and the apostle mentions it 
as a remarkable thing, ' that Christ died for the ungodly,' Rom. v. 8 ; 
* the just for the unjust,' 1 Pet. iii. 18. Our sins were the meritorious 
cause of Christ's sufferings, Heb. iv. 15, and vii. 26. Christ did not 
suffer for himself, ' for he was without sin, neither was guile found in 
his mouth.' The grand design, errand, and business about which 
Christ came into the world, was to save sinners, 1 Tim. i. 15. He 
had his name Jesus, because he was to save his people from their sins. 
Mat. i. 21. He died for our sins ; not only for our good, as the final 
cause, but for our sins, as the procuring cause of his death. ' He was 
delivered for our offences,' ' Christ died for our sins according to the 
Scriptures,' Rom. iv. 25, and 1 Cor. xv. 3 ; that is, according to what 
was typified, prophesied, and promised in the blessed Scriptures: Gal. 
i. 4, ' He gave himself for our sins ;' 1 Pet. ii. 24, 'Who his own self 
bare our sins in his own body|[upon the tree ; . . . by whose stripes ye 
were healed, ov rw iMOikcoin avTov Iddrjre. The whole Testament hath 
not the like two relatives at once in the original, as if I should say, by 
whose stripes of his we are healed. Peter, saith Estius, alludes to the 
stripes that servants receive from their cruel masters ; therefore he re- 
turns to the second person, ' ye are healed.' Here you see that the 
physician's blood became the sick man's salve. We can hardly be- 
lieve the power of sword salve ! But here is a mystery, that only the 
gospel can assure us of, that the wounding of one should be the cure 
of another. Oh, what an odious thing is sin to God, that he will 
pardon none without blood, yea, without the blood of his dearest Son ! 
Heb. ix. 22, and 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. Oh, what a hell of wickedness 
must there be in sin, that nothing can expiate it but the best, the 
purest, the noblest blood that ever run in veins ! Oh, what a tran- 
scendent evil must sin be, that nothing can purge it away but death, 
but the death of the cross, no death but an accursed death ! Oh, what 
a leprosy is sin, that it must have blood, yea, the blood of God, to take 
it away ! 

Now thus you have seen, (1.) That the sufferings of Christ have 
been free and voluntary, and not constrained or forced. (2.) That 
they have been very great and heinous. (3.) That the punishments 
which Christ did suffer for our sins, were, in their parts, and kinds, 
and degrees, and proportion, all those punishments which were due 
unto us by reason of our sins ; and which we ourselves would otherwise 
have suffered. (4.) That Jesus Christ did feel and suffer the very tor- 
ments of hell, though not after a hellish manner. (5.) That he that did 
feel and suffer the torments of hell, though not aftera hellish manner, was 
God-man. (6.) That the punishments that Christ did sustain for us, 
must be referred only to the substance, and not to the circumstances 
of punishment. (7.) That the meritorious cause of all the sufferings 
of Christ, were the sins of his people. 

IV. Now to that great question of giving up your account at last, 
according to the import of those ten scriptures in the margin, i you 
may, in the fourth place, make this safe, noble, and happy plea. ' 

^ Eccles. xi. 12, 14; Mat. xii. 14, and xviii. 23; Luke xvi. 3 ; Eom. xiv. 10 ; 2 Cor. 
V. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17; 1 Pet. iv. 7. 



OF THE GKEAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 201 

blessed God, Jesus Christ liath suffered all those things that were due 
unto me for my sin; he hath suffered even to the worst and uttermost; 
for all that the law threatened wa^ a curse, and Christ was m/xde a curse 
for me. Gal. iii. 13 ; he hieio no sin, hut ivas made sin for me, 2 Cor. 
V. 21 ; and what Christ suffered he siffey'ed as my surety, and in my 
stead; and therefore, what he suffeixd for me, is as if Ilmd suffered 
all that myself ; and his sufferings hath appeased thy ivrath, and 
satisfied thy justice, and reconciled thee to myself For, 2 Cor. v. 19, 
' God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing 
their trespasses unto them.' ' And he hath reconciled both Jeius and 
Gentiles unto God, in one body, on the cross ; having slain enmity 
thereby.' Jesus Christ took upon him all my sins, they were all of them 
laid upon him, and he bare or suffered all the wrath and punishment 
due for them, and he suffered all as my surety, in my stead, and for my 
good; and thou didst design him for all this, and accepted of it as suffi- 
cient and effectual on my behalf Oh, with what comfort, courage, and 
confidence, may a believer, upon these considerations, hold up his head 
in the great day of his account. Let me now make a few inferences from 
the consideration of all the great and grievous sufferings of our Lord 
Jesus Christ : and therefore, 

1. First, Let us stand still, and admire and wonder at the love of 
Jesus Christ to poor siniiers; that Christ should rather die for us, than 
the angels. They were creatures of a more noble extract, and in all 
probability might have brought greater revenues of glory to God : 
yet that Christ should pass by those golden vessels, and make us 
vessels of glory, — oh, what amazing and astonishing love is this ! ^ 
The angels were more honourable and excellent creatures than we. 
They were celestial spirits ; we earthly bodies, dust and ashes : they 
were immediate attendants upon God, they were, as I may say, of his 
privy chamber ; we servants of his in the lower house of this world, 
farther remote from his glorious presence: their office was to sing 
hallelujahs, songs of praise to God in the heavenly paradise ; ours to 
dress the garden of Eden, which was but an earthly paradise : they 
sinned but once, and but in thought, as is commonly thought; but 
Adam sinned in thought by lusting, in deed by tasting, and in word 
by excusing. Why did not Christ suffer for their sins, as well as for 
ours ? or if for any, why not for theirs rather than ours ? ' Even so, 
O Father, for so it pleased thee,' Mat. xi. 26. We move this ques- 
tion, not as being curious to search thy secret counsels, Lord, but 
that we may be the more swallowed up in the admiration of the 
' breadth, and length, and depth, and height of the love of Christ, 
which passeth knowledge.' The apostle, being in a holy admiration 
of Christ's love, affirms it to pass knowledge, Eph. iii. 18, 19 ; that 
God, who is the eternal Being, should love man when he had scarce a 
being. Pro v. viii. 30, 31, that he should be enamoured with deformity, 
that he should love us when in our blood, Ezek. xvi., that he should pity 
us when no eye pitied us, no, not our own. Oh, such was Christ's 
transcendent love, that man's extreme misery could not abate it. The 
deploredness of man's condition did but heighten the holy flame of 
Christ's love. It is as high as heaven, who can reach it ? It is as 

^ This is the envy of devils, and the admiration of angels and saints. 



202 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

low as hell, wbo can understand it ? Heaven, through its glory, could 
not contain him, man being miserable, nor hell's torments make him 
refrain, such was his perfect matchless love to fallen man. That 
Christ's love should extend to the ungodly, to sinners, to enemies that 
were in arms of rebellion against him, Kom. v. 6, 8, 10 ; yea, not only 
so, but that he should hug them in his arms, lodge them in his bosom, 
dandle them upon his knees, and lay them to his breasts, that they 
may suck and be satisfied, is the highest improvement of love, Isa. 
Ixvi. 11-13. That Christ should come from the eternal bosom of his 
Father, to a region of sorrow and death, John i. 18 ; that God should 
be manifested in the flesh, the Creator made a creature, Isa. liii. 4 ; 
that he that was clothed with glory, should be wrapped with rags of 
flesh, 1 Tim. iii. 16 ; that he that filled heaven, should be cradled in a 
manger, John xvii. 5 ; that the God of Israel should fly into Egypt, 
Mat. ii. 14 ; that the God of strength should be weary ; that the judge 
of all flesh should be condemned ; that the God of life should be put 
to death, John xix. 41 ; that he that is one with his Father, should 
cry out of misery, ' my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass 
from me ! ' Mat. xxvi. 39 : that he that had the keys of hell and death, 
Kev. i. 18, should lie imprisoned in the sepulchre of another, having, 
in his lifetime, nowhere to lay his head ; nor after death, to lay his 
body, John xix. 41, 42; and all this for man, for fallen man, for 
miserable man, for worthless man, is beyond the thoughts of created 
natures. The sharp, the universal and continual sufferings of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, from the cradle to the cross, does above all other 
things speak out the transcendent love of Jesus Christ to poor sinners. 
That wrath, that great wrath, that fierce wrath, that pure wi-ath, that 
infinite wrath, that matchless wrath of an angry God, that was so 
terribly impressed upon the soul of Christ, quickly spent his natural 
strength, and turned his moisture into the drought of summer, Ps. 
xxxii. 4 ; and yet all this wrath he patiently underwent, that sinners 
might be saved, and that * he might bring many sons unto glory,' 
Heb. ii. 10. Oh wonder of love 1 Love is passive, it enables to suffer. 
The Curtii laid down their lives for the Komans, because they loved 
them ; so it was love that made our dear Lord Jesus lay down his 
life, to save us from hell and to bring us to heaven. As the pelican, 
out of her love to her young ones, when they are bitten with serpents, 
feeds them with her own blood to recover them again ; so when we 
were bitten by the old serpent, and our wound incurable, and we in 
danger of eternal death, then did our dear Lord Jesus, that he might 
recover us and heal us, feed us with his own blood. Gen. iii. 15 ; John 
vi. 53-56. Oh love unspeakable ! This made one cry out, ' Lord, thou 
hast loved me more than thyself ; for thou hast laid down thy life for 
me.' 1 It was only the golden link of love that fastened Christ to the 
cross, John x. 17, and that made him die freely for us, and that made 
him willing ' to be numbered among transgressors,' Isa. liii. 12, that 
we might be numbered among [the] ' general assembly and church of 
the firstborn, which are written in heaven,' Heb. xii. 23. If Jona- 
than's love to David was wonderful, 2 Sam. i. 26, how wonderful must 
the love of Christ be to us, which led him by the hand to make him- 

^ Dilexisti me Domine magis quhm teipsum. — Bernard. 



OF THE GREAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 203 

self an offering for us, Heb. x. 10, whicli Jonathan never did for 
David : for though Jonathan loved David's life and safety well, yet he 
loved his own better ; for when his father cast a javelin at him to 
smite him, he flies for it, and would not abide his father's fury, being 
very willing to sleep in a whole skin, notwithstanding his wonderful 
love to David, 1 Sam. xx. 33-35; making good the philosopher's 
notion, that man is a life-lover. Christ's love is like his name, and 
that is Wonderful, Isa. ix. 6 ; yea, it is so wonderful, that it is supra 
omnem creaturam, ultra omnem mensuram, contra omnem naturam, 
above all creatures, beyond all measure, contrary to all nature. It is 
above all creatures, for it is above the angels, and therefore above all 
others. It is beyond all measure, for time did not begin it, and time 
shall never end it ; place doth not bound it, sin doth not exceed it, no 
estate, no age, no sex is denied it, tongues cannot express it, under- 
standings cannot conceive it : and it is contrary to all nature ; for what 
nature can love where it is hated ? what nature can forgive where it is 
provoked? what nature can offer reconcilement where it receiveth 
wrong ? what nature can heap up kindness upon contempt, favour 
upon ingratitude, mercy upon sin ? and yet Christ's love hath led him 
to all this ; so that well may we spend all our days in admiring and ador- 
ing of this wonderful love, and be always ravished with the thoughts 
of it. But, 

2. Secondly, Then look that ye love the Lord Jesus Christ with a 
superlative love, with an overtopping love. There are none have suf- 
fered so much for you as Christ ; there are none that can suffer so 
muck for you as Christ. The least measure of that wrath that Christ 
hath sustained for you, would have broke the hearts, necks, and backs 
of all created beings. my friends ! there is no love but a superla- 
tive love that is any ways suitable to the transcendent sufferings of 
dear Jesus. Oh, love him above your lusts, love him above your 
relations, love him above the world, love him above all your outward 
contentments and enjoyments ; yea, love him above your very lives ; 
for thus the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, saints, primitive Christians, 
and the martyrs of old, have loved our Lord Jesus Christ with an 
overtopping love: Eev. xii. 11, * They loved not their lives unto the 
death;' that is, they slighted, contemned, yea, despised their lives, 
exposing them to hazard and loss, out of love to the Lamb, ' who had 
washed them in his blood.' i I have read of one Kilian, a Dutch 
schoolmaster, who being asked whether he did not love his wife and 
children, answered. Were all the world a lump of gold, and in my 
hands to dispose of, I would leave it at my enemies' feet to live with 
them in a prison ; but my soul and my Saviour are dearer to me than 
all. If my father, saith Jerome, 2 should stand before me, and my 
mother hang upon, and my brethren should press about me, I would 
break through my brethren, throw down my father, and tread under- 
foot my mother, to cleave to Jesus Christ. Had I ten heads, said 
Henry Voes, they should all off for Christ. If every hair of my head, 
said John Ardley, martyr, were a man, they should all suffer for the 
faith of Christ. Let fire, racks, pulleys, said Ignatius, and all the 

1 Acts XX. 24, and xxi. 12, 13; 2 Cor. i, 8-10, iv. 11, and xi. 23 ; Heb. xi. 36-39. 
* Jerome ad Hcliodor, epist. 1. 



204 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

torments of hell come upon me, so I may win Christ. Love made 
Jerome to say, my Saviour, didst thou die for love of me ? — a love 
more dolorous than death ; but to me a death more lovely than love 
itself. I cannot live, love thee, and be longer from thee.i George 
Carpenter, being asked whether he did not love his wife and children, 
which stood weeping before him, answered, My wife and children ! — 
my wife and chUdren ! are dearer to me than all Bavaria ; yet, for 
the love of Christ, I know them not. That blessed virgin in Basil, 
being condemned for Christianity to the fire, and having her estate 
and life offered her if she would worship idols, cried out, ' Let money 
perish, and life vanish, Christ is better than all.' Sufferings for Christ 
are the saints' greatest glory ; they are those things wherein they have 
most gloried: Crudelitas vestra, gloria nostra, your cruelty is our 
glory, saith TertuUian. It is reported of Babylas, that when he was 
to die for Christ, he desired this favour, that his chains might be 
buried with him, as the ensigns of his honour. 2 Thus you see with 
what a superlative love, with what an overtopping love, former saints 
have loved our Lord Jesus ; and can you, Christians, who are cold 
and low in your love to Christ, read over these instances, and not 
blush ? Certainly the more Christ hath suffered for us, the more 
dear Christ should be unto us ; the more bitter his sufferings have 
been for us, the more sweet his love should be to us, and the more 
eminent should be our love to him. Oh, let a suffering Christ lie 
nearest your hearts ; let him be your manna, your tree of life, your 
morning star. It is better to part with all than with this pearl of 
price. Christ is that golden pipe through which the golden oil of 
salvation runs ; and oh. how should this inflame our love to Christ ! 
Oh that our hearts were more affected with the sufferings of Christ ! 
Who can tread upon these hot coals, and his heart not burn in love 
to Christ, and cry out with Ignatius, Christ my love is crucified? 
Cant. viii. 7, 8. If a friend should die for us, how would our hearts 
be affected Avith his kindness ! and shall the God of glory lay down 
his life for us, and shall we not be affected with his goodness ? John 
X. 17, 18. Shall Saul be affected with David's kindness in sparing 
his life, 1 Sam. xxiv. 16, and shall not we be affected with Christ's 
kindness, who, to save our life, lost his own ? Oh, the infinite love of 
Christ, that he should leave his Father's bosom, John i. 18, and come 
down from heaven, that he might carry you up to heaven, John xiv. 
1-4 ; that he that was a Son should take upon him the form of a 
servant, Phil. ii. 5-8 ; that you of slaves should be made sons, of 
enemies should be made friends, of heirs of wrath should be made 
heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ, Kom. viii. 17 ; that to save 
us from everlasting ruin, Christ should stick at nothing, but be will- 
ing to be made flesh, to lie in a manger, to be tempted, deserted, per- 
secuted, and to die upon a cross ! Oh what flames of love should 
these things kindle in all our hearts to Christ ! Love is compared to 

1 Certe non aviant illi Christum, qui allqidd plus quam Christum amant : They do 
not love Christ, who love anything more than Christ. — Augustine de Resurrect. — The 
more Christ hath suffered for us, the dearer Christ should be unto us ; the greater and 
the bitterer Christ's sufferings have been for us, the greater and the sweeter should our 
love be to him. 

' For all above names, sec Foxe and Clarke, as before.— G. 



OP THE GREAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 205 

fire ; in heaping love upon our enemy, we heap coals of fire upon his 
head, Kom. xii. 19, 20 ; Prov. xxvi. 21. Now the property of fire is to 
turn all it meets with into its own nature : fire maketh all things fire ; 
the coal maketh burning coals ; and is it not a wonder then that Christ, 
having heaped abundance of the fiery coals of his love upon our heads, 
we should yet be but key-cold in our love to him. Ah ! what sad 
metal are we made of, that Christ's fiery love cannot inflame om' love 
to Christ ! Moses wondered why the bush consumed not, when he 
sees it all on fire, Exod. iii. 3 ; but if you please but to look into your 
own hearts, you shall see a greater wonder ; for you shall see that, 
though you walk like those three children in the fiery furnace, Dan. 
iii., even in the midst of Christ's fiery love flaming round about you ; 
yet there is but little, very little, true smell of that sweet fire of love 
to be felt or found upon you or in you. Oh, when shall the sufferings 
of a dear and tender-hearted Saviour kindle such a flame of love in all 
our hearts, as shall still be a-breaking forth in our lips and lives, in 
oiu" words and ways, to the praise and glory of free grace ? Oh that 
the sufi'erings of a loving Jesus might at last make us all sick of love 1 
Cant. ii. v. Oh let him for ever lie betwixt our breasts, Cant. i. 13, 
who hath left his Father's bosom for a time, that he might be em- 
bosomed by us for ever. But, 

3. Thirdly, Then in the sufferings of Christ, as in a gospel-glass, 
you may see the odious nature of sin, and accordingly learn to hate it, 
arm against it, turn from it, and subdue it. Sin never appears so 
odious as when we behold it in the red glass of Christ's sufi'erings, Ps. 
cxix,, civ., cxiii., cxxviii., and Eom. vii, 15, and xii. 9. Can we look 
upon sin as the occasion of all Christ's sufferings, can we look upon 
sin as that which made Christ a curse, and that made him forsaken of 
his Father, and that made him live such a miserable life, and that 
brought him to die such a shameful, painful, and cruel death, and our 
hearts not rise against it ? Shall our sins be grievous unto Christ, 
and shall they not be odious unto us ? shall he die for our sins, and 
shall not we die to our sins ? did not he therefore suffer for sin, that 
we might cease from sin ? did not he ' bear our sins in his own body 
on the tree, that we being dead to sin, should live to righteousness ' ? 
1 Pet. iv. 1, and ii. 24. If one should kill our father, would we hug 
and embrace him as our father ? no, we would be revenged on him. 
Sin hath killed our Saviour, and shall we not be revenged on it. Can 
a man look upon that snake that hath stung his dearly-beloved spouse 
to death, and preserve it alive, warm it at the fire, and hug it in his 
bosom, and not rather stab it with a thousand wounds ? It is sin that 
hath stung our dear Jesus to death, that has crucified our Lord, 
clouded his glory, and shed his precious blood, and oh, how should 
this stir up our indignation against it. Ah, how can a Christian make 
much of those sins that killed his dearest Lord ! how can he cherish 
those sins that betrayed Christ, and apprehended Christ, and bound 
Christ, and condemned Christ, and scourged Christ, and that violently 
drew him to the cross, and there murdered him ! It was neither 
Judas, nor Pilate, nor the Jews, nor the soldiers that could have done 
our Lord Jesus the least hurt, had not our sins, like so many butchers 
and hangmen, come in to their assistance. After Julius Caesar was 



206 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

treacherously murdered in the senate-house, Antonius brought forth 
his coat, all bloody, cut and mangled, and laying it open to the view 
of the people, said, Look, here is your emperor's coat ; and as the 
bloody conspirators have dealt by it, so have they dealt with Caesar's 
body ; whereupon the people were all in an uproar, and nothing would 
satisfy them but the death of the murderers, and they ran to the 
houses of the conspirators and burnt them down to the ground. But 
what was Cassar's coat and Caesar's body to the body of our dear Lord 
Jesus, which was all bloody, rent, and torn for our sins ? Ah, how- 
should this provoke us to be revenged on our sins 1 how should we for 
ever loathe and abhor them 1 how should our fury be whetted against 
them ! how should we labour with all our might to be the death of 
those sins that have been the death of so great a Lord, and will, if not 
prevented, be the death of our souls to all eternity 1 To see God thrust 
the sword of his pure, infinite, and incensed wrath through the very 
heart of his dearest Son, notwithstanding all his supplications, prayers, 
tears, and strong cries, Heb. v. 7, is the highest discovery of the Lord's 
hatred and indignation of sin that ever was or will be. It is true God 
discovered his great hatred against sin by turning Adam out of para- 
dise, and by casting the angels down to hell, by dro^vning the old 
world, and by raining hell out of heaven upon Sodom and Gomorrah, 
and by the various and dreadful judgments that he has been a-pouring 
forth upon the world in all ages ; but all this hatred is but the picture 
of hatred, to that hatred which God manifested against sin in causing 
the whole curse to meet upon our crucified Lord, as all streams meet 
in the sea. It is true God discovers his hatred of sin by those endless, 
Baseless, and remediless torments that he inflicts upon devils and 
damned spirits ; but this is no hatred to that hatred against sin which 
God discovered when he opened all the floodgates of his envenomed 
wrath upon his Son, his own Son, his only Son, his Son that always 
pleased him, his Son that never offended him, Isa. liii. 5, 6, and Prov. 
viii. 30, 31, and Mat. iii. 17. Should you see a father that had but 
one son, and he such a son in whom he always delighted, and by whom 
he had never been provoked ; a son that always made it his business, 
his work, his heaven to promote the honour and glory of his father, 
John viii. 49, 50, and ix. 4 ; a son who was always most at ease when 
most engaged in his father's service ; a son who counted it his meat 
and drink to do his father's will, John iv. 34 : now should you see the 
father of such a son inflicting the most exquisite pains and punish- 
ments, tortures and torments, calamities and miseries upon this his 
dearest son, you would readily conclude that certainly the sins, the 
offences that have put the father upon exercising such amazing, such 
matchless severity, fury and cruelty upon his only son, are in^nitely 
hateful, odious, and abominable to him.i Now, if you please but to cast 
your eye upon the actings of God the Father towards Jesus Christ, 
you will find that he hath inflicted more torments and greater tor- 
ments upon the Son of his dearest love, than all mortals ever have or 
could iriflict upon their only sons : Isa. liii. 6, ' The Lord hath laid 

^ Jer. xliv. 4, and Zech. viii. 17. The Rabbins, to scare their scholars from sin, used 
to tell them that sin made God's head ache ; but I may say sin hath made Christ's head 
ache, and his heart ache too. 



OF THE GREAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 207 

upon him the iniquity of us all,' Heb., hath made the iniquities of us 
all to meet on him, or to light or fall on him rather. God made all 
the penalties and sufferings that were due to us to fall upon Jesus 
Christ, as a man is wont to fall with all his might, in a hostile manner, 
upon his enemy. God himself inflicted upon dear Jesus whatsoever 
was requisite to the satisfying of his justice, to the obtaining of pardon, 
and to the saving of all his elect : ver. 10, 'It pleased the Lord to 
bruise him, he hath put him to grief.' All the devils in hell, nor all 
the men upon earth, could never have bruised or put to grief our Lord 
Jesus. If it had not pleased the Lord to bruise him and put him to 
grief, he had never been bruised or put to grief. Oh, how should this 
work us to look upon sin with indignation ! 

Suppose a man should come to a table, and there should be a knife 
laid at his trencher, and it should be told him, This is the very knife 
that cut the throat of your child or father ; if this person should use 
this knife as any other knife, would not every one say. Surely this man 
had but very Httle love to his father or his child, who can use this 
bloody knife as any other knife. So when you meet with any tempta- 
tion to sin, oh, then say, This is the very knife that cut the throat of 
Jesus Christ, and pierced his sides, that was the cause of his sufferings, 
and that made Christ to be a curse ; and accordingly let your hearts 
rise against it. Ah, how well doth it become Christians to look upon 
sin as that accursed thing that made Christ a curse, and accordingly 
to abhor it ! Oh, with what detestation should a man fling away such 
a knife ! and with the like detestation should every Christian fling away 
.his sins, as Ephraim did his idols : ' Get you hence ; what have I any 
more to do with you ?' Hosea xiv. 8. Sin, thou hast slain my Lord ; 
thou hast been the only cause of the death of my Saviour, Isa, ii, 20, 
and XXX. 22. Let us say as David, ' Is not this the blood of the men 
that went in jeopardy of their lives ?' 2 Sam. xxiii. 17. So is not this 
the sin that poured out Christ's blood ? Oh, how should this enrage 
our hearts against sin, because it cost the Captain of our salvation, 
Heb. ii. 10, not the hazard, but the very loss of his life ! God shewed 
Moses a tree wherewith he might make the bitter waters sweet, Exod. 
XV. 25 ; but, lo ! here is a tree wherewith ye may make the sweet 
waters of sin to become bitter. Look upon the tree on which Christ 
was crucified, remember his cross, and the pains he suffered thereon, 
and the seeming sweetness that is in sin will quickly vanish. When 
you are solicited to sin, cast your eye upon Christ's cross, remember his 
astonishing sufferings for sin, and it will soon grow distasteful to your 
souls ; for how can that choose but be hateful to us, if we seriously con- 
sider how hurtful it was to Jesus Christ ? Who can look upon the cross 
of Christ and excuse his sin, as Adam did, saying, ' The woman which 
thou gavest me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat' ? Gen. iii, 12. 
Who can look upon the cross of Christ and colour his sin, as Judas 
did, saying, ' Hail, Master' ? Mat. xxvi. 49. Who can look upon the 
cross of Christ and deny his sin, as Gehazi did, saying, ' Thy servant 
went no whither' ? 2 Kings v. 25. Who can look upon the cross of 
Christ and defend his sin, as Jonah did, saying, * I do well to be 
angry' ? Jonah iv. 9. sirs ! where is that hatred of sin that used to 
be in the saints of old ? David could say, ' I hate vain thoughts and 



208 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

I hate every false way,' Ps. cxix, 104, 113, 128. And Paul could say, 
' What I hate that do I,' Rom. vii. 15. It is better, saith one, to be 
in hell with Christ, than to be in heaven with sin. Oh, how odious was 
sin in the saints' eye ! The primitive Ckristians chose rather to be 
cast to lions without than to be left to lusts within, so great was their 
hatred of sin.i ' I had rather,' saith Anselm, ' go to hell pure from 
sin, than to heaven polluted with that guilt.' ' I will rather,' saith 
another, ' leap into a bonfire, than wilfully to sin against God.' Under 
the law, if an ox gored a man that he died, the ox was to be killed, 
Exod. xxi. 28 ; sin hath gored and pierced our dear Lord Jesus, oh, 
let it die for it ! oh, avenge yourselves upon it, as Samson did avenge 
himself upon the Philistines for his two eyes ! Judg. xvi. 28. Plutarch 
reports of Marcus Cato, that he never declared his opinion in any 
matter in the senate, but he would close it with this passage, ' Methinks 
still Carthage should be destroyed ;' so a Christian should never cast 
bis eye upon the cross of Christ, the sufferings of Christ, nor upon his 
sins, but his heart should say, Methinks pride should be destroyed, and 
unbelief should be destroyed, and hypocrisy should be destroyed, and 
earthly-mindedness should be destroyed, and self-love should be de- 
stroyed, and vain-glory should be destroyed, &c. The Jews would not 
have the pieces of silver which Judas cast down in the temple put in 
the treasury, because they were the price of blood. Mat. xxvii. 5, 6. 
Oh, lodge not any one sin in the treasury of your hearts, for they are 
aU the price of blood. But, 

4. Fourthly, Let the sufferings of our Lord Jesus raise in all our 
hearts a high estimation of Christ. Oh, let us prize a suffering Christ 
above all our duties, and above all our graces, and above all our privi- 
leges, and above all our outward contentments, and above all our 
spiritual enjoyments ! Mat. x. 37 ; Luke xiv. 26. A suffering Christ 
is a commodity of greater value than all the riches of the Indies, 
yea, than all the wealth of the whole world. ' He is better than 
rubies,' saith Solomon, ' and all the things thou canst desire are not to 
be compared to him,' Prov. viii, 11. He is that pearl of price which 
the wise merchant purchased with all that ever he had. Mat xiii. 46 ; 
no man can buy such gold too dear. Joseph, — a type of the Lord 
Jesus, — then a precious jewel of the world, was far more precious, had 
the Ishmaelitish merchants known so much, than all the balms and 
myrrhs that they transported. Gen. xxvii. 37 ; and so is a suffering 
Christ, as all will grant that really know him, and that have experienced 
the sweet of union and communion with him. Christ went through 
heaven and hell, life and death, sorrow and suffering, misery and 
cruelty, and all to bring us to glory, and shall we not prize him? 
When in a storm the nobles of Xerxes were to lighten the ship to pre- 
serve their king's life, they did their obeisance, and leaped into the sea ; 
but our Lord Jesus Christ, to preserve our lives, our souls, he leaps 
into a sea of wrath. Col, i. 18. Oh, how should this work us to set up 
Christ above all ! What a deal ado has there been in the world about 
Alexander the Great, and Constantino the Great, and Pompey the 
Great, because of their civil power and authority ; but what was all 
their greatness and grandeur to that greatness and grandeur that God 
* Ad leonem magis qudm lenonem, saith TertuUian. 



II 



I 



OF THE GREAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 209 

the Father put upon our Lord Jesus Christ when he gave all power in 
heaven and in earth unto him, and set him down at his own right 
hand? Mat. xxviii. 13; Heb. i. 13; Eph. i. 20. sirs! will you 
value men according to their titles, and will you not highly value our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who has the most magnificent titles given him ? 
He is called King of kings and Lord of lords, Rev. xvii. 14, and xix. 
16. It is observed by learned Drusius, that those titles were usually 
given to the great kings of Persia, than which there was none assumed 
more to themselves than they did ; yet the Holy Ghost attributes these 
great titles to Christ, to let us know that, as Grod hath exalted Christ 
above all earthly powers, so we should magnify and exalt him accord- 
ingly. Paul, casting his eye upon a suffering Christ, tells us that he 
esteems of ra iravra^ ' all things/ Phil. iii. 8, as nothing in comparison 
of Christ. ' All things ' is the greatest account that can be cast up, 
for it includeth all prizes, all sums ; it taketh in heaven^ it taketh in 
the vast and huge globe and circle of the capacious world,, and aU ex- 
cellencies, within its bosom, 'All things' includes all nations, all 
angels, all gold, all jewels, all honours, all delights, and ever3rthing 
else besides ; and yet the apostle looks upon all these things but as 
a-Kv/3aXa, ' dung,' dogs' dung, as some interpret the word, or dogs' 
meat, coarse and contemptible, in comparison of dear Jesus, i Gale- 
acius, [Carraciolus.] that noble Italian marquis, was of the same mind 
and metal with Paul, for when he was strongly tempted, and solicited 
with great sums of money and preferments, to return to the Eomish 
church, he gave this heroic answer, Cursed be he that prefers all the 
wealth of the world to one day's communion with Christ. What if a 
man had large domains, stately buildings, and ten thousand rivers of 
oil ! What if all the mountains of the world were pearl, the mighty 
rocks rubies, and the whole globe a shining chrysolite ! yet all this 
were not to be named in the same day wherein there is mention made 
of a suffering Christ. Look, as one ocean hath more waters than all 
the rivers in the world, and as one sun hath more light than all the 
luminaries in heaven, so one suffering Christ is more 'all' to a poor 
soul than if it had the all of the whole world a thousand times over 
and over. sirs ! if you cast but your eye upon a suffering Christ, a 
crucified Jesus,, there you shall find righteousness in him to cover all 
your sins, and plenty enough in liim to supply all your wants, and 
grace enough in him to subdue all your lusts, and wisdom enough in 
him to resolve all your doubts, and power enough in him to vanquish, 
all your enemies, and virtue enough in him to heal all your diseases, 
and fulness enough in him both to satisfy you and save you, and that 
to the utmost,'-^ Heb. vii. 25. All the good things that can be reckoned 
up here below have only a finite and limited benignity. Some can 
clothe but cannot feed, others can nourish but they cannot heal, others 

^ ffKi^aXa, quasi KVffL^aXa, micai quce canibus. — Vide a-Lapide : vide Bezam. The 
original word notes the filth that comes out of the entrails of beasts, or oiFal cast to dogs. 

* I have read of a Roman servant, who knowing his master was sought for by officers 
to be put to death, he put himself into his master's clothes, that he might be taken for 
him ; and so he was, and was put to death for him ; whereupon his master, in memory 
of his thankfulness to him and honour of him, erected a brazen statue ; but what a 
statue of gold should we set up in our hearts to the eternal honour and exaltation of 
that Jesus, who not in our clothes but in our very nature, hath laid down his life for us i 

VOL. v. O 



210 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

can enrich but they cannot secure, others can adorn but cannot ad- 
vance, all do serve but none do satisfy. They are like a beggar's coat, 
made up of many pieces, not all enough either to beautify, defend, or 
satisfy ; but there is enough in a suffering Christ to fill us and satisfy 
us to the full. Christ has the greatest worth and wealth in him. 
Look, as the worth and value of many pieces of silver is to be found in 
one piece of gold, so all the petty excellencies that are scattered abroad 
in the creatures are to be found in a bleeding, dying Christ ; yea, all 
the whole volume of perfections which is spread through heaven and 
earth is epitomised in him that suffered on the cross — Nee Christus, 
nee ecelum patiiur hyperholen, A man cannot hyperbolise in speaking 
of Christ and heaven, but must entreat his hearers, as Tully doth his 
readers concerning the worth of L. Crassus — Ut majus quiddam de Us 
quam quce, scripta sunt smpiearentur, That they woiild conceive much 
more than he was able to express.1 Certainly it is as easy to compass 
the heavens with a span, and contain the sea in a nut-shell, as to re- 
late fully a suffering Christ's excellencies, or heaven s happiness. 
sirs ! there is in a crucified Jesus something proportionable to all the 
straits, wants, riecessities, and desires of his poor people. 2 He is bread 
to nourish them, and a garment to cover and adorn them, a physician 
to heal them, a counseller to advise them, a captain to defend them, a 
prince to rule, a prophet to teach, and a priest to make atonement for 
them ; a husband to protect, a father to provide, a brother to relieve, 
a foundation to support, a root to quicken, a head to guide, a treasure 
to enrich, a sun to enlighten, and a fountain to cleanse. Now what 
can any Christian desire more to satisfy him and save him, to make 
him holy and happy in both worlds ? Shall the Komans and other 
nations highly value those that have but ventured to lay down their 
lives for their country, and shall not we highly value the Lord Jesus 
Christ, who hath actually laid down his life for his sheep ? John x. 11, 
15, 17. I have read of one who, walking in the fields by himself, of a 
sudden fell into loud cries and weeping, and being asked by one that 
passed by and overheard him the cause of his lamentation, — I weep, 
saith he, to think that the Lord Jesus Christ should do so much for 
us men, and yet not one man of a thousand so much as mind him or 
think of him. Oh what a bitter lamentation have we cause to take 
up, that the Lord Jesus Christ has suffered so many great and grievous 
things for poor sinners, and that there are so few that sincerely love 
him, or that highly value him ; most men preferring their lusts, or else 
the toys and trifles of this world, above him. But, 

5. Fifthly, Let the sufferings of our Lord Jesus Christ wo7'k us all into 
a gracious luillingness to embrace sufferings for his sake, and clieer- 
fully and resolutely to take up his cross and follow him, Mat. xvi. 24. 
Did Christ suffer, who knew no sin ; and shall wq think it strange to 
suffer, who know nothing but sin ? Shall he lie sweltering under his 
Father's wrath, and shall we cry out of men s anger ? Was he crowned 
with thorns, and must we be crowned with rose-buds ? ^ Was his whole 

^ De Oratore, 3. 

5 John vi. 5, 6, 37; Rev. xiii. 14; Mat. ix. 12; Isa. ix. 6; Heb. ii. 10; Acts v. 31, 
and vii. 37, 38; Heb. ii. 17, 18, and iv. 15, 16 ; 2 Cor. xi. 2; Isa- ix. 6, 7; John xx. 17 ; 
Isa. xxviii. 16; Rev. xxii. 16; Eph. i. 22, 2-3. 

^ Godfrey of Bouillon, first king of Jerusalem, refused to be cro^vned with a crown of 



OF THE GKEAT SUFFERINGS OF CHEIST. 211 

life, from the cradle to the cross, made up of nothing but sorrows and 
sufferings ; and must our lives, from the cradle to the grave, be filled 
up with nothing but pleasures and delights ? Was he despised, and 
must we be admired ? Was he debased, and must we be exalted ? Was 
he poor, and must we be rich ? Was he low, and must we be high ? Did 
he drink of a bitter cup, a bloody cup ; and will no cups serve our turns 
but cups of consolation ? Let us not think anything too much to do 
for Christ, nor anything too great to suffer for Christ, nor anything 
too dear to part with for such a Christ, such a Saviour, that thought 
nothing too much to do, or too grievous to suffer, that so he might 
accomplish the work of our redemption. He left heaven for us ; and 
shall not we let go this world for him ? He left his Father's bosom for 
us, John i. 18 ; and shall not we leave the bosoms of our dearest rela- 
tions for him? Ps. xlv. 10, 11 ; Mat. x. 37. He underwent all sorts 
of sufferings for us, let us as readily encounter with all sorts of suffer- 
ings for him. Paul was so inured to sufferings for Christ, that he 
could rejoice in his sufferings, he gloried most in his chains, and he 
looked upon his scars, buffetings, scourgings, stonings for Christ, as 
his greatest triumphs, 2 Cor. xii. 10, and xi. 23-28. And how ambi- 
tious were the primitive Christians of martyrdom in the cause of Christ : 
and of late, in the times of the Marian persecution, how many hundreds 
cheerfully and willingly laid down their lives — mounting Elijah-like to 
heaven in fiery chariots ! And oh, how will Christ own and honour 
such Christians at last, as have not set on others, but exposed them- 
selves to hazards, losses, and sufferings for his sake ! Eev. iii. 21, as 
those brave souls, who loved not their lives unto the death, Eev. xii. 
11 ; that is, they despised their lives in comparison of Christ ; they 
exposed their bodies to horrible and painful deaths, their temporal 
estates to the spoil, and their persons to all manner of shame and con- 
tempt, for the cause of Christ, Heb. xi. 33-39, and x. 34. In the 
days of that bloody persecutor Dioclesian, the Christians shewed as 
glorious power in the faith of martyrdom as in the faith of miracles, 
the valour of the patients, and the savageness of the persecutors, striv- 
ing together ; till both, exceeding nature and belief, bred wonder and 
astonishment in beholders and readers,! In all ages and generations, 
they that have been born after the flesh have persecuted them that 
have been born after the Spirit, Gal. iv. 29 ; and the seed of the ser- 
pent have been still a-multiplying of troubles upon the seed of the 
woman. Would any man take the church's picture, saith Luther, 
then let him paint a poor silly maid, sitting in a wilderness, compassed 
about with hungry lions, Avolves, boars, and bears, and with all man- 
ner of other cruel hurtful beasts ; and in the midst of a great many 
furious men, assaulting her every moment and minute. And why 
should we wonder at this, when we consider that the whole life of 
Christ was filled up with all sorts and kinds of sufferings ? Oh, where 
is that brave spirit that has been upon the saints of old ? Blessed 
Bradford looked upon his sufferings for Christ as an evidence to him 
that he was in the right way. ' It is better for me to be a martyr 

gold, saying that it became not a Christian to wear a crown of gold, where Christ, for 
our salvation, had worn a crown of thorns. 
^ Certatim gloriosa in certamina rucbatur, &c. — Sidpicius. 



212 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

than a monarch; said Ignatius when he was to suffer, i Happy is 
that soul and to be equalled with angels, who is willing to suffer if t 
were possible, as great things for Christ, as Christ hathmffered for it 
saith Jerome ^Suffermgs are the ensigns of heavenly nobility saith 
Calvin Modestus, lieutenant to Julian the emperor, said to Julkn 
While they suffer they deride us, saith he, and the to;meiits are more 
fearful to them that stand by than to the tormented. Lu her rerrts 
of Vmcentms that he laughed at those that slew him, say ng thaUo 
Christians tor ures and death were but sports, and he gloried when he 
went upon hot burning coals, as if he trod upon roses.^ It was a not! 
able saying of a French martyr, when the rope was about his fellow 
£nl Snlf /'^1f " '^T' ^l^ ?^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ «f that noble o deT.' 
TfT/ri t ' fu' ""^''^^^ ^"'" ^^^ '^' g^^Pel' a^d was as proud 
of it as a woman of her ornaments, saith Chrysostoi: Do your worst 
do your worst, said Justin Martyr to his perLutors ; but th s Tw U 
teU you, that you may put all that you are like to gain by the barl n 
into your eye and weep it out again! Basil will tell you that tSost 
cruel martyrdom is but a trick to escape death, to paSom lif e toT^^^ 

Z^^Ti^rt''"" '':,.'':'' ' day's^-ourneybeLeen tlcro^sa^d 
paradise. Their names that are written in red letters of blood in the 
churchs calendar, are written in golden letters in Christ's raster in 

s but'shor '^'ATJi^ ^r'^"'^"^- ^""'^^^ *^^ ^-« beVtter '^et ft 

an eterna^^^^^^ f^ ' '^'"^^/^V^T '^^^ "^ ^^^^^^'^ persecution! and 
an eternal calm follows. Methmks, said one, I tread upon pearls 

Itv inVd ofT ^'' ^T'^^^'f'' ^^^ I ''^' - -°- P-' than if 

an 'rV^saiKtW °' ^"^f/f ^' It^ ^^ ^^°^^« ^^ ^''- ' ^^^ heartily 
angry, saith Luther, with those that speak of my sufferin-s which 
If compared to that which Christ suffered for me are not once to be 

fTcS ZTIC2 '% .^^^ ^'^''y rejoiceri' hisTffeling: 
lor ^.nrist , and therefore oftentimea sings it out : 'I Paul a nriwnpr ' 
as you may me by the scriptures in the margin 2 not ' I Pauf ai 

ove to Christ in S'ff?-™, "Pk!" ^^'^^^-^ '^^'^™° ; ""d ^^ ^hews his 
love to Mirist m suffermg for him. During the cruel nersecutions nf 

riacil'o r "^^""l' *•"= ^^^^^^ &ith°was spreaTtWugh aU 

fculltn ^hTP"'' ^''"'" *" °ft«°^' ^-^y ^^^"^ ^"'^ed down^saith 
lertuUian the more they grew. • I am in prison tiU I am in prison" 
smd one of the martyrs. ■ I am the mimeetest man Z thfs S 
office of suffering for Christ that ever was appointed t^it ' lid ble Id 
ChrSnsnuttod:»rh'7''' "^f *«»?.•; '"L we,, miny thouini 
fewer fo bdnt Itf V'''" •P"''''*'^^"?? C">rist, yet they were never the 
thL time 3 Z;y .^yP"^°./P<^kn?g of the Christians and martyrs 
t"em Cth^l^f-^^'""'' f'^''™'''«°»y<''«'-«»<. They may kill 

by Se swo&T°' °T'""^t ^^'"°' ' "^^^ """^ «"= ^r-' out down 
By the sword of persecution, the more we increase,' saith Terhillian. 

no^^JT: Con;.\V. K i '■ '" "■''" '"'"'■ '• ' ■■ f'"- I. » ^ 2 Cor. ,,, 23; 



OF THE GREAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 213 

Eusebius tells us of one that writ to his friend from a stinking dun- 
geon, and dates his letter from ' My delicate orchard/ ' Burn my 
foot if you will/ said that noble martyr in Basil, * that it may dance 
everlastingly with the blessed angels in heaven/ The young child in 
Josephus, who, when his flesh was pulled in pieces with pincers, by 
the command of Antiochus, said with a smiling countenance, ' Tyrant, 
thou losest time ; where are those smarting pains with which thou 
threatenest me ? Make me to shrink and cry out if thou canst : ' and 
Bainam, an English martyr, when the fire was flaming about him, 
said. You Papists talk of miracles, behold here a miracle, I feel no more 
pain than if I were in a bed of down ; it is as sweet to me as a bed of 
roses. Lawrence, when his body was roasted upon a burning gridiron, 
cried out, ' This side is roasted enough, turn the other side.' Marcus 
of Arethusa, when his body was cut and mangled, and anointed with 
honey, and hung up aloft in a basket, to be stung to death by wasps 
and bees, looked down, saying, ' I am advanced, despising you that 
are below.' Henry Voes kissed the stake. Hawks clapped his hands 
in the flames when they were half consumed, John Noys blessed God 
that ever he was born to see that day ; and Bishop Ridley called his 
execution day his wedding day. Thus you see a ' cloud of witnesses' 
to raise and inflame your hearts into a free, ready, willing, cheerful, 
and resolute sufi'ering for that Jesus who has suffered so much for 
you. sirs, when we see all sorts and sexes of Christians, divinely 
to defy and scorn their torments and tormentors, when we see them 
conquering in the midst of hideous sufferings, when we hear them 
expressing their greatest joy in the midst of their greatest sufferings, 
we cannot but conclude that there was something more than ordinary 
that did thus raise, cheer, and encourage their spirits in their suffer- 
ings ; and doubtless this was it, ' the recompense of reward ' on the 
one hand, and the matchless sufferings of Jesus Christ for them on the 
other hand, Heb. xi. 24-26, and xii, 2. The cordial wherewith Peter 
is said, by Clemens, to comfort his wife when he saw her led to martyr- 
dom, was this, * Remember the Lord, whose disciples if we be, we 
must not think to speed better than our master.' 

It is said of Antiochus that, being to flght with Judas, captain 
of the host of the Jews, he showed unto his elephants the blood 
of the grapes and mulberries, to provoke them the better to fight, 
1 Mac. vi. 3, 4 : so the Holy Ghost hath set before us the wounds, 
the blood, the sufferings, the dying of our dear Lord Jesus, to encour- 
age us to suffer, with all readiness and resoluteness, whatsoever cala- 
mities or miseries may attend us for Christ's sake, or the gospel's 
sake. Ah, what a shame would it be if we should not be always 
ready to suffer anything for his sake, who hath suffered so much for 
our sins as is beyond all conception, all expression ! Never was Jacob 
more gracious and acceptable to his father Isaac, than when he stood 
before him clothed in the garments of his rough brother Esau. Then 
the father, smelling the savour of the elder brother's garments, said, 
' Behold, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord 
hath blessed,' Gen. xxvii. 27. And never are we more gracious and 
acceptable to our heavenly Father, than when we stand before him 



214 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

clothed in the rough garments of Christ's afflictions and sufferings. 
O Christians, all your sufferings for Christ, they are hut inlets to your 
glorious reigning with Christ. Justin Martyr saith that when the 
Komans did immortalise their emperors, as they called it, they brought 
one to swear that he saw him go to heaven out of the fire ; but we 
may see, by an eye of faith, the blessed souls of martyrs fly to heaven, 
like Elias in his fiery chariot, or like the angel that appeared to Ma- 
noah, in the flames. By the consent of the schoolmen, all martyrs 
shall appear in the church triumphant, bearing the signs of their 
Christian wounds about them, as so many speaking testimonies of 
their holy courage, that what here they endured in the behalf of their 
Saviour may be there an addition to their glory. But, 

6. Sixthly, Hath Jesus Christ suflfered such great and grievous 
things for you? Oh then, m all your fears, doubts, and conflicts 
with enemies, within or without, Jiy to the sufferings of Christ as 
your city of refuge. Did Christ endure a most ignominious death for 
thee ? Did he take on him thy sinful person, and bear thy sin and 
death and cross, and was made a sacrifice and curse for thee ? Oh 
then, in all thy inward and outward distresses, shelter thyself under 
the wings of a suffering Christ, Ps. xc. 1, and xci. 1, 4, 9. I have 
read of Nero, that he had a shirt made of a salamander s skin, so that 
if he went through the fire in it, it would keep him from burning. 
sirs, a suffering Christ is this salamander's skin, that will keep the 
saints from burning in the midst of burning, from suffering in the 
midst of sufferings, from drowning in the midst of drowning, Dan. iii. 
24, 29, and Isa. xliii. 2. In all the storms that beat upon your in- 
ward or your outward man, eye the sufferings of Christ, lean upon the 
sufferings of Christ, plead the sufferings of Christ, and triumph in the 
sufferings of Clirist, Zech. xii. 10 ; Cant. viii. 5 ; 2 Cor. ii. 14 ; Eph. 
vi. 14. It is storied of a martyr,i that, writing to his wife, where 
she might find him when he was fled from home, * Oh, my dear,' said 
he, ' if thou desirest to see me, seek me in the side of Christ, in the 
cleft of the rock, in the hollow of his wounds ; for there I have made 
my nest, there will I dwell, there shalt thou find me, and nowhere 
else but there.' In every temptation let us look up to a crucified 
Christ, who is fitted and qualified to succour tempted souls, Heb. ii. 
17, 18, and iv. 15, 16. Oh my soul, whenever thou art assaulted, 
let the wounds of Christ be thy city of refuge whither thou mayest fly 
and live ! Let us learn in every tentation which presseth us, whether 
it be sin, or death, or curse, or any other evil, to translate it from our- 
selves to Christ ; and all the good in Christ, let us learn to translate 
it from Christ to ourselves. Look, as the burgess of a town or corpo- 
ration, sitting in the Parliament-house, beareth the persons of that 
whole town or place, and what he saith the whole town saith, and 
what is done to him is done to the whole town ; even so Christ upon 
the cross stood in our place, and bare our sins, Isa. liii. 4-6 ; and 
whatsoever he suffered we suffered ; and when he died all the faithful 
died with him and in him. I have read of a gracious woman who, 
being by Satan strongly tempted, replied, Satan, if thou hast anything 
to say to me, say it to my Christ, say it to my surety, who has under- 
^ Suriup, in vita sancti Elzearii. 



OF THE GKEAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 215 

taken all for me, who hatli paid all my debts, and satisfied divine 
justice, and set all reckonings even between God and my soul.i Do 
your sins terrify you ? Oh then, look up to a crucified Saviour, who 
bare your sins in his own body on the tree, 1 Pet. ii. 24. When sin 
stares you in the face, oh then turn your face to a dying Jesus, and 
behold him with a spear in his side, with thorns in his head, with 
nails in his feet, and a pardon in his hands.^ Hast thou wounded thy 
conscience by any great fall or falls ? Oh then, remember that there 
is nothing in heaven or earth more efficacious to cure the wounds of 
conscience than a frequent and serious meditation on the wounds of 
Christ.3 Doth death, that rides upon the pale horse, Eev. vi. 8, look 
gashly^ and deadly upon thee ? Oh then, remember that Christ died 
for you, Kom. v. 6, 8, and that by his death he hath swallowed up 
death in victory, 1 Cor. xv. 55-57. Oh, remember that a crucified 
Christ hath stripped death of his sting, and disarmed it of all its 
destroying power. Death may buzz about our ears, but it can never 
sting our souls. Look, as a crucified Christ hath taken away the guilt 
of sin, though he hath not taken away sin itself, so he hath taken 
away the sting of death, though he hath not taken away death itself. 
He spake excellently that said, ' That is not death, but life, which 
joins the dying man to Christ ; and that is not life, but death, which 
separates the living man from Christ,' ^ Austin longed to die, that he 
might see that head that was crowned with thorns. ' Did Christ die 
for me,' saith one, ' that I might live with him ? I will not, therefore, 
desire to live long from him.' All men go willingly to see him whom 
they love, and shall I be unwilling to die that I may see him whom 
my soul loves ? Bernard would have us never to let go out of our 
minds the thoughts of a crucified Christ. Let these, says he, be meat 
and drink unto you, let them be your sweetness and consolation, your 
honey and your desire, your reading and your meditation, your con- 
templation, your life, death, and resurrection. Certainly he that shall 
live up to this counsel wUl look upon the king of terrors as the king of 
desires. Are you apt to tremble when you eye the curse threatened in 
the law ? Oh then, look up to a crucified Christ, and remember that 
' he hath redeemed you from the curse of the law, being made a curse 
for you,' Gal. iii. 1 3. Doth the wrath of God amaze you ? Oh then, look 
up to a crucified Christ, and remember that Christ hath trod the 
winepress of his Father's wrath alone, Isa. Ixiii. 3, that he might 
deliver you from wrath to come, 1 Thes. i. 10. Is the face of God 
clouded ? — doth he that should comfort you stand afar off" ? oh then, 
look up to a crucified Christ, and remember that he was forsaken for a 
time, that you might not be forsaken for ever. Are you sometimes 
afraid of condemnation ? Oh then, look upon a crucified Christ, who 
was condemned that you might be justified. Lam. i. 16. ' Who shall 
lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? It is God that justifieth. 
Who is he that condemneth ? It is Christ that died. ' Kom. viii. 33, 34. 
Ah, Christians, that you would at last, under all your temptations, 

^ As before.— G. 

' The strongest antidote against sin is to look upon sin in the red glass of Christ's 

blood. — Amtin. * Bern. Ser. 61, in Cant. * 'Ghastly.' — G. 

* Ambrose, in 1 Tim. v. 6. Death will blow the bud of grace into the flower of glory. 



216 SEVEN INFERENCES FROM THE CONSIDERATION 

afflictions, fears, doubts, conflicts, and disputes, be persuaded to keep a 
fixed eye upon crucified Jesus ; and remember that all he did he did 
for you, and that all he sufifered he suffered for you ; and this will be 
a strong cordial to keep you from fainting under all your inward 
and outward distresses, according to that saying of one of the ancients, 
Turbabor, sed non perturbabor, quia vulnerum Christi recordabor, I 
may be troubled, but I shall not be overwhelmed, because I remember 
the print of the nails and of the spear in the hands and side of Jesus 
Christ, [Augustine.] Oh that Christians would labour, under all their 
soul-troubles, to keep a fixed eye upon a bleeding Christ ; for there 
is nothing that will ease them, quiet them, settle them, and satisfy 
them like this. Many, may I not say most, Christians are more apt 
to eye their sins, their sorrows, their prayers, their tears, their resolves, 
their complaints, than they are to eye a suffering Christ ; and from 
hence springs their greatest woes, wounds, miseries, and dejection 
of spirit. Oh that a crucified Christ might be for ever in your eye, 
and always upon your hearts I But, 

7. Seventhly and lastly. Hath Jesus Christ suffered such great and 
grievous things ? Then this truth holes sadly and sourly upon the 
papists. In this red glass of Christ's blood, you may see how vain 
and wicked, how ridiculous and superstitious the devices of the papists 
are, who for pacifying of God's wrath, and for the allaying of his 
anger, and for satisfying his justice, and for the obtaining of pardon, 
&c., have appointed penances and pilgrimages, and self-scourgings and 
soul-masses, and purgatory, and several other suchlike abominations, 
which the Scripture nowhere commands, but everywhere forbids ; 
which inventions and abominations of theirs tend only to derogate 
from the dignity and sufficiency of Christ's sufferings, and to reflect 
dishonour and disgrace upon that full and perfect price that Christ 
hath paid for our ransom, and to set up other saviours in the room of 
our blessed Redeemer.! Certainly all Popish pardons, penances, 
pilgrimages, masses, whippings, scourgings, &c., they unavoidably fall 
before the sufierings of our Lord Jesus Christ, as Dagon fell before the 
ark, Goliath before David, Haman before Mordecai, and as the darkness 
falls before the morning light ; and as for their purgatory, they do not 
know certainly where it is, nor how long it will last, nor what sort 
of fire is there ; neither can they shew us how corporeal fire should 
work upon the souls in purgatory, they being spiritual and incorporeal ; 
they cannot tell us whether the pains of purgatory be at all times 
alike, neither can they tell us whether the good or evil angels are the 
tormentors of the souls in purgatory ; and as for the whipping, scald- 
ing, freezing of souls in purgatory, they are but * old wives' fables,' and 
the brain-sick fancies of some deceitful persons, to cheat poor ignorant 
people of their money, under a blind pretence of praying their souls 
out of purgatory. Christ off'ered himself * once for all,' Heb. x. 10, 
but the Eomish priests offer him up daily in the mass, an unbloody 
sacrifice ; and so they do what lies in them to ' tread under foot the 

* Surely that religion that loves to lap blood, and that ia propagated and maintained by 
blood, and that prefers their own inventions and abominations before the blood and 
Bufferings of Christ, that religion ia not of God but such is the Komish religion — o-go 
their reUgion ia not of God. 



OF THE GREAT SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. 217 

blood of God, the blood of the covenant,' Acts xx. 28 ; Heb. x. 29. To 
be short, Popery in eftect is nothing else but an underhand, close 
witness-bearing against Christ in all his offices, and against all that 
he hath done and suffered for the redemption and salvation of sinners, 
as might be made abundantly evident, but that I may not now launch 
out into that ocean. I only give this brief touch by the way, that 
I might raise up in all your hearts a greater detestation of Popery, in 
this day wherein many are so warm for it, as if it were their only 
Diana. And let thus much suffice concerning the sufferings of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and' the improvement that we should make of 
them. 

Thus you may clearly see, by what I have said concerning the active 
and passive obedience of our Lord Jesus Christ, that whatsoever we are 
bound to do or suffer by the law of God, all that did Christ do and suffer 
for us, as being our surety and mediator, ^ Now the law of God hath a 
double challenge or demand upon us ; one is of active obedience, in ful- 
filling what it requires ; the other is of passive obedience, in suffering 
that punishment which is due to us for the transgression of it, in doing 
what it forbids : for as we were created by God, we did owe unto him 
all obedience which he required ; and as we sinned against God, we 
did owe unto him a suffering of all that punishment which he 
threatened ; and we being fallen by transgression, can neither pay the 
one debt, nor yet the other. Of ourselves we can do nothing that the 
law requires; neither can we so suffer as to satisfy God in his justice 
wronged by us, or to recover ourselves into life and favour again. 
And therefore Jesus Christ, who was God-man, did become our surety, 
and stood in our stead or room, and he did perform what we should 
but could not perform, and he did bear our sins and our sorrows, he 
did suffer and bear for us what we ourselves should have borne and 
suffered, whereby he did fully satisfy the justice of God, and made our 
peace, and purchased pardon and life for us. Christ did fully answer 
to all the demands of the law, he did come up to perfect and universal 
conformity to it. He did whatever the law enjoins, and he suffered 
whatever the law threatens. Christ, by his active and passive obedi- 
ence, hath fulfilled the law most exactly and completely. Gal. iii. 13. 
As he was perfectly holy, he did what the law commanded, and as he 
was made a curse, he underwent what the law threatened ; and all this 
he did and suffered in our steads and as our surety. Whatever Christ 
did as our surety, he made it good to the full ; so that neither the 
righteous God, nor yet the righteous law, could ever tax him with the 
least defect. And this must be our great plea, our choice, our sweet, 
our safe, our comfortable, our acceptable plea, both in the day of our 
particular accounts when we die, and in the great day of our account, 
when a crucified Saviour shall judge the world. Although sin, as an 
act, be transient, yet in the guilt of it, it lies in the Lord's high court 
of justice, filed upon record against the sinner, and calling aloud for 
deserved punishment, saying, Man hath sinned, and man must suffer 
for sin ! But now Christ has suffered, that plea is taken off. Lo 
here, saith the Lord, the same nature that sinned, suffereth ; mine own 

^ A Christian's plea from the passive obedience of Christ. God did insist on it, that 
our surety should pay down the whole debt at once, and accordingly he did, Heb. x. 10, 12. 



218 OF THE IMPUTED EIGHTEOfSSESS OF CHRIST. 

Son, being made flesh, hath suffered death for sin in the flesh • th^ 

aSout'of ff' ^'^ '' '""^'^^'•' ""•* ^ nonsuits toeaotn' and 
Tmnp^ /<^^\Tll "' ""J"'**- Thus Whereas sin would have con- 
fix? /f',^''"'* ^^^^ •condemned sin ; he liath weakened yi nuS 
fied and taken away sin, in the guilt and condemning power rf ?t W 

Wsao^;t >'*'"■"'"??•'"' ^' ^^'^ S'™" t° the/us"^ cTof God ll 

ttehaTateTcLtlS^^^^^ 

mediator outeries the clamour of sin and this must be « Oh • r *" 

joy and triumph and plea in the greatday of Z Lo d J^sus T 

Christ was ' made sin for us,' 2 Co? v 21 so thp T orri ^i^ft • . 

the sufferings of Christ to ns^that is, he ac^ts of them'on o„r Zat 

S: t iT- bS nra s^frth^^s ^rt £? 
?{Srbi:ofL-h:sfri-^^^^^ 

m<.e^to say to you but this. ■ EntL into th^jo; oTyouTiord/MaT 
. y The fiftli plea that you are to make in order to the ten scririfnrpc 

rigihteous person, and receiving him into iavouTao-ZT^lflT^ 
..ver offended. This is most^clear and evidrt^nTh^'l^sfedlcrf^ 

\[1.] First TJiere is an act of absolution and acquittal from the auilf 
ofs^.n^ andSreedomfrom the condemnation deserved hy sin^t^^Z^ 
of siii IS an mseparabe accident or concomitant of it that can never 
be removed. It may be truly said of the sins of a justified person that 
they deserve everlasting destruction; but justification is thffSn^^^^^ 
a sinner from the guilt of his iniquity, whereby he was actua % Snd 
over to condemnation.2 As soon as any man doth sin, there is a S 

^ Eccles. xi. 9\andxii. 14; Mat xii 14 nnrl yv,-;; oq t i • ,, ^ 

2 Cor. y.lO; Hdb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17 • I'pet iy 5 ^^ ' ^"^' ^"^•^' Rom.xiv.lO; 

m:nt"i.dr'court^UTiSu;e I LnSt Ttl' [,t*^"f '' ^^^* ^« '^ "^ --^«* 
mulct or penalty to te inflicted upon ?he gdUy person ^^^^^ '^'"''^"^ * 



OF THE IMPUTED KIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHKIST. 219 

upon him, by which he is bound over to the wrath and curse of God ; 
and this guilt or obligation is inseparable from sin; the sin doth deserve 
no less than everlasting damnation. Now, forgiveness of sin hath a 
peculiar respect to the guilt of sin, and removal of that. When the Lord 
forgives a man, he doth discharge him of that obligation by which he was 
bound over to wrath and condemnation: Kom, viii. 1, 'There is no 
condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus ;' ver. 33, ' Who shall 
lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? It is God that justifieth ;' 
ver. 34, ' Who is he that condemneth ? It is Christ that died.' Beloved, 
the Lord is a holy and just God ; and he ' reveals his wrath from heaven 
against all unrighteousness,' Kom. i. 18 ; and there is a curse threat- 
ened to every transgression of the law. Gal. iii. 10 ; and when any man 
sinneth, he is obnoxious unto the curse, and God may inflict the same 
upon him, Rom. i. 32 ; but when God forgives sins, he therein doth 
interpose, as it were, between the sin and the curse, and between the 
obligation and the condemnation, Eom. vi. 23. When the sinner sins, 
God might say unto him, Sinner, by your sinning you are now fallen 
into my hands of justice ; and for your sins I may, according to my 
righteous law, condemn and curse you for ever ; but such is my free, 
my rich, my sovereign grace, that for Christ's sake 1 will spare you 
and pardon you, and that curse and condemnation which you have 
deserved shall never fall upon you. Oh, my bowels, my bowels, are 
yearning towards you, Jer, xxxi. 20 ; and therefore I will have mercy, 
mercy upon you, and will deliver your souls from going down into the 
pit, Job xxxiii. 13, 24, 28, 30. When the poor sinner is indicted and 
arraigned at God's bar, and process is made against him, and he found 
guilty of the violation of God's holy law, and accordingly judged guilty 
by God, and adjudged to everlasting death, then mercy steps in and 
pleads, I have found a ransom, Job xxxiii. 24 ; the sinner shall not 
die, but live. When the law saith, Ah, sinner, sinner ! thus and thus 
hast thou transgressed, all sorts of duties thou hast omitted, and all 
sorts of sins thou hast committed, and all sorts of mercies thou hast 
abused, and all sorts of means thou hast neglected, and all sorts of 
offers thou hast slighted ; then God steps in and saith. Ah, sinner, 
sinner ! what dost thou say, what canst thou say, to this heavy charge ? 
Is it true or false ? — wilt thou grant it or deny it ? — what defence or 
plea canst thou make for thyself ? Alas ! the poor sinner is speech- 
less : Mat. xxii. 12, i^i^ioiOrj, he was muzzled or haltered up, that is, 
he held his peace as though he had a bridle or a halter in his mouth. 
This is the import of the Greek word here used : he hath not one word 
to say for himself ; he can neither deny, nor excuse, or extenuate what 
is charged upon him. Why now, saith God, I must and do pronounce 
thee to be guilty ; and as I am a just and righteous God, I cannot but 
adjudge thee to die eternally. But such is the riches of my mercy, 
that I will freely justify thee through the righteousness of my Son; I 
will forgive thy sins, and discharge thee of that obligation by which 
thou wast bound over to wrath, and curse, and condemnation ; so that 
the justified person may triumphingly say, ' Who is he that con- 
demneth?' He may read over the most dreadful passages of the law 
without being terrified or amazed, as knowing that the curse is removed, 
and that all his sins, that brought him under the curse, are pardoned, 



220 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 

and are, in point of condemnation, as if they had never been. This is 
to be justified, to have the sin pardoned and the penalty remitted: 
Kom. iv. 5-8, ' But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that 
justifieth the ungodly^ his faith is counted for righteousness. Even as 
David also describeth the blessedness of the man, to whom God im- 
puteth righteousness without works ; saying, Blessed are they whose 
iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man 
to whom the Lord will not impute sin.' It is observable that what 
David calleth forgiveness of sin, and not imputing of iniquity, St Paul 
styles a being justified. But, 

[2.] Secondly, As the first part of justification consists in the pardon 
of sin, so the second part of justification consists in the acceptation of 
the sinners person as perfectly righteous in God's sight, pronouncing 
him such, and dealing with him as such, and by bringing of him under 
the shadow of that divine favour which he had formerly lost by his 
transgressions : Cant. iv. 7, ' Thou art all fair, my love, and there is 
no spot in thee ;' that is, none in my account, nor no such spots as the 
wicked are full of, Deut. xxxii. 5. Look, as David saw nothing in lame 
Mephibosheth but what was lovely, because he saw in him the features 
of his friend Jonathan, 2 Sam. ix. 3, 4, 13, 14, so God, beholding his 
people in the face of his Son, sees nothing amiss in them. They are 
all ' glorious within and without,' Ps. xlv. 13. Look, as Absalom had 
no blemish from head to foot, so they are irreprehensible and ' without 
blemish before the throne of God,' Kev. xiv. 5. The pardoned sinner, 
in respect of divine acceptation, is ' without spot, or wrinkle, or any 
such thing,' Eph. v. 26, 27. God accepts the pardoned sinner as com- 
plete in him who is the head of all principality and power. Col. ii. 10. 
Christ makes us comely through his beauty ; he gives us white raiment 
to stand before the Lord. Christ is all in all in regard of divine 
acceptance: Eph. i. 6, 'He hath made us accepted in the beloved;' 
e-xaplroyaev rifid<;, ' he hath made us favourites,' so Chrysostom and 
Theophylact render it ; ' God hath ingratiated us,' he hath made us 
gracious in the Son of his love. Through the blood of Christ we look 
of a sanguine complexion, ruddy and beautiful in God's eyes : Isa. 
Ixii. 4, ' Thou shalt no more be termed forsaken, but thou shalt be 
called Hephzibah ; for the Lord delighteth in thee.' i The accepta- 
tion of our persons with God takes in six things : (1.) God's honour- 
ing of us ; (2.) His delight in us ; (3.) His being well pleased with us ; 
(4.) His extending love and favour to us ; (5.) His high estimation of 
us ; (6.) His giving us free access to himself. It is the observation of 
Ambrose, that though Jacob was not by birth the first-born, yet, hiding 
himself under his brother's clothes, and having put on his coat, which 
smelled most fragrantly, he came into his father's presence, and got 
away the blessing from his elder brother. Gen. xxvii. 36 ; so it is very 
necessary, in order to our acceptation with God, that we lie hid under 
the precious robe of Christ, our elder brother ; that, having the sweet 
savour of his garments upon us, our sins may be covered with his per- 
fections, and our unrighteousness with the robes of his righteousness, 

^ All persons out of Christ are cursed enemies, objects of God's wrath and justice, dis- 
pleasing, offending, and provoking creatures ; and therefore God cannot but loathe them 
and abhor them. 



4 



OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 221 

2 Cor. ii. 15 ; that so we may offer up ourselves unto God 'a living 
and acceptable sacrifice,' Kom. xii. 1 ; ' not having our own right- 
eousness, which are but as filthy rags,' Isa. Ixiv. 6 ; but that which is 
' through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by 
faith,' Phil. iii. 9. 

Thus you see that justification, for the nature of it, lies in the 
gracious pardon of the sinner's transgressions, and in the acceptation 
of his person as righteous in God's sight. But, 

2. Secondly, In order to the partaking of this grace, of thie forgive- 
ness of our sins and the acceptation of our persons, ive must he able to 
produce a perfect righteousness before the Lord, and to present it and 
tender it unto him ; and the reason is evident from the very nature of 
God, who is ' of purer eyes than to behold iniquity,' Hab. i. 13, that 
is, with patience or pleasure, or without punishing it.i There are four 
things that God cannot do : (1.) He cannot lie ; (2.) He cannot die ; 
(3.) He cannot deny himself ; (4.) He cannot behold iniquity with 
approbation and delight: Josh. xxiv. 19, 'And Joshua said unto the 
people. Ye cannot serve the Lord, for he is an holy God, he is a jealous 
God, he will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins:' such is 
the holiness of God's nature that he cannot behold sin, that he cannot 
but punish sin wherever he finds it, Ps. v, 4-6. God is infinitely, 
immutably, and inexorably just, as well as he is incomprehensibly 
gracious. Now, in the justification of a sinner God doth act as a God 
of justice, as well as a God of compassion. God is infinite in all his 
attributes, in his justice as well as in his mercy : these two cannot in- 
terfere. As justice cannot intrench upon mercy, so neither may mercy 
encroach upon justice ; the glory of both must be maintained. Now, 
by the breach of the law the justice of God is wronged; so that 
although mercy be apt to pardon, yet justice requires satisfaction, and 
calls for vengeance on sinners. ' Every transgression must receive just 
recompense,' Heb. ii. 2, and God will not in any case absolve the 
guilty, Exod. xxxiv. 7 : till this be done, the hands of mercy are tied 
that she cannot act. And seeing satisfaction could not be made to an 
infinite Majesty, but by an equal person and price ; therefore the Son 
of God must become a curse for us, by taking our nature and pouring 
out his soul to the death ; and by this means justice and mercy are 
reconciled and kiss each other, and mercy now being set at liberty, 
hath her free course to save poor sinners. God will have his justice 
satisfied to the full, and therefore Christ must bear all the punishment 
due to our sins ; or else God cannot set us free, for he cannot go against 
his own just will. Observe the force of that phrase, ' Christ ought to 
suffer,' and ' thus it behoved Christ to suffer,' Luke xxiv. 26 ; Mat. 
xxvi. 54, 'Thus it must be.' Why must? but because it was, (1.) 
So decreed by God ; (2.) Foretold by the prophets. Every particular 
of Christ's sufferings were foretold by the prophets, even to their very 
spitting in his face. (3.) Prefigured in the daily morning and even- 
ing sacrifice ; this Lamb of God was sacrificed from the beginning ot 
the world. A necessity then there was of our Saviour's sufferings ; 
not a necessity of co-action, for he died freely and voluntarily, but of 
immutability and infallibility, for the former reasons mentioned, John 

* Htb., ' And to look on iniquity thou canst not do it' 



222 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 

X. 11, 14, 17, 18. An earthly prince that is just, holds himself bound 
to iniiict punishment impartially upon the malefactor or his surety. 
It stands upon his honour ; he saith. It must be so, I cannot do other- 
wise. This is true much more of God, who is justice itself. God, 
' who is great in counsel and excellent in working,' had store of means 
at hand whereby to set free and recover lost mankind ; yet he was 
pleased, in his infinite wisdom, to pitch upon this way of satisfaction, 
as being most agreeable to his holy nature, and most suitable to his 
high and sovereign ends — viz., man's salvation and his own glory: and 
that God doth stand upon full satisfaction, and will not forgive one 
sin without it, may be thus made evident. 

[1.] First, From the nature of sin, which is that * abominable thing 
which God hates,' Jer. xliv. 4.1 The sinner deserves to die for his 
sins : Eom. vi. 23, ' The wages of sin is death.' Svery sinner is 
worthy of death ; ' they which commit such things are worthy of death,' 
Eom. i. 32. Now God is just and righteous. ' It is a righteous thing 
with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you,' 2 Thes. 
i. 6 ; yea, and God did, therefore, ' set forth Christ to be a propitiation 
through faith in his blood,' Kom. iii. 25 ; 'to declare his righteousness, 
that he might be just,' ver. 26. Now, if God be a just and righteous 
God, then sin cannot absolutely escape unpunished ; for it is just with 
God to punish the sinner who is worthy of punishment ; and certainly 
God must deny himself if he will not be just, 2 Tim. ii. 13 ; but 
this he can never do. Sin is of an infinite guilt, and hath an infinite 
evil in the nature of it ; and therefore no person in heaven or earth, 
but that person our Lord Jesus, who is God-man, and who had an 
infinite dignity, could either procure the pardon of it, or make 
satisfaction for it. No prayers, no cries, no tears, no humblings, no 
repentings, no resolutions, no reformations, &c., can stop the course of 
justice, or procure the guilty sinner's pardon. It is Christ alone that 
can dissolve all obligations to punishment, and break all bonds and 
chains of guilt, and hand a pardon to us through his own blood, 
Eph. i. 7. We are set free by the blood of Christ. ' By the blood of 
thy covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit,' Zech. ix. 
11 : it is by his blood that we are justified and saved from wrath : 
Rom. v. 9, 'Much more being justified by his blood, we shall be saved 
from wrath by him.' Pray tell me what is it to be justified but to be 
pardoned ; and what is it to be saved from %vrath but to be delivered 
from all punishment ? and both these depend upon the blood of Christ, 
Eph. ii. 13 ; Col. i. 20. But, 

[2.] The veracity of God requires it. Look, as God cannot but be 
just, so he cannot but be true ; and if he cannot but be true, then he 
will make good the threatenings that are gone out his mouth: Gen. ii. 
17, 'In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die : ' Heb. 
' In dying, thou shalt die.' Death is a fall that came in by a fall, and 
without all peradventure every man should die the same day he was 
born, for ' the wages of sin is death,' and this wages should be 
presently paid, did not Christ reprieve poor sinners' lives for a season,^ 

' God could not, salvo jure, pass over the sin of man, so as absolutely to let it go un- 
punished. 
* Under the name of death are comprehended all other calamities, miseries, and sorrows. 



OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 223 

upon which account he is said to be the Saviour of all men, 1 Tim. iv. 
10 ; not of eternal preservation, but of a temporal reservation. ' He will 
by no means clear the guilty,' Exod. xxxiv. 7. ' The soul that sinneth, 
it shall die ; ' ' The wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him,' Ezek. 
xviii. 20. ' He will render to every man according to his deeds,' Kom. 
ii. 6. sirs, God can never so far yield as to abrogate his own law, 
and quietly to sit down with injury and loss to his own justice, himself 
having established a law, &c. The law pronounces him cursed that 
' continues not in all things that are written therein, to do them,' Gal. 
iii. 10. Now, though the threatenings of men are frequently vain and 
frivolous, yet the threatenings of the great God shall certainly take 
place and have their accomplishment; though many ten thousand 
millions of sinners perish, not one tittle of the dreadful threatenings of 
God shall fail till all be fulfilled, Mat. v. 18. Josephus saith that 
from that very time that old Eli heard those terrible threatenings, that 
made their ears tingle and hearts tremble that heard them, Eli never 
ceased weeping, 1 Sam. iii. 11-14. Ah, who can look upon the dread- 
ful threatenings that are pointed against sinners all over the book of 
God, and not tremble and weep ! God cannot but in justice punish 
sinners ; neither is it in his choice or freedom whether he will damn 
the obstinate impenitent sinner or no. Look, as God cannot but love 
holiness wherever he sees it, so he cannot but loathe and punish 
wickedness wherever he beholds it ; neither wiU it stand with the in- 
finite wisdom of God to admit of a dispensation or relaxation of the 
threatenings without satisfaction. God had passed a peremptory 
doom, and made a solemn declaration of it in his word, that ' he that 
sinneth, shall die the death ; ' and he will not, he cannot break his 
word. You know he had foreordained Jesus Christ, and set him 
forth to take upon himself this burden, to become a propitiation 
for sin through his blood, Eom. iii. 25 ; 1 Pet. i. 20, and made known 
his mind concerning it in his written word plainly, Isa. liii. 7. If we 
read the words, ' it is exacted or strictly required,' meaning the ini- 
quity or punishment of us all, ver. 6.1 It is required at his hands, he 
must answer it in our stead, and so he is afflicted, and this affliction 
reacheth even to the cutting him off", ver. 8. Therefore when Christ 
puts this work upon an ought and must he, he lays the weight of all 
on the Scriptm-es, ' Thus it is written,' as you may see in the texts 
lately cited ; as if he should say, God hath spoken it, and his truth 
engageth him to see it done ; so God hath threatened to punish sin, 
and his truth engageth him to see it done. sirs, there is no stand- 
ing before that God that is ' a consuming fire,' a just judge, a holy 
God, except I have one to ' undertake for me,' Heb. xii. 29, that is 
' mighty to save,' Isa. Ixiii. 1, and mighty to satisfy divine justice, 
and mighty to pacify divine wrath, and mighty to bear the threaten- 
ings, and mighty to forgive sin. When God forgives sin, he does it 
in a way of righteousness, Isa. xix. 20. 1 John i. 9, 'He is faithful 
and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unright- 
eousness.' He doth not say he is merciful, but 'just, to forgive us our 
sins ;' because they are satisfied for, and God's justice will not let him 
demand the same debt twice, of the surety and of the debtor too. It 

^ Exigitur, as Junius and some others read it. 



224 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 

will never stand with the unspotted justice and righteousness of God 
to require such debts of us, which Christ, by shedding his most pre- 
cious blood, hath discharged for us, Rom, iii. 25. Mark, the male- 
dictory sentence of death, denounced by the law against sinners, was 
inflicted by God upon Christ. This is that which the prophet Isaiah 
positively asserts, where he saith, * The chastisement,' that is, the 
punishment (called a chastisement, because inflicted by a father, and 
only for a time,) ' of our peace was upon him.' And again, ' He was 
oppressed, and he was afflicted,' Isa. liii. 5, 7 ; which, according to 
the genuine sense of the original, is better rendered, ' It was exacted' — 
to wit, the punishment of our sin ; and he was afflicted, or he an- 
swered — to wit, to the demand of the penalty. The curse to which we 
are subject, saith Theodoras,! he assumed upon himself of his own 
accord. ' The death that was not due to him he underwent, that we 
might not undergo that death which was due to us,' saith Gregory.* 
' He made himself a debtor for us, who were debtors ; and therefore 
the creditor exacts it from him,' saith Arnoldus.^ Now God's justice 
being satisfied for our offences, it cannot but remit those ofi'ences to 
us. As the creditor cannot demand that of the debtor which the 
surety hath already paid, so neither can God exact the punishment of 
us which Christ hath suffered ; and therefore ' it is just with God to 
forgive us our sins.' It will be altogether needless to inquire whether 
it had been injustice in God to forgive without satisfaction. St 
Austin's determination is very solid : There wanted not to God an- 
other possible way, and if it were unjust, it were impossible ; but this 
of satisfaction was most agreeable to divine wisdom.-* Before God 
did decree this way, it might be free to have used it or not ; but in 
decreeing, this seemed most convenient, and after, it became necessary, 
so that there can be no remission without it ; and however it might 
not have been unjust with God to have forgiven without it, yet we are 
sure it is most just with him to forgive upon satisfaction.^ Indeed, 
the debt being paid by Christ, God's very justice, as I may say with 
reverence, would trouble him if he should not give in the bond, and 
give out an acquittance. The believing penitent sinner may, in a 
humble confidence, sue out his pardon, not only at the throne of grace, 
but at the bar of justice, in these or the like expressions : Lord, thou 
hast punished my sins in thy Son, wilt thou punish them in me ? 
Thou hast accepted that suff'ering of thy Son as the punishment of 
my sin, therefore thou canst not in justice exact it of me, for this 
were to punish twice for one offence, which thy justice cannot but 
abhor. sirs ! God doth not pronounce men righteous when they 
are not ; but first he makes them so, and then he pronounces them to 
be such ; so that if a man will be justified, he must be able to pro- 
duce such a complete righteousness wherewith he may stand before 
the justice of God. Ah sinners ! the Lord is infinitely just, as well 

^ Theod. disp., 1. xv. c. 5. ' Gregory Moral., 1. iii. c. 13. 

^ Arnold, de sep. verb, Tr. i. * Aug. de Trinit., 1. xiii. c. 10. 

* When you are forgiven, you are then released, and for ever acquitted from any 
after-reckonings with the justice of God. Divine justice hath no more to say or do 
against you, for remissa culpa, remittitur pctna, If the fault be forgiven, then also is the 
punishment forgiven ; nay, let me speak with a holy and humble reverence, God can- 
not in his justice punish when he hath pardoned. 



OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 225 

as merciful ; and if ever your sins be pardoned, it must be by an 
admirable contemperament, or mixture of mercy and justice together. 
It was one of the great ends of the gospel dispensation that God 
might exalt his justice in the justification of a sinner : Eom. iii. 26, 
' To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness, that he might be 
just, and the justiner of him that believeth in Jesus.' But, 

3, Thirdly, The only matter of man's righteousness, since the fall 
of Adam, wherein he can appear with comfort before the justice of 
God, and consequently whereby alone he can be justified in his sight, 
is the obedience and suffering of Jesus Christ, the righteousness of the 
mediator. There is not any other way imaginable, how the justice of 
God may be satisfied, and we may have our sins pardoned in a way of 
justice, but by the righteousness of the Son of God ; and therefore this 
is his name, ' Jehovah-Tsidkenu, the Lord our Kighteousness,' Jer. 
xxiii. 6, ' This is his name,' that is, this is the prerogative of the 
Lord Jesus, a matter that appertaineth to him alone, to be able to 
* bring in everlasting righteousness, and to make reconciliation for 
iniquity,' Dan, ix. 24. The costly cloak of Alcisthenes, which 
Dionysius sold to the Carthaginians for an hundred talents, was in- 
deed a mean and beggarly rag to that embroidered mantle of Christ's 
righteousness that he puts upon us : Isa. Ixi. 10, ' I will greatly rejoice 
in the Lord, my soul shall be joyful in my God ; for he hath clothed 
me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe 
of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and 
a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.' i Christ's righteousness is 
that garment of wrought gold, that we all need, to cover all our imper- 
fections, and to render us perfectly beautiful and glorious in the sight 
of God.2 In this robe of righteousness we are complete, we are with- 
out spot or wrinkle, we are without fault before the throne of God. 
Through the imputation of Christ's righteousness, we are made right- 
eous in the sight of God. God looking upon us, as invested with the 
righteousness of his Son, accounts us righteous. All believers have a 
righteousness in Christ as full and comi^lete as if they had fulfilled the 
law. ' Christ being the end of the law for righteousness to believers,' 
Rom. viii. 3, 4, invests believers with a righteousness every way as 
complete, as the personal obedience of the law would have invested 
them withal. When men had violated God's holy law, God in justice 
resolved that his law should be satisfied before man should be saved. 
Now this was done by Christ, who was the end of the law ; he fulfilled 
it actively and passively, and so the injury offered to the law is recom- 
pensed. God had rather that all men should be destroyed, than that 
his law should not be satisfied. No man can perfectly be justified in 
the sight of God without a perfect righteousness, every way commen- 
surable to God's holy law, which is the rule of righteousness, ' Do this 
and live : ' neither can any person have any choice, spiritual, lively com- 
munion with a righteous God, till he be clothed with the righteousness 
of Jesus Christ. All Christ's active and passive obedience was either 
for himself, or in our stead and behalf ; but it was not for himself, but 

^ It is a sign of great favour from the Great Turk, when a rich garment is cast upon 
any that come into his presence. — Knolles Hist. The application is easy. 

* Ps. xlv. 13 ; Rom. v. 19 ; Col. ii. 10 ; Eph. v. 27 ; Rev. xiv. 5 ; Eom . iii. 21, 22, 25, 26. 
VOL. V. P 



226 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 

for US, that he suffered and obeyed. Whatsoever Christ did or suf- 
fered in the whole course of his life, he did it and suffered it as our 
surety, and in our steads : for as God would not dispense with the 
penalty of the law without satisfaction, so he would not dispense with 
the commands of the law without perfect obedience. Kemember, once 
for all, that the actions and sufferings of Christ make but up one 
entire and perfect obedience to the whole law ; nor had Christ been a 
perfect and complete Saviour, if he had not performed what the law 
required, as well as suffered the penalty which the law inflicted. The 
imputation of Christ's righteousness to us is a gracious act of God the 
Father, according to his good will and pleasure, whereby as a judge 
he accounts believers' sins unto the surety, as if he had committed the 
same ; and the righteousness of Christ unto the believer, as if he had 
performed the same, the same obedience that Christ did in his own 
person : so that Christ's imputed righteousness is as effectual to the 
full, for the acceptance of the believing sinner, as if he had yielded 
such obedience to the Lord himself. Hence his righteousness is called 
'our righteousness,' Jer. xxiii. 6. Now without this righteousness 
there is no standing before the justice of God. But, 

4. Fourthly, As this great design of Christ's redeeming sinners by 
his blood and sufferings, and by his being made a curse for them, doth 
sound aloud the glory of divine justice, and the glory of God's veracity, 
so it sounds forth the glory of his wisdom; for hereby he maintains 
the authority of his righteous laiaA When a law is solemnly enacted, 
with a penalty in case of transgression, all those whom it concerns may 
conclude for certain, that the lawgiver will proceed accordingly ; and 
it is a rule in policy, that laws once established and published, should 
be vigorously preserved. If the Lord should have wholly waived the 
execution of the law upon sinners or their surety, it might have tended 
greatly to the weakening of its authority, and the diminishing of the 
reverence of his sovereignty in the hearts of the sons of men. How 
often does God use that oath, ' As I live,' for the fulfilling of his 
threatenings as well as of his promises, Jer. xxii. 24, and Ezek. v. 
9-11, The Lord Jehovah is as true, faithful, and constant in his 
threatenings as in his promises. What he hath threatened shall 
undoubtedly come to pass; he will be made known by his name 
Jehovah in the full execution of all his threatenings. The old world 
found it so, and Jerusalem found it so ; yea, the whole nation of the 
Jews have found it so to this very day, see Ezek. v. 13, 15. Look, as 
all the saints in heaven will readily put to their seals, that God is true 
and faithful in all his promises ; so all the damned in hell will readily 
put to their seals, that God is faithful in all his threatenings. Men 
frequently deride the laws and threatenings of great men, when they 
are not put into execution. It is the execution of laws that is the very 
life and soul of good laws, Eccles. viii. 11. Should God pardon sin, 
without exacting the penalty of the law, how would sinners be hardened, 
and emboldened to say, with those men, or rather monsters, in Malachi, 
'Where is the God of judgment?' chap. ii. 17, i.e., nowhere; either 

^ Solon, that wise lawmaker, could never find out a law to put all other good laws in 
execution ; but such as are living laws, will make the laws to live : and will not the wise 
and living God make his laws and threatenings to live ? Surely he will. 



OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 227 

there is no God, or at least not a God of that exact, precise, and im- 
partial judgment, as some men say and as others teach. i But now 
when God lets sinners see that he will not pardon sin without exact- 
ing the penalty of the law, either of the sinner or of his surety, then 
the sinner cries out, ' the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom 
and knowledge of God ! ' Rom. xi. 33. God stood so much upon the 
complete satisfaction and accomplishment of his law, that he was 
willing that Christ should be a sacrifice, that the law might be satisfied 
in its penalty, and that Christ in his own person should fulfil the 
righteousness of the law, that it might be satisfied in its commands, 
Rom. viii. 3-5. Now in this plenary satisfaction made to the law, 
the wisdom of God does gloriously shine. The heart of God was so 
set upon a full satisfaction to his law, that rather than it should not 
be done, his own Son must come from heaven and put on flesh, and be 
himself made under the law, Gal. iv. 4,5; he must live a holy life, and 
die a cursed death, and all to satisfy the law, and to keep up the 
authority of it. But, 

5. Fifthly, God doth stand upon full satisfaction, and will not for- 
give one sin without it, that he might hereby cut off all occasions^ 
which the devil, his arch-enemy, might take to calumniate and tra- 
duce him ; for if God did not stand upon full satisfaction, the devil 
might accuse him (1.) of inconstancy and changeableness, that having 
threatened death to transgressors, he did quite forget himself, in waiv- 
ing the threatening, and dispensing wholly with his law, by granting 
them free remission ; yea, (2.) of partiality and respect of persons, that 
he should be so easy and forbearing, as to let them pass without any 
punishment at all ; having been formerly so severe and rigid against 
himself, in casting him and his angels down to hell, and keeping them 
in everlasting flames and chains of darkness, without the least hope of 
recovery, 2 Pet. ii. 4 ; Jude 6. Satan might say. Lord, thou mightest 
have spared me as well as man. But the Lord can now answer, Man 
hath made satisfaction, he hath borne the curse, and thereby fully dis- 
charged all the demands of the law ; if he had not, I would no more 
have spared him than thee. Ambrose brings in the devil boasting 
against Christ, and challenging Judas as his own ; he is not thine, 
Lord Jesus, he is mine, his thoughts beat for me ; he eats with thee, 
but is fed by me ; he takes bread from thee, but money from me ; he 
drinks with thee, but sells thy blood to me. Had God pardoned sin 
without satisfaction, ah how would Satan have boasted and triumphed 
over God himself ! But, 

6. Sixthly, God's standing upon full satisfaction, and his not for- 
giving one sin without it, bears a visible character of his goodness and 
loving-kindness, as well as it sounds out aloud the glory of divine jus- 
tice. ' The great and the holy God, whose name is holy,' Exod. xv. 
1, 11, might have rigorously exacte.d the penalty of the law on the 
persons of sinners themselves ; but he hath so far dispensed with his 
own law, as to admit of a surety, by whom the end of the law, that is, 
the manifestation of his justice and hatred of sin, might })e fulfilled, 
and yet a considerable part of mankind might be preserved from the 
jaws of the second death, which otherwise must unavoidably have 

^ Such an emphasis there is in the HebreTv, as Corn. Ji Lapide observes. 



"228 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST, 

perished to all eternity, Eev. xx. 6. God seems to speak at such a 
rate as this ; I may not, I will not, suffer this high affront of Adam 
and his posterity against my ' holy and righteous law,' Kom. vii. 12, 
14, whereby the honour both of my justice and truth. is in danger to 
be trampled underfoot ; and yet if I should let out all my wrath 
upon them, they were never able to stand under it, but ' their spirits 
would fail before me, and the souls that I have made,' Ps. Ixxviii. 38 ; 
Isa. Ivii. 16. I will therefore let out all my wrath upon their surety, 
and he shall bear it for them, that they may be delivered ; and thus 
the Lord ' in wrath remembers mercy,' Hab. iii. 2. But, 

7. Seventhly, We can receive no benefit by the righteousness of 
Christ for justification in the sight of Grod, nor can we be pardoned 
and accepted thereupon, until that righteousness become ours, and he 
made over unto us. How can we plead this righteoushess before God, 
except we have an interest in this righteousness ? Isa. xlv. 24, 25. 
How can we rejoice and triumph in this righteousness, if this right- 
eousness be not made ours ? How can we have peace with God, and 
boldness at the throne of grace, through this righteousness, except we 
can lay claim to this righteousness ? How can we conclude that we 
are happy and blessed upon the account of this righteousness, except 
it be made over to us ? i There is none of us that have such an in- 
herent righteousness in ourselves that we dare plead before the bar of 
God ; and though God hath provided such a glorious robe of right- 
eousness for poor sinners, as is the wonder and amazement of angels, 
yet what would all this avail the poor sinner, if this righteousness be 
not made over to him ? sirs ! remember this, Christ's righteous- 
ness must be yours, it must be made over to you, or else it will never 
stand you in stead: Kom. v. 17, ' For if by one man's offence, death 
reigned by one ; much more they which receive abundance of grace, 
and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in glory by one, Jesus 
Christ.' Except they receive the righteousness of Christ, it is nothing 
to them. Christ's righteousness is in itself white raiment, and beauti- 
ful and glorious apparel ; but it will never cover our nakedness, except 
it be put on, and we are clothed with it. It must be made over to us, 
or we can never be justified by it : 1 Cor. i. SO, ' He of God is made 
to us righteousness;' if he be not made to us righteousness, we shall 
never be righteous. Though man hath lost a righteousness to be justi- 
fied by, yet there is an absolute necessity of having one. God cannot 
love nor delight in anything but righteousness. God is a holy God, a 
righteous God, and therefore can only love and take pleasure in those 
that are' righteous, both by a righteousness imputed, and a righteous- 
ness imparted : Isa. xlv. 24, ' Surely, shall one say, in the Lord have 
I righteousness and strength ;' ver. 25, * In the Lord shall all the 
seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory :' Isa. liv. 17, ' Their right- 
eousness is of me, saith the Lord;' Ps. Ixxi. 16, ' I will make mention 
of thy righteousness, even of thine only.' Look, as no man can be made 
rich by another man's riches, except they are made his ; so no man 

^ 2 Cor. ii. 14 ; Gal. vi. 14; Eom. v. 1 ; Heh, iv. 15, 16; Ps. xxxii. 1, 2 ; Eom. iv. 
7-11 ; Rom. iv. 3. If Christ's obedience be imputed to us, it must be so imputed as to 
be our righteousness before God ; no imputation below this will serve our turns, cheer 
our hearts, and save our souls. Rev. xiv. 8 ; Isa. Ixiii. 1 ; Rev. iii. 18. 



OF THE IMPUTED KIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 229 

can be made righteous by the righteousness of Christ, except his 
righteousness bo made over to him ; hence he is called, ' The Lord 
our Righteousness,' Jer. xxiii. 6 ; and hence we are said to be * the 
righteousness of God in him,' 2 Cor. v. 21 ; hence we are said ' by his 
obedience to be made righteous,' 2 Cor. v. 21. 

8. Eighthly and lastly. The way whereby this righteousness of God's 
providing is conveyed and made over to us, that we may receive the 
benefit thereof, and be justified thereby, it is hy luay of imputation. 
The meaning is this : God doth reckon the righteousness of Christ unto 
his people, as if it were their own ; he doth count unto them Christ's 
sufierings and satisfaction, and makes them partakers of the virtue 
thereof, as if themselves had suffered and satisfied. This is the genuine 
and proper import of the word imputation, when that which is person- 
ally done by one, is accounted and reckoned to another, and laid upon 
his score, as if he had done it.i Thus it is in this very case ; we sinned 
and fell short of the glory of God, and became obnoxious to the vin- 
dictive justice of God ; and the Lord Jesus Christ, by his obedience 
and death, hath given full content and satisfaction to divine justice on 
our behalf. Now when God doth pardon and accept us hereupon, he 
doth put it upon our account, he doth reckon or impute it unto us as 
fully, in respect of the benefit thereof, as if we ourselves had performed 
it in our own persons ; and this is the way wherein the Holy Ghost 
frequently expresseth it : Eom. iv. 6, ' Even as David also describeth 
the blessedness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness 
without works ; ' and ver. 11, ' That righteousness might be imputed 
to them also ; ' and therefore it highly concerns us to mind this scrip- 
ture rule, that in order to the satisfaction of the justice of God, the 
sins of God's people were imputed and reckoned unto Christ ; and in 
order to our partaking of the benefit of that satisfaction, or deliverance 
thereby, Christ's righteousness must be imputed and reckoned unto _ 
us. The first branch of this rule you have, Isa. liii. 5, 6, ' He was 
wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities/ &c., 
and ' the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all ; ' and for the 
other branch of the rule, see Eom. v. 19, ' As by one man's disobedience 
many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be 
made righteous ; ' ver. 17, 'As by one man's offence death reigned by 
one, much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift 
of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ' From the 
comparison between the first and second Adam, it is evident that as 
Adam's transgression of the law of God is imputed to all his posterity, 
and that in respect thereof they are reputed sinners, and accursed and 
liable to eternal death ; so also Christ's obedience, whereby he fulfilled 
the law, is so imputed to the members of his mystical body, that in 
regard of God, they stand as innocent, justified and accepted to eternal 
life. Look, as Adam was the common root of all mankind, and so 
his sin is imputed to all his posterity, so Jesus Christ is the common 
root of all the faithful, and his obedience is imputed to them all ; for 

^ Eom. iii. 21, and Isa. liii. Imputed righteousness seems to be prefigured by the skins 
wherewith the Ijord, after the fall, clothed our first parents. The bodies of the beasts 
were for sacrifice, and the skins, to put them in mind that their own righteousness was 
like the fig leaves, imperfect, and that therefore they must be justified another way. 



230 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 

it were ridiculous to say that Adam's sin had more power to condemn, 
than Christ's righteousness hath to save ; and who but fools in folio 
will say that God doth not impute Christ's righteousness, as well as 
Adam's sin ? The apostle's parallel between the two Adams does 
clearly e\ddence that as the guilt of Adam's disobedience is really 
imputed to us, insomuch that in his sinning we all sin ; so the 
obedience of Christ is as really imputed unto us, insomuch that 
in his obeying, reputatively and legally we obey also. How did 
Adam's sin become ours ? Why, by way of imputation. He trans- 
gressed the covenant, and did eat the forbidden fruit, and it was 
justly reckoned unto us. It was personally the sinful act of our 
first parent, but it is imputed to all of us who come out of his loins ; 
for we were in him not only naturally, as he was the root of mankind, 
but also legally, as he was the great representative of mankind.^ In 
the covenant of works, and the transactions thereof, Adam stood in 
the stead, and acted in the behalf, not only of himself, but of all 
his posterity, and therefore his sin is reckoned unto them ; even so, 
saith the apostle, after the same manner, the obedience and righteous- 
ness of Christ is made over to many for justification. I cannot under- 
stand the analogy betwixt the two Adams, wherein the apostle is so 
clear and full, unless this imputation, as here stated, be granted. 
Look, as Christ was made sin for us only by imputation, so we are 
made righteous only by the imputation of his righteousness to us, as 
the Scripture everywhere evidences, 1 Pet. ii. 22 ; 2 Cor. v. 21 , ' He 
hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin, that we might be 
made the righteousness of God in him.' How was Christ made sin for 
us ? Not sin inherent, for he had no sin in him ; he was ' holy, harm-' 
less, and undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the 
heavens,' Heb. vii. 26 ; but by imputation. Christ's righteousness is 
imputed to us in that way wherein our sin was imputed to him. Now 
our sin was imputed to Christ, not only in the Ipitter efi'ects of it, but he 
took the guilt of them upon himself, as I have in this treatise already 
evidenced ; so, then, his righteousness or active obedience itself must be 
proportionably imputed to us, and not only in the effects thereof. The 
mediatory righteousness of Christ can no way become the believer's, but 
as the first Adam's disobedience became his posterity's, who never had 
the least actual share in his transgression ; that is, by an act of impu- 
tation from God as a judge. The Lord Jesus having fulfilled the law 
as a second Adam, God the Father imputeth it to the believing soul, 
as if he had done it in his own person. I do not say that God the 
Father doth account the sinner to have done it, but I say that God 
the Father doth impute it to the believing sinner, as if he had done 
it, unto all saving intents and purposes. Hence Christ is called 
' the Lord our Kighteousness,' Jer. xxiii. 6. An awakened soul, 
that is truly sensible of his own baseness and unrighteousness, 
would not have this golden sentence, ' The Lord our Kighteousness,' 
blotted out by a hand of heaven out of the Bible, for as many worlds 
as there are men in the world. So is that text to a believer, living and 
dying, a strong cordial, viz., 1 Cor. i. 30, * Clirist Jesus is made unto 

• ^ Gen. iii. 6, 11, 12. As imitation of Adam onlj' made us not sinners, so imitation of 
Christ only makes us not righteous, but the imputation, — Down[ame] — of Justification. 



OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 231 

US of God wisdom, righteousness,' &cA And pray how is Christ made 
righteousness to the believer ? Not by infusion, but imputation ; not 
by putting righteousness into him, but by putting a righteousness upon 
him, even his own righteousness, by the imputing his merits, his satis- 
faction, his obedience unto them, through which they are accepted as 
righteous unto eternal life, Eom. v. 19. Christ's righteousness is 
his in respect of inhesion, but it is ours in respect of imputation ; 
his righteousness is his personally, but ours meritoriously ; we are 
justified by another's righteousness, and that only, and therefore by 
imputed righteousness ; for another's righteousness can no other way 
be made ours, but only by imputation : Kom. v. 18, ' By the righteous- 
ness of one the free gift came upon all men to justification,' Were it 
any other than imputed righteousness, it would be as manifold a 
righteousness as there are persons justified ; but it is said to be ' the 
righteousness of one, that comes upon all men for justification of life.' 
That is a choice word that you have in Rev. xix, 8, ' And to her,' that 
is, Christ's spouse, ' was granted that she should be arrayed in fine 
linen, clean and white ; for the fine linen is the righteousness of the 
saints.' The Greek word here is 8iKatco/iaTa, 'righteousnesses' or 
'justifications.' This, say some, signifieth a double righteousness 
given to us — (1.) The righteousness of justification, whereby we are 
justified before God ; (2.) The righteousness of sanctification, by which 
we evidence our justification to men. But others say it is a Hebrew- 
ism rather, by the plural righteousnesses noting the most absolute, 
complete, and perfect righteousness which we have in Christ.^ Now 
though I would not exclude inherent righteousness, yet I judge that 
imputed righteousness is the righteousness here meant ; and that, 
(1.) Because this clothing is that which is the righteousness of all 
saints, by which they stand recti in curia before God. Now there is 
no standing before God in our inherent righteousness ; for though, 
next to Christ, our graces are our best jewels, yet they are but weak 
and imperfect, they have their specks and spots, they are like the 
moon, which, when it shines brightest, yet has her black spots.^ 
(2.) Christ's righteousness is the only pure, clean, white, spotless 
righteousness. There is no speck or spot to be found upon Christ's 
righteousness ; but ' we are all as an unclean thing, and all our 
righteousnesses are as filthy rags,' as that evangelical prophet speaks, 
Isa. Ixiv. 6, 3. The word here is plural, SiKaido/xara, ' righteousnesses.' 
Christ hath many righteousnesses — ^first, He hath his essential and 
personal righteousness as God. Now this essential personal righteous- 
ness of Christ cannot be imputed to us. Osiander was of opinion that 
men were justified by the essential righteousness of Christ as God, 
which was a most dangerous opinion, and learnedly and largely con- 
futed by Calvin in his Institutions,* and by others since ; secondly y 

^ In this 1 Cor. i. 30, the apostle (1.) distinguisheth righteousness from sanctification, 
imputed righteousness from inherent righteousness ; (2.) he saith that Christ's righteous- 
ness is made ours of God. See Rom. iv. 6 ; Ps. Ixxi. 16. 

'^ So the Hebrew word is used, Isa. xlv. 24. 

3 Ps. Ixxvi. 7, and cxliii. 2; Job ix. 15, xxii. 2-4, and xxxv. 7. The saints are said 
(Rer. vii. 15) to be clothed in white robes, not because they had merited, or adorned them- 
selves with good works, but because they had washed and made white their robes in the 
blood of the Lamb. ■* i. 15, 3, 5. ii. 12, 5-7. iii. 11, 5.— G. 



232 OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 

There is the mediatory righteousness of Christ. Now this is that 
righteousness which he wrought for us as mediator, whereby he did 
subject himself to the precepts, to the penalties, commands and curses, 
answering both God's vindictive and rewarding justice. There is 
Christ's active righteousness, and there is Christ's passive righteous- 
ness, &c. Of these I have spoken already in this treatise, and therefore 
a hint here is enough ; but, thirdly, There are some expressions in the 
text that is under consideration that do best agree with the righteous- 
ness of Christ ; as first that, that * she is arrayed in fine linen, clean 
and white.' 1 This clearly points at imputed righteousness, which 
Christ puts upon his bride as a royal robe. That which makes 
Christ's bride beautiful, yea, whiter than the snow, and more glorious 
than the sun in his eyes, is not any beauty of her own, nor any inherent 
righteousness in herself, but the white robe of Christ's own righteousness 
that he puts upon her ; second, that expression in the text, ' to her it 
was granted, that she should be arrayed in fine linen,' &c. ' It was 
granted to her,' to shew that this fine linen was none of her own 
spinning, it was a free gift of Christ unto her. Saints have no other 
righteousness, to make them comely and lovely in the eyes of God, but 
the robe of Christ's righteousness, which is that fine white linen that 
Christ gives them, and that he puts upon them ; lastly, observe the 
confirmation and ratification that is given to these words in the 9th 
verse, ' Write, these are the true sayings of God.' These are not my 
sayings, nor the sayings of angels, but they are the sayings of that God 
that is truth itself, that cannot die, nor lie, nor deny himself, nor de- 
ceive the sons of God ; and therefore you may safely rest upon these 
sayings of God, both in the 8th and 9th verses, as most sure and cer- 
tain. Surely the righteousness the believer hath is imputed ; it is an 
accounted or reckoned righteousness to him ; it is not that which he 
hath inherently in himself, but God through Christ doth esteem of 
him as if he had it, and so deals with him as wholly righteous — 
(1.) It stands with reason that that satisfaction should be imputed to 
me, which my surety hath made for my debt. Now Christ was our 
surety, as the apostle calls him, Heb. vii. 22. (2.) Adam's sin was 
justly imputed by God to all his posterity, though it was not their own 
inherently and actually, as the apostle tells us, Kom. v. 14 ; and the 
sins of all the elect were imputed unto Christ, though they were not 
his own inherently and actually. ' He made him to be sin for us, who 
knew no sin,' saith the apostle, 2 Cor. v, 21 ; and ' upon him was laid 
the iniquity of us all,' ^ Isa. liii. 6. All the sins of all the believers in 
the world, from the first creation to the last judgment, were laid on 
him. How laid on him but by imputation ? Surely there was in 
Christ no fundamental guilt ! No, no ; but he was made sin by im- 
putation and law-account ; he was our surety, and so our sins were 
laid on him in order to punishment. And to prefigure this, all the 

* How can it stand with reason that the Papists by the Pope's indulgences should be 
made partakers of the merits and good works one of another, and yet be against reason 
that we by the ordinance of God should be made partakers of the merits and righteous- 
ness of Jesus Christ ? 

" This must be Luther's meaning when he saith, Christ was the greatest sinner ; he 
was Manasseh that idolater, David that adulterer, Peter that denier of his Master, &c., 
to wit, by imputation only, he being made sin for them, as the apostle speaks. 



OF THE IMPUTED RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. 233 

iniquities of God's people were imputed to their sacrifice, though they 
were not inherently his own, as we read. Lev. xvi. 21, 22, ' Aaron shall 
put all the iniquities of all the children of Israel, and all their trans- 
gressions, and all their sins, upon the head of the goat ; and the goat 
shall bear upon him all their iniquities.' And why then should it 
seem strange that the perfect righteousness of our sacrifice and surety, 
though it be not our own inherently, should be imputed to us by the 
Lord and made ours ? ^ 

Fi-equently and seriously consider that the word answering this im- 
puting is in the Hebrew Chashah, and in the Greek Xoyi^eadat, of 
wliicli the sum, as the learned say, comes to this, that though the 
words in the general signify to think, to reason, to imagine, &c., yet 
very frequently they are used to signify to account or reckon, by way 
of computation, as arithmeticians use to do, so that it is, as it were, 
a judgment passed upon a thing when all reasons and arguments are 
cast together. And from this it is applied to signify any kind of 
accounting or reckoning ; and in this sense imputation is taken here 
for God's esteeming and accounting of us righteous ; ^ti^FT, signifies to 
reckon or account. It is taken by a borrowed speech from merchants' 
reckonings and accounts, who have their debt-books, wherein they set 
down how their reckonings stand in the particulars they deal in. 
Now, in such debt-books merchants use to set down whatever pay- 
ments are only made, either by the debtors themselves, or by others 
in the behalf of them ; an example whereof we have in the Epistle of 
Philemon, ver. 18, where Paul undertakes to Philemon for Onesimus, 
' If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee anything, put that on my 
account ; ' that is, account Onesimus his debt to Paul, and Paul's 
satisfaction or payment to Onesimus, which answers the double im- 
putation in point of justification ; that is, of our sins to Christ, and of 
Christ's satisfaction to us, Ps. xxxii. 1,2; both which are implied, 
2 Cor. V. 21 , * He made him to be sin for us ; ' that is, our sins were 
imputed to him, ' that we might be the righteousness of God in him ;' 
that is, that his righteousness might be imputed to us. The language 
of Jesus Christ to his Father seems to be this, holy Father, I have 
freely and willingly taken all the-debts and all the sins of all the be- 
lievers in the world upon me ; I have undertaken to be their pay- 
master, to satisfy thy justice, to pacify thy wrath, to fulfil thy law, &c., 
and therefore, lo, here I am, ready to do whatever thou commandest, 
and ready to suffer whatsoever thou pleasest; I am willing to be 
reckoned a sinner, that they may be reckoned righteous ; I am willing 
to be accounted cursed, that they may be for ever blessed ; I am will- 
ing to pay all their debts, that they may be set at liberty ; I am will- 
ing to lay down my life, that they may escape the second death ; I 
am Avilling that my soul should be exercised with the most hideous 
agonies, that their souls may be possessed of heaven's happinesses, Ps. 
xl. 6-8 ; Heb. x. 4-9 ; John x. 11, 15, 17, 18 ; Kev. xx. 6. Oh, what 
wonderful wisdom, grace, and love is here manifested ! that when we 
were neither able to satisfy the penalty of the law, or to bring a con- 

^ To impute in the general, is to acknowledge that to be another's which is not indeed 
his ; and it is used either in a good or bad sense, so that it is no more than to account or 
reckon. It is the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and accepted for us, by which 
we are judged righteous. 



234 NINE STBONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

formity to it, that then Christ should interpose, and become both 
redemption and righteousness for us ! 

„ '^,?7'lu? ^1^^ i^^Puted righteousness of Christ, a believer may form 
up this fifth plea, as to all the ten scriptures in the margin, that refer 
to the great day of account :i blessed God, thou hast given me to 
r ?t?'^,^h^. ^^'^ '^^diatory righteousness of Christ includes first 
the habitual holiness of his person, in the absence of all sin, and 'in the 
rich and plentiful presence of all holy andrequisite qualities; secondly 
the actual holiness of his life and death by obedience. By his active 
obedience he perfectly fulfilled the commands of the laiu,and by his 
passive obedience his voluntary mfferings, he satisfied the penalty and 
commiTuition of the Uw for transgressions, that perfect satisfaction to 
divine justice, in ivhatsoever it requires, either in wayofpuni^hina 
forsm, or obedience to the law, mxxde by the Lord J^Ls Christ, God 
^^ir''\)i ^^^^«^^f/^i^ ^/^ covenant, as a common head, repre- 
n /f «^^,f 7.7/'^^ he Father hath given to him, and made Zer 
Zwlr/f. 7?'^''''' '^/'^^^: ^^"^ '' ^^'^^ righteousness that is im- 
^^if'.fif^T' '''i}^'^J^'t^Mtion, andthis imputed righteous- 
ness of thy dear Son and my dear Saviour is now my plea before.thy 
fhTttCTi; /^P^t^d "ghteo^sness is the same materially S 
that which the law reqmreth. It is obedience to the law of God 
exactly and punctually performed, to the very utmost iota and tittle 
thereof. Witnout the least abatement, Christ hath paid the utter- 
Thatf fuSd ?if i ^h^.f-lf 1-g of the law for rigLousness! and 

mic^M t ?n?fi IV^' ^r '^ ^^' ^."^^'^ °^^"^^' *^ ^^^^ intent that it 
might be fulfilled in the same nature to which it was at first given • 

Tl f }l^}l Y^ ^^^l^^^^^ ^^°' ^^ ^1^ their names, and on all thei; 
Kfillp^ ^'^'' P ^^^' ^-H^ '^^ righteousness of the law might 
be fulfilled in them, Kom. vui. 3, 4.2 It is as if our dear Lord Jesus 
had said blessed Father, this I suffer, and this I do, to the use 

upi' m^tf r ^ "''\'^ ^^ '^T '^^^ ^^'^ ^^^^^-^ theirsoui: 
IT,^-' J may have a righteousness which they may truly 

call their own, and on which they may safely rest, and in which they 
may for ever glory, Isa. xlv. 24, 25. Now it Wl never stand with 
the unspotted holiness, justice, and- righteousness of God to reiect 
this righteousness of his Son, or that plea that is bottomed upon-'Tt 
Oh the matchless happmess of believers, who have so fair so full 
and so noble a plea to make in the great day of our Lord Jesus » ' 

gt^e^^. But some may say, Wliat blessed fruU grows upmi this 
glorious tree ofparadise-yiz., the righteousness of Jesus Chfist tS 
IS imputed to all believers ? What strong consolations fiozvs frZth^ 
fountain the imputed righteousness of our Lord Jesus Christ ? I 
answer, there are these nine choice consolations, that flow in UDon all 
believers, through the righteousness of Christ imputed to them^-- 

1. ±irst Let all believers know for their comfort, that in this im- 
puted righteousness of Christ there is enough to satisfy thejmtirof 

" The righteousness which the law reauirpth nnnn t^o,-,, ^f j „ i- 
with that which the law requireth. ^ nghteousuess is the same materially 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 235 

God to the uttermost fartliing^ and to take off all his judicial anger 
and fury. The mediatory righteousness of Christ is so perfect, so 
full, so exact, so complete, and so fully satisfactory to the justice of 
God, as that divine justice cries out, I have enough, and I require no 
more ; I have found a ransom, and I am fully pacified towards you, 
Ezek. xvi. 61-63 ; Heb. x. 10-12, 14 ; Isa. liii. 4-6. It is certain 
that Christ was truly and properly a sacrifice for sin ; and it is as 
certain that our sins were the meritorious cause of his sufferings. He 
did put himself into poor sinners' stead, he took their guilt upon him, 
and did undergo that punishment which they should have undergone ; 
he did die, and shed his blood, that he might thereby atone God and 
expiate sin, Kom. v. 6-12 ; and therefore we may safely and boldly 
conclude, that Jesus Christ hath satisfied the justice of God to the 
uttermost ; so that now the believing sinner may rejoice and triumph 
in the justice as well as in the mercy of God, Heb. vii. 25 ; for doubt- 
less the mediatory righteousness of Christ was infinitely more satis- 
factory and pleasing to God, than all the sins of believers could be 
displeasing to him. God took more pleasure and delight in the bruis- 
ing- of his Son, in the humiliation of his Son, and he smelt a sweeter 
savour in his sacrifice, than all our sins could possibly offend him or 
provoke him, Isa. liii. 10. When a believer casts his eyes upon his 
many thousand sinful commissions and omissions, no wonder if he 
fears and trembles ; but then, when he looks upon Christ's satisfac- 
tion, he may see himself acquitted, and rejoice ; for if there be no 
charge, no accusation against the Lord Jesus, there can be none 
against the believer, _ Rom. viii. 33-37. Christ's expiatory sacrifice 
hath fully satisfied divine justice ; and upon that very ground every 
believer hath cause to triumph in Christ Jesus, and in that righteous- 
ness of his by which he stands justified before the throne of God, 
2 Cor. ii. 14 ; Rev. xiv. 4, 5. Christ is a person of infinite, transcen- 
dent worth and excellency, and it makes highly for his honour to 
justify believers, in the most ample and glorious way imaginable, &c. ; 
and what way is that, but by working out for [them], and then investing 
them with, a righteousness adequate to the law of God ; a righteousness 
that should be every way commensurate to the miserable estate of 
fallen man, and to the holy design of the glorious God. It is the 
high honour of the second Adam that he hath restored to fallen man 
a more glorious righteousness than that he lost in the first Adam ; 
and it would be high blasphemy, in the eyes of angels and men, for 
any mortal to assert that the second Adam, our Lord Jesus Christ 
was less powerful to save, than the first Adam was to destroy. The 
second Adam is ' able to save to the uttermost all such as come to 
God through him,' Heb. vii. 25. The second Adam is able to save to 
all ends and purposes perfectly, saith Beza ; perpetually, or for ever 
saith Tremellius; in oeternum, saith Syrus ; in 'peri^etuum, saith 
the Vulg. ; ad 'plenum, saith Erasmus ; ad perfectum, saith Stapul- 
ensis.i He is able to save to the uttermost obligation of the law 
preceptive, as well as penal ; and to bring in perfect righteousness, as 
well as perfect mnocency. He is able to save to the uttermost demand 
of divine justice, by that perfect satisfaction that he has given to 

* fi'y t6 TTo^'TcXes, ' to the uttermost' of time, at all times, and for ever &c. 



236 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

divine justice. ' Christ is mighty to save,' Isa. Ixiii. 1; and as he is 
mighty to save, so he loves to save poor sinners, in such a way wherein 
he may most magnify his own might ; and therefore he will purchase 
their pardon with his blood, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19, and make reparation to 
divine justice for all the wrongs and injuries which fallen man had 
done to his Creator and his royal law ; and bestow upon him a better 
righteousness than that which Adam lost ; and bring him into a more 
safe, high, honourable, and durable estate than that which Adam fell 
from when he was in his created perfection. All the attributes of 
God do acquiesce in the imputed righteousness of Christ, so that a 
believer may look upon the holiness, justice, and righteousness of God, 
and rejoice, and lay himself down in peace, Ps. iv. 8. I have read in 
story, that Pilate being called to Rome, to give an account unto the 
emperor for some misgovernment and mal-administration, he put on 
the seamless coat of Christ ; and all the time that he had that coat 
upon his back, Caesar's fury was abated. Christ has put his coat, his 
robe of righteousness, upon every believer, Isa. Ixi. 10 ; upon which 
account all the judicial anger, wrath, and fury of God towards believers 
ceaseth : Isa. liv. 9, ' For this is as the waters of Noah unto me : for 
as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the 
earth ; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor 
rebuke thee.' Ver. 10, ' For the mountains shall depart, and the hills 
be removed ; but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither 
shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the Lord that hath 
mercy on thee.' But, 

2. Secondly, Know for your comfort, that this imputed, this media- 
tory righteousness of Christ takes away all your unrighteousness. 
It cancels every bond ; it takes away all iniquity, and answers for all 
your sins, Isa. liii. 5-7 ; Col. ii. 12-15. Lord, here are my sins of 
omission, and here are my sins of commission ; but the righteousness 
of Christ hath answered for them all. Here are my sins against the 
law, and here are my sins against the gospel, and here are my sins 
against the offers of grace, the tenders of grace, the strivings of 
grace, the bowels of grace; but the righteousness of Christ hath 
answered for them all. I have read that when a cordial was offered 
to a godly man that was sick, Oh, said he, the cordial of cordials which 
I daily take is, ' that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all 
our sins,' 1 John i. 7. sirs ! it would be high blasphemy for any 
to imagine that there should be more demerit in any sin, yea, in all 
sin, to condemn a believer, than there is merit in Christ's righteous- 
ness to absolve him, to justify him, Eom, viii. 1, 33-35. The right- 
eousness of Christ was shadowed out by the glorious robes and apparel 
of the high priest, Exod. xxx. That attire in which the high priest 
appeared before God, what was it else but a type of Christ's righteous- 
ness ? The filthy garments of Joshua, who represented the church, 
were not only taken off from him, thereby signifying the removal of 
our sins, Zech. iii. 4, 5 ; but also a new, fair garment was put upon 
him, to signify our being clothed with the wedding-garment of Christ's 
righteousness. If any shall say. How is it possible that a soul that is 
defiled with the worst of sins should be whiter than the snow, yea, 
beautiful and glorious in the eyes of God ? Ps. li. 7. The answer is 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHEIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 237 

at hand, because to whomsoever the Lord doth give the pardon of his 
sins, which is the first part of our justification, to them he doth also 
impute' the righteousness of Christ, which is the second part of our 
justification before God. Thus David describeth, saith the apostle, 
' the blessedness of the man to whom the Lord imputeth righteousness 
without works ; saying. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, 
and whose sins are covered,' Kom. iv, 6, 7. Now to that man whose 
sins the Lord forgives, to him he doth impute righteousness also: 
' Take away the filthy garments from him/ saith the Lord of Joshua ; 
* and he said unto him. Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass 
from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment,' Zech. iii. 4. 
And what was that change of raiment ? Surely the perfect obedience 
and righteousness of the Lord Jesus, which God doth impute unto us ; 
in which respect also we are said, by justifying faith, to put on the 
Lord Jesus, Rom. xiii. 14 ; and to be clothed with him as with a 
garment, Gal. iii. 27. And no marvel if, being so apparelled, we 
appear beautiful and glorious in the sight of God : ' To her,' that is, 
Christ's bride, ' was granted that she should be arryed in fine linen, 
clean and white, for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints,' Rev. 
xix. 8. This perfect righteousness of Christ, which the Lord imputeth 
to us, and wherewith, as with a garment, he clotheth us, is the only 
righteousness which the saints have to stand before God with ; and 
having that robe of righteousness on, they may stand with great bold- 
ness and comfort before the judgment-seat of God. But, 

3, Thirdly, Know for your comfort, that this righteousness of Christ 
presents us perfectly righteous in the sight of God. ' He is made to us 
righteousness,' 1 Cor. i. 30. The robe of innocency, like the veil of 
the temple, is rent asunder ; our righteousness is a ragged righteous- 
ness, our righteousnesses are as filthy rags, Isa. Ixiv. 4. Look, as 
under rags the naked body is seen, so under the rags of our righteous- 
nesses the body of death is seen. Christ is all in all in regard of 
righteousness : Christ is ' the end of the law for righteousness to them 
that believe,' i Rom. x. 4. 

That is, through Christ we are as righteous as if we had satisfied 
the law in our own persons. The end of the law is to justify and 
save those which fulfil it. Christ subjected himself thereto ; he per- 
fectly fulfilled it for us, and his perfect righteousness is imputed to us. 
Christ fulfilled the moral law, not for himself , but for us; therefore 
Christ doing it for believers, they fulfil the law in Christ. And so 
Christ by doing, and they believing in him that doth it, do fulfil the 
law ; or Christ may be said to be the end of the law, because the end 
of the law is perfect righteousness, that a man may be justified thereby, 
which end we cannot attain . of ourselves, through the frailty of our 
flesh ; but by Christ we attain it, who hath fulfilled the law for us. 
Christ hath perfectly fulfilled the decalogue for us, and that three 
ways : (1.) In his pure conception ; (2.) In his godly life ; (3.) in his 
holy and obedient sufferings ; and all for us. For whatsoever the law 
required that we should be, do, or suff'er, he hath performed in our 
behalf. Therefore one wittily saith, (Aretius,) that Christ is T€ko(i, 
the end or tribute ; and we by his payment areXei9, tribute-free. We 

^ Finis perficiens, non interficiens. — Augustine. 



238 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

are discharged by him before God. Christ, in respect of the integrity 
and purity of his nature, being conceived without sin. Mat. i. 18 ; and 
in respect of his life and actions, being wholly conformed to the abso- 
lute righteousness of the law, Luke i. 35 ; and in respect of the pun- 
ishment which he suffered, to make satisfaction unto God's justice for 
the breach of the law, 2 Cor. v. 21 ; Col. i. 20, — in these respects 
Christ is the perfection of the law, and * the end of the law for right- 
eousness to them that beUeve.' Jacob got the blessing in the garment 
of his elder brother ; so in the garment of Christ's righteousness, who 
is our elder brother, we obtain the blessing ; yea, ' all spiritual bless- 
ings in heavenly places,' Eph. i. 4. We are made ' the righteousness 
of God in him,' 2 Cor. v. 21. The church, saith Marorate, which puts 
on Christ, and his righteousness, is more illustrious than the air is by 
the sun. The infinite wisdom and power of dear Jesus in reconciling 
the law and the gospel, in this great mystery of justification, is greatly 
to be magnified. In the blessed Scriptures we find the righteousness 
of justification to take its various denominations. In respect of the 
material cause, it is called the righteousness of the law, Kom. v. 17; 
in respect of the efficient cause, it is called the righteousness of Christ, 
1 Cor. i. 30 ; in respect of the formal, it is called the righteousness of 
God, he imputing of it, Kom. iii. 22 ; in respect of the instrumental 
cause, it is called the righteousness of faith, Phil. iii. 9 ; and in respect 
of the moving and final cause, we are said to be justified freely by 
grace, Rom. iii. 24 ; Titus iii. 7. The law, as it was a covenant of 
works, required exact and perfect obedience, in men's proper persons ; 
this was legal justification. But in the new covenant, God is contented 
'to accept this righteousness in the hand of a surety, and this is evan- 
gelical justification. This righteousness presents us in the sight of 
God as ' all fair,' Cant. iv. 7 ; as ' complete,' Col. ii. 10 ; as ' without 
spot or wrinkle,' Eph. v. 27 ; as ' without fault before the throne of 
God,' Rev. xiv. 5 ; as ' holy, and unblamable, and unreprovable in 
his sight,' Col. i. 22. Oh, the happiness and blessedness, the safety 
and glory, of those precious souls, who, in the righteousness of Jesus 
Christ, stand perfectly righteous in the sight of God ! But, 

4. Fourthly, Know for your comfort, that this imputed righteous- 
ness of Christ ivill ansioer to all the fears, doubts, and objections of 
your souls. How shall I look up to God ? The answer is, in the 
righteousness of Jesus Christ. How shall I have any communion with 
a holy God in this world ? The answer is, in the righteousness of 
Christ. How shall I find acceptance with God ? The answer is, in 
the righteousness of Clirist. How shall I die ? The answer is, in the 
righteousness of Christ. How shall I stand before the judgment-seat ? 
The answer is, in the righteousness of Jesus Christ. Your sure and 
only way, under all temptations, fears, conflicts, doubts, and disputes, 
is, by faith, to remember Christ, and the sufferings of Christ, as your 
mediator and surety ; and say, Christ, thou art my sin, in being 
made sin for me, 2 Cor. v. 21 ; and thou art my curse, being made a 
curse for me. Gal. iii. 13 ; or rather, I am thy sin, and thou art my 
righteousness ; I am thy curse, and thou art my blessing ; I am thy 
death, and thou art my life ; I am the wrath of God to thee, and thou 
art the love of God to me ; I am thy hell, and thou art my heaven. 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 239 

sirs ! if you think of your sins, and of God's wrath ; if you think 
of your guiltiness, and of God's justice, your hearts will faint and fail, 
they will fear and tremble and sink into despair, if you do not think 
of Christ, if you do not stay and rest your souls upon the mediatory 
righteousness of Christ, the imputed righteousness of Christ. The 
imputed righteousness of Christ answers all cavils and objections, 
though there were millions of them, that can be made against the good 
estate of a believer. This is a precious truth, more worth than a world, 
that all our sins are pardoned, not only in a way of truth and mercy, 
but in a way of justice. Satan and our own consciences will object 
many things against our souls, if we plead only the mercy and the 
truth of God ; and will be ready to say. Oh, but where is then the 
justice of God ? can mercy pardon without the consent of his justice ? 
But now, whilst we rest upon the satisfaction of Christ, 'justice and 
mercy kiss each other,' Ps. Ixxxv. 10 ; yea, justice saith, I am pleased. 
In a day of temptation, many things will be cast in our dish, about 
the multitude of our sins, and the greatness of our sins, and the 
grievousness of our sins, and about the circumstances and aggravations 
of our sins ; but that good word, ' Christ hath redeemed us from all 
iniquities,' he hath paid the full price that justice could exact or 
require; and that good word, 'Mercy rejoiceth against judgment,' 
James ii. 13, may support, comfort, and bear us up under all. The 
infinite worth of Christ's obedience, did arise from the dignity of his 
person, who was God-man ; so that all the obedience of angels and 
men, if put together, could not amount to the excellency of Christ's 
satisfaction. The righteousness of Christ, is often called the righteous- 
ness of God, because it is a righteousness of God's providing, and a right- 
eousness that God is fully satisfied with ; and therefore, no fears, no 
doubts, no cavils, no objections, no disputes, can stand before this blessed 
and glorious righteousness of Jesus Christ, that is imputed to us. But, 
5. Fifthly, Know for your comfort, that the imputed righteousness 
of Christ is the best title that you have to sheiu for ' a kingdom that 
shakes not, for riches' that corrupt not, for an inheritance that fadeth 
not away, and for an house not made with hands, but one eternal in 
the heavens,' Heb. xii. 28 ; 1 Pet. i. 3-5 ; 2 Cor. v. 1-4. It is the 
fairest certificate that you have to shew for all that happiness and 
blessedness that you look for in that other world. The righteousness 
of Christ is your life, your joy, your comfort, your crown, your confi- 
dence, your heaven, your all. Oh that you were still so wise as to 
keep a fixed eye and an awakened heart upon the mediatory right- 
eousness of Christ ; for that is the righteousness by which you may 
safely and comfortably live, and by which you may happily and quietly 
die. It was a very sweet and golden confession, which Bernard made, 
when he thought himself to be at the point of death.i I confess, said 
he, I am not worthy, I have no merits of mine own to obtain heaven 
by, but my Lord had a double right thereunto ; an hereditary right 
as a Son, and a meritorious right as a sacrifice ; he was contented with 
the one right himself, the other right he hath given unto me ; by the 
virtue of which gift I do rightly lay claim unto it, and am not con- 
founded. Ah, that believers would dwell much upon this, that they 

Guliel. Abbas, in vita Bern., lib. i. cap. 12. 



240 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

have a righteousness in Christ, that is as full, perfect, and complete, 
as if they had fulfilled the law. * Christ beiug the end of the law for 
righteousness to believers,' invests believers with a righteousness, every- 
way as complete as the personal obedience of the law would have 
invested them withal, Kom. viii. 3, 4 ; yea, the righteousness that 
believers have by Christ is, in some respect, better than that they 
should have had by Adam: (1.) Because of the dignity of Christ's 
person, he being the Son of God, his righteousness is more glorious 
than Adam's was ; his righteousness is called ' The righteousness of 
God ;' and we are made the * righteousness of God in him,' 2 Cor. v. 
21. The first Adam was a mere man, the second Adam is God and 
man. (2.) Because the righteousness is perpetual. Adam was a 
mutable person, he lost his righteousness in one day, say some, and all 
that glory which his posterity should have possessed, had he stood fast 
in innocency ; but the righteousness of Christ cannot be lost. His 
righteousness is like himself, from everlasting to everlasting. It is an 
everlasting righteousness, Dan. ix. 24. When once this white rai- 
ment is put upon a believer, it can never fall off", it can never be taken 
ofi". This splendid glorious righteousness of Jesus Christ's, is as really 
a believer's, as if he had wrought it himself, Rev. xix. 8. A believer 
is no loser, but a gainer, by Adam's fall. By the loss of Adam's 
righteousness is brought to light a more glorious and durable right- 
eousness than ever Adam's was ; and upon the account of an interest 
in this righteousness a believer may challenge all the glory of that 
upper world. But, 

6. Sixthly, Know for your comfort, that this imputed righteousness 
of Christ is the only true basis, bottom, and ground, for a believer to 
build his happiness upon, his joy and comfort upon, and the truepeaxie 
and quiet of his conscience upon. What though Satan, or thy own heart, 
or the world, condemns thee ; yet in this thou mayest rejoice, that God 
justifies thee. You see what a bold challenge Paul makes, Rom. viii. 
33, ' Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? it is God 
that justifieth ; ' some read it question-wise, thus, ' Shall God that 
justifieth ? ' no such matter.^ And if the judge acquit the prisoner at 
the bar, he cares not though the jailer or his fellow-prisoners condemn 
him ; so here there are no accusers that a believer needs to fear, seeing 
that it is God himself, who is the supreme judge, that absolves him as 
just. God absolves, and therefore it is to no purpose for Satan to ac- 
cuse us. Rev. xii. 10 ; nor for the law of Moses to accuse us, John v. 
45 ; nor for our own consciences to accuse us, Rom. ii. 25 ; nor for 
the world to accuse us. God is the highest judge, and his tribunal- 
seat is the supreme judgment-seat ; therefore from thence there is no 
appealing. As amongst men, persons accused or condemned, may 
appeal, till they come to the highest court ; but if in the highest, they 
are absolved and discharged, then they are free, and safe and well : 
so the believer being absolved before God's tribunal-seat, there is no 
further accusations to be feared, all appeals from thence being void 

^ Rom. viii. 33. lyKoKiaei, signifies in jus vocare, or call unto the law. It is a law- 
custom to clear men by proclamation. If one hath been indicted at the Assizes, and no 
bill brought in against him, there is an ' Oh yes' made, if any have anything to say 
against the prisoner at the bar, let him come forth, since he stands upon his freedom. 
The application is easy. 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHKIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 241 

and of no force. The consideration of which should arm us and com- 
fort us and strengthen us against all terrors of conscience, guilt of sin, 
accusation of the law, and cruelty of Satan ; inasmuch as these either 
dare not appear before God to accuse us or charge us ; or if they do, 
it is but lost labour. Ambrose gives the sense thus. None can or dare 
retract the judgment of God ; for he confidently provoketh all adver- 
saries, if they dare come forth to accuse ; not that there is no cause, 
but because God hath justified. ' It is God that justifieth,' therefore 
it is in vain to accuse them ; and ' it is God that justifieth them : ' if God 
doth it none can reverse it, for there are none that are equal with God. 
Let all the accusations, which shall come in against thee, from one 
hand or another, be true or false, they shall never hurt thee ; for he 
from whom there is no appeal, hath fully acquitted thee, and there- 
fore no accusation can endanger thy peace. Ah ! what a strong 
cordial would this be to aU the people of God, if they would but live 
in the power of this glorious truth, that it is ' God that justifies them,' 
and that there lies no accusations in the court of heaven against them ! 
The great reason why many poor Christians are under so many dejec- 
tions, despondencies, and perplexities, is because they drink no more of 
this water of life, ' It is God that justifieth.' Did Christians live more 
upon this breast, ' It is God that justifieth,' they would be no more 
like Pharaoh's lean kine, but would be fat and flourishing, Gen. xli. 
1-3. Did they but draw more out of this well of salvation, ' It is God 
that justifieth,' how would their spirits revive, and a new life rise up 
in them, as did in the dead child, by the prophet Elisha's applying 
himself to it, 2 Kings iv. 34-37. The imputed righteousness of 
Christ is a real, sure, and solid foundation, upon which a believer 
may safely build his peace, joy, and everlasting rest ; yea, it will help 
him to glory in tribulations, and to triumph over all adversities ; Rom. 
V. 1-3 ; Isa. xlv. 24, ' Surely, shall one say, in the Lord I have 
righteousness and strength.' That which is the greatest terror in the 
world to unbelievers, is the strongest ground of comfort to believers ; 
that is the justice and wrath of God against sin. Look how it was 
when the angel appeared at the resurrection of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ, ' The keepers were afi'righted, and became as dead men ;' but 
it was said to the women, * Fear not ye, for ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, 
that was crucified,' Mat. xxviii. 4, 5 : so it is much more in this case. 
When God's justice is powerfully manifested, the sinners of Sion and 
the world are afraid and terrified, Isa. xxxiii. 14. But yet, poor be- 
lievers, seek for Christ who was crucified ; ye need not fear anything ; 
yea, you may be wonderfully cheered at this, and it is your greatest 
comfort that you have to deal with this just God, who hath already 
received satisfaction for your sins. It is observable that the saints 
triumph in the justice and judgments of God, that are most ter- 
rible to the enemies of God, in that which is the substance of 
the song of Moses and the Lamb, Rev. xv. 3-5 : so in that, Luke 
xxi. 28, where the day of judgment is described, say some, and 
that in it, ' there shall be distress of nations, and men's hearts failing 
them for fear ' — viz., of the justice and wrath of God. Why so ? It 
is for ' looking after those things that are to come upon the earth ; for 
the powers of the earth shall be shaken,' &c. ' But when these things 

VOL. V. Q 



242 



NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 



begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads ; for 
your redemption draweth near/ This day is the most dreadful day 
that ever was in the world to all the ungodly ; but the just and 
faithful then shall be able to lift up their heads, to see all the 
world on a-light fire about them, and all the elements in terrible 
confusion. But how dare a poor creature lift up his head in 
such a case as this ? * They shall see the Son of man, coming 
in a cloud, with power and great glory/ Here is enough to 
comfort the poor members of Christ, — to see Christ, on whom 
they have believed, and who hath satisfied God's justice for them, 
and imputed his own righteousness to them : to see him set upon 
his judgment-seat, cannot but be matter of joy and rejoicing 
to them. Now they shall find the power of that word upon their 
souls: Isa. xl. 1, 'Comfort ye, comfort ye my' people, saith the 
Lord ; speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and say unto her that her 
warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned ; for she hath 
received at the Lord's hand double for her sins;' i.e., their conflict 
with the wrath of God is at an end, the punishment of their iniquity 
is accepted, they have received in their head and surety, Christ Jesus, 
double for their sins ; i.e., justice hath passed upon them, in their 
head, Christ Jesus ; and they are sure that the judge of all the earth 
will do right, and will not punish their sins twice. The exactness of 
God's justice cannot do this : Job xxxiv. 10, ' Far be it from God 
that he should do wickedness, and from the Almighty that he should 
commit iniquity ; ' ver. 12, ' Yea, surely God will not do wickedly, 
neither will the Almighty pervert judgment.' It would be high in- 
justice in a magistrate to punish the same offence twice ; and it would 
be high blasphemy for any to assert that ever God should be guilty of 
such injustice. Whilst Christians set up a righteousness of their own, 
and build not upon the righteousness of Christ, how unsettled are they ! 
Kom. X. 3 ; how miserably are they tossed up and down, sometimes 
fearing and sometimes hoping, sometimes supposing themselves in a 
good condition, and anon seeing themselves upon the very brink of 
hell ! but now all is quiet and serene with that soul that builds upon 
the righteousness of Christ; for, he being 'justified by faith, hath 
pace with God,' Kom. v. 1. Observe that noble description of Christ 
in that Isa. xxxii. 2, ' And a man,' that is, the man Christ Jesus, 
* shall be as a hiding-place from the wind, and a covert from the tem- 
pest, as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock 
in a weary land.' When a man is clothed with the righteousness of 
Christ, who is God-man, it is neither wind nor tempest, it is neither 
drought nor weariness, that can disturb the peace of his soul ; for 
Christ and his righteousness will be a hiding-place, a covert, and rivers 
of water, and the shadow of a great rock unto him ; for, being at per- 
fect peace with God, he may well say with the psalmist, ' I will lay 
me down in peace,' Ps. iv. 6-8. The peace and comfort of an 
awakened sinner can never stand firm and stable, but upon the basis 
of a positive righteousness. When a sensible sinner casts his eye 
upon his own righteousness, holiness, fastings, prayers, tears, hum- 
bhngs, meltings, he can find no place for the sole of his foot to rest 
firmly upon, by reason of the spots, and blots, and blemishes, tliat 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 243 

cleaves both to his graces and duties. He knows that his prayers 
need pardon, and that his tears need washing in the blood of the Lamb, 
and that his very righteousness needs another's righteousness to secure 
him from condemnation. ' If thou, Lord, shouldst mark iniquity, O 
Lord, who shall stand ? ' Ps. cxxx. 3, and i. 5 ; that is, rectus in 
curia, ' stand,' that is, in judgment. Extremity of justice he de- 
precateth ; he would not be dealt with in rigour and rage. The best 
man's life is fuller of sins than the firmament is of stars, or the fur- 
nace of sparks ; and therefore who can stand in judgment, and not fall 
under the weight of thy just wrath, which burneth as low as hell itself ? 
i.e., none can stand. Were the faults of the best man alive but 
written in his forehead, he was never able to stand in judgment. 
When a man comes to the law for justification, it convinceth him of 
sin ; when he pleads his innocence, that he is not so great a sinner as 
others are, when he pleads his righteousness, his duties, his good mean- 
ings, and his good desires, the law tells him that they are all weighed 
in the balance of the sanctuary, and found too light, Dan. v. 27 ; the 
law tells him that the best of his duties will not save him, and that 
the least of his sins will damn him ; the law tells him that his own 
righteousnesses are as filthy rags, do but defile him, and that his best 
services do but witness against him ; the law looks for perfect and 
personal obedience, and because the sinner cannot come up to it, it 
pronounceth him accursed. Gal. iii. 10 ; and though the sinner sues 
hard for mercy, yet the law will shew him none, no, though he seeks 
it carefully with tears, Heb. xii. 17. But now, when the believing 
sinner casts his eye upon the righteousness of Christ, he sees that 
righteousness to be a perfect and exact righteousness, as perfect and 
exact as that of the law ; yea, it is the very righteousness of the law, 
though not performed by him, yet by his surety, ' The Lord his 
righteousness ; ' and upon this foundation he stands firm, and 'rejoices 
with joy unspeakable, and full of glory.' The saints of old have 
always placed their happiness, peace, and comfort, in their perfect and 
complete justification, rather than in their imperfect and incomplete 
sanctification, as you may see by the scriptures in the margin, with 
many others that are scattered up and down in the blessed book of 
God.i That text is worthy to be written in letters of gold : Isa. 
Ixi. 10, ' I will greatly rejoice in the Lord,' saith the sound believer, 
' my soul shall be joyful in my God ; for he hath clothed me with the 
garments of salvation.' He hath imputed and given unto me the per- 
fect holiness and obedience of my blessed Saviour, and made it mine. 
* He hath covered me (all over, from top to toe) with the robe of 
righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and 
as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.' Though a Christian's 
inherent righteousness be weak and imperfect, maimed and stained, 
blotted and blurred, as it is, yet it affords much comfort, peace, joy, 
and rejoicing, as you may see by comparing the scriptures in the mar- 
gin together.^ Job was much taken with his inherent righteousness : 

1 Jer. xxiii. 6 ; 1 Peter i. 8 ; Luke vii. 48, 50 ; Rom. iv. 6, 8, and v. 1, 3 ; Isa. xxxviii. 
16, 17, and xlv. 24, 25 ; Phil. iv. 7. 

* 1 Ciiron. xxix. 9 ; Job xxvii. 4-6 ; Neh. xiii, 14, 22, 3 ; Isa. xxxviii. 31 ; Prov. ixi. 
14 ; 2 Cor. i. 12 ; 1 Pet. iii. 3, 4, and v. 4. 



244 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

Job xxix. 14, ' I put on righteousness, and it clothed me ; my judg- 
ment was as a robe and a diadem unto me.' Look, as sober, modest, 
comely apparel doth much set forth and adorn the body in the eyes of 
men, so doth inherent grace, inherent holiness, inherent righteousness, 
when it sparkles in the faces, lips, lives, and good works of the saints, 
much more beautify and adorn them in- the eyes both of God and 
man. Now if this garment of inherent righteousness, that hath so 
many spots and rents in it, will adorn us, and joy us so much, what a 
beauty and glory is that which the Lord our God hath put upon us, 
in clothing us with the robe of his Son's righteousness ; for by this 
means we shall recover more by Christ than we lost by Adam. The 
robe of righteousness which we have gotten by Christ, the second 
Adam, is far more glorious than that which we wqre deprived of by 
the first Adam. But, 

7. Seventhly, Then know for your comfort, that you have the highest 
reason in the world to rejoice and triumph in Christ Jesus, Gal. vi. 
14 : Phil. iii. 3, * For we are the circumcision, which worship God in 
the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus.' We rejoice in the person of 
Christ, and we rejoice in the righteousness of Christ: 2 Cor. ii. 14, 
' Now thanks be to God, which always causeth us to triumph in. 
Christ' Deo gratia^ was ever in Paul's mouth, and ever in Austin's 
mouth, and should be ever in a Christian's mouth, when his eye is fixed 
upon the righteousness of Christ. Every believer is in a more blessed 
and happy estate, by means of the righteousness of Christ, than Adam 
was in innocency. And that upon a threefold account ; all which are 
just and noble grounds for every Christian to rejoice and triumph in 
Christ Jesus. 

(1.) That righteousness which Adam had was uncertain, and such 
as it tods possible for him to lose, Gen. iii. ; yea, he did lose it, and 
that in a very short time, Ps. viii. 5. God gave him power and free- 
dom of will either to hold it or lose it ; and we know soon after, upon 
choice, he proved a bankrupt ; but the righteousness that we have by 
Jesus Christ is made more firm and sure to us. It is that good part, that 
noble portion, that shall never be taken froip us, as Christ said to 
Mary, Luke x. 42. Adam sinned away his righteousness, but a be- 
liever cannot sin away the righteousness of Jesus Christ. It is not 
possible for the elect of God so to sin as to lose Christ, or to strip 
themselves of that robe of righteousness which Christ hath put upon 
them, 1 John iii. 9 ; Kom. viii. 35, 39. The gates of hell shall never 
be able to prevail against that soul that is interested in Christ, that is 
clothed with the righteousness of Christ, Mat. xvi. 18. Now what 
higher grouad of joy and triumph in Christ Jesus can there be than 
this? But, • 

(2.) The righteousness that Adam had was in his oiun keeping; the 
spring and root of it was founded in himself, and that was the cause 
why he lost it so soon. Adam, like the prodigal son, Luke xv. 12, 13, 
had all his portion, his happiness, his holiness, his blessedness, his 
righteousness, in his own hands, in his own keeping ; and so quickly 
lost stock and block, as some speak. Oh but now, that blessed right- 
eousness that we have by Jesus Christ, is not in our own keeping, but 
in our Father's keeping. Look, as our persons, graces, and inherent 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 245 

righteousness are kept, as in a garrison,^ by the power of God unto 
salvation, 1 Pet. i. 5 ; so that righteousness that we have by Jesus 
Christ is kept for us by the mighty power of God unto salvation. God 
the Father is the Lord Keeper, not only of our inherent righteousness, 
but also of the imputed righteousness of Jesus Christ unto us. ' My 
sheep shall never perish,' saith our Saviour, John x. 28, 29, * neither 
shall any pluck them out of my hand ; my Father that gave them me 
is greater than all, and none is able to pluck them out of my Father s 
hands.' Though the saints may meet with many shakings and tossings 
in their various conditions in this world, yet their final perseverance, 
till they come to full possession of eternal life, is certain. God is so 
unchangeable in his purposes of love, and so invincible in his power, 
that neither Satan, nor the world, nor their own flesh, shall ever be able 
to separate them from ' a crown of righteousness,' 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8 ; 
' a crown of hfe,' Kev. ii, 1 ; 'a crown of glory,' 1 Pet. v. 4. The 
power of God is so far above all created opposition, that it will cer- 
tainly maintain the saints in a state of grace. Now what a bottom 
and ground for rejoicing and triumphing in Christ Jesus is here ! 
But, 

(3.) Admit, that the righteousness that Adam had in his creation 
had been unchangeable, and that he could never have lost it; yet,. it 
had been but the righteousness of a man, of a mere creature ; and what 
a poor, low righteousness would that have been, to that high and glori- 
ous righteousness that we have by Jesus Christ, which is the righteous- 
ness of such a person as was God as well as man ; yea, that right- 
eousness that we have by Jesus Christ is a higher righteousness, and 
a more excellent, transcendent righteousness than that of the angels. 
Though the righteousness of the angels be perfect and complete in its 
kind, yet it is but the righteousness of mere creatures ; but the right- 
eousness of the saints, in which they stand clothed before the throne 
of God, is the righteousness of that person which is both God and man. 
Look, as the second Adam was a far more excellent person than the first 
Adam was : ' The first man was of the earth, earthy,' as the apostle 
speaks ; ' the second was the Lord from heaven,' 1 Cor. xv. 47 ; not for 
the matter of his body, for he was made of a woman, but for the 
original and dignity of his person ; whereof you may see a lively and 
lofty description in Heb. i. 2, 3 -,2 so his righteousness also must needs 
be far more excellent, absolute, glorious, and every way all-sufficient 
to satisfy the infinite justice of God, and the exact perfection of his 
holy law, than ever Adam's righteousness could possibly have done. 
Kemember, sirs, that that righteousness that we have by Jesus Christ 
is called the righteousness of God : ' He made him to be sin for us, 
who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in 
him,' saith the apostle in 2 Cor. v. 21. Now that righteousness that 
we have by Jesus Christ, is called the righteousness of God : (1.) Be- 
cause it is such a righteousness as God requires ; (2.) As he approves 
of and accepts ; (3.) As he takes infinite pleasure and delight and 

^ (ppovpovfM^vovs. The original is a military word, and signifies safe keeping ; kept as 
with a guard, or in a garrison, that is, well fenced with walls and works, and so is made 
impregnable. 

^ Look, as Adam conveys his guilt to all his cliildron, so Christ conveys his righteous- 
ness to all his : he was caput cum foedere, as well as the first Adam. 



246 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

Batisfaction in. The rigliteousness the apostle speaks of in that 
scripture last mentioned, is not to be understood of the essential 
righteousness of Christ, which is infinite, and no ways communicable 
to the creature, unless we will make a creature a god ; but we are 
to understand it, of that righteousness of Clirist that is imputed to 
believers, as their sin is imputed to him. Now what a well of salva- 
tion is here 1 What three noble grounds and what matchless bottoms 
are here for a Christian's joy and triumph in Christ Jesus, who hath 
put so glorious a robe as his own righteousness upon them ! Ah, 
Christians, let not the consolations of God be small in your eyes, Job 
XV. 11 ; why take you no more comfort and delight in Clirist Jesus ? 
why rejoice you no more in him ? Not to rejoice in Christ Jesus is a 
plain breach of that gospel command, ' Rejoice ii^ the Lord alway,' 
that is, rejoice in Christ, ' and again I say, rejoice,' saith the apostle, 
Phil. iv. 4. He doubleth the mandate, to shew the necessity and ex- 
cellency of the duty: so Phil. iii. 1, 'Finally, my brethren, rejoice 
in the Lord.' Now, in some respects, the breach of the commands of 
the gospel are greater than the breach of the commands of the moral 
law ; for the breach of the commands of the gospel carrieth in it a 
contempt and light esteem of Jesus Christ, see Heb. ii. 2, 3, viii. 6, 
and X. 28, 29. Men's not rejoicing in Christ Jesus must flow from 
some dangerous humour, and base corruption or other, that highly dis- 
tempers their precious souls. If all created excellencies, if all the 
privileges of God's people, if all the kingdoms of the earth, and the 
glory of them, were to be presented at one view, they would all appear 
as nothing and emptiness, in comparison of the excellency and fulness 
that is to be found in Christ Jesus : and therefore the greater is their 
sin, who rejoice not in Christ Jesus. Do you ask me where be my 
jewels ? my jewels are my husband and his triumjDhs, said Phocion's 
wife.^ Do you ask me where be my ornaments? my ornaments are 
my two sons brought up in virtue and learning, said the mother of the 
Gracchi. Do you ask me where be my treasures ? my treasures are 
my friends, said Constantius, the father of Constantine. But now, if 
you ask a child of God, when he is not clouded, tempted, deserted, 
dejected, where be his jewels, his treasures, his ornaments, his comfort, 
his joy, his delight ; he will answer with that martyr, none but Christ, 
none but Christ. Oh ! none to Christ, none to Christ ! ' Christ is all 
in all unto me,' Col. iii. 11. Sterna erit exultatio, quce bono loetatur 
CBterno : That joy lasts for ever, whose object remains for ever. Such 
an object is our Lord Jesus Christ, and therefore the joy of the saints 
should still be exercised upon our Lord Jesus Christ. Shall the 
worldling rejoice in his barns, the rich man in his bags, the ambitious 
man in his honours, the voluptuous man in his pleasures, and the 
Avanton in his Delilahs ; and shall not a Christian rejoice in Christ 
Jesus, and in that robe of righteousness, and in those garments of 
salvation, with which Christ hath covered him? Isa. Ixi. 10. The 
joy of that Christian that keeps a fixed eye upon Christ and his 
righteousness cannot be expressed, it cannot be painted. No man 
can paint the sweetness of the honeycomb, nor the sweetness of a cluster 
of Canaan, nor the fragrancy of the rose of Sharon. As the being of 

' Plutarch in Phocione. 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 247 

things cannot be painted, so the sweetness of things cannot be painted. 
The joy of the Holy Ghost cannot be painted, nor that joy that arises 
in a Christian's heart, who keeps up a daily converse with Christ and 
his righteousness, cannot be painted, it cannot be expressed. Who 
can look upon the glorious body of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
seriously consider, that even every vein of that blessed body did bleed 
to bring him to heaven, and not rejoice in Christ Jesus ? who can 
look upon the glorious righteousness of Christ, imputed to him, and 
not be filled with an exuberancy of spiritual joy in God his Saviour? 
There is not the pardon of the least sin, nor the least degree of grace, 
nor the least drop of mercy, but cost Christ dear, for he must die, and 
he must be made a sacrifice, and he must be accursed, that pardon may 
be thine, and grace thine, and mercy thine : and oh, how should this 
draw out thy heart to rejoice and triumph in Christ Jesus 1 The work 
of redemption sets both angels and saints a-rejoicing and triumphing 
in Christ Jesus, Rev. v. 11-14 ; and why not we, why not we also, 
who have received infinite more benefit by the work of redemption, 
than ever the angels have ? Rev. i. 5, 6, and v. 8-10. A beautiful 
face is at all times pleasing to the eye ; but then especially, when there 
is joy manifested in the countenance. Joy in the face puts a new 
beauty upon a person, and makes that which before was beautiful, to 
be exceeding beautiful, it puts a lustre upon beauty ; so does holy joy 
and rejoicing in Christ Jesus, put, as it were, a new beauty and lustre 
upon Christ. Though the Romans punished one that feasted, and 
looked out at a window with a garland on his head, in the second 
Punic war ;i yet, you may be sure, that God will never punish you 
for rejoicing and triumphing in Christ Jesus, let the times be never 
so sad or bad, in respect of war, blood, or misery. But, 

8. Eighthly, The imputed righteousness of Christ may serve to com- 
fort, support, and hear up the hearts of the people of God, from faint- 
ing and sinking under the seruse of the weakness and imperfection of 
their inherent righteousness. The church of old have lamentingly 
said, ' We are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousness is as 
filthy rags,' Isa. Ixiv. 6. When a Christian keeps a serious eye upon 
the spots, blots, blemishes, infirmities, and follies, that cleaves to his 
inherent righteousness, fears and tremblings arise, to the saddening and 
sinking of his soul ; but when he casts a fixed eye upon the righteous- 
ness of Christ imputed to him, then his comforts revive, and his heart 
bears up ; for, though he hath no righteousness of liis own, by which 
his soul may stand accepted before God, yet he hath God's righteous- 
ness, which infinitely transcends his OAvn, and such as, in God's account, 
goes for his, as if he had exactly fulfilled the righteousness which the 
law requires ; according to that of the apostle, Rom. ix. 30, ' What 
shall we say then ? the Gentiles which followed not after righteous- 
ness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is 
of faith.' Faith wraps itself in the righteousness of Christ, and so 
justifieth us. The Gentiles sought righteousness, not in themselves 
but in Christ, which they apprehending by faith, were by it justified 
in the sight of God; and the Jews, seeking it in themselves, and think- 
ing, by the goodness of their own works, to attain to the righteousness 

1 riiny, i. c. 7. 



248 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

of the law, missed of it ; it being in no man's power perfectly to 
fulfil the same, only Christ hath exactly fulfilled it for all that by 
faith close savingly with him, sirs ! none can be justified in the 
sight of God, by a righteousness of their own making : but whosoever 
will be justified, must be justified by the righteousness of Christ 
through faith, Rom. iii. 20, 28, and x. 3 ; Gal. ii. 16 ; Tit. iii. 5. The 
Gentiles by faith attain the righteousness of the law, therefore the 
righteousness of the law and of faith are all one; viz., in respect of 
matter and form ; the difi'erence is only in the worker. The law re- 
quires it to be done by ourselves ; the gospel mitigates the rigour of 
the law, and offers the righteousness of Christ, who performed the law, 
even to a hair's-breadtL The right way to righteousness for justifica- 
tion is by Christ, who is the way, the door, the truth, and the life. 
Because we want a righteousness of our own, God ' hath assigned us 
the righteousness of Christ, which is infinitely better than our own, 
yea, better than our very lives — may I not say, yea, better than our 
very souls ? ' The branch,' Christ Jesus is called, ' Jehovah Tsid- 
kenu, the Lord our righteousness: ' Jer. xxiii. 6, ' And this is his name 
whereby he shall be called, the Lord our righteousness.' Where 
note, first, to be called by this name is to be so really, for Christ is 
never called what he is not ; and so he is to the same purpose else- 
where called ' Immanuel, God with us,' Mat. i. 23 ; that is, he shall 
be so indeed, * God with us,' so here he shall be called, ' the Lord our 
righteousness ;' that is, he shall be so indeed. Secondly^ observe this 
is one of his glorious names ; that is, one of his attributes, which he 
accounts his excellency and his glory. Now all the attributes of 
Christ are unchangeable, so that he can as easily change his nature as 
his name. Now rememljer that this imputed righteousness of Christ 
procures acceptance for our inherent righteousness. When a sincere 
Christian casts his eye upon the weaknesses, infirmities, and imper- 
fections that daily attend his best services, he sighs and mourns ; but 
if he looks upward to the imputed righteousness of Jesus Christ, that 
shall bring forth his infirm, weak, and sinful performances perfect, 
spotless, and sinless, and approved according to the tenor of the gospel, 
so that they become spiritual sacrifices, he cannot but rejoice, 1 Pet. 
ii. 5. For as there is an imputation of righteousness to the persons of 
believers, so there is also an imputation to their services and actions. 
As the fact of Phinehas was imputed to him for righteousness, Ps. 
cvi. 31, so the imperfect good works that are done by believers are 
accounted righteousness, or, as Calvin speaks, ' are accounted for right- 
eousness, they being dipped in the blood of Christ,' tincta sanguine 
Christi, i.e., they are accounted righteous actions; and so sincere 
Christians shall be judged according to their good works, though not 
saved for them, Eev. xi. 18, and xx. 12 ; Mat xxv. 34—37. And it is 
observable, in that famous process of the last judgment, that the su- 
preme judge makes mention of the bounty and liberality of the saints, 
and so bestows the crown of life and the eternal inheritance upon 
them ; so that, though the Lord's faithful ones have eminent cause to 
be humbled and afilicted for the many weaknesses that cleaves to their 
best duties, yet, on the other hand, they have wonderful cause to 
rejoice and triumph that they are made perfect through Jesus Christ, 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 249 

and that the Lord looks at them, through the righteousness of Christ, 
as fruits of his own Spirit, Heb. xiii. 20, 21 ; 1 Cor. vi. 11. The Sun 
of Kighteousness hath healing enough in his wings for all our spiritual 
maladies, Mai. iv. 2. The saints' prayers, being perfumed with 
Christ's odours, are highly accepted in heaven. Rev. viii. 3, 4. Upon 
this bottom of imputed righteousness believers may have exceeding 
strong consolation, and good hope through grace, that both their per- 
sons and services do find singular acceptation with God, as having no 
spot or blemish at all in thenu Surely righteousness imputed must 
be the top of our happiness and blessedness, Rom. iv. 5, 6. But, 

9. Ninthly and lastly. Know for your comfort, that imputed right- 
eousness will give you the greatest boldness be/ore God's judgment-seat. 
There is an absolute and indispensable necessity of a perfect righteous- 
ness wherewith to appear before God. The holiness of God's nature, 
the righteousness of his government, the severity of his law, and the 
terror of wrath, calls aloud upon the sinner for a complete righteous- 
ness, without which there is no standing in judgment, Ps. i. 5. That 
righteousness only is able to justify us before God which is perfect, 
and that hath no defect nor blemish in it, such as may abide the trial 
before his judgment-seat, such as may fitly satisfy his justice, and make 
our peace with him ; and consequently, such as whereby the law of God 
is fulfilled. Therefore it is called the righteousness of God ; such a right- 
eousness as he requires, as will stand before him, and satisfy his justice, 
Rom. X. 3. So the apostle saith, ' The righteousness of the law must be 
fulfilled in us,' Rom. viil 4. Now there is no other righteousness under 
heaven whereby the law of God was ever perfectly fulfilled, but by 
the righteousness of Christ alone. No righteousness below the right- 
eousness of Christ was ever able to abide the trial at God's judgment- 
seat, and fully to satisfy his justice, and pacify his wrath. A gracious 
soul triumphs more in the righteousness of Christ imputed, than he 
would have done if he could have stood in the righteousness in which 
he was created. This is the crowning comfort to a sensible and un- 
derstanding soul, that he stands righteous before a judgment-seat, in 
that full, exact, perfect, complete, matchless, spotless, peerless, and 
most acceptable righteousness of Christ imputed to him. The right- 
eousness of Christ is therefore called the righteousness of God, because 
it is it wliich God hath assigned, and which God doth accej)t for us 
in our justification, and for and in which he doth acquit and pro- 
nounce us righteous before his seat of justice, Rom. iii. 21, 22, and 
x. 3 ; Phil. iii. 9. There is an indispensable necessity that lies upon 
the sinner to have such a righteousness to his justification as 
may render his appearance safe and comfortable in the day of judg- 
ment. Now there is no righteousness that can abide that day of fiery 
trial, but the righteousness of Christ imputed to us. Paul, that great 
apostle, had as fair and as full a certificate to shew for a legal justifica- 
tion as any person under heaven had, Phil. iii. 4-6 ; Acts xxiii. 6 ; 2 Cor. 
xi. 22 ; but yet he durst not stand by that righteousness, he durst not 
plead that righteousness, he durst not appear in that righteousness be- 
fore the dreadful judgment-seat. But oh, how earnest, how importu- 
nate is he, that he may be found, in that great day of the Lord, in the 
mediatory righteousness of Christ, and not in his own personal righteous- 



250 NINE STRONG CONSOLATIONS THAT FLOW FROM 

ness, which he looked upon as filthy rags, as dross, dung, dogs' meat, Phil, 
iii. 9, 10. The great thing that he most strongly insists upon is, that he 
might be clothed with the robe of Christ's righteousness ; for then he 
knew that the law could not say black was his eye, and that the judge 
upon the bench would pronounce him righteous, and bid him enter 
into the joy of his Lord, Mat. xxv. 21, 23, 24 ; a joy too great to 
enter into him, and therefore he must enter into that. When the 
match is made up between Christ and the soul, that soul bears her 
sovereign's name. The spouse of the first Adam and her husband 
had both one name, ' God called their name Adam, in the day that he 
made them,' Gen. v. 2 ; so the spouse of the second Adam, in the 
change of her condition, from a single to a married estate with Christ 
the Lamb, had a change of her name. The head is called, ' the 
Lord our righteousness,' Jer. xxiii. 6 ; and so is the church : Jer. 
xxxiii. 16, 'In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall 
dwell safely : and this is the name wherewith she shall be called, the 
Lord our righteousness.' Here is a sameness of name.^ As Christ is 
called, ' the Lord our righteousness,' so his spouse is called, ' the 
Lord our righteousness.' Oh, happy transnomination ! Christ's bride 
being one with himself, and having his righteousness imputed to her, 
is called, ' the Lord our righteousness ; ' and therefore they may, 
with the greatest cheerfulness and boldness, bear up, in the great day 
of account, who have the perfect righteousness of Christ imputed to 
them, especially if you consider, (1.) That this righteousness is of 
infinite value and worth ; (2.) That it is an everlasting righteousness, 
a righteousness that can never be lost, Dan. ix. 24 ; (3.) That it is 
an unchangeable righteousness. Though times change, and men 
change, and friends change, and providences change, and the moon 
change, yet the Sun of Righteousness never changes, ' in him is no 
variableness, neither shadow of turning,' Mai. iv. 2; James i. 17; (4.) 
That it is a complete and unspotted righteousness, an unblamable 
righteousness, and unblemished righteousness ; and therefore God can 
neither in justice except or object against it. In this righteousness 
the believer lives, in this righteousness the believer dies, and in this 
righteousness believers shall arise, and appear before the judgment- 
seat of Christ, to the deep admiration of all the elect angels, and to the 
transcendent terror and horror of all reprobates, and to the match- 
less joy and triumph of all on Christ's right hand, who shall then shout 
and sing, Isa. Ixi. 10, ' I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul 
shall be joyful in my God ; for he hath clothed me with the garments 
of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a 
bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth 
herself with jewels.' Oh, how will Christ, in this great day, be 
admired and glorified in all his saints, 2 Thes. i. 10, when every 
saint, wrapped up in this fine linen, in this white robe of Christ's 
lighteousness, shall shine more gloriously than ten thousand suns ! 
In the great day of the Lord, when the saints shall stand bofore the 

^ Christ and Christians are namesakes. Caput et corpuff, units est Chrlstus. — Aug. 
The head is called Christ, and the members are called Christ, 1 Cor. xii. 12. Christ is 
called .Solomon, Cant. i. 1, and iii. 11, in Hebrew, Shelomnh of peace, and the church 
is called Shulamite, by her bridegroom's name, Cant. vi. 13. 



THE IMPUTATION OF CHRIST's RIGHTEOUSNESS. 251 

tribunal of God, clothed in the perfect righteousness of Jesus Christ, 
they shall then stand, rectus in curia ; they shall then be pronounced 
righteous, even in the court of divine justice, which sentence will fill 
their souls with comfort, and the souls of sinners with astonishment, 
Kev. XX. 12, and xii. 10. Suppose we saw the believing sinner, hold- 
ing up his hand at God's bar ; the books opened, the accuser of the 
brethren present, the witnesses ready, and the judge on the bench 
tlius bespeaking the sinner at the bar, Kom. vii. 12, 14, 16, and Gal. 
iii. 10. sinner, sinner, thou standest here indicted before me, for 
many millions of sins of commission, and for many millions of sins 
of omission; thou hast broken my holy, just, and righteous laws 
beyond all human conception or expression, and hereof thou art 
proved guilty; what hast thou now to say for thyself why thou 
shouldst not be eternally cast ? Upon this, the sinner pleads guilty ; 
but withal he earnestly desires that he may have time and liberty to 
plead for himself, and to offer his reasons why that dreadful sentence, 
Go, you cursed, &c., Mat. xxv. 41, should not be passed upon him. 
The liberty desired being granted by the judge, the sinner pleads 
that his surety, Jesus Christ, hath, by his blood and sufferings, given 
full and complete satisfaction to divine justice, and that he hath paid 
down upon the nail the whole debt at once, and that it can never 
stand with the holiness and unspotted justice of God to demand 
satisfaction twice, Heb. x. 10, 14. If the judge shall further object. 
Ay, but sinner, sinner, the law requireth an exact and perfect right- 
eousness in the personal fulfilling of it ; now, sinner, where is thy 
exact and perfect righteousness? Gal. iii. 10; Isa. xlv. 24. Upon 
which the believing sinner very readily, cheerfully, humbly, and 
boldly replies. My righteousness is upon the bench, ' in the Lord have 

1 righteousness.' Christ, my surety, hath fulfilled the law on my 
behalf. The law's righteousness consists in two things, (1.) In its 
requiring perfect conformity to its commands ; (2.) In its demanding 
satisfaction, or the undergoing of its penalty, upon the violation of it. 
Now Christ, by his active and passive obedience, hath fulfilled the law 
for righteousness, and this active and passive obedience of Jesus 
Christ is imputed to me. His obeying the law to the full, his perfect con- 
forming to its commands, his doing, as well as his dying obedience, is 
by grace made over and reckoned to me, in order to my justification and 
salvation ; and this is my plea, by which I will stand before the judge 
of all the world. Upon this the sinner's plea is accepted as good in 
law, and accordingly he is pronounced righteous ; and goes away, 
glorying and rejoicing, triumphing and shouting it out, Eighteous, 
righteous, righteous, righteous ; ' In the Lord shall all the seed of 
Israel be justified, and shall glory,' Isa. xlv, 25. And thus you see 
that there are nine springs of strong consolation that flow into your 
souls, through the imputation of Christ's righteousness unto you. 
But, 

VI. The sixth plea that a believer may form up as to the ten 
scriptures in the margin i that refer to the great day of account, or 
to a man's particular account, may be drawn from the consideration 

^ Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14 ; Mat. xii. 14, and xviii. 23; Luke xvi. 3; Rom. liv. 10; 

2 Cor. V. 10; Heb. ix. 27, and xii. 17 ; 1 Pet. iv. 5. 



252 CHRIST CONSIDERED AS A COMMON HEAD. 

of Christ as a common person, a representative head one that rpnrp 
sents another man's person, and acts the part of another accoX^^^ 
to the appomtment of the law, the acceptation of the jud^ so tha^ 
what IS done by him, the person is said to do whose persSn 'he doth 
represent. And so was Adam a common person, andS by L f 
of Gods sovereignty appomtmg him, in making a covenant with him 
so to be, and he did represent all mankind, Eom v 15 19 An^ 
hence it comes to pass that his sin is imputed unto' us and nmde 
ours ;i so in our law an attorney appears in the behalf of' Ms cHent 
and so Christ is said to be gone to heaven as our attorney to appear 
m he presence of God for us, Heb. ix. 24. if^cpaucad^uaT'To appear 
as a lawyer appears for his client, opens the cLse, plads the cTse 
and carries it. The word appear is verbum forense, TexpreS 
borrowed from the custom of human courts • for ^i. kJL ^^^J^^^}^^ 

naif so 1 John ii. 1. You know fbnf fha T o,r;+f i • : 
to appear b^ore God in the ^tte^'^oTh^^^^^^^^ 
m Christ IS the solid truth, and full effect of the figurj Or as tS 
possession, livery, and seizng 2 by an attorney is all one as if doSe bv 
the person himself who is represented, and is valid so the Lord 
Jesus, he IS a common person by an act of God's sovereLtv repre 
sentmg the persons of all the elect of God bein^desS «n7. 
pointed by God to be a second Adam. And as The filt Ad?m Ti 
represent all in him, so the second Adam doerr„t a^^ ^^ht^ 
also; and therefore as judgment came upon all in theTrst Adam .^ 
righteousness comes upon all in the second Adam We ^1 tmns 
gressed the royal law in Adam, we were all in Adam'Tloins wW 
he was, we were ; what he did, we did. Although wHid not 'in o^r 
own persons either talk with the serpent, or pu^t forth our hands to 
take the rmt yet we did eat the forbidden fruit as weU as he and 
so broke the holy aw, and turned aside in him; for he wL not a 
single person, standing for himself alone, but a pub ic person s?.md 
ing m the room of all mankind ; therefore his sin, bei^ S'mtrefv" 
the sin of his person but of the whole nature of man fsTust?vim 
puted to us all.^ If Adam had stood fast in hiruV'itne.s Tn" 
his primitive purity, glory and excellency, we should aTKe shar d 
m his happmess and blessedness, Eccles. vii. 29 ; but he lillin^ and 
forfeiting all, we must all share with him in his loss «nd 3cf 
Ponder upon Rom. v. 12, ' In whom aU have sinned ' Is thTmuT 
ram infects the whole flock, so sin and the curse seizeth upon alUhe" 
whole wor d, as well as upon Adam and Eve. And ver 19 'Bv one 
man s disobedience many are made sinners.' ' Many' is' he/e mft Tor 
all, as 'aU' elsewhere is put for 'many' 1 Tim ii -^ AliS 
are tainted with Adam's gui?t and filth. Mm wa\he hfad TSs 
posterity the members. If the head plot and practise treason atinf 
he state IS not ths judged the act of the whole boJy P He She 

t"''wL'nVV"f.'''."^^"J^^ '''' ^^"«' ^" thebJanchfs f^Uw^k 
It. When Christ died on the cross, he did stand in our room,Tnd 

altho;r,\Te^,l^l1f;.S'G:d"d^..::^t :r''' ^^^--^^^ ^^ -^^ ^ parlian.ent-n.an'. and 
Liverj ^delivery ; 'scizius' = taking possession. Law terms in use still._G. 



CHRIST CONSIDERED AS A COMMON HEAD. 253 

place, and stead; for he did lay down his life for us as a ransom. 
Now when one dies for another in way of ransom he does not only 
die for the benefit and profit of the ransomed but m the place, 
and room, and stead of the ransomed; and thus Christ died for us, 
as himself testifies : ' The son of man came to givehmaself a ransom 
for many,' Mark x. 45. Xvrpov avrc 'rroXKcbv. Christ rose as a com- 
mon person, representing all his elect ; and Christ was sanctified as a 
common person, representing all his elect ; and Christ was justified as 
a common person, representing all his elect. Look, as we were con- 
demned in Adam, as he was a common person, so we are justified by 
Christ, as in a common person also ; so that every beUever may well 
look upon himself as acquitted, in his justification, from the guilt ot 
his sins, they being laid upon the head of his surety, Heb.ix 28. 
It is a very great part of a Christian's wisdom to be often looking 
upon Christ as a representative-head, as one m whom he died in 
whom he rose, in whom he is sanctified, and in whom he is justified, 
Eph. ii 6. How would such a daily eyeing of Christ scatter a C^is- 
tian's fears, arm him against temptations, support him under afllic- 
tions, weaken his sins, strengthen his graces, cheer his soul, and mend 

^\t^8 verv observable, that in the Levitical expiatory sacrifices there 
was the substitution of them in the place and stead of the offenders 
themselves. The people's sin, and the punishment due to them thei^- 
upon was laid upon the poor beasts that died for them. 1 might 
multiply scriptures to evidence this, but I shall only hint at one or two 
plain, pregnant texts to clear it. Take that. Lev. xvii. 11, lor the 
life of the flesh is in the blood ; and I have given it to JOii "pon the 
altar to make an atonement for your souls : for it is the blood that 
maketh atonement for the soul.'i Mark here, the blood is to make 
atonement for the souls of the people of Israel— that is, m the room 
and stead of their souls, and accordingly it did make atonement tor 
their souls ; so that in the blood sacrificed, which was a type ot the 
blood of Christ, there was soul for soul, life for life ; the soul and liie 
of the sacrifice for the precious soul and life of the sinner. Now here 
you see substitution of the one in the room of the other. The trans- 
ferring of the guilt and punishment of the people's sins over to their 
sacrifices in those days, was the reason why the sacrifices were said to 
bear the iniquities of the people, Lev. xvi. 22, and x. 17, &c. And it 
is observable that at the great expiation Aaron was to lay both his 
hands upon the head of the live goat, and to confess over him all the 
sins of the children of Israel, &c.. Lev. xvi. 21. By this ceremony of 
imposition of hands, is signified the transferring of their sms upon the 
ffoat herein to type out Christ, upon whom God ' did lay the imquity 
of us all,' Isa. liii. 6. Certainly the main thing that is held forth by 
this rite— viz., Aaron's laying both his hands upon the head of the 
live goat is the translation of the sinner's guilt to the sacrifice, and 
the substitution of it in his stead. Typically, the very sms of the 
people were imposed upon the goat, who herein was a type ot Christ 
which did himself bear our sins. Yea, the Hebrews [MaimomdesJ 

1 Justin Martyr observes the great mercy of God to mankind in that, loco hominis, 
instead of man, he caused beasts to be sacrificed. 



264' CHRIST CONSIDERED AS A COMMON HEAD. 

themselves hold that the scapegoat made atonement for all their sins, 
lighter and greater, presumptuously and ignorantly committed. Cer- 
tainly the scapegoat was a most lively type of our blessed Saviour — 
(1.) In that ' the Lord laid upon him the iniquity of us all,' as the 
sins of Israel were laid upon the head of the goat. (2.) As the goat 
was carried away, so Christ was ' cut off from the land of the living, 
his life was taken from off the earth,' Isa. iv. 3, and liii. 8. (3.) As 
this goat was not killed, so ' Christ through the eternal Spirit offered 
up himself,' whereby he was made alive after death, Acts ix. 33 ; Heb. 
ix. 14; 1 Pet. iii. 18. Though Christ Jesus died for our sins accord- 
ing to his humanity, yet death could not detain him nor overcome him, 
nor keep him prisoner, Hosea xiii. 14, but, by virtue of his impassible 
deity, he rises again and triumphs over death and the grave, and over 
principalities and powers. Col. ii. 15. (4.) As this goat went into an 
inhabitable place,^ so Christ went into heaven — ' whither I go ye can- 
not come,' tfohn xiii. 33. Christ speaks this not to exclude his dis- 
ciples out of heaven, but only to shew that their entrance was put off 
for a time, ver. 36. Saints must not expect to go to heaven and rest 
with Christ till they have ' fought the good fight of faith, finished 
their course, run their race,' and ' served their generation.' 2 Christ's 
own children, by all their studies, prayers, tears, and endeavours, can- 
not get to heaven unless Christ come and fetches them thither. 
Christ's own servants cannot get to heaven presently nor of themselves, 
no more than the Jews could do. Now if you please to cast your eye 
upon the Lord Jesus, you will find an exact correspondency between 
the type and the antitype, the one fully answering to the other. Did 
they carry substitution in them ? that eminently was in Christ. He 
indeed substituted himself in the sinner's room ; he took our guilt 
upon him, and put himself in our place, and died in our stead ; he died 
that we might not die. Whatever we should have undergone, that he 
underwent in his body and soul ; he did bear as our avrl -\|rL»^09 aU the 
punishments and torments that were due to us. Christ's suffering, 
dying, satisfying in our stead, is the great article of a Christian's faith, 
and the main prop and foundation of the believer's hope. It is 
bottomed, as an eternal and unmovable truth, upon the sure basis of 
the blessed word. Substitution, in the case of the old sacrifices, is not 
so evidently held forth in the law, but substitution with respect to 
Christ and his sacrifice is more evidently set forth in the gospel. 
Ponder seriously upon these texts : Eom. v. 6, ' For when we were 
yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly ; ' 
ver. 8, ' For God commendeth his love towards us, in that while we 
were yet sinners Christ died for us.' Herein God lays naked to us the 
tenderest bowels of his Fatherly compassions, as in an anatomy.^ 
There was an absolute necessity of Christ's dying for sinners, for, 
(1.) God's justice had decreed it ; (2.) His word had foretold it ; 

^ The Elizabethan writers used inhahitaUe as the opposite of habitable.— d. 

«2 Tim. iv. 7, 8; Heb. x\\. 1 ; 1 Cor. ix. 24; Acts xiii. 36; John xiv. 1-3. 

' This shews us the greatness of man's sin and of Clirist's love, of Satan's malice and 
of God's justice; and it shews us the madness and blindness of the popish relisjioii, 
which tells us that some sins are so light and venial as that the Bprinkling ot holy water 
and ashes will purge them away. 



CHRIST CONSIDERED AS A COMMON HEAD. 255' 

(3.) The sacrifices iu the law had prefigured it ; (4.) The foulness of 
man's sin had deserved it ; (5.) The redemption of man called for it ; 
(6.) The glory of God was greatly exalted by it. So 1 Pet. iii. 18, 
' For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust.' 
To see Christ the just suffer in the stead of the unjust, is the wonder- 
ment of angels and the torment of devils : 1 Pet. iv. 1 , ' Forasmuch 
then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh,' &c,, that is, in the 
human nature, for the expiation and taking away of our sins ; 1 Pet. 
ii. 21, * Because Christ also suffered for us ; ' John x. 11, * I lay down 
my life for the sheep,' This good shepherd lays down life for life, his 
own dear life for the life of his sheep : John xi. 50, ' Nor consider that 
it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that 
the whole nation perish not,' that is, rather than the whole nation 
should perish. Caiaphas took it for granted, that either Christ or 
their nation must perish, and, as he foolishly thought, that of two evils 
he designed the least to be chosen, that is, that Christ should rather 
perish than their nation ; but God so guided his tongue that he un- 
wittingly, by the powerful instinct of the Spirit, prophesied of the fruit 
of Christ's death for the reconciliation and salvation of the elect of God. 
Heb. ii. 9, ' That he by the grace of God should taste death for every 
man,' inrep Trai^ro?, or for every creature. Who all these be, the con- 
text sheweth — (1.) Sons that must be led unto glory, ver. 10; 
(2.) Christ's brethren, ver. 11 ; (3.) Such children as are given by 
God unto Christ, ver. 13. In all which scriptures the preposition 
vTrep is used, which most commonly notes substitution, the doing or 
suffering of something by one in the stead and place of others, and so 
it is all along here to be taken. But there is another preposition, 
dvTL, that proves the thing I am upon undeniably: Mat. xx. 28, 
' Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to 
minister, and to give his life a ransom for many,' Xvrpov dvrl ttoX- 
Xcop. AvTpov signifies a redemptory price, a valuable rate ; for it 
was the blood of God wherewith the church was purchased. Acts 
XX. 28 : 1 Tim. ii, 6, ' Who gave himself a ransom,' dvriXvrpov, 
' for all.' The Greet: word signifies a counterprice, such as we could 
never have paid, but must have remained everlasting prisoners to the 
wrath and justice of God. sirs ! Christ did not barely deliver poor 
captive souls, but he delivered them in the way of a ransom, which 
ransom he paid down upon the nail. When their ransom was ten 
thousand talents, and they had not one farthing to lay down, Christ 
stands up in their room and pays the whole ransom, Mat, xviii. 24, 
Every one knows that avrl, in composition, signifies but two things, 
either opposition and contrariety, or substitution and commutation, 
Mat. V. 38 ; so that the matter will thus issue, that either we must 
carry it thus, that Christ ' gave himself a ransom against sinners,' than 
which nothing can be more absurd and false, or else thus, that he 
' gave himself a ransom in the room and stead of sinners,' which is as 
true as truth itself, John ii. 28, 29. Certainly no head can invent, no 
heart can conceive, nor no tongue can express more clear, plain, preg- 
nant, and apposite words and phrases for the setting forth of Christ's 
substitution, than is to be found in that golden chapter of Isaiah liii. 



256 CHRIST CONSIDERED AS A COMMON HEAD. 

In this chapter, as in a holy armoury, we may find, had I time to go 
through it, many pointed daggers, and two-edged swords, and shields 
of brass, to arm us against the corrupt notions and opinions of the 
blinded and deluded Socinians, who fight with all their might against 
the doctrine of Christ's substitution. Ver. 4, ' Surely he hath borne 
our griefs, and carried our sorrows,' &c. ; ver. 5, ' The chastisement of 
our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed ;' ver. 6, 
' The Lord hath laid on him the iniquities of us all ; ' or, ' the Lord 
hath made the iniquity of us all to meet on him ; ' ver. 7, ' He was 
oppressed and he was afilicted,' &c. ; or, as the words are rendered by 
some, ' It was exacted and he answered;' ver. 8, ' For the transgres- 
sion of my people he was stricken ;' ver. 11, ' For he shall bear their 
iniquities ;' ver. 12, * And he bare the sin of many.' All men of 
worth and weight conclude that all this is spoken of the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Now what more clear and evident proofs can there be of 
Christ's susception, of the sinner's guilt, and of his bearing the punish- 
ment due for it ? The priests of old, you know, are said to bear the 
iniquity of the people : Lev. x. 17, ' God hath given it you to bear the 
iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the 
Lord.' The sinner bears his iniquity subjectively, the priest typically, 
and the Lord Christ really : Exod. xxviii. 38, ' That Aaron may bear 
the iniquity of the holy things.' Herein the high priest was a type of 
Christ ; answerable to which the prophet Isaiah tells us that Christ, our 
high priest, had the iniquities of all believers laid upon him, and that 
he bare them in his own person, Heb. iv. 14, 15 ; so the apostle, Heb. ix. 
28, ' So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many,' &c., avevey- 
Kelv d/iapTia<i. It is an allusion to the priests who carried up the 
sacrifice, and with it the sins of the people, to the altar. Christ our 
priest did cany up the sins of his people upon the cross, and there 
made satisfaction for them, in their room or stead, by the sacrifice of 
himself ; and that scripture is more worth than the Indies — viz., 1 
Pet. ii. 24, ' Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the 
tree,' avijvejKev, 'he bare them aloft' — viz., whe^ he climbed up his 
cross, and nailed them thereunto, Col. ii. 13-15. Christ in the human 
nature, when he was upon the cross, did suffer all the punishments and 
torments that were due to our sins ; he cancelled all bonds, annihilated 
the curse ; in which respects he is said ' to bear our sins in his own 
body on the tree.' But to prevent prolixity I shall produce no more 
scriptures, though many more might have been produced, to prove 
Christ a common person, a representative head of all his elect ; and 
that he did really substitute himself in their room, and took upon 
himself their guilt, and put himself in their place, and did undergo 
whatever they should have undergone. 

Now from all these considerations, a child of God may form up this 
sixth plea as to the ten scriptures in the margin, i that refer to the 
great day of account, or to a man's particular account. blessed God, 
Jesus Christ ivas a common person, a representative head : I am to 
he considered in him, loho is my surety, and therefore he is hound to 
pay all my debts : and as he is a common person and stood in my 

1 Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14 ; Mat. xii. 14, and xviii. 23 ; Luke xvi. 3; Rom. iv. 10 j 2 
Cor. V. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17, and 1 Pet. iv. 5. 



THE SURETYSHIP OF CHRIST CONSIDERED OF. 257 

stead, 80 the satisfaction that is made unto tliy justice hy him, is m 
law to be accounted mine, as really as if my attorney should pay a 
debt for me: and therefore, I must rest satisfied that the debt is paid, 
and in law shall never be exacted of me ; though it loas not paid by 
myself in person, but by another ivho did personate me in tJiat act, and 
did it for me and in my behalf Christ was a common person, per- 
sonating as a second Adam, the first Adam and all his posterity ; 
offering the same nature for sin, which fell by sin from the pattern of 
perfection, God himself. ' By man came death, and by man came the 
resurrection from the dead,' 1 Cor. xv. 21 ; man for man, person for per- 
son, nature for nature, and name for name. There are two roots out of 
which life and death springs. (1.) As all that die receive their death- 
wounds by the disobedience of the first Adam; so all that live receive life 
from the obedience of the second Adam. (2.) As all die who are the sons 
of the first Adam by natural generation ; so all live, who are the sons of 
the second Adam through spiritual regeneration. holy and blessed 
God, thou hast set up Jesus Christ as a common person, as the repre- 
sentative head of all thy elect, and I am to be considered in that com- 
mon head ; and all that he has done as my head, and in my stead and 
room, is to be reckoned to me, as if I had done it in my own person, 
and by this plea I will stand, rejoice, and triumph. Upon this God 
accepts of the plea, as sound and good, and saith to him that pleads 
it, ' enter thou into the joy of thy Lord,' Mat. xxv. 21. 

VII. The seventh plea that a believer may form up, as to the ten 
scriptures formerly cited, that refer to the great day of account, or to 
a man's particular account, may be drawn from the consideration of 
Christ's suretyship. Christ is called a surety : Heb. vii. 22, ' By so 
much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament.' The Greek word 
''E<y'yvo<i, sponsor, fidejussor, prces, a surety, a pledger, is very signi- 
ficative, being derived, as some think, from yvibv, an hand, as it were 
iv 'yvLol<f, in hands, because the security or pledge is given in hand.l A 
surety is properly one that willingly promiseth and undertakes to pay 
and discharge the debt, if the debtor fail, and be not able to make 
satisfaction himself. Thus Paul willingly and spontaneously, from 
the love he had to his new convert Onesimus, promised and undertook 
to make satisfaction to Philemon, for any wrong that Onesimus had 
done him : Philem. 18, 19, ' If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee 
aught, put it upon mine account ; I Paul have written it with mine 
own hand, I will repay it,' i.e., account Onesimus his debt to Paul, 
and Paul's satisfaction or payment to Onesimus ; which answers the 
double imputation in point of justification, that is, of our sins or debts 
to Christ, and of Christ's satisfaction to us. Consider Christ as a 
surety, and so he hath fully paid all our debts, and set us perfectly 
free for ever. A surety is one that enters into bond, and engages him- 
self for the debt of another ; and so Christ is become our surety. 
Therefore he was bound by our bond, and engageth himself for the 

^ Our English translation hath it, ' Of a better testament,' but not so fitly, because, 
properly, a testament, neither useth nor needeth to have a surety, as a covenant doth., 
Beza therefore justly blameth both Erasmus and the Vulgar translation, for rendering it 
* testament;' for that a surety is not added in testaments ; and it should be added, howj 
can the same be both a testator and a surety ? So that this word * surety,' hath refer- 
ence properly to a covenant, and.not to a testament 

VOL. V. S 



258 THE SURETYSHIP OF CHRIST COXSIDERED OF. 

debt of another. For our debt he was made uuder the law, and so as 
a sacrifice, he stood in the stead of a sinner, and the sacrifice was to 
be offered for the man ; and so some exponnd that place, ' He was 
made sin for us,' 2 Cor. v. 21, that is, a sin-offering ; therefore he doth 
take our sins upon him as his own, Isa. liii. ; and so the Lord doth im- 
pute them and lay them upon him as his own : ver. 6, ' He did make 
to meet upon him the iniquities of us all.' The original word here 
used comes from J^JE) pagang, which word in its native propriety in- 
tends a kind of force or violence, impetum fecit, they met with all their 
violence upon him, and therefore ' he was made sin for us,' that is, as a 
surety in our stead, ' he did bear our sins in his body upon the tree ; he 
was delivered for our transgressions.' Our surety hath paid all our 
debts. ' The chastisement of our peace was upon him, and it pleased 
the Father to bruise him,' Isa. liii. 5, 10. The original word signifies to 
break him to pieces as in a mortar. By the great things that our 
surety has done for us, and the great things that he hath suff'ered for 
us, he hath given most perfect and complete satisfaction both to his 
Father's law, and to his Father's justice ; and this pleased the Father. 
Weigh well that. Col. ii, 14, ' He blotted out the handwriting of 
ordinances that was against us, that was contrary unto us, and took it 
out of the way, nailing it to his cross.' ^ Christ hath crossed out the 
black lines of our sin with the red lines of his own blood. The Greek 
word 'xeLp6'ypa<j>ov, i.e., the handwriting, some do take here for a 
writing written with God's own hand in tables of stone, as the law of 
the ten commandments were, Exod. xxxiv. 1 ; and this is by them 
understood of the moral law, or of the ten commandments, which are 
said to be against us, in respect of their strict requiring of perfect 
obedience, or in default thereof, by reason of its curse, which Christ as 
our surety hath borne for us on the cross, and delivered us from it. Gal. 
iii. 10, 13. But others by this handwriting do understand the law of 
the ceremonies of the Old Testament. In the general, it was some- 
thing that God had against us ; to shew or convince, or prove, that we 
had sinned against him, and were his debtoi's. I suppose that this 
handwriting was principally the moral law, obliging us unto perfect 
obedience, and condemning us for the defect of the same, and likewise 
those ceremonial rites, which, as Beza observes, were a kind of public 
confession of our debts. Now these were against, and contrary unto 
us, inasmuch as they did argue us guilty of sin and condemnation, 
which the moral law threatened and sentenced, &c., but saith the 
apostle, ' Christ hath blotted out the handwriting, and hath taken it 
out of the way and nailed it to his cross,' that is, Jesus Christ hath not 
only abrogated the ceremonial law, but also the damnatory power of 
the moral law, as our surety, by performing an act of obedience which 
the law did require, and by undergoing the punishment which the law 
did exact from the transgressors of it ; and so Christ doing and suffer- 
ing, what we were bound to do and to suffer, he did thereby blot out 
the handwriting, and cancelled it ; and therefore we may safely con- 

' Some by the handwriting do understand the covenant of God with Adam. Beza 
and Calvin do understand it of the ceremonial law. But, saith Chrysostom, ' It is meant 
not onlj' of the ceremonial law, but also of the moral law, as a covenant of works.' 
CEcumenius, Jerome, and otliers, are of the same opinion. But, eaith Zanchy, ' This is 
spoken to comfort the Colossiaiis, who were never under the ceremonial law.' 



THE SURETYSHIP OF CHRIST CONSIDERED OF. 259 

elude, tliat tlie creditor is fully satisfied, when he gives in his bond to 
be cancelled. There are two ways of cancelling a bond, laceratione 
et liturd. Here it is blotted out, and can be read no more than if it 
had never been ; the obligatory power of the law as a covenant is taken 
away. God delivered his people from Pharaoh by force, and from 
Babylon by favour ; but that deliverance that Christ, as our surety, 
hands out to us, from sin, from wrath, from hell, from the curse, and 
from the moral law as it is a covenant of works, is obtained jws/'o pretio 
soluto, by paying a full price ; by which one becomes satisfied, and 
another thereupon delivered : Heb. ix. 26, ' He hath appeared to put 
away sin by the sacrifice of himself ;' to put away sin, Dan. ix. 24, is 
to abolish or make void the guilt or obUgation of sin, whereby it binds 
over unbelievers to condemnation ; to put away sin is to abrogate it, 
it is to bind it up in a bundle, to seal it up in a bag, to cast it behind 
him, as cancelled obligations, Isa. xxxviii. 17; Micah vii. 19 ; it is to blot 
out the black handwriting with the red lines of his blood drawn over it ; 
so that sin has no force, no power to accuse or condemn, or shut such 
poor souls out of heaven, who have that Jesus for their surety, that 
made himself a sacrifice to put away sin. Christ as our surety laid 
down a satisfactory price, not only for our good, but also in our stead 
or room : 1 Pet. iii. 18, ' Christ also hath suffered for sin, the just for 
the unjust, that he might bring us to God.' What the unjust sinner 
should have suff'ered, that the just Christ suffered for him : 1 Cor. v. 21 , 
' He was made sin for us ;' that is, an ofi'ering, a sacrifice in our stead, 
for the expiation of our sins: ' Christ was made a curse for us,' Gal. iii. 13. 
Now Christ's becoming a curse for us stands in this, that whereas we 
are all accursed by the sentence of the law because of sin, he now comes 
into our room, and stands under the stroke of that curse which of right 
belongs to us ; so that it lies not now any longer on the backs of poor 
sinners, but on him for them and in their stead ; therefore he is called 
a surety, Heb. vii. 22. The surety stands in the room of a debtor, 
malefactor, or him that is any way obnoxious to the law. Such is 
Adam and all his posterity. We are, by the doom of the law, evil- 
doers, transgressors ; and upon that score we stand indebted to the 
justice of God, and lie under the stroke of his wrath. Now the Lord 
Jesus Christ seeing us in this condition, he steps in and stands between 
us and the blow ; yea, he takes this wrath and curse off from us unto 
himself; he stands not only or merely after the manner of a surety 
among men in the case of debt, for here the surety enters bond with 
the principal for the payment of the debt, but yet expects that the 
debtor should not put him to it, but that he should discharge the debt 
himself, he only stands as a good security for the debtor : no, Christ 
Jesus doth not expect that we should pay the debt ourselves, but he 
takes it wholly upon himself. As a surety for a murderer or traitor, 
or some other notorious malefactor that hath broken prison and is run 
away, he lies by it body for body, state for state, and undergoes what- 
soever the malefactor is chargeable withal for satisfying the law ; even 
so the Lord Jesus stands surety for us runagate malefactors, making 
himself liable to all that curse that belongs to us, that he might both 
answer the law fully, and bring us back again to God. As the first 
Adam stood in the room of all mankind fallen, so Christ, the second 



260 THE SURETYSHIP OF CHRIST CONSIDERKD OF. 

Adam, stands in the room of all mankind that are to be restored ; he 
sustains the person of all those which do spiritually descend from him, 
and unto whom he bears the relation of a head. When God appointed 
his dearest Son to be a surety for us, and charged all our debts upon 
liim, and required an exact satisfaction to his law and justice, inso- 
much that he would not abate the Son of his love one farthing-token 
of the debt, he did demonstrate a greater love to justice than if he 
had damned as many worlds as there are men in the world. Oh, let 
us never cast an eye upon Christ's suretyship, but let us stand and 
wonder, yea, let us be swallowed up in a deep admiration of Christ's 
love, and of his Father's impartial justice ! Ah, what transcendent 
wisdom also does here appear in reconciling the riches of mercy and 
infinite justice both in one by the means of a surety !, If all the angels 
in heaven, and all the men on earth, had been put to^answer these ques- 
tions. How shall sin be pardoned ? How shall the sinner be reconciled 
and saved ? How shall the wrath of God be pacified ? How shall the 
justice of God be satisfied ? How shall the redemption of man be 
brought about, in such a way whereby God may be most eminently 
glorified ? they could never have answered the questions. But God, 
in his infinite wisdom, hath found out a way to save sinners, not only 
in a way of mercy and grace, but in a way of justice and righteous- 
ness ; and all this by the means of Christ's suretyship, as hath been 
already declared. 

Now, from the consideration of Christ's suretyship, a believer may 
form up this seventh, safe, comfortable, and blessed plea as to the ten 
scriptures formerly cited, that refer to the great day of account, or to 
a man's particular account: blessed Father, remember that thine 
oivn Son was my ransom, Ms blood was the price; he ivas my surety, 
and undertook to ansiver for my sins. I knoio, blessed God, that 
thou must be satisfied, but remember my surety hath satisfied thee; not 
for himself for he was holy and harmless, a lamb tvithout a spot ; but 
for me. They loere my debts he satisfied for; and look over thy books, 
and thou shall find that he hath cleared all accounts and reckonings 
between thee and me.^ The guilt of all my sins have been imputed to 
my surety, loho did present himself in my stead, to make full payment 
and satisfaction to thy justice. As Paul said to Philemon, ver. 18, 
concerning his servant Onesimus, * If he hath wronged thee, or oweth 
thee anything, put it upon my account,' so saith Christ to the penitent 
and believing soul, If thou hast any guilt, any debt to be answered for 
unto God. put them all upon my account. If thou hast wronged my 
Father, I*will make satisfaction to the uttermost : for I was made sin 
for thee, Isa. liii. 12 ; 2 Cor. v. 21. I poured out my soul for thy 
transgressions. It cost me my heart's blood to reconcile thee to my 
Father, and to slay all enmity, Acts xx. 28. And as Kebekah said 
to Jacob in another case, ' Upon me, my son, be the curse,' Gen. 
xxvii. 13, so saith Christ to the believing soul, Why, thy sins did ex- 
pose thee unto the curse of the law, but I was made a curse for thee, 
Gal. iii. 13. I did bear that burden myself upon the cross, and upon 
my shoulders were all thy griefs and sorrows borne ; I was wounded 

^ When a man marries a woman, with her person he takes her debts and Batiafaction 
too ; BO does Christ when he takes ua to bo his, he takes our sins also to be his. 



THE SURETYSHIP OF CHRIST CONSIDERED OF. 261 

for thy transgressions, and I was bruised for thy iniquities, Isa, liii. 
4-8, 10 ; and therefore we are said to have ' redemption and remission 
of sins in his blood,' Eph. i. 7. blessed God ! thou knowest that a 
surety doth not pay the debt only for the debtor's good, but as stand- 
ing in the debtor's stead, and so his payment is reckoned to the debtor. 
And thus the case stands between Christ and my soul ; for, as my 
surety, he hath paid all my debts, and that very payment that he hath 
made, in honour and justice, thou art obliged to accept of as made in 
my stead. dearest Father ! that Jesus, who is God-man, as my 
surety, he hath done all that the law requireth of me, and thereby he 
hath freed me from wrath to come, and from the curse that was due to 
me for my sins, 1 Thes. i. 10. This is my plea, holy God, and by 
this plea I shall stand. Hereupon God declares, This plea I accept 
as just and good, and therefore ' enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.' 

Christian reader, I have gone as far in the opening and clearing up 
of those grand points of the gospel that have fallen under our con- 
sideration as I judge meet at this time. By the title-page thou 
mayest safely conclude, that I have promised much more than in this 
treatise I have performed ; but be but a little patient, and by divine 
assistance, I shall make sure and full payment. The covenant of 
grace, and the covenant of redemption, with some other points of high 
importance, I shall present to thee in the second part, which will be the 
last part. In this first part I don't offer thee that which cost me nothing. 
I desire that all the interest thou hast in heaven may be so fully and 
duly improved, that this first part may be so blest from on high, as 
that saints and sinners may have cause to bless God to all eternity, 
for what is brought to hand ; and beg hard, that the other part, 
which is drawn up and fitted for the press, may also be crowned with 
many blessings. Hereby thou wilt put a high obligation upon the 
author, to do all he can, to be yet a little further serviceable to thy 
soul and others', to thy salvation and others', before he goes hence and 
shall be seen no more.i 

^ Appended here is a list of Errata, all of which have been carefully attended to — The 
note may be given : — ' There are sundry other mistakes in pointings, changes, and trans- 
positions of letters, misfiguring of pages, &c., besides. Some are omitted, because they 
do not much disturb the sense, others because they will not easily escape thy notice. 
Share the faults between the author's absence and the printer's negligence : and then 
correct before thou readest.' — We have endeavoured to make all the ' corrections ' thus 
generally indicated. — G. 



PARADISE OPENED. 



NOTE. 

Though 'Paradise Opened' makes a ' Second Part' to the 'Golden Key,' {ante,) it 
forms two separate treatises : one, * Paradise Opened,' having a lengthy ' Epistle Dedi- 
catory,' and occupying pp. 1-194; the other, 'A Word in Season,' having its own title- 
page and a long ' Epistle,' and occupying pp.' 3-223. The title-page of the former will 
be found below,* that of the latter in its own place. — G. 



* Paradice opened, 

OR THE 

SECREETS, MYSTERIES, 

AND 

RARITIES 

Of Divine Love, of Infinite Wisdom, and of 
Wonderful Counsel, laid open to Publick View. 



The Covenant of Grace, and the high and glorious Transactions of 
the Father and the Son in the Covenant of Redemption opened and improved 
at large, with the Resolution of divers important Questions and Cases concern- 
ing both Covenants. 

TOU HAVE FUETHEB, 



Several singular Pleas, that all sincere Christians may safely and 
groundedly make to those Ten Scriptures in the Old and New Testament, that 
speak of the general Judgment, and of that particular Judgment, that must 
certainly pass upon them all after Death. 

With some other Points of high Importance, that tend to the Peace, 
Comfort, Settlement and Satisfaction of all serious sincere Christians. 

To which is added a sober and serious Discourse, about the Favoura- 
ble, Signal and Eminent Presence of the Lord with his People in their greatest 
Troubles, deepest Distresses, and most deadly Dangers. 

Being the Second and Last Part of the Golden Key. 

By Thomas Brooks, late Preacher of the Gospel, at 
Margarets New Fishstreet. 

LONDON, 

Printed for Dorman Newman, at the King's Arms in the Poultry 

and at the Ship and Anchor at the Bridgfoot on 

S outhioar k-sido, 1675. 

[Ito.-G.] 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 



To his honoured friends, Sir John More, Knight and Alderman of 
the City of London ; and to his good Lady, Mary More, his most 
affectionate Consort. i 

The Father of all mercies, and the God of all blessings, bless you 
both with grace and peace here, and glory hereafter. 

Honoured Friends, — Christian friendship makes such a knot, that 
great Alexander cannot cut. It was well observed by Sir Francis 
Bacon,^ ' That old wood is best to burn, and old books best to read, 
and old friends best to trust. It was a witty saying of the Duke of 
Buckingham to Bishop Morton,3in Richard the III. his time, ' Faith- 
ful friends,' saith he, ' are in this age for the most part gone all in 
pilgrimage, and their return is uncertain.' ' They seem to take away 
the sun out of the world,' said the heathen orator,^ ' who take away 
friendship from the life of men, and we do not more need fire and 
water than true friendship.^ In this epistle I shall endeavour so to 
acquit myself as becomes a real friend, a cordial friend, a faithful 
friend, and a soul-friend, as to your great and everlasting concern- 
ments, that it may go well with you for ever and ever. 

Sir, The points that are handled in this following treatise, and in 
the first part, are of as high, choice, necessary, noble, useful, and com- 
fortable a nature, as any that can be treated on by mortal man. The 

^ More, or Moore, was elected Alderman of Walbiook ia 1671 ; served the office of 
Sheriff in 1672, and that of Lord Mayor in 1682. See Northoack's ' History of London,' 
(1773.) He was of the Grocers' Company. Buried in St Dunstan's-in-the-East, Thames 
Street. — Herbert's ' History of the Twelve Companies of London,' i. 330. — G. 

' Bacon's Works, by Spedding, vii. 139. Apophthegms, No. 97 of edition of 1625, and 
75 of those printed in the liesuscitatio. Brooks quotes evidently from memory. The 
following is the passage : — •' Alonso of Arragon was wont to say in commendation of 
age, that age appeared to be best in four tilings : old wood best to burn ; old wine 
to drink ; old friends to trust ; and old authors to read.' — G. 

•^ Misprinted ' Monton.' A full account of Morton is to be found in Godwin dc 
PrcESulibus,' (ed. : Kichardson, p. 130.) He was John Morton, then Bishop of Ely, but 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury : and the above saying was probably uttered while 
the bishop was under Buckingham's wardship at Brecon, by command of Richard III. 
See Foss'a 'Judges of England,' v. 59. — G. * Cicero : de Amicitia. — G. 

* It is the saying of Euripides, ' That a faithful friend is better than a calm sea to a 
weather-beaten mariner.' [Orestes 717 chorus, ed. Porson ; cf. also two passages of the 
Andromache, 748, 749, and in 891.— G.] 



266 ' THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

four things which God minds most and loves most are, (1.) His 
honour. (2.) His worship. (3.) His people. (4.) His truth. 
Surely their souls must needs be of a very sad complexion who can 
read the great truths that are here opened and a])plied, and not (1.) 
dearly love them, (2.) highly prize them, (3.) cordially bless God for 
them, (4.) seriously ponder and meditate upon them, (5.) and not fre- 
quently and diligently study them, and make a gracious and daily 
improvement of them. 

The covenant of grace, and the covenant of redemption, are a rich 
armoury, out of which you may furnish yourselves with all sorts of 
spiritual weapons, wherewith 3'ou may encounter Satan's tempta- 
tions, wiles, devices, methods, depths, stratagems. Nothing of 
Satan's can stand before the covenant of grace and the covenant of 
redemption, well understood and well aj)plied, Eph.' vi. 11 ; 2 Cor. ii. 
11 ; Rev. ii. 24. 

In the covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption that is 
passed betwixt God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, i you will 
find many rich and rare cordials, which have a strong tendency to 
preserve all gracious souls from desponding and fainting: (I.) in 
times of afflictions ; (2.) in times of temptations ; (3.) in times of 
desertion ; (4.) in times of sufferings for Christ's sake and the gos- 
pel's sake ; (5.) in times of opposition ; (6.) and at the time of death 
and dissolution. There are no comforts nor cordials that can reach 
the souls of Christians in their deep distresses, but such as flow from 
these two covenants. The more it concerns nil such Christians to 
study these two covenants, and to be well acquainted with them, that 
so they may the more readily have recourse to such cordials as their 
present estate and condition calls for. 

In these two covenants you will find much matter which has a 
strong tendency (1.) to inflame your love to God and Christ, and all 
in the covenant of grace ; (2.) to strengthen your faith ; (3.) to raise 
your hopes ; (4.) to cheer your souls ; (5.) to quiet and satisfy your 
consciences ; (6.) to engage you to a close and holy walking with God ; 
(7.) to provoke you to triumph in free grace, and in the Lord Jesus 
Christ ; (8.) to sit loose from this world.2 The riches and treasures 
that are wrapt up in both these covenants are so great, so sure, so 
durable, and so suitable to all believers, as may well deaden their 
hearts to all the riches and glories of this lower world, Rev. xii. 1. 

In these two covenants every sincere Christian will find (1.) a spe- 
cial salve for every spiritual sore ; (2.) a special remedy against every 
spiritual malady ; (3.) a special plaster against every spiritual wound ; 
(4.) a spiritual magazine to supply all their spiritual wants ; and (5.) a 
spiritual shelter under every spiritual storm. In these two covenants you 
will find food to nourish you, a staff to support you, a guide to lead 
you, a fire to warm you, and springs of life to cheer and refresh you. 

In this covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption, you may 
clearly see the wisdom, counsel, love, and transactions between the 
Father and the Son sparkling and shining, there being nothing under 

' 2 Sam. xxiii. 5 ; Isa. liv. 9, 10 ; Jer. xxxii. 38-41 ; Zech. ix. 11 ; Heb. xiii. 20. 
' Ps. cxvi. 1-9, 16, and iii. ; 2 Sam. xxiii 5 ; Ps. ciii. 17, 18, and cxi. 5, 9, 17 ; 2 Cor. 
ii. 14; Gal. vi. 14. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 267 

heaven that contributes more to the peace, ; jmfort, assurance, settle- 
ment, and satisfaction of sincere Christians than such a sight, i The 
main reason why so many gracious souls are so full of fears, doubts, 
darkness, and disputes about their internal and eternal estates, is 
because they have no more clear and full understanding of these two 
covenants ; and if such Christians would but more seriously buckle to 
the study of those two covenants, as they are opened and applied in 
the following treatise, their fears and doubts, &c., would quickly 
vanish ; and they would have their triumphant* songs : their mourning 
would soon be turned into rejoicing, and their complaints into halle- 
lujahs. Neither do I know anything in all this world that would 
contribute more to seriousness, spiritualness, heavenliness, humbleness, 
holiness, and fruitfulness, than a right understanding of these two cove- 
nants, and a divine improvement of them. There are many choice 
Christians who have always either tears in their eyes, complaints in 
their mouths, or sighs in their breasts ; and oh that these, above all 
all others, would make these two covenants their daily companions ! 
Let these few hints^ suffice concerning the following treatise. 

Now, Sir John, I shall crave leave to put you and your lady a little 
in mind of your deceased and glorified father. 3 ' He is a true friend,' 
saith the Smyrnean poet of old, ' who continueth the memory of his 
deceased friend.' ^ When a friend of Austin's died, he professed ho 
was put into a great strait, whether he himself should be willing to 
live or willing to die : he was unwilling to live, because one half of 
himself was dead ; yet he was not willing to die, because his friend did 
partly live in him, though he was dead. Let you and I make the 
application as we see cause : your glorified father s name and memory 
remains to this day as fresh and fragrant as the Rose of Sharon — ■ 
Cant. ii. 1 — among all those that fear the Lord, and had the happi- 
ness of inward acquaintance with him. ' The memory of the just is 
blessed, but the name of the wicked shall rot,' Pro v. x. 7. In the 
original it is, ' The memory of the just njlll'? ^''^ benedictionem, shall 
be for a blessing ;' the very remembering of them shall bring a bless- 
ing to such as do remember them. ^ The moralists say of fame, or of 
a man's good name — 

Omnia si perdas famam servare memento, 
Quh semcl amissa postea nullus eris;® 

i.e, Whatsoever commodity you lose, be sure yet to preserve that jewel 
of a good name. 7 This jewel, among others, your honoured father 

' It was the saying of an eminent saint, on his death-bed, that he had much peace and 
quietness, not so much from a greater measure of grace than other Christians had, or 
from any immediate witness of the Spirit, but because he had a more clear understand- 
ing of the covenant of grace than many others, having studied it and preached it so 
many years as he had done. [Qu. William Strong? — G.] 

' Misprinted ' kinds,' — G. 

3 Ponder upon that Deut. xiii. 6 : Thy friend which is as thine own soul. 

* Qu. Homer ? Smyrna was one of the seven cities which claimed him. Strabo, I. c. 
Cicero, Arch. 8. — G. 

^ Memoriajwsti erit Celebris, ^o Batti. [Qu. Bernard ?—G.] Ego si bon am famam 
xenassj, sat dive.") ero. If I may but keep a good name, I have wealth enough, saith the 
hmthen— Plautus. * Claudian, De. Cons. Mall. Theod. v. 3.— G. 

' Ileb. xi. 13, 39. A good renown is better than a golden girdle, saith the French 
proverb. 



268 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 



carried with him to the grave — yea, to heaven. There is nothing 
raises a man's name and fame in the world like holiness. The seven 
deacons that the church chose were ' holy men,' Acts vi. 5 ; and they 
were men of ' good report/ ver. 3. They were men well witnessed unto, 
well testified of, as the Greek word imports, ^ Cornelius was a 'holy 
man,' Acts x. 1-4 ; and he was a man of * good report' among all 
the nation of the Jews, ver. 22. Ananias was a ' holy man,' Acts 
ix. 10, 20 ; and he was a man of a ' good report,' Acts xxii. 12. ' Caius 
and Demetrius were both ' holy men,' and of a ' good report ;' witness 
that Third Epistle of John. The patriarchs and prophets were * holy 
men,' and they were men of a ' good report,' Heb. xi. 1, 2 — * For by 
it the elders obtained a good report;' their holiness did eternalise 
their names. The apostles were ' holy men,' 1 Thes. ii. 10 ; and they 
were men of ' good report,' 2 Cor. vi. 8. Now certainly it is none of 
the least of mercies to be well reputed and reported of. Next to a 
good G-od and a good conscience, a good report, a good name, is the 
noblest blessing. _ It is no great matter, if a man be great and rich in 
the world, to obtain a great report ; but without holiness you can never 
obtain a good report. Holiness, uprightness, righteousness, will em- 
balm your names ; it will make them immortal : Ps. cxii. 6, ' The 
righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance/ Wicked men many 
times outlive their names, but the names of the righteous outlive them. 
Holy Abel hath been dead above this five thousand years, and yet his 
name is as fresh and fragrant as it was the first day he was made a 
martyr, 1 John iii. 12. When a sincere Christian dies, he leaves his ' 
name as a sweet and as a lasting scent behind him ; his fame shall 
live when he is dead. This is verified in your precious father, who is 
now ' asleep in Jesus,' 1 Thes. iv. 14. 

Now you both very well know that there was no Christian friend 
that had so great a room in his heart, in his affections, as I had, and 
you can easily guess at the reasons of it. Neither can you forget how 
frequently, both in his health, sickness, and before his death, he 
would be pressing of me to be a soul-friend to you, and to improve 
all the interest I had in heaven for your internal and eternal good, 
that he might meet you both in that upper world, Mat. xxv. 33, and 
that you might both be found with him at the right hand of Christ 
in the great day of the Lord. I know that your glorified father, 
whilst he was on earth, did lay up many a prayer for you in heaven! 
My desire and prayer is, that those prayers of his may return in 
mighty power upon both your hearts ; and having a fair opportunity 
now before me, I shall endeavour to improve it for the everiast- 
ing advantage of both yoUr souls; and therefore let my following 
counsel be not only accepted, but carefully, faithfully, and diligently 
followed by you, that so you may be happv here and blessed here- 
after. 

1. The first word of counsel is this : Let it be the principal care of 
both of you to look after the welfare of your precious and immortal 
souls. If your souls are safe, all is safe ; if they are well, all is well • 

*i ' Tv'jj ^'^^^'^J^s seldom write their king's name but in characters of gold. Throughout 
the Old and ^ew lestamente God haa written the names of just n^ftn in golden charac- 
ters, as I may speak. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 269 

but if they are lost, all is lost, and you lost and undone in both worlds.^ 
Christ, that only went to the price of souls, hath told us that one soul 
is more worth than all the world. Chrysostom well observeth, ' that 
whereas God hath given us many other things double — viz., two eyes 
to see with, two ears to hear with, two hands to work with, and two 
feet to walk with, to the intent that the failing of the one might be 
supplied with the other — he hath given us but one soul ; if that be 
lost, hast thou,' saith he, 'another soul to give in recompense for it?' Ah, 
friends ! Christ left his Father's bosom and all the glory of heaven for 
the good of souls ; he assumed the nature of men for the happiness of 
the soul of man ; he trod the wine-press of his Father's wrath for souls ; 
he prayed for souls ; he paid for souls, and he bled out his heart-blood 
for souls.2 The soul is the breath of God, the beauty of man, the 
wonder of angels, and the envy of devils. It is of an angelical nature ; 
it is a heavenly spark, a celestial plant, and of a divine offspring, 
1 Pet. V. 8. Again, weigh well to Xvrpov, 'the incomparable price,' 
which Christ paid for the redemption of the soul, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. 
What are the riches of the East or West Indies, the spoil of the 
richest nations, rocks of diamonds, mountains of gold, or the price of 
Cleopatra's draught, to the price that Christ laid down for souls I 
1 John i. 4, 12, and Heb. xxii. 23. The soul is a spiritual substance, 
capable of the knowledge of God, of union with God, of communion 
with God, "and of an eternal fruition of God. There is nothing can 
suit the soul below God, nor nothing that can satisfy the soul without 
God, nor nothing that can save the soul but God. The soul is so 
choice, so high, and so noble a piece, that it divinely scorns all the 
world in point of acceptation, justification, satisfaction, delectation, and 
salvation. Christ made himself an offering for sin, that souls might 
not be undone by sin. The Lord died that slaves might live ; the Son 
died that servants might live ; the natural Son died that adopted sons 
might live ; the only-begotten Son died that bastards might live ; yea, 
the judge died that malefactors might live, Heb. ix. 11-14, and x. 10, 14 ; 
Gal. iv, 4-6 ; Heb. ii. 8. Ah, friends ! as there was never sorrow like 
Christ's sorrow, so there was never love like Clirist's love, and of all 
his love none to that of soul-love, Isa. liii. 3, and Gal. ii. 20. To 
say much in a little room, the spiritual enemies which daily war 
against the soul, the glorious angels which hourly guard the soul, and 
the precious ordinances which God hath appointed as means both to 
convert and nourish the soul, [shew forth that love,] Eph. vi. 11, 12 ; 
1 Pet. ii. 11 ; Kom. x. 17 ; 1 Cor. xi. 23-27. The soul is capable of 
' a crown of life,' Rev. ii. 10 ; of ' a crown of glory,' 1 Pet. v. 4 ; of ' a 
crown of righteousness,' 2 Tim. iv. 8; of 'an incorruptible crown,' 
1 Coi'. ix. 25. The crowns of earthly princes stand as a sophister's-^ 
cap, on one side of the head. Many may say of their crowns as that 
king said of his, crown, more noble than happy 1^ In the time of 
Galienus the emperor. Anno Christo 260, there were thirty competi- 

^ Mat. xvi. 26. The soul is a greater miracle in man than all the miracles wrought 
amongst men, saith Augustine. 

* Isa. Ixiii. 3 ; John ivii. ; Luke xxiii. 34; Mat. xivi. 28. 

* ' Sophieter,' a 'pretender to wisdom,' but here probably a University term for an 
undergraduate of a given (early) standing. — Q. 

* Queen Elizabeth was said to «wim to her crown through a Eea of sorrow. 



270 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

tors on foot for the Koman crown and throne, who confounded and 
destroyed one another. A princely crown is oftentimes the mark for 
envy and ambition to shoot at. Henry the Sixth was honoured with 
the crowns of two kingdoms, France and England ; the first was lost 
through the faction of his nobles, the other was twice plucked from 
his head. Earthly crowns have so many cares, fears, vexations, and 
dangers that daily attend 'them, that oftentimes they make the heads 
and hearts of monarchs ache, which made Cyrus say, ' You look upon 
my crown and my purple robes, but did you but know how they were 
lined with thorns, you would not stoop to take them up.' ^ But the 
crowns that immortal souls are capable of are crowns without crosses ; 
they are not attended with care of keeping or fear of losing ; there are 
no evil persons nor evil spirits that haunt those crowns. Darius, that 
great monarch, fleeing from his enemies, he threw away the crown of 
gold from his head that he might run the faster ; but a sincere Chris- 
tian is in no danger of losing his crown, 2 Tim. iv. 8. His crown is 
laid up in a safe hand, in an omnipotent hand, 1 Pet. i. 5. Now what 
do all these things speak out but the preciousness and excellency of 
the soul ? Once more, the excellency of the case or cabinet — viz., the 
body — intimates a more than ordinary excellency of this jewel. The 
body is of all materials the most excellent. How does David admire 
the rare texture and workmanship of his body ! ' I am wonderfully 
made ; I was curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth,' Ps. 
cxxxix. 13, 15. When curious workmen have some choice piece in 
hand, they perfect it in private, and then bring it forth to the light 
for men to gaze at. So here, the greatest miracle in the world is 
man, in whose very body — how much more in his soul ! — are miracles 
enough, betwixt head and feet, to fill a volume. One complains that 
men much wonder at the high mountains of the earth, the huge 
waves of the sea, the deep falls of rivers, the vastness of the ocean, 
and at the motions of the stars, &c., but wonder not at all at their 
wonderful selves.^ G-alen, a profane physician and a great atheist, 
writing of the excellent parts of man's body, he could not choose but 
sing an hymn to that God, whosoever he were, that was the author of so 
excellent and admirable a piece of work ; he could not but cry out, 'Now 
I adore the God of nature.' 3 Now if the cabinet be so curiously wrought, 
what is the jewel that is contained in it ! Oh, how richly and gloriously 
is the soul embroidered ! How divinely inlaid and enamelled is that ! 
Princes impress their images or effigies upon the choicest metals, viz., 
"•old and silver. God hath engraven his own image with his own 
hand upon angels and men, Gen. i. 26, [Damascene.] The soul is 
the glory of the creation, a beam of God, a spark of celestial bright- 
ness, a vessel of honour, a bird of paradise, a habitation for God. 
The soul is spiritual in its essence ; God breathed it in ; God hath 
invested it with many noble endowments ; he hath made it a mirror 
~ beauty, and printed upon it a surpassing excellency. The soul is 

'rov. xxvii. 4, ' Doth the crown endure to all generations' — Heb., to generation and 
^^"ition ?• 

. ^ Mstin. The Stoic thought it was better to be a fool in the form of a man than 
^^se i/the shape of a beast. 

' C/.idbbes, vol. v. 144, and note hb, 154. Correct the reference in index of Sibbea 
"** 'er Ga.en from 54 to 154.— G. 

1 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 271 

spiritual in its oLject ; it contemplates God and heaven. God is the 
orb and centre where the soul doth fix.i God is the terminus ad quern, 
the soul moves to him as to his rest, ' Keturn to thy rest, my soul' 
This dove can find no rest hut in this heavenly ark.2 Nothing can 
till the soul but God, nothing can quiet the soul but God, nothing 
can satisfy the soul but God, nothing can secure the soul but God, 
nothing can save the soul but God. The soul being spiritual, God 
only can be the adequate object of it. The soul is spiritual in its 
operations. It l)eing immaterial, doth not depend upon the body in 
its working. The rich and rare endowments, and the noble o])era- 
tions of the soul, speak out the excellency of the soul. The soul, 
saith one, [Aristotle.] hath a nature distinct from the body ; it moves 
and operates of itself, though the body be dead, and hath no depend- 
ence upon, or co-existence with, the body. The soul hath an intrinse- 
cal principle of life and motion, though it be separate from the body. 
And doth not the immortality of the soul speak out the excellency of 
the soul, against that dangerous notion of the soul's mortality? 
Consult the scriptures in the margin,-^ and seriously and frequently 
think of this one argument, among a multitude of arguments that 
might be produced to prove the immortality of the soul. That which 
is not capable of killing is not capable of dying ; but the soul is not 
capable of killing, ergo. Our Lord Jesus proves the minor proposition, 
that it is not capable of killing : Luke xii. 4, ' Fear not them that kill 
the body, and after that have no more that they can do.' Therefore 
the soul, not being capable of killing, is not in a ])0^sibiIity of dying. 
The essence of the soul is metaphysical : it hath a beginning, but no 
end; it is eternal a parte post; it runs parallel with eternity. The 
soul doth not wax old ; it lives for ever, which we cannot affirm of 
any sublunary created glory. To conclude this first word of counsel, 
what Job saith of wisdom, I may fitly apply to the soul, * Man knows 
not the price thereof ; it cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, with 
the precious onyx, or the sapphire, the gold and crystal cannot equal it, 
and the exchange of it shall not be for jewels of fine gold,' Job xxviii. 
13, 16, 17. O my friends, it is the greatest wisdom, policy, equity, 
and justice, to provide for your precious souls, to secure your precious 
souls ; for they are jewels of more worth than ten thousand worlds. 
All the honours, riches, greatness, and glory of this world are but 
chips, toys, and pebbles to these glorious pearls. But, 

2. The second word of counsel is this, as you would be safe here, 
and saved in the great day of the Lord, as you would be happy here, 
and blessed hereafter, take up in nothing heloiv a gracious acquaint- 
ance ivith Christ, a choice acceptation of Christ, a holy reliance upon 
Christ, a full resignation of yourselves to Christ, and a real and glori- 
ous union with Christ, Acts ii. 20 ; Job xxii. 21 ; 1 Tim. i. 15 ; Job 
xiii. 15; 2 Cor. ii. 11. If you do, you are lost and undone in both 
W(Hlds. 

[1.] First, Some take up in a name to live when they are dead, Rev. 

1 Gen. ii. 7; Heb. lii. 9; ilccles. xii. 7; Zech. lii. 1; Ps. cxvi. 7; John xiv. 8; Ps. 
xvii. It). 

* ' Lord,' saith Austin, ' thou hast made us for thyself, and our heart is unquiet till it 
comes unto tliyself.' [Confessions, as before. — G.] 

•» Luke xxiii. 43; 1 Thes. iv. 17, 18; Phil. i. 23; Aft? vii. 59. 



272 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

iii. 1, dead in trespasses and sins, Eph. ii. 1, dead Grodwards, and dead 
Christwards, and dead heavenwards, and dead holinesswards. The 
Sadducees derive their name from Zeduchim or Zadducjeus, a just 
man. But the worst men, saith the historian, got the best names. 
The Alcoran of the Turks hath its name from brightness, Al,^ in the 
Arabic, being as much as Kazan in the Hebrew, ' to shine' or * cast 
forth in brightness,' when it is full of darkness, and fraught with false- 
hoods. It will be but a poor comfort to any for the world to com- 
mend them as gracious, if God condemn them as graceless ; for the 
world to commend them as pious, if Grod condemn them as impious ; 
for the world to commend them as sincere, if God condemn them as 
hypocrites. But, 

[2.] Secondly, Some take up in a form of godliness when they are 
strangers to the power, 2 Tim. iii. 5 ; when they deny, yea, when 
they oppose and persecute, the power. Such monsters this age hath 
abounded with ; but their seeming goodness is but a religious cheat, 
Acts xiii. 45, 50. 

[3.] Thirdly, There are some that take up in their religious duties and 
services ; in their praying, fasting, prophesying, hearing, receiving ; 
they make a God, a Christ, a Saviour of their own duties and services. 
This was the undoing and damning sin of the Scribes and Pharisees, 
and is the undoing and damning sin of many thousands in our days. 
Mat. vii. 22; Luke xviii. 12, xiii. 26, and xvi. 15; Ezek. xxxiii. 31, 32. 

[4.] Fourthly, There are many that take up in their common gifts 
and parts ; in a gift of knowledge, and in a gift of teaching, and in a 
gift of utterance, and in a gift of memory, and in a gift of prayer, and 
this proves ruinous and destructive to them, Mat. vii. 22 ; Kom. ii. 
17-24 ; 1 Cor. xii. ; Heb. vi. 4, 5. 

[5.] Fifthly, There are many that take up in their riches, pro- 
sperity, and ivorldly grandeur and glory: Prov. xviii, 11, 'The 
rich man's wealth is his strong city.' It is hard to have wealth, and 
not trust to it, Mat. xix. 24. Wealth was never true to those that 
trusted it. There is an utter uncertainty in riches, 1 Tim. vi. 17 ; a 
nonentity, Prov. xxiii. 5, 6 ; an impotency to help in an evil day, 
Zeph. i. 18 ; an impossibility to stretch to eternity, unless it be to 
destroy the owner for ever,2 Prov. x. 15 ; Ps. Ixxiii. 19 ; Mat. xx. 26. 
There is nothing more clear in Scripture and historyjthan that riches, 
prosperity, and worldly glory hath been commonly their portion who 
never have had a God for their portion, Luke xvi. 25. It was an 
excellent saying of Lewis of Bavaria, emperor of Germany : Hujus- 
modi comparandce sunt opes, qiice cum naufragio simul enatent, Such 
goods are worth getting and owning as will not sink or wash away if 
a shipwreck happen. 3 Solus sapiens dives, Only the wise man is the 
rich man, saith the philosopher. Another saith, [Augustine,] Divitioi 
corporales paupertatis plence sunt, That earthly riches are full of 
poverty, they cannot enrich the soul; for oftentimes under silken 
apparel there is a threadbare soul. 

. ^ Query, * Koran ' ? Alis simply the definite article, the. — Ed, 

* DivitibiLS ideo pietas deest, quia nihil dtest, Rich men's wealth proves an hin- 
drance to their happiness, Eccles. v. 13 ; James v. 1, 2. 

* Riches are called thick clay, Hab. ii. C, which will sooner break the back than 
lighten the heart. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 273 

He that is rich in conscience sleeps more soundly than he that is 
richly clothed in purple. 

No man is rich which cannot carry hence that which he hath ; that 
which we must leave liehind us is not ours but some other's, [Am- 
brose, lib. 8, ep. 10.] 

The shortest cut to riches is by their contempt. It is great riches 
not to desire riches, and he hath most that covets least. If there were 
any happiness in riches, the gods would not want them, saith the same 
author, [Seneca.] 

When one was a-commending the riches and wealth of merchants : 
I do not love that wealth, said a poor heathen, which hangs upon 
ropes ; for if they break, the ship miscarrieth, and then where is the 
merchant's riches ? 

If I had an enemy, saith one, whom it was lawful to wish evil unto, 
I would chiefly wish him great store of riches, for then he should 
never enjoy quiet, [Latimer.] 

The historian [Tacitus] observes, that the riches of Cyprus invited 
the Romans to hazard many dangerous fights for the conquering 
of it. 

Earthly riches, saith one, [Augustine,] are an evil master, a 
treacherous servant, fathers of flattery, sons of grief, a cause of fear 
to those that have them, and a cause of sorrow to those that w^ant 
them. 

I have read a famous storv of Zelimus, emperor of Constantinople, 
that after he had taken Egypt, he found a great deal of treasure there ; 
and the soldiers coming to him, and asking of him what they should 
do with the citizens of Egypt, for that they had found great treasure 
among them, and had taken their riches ? Oh, saith the emperor, 
hang them all up, for they are too rich to be made slaves ; and this 
was all the thanks they had for the riches they were spoiled of i 
What more contemptible than a rich fool, a golden beast, as Caligula 
called his father-in-law Syllanius ? ^ Not but that some are great and 
gracious, rich and righteous, as Abraham, Lot, Job, David, Heze- 
kiah, &c. 

It is said of Shusa in Persia, saith Cassiodorus, that it was so rich 
that the stones were joined together with gold ; and that in it Alex- 
ander found seventy thousand talents of gold. If you can take this 
city, saith Aristagorus^ to his soldiers, you may vie with Jove himself 
for riches. The riches of Shusa did but make the soldiers the more 
desperate in their attempt to take it. 

By these short hints you may see the folly and vanity of those men 
who take up in their riches. But, 

[6.] Sixthly, Many there are that take up in their own righteous- 
ness, which at best is hut as filthy rags, Isa. Ixiv. 6. This was the 
damning sin of the Jews, and of the scribes and Pharisees ; and is 
the undoing sin of many of the professors of this age, Rom. x. 2, 3 ; 
Mat. V. 20. 

' [Knolles] The Turkish History. The poets feigned Pluto to be the god of riches 
and hell, as if they were inseparable. — Homer. 
* Eather ' Silanus :' Dion Cass, Iviii. 25. — G. 

^ Eather ' Aristagoras' Herod :' iv. 138, v. 37, 38 : for Shusa rather ' Susa.' — Q. 
VOL. 8 



274 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

[7.] Seventhly, Many there are that take up in their external 
church privileges^ crying out, ' The temple of the Lord, the temple 
of the Lord,' Jer. vii, 4, 8-11, when they have no union nor com- 
munion with the Lord of the temple. These forget that there will 
come a day, when the ' children of the kingdom shall be cast out,' 
Mat. viii. 12. It would be very good for such persons to make these 
five scriptures their daily companions. Mat. xxii. 10, 12-14; Luke 
xiii. 25-28 ; Kom. ii. 28, 29 ; Gal. vi. 15 ; Jer. ix. 25, 26. That they 
may never dare to take up in their outward church privileges, which 
can neither secure them from hell, nor secure them of heaven. But, 

[8.] Eighthly, Many there be that take up in common convictions. 
Judas had mighty convictions of his sin, but they issued in despera- 
tion, Mat. xxvii. 4, 5. Balaam was mightily enlightened and con- 
vinced, insomuch that he desired to die the deatli of the righteous ; 
but under all his convictions he died Christless and graceless, Num. 
xxiii. and xxiv. Nebuchadnezzar had great convictions, Dan. iv. 
31, 32, yet we do not read that ever he was converted before he was 
driven from the society of men, to be a companion with the beasts of 
the field, Dan. iv. 31, 32. He had strong convictions, (1.) by Daniel's 
interpreting of his dream, Dan. ii. 47. (2.) He told Daniel, that ' his 
God was the God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of 
secrets;' and yet presently he fell into gross idolatry, Dan. iii., and 
strictly commanded to worship the golden image that he had set up ; 
and as if he had lost all his former conyictions, he was so swelled up 
with pride and impudence, as to say to the three children, when they 
divinely scorned to worship the image he had set up, ' What God is 
there that can deliver you out of my hand ?' ver. 15. Saul had great 
convictions, * I have sinned, return, my son David, I will no more do 
thee harm,' &c. And Saul lifted up his voice and wept ; and he said 
unto David, ' Thou art more righteous than I, for thou hast rewarded 
me good, whereas I have rewarded thee evil,' 1 Sam. xxvi. 21, 25, and 
xxiv. 16-19. But these convictions issued in no saving change, for 
after these he lived and died in the height of his sins. Pharaoh had 
great convictions : ' And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and 
Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the Lord is 
righteous, and I and my people are wicked.' And again, ' Then Pha- 
raoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste ; and he said, I have sinned 
against the Lord your God, and against you,' Exod. ix. 27, and x. 1 6. 
But these convictions issued in no reformation, in no sound conversion, 
and therefore drowning and damning followed. Cain was under convic- 
tions, but went and built a city, and lost his convictions in a crowd of 
worldly business, Gen. iv. Herod and Felix were under convictions, 
but they went off, and never issued in any saving work upon their 
souls, Mark vi. 20 ; Acts xxiv. 25. Oh, how many men and women 
have fallen under such deep convictions, that they have day and night 
cried out of their sins, and of their lost and undone estates, and that 
they should certainly go to hell and be damned for ever, so that many 
good people have hoped that these were the pangs of the new birth ; 
and yet either merry company, or carnal pleasures and delights, or 
much worldly business, or else length of time, have wrought off all 
their convictions, and they have grown more profane and wicked than 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 275 

ever they were before. As water heated, if taken off the fire, will soon 
return to its natural coldness, yea, becomes colder after heating than 
before, [Aristotle,] this hath been the case of many under convictions. 

1 shall forbear giving of particular instances. But, 

[9.] Ninthly, Many take up in an outwa7'd change and reformation; 
they have left some old courses and sinful practices which formerly 
they walked in, &c., and therefore they conclude and hope that their 
condition is good, and that all is well, and shall be for ever well with 
them. They were wont to swear, whore, be drunk, profane Sabbaths, 
reproach saints, &c. ; but now they have left all these practices, and 
therefore the main work is done, and they are made for ever. I con- 
fess sin is that abominable thing which God hates, Jer. xliv. 4, and 
therefore it is a very great mercy to turn from it. To leave one sin is 
a greater mercy than to win the whole world, Mat. xvi. 26 ; and it is 
certain that he that doth not outwardly reform shall never go to heaven, 
Job xxii. 23, 26. He that doth not leave his sins, he can never be 
happy here nor blessed hereafter ; and yet it is possible for a man, with 
Herod, to reform many things, and yet be a lost and undone man for 
ever, as he was, Mark vi. 20. Judas was a very reformed man, but he 
was never inwardly changed nor throughout sanctified, Mat. xxvi. 
20-22 ; 1 Thes. v. 23. The scribes and Pharisees were outwardly 
reformed, but they were not inwardly renewed. A man may be an- 
other man than what once he was, and yet not be a new man, a new 
creature. When a sinner is sermon-sick, oh, then he will leave his 
sins ; but when that sickness is off, he returns with the dog to his 
vomit, and with the sow to her wallowing in the mire, 2 Cor. v. 17 ; 

2 Pet. ii. 20, 22. Sometimes conscience is like the handwriting upon 
the wall, Dan. v. 5-8: it makes the sinner's countenance to change, and 
his thoughts to be troubled, and the joints of his loins to be loosed, and 
his knees to smite one against another. And now the sinner is all for 
reforming, and turning over a new leaf ; but when these agonies of con- 
science are over, the sinner returns to his old courses again, and often- 
times is twofold more a child of hell than before. Mat. xxiii. 15. There 
was a man in this city who was given up to the highest wickednesses; 
on his ,sick-bed conscience made an arrest of him, and he was filled 
with such wonderful horror and terror, that he cried out day and night 
that he was damned, he was damned, he was damned ; and when he 
had some small intervals, oh, what large promises did he make ! what 
a new man, a reformed man, he would be ! but when in time his 
terrors and sickness wrought off, he was sevenfold worse than before. 
Sometimes the awakened sinner parts with some sins to make room for 
others, and sometimes the sinner seems to give a bill of divorce to this 
sin and that, but it is only because his bodily strength fails him, or 
because he wants an opportunity, or because there is a more strict eye 
and watch upon him, or because the sword of the magistrate is more 
sharpened against him, or because 'he wants fuel, James iv. 3; he 
wants a purse to bear it out, or because some company, or some rela- 
tions, or some friends lie between him and his sins, so that he must 
either tread over them, or else keep from his sins ; or because he has 
deeply smarted for this sin, and that his name has been blotted, his 
credit and reputation stained, his trade decayed, his health impaired. 



276 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

his body wasted, &c., Prov. vi. 32-35. By these short hints it is evi- 
dent that men may attain to some outward reformation, whose states 
and hearts were never changed, and who were never taken into mar- 
riage union with Christ. But, 

[10.] Tenthly and lastly, Many take up in a party. As of old some 
cried up Paul as the only deep preacher, and others cried up Apollos 
as the only eloquent preacher, and many cried up Cephas as the most 
zealous preacher, 1 Cor. i. 10-13. We are for the Church of England, 
say some ; we are for the Baptized people, say others ; we are for the 
Presbyterian government, cry some ; we are for the Congregational 
way, cry others. I have so much ingenuity and charity, as to judge 
that some of all these several parties and persuasions are really holy 
and will be eternally happy, are gracious and will be glorious, are 
sanctified and will be saved, are now governed b;^ Christ and will be 
hereafter glorified with Christ. Judas was one of Christ's party, if I 
may so speak, and yet he had no part nor portion in Christ, Mat. xxvi. 
20-26. Demas was one of Paul's party, and yet he played the apos- 
tate, and turned an idolatrous priest at Thessalonica, as Dorotheus 
saith, 2 Tim, iv. 10.^ And Phygellus and Hermogenes were of Paul's 
party, but were only famous for their recidivation^ and apostasy, 
2 Tim. i. 15. Hymeneus and Alexander were of Paul's party, but 
they made shipwreck of faith and a good conscience, 1 Tim, i. 19, 20. 
The five foolish virgins were in society with the wise, and were 
accounted as members of their association, and yet the door of heaven 
was shut against them. Mat, xxv. 1, 2, 12. Many light, slight, and 
vdin persons went with the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, 
even a mixed multitude that embarked in the same bottom with them, 
and yet never arrived at the land of promise, Exod, xii, 38 ; Num. 
xi. 4. my friends, it is not a man's being of this party or that, this 
•church or that, this way or that, this society or that, that will bring 
him to heaven, without a spiritual conjunction with Christ, 1 Pet. i, 4; 
Heb. i. 2. He that would enjoy the heavenly inheritance must be 
espoused to Christ, the heir of all things : ' For he that hath the Son 
hath life, and he that hath not the Son hath not life,' 1 John v, 12. 
This marriage-union between Christ and the soul is set forth to the 
life throughout the book of Solomon's Song, Cant. ii. 16, Though 
the marriage-union between Christ and the soul be imperceptible to 
the eye of reason, yet it is real, 1 Cor. vi, 17. Things in nature often 
work insensibly, yet really. We do not see the hand move on the dial, 
yet it moves. The sun exhales and draws up the vapours of the earth 
■insensibly, yet really, Eccles, xi, 6. Now this marriage-union between 
Christ and the soul includes and takes in these following particulars : — 

First, This marriage-union between Christ and the soul does in- 
clude and take in the souVs giving a present hill of divorce to all other 
lovers ; sin, the world, and Satan. 3 Are you seriously and sincerely 
willing for ever to renounce these, and be divorced from these ? There 
is no compounding betwixt Christ and them. Sin and your souls 

^ As before, see foot-note and Index sub nomine. — G. 
" ' Relapse' = backsliding. — G, 

^ Consult these scriptures : Hosea xiv. 8 ; Isa. ii. 20, and xxx, 22 ; Ps. xlv. 10 ; Exod. 
,xii. 33 ; Isa. lix. 20. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 277 

must part, or Christ and your souls can never meet ; sin and your 
souls must be two, or Christ and your souls can never he one ; you 
must in good earnest fall out with sins, or else you can never in good 
earnest fall in with a Saviour ; the heart must be separated from all 
other lovers, before Christ will take the soul into his bed of loves. 
Christ takes none into marriage-union with himself, but such as are 
cordially willing that all old former leagues with sin and the world 
shall be for ever broken and dissolved. Your cordial willingness to 
part with sin, is your parting with sin in divine account. You may 
as soon bring east and west together, light and darkness together, 
heaven and hell together, as bring Christ to espouse himself to such a 
soul, as has no mind, no will, no heart to be divorced from his former 
lovers. It is a foolish thing for any to think of keeping both Christ 
and their lusts too. It is a vain thing for any to think of saving the 
life of his sins, and the life of his soul too. If sin escape, your soul 
cannot escape ; if thou art not the death of thy sins, they will be the 
death and ruin of thy soul. Marriage is a knot or tie, wherein per- 
sons are mutually limited and bound each to other, in a way of con- 
jugal separation from all others, and this in Scripture is called a 
covenant, Pro v. ii. 7. So when any one marries Christ, he doth 
therein discharge himself in affection and subjection from all that is 
contrary unto Christ, and solemnly covenants and binds himself to 
Christ alone ; he will have no Saviour and no Lord but Christ, and to 
him will he cleave for ever, Ps. Ixiii. 8 ; Acts xi. 23. But, 

Secondly, This marriage-union with Christ doth include and take 
in a hearty ivilUngness, to take, to receive the Lord Jesus Christ for 
your Saviour and sovereign.'^ Are you willing to consent to the 
match. It is not enough that Christ is willing to enter into a mar- 
riage-union with us, but we must be willing also to enter into a 
marriage-union with him. 2 God will never force a Christ, nor force 
salvation upon us, whether we will or no. Many approve of Christ, 
and cry up Christ, who yet are not willing to give their consent, that 
he, and he alone shall be their Prince and Saviour. Though know- 
ledge of persons be necessary and fit, yet it is not sufficient to marriage, 
without consent, for marriage ought to be a voluntary transaction of 
persons. In marriage we do in a sort give away ourselves, and elect 
and make choice for ourselves, and therefore consent is a necessary 
concurrence to marriage. Now this consent is nothing else but a free 
and plain act of the will, accepting of Jesus Christ before all others to 
be its head and Lord, and in the soul's choice of him to be its Saviour 
and sovereign. Then a man is married to Christ, when he doth freely 
and absolutely and presently receive the Lord Jesus ; not, I would 
have Christ if it did not prejudice my worldly estate, ease, friends, 
relations, &c., or hereafter, I will accept of him when I come to die, 
and be in distress, but now when salvation is offered, now while Christ 
tenders himself, I now yield up my heart and life unto him. But, 

Thirdly, This marriage-union with Christ includes and takes in 

' John i. 12 ; Acts v. 31 ; Col. ii. 6 : weigh well these scriptures : Ps. cxii. 3, and xxv. 
5 ; Hosea ii. 7. 

' Many can choose Christ as a refuge to hide them from danger, and as a friend to 
help them in their need, who yet refuse him as a husband. 



278 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

a universal and perpetual consent for all time and in all states and 
conditions. There is, you know, a great difference between a wife 
and a strumpet ; a wife takes her husband upon all terms, to have and 
to hold, for better and for worse, for richer and for poorer, in sickness 
and in health, whereas a strumpet is only for hire and lust. When 
the purse is emptied, or the body wasted and strength consumed, the 
harlot's love is at an end : so here. That acceptance and consent which 
ties the marriage-knot between Christ and the soul, must be an un- 
limited and indefinite acceptance and consent, when we take the Lord 
Jesus Christ wholly and entirely, without any secret reservations or 
exceptions. That soul that will have Christ, must have all Christ or 
no Christ, * for Christ is not divided,' 1 Cor. i. 13. That soul must 
entertain him to all purposes and intents, he must follow the Lamb 
wheresoever he goeth, Rev. xiv. 4, though it should be through fire 
and water, over mountains and hills. He must take him with his cup 
of affliction as well as his cup of consolation, Ps. Ixvi. 12, with his 
shameful cross as well as his glorious crown, with his great sufferings 
as well as his great salvation, Heb. ii. 3, with his grace as well as his 
mercy, with his Spirit to lead and govern them, as well as his blood to 
redeem and justify them, to suffer for him as well as to reign with 
him, to die for him as well as to live to him, 2 Tim. ii. 12; Acts xxi. 
13; Rom. xiv. 7, 8. Christianity, like the wind Ccecias, doth ever 
draw clouds and afflictions after it.^ ' All that will live godly in 
Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution,' 2 Tim. iii. 12. A man may have 
many faint wishes and cold desires after godliness, and yet escape per- 
secution, yea, he may make some essays and attempts, as if he would 
be godly, and yet escape persecution ; but when a man is thoroughly 
resolved to be godly, and sets himself in good earnest upon pursuing 
after holiness, and living a life of godliness, then he must expect to 
meet with afflictions and persecutions. Whoever escapes, the godly 
man shall not escape persecution in one kind or another, in one degree 
or another. 2 He that is peremptorily resolved to live up to holy rules, 
and to live out holy principles, must prepare for sufferings. All the 
roses of holiness are surrounded with pricking briars. The history of 
the Ten Persecutions, and that little Book of Martyrs, the 11th of the 
Hebrews, and Mr Foxe his Acts and Monuments, with many other 
treatises that are extant, do abundantly evidence that from age to age, 
and from one generation to another, they that have been born after the 
flesh have persecuted them that hath been born after the spirit, and 
that the seed of the serpent have been still a-multiplying of troubles 
upon the seed of the woman. Gal. iv. 29 ; but a believer's future glory 
and pleasure will abundantly recompense him for his present pain and 
ignominy. But such as will have Christ for their Saviour and sovereign, 
but still with some proviso or other — viz. , that they may keep such 
a beloved lust, or enjoy such carnal pleasures and delights, or raise 
such an estate ifor them and theirs, or comply with the times, and such 
and such great men's humours, or that they may follow the Lamb only 

^ The north-east wind, (/cantos,) PI. 2, 46, 47; Vitr. 1, 6 ; Sen. Q. N. 5, 16.— G. 

* The common cry of persecutors have been, Chrintianos ad Ltona : within the first 
three hundred years after Christ, upon the matter all that made a profession of the 
apostle's doctrine, were cruelly murdered. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 279 

in sunshine weather, &c., these are still Satan's bond-slaves, and such as 
Christ can take no pleasure nor delight to espouse himself unto. But, 
3. The third word of advice and counsel is this, viz. — 'Put off the 
old man, and put on the neiv,' Col. iii. 9, 10. Consult the scriptures 
in the margin, i You must be new creatures, or else it had been 
better you had been any creatures than what you are : 2 Cor. v. 17, 
' If any man be in Christ he is a new creature, old things are passed 
away, behold all things are become new.' The new creature includes 
a new light, a new sight, a new understanding. Now the soul sees 
sin to be the greatest evil, and Christ and holiness to be the chiefest 
good, Ps. xxxviii. 4, and Cant. v. 10. When a man is a new creature 
he has a new judgment and opinion, he looks upon God as his only 
happiness, and Christ as his all in all. Col. iii. 11, and upon the ways 
of God as ways of pleasantness, Prov. iii. 17. The new man has new 
cares, new requests, new desires. Oh that my soul may be saved ! Acts 
ii. 37, and xvi. 30 ; Oh that my interest in Christ may be cleared ! Oh 
that my heart may be adorned with grace ! Oh that my whole man may 
be secured from wrath to come ! 1 Thes. i. 10. The new man is a 
man of new principles. If you make a serious inspection into his soul, 
you shall find a principle of faith, of repentance, of holiness, of love, of 
contentment, of patience, &c.2 There is not any one spiritual and 
heavenly principle respecting salvation, but may be found in the new 
creature. The new man experiences a new combat and conflict in his 
soul. ' The flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit lusteth 
against the flesh.' ' I see another law in my members warring against 
the law of my mind,' Gal. v. 17, and Kom. vii. 23. The new man ex- 
periences a combat in every faculty. Here is the judgment against 
the judgment, and the will against the will, and the afiections against 
the affections. And the reason is this ; because there is flesh and spirit, 
sin and grace co-existent and cohabiting in every faculty of the soul ; 
renevidng grace is in every faculty, and remaining corruption is also in 
every faculty, like Jacob and Esau struggling in the same womb, or 
like heat and cold in the same water, and in every part of it. The 
new man also combats with all sorts of known sins, whether they be 
great or small, inward or outward, whether they be the sins of the 
heart or the sins of the life ; and besides, the conflict in the new man is 
a daily conflict, a constant conflict. The new creature can never, the 
new creature will never, be at peace with sin ; sin and the new creature 
will fight it out to the death. The new creature will never be brought 
into a league of friendship with sin. The new man is a man of a new 
life and conversation. Always a new life attends a new heart. You 
see it in Paul, Mary Magdalene, Zaccheus, the jailor, and all the others 
that are upon Scripture record.^ The new man has new society, new 
company : Ps. cxix. 63, ' I am a companion of all them that fear thee, 
and of them that keep thy precepts.' Ps. xvi. 3, - My goodness extends 
not to thee, but to the saints that are in the earth, and to the excellent, 
in whom is all my delight.' Holy society is the only society for persons 
of holy hearts, and in that society can no man delight until God renew 

1 Eph. iv. 22-24 ; Gal. vi. 15 ; 1 Pet. ii. 2. 

* Pliil. i. 29; Acts xi. 18; 1 Thes. iv. 9; Phil. iv. 11 ; 1 Cor. iv. 12. 

^ See 1 John iii. 14 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14 ; Ps. cxx. 5, cxixix. 21, and xlii. 4. 



280 THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

his heart by grace. Many men be as the planet Mercury, good in con- 
junction with those that are good, and bad with those that are bad ; 
these are they that do Viriutis stragulam pude/acere, Put honesty to 
an open shame, i Clothes and company do oftentimes tell tales in a 
mute but significant language. Tell me with whom thou goest, and 
I will tell thee what thou art, saith the Spanish proverb. Algerius, 
an Italian martyr, had rather be in prison with Cato than with 
Caesar in the senate-house. 2 But to conclude this word of counsel, the 
new man wallvs by a new rule. As soon as ever God has made a man 
a new creature, he presently sets up a new rule of life to walk by, and 
that is no other but that which God himself sets up for his people to 
walk by, and that is his written word : Isa. viii. 20, * To the law and 
to the testimony;' Ps. cxix. 105, ' Thy word is a, lamp unto my feet, 
and a light unto my path ;' ver. 133, ' Order my steps in thy word ;' 
Gal. vi. 16, ' And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on 
them and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.' This rule he sets up 
for all matters of faith, and for all matters of fact. The word is like 
the stone Garamantides, that hath drops of gold within itself, enrich- 
ing of every soul that makes it his rule to walk by. Alexander kept 
Homer's Iliads in a cabinet, embroidered with gold and pearls ; ^ and 
shall not we keep the word in the cabinet of our hearts, that it may 
be always ready at hand as a rule for us to walk by ? Well, friends, 
whatever you do forget, be sure that for ever you remember this — viz.j 
that none can or shall be glorious creatures, but such as by grace are 
made new creatures. But, 

4. The fourth word of advice and counsel is this. Labour to he Tnore 
inwardly sincere than outwardly glorious. ' The king's daughter is 
all glorious within,' Ps. xlv. 13. Oh labour rather to be good than to 
be thought to be good, to live than to have a name to live, Kev. iii. 1, 
15-17- Whatever you let go, be sure you hold fast your integrity. 
A man were better to let friends go, relations go, estate go, liberty go, 
and all go, than let his integrity go. ' God forbid that I should justify 
you ; till I die I will not remove my integrity from me ; my righteous- 
ness I will hold fast, and I will not let it go : my heart shall not re- 
proach me so long as I live,' Job xxvii. 5, 6. Job is highly and fully 
resolved to keep his integrity close against all assaults of enemies or 
suspicions of friends. Job's integrity was the best jewel he had in all 
the world, and this jewel he was resolved to keep to his dying day. It 
was neither good men, nor bad men, nor devils that should baffle Job 
out of his integrity ; and though they all pulled, and pulled hard, at 
his integrity, yet he would not let it go, he would hold fast this pearl 
of price whatever it cost him. The sincere Christian, like John Bap- 
tist, will hold his integrity though he lose his head for it, Mark vi. 
The very heathens loved a candid and sincere spirit, as he that wished 
that there was a glass in his breast, that all the world might see what 
was in his heart. Integrity will be a sword to defend you, a staff to 
support you, a star to guide you, and a cordial to cheer you ; and there- 
fore, above all gettings get sincerity, and above all keepings keep sin- 
cerity, as your crown, your comfort, your life. But, 

1 Cicero had rather have no companion than a bad one. 

* Clarke, as before, p. 187.— G. =* As before. — G. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATOKY. 281 

5. The fifth word of comfort and counsel is this, Be true to the light 
of your consciences, and maintain and keep up a constant tenderness in 
your consciences. A tender conscience is a mercy more worth than a 
world. Conscience is God's spy in om' bosoms : keep this clear and 
tender, and then all is well, Acts xxiv. 16 ; 2 Cor. i. 12. Act nothing 
against the dictates of conscience, rebel not against the light of con- 
science. You were better that all the world should upbraid you and 
reproach you, than that your consciences should upbraid you and re- 
proach you. Job xxvii. 5, 6. Beware of stifling conscience, and of 
suppressing the warnings of conscience, lest a warning conscience 
prove a gnawing conscience, a tormenting conscience. The blind man 
in the Gospel, Mark viii., newly recovering his sight, imagined trees 
to be men: and the Burgundians, as Comines reports, expecting a 
battle, supposed long thistles to be lances. Thus men under guilt are 
apt to conceit every thistle a tree, and every tree a man, and every 
man a devU. Take heed of tongue-tied consciences ; for when God 
shall untie these strings, and unmuzzle your consciences, conscience 
will then be heard, and ten concerts of music shall not drown her 
clamorous cries. Hearken to the voice of conscience, obey the voice 
of conscience, and when conscience shall whisper you in the ear, and 
tell you there is this and that amiss in the house, in the habit, in the 
heart, in the life, in the closet ; don't say to conscience, Conscience be 
quiet, be still, make no noise now, I will hear thee in a more con- 
venient season. Acts xxiv. 24, 25. The heathen orator could say, A 
recta conscientia ne latum quidem unguem discedendum, A man may 
not depart a hair's-breadth all his life long from the dictates of a good 
conscience.! Will not this heathen one day rise in judgment against 
those who daily crucify the light of their own consciences ? But, 

6. The sixth word of advice and counsel is this, 3Iake it the great 
business of your lives to make sure such things as will go with you be- 
yond the grave} Eiches and honours and offices, and all worldly 
grandeur, won't go with us beyond the grave. Saladin, a Turkish em- 
peror — he was the first of that nation that conquered Jerusalem — 
lying at the point of death, after many glorious victories, commanded 
that a white sheet should be borne before him to his grave, upon the 
point of a spear, with this proclamation : ' These are the rich spoils 
which Saladin carrieth away with him, of all his triumphs and vic- 
tories, of all his riches and realms that he had ; now nothing at all is 
left for him to carry with him but this sheet.' It is with us in this 
world as it was in the Jewish fields and vineyards, pluck and eat they 
might what they would while they were there, but they might not 
pocket nor put up aught to carry with them, Deut. xxiii. 24, 25. Death, 
as a porter, stands at the gate, and strips men of all their worldly 
wealth and glory. Atheneeus speaks of one that, at the hour of death^ 
devoured many pieces of gold, and sewed the rest in his coat, com- 
manding that they should be buried with him. Hermocrates, being 
loath that any man should enjoy his goods after him, made himself 
by will heir of his own goods. These muck-worms would fain live 

^ Cicero : in Offic. 

* See my Treatise on Assurance, and there you will find how you may secure something 
that will go with you beyond the grave.— [Vol. ii., p. 301, se^. — G.] 



282 THE EPISTLE DEDICATOKY. 

still on this side Jordan; having made their gold their god, they 
cannot think of parting with it. They would, if possible, carry the 
world out of the world. But what saith the apostle ? ' We brought 
nothing with us into this world, and it is certain'' — see how he asse- 
vereth and assureth it, as if some rich wretches made question of it — 
' we can carry nothing out,' nothing but a winding-sheet, 1 Tim. vi. 7. 
Oh, how should this alarm us to make sure our calling and election,^ to 
make sure our interest in Christ, to make sure our covenant-relation, to 
make sure a work of grace in power upon our souls, to make sure the 
testimony of a good conscience. Gal. iv. 5-7, to make sure our son- 
ship, our saintship, our heirship, &c., Kom. viii. 15, 16 ; for these are 
the only things that will go with us into another world. In the 
Marian persecution there was a woman who, being convened before 
Bonner, then Bishop of London,^ upon the trial of religion, he threatened 
her that he would take away her husband from her. Saith she, Christ 
is my husband. I will take away thy child. Christ, saith she, is 
better to me than ten sons. I will strip thee, saith he, of all thy out- 
ward comfort. Yea, but Christ is mine, saith she, and you cannot 
strip me of him. Assurance that Christ was hers, and that he would 
go with her beyond the grave, bore her heart up above the threats of 
being spoiled of all, Heb. x. 34. When a great lord had shewed a 
sober, serious, knowing Christian his riches, his stately habitation, his 
pleasant gardens, his delightful walks, his rich grounds, and his 
various sorts of pleasure, the serious Christian, turning himself to this 
great lord, said: My lord, you had need to make sure Christ and 
heaven, you had need make sure something that will go with you 
beyond the grave, for else when you die you will be a very great loser. 
my friends, I must tell you, it highly concerns you to make 
sure something that will go with you beyond the grave, or else you 
will be very great losers when you come to die, God having given 
you an abundance of the good things and of the great things of this 
world, beyond what he has given to many thousands of others. But, 

7. The seventh word of advice and counsel is this. Look upon all 
the things of this luorld, and value all the things of this luorld noio, 
as you luill certainly look upon them and value them luhen you come 
to lie upon a sick-bed, a dying-bed, 1 Cor. vii. 29-31. When a 
man is sick in good earnest, and when death knocks at the door in 
good earnest, oh, with what a disdainful eye, with what a weaned eye, 
with what a scornful eye does a man then look upon the honours, 
riches, dignities, and glories of this world ! If men could but thus 
look upon them now, it would keep them from being fond of them, 
from trusting in them, from doting upon them, from being proud of 
them, and from venturing a damning either in getting or in keeping 
of them. But, 

8. The eighth word of advice and counsel is this, In all places and 
companies carry your soul-preservatives still about you — viz., a holy 
care, a holy fear, a holy jealousy, a holy watchfulness over your own 
thoughts, hearts, words, and ways. Pro v. iv. 23, and xxviii. 14 ; Gen. 
vi. 9, andxxxix. 9, 10 ; Ps. xvii. 4, xviii. 23, and xxxix. 1, &c. You 

1 2 Pet. i. 10 ; 2 Cor. v. 17; 2 Sam. xxiii. 5; 1 Thes. v. 23; 2 Cor. i. 12. 
' Foxe's Acts and Monuments. 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATOKY. 283 

know that in infectious times men and women carry their several pre- 
servatives about them, that they may be kept from the infection of 
the times. Never were there more infectious times than now. Oh 
the snares, the baits, the infections that attend us at all times, in all 
places, in all companies, in all employments, and in all enjoyments, 
so that if we do not carry our soul-preservatives about us, we shall 
be in imminent danger of being infected with the pride, ill customs, 
and vanities of the times wherein we live. But, 

9. The ninth word of advice and counsel is this. Live not at uncer- 
tainties as to your spiritual and eternal estates^ There are none so 
miserable as those that are strangers to the state of their own souls. 
It is good for a man to know the state of his flock, the state of his 
family, the state of the nation, the state of his body ; but above all to 
know the state and condition of his own soul. How many thousands 
are there that can give a better account of their lands, their lordships, 
their riches, their crops, their shops, their trades, their merchandise, 
yea, of their hawks, their hounds, their misses, than they can of the 
estate of their own souls ! my friends, your souls are more worth 
than ten thousand worlds. Mat. xvi. 26, and therefore it must be the 
greatest prudence, and the choicest policy in the world, to secure their 
everlasting welfare, and to know how things stands between Grod and 
your souls, what you are worth for eternity, and how it is like to go 
with you in that other world. Whilst a Christian lives at uncer- 
tainties as to his spiritual and everlasting estate, as whether he has 
grace or no grace, or whether his grace be true or counterfeit, whether 
he has an interest in Christ or not, a work in power upon his soul or 
not, or whether God loves him or loathes him, whether he will bring 
him to heaven or throw him to hell — how can any Christian who 
lives at so great an uncertainty delight in God, rejoice evermore, 
triumph in Christ Jesus, be ready to suffer, and desirous to die ? Job 
xxvii. 10 ; Phil. iv. 4 ; 2 Cor. ii. 14 ; Phil, i, 23, All men love to be 
at a certainty in all their outward concernments ; and yet how many 
thousands are there that are at a marvellous uncertainty as to the 
present and future state of their precious and immortal souls ! But, 

10. The tenth word of advice and counsel is this. Set the highest 
Scripture examples and patterns before you, of grace and holiness, for 
your imitation, 1 Cor. iv, 16. In the point of faith and obedience set 
an Abraham before you. Gen. xii. and xxii. ; in the point of meek- 
ness set a Moses before you, Num. xii. 3 ; in the point of courage set 
a Joshua before you. Josh. i. ; in the point of uprightness set a David 
before you, Ps. xviii. 23 ; in the point of zeal set a Phinehas before 
you ; and in the point of patience set a Job before you. Make Christ 
your main pattern, ' Be ye followers of me, as I am of Christ,' James 
V. 11, 12, and 1 Cor. xi. 1. And next to him set the patterns of the 
choicest saints before you for your imitation.2 The nearer you come 
to those blessed copies that they have set before you, the more will be 
your joy and comfort, and the more God will be honoured, Christ 

^ See my ' Box of Precious Ointment.' In that glass you may read the state of your 
souls. — [Vol. iii. p. 233, seq. — G.] 

' Prmcepta docent, exempla movent, Precepts may instruct, but examples do per- 
suade. — [As before. — G.] 



284 " THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

exalted, the Spirit pleased, religion adorned, the mouths of sinners 
stopped, and the hearts of saints rejoiced. He that shooteth at the 
sun, though he shoot far short, yet will shoot higher than he that 
aimeth at a shrub. It is safest, it is best, to eye the highest and 
worthiest examples. Examples are, (1.) More awakening than pre- 
cepts; (2.) More convincing than precepts ; (3.) More encouraging 
than precepts, Heb. xi. 8 ; and that because in them we see that the 
exercise of godliness, though difficult, yet is possible ; when we see men 
subject to like passions \^th ourselves to be so and so mortified, self- 
denying, humble, holy, &c. ; what should hinder but that it may be so 
with us also ? Such as begin to work with the needle, look much on 
their sampler and pattern : it is so in learning to write, and indeed in 
learning to live also. Observe the gracious conversations and carriages 
of the choicest saints, keep a fixed eye upon the wise, prudent, humble, 
holy, and heavenly deportment ; write after the fairest copy you can 
find, labour to imitate those Christians that are most eminent in grace. 
I shall conclude this head with that of the heathen : Optimum est 
majorum sequi vestigia, si recte prcBcesserint, It is best to tread in the 
steps of those who are gone in a safe and good way before us, [Seneca.] 
But, 

11. The eleventh word of advice and counsel is this, Be much in 
the most spiritual exercises of religion. There are external exercises, 
such as hearing, praying, singing, receiving, holy conference, &c., 
Isa. i. 11-14, and 1 Tim. iv. 8, and Mat. vi. Now custom, con- 
viction, education, and a hundred other external considerations, may 
lead persons to these external exercises : but then there are the more 
spiritual exercises of religion, such as loving of God, delighting in God, 
prizing of Christ, compliance with the motions, counsels, and dictates 
of the Spirit, living in an exercise of grace, triumphing in Christ Jesus, 
setting our affections upon things above, meditation, self-examination, 
self-judging, &c. Now the more you live in the exercise of these more 
spiritual duties of religion, the more you glorify God — the more you 
evidence the power of grace, and the in-dwelUngs of the Spirit — and 
the more you difference and distinguish yourselves from hypocrites 
and all unsound professors, and the better foundation you lay for a 
bright, strong, and growing assurance. But, 

12. The twelfth and last word of advice and counsel I shall give 
you is, To make a ivise, a seasonable, a sincere, a daily, and a thorough 
improvement of all the talents that God has intrusted you loith. There 
is a talent of time, of power, of riches, of honour, of greatness, that 
some are more intrusted with than others are. The improvement of 
these is your great wisdom, and should be your daily works, 1 Cor iv. 
1, 2. You know you are but stewards, and that you must shortly give 
an account of your stewardship, Luke xvi. 1-4. And oh that you 
may make such a faithful and full improvement of all the great talents 
that God has intrusted you with, that you may give up your account 
at last with joy, and not with grief ! Some princes have wished upon 
their beds that they had never reigned, because they have not improved 
their power for God and his people, but against God and his people ; 
and some rich men have wished that they had never been rich, because 
they have not improved their riches for the glory of God, nor for the 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 285 

succour and relief of his suffering saints. A beggar upon the way 
asked something of an honourable lady : she gave him sixpence, saying, 
This is more than ever God gave me. Oh ! says the beggar, Madam, 
you have abundance, and God hath given you all that you have ; say 
not so, good madam. Well, says she, I speak the truth, for God hath 
not given but lent unto me what I have, that I may bestow it upon 
such as thou art. And it is very true, indeed, that poor Christians are 
Christ's alms-men, and the rich are but his stewards, into whose hands 
God hath put his moneys, to distribute to them as their necessities 
require. It is credibly reported of Mr Thomas Sutton, the sole founder 
of that eminent hospital commonly known by his name, that he used 
often to repair into a private garden, where he poured forth his prayers 
unto God, and, amongst other passages, was frequently overheard to use 
this expression : Lord, thou hast given me a liberal and large estate, 
give me also a heart to make good use of it ; which was granted to 
him accordingly.! Kiches are a great blessing, but a heart to use them 
aright is a far greater blessing. Every rich man is not so much a 
treasurer as a steward, whose praise is more how to lay out well than 
to have received much. I know I have transgressed the bounds of an 
epistle, but love to your souls, and theirs into whose hands this treatise 
may fall, must be my apology. 

Sir, if you and your lady were both my own children, and my only 
children, I could not give you better nor more faithful counsel than 
what I have given you in this epistle ; and all out of a sincere, serious, 
and cordial desire and design, that both of you may be happy here, 
and found at Christ's right hand in the great day of account, Mat. 
XXV. 33, 34. 

Now the God of all grace fill both your hearts with all the fruits 
of righteousness and holiness, and greatly bless you both with all 
spiritual blessings in heavenly places, and make you meet-helps to each 
other heaven- ward, and at last crown you both with ineffable glory in 
the life to come. 1 Pet. v. 1 ; Gal. v. 22, 23 ; Eph. i. 3. 

So I take leave, and rest your assured friend, and soul's servant, 

Thomas Brooks. 



^ Fuller's Church History of Britain. [The founder of the Charter-house, London. — G.] 



THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED 
AND OPENED. 



Beloved in our Lord, — In the first part of my Golden Key, I have 
shewed you seven several pleas, that all sincere Christians may form 
up, as to those several scriptures in the Old and New Testament, that 
refer either to the great day of account, or to their particular days of 
accoujit. In this second part, I shall go on where I left, and shew 
you several other choice pleas, that all believers may make in the 
present case. 

VIII. The eighth plea that a believer may form up as to the ten 
scriptures in the margin, i that refer to the great day of account, or to 
a man s particular account, may be drawn up from the consideration 
of the covenant of grace, or the new covenant that all believers are 
under. It is of high concernment to understand the tenure of the 
covenant of grace, or the new covenant, which is the law you must 
judge of your estates by, for if you mistake in that you will err in the 
conclusion. That person is very unfit to make a judge, who is ignorant 
of the law, by which himself and others must be tried. For the clear- 
ing of my way, let me premise these six things : — 

1. First, Premise this with me, that God hath commonly dealt with 
man in the luay of a covenant ; that being a way that is most suitable 
to man, and most honourable for man, and the most amicable and 
friendly way of dealing w^th man. No sooner was man made, but 
God entered into covenant with him, ' In the day thou eatest thereof, 
thou shalt die the death,' Gen. ii. 17 ; and after this, he made a 
covenant with the world, by Noah, Gen. ix. 11-15, and vi. 18 ; and 
after this, he made a covenant with Abraham, Gen. xvii. 1,2; and 
after this, he made a covenant with the Jews at Mount Sinai, Exod. xix. 
Thus you see that God has commonly dealt with man in the way of a 
covenant. But, 

2. Secondly, Premise this with me, A II men are under some cove- 
nant or other ; they are either under a covenant of works, or they are 
under a covenant of grace. All persons that live and die without an 
interest in Christ, they live and die under a covenant of works ; such 
as live and die with an interest in Christ, they live and die under a 

^ Eccles. xi. 9, and xii. 14 ; Mat. xii. 14, and xviii. 23; Luke xvi. 2; Rom. xiv. 10; 
2 Cor. V. 10 ; Heb. ix. 27, and xiii. 17 ; 1 Pet. iv. f>. 



THE COVENANT OF GKACE PEOVED AND OPENED. 287 

covenant of grace. There is but a twofold standing taken notice of 
in the blessed Scriptures ; the one is under the law, the other is under 
grace. Now he that is not under grace, is under the law, Rom vi. 14. 
It is true, in the Scripture you do not read, in totidem syllabis, of the 
covenant of works and the covenant of grace ; but that of the apostle 
comes near it : Rom, iii. 27, ' Where is boasting then ? It is excluded. 
By what law ? of works ? Nay, but by the law of faith.' i Here you 
have the law of works, opposed to the law of faith ; which holds out 
as much as the covenant of works and the covenant of grace. The 
apostle sets forth this twofold condition of men, by a very pertinent 
resemblance, namely, by that of marriage, Rom. vii. 1-3. All Adam's 
seed are married to one of these two husbands ; either to the law, or 
to Christ. He that is not spiritually married to Christ, and so brought 
under his covenant, is still under the law as a covenant of works ; even 
as a wife is under the law of her husband while he is yet alive. Cer- 
tainly there were never any but two covenants made with man, the 
one legal, the other evangelical ; the one of works, the other of grace ; 
the first in innocency, the other after the fall : ponder upon Rom. iv, 
13. But, 

3. Thirdly, Let me premise this, that the covenant of grace was so 
legally dispensed to the Jews, that it seems to he nothing else hut the 
repetition of the covetiant of works ; in respect of which legal dispensa- 
tions of it, the same covenant, under the law, is called a covenant of 
works ; under the gospel, in regard of the clearer manifestation of 
it, it is called a covenant of grace : but these were not two distinct 
covenants, but one and the same covenant diversely dispensed. The 
covenant of grace is the same for substance now tb us since Christ was 
exhibited, as it was to the Jews before he was exhibited ; but the 
manner of administration of it is different, because it is : — (1.) Now 
clearer : things were declared then in types and shadows, heaven was 
then typed out by the land of Canaan, but now we have things more 
plainly manifested, 2 Cor. iii. 12 ; Heb. vii. 22. In this respect it is 
called ' a better testament or covenant,' Heb. viii. 6 ; not in substance, 
but in the manner of revealing it ; and the promises are said to be 
' better promises' upon the same account. Acts x. 35. (2.) The cove- 
nant of grace, is now more largely extended ; then it extended only to 
the Jews, but now to all that know the Lord, and that choose him, 
fear him, love him, and serve him in all nations, Col. iii. 11 ; Neh. 
vii. 2; Job i. 1,8 ; Acts xiii. 22, seq. ; Rom. iv. 18-20. (3.) There 
is more abundance of the Spirit, of grace, of light, of knowledge, of 
holiness, poured out generally upon the people of God now, than there 
was in those times. Though then some few^ eminent saints had much 
of the Spirit, and much of grace and holiness, both in their hearts 
and lives ; but now the generality of the saints have more of the 
Spirit, and more grace and holiness, than the generality of the saints 
had in those times. But, 

4. Fourthly, Premise this with me, that a right notion of the cove- 
nant, according to the originals of the Old and New Testament, ivill 

' I am not of Cameron's mind, that there were three covenants ; but of the apostle's 
mind, who expressly tells us that there are two testaments, and no more, in that Gal. 
iv. 24. 



288 THE COVENAXT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 

conduce much to a right understanding of God's covenant.^ The de- 
rivation of the Hebrew word, and of the Greek, may give us great light, 
and is of special use to shew the nature of the covenant which they 
principally signify, and what special things are therein required. (1.) 
The Hebrew word. Jinn, Berith, a covenant, is by learned men de- 
rived from several roots : 

[1.] First, Some derive it from "112, Barar, to purify, make clear, 
and to purge out dross, chaff, and all uncleanness; and to select, 
and choose out, and separate the pure from the impure, the gold 
and silver from the dross, and the pure wheat from the chaff. 
The reasons of this derivation are these two : — (1.) Because by cove- 
nants open and clear amity is confirmed, and faithfulness is plainly 
and clearly declared and ratified, without deceit or sophistication, 
betwixt covenanters ; and things are made plain . and clear betwixt 
them in every point and article. (2.) Because God, in the cove- 
nant of works, did choose out man especially, with whom he made 
the covenant; and because in the covenant of grace he chooseth 
out of the multitude his elect, even his church and faithful people, 
whom he did separate by predestination and election from all eternity, 
to be a holy people to himself in Christ, Eph. i. 4. (3.) Some derive 
it from r\12, and verily, the Lord, when he makes a covenant with 
any, he doth separate them from others, he looks on them, and takes 
them, and owns them for his ' peculiar people,' 1 Pet. ii. 9, for his 
' peculiar treasure,' Exod. xix. 5, and agrees with them as the chosen 
and choicest of all others. The first staff in Zech. xi. 10, is called 
* Beauty,' and this was the covenant ; and certainly it must be a high 
honour for a people to be in covenant with God ; for by this means 
God becomes ours, and we are made nigh unto him, Jer xxxi. 38,40, 41. 
He is ours, and we are his, in a very peculiar way of relation ; and by 
this means God opens his love and all his treasures of grace unto us. 
In his covenant he tells us of his special care, love, kindness, and great 
intentions of good to us ; and by this means his faithfulness comes to 
be obliged to make good all his covenant relations and engagements 
to us, Deut. vii. 9. Now in all this God puts a great favour and 
honour upon his people. Hence, when the Lord told Abraham that 
he would make a covenant with him, Abraham fell upon his face ; he 
was amazed at so great a love ai;id honour. Gen. xvii, 2, 3. 

[2.] Secondly, Some derive the word from »"T)3, Barah, comedit, to 
eat, because usually they had a feast at the making of covenants. In 
the Eastern countries they commonly established their covenants by 
eating and drinking together. Herodotus tells us that the Persians 
were wont to contract leagues and friendship, inter vinum et epulas, 
in a full feast, whereat their wives, children, and friends, were present. 
The like, Tacitus reports of the Germans. Amongst the Greeks and 
other nations, the covenanters ate bread and salt together. The 
Emperor of Eussia, at this day, when he would shew extraordinary 

^ The word covenant in our English tongue, signifies, as we all know, a mutual promise, 
bargain, and obligation, between two persons ; and so likewise doth the Hebrew Berith, 
and the Greek 5i.a0r]KT]. A covenant is a solemn compact or agreement between two 
chosen parties, or more ; whereby, with mutual, free, and full consent, they bind and 
oblige themselves one to another. A covenant ia Amicus status inter fwderatos : so Martin 
[Luther?] ' A friendly state between allies.' 



THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 289 

grace and favour unto any, sends him bread and salt from his 
table ; and when he invited Baron Sigismund, the Emperor Ferdin- 
and's ambassador, he did it in this form : Sigismunde, comedes sal 
et panem nostrum nohiscum: Sigismund, you shall eat our bread 
and salt with us. Hence that symbol of Pythagoras, "Aprov jxrj 
KaTo/yvveiv, ' break no bread,' is interpreted by Erasmus and others to 
mean, ' break no friendship.' ^ Moreover, the Egyptians, Thracians, 
and Lybians in special, are said to have used to make leagues, and 
contract friendship, by presenting a cup of wine one to another ; which 
custom we find still in use amongst our western nations. It has been 
the universal custom of mankind, and still remains in use, to contract 
covenants, and make leagues and friendship, by eating and drinking 
together. When Isaac made a covenant with Abimelech, the king of 
Gerar, the text saith, ' He made him, and those that were with him, 
a feast ; and they did eat and drink, and rose up betimes in the morn- 
ing, and sware one to another,' Gen. xxvi. 30, 31. When Jacob 
made a covenant with Laban, after they had sworn together, he 
made him a feast, * and called his brethren to eat bread,' saith tiie 
text. Gen. xxxi. 54. When David made a league with Abner, upon 
his promise of bringing all Israel unto him, David made ' Abner and 
the men that were with him a feast,' saith the text, 2 Sam. iii. 20. 
Hence, in the Hebrew tongue a covenant is called /in^, Berith, of 
m2, Barak, to eat, as if they should say an eating ; which derivation 
is so natural, that it deserves, say some, to be preferred before that, 
from the other signification of the same verb, which is to choose ; of 
which before. Now they that derive Berith from Barah, which sig- 
nifies to eat and refresh one's self with meat, they give this reason for 
that derivation, viz., because the old covenant of God, made with man 
in the creation, was a covenant wherein the condition or law was about 
eating ; that man should eat of all the trees and fruits, except of the 
tree of knowledge of good and evil. Gen. ii. 16, 17 ; and in the solemn 
making and sealing of the covenant of grace in Christ, the blessed 
seed, the public ceremony was slaying and sacrificing of beasts, and 
eating some part of them, after the fat and the choice parts were 
offered up and burned on the altar. For God, by virtue of that cove- 
nant, gave man leave to eat the flesh of beasts, Deut. xii. 27, which 
he might not do in the state of innocency, Gen. i. 29, being limited to 
fruits of trees, and herbs bearing seed, for his meat. So, also, in 
solemn covenants between men, the parties were wont to eat together, 
Gen. xxxi. 46. 

[3.] Thirdly, Others derive the word Berith from K12, Bara, or 
ni2, Barah, to smite, strike, cut, or divide, as both these words signify. 
The word also signifies to elect or choose ; and the reasons they give 
for this derivation, are these two: — First, Because covenants are not 
made, but by choice persons, chosen out one by another, and about 
choice matters, and upon choice conditions, chosen out, and agreed 
upon by both parties. Secondly, Because, in making of covenants, 
commonly sacrifices were stricken and slain, for confirmation and 
solemnity. Of old, God sealed his covenants by sacrifices of beasts 
slain, divided, and cut asunder, and the choice fat, and other parts, 
^ Vide Turcium ritum opud Busbequium, epist. i. 11. 

VOL. v. T 



290 THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 

offered upon the altar. And in making of great and solemn cove- 
nants, men, in old time, were wont to kill and cut asunder sacrificed 
beasts ; and to pass between the parts divided, for a solemn testimony, 
or for the confirmation of the covenants that they had made, Gen. xv. 
9, 10, 17.1 And as learned men have long since observed, that the 
very heathen, in their covenanting, used sacrifices, and divided them, 
passing between the parts ; and this they did, as some conjecture, in 
imitation of God's people. This third is the common opinion, about 
the original of this name ; and therefore preferred before all other. 
So this word /in2, Berith, covenant, seems to sound as much as 
nnD, Kerith, a smiting or striking, because of sacrifices slain in cove- 
nanting. Hence the word covenant is often joined with JllD, Karath, 
which signifies striking of covenant. An example of this beyond all 
exception, saith my author,^ is in that sacrifice, wherein God by 
Moses, made a covenant with all the people of Israel, and bound them 
to obey his law : the description of it is in Exod. xxiv. 4-8, ' And 
Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, and rose up early in the morn- 
ing and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to 
the twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men of the children 
of Israel, which offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings 
of oxen unto the Lord. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it 
in basins ; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. And he 
took the book of the covenant and read it in the audience of the 
people ; and they said, All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be 
obedient. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, 
and said. Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made 
with you concerning all these words.'^ I shall not trouble my reader 
with that mystical and too curious a sense, that some of the ancients 
put upon these words : ^ the historical sense is here more fit : for in this 
ceremony of dividing the blood in two parts, and so besprinkling the 
altar with the one half, which represented God ; and the people with 
the other, between whom the covenant was confirmed, the old use 
in striking of covenants is observed. For the ancient custom was, 
that they which made a league or covenant, divided some beasts, and 
put the parts asunder, walking in the midst ; signifying that as the 
beast was divided, so they should be which brake the covenant. So 
when Saul went against the Ammonites, coming out of the field, he 
hewed two oxen, and sent them into all the coasts of Israel, 1 Sam. 
xi. 7 ; expressing the like signification, that so should his oxen be served 
that came not forth after Saul and Samuel. After the same manner, 
when God made a covenant with Abraham, Gen. xv. 12-19, and he had 
divided certain beasts, as God had commanded him, and laid one part 
against another, a smoking firebrand went between, representing 
God, signifying, that so he should be divided, which violated the cove- 
nant. So in this place, not much unlike ; the blood is parted in twain, 
shewing that so should his blood be shed, which kept not the covenant. 

^ Jer. xxxiv. 18-20, and Lev. xxvi. 25. Weigh well these two scriptures. Cove- 
nant breakers may well look upon them as flaming swords, as terrible thunderbolts. 

2 And. Rivetus in Gen. xxxi ; Exercitat 135. [Misprinted ' lliven.' — G.] 

' Anciently covenants were made with blood, to betoken constancy in the covenant, 
even to the shedding of blood, and loss of life. 

* Rupertus, Ambrose, Cajetan, &c. 



THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 291 

[4.] Fourthly, Some derive the word Berith from ^<■^2, Bara, to 
create ; and the reason they give for this derivation is this, because the 
first state of creation was confirmed by the covenant which God made 
with man, and all creatures were to be upheld by means of observing of 
the law and condition of the covenant ; and that covenant being broken 
by man, the world, made subject to ruin, is upheld, yea, and as it 
were created anew, by the covenant of grace in Christ. 

[5.] Fifthly, Some derive the word Berith from Pr\2, BeratJi, which 
signfies firmness, sureness, because covenants are firm and sure, 
and all things agreed on are confirmed and made sure by them. 
God's covenant is a sure covenant : Deut. vii. 9, 'The Lord thy God, 
he is the faithful God,' or the God of Amen, ' which keepeth covenant 
with them that love him : ' Ps. Ixxxix. 34, ' My covenant will I not 
break ' — Hebrew, ' I will not profane,' ' nor alter the thing that is 
gone out of my lips.'i All God's precepts, all God's predictions, all 
God's menaces, and all God's promises, are the issue of a most just, 
faithful, and righteous will. There are three things that God can- 
not do: — (1.) He cannot die. (2.) He cannot lie: Titus i. 2, ' In hope 
of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world 
began.' (3.) He cannot deny himself. Now the derivation of Berith, 
from the several roots specified, and not from one only, doth give 
much light to the point under consideration ; and doth reconcile in 
one, all the several opinions of the learned, and justifies their several 
derivations, without rejecting or offering any wrong or disgrace to any. 

(2.) Secondly, The Greek name AiadrjKT), Diatheke, a covenant or 
a testament. By this Greek word the Septuagint, in their Greek 
translation, do commonly express the Hebrew word Berith ; and it is 
observable that this is the only word by which the Hebrew word 
Berith is rendered in the New Testament. This Greek word, AiadrJKo], 
is translated covenant in the New Testament about twenty times ; and 
the same word is translated testament in the New Testament about 
twelve times. 2 Wherever you find the word covenant in the New 
Testament, there you shall find Diatheke ; and wherever you find the 
word testament in the New Testament, there you shall find Diatheke ; 
so that it is of importance for us to understand this word aright. 
Now this Greek word, AtadrjKT], is derived from AiaTidrjfzi, JDiati- 
themi, which hath divers of the significations of the Hebrew words 
of which Berith is derived ; for it signifies to set things in order and 
frame, to appoint orders, and make laws, to pacify and make satis- 
faction, and to dispose things by one's last will and testament. Now 
to compose and set things in order is to uphold the creation ; to walk 
by orders and laws made and appointed is to walk by rule, and to 
live, to deal plainly and faithfully without deceit. To^ pacify and 
make satisfaction includes sacrifices and sin-offerings. To dispose by 
will and testament implies choice of persons and gifts ; for men do 
commonly by Avill give their best and most choice things to their most 
dear and most choice friends. Thus the Greek which the apostles use 
in the New Testament to signify a covenant, to express the Hebrew 

1 Jer. xxxi. 31, 33, 35-37; Ps. xix. 7; Rev. iii. 14 ; Isa. liv. 10. 
" Heb. viii. 6-10, and i. 4 j Luke i. 72 ; Rom. ix. 4, &c. ; Mat. xxvi. 28 ; Luke xxii. 
20, &c. 



292 THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED, 

word Berith, whieli is used in the law and the prophets, doth confirm 
our derivation of it from all the words before named. And this 
derivation of the Hebrew and Greek names of a covenant being thus 
laid down, and confirmed by the reasons formerly cited, is of great 
use. The various acceptation and use of these two names in the Old 
and New Testament is very considerable for the opening of the cove- 
nant : First, To shew unto us the full signification of the word 
covenant, and what the nature of a covenant is in general. Second, 
To justify the divers acceptations of the word, and to shew the nature 
of every word in particular, and so to make way for the knowledge of 
the agreement and difference between the old and new covenant. 
Here, as in a crystal glass, you may see that this word Berith, and 
this word Diatheke, signify all covenants in general, whether they are 
religious or civil ; for there is nothing in any true covenant which is 
not comprised in the signification of these words, being expounded 
according to the former derivations. Here also we may see what is 
the nature of a covenant in general, and what things are thereunto 
required; as, first, every true covenant presupposeth a division or 
separation ; secondly, it comprehends in it a mutual promising and 
binding between two distinct parties ; thirdly, there must be faithful 
dealing, without fraud, or dissembling on both sides ; fourthly, this 
must be between choice persons ; fifthly, it must be about choice 
matters and upon choice conditions, agreed upon by both; sixthly 
and lastly, it must tend to the well-ordering and composing of things 
between them. Now all these are manifest by the several significa- 
tions of the words from which Berith and Diatheke are derived. And 
thus much for the word covenant according to the originals of the 
Old and New Testament. 

5, Fifthly, Premise this with me, that there was a covenant ofioorks, 
or a reciprocal covenant, hetwixt God and Adam, together with all 
his 'posterity. Before Adam fell from his primitive holiness, beauty, 
glory, and excellency, God made a covenant with Adam as a public 
person, which represented all mankind. The covenant of works was 
made with all men in Adam, who was made and stood as a public 
person, head and root, in a common and comprehensive capacity. I 
say, it was made with him as such, and we all in him ; he and all 
etood and fell together. (1.) Witness the imputation of Adam's sin 
to all mankind : Eom. v. 12, ' In whom,' or forasmuch as, ' all have 
sinned ;' they sinned not all in themselves, therefore in Adam ; see 
ver. 14, ' In him all died.' (2.) Witness the curse of the covenant that 
all mankind are directly under ; consult the scriptures in the margin. i 
Those on whom the curse of the covenant comes, those are under the 
bond and precept of the covenant. But all mankind are under the 
curse of the covenant, and therefore all mankind are under the bond 
and precept of the covenant. Adam did understand the terms of the 
covenant, and did consent to the terms of the covenant ; for God dealt 
with him in a rational way, and expected from him a reasonable 
service, , The end of this covenant was the upholding of the creation, 
and of all the creatures in their pure natural estate, for the comfort of 
man continually, and for the special manifestation of God's free grace ; 

1 lCor.xv.47; Deut.xxix.21; Rom. viii. 20,21 ; Gal. iii. 10, 13. 



THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 293 

and that he might put the greater obligation upon Adam to obey his 
Creator and to sweeten his authority to man ; and that he might draw 
out Adam to an exercise of his faith, love, and hope in his Creator ; 
and that he might leave Adam the more inexcusable in case he should 
sin ; and that so a clear way might be made for God's justification 
and man's conviction. Upon these grounds God dealt with Adam, 
not only in a way of sovereignty, but in a way of covenant. 

Quest. But how may it be evidenced that God entered into a cove- 
nant of works with the first Adam before his fall, there being no men- 
tion of such a covenant in the Scripture that we read of ? 

Ans. Though the name be not in the Scripture, yet the thing is in 
the Scripture, as will evidently ajipear by comparing scripture with 
scripture. 1 Though it be not positively and plainly said in the 
blessed Scripture that God made a covenant of works with Adam 
before his fall, yet, upon sundry scripture grounds and considerations, 
it may be sufficiently evidenced that God did make such a covenant 
with Adam before his fall; and therefore it is a nice cavil, and a foolish 
vanity, for any to make such a noise about the word covenant, and for 
want of the word covenant, boldly to conclude that there was no such 
covenant made with Adam, when the thing is lively set down in other 
words, though the word covenant be not expressed ; and this I shall 
make evident by an induction of particulars, thus : — 

[1.] First, God, to declare his sovereignty and man's subjection, 
gave Adam, though innocent, a laiv. God's express prescription of a 
positive law unto Adam in his innocent state, is clearly and fully laid 
down in that Gen. ii. 16, 17, 'And the Lord God commanded the 
man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat ; but 
of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it : 
for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die ;' Hebrew, 
' dying thou shalt die.' Mark how God bounds man's obedience with 
a double fence : first, He fenced him with a free indulgence to eat of 
every tree in the garden but one, the less cause he had to be liquorish 
after forbidden fruit ; but ' stolen waters are sweet.' Secondly, By an 
exploratory 2 prohibition, upon pain of death. By the first, the Lord 
woos him by love ; by the second, he frights him by the terror of his 
justice, and bids him touch and taste if he durst. The fcederati were 
God and Adam ; God the Creator, and man, the creature, made ' after 
God's image and likeness ;' and so not contrary to God, nor at enmity 
with him, but like unto God, though far diflferent and inferior to God 
in nature and substance. Here are also terms agreed on, and matters 
covenanted reciprocally, by these parties. Adam, on his part, was to 
be obedient to God, in forbearing to eat of the tree of knowledge only. 
God's charge to our first parents was only negative, not to eat of the 
tree of knowledge ; the other, to eat of tlae trees, was left unto their 

1 Socinians call for the word ' Satisfaction,' others call for the word ' Sacrament/ others 
call for the word ' Trinity,' and others call for the word ' Sabbath,' for Lord's day, &c. ; 
and thence conclude against Satisfaction, Sacraments, Trinity, Sabbath, for want of ex- 
press words, when the things themselves are plainly and lively set down, in other words, 
in the blessed Scriptures; so it is in this case of God's covenant with Adam. The vanity 
and folly of such ways of reasoning is sufficiently demonstrated by all writers upon thos© 
subjects that are sound in the faith, &c. 

' Qu. * explanatory ' ? — G. 



294 THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 

choice. Eve confessetli that God spake unto them both, and said, ' Ye 
shall not eat of it,' Gen. iii. 2 ; and God speaks unto both of them to- 
gether in these words, ' Behold, I have given unto you every herb, and 
every tree,' &c., Gen. i. 19. At which time also it is very like that he 
gave them the other prohibition of not eating of that one tree ; for if 
God had made that exception before, he would not have given a 
general permission after ; or if this general grant had gone before, the 
exception coming should seem to abrogate the former grant. The 
Septuagint seem to be of this mind, that this precept was given both 
to Adam and Eve, reading thus in the plural number, ' In what day 
ye shall eat thereof ye shall die.' ^ And though, in the original, the 
precept be given in the name of Adam only, that is only (1.) Because 
Adam was the more principal, and he had the charge of the woman ; 
and (2.) Because that the greatest danger was in his transgression, 
which was the cause of the ruin of his posterity ; (3.) Because, as 
Mercerus well observes, Adam was the common name both of the man 
and woman, Gen. v. 2, and so is taken, ver. 15. And God, on his part, 
for the present, permits Adam to eat of all other trees of the garden ; 
and for the future, in his explicit threatening of death in case of dis- 
obedience, implicitly promiseth life in case of obedience herein. 

[2.] Secondly, The promises of this covenant on God's part were 
very glorious — First, That heaven, and earth, and all creatures should 
continue in their natural course and order wherein God had created 
and placed them, serving always for man's use, and that man 
should have the benefit and lordship of them all. Secondly, As for 
natural life, in respect of the body, Adam should have had perfection 
without defect, beauty without deformity, labour without weariness. 
Thirdly, As for spiritual life, Adam should never have known what it 
was to be under terrors and horrors of conscience, nor what a wounded 
spirit means, Prov. xviii. 14 ; he should never have found ' the arrows 
of the Almighty sticking fast in him, nor the poison thereof drinking 
up his spirits, nor the terrors of God to set themselves in array against 
him,' Job vi. 4 ; nor he should never have tasted of death. Death is 
a fall that came in by a faU. Had Adam never sinned, Adam had 
never died ; had Adam stood fast in innocency, he should have been 
translated to glory without dissolution. Death came in by sin, and 
sin goeth out by death. As the worm kills the worm that bred it, so 
death kills sin that bred it. Now where there are parties covenant- 
ing, promising, and agreeing upon terms, and terms mutually agreed 
upon by those parties, as here, there is the substance of an express 
covenant, though it be not formally and in express words called a 
covenant. This was the first covenant which God made with man, 
and this is called by the name Berith, Jer. xxxiii. 20, where God saith, 
* If you can break my covenant of the day and night, and that there 
shall not be day and night in their season,' ver. 21, ' then may also 
my covenant with David be broken.' In these words he speaks plainly 
of the promise in the creation, that day and night should keep their 
course, and the sun, moon, and stars, and all creatures, should serve 
for man's use. Gen. i. 14-16. Now though man did break the cove- 
nant on his part, yet God, being immutable, could not break covenant 

^ So doth Gregory read as the Septuagint does.— (?re^. Moral, lib. xxxv. cap. 10. 



THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 295 

on his part, neither did he suffer his promise to fail ; but, by virtue of 
Christ promised to man in the new covenant, he will keep touch with 
man so long as mankind hath a being on the earth. In this first 
covenant, God promised unto man life and happiness, lordship over all 
the creatures, liberty to use them, and all other blessings which his 
heart could desire, to keep him in that happy estate wherein he was 
created. And man was bound to God to walk in perfect righteous- 
ness, to observe and keep God's commandments, and to obey his will 
in all things which were within the reach of his nature, and so far as 
was revealed to him. In the first covenant, God revealed himself to 
man as one God, Creator, and Governor of all things, infinite in power, 
wisdom, goodness, nature, and substance. God was man's good Lord, 
and man was God's good servant ; God dearly loved man, and man 
greatly loved God with all his heart. There was not the least shadow 
or occasion of hatred or enmity between them ; there was nothing but 
mutual love, mutual delight, mutual content, and mutual satisfaction 
between God and man. Man, in his primitive glory, needed no 
mediator to come between God and him. Man was perfect, pure, up- 
right, and good, created after God's own image ; and the nearer he 
came to God, the greater was his joy and comfort. God's presence 
now was man's great dehght, and it was man's heaven on earth to 
walk with God. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, Consider the intention and use of the two eminent trees 
in the garden, that are mentioned in a more peculiar manner — viz., the 
tree of life and the tree of knowledge. The intended use of these two 
trees in paradise was sacramental. Hence they are called symbolical 
trees, and sacramental trees, by learned writers, both ancient and 
modern. By these the Lord did signify and seal to our first parents 
that they should always enjoy that happy state of life in which they 
were made, upon condition of obedience to his commandments; i.e.^ 
in eating of the tree of life, and not eating of the tree of knowledge.^ 
The tree of life is so called, not because of any native property and 
peculiar virtue it had in itself to convey life, but symbolically, morally, 
and sacramentally. It was a sign and obligation to them of life, 
natural and spiritual, to be continued to them as long as they continued 
in obedience to God. The seal of the first covenant was the tree of 
life, which if Adam had received by taking and eating of it, whilst he 
stood in the state of innocency before his fall, he had certainly been 
estabhshed in that estate for ever ; and the covenant being sealed and 
confirmed between God and him on both parts, he could not have been 
seduced and supplanted by Satan, as some learned men do think, and 
as God's own words seem to imply, Gen. iii. 22, ' And now, lest he put 
forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for 
ever.' ' The tree of knowledge of good and evil ' was spoken from the 
sad event and experience they had of it, as Samson had of God's de- 
parting from him when he lost his Nazaritish hair by Delilah. ' The 
tree of life ' was a sacrament of life ; ' the tree of knowledge ' a sacra- 
ment of death. ' The tree of life ' was for confirmation of man's obe- 

'' The tree of life was the sign and seal which God gave to man for confirmation of 
this first covenant ; and it was to man a sacrament and pledge of eternal life on earth 
and of all blessings needful to keep man in life. 



296 THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 

dience, and 'the tree of knowledge' was for caution against dis- 
obedience Now If those two trees were two sacraments the one 
assuring of hfe in case of obedience, the other assuring of death in case 
of disobedience, then hence we may collect that God'not onrentered 
into a covenant of works with the first Adam, but also gave hSi this 
covenant under sacramental signs and seals. But « ^"n mis 

^ [4 ] Fourthly, Seriously consider that a covenant ofioorhs lav clear 
^ntkat commandrnent Gen. ii 16, 17 which may tL be inTde ev[: 
dent .—(1.) Because that was the condition of man's standing and life 
as it was expressly declared; (2.) Because, in the breach of that com- 
mandment given him, he lost all, and we in him. God made the 
covenant of works primarily with Adam, and with us m him as ou? 
head, inclusively; so that when he did fall we did fall when 'he lost 
all we lost all. There are five things we lost in our fair--(l ) Our 

Blaves'^rfi of r- ^Tr' ^'^r^ ^V ^^^ ^^^«^^P' --d so b car^e 
slaves, (d) Our friendship, and so became enemies; (4.) Our com- 
munion with God, and so became strangers; (5.) Our glory and To 
became miserable. _ Sin and death came into the world by Adam's 
fall In Adam's sinnmg we aU sinned, and in Adam's dying we d 
te{}.:?^'Z7l'''\\ comparing the scriptures in t'he^margTn 
together. ^ In Adam s first sin, we all became sinners by imputation • 
Adam being a universal person, and all mankind one in him ^by God's 
covenant of works with him. Omnes ille unus homofuerZi, All were 
wT' .J^^",';^"g"«tme,] viz., by federal consociaLn. God cive! 
nanted with Adam, and in him with all his posterity; and therefore 

«y Xt, '""'"' ^''' "'' °°^^ "P^' ^^"' ^^' upon In S: 

Eom^ix^4^-^ri°^ ^9? \'^'-^'?^ "^ ^ '^^ond covenant, Heb. x. 9; 

Jer x2d 31 ' LL/^^S^' "• ^^' ^^^ ^^ ^^^d «f ^ ' ^^^ covenant : ' 
.Jer. xxxi. dl, Behold the days come, saith the Lord that I will make 

LTeHrS "l wt 'T '' '"^^^' ^^^ -^^ *b^' hoi oTjuXh ' 
too neb. viii. 8, I will make a new covenant,' &c. : ver 13 ' In that 
he saith a new covenant, he hath made the first o d^ &c chan xil 
^;. t'^ ^' ^''T *^^ ^^^^^^^ «f the newcovSnt' &c Tow i 

'firs •' and?fZ "b™"'' '''" "^ "^^ ^^^^^^ conclude there was. a 
+W +1 . \^^ "^^^ covenant,' then we may boldlv conclude 

that there was an ; old covenant.' A covenant of grace awSssun! 

renmres works and promiseth no life to those Tha "w 11 be iustified bv 

Feet perSnIl '?"'"™'^t\°°V° ,«" t^ngs;' the precept required per! 
lect, personal and perpetual obedience; (2.) The nromise 'live-' 

fn%^\°l ttrVfrT?''" '""■' ''™ 4pn;,Ce'd1y,ct;- 

1 Cor. ly. 22 ; Rom. y. 12 to the end, &c. 



THE COVENANT OF GBACE PROVED AND OPENED. 297 

Jude 6. So the same apostle to the Komans further tells us, that 
* Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, that the man 
that doth those things shall live by them,' Eom. x. 5. Thus it was 
with Adam, principally and properly, therefore he was under a covenant 
of works, when God gave him that command, Gen. ii, 16, 17. This first 
covenant is called a covenant of works, because this covenant required 
working on our part as the condition of it, for justification and happiness, 
' The man that doth these things shall live.' Under this covenant God 
left man to stand upon his own bottom, and to live upon his own stock, 
and by his own industry, God made him perfect and upright, and gave 
him power and abihty to stand, and laid no necessity at all upon him 
to fall. In this first covenant of works, man had no need of a mediator, 
God did then stipulate with Adam immediately ; for seeing he had 
not made God his enemy by sin, he needed no daysman to make 
friendly intercession for him. Job ix. 33. 

Adam was invested and endowed with righteousness and holiness in 
his first glorious estate ; with righteousness, that he might carry it 
fairly, justly, evenly, and righteously towards man ; and with holiness, 
that he might carry it wisely, lovingly, reverentially, and holily to- 
wards God, and that he might take up in God as his chiefest good, as 
in his great all.l I shall not now stand upon the discovery of Adam's 
beauty, authority, dominion, dignity, honour, and glory, with which he 
was adorned, invested, and crowned in innocency. Let this satisfy, 
that Adam's first estate was a state of perfect knowledge, wisdom, and 
understanding ; it was a perfect state of holiness, righteousness, and 
happiness. There was nothing within him but what was desirable 
and delectable ; there was nothing without him but what was amiable 
and commendable ; nor nothing about him but what was serviceable and 
comfortable. Adam, in his innocent estate, was the wonder of all under- 
standing, the mirror of wisdom and knowledge, the image of God, the de- 
light of heaven, the glory of the creation, the world's great lord, and the 
Lord's great darling. Upon all these accounts, he had no need of a 
mediator. And let thus much suffice to have spoken concerning the first 
covenant of works, that was between God and Adam in innocency. But, 

6. Sixthly, Premise this with me — viz., that there is a new cove- 
nant, a second covenant, or a covenant of grace hetwixt God and his 
•people, Heb. viii. 6-13. Express scriptures prove this : Deut. vii. 9, 
' Know therefore, that the Lord thy God, he is God ; the faithful God, 
which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love him, and 
keep his commandments, to a thousand generations ;' 2 Sam. xxiii. 5, 
' Although my house be not so with God, yet he hath made with me 
an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure : for this is all 
my salvation, and all my desire ; although he make it not to grow ;' 2 
Neh. i. 5, ' I beseech thee, Lord God of heaven, the great and 
terrible God ; that keepeth covenant and mercy for them that love 
him, and keep his commandments ;' Isa. liv. 10, ' For the mountains 
shall depart, and the hills be removed ; but my kindness shall not 

^ Eph. ir. 22-24. In this scripture, the apostle speaks plainly of the renovation of 
that knowledge, holiness, and righteousness that Adam sometimes had, but lost it by his 
fall, Ps. viii. 4-6 ; Gen. ii. 20. 

' See this, 2 Sam. xiiii. 6, opened in my ' Box of Precious Ointments,' pp. 369-374. 
[Vol. iii. p. 491, seq.—G.] 



298 THE C0VENA]^7T OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 

depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, 
saith the Lord, that hath mercy on thee ;' Jer. xxxii. 40, ' And I will 
make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away 
from them, to do them good ; but I will put my fear in their hearts, 
that they shall not depart from me ; ' Ezek. xx. 37, ' And I will cause 
you to pass under the rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the 
covenant ;' Deut. xxix.^12, ' That thou shouldest enter into covenant 
with the Lord thy God ; and into his oath, which the Lord thy Grod 
maketh with thee to-day.' Consult the scriptures in the margin also, 
for they cannot be applied to Christ, but to us.i But for the further 
evidencing of that covenant that is between the Lord and his people 
— now that there is a covenant betwixt God and his people may be 
further evinced by unanswerable arguments — let me point at some 
among many. 

[1.] First, Christ is said to he ' the mediator of this covenant:' 
Heb. ix. 15, ' And for this cause he is the mediator of the new 
testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the trans- 
gressions that were under the first testament, they which are called 
might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.' Certainly that 
covenant, of which Christ is the testator, must needs be a covenant 
made with us ; for else, if the covenant were made only with Christ, 
as some would have it, then it will roundly follow that Jesus Christ 
is both testator and the party to whom the testaments and legacies are 
bequeathed ; which sounds harsh, yea, which to assert is very absurd. 
Since the creation of the world, was it ever known that ever any man 
did bequeath a testament and legacies to himself ? Surely no. Christ 
is the testator of the new covenant, and therefore we may safely con- 
clude that the new covenant is made with us. The office of mediator, 
you know, is to stand betwixt two at variance. The two at variance 
were God and man. Man had offended and incensed God against 
him. God's wrath was an insupportable burden, and a consuming 
fire ;. no creature was able to stand under it, or before it. Therefore 
Christ, to rescue and redeem man, becomes a mediator. Christ, 
undertaking to be a mediator, both procured a covenant to pass 
betwixt God and man, and also engaged himself for the performance 
thereof on both parts ; and to assure man of partaking of the benefit 
of God's covenant, Christ turns the covenant into a testament, that the 
conditions of the covenant, on God's part, might be as so many legacies, 
which, being confirmed by the death of the testator, none might dis- 
annul : Heb. viii. 6, * He is the mediator of a better covenant, which 
was established upon better promises.' The promises of the new 
covenant are said to be better in these six respects : — (1.) All the pro- 
mises of the law were conditional ; ' Do this, and thou shalt live.' The 
promises of the new covenant are absolute, of grace, as well as to 
grace. (2.) In this better covenant God promiseth higher things. 
Here God promiseth Himself, his Son, his Spirit, a higher righteous- 
ness and a higher sonship. (3.) Because of their stability ; those of 
the old covenant were ' swallowed up in the curse.' These are the 
' sure mercies of David.' (4.) They are all bottomed upon faith, they 

^ Deut. iv. 23; Isa. Iv. 1-3; Jer. xxiv. 7, xxx. 22, xxxi. 31, 33, and xxxii. 38 ; Heb. 
Tiii. 8-10. 



THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 299 

all depend upon faith. i (5.) They are all promised upon our interest 
in Christ. This makes the promises sweet, because they lead us to 
Christ, the fountain of them, whose mouth is most sweet, and in whose 
person all the sweets of all created l)eings do centre. (6.) Because God 
hath promised to pour out a greater measure of his Spirit, under the 
new covenant, than he did under the old covenant : Heb. xii. 24, 'And 
to Jesus, the mediator of the new covenant.' Thus you see that Christ 
is called ' the mediator of the covenant' three several times. Now he 
could not be the mediator of that covenant that is betwixt God and 
himself, of which more shortly, but of that covenant that is betwixt 
God and his people. But, 

[2.] Secondly, The people of God have pleaded the covenant that 
is hetiuixt God and them: 'Remember thy covenant.' Now how 
could they plead the covenant betwixt God and them if there were no 
such covenant ? See the scriptures in the margin. 2 But, 

[3.] Thirdly, God is often said to remember his covenant:^ Gen. 
ix. 15, ' I will remember my covenant, which is between you and me ;' 
Exod. vi. 5, ' I have remembered my covenant ; ' Lev. xxvi. 42, ' I 
remember my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, 
and also my covenant with Abraham will I remember ; ' Ezek. xvi. 60, 
* I will remember my covenant with thee, and I will establish unto thee 
an everlasting covenant.' Now how can God be said to remember 
his covenant with his people, if there were no covenant betwixt God and 
them ? But, 

[4.] Fourthly, Tlie temporal and spiritual deliverances that you 
have by the covenant do clearly evidence that there is a covenant 
betwixt God and you: Zech. ix. 11, 'As for thee also, by the blood of 
thy covenant, I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein 
there was no water. '4 These words include both temporal and spiritual 
deliverances. So that now, if there be not a covenant betwixt God and 
you, what deliverances can you expect, seeing they all flow in upon the 
creature by virtue of the covenant, and according to the covenant ? 
By the blood of the covenant believers are delivered from the infernal 
pit, where there is not so much water as might cool Dives his tongue, 
Luke xvi. 24, 25 ; and by the blood of the covenant they are delivered 
from those deaths and dangers that do surround them, 2 Cor. i. 8-10. 
When sincere Christians fall into desperate distresses and most deadly 
dangers, yet they are prisoners of hope, and may look for deliverance 
by the blood of the covenant. This does sufficiently evince a covenant 
betwixt God and liis people. But, 

[5.] Fifthly, God has threatened severely to avenge and punish the 
quaiTcl of his covenant : Lev. xxvi. 25, ' And I wall bring a sword 
upon you, that shall avenge the quarrel of my covenant;' or which 
shall avenge the vengeance of the covenant, &c. Consult the scriptures 
in the margin. ^ Breach of covenant betwixt God and man, breaks 

1 Eom. iv. 15, 16 ; Gal. iii. 16, 17 ; 2 Cor. i. 20; Cant. v. 16 ; Col. i. 19, and ii. 3 ; 
Isa. iliv. 3 ; Joel ii. 28 ; Acts ii. 16, 17 ; Gal. iii. 2. 

* Jer. xiv. 21; Luke i. 72 ; Ps. xxv. 6. 

' Ponder upon these scriptures, Ps. cv. 8, cvi. 45, and cxi. 5. 

* Gen. ix. 11; Isa. liv. 91; Ps. cxi. 9; Isa. lix. 21. 

« Deut. xxix. 20, 21, 24, 25, and xxxi. 20, 21 ; Josh. vii. 11, 12, 15, and xxiii. 15; 16 
Judges ii. 20 ; 2 Kings xviii. 9-12. 



300 THE COVENANT OF GRACE PROVED AND OPENED. 

the peace, and breeds a quarrel betwixt them ; in which he will take 
vengeance of man's revolt, except there be repentance on man's side, 
and pardoning grace on his. For breach of covenant, Jerusalem is 
long since laid waste, and the seven golden candlesticks broken in 
pieces ; and many others, this day, lie a-bleeding in the nations who 
have made no more of breaking covenant with the great God than if 
therein they had to do with poor mortals, with dust and ashes like 
themselves. Now how can there be such a sin as breach of covenant, 
for which God will be avenged, if there were no covenant betwixt God 
and his people ? But, 

[6.] Sixthly, The seals of the covenant are given to God's people. 
Now to those to whom the seals of the covenant are given, with them 
is the covenant made ; for the seals of the covenant, and the covenant, 
go to the same persons: but the seals of the covenant are given to 
believers. 'Abraham receives the sign of circumcision, a seal of the 
righteousness of faith,' Kom. iv. 11, ergo, the covenant is made with 
believers. Circumcision is a sign, in regard of the thing signified, 
and a seal, in regard of the covenant made betwixt God and man. 
Seal is a borrowed word, taken from kings and princes, who add their 
broad seal, or privy-seal, to ratify and confirm the leagues, edicts, 
grants, covenants, charters, that are made with their subjects or con- 
federates. God had made a covenant with Abraham, and by circum- 
cision signs and seals up that covenant.! But, 

[7.] Seventhly, The people of God are said sometimes to keep 
covenant with God : Ps. xxv. 10, ' All the paths of the Lord are 
mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies.' 
Mercies flowing in upon us, through the covenant, are of all mercies 
the most soul-satisfying, soul-refreshing, soul-cheering mercies ; yea, 
they are the very cream of mercy. Oh, how well is it with that saint 
that can look upon every mercy as a present sent him from heaven by 
virtue of the covenant ! Oh, this sweetens every drop, and sip, and 
crust, and crumb of mercy that a Christian enjoys, that all flows in 
upon him through the covenant ! The promise last cited is a very 
sweet, choice, precious promise, a promise more worth than all the 
riches of the Indies. Mark, ' all the paths of the Lord' to his people, 
they are not only ' mercy,' but they are ' mercy and truth;' that is, 
they are sure mercies that stream in upon them, through the covenant. 
Solomon's dinner of green herbs, Pro v. xv. 17 ; Daniel's pulse, Dan. 
i. 12 ; barley loaves and a few fishes, John vi. 9 ; swimming in upon 
a Christian, through the new covenant, are far better, greater and 
sweeter mercies, than all those great things are that flow in upon the 
great men of the world, through that general providence that feeds 
the birds of the air, and the beasts of the field : Ps. xliv. 17, ' Yet 
have we not forgotten thee, neither have we dealt falsely in thy cove- 
nant;' that is, we have kept covenant with thee, by endeavouring to 
the uttermost of our power to keep off from the