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Full text of "The complete works of Thomas Brooks"











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W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational 
Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. 

THOMAS J. CRAWFORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, 

WILLIAM H, GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church 
History, Reformed Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presby- 
terian Church, Edinburgh. 

liBeneral >J2Ditor. 
REV. THOMAS SMITH, M.A., Edinbubgh. 











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Crown and Glory of Christianity, .... 1 

The Epistle Dedicatory, ..... 3-34 

Text Explained, [Hebrews xii. 14,] .... 35-37 
Doct. That real holiness h the only way to happiness. All men 
must be holy on earth, or they shall never see the beatifical vision, 
they shall never reach to a glorious fruition of God in heaven, . 37 

I. What this holiness is •, sixfold, .... 38-47 
II. The truth of the proposition, that ' without men are holy, 

they can never be happy :' ten arguments, . . 47-77 

III. Reasons : five, ...... 77-80 

IV. Uses : 1. Conviction: eight, .... 80-95 

2. Trial a7id Examination : seven, . . . 95-103 
How we shall know whether we have real holiness 

or no: sixteen 'marks,' . . . 103-150 

3. JExhortation : 

(1.) Motives: fifteen, ... . 150-193 

# (2.) Counsels: six negative, . . .192-212 

„ : ten positive, . . . 212-241 

(3.) Objections, 241-323, as follows : 
Objection 1 . We have no power to make ourselves holy ; we 
are as well able to make a world, to command the winds, 
and to raise the dead, as we are able to cleanse our otvn 
hearts, or change our oum natures, or sanctify our own 
souls; and therefore, to what purpose should we be so 
strongly pressed to do that which we have no power to do? 241 

Six answers, ...... 241-246 

Objection 2. Hut hereafter may be time enough to look after 
holiness; I may yet pursue after the pleasures and profits 
of tlie world, I may yet spend some years in gratifying 
mine own lusts, and in walking after the course of tJie 
world; I have time enough before me, and therefore some 
years hence may be time enough to look after holiness, . 246 

Five answers, ...... 246-249 

Objection 3. JBut if we should thus press and pursue after 
holiness, then we must take our farewell of all joy and 
comfort, of all delight and pleasure, and never expect 
to enjoy one merry day more, for we observe that there 
are no persons under heaven that live such a melan- 
choly, sad, sorrowful, pensive life, as t/iose who press 
most after holiness, and who make most stir and noise 

• Brooks having departed in his 'Crown of Glory of Christ' from his rule of prefixing 
' Contents,' I have given above the leading divisions of the work : the lesser details, as 
well as the ' Table ' appended, will be incorporated in the General Index. — G. 


about Iwliness, and therefore if we should resolve to 
follow after holiness, ive must resolve to spend our days 
in sorrow and sadness, in sighing and mourning, and 
this we Imd as lief die as do, (i;c., . . , 249 

Eight answers, ...... 249-261 

Objection 4. We see that no persons on earth are exposed to 
such troubles, dangers, afflictions, and persecutions, as 
those are exposed 'o who mind holiness, who follow after 
holiness. These are days wherein men labour to frown 
holiness out of the world, and to scorn and kick holiness 
out of the world; and do you think that we are mad 
now to pursue after holiness 1 . . . . 261 

Twelve answers, ...... 261-300 

Objection 5. We would labour after this holiness, without 
which there is no happiness, d:c. But if we should, then 
we must resolve to be poor, and mean, and beggarly in the 
ivorld, we must resolve then to fare Jutrd, and lie hard, 
and labour liard, and live low in the world, for toe shall 
nevei' raise an estate to ourselves by holiness and strict- 
ness, we shall never grow rich and great in the world 
by godliness; nay, by driving this trade of holiness, we 
shall lose our trades, our customers, and those estates we 
have, and quickly bring a noble to ninepence, dec, . 300 

Six answers, . . . . . . 300-307 

Objection 6. Should we pursue after holiness, it would be a 
disgrace, a disparagement, and dishonour to us who are 
high, and great, and rich, and honourable in the earth. 
We are gentlemen, we are well-bred and higlh-born, and 
holiness seem'i to be too poor and too low a thing for such 
as we are to look after, <i:c., .... 307 

Five answers, ...... 307-317 

Objection 7. Should we pursue after holiness, we shall be sure 
to be reviled, slandered, and reproached on all hands; 
every one will hoot and hiss at vs, we shall become a scorn 
and a byword to all that live in the family with us, and to 
all our neighbours round about us, every one will scorn 
us, and hate us, and we shall be their table-talk, and 
their song, and the butt at which they will shoot in all 
their meetings and discourses, dec, . . . 317 

Five answers, . . .... 317-323 

(4.) To shew forth the reality and power of holiness : 

Eight proofs of little holiness, . 323-340 

Seventeen 'provocations' to increased 

holiness, .... 340-374 

[3.] Five arguments for degrees of glory, . 374-379 
Two objections, . . . 379-384 

[4.] Eight means, helps, and directions, . 384-392 
Holiness of God : eight characteristics, 392-398 
Signs or evidences of increasing holi- 
ness : twelve signs, . . 398-412 
Comfort and consolation to all who 
have real holiness : twelve con- 
siderations, . . . 412-428 
Positions concerning holiness, . 428-446 







Issued in the j'ear of the Ejection [1662], the 'Crown and Glory of Christianity' 
appears to have been limited to a single edition ; which however must have been 
a very large one, as scarcely any of the writings of Brooks is more frequently met with. 
This is the most inaccurately printed of Brooks's books. I have carefully corrected his 
own list of errata : but besides these, mistakes of words, texts, references, divisions 
abound. It may be permitted us to refer to the author's own appeal on this matter 
toward the close of his Epistle Dedicatory. The original title-page is given below."" — G. 

* The Ceovvn ofc Glokt 




The only way to 


Discovered in LVIII. Sermons, 
from Heh. 12. 14. Where you have the Ne- 
cessity, Excellency, Rarity, Beauty and Glory of 
Holiness set forth ; with the resolution of many weighty 
Questipns and Cases. Also Motives and Means to perfect 
Holiness : With many other things of very high and great 
importance to all the Sons and Daughters of men, that had 
rather be blessed then cursed, saved then damned. 

By Thomas Brooks, late Preacher of the Gospel at 

Margarets New Fish-street, and still Preacher of the Word in London, 

and Pastor of a Congregation there. 

To him that ordereth his conversation aright, will I sheio the salvation of God, 

Psalm 50. ult. 
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God, Matth. 5. 8. 
God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of 

the Spirit, and belief of the truth, 2 Thes. 2. 13. 


Printed for H. Crips, J. Sims, and H. Mortloch, and are to be sold at their 

shops, at the entrance into Popes-head Alley out of Lumbard street, 

and at the sign of the Cross-keyes, and at the Phoenix in S'- 

Pauls Church-yard, near the little North door, 1662. 


To all the Lords, Knights, Ladies, Gentry, Ministers, and Commons of 
England — and the dominions thereunto belonging — that have but the 
least desire, the least mind, or the least will, to escape hell, and to go 
to heaven, or to be happy in both worlds, &c. 

My Lords, Ladies, and G-entlemen, &c., — The philosophers, speak- 
ing of happiness, were divided into two hundred [and] eighty-eight 
opinions, every one intending something, yet resolving upon nothing ; 
and therefore the man in Plutarch hearing them wrangle about 
summum honum, the chiefest good — one placing of it in this, and 
another in that — went to the market and bought up all that was good, 
hoping that among all he should not miss of happiness ; and yet he 
missed it ; ^ true happiness being too great and too glorious a thing to 
be found in anything below real holiness. 

All men in the general, desire to be happy, but all men do not 
desire in this or that particular, or in this or that way, to be happy. 
Here there is an infinite difference, quot homines, tot sententice, so 
many men so many minds. 

A desire of happiness is planted in all men by the constitution of 
nature. This is so intrinsical and so innate in nature, it is so engraven 
in it, that even the fall of Adam, as great as it was, hath not blotted 
it out. 

This desire of happiness is left in man for a stock to graft holiness 
on. God grafts the plant of grace upon the stock of nature. Indeed 
happiness, like Kachel, Gen. xxix. 17, is so fair and so beautiful a 
thing, that every one is apt to fall in love with it, and earnestly to 
desire it, yea, many there be that would serve twice seven years to 
enjoy it. 'But by the standing law of that heavenly country above, 
the younger sister must never be bestowed before the elder ; you can 
never enjoy fair Rachel — heaven and happiness — except you are first 
married to tender-eyed Leah — real holiness. Gen. xxix. 17-28. He 
that will have heaven, must have union and communion with Christ : 
and he that will have union and communion with Christ must be 
holy. ' For what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness ? 

1 'Moralia.'— G. 


and what communion hatli light with darkness ? And what concord 
hath Christ with Behal?' 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15. Of all the many thou- 
sands that have travelled to happiness, there is not one to be found 
but hath travelled thither in a way of holiness. Now the drift, the 
scope of this following Treatise, is to make men holy, that they may 
be happy : it is to make men gracious on earth, that they may be 
glorious in heaven. Now to prevent all mistakes, rash censures, and 
misconstructions, I judge it very convenient and necessary, before I go 
any further, to acquaint the reader plainly and honestly with those 
arguments that have prevailed with me to dedicate this Book to all 
sorts, ranks, and degrees of persons, rather than to any single person^ 
or to any one sort or rank of men whatsoever. And they are 
these six. 

I. First, Because all sorts and ranks of men are fallen from that 
'primitive holiness that once they had, Ps. xiv. 3 ; Eom. iii. 12. There 
are five things that we have all lost by our fall in Adam. First, we 
have all lost that holy image that God had stamped upon us ; and so 
we are become vile.i Secondly, we have all lost our sonship ; and so 
we are become slaves. Thirdly, we have all lost our friendship with 
God ; and so we are become enemies. Fourthly, we have aU lost our 
communion with God ; and so we are become strangers. And fifthly, 
we have all lost our glory ; and so we are become miserable. Some 
say that the naked body of man was s'o glorious in his estate of inno- 
cency, that all the beasts of the field admired it, and thereupon did 
homage to him. Oh, how glorious was his soul then ! Certainly if the 
cabinet was so glorious, the jewel within it was much more glorious. 
But how glorious soever man was in his primitive estate, it is most 
certain that he is now so sadly fallen from the highest pinnacle of 
glory to so low a step of misery, that God sometimes sends him to the 
pismire to learn instruction, Prov. vi. 6, 7; and sometimes he sends him 
to the stork and the swallow to make a right improvement of precious 
time, Jer. viii. 7 ; and sometimes he sends him to the ox and to the ass 
to learn knowledge, Isa. i. 3 ; and sometimes he sends him to the 
fowls of the air to learn confidence, Mat. vi. 25 seq. ; yea, and sometimes 
he sends him to the very lilies and grass of the field to learn how to 
live without carking and distracting cares. It is true, man's first 
estate was a state of perfect holiness, he being made in the image of 
God, and after the likeness of God, Gen. i. 27. It was an estate of 
perfect light, knowledge, prudence, wisdom, and understanding. It 
was an estate of very great honour and dignity, and therefore the 
psalmist, speaking of man in this estate, brings him in with a crown 
of glory and honour upon his head, Ps. viii. 5, ' Thou hast crowned 
him with glory and honour.' Man's first estate was so stately an 
estate that he was not so much below the glorious angels, as he was 
above all other creatures. God made him the sovereign lord of the 
whole creation, God gave him an absolute dominion and authority 
both of sea and land, and all creatures in both were subjected to him, 
Gen. i. 26 ; Ps. viii. 6-8. Such was the exquisite beauty and perfec- 
tion of his body, that from the crown of his head to the soles of his 

^ Qui te nou liabet, Domine Deus, totum perdidit.— .Ber»a?-c?. [Serm. on Song of 
Songs.— G.] 


feet there was not the least blain or blemish. His outward man was 
clothed with all such requisite beauties and abilities that might 
render him lovely and comely to every eye. In a word, man's first 
estate was a state of perfect happiness. All within him, and aU 
without him, and all about him, spoke him out to be completely 
blessed. There was nothing within him, but what was very sweet and 
desirable ; there was nothing without him, but what was very delight- 
ful and amiable ; neither was there anything about him, but what was 
serviceable and comfortable. Oh, but now by his fall, his crown is 
fallen from his head, and from the heads of all his posterity. Lam. v. 
16 ; for Adam was a public person. He was the prince of all man- 
kind ; and though all mankind was not actually in his loins when he 
fell, yet they were all potentially in his loins when he fell. If two 
kings make a league, and the one break it, he makes not only himseK 
but all his subjects liable and obnoxious to all the calamities and 
miseries that shall follow thereupon. Adam was our common father, 
and we are all his sons and daughters. Now we know by the law of 
inheritance, that if the father forfeit his lease, he disinherits his pos- 
terity. Now Adam forfeited his lease, as I may say, and divine 
justice took the advantage^ of the forfeiture, and so hath turned all 
his posterity out of doors. So that there is now no way under heaven 
to be happy, but by being holy. All sorts and ranks of men are 
fallen in Adam, and there is no way to rise but by Christ and holi- 
ness, &c. 

II. A second reason why I dedicate this Treatise to all sorts and 
ranks of persons, is, because the matter contained in this book is of the 
greatest and highest concernment imaginable, to all ranks and degrees 
of men, from the greatest emperor that ever sat 2 upon a throne, to the 
meanest and the poorest wretch that ever lay upon a dunghill. And 
doubtless that which is of such a marvellous importance to all, may 
very justly and reasonably be dedicated to all. 

III. A third reason why I dedicate this Treatise to all sorts and 
ranks of perons, is, because God^i7itends to save some of all sorts, ranks, 
and degrees. Though greatness and goodness do not always meet, 
yet greatness and goodness do sometimes meet; and though riches 
and religion do not always meet, yet riches and religion do sometimes 
meet ; though not many wise, yet some wise, 1 Cor. i. 26 ; though not 
many mighty, yet some mighty ; though not many noble, yet some 
noble shall be called, sanctified, and saved. Look, as the sun in the 
firmament doth cast his light and warmth upon all sorts, ranks, and 
degrees of men, Mat. v. 45 ; so doth the Sun of righteousness shine 
upon the understandings and consciences of all sorts, ranks, and 
degrees of men, and by his secret and spiritual influences, he warms 
and cheers the hearts of high and low, rich and poor, noble and 
ignoble. Abraham was very great and very gracious : Joseph was 
very high and very holy: Job was very rich and very righteous. 
Though most of those kings and princes that we read of in Scripture 
were bad, very bad, yet some of them were good, yea, very good.^ 

1 = Acted on the culpable ' forfeiture.'— G. '' Spelled ' set.'— G. 

2 It is a strange saying in Lipsius. * The names of all good princes,' saith he, 'may 
easily be engraven or written in a small ring.' — Lipsius dc constantia, lib. IL cap. 25. 


Some of tliem were as famous for grace, righteousness, and holiness : 
witness David, Asa, Josiah, Hezekiah, Jehoshaphat, &c., as Saul, 
Jehoram, Jehu, Ahab, and others of them were infamous for all un- 
righteousness and wickedness. God, for the glory of his own grace, and 
the honour of his Son's blood, will have some of all sorts, ranks, and 
degrees sanctified and saved : and upon this very ground he engages 
his servants to pray for all sorts, ranks, and degrees of men, in 1 Tim. 
ii. 1-4. Now where God is resolved to save, there he is resolved to 
sanctify : where he is resolved to make happy, there he is resolved to 
make holy. And therefore I look upon myself as many ways obliged 
to have so large a heart for God, as to do all I can to help on the sal- 
vation of all sorts, ranks, and degrees of men in the world. My 
heart's desire and prayer for England is, that her princes and nobles 
may be sanctified and saved, and that her gentry may be sanctified 
and saved, and that all the people of the nation may be sanctified 
and saved. 1 I look upon myself as engaged to do all I can, by my 
pen and prayers, to help make England holy, that so England may 
be truly happy. For of this I am most certain, that if God will 
but make England a holy nation, it is not all the powers on earth, 
nor all the powers of hell, that shall ever make England a miserable 

IV. A fourth reason why I thus dedicate this Treatise as you see, is, 
because m?/ former poor labours and endeavours have been acceptohle 
to some of all ranks and degrees, and they have been blest to some of 
all ranks and degrees; and I have been encouraged, whetted, and 
stirred up by some on all hands, once more to cast in my net. And 
now I have done it, oh that it may issue in the drawing of many 
souls to Christ ! and in the making of the graceless gracious, the pro- 
fane holy ! and in the making of those that are holy, to be yet more 
holy! kc. 

V. A fiftli reason why I thus dedicate this Treatise as you see, is, 
because tlwugh all men are bound to be lioly, yet the great, the rich, 
the noble, and the honourable of the earth are hound above all other 
men in the world to be holy. God hath laid upon them greater obH- 
gations and ties to holiness, than he hath upon any other jmen under 
heaven ; and this you may see so clearly and so fully proved in this 
book — from page 433 to page 447 ^ — that neither the world nor the 
devil, as cunning and as learned a devil as he is, will ever be able to 
disprove. This reason alone is sufficient to justify my present prac- 
tice. 3 

VI. My sixth and last reason why I thus dedicate this Treatise as 
you see, is, that it may be a blessed iestiinony and a standitig witness 
for Christ in this day of blasphemy, profaneness, looseness, and wick- 
edness, against all sorts and ranks of persons into whose hands it may 
fall, who, notwithstanding all that is here said, shall continue obsti- 
nate and impenitent in their ungodly courses and practices, as men 
resolved rather to go to hell than to heaven, and to be for ever unhappy 

^ Rom. X. 1. — Paul's copy is not to be despised, but imitated. 

^ That is, of the original edition. See General Index, under ' rich' and ' noble.' — G. ' 
^ Reader, if thou art one that standest upon thy birth, nobility, and greatness, do thy- 
self that favour, and thy soul that right, as to read from page 433 to page 447, before 
thou goest any further. [As before. — G.J 


rather than they will be holy, Isa. xliii. 10, 12, and xliv. 8. Woe, woe to 
them for ever, that had rather be Satan's bond-slaves than Christ's 
free-men, that had rather be * vessels of wrath' than vessels of honour 
and that had rather be firebrands of hell than glorious saints in heaven 
Eph. ii. 12; Rom. ix. 22. 

And so I have done with those reasons that may satisfy the reader 
concerning my dedication of this Treatise to all sorts, ranks, and degrees 
of persons. 

Having premised these things in the general, give me leave to say, 
that if this Treatise should fall into the hands of any of the learned 
judges of this land, or into the hands of any of the justices of this 
nation, I would then take the humble boldness to offer this to their 
most serious consideration — viz., that if they would discharge the 
duties of their places, so as to give up their accounts at last with joy 
and cheerfulness to the King of kings and Lord of lords, it highly 
concerns them to study this doctrine of holiness, yea, to fall in love 
with holiness, and highly to prize it, and earnestly to press after 
it, and to be restless in their own spirits, till they have experienced 
the powerful operations of holiness in their own souls ; for till then, 
they will never be able so to administer justice and judgment as be- 
comes those that have the name of God, and the name of profession 
upon them, and that judge themselves to be in a higher form than 
those heathens^ were, who were famous for justice and righteousness — 
and yet never heard of a Christ nor salvation by him — and as be- 
comes those that would not stand trembling and quaking in the great 
and terrible day, when Christ the Lord-Chief-Justice of heaven and 
earth shall pass a righteous and impartial judgment upon all the 
judges and justices that ever were on earth, Joel ii. 11, 31 ; Acts xvii. 
31; 2 Tim. iv. 1,2. 

My Lords and Gentlemen, — You know that the wisest prince that 
ever sat upon a throne hath told us that ' righteousness exalts a 
nation,' Prov. xiv. 34.2 It is not valour in war, but righteousness ; it 
is not policy in government, but righteousness ; it is not wittiness of in- 
vention, but righteousness ; it is not civility in behaviour, but right- 
eousness; it is not antiquity of forms, but righteousness; it is not 
largeness of dominion, but righteousness ; nor it is not greatness of 
command, but righteousness, that is the honour and the safety, that is 
the renown and the security of a nation. That nation that exalts 
righteousness, that nation shall be certainly exalted by righteousness, 
Amos V. 24. It is not Ahithophel's policy, it is not Jeroboam's 
calves in Dan and Bethel, it is not Jehu's pompous zeal, it is not 
Goliath's sword, it is not rich mines of gold and silver, nor maga- 
zines, nor armies, nor councils, nor fleets, nor forts, but justice 
and righteousness that exalts a nation, and that will make a mean 
people to become a great, a glorious, and a famous people in the world. 
The world is a ring, and righteousness is the diamond in that ring : 
the world is a body, and righteousness and justice is the soul of that 

^ Cato, Fabricius, Scipio, Cambyses, &c. 

" Where justice is, God is ; and where God is, there is no want of men or fortitude, 
said Herod at the head of his army, the better to encourage his soldiers. Justice is con- 
servatrix humane^ covjunclionis, quw ad beatitudinem via est, &c. 


body. Ah! England, England! so long as judgment runs downl as 
waters in the midst of thee, and righteousness as a mighty stream, 
thou shalt not die, but live and bear up bravely against all gainsayers 
and opposers ; but if injustice shall grow rampant, and thou shalt 
brandish the sword of justice in the behalf of the friends of Baal, 
Balaam, and Bacchus, and turn the wheel upon the righteous ; if the 
sword of justice shall be a sword of protection to the desperate swearer, 
and to the cruel oppressor, and to the roaring drunkard, and to the 
cursing monster, and to the gospel despiser, and to the Christ con- 
temner, &c. , and shall be a devouring sword to the upright and peace- 
able in the land, divine vengeance will dig thy grave, and divine 
justice will tumble thee into it, though all the nations of the earth 
should labour to prevent it. It is a base and ignoble spirit, to pity 
Cataline more than to pity Kome ; to pity any particular sort of men, 
more than to pity the whole. It is cruelty to the good, to justify the 
bad : it is Avrong to the sheep, to animate the wolves : it is danger if 
not death to the lambs, not to restrain or chain up the lions. But from 
all these vanities the Lord deliver all your souls ! And oh that you would 
for ever remember this, that as the constitution of a man's body is 
best known by his pulse : if it stir not at all, then we know he is dead ; 
if it stir violently, then we know him to be in a fever ; if it keep an 
equal stroke, then we know he is sound, well, and whole : so the estate 
and constitution of a kingdom or commonweal is best known by the 
manner of executing justice therein; for justice is the pulse of a king- 
dom. If justice be violent, then the kingdom is in a fever, in a very 
bad estate ; if it stir not at all, then the kingdom is dead ; but if it 
have an equal stroke, if it be justly and duly administered, then the 
kingdom is in a good, a safe, and sound condition. When Vespasian 
asked Apollonius what was the cause of Nero's ruin, he answered, 
that Nero could tune the harps well, but in government he did always 
wind up the strings too high, or let them down too low.' The appli- 
cation is easy. 

Now having premised thus much in the general, give me leave to 
tell you that there are eight special rules that you are carefully and 
faithfully to observe in the administration of justice and righteousness. 
And how you will be able to act suitable to those rules without a 
spirit of holiness, without principles of hoKness, and without an expe- 
rience of the powerful influences and operations of holiness in your 
own souls, I cannot for the present understand. 

1. Now, my Lords and Grentlemen, the first rule that you are to ob- 
serve in your administering of judgment and justice, is this, you must 
do justice impay^tially. You are called gods,^ and in this you must be 
like to God, who is no accepter of persons. He accepts not the rich 
man because of his robes, neither doth he reject the poor man because 
of his rags. 3 Dent. i. 17, ' Ye shall not respect persons in judgment, 
but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be 

^ The Hebrew word Ve.iiggalcliat as here rendered ' run down,' is from 77J Galal, that 
signifies to roll down freely, plentifully, plainly, vigorously, constantly: Where justice 
thus rolls down, all the world shall never make that nation miserable. 

^ Ps. Ixxxii. 1, 6 ; Luke xx. 21 ; Mat. xxii. 16. 

' 'Audi alteram partem,' said Lotharius, the second Duke of Saxony. 


afraid of the face of man ; for the judgment is God's : and the cause 
that is too hard for you, bring it unto me, and I will hear it.' And 
so in Lev, xix. 15, 'Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou 
shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the 
mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.' The 
great man is not to be spared for his might, nor the poor man for his 
misery. 1 It is neither the great man's power, nor the poor man's 
meanness, that a judge is to mind in judgment. A judge, a justice, 
must never out of carnal pity cry out, Oh, he is a poor man ! nor yet 
out of base fear cry out. Oh, he is a great man 1 Their eyes are 
always to be upon causes, and not upon persons. The statues of the 
Theban judges were made without hands and without eyes, to inti- 
mate to us, that as judges and justices should have no hands to receive 
bribes, so they should have no eyes to see a friend from a foe, a brother 
from a stranger. 2 And it was the oath of the heathen judges, as the 
orator relates, ^Audiam accusatorem ei reum sine affectibits et person- 
arum respectione,' I will hear the plaintiff and defendant, with an equal 
mind, without affection and respect of persons. ^ In the twelfth novel* 
of Justinian, you may read of an oath imposed upon judges and justices, 
against inclining or addicting themselves to either party ; yea, they 
put themselves under a deep and bitter execration and curse in 
case of partiality, imploring God in such language as this, ' Let me 
have my part with Judas, and let the leprosy of Gehazi cleave to me, 
and the trembling of Cain 'come upon me, and whatsoever else may 
astonish and dismay a man, if I am partial in the administration of 
justice.' That was a famous act of justice that was performed by 
Canutus, king of Denmark, who, when one of the twelve thieves that 
he had condemned pleaded that he was of the royal blood, saith the 
king. It is reason some favour should be shewed to this person ; where- 
upon he commanded that he should be hanged on the highest gibbet: 
which was done accordingly. It was Cato's complaint of old, that 
those that robbed private men were clapped up and laid by the heels 
in cold irons : but, saith he, public thieves that wrong and rob the 
commonwealth, they sit in scarlet, with gold chains about their 
necks.5 And the Scythian philosopher hath long since complained, 
that laws were like spiders' webs, that would take flies but not wasps 
or hornets. His meaning was, that if poor mean men offended, they 
should be sure to be punished ; but great men that were the makers 
of laws, they might be breakers of the laws, and yet never smart for 
it. In all ages some or others have poured out sad complaints against 
partial justice. Pilate, that unjustly condemned Christ, was afterwards 
kicked off the bench by Caius^ the emperor, for partial justice, and 

^ ' Bona est misericordia, sed non quum est contra judicium ' — Mercy is good, but not 
■when it is contrary to judgment. — Augustine. 

* The judges in Egypt were portrayed without hands and without eyes, to signify that 
they were not to take bribes, nor to accept men's persons. '* Cicero. — G. 

* ' Novel,' from the title ' Novelltz Constitutiones,' or * Novells,' — viz., supplements 
to the original Code. — G. 

* Cato, ap. Gell., lib. xi. cap. 18. The Eoman orator observed, that the force of justice 
is such, and so great, that even thieves and robbers, both by sea and land, who live upon 
injustice and rapine, yet cannot live upon their trade without some practice of it among 
themselves. ® ' Caius,' Caesar or Caligula. — G. 


for grief and shame he became his own executioner. sirs, God will 
one day kick such judges and justices, not only off the bench, but into 
hell, who make a trade of partial justice, except there be sound repent- 
ance on their sides, and pardoning grace on his, Ps. ix. 17, and 
xi. 5. Oh that all the judges and justices of the land would for ever 
remember, what the wisest prince that ever swayed a sceptre saith in 
Prov. xviii. 5, ' It is not good to accept the person of the wicked, to 
overthrow the righteous in judgment.' It is not good, that is, it is 
bad, it is very bad, yea, it is so exceeding bad, as that it can hardly 
be expressed or uttered, i It is so great a wickedness, it is so horrid 
and so hideous a wickedness, yea, it is so hellish a wickedness, as can 
hardly be imagined, as can rarely be declared. The poet in the Greek 
epigram taught the silver axe of justice that was carried before the 
Eoman magistrate to proclaim, ' If thou be an offender, let not the 
silver flatter thee ; if an innocent, let not the axe affright thee.' The 
Athenian judges judged in the night, when the faces of men could not 
be seen, that so they might be impartial in judgment. I have read 
of Zaleucus, that impartial law-giver and judge among the Locrians, 
how that he made a very severe law against adulterers — viz., that 
whosoever should be found guilty thereof should have both their eyes 
put out. Now it so fell out that his son proved the first offender. 
Forthwith sentence was pronounced, and execution ready to be done : 
whereupon the people earnestly entreated the judge, his father, that 
he would pardon the fact, who upon serious deliberation, put out one 
of his own eyes and one of his son's, and so shewed himself to be both 
a tender father and an upright and impartial judge at once.^ sirs! 
it is your wisdom and work, yea, it is as much your glory as it is your 
duty, to be impartial in all your administrations of justice, and not to 
favour friends or relations, nor to fear the frowns of enemies, but to 
proceed impartially, according to the merits of the cause that is before 
you. But, 

2. Secondly, As you must do justice impartially, so you must do 
justice speedily. Jer. xxi. 12, ' house of David, thus saith the Lord; 
Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out 
of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that 
none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.* After exa- 
mination, execution is to be done with expedition, Ezra vii. 16. When 
men cry out for justice, justice, you must not cry out eras, eras, to- 
morrow, to-morrow ; you must do justice in the morning. Noon-jus- 
tice and evening-justice is not so acceptable to God, nor so honourable 
to yourselves, nor so advantageous to others, as morning -justice is. 
You are called gods : and as in other things, so in this, you should be 
like to God, who is speedy and swift in the exercise of justice, as you 
may see by comparing the scriptures in the margin together. ^ To 

^ By the figure Liptote, much is to be understood, when there is but little said. [Rather 
'Litotes,' by which more is to be understood than is expressed. — G.] 

= Aelian V. H. xiii. 24 ; Val. Max. V. 5, § 3.— G. 

8 Joel iii. 4 ; Gen. xix ; Num. xvi. ; Psalm ci. 8. The Persian king had one about 
him, whose office it was to mind him every morning of his charge, saying, ' Arise, O 
king, and have an eye to those affairs for which the great God hath made you king, and 
despatch them.' 


delay justice, is worse sometimes than to deny justice. It is an evil 
thing and a dangerous tiling, when magistrates, judges, and justices 
are as long a-bringing forth their verdicts as the elephant her young. 
Delays of justice makes many more irreconcileable. It makes the 
client often go with a heavy heart, an empty purse, and a threadbare 
coat. It fetcheth heavy sighs and groans from the hearts, and a sea" 
of tears from the eyes of the delayed and oppressed. Magistrates, 
judges, and justices should be always ready to do justice : they should 
he always at leisure to do justice. I have read of one of the kings of 
Persia, how that he would many times alight off from his horse to do 
justice only to a poor body. It were well if all judges and justices would 
WTite after this copy, to be ready to do justice and judgment at all 
times, and upon all occasions. sirs ! you may have time to live, 
even when you have outlived your seasons and opportunities of doing 
justice and judgment ; and what a hell will then your lives be to you ! 
To prevent this hell, it is good to do justice in the morning. I have 
read of a very poor woman, who was very earnest with king Philip of 
Macedon to do her justice, but he deferred her, and told her that he 
had no leisure to hear her : she replied then. Why have you leisure to 
be king ? ^ The poor woman thought that they were very unmeet to 
be kings and judges, who could not be at leisure to do justice when the 
necessities and miseries of poor creatures cried aloud for justice, justice. 
I have read of a famous passage of Theodoric, king of the Komans, who, 
when a widow came to him with a sad complaint, that she had a suit 
depending in the court three years, which might have been ended in a 
few days : the king demands of her the judges' names : she tells him : 
he sends a special command to them to give all the speedy despatch 
that was possible to the widow's cause, which they did, and in two 
days determined it to the widow's liking. This being done, the king 
calls for the judges, and they supposing that they should have both 
applause and reward for their expedition, hastened to liim full of joy : 
but after the king had propounded several things to them about their 
former delays, he commanded both their heads to be struck off, because 
they had spun out that cause to a three years' length, wliich two days 
would have ended.^ Here was royal justice indeed ! ^ Oh that all 
the magistrates, judges, and justices of the nation would every morn- 
ing lay Prov. xiii. 12 warm upon their hearts ! ' Hope deferred 
maketh the heart sick : but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of 
life.' The Hebrew word, HDli^OD, that is here rendered deferred, is 
from Dli'D, that signifies to draw out at length. Men are short- 
breathed and short-spirited, and hope's hours are full of eternity: 
and when their hopes are drawn out at length, this makes their hearts 
sick ; and ah, what a world of such sick souls lies languishing at 
hope's hospital all the nation over, yea, all the world over ! Hope in 
tliis text is put for the good things men hope for. Now, when the 
good things men hope for — be it justice or a quick despatch, &c. — are 

^ Plutarch, Apothegm, in vita Demetrii. 
^ Tillemont, Histoire des Empereurs, tome vi. — G. 

=• The poets feign Justice to be the daughter of Jupiter, whom he hath set over the 
world to revenge those injuries that one man doth to another, &c. 


deferred and delayed, this makes the poor client sick at heart. A 
lingering hope always breeds in the heart a lingering consumption. 
The harder travail hope hath, and the more strongly it labours to 
bring forth, and yet is deferred and delayed, the more deadly sick the 
client grows. But when the desire cometh, that is, when the thing 
desired, wished, and looked for, be it justice, be it righteousness, be it 
success, &c., is gained, it is a tree of life ; or rather as the Hebrew 
hath it, is a tree, D^TT, of lives. All sorts of lives, and all the com- 
forts and contents of life, are wrapt up in the enjoyment of the 
thing desired. He that hath those things granted to him that 
are earnestly desired by him, is once more put into a paradise. 
Wilful delays in justice makes the judge umighteous, Luke xviii. 6. 

3. Thirdly, As you must do justice speedily, so you must do justice 
sincerely. You must do justice out of love to justice, Isa. Ixi. 8. 
When the golden angels i appear to draAv you to pervert justice, you 
must say as Peter did to Simon Magus, ' Thy money perish with 
thee,' Acts viii. 20. Dent. xvi. 20, ' That which is altogether just 
shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which 
the Lord thy God giveth thee.' Or rather as the Hebrew hath it, 
pis, pliJ, tsedeJc, tsedeJc, justice, justice shalt thou follow, that 
is, pure justice shalt thou follow. The streams of justice should 
be always pure and clear, ' Justice, justice shalt thou follow,' that 
is, all manner of justice shalt thou follow, and nothing but justice 
shalt thou follow ; and thou shalt follow justice sincerely, exactly, 
carefully, and constantly: thou shalt be not seemingly just, but 
really just ; not hypocritically just, but entirely just ; not partially 
just, but universally just ; not just to some, but just to all ; not 
transiently just, but perpetually just ; not sometimes just, but always 
just; and so much the geminating of the word 'justice, justice,' 
imports. Prov. xxi. 15, ' It is joy to the just to do judgment.' 
This argues much sincerity and integrity in a man's spirit, when he 
doth not only do judgment, but joys to do judgment. It is a vanity 
to do justice slightly, lightly, wantonly; but it is an honour to do jus- 
tice from a principle of divine joy. He that joys to do judgment, he 
will do justice sincerely, he will do justice out of love to justice ; and 
indeed there are no judges, there are no justices to those that do jus- 
tice out of love to justice. Mazarinus complaineth of foreign judges, 
that they too much resembled the blood-stone, which hath a special 
property to stanch blood, but as jewellers observe, it puts not forth 
this virtue, unless it be let in or covered over with silver, and so ap- 
lied to the vein : but certainly these men were far from doing justice 
sincerely, from doing justice out of love to justice. Some judges and 
justices there have been, who, for the cleanliness of the conveyance, 
would, like mendicant friars, touch no money themselves, but have a 
boy or a clerk with a bag to receive it for them. Certainly these 
were as far from doing justice out of love to justice, as heaven is from 
hell, or as the Pope, the Turk, and the devil are from being real saints. 
Doubtless many magistrates, judges, and justices have found that * a 
gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous,* 
* = Monej'-bribes in coin so-called. — G. 


Exod. xxiii. 8. Golden dust liath put out more eyes than it hath done 
good to hearts. Oh, this golden wedge, this silver squinsie^ hath 
made many men silent and speechless in good causes ! Titus Vespa- 
sian was so delighted in doing of justice, that if a day had passed over 
his head wherein he had done no act of justice, he would cry out, 
^ Amici, diem perdidi:' my friends, I have lost a day. And so 
Epaminondas, a heathen, though he was very poor, and often tempted 
with great bribes and presents to be unjust, yet he refused and scorned 
all, and would commonly say, that if the cause were good, he would 
do it without a bribe, because it was good ; but if the cause was bad, 
he would not meddle with it for a world.^ These heathens will one 
day rise in judgment against all such corrupt judges and justices that 
will not do justice without a bribe. If this Treatise should fall into 
the hands of any such, I would then let them know that God will one 
day make good that dreadful word against them that you have in Job 
XV. 34, ' For the congregation of hypocrites shall be desolate, and fire 
shall consume the tabernacles of bribery ;' or as the Septuagint reads 
it. Of men that take gifts fire shall consume : or rather as the Hebrew 
hath it. Fire shall eat the tabernacles ; it shall feed on their tabernacles 
as greedily as a hungry man doth feed on his meat. Oh, the sump- 
tuous buildings and brave structures that have been built by the 
hands of bribery shall be set on fire by a hand of justice ! Prov. x. 
2, 3, and iii. 33. If bribery brings in a thousand one year, divine 
justice will cast away two for it the next year. God will one day burn 
up on both hands all the comforts, and all the contentments, and all 
the enjoyments of corrupt magistrates, judges, and justices. I have 
read of a Polonian judge, that stood up very stoutly and resolutely a 
long time for a poor plaintiff against a rich defendant ; but at last he 
received from the defendant a great sum of money, stamped with the 
usual stamp of that country, which is a man in complete armour ; and 
at the next session in open court he adjudged the cause in the favour 
of the defendant : and being sharply blamed by his friends for it, he 
shewed them his large bribe, and demanded of them. Who could stand 
out against so many men in complete armour ? Ah, England, Eng- 
land ! it would be better with thee if this spirit did not still survive ; 
but alas, what good will all these men's men in armour do them in the 
great day of our Lord, when the thoughts of all such corrupt magis- 
trates, judges, and justices shall be exceedingly troubled, their coun- 
tenances changed, their hearts terrified, their consciences awakened, 
their souls amazed, and their knees dashed one against another ! Oh 
that all judges and justices would for ever make Isa. v. 23 their daily 
companion, ' Woe to them which justify the wicked for a reward, and 
take away the righteousness of the righteous from him.' I have read 
of Sysamnes, a covetous, tenacious judge, who for filthy lucre pro- 
nounced a false sentence ; whereupon Cambyses, king of Persia, com- 
manded him to be killed and flayed, and his skin to be nailed over 
the tribunal : and then he commanded his son to sit as judge there, 
that so this sight might arm him against all injustice, and be a terror 
to all that succeeded him. If princes did but exercise such royal just- 

^ Same as ' quinsy ' = a tumid inflammatioa in the throat, here used metaphorically.— G. 
* Plutarch, sub nomine, — G. 


tice upon all corrupt covetous judges and justices, justice would be had 
at a cheaper rate, and poor men would not be so often put to pawn 
their coats, nor rich men would not so often empty their purses nor 
mortgage their inheritances. But, 

4. Fourthly, As you must do justice sincerely, so you must do justice 
deliberatehj. You must have one ear for the defendant, and another for 
the plaintiff, or else you will tell the world at once that you are both 
weak and wicked, Dent. xvii. 4; vide Deut. xix. 17-19. It argues much 
weakness and emptiness of spirit, to judge a matter before all is heard 
that can be said. Job's piety and prudence shined forth eminently in 
this, that the cause that he knew not, he searched it out, Job xxix. 16. 
Before God would pronounce judgment upon Adam, he first examines 
him, and propounds several interrogatories to him. Gen. iii. And in 
those two great and famous acts of justice, when God confounded 
Babel's builders, and rained hell out of heaven upon Sodom and 
Gomorrah, he tells you that he will go down and see. Gen. xi. and xviii. 
You are called gods ; in this it is as much your glory as it is your duty to 
imitate the great God. Though Solomon was in all his glory, yet he 
had patience to hear both what the mother and the harlot had to say. 
The Holy Ghost puts the fool upon him that answers a matter before 
he hears it, Prov. xviii. 13. It was the usual custom of Philip, king 
of Macedon, to stop one of his ears whilst the accuser was speaking, 
that so he might reserve it for the defendant. I have read of some 
who have deeply suffered both in their civil liberties and in their con- 
sciences, for their rash and hasty passing of judgment upon others. 
Why hath God given the judges of the earth two ears and but one 
tongue, but tliat they should be swift to hear and slow to speak ? I 
have read of Louis, king of France, that when he had through inad- 
vertency granted an unjust suit, as soon as ever he had read those words 
of the psalmist, ' Blessed is he that doth righteousness at all times,' 
Psalm cvi. 3, he presently recollected himself, and upon better thoughts 
gave his judgment quite contrary. Certainly all acts of justice ought 
to flow from mature deliberation. All magistrates, judges, and 
justices, in their administrations of justice and judgment, should 
wisely observe by what principles they act, and by what rules they 
act, and by what authority they act, and in what manner they act, and 
to what ends they act : and how all these important things can be 
done without serious deliberation, I cannot for the present understand. 
Justice in the emblem is represented with a balance in the one hand, 
and a sword in the other, to note that matters must be first deliberately 
weighed in the balance before judgment can be passed. i He that only 
useth the sword and not the balance, may smite an innocent Naboth, 
and acquit a guilty Ahab. The civil law concludes it very unreason- 
able for any man to give advice or judgment before he hath considered 
and weighed the whole cause.2 And therefore by your own laws you 
are bound to deliberate before you give judgment, unless you will tell 
the world that you, even you, are unreasonable men, who above all 
others should be the masters of the greatest reason, as well as men of 
the greatest measures of grace and holiness. But, 

^ Quarles and Brooks's favourite ' Emblemata Sacra.' — G. 
' Civile dig. 4. de legis senatusque consul. . . 


5. Fifthly, As you must do justice deliberately, so you must do 
justice resolutely, courageously, valiantly. As soon as Joshua came 
into the office of magistracy, God charges him no less than three 
times, in a breath as it were, to be very courageous, in Joshua i. 6-9. 
A judge that is timorous will quickly be treacherous. A judge that 
is fearful can never be faithful. Solomon's throne was supported with 
lions, to shew that magistrates should be men of courage and mettle. 
The Athenian judges sat in Mars Street, to show that they had 
martial hearts, and that they were men of courage and mettle, Acts 
x^di. 22 ; Job xxxi. 31, 34. Job was a judge of rare courage and 
magnanimity ; nothing could fear him, nothing could daunt him, 
nothing could terrify him, nothing could discourage him from doing 
justice and judgment. The Grrecians placed Justice betwixt Leo and 
Libra, to signify that as there must be indifFerency in determining, so 
there ought to be courage in executing. Where there is courage with- 
out knowledge, there the eye of justice is blind ; and where there is 
knowledge without courage, there the sword of justice is blunt. 
Judges and justices should be men of courage for God and godliness. 
Why should not the standard be of steel, and the chief posts in 
the house be heart of oak ? I have read of Agesilaus, how that he was 
by all concluded fit to be made their king, but that he halted. ^ Men 
of the best and choicest accomplishments, if they are not courageous 
and magnanimous, but lame and halting, they are no ways fit for 
magistrates. Judges and justices should have martial spirits, high 
spirits for justice and righteousness. Every judge, every justice, 
should have a lion's heart, an eagle's eye, and a giant's arm. Such 
men whose dull hearts are faint, whose heads are dull, whose ears are 
heavy, whose eyes are dim, whose hands are weak, and whose feet are 
lame, are more fit to sit in a chimney corner than to sit judges 
and justices upon the bench. It hath been long since said of Cato, 
Fabricius, and Aristides, that it was as easy to remove the sun out of 
the firmament as to remove them from justice and equity, they were 
men of such courageous and magnanimous spirits for justice and 
righteousness. No scarlet robe doth so well become a judge as 
holy courage and stoutness doth. I have read of Louis the Eleventh, 
king of France, who going about to establish some unjust edicts, which, 
when some of his chief courtiers perceived, they went altogether to 
him in red gowns ; the king asked them what they would have : 
the president La Vacqueri answered, We are come with a full pur- 
pose to lose our lives every one of us, rather than by our connivancy 
any unjust ordinance should take place. The king being amazed 
at this answer, and at the courage, constancy, and resolution of those 
peers, gave them gracious entertainment, and commanded that 
all the former edicts should be forthwith cancelled in his presence. 
Courage and resolution may prevent many a public mischief and 
misery. But, 

6. Sixthly, As you are to do justice resolutely, courageously, so you 
are to do justice and judgment exactly. 2 Chron. xix. 5-7, ' And he 

1 Agesilaus II. The allusion is to the curiously fulfilled Oracle that warned Sparta of 
evils awaiting her under a ' lame sovereignty.' Cf. Xen. Hell. iii. 3 : Agesilaus, Diod. 
xiv. XV. : Paus. iii. 9, 10, &c. — Q. 


set judges in the land throughout all the fenced cities of Judah, city 
by city. And said to the judges, Take heed what you do: for ye judge 
not for man, but for the Lord, who is with you in the judgment. 
Wherefore now let the fear of the Lord be upon you ; take heed and 
do it: for there is no iniquity with the Lord our God, nor respect 
of person, nor taking of gifts/ God is exact in all his ways, and he is 
exact in all his works ; he is exact in all his promises, and he is exact 
in all his threatenings ; he is exact in all his rewards, and he is exact 
in all his punishments ; he is exact in the exercise of his mercy, and 
he is exact in the exercise of his justice.! And therefore you that 
are called gods, should in this be like God. sirs, some by force, 
others by flattery, some by large presents to your relations, and others 
by promising great rewards to yourselves, may endeavour to corrupt 
you, and blind you, and induce you to judge rashly, inconsiderately, 
irregularly, &c. ; and therefore you have the more cause to be exact in 
transacting all your judicial affairs. Oh, remember that the most sharp 
and piercing eye of God is still upon you ! Oh, remember that the 
severe eye of Jesus Christ, who is the judge of judges, is never off of 
you ; and the angels, those princes of glory, are very strict observers of 
you. When the Ethiopian judges were set in their seats of judicature, 
certain empty chairs were placed about them, into which they con- 
jectured the holy angels came and were spectators of all their transac- 
tions, and this they thought would work such an awe, such a dread, 
such a care, such a fear, and such a resolution in them, that they 
could not but manage all their judicial proceedings with much exact- 
ness and heedfulness.2 And as the angels have their eyes upon you, 
so Satan hath always his eyes upon you ; he hath always a watchful 
eye, an envious eye, a malicious eye, a crafty eye, and a revengeful eye 
upon you. Witness his dissuading you sometimes from your duty, 
and witness his distracting and disturbing of you whilst you are in 
your duty, and witness his accusing of you for the neglect of your duty, 
and witness his endeavours to pride you and jDuff you up upon 
the discharge of your duty. And as the eye of Satan is upon you, 
so the eyes of good men are always upon you, and the eyes of bad men 
are upon you. And if all this doth not bespeak you to be very exact 
and accurate in all your judicial transactions, I know nothing. My 
Lords and Gentlemen, if all this will not do, then remember that 
the lives, liberties, consciences, rights, privileges, estates, and interests 
of persons, next to God and Christ and grace, are the most choice 
and precious, the most desirable and delectable jewels that men have 
in all the world, and therefore you had need be very exact and 
accurate in all your judicial transactions. Yea, once more, remember 
that God will one day bring you to an exact account concerning 
all your judicial proceedings. That same mouth that tells you that 
you are gods, tells you also that you must die like men ; and after 
death comes judgment, Ps. Ixxxii. 6, 7 ; Heb. ix. 27. You that 

^ Exod. xxiii. 6, 7, 13, The Egyptians had a notable practice : when their judges were 
set, they caused the image of a divine Numen, by them called truth, to be hung about his 
neck who sat next unto the judges, to make them the more exact and heedful in 

2 Cave, spectat Cato, was a watchword among the Eomans. Oh, how much more 
should Cave, special Dominus, be a watchword amongst you ! 


now call others to judgment, shall shortly be called to judgment your- 
selves : you that now sit in judgment upon others, shall ere long 
be judged by him that will judge the world in righteousness. Acts 
xvii. 31. My Lords and Gentlemen, give me leave to tell you that that 
judge to whom you must be responsible is no ignorant judge, nor no 
covetous judge, nor no partial judge, nor no fearful judge, nor no 
doting judge, nor no trifling judge, though such there may be in the 
world ; but he is an omniscient judge, an omnipotent judge, an 
impartial judge, a holy judge, a courageous judge, a serious judge, 
a severe judge, an unbiassed judge, a righteous judge, and a resolute 
judge. 1 Alas, sirs, it is not your scarlet gowns, nor your titles of 
honour, nor your great estates, nor your interest in princes, nor your 
noble relations, nor your applause among men, that will stand you 
in stead, when you shall stand before that judge that is a consuming 
fire, Heb. xii. 29. Well, Gentlemen, remember this, there is never a 
professing judge nor justice in the world that will be able at last to give 
up their accounts with joy, and to stand in judgment when the Lamb 
Bhall sit upon his throne, but such as have made it their great business 
to take the Spirit of the Lord for their guide, and to set up the glory 
of the Lord as their great end, and to make the word of the Lord their 
principal rule, and to eye the example of the Lord as their choicest and 
chiefest pattern ; and therefore it is much to be feared that the num- 
ber of such judges and justices, that will be able to stand before the 
judge of all the world, will be but few. But, 

7. Seventhly, As you must do justice and judgment exactly, so you 
must do justice to others as you would have others do justice to you. 
For judges and justices to do as they would be done by, is the 
royal law, the golden rule, and the standard of equity. Judges and 
justices should think of others, as they would have others think of 
them ; and speak of others, as they would have others speak of them ; 
and do to others, as they would have others do to them. 2 Whatever 
by the light of nature, or by the light of conscience, or by the light of 
scripture, a judge, a justice, would have another do to him, the same 
must he do to another. In all just things — for so this law of Christ is 
only to be understood — we must do to others, as we would have others 
do to us. As we would have others carry it equally, justly, and 
righteously towards us, so we must carry it equally, justly, and 
righteously towards others : and as we would not have others to wrong 
us in our names, estates, rights, liberties, lives, so we must not wrong 
others in their names, estates, rights, liberties, lives, &c. This law of 
Christ is the sum of all righteousness. It is the foundation of all justice 
and equity. Self-love doth so commonly blind the sons of men, that 
to judge righteously, they must change the person, they must put 
themselves in others' room. All princes, judges, justices, parents, 

' Tennes, the son of Cyrnus, who was worshipped as a god, was so strict and exact in 
judgment, that he caused an axe to be held over the witnesses' heads, to execute them out 
of hand, if they were taken with falsehood ; and from thence was the proverb, Tenedia 
bipennis. [Rather Tennes (T-Zivvris) of Tenedos, a son of Cycnus, not Cyrnus. Cicero, 
Q. Fr. ii. 11, 2 : M. Aurel. ap Front. Ep. : ad M. Caesar, i. 9.— G.] 

^ Mat. vii. 12. Severus, the emperor, had this scripture often in his mouth ; and 
whensoever he punished any of his soldiers for offering of injuries to others, he still 
commanded this scripture to be proclaimed by the crier. 

VOL. IV. /• B 


masters, subjects, servants, and children, should so act in their 
relations, as they would have others act in the co-relation. All 
injustice will be repaid one time or another ; and therefore men had 
need be just, and do to others as they would have others do to them. 
I have read of a citizen of Comun, in the dukedom of Farrara,! who 
being cast into prison upon suspicion'of murder, his wife could get no 
promise of his deliverance, unless she would give the captain, whose 
prisoner he was, two hundred ducats, and yield her body to his plea- 
sure ; which, with the consent of her husband, she did ; but after the 
captain had his desire, he notwithstanding put him to death. The 
Duke Gonzala hearing of it, commanded the captain to restore the two 
hundred ducats to the widow, with an addition of seven hundred 
crowns ; then he enjoined him to marry her presently, and lastly, 
before he could enjoy his new wife, the duke caused him to be hanged 
for his treachery and injustice. Sometimes in this life, injustice is 
repaid upon the heads of unjust judges. My Lords and Gentlemen, 
before I close up this head, give me leave heartily to recommend 
to your justice those wrongs and injuries which more immediately 
strike at the honour and glory of the great God. God hath put his 
name upon you ; Psalm Ixxxii. 6, ' I said that ye are gods : ' yet 
it must be granted that you are gods in a smaller letter — mortal gods, 
gods that must die like men ; all the sons of Ish are sons of Adam. 
And as God hath put his name upon you, so he hath made you his vice- 
roys, 2 Chron, xix. 6, ' Ye judge not for yourselves, but for the Lord.' 
And therefore God takes all affronts that are done to you, as done 
to himself, as you may see by comparing the scriptures in the margin 
together.^ And God hath provided for your honour among men; 
Exod. xxii. 28, ' Thou shalt not revile the gods,' i.e., the magistrates, 
' nor curse the ruler of thy people.' I have read of Fabius Maximus, 
who highly reverenced and honoured his own son, being consul. This 
heathen will one day rise up in judgment against all such that scorn 
to give to magistrates that honour that, by the fifth commandment, is 
due unto them. And God is very severe in revenging the wrongs that 
are done to you, 2 Pet. ii. 9, 10 ; 1 Sam. viii. 7. He interprets all the 
injuries that are done to you, as done to himself. And why then will 
you not revenge the wrongs and injuries that are done to the great GodP 
Give me leave. Gentlemen, in the behalf of the great Gt)d, a little 
to expostulate with you. Shall the least dishonourable word that 
is spoken against an earthly prince be severely punished ? and shall all 
those horrid and hellish blasphemies, by which the Prince of the kings 
of the earth is dishonoured and reproached all the nation over, pass 
unobserved ? Shall all affronts that are offered to ambassadors be 
deeply resented and justly censured, as high indignities done to the 
prince that employed them ? and shall the ambassadors of the great 
God — I mean such as are called, commissionated, spirited, gifted, and 
graced for that high office by God himself — be scorned, defamed, 
injured, reviled, and on all hands evilly entreated, and yet no man 
say. Why do you thus wickedly, to provoke the great God to your own 
destruction ? 2 Chron. xxxvi. 15, seq. Shall it be looked upon as 

^ Query * Como' and * Ferarra ?'— G. 

2 Rom. xiii. 2 ; Exod. xvi. 7, 8 ; 1 Sam. viii. 7 ; Rom. xiii. 7 ; Josh. iv. 14. 


noble and necessary justice, that all insurrections in the state be 
punished as rebellion ? and shall those who are daily up in open arms 
against the great God, and that daily bid defiance to him, to his Son, 
to his ordinances, to his people, to his word, and to his ways, escape 
without the least lash, the least censure ? Shall those that rob their 
neighbours, though it be but to the value of five shillings, yea less, be 
indicted, examined, condemned, and executed ? and shall others that 
rob God of his glory, of his Sabbaths, and of his service, &c., escape 
without the least shaking of the rod, or without the least danger of the 
whip ? Shall all profaneness, looseness, and wickedness, be winked at, 
yea, countenanced and encouraged, notwithstanding his Majesty's most 
zealous, pious, and renowned declaration against it ? and shall 
real holiness and the power of godliness be on all hands scorned, dis- 
countenanced, opposed, and reviled, and yet no man say. What means 
these things ? Well, my Lords and Gentlemen, for ever remember this : 
all those sins that are in this land committed, which by your just 
power and gracious examples might have been prevented, all those 
sins in the great day shall be charged upon your accounts ; and there- 
fore it highly concerns you with all your might to browbeat wicked- 
ness, to discountenance ungodliness, and to improve your power to the 
uttermost, for the suppressing of all profaneness, and for the coun- 
tenancing, encouraging, and promoting of real holiness, that so you 
may give up your accounts at last with joy. I have read of king 
Ethelbert, how that by his godly example, and by his countenancing 
and encouraging such as were godly, and by his discountenancing 
of profaneness and wickedness, he drew this whole kingdom once 
to look after godliness. my Lords and Gentlemen, if you would 
be but shining examples and patterns of holiness to the nation ; if you 
would but in good earnest put forth your utmost power for the 
encouraging of godliness, and for the suppressing of profaneness : oh, 
what a holy nation, yea, what a happy nation should we have ! King 
Cyrus commanded the chief officers of his army to keep a strict hand 
upon themselves ; for, saith he, that is the best way in the world to 
keep the whole army in good order. The application is easy. But, 

8. Eighthly, In the exercise of justice, you must look that Justice and 
mercy, that justice and clemency go hand in hand. Prov. xx. 28, 
' Mercy 'and truth preserve the king : and his throne is upholden by 
mercy,' Prov. xxix. 14 ; Ps. ci. 1. Some read the words thus, ' Mercy 
and justice preserve the king ; and his throne is upholden by mercy.' l 
All justice wUl not preserve the king, nor all mercy will not preserve 
the king ; there must be a mixture both of justice and mercy to pre- 
serve the king, and to uphold his throne ; and to shew that mercy is 
more requisite than justice, the word mercy is doubled in the text. 
Justice without mercy turns into rigour, and so becomes hateful ; 
mercy without justice turns into fond pity, and so becomes contempt- 
ible. Look, as the rod of Aaron and the pot of manna were by God's 
command laid up in the same ark, so must mercy and justice be pre- 
served entire in the bosom of the same magistrate, judge, and justice.^ 
Mercy and justice, mildness and righteousness, lenity and fidelity, are 

^ It is usual in Scripture, by truth, to understand justice. 

^King John thought to strengthen himself by gathering a great deal of money to- 


a safer and a stronger guard to princes and people, than rich mines, 
munitions of rocks, mighty armies, powerful navies, or any warlike 
preparations. It is very observable that Christ is called but once the 
Lion of the tribe of Judah, in the Book of the Kevelation, and that is 
in chap. v. 5 ; but he is called a Lamb no less than nine-and-twenty 
times in that book. And what is this but to shew the transcendent 
mercy, clemency, lenity, mildness, and sweetness, thatjs in Jesus Christ, 
and to shew that he is infinitely more inclined to the exercise of mercy, 
than he is to the exercise of justice. It is true, magistrates, judges, 
and justices should be lions in the execution of justice ; -and it is as 
true that they should be lambs in the exercise of mercy and clemency, 
mildness and sweetness : and the more ready and inclinable they are 
to the exercise of mercy, where mercy is to be shewed, the more like 
to the lamb they are, Seneca hath long since observed that the custom 
of anointing kings, was to shew that kings should be above all other 
men ,of the greatest sweetness and mildness, their anointing being a 
sign of that kingly sweetness and mildness that should be in them.i 
Nero's speech hath great praise, who, when he was to subscribe 
to the death of any condemned man, would say, Utinam nescirem 
literas, I wish I did not know how to write. 2 But, 

9. Ninthly and lastly. You must do justice proportionable to the 
nature of the offence. Your penalties and punishments must be always 
suitable to the offence. To punish any fact more severely tlian it 
deserves, is always injustice to the offender ; for so far innocency itself 
suffers, as any man is punished beyond the demerit of his offence ; and 
to punish less than the fact deserves, may be of dangerous consequence 
to the public.^ The ^oman fasces were a bundle of rods with an axe 
in the midst, to signify the equity of magistrates in punishing some 
only with rods, and others with the axe. The Eomans had their rods 
for lesser faults, and their axe for capital crimes. Justice is then re- 
miss, when it spares where it ought to punish ; and justice is then too 
severe, when it punisheth where it ought to spare. Extreme right 
often proves extreme wrong. He that will always go to the utmost of 
what the law allows, will too too often do more than the law requires. 
It is rare, very rare, to see a man dance upon the brink of the pit, and 
not to tumble in. A rigid severity often mars all ; equity is still to 
be preferred before extremity. To inflict great penalties and heavy 
censm'es for light offences, this is to kill a fly upon a man's forehead 
with a beetle.4 In the French history, there is mention made of an 
old courtier that would needs depart the court, and retire himself to a 
private life ; the king desired him before he went to leave his advice 
in some general rules, what was best to be done in the government of 

gether ; but neglecting the exercise of mercy, clemency, and lenity, he lost his people's 
affections, and so, after many endless turmoils, he came to an unhappy end. [But cf. 
Chad wick's recent able * King John of England: a History and Vindication based on the 
Original Authorities.' 1 vol., 8vo., (J. E. Smith,) 1865.— G.] 

^Z>e dementia: cf. xiii. and xviii., et alibi. — G. 

^ Ibid., the Treatise being dedicated to Nero ; cf. lib. ii., cap. i. — G. 

* I have read of the river Nilus, that if it either exceed or be defective in its due over- 
flowings of the land of Egypt, it causeth famine : the application is easy. Cleobulus, 
one of the seven Sages, was wont to say that Mediocrity was without compare. 

*Cf. Sibbes's Works in former Series : vol. i. 101. — G. 



the kingdom. Upon which motion he took a fair paper, and wrote 
upon the top of the leaf, Moderation ; and in the middle of the leaf, 
Moderation ; and at the bottom of the leaf, Moderation ; signifying 
thereby thus much to the king, that the best way in the world to have 
his crown set fast, and to keep his kingdom safe, was to manage 
throughout all his affairs with moderation. And there is nothing 
more evident in scriptin-e and history than this, that many by screw- 
ing the pegs of government too high, have broke all in pieces about 
their ears. 

Now, my Lords and Gentlemen, there are five things or rules that 
will be of singular use to help you in this case, to steer such a course 
as may be safe and honourable to you, and as may render you a mercy 
and a blessing to the nation. 

1. And the first is this. Never make those things to he sins, ivhick 
God never made to he sins. To make those things to be sins wliich 
God hath made to be no sins, is to make gods of yourselves ; yea, it 
is to lift up yourselves above God himself, as if you were more holy, 
more wise, more just, and more righteous than the Holy One of Israel 
is. Indeed the Papists, that are will-worshippers, and commonly 
highly conceited of their own wisdom and worth, they frequently 
transgress this rule with their ' Touch not, taste not, handle not,' Col. 
ii. 21, 23 ; which things have indeed a show of wisdom in wUl- worship, 
&c. But why should you, why should you, who have a higher pro- 
fession upon you, and a more clear gospel-light shining every day more 
strongly upon you ? But, 

2. Secondly, Never make those things to he absolute and necessary 
duties, tJmt God hath noiohere declared to he such, Isa. xxxiii. 22 ; 
James iv. 12. Such things that do neither fall under a general nor 
a particular command of God, may not be imposed upon the consciences 
of men as absolute and necessary duties to be performed by them. A 
faithful observing of these two rules would prevent a multitude of 
sins, a sea of sorrows, and a world'of troubles. But, 

3. Thirdly, In all your administrations of justice, take the authority 
of the ivoi'd icith you. This will yield you most comfort,' most peace, 
most security, and most boldness, in the great day of your account. 

4. Fourthly, Never put off your own souls with . any such pleas or 
arguments now, that are not pleadable in the court of conscience, when 
you shall lie upon your dying-beds ; nor that are not pleadable before 
the court of heaven, when you shall stand before Christ's judgment- 
seat. But, 

5. Fifthly and lastly. In all your administrations of justice and 
judgment, be sure that you act nothing upon the account of any com- 
mand, commission, or authority under heaven, that you dare not oion, 
plead, and stand hy hefore the great . authority of heaven, when the 
King of kings shall make a narrow inspection into all your judicial 
proceedings, and accordingly pass judgment upon you. What though 
this command, and that commission, and the other authority, may bear 
you out in this world ? yet if they are too weak to bear you out in 
the other world, you will curse the day that ever you were born, and 


wish that you had rather been a-turning of spits, or lying under a 
hedge, or a-begging at the rich man's door, than that you had ever sat 
in seats of judicature, to act upon such grounds as are no ways plead- 
able before the Lord Jesus Christ, when he shall come in the glory of 
his Father, with all his holy angels, to judge all the kings, princes, 
nobles, judges, and justices of the earth. My Lords and Gentlemen, if 
these five things or rules were but sincerely, seriously, resolutely, and 
constantly followed, no heart can conceive, nor no tongue can express, 
the heinous sins, the sore troubles, and the dreadful calamities and 
woeful miseries that thereby would be prevented. And thus, my 
Lords and Gentlemen, I have done with those special rules that you 
are carefully, diligently, faithfully, and constantly to observe in all 
your judicial administrations ; but how you will be able to act suitable 
and answerable to these rules without a spirit of holiness, without 
a principle of holiness, and without an experiment i of the powerful 
operations of holiness in your own souls, I am not able to see ; and, 
therefore, how much it siknds you upon that want, that holiness, that 
this Treatise holds forth, to study holiness, to love holiness, to prize 
holiness, to countenance holiness, to encourage holiness, to promote 
holiness, and to be restless till you have experienced the power, and life, 
and sweet of holiness in your own hearts and lives, I must leave you 
to judge. 2 And oh that after all this pains that I have taken upon the 
account of your immortal souls, I may not have cause to complain, as 
once Marcus Antonius did : Alas, saith he, those graces which the 
deity sent down as so many pillars to stay up human societies, viz., 
Faith and Modesty, Justice and Verity, they found such cold entertain- 
ment in the world, that they are fled back to heaven. I shall follow 
these weak endeavours with my best prayers, that you may all put on 
holiness as a royal robe, and that all your judicial administrations may 
savour of a spirit of holiness, and of the power and prevalency of holi- 
ness, that so you may be as high in happiness above others, as you are 
now in power and place exalted above others. 

If this Treatise should fall into any of their hands who call and ac- 
count themMves the only ministers of Jesus Christ; I mean such who 
preach rather to please than to profit ; to tickle the ear than to awaken 
the conscience ; that are better at fleecing of their flocks than they are 
at feeding of their flocks ; that seek more men's goods than their good ; ^ 
that set up men's traditions above God's own institutions ; that prefer 
human commands before divine commands ; that are very zealous and 
warm for mint, anise, and cummin, but are very cold, careless, and 
negligent in the great and weighty matters of the law, viz., judgment, 
mercy, and faith ; that can bless God in the church, and blaspheme 
him in the tavern ; that prefer music in the church before singing of 
hallelujahs in heaven ; that prefer a fat benefice before an interest in a 
heavenly inheritance ; that can kneel devoutly behind a pillar, and in 
their drunken fits rail as stoutly against a post ; that pretend a great 
deal of reverence to the name of Jesus, and yet in their lives do daily 

^ ' Experience.' — G. 

^ If you please to read from page 433 to page 447, you will find many more weighty 
arguments to more you to labour after holiness. [As before. — G.] 
^Ezek. xiii., read it throughout; Mat. xxiii. 23 ; Mat. xxv. 1-10. 


crucify the Lord Jesus ; that with Judas can kiss Christ and betray 
Christ in a breath ; that pretend much kindness to the head, and yet 
shew nothing but unkindness to the body ; that preach as if they had 
no mind to go to heaven, and live as if they were resolved to go to 
hell ; that feast their own bodies, but starve their people's souls ; that 
are very devout upon a saint's day, but very loose and profane upon 
the Lord's-day ; that think it a greater sin to eat flesh in Lent, than it 
is to lie with their neighbour's wife ; that speak ten words for them- 
selves, and hardly two for Christ ; and that instead of preaching up holi- 
ness, and promoting of holiness, and countenancing and encouraging 
of holiness, do all they can to discountenance holiness, to browbeat 
holiness, to keep down holiness, to bespatter holiness, to work men out 
of love with holiness, and to hinder the growth and increase of holiness : 
oh that these men would seriously consider how unlike to the minis- 
ters of Jesus Christ they are ! i Do but look, into a scripture-glass, and 
you may easily see that hell is not more unlike to heaven, nor sin more 
unlike to grace, nor Satan more unlike to God, than you are unlike to 
the holy, conscientious, painful, &c., ministers of Jesus Christ. Several 
authors in print have proved this to my hand at large, and therefore 
I shall not enlarge upon it ; only give me leave to say, that God's holy 
things ought to be handled with fear and reverence, rather than with 
wit and dalliance. Spiritual niceness is the next degree to unfaithful- 
ness. Ministers must not be like the drug that the physicians say is 
hot in the mouth and cold in the operation : hot in the pulpit, but 
cold, carnal, and careless in their conversations. 2 Those that stand 
before princes must be exact in their carriages. God appointed both 
the weights and measures of the sanctuary to be twice as large as those 
of the commonwealth ; to shew that he expects much more of those 
that serve him there, than he doth of others. The souls of priests, I 
may say of ministers, must be purer than the sunbeams, saith 
golden-mouthed Chrysostom. Gay things in a sermon are only for 
men to gaze upon and admire. What are high strains and flashes of 
wit, new minted words and phrases, but like gay weeds and blue- 
bottles 3 to the good corn ? Doctrine is but the drawing of the bow ; 
application is the hitting of the mark. How many are wise in gene- 
rals, but vain, eV BiaXoyiafjLoi'i, in their practical inferences. A gene- 
ral doctrine not applied, is as a sword without an edge, not in itself, 
but to others ; or as a whole loaf set before children, that will do them 
no good. A garment fitted for all bodies, is fit for no body ; and so 
that which is spoken to all, is taken as spoken to none. Aaron's bells 
were golden bells, Dulce sonantes, sounding pleasantly, and not as 
sounding brass or tinkling cymbals, as many of the carnal clergy of 
this nation are this day. Many there be that account themselves 
the only ministers of Jesus Christ, that are but like empty orators, 
that have a flood of words, and but a drop of matter ; of whom we may 

1 Gentlemen, if you please to turn to pages 296-299 of this book, you will find more 
matter that concerns you. [As before, in the original edition : see General Index, under 
' Ministers.' — G.] 

* See my ' Precious Remedies against Satan's Devices,' from page 349 to page 357 ; 
and see my ' Unsearchable Riches of Christ,' irom page 291 to page 314. [For the for- 
mer, in this edition, vol. i., p. 152 seq., for the latter, vol. iii., p. 207 seq.—O.] _ 

3 A field flower found among wheat : another Shakesperian word, curiously used in 2 
Henry IV,, v. 4.— G. 


truly say, Multa loquuntur et nihil dicunt, They speak much, and yet 
say nothing, because they say nothing to the purpose. When the 
Lacedemonian in Plutarch heard how sweetly the nightingale sang, Oh, 
said he, that I had this bird, surely it is a rare dish ! but when he 
had taken it, and ate it, and found nothing but a little picking meat, 
he concluded with that proverbial saying, Vox es et prceterea nihil : 
Now I see that thou art a mere voice and nothing else. How 
applicable this is to many preachers in these days, who have good 
lungs, but bad brains, and worse hearts and lives, the prudent reader 
may easily see. John the Baptist was a burning and a shining light, 
as well as a voice. His sermons were stuffed with divine and weighty 
matter, &c., and not filled up with big words or strains of wit. Many 
there be that have John's voice in the ministry, that have not that 
heat and life that John had in his ministry. That great orator — De- 
mosthenes — himself could say, that the riches of Greece did not consist 
in words. The oracle would have King Philip of Macedon to use 
silver lances in winning an impregnable fort, &c. But it is not for 
ministers to use golden sentences, strong lines, frothy wit, in winning 
of souls to Christ ; for it is iron, and not gold, that killeth in the en- 
counter ; it is the steel sword, and not the golden sword, that winneth 
the field. Woe to such preachers that darken counsel by words without 
knowledge. Job xxxviii. 2, that affect sublime notions, obscure expres- 
sions, uncouth phrases, making plain truths difficult, and easy truths 
hard ; that seek abstrusities, and love to soar aloft in dark expressions, 
and take pleasure to shoot their arrows over their hearers' heads. The 
heathenish priests had their mythologies and strange canting expres- 
sions of their imaginary unaccessible deities to amaze and amuse their 
blind superstitious followers, and thereby to hold up their Popish and 
apish idolatries in greater veneration. And is not this spirit now 
revived among many ? Certainly men of abstracted conceits, and 
sublime speculations, are but wise fools ; and commonly they are as 
erroneous as they are curious. Such as mind more the humouring of 
their hearers' fancies, than the saving of their souls, do little consider 
that of Seneca, jEger non qucerit medicum eloquentem, sed sanantem : 
Sick men are not bettered by physicians' sugared words, but by their 
skilful hands. The sword of the Spirit never wounds deep, till it be 
plucked out of the gaudy scabbards of human eloquence. Mr Glreen- 
ham, speaking of non-residents, wisheth that this motto might be 
written on their study-doors without, and walls within, on all their 
books they look on, on all the beds they lie on, and on all the tables 
they sit at, &c. : ' The price of blood, the price of blood, the price of 
blood.' 1 A preacher's life should be a commentary upon his doctrine ; 
his practice should be the counterpane 2 of his sermons. Heavenly 
doctrines should always be adorned with a heavenly life. 

' Preachers are the glass, the school, the book. 
Where people's eyes do learn, do read, do look.' 

Gentlemen, by these short hints you may see, as in a glass, if you wUl 
not put a cheat upon your own souls, how unlike to the true, holy, and 

1 Fuller, Church History, B. ix. s. n.—G. " ' Counterpart.'— G. 


faithful ministers of Jesus Christ you are. sirs, do not you know that 
the Holy Scriptures, that never spoke treason nor sedition, do clearly 
evidence that an ignorant, profane, scandalous, superstitious, insuffi- 
cient, and soul-flattering clergy are the greatest pest, plague, affliction, 
judgment, &c., that can befall a people, as you may easily see by com- 
paring these scriptures together — Micah ii. 11 ; Isa. xxx. 10, 11 ; 
Jer.- V. 31 ; Lam. ii. 14 ; Isa. ix. 16 ; Ezek. iii. 18 ; Jer. xxiii. 9, 18 ; 
Ezek. xiii. 22 ; Jer. vi. 14, and xxvii. 14, 16 ; 1 Thes. v. 3 ; Jer. xiv. 
13-16; Isa. xxviii. 7, 8; Ezek. xxxiv. throughout; Kom. ii. 21-24. 
Other judgments, as sword, famine, pestilence, burning fevers, agues, 
&€., cannot separate between God and men's souls ; for men may 
have very sweet and high communion with Grod under the sorest of 
those judgments. Other afflictions and judgments may spring from 
the fatherly love of God, and from a gracious design of good to his 
people : Kev. iii. 19 ; Prov. iii. 11 ; Heb. xii. 5-8 ; Ps. Ixxxix. 30, 
35 ; Job vii. 17, 18 ; but this is a sad fruit of God's judicial anger 
and severe indignation against a people. Other judgments often issue 
in men's seeking of the Lord, and in men's returning to the Lord. 
Isa. xxvi. 16, 17; Hosea v. 14, 15, compared with chap. vi. 1-3, 
and chap. ii. 6, 7 ; but this judgment frequently issues in men's for- 
saking of the Lord, and in their running from God, and in their walk- 
ing contrary to God, and in the hardening of them against God, and 
in an everlasting shutting of them out from the presence of the Lord : 
as you may see by comparing of these scriptures together — Mat. xv. 
14 ; Luke vi. 39 ; 1 Thes. v. 3 ; 2 Thes. i. 7-10 ; Mat. xxiii. 13. 
Do not you know that where there is no vision, the people perish ? 
Prov. xxix. 18: i^")H)\ that is here rendered pertsA, is from 3^13, that 
signifies to be made naked, to be made bare and uncovered. They are 
made naked as soldiers are among the shot and weapons of their 
enemies, when their armour is not on their backs ; or they are naked 
as people that are stripped of their garments, and exposed to perish by 
cold in the winter, or to be scorched or roasted by heat in the summer ; 
or they are naked, i.e., they are made the objects of shame and con- 
tempt to all that look upon them : or they are made naked, that is, of 
the grace, blessing, and protection of God : or they are naked, that is, 
say others, they are forsaken and cast off ; for every one forsakes and 
casts off naked persons, they will have nothing to do with them, Exod. 
xxxii. 25. Others render the words thus, ' The people will keep holy- 
day, they will have nothing to do but to weep and wail, or they will 
do nothing that is good.' Others thus, ' The people shall be stripped 
naked, they shall be left as a city without walls, exposed to the fury 
of the enemy, as a body without clothes, open to wind and weather.' 
Others carry it thus, ' The people shall be discovered ; it will then 
appear what is within, whether grace or sin ; it will then be discovered 
what pantings, breathings, hungerings, and longings there be in souls 
after God, and Christ, and holiness, and ordinances,' &c. Pagnine 
thus, ' The people will grow barbarous, rebellious, &c., as experience 
in all ages hath fully demonstrated.' Others thus, ' The people shall 
be of no esteem, of no repute ; nobody will prize them, nobody will 
value them, nobody will regard them ; men set no price, no value upon 


naked persons.' Others thus, ' The people shall be dispersed, scattered, 
shivered and shattered ; ' and this in all ages hath been too apparent. 
Others thus, ' They shall be drawn away with errors : they shall either 
be starved, or else poisoned with God-dishonouring, Christ-denying, 
scripture-debasing, conscience-wasting, life-polluting, and soul-damn- 
ing opinions.' It is concluded on all hands, that it shall go ill, very ill, 
with that people that want vision, that want serious, sincere, faithful, 
and powerful preaching ; for where there is no vision, no serious, sin- 
cere, faithful, and powerful preaching, there the people perish certainly, 
undoubtedly, there they go tumbling to hell thick and threefold ; and 
this is evident in the text, ' Where there is no vision, the people 
perish.' He doth not say they may perish, but they do perish; or they 
are in danger of perishing, but they do certainly perish. Where there 
is no serious, conscientious, faithful, powerful preaching, there the 
people grow abominably wicked, as woeful experience tells us : and 
what the issue of that will be, you may see in Ps. ix. 17, ' The wicked 
shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God ; ' or as 
the Hebrew hath it, the wicked shall be turned into into hell, that is, 
they shall certainly be turned into hell ; yea, they shall be turned into 
the nethermost hell, into the lowest dungeon in hell. See Ps. xi. 6. 

Where vision fails, there men perish iem/porally ; when vision, when 
preaching ceased among the Jews, oh the dreadful calamities and 
miseries that came upon that people ! how soon did God burn up all 
their outward comforts, contentments, and enjoyments on every hand, 
2 Chron. xv. 3, 5, 6, compared with chap. xiii. 9-11, and chap, xxxvi. 
15 seq. ; Mat. xxiii. 37, 38. They shut their eyes against all that light 
that Christ and his apostles brought amongst them : and what was 
the issue of this ? Why, about forty years after Christ's ascension, 
the Komans came and took away their city, and sold thirty of them 
a-penny, as Josephus writes, &c. ; and ever since that time, which is 
above sixteen hundred years ago,i they have been scattered as dung 
over the face of the whole earth. 

Where vision fails, there men perish totally : both the bodies and 
the souls of men perish, where serious, conscientious preaching fails ; 
Hosea iv. 6, ' My people are destroyed for want of knowledge." The 
Chaldee rendereth it, they are besotted, and so fitted for destruction. 
The Papists say that ignorance is the mother of devotion ; but this 
text tells us that it is the mother of destruction. The heathens were 
wont to say that if their god Jupiter would destroy one, he would first 
besot him. So these people were first besotted, and then destroyed, 
Kom. vi. 16-19. 

Where vision fails, there the people perish insensibly and unex- 
pectedly. They flatter themselves that God is made up all of mercy, 
and will not believe but they shall go to heaven, till they awake with 
everlasting flames about their ears, as you may see in Sodom and Go- 

Where vision fails, there men perish suddenly : in a moment they 
go down to hell. Job xxi. 13-15. As the travail of a woman comes 
suddenly upon her when she least expects it, so everlasting pains and 
torments come suddenly upon poor sinners when they least expect them, 

1 Brooks's date being 1662.— G. 


Prov. xxiv. 22 ; Deut. vii. 4 ; 1 Thes. v. 3. As God rained hell out 
of heaven upon Sodom and Gomorrah on a sudden, Gen. xviii. ; and 
as he swept away the old world on a sudden, Mat. xxiv. 37-39 ; and 
as Samuel cut off Agag on a sudden, when he concluded that the bit- 
terness of death was past, 1 Sam. xv. 32 : so God casts sinners to hell 
on a sudden, he sweeps them away on a sudden, he cuts them off on a 
sudden ; and when they say^ Surely the bitterness of death is past, and 
everlasting wrath is past, and hell is past, and eternal ruin is past, then 
on a sudden God cuts them off, and gives them their portion with 
devils and damned spirits, &c. 

Where vision fails, there men perish inevitably, irrecoverably: 1 
Thes. v.. And they shall not escape; Prov. vi. 15, 'Therefore shall 
his calamity come suddenly; suddenly shall he be broken without 
remedy.' Here is their dismal doom : They shall not be only bruised, 
but broken ; yea, they shall be suddenly broken when they least look 
for it, when they do not at all dream of it, or dread it, and this without 
remedy. They shall be so broken, as that there shall not be so much 
as a possibility of making them up again. If a man lose his estate, 
his friend, his child, this loss may be made up again ; but if a man 
once lose his soul, there is no repairing nor making up of that loss. 

Where there is no vision, there men perish everlastingly, there they 
perish eternally, 2 Thes. i. 7-9 ; Jude 7. 

Do not you know that God will require the blood of all their souls 
at your hands, that perish either by your insufficiency, or neglect, or 
bad examples ? Ezek. iii. 18-20, ' Thou shalt surely die,' Moth Tamuth, 
in dying thou shalt die ; that is, thou shalt certainly die, thou shalt 
eternally die. The ancients commonly interpret it of the death of the 

Do not you know that a man were better have the blood of all the 
men in the world upon him, than the blood of one soul upon him ? For 
there is no blood that cries so loud, that will lie so heavy, and that will 
sink a man so deep in hell, as the blood of souls — I say, as the blood 
of souls. 

Do not you know that there are ng men upon the face of the earth 
that are by office so strictly, so strongly, so universally, so indispens- 
ably, and so signally engaged to prize holiness, to countenance holi- 
ness, to encourage holiness, to promote holiness, and to practise holiness, 
as the ministers of Jesus Christ are ? Do not you know that ministers 
are called angels, in respect of their offices ? Rev. ii. Now angels are 
spiritual creatures ; their communion is spiritual, their food is spiritual, 
their delights are spiritual, their minds are spiritual, their affections 
are spiritual, and their exercises are spiritual, Ps. civ. 4 ; and in all 
these respects ministers should be Uke to the angels. I3ut are not 
many of them spiritual madmen in these days ? — being nothing less 
than what they profess to be i — spiritual men in a mockery : such as 
many light slight souls call a spiritual pig, that is, the poorest, the 
leanest, and the worst of aU the ten ; such a one as hath no substance 
in it. So these have no substantial goodness, no substantial holiness 
at all in them ; whereas in holiness they should as far exceed all other 
men, as the angels in hoUness do exceed them. 

That is, they are everything rather than what they profess to be.— G. 


Do not you know that there is no rank nor order of men on earth 
tliat have so enriched hell, that have been such benefactors to hell, 
as the ignorant, insufficient, profane, scandalous, and superstitious 
clergy? In times of Popery letters were framed and published as 
sent from hell, wherein the devil gave the carnal, ignorant, insuffi- 
cient, scandalous, and superstitious clergy of those times no small 
thanks for so many millions of souls as by their means were daily sent 
to hell. 

Do not you know that aU the true faithful prophets, apostles, and 
ministers of Jesus Christ, that are mentioned in the Old and New 
Testament, were men of the greatest holiness ; i and men that made it 
their greatest business and work in this world to keep down a spirit of 
profaneness and wickedness, and to countenance, encourage, and pro- 
mote holiness? Oh, how diligent ! oh, how frequent ! oh, how abundant ! 
oh, how constant were they in the work of the Lord, that profane per- 
sons might be made holy, and that those that were holy might be made 
more and more holy, yea, that they might perfect holiness in the fear 
of the Lord ! &c. Bishop Latimer, speaking of the clergy of his time 
— in a sermon before King Edward the Sixth — tells us that many can 
away with prcesunt, but not with bene; if that bene were out of the text, 
all were well ; if a man might eat the sweet and never sweat, it were an 
easy matter to be a preacher ; if there were not opus but bonum, all 
were well too. But every clergyman is, or ought to be, ETrlaKovo^, 
that is, saith Augustine, Nomen operis, to be a steward and overseer 
in God's house ; and that is an office of great labour, trust, and em- 
ployment. Stewards and overseers commonly eat their bread in the 
sweat of their brows, and after much beating of their brains ; but how 
unlike to such stewards and overseers the clergy are that I am now 
expostulating with, I must leave the Christian reader to judge. 
Ernestus, Duke of Lunebury,2 caused a burning lamp to be stamped on 
his coin, with these four letters, A. S. M. C, by which was meant, 
^Aliis serviens meipsum contero : ' By giving light to others, I consume 
myself. And such were the Lord's faithful prophets, apostles, and 
ministers of old : and such are all his faithful, laborious, and conscien- 
tious ministers now. But how unlike to the one or the other they are, 
that now I am reasoning with, you may easily perceive, by comparing 
them together. I have read of the nobles of Polonia, that when the 
gospel is read, they clap their hands upon their swords, and begin to 
draw them out, intimating by that ceremony their resolution to defend 
the faith, and their willingness to hazard their lives for the gospel's 
safety. The faithful prophets, apostles, and ministers of old, were will- 
ing to sacrifice themselves for the gospel's sake : but how many are 
there in these days that are more ready and willing to make a sacrifice 
of the gospel for profit sake, and preferment sake, and honour sake, 
and lust's sake, &c., than they are to make themselves a sacrifice for 
the gospel's sake ! and how unlike these are to the faithful, conscien- 
tious ministers of Jesus Christ that have been in all ages, I must leave 
you to judge. 

Do not you know that Pharaoh had that tender regard of his cattle, 

^ 2 Chron, xxxvi. 15 ; Jer. vii. 25; xxv. 4; xxxv. 15; xi. 7, &c.; 2 Cor. xL, &c. 
" Qu. Luneburgh ? — G. 


as that he thought none fit to be their ruler, their overseer, but sucli 
as were known men of activity? Gen. xlvii. 6, 7. Pharaoh would 
have none to be his cowherds but men of activity, men of skill, men 
that were prudent and diligent, ingenuous and industrious. Shall 
Pharaoh be so careful for his cows, and shall not others be as careful 
for souls ? What man is there under heaven that hath the use of his 
reason, his wits, &c., that when he is to travel, would take a fool, an 
ignoramus, for his guide ; and that when he is sick, would send for a 
mountebank to be his physician ; or that when he is to ride a danger- 
ous way, would make choice of a coward to defend him ; or that when 
he hath a lawsuit, would make use of a dunce to plead it ; or that 
when he hath a suit of clothes to make, would send for a bungling 
tailor to make it ? Surely none. And why then should not men be 
as wise for their souls ? 

Do not you know that that sort of persons that now I am a speaking 
of, have been the greatest instruments of bringing the greatest calami- 
ties and miseries, and the sorest desolations and destructions that ever 
have been brought upon cities, nations, kingdoms, and countries ? 
Compare the scriptures in the margin together, and then let conscience 
speak. 1 And who is so ignorant as not to know that it was the high- 
priests, scribes, and Pharisees that brought the innocent blood of our 
Lord Jesus Christ upon that once great and glorious nation of the 
Jews, to their utter destruction and desolation, about forty years 
after Christ's ascension, when the Komans came and took their city, 
and practised the greatest severity and cruelty imaginable upon them, 
as Josephus and other historians shew ? In the Marian days, and in 
the massacre of the Protestants in France, how great a hand this sort 
of men had that I am now a-reasoning with, all the world knows. 
And so the pagan priests stiiTcd up the pagan emperors to be despe- 
rate persecutors of the people of Grod that were within their empires ; 
which occasioned Tertullian to give that good counsel to Scapula, a 
pagan persecutor ; ' Grod,' saith he, ' will surely make inquisition for 
our blood, and therefore if thou wilt not spare us, yet spare thyself : 
if not thyself, yet spare thy country, wliich must be responsible when 
God comes to visit for blood. 

Do not you know that his Majesty hath very Christianly, zealously, 
argumentatively, and smartly declared against drunkenness, lewdness, 
profaneness, &c., and that he hath declared that his resolution is and 
shall be to promote the power of godliness, to encourage the exercises 
of religion, both public and private, to take care that the Lord's-day 
be applied to holy exercises, without unnecessary divertisements ; and 
that insufficient, negligent, and scandalous ministers be not permitted 
in the church ? 

Do not you know that when the great Shepherd our Lord Jesus 
Christ shall appear, that he will call you to a pai'ticular and exact ac- 
count for every soul that hath miscarried under your charge, either by 
reason of your ignorance, insufficiency, profaneness, looseness, or super- 
stition, &c. ? and how will you then be able to stand in that day? &c., 
1 Pet. V. 2-4 ; Ezek. iii. 17-19. 

1 Jer. xxvi. 8, 9, 11, 14, 15j Lam. iv. 11-13; Amos vii. 10, 11; 1 Kings xxii.; 2 Chron. 


Gentlemen, if you say you know not these things, and that they are 
riddles and mysteries to you, how dare you say that you are the minis- 
ters of Jesus Christ ? But if you shall say that you know very well 
that these things are certainly true, yea, that they are such clear and 
undeniable truths that no devil can deny, and yet shall continue in 
your ignorance, insufficiency, profaneness, looseness, superstition, &c., 
what man on earth is there that hath but read the scriptures, and that 
can but write liis own name, and that would not be begged i for a fool in 
folio, will believe you to be the true faithful ministers of Jesus Christ? 

Well, Gentlemen, I have read of Alexander the Great, how that he 
had a soldier of his name that was a coward, which when he under- 
stood, he commanded him either to fight like Alexander, or else to lay 
down the name of Alexander.^ So say I to you. Gentlemen, either 
preach as the ministers of Jesus Christ ought to preach — viz. , plainly, 
spiritually, powerfully, feelingly, fervently, frequently, &c., and live as 
the ministers of Jesus Christ ought to live — viz. , heavenly, graciously, 
holily, humbly, righteously, harmlessly, and exemplarily, &c., or else lay 
down your very names of being the ministers of Jesus Christ, and put 
no longer a cheat upon yourselves, nor upon the people, by making 
them believe that you are the only ministers of Jesus Christ, when you 
have nothing of the spirit of Christ, nor of the anointings of Christ, 
nor of the grace of Christ, nor of the life of Christ in you. Gentle- 
men, if this counsel be seriously minded and faithfully followed, it will 
turn more to your accounts in the great day of our Lord Jesus, and do 
you more good then, than all the profits, preferments, and honours of 
this world can do you good now. But if you shall slight and despise 
this counsel now, I shall be found a true prophet, to your woe and 
misery in that great day, &c. 

If this Treatise should fall into the hands of any ladies and gentle- 
women, as I suppose it may, that have not yet experienced the sweet 
and powerful operations of holiness in their own souls, I would then 

Ladies and Gentlewomen, your souls are as precious, and as immor- 
tal, and as capable of union and communion with Christ here, and of 
an eternal fruition of Christ hereafter, as the souls of any men in the 
world are. I have read a sad story of one Bochna, a woman which 
had but two sons in all the world ; and whilst she was walking with 
the one towards the river, she heard the other crying out, and hasten- 
ing back, she found a knife sticking in his side, which killed him im- 
mediately: then she made haste to the other child, but he in her 
absence was fallen into the river and drowned, and so she lost both 
her sons at once. Now, ladies, this is your very case ; every one of 
you have two children, as I may say, a soul and a body, a life eternal 
and a life temporal ; and oh, what a dreadful and unspeakable loss would 
it be to lose both these at once ! and yet, as certain as there is a 
God in heaven, you will lose them both without holiness. 

All know, that know anything of scripture or history, that there 

have been many great ladies and gentlewomen, that have been great 

lovers of holiness, and great delighters in holiness, and great prizers 

of holiness, and great admirers of .holiness, and great countenancers of 

^ Qu. ' bagged '=: taken for.— G. ^ Plutarch, s. n.—G. 


holiness, and great encouragers of holiness, and great promoters of 
holiness, and great followers after holiness, and great experiencers of 
the sweet and powerful operations of holiness in their own souls. And 
oh that this might be all your honour and happiness, to be in all re- 
spects as famous for holiness, as any of your sex hath been before you. 

Christ hath prayed as much for your souls, as he hath for the souls 
of others ; and he hath paid as much for your souls, as he hath for the 
souls of others ; and he hath sweat, and wept, and bled as much for 
your souls, as he hath for the souls of others ; and he hath suffered, 
and satisfied as much for your souls, as he hath for the souls of others ; 
and he hath purchased and prepared as great and as glorious things 
for your souls, as he hath for the souls of others, if you will be but a 
holy people to him : and what doth all this speak out, but an unspeak- 
able readiness and willingness in Jesus Christ to sanctify you, and 
save you, as well as others ? 

All knowing men can tell you, that many ladies and gentlewomen 
in all ages have been very famous for all natural, moral, spiritual, and 
acquired excellencies ; yea, more famous than many men that yet have 
done worthily in their generation ; and by their attainments you may 
easily see what is possible for you to attain unto, both in respect of 
gifts and grace, i Of all things, gracious examples are most awaken- 
ing, convincing, and encouraging ; for in them you may see that both 
the attainment of holiness, and the exercise of holiness, is possible, 
though difficult ; in eyeing of examples, it is always best to eye the 
highest, the holiest, and the worthiest examples ; for, as he that shoot- 
eth at the sun, though he falls short of his mark, yet will shoot liigher 
than he that aimeth only at a shrub ; so those that set up the highest 
examples of holiness for their mark, for their imitation, will certainly 
attain to greater degrees of holiness, than those that propose to them- 
selves the meanest and the lowest examples of holiness for their .pat- 
tern and imitation. 

Well, Ladies and Gentlewomen, do you think that it is good going 
to hell, that it is good dwelling with the devouring fire, that it is good 
dwelling with everlasting burnings, that it is good for ever to be sepa- 
rated from the presence of Grod, Christ, angels, and the spirits of just 
men made perfect ? Isa. xxxiii. 14 ; 2 Thes. i. 7-10 ; that it is good 
for ever to lie a-sweltering under the wrath of an infinite just God, 
and to abide for ever and ever under those pains and torments that 
are endless, easeless, hopeless, and remediless ? and that it is good to 
be associated, and fettered with devils and damned spirits to all 
eternity ? Oh no, this cannot be good ; for the very serious thoughts 
of these things are enough even to raise a hell a-this-side hell in our 
hearts. Oh then. Ladies and Gentlewomen, pray that you may be holy ; 
hear that you may be holy ; read that you may be holy ; and with all 
your might press after holiness, and pursue hard after holiness as after 
the one thing necessary ; for without holiness you will as certainly go 
to hell, as holy persons shall certainly go to heaven ; and this you will 
find as clearly and fully proved in this following Treatise, as heart can 

^ A man might write volumes on this subject : there is so much said in scripture and 
history upon this account; but in an epistle a touch must suffice, &c. 


Oh that you would for ever remember this, that without all perad- 
venture you shall never be saved, unless you are sanctified ; you shall 
never be truly happy, unless you are really holy: except God should 
do five things that are not possible for him to do — viz., 1. Change his 
purpose ; 2. Make null and void his decree ; 3. Make a new gospel ; 
4. Find out a new way to heaven ; and 5. Ungod himself. God must 
undo himself and ungod himself, if ever he make you happy before he 
hath made you holy ; and therefore, oh, what infinite cause have you 
to read this following Treatise, and to study this Treatise, and to medi- 
tate on this Treatise, and to pray over this Treatise, and to look up to 
heaven for counsel and strength to make such an improvement of the 
means, helps, and directions that are here prescribed for the attaining 
of holiness, as that you may be made really holy, that so you may be 
everlastingly happy I And to quicken and encourage your hearts in 
this work, I could heartily wish, that as soon as you have read over 
the epistle, you would read from page 433 to page 447, for there you 
will find many arguments that are of a particular concernment to your- 
selves, and that ought to be no small obligations upon you to work you 
to pursue after holiness with all your might, &c.i 

If this Treatise should fall into the hands of any faithful, serious, 
gracious, conscientious, laborious ministers' hands, as I suppose it may, 
I would then say. Reverend sirs, let my weak endeavours be a spur, a 
provocation to you to lay out your choicest and your chiefest gifts, 
parts, strength, time, and opportunities to promote holiness of life, 
and holiness in doctrine, worship, discipline, and in all your sacred 
communions. Certainly, had we all eyed hohness more, and preached 
holiness more, and practised holiness more, and cried up holiness more, 
and encouraged holiness more, and countenanced holiness more, the 
countenance both of God and man might have been set more pleasingly 
towards us than they are this day. When once maintenance comes to 
be more in ministers' eyes than holiness, and when their studies and en- 
deavours are more to make men proselytes to this or that way, this or 
that form, this or that party, than to make men holy, it is no wonder 
if God writes out ' bitter things ' against them. I doubt not but provi- 
dential dispensations have had such a teaching virtue in them, as to 
lead you to lay your fingers upon several such-like sores, and to mourn 
over them, and to justify the Holy One of Israel, who is holy in all his 
ways, and righteous in all his works. 2 

Truly, brethren, I have always looked upon the great work of the 
ministry to lie in two things : first, in making unholy men holy ; and, 
secondly, in making them that are already holy to be more and more 
holy. First to beget holiness, and then to nurse up holiness ; first 
to bring souls to Christ, and then to build up souls in Christ, is with- 
out all peradventure the work of works that should be most in every 
minister's eye, and that should always lie nearest and warmest upon 
every minister's heart, &c. And, through grace, I have made this my 
grand design in the course of my ministry, and throughout all my 
writings ; and now it yields me that joy, that comfort, that content, 

' As before.— G. 

* Be it remembered this was written at the time of the ' Ejection ' of the Two 
Thousand, of whom Brooks was one. — G. 


and that satisfaction, that I would not be without for all the world. 
Besides, I know it will turn most to my account at the great day. 
Oh that all of you that yet have any opportunities and advantages in 
your hands to preach the everlasting gospel would make this your 
great business, to prompte holiness, and to exalt and lift up holiness 
in the world ! For as this great principle of holiness shall gain ground 
upon the hearts, consciences, and lives of men ; so all the things of 
Antichrist, and all the trade of Antichrist, and all those grand mis- 
chiefs and miseries that threaten the sons of men, will fail before it, as 
Dagon fell before the ark. 

If tliis Treatise should fall into the hands of any of God's sanctified 
ones, of what degree or rank soever they are of, as I suppose it may fall 
into the hands of many such, I would then say. Dear friends, in this 
Treatise you will find many strong motives to provoke you to ' pe^ect 
hoKness in the fear of the Lord,' and many special means to enable 
you to ' perfect holiness in the fear of the Lord,' and many evidences 
whereby you may certainly and infallibly know whether you have 
attained to any considerable height of holiness or no; and in the 
opening of these things, you will find that great doctrine about degrees 
of glory in heaven to be asserted and proved, and the objections 
against it to be fairly dismissed, &c. 

Reader, if thou art one that to this very day art in an unsanctified 
estate, and an enemy to holiness, or a scoffer at holiness, or a secret 
despiser of holiness, or a desperate opposer of holiness, or a bitter per- 
secutor of holiness, then I would commend this following Treatise, 
before any I know extant in the world, to the service of thy soul ; for 
I know none that is so calculated and fitted up for that purpose as 
this is. Read and judge. This I will assure thee, thou un- 
sanctified soul, that the grand design of this book is thy salvation ; it 
is to make thee really holy, that thou mayest be eternally happy ; and 
of this thou mayest be confident — viz., that I shall follow these poor 
labours with my earnest prayers, that they may be blessed to the 
internal and eternal welfare of thy soul, and that they may issue in 
the conviction, conversion, and salvation of thy soul. I shall send 
this Treatise forth into the world with Jacob's blessing and prayer for 
his sons, ' God Almighty send thee mercy in the sight of the man,' 
Gen. xliii. 14, &c., in the sight of the proud man that he may be 
humbled, and in the sight of the hardened man that he may be 
softened, and in the sight of the carnal man that he may be spiritual- 
ised, and in the sight of the polluted man that he may be washed, 
and in the sight of the unsanctified man that he may be sanctified, 
and in the sight of the ignorant man that he may be enlightened, and 
in the sight of the stubborn man that he may be bowed,_and in the 
sight of the unconverted man that he may be changed, and in the sight 
of the lost man that he may be saved. 

Christian reader, I suppose by this time that I have almost tired 
thee in reading, as I have myself in writing, and therefore I shall 
presently draw to a close ; only, before I take my leave of thee, give me 
leave to say, that I am much of Carthagena his mind, who to those 
three things which the ancients held impossible, saith, that to find a 
book printed without erratas, should undoubtedly have been added as 

VOL. IV. c 


a fourth impossible, if the art of printing had been then invented, 
though the author had Briareus his hands, and the printer Argus his 
eyes. Notwithstanding all the care that hath been taken, thou wilt 
find figures misplaced, and some mispointings, with some other mis- 
takes of the printer. I hope the ingenuous reader will cast a mantle 
of love over the mistakes of the press, and do me that right, and him- 
self that courtesy, as to correct such eiTors of the press that the second 
impression may prevent. Seneca, 1 remember, is railed upon by slan- 
derous tongues for the faults of Nero his scholar. And the scapes ^ 
of Quintilian's scholars are imputed to Quintilian himself; but I know 
the Christian reader, that is daily sensible of the erratas of his life, 
hath not so learned Christ. 

Jeader, I do not ofier thee that which cost me nothing. This 
itise that now I put into thy hand is the fruit of much prayer and 
serious study. If thou findest any profit and benefit by it, give Christ 
all the glory, the crown of praise becomes no head but his ; only 
when thou art in the mount, let me lie near thy heart. Oh, pray 
earnestly, pray fervently, pray frequently, and pray unweariedly, that 
I may have much of the fresh anointings of the Holy Spirit, that my 
communion with a holy God may every day rise higher and higher, 
and that all my transactions, both before God and man, may savour 
of some heights of hoHness : so thou wilt the more strongly oblige me 
to be thy soul's servant in all gospel engagements, 

Thomas Brooks. 

* = ' escapes,' or faults, or misdemeanours.— G. 


Follolo peace luith all men, and holiness, without ivhich no man shall 
see the Lord. — Heb. XII. 14. 

I REMEMBER a Saying of golden-mouthed Chrysostpm, ' If I were,' said 
he, ' the fittest man in the world to preach a sermon to the whole 
world, gathered together in one congregation, and had some high 
mountain for my pulpit, from whence I might have a prospect of all 
the world in my view, and were furnished with a voice of brass, a 
voice as loud as the trumpet of the archangel, that all the world 
might hear me, I would choose to preach on no other text than that 
in Ps. iv. 2, " mortal men, how long will ye love vanity, and fol- 
low after leasing?"' i So I say, had I Clu-ysostom's tongue, head, and 
heart, and were I every way advantaged to preach a sermon to the 
whole world, I would choose to preach on this text before any other 
in the Bible, ' Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which 
no man shall see the Lord.' 

Beloved ! the salvation of souls is that which should be first and 
most in a minister's eye, and that which should always lie closest and 
warmest upon a minister's heart. sirs ! our dear Lord Jesus was 
infinitely tender of the souls of men. He left his Father's bosom for 
souls ; he trode the wine-press of his Father's wrath for souls ; he 
prayed for souls ; he paid for souls ; he sweated for souls ; he bled 
out his heart's blood for souls ; and he made himself an offering for 
souls: 2 and oh, what an encouragement should this be to all his 
faithful messengers to woo 3 for ^ouls, to mourn for souls, to pray for 
souls, to study for souls, and in preaching to spend and to be spent 
for the salvation of souls ! Ah, friends, there is no work nor wisdom 
on earth to that of winning souls, Prov. xi. 30, and ' he that winneth 
souls is wise.' There is no art, no industry to that of winning souls, 
of ' taking' souls, as fowlers take birds, as the Hebrew word np7l 

1 On Ps. iv. 2. HomiL— G. 

2 Isa. Ixiii. 3; John xvii. 22; Luke iv. 24; 1 Cor. vi. 20; 1 Pet. i. 18-20; Heb. ix. 
12-15. " Misspelled ' woe.'— G. 


imports. Now, though there is a great deal of art required to take 
birds, yet there is ten thousand times more art required to take souls. 
In a word, to convert a soul is a greater work than to sway a sceptre, 
or than it is to pour out ten thousand talents into the baskets of the 

My desigu in choosing this text is the winning of souls, it is the 
salvation of souls, it is the bringing in and building up of souls. I 
have read of Louis the Ninth, king of France, that he was found 
instructing his poor kitchen-boy in the way to heaven ; and being 
asked the reason of it, he answered, ' The meanest hath a soul as 
precious as my own, and bought by the same blood of Christ.' He 
who only went to the price of souls, hath long since told us that a 
soul is more worth than a world. Mat. xvi. 26. That I may catch 
some poor soul or other by a holy craft, 2 Cor. xii. 16, and establish 
and strengthen others in the love and liking of holiness, and in the 
power and practice of holiness, I have cast my thoughts upon this 

But to draw nearer to my text. 

As no means hath more enriched hell than beautiful faces, so no 
means hath more enriched heaven than the beauty of holiness. Now 
that I may discover the necessity, beauty, rarity, and excellency of 
holiness, I have chosen this text, ' Follow peace with all men, and 
holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.' I shall give a 
little light into the words, and then come to that main point I intend 
to stand upon. 

' Follow peace with all men.' The Greek word AccoKere, translated 
follow, signifies to pursue and press after peace, as the persecutor 
pursues and presses after him he persecutes. It notes an earnest, an 
eager, an affectionate, and an incessant pressing and following after 
peace with all men; Ps. xxxiv. 14, 'Seek peace, and pursue it.'^ 
Here the Hebrew word, ^p2, translated seek, signifies to ' seek ear- 
nestly,' vehemently, studiously, industriously. Thus peace with God, 
and peace with conscience, and peace with men must be sought. 
' Seek peace and pursue it.' The word translated pursue, IHS)!'!'), 
from ^1"), signifies an ' earnest pursuit.' It is a metaphor taken from 
the earnestness of wild beasts, or ravenous fowl, which will run or fly 
fast and far, eagerly and unweariedly, rather than be disappointed of 
their prey. Though Christians meet with many rubs and remoras, 
yet peace must be resolutely pursued. The Spirit of God is a Spirit 
of peace, and God delights to be styled Deus pacts, the God of peace, 
and Christ affects 3 to be Princeps pads, the Prince of peace, and 
King of Salem, i.e.. King of peace. ^ JJbi pax, ibi Christus, quia 
Christus pax: Where peace is, tJiere is Christ, because Christ is 
peace. Therefore let all that are interested in Christ pursue after 
peace. But this is not the point that I have in my eye at this time. 
I shall hasten to it ' With all men ;' that is, with all orders, ranks, 
and sorts of men. 

* And holiness,' &c.5 We must so pursue after peace as that we do 

^ Chrysostom. ^ Dtdce nomen pads — The very name of peace is sweet. 

» ' Chooses.'— G. * Gal. v. 22; 2 Cor. xiii. 11 ; Isa. ix. 6, 7; Heb. i. 2. 

\ A man may be miserable under peace, but never under holiness. 


not neglect holiness for peace sake. Better is holiness without peace, 
than peace without holiness. Holiness dilFers nothing from happiness 
but in name. Holiness is happiness in the bud, and happiness is 
holiness at the full. Happiness is nothing but the quintessence of 
holiness. A man were better be holy in hell, than unholy in heaven. 
Holiness would make hell to be no hell, as the fire was no fire to those 
holy worthies, Dan. iii. 27. Look, as unholiness would make heaven 
to be no heaven, yea, turn a heaven into a very hell, so holiness would 
turn a hell into a very heaven. What holiness this is in the text, I 
shall discover to you in the opening of that point I intend to stand - 

' Without which no man.' This expression is exclusive, ' no man,* 
be he rich or poor, high or low, honourable or base, young or old, Jew 
or Gentile, bond or free, under one form or another, &c. 

' Shall see the Lord.' To ' see,' in the Hebrew phrase, is ordin- 
arily used to ' enjoy :' Ps. iv. 6, '^ Who will shew us any good ?' The 
word in the Hebrew is from HkSi, to ' see,' ' Who will make us to see 
any good?' that is, to enjoy any good. 'Without holiness no man 
shall see the Lord ;' that is, without holiness no man shall ever come 
to a blessed, to a glorious fruition and enjoyment of the Lord. There 
was once a holy man [Chrysostom] who professed that the want of the 
enjoyment of Grod would be a far greater hell to him than the feeling 
of any punishment ; and yet this great hell, every one shall be sure to 
feel that lives and dies without holiness. The Jews say of holy Moses, 
that he died ad osculum oris Dei, at the kisses of God's mouth, and 
in divine embraces, Ps. xxxvii. 37. When a man of holiness dies, he 
shall be sure to die in divine embraces, and live for ever in divine 
embraces. When Socrates was to die, he comforted himself with 
this, that he should go to a place where he should enjoy Homer and 
Musaeus, and other worthies who lived before him.i But ah, what an 
unspeakable comfort is this to a holy man when he comes to die, to 
consider that he is going to a place where he shall see the Lord, not 
as now, through a glass darkly, but in all his heavenly bravery, and 
in all his divine embroidery and bespangled glory! 1 Cor. xiii. 12. 
And let this suffice for the opening of the words. 

In my text you have two things : First, An exhortation to ' follow 
peace and holiness.' Secondly, The reason or argument to enforce 
the duty pressed, viz., ' without which no man shall see the Lord.' 
The words will afford us many weighty observations. , I shall onl> 
name one, which I intend to insist upon, and that is this — viz. : 

Doct. That real holiness is the only way to happiness. All men 
must he holy on earth, or they shall never see the beatifical vision, they 
shall never reach to a glorious fruition of God in heaven. 

For the clearing up, and making good of this great and glorious 
truth, I shall endeavour these three things : — 

First, to shew you what this holiness is, ' without which no man 
shall see the Lord.' 

Secondly, I shall, by an induction of particulars, make good the pro- 

^ Plato, Phaedo; Xenophon, Mem. iv. 8, § 4, &c.— G. 


Tliirdly, Give you the reasons of tlie point. 

I. First, What is this holiness ' without which no man shall see 
the Lord '? I answer, there is a sixfold holiness. 

1. First, There is a legal holiness. Now a legal holiness consists 
in an exact, perfect, and complete conformity in heart and life to the 
whole revealed will of God, and this was the hoHness that Adam had 
in his innocency; and this holiness was immediately derived from 
God, and was perfect. Adam knew the will of God perfectly, so far 
as it was revealed to him, and had a divine principle in him of perfect 
conformity to that blessed will. Adam's holiness was as co-natural 
to him, as unholiness is now to us ; and had he stood fast in that 
glorious condition, we had all been as naturally holy from the womb, 
as now we are sinful. Adam's holiness was as natural, and as pleas- 
ing, and as delightful to him, as any way of unholiness can be natu- 
ral, pleasing, and delightful unto us. But this holiness, which was 
Adam's choicest sparkling gem of beauty, and his weightiest crown of 
glory, is by Satan's policy long since fallen off from Adam's head, 
Ps. li. 5. Now if this legal holiness were the holiness meant in the 
text, then woe to man that ever he was born ; for then no man should 
ever see the Lord, Kom. iii. 10. For by Adam's fall all men are gone 
out of the way, and there is none legally righteous, no not one. Now if 
we look upon man as fallen from that holiness which was his greatest 
honour, dignity, and excellency, he is become a pile of dust, a puff of 
wind, saith one ; a dream of a shadow, saith another ; a shadow of 
smoke, saith a third ; a poor silly flea, a worm, a little soul, a curious 
nothing ; i yea, man fallen from his primitive glory is become a very 
vanity, saith the prophet : Ps. xxxix. 5, ' Verily, every man at his best 
state is altogether vanity.' ' Verily ;' this asseveration is only used 
in matters of greatest weight and moment, and notes the reality and 
certainty of the things delivered. Every man, [din-'?^, ' all Adam,'] or 
every son of Adam ; not some man, but every man at his best state, 
[ y£l, from Jatsab ;] that is, in his most settled and composed condi- 
tion, when he is best constituted and underlaid, when he stands a-tip- 
toe, and is in the height and perfection of all creature comforts and 
contentments, is altogether, not in some measure, but altogether, vanity, 
[chol hebel,] all vanity. Since the fall of Adam every natural man 
in his best estate is vanity ; nay, every man is every vanity. Imagine 
what vanity you will, fallen man is that. He is a comprehensive 
vanity — he is an epitome of all vanity. Man in honour, before his 
fall, was the best of creatures ; but since his fall, he is become the 
worst of creatures. By his fall he is fallen below the very beasts that 
perish, Isa. i. 3, 4 ; Prov. vi. 6 ; Jer. viii. 7 ; Mat. vi. 26. He that was 
once the image of God, the glory of paradise, the world's lord, and 
the Lord's darling, is now become a burthen to heaven, a burthen to 
liimself, and a slave to others, &c., which made one cry out — 

* Oh, what is man ? 
A scuttleful of dust, a measured span, 
Man's breath a bubble, and his days a span ; 
'Tis glorious misery to be born a man.' =* 

By all wliich you may easily perceive how far we are off from that 

^ Greg. Nazianz. ; Pindarus ; .^Eschylus ; Marcus I migrator, " Quarles. 


legal holiness that Adam had in innocency. Kabbi Solomon i makes 
Adam so high, that he touched heaven with his head. I shall not 
dispute the certainty of that ; but certainly the higher he was in holi- 
ness, the greater was his fall, and ours in him. This legal holiness 
was so lost in Adam, that no son of Adam could ever find it since 
Adam fell ; and if this were the holiness without which no man should 
ever see the Lord, then farewell for ever to all the sons of Adam. But 
this legal holiness is not the holiness in the text. 

2. Secondly, There is an imciginary holiness, a conceited holiness, 
an opinionative holiness : Pro v. xxx. 12, ' There is a generation that 
are pure in their own eyes, and yet is not washed from their filthiness.' 
They were very bad, and yet they had a great opinion of their own 
goodness. They were very filthy, and yet they stood very much upon 
their own purity. Their hands were black, their hearts were black, 
their works were black, and their ways were as black as hell, and yet 
they durst say that none could say black was their eye. They were 
filthy within, and filthy without ; filthy in body, and filthy in soul, and 
filthy in spirit. Filthiness had quite overspread them, and yet they 
thought to cover their filthiness with a vizard of holiness. The worst 
men are commonly best conceited of themselves. 2 Ah, friends, there 
hath been no generation wherein there hath not been such a generation 
of men who have wallowed in sin like swine in the mire, and yet have 
kept up in themselves a strong opinion of their own goodness and 
holiness. This generation had neither their souls nor consciences 
washed in the blood of Christ, nor sanctified by the Spirit of Christ, 
and yet they gloried in their conceited purity and hoUness, as if they 
had been purified by Christ. There are many that are shining Chris- 
tians, that are pure golden Christians in their own eyes, that are 
viler than dross, yea, than smoke in God's eyes : Isa. Ixv. 5, * Stand 
by thyself, come not near to me ; for I am holier than thou : these are 
a smoke in my nose, a fire that burneth all the day.'^ They were very 
licentious, very ungracious, very rebellious, very superstitious, very 
idolatrous, (ver. [2-4,) and yet counted themselves very religious. 
They were worse than others, and yet thought themselves better than 
others ; they were very bad, and yet judged themselves very good ; 
they were more impure, more profane, and more polluted than others, 
and yet they reckon themselves more pure and holier than others ; 
they stand upon their comparative goodnesses, and yet at the same 
time are charged by God of the greatest wickedness. And thus their 
kinsmen the Pharisees stand upon their images, forgeries,^ and out- 
ward dresses of holiness, when at the same time they practised the 
worst of wickedness. Mat. xxiii. 5 ; Luke xviii. 11, 12 ; so those in 
Hosea xii. 8, ' And Ephraim said. Yet I am become rich, I have found 
me out substance : in all my labours they shall find no iniquity in me/ 
that were sin, or is sin. Ephraim's iniquities were grown over his 
head, as may be seen throughout this whole prophecy, and yet Ephraim 

^ R. Solomon on Deuteronomy, c. 3. — G. 

* Caelum gratis non accipiam. I will not have heaven but at a rate, said a proud, 
impure person. 

* Begis animum qulsque intra se habet. Every man hath in him the mind of a king : 
is Calvin's note on that, 1 Pet. v. 5. 

* ' Fraudulent appearances.' — G. 


cannot bear the being charged with iniquity. It was little less than 
sin to charge Ephraim with sin ; though he was notoriously guilty of 
the highest crmies, yet he would have you to know that he was as 
shy of sin, and as clear of sin, as he that was shyest and clearest. 
Ephraim could give good words, when his works were abominable ; he 
could pretend much to innocency, when he was guilty of the greatest 
impiety. But though Ephraim had his cloak at hand, yet it was too 
short to cover his sin ; for Grod saw it, and condemned him for it. 
Chrysostom doth elegantly set forth the blindness and brutishness 
of such persons. When they lie in the mire, saith he, they think 
they are besmeared with some sweet ointments ; when they are 
full of vermin, they vaunt themselves, as if they were adorned with 
precious stones. And so the Laodiceans were of the same temper of 
spirit: Kev. iii. 17, 'Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased 
with goods, and have need of nothing, and knowest not that thou art 
wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked.' They had 
a great opinion of their own goodness, worth, and excellent state, 
having need of nothing, when they had nothing of a Christian in them.i 
Thou sayest thou art ' rich ; ' ay, but thou dost but say so. Thou boastest 
and braggest of thy riches, as many proud beggars do of that wealth 
they have not. For all thou deemest thyself rich, thou art but poor 
and beggarly. It is man's sin and judgment, that ever since he ceased 
to be what he should be, he striveth to seem to be what he is not. 
Thou sayest thou art ' increased with goods, and needest nothing ; ' 
ay, but thou dost but say so, thou dost but dream it is so : for thou 
art ignorant of thine own wretched and lamentable estate. 'Thou 
sayest thou art rich, but I know thou art poor and beggarly. If a 
drachm of grace would save thy life, thy soul, thy family, nay, the 
whole world,^thou hast it not. Thou sayest thou 'seest'; but thou art 
blind, thou art destitute of spiritual eyesight ; thou seest not thine 
own wants, nor Christ's worth ; thine own emptiness, nor Christ's ful- 
ness ; thine own sinfulness, nor Christ's holiness ; thine own poverty, 
nor Christ's riches and plenty ; thine own misery, nor Christ's mercy ; 
thine own insufficiency, nor Christ's all-sufficiency ; thine own vanity, 
nor Christ's glory, &c. Multi multa sciunt, se autem nemo: Many 
know much, but few know themselves, or their own danger, infelicity, 
or misery ; and indeed no misery to this. The Chinese used to say of 
themselves, that all other nations of the world did see but with one 
eye, they only with two ; and of this spuit and temper were those 
blind Laodiceans. They thought they knew all things, when they 
knew nothing that they should, nor as they should. I3y all which 
you may see that there is an imaginary holiness, a conceited holiness, 
where there is no real holiness ; but an imaginary holiness will bring 
a man but to an imaginary blessedness ; a conceited holiness will 
bring a man but to a conceited happiness ; he that doth but dream 
that he is holy, he doth but dream that he shall be happy. 

Bastards of old were not to inherit, but to be thrust out from among 
the true heirs: Gen. xxi. 10; Judges xi. 1, 2, 'Now Jephthah the 
Gileadite was a mighty man of valour, and he was the son of an harlot : 

1 There is a truth in that old saying, Avaro deest tam quod habet, quam quod non 
habet : A covetous man wanteth as well that which he hath, as that which he hath not. 


and Gilead begat Jephthah. And Gilead's wife bear him sons ; and his 
wife's sons grew up, and they thrust out Jephthah, and said unto him, 
Thou shalt not inherit in our father's house; for thou art the son of a 
strange woman.' Ah, sirs, you that are but bastard Christians, bastard 
professors, bastard believers, bastard saints, you shall never inherit 
among the heirs of glory, but shall be thrust out for ever from the 
presence of the Lord, and the glory of his power, and thrust into utter 
darkness, because you have pleased yourselves, and satisfied your spirits, 
and blessed your souls in a bastard holiness, in a conceited holiness, 
2 Thes. i. 8, 9 ; Mat. viii. 12, and xxii. 13; Deut. xxiii. 2, 'A bastard 
shall not enter i into the congregation of the Lord.' He shall have no 
fellowship nor communion with the people of God ; the door of admis- 
sion shall be shut upon him. The foolish virgins had but a bastard 
holiness, a conceited holiness, an outward dress of holiness ; and there- 
fore the door of life, the door of hope, the door of help, the door of 
grace, the door of mercy, the door of glory was shut upon them, 
Mat. XXV. 10-12, vii. 21-23. William the Conqueror was much 
slighted and scorned because he was a bastard. God and his people 
will slight such, and scorn such, and turn their backs at last upon 
such that have no more than a bastardly holiness ; and therefore this 
cannot be the holiness here meant. But, 

3. Thirdly, There is an outward, external, visible holiness, which 
includes men's freedom from scandalous vices, and their ordinary per- 
formance of religious duties. Now, in this sense, Zacharias and 
Elizabeth were both holy persons : for they ' walked in all the com- 
mandments and ordinances of God blameless.' ^ And so the apostles, 
1 Thes. ii. 10, ' For ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily, and 
justly, and unblameably we behaved ourselves among you that believe.' 
Answerable to this, is that of the apostle in 2 Cor. i. 12, ' For our 
rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity 
and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, 
we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to 
you-wards.' These precious souls behaved themselves holily towards 
God, justly towards the world, and unblameably towards believers. 
They were holy in religious work, they were just in their civil affiiirs 
and commerce, and unblameable in their private carriage and behaviour 
amongst their familiar and most bosom friends. And this is that the 
apostle presses upon Christians in Phil. ii. 15, 'That ye may be blame- 
less and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke,' (or unblemished,) 
* in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine' 
(or shine ye) ' as lights in the world.' Christians must be the spot- 
less sons of God : they must have no spots upon them that are incon- 
sistent with sonship or saintship, Deut. xxxii. 5. Now it is certain, 
without this outward visible holiness there is no happiness, there is no 
fruition of God in everlasting blessedness. They that pretend their 
hearts are as good as the best, when their lives are as bad as the 
worst, shall experience this truth at last to their shame and cost, 

1 Misprinted ' inherit.' — G. 

" Luke i. 5, 6, 'A/ie/xTTTot, they were both, saith the Vulgate, sine querela, without 
complaint ; their conversation was such as none could justly complain of it. It waa 
irreprehensible ; it could not be reprehended. 


that without visible holiness here, there can be no fruition of God 

Yet this must be granted, that a man may be visibly holy, that is 
not inwardly holy, 2 Tim. ii. 5. A man may be outwardly holy, that 
is not throughout holy : a man may have an outward dress of holiness 
upon him, that hath not the spirit and vitals of holiness in him.i As 
Judas had, and Simon Magus had, and Demas had, and the Scribes 
and Pharisees had: Mat. xxiii, 25, 27, 28, 'Woe unto you, Scribes 
and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye make clean the outside of the cup 
and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. 
Woe unto you. Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye are like unto 
whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are 
within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye 
also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of 
hypocrisy and iniquity.' They were outwardly religious, but inwardly 
vicious ; they had the semblance of sanctity, but inwardly very full of 
impurity; they were fair professors, but foul sinners; they were gracious 
vsdthout, but impious within. Look, as they are the worst of vices that 
are covered over with the show of virtue ; so they are the worst of sin- 
ners that cover over their inward filthiness under the vizards of out- 
ward holiness. The Egyptian temples were fair without, but foul and 
filthy within. Such were the Scribes and Pharisees in Christ's days, 
and such are many professors in our days. It is said of Dionysius the 
tyrant, that though he loved not the philosophers, yet he would wrap 
himself up in their cloaks, that men might have the better opinion of 
him : so there be many that put on an outward dress of holiness, that 
wrap themselves up in the cloak of holiness, that so others may take 
them for holy persons, and yet they love not hohness, they have nothing 
of real holiness in them ; but ' as he is not a Jew which is one out- 
wardly,' but not inwardly, Rom. ii. 28, 29, and iv. 12 ; so he is not a holy 
person who is only so outwardly, but not inwardly ; that hath the 
name of holiness upon him, but hath no principles of holiness in him. 
Though without outward visible holiness no man shall see the Lord ; 
yet a man may have an outward visible holiness, that shall never see 
the Lord in happiness. ' I hate him even to hell,' saith the heathen 
in Homer, ' that saith one thing with his mouth, and thinketh another 
thing in his heart.' ^ So God will at last hate that man to hell, yea, 
cast him into the hottest place in hell, that hath a form of godliness 
upon him, but nothing of the reality and power of holiness in him. 
Outward hohness is good, but it must be throughout holiness that 
will do a man good to all eternity.3 It is not the shows but the 
substance of holiness that will bring a man to everlasting happiness. 
Mere outward holiness will certainly leave a man short of heaven and 
happiness ; but throughout holiness will certainly lodge the soul in the 
bosom of God for ever. It is true, all men reach not to an outward 
holiness, which made Athanasius wish, Utinam omnes essent hypo- 

^ They say of Halifax nuts, that they are all shells, no kernels. There are many 
that make a glorious show before men, that are abominable in the sight of God, Luke 
xvi. 15, that are aurum hominibus, lutum Deo : Gold in man's eyes, dirt in God's sight. 
Gregor. Mor. c. 34. 1. 13. * Iliad, ix. 312.— G. 

3 Mat. xxiii. 14 ; 2 Tim. iii. 5 ; 1 Cor. vii. 19 ; Phil. iii. 3 ; Gal. v. 6, and vi. 15. 


crike! Would to God that all were hypocrites ! Without all perad- 
venture it is a very desirable thing that all were outwardly holy ; yet 
all that reach to this, must go farther, or else they will sit down on 
this side happiness : Mat. v. 20, ' For I say unto you. That except your 
righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Phari- 
sees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.' Now they 
were much in works of piety, in works of charity, in works of equity, 
and in works of courtesy, by which means they gained so much upon 
the hearts of the people, that it was commonly conceited and voted 
among them, that if there were but two of all the world that should 
go to heaven, the one should be a Scribe, and the other a Pharisee. 
Yet your righteousness must exceed theirs, or the gates of glory wUl 
be shut upon you. Their righteousness and holiness was only external, 
not internal ; it was partial, not universal ; it was rather circumstantial 
than substantial ; and therefore heaven's doors were double-bolted 
against them. Heaven is for that man, and that man is for heaven, 
that is not-only outwardly holy, but throughout holy. 

4. Fourthly, There is a relative holiness. Now relative holiness is 
a special relation which persons or things have unto God. Eelative 
holiness includes two things — 

(1.) First, A separation of persons or tilings from common use: 
and thus, in the law those things were called holy which were sepa- 
rated from common use and set apart for the worship and service of 
God — as the oil, shew-bread, first-fruits, incense, altars, vestments; 
and in this sense the priests and Le^dtes were called holy, because 
they were separated from others to serve in the tabernacle ; i and in 
this sense the people of Israel are frequently called a sanctified people, 
a holy people, &c. The Greek word Ayco^f, answers to the Hebrew 
word ti/lp, which commonly signifies that which is appropriated to a 
holy use ; and this is the proper notion of holiness in the Old and New 
Testament, as I might shew you out of some hundred places of scrip- 
ture. Now certainly without this holiness of special separation from 
the common conversation of the world, there is no seeing of God, 
nor no fruition of God hereafter : 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18, ' Wherefore come 
out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch 
not the unclean thing, and I will receive you, and will be a Father 
imto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord 
Almighty.' God will have no communion with any in this world that 
are not separated from the sinful practices of the world. God will 
look upon none, he will own none, he will delight in none, he will 
acknowledge none, he will receive none for his sons and daughters, but 
such as are separated from all evil vices and unholy courses. Suitable 
to this is Isa. lii. 11, ' Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, 
touch no unclean things ; go ye out of the midst of her ; be ye clean, 
that bear the vessels of the Lord.' Estrange yourselves from them 
that are estranged from God ; have nothing to do with them that have 
nothing to do with God; separate yourselves from them who have 
separated themselves from God; have no delightful converse with 
them who have no delightful converse with God ; have no bosom com- 

^ Deut. xix. 2 ; 1 Kings viii, 35 ; Ezra viii. 28, and x. 11 ; Isa. JxiU 18. 


munion with them that have no bosom communion with God.i Q 
sirs, you are to keep yourselves as pure and clean from others' defile- 
ments, as you would keep yourselves free from others' punishments. 
He that will imitate others in their sins, shall certainly participate with 
others in their sorrows. It is true we may live with wicked men in 
their cities, but it is as true we must not lie ^ with wicked men in their 
enormities. There are many professors that are, like the planet Mer- 
cury, good in conjunction with those that are good, and bad with those 
that are bad ; but these wound many at once, God, Christ, the gospel, 
and their own credits and consciences. These do virtutis stragulam 
pudefacere, put virtue to an open shame ; and these are deservedly to 
be shamed by your separating from them, and by your renouncing all 
intimate communion or fellowship with them. But, 

(2.) Secondly, As relative holiness takes in a separation of persons 
or things from common use, so it takes in a dedication and devoting 
of them to a holy use. And thus the Nazarites, Temple, Mount Zion, 
the Sabbath-day, and other festival days are said to be holy under the 
law.3 In short, the whole Jewish religion did lie in holy times, holy 
places, holy persons, and holy things ; and certainly without this holi- 
ness, without this dedicating of ourselves to God, we shall never come 
to a glorious fruition of God. He that doth not dedicate himself 
really to God, wholly to God, only to God, and always to God on earth, 
shall never come to a sight and vision of God in heaven. If we do not 
give up ourselves to God, God will never give up himself to us : Hosea 
iii. 3, ' And I said unto her, Thou shalt abide for me many days : thou 
shalt not play the harlot, and thou shalt not be for another man ; so 
will I also be for thee.' God will be only theirs that are reaUy his, 
and he will be altogether theirs that are wholly his ; he will only be a 
husband to them that dedicate themselves to him, as a wife doth to 
her husband. He will devote himself theirs who devote themselves 
his ; he will avouch himself to be theirs who avouch themselves to be 
his: Deut. xxvi. 17-19, * Thou hast avouched the Lord this day to be 
thy God, and to walk in his ways, and to keep his statutes, and his 
commandments, and his judgments, and to hearken unto his voice : 
and the Lord hath avouched thoe this day to be his peculiar people, 
as he hath promised thee, and that thou shouldst keep all his com- 
mandments ; and to make thee high above all nations which he hath 
made, in praise, and in name, and in honour ; and that thou mayest 
be a holy people unto the Lord thy God, as he hath spoken.' God 
will resign himself up to them who resign themselves up to him ; he 
will give up himself to them that have given up their names and their 
hearts to him ; he will bestow himself as the greatest pearl of price 
upon them that shall make a surrender of themselves to him.* There 
is no way to be higher than others, happier than others, more noble 
and honourable than others, than by making a dedi-gift^ of ourselves to 

^ Cicero, though heathen, had rather to have no companion than a bad one. 
»Qu. 'live'?— G. 

3 So Christ is said to sanctify himself, when he dedicated himself to be a sacrifice for 
the sins of his people, &c. 

* That is an apt saying of Tertullian, Negotiatio est aliquid amitterc ut majora 
lucreris : That is right merchandise when something is parted with to gain more. 

* Qu. ' dedication-gift ' ?— G. 


God. He that dedicates himself to God, dedicates all ; he that doth 
not dedicate himself, dedicates nothing at all. What ^Eschines once 
said to Socrates — Others, said he, give thee gold, silver, jewels, but I 
give thee myself ; that must a Christian say to his God, Ah, Lord ! 
there are some that give thee their lips, but I give thee my heart ; 
others give thee good words, good expressions, but I give thee the best 
of my affections ; others give thee a few cold prayers, but I give thee 
my whole soul ; and had I as many hearts in my body as I have hairs 
on my head, I would give them all to thee : for thou art worthy, thou 
only art Worthy. What the king of Israel once said to the king of 
Syria, ' I am thine, and all that I have,' 1 Kings xx. 4 ; that must a 
Christian say to his Christ, ' I am thine, Lord, and all that I have.' 
A Christian must cry out with him who cried. Lord, I have two mites, 
a soul and a body, and I give them both to thee. — [Bernard.] And 
this was the honour and commendations of the Macedonians, that they 
gave up themselves to the Lord, 2 Cor. viii. 5. Having no better pre- 
sent at hand, they present themselves to God ; and certainly there is 
no present more honourable, delectable, and acceptable to God than 
this of giving up ourselves to God, Rom. xii. 1. Well, remember this: 
that man was never really holy that is not relatively holy ; nor that 
man will never be really happy that is not relatively holy. Without 
relative holiness there will be ho vision of God in everlasting happiness. 
We must be separated from the corruptions and pollutions of the 
•world, and we must dedicate ourselves to God, or we shall never come 
to a future fruition of God. But, 

5. Fifthly, There is an imputative holiness, and that is the holiness 
of Christ imputed to us.i For to prevent mistakes, you may please 
to take notice that there is a twofold holiness in Christ : first, there is 
his essential and personal holiness as he is God. Now this essential 
holiness of Christ cannot be imparted nor imputed to any mortal man ; 
it is essential to him ; but secondly, there is his mediatory holiness, 
or that holiness which he wrought for us as Mediator. Now the holi- 
ness of dhrist as Mediator did consist both in the habitual holiness of 
his person, in the absence of all sin, and in the rich and plentiful pre- 
sence of all holy and supernatural qualities, as also in the actual holi- 
ness of his life and death. By his active obedience, by his subjecting 
of his heart and life to divine precepts, he perfectly fulfilled the com- 
mands of the law ; and by his passive obedience. Ins voluntary sufier- 
ings, he fully satisfied the comminations, penalties, and curses of the 
law. Now this mediatory holiness of Christ's is ours by imputation, 
and by virtue of which we stand recti in curia, justified in the sight of 
God : 1 Cor. i. 30, ' But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is 
made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and re- 
demption.' This mediatory hoUness of Christ, reckoned unto a believ- 
ing sinner, is that whereby he is constituted holy in foro Dei; and 
upon this account they are said to be 'all fair,' Cant. iv. 7; to be 
' without spot or wrinkle,' Eph. v. 25-27; to be ' complete in him,' 
Col. ii. 10; and to be 'without fault before the throne of God,' Rev. 

» Consult these scriptures, Luke i. 35; Mark i. 24; Heb. vii. 26 ; Rom. v. 19 ; Col. 
i. 22 ; Rom. ii. 3, 4 ; 2 Cor. v. 21, 22 ; Gal. iii. 13 ; Jer. xxiii. 6. 


xiv. 4, 5.1 And certainly, without this mediatory hohness of Christ 
there is no appearing before God, there is no glorious vision nor 
fruition of God. God is a God of that infinite purity and holiness, 
that no holiness below the imputative holiness of Christ can make a 
man stand before him, or bring a man to the fruition of him, Hab. i. 
13. It was a very sweet and excellent saying of Bernard, when in his 
own opinion he was at the point of death : I confess, said he, I am not 
worthy, I have no merits of mine own to obtain heaven by : but my 
Lord had a double right thereunto ; a hereditary right as a Son, and 
a meritorious right as a sacrifice. He was contented with the one 
right himself ; the other right he hath given unto me, by the virtue of 
which gift I do rightly lay claim unto it, and am not confounded. 2 
Though we cannot lay claim to heaven, nor to a blessed fruition of 
God by any inherent holiness in us, it being weak and imperfect, yet 
we may lay claim to both by the mediatory holiness of Christ imputed 
to us. As Christ's essential holiness gives him a hereditary right to 
everlasting happiness, so his mediatory holiness gives us a right to 
everlasting blessedness. The costly cloak of Alcisthenes, which 
Dionysius sold to the Carthaginians for a hundred talents, was but a 
mean and beggarly rag to that embroidered royal robe of Christ's 
mediatory holiness that is imputed or reckoned to us. 3 And therefore, 
as ever you would come to a vision of God in happiness, you must 
labour to be interested by faith in Christ's mediatory holiness. But, 

6. Sixthly and lastly, There is an inherent, interTial qualitative 
holiness^ Now this inherent holiness Kes in two things. 

(1.) First, In the infusing of holy principles, divine qualities, or 
supernatural graces into the soul, such as the apostle mentions in Gal. 
V. 22, 23, ' But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance ; against such there 
is no law.' These habits of grace, which are severally distinguished 
by the names of faith, love, hope, meekness, &c., are nothing else but 
the new nature, or ' new man, which after God is created in righteous- 
ness and true holiness,' Eph. iv. 24. These seeds of holiness, these 
habits of grace, are those sweet ointments with which all must be 
anointed that shall ever come to a blessed sight or \dsion of God, 
1 John iii. 9 ; 2 Cor. i. 21 ; 1 John ii. 27. You may know much of 
God, you may hear much of God, you may talk much of God, and you 
may boast much of your hopes and interest in God, and yet without 
these habits of holiness you shall never come to a blessed fruition of 
God in happiness ; without these seeds of holiness you shall never reap 
a crop of blessedness. But, 

(2.) Secondly, This inherent, this qualitative holiness, lies in a 
holy use and exercise of those supernatural graces in a luay of holy 
loalking.^ All holy habits must be brought forth into holy acts ; 
gracious habits must be attended with gracious motions, gracious 
operations, and a gracious conversation. Outward works must be 

^ Nemo bonus, qui non ex male bonus. — Augustine. 

^ Guliel. Abbas in vita Bern. lib. i. cap. 12. 'As before. — G.' 

* Holiness is not any single grace alone, but a conjunction, a constellation of all 
graces together. 

» Acts X. 35; 1 Jolin i. 3, 7 ; Titus ii. 12 ; Luke i. 73 ; 2 Pet. i. 8; 1 Pet. i. 15, 16; 
Isa. XXXV. 8. 


suitable to inward habits. It is with spiritual habits as it is with 
natural habits ; the more they are acted an'd exercised, the more they 
are increased and strengthened. Holy habits are golden talents that 
must be employed and improved. Gracious habits are the candles of 
the Lord set up in us ; and God hath set up those candles of heaven 
not to idle by, not to sleep by, but to work by, and to walk by. 
Where there is holiness of disposition, there must be, nay there will 
be, holiness of conversation. A holy heart is always attended with a 
holy life. You may separate a man from his friend, but you can never 
separate, though you may distinguish, acts of holiness from the habits 
of holiness. Now it is certain, without this holiness, you shall never 
come to a sight or fruition of God in happiness.! And thus I have 
shewed you what that holiness is, without which there is no hope, no 
possibility of ever seeing the Lord. 

II. I come now to the second thing, and that is to prove the truth 
of the proposition — viz., that without men are holy, they can never be 
happy. Without holiness on earth, none of the sons of men shall ever 
come to a blessed vision and fruition of God in heaven. Now this 
great and weighty truth I shall make good by an induction of particu- 
lars, thus : 

1. First, God hath by very plain and clear scriptures bolted and 
barred the door of heaven and happiness against all unholy ones.2 
Witness 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10, ' Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not 
inherit the kingdom of God ? Be not deceived : neither fornicators, 
nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves 
with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor revilers, nor extortioners, 
shall inherit the kingdom of God.' Heaven is an undefiled inherit- 
ance, and none that are defiled can enter into the possession of it, 
1 Pet. i. 4. When the angels fell from their righteousness, heaven 
rejected them ; it would no longer hold them ; and will it now accept 
of the unrighteous ? will it now entertain and welcome them ? Surely 
no. Such sinners make the very earth to mourn and groan now ; and 
shall they make heaven to mourn and groan hereafter ? Surely no. 
What though the serpent did wind himself into an earthy paradise, 
yet none T)f the seed of the serpent, so remaining, shall ever be able to 
wind themselves into a heavenly paradise. Witness Gal. v. 19-21, 
' Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these : Adultery, 
fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, 
variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envying, mur- 
ders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like : of the which I tell you 
before, as I also have told you in time past, that they which do such 
things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.' Before they go to hell, 
he tells them again and again that they shall not inherit the kingdom 
of God. By the kingdom of God we are to understand the kingdom 
of heaven, the kingdom of glory. Now the kingdom of heaven, of 
glory, is called the kingdom of God ; 1. Because he hath prepared it. 
2. Because it is a royal gift that he confers and bestows upon his little, 
little flock. Mat. xx. 23 ; Luke xii. 32. Augustus, in his solemn feasts, 
gave trifles to some, and gold to others.^ The trifles of tliis world God 

^ Where there are the seeds of holiness, there will be the flowers of holiness. 

=" See also Mat. vii. 21-23, and xxv. 10-12. ' Suetonius, Octavius, c. 75.— G. 


often gives to the worst and basest of men ; but the kingdom of heaven 
he only gives to his bosom-friends, Eev, iv. 10, 11, and xx. 6 ; Dan. 
iv. 16, 17. 3. Because that of and under him, the saints hold it and 
possess it. 4. Because with him they shall for ever reign in the fruition 
of it. And so that in John iii. 3, ' Jesus answered and said unto him, 
Verily, verily, I say unto thee. Except a man be born again, he cannot 
see the kingdom of God.' To give a little light into the words : 

' Verily, verily : ' the Greek is ' amen, amen.' i The word amen is 
Hebrew, and in the Old Testament is most commonly used by way of 
wishing or imprecation ; but here, and in other places of the New 
Testament, the sense of it is altered from precatory to assertory, or 
from the way of wishing to the way of affirming. This phrase, ' Amen, 
amen,' or ' Verily, verily,' imports, 

[1.] First, The truth and certainty of the things delivered ; for the 
word ' amen ' doth properly signify truth. 

[2.] Secondly, This double asseveration is never used but in matters 
of greatest weight and importance : the matters here spoken of are of 
a very celestial and sublime nature. 

[3.] Thirdly, This gemination, * Verily, verily,' is a vehement con- 
firmation of what Christ speaks. 

[4.] Fourthly, This gemination calls aloud for the greatest observa- 
tion and most serious attention of the soul to what Christ is a-saying. 

* I say unto thee : ' 'I,' that thou hast confessed to be a teacher 
sent from God ; ' I,' that lie in the bosom of the Father, John i. 18 ; 
* I,' that am of the cabinet-council of heaven ; * I,' that know his heart 
and all his secrets. Rev. iii. 14 ; ' I,' that am the faithful and true 
witness, and cannot lie ; ' I,' that am called the * Amen,' the truth 
itself; 'I,' that have the keys of heaven and hell at my own girdle. 
Rev. i. 18 ; * I,' that open and no man shuts, and ' I,' that shut and 
no man opens ; 'I,' that shall be your Judge in the great day, ' I say 
unto thee,' &c. 

' Except a man be born again : ' A man, be he old or young, learned 
or unlearned, high or low, rich or poor, knowing or ignorant, circum-^ 
cised or uncircumcised, under this form or that, a member of this 
church or that, let his disposition be never so ingenuous, and his parts 
never so high, and his conversation as to men never so blameless and 
harmless ; yet, except this man be born again, he cannot see the 
kingdom of God, Rom. ii. 28, 29. 

' Be born again : ' Except a man be first unmade, and new-made up 
again ; except he be of an old creature made a new creature, yea, a 
new creation of God, 2 Cor. v. 17, there is no seeing of the kingdom 
of God. The whole frame of the old man must be dissolved, and a 
new frame erected, else there is no heaven to be enjoyed. The kingdom 
of God is a divine kingdom, and there is no possession of it without a 
divine nature. A new head without a new heart, a new lip without a 
new life, will never bring a man to this kingdom of light. That man 
is for the kingdom of God, and the kingdom of God is for that man, 
that hath got the kingdom of God within him. 2 If the kingdom of 
grace do not enter into thee here, thou shalt never enter into the 

^ dfiriv, ifiifv, Truth, truth, or truly, truly 
» 2 Pet. i. 4 ; 1 Cor. vu. 19 ; Gal. t. 6 j L 

Luke svii. 21; Kom. xiv. 17. 


kingdom of glory hereafter. A new heart is for a new heaven, and a 
new heaven is for a new heart. ' Except a man be born again/ except 
a man be born from above ; and so Cyrill interprets that word dvcodev.^ 
Generation in some sense is from below, but regeneration is only from 
above, and without tliis there is no fruition of God above. 

* He cannot see the kingdom of God.' The Scripture speaks of 
several cannots. 

[1.] Firxst, There is a natural cannot. Now, every son and daughter 
of Adam is by nature born under a cannot. They are all born under 
a cannot believe, a cannot repent, a cannot love God, a cannot walk 
vdth God, a cannot see God, a cannot enjoy God : 1 Cor. ii. 14, ' The 
natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are 
foolishness unto him ; neither can he know them, because they are 
spiritually discerned.' A blind man cannot see colours, nor a natural 
man cannot discern spiritual things. They are too high, they are too 
sublime for him ; they are mysteries that he cannot understand, that 
he cannot unriddle. The natural man can ascend no higher than 
nature, as the water can rise no higher than the spring from whence 
it comes — Quantum descendit, tantum ascendit. The Scripture sets 
such sad souls below the ox and the ass, Isa. i. 3. Take nature civilised 
and moralised, refined and raised, sublimated, strengthened, and im- 
proved to the utmost, and it cannot enable a man to do a supernatural 
action ; nature cannot act ultra spJiceram, above itself. But, 

[2.] Secondly, There is a contracted and an habituated cannot ; and 
of this cannot the prophet speaks in Jer. vi. 10, ' To whom shall I 
speak, and give warning, that they may hear ? behold, their ear is 
uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken: behold, the word of the 
Lord is unto them a reproach : they have no delight in it.' They had 
by their carnality, impiety, sensuality, security, and obstinacy, con- 
tracted upon their poor souls such deafness, wretchedness, unteachable- 
ness, and untractableness, that they could neither love the word nor 
like it ; they could neither take pleasure nor delight in it ; nay, they 
could neither hear it nor bear it, though it never so nearly concerned 
the internal and eternal welfare of their souls. And of this cannot 
the apostle speaks in 2 Pet. ii. 14, ' Having eyes full of adultery, and 
that cannot cease from sin ; beguiling unstable souls : an heart they 
have exercised with covetous practices ; cursed children.' 2 By their 
riot and excess, by their lasciviousness and wantonness, by their loose- 
ness and uncleanness which they had habituated and accustomed 
themselves unto, they brought upon themselves a cursed necessity of 
sinning, so that they could not cease from sin. They mourn over sin, 
and yet they cannot cease from sin ; they resolve against sin, yet they 
cannot cease to sin ; they pray against sin, yet they cannot cease to sin ; 
they make many promises, vows, and covenants against sin, yet they 
cannot cease from sin, their souls being habituated and accustomated 
thereunto : Jer ii. 20, ' For of old time I have broken thy yoke, and 
burst thy bands ; and thou saidst I will not transgress '—I will never 

^ On John iii. 3.— G. 

* MotxctXis properly, distinctly signifies an adulteress ; and this phrase of having eyes 
full of the adulteress answers to that of the rhetorician, who, describing an unchaste, 
lascivious person, rhetorically said of him that he had whores in his eyes. 


play the harlot more ; but were they as good as their word? no) — ' for 
upon every high hill and junder every green tree they wandered, play- 
ing the harlot.' I have read of a man who, in the time of his sickness, 
was so terrified in his conscience for his sins, that he made the very 
bed to shake upon which he lay, and cried out all night long, I am 
damned, I am damned, and made many great promises and protesta- 
tions of amendment oi life, if God would be pleased to recover him. 
In a little while he did recover, and being recovered, he was as base 
and vile, as wretched and wicked, as ever he was before. Custom in 
sin takes away all conscience of sin : Jer. xiii. 23, ' Can the Ethiopian 
change his skin, or the leopard his spots? then may he also do good 
that is accustomed to do evil.' The Ethiopian cannot make his black 
skin white ; he cannot change the hue or the colour of it by washing ; 
to attempt this is but labour in vain. Nor the leopard cannot change 
his spots : no more can a poor sinner that hath habituated and 
accustomed himself to sin, that is desperately enthralled to sin, turn 
from his sin. The spots of the leopard are not in him by accident, 
but by nature ; and they are such which no art can cure, nor water 
wash off ; because they are not only in the skin, but in the flesh and 
bones, in the sinews and most inward parts. By custom sin hath 
bespotted not only the skin, the life, the outside of a poor sinner, but 
also the very heart and soul of a poor sinner, so as that he is never 
able to wash off these spots. Ambrose reports of one Theotimus, that, 
having a disease upon his body, his physician told him, that except he 
did abstain from intemperance, drunkenness, uncleanness, &c. , he was 
like to lose his eyes. His heart being habituated to sin, and set upon 
vsickedness, he answered. Vale lumen amicum — Farewell sweet light 
then.^ But, 

[3.] Thirdly, As there is a contracted cannot, an habituated can- 
not, so there is 2i judicial cannot. The Lord inflicts a judicial cannot 
upon many persons in judgment : they cannot return from their sins, 
they cannot withstand a temptation, they cannot lay hold on eternal 
life, they cannot make sure work for their souls, they cannot leave 
their bosom-lusts, they cannot prefer Christ above all the world, they 
cannot make provision for eternity, they cannot see the things that 
belong to their peace, &c. ; and this cannot the Lord in wrath hath 
brought upon them : Isa. vi. 9, 10, ' And he said, Go and tell this 
people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not ; and see ye indeed, but 
perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears 
heavy, and shut their eyes' (or anoint, besmear, lime their eyes) ; ' lest 
they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand 
with their heart, and convert and be healed.' 2 They would not see, 
they shall not see ; they would not hear, they shall not hear ; they 
would not understand, they shall not understand; they would not 
convert, they shall not convert ; they would not be healed, they shall 
not be healed. When men are stiffly and desperately resolved upon 
their sinful courses, when men grow stubborn, rebellious, licentious, 
and will wilfully wink and shut their eyes against the light, and stop 
their ears against the truth, God in his just judgment gives them up 

^ As before. — G. 

* Many men, «aith Bernard, do seek for straws to put out their own eyes. 



to dulness, stupidness, blindness, darkness : Isa. xliv. 18, ' They have 
not known nor understood : for he hath shut their eyes that they can- 
not see ' (or he hath daubed up their eyes from seeing) ; ' and their 
hearts that they cannot understand.^ God in his righteous judgment 
casts a judicial cannot upon them ; he hath daubed up their eyes that 
they cannot see, and he hath shut up their hearts that they cannot 
understand the great concernments of their souls. Now whilst men 
lie under these sad cannots, they can never see the kingdom of God. 
These three cannots, like a threefold cord, bind poor sinners, so as 
that they can never come to a sight or fruition of God in grace or 
glory, till they are delivered from these cannots by a new birth, by 
being born again. 

' See the kingdom of God ; ' that is, they cannot enter into it, they 
cannot enjoy it, they can have no child's part or portion in it, except 
they are new born, except they pass the pangs of the second birth. 
Let their education be never so sweet, their illumination never so 
great, their profession never so amiable, and their conversation never 
so unblameable, yet except they are new born, it had been good for 
them that they had never been born. And thus you see by plain 
scriptures, that the Lord hath bolted the gates of glory against all 
unholy persons. 

2. A second argument to prove that without holiness there is no 
happiness, &c., is this: Without holiness men are strangers to God; 
and therefore, without holiness they cannot be admitted to a cohabit- 
ation with God. God loves not to dwell with strangers, nor to associate 
himself with strangers. Now such are all unholy persons : Eph. ii.l2, 
' That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the com- 
monwealth of Israel' (or, being far removed from the citizenship of 
Israel), ' and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, 
and without God in the world.' Here are five ' withouts ' in the words, 
1. They were without God, the author of hope. 2. They were without 
Christ, the foundation of hope. 3. They were without the church, which 
was contained in the commonwealth of Israel, the place of hope. 4. 
They were without the covenants of promise — that is, they were with- 
out the precious promises which God in his covenant had made and 
oftentimes renewed with the Israelites, and therefore called covenants 
in the plural number — the ground and reason of hope. And, lastly, 
They were without the grace of hope : they had no hope of communion 
with Christ, no hope of fellowship with the saints, no hope of any 
interest in the promise, no hope of reconciliation to God here, nor 
no hope of a fruition of God hereafter. And thus you see what 
strangers they were to the Lord, and to the great concernments of their 
own souls. God of old would not have strangers come into his sanc- 
tuary ; and do you think, then, that he will ever admit such into 
heaven ? Surely no. Ezek. xliv. 6, 7, 9, ' And thou shalt say to the 
rebellious, even to the house of Israel, Thus saith the Lord God ; 
ye house of Israel, let it suffice you of all your abominations, in that 
ye have brought into my sanctuary strangers uncircumcised in heart, 
and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in my sanctuary to pollute it, even 
my house, when ye offer my bread, the fat and the blood, and they 
^ nZD; daubed or plaifitered. 


have broken my covenant, because of all your abominations. Thus 
saith the Lord God, No stranger uncircumcised in heart, nor uncir- 
cumcised in flesh, shall enter into my sanctuary, of any stranger that 
is among the children of Israel.' ^ Such as had no holiness within, 
nor no holiness without ; such as had no holiness in their hearts, nor 
no holiness in their lives, God would not have them to enter into 
his sanctuary ; and, therefore, certainly such he will never suffer to 
enter into heaven.^ If God shuts the doors of an earthly tabernacle 
against such as were strangers to him, to his covenant, to his church, 
and to themselves, will he not much more shut the door of his 
heavenly tabernacle against such that are strangers to him, and to his 
Christ, and to his word, yea, that are strangers to their own souls, 
and to all the concernments of another world ? and such are all those 
that are uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in flesh. Princes' 
palaces are not for strangers, but for sons, friends, familiars, favourites ; 
no more is the palace of heaven. We will not admit strangers to 
cohabit with us; and will God admit such to cohabit with him, 
that never had any acquaintance or familiarity with him ? Surely 
no. In history we read of such towns and cities as would not admit 
strangers to inhabit among them ; and such a city is that above, 
Exod. xxxiii. 12, 17. It hath been long since concluded, that In 
coelo nullus erit alienus — In heaven there shall be no strangers : none 
shall be admitted into that state but such as God knows by name. 
Charon in Lucian, requesting Mercurius to shew him Jupiter's palace 
above, How says Mercurius, that such a caitiff as thou, whose con- 
versation hath been altogether with black shades and impure ghosts, 
shouldst set thy foot in that pure place of light ? What a dishonour 
and derogation were that to the place ! The application is easy. 

3. Uriholy persons have felloioship and familiarity loiih Satan, and 
therefore, doubtless, God will have no familiarity nor fellowship with 
them, 2 Cor. vi. 14-16. As righteousness can have no fellowship with 
unrighteousness, nor light with darkness, nor Christ with Belial, nor 
heaven with hell ; no more can a holy God have any communion or 
fellowship with unholy souls, for they are Satan's house, Luke xi. 21 ; 
Kev. xviii. 2. He keeps possession of them as a man doth of his house, 
and hath familiarity with them as a man hath with those of his house : 
he is their father, and they are his children, John viii. 44 ; and look, 
what familiarity a father hath with his children, that hath an unholy 
devil with unholy souls. A workman cannot be more familiar with 
his tools than Satan is with unholy souls ; and therefore he is said to 
work in the children of disobedience, as a smith worketh in his forge, 
or as an artificer worketh in his shop, Eph. ii. 2. Unholy persons have 
bosom-fellowship with Satan : 1 John v. 19, ' And we know that we 
are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness;' or in that 
wicked one the devil, as the Greek will bear ; they lie, as it were, in 
the bosom of Satan, as the child lies in the bosom of the mother, or 
as the wife lies in the bosom of the husband, or as a friend lies in the 
bosom of his friend. Unholy persons partake with him at his table ; 

^ Heaven would be no heaven were there any strangers there. See my ' String of 
Pearls.' [Works, vol. i. pp. 399-468.— G.] 
2 Mat. vu. 21-23, xxv. 11, 1^, and xxii. 11-13. 



they eat with him, and drink with him, and converse with him : 1 Cor. 
X. 21, ' Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: 
ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.' 
Ambrose brings in the devil boasting against Christ, and challenging 
Judas as his own, thus : He is not thine, Lord Jesus, he is mine ; his 
thoughts beat for me ; he eats with thee, but is fed by me ; he takes 
bread from thee, but money from me ; he drinks with thee, and sells 
thy blood to me. ^ By all which you may see what fellowship and 
familiarity there is between Satan and a sinner. Now what is this 
less than blasphemy, to assert that a holy Grod will have fellowship 
with them that have fellowship with the devil ? Grod hath not cast 
Satan out of heaven that he may make room for his familiars in 
heaven. If heaven was too holy to hold unholy devils, it will be found 
at last to be too ht)ly to hold unholy souls. Certainly they shaU not 
lie in the bosom of God who have the devil for their bedfellow. 

4, Fourthly, Unholy persons are full of contrariety to God ; their 
natures, principles, practices, aims, minds, wills, affections, judgments, 
intentions, and resolutions, are contrary to God, his name, nature, 
being, truth, and glory. 2 You may as soon bring east and west, north 
and south, light and darkness, heaven and hell together, as you shall 
bring a holy God and unholy souls together. Antipathies will never 
incorporate ; as soon may midnight be married to the noonday, as a 
holy God embrace an unholy sinner. That unholy persons are made 
up of contrarieties to God, is most evident, as you may see in Isa. xxii. 
12, 13, ' And in that day did the Lord God of hosts call to weeping, 
and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth: 
and behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eating 
flesh, and drinking wine : let us eat and drink ; for to-morrow we shall 
die.' These sad souls practise quite contrary to what the Lord calls 
for at their hands. He calls them to weeping and mourning, and 
behold joy and gladness : he calls them to fasting, and behold here is 
nothing but feasting, carousing, and making merry and jovial, and 
that in contempt of God and his dreadful judgments, Kom. viii. 7; 
James iv. 4.3 Unholy persons are like the rainbow : now the rainbow 
is never on that side of the world that the sun is on ; but whensoever 
it appears, it is still in opposition against the sun. If the sun be in 
the east, the rainbow is in the west, &c. So unholy souls, in all their 
actings and walkings, will still be opposite to God ; they will still be 
cross and contrary to him : John viii. 38, ' I speak that which I have 
seen with my Father : and ye do that which ye have seen with your 
father.' Unholy hearts are full of the highest strains of contrariety 
and opposition against the Lord. I have read of a king that reigned 
in no very remote part of the world, who, having received a blow from' 
the hand of God, took a solemn oath to be revenged on him ; and 
ordained that for ten years' space no man should pray to him, speak 
of him, nor, so long as he was in authority, to believe in him. Oh 

^ If Judas was at the sacrament, the greater was his woe. [See General Index under 
'Judas.'— G.] 

2 Lev. xxvi. 21-24, 27, 28, 40, 41; Isa. Iviii. 4-6; Jer. xliv. 16-18; ii. 25, and 
rviii. 11, 12. 

3 Pope Julius the Third would have his pork, though it was forbidden him by bia 
physicians, in despite of God himself. 


the vanity, the contrariety, and blasphemy of this prince ! Now we 
will not admit such to be about us, who are made up of contrarieties 
to us : and will God, will God ? Heaven and earth, fire and water, 
the wolf and the laml), the winds and the sea will sooner accord, than 
a holy God and an unholy heart. There can be no amity where there 
is a spiritual antipathy. 

5. Fifthly, Without holiness no man can have any sph'itvAil com- 
munion luith God in this world ; he may hear, but he can have no 
communion with God in hearing without holiness ; he may pray, but 
he can have no communion with God in prayer without holiness ; he 
may come to the sacrament, but he can have no communion with God 
in the sacrament without holiness ; he may come into the communion 
of saints, but he can have no communion with God in the communion 
of saints without holiness ; he may read and meditate, but he can 
have no communion with God in reading and meditation without holi- 
ness : Deut. xxiii. 14, * For the Lord thy God walketh in the midst of 
thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee ; 
therefore shall thy camp be holy : that he see no unclean thing in thee, 
and turn away from thee.' Keep up holiness among you, and you 
shall keep me among you, saith God ; but if you turn away from holi- 
ness, I wiU undoubtedly turn away from you : a holy God will keep 
company with none but those that are holy. Holiness is the bond 
that ties God and souls together. God will cleave close to them who 
in holiness cleave fast to him ; but if he see uncleanness and wicked- 
ness among you, he will certainly turn away from you. The Holy 
Spirit gives the lie to those that say they have fellowship with God, 
and yet maintain familiarity and fellowship with sin : 1 John i. 6, 
' If we say we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we 
lie.' The apostle dares give the lie to any man, without fearing the 
stab, who pretends to communion with God, and yet walks in dark- 
ness. Men may be much in ordinances, and yet, for want of holiness, 
may have no communion at all with God in ordinances, Isa. i. 11-18 ; 
and though communion with God in ordinances is the very life and 
soul of ordinances, yet multitudes who enjoy ordinances can content 
and satisfy themselves without that which is the very life, soul, and 
quintessence of ordinances. There are many that cry out, ' The temple 
of the Lord, the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord,' who 
have no communion with the Lord of the temple at all, Jer. vii. 4-12, 
Though unholy persons may trade much in ordinances, yet they will 
never make any earnings, any advantage by all their trading and stir, 
because they cannot reach to communion with God in them, which is 
the only means of being enriched by them, Isa. xxix. 13 ; Ezek. 
xxiv. 21, 22, and xxxiii. 30-32. As many men rise early and go 
to bed late, and make a great deal of stir and doi to be rich in the 
world, and yet, for want of a stock, nothing comes on it ; they are 
poor still, and beggarly still, and low and mean in the world still : so 
many rise early, and go late to ordinances, they exercise themselves 
much in religious duties, and yet nothing comes on it ; their souls are 
poor and beggarly and threadbare still. And no wonder, for they 
want a stock of holiness to trade with. Kemigius, a judge of Lorraine, 

1 To-do. -G. 



saith that the devil in those parts did use to give money to witches which 
at first did appear to be good and current coin, but after a while it 
turned to dry leaves. Ah, sirs, all duties and ordinances to a man 
that wants holiness, will be found at last to be but as dry leaves, to 
be sapless and lifeless, and heartless and comfortless to him. Now if 
without holiness no man can have any spiritual communion or fellow- 
ship with God here, then certainly without holiness no man can have a 
glorious communion with God hereafter : if without holiness God will 
not take us into his arms on earth, then undoubtedly without holiness 
God will never put us into his bosom in heaven. But to proceed. 

6. Unholy persons are fools ; and what should such do in the pre- 
sence of God, who is wisdom itself? The fool and the ungodly man 
are synonymous words, signifying the same thing, in Scripture : Ps. 
xiv. 1, ' The fool' {i.e., the wicked, the unholy person) ' hath said in 
his heart. There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abom- 
inable works, there is none that doeth good ; ' Jer. iv. 22, ' For my 
people are foolish, they have not known me ; they are sottish children, 
and they have no understanding : they are wise to do evil, but to do 
good they have no knowledge ;' Prov. i. 7, ' Fools despise wisdom and 
instruction ; ' that is, wicked and ungodly men despise wisdom and 
instruction. And to shew that the world is full of such fools, he 
uses the word in the plural no less than sixteen times in this book of 
the Proverbs. I shall open this truth a little more to you, by proving 
that they have all the characteristical notes and properties of fools ; so 
that one face is not more like another than a fool is like a wicked 
man, or than a wicked man is like a fool ; for, 

(1.) First, A fool prefers toys and trifles before things of greatest 
worth, Prov. i. 29. He prefers a brass counter before a piece of gold, 
a fine baby^ before a rich inheritance, an apple that pleaseth the eye 
before a pearl of greatest price ; so wicked and ungodly men, they prefer 
their lusts before the Lord : Isa. Ixv. 12, ' Therefore will I number you 
to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter: because 
when I called, ye did not answer ; when I spake, ye did not hear ; but 
did evil before mine eyes, and did choose that wherein I delighted 
not.' Upon choice, they preferred the honours, the riches, the bravery, 
and glory of the world, above their own souls and the great concern- 
ments of another world. 2 Such fools were Laban and Nabal, in the 
Old Testament, (whose names by inversion of letters are the same, 
and the latter signifies a fool,) and such were the two rich fools in the 
New Testament, Luke xii. 16-22, and xvi. 19-31. I have read of the 
foolish people of the East Indies, in the isle Ceylon, who preferred 
a consecrated ape's tooth above an incredible mass of treasure. Such 
fools are all unholy persons, who prefer the toys, the trifles of this 
world before the pleasures and treasures that be at God's right hand, 
Ps. xvi. 11, and Mat. vi. 19, 20. The world is full of such fools. Si 
ad mores hominum respicias, mundum universum stidtorum domum 
judicabis, saith one : If thou beholdest the manners of men, thou wilt 
judge the whole world to be a house of fools. Ah, friends ! what 

1 ' Doll.'— G. 

^ Such a one was Cardinal Borbonius, who professed he would not leave hii part in 
Paris for a portion in paradise. [As before. — G.] 


folly to that of men's spending their time, their strength, their lives, 
their souls in getting the great things of this world, and neglecting 
that one thing necessary, the salvation of their souls ! Mat. xvi. 26. 
Oh, what vanity is it to prefer a smoke of honour, a blast of fame, a 
dream of pleasure, a wedge of gold, a Babylonish garment, and such 
like transitory trifles and trash, before a blessed eternity ! 

(2.) Secondly, Fools make no improvement of advantages and oppor- 
tunities that are put into their hands: Prov, xvii. 16, ' Wherefore is 
there a price in the hand of a fool to get wisdom, seeing he hath no 
heart to it ? ' ^ It is to no purpose to put a price into the hand, if folly be 
bound up in the heart. If a man had as much wealth as would buy all 
the grace, all the peace, all the comforts, and all the wisdom in the 
world ; yet if he hath neither wit nor will to make an improvement of 
his wealth, what good would his wealth do him ? To what purpose is 
the market open, and good pennyworths put into the buyer's hands, if 
the buyer hath neither wisdom nor heart to buy ? Unholy persons 
are such spiritual fools : though they have a price, an opportunity put 
into their hands, which if improved might make them for ever ; yet 
they have no heart to make an improvement of the means and advan- 
tages that might do them good to all eternity. 2 Ah, what oppor- 
tunities have unsanctified persons to get changed hearts, renewed 
natures, purged consciences, reformed lives, to get an interest in Christ, 
to obtain the favour of God, to procure pardon of sin, to make pro- 
vision for their immortal souls ! But they have no hearts to improve 
these opportunities, and so by neglecting of them they cut the throat 
of their own souls. And this will be the worm that will lie gnawing 
of them to all eternity, that they have let slip the opportunities of 
grace, that they have trifled away the seasons of mercy. Ah, sirs, 
there is no fool to that fool that hath an opportunity put into his hand 
to make himself for ever, and yet hath no heart to improve it. The 
hottest place in hell will be the portion of such fools. Mat. xi. 21, 22. 
The little bee, so soon as flowers appear, goes abroad, views the gay 
diapery,3 and the diversity of the flowery fields, sucks the sweetest of 
them, freights her thighs, makes a curious comb, and so betimes 
hoards up honey in summer against winter. And so the little busy 
ant in summer provides food for winter, Prov. vi. 6-8 ; the stork, the 
crane, and the swallow know their seasons and opportunities, Jer. 
viii. 7. All these poor little creatures are not so much below man 
in nature, as they are above sinful man in worth, wisdom, and work. 
These improve their summer seasons, their harvest hours; and 'yet 
such spiritual fools are wicked men, that they let slip such seasons 
of gi-ace and mercy, that cannot be redeemed with ten thousand worlds. 
Ah, how is man fallen from his primitive nobility and glory, that these 
little busy creatures are propounded as a pattern of diligence and 
wisdom unto him ! The ancients painted Opportunity with a hairy fore- 

1 Like grasshoppers, they sing and sport away their precious time and opportunities 
of mercy, &c. 

2 Prov, i. 20, seq. ; Isa. liii. 1 ; Iv. 1, 2 i Mat. xxv. 3, 6, 10 ; xxiii. 37 ; Luke xix. 41, 
42, &c. That great conqueror vainly feared that his father Philip's victories would 
deprive the son of an opportunity to improve his magnanimity. 

=* ' Various colours,' as of a rich-figured robe. Cf. Shakespere, ' Taming of Shrew, 
L, induction. — G. 



head, but bald behind, to signify that while a man hath it before him, 
he may lay hold on it, but if he lets it slip away, he cannot pull it back 
again. There is a great truth in what the Rabbi hath long since said, 
Memo est cui non sit hora sua : Every man hath his hour, and he who 
oversUps his season may never meet with the like again. There are 
many thousand spiritual fools in hell, that find this true by experience, 
and therefore now they bewail their folly, but all too late, all too late. 
(3.) Thirdly, Natural fools are very inconstant; they are never 
long in one mind : now they are for this, and anon for that ; now in 
this mind, and anon in that, Ecclesiasticus xxii. 11-15. Their minds 
are more changeable than the moon ; they turn oftener than the 
weathercock, they are only constant in inconstancy: and such 
spiritual fools are all unholy persons. For now they are for a right- 
eous cause, and anon they are against it : now they are for Grod, and 
anon they are against him : now they are for Christ, and by and by 
they are against liim : now they cry out ' Hosanna, Hosanna in the 
highest,' Mat. xxi. 9, 15 ; but did they hold in this mind long? No, 
their mind is presently changed, and they cry out, ' Crucify him, 
crucify Mm,' Luke xxiii. 21. Now they are for the saints, and anon 
they are against them: they cry up the gospel, and presently they 
make opposition against the gospel ; like the kingdom of Congo, who 
at first kindly embraced the gospel, but as soon as they found it re- 
strain their lusts and carnal liberties, they made fierce opposition 
against the gospel. This week they are for ordinances, and the next 
they are against ordinances : this hour they will forsake their sins, and 
the next hour they will return to their sins as the ' dog to his vomit, and 
as the sow to her wallovsdng in the mire,' 2 Peter ii. 20-22. Now they 
are for this way, and anon for that : now they are for this opinion, and 
anon for that : now they are for this religion, and to-morrow they are 
for another rehgion, 2 Kings xvii. 33 ; like Baldwin a French lawyer, 
of whom it is said [by Beza] that he had religionem ephemeram, every 
day a new religion, but constant to none. This moment you shall 
hear them bless, and the next moment you shall hear them curse: 
James iii. 9, 10, 'Out of the same mouth proceeds blessing and 
cursing.' Louis the Second would swear, and then kiss his crucifix, 
and then swear again more confidently, and kiss his crucifix again 
more devoutly. Now because this age is full of such swearing fools, 
and happily this Treatise may fall into some of their hands, give me 
leave to say, that it is observable that the word in the Hebrew which 
the Scripture useth for swearing, is always used in the passive voice, 
i^iu;j, nashabange, to note, say some, that a man should not swear 
but when an oath is laid upon him, and he driven to it. The word 
also hath a signification of seven, y21D, as having reference, say some, 
to the seven spirits of God before the throne, before whom we swear, 
and therefore should never swear but in ' truth, righteousness, and 
judgment,' Jer. iv. 2 ; Rev. i. 4, and v. 6. One day you shall have 
these spiritual fools, these profane fools, crying out, Oh heaven, 
heaven, heaven ! Oh that we may go to heaven ! and the next day you 
shall see them live as if there were neither heaven nor hell : one day 
with Balaam you shall have them wish. Oh that we might die the 
death of the righteous ! and the next day with Saul you shall have 


them a-persecuting of the righteous to death : one day you shall have 
them cry out, ' What shall we do to be saved ? ' and the next day you 
shall see them live as if they were resolved to be damned. Thus these 
spiritual fools, like natural fools, are always fickle and inconstant. 

(4.) Fourthly, Fools delight to sport and play loith such things as 
are most hurtful, pernicious, and dangerous to them, as you all know 
that have observed anything of natural fools : Pro v. x. 23, ' It is a sport 
to a fool to do mischief.'! Fools take as great delight and pleasure in 
doing mischief, as wise men do in their lawful sports or pastimes. 
Wisdom is not more a joy and delight to a man of understanding, 
than mischief and wickedness is a sport or recreation to a fool. It is 
a great contentment and merriment to a fool to do wickedly : Prov, 
xiv. 9, 'Fools make a mock of sin;' they make a jeer of that which 
they should fear more than hell itself ; they make that matter of sport 
which may prove matter of damnation to them ; they make a May- 
game, a pastime of that which may make them miserable to all eter- 
nity; they make a mock and flout of that on earth for which the devil 
will mock and flout them for ever in hell. Justice will at last turn 
over such fools to Satan, who will be sure to return mock for mock, 
jeer for jeer, and flout for flout. They that love such kind of pastime 
shall have enough of it in hell. Now all unholy persons are such 
spiritual fools, as that they delight and take pleasure in sin, which is 
the most pernicious and dangerous thing in the world: Ps. Ixii. 4, 
' They delight in lies,' Prov. i. 22. Though every lie deserves a stab 
from God, yet spiritual fools make but a sport of them. Such a one 
was Thespis the poet, who being reproved by Solon for lying, an- 
swered him that it was not material, seeing it was but in sport : upon 
which Solon, beating the ground with his staff, replied, If we commend 
lying in sport, we shall find it afterwards in good earnest in all our 
bargains and dealings.^ It is said of Epaminondas, a heathen, that 
he abhorred mendacium jocosum, a jesting lie ; ^ this heathen in the 
great day will put such liars to the blush who delight in lies : Isa. Ixvi. 
3, ' Their soul dehghteth in their abomination ; ' 2 Thes. ii. 12, ' They 
take pleasure in unrighteousness ;' 2 Pet. ii. 13, ' They count it plea- 
sure to riot in the daytime, sporting themselves with their own de- 
ceivings.'^ Not that there is any real delight in intemperance ; for if 
there were, then Heliogabalus, an exceeding intemperate person, should 
have been more happy than Adam in paradise. Apicius was the 
greatest glutton that ever was ; at length he hanged himself : ^ such 
shall hang in hell at last, who delight to abuse many at once ; the 
creatures, their Creator, and their own souls and bodies. Well, sirs, 
sin is the poison of the soul, the nakedness of the soul, the disease of 
the soul, the burden of the soul, and if mercy do not prevent, will prove 
the bane of the soul. Oh, then, how great is their folly that delight in 
it, and that make a sport of it ! 

^ Mischief is the fool's bauble, the fool's fiddle. Fools can rejoice in other men's harms, 
and laugh to see others lament. 

* Plutarch in the life of Solon. * Ibid. s.n. Epaminondas. — Q. 

* There was no flesh so sweet as that which the eagle robbed the altar of. 

' He writ a book to provoke the appetite. [Rather Apion the grammarian wrote a 
book upon the luxurious labours of M. Gabius Apicius. Cf. among many references 
Suidas, 8. n. AvLkos. — G.] 


[5.] Fifthly, Natural fools are taken more with the outward shine, 
lustre, beauty, and glory of things, than they are taken loith the intrin- 
secal virtue, value, and luorth of them; they are more taken with the 
shine and histre of gold, jewels, and precious stones, than they are 
with the worth and value of them. So unholy hearts are taken more 
with the form of godliness than they are with the power, 2 Tim. iii. 
5 ; they are taken more with a name to live, with a name of being holy, 
than they are taken with holiness itself. Rev. iii. 1 , 2. Multi Chris- 
tianum nomen ad judicium hahent, non ad remedium [Augustine] : 
Many have the name of Christians to their condemnation, not to their 
salvation, Isa. Iviii. 2-6 ; Mat. i. 21 ; Zechariah vii. 4-7 ; Mat. xxiii. 
They are taken more with the outward shine and pomp of duties, than 
they are taken with the spiritualness and holiness of duties ; they are 
taken more with what of man is in duty, than they are taken with that 
of God which is in a duty ; they are taken more with raised notions, 
than they are taken with raised affections ; they are taken more with 
some witty, rhetorical expressions in duty, than they are taken with 
the holy movings and breathings of the spirit in duty, Ezek. xxxiii. 
30-32. All which speaks them out to be spiritual fools ; and indeed 
no fools to those who are taken more with the shadow of religion than 
they are with the substance of religion ; who are taken more with the 
outside of godliness than they are with the inside of godliness : for 
what is this but to be taken more with the outside of the cabinet, than 
with the treasure that is within ? or to be taken more with the purse 
that holds the gold, than with the gold that is in the purse ? and with 
Democritus the philosopher, to esteem a room covered over with green 
branches of trees above the royal palace ? 

(6.) Sixthly, Natural fools are all for the present; they cry out, 
Spend and Grod will lend ; they only mind and care for the things of 
this life : as what they shall eat, and what they shall drink, and what 
they shall put on. They are all for their bodies, their bellies, their 
backs : they take no care, they make no provision for their immortal 
souls. 1 A spruce Roman riding on a lean jade, was asked by the 
censor his reason : he answered, I look to myself, but my man to 
my horse. So fools look only to their bodies ; let who list look to 
their souls. Such fools are all unsanctified persons ; they look only 
after their bodies, and their outward concernments ; they look not at 
the necessities, miseries, and wants of their souls. Such were those in 
John vi. 26, 27, who crossed the seas and followed after Christ for 
loaves, but never looked after the meat which endureth to everlasting 
life. And such fools were those in Hosea vii. 14, ' who howled upon 
their beds for corn and wine :' let them have but provender, provant^ 
for their bodies, and they care not what becomes of their souls ; and 
such were they in Phil. iii. 19, 'whose god was their gut.' And such 
were the Laodiceans in Rev. iii. 14-19, who had well-fed bodies, but 
starved souls ; whose houses were full of goods, but their hearts empty 
and void of Christ and grace ; who had threadbare souls under all 
their purple robes ; who were rich in temporals, but very poor and 
beggarly in spirituals. And such a one was that rich fool in Luke 

1 They cry as the epicure cried, Utere temporibus, prcesentibus utere rebus. 

* ' Make proTision for,' another Shakesperian word, as 'provand,' Coriolanus II. 1.— G. 


xii., who only laid up for his body for this life, but never took care for an- 
other life, for a better life ; he makes many years' provision for his body, 
and not a day's provision for his soul ; he talks of living many years, 
when he had not a day nor a night to live in this world. And being 
thus foolish in his reckoning, Christ brands him for a fool to all gene- 
rations : ver. 20, 21, ' Thou fool, this night shall thy soul be required 
of thee : then whose shall these things be which thou hast provided ? ' 
So is he that heapeth up treasure for himself, and is not rich towards 
God. Every man in the world is a fool that heaps up treasure to 
himself, that adds land to land, and house to house, and heap to heap, 
and bags to bags, and hundreds to hundreds, and thousands to thou- 
sands, and is not rich towards Grod.i fpjiig ^ge is full of such golden 
fools, who pamper their bodies, but starve their souls : who trick and 
trim up their bodies with gold, silver, and silks, whilst their souls are 
naked, and ragged, and destitute of all grace and goodness. The Jews 
have a story of a foolish woman that took two children to nurse, the 
one very mean, deformed, crooked, blind, and not likely to live long ; 
the other a goodly, lively, lovely, beautiful child, and likely to live 
long : now this foolish woman spent all her pains, care, diligence, and 
attendance upon the worst child, never so much as minding or regarding 
the best child. This age is full of such foolish men and women, who, 
having two to nurse, their bodies and their souls, spend their time, 
their care, labour, and pains in making provision for the flesh, in laying 
up for their bodies, and in the meanwhile never regard their souls, 
never look after their souls, though they have the beauty of a deity 
upon them, and though they are immortal, and capable of union and 
communion with God in grace, and of a blessed fruition of God in 
glory. Surely no fools to these fools. 

[7.] Seventhly, The sharpest and severest course you can take, can- 
not separate between a fool and Ms folly. Notwithstanding all your 
frowns, threats, checks, knocks, &c., a fool will not leave his folly; nay, 
you shall sooner beat a fool to death than you shall beat him off from 
his folly: Prov. xxvii. 22, 'Though thou shouldst bray a fool in a 
mortar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart 
from him.' 2 The husk doth not stick so close to the grain of corn, as 
folly doth to the heart of a fool. There is a possibility of severing the 
husk from the flour by beating, but there is no possibility of severing 
a fool from his folly. You see it in Pharaoh, who, though he was 
often in God's mortar, yet he could not be severed from his folly; nay, 
he did choose rather to be beaten to death,'and to see his friends, rela- 
tions, favourites, followers, subjects, and soldiers, with their first-born, 
beaten to death before his eyes, rather than he would leave his folly. 
And such a fool was king Ahaz, who, when God had him in the 
mortar, and threatened to beat him and his people to death, yet then 
in his distress he sinned more against the Lord, 2 Chron. xxviii. 22, 
and therefore for his obstinacy, obdurateness, and irreclaimableness, he 
is branded and marked with a black coal by the Lord to all posterity, 

^ Plato seeing one over-indulgent to his body, asked him what he meant, to make his 
prison so strong. 

^ Solomon in this place alludeth to one kind of grinding, which in old time the people 
were accustomed to, which was to put their parched corn into a mortar, and to beat it 
unto powder. 


'This is that king Ahaz.'i And such spiritual fools are all ungodly- 
persons ; let God frown, chide, strike, reprove, correct, yet they will 
not turn from the evil of their doings : they will rather be consumed 
and destroyed, than they will be amended or reformed : Jer. v. 3, ' O 
Lord, are not thine eyes upon the truth? thou hast stricken them, but 
they have not grieved ; thou hast consumed them, but they have re- 
fused to receive correction : they have made their faces harder than a 
rock ; they have refused to return.' No smart nor grief, no calamities 
nor miseries, can turn obstinate fools from their impieties : Jer, vi. 29, 
' The bellows are burnt, the lead is consumed of the fire ; the founder 
melteth in vain' (or in vain melting melteth he, trying trieth he): 
* for the wicked are not plucked away.' ^ All the cost and charge that 
God hath been at, all the pains and labour that he hath taken to sever 
these wicked ones from their wickedness was lost ; they would not be 
refined nor reformed. After God's greatest severity, a spiritual fool 
will return to his iniquity: Pro v. xxvi. 11, ' As a dog returneth to his 
vomit, so a fool returneth to his folly,' or iterateth his folly. It is true, 
the comparison is homely, but good enough for those fools to whom it 
is applied. Spiritual fools sometimes vomit up their sins when they 
are under terrors of conscience, or under the affiicting hand of God, or 
upon a dying bed ; but still retain a disposition and purpose to return 
to them again : as some say, the serpent vomits up his poison when 
he goes to drink, and then takes it in again. Foolish souls say to 
their lusts, as Abraham to his servants. Gen. xxii. 5, ' Abide you here, 
and I will go yonder and come again to you.' Whatever becomes of 
their souls, they are resolved to keep close to their sins, Isa. i. 5. And 
as ^sop's foolish fishes leaped out of the warm water into the burning 
fire for ease ; 3 so these poor fools will rather adventure a burning in 
hell, than they will attempt a turning from their folly. 

[8.] Eighthly, Natural fools make the simplest and unJiappiest ex- 
changes: they will exchange a pearl for a pippin, things of greatest 
worth and value for a feather, a ribbon, a toy, a trifle ; a house to live 
in, for a house of clay or a house of cards; and, like Glaucus, a foolish 
captain, who changed with Diomedes his armour of gold for Diomedes 
his armour of brass. ^ All unholy persons are spiritual fools ; they 
will exchange spirituals for carnals, and eternals for temporals ; they 
wiU exchange God, Christ, the gospel, heaven, and their souls for a 
lust, for the world, nay, for a little of the world's smiles, pleasures, or 
profits, Mat. xvi. 26 ; and well may he lay claim to a boatswain's place 
in Barclay's ' Ship of Fools,' 5 that will exchange his soul and his soul- 
concernments for the toys and trifles of this world. 

Now do you think that God, who hath within himself all the wis- 
dom of angels, of men, and universal nature — that he who hath all 
glory, all dignity, all riches, all treasures, all pleasures, all comforts, 

^ They were like those bears in Pliny, that could not be stirred with the sharpest 
prickles. [As before. — G.] 

^ See Ezra xxii. 18; Jer. ii. 30, 31, and xix. 15; Amos iv. 4, 13; Isa. xxvi. 10, 11 ; 2 
Pet. ii. 22. 

' The well-known fable of Babrius : I take this opportunitj' of correcting a misprint of 
this name in Vol. ii., page 59, footnote 1, where read, not Balarius, but Babrius. — 6. 

* The foolish Indians prefer every toy and trifle above their mines of gold. 

= Spelled ' Barkley's' : the well-known ' Shyp of Folys of the Worlde,' (1509,) by 
Alexander Barclay or Barklay, based on the original of Brandt. — G. 


all delights, all joys, all beatitudes in himself — that that God who is 
a super-substantial substance, and understanding not to be understood, 
a word never to be spoken, that he will have everlasting fellowship 
and communion with fools ? i — that a God whose wisdom is infinite and 
unsearchable, will ever debase himself so as to have his royal palace 
filled with fools, as to make those his companions in heaven, that 
he can take no pleasure in on earth? Eccles. v. 4, ' He hath no plea- 
sure in fools.' The wise God would not have his children keep com- 
pany with fools : Prov. xiv. 7, ' Go from the presence of a foolish man, 
when thou perceivest not in him the lips of knowledge ; ' and will he 
keep company with them himself ? Surely no. God hath given it 
under his own hand, that such shall not tarry in his sight : Ps. v. 5, 
' The foolish shall not stand in thy sight ' [or, as the Hebrew hath it, 
before thine eyes] : ' thou hatest aU workers of iniquity.' God will 
never admit fools to be his favourites : he will at last shut the door of 
glory against them. Mat. xxv. 4-13. 

7. A seventh argument to prove that without real holiness there 
is no happiness ; that without holiness on earth no man shall ever 
come to a blessed vision or fruition of God in heaven, is this. Unholy 
persons are to he excluded and shut out from sacred, from special com- 
munion and felloivship with the saints in this loorld ; and therefore, 
without all peradventure, they shall never be admitted to everlasting 
communion and fellowship with God, Christ, angels, and saints in that 
other world. That they are to be shut out from having any special 
communion with the saints here, is most plain and evident from several 
scriptures. Take these for a taste : Lev. x. 10, ' And that ye may put 
difi'erence between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean ;' 
Ezek. xliv. 23, ' And they shall teach my people the difference between 
the holy and profane, and cause them to discern between the unclean 
and the clean.' And because the priests did not improve their power 
and interest to preserve the things of God from profaning and polluting, 
the Lord was very much offended and provoked : Ezek. xxii. 26, ' Her 
priests have violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things : 
they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have 
they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have 
hid their eyes from my Sabbaths, and I am profaned among them.' 
And in chap. xliv. 7, 8, God sadly complains that they ' brought into 
his sanctuary strangers uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in 
flesh;' and prohibits such from entering into his sanctuary, ver. 9, 
' Thus saith the Lord God, No stranger, uncircumcised in heart, nor 
uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into my sanctuary, of any stranger 
that is among the children of Israel.' God expects that faithful 
teachers should put a difference between person and person, between 
the holy and profane, between the clean and the unclean, in all holy 
administrations : Jer. xv. 19, ' Therefore thus saith the Lord, If thou 
take forth the precious from the vile, then thou shalt be as my mouth : 
let them return unto thee ; but return not thou unto them.' Now 
certainly if under the ceremonial law natural uncleanness did exclude 
and shut out the Israelites from a participation in holy things, then 
certainly moral imcleanness may justly exclude and shut out Chris- 
^ Dionys. Areop. de divin. novi. cap. 1. 



tians from a participation in holy things under the gospel : Mat. vii. 
6, ' Give not that which is holy unto dogs, neither cast ye your pearls 
before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again 
and rend you.' Holy things are too precious to be spent and spilt upon 
swinish sinners. Gospel administrations are precious pearls, that must 
not be given to s"wane. 2 Cor. vi. 17, ' Wherefore come out from among 
them, and be ye separate, saitli the Lord, and touch not the unclean 
thing ; and I will receive you.' ^ Profane, scandalous, blind, and 
ignorant persons are very unclean things, and from them we must 
come out. As we would be in with God, we must be out with them : 
we must reject them as we would have God to receive us : 2 Tim. iii. 5, 
' Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof : from 
such turn away.' Our Saviour Christ hied him to the wilderness 
amongst the beasts, and carried his disciples with him, holding their 
fellowship to be less hurtful and dangerous. It is better to live among 
beasts, than to live among men of beastly principles and beastly prac- 
tices. Now there are ten sorts of persons that Christians must turn 
from, that they must have no intimate, no special communion with in 
this world. 

(1.) First, Unbelievers, 2 Cor. vi. 14-16. We should not close 
with them that have not closed with Christ ; nor give ourselves up to 
them who have not given up themselves to Christ. Every unbeliever 
is a condemned person : the law hath cast him, the gospel hath cast 
him, and his own conscience hath cast him ; and what sacred com- 
munion, what delightful fellowship can believers have with condemned 
persons ? John iii. 18, 36. Every unbeliever is under the wrath of the 
great God ; he is under that wrath that he can neither avoid nor abide ; 
and what communion can such have who ai*e under love, with those 
that are under wrath ? Every unbeliever makes God a liar, 1 John 
V. 10 ; and what children will have communion with such who every 
day give their father the lie to his very face ? Every unbeliever doth 
practically say. Tush ! there is no such loveliness or comeliness, there 
is no such beauty or glory, there is no such fulness or sweetness, there 
is no such goodness or graciousness in Jesus as men would make us 
believe ; and what is this, but to give God the lie ? Tush ! there is 
no such favour, there is no such peace, there is no such pardon, there 
is no such righteousness, there is no such grace, there is no such glory 
to be reaped by Christ as God and men would persuade us ; and what 
is this, but to tell God he lies to his very teeth ? And what ingenu- 
ous child can take pleasure in such who are still a-spitting in his 
father's face ? Every unbeliever is a disobedient person, and there- 
fore unbelievers and disobedient are in the Greek expressed by one 
word ; and what communion can obedient children have with those 
that are disobedient and rebellious ? 2 Every unbeliever is a pagan, a 
heathen, in the Scripture dialect ; and what communion can those who 

^ Lev. xiii. 46; Num. v. 1-4; Exod. xii. 48; Lev. xxii. 3-7. As oft, said one, as I 
have been among wicked men, I return home less a man than I was before. The Doc- 
tonean [?] well will quench a burning torch ; so will bad company the most burning and 
most shining Christians, as you see in Joseph and Peter, Ps. cvi. 35 ; when they were 
mingled among the heathen, they quickly learned their works, Ps. cxix. 115. 

» Num. xiv. 11 ; Heb. xi. 31, i.Trei.e-fi<T<x<n; 1 Tim. v. 8; 2 Cor. yi. 14, 15; 1 Cor. xlv. 
23, seq.; 2 Tim. iii. 1, 6. 


are of the household of faith have with pagans and heathens ? Every 
unbeliever is a traitor ; he commits treason daily against the crown 
and dignity of heaven : and what loyal subjects will hold communion 
with traitors ? Unbelievers are the greatest robbers ; they rob God 
of his declarative glory, though they cannot rob him of his essential 
glory ; they rob him of the glory of his truth and faithfulness ; as if 
he would falsify the word that is gone out of his mouth : as if he were 
yea and nay ; and as if his credit was so low and contemptible, that 
he must needs run a hazard that shall trust to him, or roll himself 
upon him. They rob him of the glory of his goodness and mercy, as 
if there were any sins too great for him to pardon, or any mercy too 
great for him to give, or any wrath too great for him to divert, or any 
debt too great for him to satisfy. They rob him of the glory of 
his omnipotency and all-sufficiency, as if there were something too 
hard for a God. Now what communion can the people of God have 
with robbers, with the greatest robbers, with the worst of robbers? 
and yet such are all unbelievers. And therefore let no unbelievers 
mutter or murmur when the door of admission is shut against them. 

(2.) Secondly, Such as have a form, a picture, a mask, a vizard of 
godliness, hut deny the power, 2 Tim. iii. 5. 

(3.) Thirdly, Such as walk disorderly, that live either without a call- 
ing, or idly and negligently in their calling ;^ these make religion 
odious, by making religion a mask for their idleness and laziness : 2 
Thes. iii. 6, ' Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother 
that walketh disorderly.' Now, who they are that walk disorderly you 
may see in ver. 11, 'For we hear that there are some which walk 
among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies.' Such 
vagrant professors that live idly, that will have an oar in every man's 
boat, a sickle in every man's harvest, a curious eye upon every man's 
way and work, are to be shut out of the communion of Christians, and 
to be shunned as a man would shun a serpent, an ill air, a contagious 
disease, or as the seaman shuns rocks, and sands, and shelves. It was 
a great vanity in Dionysius, that would needs be the best poet ; and in 
Caligula, that would needs be the best orator ; and in Nero, that 
would needs be the best fiddler ; and so became the three worst princes, 
minding more other men's business than their own callings ; so it is a 
very great vanity in many professors to mind more other men's busi- 
ness than their own ; from the society of such saints must withdraw. 
No man is too noble to have a calling. If iron had reason, it would 
choose rather to be used in labour than to grow rusty in a corner. By 
Mahomet's law the Grand Turk himself was to be of some trade. The 
hour of idleness is the hour of temptation ; an idle person is the 
devil's tennis-baU, tossed by him at his pleasure. God ordained the 
neck of the consecrated ass should be broken — Exod. xiii. 13 — instead 
of sacrificing him ; peradventure because that creature hath ever been 
the hieroglyphic of sloth and laziness. Among the Egyptians idleness 

^ Solon made a law, that the son should not be bound to relieve his father when he 
was old, unless he had set him in his youth to some^calling. — Plutarch in the Life of 



was a capital crime. Among the Lucans, he that lent money to an 
idle person was to lose it, saith Diphilus.i Among the Corinthians 
idle persons were delivered to the carnifex. By Solon's law idle per- 
sons were to sniFer death. The ancients call idleness the burial of a 
living man. And Seneca had rather be sick than idle. Now shall 
nature do more than gi-ace ? Shall poor blind heathens be so severe 
against idle persons, and shall Christians embrace them ? Shall they 
not rather turn their backs upon them, and have no communion 
with them who think themselves too great or too good to hold the 

(4.) Fourthly, Such lohose judgments are corrupt and unsound in 
foundation-truths : Titus iii. 10, ' A man that is an heretic, after the 
first and second admonition, reject.' ' A little leaven leaveneth the 
whole lump : ' and what leaven is more infectious than that of heresy 
and error ? 2 John 9, 10, ' Whosoever transgresseth and abideth not 
in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God : he that abideth in the doc- 
trine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there come 
any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your 
house, neither bid him God speed.' You must have nothing to do 
with them who have nothing to do with God, 1 John ii, 22-25 ; Col, ii. 
18, 19: your house must be too hot to hold him who holds not fast to 
foundation-truths, who holds not close to Christ the head. Eusebius 
reports of John the Evangelist, that he would not suffer Cerinthus the 
heretic in the same bath with him, lest some judgment should abide 
them both. 2 He that had the leprosy in his head was to be pro- 
nounced utterly unclean. Lev. xiii. 44. The breath of the erroneous 
is more dangerous and infectious than the breath of lepers : for one 
infects but the body, but the other infects the soul, and therefore 
ought more carefully to be avoided. An erroneous mind is as odious 
to God as a vicious life ; and why should it not be so to us also ? Cer- 
tainly we should shun the society of erroneous persons as we should 
shun a serpent in the way, or poison in our meat : 1 Tim. vi. 5, 
' Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds and destitute of the 
truth, supposing that gain is godliness : from such withdraw thyself : ' 
or, as the Greek word d(f>Laraao signifies, stand ofi*, keep at a distance, 
as you would from one that hath an infectious disease, or as seamen 
stand off from rocks or from a leeshore. It is recorded by Theodoret, 
that when Lucius, an Arian bishop, came and preached amongst the 
Antiochians his erroneous doctrines, the people went out of the con- 
gregation, and would not so much as lend an ear to him. 3 In these 
days there are many old errors new vampt, and old Jezebels, old 
harlots, new painted. The best way is not to lend an ear to them, but 
to serve them as they served Jezebel : they gave her no quarter, but 
cast her down and trode her under foot, 2 Kings ix. 10, 30-37. 
Errors about the foundation are like the Jerusalem artichokes, which 
overrun all the ground where they are planted, and choke the very 
heart of it ; and therefore to be abhorred, avoided, and shunned, as a 
man would shun hell itself Who but a fool or madman would 
exchange one old piece of gold for a hundred new counters ? and what 

^ As before, the Lucanians.— G. * Eusebius, 1. iii. c. 25.— G. 

^ Eccles. Hist., lib. iv. cap. 20. 


then shall we think of those who willingly and readily exchange old 
tried truths for new-minted errors? The society of such must be 

(5.) Fifthly, Such as cause divisions and discord among the people 
of God: Rom. xvi. 17, 'Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them 
which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye 
have learned ; and avoid them.' ' Mark them;' the Greek word a-Koireiv 
signifies such a marking as a watchman useth, that stands on a watch- 
tower to descry an approaching enemy. Ah ! with what a wary, with 
what a watchful, with what a curious, with what a jealous, with what 
a serious, with what a diligent eye doth the watchman watch all the 
motions, turnings, and windings of the approaching enemy! With 
such an eye we should mark them that cause divisions. ' And avoid 
them;' the Greek word eKKkivare signifies a studious, careful declining 
of them. A man must decline and shun them as he would decline 
and shun such persons or things that are most pernicious, dangerous, 
or infectious to him. Divisions are a dishonour to Christ, a reproach 
to Christians, a blot upon profession, a block in the way of the weak, 
and a sword in the hand of the wicked ; they are Satan's engines, and 
an inlet to all destruction and confusion. And therefore the authors 
of them are to be shunned and avoided.! 

(6.) Sixthly, Such Christiajis as are scandalous and profane in their 
lives and conversations: 1 Cor. v. 11, ' But now I have written unto 
you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a for- 
nicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an 
extortioner, with such a one no not to eat : ' 2 with such a brother who 
belies his profession, with such a brother whose course and conversa- 
tion contradicts his profession, we must not hold Christian communion. 
Certainly I may not have fellowship with him at the Lord's table, 
whom I may not have fellowship with at my own table : Eph, v. 11, 
' Have no fellowship with unfruitful works of darkness, but rather 
reprove them;' Acts ii. 40, 'Save yourselves from this untoward 
generation.' Wicked company is very dangerous and infectious: 1 
Cor. XV. 33, ' Evil communication corrupts good manners.' As he 
that walketh in the sun will be tanned, and he that toucheth pitch 
will be defiled ; so he that associateth himself wdth the wicked will be 
tainted and polluted. Guilt or grief is all you shall gain by bad com- 
pany, 2 Pet. ii. 7, 8 — witness Lot, David, Joseph, and Peter. s By 
bad company Christians come to lose much of the sweetness, serious- 
ness, goodness, and graciousness of their spirits. Gold, though the 
noblest metal, loseth of its lustre by being continually worn in the 
same purse with silver. Familiarity with vain persons hath much 
worn off the spiritual lustre, beauty, and glory that hath been upon 
many Christians. Bad company will prove a very great hindrance to 
you in your Christian course: Ps. cxix. 115, 'Away from me, ye 
wicked, for I will keep the commandments of my God.' I cannot 

^ The Turks pray daily that the divisions among Christians may be heightened, that 
BO they may be the sooner ruined and undone. 

* (Tvvai'aiJLlyvvffdai, not to be joined, mixed, or mingled with them, &c. Prov. ix. 6 ; 
Ps. XV. 4 ; Eph. v. 7 ; Ps. cxix. 115 ; Prov. iv. 14, 15. 

3 Ps. cxx. 7, 8 ; Gen. xlii. 15, 16 ; Mark xiv. 66-72 : 1 Kings xxii. 8 ; 2 Chron. xxiv. 
17, 18. 




keep my God's commands whilst I keep your company ; I shall never 
do my duty till I abandon your society. Divine commands will 
never lie close and warm upon my heart, so long as I give you my 
hand. How hard is it to keep the commandment of labour among 
the slothful, or the commandment of diligence among the negligent, 
or that of liberality among the covetous, or that of humility among 
the ambitious, or that of love among the malicious, or that of union 
among the contentious, or that of chastity among the lascivious, or 
that of righteousness among the unrighteous, or that of faithfulness 
among the unfaithful, or that of fruitfuLness amongst the unfruitful, or 
that of thankfulness among the unthankful, or that of faith among the 
doubtful, &c. But, 

(7.) Seventhly, A seventh sort of persons that Christians must have 
no intimate, no special communion with, is false prophets, false teach- 
ers.^ They are not to give such any house-room, 2 John 10, 11, nor 
heart-room. Mat. xxiv. 23, 24, 26. They are to shun them and avoid 
them, Rom. xvi. 17. It is not safe for a Christian to hear them, or to 
have any communion or fellowship with them. Aristotle writeth of a 
certain bird called Capri-mulgits, a goat-sucker, which useth to come 
flying on the goats, and suck them, and upon that their milk drietli 
up, and they grow blind.^ Ah, how many a seeing man hath been 
made blind, and how many hopeful thriving Christians have had all 
theu' springs of love, of life, of sweetness and goodness dried up in 
them, by the sleights, deceits, and insinuations of false teachers ! False 
prophets have their peithanology — their good words, and fair speeches, 
and subtle devices, whereby they blind many souls, and dry up all the 
spiritual milk and moisture that is in them, and therefore they are to 
be shunned and avoided. But, 

(8.) Eighthly, You must have no intimate, no special communion 
with such as are obstinate and refractory, and that will not submit to 
Christ's rules and laws : 2 Thes. iii. 14, ' And if any man obey not 
pur word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with 
tim, that he may be ashamed,' or, that he may turn into himself, as 
it is in the original.^ Such as are refractory must be noted with a 
brand of infamy ; such must be infamous in your eye, who look with 
an eye of contumacy upcm any command or institution of Christ. 
The Greek word, arjfMeLovade, signifies to note him so as to make a 
sign, as it were, of him ; or to mark him so as to put him to the 
blush, to put him to shame. The obstinate, the refractory person 
should be a marked person, you must set a cross upon him, that all 
may know him and shun him ; the assemblies of the saints are honour- 
able, and refractory Christians are to be shut out of them: Mat. xviii. 
15-17, ' Moreover, if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and 
tell him his fault between thee and him alone : if he shall hear thee, 
thou hast gained thy brother. But if he will not hear thee, [if he be 
refractory,] then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of 

1 Mat. xvi. 6, 11, 12; Gal. i. 8; Mat. vii. 15, 13 ; Deut. xiii. 1-3; Titus i. 10, 11. 

* Lib. de Animal. [Cf. Catullus, xxii. 10, and Pliny, x. 40, 56, Sec. 115.— G.] 

* The Greek word, Xva ivrpair^, is very significant, for it denotes such a perturbation 
of the mind, that he who is affected therewith, seeks up and down where he may hide 
himself for shame. 


two or three witnesses every word may be established ; and if he shall 
neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church : but if he neglect to 
hear the church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a pub- 
lican.' He that shall be refractory under private and public admoni- 
tion, is to be shut out from church communion; he that to small 
faults shall add contumacy, is to be cut off from the saints' society. 
We must turn our backs upon him that turns his back upon the 
church. As we would keep ourselves untainted, as we would preserve 
the church from being infected, as we would not have the name of 
God blasphemed, and as we would have the refractory Christian 
ashamed and humbled, we must neither have sacred nor civil society 
with him. 

(9.) A ninth sort of persons that Christians must have no intimate, 
no sacred, no special communion with, are fools: Prov. ix. 6, 'For- 
sake the foolish, and live ; and go in the way of understanding ;' chap, 
xiv. 7, ' Go from the presence of a foolish man, when thou perceivest 
not in him the lips of knowledge;' chap, xxiil 9, ' Speak not in the 
ears of a fool ; for he will despise the wisdom of thy words.' i There 
is no profit, no pleasure, no delight to be had in the society of fools. 
Fools are neither capable of doing good nor of receiving good ; and 
therefore what should good souls do among such? A fool hath neither 
an ear to hear, nor an eye to see^ nor a heart to understand, nor a 
memory to retain, nor a will to choose, nor affections to embrace, any 
thing that is good. And therefore their company is to be shunned and 
avoided. The society of fools is as dangerous as it is vexatious: Prov. 
xiii. 20, ' He that walketh with wise men shall be wise ; but a com- 
panion of fools shall be destroyed.' The Hebrew word, ^n"*, that is 
here used, signifies to be broken ; yea, to be broken as sometimes an 
army is broken by some fierce and sudden surprisal ; a companion of 
fools shall be broken in his credit, in his estate, in his name, in his 
reputation ; yea, in his very wits, for nothing contributes so much to 
make a man a fool as the company of fools. 

(10.) The tenth and last sort of persons that Christians must have 
no familiarity nor society with, are scortiers. Such as scorn the saints, 
and scorn religion, and scorn profession ; such who scorn every way of 
Christ, and every institution of Christ: Prov. ix. S, ' Reprove not a 
scorner, lest he hate thee.' Wise and gracious reproofs are pearls, that 
are not to be cast before scorners.2 Now certainly, if I may not re- 
prove scomers, then I may not keep company with scorners : Prov. 
xxii. 10, ' Cast out the scorner, and contention shall go out ; yea, 
strife and reproach shall cease.' The scorner must be cast out of your 
family and out of your company. Strife and contention, shame and 
reproach, are the scorner's attendants ; and therefore he that would be 
rid of them must cast out him. The Hebrew word, ti^lJ, here trans- 
lated * cast out,' signifies not simply to eject or east out ; but to cast 
out or drive out, as God did drive Adam out of paradise. Gen. iii. 24, 

^ Who would hang a jewel in a swine's ear, or sow precious seed among craggy rocks, 
or put sweet liquor into a musty vessel ? &c. 

^ Quintinus the libertine was a great scoffer and scorner of the saints ; he called 
the apostle Paul a broken vessel ; John a foolish youth ; Peter a denier of God ; and 
Matthew a usurer, &c. — Calvin. 




for the word is the same ; and this God did, as the Rabbins observe, 
with violence and displeasure. So must the scorner be cast out, or 
drove out. Look, as God did drive out the Amorite, and the Canaanite, 
and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite 
before his people, Exod. xxxiv. 11; so must the scorner be driven 
out of the society of the saints ; for the Hebrew word is the same in 
both places. Look, as Sarah would have Abraham to cast out the 
bond- woman and her son, Gen. xxi. 10 ; so must the scorner be cast 
out of the company of the saints ; the word is still the same. Look, 
as the sea casteth up mire and dirt, Isa.. Ivii. 20 ; so should Christians 
cast out scorners from among them ; the word being still the same. 
The scorner con8.trues everything to the worst ; he envies those that 
excel him ; he disdains those that are below him ; he is never con- 
tented, never satisfied, he is still a-quarrelling, still a-fretting, and 
still a-perplexing of himself and others ; and therefore you must cast 
him out with scoffing Ishmael,. or the house will be too hot to hold 
you. Cast out the firebrand, and the fire goes out ; cast out Jonah, 
and the storm shall cease ; cast out the bond-woman and her scornful 
son, and all will be quiet. David's blessed man is described by this, 
Pfi. i. 1^ that he ' sits not in the seat of the scornful.' Scorners are no 
companions for blessed men. Of all men the blessed man will never 
choose the scorner for his pew-fellow. God himself scorns the scorner : 
Prov. iii. 34,. ' Surely he scorneth the scorner,' &c. Of all men in the 
world God casts the greatest contempt and scorn upon scorners, and 
therefore why should we make such our bosom-associates ? And thus 
you see the several sorts of persons that God hath shut out from the 
communion of his people. Well, Christians, remember this, dead 
stones must not be laid in a living temple. No stones but hewn 
stones were ta be brought and laid in the building of Solomon's temple, 
which was a type of the church of Christ in gospel-days.^ Certainly 
such stones, such souls, as are not hewn by the word and Spirit, are 
not fit to be laid in Christ's building. In Josiah's days, when the pass- 
over was kept, there were porters at every gate of Jerusalem, that no 
unclean or uncircumcised ones might enter, 2 Chron. xxxv. And the 

* English Annotations' on Rev. xxi. 27, do say, that in the last church 
on earth, discipline in likelihood shall be so strictly executed that no 
profane person shall be found there, only elect persons, so far as men 
can judge.2 That vain persons are to be shut out from sacred com- 
munion with the people of God, is further evident by the judgment of 
many approved authors. As, 

Chrysostom saith that '- the table of the Lord is that whereon the 
carcase is laid, and that we must not sufier chattering jays to come 
thereunto ; for only high-flying eagles are to feed thereupon.' There- 
upon the same author protested ' that he had rather give his life to a 
murderer, than Christ's body to an unworthy receiver, and rather sufier 
his own blood to be poured out like water, than to tender Christ's 
blessed blood to a base liver.' And again, ' Church-officers,' saith he, 

* are to keep the sacrament pure, as a man would keep a pleasant spring 
clean whereat he useth to drink, not letting the feet of filthy beasts 

1 1 Kings V. 15-18 ; 2 Chron. ii., and ii. 2, 18; 1 Pet. ii. 5. 

* 2 vols, folio, 1657 J better known as the ' Assembly's Annotations.' — O. 


and swine to puddle it.' The same author further saith l that in the 
primitive times, whenever the sacrament was administered, a deacon 
stood up, and cried in the open assembly, ' Holy things to holy men, 
holy things to holy men,' thereby debarring all others that were un- 
holy, and raising the hearts of the holy. 

Justin Martyr, who was about the year after Christ 150 — he lived 
not above thirty years after St John — he, in his Apology to Antoninus 
the Emperor for Christians, writes thus : ' In our assemblies we admit 
none to the Lord's supper but such as being baptized continue in pro- 
fessing the true faith, and in leading such lives as Christ hath taught.' 
There were three things^ saith this author, that were required of them 
that were to be received to the sacrament : ' 1. A new birth; 2. Sound- 
ness in faith ; 3. A promise to live well.' 2 

Augustine well observes, ' That as many think the eating of an 
apple was but a small sin, so many think that the eating of the sacra- 
ment is but a small sin. But as many horrid sins were vtrapt up in 
that, so are there many wrapt up in this : 1. Here is pride ; else no 
man in his wickedness would presume to come to the Lord's table. 
2. Here is rebellion and treason against the crown and dignity 
of Christ ; their hands and lips adore him, as Judas his did, but their 
hearts and lives abhor him, Eom. ii. 22. 3. Here is theft and sacri- 
lege ; now if to take away the communion-cup be such a high offence, 
such horrid sacrilege^ what is it then to take the bread and wine, set 
apart and sanctified for a holy use by the Lord himself ? 1 Cor. xi. 
27, 29. 4. Here is murder, the worst murder, the greatest murder, 
the cruellest murder ; thou kOlest thyself, thy soul, and as much as in 
thee lies, God's dearest Son. Now certainly, in some respects, this 
sin is a greater sin than Adam's was : For, 1. Adam's eating was 
against a Creator, but thine is against a Kedeemer : now it is more to 
redeem a soul than to create a world. 2. His was against the word of 
the Lord ; thine against the blood of the Lord. 3. His struck at the 
covenant of works ; thine at the covenant of grace. 4. He ate but once ; 
but thou eatest often.' 

' Yea,' Aquinas saith,^ ' the majesty of church discipline should never 
suffer this, to let open and known offenders presume to come to the 
table of the Lord.' 

It was a worthy saying of Bilson, an approved author,^ ' Suppose any 
man,' saith he, ' be he a prince, if he will not submit himself to the pre- 
cepts of Christ, but wilfully maintain either heresy or open impurity, 
the ministers are to admonish him what danger from God is at the 
door ; and if he impenitently persist, they must not suffer him to com- 
municate either in divine prayer, or any holy mysteries among the 
people of God ; but wholly to be excluded the congregation.' Again, 

* Not only the lack of the word and sacraments,' saith the same author, 

* but the abuse of either, greatly hazards the weal of the whole church ; 
yea, casting* holy things to dogs, &c., procures a dreadful doom as well 

^ Chrysostom in Mat. horn. 6. Chrysostom in Mat. horn. 83. ChrvsoBtom in Epist. 
ad Heb. horn. 17. 

2 ' Apology,' IxxxT. Ixixviii.— G. » S. T., sub verbo ' diflciplina.'— G. 

* Bilson'a ' Christian Subject,' par. 3, pp. 63, 64, 74, and c. 52. 


to consenters as presumers, it being the way to turn the house of 
God into a den of thieves, if profane ones be allowed to defile the 
mysteries and assemblies of the faithful.' 

* 1/ said Calvin, ' will sooner die than this hand of mine shall give 
the things of God to the contemners of God.' i 

Mr Rutherford, that champion for presbyter)', in his ' Divine Right 
of Church Government,' page 520, saith ' that they are copartners 
with the wicked who dispense the bread to them who are knowingly 
dead in sins.' 2 I might multiply many others ; but let these suffice. 
For a close, let me only say. How the father can be guiltless of the 
death of his child, that giveth him poison to drink, with this caution, 
that he telleth him it is poison, I cannot see. Josephus reports of 
some that profanely searched the sepulchres of the saints, supposing to 
find some treasures there, but God made fire to rise out of the earth, 
that devoured them on a sudden.^ Now if God's wrath like fire 
breaks forth to consume such as wrong but the sepulchres of his saints, 
&c. , oh then with what flames of fury will God burn up such as abuse 
not only the sacrament of his Son, but his Son himself ! It was a 
very great wickedness in Julian to throw his blood in the face of 
Christ ; but for a wicked communicant to take Christ's own blood as 
it were running from his heart, and to throw it into the face of Christ, 
is most abominable and damnable. By all that hath been spoken, you 
clearly see that unholy persons are to be shut out of the special com- 
munion of saints here on earth ; and therefore certainly the Lord will 
never suffer such to have communion with him in heaven. It will 
not stand with the holiness and purity of God to have fellowship with 
such in the kingdom of glory, whom he would not have his people have 
fellowship with in the kingdom of grace. 

8. The eighth argument to prove that without real holiness there 
is no happiness ; that without holiness on earth no man shall ever 
come to a blessed vision or fruition of God in heaven, is this, The 
Scripture, that speaks no treason, styles unholy persons beasts, yea, the 
worst of beasts ; and what should such do in heaven ? ^ Unholy per- 
sons are the most dangerous, and the most unruly pieces in the world, 
and therefore are emblemized by lions, Ps. xxii. 21, and they are cruel ; 
by bears, and they are savage, Isa. xi. 7 ; by dragons, and they are 
hideous, Ezek. xxix. 3 ; by wolves, and they are ravenous, Ezek. xxii. 
27 ; by dogs, and they are snarling. Rev. xxii. 15 ; by vipers 
and scorpions, and they are stinging, Mat. xii. 34, Ezek. ii. 6 ; by 
spiders and cockatrices, and they are poisoning, Isa. lix. 5 ; by swine, 
and they are [still grunting, Mat. vii. 6. No man in this world is 
more like another than the epicure is like a swine ; the fraudulent 
person a fox ; the lustful person a goat ; the backbiter a barking cur ; 
the slanderer an asp ; the oppressor a wolf ; the persecutor a tiger ; 
the seducer a serpent. Certainly the Irish air will sooner brook toads 
and snakes and serpents to live therein, than heaven will brook such 

^ As before. — G. , 

* Samuel Rutherford, the saintly writer of the imperishable ' Letters. — Q. 

' Joseph. Antiq., lib. xii. 13, and lib. xvi. cap. 11. , • x * 

* Unholy persons are, throughout the Scriptures, branded, to their overlaatmg contempt, 
with the worst appellations. 


beasts as unholy souls are to live there. i Surely God, and Christ, 
and the Spirit, and angels, and ' the spirits of just men made perfect,' 
are not so in love with dogs and swine, &c., as to put them into their 
bosoms, or make them their companions. Heaven is a place of too 
great state to admit such vermin to inhabit there. When Cyneas,2 
the ambassador of Pyrrhus, after his return from Kome, was asked by 
his master what he thought of the city and state, he answered and 
said, that it seemed to him to be republica regum, a state of none 
but great statesmen, and a commonwealth of kings. Such is heaven ; 
it is no other state than a parhament of emperors, a commonwealth 
of kings. There is not a soul in heaven under the degree of a king, 
Kev. i. 6, and every king there hath a robe of honour upon his back, 
a golden sceptre in his hand, and a glorious crown upon his head. 
And do you think that it will stand with the state of heaven, or with 
the state of this commonwealth of kings, to admit such vermin as un- 
holy persons are, to be of that noble society ? Surely no. God hath 
long since resolved upon it, that no unclean beasts shall enter into 
heaven, that no dirty dogs shall ever trample upon that golden pave- 
ment. All in heaven are holy : the angels holy, the saints holy, the 
patriarchs holy, the prophets holy, the apostles holy, the martyrs holy, 
but the Lord himself above all is most glorious in holiness, and there- 
fore all those holy ones do, as it were in a divine anthem, sing and 
say, ' Holy, holy, holy. Lord God Almighty, heaven and earth are full 
of the majesty of thy glory,' Rev. iv. 8 ; Isa. vi. 3. Now certainly it 
would be a hell to these holy ones to have unholy wretches to be their 
companions.^ When the holy angels fell from their holiness, heaven 
w^as so holy that it spewed them out, as once Canaan did its unholy 
inhabitants, Lev. xviii. 28 ; and therefore certainly there wUl be no 
room in heaven for such filthy beasts as unholy persons are. Well, 
remember this, that all those stinging expressions and appellations 
which disgrace and vilify unholy persons, they were inspired by a holy 
Spirit, and penned by holy secretaries, and enrolled in his holy word, 
and pubHshed by his holy messengers, and all by his holy appoint- 
ment, who, as he is greater than the greatest, and wiser than the 
wisest, and better than the best, so he is too pure and too holy to eat 
the words that are gone out of his mouth, or to deny or unsay what 
he hath spoken, or not to maintain the truth thereof against all gain- 
sayers. It is prophesied that when the church shall be restored to 
her purity and glory, such beasts shall not be there, Isa. xxxv. 9 ; 
Ezek. xxviii. 24. The majesty of church discipline shall be such as 
shall keep out all such beasts. ' Jerusalem above ' is too glorious a 
habitation for beasts, or for men of beastly spirits, or beastly principles, 
or beastly practices. The city of the great God was never built for 
beasts. A wilderness and not a paradise is fittest for beasts. 

9. The ninth argument to prove the truth of the proposition is 
this, God would not have his holy ones in this world to be yoked in 

^ It was wont to be a trial whether land belonged to England or Ireland, by putting 
in toads or snakes, &c., into it ; if they lived there, it was concluded that the land be- 
longed to England ; if they died, to Ireland. 

* Rather Cineas (Ki^'^aj) : the embassage to Rome took place after the battle of Hep. 
aclea, b.c. 280. Plutarch, Pyrrh. xviii. ; Diod. Exc. Vatic, xxii. ; Livy, xxxiv. 4. Q. 

" There are no owla in Crete, nor no wild beasts in Lebanon. 


marriage with unholy ones ; and therefore certainly he will never 
suffer such to be yoked to himself to all eternity, i That God would 
not have his righteous people to be yoked in marriage with the 
unrighteous, is most evident by these scriptures : Deut. vii. 3, 6, 
' Neither shalt thou make marriages with them ; thy daughter thou 
shalt not give to his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son : 
for thou art a holy people unto the Lord thy God : the Lord thy God 
hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people 
that are upon the face of the earth:' Ezra ix. 12, ' Now therefore 
give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters 
unto your sons.' But did they keep this commandment of the Lord ? 
No, as you may see in the second verse of that chapter, ' For they 
have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons : so 
that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the people of those 
lands : yea, the hand of the princes and rulers have been chief in this 
trespass.' But how did this operate upon good Ezra? That you 
may see in the third verse, ^ And when I heard this thing, I rent my 
garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head, and of 
my beard, and sat down astonied.' Oh the sorrow, the grief, the per- 
plexity, the holy passion, the indignation, the amazement, the astonish- 
ment that this abomination begot in the heart of good Ezra ! The like 
effect this sin had upon the heart of good Nehemiah, as you may see 
in that remarkable text, Neh. xiii. 23-25, compared with chap. 
X. 29, 30. So in 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, ' Be ye not unequally yoked to- 
gether with unbelievers : for what fellowship hath righteousness with 
unrighteousness ? and what communion hath light with darkness ? 
and what concord hath Christ with Belial ? or what part hath he that 
believeth with an infidel ?' It is an evil thing, a dangerous thing, to 
be yoked to any who have neither skill nor will to bear the yoke of 
Christ. Under the law an ox and an ass might not be yoked or 
coupled together, Deut. xxii. 10 — and to this the apostle alludes as 
some judge — God would not have righteous souls to be yoked in mar- 
riage with those that are unrighteous ; a gracious soul were better be 
married to a quartan ague than to an ungracious wife. ' A virtuous 
wife is a crown to her husband,' Pro v. xii. 4; she is the life of life. 
If thou art a man of holiness, thou must look more for a portion of 
grace in a wife, than for a portion of gold with a wife ; thou must look 
more after righteousness than riches ; more after piety, than money ; 
more after what inheritance she hath in heaven, than what possessions 
she hath on earth ; more at what interest she hath in Christ, than at 
what interest she hath in creatm'es ; more at her being new-born, than 
at her being high-born ; more at her being good, than at all her worldly 
goods, 1 Cor. vii. 39. If money makes the match, and she be good 
enough that hath but goods enough, thou shalt be sure to have hell 
enough with such a wife. In thy choice to err but once is to be un- 
done for ever, at least as to the comforts and contentments of thy life ; 
once blest or curst must be for ever so : men have not leave to choose 

^ Exod. xxiii. 32 ; xxxiv. 12. If you would see the greatness and dangerousness of 
this sin, then read Ezra x. and 1 Kings xi., with Exod. xxxiv. 14-16 ; Judges iii. 6-8. 
When Dionysius the elder, tyrant of Syracuse, asked Aristides, a Locrian, his good- 
will to marry his daughter, I had rather see my daughter dead, said he, than married 
unto a tyrant.— Plutarch in the life of Timoleon. The application is easy. 


or change often. By what hath been said, it is most evident that God 
would not have the holy seed to mingle or marry with the unholy. 
And do you think that a holy God will mingle and marry with such 
in heaven, that he would not have his people to mingle or marry with 
on earth ? Surely no. Or do you think that that God, that would not 
in the law have an ox and an ass plough together, that he will be 
yoked to such wretches, may I say to such asses, whose ungodliness 
hath debased them below the very ox and ass ? Isa. i. 3. Surely no. 

10. The tenth and last argument to prove that without real holi- 
ness there is no happiness, &c., is this; tinholy persons are adjudged, 
doomed and sentenced to another place, viz., to hell: Ps. ix. 17, ' The 
wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.' 
In the Hebrew there are two ' intos ;' * into,' ' into' hell, that is, the 
wicked shall be turned into the nethermost hell, into the lowest and 
darkest dungeon of hell : ' They shall be turned into hell,' that is, they 
shall be certainly turned into hell ; they shall be vehemently, forcibly 
turned into hell : God will, as it were with both hands, thrust them 
into hell.i The wicked shall from hell to judgment, and from judg- 
ment they shall be turned with a witness into hell. The Photinians 2 
hold that there is no heU, and many now-a-days say there is no hell 
but what a man finds in his own conscience ; and multitudes with 
Caesar 3 do think that all that is spoken of hell is false and fabulous. 
They will not believe that there is a hell, till they come to feel them- 
selves in hell, till they find everlasting flames about their ears. They 
are sentenced to the fire, to everlasting fire, they are doomed to fire 
and brimstone: Mat. xxv. 41, ' Then shall he say unto them on the 
left hand. Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared 
for the devil and his angels.' This terrible sentence breathes out 
nothing but fire and brimstone, terror and horror, dread and woa 
The last words that ever Christ will speak in this world, will be the 
most tormenting, and amazing, the most killing and damning, the 
most stinging and wounding. ' Depart from me ;' there is rejection : 
pack, begone ! get you out of my sight ! let me never see your faces 
more ! It was a heavy doom that was passed upon Nebuchadnezzar, that 
he should be driven from the society of men, and in an extremity of a 
sottish melancholy spend his time amongst the beasts of the field, Dan. 
iv. 25 ; but that was nothing to this soul-killing word, ' Depart from 
me ;' it was nothing to men's being cast out of the presence of Christ 
for ever ; the remembrance of which made one to pray thus, ' Lord, 
deliver me at the great day from that soul-kiUing word, depart.'^ And 
what saith another, 

' This word " depart," the goats with horror hears. 
But this word " come," the sheep to joy appears.'* 

* Ye cursed :' there is malediction. But, Lord, if we must depart, 

^ Matt. xi. 23, and xxiii. 15, 33. The Hebrew word Sheol hath several significations ; 
sometimes it signifies the grave, sometimes it signifies extraordinary great anguishes 
and distresses ; and sometimes it signifies hell or the place of the damned, as here, and 
as in Job xi. 8, and Prov. xv. 11. 

* A sect that arose in the fourth century, founded by Photinus, bishop of Sirmium. Q. 

3 Sic: perhaps Caesar is named as along with Cicero discrediting the vulgar mytho- 
logy of the after-state.— Q. 

* Bernard in Psalm xcL » In margin the ' Sphinx' : Quarles ?— G. 



oh let us depart blessed ! No, * depart ye cursed ! ' You have cursed 
others, and now you shall be cursed yourselves ; you have delighted 
yourselves in cursing, and now you shall be cursed for ever.i You 
shall be cursed in your bodies and cursed in your souls ; you shall be 
cursed of God, and cursed of angels, and cursed of saints, and cursed 
of devils, and cursed of your companions, yea, you shall curse your 
very selves, your very souls. You loved not blessing, and therefore 
you shall have cursing enough : ' Depart from me, ye cursed : ' all your 
curses, all your maledictions shall at last recoil upon your own souls. 
Now thou cursest every man and thing that stands in the way of thy 
lusts, and that crosses thy designs : but at last all the curses of heaven 
and hell shall meet in their full power and force upon thee. 

But, Lord, if we must depart, and depart cursed, oh let us go into 
some good place ! No, ' depart ye into everlasting fire.' There is the 
vengeance and continuance of it. 2 You shall go into fire, into 
everlasting fire, that will neither consume itself, nor consume you. 
Eternity of extremity is the hell of hell. The fire in hell is like that 
stone in Arcadia, wluch being once kindled could never be quenched. 
If all the fires that ever were in the world were contracted into one 
fire, how terrible would it be ! yet such a fire would be but as a painted 
fire upon the wall, to the fire of hell. The greatest and the hottest 
fires that ever were on earth are but ice in comparison of the fire 
of hell. If it be so sad a spectacle to behold a malefactor's flesh con- 
sumed by piece-meals in a lingering fire ; ah ! how sad, how dreadful 
would it be to experience what it is to lie in unquenchable fire, not for 
a day, a month, or a year, or a hundred, or a thousand years, but for 
ever and ever ! ' If it were,' saith one^ ' but for a thousand years, I 
could bear it, but seeing it is for eternity, this amazeth and afirighteth 
me.* ' I am afraid of hell,' saith another, [Cyril,] ' because the worm 
there never dies, and the fire never goeth out : ' it is called ' unquench- 
able fire,' Mat. xviiL 8, and ' eternal fire ' in the Epistle of Jude, ver. 
7. The torments of the damned are very grievous for the bitterness 
of them, but more grievous for the diversity of them, but most of 
all grievous for the eternity of them. To lie in everlasting torments, 
Mat. XXV. 46, goes beyond all the bounds of desperation. To roar 
for ever for disquietness of heart, to rage for ever for madness of soul, 
to weep, and grieve, and gnash the teeth for ever for vexation of spirit, 
is a misery beyond all expression. ^ Suetonius reports of Tiberius 
Caesar, that, being petitioned by a certain offender to hasten his punish- 
ment, and to grant him a speedy despatch, he made him this answer, 
Nondum tecum in gratiam redii: Stay sir, you and I are not friends 
yet.^ So if after a damned soul hath been in hell a thousand years, 
he should petition the Lord for a speedy death, the Lord would 
answer after the same manner. Stay soul, you and I are not yet friends : 
if after thousands and millions of thousands of years, the request 
should be renewed, the answer would still be the same. Stay, you and 
I are not yet friends. Wronged justice can never be satisfied, and 

^ Cursings now are their hymns, but in hell they shall be their woes. Rev. xvi. 9, 11, 21. 
' Therefore they do but dream, who think and say that the devil and damned shall be 
delivered at last, Ps. xi. 6, Al8ted[iu8.] 
3 Dionys. in Apocalypa. xviii. fol. 301. * Lib. iii. cap. 6. 


therefore the sinner must be for ever tormented: the sinner in hell 
will sin for ever, and therefore he must be punished for ever. It will 
not stand with the unspotted justice and righteousness of Grod to cease 
punishing, where the sinner ceases not sinning. One tells us of some 
devout personages, who caused those words of the prophet, Isa. xxxiii, 
14, ' Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire ? who among 
us shall dwell with everlasting burnings ? ' ^ to be written in letters of 
gold upon their chimney-pieces. The fear of Nebuchadnezzar's fiery- 
furnace made men do anything to avoid it, Dan. iii. 8 ; and shall not 
the fear of eternal flames, of everlasting burnings, work men to bewail 
their sins, to hate all their bitter-sweets, and to lay hold on everlasting 
strength, that it may go well with them for ever ? I have read of 
a chaste virgin, who being strongly tempted and solicited by a lewd 
ruffian to uncleanness, after some discourse, she called for a pan 
of burning coals, requesting him for her sake to hold his finger in 
them but one hour ; he answered, it is an unkind and unreasonable 
request : it is truth, saith she, it is so ; but you ask me a more unkind 
and unreasonable request, viz., to satisfy you in a thing for which 
I shall not only burn an hour, but burn both body and soul in hell-fire 
for ever and ever ; and so overcame the temptation. 

But, Lord, if I must go into fire, into everlasting fire, oh let me 
have some good company in my misery ! No ! the devil and his 
angels shall be your companions. Ah ! who can conceive or express 
the misery of cohabitation with devils and damned spirits ! Many 
unholy souls would not live in a house haunted with evil spirits one 
night for all the world ; and yet they live as if it were nothing to 
b^ biUeted with helHsh fiends and furies for ever. If the sight of a 
seeming ghost for a moment be such a terror and torment to thee ; 
what wiU the horrible sight of devils, and the ghastly sight of the damned 
be ? If it was so great an affliction to Job to be a companion to owls, 
Job XXX. 29 ; what will it be to thee to be a companion to devils ? If 
it was so great a grief and woe to David to sojourn in Mesech, and 
to dwell in the tents of Kedar for a time, Ps. cxx. 5 ; what a woe 
will it be to unholy souls to dwell with devils and reprobates for ever ? 
Ah! how will Satan's deformity, antipathy, and cruelty amaze thee 
and torment thee ! How will the damneds' wringing of hands and 
gnashing of teeth abash thee and confound thee ! How will thine old 
companions' cursing of thee, the sight of thy near relations in misery 
with thee, and devils scornfully insulting over thee, and the never- 
dying worm feeding perpetually upon thee, be many hells of horror to 
thee ! Had an unholy soul as many worlds in his hand to give as 
there be stars in heaven, he would give them all for a licence 
always to sleep under those pains and torments that will admit of no 
intermission or mitigation.2 In Kev. xxi. 8 you have a catalogue of 
that damned crew, of that rout of reprobates which shall be your 
companions for ever : * But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the 
abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and 
idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth 

* Jo. Pet. Camois, B[iBhop] of Betty, in France, in his ' Draught of Eternity.' [Camus, 
Bp. of Belly, not Betty : his ' Draught,' was a Puritan favourite in English. — G.] 

* As the ancients feign of Endyiiiion, that he got leave of Jupiter always to sleep. 


with fire and brimstone : which is the second death.' These com- 
panions are the devil's lime-twigs ; they are his scorpions with which 
he will torment and whip poor souls for ever. Such companions will 
make many hells to meet in one ; they will be the top of the soul's 
torments. Thus I have done with those arguments that prove the 
point ; viz. , that without holiness there is no happiness, &c. 

III. I come now to the reasons of the point, Why is it that without 
holiness there is no happiness ; that without holiness on earth no man 
shall ever come to a blessed vision or fruition of God in heaven ? 
Among other reasons that might be rendered, you may please to take 
these : — 

Reason 1. First, Because God hath said it, who is truth and faithful- 
ness itself, and cannot lie. That he hath said it, witness the very text, 
and the proofs that are produced to make good the doctrine : and 
hath he said it, and shall it not come to pass ? Hath he spoken 
it, and will he not accomplish the word that is gone out of his mouth ? i 
' God is not a man that he should lie,' Num. xxiii. 19. ' Also the 
Strength of Israel will not lie,' 1 Sam. xv. 29. God will make good 
every word that is gone out of his mouth. Men sometimes eat their 
words as soon as they have spoken them ; they often say and unsay, 
but so will not the Holy One of Israel ; that first and supreme being, 
that gives being to all others, will certainly give being to all his pro- 
mises and threatenings. God himself shall sooner cease to be, than 
the word that is gone out of his mouth shall be frustrated. He that 
is the faithful witness hath said it, that ' without holiness no man 
shall see the Lord.' ' And verily, heaven and earth shall pass away 
before one jot or one tittle' (that is, before the least letter or particle of 
a letter) ' of God's blessed word shall pass unfulfilled,' Mat. v. 18. 
God's ' faithfulness is great,' Lam. iii. 23 ; 'It reaches unto the 
clouds,' Ps. xxxvi. 5 ; ' He will not suffer his faithfulness to fail,' 
Ps. Ixxxix. 33 ; ' His faithfulness endures through all generations,' 
Ps. cxix. 90. God will never suffer his faithfulness to be stained 
or blotted, and therefore he will undoubtedly make good the word that 
is gone out of his mouth. I had rather, said Plutarch, that men 
should say there was never any such person in the world as Plutarch, 
than that they should say Plutarch is unfaithful. A man were better 
say there is no God, than say that God is unfaithful. A noble spirit 
can better bear any charge, than that of being unfaitliful ; and so can 
a faithful God. 

Reason 2. Secondly, Because real holiness is that great principle 
that fits and capa^dtates soicls for communion tvith God, and for a 
blessed sight and fruition of God : Mat. v. 8, ' Blessed are the pure in 
heart, for they shall see God.' 2 Without a principle of purity, of 
sanctity, there is no vision of God in glory. If a man be never so poor, 
yet if his heart be pure, God will make a house of his heart, wherein 
his honour will delight to dwell ; let a man's outside be never so homely, 
yet if his inside be but cleanly, God will make it his own habitation. 

1 Isa. xlvi. n, and xlviii. 15 ; Jer. xxxii. 24 ; Isa. Iv. 11 ; Zech. i. 6 ; Dan. ix. 12 ; 
Ps. cxix. 138. 

2 The glory of glory consists in seeing of God, 1 Cor. xiii. 12 ; 1 John iii. 2, as the 
hell of hell lies in the soul's everlasting separation from God. 


God is for that man, and that man is for God, that carries about with 
him a pure heart. Heart-purity makes a man a darling of heaven. 
Many aflfect pure language, pure houses, pure habits, pure hands, pure 
air, pure meat, pure drink, pure gestures, &c., who yet for want of 
heart-purity shall never see the face of God in glory. Heart-purity 
speaks a man eternally happy. Holiness is that noble principle that 
fits a man for the happiest sight of God : it makes a man a meet com- 
panion for God both here and hereafter. Without this principle no 
man can have communion with God in this world, much less can he 
have communion with God in heaven, if this precious principle of 
holiness be not seated in his heart. It will not stand with the holi- 
ness of God, to have anything to do with those that have no principles 
of holiness in them. It is a principle of holiness that fits a man for 
the service of God, that fits a man for fellowship with God, that fits a 
man for walking with God, that fits a man for correspondency with 
God, and that fits a man for the delight of God, and that fits a man 
for an everlasting fruition of God. And therefore certainly without 
holiness there is no happiness ; without a principle of purity there can 
be no seeing of the face of God in glory. 

Keason 3. A third reason why without real holiness there is no hap- 
piness, &c., is this. Because heaven is a holy place, and therefore no 
unholy souls can enter there. It is called the ' high and holy place,' 
Isa. Ivii. 1.5 ; the inheritance of the saints in heaven is an inheritance 
that is incorruptible and undefiled, 1 Pet. i. 4. Holiness dwells in 
heaven, 2 Pet. iii. 13, as a man dwells in his house. Heaven is the 
house of God's holiness, and therefore certainly without holiness there 
is no entering into that house, Kev. xxi. 27. The Holy of Holies in 
the temple was a type of heaven.i And as none might enter into the 
Holy of Holies that were unholy, so none can enter into heaven, which 
is the true holy of holies, but those that are holy. Heaven was so 
holy, that it cast out the angels when they fell from their holiness. 
Paradise was a type of heaven, and no sooner did Adam lose his holi- 
ness, but he was shut out of paradise. Heaven is a city of holiness : 
and none can enter into that city but such as are holy. Rev. xxii. 
14. Heaven is so holy that it would groan to bear one unholy soul. 
Well, heaven is a holy place, and the inhabitants are all holy, and 
the work of heaven is holy ; and what then should unholy souls do 
there ? 

Eeason 4. A fourth reason why without real holiness there is no 
happiness, &c., is this. Because unholy persons have no hearts to go to 
heaven. Though now and then they may talk of heaven, and now and 
then lift up their eyes and hands to heaven, and now and then express 
a few cold wishes and lazy desires after heaven, it is no difficult thing 
to demonstrate that in good earnest they have no heart to go to heaven.^ 
For first, How often hath God set life and death, heaven and hell be- 
fore them, and they have chosen death rather than life, and hell rather 
than heaven ! 2. Do you think that that man hath any heart to 
heaven, that will not so much as part with a lust for heaven ? 3. 

^ Exod. xxvi. 34 ; Ps. Ixxviii. 69; Heb. ix. 8, and xii. 24. 

' Coelum est altera gehenna damnatorum, Heaven is aDOther hell to the damned said 
one, Isa. IxvL 3, 4. ' 



Will you say that that man hath a heart to go to heaven, that hath 
not so much as a hand to lay hold on the opportunities of grace that 
might bring him to heaven ? Luke xiii. 33, 34. 4. Will you say that 
that man hath a heart to go to heaven, that daily hardens his heart 
against him who is the way to heaven ? John xiv. 6 ; Isa. Ixiii. 10. 
5. WiU you say that that man hath a heart to go to heaven, who is 
still a-grieving, vexing, and quenching that Spirit of holiness, that can 
only fit,i frame, and form him for heaven ? 6. Will you say that that 
man hath a heart to go to heaven, that rarely spends a serious thought 
of heaven, and that lives in this world as if there were no heaven ? 7. 
Will you say that that man hath a heart to go to heaven, whose sinful 
courses speak him out to be one of those who have made a covenant 
with death, and an agreement with hell ? Isa. xxviii. 15, 18. 8. Do 
you think that that man hath a heart to go to heaven, that detests 
those most that are the best wooers for heaven ? 9. Do you think that 
that man hath any heart to go to heaven, who can take no pleasure nor 
delight in those that are travelling towards heaven ? Kom. iii. 8 ; 1 
Cor. iv. 9, 10. 10. Will you say that that man hath a heart to go to 
heaven, that will do nothing affectionately for heaven ; that will not 
hear for heaven, nor pray for heaven, nor trade for heaven, nor look 
for heaven, nor long for heaven, nor strive for heaven, nor wait for 
heaven ? 2 The heart commands aU, it carries all ; if the heart were 
bent for heaven, the head would contrive for heaven, the eye would 
look out for heaven, and the ear would hear for heaven, and the tongue 
would speak for heaven, and the foot would walk towards heaven, and 
the hand would do for heaven. By all which it is most evident that 
unholy persons are not cordially willing to go to heaven. It is most 
certain that unholy persons have no such great mind to go to heaven 
as some imagine. When Dives was in hell, his desire was not to be 
with Abraham in heaven, but that Lazarus might come and give him 
a little ease in hell : he preferred a little ease in hell before his being 
with Abraham in heaven, Luke xvi. 24, 27-29. Neither did he 
desire that his five brethren might go to heaven, but that they might 
be kept out of heU ; and that not out oi love to them, but out of love 
to himself, he knowing that their company would be no small increase 
of his own torments. Heaven would be a very hell to an unholy 
heart. If now the presence of God in his servants, and the presence 
of God in his ordinances, be such a hell to unholy souls, ah, what a 
hell would the presence of God in heaven be to unholy hearts ! It is 
true an unholy heart may desire heaven, as it is a place of freedom 
from troubles, afflictions, oppressions, vexations, &c., and as it is a 
place of peace, rest, ease, safety, &c., but this is the least and lowest 
part of heaven ; but to desire it as it is, a place of purity, of grace, of 
holiness, of enjoying of God, &c., is above the reach of an unholy heart. 
The company of heaven are all holy, the employments of heaven are 
all holy, and the enjoyments of heaven are all holy ; and therefore 
heaven cannot but be an undesirable thing to unholy hearts. An un- 
holy heart is no ways desirous nor ambitious of such a heaven as will 
rid him of his darling sins, as will make him conformable to a holy 
God, as will everlastingly divorce him from his old companions, and 
^ = That only can fit.— G. * No man ever went to heaven sleeping. 


link him for ever to those gracious souls that he hath scorned, despised, 
and persecuted in this world. Ergo, &c. 

Reason 5. Fifthly and lastly, Because loithout real holmess men are 
good for nothing, they are fit for nothing. Without holiness men are 
neither good for church nor state, they are neither fit to rule nor to 
be ruled ; to command, nor to be commanded ; to guide, nor to be 
guided, &c. Men void of holiness are in the Scripture resembled to 
chaff, to dust, to dirt, to briars and thorns, which are things that are 
good for nothing, that are fit for nothing.l And what should such 
men do in heaven, who are good for nothing on earth ? The horse is 
good to carry, the ox is good to draw, the sheep is good for cloth, the 
cow is good to give milk, the ass is good to bear, and the dog is good 
to keep the house ; but what is a man void of holiness good for ? An 
unholy person is good for nothing but to be destroyed, and to make 
some room for a better person to stand up in that place which he takes 
up in the world. As the hog in the Arabic fable tells us that a butcher, 
carrying three creatures upon his horse, a sheep, a goat, and a hog, the 
two former lay very quiet and still, but the hog kicked, and cried, and 
would never be quiet. Thereupon the butcher said, Why art thou so 
impatient when the other two are so quiet? The hog answered. 
Every one knows himself; the sheep knows that he is brought into the 
city for his wool's sake, and the goat knows that he is brought into 
the city for his milk's sake, and so they need not fear nor care ; but, 
alas, I know very well that I have neither wool nor milk, but that as 
soon as I am come into the city I must be kiUed, for that is all I am 
good for. An unholy soul is like a hog, good for nothing but to be 
killed. Mat. vii. 6. Certainly heaven-happiness is too great and too 
glorious a thing to be possessed by them that are good for nothing. 
We look upon such as are fit for nothing, to be worthy of banishment 
from the society of men. But oh, how much more worthy are they 
to be banished from the presence of the Lord, and the glory of his 
power, and to be shut out for ever from the society of angels and 
the spirits of just men made perfect, who are fit for nothing but to 
dishonour the Lord, undo their own souls, and to treasure up wrath 
against the day of wrath !^ 2 Thes. i. 8, 9 ; Heb. xii. 22, 23 ; Rom. 
ii. 5. And thus I have given you an account of the reasons of the 

IV. Use 1. We shall now come to make some improvement of 
this great truth to our own souls. Is it so, that real holiness is the 
only way to happiness, and that without holiness here, no man shall 
ever come to a blessed vision or fruition of God hereafter ? Then the 
first use shall be a use of conviction. This, then, may serve to con- 
vince the world of several things : As, 

1. First, That the number of those that shaU be eternally happy, 
the number of those that shall attain to a blessed vision and glorious 
fruition of God in heaven, are very few ; for there are but a few that 
reach to this holiness without which there is no happiness : Rev, iii. 4, 
* Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their 
garments ; and they shall walk with me in white : for they are worthy.' 
Among the many in Sardis there were but a few that had holy insides 

' ^ Ps. i. 4 ; Isa. xli. 2 ; Zeph. i. 17 ; Ezek. ii. 6 ; Isa. ii. 18, x. 6, 17, and Ivii. 27. 


and pure outsides.i Among the multitude that made a holy profes- 
sion, there were but few that walked answerable to their holy calling ; 
and therefore but a few that should walk with Christ in white. White 
in ancient times was the habit of nobles : to walk with Christ in white, 
is to partake with Christ in his glory. They, and only they, at last 
shall be clothed nobly, royally, gloriously, who maintain inward and 
outward purity. The holy seed is a ' little, little flock,' Luke xii. 32. 
Here are two diminutives in the G-reek, MiKpov ttoi/xviov, ' little, little 
flock ;' to shew the exceeding littleness of it. They were little in their 
own eyes, and little in their enemies' eyes, and little in regard of that 
world of wolves among whom they were preserved, as a spark of fire in 
the midst of the wide ocean. When the Syrians came up against 
Israel in the time of Ahab, it is said that ' the children of Israel pitched 
before them like two little flocks of kids, but the Sjnrians filled the 
country,' 1 Kings xx. 27. Holy souls are but like two little flocks of 
kids ; but the unholy fill the world. Grracious souls are like the three 
hundred men of Gideon ; but graceless souls are as the Midianites, 
that were like grasshoppers for multitude, Judges vii. 7, 12. ' Strait 
is the gate, and narrow is the way that leads unto life, and few there 
be that find it,' Mat. vii. 14. The way of holiness that leads to 
happiness, is a narrow way ; there is but just room enough for a holy 
God and a holy soul to walk together. ' And few there be that find 
it.' And no wonder ; for there are but few that minds it, that loves 
it, that likes it, or that inquires after it. ' The whole world lies in 
wickedness,' 1 John v. 19, and will die in their wickedness, John viii. 
21.2 Geographers say, that if all the known parts of the world were 
divided into one-and-thirty parts, there will be found but five parts 
that do so much as profess the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ : 
for at this day, nineteen parts of the world are possessed by unholy 
Turks and Jews, which do not, nor will not so much as acknowledge 
Jesus Christ to be the King and Head of his church ; and seven 
parts of the world is possessed this day merely by heathens, who worship 
stocks and stones. And of those five parts that are possessed by Chris- 
tians, how many are Papists, atheists, hypocrites, drunkards, swearers, 
liars, adulterers, idolaters, oppressors ! How many are proud, covetous, 
carnal, formal, lukewarm, indifferent, &c. ! Now, should all these sorts 
of sinners be separated, as they shall in the great day, from those that 
are gracious and holy, would it not quickly appear that the flock of 
Christ is a little, little flock ? Ah, how few among the great ones are 
found to be gracious ! How few among the rich are found to be rich 
in Christ, rich in grace, rich in good works 1 How few among those 
that are high-born, can you find that are new-born 1 1 Cor. i. 16; 
1 Tim. vi. 16, 17. It was the saying of one,3 that all the names of good 
emperors might be engraven in a little ring. And so saith Lipsius, 

^ A few names, that is, a few persons : Acts i. 15, who are all known to Christ by- 
name ; as he said to Moses, 'I know thee by name,' Exod. xxxiii. 12, 17. By these scrip- 
tures it is evident that few shall be saved, Jer. v. 1 ; Ezek. xxii. 30, and ix. 4, 6, 7 ; 
Micah i. 13-15; Luke xxiii. 28, seq.; Rom. ix. 21; Mat. xxii. 14; 1 Cor. i. 20. 

* Amongst the millions in Rome, there were but a few senators, and they too none of 
the best. 

^ In margin Flavus [rather Flavins] Vopiscus, one of the six 'Scriptores Historiaj 
Augustte.' — G. 



that the names of all good princes may easily be written in a small 
ring. "I I have read of godly Mr Buchanan, that was King James his 
tutor, who lying upon his dying bed, desired a nobleman then with 
him to teU the king that his old master, Buchanan, was going to a 
place where few kings come.^ Kings are as rare meat in heaven as 
venison is in poor men's kitchens, saith the Dutch proverb. And how 
few among the wise can you find that are wise for heaven, that are 
wise for their souls, that are wise for eternity ! And how few among 
the learned; can you find that have learned Christ, and learned their 
own hearts, and learned to deny themselves, and learned to save their 
own souls and others' ! By all which it is most evident that few are 
holy, and that few shall be happy. But, 

2. Secondly, and more particularly, Is it so that real holiness is the 
only way to happiness : and that without holiness here, no man shall 
ever come to a blessed vision or fruition of God hereafter ? Then 
this may serve to convince several sorts of persons of their woeful and 
miserable conditions. As, 

(1.) First, All profane persons, who give up themselves to wicked- 
ness, who wallow in all ungodliness, and delight themselves in all 
manner of filthiness, who commit wickedness with greediness ; who 
draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart-rope ; 
who weary themselves to commit iniquity ; who are so desperately set 
upon wickedness, that neither the rod of Grod, the lashes and checks 
of their own consciences, nor the flashes of hell upon their souls, can 
reduce them ; who are resolved that they will gratify their lusts, though 
they damn their souls ; and who will live wickedly, though they perish 
eternally : who by custom in sin have destroyed all conscience of 
sin, and contracted such desperate hardness upon their own hearts, as 
neither smiles nor frowns, promises nor threatenings, life nor death, 
heaven nor hell, ministry nor misery, miracle nor mercy, can possibly 
mollify them ; these are gi'own from naught, to be very naught ; from 
very naught, to be stark naught ; these souls are sadly left of God, and 
woefully blinded by Satan, and fully ripened for ruin.^ Now if without 
holiness no man shall see the Lord, what will become of all profane 
wretches, who are so far from being holy, that they fall short of com- 
mon honesty ? Certainly God will shut the gates of glory upon such 
workers of iniquity. Such profane Esaus shall never be blessed with 
a sight of God in glory, Mat. vii. 22. A wicked man is a sin-lover ; 
he is a sin-maker, he lives in sin upon choice ; the Hebrew word that 
is commonly used for a wicked man, ;^Kr"), properly signifies a laborious 
sinner, a practitioner in sin, Ps. xi. 5 ; 1 John iii. 8. Now such as 
these are, God will have nothing to do with : Job viii. 20, ' Behold 
God will not cast away a perfect man, neither will he help the evil- 
doers;' or rather as the Hebrew carries it, he will not take the ungodly 
by the hand : that is, he will not have any fellowship, any society, any 
familiarity with the ungodly. The holy God will not so much as take 
an unholy soul by the hand ; he will not in the least countenance him 
nor respect him; he will not welcome him nor entertain him, nor 

^ Lips, de Constantia, lib. ii. cap. 25. 

> George Buchanan, the Scholar and Historian. — G. 

' Job xxi. 14 ; 2 Pet. ii. 20-22 ; Isa. Ixvi. 3 ; Eph. iv. 19 Isa. v. 19 ; Jer. ix. 5. 


shew the least favour to him. Now certainly if God will not take the 
wicked by the hand, he will never take them into heaven, he will never 
take them into his bosom. God will have no commerce nor communion 
with those to whom he will not so much as lend a hand. God will 
wash his hands of them for ever, to whom he will not give a hand. 
Which made Augustine say, that he would not be a wicked man one 
half-hour for all the world, because he might die in that half-hour. 
God will wash his hands of every man that lives and dies a wicked 
man. Mat. xxv. 11, 12. The hearts and ways of wicked men are full 
of hells ; and therefore to fill heaven with such, would be to fill heaven 
with hells. 

(2.) Secondly, This truth may serve to convince those that are 
scoffers and mockers at holiness, of their woeful and miserable estate^ 
2 Pet. iii. 3 ; Jude 18. Holiness is so high and so noble a thing, 
that men should rather honour it than deride it — reverence it than 
reproach it ; they should rather set a crown of glory than a crown of 
thorns upon the head of it. Holiness is the glorious image of God 
fairly stamped upon the soul ; and to deride holiness is to deride God 
himself. God takes all the afi'ronts that are done to his image as done 
to himself ; and this scoffers shall know at last to their eternal woe. If 
it was such a heinous crime in Tiberius his days, as Suetonius reports it 
was, to carry the image of Augustus upon a ring or coin into any sordid 
place, ah, how heinous a crime is it then to cast dirt and filth, scom 
and reproach upon holiness, which is the image of the invisible God ! 
The despite and contempt that is done to the image or coin of a prince 
is done to the prince himself, and accordingly he will revenge it. In 
old Rome there were near as many statues as there were living people, 
and some were made of gold, some of silver, some of brass, some of 
ivory, and some of polished marble ; and there was an earli appointed 
whose office it was continually to walk up and down in the night, 
attended with many soldiers, to see that none did wrong the statues 
of those that were set up in the city, and if any such were found that 
had done wrong to any of the statues, they were put to death.^ Holi- 
ness is the statue of God, and such as shall dare to deface it and wrong 
it, God will destroy. The old world scofied and scorned at righteous- 
ness, and God sweeps them away with a flood. Ham mocked and 
scoffed at righteous Noah, and what did he get by it but a curse ? 
Ishmael scoffed at holy Isaac, and what did he get by his scoffing and 
mocking but ejection out of Abraham's family ? And what became 
of those two-and-forty young scoffers that scoffed and mocked at holy 
Elisha ? were they not cursed in the name of the Lord, and torn in 
pieces by two she-bears which were more fierce and cruel than others ? 
The Jews were given up to scoffing and mocking of the messengers 
of the Lord, till there was no remedy : till old and young were de- 
stroyed by the sword of the Chaldees ; till their temple and city were 
fired and sacked, and thirty of them sold for a penny, &c., and those 
that escaped the sword were captivated and enslaved. Sennacherib 
scoffed and mocked at the virgin daughter of Sion, but his scoffs 
issued in the destruction of his army by the hand of an angel, and in 

1 = ' Noble man,' or ' noble officer,' a frequent Shakesperian use.— G. 
* Lipsius de Mag. Rom. Imperii. 


his own by the hands of his two sons.^ Julian, the emperor, was a 
great mocker and scoffer at the Christians, but G-od struck him with 
an arrow from heaven, which made him cry out Vicisti, Galiloee, thou 
GaUlean, [meaning our Lord Jesus,] hast overcome me.^ Felix, for one 
malicious scoff, did nothing day and night but vomit blood, till his 
unhappy soul was separated from his wretched body. Lucian, for 
barking against religion as a dog, was by the just judgments of God 
devoured of dogs. History tells us of some scoffers that God hath 
stricken with madness, others with blindness, others with loathsome 
diseases, and some God hath stricken dead, and others he hath left to 
be their own executioners. Scoffing at holiness is a metropolitan sin,^ 
and therefore no wonder if God executes upon scoffers metropolitan 
judgments. Mockers and scoffers are the worst of sinners. Among 
the three sorts of sinners that David mentions, scorners have the chair, 
the chair of pestilence, as the Septuagint translateth it.* Scorners are 
the pests of mankind. The eye of the scorner is blinded ; the heart 
of the scorner is hardened ; the judgment of the scorner is perverted ; 
the will of the scorner is enthralled, and the conscience of the scorner 
is seared, and this makes the scorner fall mad upon scoffing at holy 
men and holy things. Look, as they are the worst of servants that 
will scoff and mock a child in the family, because he is his father's 
picture — though they take wages of his father, and live by his father 
— so they are the worst of sinners who scoff at holiness, which is the 
very picture of God, though they live by him and cannot live without 
him. Yet this world is full of such monsters, who count it a grace to 
disgrace holiness, and to lade holy ones with all the names of scorn 
and contempt that they can invent, or that Satan can help them to. 
These are your holy brethren, these are fanatics, these are your holy 
sect, these are your pure souls, these are your strict precisians, these 
are the saints forsooth, these are the brotherhood ! Erasmus saith 
that that proverb, ' A young saint, and an old devil,' was devised by 
the devil himself to scoff and mock men out of their holiness. It hath 
been the common portion of men most eminent in grace and holiness 
to be most scoffed and scorned in all ages. Job xvii. 2 ; Neh. iv. 1 ; 
Isa. xxviii. 22 ; Luke xviii. 32. Witness Noah, Isaac, and Elisha but 
now cited, and witness Job, chap. xxi. 3, ' Suffer me that I may speak, 
and after that I have spoken mock on ;' chap. xii. 4, ' I am as one 
mocked of his neighbour, who calleth upon God, and he answereth him: 
the just upright man is laughed to scorn.' So David, Ps. xxxv. 16, 
' With hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed upon me with their 
teeth ;'^ Ps. xliv. 14, ' Thou makest us a byword among the heathen ;' 
Ps. Ixxix. 4, 'We are become a reproach and derision to them who are 
round about us ;' Ps. cix. 25, ' I am become a reproach to them ; when 
they looked upon me they shaked their heads.' So Isaiah, chap. viii. 18, 
* Behold, I and the children that the Lord hath given me are for signs 
and for wonders in Israel.' So Jeremiah, chap. xx. 7, ' I am in derision 

^ Gen. ix. 22, 25, and xxi. 9, 15. The apostle interprets Ishmael's mocking to be 
persecution. Gal. iv. 27; 2 Kings ii. 23, 24; 2 Chron. xxx. 10, and xxxvi. 15, 21; 2 
Kings xix. 20, seq. 

* Theod. iii. 25, and cf. Amm. Marcellinus, xxv. 3. — G. 
» = * Capital'.— G. 

* Pb. 1. 1. In cathedra pestilentice, [The Greek is ivl KaOiSpq. Xoinw.— Q.'] 



daily, every one mocketh me.' So Paul, Acts xvii. 18, * What wiU 
this babbler say ?' So the apostles, Acts ii. 13, ' Others mocking, said, 
These men are full of new wine.' So those worthies of whom this 
Avorld was not worthy, Heb. xi, 36, 'Others had trial of cruel mockings.' 
But, above all, how sadly, how frequently, yea, how fearfully was our 
Lord Jesus Christ scoffed and scorned by Herod and Pilate, and 
flouted by the rascally soldiers ! but the vengeance of his Father over- 
took them all.i And in the primitive times, as Tertullian observes, 
the saints were called herds of asses, vile fellows, the disciples of a man 
crucified : Galileans, Nazarites, eaters of men's flesh, and drinkers of 
men's blood.2 The heathens, as the same author observes, painted the 
God of the Christians with an ass's head, and a book in his hand ; to 
signify that though the Christians pretended to knowledge, yet they 
were a company of silly ignorant asses. The libertines of old have 
cast much scorn and contempt upon all the apostles : they call Matthew 
a usurer, Peter an apostate, Luke a pelting^ physician, Paul a broken 
vessel, and John a foolish young man, &c., by way of scorn and con- 
tempt; Athanasius was called Sathanasius, and Cyprian w^as called 
Coprian, one that gathers up dung ; and so Luther, Calvin, and almost 
every one that hath attained to any eminency in holiness, they have 
been commonly accounted as the offscouring and refuse among the 
people, 1 Cor. iv. 13, 14; Lam. ii. 15, 16, and iv. 2. Now cer- 
tainly if holiness be the only way to happiness, &c., then such as 
are scorners and scoffers at holiness are out of the very way to happi- 
ness ; and how such are like to come to heaven, that scorn the very 
path that leads to heaven, I shall leave you to judge. If the ravens 
of the valley shall pick out his eyes that mocketh his father, and the 
young eagles eat out his eyes that despiseth the instruction of his 
mother, as Solomon speaks, then of how much sorer punishment are 
they guilty of, who mock and scoff at holiness, which is the very image, 
picture, and glory of God himself ! * Holiness is so near akin to God, 
that no man can deride holiness but he derides God himself. As he 
that ' mocks the poor, derides him that made him,' Prov. xvii. 5, so he 
that mocks holy ones derides that God that made them holy. And 
will God take this at the scorner's hands ? No, he will retaliate ; he 
loves to retaliate scorn upon the scorner : Prov. iii. 34, ' Surely he 
scorneth the scorners : God will pay home scorners in their own coin ; 
scorners shall be sure to have scorning enough. God so scorns the 
persons and prayers of scorners, that he will have nothing to do 
with them, Prov. i. 24-33 ; Ps. ii. 4 ; Isa. xxxvii. 36. The angels so 
scorn scorners, that instead of being a life-guard to them, they stand 
ready prest^ to execute the vengeance of heaven upon them. And 
saints are so far to scorn them, by a divine precept, as not to reprove 

1 Mat. xxvi. 68, and xxvii. 29, 31 ; Luke xxii. 63, and xxiii, 11 ; Mark xv. 31. Yea, 
the philosophers called Christ a magician, and affirmed that he did all by necromancy.— 
Calv. Just. Ad vers. Libert., c. 9. 

* ' Apology,' c. xvi., et alibi. — G. 

3 'Peddling,' = a pedlar; paltry, petty : another Shakesperian word: 'Measure for 
Measure,' ii. 2. — G. 

* Prov. XXX. 17. The first thing that eagles do when they have found a carcase, is to 
pick out its eyes, 

' ' Engaged.'— G. 


them : Prov, ix. 8, * Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee/ Yea, 
God in his just judgments will make scorners to be an abomination to 
all sorts of men : Prov. xxiv. 9, ' The scorner is an abomination to 
men ;' that is, to all sorts of men. The scorner is an abomination not 
only to holy men, but also to all ingenious ^ men, and to all civil and 
moral honest men. As the scorners tongue and hand is against every 
man, so every man's tongue and hand shall be against him. Now if 
the scorners of men be abominable to men, then much more are the 
scorners of holiness abominable to God, and therefore certainly such 
shall be shut out from a glorious fruition of God. 

3. Thirdly, If real holiness be the only way to happiness, and that 
if men be not holy on earth, they shall never come to a blessed vision 
or fruition of God in heaven ; then, by way of conviction, this looks 
sourly and sadly upon all formalists who Jmve only a form, a show, 
a profession of holiness, hut have nothing of the reality, spirit, life, or 
power of holiness in them : 2 Tim. iii. 5, ' Having a form of godliness, 
but denying the power thereof ; from such turn away.' They have, 
M6p(f)(i)aiv €ucrey3eta<f, a face, a vizard, a mask, a show of godliness, 
but they have nothing of the pith, sap, life, or marrow of godliness. 
Their devotion, their godliness, lies in good words, and in fair shows, 
and in religious gestures, Isa. Iviii. 1-3, and Zech. vii. 4-6. If you 
hearken to their voice, if you look upon their eyes, if you observe the 
motion of their hands, and the bowing of their knees, and the shaking 
of their heads, &c., you would think that they were men of much 
religion, of much godliness ; but if you look into their hearts and 
lives, you will find them to be the greatest renouncers and deniers of 
religion and godliness in the world. They have the semblance of 
godliness, but not the substance ; they have the lineaments of godli- 
ness, but not the life ; they have the face of godliness, but not the 
heart ; they have the form, the shadow of godliness, but not the power. 
They are like a well-drawn picture, which hath all the lineaments of 
a man, but wants life, wants a principle of motion and operation.^ 
Mark, 1. The form of godliness is common, but the power of godliness 
is rare. 2. The form of godliness is cheap, but the power of godliness 
is dear. 3. The form of godliness is easy, but the power of godliness 
is difficult. 4. The form of godliness is a credit, but the power of 
godliness is a reproach. 5. The form of godliness is pleasurable and 
delightful, but the power of godliness is displeasing and undelightful 
to the ignoble part of a Christian. 6. The form of godliness will 
stand with secret and with open wickedness — as you see in Saul, Jehu, 
Judas, Simon Magus, Demas, and the Scribes and Pharisees — but 
the power of godliness will not. The power of godliness lays the axe 
to the very root of all sin, both secret and open. Rachel was very fair 
and beautiful to the eye, but she was barren, and that marred all ; so 
the formalist, he is a very fair and beautiful Christian to the eye, 
but he is barren Godwards, and Christwards, and heavenwards ; he is 
fruitless, sapless, and lifeless, and that mars aU. The formalist takes 
up a form of godhness, 1. To quiet his conscience ; 2. To get himself 
a name ; 3. To cloak over his sins ; 4. To advance his worldly interest ; 

^ * IngenuouV. — G. 

' A form of godliness is England's epidemical disease. 


and, 5, To avoid opposition and persecution from the world, the flesh, 
and the devil ; 6. And to conform to old customs. And what should 
such formalists do in heaven ? A formal Christian is but a figure, a 
flauntji a flourish, a flash, and all he doth is but the shadow of what 
he should do. A formalist is more light than life, more notion than 
motion, more head than heart, more outside than inside, more leaves 
than fruit, more shadow than substance. A formalist is a blazing 
comet, a painted tomb, a stage-player, a white devil, or a devil in an 
angel's habit ; and what should such devils do in heaven ? Certainly 
if without real holiness no man shall see the Lord, then the formalist, 
that hath only the shape, the show, the form of godliness, but nothing 
of the reality and power of it, shall never be blessed with such a sight. 
A formalist is neither hot nor cold. Of all sorts of sinners he is the 
worst ; and God so loathes him, that he is resolved he will rid his 
stomach of him: Rev. iii. 16, 'I will spue thee out of my mouth;* 
and certainly heaven is too holy a place to lick up that gorge Grod hath 
cast up. Lukewarm water cannot be so loathsome to our stomachs 
as a formalist is to God's. God is never at such ease as when he hath 
cast up and cast out the formal Christian. I have read of Anastasius 
the emperor, how God shot him to death with a thunderbolt because 
of his lukewarmness and formality. 2 God hath a thunderbolt for 
every formalist, by which he will at last certainly strike them down 
to the lowest hell. A formalist is too loathsome a thing, too heavy 
a burden, for heaven to bear. 

4. Fourthly, If real holiness be the only way to happiness ; if men must 
be holy on earth, or else they shall never see the face of God in heaven ; 
then this truth, by way of conviction, looks sourly and sadly upon all 
those who please and satisfy themselves with civility and common 
honesty ; who are good negative Christians, who bless themselves that 
they are no swearers, nor drunkards, nor extortioners, nor adulterers, 
&c. ; they pay every man his own, they are just and righteous in their 
dealings ; no man can say black is their eye ; their carriage is civil, 
comely, harmless, and blameless.3 ' They make a fair show in the flesh,' 
Gal. vi. 12, or as the Greek hath it, they set a good face on it. But as 
good a face as they do set on it, I must crave leave to tell them that 
civility is not sanctity; civility rested in is but a beautiful abomination, 
a smooth way to hell and destruction. I may truly say of all civil men — 
who are destitute of that real holiness that leads to happiness — what 
Erasmus said of Seneca : If you look upon him as a heathen, then he 
seemeth to write as if he were a Christian ; but if you look upon him 
as a Christian, then he seemeth to write as a heathen. So if you look 
upon many civil, moral men's lives, you will find them so full of 
ingenuity,* equity, righteousness, sweetness, and justice, that you will 
be ready to say. Sure these are holy men. But then do but observe 
how unacquainted they are with God, with Christ, with the Scripture, 
with the way and working of the Spirit, with the filthiness of sin, with 
the depths and devices of Satan, with their own hearts, with the new 

1 ' Finery ' = display, another Shakesperian word : Winter'B Tale, iv. 3.— Q. 

' Magdeburg Cent. 5. 

3 Luke xviii. 10-14; Mat. v. 21, and xix. 20-22. 

* ' Ingenuousness.' — G. 


birth, and with the great concernments of eternity, and you will judge 
them to be mere heathens, to be men void of all principles of grace 
and holiness, and to be mere strangers to union and communion with 
Christ, and to the more secret and inward operations and workings of 
the Spirit of Christ, and to the most spiritual duties and services that 
are commanded by Christ. Civility is very often the nurse of impiety, 
the mother of flattery, and an enemy to real sanctity. A high conceit 
of civility keeps many a man from looking after inward and outward 
purity. Moral honesty proves to many men a bond of iniquity, i 
There are those who are so blinded with the fair shows of civility, 
that they can neither see the necessity nor beauty of sanctity ; there 
are those that now bless themselves in their common honesty, whom 
at last God will scorn and cast off for want of real holiness and purity, 
Mat. XXV. 3, 11, 12. Many of the heathens were so famous for justice 
and righteousness, for equity, fidelity, and sobriety, for civility and moral 
honesty, that it would put many professors to the blush to read what 
is written of them; and yet there was such a tincture of popular 
applause, of pride and vainglory, of hypocrisy and self-flattery, upon 
their civility and moral honesty, that, for anything we can find in 
Scripture to the contrary, there is cause to fear that they shall be 
miserable to all eternity : for all their civility and moral honesty, they 
were left in a damnable, I will not say in a damned, condition : he that 
rises to no higher pitch than civility and moral honesty shall never have 
communion with God in glory. 2 Naaman was a great man, but a leper, 
2 Kings V. 1 ; Naaman was an honourable man, but a leper ; Naaman 
was a mighty man, but a leper ; Naaman was a victorious man, but a 
leper ; Naaman was in high favour and esteem with his prince, but a 
leper. This hut he was a leper stained all his honour, and was a blot 
upon aU his greatness and glory, both at court and in the field, both in 
the city and in the country. So it is a stain, a blot upon the most moral 
honest man in the world, to say, he is a very civil honest man, but 
Christless ; he is a very just man, but graceless ; he is a man of much 
moral righteousness, but he hath not a drachm of real holiness, &c. 
This hut is a fly in the box of ointment, that spoils all. Well, sirs, 
remember this, though the moral honest man be good for many things, 
yet he is not good enough to go to heaven, he is not good enough to 
be made glorious. Mat. v. 20. Certainly there is nothing in all the 
world, below real sanctity, that will ever bring a man to the possession 
of glory. And though it may grieve us — to speak after the manner of 
men — to see sweet natures, to see many moral honest men, take many 
a weary step towards heaven, and to come near to heaven, and to bid 
fair for heaven, and yet after all to fall short of heaven ; yet it will be 
no way grievous to a holy God to turn such sweet natures into hell, 
Ps. ix. 17. Moral honesty is not sufficient to keep a man out of eternal 
misery ; all it can do is to help a man to one of the best rooms and 
easiest beds that hell afibrds. For, look, as the moral man's sins are 
not so great as others', so his punishments shall not be so great as 
others'. This is all the comfort that can be afforded to a moral 

^ Mat. V. 19, 20; Acts vii. 54, xiii. 50, and xvii. 17, 18; Eom. viii. 7. 
' As Aristides, so Socrates, Plato, Titus Vespasian, Tully, with multitudes of others, 
amongst the Lacedemonians, Grecians, Eomans, &c. 


man, that he shall have a cooler hell than others have : but this is 
but cold comfort. Moral honesty without piety is as a body with- 
out a soul ; and will ever God accept of such a stinking sacrifice ? 
Surely no. 

5. Fifthly, If real holiness be the only way to happiness ; if men 
must be holy on earth, or else they shall never come to a fruition of 
God in heaven ; then this truth, by way of conviction, looks sourly 
and sadly upon all neuters, who divide their hearts hetiveen God and 
mammon, Mat. vi, 19 ; who halt between God and Baal, 1 Kings 
xviii. 21 ; who divide their souls between heaven and earth, between 
religion and their lusts, Zeph. i. 5, like the Samaritans, who both 
worshipped the Lord, and the Assyrians' idols too, 2 Kings xvii. 32, 33, 
and xviii. 11. A neuter is a monster ; he hath two tongues, two 
minds, and two souls : he hath a tongue for God, and a tongue for the 
world too ; he looks up to God, and saith. Certainly thou art mine ; 
he looks down upon the world, and saith. Surely I am thine ; he hath 
a mind to be religious, and a mind to save his own stake in the world 
too.i He hath a soul reaching after the happiness of another world : 
' Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like 
his,' saith Balaam, Num. xxiii. 10 ; and he hath a soul strongly 
reaching after this evil world too, as if heaven and happiness were 
wrapt up in it. As you may see in the same person, ' he loved the 
wages of unrighteousness : ' he loved it as his portion, he loved it as his 
life, he loved it as his happiness, he loved it as his all ; he loved it as 
his soul, yea, he loved it above his own soul, for he damned his soul to 
gain it. 2 It is true, when he was under a divine restraint, he professed 
that he would not curse the people of God for a house full of gold ; but 
when he was from under that restraint, his heart was so set upon the un- 
righteous reward, that he would have cursed them for a handful of gold. 
The neuter, as the Komans paint Erasmus, hangs between heaven and 
earth ; he is neither fit to go to heaven, nor yet worthy to live on earth. 
If Meroz was to be certainly cursed, to be bitterly cursed, to be uni- 
versally cursed — as the Hebrew phrase, ' cursing curse ye Meroz,' 
imports, in Judges v. 23 — for standing neuter when they should have 
come forth to the help of the Lord ; do you think that neuters in 
religion shall be blessed ? Do you think that ever such shall go to 
heaven, who are indifferent whether they go to heaven or no ? or that 
ever such shall be happy, who are indifferent whether they be holy or 
no ? or that ever such shall see the face of Christ with joy, who are 
indifferent whether they have an interest in Christ or no? or that 
ever such shall be admitted into the kingdom of glory, who are in- 
different wherever 3 they have any entrance into the kingdom of grace 
or no? Certainly heaven is too holy to hold any such indifferent, 
irresolute, neutral souls. In the university, not long since, there were 
three doctors, heads of houses ; one of them was accounted an inno- 
vator ; the second a Puritan ; the third a neuter. A witty scholar 
presented them thus to the world : the first in a coach driving to Eome ; 

^ James i. 8. A double-souled man, Mat. xix. 16, 26. 

' Callenuceus tells us of a nobleman of Naples, that was wont profanely to say that 
he had two souls in his body, one for God, and another for whosoever would buy it. 
' Qu. ' whether ever ' ? — G. 


the second driving to Geneva; the third running on foot, begging 
sometimes the one, sometimes the other to receive him, but both 
refused him. Neuters shall be refused on all hands at last.i God 
will refuse them, because he loathes halting ; angels will refuse them, 
because they loathe halving ; good men will refuse them, because they 
loathe lukewarmness ; and bad men will refuse them, because they 
pretend to goodness, though they live in wickedness. Ambo-dexters 
in religion are ignominious disgracers both of the name and profession 
of Christians ; they are prodigious traitors to the crown of heaven ; 
they are the greatest enemies to the power of godliness ; they are the 
very offspring of Judas ; and in the day of account it will be found 
that it had been good for them that they had never been born. Neu- 
trality is the spiritual adultery of the heart. 2 Neuters are spiritual 
harlots ; they have their hearts divided between God and mammon, 
betwixt Christ and other lovers. Now harlots in ancient time were to 
be burnt. Gen. xxxviii. 24. Certainly heU is for the neuter, and the 
neuter for hell. God will be as severe, yea, more severe, in punishing, 
spiritual whoredom, than ever men have been in punishing corporal 
whoredom. God looks upon every neuter as a man in arms against 
him: Mat. xii. 30, 'He that is not with me, is against me;' and, 
therefore, martial law shall be executed upon them. God will blot 
out their names, and hang them up as monuments of his justice and 
vengeance. Sirs, do not deceive your own souls ; no man was ever 
yet carried to glory in the chariot of neutrality or mediocrity : he that 
is not throughout holy, is not really holy, and he that is not really 
holy, can never be truly happy : it is only throughout holiness that 
entitles a man to everlasting happiness, 1 Pet. i. 15 ; 2 Pet. iii. 11. 
The true mother would not have the child divided ; she would have 
all or none ; you must be for all holiness, or for none. Neuters now 
divide and cut those things asunder that God hath closely joined 
together ; but at last God will suit their punishment to their sin, and 
cut them asunder. Mat. xxiv. 51, and Luke xii. 46. Now the neuter 
chooses here a piece, and there a piece ; and at last God will cut him 
in pieces, as Samuel did Agag, 1 Sam. xv. 33. Well, neuters, now 
you divide one command from another, one duty from another, one 
promise from another, one threatening from another, one ordinance 
from another, and one way of God from another. But the day is 
a-coming wherein God will divide your souls from your bodies, and 
both from himself, his Son, his saints, and his glory for ever. 

6. Sixthly, If real holiness be the only way to happiness ; if men must 
be holy on earth, or they shall never come to a fruition of God in 
heaven; then this truth, by way of conviction, looks sourly and sadly 
upon all hypocrites, who have only a seeming holiness, a feigned holi- 
ness, a counterfeit holiness. The apostle speaks of a true holiness, 
Eph. iv. 24 — or holiness of truth, as the Greek reads it, 'Ev oalorijTL 
rri<i d\7]6eui<i — in opposition to that feigned and counterfeit holiness 
that is in the world. Pretended holiness is most opposite to the holi- 

^ Neuters are traitors; they betray Christ for the world's sake, and the world for 
Christ's sake ; and themselves for sin and Satan's sake. And who will not refuse and 
scorn traitors ? 

* Aut totum mecum tene, aut totum omitte. — Greg. Nazien. 


ness of God. Hypocritical holiness is the greatest unholiness ; and as 
God hath, so certainly God will still suit the punishment to the sin. 
If it was death in Moses his law, to counterfeit that ceremonial and 
figurative ointment, Exod. xxx. 32, 33 ; what shall it then be to coun- 
terfeit the spirit of life and holiness ?i Dissembled sanctity is double 
iniquity. He that professeth religion without being religious, and 
godliness without being godly; he that makes counterfeit holiness 
a cloak to impiety, and a midwife to iniquity; he that is a Cato 
without and a Nero within, a Jacob without and an Esau within, a 
David without and a Saul within, a Peter without and a Judas within, 
a saint without and a Satan within, an angel without and a devil within, 
is ripened for the worst of torments: Mat. xxiv. 51, ' And shall cut him 
asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites ; there shall 
be weeping and gnashing of teeth,' Hypocrites are the freeholders of 
hell ; all other sinners do but hold under them. None have so large 
a portion in hell as hypocrites have. No man at last will be found 
so miserable as he that hath the name of a saint upon him, but not 
the divine nature in him ; that hath a profession of holiness upon him, 
but no principles of holiness in him ; that hath a form of godliness, 
but not the power; that can cry up godliness, and court godliness, 
but in practice denies it ; that is a Jew outwardly, but an atheist, a 
pagan, a devil inwardly. Who had a greater name for holiness, and 
who made a greater show of holiness, and who did more despise 
and insult over men for the want of holiness, than the Scribes and 
Pharisees? And who so miserable now as they? Mat. xxiii. 14, 
' Woe unto you. Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye devour 
widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers ; therefore ye 
shall receive the greater damnation.' Pretended holiness will double- 
damn souls at last. 2 Sirs, do not deceive your own souls. A painted 
sword shall as soon defend a man, and a painted mint shall as soon 
enrich a man, and a painted fire shall as soon warm a man, and a 
painted friend shall as soon counsel a man, and a painted horse shall 
as soon carry a man, and a painted feast shall as soon satisfy a man, 
and «, painted house shall as soon shelter a man, as a painted holiness 
shall save a man. He that now thinks to put off God with a painted 
holiness, shall not fare so well at last as to be put off with a painted 
happiness. The lowest, the hottest, and the darkest habitation in 
hell will be his portion whose religion lies all in shows and shadows. 
Well, spiritual counterfeits, remember this, it will not be long before 
Christ will unmask you, before he will uncase you, before he will dis- 
robe you, before he will take off your vizards, your hoods, and turn 
your rotten insides outward, to your eternal shame and reproach before 
all the world. Counterfeit diamonds may sparkle and glister, and 
make a great show for a time, but their lustre will soon wear off. Nil 
fictum est dmturnum — Nothing counterfeit wiU last long. Maud, 
mother to King Henry the Second, being besieged in Winchester 
Castle, [anno 1141,] counterfeited herself to be dead, and so was 

' Who can with patience see apes in the habit of nobles ? saith Lucian. 

' Hypocritis nihil est crudelius, impatientius, et vindictoB cupidius. — LiUJier. There 
is not a more cruel creature, more impatient and yindictive, than a hypocrite, said he 
that had the experience of it in his own person. 


carried out in a coffin, whereby she escaped ; at another time, being 
besieged at Oxford in a cold winter, by wearing white apparel she 
got away in the snow undiscovered ; but at last vengeance did over- 
take her. So, though hypocrites may for a time seem to be dead to 
sin, and dead to the world, though they may clothe themselves with a 
snow-like purity, and with the white satin of seeming sanctity, yet 
God at last will unmask and unmuffle them, and vengeance will with 
a witness overtake them. Job xvii, 8, and xxxvi, 13 ; Isa. xxxiii. 14. 
Hypocrites are like blazing stars, which, so long as they are fed with 
vapours, shine as if they were fixed stars ; but let the vapours dry 
up, and presently they vanish and disappear. As the joy of the hypo- 
crite, so the goodness of the hypocrite is but for a moment ; it is as a 
morning cloud, and as the early dew. A hypocrite is a mere comet, a 
flaunt, a flash. Principles of holiness are lasting, but hypocrisy makes 
a man only constant in inconstancy, Job xx. 5 ; Hosea vi. 4. 

7. Seventhly, If real holiness be the only way to happiness ; if men 
must be holy on earth, or they shall never come to a fruition of God 
in heaven ; then this truth, by way of conviction, looks sourly and 
sadly upon such who please and bless themselves with common gifts 
and common grace, loith a gift of 'knowledge, a gift of faith, a gift of 
prayer, a gift of utterance, a gift of memory, dec, lohen they have 
Tvothing of real holiness in them. Like those in Mat. vii. 22, 23, who had 
great gifts, but were so far from real sanctity that they were workers 
of iniquity; they had a flood of gifts, but not a drop of grace ; they 
had many gifts, but not one saving grace ; they could work miracles, 
but that miracle of holiness being not wrought in them, Christ takes 
an everlasting farewell of them, ' Depart from me, ye workers of ini- 
quity.' So they in Heb. vi. had enlightened heads ; but where was 
their humbleness and holiness of heart ? They had silver tongues ; 
but where was their sanctified souls ? They had some smack, some 
tastes and relishes of heaven's glory ; but where was their inward and 
outward purity ? Notwithstanding all their extraordinary gifts of 
speaking with tongues, casting out of devils, and opening of prophe- 
cies, yet were they not renewed, regenerated, and sanctified by the 
Holy Ghost. ^ Their gifts might be of singular use to the enlighten- 
ing, quickening, edifying, comforting, and encouraging of others, and 
yet never have any influence upon their own hearts, to the changing, 
renewing, and sanctifying of tbem. Men of greatest gifts are not 
always men of greatest holiness. The Scribes and Pharisees, Judas, 
Demas, Tertullus, and Simon Magus, were men of great gifts, and 
yet they had no real holiness. They had the ninety-nine of gifts 
which Christ looks not after, but wanted the one, viz., real holiness, 
which vdth Christ is all in all. The devil hath greater gifts than any 
man on earth, and yet he is a devil still. Gifts without holiness wiU but 
make a man twice told the child of hell. Mat. xxiii. 15.^ The more of 
gifts here, the more, without holiness, of hell hereafter. The greatest 
scholars have often proved the greatest sinners, the stoutest opposers, 

1 As nurses' milk is of use to others, but of none to themselves. 

' Augustine trembled when he considered the extraordinary gifts and parts that were 
in his base child, to think what God meant in infusing so precious a soul, and in giving 
Buch rare gifts to such an impure creature. 


and the worst of persecutors. There are none so wicked as he that is 
wittily 1 wicked. The highest gifts many times prove but the fairest 
paths to the chambers of death. As the richer the ship is laden with 
bars of silver and gold the deeper it sinks, so the richer the soul is 
laden with silver parts and golden gifts, and yet not balanced with 
real holiness, the deeper it sinks under wrath and misery. And no 
wonder, for, 1. Gifts do but tickle the ear, they do not cleanse the 
heart. 2. They do but stir the affections, they do not kill corruptions. 

3. They are but ornaments to a man's profession, they have no saving 
influence upon a man's conversation. They tempt a man to take up 
with the world, but they never help a man to overcome the world. 

4. They make a man wise to deceive, and wise to delude both him- 
self and others. Kare accomplishments are many times turned into 
beautiful ornaments to adorn the devil and error withal, 5. The 
gifted man cares not who is most holy, so he may be most honoured ; 
who is highest in favour with God, so he may be highest in favour 
with men ; who is most serviceable, so he may be most acceptable ; 
who gets most of another world, so he may have most of this world : 
and what should such a one do in heaven ? Gifts differ as much 
from real holiness, as an angel in heaven differs from a devil in hell. 
6. Gifts makes a man work for life, but holiness makes a man work 
from life, Zech, vii. 5, 6. 7. Gifts work a man to set up for himself, 
and to deal and trade for himself, but holiness works a man to deal 
for God, and to trade for God and his glory, Kom. xiv. 6-8. 8. Gifts 
takes up in ingenuous civilities and outward formalities, but holiness 
takes up only in that Holy One, Hab. i. 12. 9. Gifts only restrains the 
soul, but grace renews and changes the soul. 10. Gifts puffs the soul, 
but holiness humbles the soul. 11. Gifts makes a man beautiful, like 
Kachel, but holiness makes a man fruitful, like Leah. 12. Gifts makes 
a man most studious and laborious about mending and reforming 
other men's hearts and lives, but holiness makes a man most studious 
and industrious in mending and reforming his own heart and life. ] 3. 
Gifts makes all glorious without, but holiness makes all glorious within. 
14. Gifts makes a good head, but holiness makes a good heart. 15. Gifts 
envies, lessens, darkens, obscures, and disparages with ' buts,' and ' ifs,' 
and ' ands,' the excellencies of others ; but holiness makes a man rejoice 
in every sun that outshines its own, John iv. 14. 16. Gifts are fading 
and withering, but holiness is an everlasting spring that can never be 
drawn dry, 1 John iii. 9. 17. Gifts draws from God, but holiness 
draws to God, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, 6. Though men of gifts may bid fair 
for heaven, yea, come so near as to hear the music of heaven, yet 
without holiness they shall never enter into heaven. When night 
comes, the father will only take in his own chUd into his house, and 
though another child which may be much like his own should attempt 
to come in, yet the father will keep him out, and wish him to repair 
to his own home ; so when the night of death comes, the Father of 
spirits will only take into the family of heaven his own child, viz., the 
chUd of holiness ; but now if the child of gifts, which is so like the child 
of holiness, should press hard upon God to come in, as that child of 
gifts, Baalam, did, ' Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my 

1 =' Wise,' and yet wicked. — Q. 


last end be like his,' Num. xxiii. 10, God wiU answer him, No I He 
will say to him, as he did to that child of gifts, Judas, Go to your 
own place, Acts i, 25 ; Mat. viii. 12. In the night of death and judg- 
ment, the children of the kingdom shall be cast out — the children of 
the kingdom, that is, of the church. Now the children of the king- 
dom are children of gifts, and yet there will come a day when these 
children shall be cast out. As Abraham put off the sons of the con- 
cubines with gifts, but entailed the inheritance upon Isaac, Gen. 
XXV. 6, &c. ; so God puts off many men now with gifts, but he entails 
the heavenly inheritance upon hohness : Ps. xxiv. 3, 4, ' Who shall 
ascend into the hill of the Lord ? and who shall stand in his holy place ? 
He that hath clean hands and a pure heart ; who hath not lifted up 
his soul to vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.' Heaven is for that man, 
and that man is for heaven, who hath clean hands and a pure heart, 
whose holy conversation is attended with heart purification. A pure 
heart is better than a golden head ; a heart full of holy affections is 
infinitely beyond a head full of curious notions. There is no jewel, 
there is no anointing to that of holiness. He that hath that hath 
an, and he that wants that hath nothing at all. But, 

8. Eighthly and lastly, If real holiness be the only way to happiness ; 
if men must be holy on earth, or they shall never come to a blessed 
fruition of God in heaven ; then, by way of conviction, let me say that 
this truth looks very sourly and angrily upon those who are so far 
from heing holy themselves, that they cannot endure holiness in those 
that are about them, or any ways related to them. Ah, how many un- 
holy people be there that cannot endure holiness in their ministers ! 
and how many imholy husbands are there that cannot endure holiness 
in their yokefellows ! and how many unholy parents are there that 
cannot endure holiness in their children ! and how many unholy mas- 
ters are there that cannot endure holiness in their servants ! The 
panther, say some, when she cannot come at the man, she rendeth and 
teareth his picture in pieces ; so many unholy husbands, unholy 
fathers, and unholy masters, when they cannot rend and tear the per- 
sons of their relations in pieces, ah, how do they do their best to rend 
and tear the image of God upon them, viz., holiness, in pieces ! These 
forlorn souls will not be holy themselves, nor suffer others to be holy 
neither ; they wiU neither go to heaven themselves, nor suffer others 
to go thither who are strongly biassed that way. Mat. xxiii. 14, 15 ; 
2 Sam. vi. 16, 20. Some despise their gracious relations, even eo 
nomine, for that very reason, because they are holy. Sometimes you 
shall hear them speak at such a rate as this : Well, our relations are 
wise and witty, but so holy ; they are very knowing and thriving, but 
so precise ; they have good parts and sweet natures, but they are so 
strict ; they are so round ^ that they will not endure an oath, a lie, &c., 
and therefore I cannot abide them, I cannot endure them. These are 
like he in Seneca, which was so fearfully idle that his sides would ache 
to see another work. So these are so fearfully wicked, that it makes 
their sides, their heads, their very hearts ache, to see others holy. 
How far these are in their actings below heathens, you may see in 
Kom. xvi. 10, 11. Aristobulus and Narcissus, that are spoken of in 
^ = 'Complete/ 'perfect'— G. 


this scripture, were both heathens, and yet they had in their famihes 
those that were in the Lord, those that were gracious, &c. Heathens 
were so ingenuous, that they would not despise that holiness in others 
that they wanted in themselves ; they were so noble, that they would 
give holiness house-room, though they knew not how to give it heart- 
room. So Potiphar, though he was a heathen, yet he gave holy 
Joseph both house-room and heart-room. Gen. xxxix. 1-4. These, 
and several other heathens of the like spirit with them, will one day 
rise in judgment against many in these days that are so far fallen out 
with holiness, as that they will not endure it under the roof of their 
houses, yea, as that they make it the greatest matter of scorn and 
derision. Like those in Lam. ii. 15, 16, ' All that pass by clap their 
hands at thee; they hiss and wag their head at the daughter of 
Jerusalem, saying, Is this the city that men call the perfection of 
beauty, the joy of the whole earth ? All thine enemies have opened 
their mouth against thee ; they hiss and gnash the teeth ; they say, 
We have swallowed her up,' &c. Ah, how many such monsters are 
there in these days, who express their derision, disdain, and contempt 
of holiness and holy persons, by all the scornful gestures, postures, and 
expressions imaginable; that clap their hands, that hiss, that wag 
their head, that gnash their teeth, and that say, Lo, these are your 
saints, these are your holy ones, your perfect ones, your beautiful ones ! 
It is very sad to want holiness, but it is saddest of all to deride holi- 
ness, to disdain holiness. Of this evil spirit Salvian complained in 
his time. What madness is this, saith he, amongst Christians, that 
if a man be good he is despised as if he were evil ! if he be evil, he is 
honoured as if he were good ! i And as great cause have we to com- 
plain of the prevalency of the same evil spirit in our times. If the 
wife be holy, how is she despised by her unholy husband as if she 
were wicked ! 1 Cor. vii. 16 ; if she be wicked, how is she honoured 
as if she were holy ! So if the child be gracious, how is he disdained 
as if he were graceless ! if he be graceless, how is he admired as if he 
were gracious ! So if a servant be godly, how is he scorned as if he 
were godless ! if he be godless, how is he applauded as if he were 
godly ! Certainly God will never endure such to stand in his sight, 
who cannot endure the sight of holiness, Ps. i. 5. Doubtless God 
will never give them any room in heaven, who will not so much as 
give holiness a little house-room, I say not heart-room, here. He that 
now despises and disdains holiness in others, shall at last be eternally 
despised and disdained for want of holiness himself 

Use 2. — The second use is a use of trial and examination. Is it so, 
that real holiness is the only way to happiness ? must men be holy on 
earth, or else they shall never come to a blessed vision or fruition of 
God in heaven ? Oh then, what cause hath every one to try and 
examine whether he hath this real holiness, without which there is no 
happiness, or no ! Now because this is a point of great importance, 
and a mistake here may undo a man for ever ; and considering the 
great averseness and backwardness of men's hearts to this noble and 
necessary work, I shall therefore in the first place propose some con- 
siderations to provoke all your hearts to fall in good earnest upon 

^ Salvian de Quber., lib. iy. 


this great point of trial and examination. Now to this purpose 

1. First, It is 'possible for you to know whether you have this real 
holiness or not ; it is possible for you by the light of the Spirit, by the 
light of the word, and by the light of your own consciences, to see 
whether holiness, which is the image of God, be stamped upon your 
souls or no.i Though it be impossible for thee to climb up to heaven 
to search the records of glory, to see whether thy name be written in 
the book of life, yet it is possible for thee to go down into the cham- 
bers of thine own soul, to enter into the withdrawing-rooms of thine 
own heart, and there to read what impressions of holiness are upon 
thee. Though this work be hard and difficult, yet it is noble and 
possible ; though the heart be deceitful and full of shifts, yet it is 
possible for a man to make such a curious, such a narrow, such a 
diligent, such a faithful, and such an impartial search into his own 
soul, as that he may certainly know whether he hath that real holi- 
ness that is the pledge of immortal happiness or no ; it is possible for 
him that hath this jewel, this holiness, to know it, to find it, and in 
the beautiful face of holiness to read his own everlasting happiness. 
I might call in the experiences of many precious saints — as Abraham, 
Noah, Jacob, David, Job, Paul, and others — to bear witness to this 
truth ; but I suppose it is needless. What great and weighty, what 
high and hard, what hazardous and dangerous things do many sol- 
diers, saUors, sick patients, and others, attempt and undertake, upon 
the mere account of a possibility ! It is possible that the soldier may 
win the field; it is possible that the mariner may make a happy 
voyage ; it is possible that the sick patient may recover ; it is possible 
that he that strives for mastery may overcome, &c. Now upon this 
very account, that it is possible, what will they stick at ? what will 
they not attempt and endeavour to effect ? And why then should not 
Christians, upon the account of a possibility, make a diligent search 
after that holiness that will at last throne the soul in everlasting hap- 
piness? Well, Christians, as a possibility of obtaining grace and 
mercy should bear up your hearts against despair ; as a possibility of 
obtaining a pardon should keep up your hearts in a seeking and a 
waiting way; and as a possibility of salvation by Christ should be 
argument sufficient to work a soul to venture itself upon Christ ; so a 
possibility of knowing whether you have this pearl of price, holiness, 
should work you to make a diligent search and inquiry after it. 2 Let 
no man do more upon the account of a possibility for this world, than 
you will do upon the account of a possibility for another world : let 
no man do more upon the account of a possibility for his body, than 
you will do upon the account of a possibility for your souls : let no 
man do more upon the account of a possibility for temporals, than you 
will do upon the account of a possibility for eternals. It is possible 
for you to know whether this babe of giace, holiness, be formed in your 
souls or no ; and therefore search and inquire after it. 
2. Secondly, Consider this, that it is a point of very great concem- 

^ See my Treatise of ' Assurance,' page 1 to 26, where you have this truth made fully 
evident. [In this edition, vol. ii. pp. 318, seq. — G.] 
» Mark x. 27, xiv. 36, and ix. 23 ; Luke xviii. 27. 


ment to you to knoio ivhetJier you liave this real holiness or no. Your 
souls lies upon it, eternity lies upon it, your all lies upon it, and an 
error here may make a man miserable for ever. It is good for thee to 
know the state of thy body, the state of thy family, the state of thy 
flock, but it is of infinite more consequence for thee to know the state 
of thine o^vn soul. Multi midta sciunt, se autem nemo — No man lives 
so miserable, nor no man dies so sadly, as he that lives and dies a 
stranger to his own soul. It is good for thee to set all reckonings even 
between thyseK and others, but it is far better to set all reckonings 
even between God and thine own soul. Ah, how many are there who 
are better known to others than they are to themselves I and who are 
able to give a better account of their lands and lordships, of their 
treasures and manors, yea, of their horses, hawks, and hounds, than 
they are of the state of their souls ! i Ah, how many are there that 
are very inquisitive to know things to come, to know what will be 
hereafter, to know whether they shall be great and rich in the world, 
Eccles. vii. 10, to know whether they shall be prosperous and suc- 
cessful in their undertakings, to know whether they shall be crowned 
with length of days, or whether they shall be cut off in the flower of 
their age ; to know the secret counsels of princes, and what will be the 
issue of such and such mutations and revolutions that have happened 
amongst us ; and yet are not at all inquisitive after the state of their 
souls, nor whether they have this real holiness, without which there is 
no happiness ! ^ They never inquire what will become of them here- 
after ; they never inquire what state they shall enter upon after death, 
whether upon a state of eternal woe or a state of everlasting bliss. Of 
all acquaintances in this world, there is none to that of a mans being 
acquainted with the state of his own soul. A mistake about my out- 
ward condition may trouble me, but a mistake about my spiritual con- 
dition may damn me. There are many ways to make up my mistakes 
about temporals, but there is no way to make up my mistakes about 
eternals. If at last I shall be found to be mistaken in the great con- 
cernments of my soul, I am undone for ever. Well, sirs, you are in a 
state of nature or in a state of grace ; you are in a state of darkness or 
in a state of light ; you are in a state of life or in a state of death ; 
you are in a state of love or in a state of wrath ; you are either goats 
or sheep, sons or slaves ; you are either in the broad way to destruc- 
tion or in the narrow way of salvation ; and therefore what can be of 
greater concernment in this world to you than to know in which of 
these two spiritual estates you are in ? How can you order aright 
your prayers, or your praises, or any religious services, till you come 
to know in which of these two spiritual estates you stand? — whether 
you be in a state of nature or in a state of grace, in a state of sin or in 
a state of holiness: for all religious duties must be ordered according to 
men's spnitual estates. If a man be in a state of nature, his work 
lies one way ; if he be in a state of holiness, his work lies another way ; 
by all which it is most evident that it very nearly concerns you to 
search and try whether you have this bird of paradise, holiness, in your 

^ Luke xii. 16-21, and xvi. 19, 26. , . , 

^ Job xxi. 23, 24 ; Isa. xli. 22, 23, and xliii.9, 10. The heathens did admire that say- 
ing as an oracle, Nosce te ipsum — Know thy own self. , . 


bosoms or no. And for a close, let me say, that a mistake about your 
spiritual estate will at last be found not only insufferable and inexcus- 
able, but very terrible and damnable. 

3. Thirdly, Consider that a cordial willingness to enter upon this 
loorh of trial, is a hopeful evidence of your real integrity and sanctity. 
Unsanctified souls hate the light ; they had rather go to hell in the 
dark, than come to be weighed in the balance of the sanctuary, John 
iii. 20. As pure gold fears neither fire nor furnace, neither test nor 
touchstone, neither one balance nor another, so a pure heart, a sancti- 
fied soul, dares venture itself upon trial, yea, upon the very trial of 
God. For he knows that God never brings a pair of scales to weigh 
his graces, but only a touchstone to try the truth of his graces ; he 
knows if his gold be true, though it be never so little, it will pass for 
current with God.^ As bankrupts care not for casting up their ac- 
counts, because they know aU is naught, very naught, stark naught 
with them ; so unsanctified souls they care not to come to the trial, to 
the test, because they know that all is naught, yea, worse than naught 
with them. They have no mind to cast up their spiritual estates, be- 
cause at the foot of the account they must be put to read their neck- 
verse, * Undone, undone, for ever undone.' 2 And, therefore, as old de- 
formed women cannot endure to look into the looking-glass, lest their 
wrinkles and deformity should be discovered ; so unsanctified souls can- 
not endure to look into the glass of the gospel, lest their deformities, 
impieties, and wickednesses should be discovered and detected. I have 
read of the elephant, how unwilling he is to go into the water, but 
when he is forced into it, he puddles it, lest by the clearness of the 
stream he should discern his own deformity ; so unholy persons are 
very unwilling to look into their own hearts, or into the clear streams 
of Scripture, lest their souls' deformity and ugliness should appear, to 
their own terror and amazement. And therefore, as you would have 
a hopeful evidence of your integrity and sanctity, fall upon this work 
of trial. For as it is a hopeful evidence that the client's cause is good, 
when he is ready and willing to enter upon a trial, and as it is a hope- 
ful sign that a man's gold is true gold, when he is willing to bring it 
to the touchstone, and that a man thrives, when he is willing to cast 
up his books ; so it is a hopeful evidence that a Christian hath real 
holiness, when he is ready and willmg to bring his holiness to the test, 
to try whether it be true or no — when he is willing to cast up his books, 
that he may see what he is worth for another world, Gal. vi. 4, 5. 

4. Fourthly, Consider that there are very many that deceive them- 
selves about their spiritual estates. It is the easiest thing in the world 
for a man to deceive himself, Job xv. 34, and Pro v. xxx. 12. There are 
those that do but think that they stand, (1 Cor. x. 12,) and these at 
last come to fall from their seeming standing into a real hell — yea, 
from their highest standing into the lowest hell. There are many that 
think themselves to be something, when they are nothing, Gal. vi. 3. 
There are many that have a form of godliness, but none of the power, 
2 Tim. iii. 8. There are many that have a name to live, but are 
dead, Rev. iii. 1. There are many that are very confident of their in- 
tegrity, and yet are full of horrible hypocrisy. There are many that 

* Job xxxi. 6, 6 } Pa. xxvi. 2 ; cxxxiz. 23, 24 j Mat. xii. 20. « Aa before.— G. 


carry the lamps of profession, that have no oil of grace in their hearts. 
There are many that take a good nature for grace, civility for sanctity, 
and a garb of godliness for real holiness — ^yea, there are those who 
dare say that they excel others in holiness, when, in truth, they ex- 
ceed most men in wickedness i — yea, there are many now in hell who 
have had a great confidence of going to heaven. There are many that 
cry out with Agag, ' Surely the bitterness of death is past,' wrath is 
past, and hell is past, and damnation is past, whenas vengeance is 
ready to fall on them, and hell stands gaping to devour them. The 
heart of man is full of self-love, full of self-flattery, and full of hy- 
pocrisy, and therefore many a man who is only a Jew outwardly, 
thinks himself to be a Jew inwardly, Eom. ii. 28, 29. Many a man 
thinks himself to be as good a Christian as the best, and to be as happy 
as the best, and to be as fair for heaven as the best, till he comes to 
hear that tormenting word, ' Depart, I know ye not.' As many are 
kept off from Christ by a conceit that they have him already, so many 
are kept off from holiness by a conceit that they have it already. And 
therefore it doth very much concern you to make a diligent inquiry 
whether you have that holiness without which there is no happiness, 
or no. I have read of Plato, that when he did walk in the streets, if 
he saw any disordered in speech, disguised in drink, or otherwise out 
of frame, he would say to himself, Num ego talis? — Am I such a one 
as this is ? Am I such a swearer as this is ? Am I such a drunkard 
as this is ? Am I such a wanton as this is ? Am I such a riotous 
person as this ? &c. So should every Christian say when he hears 
of any that doth but think that they stand, Num ego talis? — Am I such 
a one as this is ? When he sees one that thinks himseK something 
when he is nothing, he should say, Am I such a one as this is ? When 
he sees a man to have a form of godliness, but no power, he should say, 
Am I such a one as this is ? When he hears of a man that hath a 
name to live, but is spiritually dead, he should say, Am I such a one 
as this is ? &c. And when he hears or reads of one that is really holy, 
he should say, Am I such a one as this is ? As you would not put a 
cheat upon your own souls, it highly concerns you to try whether you 
have real holiness or no. Look, as many young children catch many 
a fall out of a strong conceit of their abilities to go, so many a man, 
out of a strong conceit that he hath holiness when he hath none, catches 
many a fall in an eternal fall at last. The best way to prevent an 
everlasting miscarriage, is to make a privy search after holiness in 
thine own heart. 

5. Fifthly, Consider that there is a great deal of counterfeit grace 
and holiness in the world. There is not more counterfeit coin this 
day in the world than there is counterfeit holiness in the world. 
Look, as many Bristows2 stones, and counterfeit gems, do so shine and 
sparkle like true jewels, that if a man be not very careful he may 
be easily cheated; so counterfeit grace, counterfeit holiness, doth so 
shine and sparkle, they do so nearly resemble real holiness, and the 
sanctifying and saving graces of the Spirit, that a man may be easily 
mistaken, if he do not make a narrow search. Doth the gracious soul 

1 Isa. ix. 17, xxix. 13; Jer. vii. 4, 8-11; Kev. iii 16-18; Iaa.lxy. 2-5; Mat xxv. 
'Query ' Bristol" ?—G. 


abstain from gross sins ? so doth the formahst too. Do saints fast 
and pray ? so do Pharisees too. Doth Peter shed tears ? so doth 
Esau too. Doth Peter repent ? so doth Judas too. Doth CorneHus 
give ahns ? so do the Pharisees too. Doth Zaccheus believe ? so doth 
Simon Magus too. Doth David confess his sin ? so doth Saul 
too. Doth David delight in approaching to God ? so doth 
Isaiah's hypocrites too. Doth Hezekiah humble himself? so doth 
Ahab and the king of Nineveh too. Doth a gracious soul hear the 
word with joy ? so did Herod too. Doth a gracious soul receive the 
word with joy ? so did the stony ground too. Doth a gracious soul 
delight in his teacher ? so did Ezekiel's worldlings too. Is a gracious 
soul in closet duties ? so is the Pharisee too, &c.i When counterfeit 
coin is abroad, you will not take a piece but you will try it ; you will 
bring every piece to the touchstone. Ah that you would deal so by 
your holiness ! There is a great deal of counterfeit holiness abroad, 
and therefore you had need bring yours to the trial. As all is not gold 
that glisters, so all is not holiness that men take for holiness, that men 
count for holiness. The child is not more like the father, nor one 
brother like another. Wine in the bottle is not more like to wine in 
the butt, nor water in the cistern more like to water in the river, nor 
fire in the forge more like to fire in the chimney, nor milk in the 
saucer to milk in the breasts, than counterfeit grace and hohness is like 
to that which is real. Counterfeit faith doth so nearly resemble true 
faith, and counterfeit love true love, and counterfeit repentance true 
repentance, and counterfeit obedience true obedience, and counterfeit 
knowledge true knowledge, and counterfeit holiness true holiness, that 
it is not an easy matter to discover the one from the other. The 
Cyprian diamond, saith Pliny, looks so like the true Indian diamond, 
that if a man do not look warily to it he may easily be deceived and 
cheated. sirs, true grace and counterfeit, true holiness and counter- 
feit, look so like one another, that, without a divine light to guide you, 
you may be easily cheated and deceived for ever. In these days of 
profession there is abundance of false ware put off. Satan is a subtle 
merchant ; and where profaneness will not pass for current coin, there 
he labours to furnish his customers with the shows and resemblances 
of grace and holiness, that so he may hold them the faster in golden 
fetters, and put them off from looking after that real holiness, without 
which no man can be blessed here, or happy hereafter. And there- 
fore it nearly concerns every man to search and try whether he hath 
real holiness or no. 

6. Sixthly, Consider, if upon trial you slmll find in you iliis real 
holiness that paves the ivay to happiness, it luill turn exceedingly to 
your accounts. Thy happiness depends upon the real being of holi^ 
ness in thee, but thy comfort depends upon thy seeing of hohness. 
Keal holiness will yield thee a heaven hereafter ; but the seeing of 
holiness will yield thee a heaven here. He that hath holiness and 

' Mat. XXV. 1-4; Ezra viii. ; Esther iv. ; Daniel ix. ; Mat. vi. 16; Luke xviii. 11; 
Mat. xxvii. ; Heb. xii. ; Mat. vi. ; Acts x. 1-4; Luke xix. 11 ; Acts xxi. 8 ; 1 Sam. xv. 
24; Isa. Iviii. ; 2 Chron. xxxii. 26 ; 1 Kings xxii. 15; Jonah iii. ; Mark vi. ; Ezek. 
xxxiii. 30-33 ; Luke xviii. 11. The diflference between these true and counterfeit graces 
18 largely discovered in my Treatise on ' Assurance.' [In Works, vol. ii., pp. 319, seq.— G.] 


knows it, shall have two heavens — a heaven of joy, comfort, peace, 
content, and assurance here, and a heaven of happiness and blessed- 
ness hereafter ; but he that hath holiness and doth not know it, shall 
certainly be saved, yet so as by fire ; he shall have a heaven at last, 
but he must pass to it by the flaming sword, 1 Cor. iii. 11, 16. When 
Ti person is heir to a great estate, and knows it, when a person is son to 
a king, and knows it, when a person is highly in favour, and knows it, 
when a person is out of all hazard and danger, and knows it, when a 
person's pardon is sealed, and he knows it, then the spring of joy and 
comfort rises in him ; so when a man is holy, and knows it, then the 
spring of divine joy and comfort rises in his soul, as the waters rise in 
Ezekiel's sanctuary, Ezek. xlvii. 2-5. The knowledge of the goodness 
and holiness of thy estate will make heavy afflictions light, long afflic- 
tions short, and bitter afflictions sweet, 2 Cor. iv. 16-18 ; 1 Cor. xv. 
58. The knowledge of the goodness and holiness of thy estate will 
make thee frequent, fervent, constant, and abundant in the work of 
the Lord. The knowledge of the goodness and holiness of thy estate 
will strengthen thy faith, raise thy hope, inflame thy love, increase 
thy patience, and brighten thy zeaL The knowledge of the goodness 
and holiness of thy estate will make every mercy sweet, every duty 
sweet, every ordinance sweet, and every providence sweet. The know- 
ledge of the goodness and holiness of thy estate will rid thee of all thy 
sinful fears and cares ; it will give thee ease under every burden, and 
it will make death more desirable than life, Phil. i. 22, 23 ; 2 Cor. v. 
1, 10. The knowledge of the goodness and holiness of thy estate will 
make thee more strong to resist temptation, more victorious over op- 
position, and more silent in every condition. The knowledge of the 
goodness and holiness of thy estate will turn every winter night into a 
summer's day, every cross into a crown, and every wilderness into a 
paradise. The knowledge of the goodness and holiness of thy estate 
will be a sword to defend thee, a staff" to support thee, a cordial to 
strengthen thee, a plaster to heal thee, and a star to lead thee. And 
oh, who then will not take some pains with his own heart to know the 
goodness and holiness of his own estate ? Well, remember this, next 
to a man's being holy, it is the greatest mercy in this world to know 
that he is holy. But if upon trial a man shall find that his estate is 
bad, and that his holiness is not of the right stamp, yet this will be 
many ways a mercy and an advantage to him. For the way to be 
found, is to see yourselves lost : the way to infinite merpy ;§ to see your 
own misery ; the way to Canaan is througvVthe wilc|erii6ss ; the way to 
heaven is by the gates of hell. Upon the kno\^ledge of the badness and 
sadness of thy estate, thou wilt be awakened out of thy security and thou 
wait be alarmed to loathe thyself, to judge thyself, to condi^n^n thyself, 
to be sick of sin, to break with Satan, and to cloMa with Christ. Now 
the daily language of thy soul will be, ' Men and brethren, what shall 
I do to be saved ? ' Acts il 37, 42, and xvi. 22, 35. Oh, what shall I do 
to get my sinful nature changed, my hard heart softened, my blind 
mind enlightened, my polluted conscience purged, and my poor naked 
soul with grace and holiness adorned ? Now the daily language of 
thy soul will be that of the martyr, ' Oh, none but Christ, none 
but Christ ! ' Oh, none but Christ to pardon me ; none but Christ 


to justify me ; none but Christ to command me ; none but Christ to 
save me ; and none but Christ to reign over me. Now the language 
of thy soul will be this, Oh, though I have formerly thought myself 
to be wise, yet now I see myself to be a fool ! Oh that Christ would 
be wisdom to me ! 1 Cor. i. 30, 31. Oh, now I see myself to be red 
with guilt, and black with filth ! Oh that Christ would be righteous- 
ness to me 1 Oh, now I see myself to be unclean, unclean ! Oh that 
Christ would be sanctification to me 1 Oh, now I see myself to be in 
a damnable condition ! Oh that Christ would be redemption to me ! 
Eev. iii. 16-18. Oh, now I see myself naked ! Oh that Christ would 
clothe me ! Now I see myself poor and miserable ! Oh that Christ 
would enrich me ! Now I feel myself to be hungry ! Oh that Christ 
would be bread of life to feed me ! Now I perceive myself to be lost ! 
Oh that Christ would seek me ! Now I fear that I am perishing ! 
Oh that Christ would save me 1 Now the language of your souls wiU 
be that of the lepers, ' If we stay here, we die,' 2 Kings vii. 3-6 ; if we 
stay in our unsanctified and unrenewed estate, we die ; if we stay in 
our sins, we die ; if we stay on our duties, we die ; if we stay on a 
conceited or counterfeit holiness, we die ; if we stay on a form of god- 
liness, we die ; if we stay on a name to live, we die ; if we stay where 
the world stays, we die ; if we stay in anything a-this side Christ and 
real holiness, we die, we eternally die ; and therefore, let us arise and 
make a venture of our souls upon Christ, and pursue after that holi- 
ness without which there is no happiness. But, 

7. Seventhly and lastly. Consider that there are many that are 
truly holy, that have real holiness in them, and yet for want of a nar- 
row search, a diligent inquiry into their spiritual estates, they come to 
he sorely and sadly afflicted with fears and doubts about their wants of 
holiness. As the treasures of this world often lie obscure and hid in 
the bowels of the earth, so the treasures of holiness often lie obscure 
and hid in many a gracious soul, for want of a privy search. As it is 
one mercy for me to believe, and another mercy for me to know that 
I do believe, 1 John v. 13 ; as it is one mercy for me to be beloved, 
and another mercy for me to know that I am beloved, Ps. iv. 6, and 
li. 1-3 ; as it is one mercy for me to be pardoned in the court of glory, 
and another mercy for me to know that I am pardoned in the court of 
conscience ; as it is one mercy for me to have my name written in the 
book of life, and another mercy for me to be told that my name is 
written in that book, Luke 'x. 20 ; so it is one mercy for me to have real 
holiness in me, and another mercy for me to see it and to know it. As 
we many times complain of the want of those things that we have in 
om* hands, so many dear Christians complain of the want of that holiness 
that they htive in their hearts. As the well, the spring of water, was 
near to Hagaj: though, she saw it not. Gen. xxi. 16-19 ; so the sprmg 
of holiness is near to many a Christian, yea, it is in many a Christian, 
and yet he sees it not, he knows it not. As Jacob once said, ' The 
Lord was in this place, and I knew it not,' Gen. xxviii. 16 ; so many 
a precious soul may say, I had real holiness in my heart, and I knew 
it not. As the face of Moses did shine, but he saw it not, he knew it 
not, though others did see it and take notice of it, Exod. xxxiv. 29-35 ; 
so holiness shines in many a Christian's heart and life, yet corruptions 


raise such a dust in his soul that he sees it not, he knows it not, though 
others can see it, tal^e notice of it, and bless and admire the Lord for 
it. As there be some that think they are rich, when they are not ; 
and that say they are rich, when they are not, Kev. iii. 16, 17 ; Prov. 
xiii. 7 ; so there be others that are rich, and yet they will not say it, 
nor beheve it ; so there be some that think they have holiness, when 
they have not, yea, that say they have holiness when they have not, 
Isa. Ixv. 3-6 ; Mark viii. 18 ; so there be others that have real 
holiness, and yet they dare not think so, they dare not say so ; yea, 
they are apt, in times of temptation, desertion, sore afflictions, and 
when they are under the sensible stirrings of strong corruptions, to 
conclude that they have no holiness, no grace, when indeed they 
have. Witness Job, chap. xiii. 24, and xix. 9 ; witness David, Ps. 
xxii. 1, 2; witness Asaph, Ps. Ixxvii. 2, 11; witness Heman, Ps. 
Ixxxviii. 1, 17; witness Jeremiah, Lam. iii. 18; witness the whole 
church, Isa. xlix. 15, 16 ; Ezek. xxxvii. 11, 12 ; and witness the dis- 
ciples, John xiv. 4, 5, 7-9, 20, compared. To know ourselves to 
be holy, is very desirable ; but woe were to many precious Christians 
if they might not be holy and yet not know it, if they might not have 
holiness in their hearts, when the appearance of holiness is hid from 
their eyes. Look, as sparks and coals of fire are often hid under the 
ashes, and we see them not ; and as in winter the sap and life is hid in 
the root of the tree, and we perceive it not ; and as precious flowers 
are hid in their seeds, and we discern them not ; so when it is winter 
with a Christian, his holiness may be so hid and covered under fears, 
doubts, sins, &c., that he may not be able to see it, to discern it, or 
conclude that he hath it. As the air is sometimes clear and some- 
times cloudy, and the sea sometimes ebbing and sometimes flowing ; 
so the holiness of the saints is sometimes so clouded, and at so low an 
ebbj that a Christian can hardly discern it, he can hardly say, Lo, here 
is my holiness ! The being of holiness in the soul is one thing, the see- 
ing of holiness in the soul is another thing ; the being of holiness is 
one thing, the feeling of holiness is another thing. A Cliristian may 
as safely conclude that there are no stars in the sky in a dark night, 
because he cannot see tliem ; and that there is no treasure in the 
mine, because he cannot discern it, nor come to the feeling of it, as he 
may conclude that he hath no holiness in his heart, because he cannot 
see it, he cannot feel it. As the treasures of this world, so the trea- 
sures of holiness oftentimes lie low : a man must dig deep before he 
can come at them, Prov. ii. 3-6. As the babe lives in the womb, 
but doth not know it ; and as the sun often shines into the house, 
and a man doth not see it: so the babe of grace may be formed 
in the soul, and yet a Christian not know it ; and the sun of holi- 
ness may shine in his soul, and yet he not see it. ^ Oh, therefore, 
how greatly doth it concern Christians to make a diligent, a narrow, 
and a serious search into their own hearts, whether they have this 
jewel of glory— holiness— in their souls or no ! And if these argu- 
ments will not provoke you to faU upon this work of trial, I know not 
what will. 

But methinks I hear some of you saying, sir, how shall we do to 
know whether we have this real holiness or no ? we see it is our very 


great concernment to know whether God hath sown this heavenly seed 
in our souls or no : but how shall we come to know this ? Now to 
this I answer, there are several ways whereby this may be dis- 
covered. As, 

1. First, A person of real holiness is much affected and taken tip in 
the admiration of the holhiess of God. Unholy persons may be some- 
what aiFected and taken with other of the excellencies of God ; but it 
is only holy souls that are affected and taken with the holiness of God : 
Exod. XV. 11, * Who is like unto thee, Lord, amongst the gods? 
Who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing won- 
ders?' In this stately description of God, holy Moses is most taken 
up in magnifying and admiring the holiness of God. Holiness is that 
glory of the Creator that holy ones most delight to glory in. So holy 
David : Ps. Ixxi. 22, ' Unto thee will I sing with the harp, O thou 
Holy One of Israel : ' so Isa. xii. 6, ' Cry out and shout, thou inhabi- 
tant of Zion : for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee:' 
so Ps. Ixxviii. 41, and Lxxxix. 19, &c, ; Isa. xliii. 3, and xlix. 7. 
The inhabitants of Zion must shout and hoUow out, (as the Hebrew 
word carries it,) in token of joy, because he that is great and in the 
midst of them is the Holy One of Israel. So Hab. i. 12, ' Art not 
thou from everlasting, Lord my God, my Holy One?' Among holy 
ones, none to the Holy One : yea, the more holy any are, the more 
deeply are they affected and taken with the holiness of God : as you 
may see in Isa. vi. 3, ' And one cried unto another' — or this cried 
to this — and said, ' Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts ; the whole 
earth is full of his glory.' The holy seraphims, by trebling the accla- 
mation of his holiness, ' Holy, holy, holy,' do denote not only the 
superlative eminency, glory, and excellency of God's holiness, but also 
they do discover how greatly, how abundantly they are affected and 
taken with the holiness of God. To the holy angels, the holiness of 
God is the sparkling diamond in the ring of glory. But now unholy 
persons are rather affected and taken with anything than with the 
holiness of God. The carnal-secure sinner is affected and taken with 
the patience, forbearance, and long-suffering of God : Oh, saith he, 
what a God of patience is this, that hath waited so many years for my 
repentance ! that he that might long since have damned me, waits 
still to save me ! that he who might long since have cast me into hell, 
is still willing that I should go to heaven ! The presumptuous sinner 
is much affected and taken with the mercy and goodness of God. Well, 
saith the presumptuous sinner, though I have sinned thus and thus, 
yet God hath been merciful to me ; and though I do sin daily thus 
and thus, yet God is still merciful to me ; and though I should still 
go on to sin sevenfold more, yet he would be merciful to me, Deut. 
xxix. 18-21 ; Eccles. viii. 11. He doth not delight in the death 
of a sinner, nor in the damnation of souls ; oh, what a merciful 
God is God ! The prosperous sinner, he is taken with the bounty and 
liberality of God. Oh, saith he, what a bountiful God, what a liberal 
God is this, who fills my barns, who fills my bags, who prospers me 
at home and abroad, who hath blest me with a healthful body, a fair 
estate, a saving wife, a full trade, laborious servants, and thriving 


children ! &c. But where is there a sinner in all the world that is 
affected and taken with the holiness of God ? Certainly there is no- 
thing that renders God so formidable and terrible to unholy persons 
as liis holiness doth: Isa. xxx. 11, ' Get you out of the way, turn 
aside out of the path, cause the Holy One of Israel to cease fi-om before 
us.' Oh that you would not preach so much, nor talk so much to us 
of the Holy One of Israel ! Oh that you would once cease from molestr 
ing and vexing us with message upon message from the Holy One 1 
Why cannot you as well talk and preach to us of the merciful one, the 
compassionate One, the affectionate One, the pitiful One, &c., as be still 
a-talking to us of the Holy One, the Holy One 1 Ok, we love not to hear it ! 
Oh, we cannot tell how to bear it ! Nothing strikes the sinner into such 
a damp as a discourse on the holiness of God; it is as the hand- 
writing upon the wall, Dan. v, 4-6 ; nothing makes the head and heart 
of a sinner to ache like a sermon upon the Holy One ; nothing galls and 
gripes, nothing stings and terrifies unsanctified ones, like a lively setting 
forth of the holiness of God, Hab. i. 13. But now to holy souls, there are 
no discourses that do more suit them and satisfy them, that doth more 
delight and content them, that doth more please and profit them, than 
those that do most fully and powerfully discover God to be glorious in 
holiness. Well, this is an everlasting truth ; he that truly affects 
the holiness of God, and affects God for his holiness, is certainly made 
partaker of his holiness. If you are really holy, you are much affected 
and taken with the holiness of God. Souls, what say you to this ? But, 
2. Secondly, True holiness is diffusive. Bonum est sui communica- 
tivum ; it doth extend, diffuse, and spread itself all over the soul ; it 
spreads itself over head and heart, lip and life, inside and outside : Ps. 
xlv. 13, ' The king's daughter is all glorious within, her clothing is of 
wrought gold.' Inward holiness is the inward glory of the king's daugh- 
ter. The king's daughter is ' all glorious within ;' her understanding is 
hanged with holiness, her mind is adorned with holiness, her will is 
bowed to holiness, and all her affections are sprinkled, yea, clothed with 
holiness. Her love is holy love, her grief is holy grief, her joy is holy 
joy, her sorrow is holy sorrow, her fear is holy fear, her care is holy care, 
her zeal is holy zeal ; and her clothing is of ' wrought gold ' — that is, her 
life and conversation, which is as visible to others as the clothes she 
wears, is very sparkling and shining in grace and holiness. True sancti- 
fication is throughout, it reaches to soul, body, and spirit, 1 Thes. v. 23. 
True holiness is a divine leaven, which leavens the whole man. Mat. xiii. 
33. Look, as leaven diffuses itself through the whole dough, so true 
holiness diffuses itself through the whole man. Look, as Absalom's 
beauty was spread all over him, even from the crown of his head to 
the sole of his foot, 2 Sam. xiv. 25, so the beauty of holiness spreads 
itself over every member of the body, and every faculty of the soul. 
Look, as Solomon's temple was glorious both within and without, 
so holiness makes all glorious both within and without. Look, as 
Adam's sin spread itself over the whole man, so that holiness that we 
have by the ' second Adam ' spreads itself over the whole man ; so 
that that man that is not all over holy, that is not throughout holy, that 
man was never truly holy, 1 John i. 16. Look, as that holmess which was 


in Christ did diffuse and spread itself over all Christ ; so that his person 
was holy, his natures were holy, his heart was holy, his language was 
holy, and his life was holy ; so real holiness spreads itself over head, 
hand, heart, lip, and life, 1 Pet. i. 15. The fruit of the Spirit is in all 
goodness, Eph. v. 9 ; he that is truly good, is all over good ; he hath 
goodness engraven upon his understanding, and goodness engraven 
upon his judgment, and goodness engraven upon his will, and goodness 
engraven upon his affections, and goodness engraven upon his inclina- 
tion, and goodness engraven upon his disposition, and goodness engraven 
upon his conversation. He that is not all over good is not really 
good. There are those that have new heads but old hearts, new 
words but old wills, new expressions but old affections, new memories 
but old minds, new notions but old conversations ; and these are as far 
off from true holiness, as the Pope, the Turk, and the devil are from 
real happiness. In every holy person there are many divine miracles : 
there is a dead man restored to life, a dumb man restored to speech, 
a blind man restored to sight, a deaf man restored to hearing, a lame 
man restored to walking, a man possessed with devils possessed with 
grace, a heart of stone turned into a heart of flesh, and a life of wicked- 
ness turned into a life of holiness. If it be thus with thee, I dare 
write thee, and caU thee both holy and happy. But, 

3. Thirdly, Persons of real hoHness do set the highest price and the 
greatest value and esteem upon those that are holy; they do not, as 
the blind world do, value persons by their great places, names, profes- 
sions, arts, parts, gifts, gay clothes, gold chains, honours, and riches, but 
by their holiness.^ As a holy God, so holy souls look not how rational 
men are, but how religious ; not how notional, but how experimental ; 
not how great, but how gracious ; not how high, but how holy ; and, 
acccordingly they value them : Ps. xvi. 3, ' But to the saints that are 
in the earth, and to the excellent, in whom is all my dehght.' Prov. 
xii, 26, ' The righteous is more excellent than his neighbour.' It is 
holiness that differences one man from another, and that exalts one 
man above another. A holy man is a better man than his neighbour, 
in the eye, account, and esteem of God, angels, and saints. There is 
no man to the holy man. The sun doth not more excel and outshine 
the stars, than a righteous man doth excel and outshine his unrighteous 
neighbour : Prov. xxviii. 6, ' Better is the poor that walketh in his 
uprightness, than he that is perverse in his ways, though he be rich.' 
A man of holiness prefers a holy Job, though upon the dunghill, before 
a wicked Ahab upon the throne ; he sets a higher price upon a holy 
Lazarus, though clothed with rags, and full of sores, than upon a rich 
and wretched Dives, who is clothed gloriously, and fares sumptuously 
every day ; as King Ingo valued poor, ragged Christians above his 
pagan nobles, saying, that when his pagan nobles, in all their pomp 
and glory, should be cast down to hell, those poor Christians should 
be his consorts and fellow-princes in heaven. This blind, mad world 
rates and values men according to their worldly interest, greatness, glory, 
and grandeur ; but men of holiness rate and value men by their holiness, 
by their inward excellencies, and by what they are worth for another 

^ Chrysostom called some holy men in his time iy^tKoi, earthy angels; and so Dr 
Taylor looked upon holy Bradford aa an angel. 


world. The world judgeth him the best man in the parish that is 
most rich ; but a holy man judgeth him the best man in the parish 
that is most righteous. The world counts him the best man in the 
town that is clothed most gorgeously ; but a holy man counts him 
the best man in the town whose inside and outside, whose heart 
and life, whose body and soul is clothed with sanctity and purity. 
The world reckons him the best man in the city whose bags are fullest, 
and whose estate is largest ; but a holy man reckons him the best 
man in the city whose heart is fullest of holiness, and who hath most to 
shew for a fair estate in the other world. Certainly, to a holy man, 
there is no wife to a holy wife, no child to a holy child, no friend to 
a holy friend, no magistrate to a holy magistrate, no mim'ster to a 
holy minister, nor no servant to a holy servant. Internal excellencies 
carries it with a holy man, before all external glories. The Jews say 
that those seventy souls that went with Jacob into Egypt were as 
much worth as all the seventy nations in the world. Doubtless 
seventy holy persons, in the esteem and judgment of those that are holy, 
are more worth than a whole world, yea, than seventy worlds, of un- 
righteous souls. ^ A soul, truly holy, sets the highest price upon those 
that are holy. Holy Paul prized holy Onesimus as his son, Philem. 
10, as himself, ver. 17, yea, as his own bowels, ver. 12; 2 Sam. 
xxii. 27, 'With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure,' or (as the 
Hebrew will bear it) ' with the choice thou wilt shew thyself choice.' 
Pure souls are the choicest souls in all the world : they are choice in 
every eye but their own. All worldly excellencies, in the judgment of 
a holy man, are but as copper, brass, tin, and lead ; but holiness is the 
tried silver, the gold of Ophir, the pearl of price, in his eye that hath 
purity in his heart. They only rate and value men aright, who rate 
and value them according to their holiness ; and if men were thus 
rated and valued, most men in the world would be found not worth 
the money that Judas sold his Master for. If thou prizest others for 
their holiness, thou art a holy person. No man can truly prize and 
highly value holiness in another, but he that hath holiness in his own 
heart. Some prize Christians for their wit, others prize them for their 
wealth ; some prize them for their birth and breeding, others prize them 
for their beauty and worldly glory ; some prize them for the great things 
that have been done by them, others prize them for the good things 
that they have received from them ; some prize them for their eagles' 
eyes, others prize them for their silver tongues ; but he that is truly 
holy prizes them for their holiness, he values them for their purity 
and sanctity. But, 

4. Fourthly, He that is truly holy will be still a-reaching and 
stretching himself out after higher degrees of holiness; yea, a man that 
is truly holy can never be holy enough ; he sets no bounds nor limits to 
his holiness ; the perfection of holiness is the mark that he hath in 
his eye ; he hears, and prays, and mourns, and studies, and strives 
that he may come up to the highest pitch of holiness.2 Phil. iii. 
12-14, * Not as though I had already attained, or were abeady per- 

1 Plato could say, that no gold or precious stones doth glister bo gloriously as the 
prudent spirit of a good man. 

=> Pb. Ixxxiv. 7, and cxix. 106 ; Col. i. 10; 2 Cor. vii. 1, seq. 


feet : but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I 
am apprehended of Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count not myself to 
have apprehended : but this one thing I do, forgetting those things 
which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are 
before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of 
God in Christ Jesus.' i Received measures of holiness will not satisfy 
a holy soul ; so much holiness as will keep hell and his soul asunder 
will not satisfy him ; nor so much holiness as will bring him to happi- 
ness will not satisfy him ; he will be still reaching and stretching out 
after the highest measures of holiness ; his desires are for more holi- 
ness, Ps. xxvii. 4. The beauties of holiness do so aifect him and 
inflame him, that he cannot but desire to be more and more holy. 
Lord, saith the soul, I desire to be more holy, that I may glorify thy 
name more, that I may honour my profession more, and that I may 
serve my generation more. Lord, I desire to be more holy, that I 
may sin less against thee, and that I may enjoy more of thee ; I would 
be more holy, that I may be more prevalent with thee, and that 1 may 
be more victorious over all things below thee. And as a man of holi- 
ness desires more holiness, so a man of holiness earnestly prays for 
more holiness, Ps. li. 2, 7. He prayeth that he may be filled with 
the fruits of righteousness, and that he may go on from faith to faith, 
and from strength to strength, Job xvii. 9, and Prov. iv. 18 ; he 
prayeth that his spark of holiness may be turned into a flame, his 
drop of holiness into a sea, and his mite of holiness into a rich 
treasury ; he prayeth that he may, like the eagle, fly higher and higher, 
and that his soul may be like the rising sun, that shines brighter and 
brighter till it be perfect day ; he prayeth that he may, like the giant 
refreshed, rejoice to run his course, and that holiness in his soul, like 
the waters in Ezekiel's sanctuary, may still be rising higher and 
higher. It was Beza's prayer, ' Lord, perfect what thou hast begun 
in me, that I may not suffer shipwreck when I am almost at heaven.' 
And as a man of holiness prayeth for more holiness, so a man of holi- 
ness believes for more holiness. Ps. li. 7: in your translations you 
read the words prayerwise, but in the Hebrew the words run in the 
future thus : ' Thou wOt purge me from sin with hyssop, and I shall 
be clean : thou wilt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.' In 
the sense of all his sinfulness and vileness, he believes that God will 
give out greater measures of purity and sanctity to him : ' Thou wilt 
purge me, and I shall be clean : thou wilt wash me, and I shall be 
whiter than snow.' So in Ps. Ixv. 3, ' Iniquities prevail against me : 
as for our transgressions, thou shalt purge them away.' Though for 
the present iniquity did prevail, yet he had faith enough to believe 
that God would purge him from his transgressions, and that he would 
mortify prevailing corruptions. And as a man of holiness believes for 
more holiness, so a man of holiness hopes for more holiness, 1 John 
iii. 2-4. In every ordinance he hopes for more holiness, and under 
every providence he hopes for more holiness, and under every muta- 
tion and change of his condition he hopes for more holiness, 2 Pet. 
iii. 14. When he is in prosperity, he hopes that God will make him 

^ A metaphor from runners in a race, who strain and stretch out themselves to the 
utmost, that they may take hold on the mark or prize that is set before them. 


more zealous, thankful, cheerful, fruitful, and useful ; and when he 
is in adversity, he hopes that God will inflame his love, and raise his 
faith, and increase his patience, and strengthen his submission, and 
quiet his heart in a gracious resignation of himself to God. I dare 
boldly say that that man was never truly holy, who endeavours not to 
get up to the highest pitches of holiness. Ille non est bonus, qui non 
vult esse melior. True holiness knows no restrictions nor limitation. 
But now counterfeit holiness is either like Hezekiah's sun, which went 
backward ; or like Joshua's sun, which stood still ; or hke Ephraim's 
morning cloud, which soon passed away. No round but the highest 
round in Jacob's ladder will satisfy a holy soul. True holiness makes 
a man divinely covetous. Look, as the victorious man can never 
make conquests enough, nor the ambitious man can never have honour 
enough, nor the voluptuous man pleasure enough, nor the worldUng 
mammon enough, nor the wanton vain embraces enough, no more can 
a man of holiness have ever holiness enough in this world. As the 
grave and the barren womb are never satisfied, they never say it is 
enough. Pro v. xxx. i5, 16; so a holy man, whilst he is a-this side 
eternity, he is never satisfied, he can never say that he hath holiness 

5. Fifthly, Where there is real holiness, there is a holy hatred, de- 
testation, and indignation against all ungodliness and wickedness, and 
that upon holy accounts : ^ Ps. cxix. 101, ' I have refrained my feet 
from every evil way.' But why ? ' That I may keep thy word ; ' 
ver. 104, ' Through thy precepts I get understanding : therefore I 
hate every false way.' The good that he got by divine precepts 
stirred up his hatred against every false way : ver. 128, ' Therefore I 
esteem all thy precepts concerning all things to be right ; and I hate 
every false way.' His high esteem of every precept raised up in him 
a holy indignation against every evil way. A holy man knows that 
all sin strikes at the hoKness of God, the glory of God, the nature of 
God, the being of God, and the law of God ; and therefore his heart 
rises against all ; he looks upon every sin, as the Scribes and Pharisees 
that accused Christ ; and as that Judas that betrayed Christ ; and 
that Pilate that condemned Christ ; and those soldiers that scourged 
Christ ; and as those spears that pierced Christ ; and therefore his 
heart cries out for justice upon all. He looks upon every sin as having 
a hand in the death of his Saviour, and therefore he cries out, Crucify 
them all, crucify them aU ; he looks upon every sin as a grieving of the 
Spirit, as a vexing of the Spirit, and as a quenching of the Spirit ; and 
so nothing will satisfy him but the ruin of them all. 2 He looks upon 
every sin as a dishonour to God, as an enemy to Christ, as a wound to 
the Spirit, as a reproach to the gospel, and as a moth to his holiness ; 
and therefore his heart and his hand is against every sin. But now, 
if you will but look into the Scriptures, you shall find that all those that 
have been but pretenders to holiness, their hearts have been always 
engaged to some one way of wickedness or another, Isa. Iviii. 1, 9 ; 
Zech. vii. 4-7. Jehu was very zealous against idolaters ; but yet 
his heart was engaged to his golden calves. Herod hears John Baptist 

^ True hatred is irpJs to. yevri, against the whole kind. [As before. — 0.] 
= Eph. iv. 30 ; Isa. Ixiii. 10 ; 1 Thes. v. 19. 


gladly, and reforms -many things, Mark vi. &c. ; but yet his Herodias 
must still lie in his bosom. Judas was as forward in religious services 
as any others, but yet money did bear the mastery with him, John 
xii. 6. The Pharisees made long prayers, that they might the better 
make a prey upon widows' houses. Mat. xxiii. 19, and xxvi. 23. 
The young man offered fair for heaven, but yet his possessions had so 
possessed and locked up his heart, that Christ could get no entrance. 
Though Simon Magus believed, and was baptized, and wondered at 
the miracles and signs which were done by Philip ; yet for all these 
shows of godliness, he was a prisoner to his lusts ; his condition was 
dangerous, poisonous, and odious ; he was in the gall of bitterness and 
bond of iniquity, Acts viii. 13-23. So those in Mat. vii. 21-23, 
though they complimented with Christ, saying, ' Lord, Lord;' though 
they prophesied in Christ's name, and cast out devils in Christ's name; 
yea, though they did not a few, jjut many wonderM works in Clirist's 
name ; yet all this while they were workers of iniquity, they were 
artists in sin ; they were so addicted to sin, that they made a trade of 
sin.i Look, as every lion hath his den, every dog his kennel, every 
sow her sty, and every crow her nest ; so every unholy person hath 
one sin or another, to which his heart is engaged and married ; and 
that sin will undo him for ever. As Lysimachus lost his earthly king- 
dom by drinking one draught of water, 2 so many lose a heavenly 
kingdom by indulging some one sin or other. One flaw spoils the 
diamond, one treason makes a traitor, one turn brings a man quite 
out of the way, one leak sinks the ship, one wound strikes Goliath 
dead, one Delilah betrays Samson, one broken wheel spoils the whole 
clock, and one fly spoils the whole box of ointment. And as one 
bastard destroyed Gideon's seventy sons. Judges viii., so one pre- 
dominant sin is enough to destroy the soul for ever. As by taking 
one nap Samson lost his strength, and by eating one apple Adam 
lost paradise ; so many men, by favouring one sin, lose God, heaven, 
and their souls for ever. He that favours any sin, though he frowns 
upon many, doth but as Benhadad, recover of one disease and die of 
another ; yea, he takes pains to go to hell. Sin favoured ever ends 
tragically. And as no unholy heart rises against all sin, so no unholy 
heart disdains sin or rises against sin upon noble accounts, upon holy 
and heavenly accounts. Sometimes you shall have an unholy person 
angry with sin, and falling out with sin, because it hath cracked his 
credit, or clouded his honour, or hindered his profit, or embittered his 
pleasure, or enraged his conscience, or exposed him to shame here and 
hell hereafter : but never because a righteous law is transgressed, a 
holy God is dishonoured, a loving Saviour is afresh crucified, or the 
blessed Spirit grieved. It is between a holy and an unholy soul, as it is 
between two children ; one will not touch the coal because it will smut 
him, and the other will not touch it because it will burn him. A holy 
heart rises against sin because of its defiling nature ; but an unholy 
heart rises against sin because of its burning and damning nature. 
A holy man is most affected and afflicted with the evil that is in sin ; 

^ Qui hahet unicum Tntium, habet omnia: He that hath any one vice, hath all other 
with it, saith Seneca truly. 
* Plutarch : de ser : num. vindict : as before.— G. 


but an unholy heart is most affected and afflicted with the punishment 
that is due to sin. A holy person hates sin because it pollutes his 
soul ; but an unholy person hates it because it destroys his soul. A 
holy person loathes sin because it makes against God's holiness ; but 
an unholy person loathes it because it provokes God's justice. A holy 
person detests sin because of the hell that is in sin ; but an unholy 
person detests sin because of the hell that follows sin. A holy heart 
abhors all sin ; but an unholy heart is still in league with some sin, 
Kom. xii. 9, and vii. 15, 19 ; Isa. xxviii. 15, 18. Now because 
this is a point of great concernment, I shall a little more open and 
evidence the truth of it, in these three particulars : — 

(1.) First, The heart of a holy man rises against secret sins, against 
such as lie furthest off from the eye of man : Ps. cxix. 113, 'I hate 
vain thoughts, but thy law do I love.' What more secret than vain 
thoughts ? and yet against these the heart of a holy man rises. When 
Joseph was tempted to be secretly wicked with his mistress, his heart 
rises against it : Gen. xxxix. 9, 'How can I do this great wickedness, 
and sin against the Lord ? ' Hezekiah humbled himself for ' the pride 
of his heart,' 2 Chron. xxxii. 24-26. Heart -sins lie most close 
and secret ; and yet for these a holy man humbles himself. Job would 
not suffer his heart, in an idolatrous way, secretly to kiss his hand. 
Job xxxi. 26, 27. The heart of a holy man rises against wickedness 
in the dark, against folly in a corner, against sin [in] a closet. So 
Paul was much affected and afflicted with the operations of sin within 
him, * with the law in his members rebelling against the law of his 
mind,' Kom. vii. 23, 24. Paul, after his conversion, never fell into 
any scandalous sin. Those sins that did most trouble him and dis- 
tress him were of his own house, yea, were in his own heart. A holy 
man knows that secret sins are sins, as well as those that are open, 
Ps. xix. 12. He knows that secret sins must be repented of as well 
as others ; he knows that God takes notice of secret sins as well as 
of open: 2 Sam. xii. 12, 'Thou didst it secretly;' He knows that 
secret sins do often interpose between God and his soul : ' Thou hast 
set our iniquities before thee : our secret sins in the light of thy coun- 
tenance,' Ps. xc. 8. He knows that secret sins will quickly become 
public, except they are presently loathed and speedily mortified. 
Gen. xxxviii. 24-27. He knows that secret sins, like secret diseases 
and secret wounds, do oftentimes prove most dangerous and pernicious ; 
he knows that secret sins are the price of blood, as well as open sin- 
nings. He knows that secret sins are a grief to the Spirit, as well as 
those that are manifest. He Imows that sometimes God punishes 
secret sins with manifest judgments, as you may see in that great in- 
stance of David, 2 Sam. xii. 10, 18. Upon all which accounts, a holy 
heart rises in a detestation of secret sins. But, 

(2.) Secondly, The heart of a holy man rises against tJie least sins, 
as well as against secret sins, in a strict sense. I know there is no sin 
little, because there is no little hell, no little damnation, no little law, 
nor no little God to sin against ; but yet some sins may comparatively 
be said to be little, if you compare them with those that are more 
great and gross, that are more heinous and odious, Mat. xxiii. 24. 
Now the hatred of a holy man rises against the least: Ps. cxix. 163, 


* I hate and abhor lying : but thy law do I love/ I hate, I abhor with 
horror, I loathe, I detest, I abominate lying as I do hell itself : so much 
the original word imports. David's heart smote him for the cutting 
off the lap of Saul's garment ; and his heart smote him again for 
numbering of the people ; and yet neither of these sins were heinous 
or scandalous, 1 Sam. xxiv. 5, and 2 Sam. xxiv. 10. Some write, that 
there is such a native dread and terror of the hawk implanted in the 
dove, that it detests and abhors the very sight of the least feather that 
hath grown upon the hawk. Certainly, there is such a holy dread of 
sin implanted in the heart of a saint, that he cannot but detest and 
abhor the least sin, yea, the very appearance of sin : his soul rises 
against the least motions or inclinations to evil, though they are 
silvered over with the most specious shows, and most glorious pre- 
tences : for he knows that the least sins are contrary to a righteous 
law, a holy God, and to his blessed Saviour, and the Spirit his only 

[1.] First, A holy man knows that little sins, if Twt prevented, will 
bring on greater. David gives way to his wandering eye, and that led 
him to those scandalous sins for which God broke his bones, hid his 
face, and withdrew his Spirit, 2 Sam. xii. 26, seq. So Peter first 
denies his Master, and then forswears him, and then falls a-cursing 
and damning of himself. Mat. xxvi. 70-75; as the Greek word 
KUTavadefiaTi^eLv imports, he imprecated the wrath of God to fj^U upon 
him, and that he might be separated from the presence and glory of 
God if he knew the man ; and then concludes with a most incredible 
lie, ' I know not the man ; ' whenas there was hardly a Jew which 
knew not Christ by face, he being very famous for the many miracles 
that he daily wrought before their eyes. Ah ! to what a height will 
sin suddenly rise ! So Jacob, first he tells three lies in a breath. Gen. 
xxvii. 19, 20 : 1. 1 am Esau ; 2. Thy firstborn ; 3. I have done accord- 
ing as thou badest me : and then he dissembled, in calling his meat 
' venison ; ' and then he takes the name of God in vain, by entitling 
God to that he did: ' The Lord thy God brought it to me.' Ah, of 
what an encroaching nature is sin ! how insensibly and suddenly doth 
it get ground upon the soul ! ^ I have read of a young man that was 
tempted to three great sins, viz., to kill his father, to lie vnth. his 
mother, and to be drunk ; judging the last to be the least, he yielded 
to it, and being drunk, he killed his father,, and ravished his own 
mother.3 Lesser sins usually are inlets to greater : as the little thief 
let in at the window opens the door, and makes way for the greater ; 
and the little wedge makes way for the greater. When Pompey 
could not take a city that he assaulted by force, he pretended that he 
would withdraw his army : only he desired that they would entertain 
a few of his weak and wounded soldiers, which accordingly they did. 
These soldiers soon recovered their strength, and opened the gates of 
the city, by which means Pompey's army entered and subdued the 
citizens. So little sins yielded to soon gather strength, and open the 

^ 1 Cor. viii. 13 ; Gal. ii. 3, 4 ; Jude 23. 

* So Austin confesseth that his mother Monica, by sipping and supping when she filled 
the cup to others, came at last to take a cup of [wine] nimis sometimes. — PltUarch, 
' As before : see Wanley, xviii., § 1.— G. 


door to greater ; and so a conquest is made upon the soul. This a 
holy heart well understands, and therefore it hates and abhors the 
least sin.i But, 

[2.] Secondly, A holy heart knows that Httle sins have exposed both 
sinners and saints to very great punishments. A gracious soul re- 
members the man that was stoned to death for gathering of sticks on 
the Sabbath-day. He remembers how Saul lost two kingdoms at 
once, his own kingdom and the kingdom of heaven, for sparing of 
Agag and the fat of the cattle. He remembers how the unprofitable 
servant, for the non-improvement of his talent, was cast into outer 
darkness. He remembers how Ananias and Sapphira were stricken 
suddenly dead for telling a lie. He remembers how Lot's wife, for a 
look of curiosity, was turned into a pillar of salt. He remembers how 
Adam was cast out of paradise for eating an apple ; and the angels 
cast out of heaven for not keeping their standings. He remembers 
that Jacob smarted for his lying to his dying day. He remembers 
how God followed him with sorrow upon sorrow, and breach upon 
breach, filling up his days with grief and trouble. He remembers how 
Moses was shut out of the Holy Land, because he spoke unadvisedly 
with his lips.2 He remembers the young prophet who was slain by a 
lion for eating a little bread and drinking a little water, contrary to 
the command of God, though he was drawn thereunto by an old pro- 
phet, under a pretence of a revelation from heaven, 1 Kings xiii. He re- 
members how Zacharias was stricken both dumb and deaf, because he 
believed not the report of the angel Gabriel, Luke i. 19-62. He re- 
members how Uzzah was stricken dead for staying up the ark when 
it was in danger to have fallen. Yea, he can never forget the fifty 
thousand men of Beth-shemesh who were slain for looking into the ark, 
2 Sam. vi. 7, 8 ; 1 Sam. vi. 19-21. Now, ah, how doth the remembrance 
of these things stir up the hatred and indignation of a gracious soul 
against the least sins ! A drachm of poison diffuseth itself to all parts, 
tUl it strangle the vital spirits, and separates the soul from the body ; 
a little coal of fire hath turned many a stately fabric into ashes ; a 
little prick with a thorn may as well lall a man as a cut with a drawn 
sword ; a little fly may spoil all the alabaster box of ointment. 
General Norris having received a slight wound in his arm in the wars 
of Ireland, made light of it, but his arm gangrened, and so he lost 
both arm and life together. Fabius, a senator of Kome, and lord 
chief-justice besides, was strangled by swallowing a small hair in a 
draught of milk. Three fits of an ague carried away Tamerlane, who 
was the terror of his time. Anacreon, the poet, was choked with the 
kernel of a grape. An emperor died hj the scratch of a comb. One 
of the kings of France died miserably by the chock ^ of a hog; and 
his brother, with a blow of a ball at tennis, was struck into his 
grave. And thus you see little things have brought upon many great 
miseries. And so little sins may expose and make persons very liable 

^ The preceding and succeeding paragraphs on * little sins ' combine recollections of 
Spencer's * Things New and Old '—the famous folio— and of Herbert Palmer's ' Chris- 

« Num. XV. 30, 37, 38 ; 1 Sam. xv. 23 ; Mat. xxv. 25, 31 ; Acts v. 3, 4 ; Gen. xix. 26 
and iii. and xxvii, 
* ' Part of the neck,' usually applied to ' veal.' — 0. 


to great punishments : and therefore no wonder if the heart of a holy 
man rises against them. Those sins which are seemingly but small, 
are very provoking to the great God, and very hurtful to the immortal 
Boul : and therefore they cannot but be the object of a Christian's hatred. 

[3.] Thirdly, A holy heart knows that a holy God looks and expects 
that the least sins should he shunned and avoided. He looks that the 
cockatrice should be crushed in the egg. God looks that Babylon's 
little ones should be dashed against the stones, Ps. cxxxvii. 9. Not 
only great sins, but little ones, must be killed, or they will kill the soul. 
The viper is killed by the little ones that she nourishes in her own 
bowels ; so many a man is eternally slain by the little sins that he 
nourishes in his own bosom. As a little stab at the heart kills a man, 
so a little sin, without a great deal of mercy, will damn a man. God 
expects that his children should ' abstain from all appearance of evil,' 
1 Thes. v. 22.1 ^g thou wouldst neither wound thy conscience nor 
thy credit, God nor the gospel, thou must keep off from the very 
appearances of evil A Christian is to hate not only the flesh, but the 
garment ; and not only the garment which is besmeared, but the very 
garment that is but bespotted with the flesh, Jude 23. Our first 
parents were not only forbidden to eat of the forbidden fruit, but they 
were forbidden to touch it, Gen. iii, 3. And certainly he that would 
not gape after forbidden fruit, must not gaze upon forbidden fruit ; 
he that would not long after it, must not look upon it ; he that would 
not taste it, must not touch it. The pious Nazarite was not only com- 
manded to abstain from wine and strong drink, but also from eating 
grapes, whether moist or dry; yea, he was prohibited from eating 
anjrthing that was made of the vine-tree, from the kernels even to the 
husk. Num. vi. 3, 4, lest by the sweet and contentment of any of these, 
he should be tempted or enticed to drink wine, and so forget the law, 
and break his vow, and make work for hell or repentance, or the Phy- 
sician of souls, Prov. xxxi. 5. Siu is so hateful a thing, that both the 
remote occasion, and the least occasion that might draw the soul to it, 
is to be avoided and shunned, as a man would avoid and shun hell itself. 2 
He that truly hates the nature of sin, cannot but hate the least sin, 
yea, all appearances of sin. A holy heart knows that the very thought 
of sin, if not^ thought on, will break forth into action, action into cus- 
tom, custom into habit, and then body and soul are undone for ever. 
Look, as nothing speaks out more sincerity and real sanctity, than 
shunning the very appearances of vanity ; so nothing speaks out more 
indignation against sin, than the avoiding the occasions of sin. But, 

[4.] Fourthly, A holy heart knows that the indulging of the least 
sin is ground sufficient for any man to question his integrity and in- 
genuity towards God. He hath much reason to suspect himself, and 
to be suspected by others, who dares break with God, and with his 
own conscience, for a trifle. He that will transgress for a morsel of 
bread, will be ready enough to sell his soul for a groat, Prov. xxviii. 21. 
He that will pervert justice for a few pieces of silver, what will he not 

^ Bernard glosseth Quicquid est male coloratum : Whatsoever is of an ill show, or ill 

* Difficile ijuis venenum bibet et vivet : A man can hardly drink poison and live. — 
Cyprian. 3 Qu. < but ' ?— Ed 


do for a hatful of gold ? he that will sell the poor for a pair of shoes, 
will destroy the poor for a brace of angels, ^ Amos ii. 6. He that will 
sell souls dog-cheap, that will slay the souls that should not die, and 
save the souls alive that should not live, for handfuls of barley and 
pieces of bread, will make no bones of making merchandise of souls 
for silver and gold, Ezek. iii. 19. He that will sell his Saviour once 
for thirty pieces of silver, will sell him as often as you please for a 
greater sum, Zech. xi. 12. He that makes no conscience of betraying 
Christ into the hands of sinners for thirty shillings, will make no con- 
science of betraying his own soul into the hands of the devil at the 
price of a halter. He that dares lie to save a little of his estate, what 
will not he do to save his life ? These things a holy heart well under- 
stands, and the serious remembrance of them stirs up in him a holy 
indignation against the least transgression. But, 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly. Take many things in one: a holy heart 
knows that the least sin cost Christ his dearest blood: Heb. ix. 22, 
' Without shedding of blood there was no remission ;' no remission of 
great sins, nor no remission of httle sins. He knows that the blood of 
Christ is as requisite to cleanse the soul from the least sin, as it is to 
cleanse it from the greatest : 1 John i. 7, ' And the blood of Jesus 
Christ his Son cleanseth us from all our sins.' It is not the casting of a 
little holy water upon us ; it is not the Papists' purgatories, nor their 
whippings, nor St Francis his kissing or licking of our sores, nor a 
bishop's blessing, nor a few knocks on the breast, nor a few tears 
dropping from our eyes, that can cleanse us from the least sin. No, 
it is only the blood of Christ that cleanseth us from all our sins.^ 
There is not the least spot in a Christian's heart that call be washed 
out but in the blood of the Lamb. When Satan appeared and pre- 
sented to a djdng man in a long parchment roll lus idle words, his 
false words, his angry words, his wanton words, and his more wicked 
words and deeds ; the dying man answered. All this is true, Satan, 
but yet there is one thing more for thee to set down under all my sins, 
and that is this, ' The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from 
all our sins.' Whereupon the devil vanished, as being vanquished.^ 
Certainly, there is not a vain thought, nor an idle word, nor an angry 
word, nor a wanton word that can be pardoned or cleansed but by the 
blood of Jesus Christ ; the remembrance of which cannot but stir up 
a holy indignation in a gracious soul against the least corruption. 
When Julius Caesar the emperor was murdered, Antonius brought 
forth his bloody coat, and shewed it to the people, which stirred up in 
them such an indignation against the murderers, that they cried out, 
Slay the murderers : and went and burnt their houses, and aU that was 
in them.* So when a holy heart looks upon his sins, yea, his little 
sins, as those that have murdered the Prince of glory, ah, what an in- 
dignation doth it raise in the soul against them ! A holy heart knOws 
that there is not the least sin, but doth in a measure estrange the 
soul from God. As little clouds do somewhat interpose between the 

1 'Coin' so-called.— G. 

2 About little sins you may see more in my ' Precious Remedies afrainst Satan's De- 
vices,' pp. 22, 34. [Vol. i. pp. 19-23.— G.] ^ Told of Luther.— G. 
* Cf. Shakespere's Julius Ceesar, iiL 2. — G. 


sun and us ; so little sins do somewhat interpose between God and our 
souls : and as sometimes a little matter, a mistake, or lending an ear, 
or a word out of joint, or an act of forgetfulness, doth occasion some 
distance between dearest friends, Acts xv. 36-41 ; so sometimes little 
sins do occasion some distance between our dearest God and our 
souls, Prov. xvi, 28, and xvii. 9. A holy heart knows that Christ 
looks upon those sins as great, which the blind world accounts but 
little. Christ accounts hatred murder, 1 John iii. 15 ; a wanton eye 
adultery, Mat. v. 28 ; and he reckons the officious lie and the merry 
lie amongst the most monstrous sins, and condemns it to the lowest 
hell, Kev. xxi. 8. The consideration of all which raises no small in- 
dignation in a holy heart against the least, the smallest sin. But now 
unholy hearts make nothing of little sins : with Achan they will be 
bond-slaves for a wedge of gold ; with Gehazi they will be servants of 
unrighteousness for a talent of silver and two changes of garments ; 
with Adam they wiU transgress for an apple ; and with Esau they will 
seU their birthright of grace here, and of glory hereafter, for a mess 
of pottage. The hearts of unholy persons may rise against gross sins, 
such as are not only against the law of God, but against the light and 
laws of nature and nations. Their souls may rise in arms against 
those sins that makes them liable to the laws of men, or that lays 
them open to shame, fear, grief, or loss ; but as for vain thoughts, idle 
words, petty oaths, sinful motions, and frequent omissions, they look 
upon these as trifles, motes and gnats that are not to be regarded or 
bewailed. But, 

(3.) Thirdly, As a holy heart rises against the least sins ; so a holy 
heart rises against hosom-sins, against constitution-sins, against those 
that either his calling, former citstom, or his present inclination or 
condition, do most dispose him to. It is true, a prodigal person may 
abhor covetousness, and a covetous person may condemn prodigality : 
a furious person may hate fearfulness, and a fearful person may detest 
furiousness. But now the hearts of those that are holy rise against 
complexion sins, against darling sins, against those that make for pre- 
sent pleasure and profit, against those that were once as right hands 
and right eyes ; that were that to their souls, that Delilah was to 
Samson, Herodias to Herod, Isaac to Abraham, and Joseph to Jacob : 
Ps. xviii. 23, ' I was also upright before him ; and I kept myself from 
mine iniquity;' that is, from my darling sin, whereunto I was most in- 
clined and addicted. What this bosom-sin was that he kept himself 
from, is hard to say. Some suppose his darling sin was lying, dis- 
sembling ; for it is certain, he often fell into this sin : others suppose it 
to be some secret iniquity, which was only known to God and his own 
conscience : others say it was uncleanness, and that therefore he prayed 
that ' God would turn away his eyes from beholding vanity,' Ps. cxix. 
37 : others judge it to be that sin of disloyalty, which Saul and his 
courtiers falsely charged upon him. It is enough for our purpose that 
his heart did rise against that very sin, that either by custom or some 
strong inclination he was most naturally apt, ready, and prone to fall 
into. Idolatry was the darling sin of the people of Israel;! they 
' Jer. xliv. 15, 20 ; Isa. i. 29, and Ivii. 5 ; Jer. xvii. 1, 2 ; Hosea ii. 8 ; Isa. xxxi. 6, 7. 


called their idols delectable, or desirable things, Isa. xliv. 9 ; they did 
dearly affect and delight in their idols ; but when God should come to 
put a spirit of holiness upon them, then their hearts should rise in 
hatred and detestation of their idols, as you may see in Isa. xxx. 18, 
25 ; mark ver. 22, ' Ye shall defile also the covering of thy graven 
images of silver, and the ornament of thy molten images of gold : thou 
shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth ; thou shalt say unto it, Get 
thee hence.' They were so delighted and enamoured with their idols, 
that they would deck them up in the greatest glory and bravery ; they 
would attire them with the most rich, costly, pompous, and glorious 
raiment. Oh, but when a spirit of holiness should rise upon them, 
then they should defile, deface, and disgrace their idols, then they 
should so hate and abhor them, they should so detest and loathe them, 
that in a holy indignation they should cast them away as a menstruous 
cloth, and say unto them, Get ye hence, pack, begone, I will never have 
any more to do with you.i God hath now made an everlasting 
divorce between you and me. And so in Isa. ii. 20, ' In that day ' — 
that is, in the day of the Lord's exaltation in the hearts, lives, and 
consciences of his people, ver. 17 — ' a man shall cast his idols of silver, 
and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, 
to the moles and to the bats.' In the day of God's exaltation they 
shall express such disdain and indignation against their idols, that 
they shall take not only those made of trees and stones, but even their 
most precious and costly idols, those that were made of silver and 
gold, and cast them to the moles and to the bats ; that is, they shall 
cast them into such blind holes, and into such dark, filthy, nasty, and 
dusty corners, as moles make underground, and as bats roost in : so 
when holiness comes to be exalted in the soul, then all a man's darling 
and bosom sins, which are his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, 
these are with a holy indignation cast to the moles and to the bats ; 
they are so loathed, abandoned, and cashiered, that he desires they 
may be for ever buried in oblivion, and never see the light more. 
Idols were Ephraim's bosom-sin : Hosea iv. 17, ' Ephraim is joined,' or 
glued, 'to idols, let him alone ;' but when the dew of grace and holi- 
ness fell upon Ephraim, as it did in chap. xiv. 5-7, ' Then saith Eph- 
raim, What have I any more to do with idols ?' ver. 8. Now Ephraim 
loathes his idols as much or more than before he loved them ; he now 
abandons and abominates them, though before he was as closely 
glued to them, as the wanton is glued to his Delilah, or as the en- 
chanter is glued to the devil, from whom by no means he is able to 
stir. Ephraim becoming holy, cries out, ' What have I any more to 
do with idols ? ' Oh, I have had to do with them too long and too 
much already ! Oh, how doth my soul now rise against them 1 how 
do I detest and abhor them ! surely I will never have more to do with 
them. But now unholy hearts are very favourable to bosom-sins ; 
they say of them, as Lot of Zoar, ' Is it not a little one ? and my soul 
shall live ! ' Gen. xix. 20. And as David spake of Absalom, 2 Sam. 

^ After the return of the Jews out of Babylon, they bo hated and abhorred idols, that 
in the time of the Romans they chose rather to die than to suffer the eagle, which was 
the imperial arms, to be set up in their temple. [As before. — G.] 


xviii. 5, ' Deal gently for my sake with the young man, even with 
Absalom.' ' Beware that none touch the young man Absalom,' ver. 
12. ' And the king said. Is the young man Absalom safe ?' ver. 29. 
An unholy heart is as fond of his bosom-sins as Herod was of his Hero- 
dias ; or as Demetrius was of his Diana ; or as Naaman was of the 
idol Rimmon, which was the idol of the Syrians ; or as Judas was of 
bearing the bag ; or as the Pharisees were of having the uppermost 
seats, and of being saluted in the market-place with those glorious 
titles, ' Rabbi, rabbi.' Bosom-sins have at least a seeming sweetness 
in them ; and therefore an unholy heart will not easily let them go. 
Let God frown or smile, stroke or strike, lift up or cast down, promise 
or threaten, yet he will hide and hold fast his darUng sins ; let God 
wound his conscience, blow upon his estate, leave a blot upon his 
name, crack his credit, afflict his body, write death upon his rela- 
tions, and be a terror to his soul, yet will he not let go his bosom-lusts. 
He will rather let God go, and Christ go, and grace go, and heaven 
go, all go, than he will let some pleasurable or profitable lusts go. An 
unholy heart may sigh over those sins, and make war upon those sins, 
that war against his honours, profits, or pleasures, and yet at the same 
time make truce with those that are as right hands and right eyes ; 
an unholy person may set his sword at the breasts of some sins, and 
yet at the same time his heart may be secretly courting of his bosom- 
sins. But now a holy heart rises most against the DeHlah in his 
bosom, against the Benjamin, the son, the sin, of his right hand. And 
thus you see how a holy heart hates and disdains all sins ; he abhors 
small sins as weU as great, secret sins as well as open, and bosom-sins 
as well as others that have not that acquaintance and acceptance with 
the soul. Real hoUness will never mix nor mingle itself with any sin, 
it will never incorporate with any corruption. Wine and water will 
easily mix, so the wine of gifts and the water of sin, the wine of civility 
and the water of vanity, the wine of morality and the water of impiety, 
will easily mix ; but oil and water will not mix, they wiU not incorpor- 
ate ; so the oil of grace, the oil of holiness, will not mix ; it will not 
incorporate with sin, the oil of holiness will be uppermost, Mark, 
natural and acquired habits and excellencies, as a pregnant wit, an 
eloquent tongue, a strong brain, an iron memory, a learned head, all 
these, with some high speculations of holiness, and some profession of 
holiness, and some commendations of hoHness, and some visible actings 
of holiness, are consistent with the love of lusts, with the dominion of 
sin: witness the Scribes and Pharisees, Judas, Demas, and Simon 
Magus ; but the real infused habits of true grace and holiness, will 
never admit of the dominion of any sin, whether great or little, 
whether secret or open. But, 

6. Sixthly, Persons of real holiness are cordially affected avid 
affiieted, grieved and troubled, about their oivn vileness and unholi- 
ness, Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26, 31. You may see this in holy Job, chap, 
xl. 3-5, ' Then Job answered the Lord and said. Behold, I am vile ; 
what shall I answer thee? I will lay mine hand upon my mouth. 
Once have I spoken ; but I will not answer : yea, twice ; but I will 
proceed no further.' So holy Agur : * Prov. xxx. 2, 3, ' Surely I am 
more brutish than any man, and have not the understanding of a 


man.l I neither learned wisdom, nor have the knowledge of the 
holy.' Though all men are brutish, yet holy men are most sensible 
of their brutishness, and most affected and afflicted with it ; wicked 
men are more brutish than the beasts, yet they see it not, they bewail 
it not ; but holy Agur both sees his brutishness, and bewails it. 
Holy Agur, looking upon that rare knowledge, that depth of wisdom, 
and those admirable excellencies that Adam was endued with in his 
integrity and innocency, confesses himself to be but brutish, to be as 
much below what Adam once was as a brute is below a man. So holy 
David cries not Ferii, I am undone, I shall perish, but peccavi, * I 
have sinned, I have done foolishly,' Ps. li. 3. And so for his being 
envious at the prosperity of the foolish, Ps. Ixxiii. 2, 3, how doth he 
befool and be-beast himself! Ps. Ixxiii. 22, 'So foolish was I, and 
ignorant : I was as a beast before thee.' The Hebrew word Behemoth, 
l£at is here rendered beast generally, comprehends all beasts of the 
greater sort. 2 As an aggravation of his folly, he conf esseth that he 
was as a beast, as a great beast, yea, as an epitome of all great 
beasts. So the holy prophet Isaiah complains that he was undone, that 
he was cut off, not upon any worldly account, but because he was a man 
of unclean lips, and dwelt in the midst of a people of unclean lips, Isa. 
vi. 5. So holy Daniel, chap, ix., complained not that they were re- 
proached and oppressed, but that they had rebelled. So Peter, Luke 
V. 8, ' Depart from me ; for I am a sinful man, Lord : ' or as the 
Greek hath it, I am a man, a sinner. Lord depart from me, for I 
am a mixture and compound of aU vileness and sinfulness. So holy 
Paul cries not out of his opposers or persecutors, but of the law in his 
members rebelling against the law of his mind, Kom. vii. 23, 24. 
Paul's body of death \\'ithin him put him to more grief and sorrow 
than all the troubles and trials that ever befell him. A holy heart 
laments over those sins that he cannot conquer ; a holy person labours 
to wash out all the stains and spots that be in his soul, in the streams 
of godly sorrow ; that his sins may never drown his soul, he will do 
what he can to drown his sins in penitential tears. A holy person 
looks upon his sins as the crucifiers of his Saviour, and so they affect 
him; he looks upon his sins as the great incendiaries, make-baits, 
and separatist between God and his soul, and so they afflict him, Isa. 
lix. 1,2. He looks upon his sins as so many reproaches to his God, 
blemishes to his profession, and wounds to his credit and conscience, 
and so they grieve and trouble him ; he looks upon his sins as those 
that make many a righteous soul besides his own sad, whom God 
would not have saddened ; and that opens many a sinful mouth that 
God would have stopped, and that strengthens many a wicked heart 
that God would not have strengthened ; and so they fetch many a 
sigh from his heart, and many a tear from his eyes, Ezek. xiii. 22. 
When a holy man sins he looks upwards, and there he sees God 
frowning ; he looks downwards, and there he sees Satan insulting ; he 
looks within himself, and there he finds his conscience either a-bleeding, 
raging, or accusing; he looks without himself, and there he finds 
gracious men lamenting and mourning, and graceless men deriding and 

^ Ulik ny2, the understanding of Adam. 

" Therefore the elephant is called Behemoth in Job xl. 15. 


mocking ; the sense of which doth sorely and sadly afflict a gracious 
soul. Some say that St Peter's eyes, after his great falls, were 
always full of tears, insomuch that his face was furrowed with continual 
weeping for his horrid thoughts, his desperate words, his shameful 
shifts, and his damnable deeds, which made him look more like a 
child of hell than like a saint whose name was written in heaven. 
Some say of Adam, that when he turned his face towards the garden 
of Eden, he sadly lamented his great fall. Some say of Mary Magda- 
lene, that she spent thirty years in Galba in weeping for her sins. 
David's sins were ever before him, and therefore no wonder if tears 
instead of gems were so constantly the ornaments of his bed. Wicked 
Pharaoh cries out, Oh take away these filthy frogs, take away these 
dreadful judgments ; but holy David cries out ' Lord, take away the 
iniquity of thy servant.' Pharaoh cries out because of his punish- 
ments, but David cries out because of his sin. Anselm saith that 
with grief he considered the whole course of his life : ' I found,' saith 
he, ' the infancy of sin in the sins of my infancy ; the youth and 
growth of sin in the sins of my youth and growth ; and the ripeness 
of all sin in the sins of my ripe and perfect age ; ' and then he breaks 
forth into this pathetical expression, 'What remaineth for thee, 
wretched man, but that thou spend thy whole life in bewailing thy 
whole life ! ' By all which it is most evident, that holy hearts are very 
much affected and afflicted with their own unholiness and vileness. 
Now certainly those persons are as far off from real holiness, as hell is 
from heaven, who take pleasure ia unrighteousness, who make a scoff 
and mock of sin, who commit wickedness with greediness, who talk 
wickedly, who live wantonly, who trade deceitfully, who swear horribly, 
who drink stiffly, who lie hideously, and who die impenitently. But, 

7. Seventhly, Keal holiness naturalises holy duties to the soul; it 
makes religious services to be easy and pleasant to the soul. Hence 
prayer is called the prayer of faith, because holy faith naturaliseth a 
man's heart to prayer, 1 Pet i. 2, and James v. 15. It is as natural 
for a holy man to pray, as it is for him to breathe, or as it is for a bird 
to fly, or fire to ascend, or a stone to descend : and hence it is that 
obedience is called the oliedience of faith, because holy faith naturalises 
a man's heart to obedience, Kom. xvi. 26, and Ps, cxix. 166. As soon 
as ever this plant of renown was set in the heart of Paul, he cries out, 
' Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ?' Acts ix. 6. And hence it is 
that hearing is called ' the hearing of faith,' because this holy principle 
naturalises a man's heart to hearing. Ps. cxxii. 1, ' I was glad when 
they said unto me. Let us go into the house of the Lord.' And so in 
Isa. ii. 3, ' And many people shall go and say. Come ye, and let us go 
up to the mountam of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob ; 
and he wUl teach us of his ways, and we wiU walk in his paths : for 
out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem.' And hence patience is called ' patience of hope,' because 
this holy principle of hope naturalises a man's heart to a patient wait- 
ing upon God, 1 Thes. i. 3. Kom. viii. 25, * But if we hope for that 
we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.' So holy love natu- 
ralises the soul to holy service ; in 1 Thes. i. 3, you read of ' the labour 
of love.' Holy love is very laborious. Nothing makes a Christian more 


industrious, painful,! and diligent in the service and ways of God, than 
holy love. Holy love will make us to pray and to praise, it will make us 
wait and work, it will provoke souls to study Christ, to admire Christ, 
to live to Christ, to lift up Christ, to spend and be spent for Christ, and 
to break through all difficulties that it may come nearer to Christ, and 
cleave closer to Christ, Kom xiv. 7, 8, and 2 Cor. xii. 14-16. As Jerome 
once bravely said, ' If my father,' said he, ' should stand before me, 
my mother should hang upon me, and my brethren should press about 
me, I would break through my brethren, throw down my mother, 
tread under feet my father, that I might the faster cleave unto Christ 
my Saviour.' Oh the laboriousness of holy love ! So far as a Christian 
is holy, so far holy services will be delightful and easy to him : Eom. 
vii. 22, ' I delight in the law of God after the inward man ;' ver. 25, 

* So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God ;' Ps. cxix. 16, 

* I wiU delight myself in thy statutes : I will not forget thy word ; * 
ver. 35, * Make me to go in the path of thy commandments ; for 
therein do I delight ; ver. 47, ' And I will delight myself in thy com- 
mandments which I have loved ;' ver. 92, ' Unless thy law had been 
my delights, I should then have perished in mine affl.iction ; ' ver. 143, 
' Trouble and anguish have taken hold on me : yet thy command- 
ments are my delights.' Sirs, honour is not more suitable, delightful, 
and pleasing to an ambitious man, nor pleasure to a voluptuous man, 
nor flattery to a proud man, nor gold to a covetous man, nor excess 
to an intemperate man, nor revenge to an envious man, nor pardon to 
a condemned man, than religious duties and services are suitable, 
pleasing, and delightful to a holy man, Ps. xxvii. 8, and Ixxxi. 8-16. 
But now unholy hearts are very averse to holy duties and services : they 
are averse to hearing, averse to praying, averse to reading, averse to 
meditating, averse to self-judging, averse to self-examining, averse to 
holy worship, averse to holy Sabbaths : Amos viii. 5, ' When will the 
new moon be gone, that we may sell corn ? and the Sabbath, that we 
may set forth wheat?' Isa. xxvi. 10, 11, and Jer. v. 1, 6. You may 
sooner draw a coward to fight, or a malefactor to the bar, or a bear 
to the stake, than you shall draw unholy hearts to holy services.^ But 
if at any time, by the strong motions of the Spirit, the close debates 
of conscience, the powerful persuasions of the word, the education of 
godly parents, the pious example of bosom friends, the rich treasures 
in precious promises, the dreadful evils in terrible threatenings, or if 
at any time by the displeasure of God, the smarting rod, the bowels 
of mercy, the wooings of love, or if at any time by some flashes of 
hell, or glimpses of heaven, or by the heavy sighs, the deep groans, 
and the bleeding wounds of a dying Saviour, their hearts are wrought 
over to religious services — Isa. Iviii. 1-5 — ah, how soon are they 
weary of them ! What little delight or pleasure do they take in them I 
Isa. xliii. 22, ' But thou hast not called upon me, Jacob' — ^that is, 
thou hast not worshipped nor served me sincerely, faithfully, feelingly, 
heartily, affectionately, humbly, holily, as thou shouldest and as thou 
oughtest — ' but thou hast been weary of me, Israel ;' that is, thou 
hast been weary of my worship and service, and thou hast counted 

^ 'Painstaking.' — Q. 

• Wicked hearts are habitually averse to all that is good, &c. 


it rather a burden than a benefit, a damage than an advantage, a 
reproach than an honour, a disgrace than a favour, a vexation than 
a blessing ; and for all thy formal courtings and complimentings of 
me, thou hast been secretly weary of me. So in Mai. i. 12, 13, ' Ye 
say. The table of the Lord is polluted ; and the fruit thereof, even his 
meat, is contemptible. Ye said also, Behold, what a weariness is it ! 
and ye have snuffed at it, saith the Lord of hosts/ &c. They did God 
but little service, and that they did was after the worst manner too, 
and yet they snuff, and puff, and blow, and sweat, and swell, and fall 
into a fustian fume, as if they had been over-tired and wearied with 
the burden and weight of those sacrifices which they offered up to the 
great God. A holy heart thinks all too little that he doth for God ; 
but an unholy heart thinks every little too much that he doth for 
God. A holy heart, like the holy angels, loves to do much and make 
no noise ; but an unholy heart makes most noise when he doth least 
service ; an unsanctified soul hath a trumpet in his right hand, when 
he hath but a penny to give in his left hand, as here. But, 

8. Eighthly, Where there is real holiness, there will be the exercise 
of righteousness towards men from righteous principles, arid upon reli- 
gious accounts, viz., the honour of God, the command of God, the will 
of God, the credit of the gospel, &c. Keal holiness towards God is 
always attended with righteousness towards men : Eph. iv. 24, ' And 
that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteous- 
ness and true holiness,' or, hoKness of truth ; Tit. ii. 11, 12, ' For the 
grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 
teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should 
live soberly, righteously, and godlily in this present world.' These 
words'contain the sum of a Christian's duty ; to live soberly towards 
ourselves, righteously towards our neighbours, and godlily towards 
God, is true godliness indeed, and the whole duty of man. So holy 
Abraham in Gen. xxiii. 16, ' And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron, 
and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which he had named in 
the audience of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, cur- 
rent money with the merchant.' i It is recorded to holy Abraham's 
everlasting honour and fame, that he paid for the field that he bought 
of Ephron current money, not counterfeit, pure, not adulterate shekels 
of silver, not shekels of brass silvered over ; he paid the price that was 
pitched, and he paid it in such coin as would go current in one 
country as well as another. So holy Jacob, in Gen. xliii., supposing 
that the money that was returned in the sacks of corn that his sons 
brought out of Egypt was through some mistake or oversight, he 
very honestly and conscientiously ordered them to carry the money 
back again. Ver. 12, ' And take double money in your hand : and 
the money that was brought again in the mouth of your sacks, carry 
it again in your hands ; peradventure it was an oversight.' A holy 
heart will not, a holy heart dares not, take an advantage from 
another's error to do him wrong; it is but justice to return and 

^ The common shekel is about twentypence, so then four hundred shekels amount to 
thirty-three pounds six shillings and eightpence, after five shillings sterling the ounce. 
And in this purchase is prophetically shewed that Abraham's posterity should have the 
inheritance of that land : as Jeremiah's buying of his uncle's field was a sign of the 
Jews' return, and of their policy there again to buy and sell. 


restore to every man his due. So holy Moses, in Num. xvi. 15, * And 
Moses was very wroth, and said unto the Lord, Respect not thou their 
oflFering : I have not taken one ass from them, neither have I hurt one 
of them.' He sought their good, not their goods ; he preferred their 
safety before his own life ; he did right to every man, he did wrong to 
no man ; he did every man some good, he did no man the least hurt. 
So holy , Samuel, in , 1 Sam. xii. 3-5, 'Behold, here am I: witness 
against me before the Lord, and before his anointed : whose ox have I 
taken? or whose ass have I taken? or whom have I defrauded? 
whom have I oppressed ? or of whose hand have I received any bribe 
to blind mine eyes therewith ? and I will restore it you. And they 
^id, Thou hast not defrauded us, nor oppressed us, neither hast thou 
taken aught of any man's hand. And he said unto them, The Lord is 
witness against you, and his anointed is witness this day, that ye have 
not found aught in my hand. And they answered, He is witness.' He 
makes a solemn protestation before the Lord, before his anointed, and 
before the people, that he had so lived in the exercise of justice and 
righteousness amongst them, that they could not accuse him of the 
least unrighteousness, they could not say black was his eye, they 
could not say that he had lessened them to greaten himself, or that he 
had impoverished them to enrich himself, or that he had ruined them 
to raise himself ; upon his appeal they unanimously declare his inno- 
cency and integrity. So holy Daniel, in Dan. vi. 4, 5, ' Then the 
presidents and princes sought to find occasion against Daniel con- 
cerning the kingdom, but they could find no occasion nor fault : foras- 
much as he was faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in 
him. Then said these men. We shall not find any occasion against 
this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the law of his 
God/ Though envy be the father of cruelty and malice, the mother 
of murder and ambition, the plotter of others' destruction, yet holy 
Daniel was so just and righteous, so innocent and prudent, so careful 
and faithful in the administration of his high office, that none of his 
envious, malicious, and ambitious enemies could, after their unity in 
a hellish and cniel conspiracy, charge him with the least spot of in- 
justice or show of righteousness ; i they narrowly scanned all his 
administrations, and diligently weighed all his actions, and yet them- 
selves being judges, Daniel is found innocent. They could not so 
much as charge him with a colourable fault. So Zacharias and 
Elizabeth, they walked in aU the commandments and ordinances of 
the Lord blameless, Luke i. 5, 6 ; they walked not only in the ordi- 
nances, but also in the commandments of the Lord, and they walked 
not only in some commandments, but in all the commandments of the 
Lord ; they walked in the commandments of the second table, as well 
as in the commandments of the first table; they were as well for 
righteousness towards man, as they were for holiness towards God. 
So the apostles, in 2 Cor. vii. 2, ' Receive us ; we wronged no man, we 
have corrupted no man, we have defrauded no man.' The apostle 
would have the Corinthians to make room for them in their hearts 
and houses, as the Greek word ^w/jT^craTe imports, for that they had 
wronged no man in his name or reputation, as the false apostles had ; 
^ Qu. ' unrighteousness'? — Ed. 


neither had they corrupted any man in his judgment by false doc- 
trines or evil examples, as the false apostles had ; neither had they 
defrauded any man in his estate, as the false apostles had, who made 
a prize of their followers and hearers. Of the same import is that of 
the apostle in 1 Thes. ii. 10, 'Ye are witness, and God also, how 
holily, justly, and unblameably we behaved ourselves among you that 
believe.' He takes God and them to witness, that they had lived 
holily in respect of God, and righteously in respect of the world, and 
unblameably in respect of them that believe. By all which it is most 
evident, that where there is real holiness towards God, there will be 
the exercise of righteousness towards men. 

But now, where there is but the shows and appearances of holiness, 
there persons make no conscience of exercising righteousness towards 
men. Witness the Scribes and Pharisees, who, under a pretence ot 
praying, made a prey of widows' houses ; who, under a pretence of 
piety, exercised the greatest covetousness, unrighteousness, and cruelty, 
and that upon widows, who are usually the greatest objects of pity 
and charity ; they made no bones of robbing the widow, under pre- 
tence of honouring of God, Mat. xxiii. 14. So Judas, who was a 
Cato without, but a Nero within, who, under a pretence of laying up 
for the poor, robbed the poor, John xii. 6 ; he made use of counterfeit 
holiness, as a cloak to cover all his thievish villanies ; he pretended to 
lay up for the poor, but he intended only to lay up for himself, and to 
provide against a rainy day. It is like he had no great mind to stay 
long with his Lord, and therefore he was resolved to make the best 
market he could for himself; that so when he should lay down his 
stewardship, he might have something to live upon. Judas acted the 
part of a saint in his profession and discourses, that so he might be 
the less suspected to act the part of a thief in his more secret prac- 
tices. Judas had not been long in office, before he put conscience out 
of office, and conscience being put out of office, Judas sets up for him- 
self, and, under a cloak of holiness, he practises the greatest unfaith- 
fulness. Though the eagle soars high, yet still her eye is upon her 
prey ; so though Judas did soar high in profession, yet his eye was 
still upon his prey, upon his bags, and so he might have it, he cared 
not who went without it ; so he might be rich, he did not care 
though his Lord and his retinue grew never so poor. Judas had 
Jacob's voice, but Gehazi's heart and hands, and therefore he screws 
up his conscience tUl he makes all crack again. Under all his shows 
of sanctity, he had not so much as common honesty in him. Coun- 
terfeit holiness is often made a stalking-horse to the exercise of much 
unrighteousness. Certainly that man is as far from real holiness, as 
the devil himself is from true happiness, who lives not in the exercise 
of righteousness towards men, as well as in a profession of holiness to- 
wards God. Well, Christians, remember this, it were better with the 
philosopher to have honesty without religion, than to have religion 
without honesty. But, 

9. Ninthly, He that is truly holy will labour and endeavour to make 
others holy. A holy heart loves not to go to heaven alone, it loves not 
to be happy and blessed alone. A man that hath experienced the 
power, excellency, and sweetness of holiness, will strive and study how 


to make others holy. When Samson had tasted honey, he gave his 
father and mother some with him, Judges xiv. 8, 9. Holiness is so 
sweet a morsel, that a soul cannot taste of it but he will be a-commend- 
ing of it to others.i As you may see in holy Moses, in Num. xi. 29, 
' And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou for my sake ? Would God 
that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that the Lord would put 
his Spirit upon them.' A holy soul will never make a monopoly of 
holiness. The prophets, you know, were men of greatest grace and 
holiness ; now holy Moses is very importunate and earnest with God 
that he would not only make the two that prophesied, but all the Lord's 
people eminent and excellent in grace and holiness. Such was Moses 
his holiness and humbleness, that he desires that all others might either 
equal him or excel him in gifts and grace. A heart eminently holy is 
so far from envying of the gracious excellencies of others, that it can 
rejoice in every sun that outshines his own ; and every light that burns 
more dim than his, he desires that it may be snuffed, not put out, that 
so it may give a clearer and a greater light to others. So holy Paul 
in Acts xxvi. 29, ' And Paul said, I would to God that not only thou, 
but also all that hear me this day, were both almost, and altogether 
such as I am, except these bonds,' True holiness is no churl ; nothing 
makes a man more noble in his spiritual desires, wishes, and actings 
for others, than hoHness. Keal hohness, like oil, is of a diffusive na- 
ture ; like light, it will spread itself over aU ; like Mary's box of oint- 
ment, it fills all the house with the sweet scent thereof. Art thou a 
holy father ? then thou wilt, with holy Abraham, labour to make thy 
children holy, Gen. xviii. 17-19. A holy heart knows that both by 
his first birth, but especially by his new birth, he stands obHged to 
promote holiness in all, but especially in those that are parts and pieces 
of himself. Art thou a holy master ? then thou wilt, with holy Joshua, 
labour to make all under thy charge holy : Josh. xxiv. 15, ' But as for 
me, and my house, we will serve the Lord.' True holiness cannot be 
concealed ; it will be a-stirring and a-provoking of others to be holy : 
as a holy man doth not love to be happy alone, so a holy man doth not 
love to be holy alone. A holy master loves to see a crown of holiness 
set upon every head in his family. Holiness is a very beautiful thing, 
and it makes those beautiful in whom it is. In a holy master's eye, 
there is no servant so lovely and beautiful as he that hath the beauty 
of hoHness upon him. A holy magistrate will labour to make both 
his servants and his subjects holy: as holy David, holy Asa, holy 
Isaiah, and holy Hezekiah did ; he knows that the souls of his servants 
and subjects are the choicest treasure that God hath committed to his 
care ; he knows that every soul is more worth than his crown and king- 
dom ; he knows that he must one day give up an account for more 
souls than his own, and therefore he improves his power and interest 
every way for the making of all holy under him ; 2 as Louis the Ninth, 
king of France, took pains to instruct his poor kitchen-boy in the way 
to heaven, and being asked the reason of it, he answered. The meanest 

1 Lilmod le lammed, We therefore learn that we may teach, is a proverb among the 
Eabbins. The heathen could say, I do therefore lay in and lay up, that I may draw 
forth again for the good of many. 

* George, prince of Anhalt, his family is said to have been ecclesia, academia, curia : 
A church, a university, and a court. 


have a soul to save as precious as mine own, and bought by the same 
blood of Christ. It is said of Constantino that in this he was truly- 
great, that he would have his whole court gathered together, and cause 
the Scriptures to be read and opened to them, that they might be made 
holy courtiers, and so fitted for the court of heaven, into which no un- 
clean person or thing can enter, Kev. xxi. 27. It grieved an emperor 
that a neighbour of his should die before he had done him any good. 
Ah, it is the grief of a holy magistrate to see others die before they 
are made holy. The great request of a holy magistrate, living and 
dying, is this, Lord, make this people a holy people ! Oh, make this 
people a holy people ! Art thou a holy kinsman, a holy friend, then 
thou wilt labour to make thy kindred holy, and thy friends holy : as 
holy Cornelius did, as you may see in Acts x. 24, 27, ' And the mor- 
row after they entered into Cesarea. And Cornelius waited for them, 
and had called together his kinsmen and near friends. And as Peter 
talked with him, he went in, and found many that were come together.' 
And in ver. 33, saith Cornelius to Peter, ' Thou hast well done that 
thou art come. Now therefore we are all here present before God, to 
hear all things that are commanded thee of God.' i Devout Cornelius 
gets his kinsmen and near friends together, that they also might be 
partakers of the grace and mercy of God with him. He had ex- 
perienced a work of grace and holiness upon his own heart, and he uses, 
his best endeavours that they might experience the same on theirs. 
A holy Christian is like a loadstone, that draws to itself first one iron 
ring, and that another, and that a third. As there is a natural instinct 
in all creatures to propagate their own kind, as in beasts, birds, and 
fishes, so there is a holy, a spiritual instinct in all gracious hearts to 
propagate grace and holiness in whatever hearts they can. Look, as 
fire will assimilate and turn everything that comes near it into its own 
nature, so will a holy heart labour to make all that comes near him 
like himself. Look, as one drunkard labours to make another, and one 
swearer another, and one wanton another, and one thief another, and 
one idle person another, and one fearful person another, and one doubt- 
ful person another, and one erroneous person another, &c., so one holy 
heart labours to make another, one gracious heart labours to make 
another.2 He that is humble will labour to make others humble, he 
that is sincere wiU labour to make others sincere, he that is faithful will 
labour to make others to be faithful, he that is fruitful will labour to 
make others fruitful, and he that is watchful will labour to make others 
watchful. A heart that is truly holy wiU labour, by prayers, reproofs, 
tears, example, counsel, and commands, to make others like himself. 
He knows that there is no love, no wisdom, no care, no pains, next to 
that which he takes with his own heart, to that which is laid out to 
make unholy hearts holy. And therefore he prays and weeps, and 
weeps and prays, that holiness may be written upon all that his name 
is written upon ; he learns and teaches, and he teaches and learns, and 
all that he may teach and learn others to be holy ; he counts it not 

1 So in John i. 39, 49, and iv. 28-30. 

' It is a true saying in natural philosophy, that it is Naturalissimum opus viventia 
generate sibi simile : The most natural act or work of every living thing to produce 
another like unto itself. 


worth while to live in this world, were it not for the glory of God, and 
the good of his own and others' souls. But now, what shall we say of 
those persons who are so far from being holy, who are so far from 
drawing others to be holy, that they do what they can to make those 
that are holy to become unholy, and who strongly tempt those that are 
unholy to be more unholy ? These are factors i for hell, and cer- 
tainly such solicitors shall at last be most dreadfully handled by hellish 
tormentors. But, 

10. Tenthly, He that is really holy, will be holy in the use of 
earthly and common things, as well as in the use of spiritual arid 
heavenly things, Titus i. 15. He will be spiritual in the use of carnal 
things, and heavenly in the use of earthly things. There is a silver 
vein of sanctity that runs through all his worldly concernments. If 
you look upon him in his eating and drinking, you shall find him holy, 
1 Cor. X. 31. If you look upon him in his buying and selling, in has 
paying and receiving, you shall find him holy : Isa. xxiii. 18, ' And her 
merchandise and her hire shall be holiness to the Lord.' Before Tyre's 
conversion, she laboured to enrich herself by hook and by crook : all 
was fish that came to Tyre's net. Tyre could say anything, or do any- 
thing, or be anything, for gain. Oh, but when Tyi-e is converted and 
sanctified, then all her merchandise and hire, then all her gettings and 
earnings, shall be holiness to the Lord. Tyre now shall write holiness 
upon all her wares and commodities. Tyre shall buy nothing, nor sell 
nothing, nor exchange nothing, but there shall be holiness written upon 
it. And Tyre shall be as well holy in using and improving of her 
merchandise and hire, as she hath been holy in the getting of them ; 
for so it follows in the same verse, * It shall not be treasured nor laid 
up ; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the Lord, 
to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing.' Tyre, before her conver- 
sion, hoarded up riches, and laid up her merchandise to spend upon 
her lusts, to spend upon her pride, and wantonness, and luxuriousness, 
&c. But now, being converted, she uses and improves what she hath 
in the service of the Lord, and for the comfort, support, and relief of 
the poor and needy. When Tyre is once made holy, then Tyre will 
be holy in the use of all her earthly enjoyments. If you look upon a 
holy man going to war, then you shall find holiness written upon the 
bridles of his horses : Zech. xiv. 20, 21 , 'In that day shall there be 
upon the bridles, or bells, of the horses. Holiness unto the Lord. Yea, 
every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the Lord 
of hosts.' 2 Here is holiness written upon the bridles of the horses they 
ride on, and holiness written upon the cups and pots they drink in. 
A holy heart will be holy in the use of the meanest things that are for 
common use. Every piece of his civility ^ shall savour of sanctity, and 
in aU the parts of his common conversation you shall be able to dis- 
cern something of the power of religion : Job v. 24, ' And thou shalt 
visit thy habitation, and shalt not sin.' Thou shalt be holy in thy 
commerce, and holy in thy converse. Holiness shall be written upon 

^ ' Agents,' ' instruments.* — G. 

" Calvin renders it stables of horses, which are the most stinking and contemptible 
places ; and yet these should be holily used. 
'^ = Morality. — G. 


thy dealings with thy servants, and holiness shall be written upon thy 
carriages towards thy children, and holiness shall be written upon all 
thy behaviours towards thy friends. Whatever thou puttest thy hand 
to in thy habitation, shall have holiness written upon it : thou shalt 
make a Jacob's ladder of all thy earthly enjoyments ; all the comforts 
that be in thy habitation, shall be as so many bright morning stars to 
lead thee on in a way of holiness, and to lead thee up to a holy Grod. 
Look upon a holy man in his calling, and you shall find him holy : 
look upon him in the use of the creatures, and you shall find him 
holy : look upon him in his recreations, and you shall find him holy. 
The habitual frame and bent of his heart is to be holy in every earthly 
thing that he puts his hand unto. A spirit of holiness runs and shines 
in all the common actions of his Hfe. But now look upon those who 
have only the shows and appearances of holiness, and you shall find 
that they have but a common spirit in common things. Take them 
out of their duties, and you shall find them in a course to be earthly 
in the use of earthly things, and carnal in the use of carnal things, 
and worldly in the use of worldly things. All their religion, all their 
holiness, lies in a few duties ; take them out of these, and you shall 
find them as carnal, as vain, as foolish, as filthy and as frothy, as light 
and as slight, as those that have not so much as a cloak of hohness 
upon them. But he that is really holy, will be holy as well out of 
duties as in duties. If you look narrowly upon him in all his worldly 
concernments, you shall find some footsteps of the awe, fear, dread, 
authority, and glory of God upon his spirit. Look, as an unholy heart 
is carnal in spiritual things, and earthly in heavenly things, and un- 
holy in holy things ; so a man that is truly holy, he is as well holy in 
the ordinary affairs and actions of this life, as he is holy in any of the 
exercises of religion. But, 

11. Eleventhly, True holiness is conformable to the holiness of Christ. 
The holiness of Christ is that first and noble pattern that real holiness 
makes us conformable to : 1 John iv. 17, * Herein is our love made 
perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment, because 
as he is, so are we in this world.' There is no grace in Christ which 
is not in some degree formed in a holy heart, 1 John ii. 6 : and there- 
fore the work of grace and holiness is caUed a forming of Christ in the 
soul, Gal. iv. ] 9. Holy hearts have the very prints, stamps, and im- 
pressions of the graces of Jesus Christ upon them : John i. 16, * Of his 
fulness we have all received grace for grace.' ^ Look, as face answers to 
face, so the graces that are in real Christians answer to the graces thaft 
are in Jesus ; there is such love as answers to the love of Christ, and 
such lowliness as answers to the lowliness of Christ, and such heavenly- 
mindedness as answers to the heavenly-mindedness of Christ, and such 
meekness as answers to the meekness of Christ, and such patience 
as answers to the patience of Christ, and such faith as answers to the 
faith of Christ, and such zeal as answers to the zeal of Christ, and such 
fear as answers to the fear of Christ, in truth and reality, though not 
in degree and quantity. Look, as in generation the child receives 

^ Gratiam super gratiam, say some ; Gratiam gratia accumalatam, say others. Cer- 
tainly Christ is a seminar}' of graces. He is clara epitome virtutum, an exact epitome of 


member for member ; or as the paper from the press, letter for letter ; 
or the glass from the face, image for image ; or as the wax from the 
seal, stamp for stamp ; so holy hearts receive from Christ grace 
for grace. Look, as wine in the bottle is conformable to that in the 
butt, and as water in the cistern is conformable to that in the river, 
and as light in the air is conformable to that in the sun, and as milk 
in the saucer is conformable to milk in the breasts, and as money 
in the pocket is conformable to money in the bag, so the graces that 
are in a holy Christian are conformable to the graces that are in 
Christ, 2 Cor. iii. 17, 18. To be a philosopher, saith Plato, is to know 
God, to be in love with God, and to imitate God. So say I, to be a holy 
person is to know a holy Christ, to be in love with a holy Christ, and 
to imitate the virtues of a holy Christ. It was the height of Caesar's 
glory to walk in the steps of Alexander ; and of Selymus,! a Turkish 
emperor, to walk in the steps of Caesar ; and of Themistocles to walk 
in the steps of Miltiades ; so it is the height of a Christian's glory 
to tread in the virtuous steps of his dearest Lord. And as Scipio 
accounted it no small disparagement for him to walk one foot awry 
from that course of life which Cyrus in Xenophon had gone before 
him in, so a holy heart counts it no small disparagement to him 
in the least to step awry from that holy pattern that Christ hath set 
him. Look, as the holy prophet did lay his mouth to the Shunammite's 
child's mouth, and his eyes to his eyes, and his hands to his hands, 
2 Kings iv. 34; so a holy Christian lays his mouth to the mouth 
of Christ, and his eyes to the eyes of Christ, and his hands to the 
hands of Christ, and his breasts to the breasts of Christ, and his heart 
to the heart of Christ : that is, he doth in all things labour to resemble 
Christ, to be like to Christ ; especially in those holy virtues which were 
most shining in the heart and life of Christ, 1 Pet. ii. 9. Now 
certainly they are far from being holy who count it a crime to be 
virtuous ; and so are they who walk directly contrary to Jesus Christ. 
He was holy, but they are profane ; he was humble, but they are 
proud ; he was heavenly, but they are earthly ; he was spiritual, 
but they are carnal ; he was zealous, but they are lukewarm ; he was 
meek, but they are contentious,; he was charitable, but they are 
covetous ; he was courteous, but they are malicious. Will you caH 
these men holy ? Surely no. But, 

12. Twelfthly, He that is truly holy is much affected and afflicted 
loith the unholiness of others :^ Ps. cxix. 53, ' Horror hath taken hold 
upon me, because of the wicked that forsake thy law ;' ver. 158, 'I 
beheld the transgressors, and was grieved, because they kept not thy 
word ;' ver. 136, ' Rivers of waters run down mine eyes, because they 
keep not thy law.' By this hyperbolical phrase he sets forth the great- 
ness of his sorrows, and that not because his enemies had wronged him, 
but because they had dishonoured his God. It was a great grief to him 
to see others a-grieving his God. So Jer, ix. 1-3, ' Oh that my head 
were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day 
and night ! oh that I had in the wilderness a lodging-place of wayfar- 
ing men, that I might leave my people, and go from them.' But why 

1 Solyman (?)— G. 

2 Josh. vii. 9 ; Ps. Ixix. 9 ; Ezra ix. 3 ; Nch. ix; Dan. ix; Micah i. 8 ; Jer. xiii. 17. 
VOL. IV. * I 


doth the holy prophet thus take on ? why doth he thus lament ? why 
doth he wish himself turned into waters, and into a fountain of tears ? 
why doth he prefer a habitation amongst the wild beasts, before 
his habitation among his own people ? Why, the cause you have 
m the following words, ' For they be all adulterers, an assembly of 
treacherous men, and they bend their tongues like their bow for lies : 
but they are not valiant for the truth upon the earth ; for they proceed 
from evil to evil, and they know not me, saith the Lord.' So 
Ezek. ix. 4, 'And the Lord said unto him, Gro through the midst 
of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the 
foreheads of the men that sigh, and that cry for all the abominations 
that be done in the midst thereof.' There were holy hearts in 
Jerusalem that did sigh and cry, and cry and sigh for the wickedness 
of the times ; the abominations of the times did lie in such full weight 
upon them, that they did fetch many a sigh from their hearts, and 
many a tear from their eyes. Holy hearts are able to tell you many sad 
stories of the groans, griefs, and gripes that other men's sins hath cost 
them. When most were a-sinning, God's marked ones were a-mourn- 
ing ; when others were with a high hand a-cursing, blaspheming, and 
a-rebelling, God's marked ones were deeply sorrowing ; they mourned 
cordially, they sighed greatly, they grieved wonderfully, they groaned 
lamentably, and that not for some, but for all, for all court sins, 
and church sins, and city sins, and family sins. And so holy Faul 
could not with dry eyes make mention of those belly-gods and earth- 
worms that were in his time, Phil. iii. 18. So holy Lot was much 
affected and afflicted with seeing and hearing of the wickedness of those 
among whom he lived, 2 Pet. ii. 7, 8. The Greek word for vexed, in 
ver. 7, KaTanrovov/jLevov, signifies to be oppressed under the wanton 
and wicked conversation of the ungodly Sodomites, as^a man that 
is oppressed under a heavy burden which he labours under, and would 
fain be delivered from ; or to be oppressed, as the Israelites were under 
their cruel Egyptian taskmasters. Ah, the sins, the wickedness of 
others sets hard upon the hearts of the saints ! The Israelites did not 
more labour and sigh and groan under all their loads and oppressions, 
than many holy hearts do labour and sigh and groan under the load of 
wicked men's sins. And the Greek word for vexed, in ver. 8, i^aard- 
vit,ev, signifies to be tortured, tormented, and racked. ^ Oh, their wicked- 
ness did torment and rack his righteous soul; he could not see nor 
hear of their wickedness, but his soul was as upon a rack. Pambus, in 
ecclesiastical history, wept when he saw a harlot take so much pains 
to deck and dress herself in curious and costly apparel, and all to enter- 
tain a wanton lover, and so to make work for hell. Oh, it cannot but 
grieve a gracious soul to see what pains poor sinners take to go to hell ! 
A holy heart looks upon other men's sins as great dishonours done to 
his father, his king; and therefore he cannot but cry out with Croesus his 
son, who though he was born dumb, yet seeing some going about to kill 
his father, his tongue-strings unloosed, and he cried out, ' Oh kill not 
king Croesus, kill not my father.' ^ Oh kill not my God, and my 
King ! Oh kUl not, oh dishonour not my dear Father and Saviour, 

^ It is a metaphor taken from engines that they did torment people withal. 
' As before.— G. 


saith a holy heart. Such is the love and high respects that holy- 
hearts bear to their heavenly Father, that they cannot but grieve, and 
mourn, and cry out when they see others to act treason against the 
crown and dignity of heaven. Elijah had rather die than to see Ahab 
and Jezebel to cast contempt and dishonour upon his God. 

[1.] A holy heart mourns for sin as sin, he weeps over the very 
nature of sin ; he grieves for sin as it is the breach of a holy law, and 
as it is a dishonour to a holy God, &c., and therefore he cannot 
but mourn for other men's sins as well as his own.i He that hates a 
toad as a toad, will hate a toad in other men's bosoms as well as 
his own ; he that hates poison as poison, wiU hate poison in another 
man's hand as well as his own : so he that hates sin as sin, will hate 
it wherever he sees it ; and he that mourns over sin as sin, cannot 
but mourn over sin wherever he observes it. 

[2.] By other men's sins a holy man is put in mind of the badness 
of his own heart. Bernard makes mention in one of his Homilies of an 
old man, who, when he saw any man sin, wept and lamented for him, 
and being asked why he grieved so for other men s sins, answered, Ille 
hodie, et ego eras; He fell to-day, and I may fall to-morrow. The 
faUs of others puts a holy man in mind of the roots of bitterness that be 
in himself Other men's actual sins are as so many glasses, through 
which a holy man comes to see the manifold seeds of sin that be in his 
own nature, and such a sight as this cannot but melt him and break 

[3.] A holy heart knows that the best way to keep himself pure 
from other men's sins, is to mourn for other men's sins.^ He that 
makes conscience of weeping over other men's sins will rarely be 
defiled with other men's sins. He that mourns not over other men's 
sins is accessary to other men's sins : and first or last may find them 
charged upon his account. He that mourns not for other men's sins is 
in danger of being ensnared by other men's sins. And how then can 
a holy man look upon other men's sins with dry eyes ? 

[4.] A holy man looks upon other men's sins as the crucifiers of his 
Saviour. He looks upon the proud man's pride as that which set 
a crown of thorns upon the sacred head of Christ, and this makes him 
sigh ; he looks upon the swearer's oaths as the nails that nailed his 
blessed hands and feet to the cross, and this makes him grieve ; he 
looks upon scomers as spitting upon Christ, and worldlings as prefer- 
ring Barabbas before Christ, and this makes him groan ; he looks upon 
hypocrites as kissing and betraying of Christ, and he looks upon 
drunkards and wantons as giving gall and vinegar to Christ, and this 
makes him mourn ; he looks upon other men's sins as having a hand 
in all Christ's torments, and this puts him upon the rack, and makes 
his very soul heavy, even to the death. 

[5.] A holy heart knows that by mourning for other men's sins, 
he may be instrumental to keep off wrath, Ezek. ix. 4, 6. How oft 
did holy Moses by his tears quench the wrath of an angry God I 
However, if wrath should break forth upon a nation, yet_ they that 
mourn for the abominations of the times, they shall be hid in the day 

^ He that hates a thief as a thief, will hate a thief in another man's house as well as 
in his own. * 1 Tim. v. 22 j 1 Cor. v. 1-3 ; Eph. v. 11. 


of God's public visitation, Isa. xxvi. 20. When the house is on fire, 
the father hath a special care to provide for the safety and security of 
his children ; when the lumber is on fire, a man will be sure first to 
secure his box of jewels. In times of common calamity, God will be 
sure to look after his jewels, his mourning ones. Though the lumber, 
the wicked, be burnt up on every hand in the day of God's wrath, yet 
he will be sure to preserve his jewels in the midst of the flames. ^ 
Augustine, coming to visit a sick man, found the room full of mourners ; 
he found the wife sobbing, the children sighing, and the kindred 
lamenting ; whereupon he suddenly breathed forth this short, but 
sweet ejaculatory prayer, ' Lord,' saith he, ' what prayers dost thou hear, 
if not these?' So in times of common calamity, holy hearts may 
look up and say. Ah, Lord, whose sighs, whose groans, whose tears 
wilt thou hear, if not ours ? Who are mourners in Sion, and who 
wilt thou save and secure, in this day of thy fierce indignation, if not 
we, who have laboured to drown both our own and other men's sins in 
penitential tears ? 

[6.] A holy heart looks upon sinners' sins to contribute very much 
towards the bringing in of sore and sad changes upon a land and 
nation, Ps. cvii. 33, 34. He knows that sinners' sins may turn rivers 
into a wilderness, a^d water-springs into dry ground, and a fruitful 
land into a barren wilderness ; he knows that sinners' sins may have a 
deep hand in provoking God to rain hell out of heaven upon a sinful 
nation, as he did of old upon Sodom and Gomorrah, and this sets him 
a-mourning. If one sinner destroys much good, as Solomon speaks, 
Eccles. ix. 18, Ah, saith he, what a world of good will a world of sin- 
ners destroy then ! The serious thoughts of this makes him sigh. 2 

[7.] A holy heart looks upon other men's sins as their bonds and 
chains. Acts viii. 23, and this makes him mourn. When Marcellus, the 
Koman general, saw the multitude of captives that were taken in the city 
of Syracuse, the tears trickled down his cheeks. Ah, how can tears but 
trickle down a Christian's cheeks when he sees multitudes, fast bound 
with the cords of their iniquity, trooping to hell ? Who can look upon 
a sinner as a close prisoner to the prince oi darkness, and not bemoan 
him ? Now if holy persons thus mourn for the wickedness of others, 
then certainly they are far from being holy who take pleasure in the 
wickedness of others, who laugh and joy, who can make a sport, a 
pastime of other men's sins. These are rather monsters than men. 
There are none so nearly allied to Satan as these, nor none resemble 
Satan to the life so much as these. The devil always joys most when 
sinners sin most.^ Neither doubtless are they holy who tempt and 
entice others to be unholy ; nor are they holy who only cry out of 
other men's sins, but never sigh for other men's sins ; nor are they holy 
who insult over the iniquities of others, but never mourn for the iniqui- 
ties of others ; nor are they holy who can rail, reproach, and revile others 
for their sins, but have neither skill nor will to lament over others' 
sins : and yet this age is full of such wretches. Certainly that man's 

^ Isa. xliii. 2, 3; Dan. iii. 17-28. 

^ Witness Achan, Manasseh, Jeroboam, Saul, Herod, Ahab, &c. 

^ To applaud to them, and take pleasure in them wlio take pleasure in sin, is the 
highest degree of ungodliness. 


holiness will be found to be of the right stamp at last, who can evan- 
gelically mourn for other men's sins as well as his own. But, 

13. Thirteenthly, He that is truly holy, he loves the loord, and is 
affected and taken with the loord for its holiness and purity: Ps. cxix. 
140, ' Thy word is very pure, therefore thy servant loveth it.' A 
pure heart embraces the word for its purity, 1 Pet. ii. 2 ; Ps. xii. 6, 
7, and xviii. 30.^ So holy Paul in Kom. vii. 12, ' Wherefore the law 
is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.' Well, and 
what then ? Why, saith he, ver. 22, * I delight in the law of God after 
the inward man.' But is this all ? No, saith he, ver. 25, ' With the 
mind I myself serve the law of God.' Holy Paul delights in the law 
as holy, and serves the law as holy, just, and good. A holy heart is 
taken with the word for its spirituality, divinity, and purity. So in 
Ps. xix. 8-10, ' The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart : 
the commandment of the Lord is pure^ enlightening the eyes. The 
fear of the Lord is clean,' (that is, the doctrine that teacheth the true 
fear of God,) ' enduring for ever : the judgments of the Lord are true 
and righteous altogether ; more to be desired are they than gold, yea, 
than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb:' 
or, as the Hebrew hath it, sweeter than the dropping of honeycombs.^ 
The whole word of God, as it is a pure word, a clean word, so it 
rejoices a holy heart ; and so it is sweeter than the very droppings of 
honeycombs. It is more sweet than those drops which drop imme- 
diately and naturally, without any force or art, which is counted the 
purest and the sweetest honey. There is no profit nor pleasure to that 
which the purity of the word yields to a holy heart. But now unholy 
hearts they are affected with the word as it is dressed up with fine 
high notions, which are but mysterious nothings : they are taken with 
the word, as it is clothed with arts, parts, and elegancy of phrase ; they 
are pleased with the word, as it is appareUed with a spruce wit, or 
with silken expressions, or with some delicate elocution. Augustine 
confesseth that the delight which he took before his conversion in St 
Ambrose's sermons, was more for the eloquence of the words than the 
substance of the matter •,^ so many are taken more with the wit, elocu- 
tion, action, high notions, and far-fetched expressions that be in a 
sermon, than they are taken with the spirituality, divinity, weight, 
and holy worth that is in a sermon ; these are like those children who 
are more taken with the fine flowers that are strewed about the dish, 
than they are with the meat that is in the dish ; and that are more 
taken with the red weeds and blue-bottles that grow in the field, than 
they are with the good corn that grows there.* But now, as the prudent 
farmer is taken more with a few handfuls of sound corn, than he is 
with all the gay weeds that be in the field ; so a holy heart is more 
taken with a few sound truths in a sermon, than he is taken with all 

' Sacrse ScriptursD tuse sunt sanctse deliciae mese. — Augiistine. 

" These several titles — law, statutes, testimonj', commandments, judgments — are used 
promiscuously for the whole word of God, commonly distinguished into law and gospel. 

'' Cf. Sibbes, s. n. : and Confessions.— G. 

* In great fairs and markets, the pedlar and the ballad-singer who sell toys and trifles, 
have most children and fools hanging upon them ; but they that are wise and prudent 
attend those shops where there is best and richest commodities. You know how to 
apply it. 


the strong lines, and high strains, and flourishes of wit with which a 
sermon may be decked up. Some are taken with the word, as the 
profession of it brings in customers into their shops, and keeps up their 
credits in the world. Others are taken with the word, as it seems to 
tickle their ears and please their fancies. Some are affected with 
sermons because of the elegancy of the style, delicacy of the words, 
smoothness of the language, and gracefulness of the delivery. And 
these deal by sermons as many men do by their nosegays, that are 
made up of many picked sweet flowers, who, after they have smelt to 
them a while, cast them into a corner. So these, after they have com- 
mended a sermon, after they have applauded a sermon, they cast away 
the sermon : they smell to the sermon, and say it is sweet, it is sweet, 
and presently they throw it by, as a nosegay that is withered, and of 
no further use. When a man that is sick, crazy, and unsound, is at a 
table that is furnished with variety of dishes, you know he easily and 
readily passes over all the most wliolesome and nourishing dishes, and 
falls a-piddlingi and picking here and there upon kickshaws 2 and puff- 
paste, that have little or no substance in them. So unsound, unholy 
hearts, when God hath prepared his table, and made a feast of fat 
things for their souls in the ministry of his word, they can easily and 
readily pass over those sound, solid, and savoury truths that are pre- 
pared for their strength and nourishment, and fall a-piddling and 
picking upon some new-coined phrases, or some quaint expressions, 
or some seraphical notions : and no wonder, for they are not sound 
within, they are under a great distemper: as the Israelites would not 
be satisfied with wholesome diet, but they must needs have quails as 
picking meat; well, they had them, and whilst they were at their 
picking meat, the wrath of God came upon them. The application 
is as easy as it is dreadful. But now a holy heart savours the word, 
and relishes the word, and is affected and taken with the word, as it 
is a holy word, a substantial word, a pure word, a clean word, 
and as it begets holiness, and cherishes holiness, and increases holi- 
ness, and as it works towards the completing and perfecting of 

Quest. But how may a person know whether he loves the word, and 
is affected and taken with the word, as it is a holy word, or no ? 

Ans. [1.] First, By what hath been already said. But because the 
question is weighty, I further answer 

[2.] In the second place, He that loves the word, and that is affected and 
taken with the word as it is a holy word, he loves the whole word of 
God, and he is affected and taken with one part of the word as well as 
another. Every law of God is a holy law, and every statute is a holy 
statute, and every command is a holy command, and every promise is a 
holy promise, and every threatening is a holy threatening, and every 
exhortation is a holy exhortation; and, therefore, he that loves any part 
of the word as a holy word, he cannot but love every part of the word, 
because every part of the word is holy.3 And indeed he loves no part 

» ' To eat daintily.'— G. 

' 'A made dish in cookery:' another Shakesperian word, 2 Henry IV., v. 1, and 
Twelfth Night, i. 3.— G. > j , > 

* As the wise philosopher delights in all Aristotle, and the prudent physician in all 
Galen, and the grave orator in all Tully, and the understanding lawyer in all Justinian ; 


of the word as holy who loves not every part of the word as such. Every 
chapter in the book of God is a holy chapter, and every verse is a holy 
verse, and every line in that book is a holy line, and every word in every 
line is a holy word. He that loves a chapter as it is a holy chapter, 
he loves every verse in that chapter as a holy verse ; and he that loves 
every verse as a holy verse, he loves every Hne as a holy line ; and he 
that loves every line as a holy line, he loves every word in every line 
as a holy word. Upon easy commands he reads holiness, and upon 
difficult commands he reads hohness ; upon comfortable commands he 
reads holiness, and upon costly commands he reads holiness, and upon 
dangerous commands he reads holiness, and therefore he loves all, and 
closes with all, and endeavours a conformity to all. A holy heart 
dares neither to dispute with that word, nor make light of that word, 
where he reads holiness engraven upon it. To a holy heart there is no 
command of God unjust or unreasonable. But now an unholy heart, 
though it may for some worldly advantages court and cry up some 
parts of the word, yet it is ready, with Judas, to betray and crucify 
other parts of the word. The whole Scripture is but one entire love- 
letter, despatched from the Lord Clirist to his beloved spouse on earth ; 
and this letter is written all in golden letters, and therefore a holy 
heart cannot but be taken and affected with every line in this letter. 
In this love-letter there is so much to be read of the love of Christ, 
the heart of Christ, the kindness of Christ, the grace of Christ, and 
the glory of Christ, that a holy heart cannot but be affected and taken 
with it. The whole word of God is a field, and Christ is the treasure 
that is hid in that field ; it is a ring of gold, and Christ is the pearl 
in that ring, and therefore a holy heart cannot but be taken with the 
whole word of God. Luther was wont to say that he would not take 
all the world for one leaf of the Bible. And Kabbi Chija, in the Jeru- 
salem Talmud, says that in his account all the world is not of equal 
value with one word out of the law. 

[3.] Thirdly, A man that is affected and taken with the word as 
it is a holy word, he is always affected and taken with it ; he loves it 
and takes pleasure in it, as well in adversity as in prosperity : Ps. 
cxix. 59, ' Thy statutes have been my songs' — ay, but where? — 'in 
the house of my pilgrimage,' or ' pilgrimages,' as the Hebrew hath it.i 
When David was in his banishments, by reason of Saul, Absalom, and 
others, now the word of God was music to him, now it was matter of 
joy and rejoicing to him ; his whole life was the life of a pilgrim and 
stranger ; now as a pilgrim he sojourns here, and anon as a stranger 
he sojourns there. No man could take more pleasure, joy, and con- 
tentment in the rarest and choicest music than David did in the 
word of God, and that not only when he was in his royal palace, but 
also when he was in the house of his pilgrimage. He that loves the 
word, and that delights in the word for its holiness and purity, he will 
love it and delight in it in health and sickness, in strength and weakness, 
in honour and disgrace, in wealth and want, in life and in death. The 

so a holy man delights in all the Bible. The Jewish Eabbins were wont to say that 
upon every letter of the law there hangs mountains of profitable matter. 

^ The saints have commonly looked upon themselves as pilgrima and strangers in this 
world, Gen. xlvii. 9, 39 ; Ps. lii. 19 ; Heb. li. 9, 10, &c 


holiness of the word is a lasting holiness, and so will every man's affec- 
tions be towards it who affects it, and is taken with it for its holiness and 
pureness. Some there be that cry up the word, and that seem to be much 
affected, delighted, and ravished with the word, — as Herod, Ezekiel's 
hearers, and the stony ground was,Ezek. xxxiii. 30-33, and Mark iv. and 
vi.,&c,, — whilst the word is either a cheap word to them, or a profit- 
able and pleasing word to them, or whilst it is courted and countenanced 
in the world, or whilst it is the path to preferment, or a key to enlarge- 
ment, &c. But when the word gets within them, and discovers their own 
sinfulness and wretchedness to them, when it shews them how Christ- 
less, and graceless, and lifeless,, and helpless, and hopeless they are; when 
it discovers how far they are from heaven, and how near they are to 
hell, Jer, xliv. 15, 29 ; oh, then their hearts begin to rise against it, 
and to cry out. Away with it ; it was never good days since we have 
had so much preaching and hearing: or when the word comes to 
be scorned, slighted, disgraced, opposed, or persecuted, oh, then they 
turn their backs upon it, and quickly grow weary of it. As the 
lassians i in Strabo delighted themselves with the music of an ex- 
cellent harper till they heard the market-bell ring, and then they 
run all away save a deaf old man, that could take but little delight in 
the harper s ditties ; so let these men but hear the bell of lust, or the 
bell of profit, or the bell of pleasure,, or the bell of applause, or the bell 
of honour, or the bell of error, or the bell of superstition sound in 
their ears, and presently they will run from the sweet music of the 
word, to follow after any of these bells. But now a man that loves 
the word, and that is affected and taken with the word as it is a holy 
word, no bell can ring him from the word, no disgrace, no affliction, 
no opposition, no persecution, can take him off from affecting the word, 
and from taking pleasure in the word. The cause of his love is abid- 
ing and lasting, and therefore his love cannot but be lasting and con- 
tinuing. Not but that a holy heart may sometimes be more affected 
and taken with the word than at other times : as first, when a man 
enjoys much communion with God in the word ; or second, when God 
speaks much peace and comfort to the soul by the word ; or third, 
when God assures a man more clearly and fully of the goodness and 
happiness of his condition by the word ; or fourth, when God lets in 
very much quietness, or quickness, or sweetness, or seriousness, or 
spiritualness into a man's spirit by the word. Oh, then a man may 
more than ordinarily be affected and taken with the word. But now, 
though a holy Christian is not at all times in the same degree and 
measure taken with the word, yet take such a Christian when he is 
at worst, and you shall find two things in him : (1.) you shaU find 
in him a holy love to the word ; and (2.) you shall find in him a real 
love to holy Christians. 

[4.] Fourthly, He that loves the word, and that is affected and 
taken with the word as it is a holy word, he is most affected and taken 
with those parts of the word that do most incite to holiness, that 
do most promote hoHness, and that do most provoke to holiness. 
As 1 Pet. i. 15, 16, * But as he which hath called you is holy, so be 
ye holy in all manner of conversation ; because it is written, Be ye 

^ Strabo, lib. xiv.^ 



holy, for I am holy.' [I shall give you light into these words when I 
come to open the holiness of God to you.] So Mat. v. 48, ' Be ye 
therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.' i 
Our summum bonum in this world consists in our conformity to the 
heavenly pattern. In all imitations it is best to choose the most per- 
fect pattern. There is nothing more laudable and commendable than 
for a Christian to endeavour more and more to resemble his God in 
the highest perfections of righteousness and holiness. So Eph. v. 15, 
16, ' See then that ye walk circumspectly, [a/cpt/Seo?,] not as fools, 
but as wise ; redeeming the time, because the days are evil.' Chris- 
tians must walk precisely, curiously, exactly, accurately. As the 
carpenter works by line and rule, so a Christian must walk by line and 
rule ; he must labour to get up to the very top of godliness ; he must 
go to the utmost of every command, as the original word importeth. 
So Phil. ii. 15, ' That ye may be blameless and harmless,' or sincere, 
' the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and per- 
verse nation, among whom ye shine,' or shine ye, ' as lights in the world.' 
God's sons should be spotless sons,^ as the Greek imports, that is, they 
should be without aU such spots as are inconsistent with sonship or 
saintship. And so in Col. ii. 6, ' As ye have therefore received Jesus 
Christ the Lord, so walk ye in him.' They had received Jesus Christ 
as their Lord and Law-girer, they had received Christ as a ruling 
Christ, as a reigning Christ, and as a commanding Christ ; and now 
the great duty incumbent upon them is to walk at such a rate of 
holiness as may evidence that they have thus received Christ. And 
so in 1 John ii. 6, ' He that saith he abideth in him, ought himself 
also to walk even as he walked.' Christians are to set all Christ's 
moral actions before them as a pattern for their imitation, John xiii. 
15. In His life a Christian may behold the lively picture or linea- 
ments of all virtues, and accordingly he ought to order his conversa- 
tion in this world. To walk as Christ walked is to walk humbly, 
holily, justly, righteously, meekly, lowly, lovingly, fruitfully, faithfully, 
uprightly, with an 'as' of quality or similitude, but not with an 
' as ' of equality ; for that is impossible for any saint on earth — to walk 
so purely, so holily, so blamelessly, so unspottedly, so spiritually, so 
heavenly as Christ walked ; that is, with an ' as ' of equality. To 
walk as Christ walked is to slight the world, and contemn the world, 
and make a footstool of the world, and to live above the world, and 
to triumph over the world as Christ did ; that is, with an ' as ' 
of quality, but not with an 'as' of equality. To walk as Christ 
walked is to love them that hate us, to pray for them that persecute 
us, to bless them that curse us, and to do good to them that do evil 
to us ; but still with an ' as ' of similitude, but not with an * as ' of 
equality, Mat, v. 44-47. To walk as Christ walked is to be patient, 
and silent, and submissive, and thankful, under the vilest reproaches, 
the heaviest affictions, and the greatest sufferings, 1 Pet, ii. 20-23 ; 
with an ' as ' of quality, but not with an ' as ' of equality. Now a 
holy heart that is taken with the holiness of the word, he is certainly 
taken most with those parts of the word that do most call for holi- 

^ Ad similitudinem, non sequalitatem. — Calvin. 
' AfienvToi, i.e., Sine querela, Bine reprehensione. 


ness, and that do most strongly press the soul to make a progress in 
holiness. I have given you a taste of some of the most principal 
scriptures that do incite most to holiness, and I shall leave it to your 
own consciences to give in witness for you or against you, according 
to what you find in your own spirits. Certainly to a holy man there 
are no prayers, no sermons, no discourses, no conferences, no books, 
nor no parts of scripture, to those that do most encourage and provoke 
to holiness. But, 

[5.] Fiftlily and lastly, He that loves the word, and that is affected 
and taken with the word as it is a holy word, he highly prizes and 
values the holy dispensers of the word for their work's sake. Acts x. 
24-26 ; Gal. iv. 14. Isa. Hi. 7, ' How beautiful upon the mountains 
are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace ; 
that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation ; that 
saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!' If the very feet of those that 
brought good tidings, though they were afar off, and sweaty, dusty, 
and dirty with traveUing upon the mountains, were so desirable 
and amiable, honourable and comfortable, oh then what was their 
faces, what was their messages ! Surely they were much more ami- 
able and desirable. So in 1 Thes. v. 12, 13, ' And we beseech you, 
brethren, to know them which labour among you in the Lord, and 
admonish you ; and to esteem them very highly' (or, more than 
abundantly, as the Greek hath it^) ' in love for their work's sake; and 
be at peace among yourselves.' Their work is to bring Christ and 
your souls together, and to keep Christ and your souls together. 
Their work is to turn you from darkness to light, and from the power 
of Satan to Jesus Christ. 2 Their work is gradual : first, they are to 
bring you to a saving acquaintance with Christ ; and then they are to 
bring you to a holy acceptance of Christ ; and then they are to bring 
you to a willing resignation of yourselves to Christ ; and then they 
are to bring you to a sweet and blessed assurance of your interest in 
Christ, and so to fit you and prepare you for a glorious fruition of 
Christ ; and therefore certainly their work is high and honourable, 
excellent and eminent, laborious and glorious ; and why, then, should 
you not have a high and honourable esteem of them, even for their 
work's sake ? I have read of Ambrose, that being once to leave the 
church of Milan, the people of the place flocked about him, laid hold 
of him, protesting that they had rather lose their lives than lose their 
pastor, beseeching him to remain, and to promote among them the 
gospel and government of Christ, professing and promising, for his 
encouragement, their ready submission to Christ. Chrysostom's hearers 
were wont to say, that they had as good be without the sun in the 
fij-mament, as to be without Chrysostom in the pulpit. Some of the 
ancients have long since concluded that Herod might have kept his 
oath, Mark vi. 23, and yet have spared John Baptist's head, because 
John's head, John's life, was more worth than all Herod's kingdom. 
O sirs, shall Titus Sabinus his dog bring meat to the mouth of his 

^ virepeKirepiffcrou. 

' ActB xxvi. 16-18. If a minister had as many eyes as Argus to watch, as many heads 
as Typheus to dispose, and as many hands as Briareus to labour, he might find employ- 
ment enough for thpm all in the faithful diacharge of his ministerial function. [Of. 
vol. i., p. 3, footnote 1. — G.] 


dead master, and hold up his head in Tiber from sinking, because 
sometimes he gave him a crust of bread ; and will not you highly 
love, honour, and esteem of those pastors who feed your souls with 
the bread of life, yea, with that bread that came down from heaven ? 
Certainly the more any man is affected and taken with the holiness 
of the word, the more highly they will honour and prize the holy and 
faithful dispensers of the word. Holy men know that their place is 
honourable, their calling honourable, and their work honourable ; and 
therefore they cannot but honour them. Holy men know that if they 
do not honour them, they dishonour him whose ambassadors they are. 
Holy men know that Christ takes all the affronts that are put upon 
them as put upon himself, and will accordingly revenge them, as you 
may see by comparing the scriptures in the margin together.^ Am- 
bassadors are inviolable by the law of nations. David never played 
any such harsh part as he did to the Ammonites, that despitefuUy 
used his ambassadors that he sent unto them, when they shaved off 
one half of their beards, and cut off their garments in the middle, &c. 

1 have read that Rome was destroyed to the ground for some abuses 
that were offered to an ambassador that was sent unto it. And the 
Romans sacked the famous city of Corinth, and razed it to the ground, 
for a little discourtesy that they offered to their ambassadors.^ No 
wonder then if God deal so severely with those that slight his ambas- 
sadors, who come with messages of grace and favour from the King 
of kings and Lord of lords, and whose great work is to make a firm, 
an everlasting peace between Grod and sinners' souls, and that all dif- 
ferences between God and them may be for ever decided, and a free 
trade to heaven fully opened and maintained. As for such as slight, 
scorn, and despise the holy and faithful dispensers of the word, I think 
they are as far from real holiness as hell is from true happiness. And 
so, doubtless, are they that grumble at the expense of a penny for the 
maintenance of that divine candle that wasteth itself to give light to 
them, that will rather die to save charges than spend a little money 
to save their lives, yea, their souls, 2 Cor. xii. 14-16. 

14. In ihe fourteenth place, A man that is really holy will be holy 
among the unholy. He will retain and keep his holiness, let the times 
be never so unholy. Principles of grace and holiness are lasting ; they 
are not like the morning cloud nor the early dew, Ps. cxix. 112, and 
cvi. 3 ; 1 John iii. 9, 10. Holy Abraham was righteous in Chaldea ; 
holy Lot was just in Sodom ; holy Job was upright in the land of Uz, 
which was a place of much profaneness and superstition ; holy Nehe- 
miah was courageous and zealous in Damascus; and so was holy 
Daniel in Babylon. The several generations wherein these holy men 
lived were wholly devoted to wickedness and superstition, and yet 
these precious souls had wholly devoted themselves to godliness. ^ And 
of the same spirit, mind, and metal was holy David: Ps. cxix. 20, 
' My soul breaketh for the longing it hath to thy judgments at all 
times.' Let the times be never so dangerous, licentious, superstitious, 
or erroneous, 'yet David's heart was strongly carried forth to God's judg- 

^ Luke X. 16 ; Mat. ixii. 4, 8, xxi. 33, 44, and xxiii. 37-39; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14, 22 ; 

2 Sam. X. 1, 7, compared vith xii. 31. 
* Aa before. — G. 


ments— that is, to his word ; for under this title, 'judgments,' you are 
to understand the whole word of God. And so there were some in Sar- 
dis that were of the same spirit with the worthies above mentioned : 
Eev. iii. 4, ' Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not 
defiled their garments, and they shall walk with me in white, for they 
are worthy.' In polluting times pure hearts will keep themselves 
pure. A holy heart will keep himself undeiiled, even in defiling 
times ; when others are besmeared all over, he will keep his gar- 
ments white and clean. Let the times never so often turn, you shall 
find that he that is really holy will be holy under every turn. No 
turns shall turn him out of a way of holiness : Job xvii. 9, ' The right- 
eous shall hold on his way, and he that hath clean hands shall be 
stronger and stronger.' Finis coronal opus. A man that is really 
holy will be holy among the holy, and he will be holy among the 
unholy. If you look upon him among unholy friends, unholy chil- 
dren, and unholy servants, you shall find him holy ; if you look upon 
him among unholy neighliours, you shall find him holy ; and if you 
look upon him among unholy buyers and sellers, you shall find him 
holy ; if you take him at his table, you shall find him holy ; if you 
take him in his shop, in his commerce, you shall find him holy ; if 
you take him in his family, you shall find him holy ; if you take him 
in his closet, you shall find him holy ; if you take him in his jour- 
neyings, you shah, find him holy ; or if you take him in his recrea- 
tions, you shall find him holy. True holiness is like that famous 
Queen Elizabeth, Semper eadem, always the same. The philosopher's 
good man is (jerpajovos) four square. Cast him where you will, like 
a die, he falls always sure and square. So cast a holy man where you 
will, and into what company you will, yet still he falls sure and square 
for holiness. True holiness is a part of the divine nature ; it is of such 
a heavenly complexion, that it will never alter. If the times should 
be so sad and bad that holy persons should not be able to hold fast 
their estates, their liberties, their trades, their lives, their religion, yet 
they will stiU hold fast their holiness. A holy Christian is like gold. 
Now cast gold into the fire, or into the water ; cast it upon the 
dunghill, or into the pleasant garden ; cast it among the poor or 
among the rich, among the religious or among the licentious ; yet still 
it is gold, still it retains its purity and excellency : so cast a holy 
Christian, a golden Christian, into what condition you will, and into 
what company you will, yet still he will retain his purity, his sanctity ; 
yea, the worse the times are, the more a holy man studies holiness, and 
prefers holiness, and prizes holiness, and practises holiness, that he may 
keep up the credit of holiness, and the credit of a holy God, and the credit 
of his holy profession in the world. But now such as have only a show 
of holiness, an appearance of holiness, these will be religious among 
the religious, and vicious among the vicious, Isa. ix. 17. They will 
be righteous among the righteous, and licentious among the licen- 
tious ; they will be as the company is amongst which they are cast. 
With the good they will be good, and with the bad they will be bad ; 
with the zealous they will be zealous, and with the superstitious they 
will be superstitious ; and with the lukewarm they will be lukewarm, 
&c. They are for all times and tides ; they are for any turn that will 


serve their turn ; for any mode that will bring pleasure or profit to 
them ; they are like Alcibiades, of whom it was said that he was omnium 
horanim homo, a man for all times ; for he could swagger it at Athens, 
and take any pains at Thebes ; he could live most sparingly at Laci- 
dsemon, and bibi among the Thracians, and hunt among the Persians. 
So these men can accommodate themselves to the times, and comply 
with them, whatever they be. With Proteus they will transform 
themselves into all shapes ; as the times change, so will they ; what 
the times favour, that they will favour ; what the times commend, 
that they will commend ; and what the times cry up and admire, that 
they will cry up and admire ; and what the times frown upon and 
condemn, that they will frown upon and condemn. Look, as curious 
and well-drawn pictures seem to turn their eyes every way, and to 
smile upon every one that looks upon them : so these can turn with 
the times ; they can look as the times look, and smile as the times 
smile ; they can say with the times, and sail with the times. Some- 
times they can act one part, and sometimes another part, as the times 
require. If the times require a large profession, they can make it ; 
if the times require a rigid spirit against such as cannot comply with 
the times, they can act it ; if the times bespeak them to leave their 
religion at the church door, they can leave it, &c. If the times caU 
upon them to worship God according to the prescriptions of men, they 
can do it. Oh , but give me a man that is really holy, and he will be 
holy though the times should be never so unholy ; yea, the more licen- 
tious the times are, the more gracious he will labour to be. 

15. In the fifteenth place, He that is really holy propounds ordi- 
narily to himself holy aims and ends in his actings and undertakings. 
The glory of God is the mark, the white that holy men have in their 
eyes: Kom. xiv. 7, 8, They live not to themselves, but they live to him 
who lives for ever ; they live not to their own wills, lusts, greatness, 
and glory in this world, but they live to his glory, whose glory is 
dearer to them than their very lives. ^ They make divine gloiy their 
ultimate end : 2 Cor. iv. 5, ' We preach not ourselves, but Christ 
Jesus the Lord ; ' that is, in our preaching we woo not for ourselves 
but for Christ.3 We are no kin to those who speak two words for 
themselves, and hardly one for Christ. In all our preaching we eye 
the glory of Christ, we design the honour and exaltation of Christ. 
Keal holiness is commonly attended with a single eye, as counterfeit 
holiness is commonly attended with a squint eye ; squint-eyed aims, 
and squint-eyed ends, do usually wait upon double hearts. Take a 
holy man in the exercise of his gifts and graces for the good of men's 
souls, or take him in the exercise of charity for the good of men's 
bodies, and in both you shall find his eye fixed upon the glory of God: 
suitable to that, 1 Pet. iv. 11, 'If any man speak, let him speak as the 
oracles of God ; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability 
which God giveth, that God in all things may be glorified through 
Jesus Christ ; to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. 

' ' Live riotously.' — G. 

2 John vii. 18 ; Gen. xli. 16; Dan. ii. 23; Titus ii. 10, 38; 1 Cor. x ; Kev. xii. 11. 

3 Quod non actibus sed Jinibus pensantur officia : That duties are esteemed not by 
their acts but by their ends, is most certain. 


Amen.' Look, as bright shining golden vessels do not retain the 
beams of the sun which they receive, but reflect them back again upon 
the sun ; so those that are really holy, they do return and reflect back 
again upon the Sun of righteousness the praise and glory of all the 
gifts, graces, and virtues that they have received from him, Kom. xiii. 
7. The daily language of their souls is, Non nobis Domine, non nobis 
Domine, ' Not unto us, Lord, not unto us. Lord, but to thy name be 
all the glory.' Holy men make conscience of giving men their dues ; 
how much more then do they make conscience of giving God his due ? 
1 Chron. xxix. 10, 18. Now glory is God's due, and God stands upon 
nothing more than that we give him the glory due unto his name, as you 
may see in Ps. xxix. 1,2; so in Ps. xcvi. 7, 8. There are three ' gives' 
in those two verses, ' Give unto the Lord,' ' give unto the Lord,' ' give 
unto the Lord the glory that is due unto his name ;' glory is God's 
right, and he stands upon his right ; and this holy men know, and 
therefore they give him his right ; they give him the honour and the 
glory that is due unto his name. Holy hearts do habitually eye the 
glory of Christ in all things. When they eat, they eat to his glory ; 
and when they drink, they drink to his glory, 1 Cor. x. 31 ; and when 
they sleep, they sleep to his glory ; when they buy, they buy for his 
glory ; and when they sell, they sell for his glory ; and when they 
give, they give for his glory ; and when they recreate themselves, they 
recreate themselves for his glory : so when they hear, they hear for 
his glory ; and when they pray, they pray for his glory ; and when 
they fast, they fast for his glory ; and when they read, they read for 
his glory ; and when they come to the Lord's table, they come to his 
glory. In all natural, moral, and religious actions, holy hearts have 
an habitual eye to divine glory. i Do not mistake me; I do not say that 
such as are really holy do actually eye the glory of Christ in all their 
actions : oh no, this is a happiness desirable on earth, but shall never 
be attained till we come to heaven. By and base ends and aims will 
too often creep into the holiest hearts, but holy hearts sigh and groan 
under them ; they complain to God of them, and they cry for justice, 
justice upon them : and it is the strong and earnest desires of their 
souls to be rid of them. But take a holy Christian in his ordinary, 
usual, and habitual course, and so he hath holy aims and ends in all 
his actions and undertakings. But now such whose holiness is coun- 
terfeit, they never look at divine glory in what they do ; sometimes 
their eye is upon their credit, and sometimes their eyes are upon ap- 
plause ; sometimes they have pleasure in their eyes, and sometimes 
they have profit in their eyes, and sometimes they have preferments in 
their eyes, &c. , Mat. vi. 5 ; John vi. 26 ; Zech. vii. 5-7. They will be 
very godly when they can make a gain of godliness ; they will be very 
holy when holiness is the way to outward happiness ; but this religious 
wickedness will double damn them at last. This is most certain, that 
some carnal or worldly consideration or other, always acts him who 
hath not real principles of holiness in him ; but he that is really holy 
makes the glory of God his centre. Propter te Domine, propter te, was 
once, and is still a holy man's motto. 

Quest. But how may a person know when he makes the glory 
^ Quicquid agas, propter Deum agon, waa an Eastern apophthegm, saith Drusius. 


of God his aim, Ms end, in this or that service which he performs ? 
I shall answer this question briefly thus : — 

Am. [1.] First, Such a man as makes the glory of God his aim, his 
end, he luill do duty when all outward encouragements to duty fail. 
When the eye of men, the favour of men, the respects of men, and all 
other encouragements from men fails, yet then a holy man will hold 
up, and hold on in his work and way ; yea, when all outward encour- 
agements from God shall fail, yet such a person will keep close to his 
duty: Hab. iii. 17, 18, ' Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, nei- 
ther shall fruit be in the vines ; the labour of the olives shall fail, and 
the fields shall yield no meat ; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, 
and there shall be no herds in t^e stalls : yet 1 will rejoice in the 
Lord, I will joy in the God of mpsalvation.' When all necessary and 
delightful mercies fail, yet he will not fail in his duty. Though God 
withholds his blessings, yet he will not withhold his service : in the 
want of a livelihood he will be lively in his duty ; when he hath no- 
thing to subsist by, yet then he will live upon his God.i Though war 
and want come, yet he will not be wanting in his duty. There are 
three things in a holy heart that strongly incline it to duty when all 
outward encouragements fail. The first is a forcible principle, divine 
love, 2 Cor. v. 14 ; the second is a mighty aid, the Spirit of God, Phil, 
iv. 12, 13 ; the third is a high aim, the glory of God. But now it is 
otherwise with those that have only a show of godliness. Let but their 
outward encouragements fail them ; let but the eye, the ear, the ap- 
plause of the creature fail them ; if they cannot make some gain of 
their godliness, some profit of their profession, some advantage of their 
religion, they are ready, with Demas, to throw up and throw off all. 
Profit and applause are usually the baits that these men bite at ;2 and 
if they miss these baits, then farewell profession, farewell religion, 
farewell all. But now look, as Ruth kept close to her mother in the 
want of all outward encouragements, Ruth i. ; so souls that eye the 
glory of God in duties, they will keep close to duties when all outward 
encouragements fail. Though outward encouragements be sometimes 
as a side-wind, or as oil, or as chariot wheels, means to move a Chris- 
tian to go on more sweetly, easily, and comfortably in the ways of 
God, yet when this wind shall fail, and these chariot wheels shall be 
knocked off, a real Christian wiU hold on his way, Job. xvii. 9. 

[2.] Secondly, When a man aims at the glory of God in what he 
doth, then he labours to hide and conceal all his human excellencies, 
that may any ways tend to obscure, eclipse, or darken the glory of God : 
1 Cor. ii. 3-5, ' And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in 
much trembling. And my speech and my preaching was not with 
enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit, 
and of power : that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of 
men, but in the power of God.' Holy Paul handled holy things in 
such a manner, as much of God, and little or nothing of man could be 

1 Antimachus the famous poet held on in his exercise, when all his hearers had left 
him but Plato ; saying, Plato est viihi pro omnibus, Plato is to me instead of all. So a 
holy minister, when he is deserted by some, and cast off by others, yet he will hold on in 
his work. [Told also of Antagoras the Rhodian : see Welcker, Der Epische Cyclus, p. 
105.— G.] 

* H(Bc omnia tibi dabo, was the devil's great argument to prevail with Christ. 


perceived. In religions exercises, Panl seems to say to human eloquence 
and fleshly wisdom, to affected rhetoric and flattering oratory, Stand 
afar off, come not near ; I have now to do with God, and to do with 
souls, and to do with eternity, and therefore what have I to do with 
you ? Paul had an eye to divine glory in what he did, and therefore 
he durst not tip liis tongue and store his head with airy notions, or 
with ' the enticing words of man's wisdom.' Of all the apostles, Paul 
was most eminent and excellent in all human arts, parts, and gifts, 
and yet in religious exercises he lays them all by: 1 Cor. xiv. 18, 19, 'I 
thank my God, I speak with tongues more than you all. Yet in the 
church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that 
by my voice I might teach others also , than ten thousand words in an 
unknown tongue.' The church o^H^th excelled all other churches 
in gifts, I do not say in grace, an^H^y among them prided them- 
selves up in the exercise of their gifts and tongues in their church 
assemblies, that so they might win the more credit and repute to them- 
selves, of being men of great learning, reading, and parts ; but the holy 
apostle by his own example labours to win them to decline all vain 
ostentation, and to work them to express themselves so as might be 
most for the information, conviction, edification, and salvation of their 
hearers' souls. Holy Paul had much learning, and yet in religious 
exercises he used little. The Corinthians had less, and yet made such 
shows and flourishes of it, even in their religious duties, as if in their 
breasts all the libraries in the world had been locked up. This puts 
me in mind of what once I have read concerning a Rabbi, that had 
but little learning, and less modesty and ingenuity ; for he usurping 
all the discourse at table where many were, one much admiring of 
him asked one of his friends in private. Whether he did not take such 
a man for a great scholar ? to whom he answered, For aught I know 
he may be learned ; but I never heard learning make such a noise. 
The more learning, the less noise ; the less learning, the more noise 
men will make. The sun shews least when it is at the highest ; and 
those waters are most deep that run most silent : they usually are 
men of the greatest parts that use them least in religious works, i 
Famous Mr Dod was wont to say that so much Latin was so much 
flesh in a sermon. The gilt upon the pill may please the eye, but it 
profits not the patient ; the paint upon the glass may feed the fancy, 
but the room is rather the darker than the lighter for it. Painted 
glass in chm-ches is more glorious, but plain glass is most perspicuous. 
When men come to church-work, to pulpit-work, all plainness must 
be used. Starched oratory may tickle the brain, but it is plain doctrine 
that informs the judgment, that convinces the conscience, that bows 
the will, and that wins the heart. That sermon hath most learning 
in it, that hath most plainness in it. And therefore a great scholar 
was wont to say, ' Lord, give me learning enough that I may preach 

^ At a festival time, when Bernard had preached very eloquently, and the people much 
admired and applauded him, he was much sadded ; the next day he preached a plain 
and powerful sermon without any rhetorical dresses, at which many curious, itching 
eara were unsatisfied, but himself and his meaner-capacitated auditors were much pleased 
and delighted ; and being asked the reason of it, he returned this answer, Heri Bernar- 
dum, hodie Jesum Chriatum: Yesterday I preached Bernard, but to-day, Jesus Christ. 


plain enough.' 1 Silly, ignorant people are very apt to dote upon that 
most, and admire that most, which they understand least ; but prudent 
Christians judge of ministers not by their lungs, but by their brains ; 
not by their throats, but by their hearts and lives ; not by their voices 
and tones, but by the plainness, spiritualness, suitableness, and useful- 
ness of their matter : like Demosthenes, who when he heard an orator 
bellowing with a loud and roaring voice, said, Non quod magnum est 
bene est, sed quod bene est magnum est, I mark rather the goodness 
than loudness of an oration. 2 It is observable throughout the 
Scriptures, that the profoundest prophets, and the greatest apostles, 
yea, and Christ himself, did commonly accommodate themselves to 
their hearers' capacities. 3 The^^pt in and kept under all those 
human excellencies, the discodflP of which might anywise cloud 
divine glory. Men that hav^J|pir eyes upon divine glory, do know 
that the more any acquired parts, gifts, and excellencies do appear in 
holy exercises, the more the name, honour, and glory of God is clouded, 
and the more those that have most of the indwellings of God are dis- 
satisfied and disadvantaged ; and therefore those that have real respect 
to divine glory, they draw as it were a curtain between all their 
human excellencies and religious exercises, 1 Cor. ix. 3. That none 
may think this is my private opinion, let me add a few sayings of 
theirs that have been eminent in acquired excellencies. Gregory 
Nazianzen, a holy and a weighty writer, compares curiosity and novelty 
of speech in the things of God unto lascivious dancing, and the arts 
of jugglers, whereby they deceive the senses of those that look on ;* and 
further saith that simple, proper, genuine language was in holy things 
wont to be esteemed godliness. And it was a remarkable saying of 
golden-mouthed Chrysostom, as some caU him, ' When I first began 
to preach,' said he, ' I was a child, and delighted in rattles, in the 
applause of the people ; but when I was a man, I began to despise 
them.' New phrases and expressions do many times make way for 
the introducing of new doctrines, as learned Parseus in his comment 
on 1 Cor. i. 1 observes : ' For the most part,' saith he, ' those who in 
points of divinity devise new terms and unusual expressions, do hide 
under them some new and strange doctrines; they wrap up their 
error in some intricate words and distinctions.^ When our words in 
preaching differ from the style of the Holy Ghost, the people be in 
danger of turning aside to vain jangling, saith Danaeus-^ Loquamur 
verba scripturce, &c., said that incomparable man, Peter Kamus: Let 
us speak the words of scripture, let us make use of the language of 
the Holy Ghost, and for ever abominate those that profanely disdain 
at the stately plainness of God's blessed book, and that think to correct 
the divine wisdom and eloquence with their own infancy 7 and sophistry. 8 
Non quanta eloquentia, sed qu/xnta evidentia, saith Augustine. Melius 

^ Dr John Kainolds (?)— G. ^ Erasmus. 

" Holy Moses covered his glistering face with a veil when he spake to the people. 

* Eusebius tells us of some in his days, who to win upon the minds of men, did amaze 
them with new words. — Euseb. Hist. 1. iv. c. 7. 

* Geneva : mdccxlvi folio, with his other ' Commentarii.' — G. 

* Lambertus Danseus. — G. ' ' Childishness.' — G. 

8 The orators of Athens were then suspected, when they began to make excursions 
with florid expressions. 



est ut nos reprehendant grammatici, quam ut non intelligant populi: 
the same author on Ps, cxxxviii. Such as mind more, saith another, 
the humouring of their hearers' fancies than the saving of their souls, 
do little consider that of Seneca, ^ger non qucerit medicum eloquen- 
iem, sed sanantem: Sick men are not bettered by physicians' sugared 
words, but by their skilful hands. Dr Sibbes was wont to say, that 
great affection and good affection seldom go together. Truth is like 
Solomon's spouse, all glorious within ; she is most beautiful when 
most naked, as Adam was in innocency. The king of Persia^ having 
sent to Antalcidas, the Lacedemonian captain, a garland of roses 
wonderfully perfumed with spices and other sophistications, he accepted 
of his love, but misliked the present, and sent him word : Rosarum 
odorem artis adulteraiioneperdidisti: Thou hast marred the sweetness 
of the roses with the sweetness of thy perfumes. So many mar the 
sweetness of the word, by perfuming it with their human eloquence 
and oratory. For a close, remember that God himself, the great 
master of speech, when he spake from heaven, he made use of three 
several texts in a breath : Mat. xvii. 5, ' This is my beloved Son,' 
Ps. ii. 7 ; 'In whom I am well pleased,' Isa. xlii. 1 ; ' Hear ye him,' 
Deut. xviii. 15 ; which you may note against the curious queasiness^ 
of such nice ones as disdain at the stately plainness of the Scriptures. 

[3.] Thirdly, If thou dost really and actually aim at the glory 
of God in what thou dost, then the glory of God will swallow up all 
by-aims and ends that may thrust themselves in upon the soul whilst 
it is at its work.^ Look, as Aaron's rod, Exod. vii. 10-12, swallowed 
up the magicians' rods, so the glory of God will swallow up all 
carnal aims and ends. Look, as the sun puts out the light of the fire, 
80 the glory of God will put out and consume all other ends. This is 
most certain, that which is a man's great end, that will work out all 
other ends. If thou settest up the glory of God as thy chief end, that 
will by degrees eat out all low and base ends. Look, as Pharaoh's lean 
Mne, Gen. xli. 4, ate up the fat, so the glory of God will eat up all 
those fat and worldly ends that crowd in upon the soul in religious 
work. The keeping up of the glory of God as thy great end, will be 
the keeping down and the casting out of all other ends. 

[4.] Fourthly, He that really and actually aims at the glory of God 
in what he doth, he will he doing what God commands, though nothing 
for the present comes of it. If his eye be truly fixed upon divine glory, 
a command of God shall be enough to carry him on in his work.* 
Ps. xxvii. 8, * When thou saidst. Seek ye my face, my heart said unto 
thee, Thy face. Lord, will I seek.' When the glory of God is a man's 
mark, his heart will sweetly echo and graciously comply with divine 
commands : Jer. iii. 22, ' Keturn, ye backsliding children, and I will 
heal your backslidings. Behold, we come unto thee ; for thou art the 
Lord our God.' God's commands fall with great power and force 
upon that man's heart, that hath divine glory in his eye. One word 
from God will command such a soul to a gracious compliance with 

^ Tirabazus.— G. » < Niceness,' ' squeamisliness.' — G. 

' Christus opera nostra non tain actibus quam finibus pensat. — Zanchius. 
* Rom. xvi. 19, Obedientia non discutit Dei mandata, sed facit. — Prosper. 


what God requires : Ps. cxix. 4,5,' Thou hast commanded us to keep 
thy precepts diligently. Oh that my ways were directed to keep thy 
statutes ! ' As soon as God lays a command upon a Christian, he 
looks up to heaven for power to turn that precept into practice.! Oh 
that my ways were directed to keep thy statutes ! Oh that I were as 
holy as God would have me to be ! Oh that I were as humble and 
lowly as God would have me to be ! Oh that I were as heavenly and 
spiritual as God would have me to be ! Oh that I were as pure and 
perfect as God would have me to be ! So ver. 48, * My hands will I 
lift up to thy commandments, which I have loved.' Many there be 
which thrust away with all their might thy commandments, but 
I lift up my hands to thy commandments. Many there be that 
will strain themselves to take a comfort, but I strain myself to lift 
up thy commandments. 2 Many there are who will stretch out their 
hands to take a reward, but I stretch out my hands to take hold on 
thy commandments. To give a little more light into these words: 
Sometimes the lifting up of hands betokens admiration ; when men 
are astonished and ravished they lift up their hands : ' I will lift up 
my hands to thy commandments,' that is, I will admire the goodness, 
the holiness, the righteousness, the purity and excellency of thy com- 
mandments. Again, we lift up our hands when we betake ourselves 
to refuge : why ! God's commands are the saint's refuge. When they 
house and shelter themselves under the wings of God's commands 
they are safe. Again, men lift up their hands when they take hold 
on a thing. Now gracious souls do take hold on God's commandments 
to do them, to practise them, and to express the life and power of 
them. Again, men hft up their hands to those things that are high 
and above them. Now the commands of God are high, they are 
sublime, they are above us. They are sublime and high in regard of 
their original, they come down from God ; they are sublime and high 
in regard of the matter of them, they are heavenly oracles, they are 
dictates of divine wisdom ; they are sublime and high in regard of the 
difficulty of keeping of them, they exceeding all human strength; and 
they are sublime and high in regard of their situation, they are situ- 
ated in heaven : * Thy word,' says David, * endures for ever in heaven.' 
But yet as sublime and as high as they are, a man that hath his eye 
upon divine glory will lift up his hands unto them ; he will do all he 
can to express the pleasure that he takes in them, and the readiness 
of his soul to a holy compliance with them. A man that hath his eye 
upon divine glory, he will keep close to his work, to his hearing work, 
to his praying work, to his mourning work, to his repenting work, to 
his believing work, to his waiting work ; though nothing comes on it, 
though he make no earnings of it, though comfort doth not come, 
though joy and peace doth not come, though assurance doth not come, 
though enlargements do not come, though answers and returns from 
heaven do not come, though good days do not come, though deliverance 
doth not come, yet such will keep close to their work that have their 

' Tola vita honi Chriatiani sanctum desiderium eat : The whole life of a good Chris- 
tian is a holy wish. — Augustine. mi. u- e 

^ Prior est autoritas imperantis quam utilitas servientis : The chief reason of obe- 
dience is the authority of the lord, not the utility of the servant.— Ttr^ttZKon. 


eye upon divine glory. But now such who eye not the glory of God 
in what they do, they quickly grow weary of their work ; if they can 
make no earnings of their seekings and fastings and prayings they 
are presently ready to throw up all, and to quarrel with God himselt, 
as if God had done them an injury, Isa. Iviii. 1-4.1 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly, A man that really aims at the glory of God 
in this or that duty, he cannot he satisfied nor contented with Hie per- 
formance of duties, without some enjoyments of God in duties. With- 
out some converse and communion with God in duties, his soul cannot 
be satisfied ; his soul thirsts and longs to see the beauty and the glory 
of the Lord in his sanctuary, Ps. Ixiii. 1-3 ; and without this sight he 
cannot be quieted. Here is the ordinance, but where is the God of 
the ordinance? Here is prayer, but where is the God of prayer? 
Here is the duty, but where is the God of duty ? Here is enlarge- 
ments, but where is the God of enlargements ? Here are meltings 
and breakings of spirit, but where is the God of these meltings and 
breakings ? Ps. Ixxxiv. 2, ' My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth for the 
courts of the Lord: my heart and my flesh crieth out for the living 
God.' The courts of the Lord, without spiritual converses with the 
living God, could not satisfy his soul : Oh, saith he, here be the courts 
of the Lord, the courts of the Lord, but where is the living God ? 
where is the living God ? where is that God that makes men to live, 
and that makes ordinances to be living and lively ordinances to his 
children's souls ? Oh, the courts of the Lord are very desirable, but 
the living God is much more desirable ! The courts of the Lord are 
precious and glorious, but the living God is infinitely more precious 
and glorious ! Here is the mantle of Ehjah, but where is the God of 
Elijah? 2 Kings ii. 12-14. Here are the courts of the Lord, but 
where is the Lord of these courts ? It was the speech of holy Mr 
Bradford,2 ' that he could not leave a duty till he had found com- 
munion with Christ in the duty ; he could not give off a duty till his 
heart was brought into a duty frame ; he could not leave confession till 
he had found his heart humbled and melted under the sense of his sin ; 
he could not give over petitioning till he had found his heart taken with 
the beauties of the things desired, and strongly carried out after the 
enjoyment of them. Neither could he leave thanksgiving till he had 
found his spirit enlarged, and his soul quickened in the return of 
praises.' And so it was with holy Bernard, who was wont to say, ' O 
Lord, I never come to thee but by thee ; I never go from thee without 
thee.' 3 A man that hath his eye upon the glory of Christ, he cannot 
put off his soul with anything below communion with Christ, in those 
religious services and duties that he offers up to Christ. Though the 
breasts of duty are sweet, yet those breasts will not satisfy the soul, 
except Christ lies betwixt them. Cant. i. 13. But now men that have 
base, poor, low, and by-ends in what they do, they can come off easily 
from their duties ; though they find no spirit, no life, no warmth in 
duty, yet they can come off with content from duty. Though they 

^ Compare these scriptures together : Ps. xliv. 12, 20; Cant. iii. 1-3 ; Isa. xxvi. 8, 9, 
and lix. 8-11 ; Hab. ii. 1-3 ; Micah vii. 7-9 ; Lam. iii. 8, 44, compared with ver. 24-26, 
31, 32, 40, 41, 55. 

* Mr Foxe, Acts and Mon. [5«6 nomine. — G.] 

^ Nunquam abs te absque te recede. — Bern. Meditat. 


have no communion, no converse at all with God in duty, though they 
have no pledges of grace, no pawns of mercy, no tastes of love, no 
relishes of heaven in a duty, yet they can come off from the duty with 
content and satisfaction of spirit ; let but others applaud him, and his 
own heart hug him, and he hath enough. 

16. In the sixteenth and last place, A man that is really holy 
speaks a holif language.^ A holy heart and a holy tongue are insepar- 
able companions ; if there be grace in the heart, there will be grace in 
the lips ; if the heart be pure, the language will be pure. Christ says 
his spouse's lips are like a thread of scarlet ; they are red with talking 
of nothing but a crucified Christ ; and they are thin like a thread, not 
swelled with other vain discourses. And ver. 11, he tells you that 
' the lips of his spouse drop as the honeycombs,' or drop honeycombs ; 
and that ' honey and milk are under her tongue.' You know that 
Canaan was a land that flowed with milk and honey. Why ? the lan- 
guage of the spouse was the language of Canaan ; her lips were still 
dropping such holy, spiritual, and heavenly matter, as was as sweet, 
pleasant, profitable, desirable, and delectable to men's souls, as ever 
honey and milk was to men's palates or appetites ; and as many were 
fed and nourished by milk and honey, so many were fed and nourished 
by the holy droppings of her lips : Ps. xxxvii. 30, * The mouth of the 
righteous speaketh wisdom, and his tongue talketh of judgment.' If 
the heart be holy, the tongue will be a-talking wisely, fruitfully, feel- 
ingly, affectionately of that which may profit both a man's self and 
others : Prov. x. 20, ' The tongue of the just is as choice silver ; the 
heart of the wicked is little worth.' Good men's words are of more 
worth than wicked men's hearts : and look, as choice silver is known 
by its tinkUng, so holy men are known by their talking. And as 
choice silver giveth a clear and sweet sound, so the tongue of the just 
soundeth sweetly and pleasantly in the ears of others. Look, as choice 
silver is highly prized and valued among men, so is the tongue of the 
righteous among those that are righteous : and look, as choice silver 
allures and draws the hearts of men to a love and liking of it ; so the 
tongues of the righteous do allure and draw the hearts of men to a 
love and liking of virtue and goodness.^ Ver. 21, 'The lips of the 
righteous feed many.' They feed many by their exhortations, instruc- 
tions, admonitions, and counsels. The mouths of the righteous are 
like the gates of some hospitable persons, where many are fed. The 
lips of the righteous are a free and well-furnished table, at which many 
are fed and nourished with the dainties of heaven to eternal life. 
Kighteous men keep open house, they keep free hospitality for all 
comers and goers ; and if they have not always bread in their hands, 
yet they have always grace in their lips, to feed many. Though they 
may be outwardly poor, yet they haJ^e a treasure within to enrich 
many. The tongue is the instrument of a Christian's glory, and is so 
interested in the quality it expresseth, that in the original it is taken 
for it, cavod signifying both glory and the tongue — by the authority 

' Ps. xlv. 1, 2 ; Zeph. iii. 9 ; Cant. iv. 3. Compare these scriptures together — Prov. xi. 
30, xii. 18, and xxv. 11 ; Mat. vii. 6, and xii. 35 ; Col. iv. 6; Eph. iv. 29; Acts xxvi. 
25; John vi. 25; 1 Pet. iv. 11. 

' Quod hominis dignitas et excellentia nulla alia re magis cognoscitur quam oratione. 
. . . Qui in Christum credunt, loquuntur novis. — Peter Martyr, ii. 4. 


of no less Kabbins than Jacob and David — as thereby intimating that 
the chiefest glory of man is his tongue. The primitive Christians 
talked so much and so often of high and heavenly things, that the 
Ethnicksi began to surmise that they affected the Koman empire, 
when indeed their ambition was of another, a nobler and a higher 
nature. But now men that have only a show of godliness, they do 
practically say, Our tongues are our own, and who shall' control us ? 
Their speech is so far from administering of grace to their hearers, 
that it administers usually either matter of carnal mirth, or of con- 
tempt, or of scorn, or of sorrow and mourning. Certainly they have 
no holiness in their hearts who have so much of hell, and the devil, 
and lusts in their mouths. 2 I may say to most. You are unholy per- 
sons, your speech bewrays you, your worldliness, your profaneness, 
your cursing, your swearing, your lying, your slandering, your reviling, 
your railing, your deriding, &c., doth plainly evidence that you have 
no holiness in you. Well ! remember this, a tongue that is set on fire 
from hell, is in danger to be set on fire in hell. Hell is for that man, 
and that man is for heU, that hath so much of hell in his mouth ; the 
devil is for that man, and that man is for the devil, that hath so much 
of the devil in his mouth ; damnation is for that man, and that man 
is for damnation, that hath so much of damnation in his mouth ; the 
world is for that man, and that man is for the world, that hath so 
much of the world in his mouth. Whatever is in the heart will break 
out in the lips ; if wickedness be in the heart, it will break out in the 
lips. Physicians say that the nature of diseases is as well known by 
the tongue as by the pulse or urine. The spiritual diseases that be in 
the heart will quickly discover themselves by the tongue. Wherever 
holiness is in the heart, it wiU break forth in the lips. A holy heart 
and a holy tongue are married together, and it is not in man to put 
them asunder. You shall sooner separate the soul from the body, than 
you shall separate a holy tongue from a holy heart. And thus I have 
done with this use of examination. The Lord make you wise to lay 
these things to heart, that so you may know how it is like to go with 
you in another world. 

Use 3. — The third use shaU be a use of exhortation, and that both 
to unsanctified and sanctified ones. First, let me speak to unsanctified 
ones. Is it so, that real holiness is the only way to happiness, and 
that without men are holy on earth, they shall never come to the 
beatifical vision or blessed fruition of God in heaven ? Oh then, how 
should this provoke and stir up all unholy persons to strive and 
labour, as for life, after this real holiness, without which they shall 
never come to have anything to do with God in everlasting happi- 
ness! &c. 

Now that I may the better prevail with unsanctified souls, I shall, 

First, propound some motives to stir and provoke their hearts to 
look and labour after real holiness, &c. 

Secondly, I shall propose some means for the obtaining of holiness. 

Thirdly, I shall endeavour to answer those objections, and remove 
those impediments, that hinder and keep men ofi" from labouring after 
real holiness. 

1 ' Heathen.'— Q. « James i. 26, 27, and iii. 8, 12; Mat. xxvi. 73. . . . 


I. For the first, I shall propound these following considerations to 
provoke all unsanctified persons to look after holiness. 

1. First, Consider the necessity of holiness. It is impossible that 
ever you should be happy, except you are holy. No holiness here, no 
happiness hereafter. The Scripture speaks of three bodily inhabitants 
of heaven — Enoch, before the law ; Elijah, under the law ; and Jesus 
Christ, under the gospel ; aU three eminent in hoKness, to teach us, 
that even in an ordinary course there is no going to heaven without 
holiness. There are many thousand thousands now in heaven, but 
not one unholy one among them all : there is not one sinner among 
all those saints ; not one goat among aU those sheep ; not one weed 
among all those flowers; not one thorn or prickle among all those 
roses ; not one pebble among all those glistering diamonds. There is 
not one Cain among all those Abels ; nor one Ishmael among all those 
Isaacs ; nor one Esau among all those Jacobs in heaven. There is 
not one Sethi among all the patriarchs ; not one Saul among all the 
prophets; nor one Judas among all the apostles; nor one Demas 
among all the preachers ; nor one Simon Magus among all the pro- 
fessors. ^ Heaven is only for the holy man, and the holy man is only 
for heaven : heaven is a garment of glory, that is only suited to him 
that is holy.3 God, who is truth itself, and cannot lie, hath said it, 
that ' without holiness no man shall see the Lord.' ^ Mark that word 
' no man :' without holiness the rich man shall not see the Lord ; nor 
without holiness the poor man shall not see the Lord ; without holi- 
ness the noble man shall not see the Lord ; nor without holiness the 
mean man shall not see the Lord ; without holiness the prince shall 
not see the Lord ; nor without holiness the peasant shall not see the 
Lord ; without hoHness the ruler shall not see the Lord ; nor without 
holiness the ruled shall not see the Lord ; without holiness the learned 
man shall not see the Lord ; nor without holiness the ignorant man 
shall not see the Lord ; without holiness the husband shall not see the 
Lord ; nor without holiness the wife shaU not see the Lord ; without 
holiness the father shaU not see the Lord ; nor without holiness the 
child shall not see the Lord ; without holiness the master shall not 
see the Lord ; nor without holiness the servant shall not see the Lord. 
' For faithful and strong is the Lord of hosts that hath spoken it,' 
Josh, xxiii. 14. In this day some cry up one form, some another ; 
some cry up one church state, some another ; some cry up one way, 
some another ; but certainly the way of holiness is the good old way, 
Jer. vi. 16 ; it is the King of kings' highway to heaven and happiness : 
Isa. XXXV. 8, ' And a highway shall be there, and a way, and it shall 
be called, The way of holiness ; the unclean shall not pass over it ; but it 
shall be for those : the wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err 
therein.' Some men say, Lo, here is the way ; other men say, Lo, there 
is the way ; but certainly the way of holiness is the surest, the safest, 
the easiest, the noblest, and the shortest way to happiness. Among 
the heathens, no man could enter into the temple of honour, but must 

iQu. 'Ham'?— Ed. 

^ Recollection, almost translation of the often-recurring illustrations of the mediajval 
preachers. — G. » Rev. v. 11, and vii. 9 ; Heb. xii. 22, 23. 

* Those that would be immortally happy, they must live holily and justly, saith 
Antisthenes, the heathen. 


first enter into the temple of virtue. There is no entering into the 
temple of happiness, except you enter into the temple of holiness. 
Holiness must first enter into you, before you can enter into God's 
holy hill. As Samson cried out, 'Give me water, or I die:' or as 
Kachel cried out, 'Give me children, or I die;' so all unsanctified 
souls may well cry out. Lord, give me holiness, or I die: give me 
holiness, or I eternally die.i If the angels, those princes of glory, fall 
once from their holiness, they shall be for ever excluded from ever- 
lasting happiness and blessedness. If Adam in paradise fall from his 
purity, he shall quickly be driven out from the presence of divine 
glory. Augustine would not be a wicked man, an unholy man, one 
hour for all the world, because he did not know but that he might die 
that hour : and should he die in an unholy estate, he knew he should 
be for ever separated from the presence of the Lord and the glory of 
his power. sirs, do not deceive your own souls; holiness is of 
absolute necessity ; without it you shall never see the Lord, 2 Thes. i. 
8-10. It is not aljsolutely necessary that you should be great or rich 
in the world ; but it is absolutely necessary that you should be holy : 
it is not absolutely necessary that you should enjoy health, strength, 
friends, liberty, life ; but it is absolutely necessary that you should be 
holy. A man may see the Lord without worldly prosperity, but he 
can never see the Lord except he be holy. A man may to heaven, to 
happiness, without honour or worldly glory, but he can never to 
heaven, to happiness, without holiness. Without holiness here, no 
heaven hereafter : Kev. xxi. 27, ' And there shall in no wise enter into 
it anything that defileth.' God will at last shut the gates of glory 
against every person that is without heart-purity. Ah, sirs ! holiness 
is a flower that grows not in nature's garden. Men are not born with 
holiness in their hearts, as they are born with tongues in their mouths : 
holiness is of a divine offspring : it is a pearl of price, that is to be 
found in no nature but a renewed nature, in no bosom but a sanctified 
bosom. There is not the least beam or spark of holiness in any 
natural man in the world : Gen. vi. 5, ' Every imagination of the 
thoughts of man's heart is only evil continually ; ' Job xxv. 4, ' How 
can man be clean that is born of a woman? '2 The interrogation 
carries in it a strong negation, ' How can man be clean ?' that is, man 
cannot be clean that is born of a woman : man that is born of a 
woman, is born in sin, and born both under wrath and under the 
curse. ' And who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean ? ' Job 
xiv. 4 ; Isa. Ixiv. 6, ' But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our 
righteousnesses are as filthy rags ;' Rom. iii. 10, 11, ' There is none 
righteous, no not one ; there is none that understandeth, there is none 
that seeketh after God.' Every man by nature is a stranger, yea, an 
enemy to holmess, Rom. viii. 7. Every man that comes into this 
world, comes with his face towards sin and hell, and with his back 
upon God and holiness. Such is the corruption of our nature, that, 
propound any divine good to it, it is entertained as fire by water or 
wet wood, with hissing. Propound any evil, then it is like a fire to 

' Ps. XV. throughout. 

* I have read that the Isle of Arren in Ireland hath such a pure air that it was never 
yet infected with the plague, but such is not the nature of man. 


straw ; it is like the foolish satyr that made haste to kiss the fire ; it 
is like that unctuous matter which, the naturalists say, sucks and 
snatches the fire to it, with which it is consumed. All men are born 
sinners, and there is nothing but an infinite power that can make 
them saints. All men would be happy, and yet they naturally loathe 
to be holy. By all which you may clearly see that food is not more 
necessary for the preservation of natural life, than holiness is necessary 
for the preservation and salvation of the soul. If a man had the 
wisdom of Solomon, the strength of Samson, the courage of Joshua, 
the policy of Ahithophel, the dignities of Haman, the power of 
Ahasuerus, and the eloquence of Apollos, yet aR these without holi- 
ness would never save him. 

2. Secondly, Consider there is a possibility of obtaining holiness. 
Holiness is a golden mine that may be come at if you will but dig, 
and sweat, and take pains for it, Prov. ii. 2-7. It is a flower of para- 
dise that may be gathered ; it is a crown that may be put on ; it is a 
pearl of price that may be obtained, if you will but part with the 
wicked man's trinity — the world, the flesh, and the devil — to enjoy 
it, Rom. xiii. 12-14. Though some of the attributes of God be in- 
communicable, yet holiness is a communicable attribute; and this 
should mightily encourage you to look after holiness. Well ! sin- 
ners, remember this, it is possible that those proud hearts of yours 
may be humbled ; it is possible that those hard hearts of yours may 
be softened; it is possible that those unclean hearts of yours may 
be sanctified ; it is possible that those blind minds of yours may be 
enlightened ; it is possible that those stubborn wills of yours may be 
tamed; it is possible that those disordered affections of yours may 
be regulated ; it is possible that those drowsy and defiled consciences 
of yours may be awakened and purged; it is possible that those 
vile and polluted natures of yours may be changed and purified. 
There are several things that do witness that holiness is attainable ; 

[1.] Witness God's promise to give his Holy Spirit to them that ask 
it.' Luke xi. 13, * If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts 
unto your children : how much more shall your heavenly Father give 
the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?' The Holy Spirit is a gift 
more worth than a world, yea, than heaven itself, and yet, to make 
men holy, God is willing to give his Holy Spirit upon very easy 
terms — they shaU have it for asking. The Spirit is a spirit of holi- 
ness ; he is holy in himself, and the author of all that holiness that is 
in man.l It is he that most powerfully moves and persuades men to 
holiness ; it is he that presents holiness in its beauty and glory to the 
soul ; it is he that sows seeds of holiness in the soul ; and it is he that 
causes those seeds to grow up to maturity and ripeness. Nil nisi 
sanctum a sancto Spiritu prodire potest, Nothing can come from the 
Holy Spirit but that which is holy. The Holy Spirit is the great 
principle of aU the holiness that is in the world ; and this Holy Spirit 
God hath engaged himself to give to those that are unholy : Ezek. 
xxxvi. 25-27, ' I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be 
clean ; from all your filthiness, and from all your idols will I cleanse 
^ John Hi. 6 ; Titus iii. 5 ; 1 Cor. vi. 11. 


you. A new heart will I also give you, and a new spirit will I put 
within you, and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and 
I will give you a heart of flesh, and I will put my Spu'it within you, 
and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judg- 
ments and do them.' The Holy Spirit is a gift, a free gift, a noble 
gift, a precious gift, a glorious gift, that God will bestow upon the 
miclean, upon the unsanctified, that they may be cleansed and sancti- 
fied, and so fitted for the Lord's service and use. It is possible that 
you may be holy, 2 Tim. ii. 21 ; witness, 

[2.] His holy word, tlmt lie liath given on purpose to make men holy, 
and to keep men holy. His commandments are holy, just, and good ; 
his threatenings are holy, just, and good ; and all his promises are holy, 
just, and good.^ The Holy Scriptures were written with a finger of holi- 
ness, so as to move to holiness, and to work holiness ; the whole word of 
Grod is an entire love-letter to provoke to holiness, and to promote holi- 
ness. Holy commands should sweetly persuade us to holiness, and holy 
threatenings should divinely force us to holiness, and holy promises 
should effectually allure us to the love of holiness, to the embracing of 
holiness, and to the practice of holiness. The great design of God, 
in sending this sacred volume in golden letters from heaven, was to 
enamour men with the love and beauty of holiness. Again, it is possible 
that you may attain to true holiness ; witness, 

[3.] Those holy ambassadors that he hath sent on purpose to turn 
men from ' darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to Jesus 
Christ;' their great business and work is to treat with you about 
holiness ; it is to woo you to match with holiness, and to follow after 
holiness ; it is to remove all lets and impediments that may anywise 
hinder your embracing of holiness ; and it is to propose all manner of 
encouragements that may win you over to make holiness your great 
all, Acts xxvi. 18, and 2 Cor. v. 18-20. Again, it is possible that 
you may be holy ; witness, 

[4.] The holy examples of all the patriarclis, prophets, apostles, aTid 
saints that are left on record, on purpose to provoke you to an imita- 
tion of them in holiness. Their holy examples, as so many shining 
stars, are left upon record to influence us to holiness.^ In the holy 
examples of those that are now triumphant in heaven, you may run 
and read that holiness is attainable. In their holy examples, as in so 
many looking-glasses, you may see that holiness is a jewel that may 
be procured. By that holiness that others have reached to, sinners 
may see that it is possible that they may be made saints. Again, it 
is possible that you may be holy ; witness, 

[5.] All those notorious sinners that the Scripture declares have 
been sanctified and made holy. To instance only in a few : Adam, 
you know, was created in an estate of innocency, integrity, and perfect 
holiness, Gen. i. 26 ; he being made in the image of God, and after 
the likeness and similitude of God. It was agreed upon in the parlia- 
ment of heaven that man should be made glorious in holiness ; and 
so he was, for he was made after God's own image. And this the 
apostle clearly and fuUy evidences in that famous scripture, Eph. iv. 

1 Deut. iv. 6-9 ; Eom. vii. 12 ; Luke i. 70-76. 

* Prsecepta decent, exempla movent. [As before.— G.] 


22-24.^ That Adam was invested and endowed with righteousness 
and holiness in his first glorious estate ; with righteousness, that he 
might carry it fairly, justly, evenly, and righteously towards man ; 
and with holiness, that he might carry it wisely, lovingly, reveren- 
tially, and holily towards God ; and that he might take up in God as 
his chiefest good, as his great All, might be sufficiently made good 
out of this scripture last cited ; but I shall not now stand upon the 
discovery of Adam's beauty, authority, dominion, dignity, honour, and 
glory, with which he was adorned, invested, and crowned in innocency. 
Let this satisfy, that Adam's first estate was a state of perfect know- 
ledge, wisdom, and understanding ; it was a perfect state of holiness, 
righteousness, and happiness. There was nothing within him but 
what was desirable and delectable ; there was nothing without him 
but what was amiable and commendable ; nor nothing about him 
but what was serviceable and comfortable ; and yet, in the height of 
all his glory he falls to apostasy and open rebellion against God ; he 
takes part with Satan against God himself; he transgresses his right- 
eous law, he affronts his justice, he provokes his anger, he stirs up his 
wrath against himself and his posterity. The sin of Adam was a 
voluminous sin ; all kinds of notorious sins were bound up in it, as 
backsliding, rebellion, treason, pride, unbelief, blasphemy, contempt 
of God, unthankfulness, theft, murder, and idolatry, &c. The philo- 
sopher being asked which was the best member of the body, answered, 
The tongue ; for if it be good, it is the best trumpet of God's glory. 
And being asked again which was the worst, answered, The tongue ; 
for if ifc be bad, it is the worst firebrand of hell. So if any should 
ask me, Which was the best creature of God ? I would answer, 
Man in honour before his fall. If you should ask me, Which is the 
worst ? I must answer, Man in his fall, Adam was once the wonder 
of all understanding, the mirror of wisdom and knowledge, the image 
of God, the delight of heaven, the glory of the creation, the world's 
great lord, and the Lord's great darling ; but being fallen, ah how 
low, how poor, how miserable, how sottish, how senseless, how brutish, 
yea how much below the beast that perisheth was he ! and yet God 
pardoned, changed, and sanctified him, and stamped his image of 
holiness afresh upon him, when he made a covenant with him in 
Christ, Gen. iii. 

So Manasseh, he was a notorious sinner, he was a sinner of the 
greatest magnitude ; his sins reached up to heaven, his soul was ripe 
for hell, he had sold himself to work aU manner of wickedness, as you 
may see in 2 Chron. xxxiii. In ver. 3, ' He reared up altars for 
Baalim, and made groves, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and 
served them;' ver. 4, ' he built altars in the house of God;' ver. 5, 
' yea, for all the host of heaven did he build altars in the courts of the 
house of God.' This was a horrid piece of impudence, to provoke 
God to his very face, by equalizing his altars to God's altar. Ver. 6, 
* And he caused his children to pass through the fire in the valley of 
the son of Hinnom.' Here was inhuman superstition, and inhuman 

^ In this scripture he speaks plainly of the renovation of that knowledge, holiness, 
and righteousness that Adam sometimes had, but lost it by his fall, Ps. viii. 4-6 ; Gen. 
ii. 20. 


cruelty, to offer his own children in sacrifice to the devil. * Also he 
observed times, and used witchcraft, and dealt with a familiar spirit, 
and with wizards : he wrought much evil in the sight of the Lord, to 
provoke him to anger ;' ver. 9, ' he made Judah and Jerusalem to err, 
by his example, and to do worse than the heathens.' The actions of 
rulers are most commonly rules for the people's actions, and their 
example passeth as current as their coin. The common people dare 
practise the very worst of wickedness that they see acted in a scarlet 
robe ; they are like tempered wax, easily receiving impressions from 
the seals of great men's vices ; they make no bones on it to sin by 
prescription, and to damn themselves with authority. i^ The heathen 
brings in a young man, who hearing of the adulteries and wickednesses 
of the gods, said. What, do they so, and shall I stick at it ? 2 So 
say most, when great ones are greatly wicked. Why, they do thus and 
thus, and why should we stick at it ? The Egyptians esteemed it 
graceful, and their duty, to halt on that leg on which their king limped ; 
most men think it a grace to imitate the greatest authority in their 
most graceless actings, which made the poet say, 

* Subjects and kingdoms commonly do choose 
The manners that their princes daily use.' 

Ver. 10, ' And the Lord spake unto Manasseh, but he would not 
hearken.' He was settled in idolatrj'^, and stopped his ears against all 
the counsel and admonitions of the prophets that were sent to reclaim 
him. Now who would ever have thought that one so abominably wicked 
and wretched should ever have obtained such favour with God, as to 
be pardoned, renewed, and sanctified ? and yet, ver. 12, 13, 'he 
besought the Lord, and humbled himself greatly before the Lord, and 
prayed unto him, and God was entreated of him, and heard his suppli- 
cation, and brought him again to Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then 
Manasseh knew that the Lord he was God.' He now acknowledges 
Jehovah to be the true God, and renounces all other gods, that he 
may cleave to God alone. There is no heart so wicked but grace can 
make it holy. 

So Paul was once so great a sinner, that had he stepped but one step 
further, he had fallen into the unpardonable sin against the Holy 

In 1 Tim. i. 13 you have a brief survey of his great transgres- 
sions. He was a blasphemer: he blasphemed God and Christ, and his 
ways and truth ; he made a mock and scoff at holiness ; he made 
nothing of blaspheming that God that he should have feared, and of 
blaspheming that Christ that he should have sweetly embraced, 
and of blaspheming those truths that he should have readily enter- 
tained. Paul was a great proficient in the school of blasphemy, he 
made nothing of belching out blasphemy in the very face of heaven. 
And he was a persecutor too : he persecuted holiness to the death. Acts 
ix. and xxvi. 11 ; yea, he was mad in persecuting the poor saints and 
servants of Christ ; he did all he could to make their lives a hell, and 

* The complaint is ancient in Seneca, that commonly men live not ad rationem, but ad 
similitudinem, —Seneca de vita beata, cap. i. 
' Aristophanes an"d Lucian. — G. 


to rid them out of this world ; he thought them not worthy to live, 
though they were such worthies of whom this world was not worthy, 
Acts viii. 3 ; he was a ravening and an untired wolf that was never 
weary in worrying Christ's little flock, and in sucking out the blood of 
his lambs. Yea, and he was an injurious person too : he made no 
conscience of wronging others, or of squaring his carriage by that 
golden rule, * Do to others as you would have others do to you,' 
Mat. vii. 12. This royal law, this standard of equity, he regarded not ; 
he made nothing of haling men and women to prison, and of compel- 
ling them to blaspheme by his cruelty and wicked example ; he spared 
no sex, but practised the highest cruelty upon all that had anything of 
sanctity in them ; he would adventure the torments of hell rather 
than not be a tormentor of the saints here ; and the more active 
any were in holiness, the more injurious was he to them. And yet 
behold this blasphemer, this persecutor, this injurious person, became 
a sanctified Christian, an eminent saint, a pattern of holiness to all 
Christians in all ages. 

Once more, witness that sad bed-rool l of unsanctified persons that 
are mentioned in 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10, ' Know ye not that the unrighteous 
shall not inherit the kingdom of God ? Be not deceived, neither 
fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of 
themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, 
nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.' These 
monstrous sinners and prodigious sins were enough to have brought 
another flood upon the world, or to have provoked the Lord to rain hell 
out of heaven upon them, as once he did upon Sodom and Gomorrah, 
or to have caused the ground to open and swallow them up, as once it 
did Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and yet behold some of these are 
changed and sanctified ! ver. 11, ' And such were some of you, but 
ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified, in the name 
of our Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.' Oh, the infinite 
goodness ! oh, the infinite grace ! oh, the infinite wisdom and power of 
God, that hath pardoned, washed, sanctified, and cleansed such guilty, 
filthy, and polluted souls ! The worst of sinners should never despair 
of being made saints, considering what unholy ones have been made 
holy. 2 It is possible that you may be made holy ; witness, 

[6.] All those sanctified ones among whom you live, who once were 
as unholy, or more unholy, it mn/y be, than ever you were. The 
sanctified husband is a clear witness to the unsanctified wife that she 
may be sanctified, 1 Cor. vii. 14, 16 ; 1 Pet. iii. 1,6: the sanctified 
father is a witness to the unsanctified child that he may be sanctified ; 
the sanctified master is a witness to the unsanctified servant that he 
may be sanctified ; the sanctified prince is a witness to his unsanctified 
people that they may be sanctified ; and the sanctified minister is 
a witness to his unsanctified hearers that they may be sanctified ; the 
same Spirit, the same grace, the same power, the same presence 
that hath sanctified any of these, may sanctify all of these ; there is no 
heart so unholy but a holy God can make it holy ; there is no spirit 

^ ' Bead-rule or bed-rule,' = catalogue or roll. — G. 

* Matthew, Zaccheus, Mary Magdalene, the jailer, and the murderers of Christ, Acts ii 
are clear instances of this truth. 


SO unclean but a Holy Spirit can make it clean. Well, sinners ! there 
are many living and standing witnesses of divine grace among you, 
and about you, that do sufficiently declare that it is possible that you 
may be sanctified and saved. Again, it is possible that you may 
be sanctified and made holy ; witness, 

[7.] The oath of a holy God : Ezek. xviii. 31, 32, and xxxiii. 11, 
* Say unto them. As I live, saith the Lord Grod, I have no pleasure in 
the death of the wicked ; but that the wicked turn from his way 
and live : turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways ; for why will ye die, O 
house of Israel ? ' ' As I live ' is the form of an oath, and is much 
used in the Scripture by God himself. Wicked men are very hardly 
persuaded to believe that God is willing that they should be sanctified 
and saved ; and therefore God takes his oath on it, that he is infinitely 
more willing that wicked men should turn from their evil ways and be 
sanctified and saved, than that they should perish in their sins and be 
damned for ever. ' As I live ' is a weighty oath, and imports the 
certainty of that which follows: it is absolute, without evasion or 
revocation ; as sure as I live and am God, I have no pleasure in 
destroying and damning of souls, but desire that they would turn from 
their evil ways, and that they would be sanctified and saved ; let me 
not live, let me be no longer a God, if I would not have the wicked 
to live and be happy for ever. The possibility of your being holy, 
God hath confirmed by an oath, and therefore you may no longer 
question it. The Egyptians, though heathens, so hated perjury, that 
if any man did but swear by the life of the king, and did not perform 
his oath, that man was to die, and no gold was to redeem his life.i 
And do you think that a holy God doth not stand more upon liis oath 
than heathens, yea, than the worst of heathens ? Certainly he doth. 
Lastly, it is possible that you may be holy ; witness, 

[8.] The great designs and undertakings of Jesus Christ to make 
lost man holy. His great design in leaving his Father's bosom 
and coming into this world, was the destroying, the dissolving of the 
works of the devil : 1 John iii. 8, ' For this purpose the Son of God 
was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil.' 2 Sin 
is Satan's work, and Christ comes to destroy it, and break it all 
in pieces. Men's sins are Satan's chains, by which he links them fast 
to himself ; but Christ was therefore manifested that he might loose 
and knock off these chains. Satan had knit many sinful knots in our 
souls, but Christ comes to untie those knots ; he had laid many snares, 
but Christ comes to discover and to break those snares. It was 
the great design of Christ in the divesting of himself, as it were, of his 
divine honour, glory, and dignity, and in his taking on him the nature 
of man, to destroy Satan, and to sanctify the souls of men, Phil. ii. 
6-8, 15 ; Heb. ii. 11, 14, 15. It was the great design of Jesus Christ in 
giving of himself for us — in giving his soul, his body, his life, to 
justice, to death, to wrath for us, ' that he might redeem us from all 
iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people zealous of good 
works,' Titus ii. 14. The crown of holiness was fallen from our heads, 
and Christ freely and willingly uncrowns himself, that once more 

^ As Paulus Fagius observeth in his comment on Genesis. 
^ Mfft), dissolve, unravel the works of the devil. 


we might be crowned with holiness, immortality, and glory. Christ 
was resolved that he would lose all that was near and dear unto him, 
but he would recover our lost holiness for us. Christ knew that 
heaven had been but a poor purchase, had he not purchased holiness 
for us. As heaven is but a low thing without God, so heaven is but a 
low thing without holiness. It is holiness that is the sparkling diamond 
in the ring of happiness ; a man were better be holy in hell than 
unholy in heaven ; and therefore Christ ventures his all for hohness. 
The great design of Christ in redeeming of souls with the choicest, 
the purest, the costliest, the noblest blood that ever run in veins, was 
that they should ' serve him in righteousness and holiness all the days 
of their lives,' Luke i. 74, 75. In a word, Christ had never taken 
so great a journey from heaven to earth, but to make men holy ; 
he had never taken upon him the form of a servant, but to make 
us the servants of the most high God. He had never lain in a manger, 
he had never trod the wine-press of his Father's wrath, but to 
make you holy. He prayed, he sweat, he bled, and he hung on the 
cross, and all to make you holy. He was holy in his birth, and holy 
in his life, and holy in his death, and holy in all his sufferings; and all 
to make you holy. The great design of Christ in aU he did, and 
in all he suffered, was to make man holy. And thus you see by 
all these arguments that holiness is attainable. 

3. Thirdly, Consider this, that real holiness is the honour and the 
glory of the creature; and therefore the apostle links hohness and 
honour together : 2 Cor. iii. 18, and Eph. v. 27 ; 1 Thess. iv. 3, 4, 
' For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should 
abstain from fornication ; that every one of you should know how to 
possess his vessel in sanctification and honour.' The vessel is man's 
body — ^which is the great utensil or instrument of the soul, and con- 
tains it as in a vessel. Now the sanctity and chastity of this vessel is 
the honour of a Christian. Even bodily purity is a Christian's glory. 
He that keeps his vessel in holiness, keeps it in honour. Holiness is 
the greatest dignity that mortal man is capable of; it is man's highest 
promotion, it is his highest exaltation. Holiness is the true gentility 
and the true nobility of the soul : i Deut. xxvi. 19, ' And to make thee 
high above all nations which he hath made, in praise, and in name, 
and in honour, and that thou mayest be an holy people unto the Lord 
thy God.' There is nothing that lifts a people so high, and that makes 
them so truly famous and glorious, as holiness doth. Holiness is the 
praise, the renown, the crown, and glory of a people. Holiness is 
the diadem, the beauty, and the excellency of a people. Holiness 
is the strength, the honour, and the riches of a people. Holiness is the 
image of God, the character of Christ. It is a beam of the divine nature, 
a spark of glory, it is the life of your lives, and the soul of your souls ; 
it is only holiness that makes men to excel in honour all other people 
in the world. Look, as God's holiness is his glory, and the angels' 
holiness is their glory, and the church's holiness is their glory, Exod. 
XV. 11 ; Isa. vi. 2, 3 ; Ps. xciii. 5 ; Eph. v. 27 ; so the hohness of any 
particular person is the glory of that person. Why was Jabez reputed 

^ A heathen could say, Ndbilitas sola eat atque unica virtus: Virtue is the only true 


more honourable than his brethren, but because he was more holy 
than his brethren? 1 Chron. iv. 9, 10, ' And Jabez was more honour- 
able than his brethren ; and his mother called his name Jabez, saying. 
Because I bare him with sorrow. And Jabez called on the God of 
Israel, saying. Oh that thou wouldst bless me indeed, and enlarge my 
coast, and that thine hand might be with me, and that thou wouldst 
keep me from evil, that it may not grieve me ! And God granted him 
that which he requested.' Holiness is the truest and the greatest 
nobility and honour in the world. It is very observable that among 
• Turks, Jews, Indians, Persians, and Papists, the strictest and holiest 
among them are most highly esteemed and honoured, Komanus, the 
martyr, who was born of noble parentage, entreated his persecutors 
that they would not favour him for his nobility ; for it is not, said he, 
the blood of my ancestors, but my Christian faith that makes me 
noble. 1 David thought it not so happy nor so honourable a thing to 
be a king in his own house, as to be a door-keeper in God's house. 
Solomon did prefer the title of Ecclesmstes, that is, a soul reconciled 
to the church, before the title of the king of Jerusalem. Holy 
Theodosius, the emperor, preferred the title of memhrum ecclesice, a 
member of the church, before that of caput imperii, the head of the 
empire, professing that he had rather be a saint and no king, than a 
king and no saint. And holy Constantine rejoiced more in being the 
servant of Christ, than in being the emperor of the world. And 
Luther had rather be Christianus rusticus, than ethniciis Alexander ^ 
a Christian clown than a pagan emperor. These holy men well knew 
that holiness was the top of all their honour and glory. Well, sinners, 
remember this, that holiness is the high and ready way to the highest 
honour ; and therefore, as ever you would be traly honourable, labour 
to be truly holy. Great swelling titles are but as so many rattles, or 
as so many feathers in men's caps, without holiness. He that can be 
content to live without holiness, must be contented to see his honour 
entombed whilst he lives. Honour without holiness is but a wind 
that will blow a man the sooner to hell. Honour without holiness is 
but magnum nihil, a great nothing, a glorious fancy. 2 Many a man 
hath been the worse, but where lives that man that hath been ever 
the better, for his worldly honour? A man swelled with honour, 
without holiness, is like a man in a dropsy, whose bigness is his 
disease. Well, let ambitionists, and all others who hunt after the 
breath of popular applause, know that that honour which attends 
holinesfi is the truest honour, the highest honour, the greatest honour, 
the happiest honour, the surest honour, the purest honour, and the 
most lasting and abiding honour. Mollerus,3 upon Psakn Ixxiii. 20, 
concludes that wicked men's earthly honours and dignities are but 
as idle dreams, and their splendid braveries but lucid phantasies. 
Adonibezek, a mighty prince, is quickly made a fellow-commoner with 
the dogs. Judges i. 7. And Nebuchadnezzar, a mighty conqueror, 
turned a-grazing among the oxen, Dan. iv. 28. And Herod reduced 

^ Clarke, as before. — G. 

^ Acts XXV. 23. MerA ttoXX^j (pavrafflas, with great phantasy or vain show; all the 
honour, pomp, and state of this world is but a phantasy. 
^ MDCLXi. folio. — G. 


from a conceited god to be the most loathsome of men, a living carrion 
arrested by the \'ilest of creatures, upon the suit of his affronted 
Creator, Acts xii. 23. And great Haman feasted with the king one 
day, and made a feast for crows the next, Esth. vii. 10. But that 
honour that waits on holiness is honour that will abide with a man, 
that will to the grave with a man, yea, that will to heaven with a 
man. Some heathens have been weary of their honours — Maximus, 
&c., but the honour that attends holiness is no burden to a Christian ; 
and others have rejected honours when they have been offered them, 
because of the cumber and danger that attends them. High seats are 
never but uneasy, and crowns are usually stuffed with thorns. But 
the honour that attends holiness is a rose without prickles, it is a 
crown without thorns. That honour that springs from a root of holi- 
ness shall be both sanctified and sweetened by God, so as that it shall 
not hurt nor harm a gracious soul. Ah, sinners ! sinners ! if you will be 
ambitious, be ambitious of that honour that comes in upon the foot 
of holiness, for there is no honour to that honour. The Eomans were 
insatiable in their desires after worldly honour, which is but as a blast, 
a shadow, a dream. Oh, how much more insatiable should you be in 
your desires and endeavours after that honour that is linked to holiness, 
and that is substantial and lasting ! 

To stir you up to look after real holiness, consider, 4. Fourthly, 
That holiness is very attractive, drawing, and loinning. It draws 
love, it draws desire, it draws delight. Holiness is like a precious 
perfume, whose savour spreads itself, and is pleasing and delightful 
to all that come near it : 2 Kings iv. 9, 10, ' And she said unto her 
husband, Behold now, I perceive that this is a holy man of God, 
which passeth by us continually. Let us make a little chamber, 
I pray thee, on the wall ; and let us set for him there a bed, and a 
table, and a stool, and a candlestick ; and it shall be, when he cometh 
to us, that he shall turn in thither.'^ The holiness of the pro- 
phet's spirit, the holiness of his principles, the holiness of his 
behaviour, and the holiness of his conversation, did so allure and 
win upon this great lady, that she becomes an importunate suitor to 
her husband that he might be lovingly, freely, courteously, and 
commodiously entertained and accommodated as often as he came that 
way. So Acts ii. 46, 47, ' And they continued daily with one accord 
in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their 
meat with gladness and singleness of heart ; praising God, and having 
favour with all the people.' That which did grace and ingratiate 
these holy converts into the favour of the people, was the exercise of 
their grace and holiness. It was their sweet unity, their noble charity, 
their holy familiarity, their blessed harmony, their singular sincerity, 
and their Christian constancy, that brought them into favour with all 
the people. Visible holiness is a loadstone that will draw eyes and 
hearts after it: 1 Pet. iii. 1, 'Likewise ye wives, be in subjection to 
your own husbands, that if any obey not the word, they also may 
without the word be won by the conversation of the wife.' A holy 
conversation is a winning conversation, Phil. ii. 15, and 1 Cor. vii. 16. 

1 History tells us of many infidels that have been won to the Christian faith by the 
holy lives of the saints, &c 

VOL. IV. ^ 


The holy conversation of the wife may be the conversion of the hus- 
band ; the holy, the wise, the watchful, the circumspect conversation 
of the wife may issue in the salvation of the husband. Many a 
husband hath been won to Christ by the holy conversation of the wife ; 
and many a wife hath been won by the holy conversation of the 
husband. Many a servant hath been won by the holy conversation of 
the master ; and many a master hath been won by the holy conversa- 
tion of the servant. Sozomen reports, that the holy life of a poor 
captive Christian maid, made a king and all his family to embrace the 
Christian faith. I have read of Cecilia, a poor virgin, who, by her 
holy and gracious behaviour in her martyrdom, was the means of con- 
verting four hundred to Christ. i Many a soul hath been won by the 
dumb oratory of a holy life.^ Justin Martyr confesseth that the con- 
stancy of Christians in their piety and sufferings was the chiefest 
motive that converted him to Christianity. ' For I myself,' saith he, 
' was once a Platonist, and did gladly hear the Christians reviled : but 
when I saw they feared not death, nor any of those miseries which did 
most frighten all other men, I began to consider with myself that it was 
impossible for such men to be lovers of pleasure more than lovers of 
piety ; and that made me first think of turning Christian.' 3 There is 
nothing that hath that influence upon the judgments of men to 
persuade them, upon the consciences of men to awe them, upon the 
mouths of men to stop them, upon the hearts of men to convince them, 
and upon the lives of men to reform them, as holiness, 1 Pet. ii. 12. 
What Plato once said of his moral virtue — viz., that if it could be 
seen with bodily eyes it would be beloved of all, and draw all hearts 
to itself — that is most true of this theological grace, holiness. Holi- 
ness is so beautiful and so lovely a thing, that it renders men amiable 
and lovely in the very eyes of their enemies. Tilligny, for his rare 
virtues, was rescued from death by his greatest enemies at the massacre 
of Paris. 4 Holiness makes a man's face to shine, as it did Moses his, 
and Stephen's. Nothing pleases the eye nor wins the heart like 
holiness. What is gold to godliness, gifts to grace, parts to piety ? 
A spai'k, a ray, a beam of holiness, will certainly have an influence 
upon the spirits of men, either to restrain them or change them, or 
allay them or sweeten them, or win them, or one way or another to 
better them. Look, as the unholy lives and conversations of many 
professors do occasion some to blaspheme God, others to belie God, 
others to withstand God, and others to forsake God; look, as the 
looseness of many Christians doth work some to reproach Christ, 
others to deny Christ, others to refuse Christ, others to revile the good 
ways of Christ, and others to oppose and despise the faithful followers 
of Christ : as Lactantius reports, that the loose lives of many Christians 
was made by the heathens the reproach of Christ himself, Quomodo 
bonus magister, cujus tarn pravos viderrms discipulos f How can we 
think the master to be good, whose disciples we see to be so bad ? 

^ Clarke, aa before. — G. 

' Monica won her husband Patricia from being an impure Manichee, not by force of 
argument, but by purity and chastity of life, saith Augustine. 
^ As before. — G. 
* Vide the French History in the life of Charles the Ninth. [As before.— G.] 


And Salvian also complains that the loose walking of many Christians 
was made by the heathen the reproach of Christ himself, saying, If 
Christ had taught holy doctrine, surely his followers had led better 
lives. And further, the same author relates how the heathens did 
reproach some Christians, who by their lewd lives made the gospel of 
Christ to be a reproach: Where, said they, is that good law which 
they do believe ? Where are those rules of godliness which they do 
learn ? They read the holy Gospel, and yet are unclean ; they hear the 
apostles' writings, and yet are drunk; they follow Christ, and yet 
disobey Christ ; they profess a holy law, and yet do lead impure lives. 1 
Now I say, look, as the hoHness of many professors 2 is a dishonour to 
God, a reproach to Christ, a scandal to religion, a blot to profession, 
and a grief to many whom God would not have grieved, Ezek. xiii. 22 ; 
so the power of holiness, the practice of holiness, is very influential 
upon the worst of men, to win and work them to the Lord, and to a 
love and liking of his ways. The holy lives of the saints made the 
very heathens to say. Surely this is a good God, whose servants are so 
good. Ambrose his holiness did very much draw out the heart of 
Theodosius, the emperor, to him ; and the holiness of Paphnutius did 
very much draw out the heart of Constantino the Great to him. There 
is nothing that gives a man that heart-room and that hearty room in 
the souls of others, as holiness. It is the holy man that is a man of a 
thousand. 3 But, 

5. Fifthly, Consider that real holiness is the excellency of all a mans 
excellencies. As holiness is the glory of God, a part of the divine 
nature, a spark of heaven, a ray of glory, so it is the excellency of all 
a man's excellencies : it is the excellency of all our natural excellencies, 
it is the excellency of all our moral excellencies, and it is the excel- 
lency of aU our intellectual excellencies. Look, as ^ God's holiness is 
the excellency of all his excellencies, as the angels, who best know what 
is the top of his excellency, do evidence by that threefold repetition, 
* Holy, holy, holy,' Isa. vi. 3 ; these multiplied acclamations of holi- 
ness denote the superlative eminency, excellency, and perfection of 
God's holiness.^ Both among the Hebrews and among the Grecians 
the holiness of God is the excellency of his omnisciency, omnipotency, 
and omnipresence. It is the excellency of his eternity, immutability, 
and fidelity ; it is the excellency of his wisdom, love, care, and good- 
ness : Ps. cxi. 9, ' Holy and reverend is his name.' God's name 
comes to be reverend by holiness. If his name were not holy, it would 
never be reverend ; and why is God called so often ' the holy one,' but 
to shew us that holiness is the very top of all his glory and excellency.^ 
God could not be glorious in anything if he were not glorious in holi- 
ness. That which speaks his power to be glorious power, is his holi- 
ness ; and that which speaks his wisdom to be glorious wisdom, is his 
holiness ; and that which speaks his mercy to be glorious mercy, is his 
holiness, &c. Were not the power of God a holy power, it could never 

1 Salvianus de G. D., 1. 4. ^ Because of the low kind of ' holinesB ' manifested.— O, 
3 2 Thes. i. 3-6, read it. 

* The ' as ' here is to be connected with the * so ' on next page, line 3d from top. — G. 
^ Rev. iv. 8. Some Greek copies have the word, "A710S, holy, nine times over, &c. 
6 Exod. XV. 11. That which God accounts his highest honour is his holiaess. 


be a glorious power ; were not the wisdom of God a holy wisdom, it 
could never be glorious wisdom ; and were not the mercy of God holy 
mercy, it could never be glorious mercy, &c. So the holiness of a man 
is the glory and excellency of all a man's excellencies ; it is the per- 
fection of all a man s perfections. In paradise, man's perfect holiness 
was his perfect blessedness ; and in heaven, man's perfect hohness will 
be his perfect happiness, Heb. xii. 23. Holiness adds an excellency 
to all a man's excellencies. That which adds an excellency to a man's 
wisdom is holiness. When a man's wisdom is a holy wisdom, then it 
is excellent wisdom. So holy courage is excellent courage, and holy 
zeal is excellent zeal, and holy' knowledge is excellent knowledge, and 
holy faith is excellent faith, and holy love is excellent love, and holy 
fear is excellent fear. It is the adding of holiness to all these that 
renders these virtues truly excellent ; it is holiness that is the top of 
all these royalties. Look, as all ciphers signify nothing except you 
add a figure to them ; so all the excellencies that be in men, whether 
they are natural, moral, or acquired, they signify nothing except you 
add holiness to them. Birth and breeding, wit and wealth, honour 
and learning, are but the shadows and shapes of nobleness and true 
excellency ; it is holiness that is the soul and substance of all ; and 
without holiness all other things are of no worth, all other excellencies 
have no excellency at all in them.i Naaman was general of the 
king's army ; he was a man in great favour with his prince, a man 
much honoured among the people for being a saviour and deliverer to 
them. He was also a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper, 2 
Kings V. 1. This ' hut he was a leper ' was a cloud upon all his glory ; 
it was a veil upon all his honour, greatness, and nobleness. So to say, 
there is a wise man, but unholy ; and there is a great man, but unholy ; 
and there is an ingenuous man, but unholy ; and there is a noble man, 
but unholy ; and there is a valiant man, but unholy ; and there is a 
good-natured man, but unholy ; and there is a learned man, but un- 
holy, &c., — ^what is this * hut unholy,' but a cloud of darkness upon 
all the excellencies that are in these persons ? But let now holiness 
be but added to each of these, and then they will shine as so many 
suns. Holiness is a garment that sets off arts, and parts, and all 
other excellencies that be in man ; let but this garment be wanting, 
and the nakedness of all things will quickly appear. And this made 
Jerome to say that he had rather have St Paul's coat with his 
heavenly graces, than the purple of kings with their kingdoms. Look, 
as a precious jewel set in gold makes that much more conspicuous 
and glorious which was glorious before; so holiness adds beauty, 
splendour, and glory to a man's parts, birth, honour, and estate, &c. 

6. Sixthly, Consider that holiness is not only an honour and an 
ornament to the person that hath it, hut it is also an honour and an 
ornament hath to the persons and places to loJwm he stands related.^ 
The holiness of the father is an honour and ornament to the child ; 
80 was Abraham's to Isaac : and the holiness of the child is an honour 

^ 0000000— these signify nothing ; but if you do but add a figure to them, 10000000, 
then they signify much. 
' So holy Eliakim was a throne of glory to his father's house, lea. xxii 23. 


and an ornament to the father ; so was Isaac's to Abraham : the holi- 
ness of the husband is an honour and ornament to the wife ; so was 
Abraham's to Sarah : and the holiness of the wife is an honour and 
an ornament to the husband ; so was Sarah's to Abraham. So, in 
Prov. xii. 4, ' A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband.' i A 
crown is the top of honour, it is the top of royalty and glory ; why ! a 
virtuous wife is such a thing ! A sweet, a good-natured wife is as a 
gold ring upon her husband's finger ; a gifted wife is as a gold chain 
about her husband's neck; but a holy virtuous wife is as a crown upon 
her husband's head. The holiness of the prince is an honour and an 
ornament to the people ; and the holiness of the people is an honour 
and an ornament to the prince. The holiness of the master is an 
honour and an ornament to the servant; and the holiness of the ser- 
vant is an honour and an ornament to the master. And the holiness 
of one brother is an honour to another brother. Jude glories- in this, 
that he was the brother of James, ver. 1. James was famous for his 
sanctity ; for his holiness he was called the Just, as Eusebius writes. 2 
His holiness did so sparkle and shine, that the Jews were generally 
convinced that in holiness he was more eminent and excellent than 
others. Now Jude took it for a very high honour to be related to one 
so eminent in holiness. Holy persons reflect a credit and an honour 
upon their relations. It was the speech of a heathen notably qualified, 
though but meanly bred and born, to a dissolute person well born, up- 
braiding him with his birth, ' I am a grace to my stock, but thou art 
a blot to thy lineage/ Yea, holy persons are an honour to the places 
where they have been born and bred : Ps. Ixxxvii. 5,6, ' And of Zion 
it shall be said. This and that man was born in her : and the Highest 
himself shall establish her. The Lord shall count, when he writeth 
up the people, that tliis man was born there. Selah.' God seems to be 
very much affected and taken with the very places where holy men are 
born ; he loves the very ground that holy men tread on, and he delights 
in the very air that holy men breathe in. Holy persons reflect honour 
upon the very places where they were born. The holy patriarchs, 
prophets, and apostles were the honour and the glory of the ages and 
places where they lived. ^ They were as so many bright morning stars, 
they were as so many rising suns in the places where they were bred 
and born. Melanchthon was called the phoenix of Grermany, and Luther 
was the glory of the age wherein he lived. And so were many of the 
ancients before them, and many since, who have been burning and 
shining lights in the places of their abode. Look, as an unholy person 
is a plague and a curse to the very place he lives in, and hastenetb 
down wrath and vengeance upon it, as Bias the philosopher hath lon« 
since observed ; for he being at sea in a great tempest among many 
profane debauched fellows, and perceiving them to call upon their 
gods, as the worst of men usually do in such cases, he comes to them, 

^ The Hebrew is, a woman of strength, or a valiant woman ; that is, a woman that is 
made strong and valiant by grace, by holiness, to withstand sin, to conquer temptation, 
and to triumph in affliction, &c. 

^ Euseb., lib. ii. c. 23, where you have many memorable things concerning the holi- 
ness of his life, and the manner of his death. 

=* Some antiquaries say that the primitive church had her public tables, wherein the 
names of the persons that were most noted for piety and holiness were recorded. 


and desires them to hold their peace, lest the gods should take notice 
that they were in the ship, and so not only themselves, but others also, 
should suffer for their sakes.i It was the wickedness of the wicked 
that brought the sweeping flood upon the old world ; and it was the 
wickedness and filthiness of the Sodomites that caused God to rain 
heU out of heaven upon the cities where they lived. Let men be never 
so honourable, or never so potent, or never so witty, or never so 
wealthy, &c., yet if they are profane, if they are wicked, they will 
hasten down the wrath and vengeance of God upon the places of their 
abode. So a holy person is an honom- and a blessing to the very place 
he lives in, as you may see in Jacob and Joseph, who were choice and 
noble blessings to the very families where they lived. sirs, as ever 
you would be an honour to your relations, to your country, and to the 
places of your abode, labour for holiness ! Some venture life and limb, 
and many a better thing, to reflect honour upon their relations, and 
upon their country — as many of the Komans did ; and why then shoiUd 
not you venture far, and venture high for holiness, which will be not 
only an honour to yourselves, but also an honour and a glory to all 
persons and places that you have relation to ? 

7. Seventhly, Consider that hohness is the very ear-marh, the very 
livery and badge of Ghrisis servants and subjects: Isa. Ixiii. 8, ' For 
he said, Surely they are my people, children that will not lie : so he 
was their Saviour ;' and ver. 18, they are called ' the people of his 
holiness.' God's people are too holy to lie ; they will not lie for his 
glory, nor for their own worldly good. 2 They wUl rather die than lie, 
with that brave woman that Jerome writes of, who being upon the 
rack, bade her persecutors do their worst, for she was resolved rather 
to die than lie. Neither the merry lie, nor the jesting lie, nor the 
officious lie, nor the pernicious lie, will down with those that are the 
people of God's holiness, or that are his holy people. Saith God, I 
have been at so much cost and charge about them, I have carried it 
so kindly, so bountifully, so sweetly, so favourably, so nobly to them ; 
I have been such an all-sufficient Saviour, such a mighty preserver, 
and such a glorious deliverer of them, that certainly they will not lie, 
they will not deceive my expectation, they will not deny me, they will 
not deal disloyally nor unworthily by me.^ They are of Augustine's 
opinion, who hath long since told us, that we must not tell so much 
as an officious lie, though it were to save all the world. So Jer. ii. 3, 
* Israel was holiness unto the Lord, and the firstfruits of his increase : 
all that devour him shall ofiend ; evil shall come upon them, saith the 
Lord.' Holiness to the Lord is the mark that God sets upon all his 
precious ones : Ps. iv. 3, ' Know that God hath set apart him that is 
godly for himself.' God hath wonderfully, gloriously, marvellously, 
yea, miraculously set apart the pious, the holy, the merciful, the godly 
man, the gracious saint, by some mark of distinction for himself, that 
is, for his own honour, and glory, and service, and delight.* Look, as 
Rahab's house was known by a red thread, Josh. ii. ; and the Ephraim- 

^ Afl before. — G. ' Job xiii. 7; Eom. iii. 7, 8 ; Rev. xiv. 5. 

^ It is said of golden-mouthed Chrysostom that he never lied ; answerable to this, 
laa. Ixiii 8. * The Hebrew word, chasid, imports as much. 


ites by their lisping, Judges xi. ; and Jehu by his driving, 2 Kings ix. ; 
and Peter by his speaking. Mat. xxvi. ; so real Christians are known 
by their holiness. Holiness is King Jesus his livery, by which all his 
subjects and servants are known and differenced from all other persons 
in the world. And in the primitive times, a Christian was known 
from another man only by the holiness of his conversation, as Ter- 
tuUian witnesses. Look, as our Lord Jesus Christ, by the Spirit of 
holiness raising him up from the dead, was declared to be the Son of 
God, Rom. i. 4 ; so it is the spirit of holiness, it is principles of holi- 
ness, it is the life and practice of holiness, that declares us to be the 
sons of God, 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18. Holiness is that golden character by 
which God differences and distinguisheth his people from all others in 
the world. Look, as the worshippers of the beast are known by the 
mark of the beast that is upon them ; so the worshippers of Christ, 
the people of Christ, are known by that mark of holiness that Christ 
hath set upon them. This title, this compellation, ' saints,' is given 
fourscore times to the people of God in Scripture, as if God took a 
greater delight to have his children known by this badge and livery 
than by any other. As for such that have the name of saints upon 
them, but nothing of the nature of a saint in them ; that have a name 
to be holy, and yet are unholy ; that have a name to be gracious, and 
yet are graceless ; that have a name to live, and yet are dead ; these 
God will in that day unmask, when he shall lead them forth with the 
workers of iniquity. i An unholy saint is a white devil, he is a monster 
among men. Christ sweat, and prayed, and died, and was raised to 
make sinners saints, to make the rebellious religious, and the licentious 
conscientious. All he did and suffered was to stamp the seal and im- 
press of holiness upon them. And therefore, as ever you would be 
owned and honoured by Christ another day, look that the Holy Spirit 
sets the seal of holiness upon you. If the impress of holiness be upon 
you in the day that the Lord makes up his jewels, he will declare you 
to be his before all the world. He will say. These are my sheep, 
these are my sons, I know them by that mark of holiness that I find 
upon them. But, 

8. Eighthly, Consider this, that a man of holiness, or a holy man, 
is a common good, a common blessing. All fare the better for a holy 
man. All in the family, all in the court, all in the city, all in the 
country, fare the better for the holy man's sake. All in Laban's 
family did fare the better for Jacob's sake ; and all in the city of 
Zoar did fare the better for Lot's sake ; and all Pharaoh's court, and 
the whole country of Egypt, did fare the better for Joseph's sake. 
Sodom was safe whilst holy Lot was in it: holy Elijah was the 
chariots and horsemen of Israel. Whilst holy Moses stood in the 
gap, destroying judgments were diverted : when holy Phinehas took 
up his censer, and stood between the living and the dead, the plague 
was stayed.2 Holy persons are public mercies, public blessings : Job 

1 Rev. xiii. 16 ; xiv. 9, 10, and xix. 2C. A man were better be a beast, than to have 
the mark of the beast upon him. The title of a saint is but an empty thing without 

* Gen. XXX. 27; xix. 21-24, and xli., &c. ; 2 Kings ii. 12; Ts. cvi. 23; Num. iivi. 

46, 49. 


xxii. 30, ' He shall deliver the island of the innocent : and it is 
delivered by the pureness of thine hands : ' or, as some read the words, 
' the innocent shall deliver the island ;' that is, the inhabitants of the 
island.^ The innocent shall deliver those that are not innocent ; had 
there been but ten innocent, but ten righteous persons in Sodom, 
Sodom might have been a glorious city to this day ; had there been 
but ten righteous souls among them, God would never have rained 
hell out of heaven upon them ; Gen. xviii. 32 to the end. The guilt- 
less shall deliver the guilty in an island ; the guiltless, by Kfting up 
pure hands to God in prayer, shall stay the hand of God, that it 
destroys not the guilty. It is the holy seed that upholdeth the civil 
state : Isa. vi. 13, ' But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall return, 
and shall be eaten : as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is 
in them, when they cast their leaves : so the holy seed shall be the 
substance thereof.' ^ The holy seed were the stay and prop of their 
land, and this the Lord evidences by a very familiar instance or simili- 
tude. It is as if he should say. You see the way or causey, leading 
from the king's house to the temple — spoken of in 1 Kings x. 5 ; 
2 Kings xii. 21 ; 1 Chron. xxvi. 16, 17, and 2 Chron. ix. 11 — how by 
reason of the oaks and trees on either side thereof the earth between 
is stayed and held up firm, which otherwise would fall to decay and 
moulder away : so saith God, it is the holy seed that bears up the 
whole state, and were it not for them, desolation and destruction 
would come in as a flood upon you : Prov. x. 25, ' The righteous is an 
everlasting foundation.' The Hebrew doctors sense it thus, The 
righteous are the foundation of the world, which would soon shatter 
and fall to ruin but for their sakes. The whole world fares the 
better every day for the righteous' sake. If it were not for this holy 
seed, the chaff of this world would soon be set on fire. If the number 
of the holy seed were but called and converted, God would quickly 
turn the whole world into flames and ashes. It is they that bear up 
the pillars of the earth : Ps. Ixxv. 3, ' I bear up the pillars of the 
earth.' Holy persons are the true Atlases both of church and state ; 
they are the pillars on whom all do rest, the props on whom all do 
lean ; do but overturn these pillars, and all will fall about your ears, 
as the house did about the Philistines when Samson shook it. Let 
but kingdoms and commonwealths wreck these, and they shall quickly 
be shipwrecked themselves. There is not a sinner in the world but 
fenjoys his estate, his relations, his outward accommodations, yea, his 
very life, upon the account of the saints; and therefore they must 
needs be bewitched, or fools, or madmen, that are still a-lifting and 
a-thrusting at these very pillars that bear them up. Look, as Samson's 
strength did lie in his locks, so the strength and safety of the nation 
lies in the holy seed: they are the bulwarks and ammunition of the 
nation ; the safety and felicity of the whole is bound up in them. It 
is not armies, nor navies, nor walled cities, nor fortified castles, nor 
golden mines, nor grave counsels that will secure a nation, if once the 
people of God's holiness be cast by as broken pitchers. It is their 

^ God will Bometimes deliver a whole country for the sake of the innocent, &c. 
^ I will seek thy good, was holy David's royal and religious resolution, Ps. cxxii. 9. 
Kings are for kingdoms, not kingdoms for kings. 


piety and prayers that keeps off sweeping judgments from a nation, 
and that brings down variety of mercies upon a nation. ^ Holy persons 
are the clouds that water the earth as a common blessing ; and they 
are the rising sun that scatters all clouds and darkness. A holy man 
is Kolvov arfadov, a public diffusive blessing in the place where he 
lives. Look, as one sinner destroys much good, Eccles. ix. 18, so one 
saint may save a land, a country : Jer. v. 1, ' Run ye to and fro through 
the streets of Jerusalem, and see now, and know, and seek in the broad 
places thereof, if ye can find a man, if there be any that executeth 
judgment, that seeketh the truth; and I will pardon it.' Though 
Jerusalem was far larger and more populous, I say not only than 
Sodom, but than all the other cities that sinned and perished with it, 
yet God makes so large and noble an offer, that if there could be 
found in it but one man divinely qualified, but a man of justice, a 
man of faithfulness, a man of uprightness, a man of holiness, the Lord 
would pardon it ; that is, he would spare it, he would not destroy it, 
nor ruin it. God once made an offer to Abraham, that if there were 
but ten righteous souls in Sodom, he would save it ; but here he falls 
so low as to make an offer, that if there could be but one righteous 
soul found in Jerusalem, he would not destroy it.2 One saint may 
save a city, yea, a world of sinners, from confusion and destruction. 
Luther, whilst he lived, by faith and prayer, kept off troubles from 
Germany, but soon after he was gone to his grave in peace, oh, the 
wars, the miseries and mischiefs, the distractions and confusions that 
came in like a flood upon them ! Possidonius, in the life of Augustine, 
tells us that the famous city of Hippo could never be spoiled whilst 
Augustine lived. The flood could not drown the old world till holy 
Methuselah was laid up in peace. sirs ! as ever you would be a 
public blessing, labour to be holy. But, 

9. Ninthly, Consider the antiquity of holiness. Holiness is of the 
greatest, highest, and ancientest antiquity. The first suit that ever 
was put upon the back of man's nature was holiness. Sin is of a 
later edition than holiness ; holiness was when sin was not, Deut. 
xxxii. 7, &c. ' Let us make man,' saith God, ' in our own image.' 
Sin is against nature, it is a defect in nature, it came in by a lie, and, 
by-the-bye, through the subtlety of the father of lies. Gen. i. 26. God 
stamped his image of holiness upon man before ever Satan assayed to 
tempt him. HoKness is of the ancientest house, of the greatest anti- 
quity, John viii. 44. Sin is but an upstart, holiness is the firstborn ; 
the way of holiness is the oldest way : Jer. vi. 16, ' Thus saith the 
Lord, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where 
is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your 
souls. But they said, We will not walk therein.' The way of holiness 
was that old way in which Adam at first, and in which all the holy 
patriarchs and prophets walked. 3 In this sense it is most certain 
that the oldest way is the best way ; the way of sanctity is of greatest 

1 Lam. iv. 1, 2, and Esther iv., and chap, the last, compared. 

' If among the rabble, if among the noble, if among the rich, if among the learned, 
a man could have been found that loved holiness, that was stout for righteousness, and 
that practised uprightness, God would have spared Jerusalem. 

* Linshiboth gnolam — paths of eternity, the paths of piety ; the paths of purity are 
paths of eternity, &c. 


antiquity. Let Papists and carnal superstitious Protestants cry up 
their superstitious ways as ways of greatest antiquity, yet when they 
have said all they can, there is no antiquity to that of holiness. The 
way of will-worship was not the first way of worshipping God in the 
world. Many carnal men cry out that they are for the good old way, 
they care not for this new way, they care not for this new religion, as 
they call it ; they say that we have never had good days since there 
hath been so much praying, and so much preaching, and so much 
fasting, and so much printing, and so much ado about close walking 
with Grod. 'Tis most certain that a carnal religion is best pleasing to 
a carnal heart ; and this you may see evidently among the Turks, 
whose religion gives much carnal liberty to the professors of it ; and 
whose religion promises them a paradise of sensual pleasures in 
another world. And the same is very observable among the Papists, 
and all the carnal Protestants in the world, who cry up that for the 
best religion, and for the true rehgion, and for the good old religion, 
that is most suitable to their carnal reason, and most pleasing and 
indulging to their lusts. Socrates is sufficiently condemned for his 
prescribing of men to worship Grod according to the manner of the 
country where they lived ; and what was this but to gratify the lust of 
men, by subjecting the rule of God's worship to the laws and customs 
of men ? But from the beginning it was not so. Holy Noah, holy 
Enoch, and the rest of the holy patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, 
walked only in ways of piety and purity. Holy Abraham, holy Isaac, 
and holy Jacob, never walked in those ways that are now by loose, 
formal, carnal, and superstitious persons cried up for the good old 
way, but in ways of holiuiess and righteousness, I have read of the 
Cretians, that when they cursed their enemies, they did not wish their 
houses on fire, nor a sword at their hearts, but that they might be 
delighted and given up to an ill custom. It is one of the greatest and 
bitterest curses and woes to be delighted and given up to ill customs ; 
and the older the custom is of evil, the worse it is ; and ah, how many 
are fallen under these curses in these days, wherein multitudes are 
addicted and given up to carnal and superstitious customs, and choose 
rather to follow an ill custom, though it be never so absurd, irregular, 
vain, and superstitious, than to walk in a way of peace and holiness ! 
Well, sirs, shall the antiquity of holiness provoke you to be holy ? 
Many will do much for antiquity sake ; and why, then, should not you 
do much for holiness sake ? Holiness is God's firstborn ; it is as 
ancient as the ancient of days. The way of holiness is gray-headed, 
and of ancientest institution ; all other ways are but of yesterday; they 
are but new ways to the way of holinesk And oh that this might 
alarm you to look after holiness ! The Gibeonites cheated Joshua with 
their old clouted shoes, and with their old sacks, and old boots, and 
old garments. Josh. ix. 4, 5 ; and so doth Kome this day cheat and 
delude multitudes of poor, blind, ignorant souls, with their old cus- 
toms, and with their old ceremonies, and old traditions, and old inven- 
tions, under a pretence of the good old way, and the good old religion ; 
but certainly the way of holiness, the way of purity, is of the greatest 
antiquity, and therefore, oh embrace it 1 oh, walk in it ! Look, as the 
stamp of antiquity upon some things is a disparagement and a dis- 


honour to them — as an old garment that is past wearing, and an old 
house that is past mending, and an old ship that is past rigging ; so 
the stamp of antiquity upon other things is a praise and an honour to 
them — as old gold, old friends, old manuscripts, old monuments, old 
scars, and old holiness. The stamp of antiquity upon hohness is the 
praise and honour of holiness. Look, as it is an honour to a man to 
be descended of an ancient house ; so it is an honour to a man to 
be allied to holiness ; because sanctity is of greatest antiquity ; and 
therefore, above all gettings, get holiness. But, 

10. Tenthly, Consider, that of all things, holiness will render you 
most beautiful and amiable. As holiness is the beauty of God,i and 
the beauty of angels, so it is the beauty and glory of a Christian too. 
Holiness is a Christian's greatest honour and ornament : Ps, xciii. 5, 
* Holiness becometh thine house ' — that is, thy church — ' Lord, for 
ever.' There is no garment that suits the church, that becomes the 
church, like the garment of holiness. It is sanctity that is the church's 
excellency and glory ; it is purity that is the church's ornament and 
beauty. Holiness is a beauty that beautifies the church; it is the 
gracefulness and comeliness of the church. Holiness is so beautiful 
a thing that it puts a beauty on all things else. As holiness is the 
greatest ornament of the church triumphant, so it is the greatest 
ornament of the church militant, Eph. v. 26, 27. The redness of the 
rose, the whiteness of the lily, and all the beauties of sun, moon, and 
stars, are but deformities to that beauty that holiness puts upon us. 
If all natural and artificial beauty were contracted into one beauty, 
yet it would be but an obscure and an unlovely beauty to that beauty 
that holiness puts upon us : Ps. xxix. 2, ' Give unto the Lord the glory 
due unto his name ; worship the Lord in the beauty of hoHness : ' Ps, 
xcvi. 9, '0 worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness:' Ps. ex. 3, 
' Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauty of 
holiness.' You see beauty and holiness is by God himself still linked 
together ; and those whom God hath so closely joined together, no 
man may put asunder. The scripture last cited doth not only speak 
out holiness to be a beautiful thing, but it speaks out many beauties 
to be in holiness. Those Christians that are volunteers in the beauties 
of holiness, they shall be very beautiful and shining through holiness. 
Holiness casts such a beauty upon man as makes him very amiable 
and desirable. The holiness of parents renders them very amiable and 
desirable in the eyes of their children ; and the holiness of children 
renders them very amiable and desirable in the eyes of their parents, 
Isa. xxii. 21. When that incomparable lady, Cornelia, presented her 
sons to the commonwealth, she said, Hcec sunt mea ornamenta — These 
are my jewels ; these are my ornaments. Holy children are their pa- 
rents' crown, their parents' ornaments ; no glistering gold, no sparkling 
diamonds, no shining or glittering apparel, renders children so amiable 
and lovely in the eyes of their parents as holiness doth. 2 The holiness 
of the husband renders him very amiable in the eyes of the wife, and 

^ Exod. XV. 11. Plato called God the horn of plenty, and the ocean of beauty, with- 
out the least spot of injustice. God is ipsa essentialis pulchritudo, beauty itself, the 
very essential idea and pure sampler of all beauties. 

* Xenophon in Plutarch never prayed that his son Qryllus might be long lived, but 
that he might be a good man. 


the holiness of the wife renders her very desirable in the eyes of her 
husband. The holiness of the master renders him very lovely in the 
eyes of his servants, and the holiness of the servants renders them very 
comely in the eyes of their masters, &c. Jewel's holiness, Bradford's 
holiness, and Bucer's holiness, rendered them very amiable and lovely, 
not only in the eyes of their friends, but also in the eyes of their 
enemies. There is nothing in this world that will render all sorts 
and ranks of people so glorious and famous in the eyes of one another, 
as holiness wiE do. Were all ranks and orders of men more holy, they 
would certainly be more lovely in the eyes of one another. Oh that 
all men would cease from being injurious one to another, and labour 
to be more holy ! and then, I am sure, they would be more comely in 
one another's eyes. Holiness is lovely, yea, loveliness itself. Purity 
is a Christian's splendour and glory. There is no beauty to that of 
sanctity ; nothing beautifies and bespangles a man like holiness. Holi- 
ness is so lovely and so comely a thing, that it draws all eyes and hearts 
to an admiration of it. Holiness is so great a beauty, that it puts a 
beauty upon all other excellencies in a man. That holiness is a very 
beautiful thing, and that it makes all those beautiful that have it, is 
a truth that no devil can deny ; and, therefore, sirs, as ever you 
would be beautiful and lovely, labour to be holy. The natural beauty 
of Sarah, Kebekah, Rachel, Joseph, and Absalom, was no beauty to 
that beauty, lustre, and glory that holiness puts upon a man. Deme- 
trius, saith Plutarch, was so passing fair of face and countenance, that 
no painter was able to draw him.i Holiness puts so rare a beauty upon 
man, that no painter under heaven is able to draw him. Scipio 
Africanus was so comely a person, that the barbarians in Spain stood 
amazed at his comeliness. Mark vi. 20, Holiness puts such a comeli- 
ness, and such an amiableness upon a person, that many admire it, 
and stand amazed at it. sirs, as ever you would be amiable and 
desirable, be holy ; as ever you would be lovely and comely, be holy ; 
as ever you would be famous and glorious, be holy ; as ever you would 
outshine the sun in splendour and glory, labour to be holy. Many 
have ventured their names, their estates, their liberties, their lives, 
yea, their very souls, to enjoy a lovely Bathsheba, a fair Helena, a 
beautiful Diana, a comely Cleopatra, &c., whose beauties have been but 
clay well coloured.^ Oh, how much more, then, should you be pro- 
voked to labour and venture your all for holiness, that will imprint 
upon you that most excellent and most exquisite beauty, that will to 
the grave and to glory with you, yea, that will render you not only 
amiable and excellent in the eyes of men, but also lovely and comely 
in the eyes of God ! I remember Bernard, writing to a noble virgin 
that was holy, tells her that others were clothed with purple and silk, 
but their consciences were poor and beggarly ; they glistered with 
their jewels, but were loose in their manners; but you, saith he, are 
without meanly clad, but within shine exceeding beautiful, not to 
human, but to divine eyes, Ps. xlv. 13, 14. Both in the eyes of God, 
angels, and men, none shine and glister so gloriously as those that are 
holy, Ezek. xvi. 1, 12. Unholy souls are foul souls, ugly souls, de- 

' Plutarch, in the life of Demetrius. 

* David, Theseus, Prince Paris, Mark Antony, &c. 


formed souls, withered souls, wrinkled souls; they are altogether 
unlovely and uncomely souls. I have read of Acco, an old woman, 
who seeing her deformity in a glass, run mad. Should God but shew 
unholy men their deformity in the glass of the law, it would either 
make them spiritually mad, or else it would make them fall in love 
with holiness, that so they might be made comely and lovely by being 
made pure and holy. But, 

11. Eleventhly, Consider this to provoke you to be holy ; that holi- 
ness is the most gainfullest and the most thriving trade in the world. 
Now that every one cries out that all trading is gone, oh that every 
one would settle to the trade of holiness ! Oh, there is no gain, there is 
no advantage, to the gain that comes in upon the account of godliness ! 
1 Tim. vi, 6, ' But godliness with contentment is great gain.' Though 
godliness itself be great gain, yet godliness brings in a great deal of 
gain besides itself.^ The godly man is still of the gaining side, his piety 
brings him in the greatest plenty : chap. iv. 8, ' Godliness is profitable 
to all things.' A man is as well able to tell the stars of heaven, and to 
number the hairs of his head, as he is able to tell the several commo- 
dities, or to number up the variety of blessings, or multitude of mer- 
cies, that comes flying in upon the wings of godliness. Godliness hath 
the promise of both lives, that is, both of earthly favours and of eternal 
blessings also. It is profitable, not for some things, but for everything ; 
both temporal, spiritual, and eternal blessings do grow upon this tree 
of life — holiness. There is no trade to the trade of godliness : Prov. 
xxii. 4, * By humility and the fear of the Lord, are riches, and honour, 
and life.' Godliness hath the promise of gold as well as of grace, of 
honour as well as of heaven ; of life and happiness here, as well as of 
glory and blessedness hereafter. The good things of this life, as well 
as the great things of a better life, follows holiness hard at heels. Holi- 
ness is not a barren but a fruitful womb ; it is like that tree in Rev. 
xxii. 2, which did bear twelve manner of fruits, and that yielded fruit 
every month. What is of greater value among men than riches ? and 
what is more glorious among men than honour ? and what is more sweet 
among men than life ? Why, all these fruits, and ten thousand more, 
grow upon the tree of holiness. The bag of riches, the robe of honour 
and life, that is, the comfort and sweet of both, hangs all upon the back 
of holiness. But that I may the more effectually win upon you, and 
provoke you to look after holiness, let me by an induction of particu- 
lars further confirm the truth of this last consideration, especially con- 
sidering that there is no argument under heaven that is so taking with 
all men as this of gain. Profit is a bait that all bite at ; it is the 
great god of the world.2 And therefore thus, 

(1.) First, Consider that holiness brings m present gain; and what 
gain to present gain ? There are many that lay out much, and ven- 
ture far, and run the hazard of all, and yet it is long before they see 
returns. Oh, but holiness, that brings in present profit : Rom. vi. 22, 
• But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye 

1 Godliness is the greatest riches, the best treasure, the highest honour, and the most 
lasting fame. 

^ There is no argument to that which is drawn ab utili. ' Haec omnia tibi dabo,' said 
Satan to Christ. 


have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.' The 
apostle doth not say, ye may have your fruit unto holiness, but ye have 
your fruit unto holiness ; he doth not say, ye shall have your fruit unto 
holiness, but ye have your fruit unto holiness ; he doth not say, oh that 
ye had your fruit unto holiness, but ye have your fruit unto holiness. 
So Ps. xix. 11: Not only for keeping but also in keeping of his com- 
mands there is great reward. Holiness is its own reward. Whilst a 
Christian is in the very exercise of holiness, oh what blessed sights, 
what sweet tastes, what glorious incomes,^ from heaven hath he ! Oh 
the secret visits, the secret whispers, the secret joggings, the secret 
love-tokens that Christians meet with in the very practice of holiness ! 
Holiness brings in present comfort and joy: 2 Cor. i. 12, 'For our 
rejoicing is this, the testimony of our consciences, that in simplicity 
and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, 
we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to 
you-ward.'2 There is no mirth, no joy, to that that holiness brings in. 
Let a man's load be never so heavy, yet holiness will bring in that joy 
that will make him bear up bravely and cheerfully under it. Holiness 
brings in present peace ; hence it is that you read of ' the peaceable fruits 
of righteousness,' Heb. xii. 10, 11. And holiness will bring in present 
communion with God : 1 John i. 7, ' But if we walk in the light, as he 
is in the light, we have fellowship one with another :' that is, God and 
we have fellowship together, as it is ver. 3. Now to walk in the light 
as he is in the light, what is it but to walk in holiness, to walk in 
paths of sanctity ? for only in such paths the Lord walks. And there- 
fore as you love present gain, labour after holiness. But, 

(2.) Secondly, As holiness brings in present gain, so holiness brings 
in the best and greatest gain ; and this I shall evidence thus : 

[1.] First, Holiness will make a man rich in the midst of poverty, 
James ii. 5 : Kev. ii. 9, 'I know thy poverty, but thou art rich ;' 
though the church of Smyrna was poor in goods, yet she was rich 
in grace, she was rich in faith, and rich in hope, and rich in patience, 
and rich in contentment, &c. ; she was rich in Christ her head, 
and rich in promises, and rich in experiences ; she had spiritual 
riches in possession, and glorious riches in reversion. So in 2 Cor. 
vi. 10, ' As poor, yet making many rich ; as having nothing, and 
yet possessing all things.' A holy man cannot be a poor man. A 
holy man is still the richest man. But this is a riddle the world 
understands not. The riches of a Christian have no bottom ; all 
a saint's bags are bottomless bags. Experience tells us that un- 
holy men's bags, purses, coffers, and mints, may be drawn dry ; but 
the treasury, the riches of a saint, can never be exhausted, for he 
still possesses all things in Christ and with Christ, 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23; 
though he hath nothing in hand, yet he hath all things in hope ; though 
he hath nothing in the cistern, yet he hath all things in the fountain. 3 
Gen. xxxiii. 9, Esau could say, {Li Rah,) 'I have much;' and 

^ ' In-coinings.' — G. 

" Seneca, a heathen, hath confessed, that the best receipt to drive away sadness, was to 
live well. 

' Recollections of Sibbes are very apparent throughout this paragraph. Cf. under 
' Treasure.' — G. 



it was much that an Esau should say he had much ; but says holy 
Jacob, ver. 11, {Li col,) 'I have all.' Esau had much, but Jacob 
had all, because he had the God of all : he had him that was all in 
all. It hath been said of the great Duke of Guise, that though he 
was poor as to his present possessions, yet he was the richest man in 
France in bills, bonds, and obligations, because he had engaged all 
the noblemen in France to himself, by preferring of them. A holy 
man is the richest man in the world in promises and obligations, for 
he hath the great and glorious God engaged by many thousand pro- 
mises to own him, to bless him, to stand by him, to give grace and 
glory to him, and to withhold nothing from him that may be good 
for him, Ps. Ixxxiv. 10, 11. When wicked men brag of their lordships 
and manors, and boast of their great possessions, and glory in their 
thousands a year, a holy man may make his boast of God, and say, 
God is mine, God is mine ; he is my great all ; he is my all in all ; 
and therefore I am richer and a greater possessor than any wicked man 
in the world, yea, than all wicked men in the world put together. But, 
[2.] Secondly, By holiness you will gain a good report, a good name: 
Heb. xi. 39, ' And these all having obtained a good report through 
faith, received not the promise.' Nothing raises a man's name and 
fame in the world like holiness. The seven deacons that the church chose 
were holy men, Acts vi. 5 ; and they were men of good report, ver. 3 ; 
they were men well witnessed unto, well testified of, as the Greek word 
imports. 1 Cornelius was a holy man. Acts x. 1-4 ; and he was a man 
of good report among all the nation of the Jews, ver. 22. Ananias 
was a holy man. Acts ix. 10, 20 ; and he was a man of a good report. 
Acts xxii. 12, Gains and Demetrius were both holy men, and they 
were men of good report ; witness that third epistle of John. The 
patriarchs and prophets were holy men, and they were men of a good 
report: Heb, xi. 1, 2, ' For by it the elders obtained a good report;' 
their hoHness did eternalize them. The apostles were holy men, 
1 Thes. ii. 10 ; and they were men of a good report, 2 Cor. vi. 8. 
Now certainly it is none of the least of mercies to be well reputed and 
reported of. Next to a good conscience, a good report is the noblest 
blessing. Good fare doth not more rejoice and strengthen the out- 
ward man, the ignoble part of man, than a good report doth rejoice 
and strengthen the inward man, the noble part of man : Prov. xv. 30, 
' A good report makes the bones fat.' Yea, and I may add, it makes 
the heart fat too. It is no small pleasure to a man to know that 
others are pleased with him. Beautiful objects do not more delight 
the eyes than a good report delights the ears. sirs, as ever you 
would obtain a good report, you must labour after holiness. You may 
obtain a great report without holiness, but you can never obtain a 
good report without holiness. There is no such way to perpetuate 
your names as to labour after holiness. Holiness will embalm ^ your 
names, it will make them immortal : Ps. cxii. 6, * The righteous 
shall be in everlasting remembrance ;' Prov. x. 7, ' The memory of 
the just is blessed, but the name of the wicked shall rot.' Wicked 

^ A good renown is better than a golden girdle, saith the French proverb. 
' Spelled •inbalm.'—G. 


men many times outlive their names, but the names of just men out- 
live them. When a holy man dies, he leaves his name as a sweet 
and as a lasting scent behind him ; his fame shall live when he is 
dead.i According to the Hebrew, the words may be read thus, ' The 
memory of the just shall be for a blessing.' The very remembering 
of the just shall bring a blessing upon them that remember them. 
Whilst the just, the holy man lived, he was a blessing to those amongst 
whom he lived, and when he is dead, his memory is a blessing to pos- 
terity. But the name of the wicked shall rot. Whilst a wicked man 
lives, he lays his name under disdain and disgrace, and when he dies, 
he leaves it under an odious stink. Wickedness corrupts not only 
the heart, but the name. And look, as wickedness makes a man's 
soul stink in thQ nostrils of God, so wickedness makes a man's name 
stink in the nostrils of men. Look, as a wicked man's body, when he 
is dead, stinks under ground, so his name stinks above ground. His' 
very name casts forth so stinking a savour, that all the perfumes in 
the world, and all the spicery of hell, can never sweeten it. Well, 
once more remember that these words, ' the name of the wicked shall 
rot,' are a metaphorical speech taken from a tree, which, though for 
a time it grows green and flourishes, yet at length it grows rotten ; 
so though wicked men may flourish and be green and glorious for a 
time, yet at last they shall rot, their names shall rot on earth, their 
bodies shall rot in the grave, and their souls shall rot in hell ; but the 
memory of the just shall be blessed. Next to a holy man'^ soul, there 
is nothing so near and dear to him as his name ; and this God will so 
perfume as that the fragrancy of it shall last for ever. The name of 
a holy man shall be always as an ointment poured forth ; but the 
name of a wicked man shall be always as a stinking jakes. sirs, 
what a deal of stir do many men make to get a name, to get a name 
to be wise, a name to be knowing, a name to be learned, a name 
to be skilful, a name to be rich, a name to be great, a name to be 
mighty, and a name to be valiant, &c., as Nimrod, Cain, Absalom, 
Alexander, Pompey, Adrian, &c. And why then should you not 
labour after holiness, that so you may get a good name, which is 
rather to be chosen than riches, Prov. xxii. 1, and which is better than 
precious ointment ? Eccles. vii. 1. sirs, shall many Romans and 
others run the hazard of damning their souls to immortalise then- 
names, and will not you labour after holiness to eternalize yours ? 
There is no way to a good name, to a good report, but by getting of 

[3] Thirdly, By holiness you will gain a hiding-place, a shelter, a 
refuge in stormy and tempestuous times : Prov. xi. 6, ' The righteous- 
ness of the upright shall deliver them : but transgressors shall be 
taken in their own naughtiness.' Let a holy man's enemies, dangers, 
snares, hazards, be never so many, yet his righteousness shall shelter 
him against all, Isa. iii. 10, and xxvi. 20, 21. In the midst of 
trouble, holiness will keep a man from trouble ; and in the midst 
of dangers, holiness will keep a man from dangers, Isa. xliii. 2-4 ; 
John xiv. 1. Holiness is the most sovereign antidote in the world 

Holy Abel hath been dead above this five thousand years, and yet his name is as 
fresh and fragrant as a rose to this very day, Heb. xi. 4. 


against all the troubles of tliis life. Noah's sanctity was Noah's safety 
in the midst of a deluge : and Lot's piety was Lot's security in the 
day of Sodom's ruin and misery : and the three children's innocency 
was a waU of fire about them in the midst of the fiery furnace : i and 
David's integrity was a shield and buckler against Saul's rage and 
cruelty. So in Pro v. xiii. 6, ' Righteousness keepeth him that is 
upright in the way : but wickedness overthroweth the sinner.' There 
is no guard, no protection against troubles and dangers, to that of 
righteousness. Righteousness and holiness is the most puissant army, 
and the strongest tower of defence against all hazards and enemies. 
The Hebrew word that is here rendered keepeth, is from natsar, that 
signifieth to keep with the greatest care, diligence, and vigilancy that 
can be ; it signifies to preserve and keep, as a man would preserve and 
keep the apple of his eye, which is the chiefest and the tender est piece 
of the tenderest part, Deut. xxxii, 14 ; and it signifies to keep, as 
a man would keep ammunition and provision from fire, or from 
treacherous hands, when a powerful and enraged enemy is drawing 
near, Nah. ii. 1. Why, says he, look how careful and diligent, &c., 
men are to keep and preserve those things that are most near and dear 
unto them, and that are most highly prized and valued by them ; 
so will righteousness and holiness preserve and keep the righteous man 
in times of trouble and danger. So in Ezek. xiv. 14, 20, ' Though 
these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should 
deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord. 
Though Noah, Daniel, and Job were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, 
they shall deliver neither son nor daughter ; they shall but deliver 
their own souls by their righteousness.' ^ These three, Noah, Daniel, 
and Job, were very holy men, they had great interest in God, and 
were very prevalent with God. But the decree being gone forth, they 
could not prevail with God for others ; yet their righteousness should 
be their own perservation, safety, and security, in days of calamity and 
misery. So in Isa. xxxiii. 15, 16, ' He that walketh righteously, and 
speaketh uprightly, he that despiseth the" gain of oppressions, that 
shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from 
hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing of evil, he shall 
dwell on high ; his place of defence shall be the munition of rocks, 
bread shall be given him, his waters shall be sure.' Let us dive a 
little into this admirable promise: 'He shall dwell on high;' but 
rather as the Hebrew hath it, ' He shall dwell on heights.' If the 
holy man were among his enemies, he might be in danger, but he 
shall dwell on heights, on many heights, and many ascents, he shall 
be out of harm's way, out of gun-shot, he shall be above the reach of 
danger. Oh! but his enemies may raise up mounts, and so get as high 
as he is. Well, grant that, but yet they shall not hurt him ; for he is 
in a place of defence. Oh! but though he be in a place of defence, 
yet his defence is not so strong but it may be broken down and 
destroyed. No, not so, for his place of defence shall be the munitions 

^ They walked up and down in the fiery furnace, as a man walks up and down in a 
pleasant garden. 

^ Saints may prevail with God for themselves, when they cannot prevail with him for 



of rocks ; many rocks, and many munitions of rocks, shall be the place 
of his defence ; and therefore his defence is impregnable and invincible. 
Oh ! but though his defence be munitions of rocks, yet he may be 
famished, he may be starved out, for rocks are barren places, and 
there is no ploughing and sowing upon rocks. No, he shall not be 
starved nor famished out of his strong place of defence ; for bread shall 
be given him, God will spread a table for him. Oh ! but though he 
hath bread, yet he may perish for want of water ; for he hath no faith, 
skill, nor power to fetch water out of a rock : Moses had not, and he 
hath not, and therefore he may be forced to deliver up his place of 
defence for water to quench his thirst, as king Lysimachus and others 
have done.^- No, not so, for he shall have water too. Ohl but his 
water may be spent, his water will not always last, his well, as well as 
Hagar's bottle, may be dry, his pipes may be cut off, or the water 
that now supplies him may be turned another way. No, not so, for 
his water shall be sure. Oh ! the safety and security of holy men ! 
Plutarch, in the life of Alexander, tells us, that when he came to 
besiege the Sogdians, a people who dwelt upon a rock, or such as had 
the munition of rocks for their defence, they jeered him, and asked 
him whether his soldiers had wings or not ; for, said they, except 
your soldiers can fly in the air, we fear you not. Such is the safety 
of God's holy ones, that they need not to fear. There are no ladders 
long enough to scale their place of defence, nor no artillery or engine 
strong enough to batter down their munitions of rocks. There is an 
apologue how the dove made moan to her fellow-birds of the tyranny 
of the hawk ; one counsels her to keep below ; but saith another, the 
hawk can stoop for his prey ; another advised her to soar aloft ; but 
saith another, the hawk can mount as high as she ; another wished 
her to shroud herself in the woods, for there she should be secure ; but 
saith another, alas ! there is the hawk's manor, the place where he 
keeps court ; another bids her keep the town ; but saith another, that 
is to become a prey to man ; but at last one bids her rest herself in 
the holes of the rock, and there she should certainly be safe, for 
violence itself could not surprise her there, and there she was safe. 
Dove-hke saints, they have their munitions of rocks to fly to, and there 
they shall be safe. sirs 1 there is no breastplate to that of right- 
eousness, there is no armour of proof, no munitions of rocks, to that of 
holiness. Noah's holiness was an ark to save him, when Nimrod's 
Tower of Babel, which was raised five thousand one hundred forty- 
six paces high, could not secure him. 2 And therefore as you tender 
your own safety and security in times of trouble and calamity, oh, 
labour to be holy. 

[4.] Fourthly, By holiness you will gain deliverance from death in 
death : Prov. xi. 4, ' Kiches profit not in the day of wrath : but right- 
eousness delivereth from death ;' and chap. x. 2, 'Treasures of wicked- 
ness profit nothing, but righteousness delivereth from death.' Many 
treasuries of the most precious jewels that be in the world cannot 
ward off a blow, a disease, a sickness in the day of God's wrath. It 
is not the crown of gold that can cure the headache; nor the golden 
sceptre that can cure the palsied hand ; nor the necklace of pearl that 

* As before.— G. » Hejlin. Cosm., lib. iii. 


can cure the aching teeth ; nor the honourable garter that can ease 
the gout ; nor the purple robe that can chase away the burning fever ; 
nor the velvet slipper that can heal the kibe-heel : 1 no more can 
treasures of gold or silver deliver from wrath, or help in a day of 
death. Oh, but righteousness, that delivers from death. Look, what 
the sword, the shield, the helmet, the breastplate, the coat of mail, is 
to the soldier in the heat of battle, that, all that, and more than 
that, is righteousness to the righteous in the day of death. 2 Eight- 
eousness or holiness of affection, of action, of life and conversation, 
delivers from spiritual death, and from eternal death, yea, it dehvers 
from the evil, the hurt, the horror, the terror, the dread, and the 
sting of temporal death. Piety delivers not only from the second 
death, but also from all the evils and miseries of the first death 
too. As the righteousness of the righteous wiU be a royal protection 
to him, both against the day of wrath, and the wrath of the day ; so 
the righteousness of the righteous will be a royal protection to him, 
both against death, and against all the evils of death. Kighteousness 
unstings death, it takes away the venom, the poison and bitterness of 
death ; it turns that curse into a blessing, that punishment into a 
benefit, that night of darkness into a day of light, that wilderness 
into a paradise, that hell into a heaven : Prov. xii. 28, ' In the way 
of righteousness is life, and in the path thereof there is no death.' 
In the way of righteousness is (chaum) lives ; so the Hebrew hath it, 
in the way of righteousness there are many lives : in that way there is 
spiritual life, and eternal life, and natural life, and all the comforts, 
and sweets, and blessings, and happiness of that life, without which 
man s life would be but a lingering, a languishing death ; yea, a hell 
rather than a heaven unto him. ' And in the path thereof there is no 
death.' There is no spiritual death, there is no eternal death, yea, 
there is no corporal, no temporal death to hurt or harm them, to 
sting or terrify them, to damage or disadvantage them : for death is 
an outlet and an inlet to a holy man : it is an outlet to sin, to sorrow, 
to shame, to suffering, to afflictions, to temptations, to desertions, to 
oppressions, to confusions, and to vexations ; and it is an inlet to a 
more clear, full, and constant fruition of God and Christ, and an inlet 
to the sweetest pleasures, the purest joys, the highest delights, the 
strongest comforts, and the most satisfying contentments. Death is 
the funeral of all a holy man's sins and miseries, and it is the resurrec- 
tion of all his joys, and the perfection of all his graces and spiritual 
excellencies.3 Death to a holy man is nothing but the changing of 
his grace into glory, his faith into vision, his hope into fruition, and 
his love into perfect comprehension. The Persians had a certain day 
in the year in which they used to kill all serpents and venomous 
creatures: such a day as that will the day of death be to a holy 
man. Feccatum erat obstetrix mortis, et mors sepulchrum peccati: ' 

^ 'Bruised' heel. — G. 

* Nugas the Scythian king despised the rich presents and ornaments that were sent 
unto him by the Emperor of Constantinople, because they could not ward off sorrow, 
sickness, diseases, death. 

2 Death is not mors hominis, but mors peccati, not the death of the man, but the 
death of his sin : Phil. i. 23; 2 Cor. v. 12, and iv. 7, 8. Death is a Christian's quietus 
est, it is his discharge from all trouble and misery. 


Sin was the midwife that brought death into the world, and death 
shall be the bearers that shall carry sin out of the world. When 
Samson died, the Philistines died together with him : so when a holy 
man dies, his sins die with him. Death came in by sin, and sin goeth 
out by death. As the worm kills the worm that bred it ; so death 
kills sin that bred it. Death cures all diseases, the aching head and the 
unbelieving heart : the diseased body and the defiled soul.i At Strat- 
ford Bow were burned in Queen Mary's days a lame man and a blind 
man ; after the lame man was chained, casting away his crutch, he 
bade the blind man be of good comfort ; for, saith he, death will cure 
us both ; it will cure thee of thy blindness and me of my lameness. 
Death will cure the holy man of all natural and spiritual distempers. 
Death is the holy man's jubilee, it is his greatest advantage, it puts 
him into a better estate than ever he had before. It is God's gentle- 
man-usher to conduct us to heaven ; it will blow the bud of grace into 
the flower of glory. Oh, who would not go through hell to heaven ! 
who would not go through a temporary death to an eternal life ! who 
would not willingly march through mortality to immortality and 
glory ! 2 sirs ! holiness will make you look upon death as a welcome 
guest, a happy friend, a joyful messenger. It will make you kiss it 
and embrace it, as Favinus the Italian martyr kissed and embraced 
his executioner : it will make you desire it, and long after it with tears, 
as holy Bradford did. By all this you see that holiness will deliver 
you from death in death ; and therefore I shall close up this head, as 
that wise and witty man, Sir Francis Bacon,^ closed up a paper of 
verses : — 

' What then remains, but that we still should cry. 
Not to be born, or being born, to die ? ' 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly, By holiness you shall gain the greatest bold- 
ness in the day of judgment, Job xix. 25. Nothing will embolden a 
man in that great day like holiness ; holiness will then make the 
face to shine indeed : 1 John iv. 17, ' Herein is our love made perfect, 
that we may have boldness in the day of judgment ; because as he is, 
so are we in this world.'* That which will make Christ's last appear- 
ance delightful to Christians, will be their likeness to Christ in holi- 
ness : in nature and grace likeness begets the greatest boldness. As 
there is no child so bold with the father, as he that is most like the 
father, so there is no Christian so bold with Christ, as he that is most 
like to Christ. A holy Christ is most familiar with a holy Christian ; 
and a holy Christian is most bold with a holy Christ. The more a 
Christian is like to Christ in holiness of heart and life, in holiness of 
affection and conversation, the more divinely bold and famiHar will 
that man be with Christ, both in this world and in the great day of 

^ Ultimus morborum medicus mors. [Foxe] Acts and Mon., fol. 1733. 

2 Death is but an entrance into life. Miseri infideles mortem appellant, fideles vera 
quid nisi pascham ? Miserable unbelievers call it death, but to faithful believers, what 
is it but a passover, but a jubilee? — Bernard. 

" Spelled, as frequently by contemporaries,'/ Bakon.' See Works of Bacon by Spedding, 
vol. vii. p. 272.— G. 

* Ilafif>7]<rla signifies boldness of face, a lifting up of the face and countenance, in the 
sight or face of many beholders. It signifies a freedom and liberty of speech. 


account ; when he that was a brat of Satan's is made a saint, when he 
that was like hell is made like heaven, when he that was most ugly 
and uncomely is made like him that is the holy of hohes ; this is that 
which gives boldness both here and hereafter. sirs, it is not wit 
nor wealth, but holiness ; it is not race nor place, but holiness ; it is 
not power nor policy, but holiness ; it is not honour nor riches, but 
holiness; it is not natural excellencies nor acquired abilities, but 
holiness, that will give boldness in the day of Christ's appearing : 1 
Pet. i. 5-7, ' A well-tried faith,' which is but a branch of holiness, 
* shall be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing 
of Jesus Christ.' At the coming of Christ, holiness shall be a man's 
praise and honour and glory. In that great day when shame and 
everlasting contempt shall be poured forth upon the great monarchs 
of the world, who have made the earth to tremble, ' when the kings 
of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief cap- 
tains, and the mighty men, &c., shall cry out to the mountains and 
rocks to fall upon them, and to hide them from the face of him that 
sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb,' Kev. vi. 15- 
17 — then, I say, ' then shall the righteous shine as the sun in the firma- 
ment,' Dan. xii. 1-3. In life and death, and in the day of account, a 
righteous man will be as bold as a lion, Prov. xxviii. 1. Beal holiness 
will make a man death-proof, and hell-proof, and judgment-proof. The 
day of judgment will be to a holy man a marriage-day, a day of redemp- 
tion, a day of coronation, a day of exultation, and therefore hq may well 
lift up his head and rejoice. Look, as the Israelites who had the blood 
of the pa ssover on their door-posts, though the destroyer was abroad, and 
a dreadful cry was all over Egypt, yet they were not slain, not stricken, 
Exod. xii. 7, 11; they did not fear nor tremble, but had their loins 
ready girt, and staves in their hands, boldly and cheerfully expecting 
when the happy and joyful hour of their redemption would come, Heb. 
ix. 14: so those that have the door-posts of their hearts and con- 
sciences sprinkled with holiness, in this terrible day of the Lord, they 
shall with boldness and cheerfulness lift up their faces, because the 
day of their redemption is come. And this made Luther say that he had 
rather never have been born, than not to be in hope of this day.i This 
day to God's holy ones will be melodia in aure, juhilum in corde, Like 
music in the ear, and a jubilee in the heart. It is true, the un- 
godly shall not stand in judgment, Ps. 1. 5 ; 2 Thes. ii. 7-10. Stand 
they must to be arraigned, sentenced, and condemned. Stand they 
shall, but not with any boldness or cheerfulness, comfort or content. 
Stand they shall, but not to be approved, acquitted, or absolved. 
Chaff and stubble cannot stand before that God that is a consiuning 
fire, Heb. xii. 29. When Belshazzar saw the handwriting upon the 
wall, oh, how was he affrighted, how was his countenance changed, his 
joints loosed, and his knees dashed one against another ! Dan v. 5, 6. 
Oh, how do many ungodly men now tremble at a thunder-crack in the 
clouds, and at a flash of lightning in the air! but how will they 
tremble and quake when the whole frame of heaven and earth shall 
break in pieces, and be set in a flame about their ears ! Oh, what 
trouble of mind, what horror and terror of conscience, what weeping 
^ Sermon de Signis prse. extr. Jud. 


and wailing, what crying and roaring, what wringing of hands, what 
tearing of hair, and what gnashing of teeth will there be among the 
ungodly in this day, when they shall see their sins charged on them 
on the one side, and divine justice terrifying them on the other side ! 
when they shall look upward, and there see an angry God frowning 
upon them, and look downward, and there see hell gaping ready to 
receive them, and look inward, and there find conscience accusing and 
gnawing of them ! when they shall look on their right hands, and 
there behold the good angels standing with so many flaming swords 
to keep them out of heaven, and look on their left hands, and there 
behold the devil and his angels ready pressed to drag them down to 
the lowest hell ! oh, now how will they wish for the rocks to fall 
upon them, and the mountains to cover them ! how will they wish 
that they had never been born, or that they might now be unborn ! how 
will they now wish that their immortal souls were mortal, or that their 
souls might be turned into the nature of beasts, birds, stones, trees, or 
air, or anything rather than what they are ! I have read ^ a story of 
two soldiers, who being in the valley of Jehoshaphat, in Judea, the one 
said to the other. Here in this place shall be the general judgment, 
and therefore I will now take up my place where I wiU then sit ; and 
so, lifting up a stone, he sat down upon it, as taking possession 
beforehand; but being sat, and looking up to heaven, such a quaking 
and trembhng fell upon him, that, falling to the earth, he remembered 
the day of judgment with horror and amazement for ever after. But 
alas ! what heart is able to conceive, or what toiigue is able to express, 
the fear and dread, the horror and terror, the astonishment and 
amazement that will fall upon all ungodly persons in this day ! And 
yet even now Grod's holy ones shall lift up their heads and hearts : 
they shall be bold and steadfast, they shall be far from fear, shame, or 
trembling. And thus you see that godliness, that holiness is the most 
gainful trade. And therefore, sirs, as you love gain, as you tender 
your own profit and advantage, labom- to be holy. But, 

12. Twelfthly, Consider this, that holiness will put the greatest splen- 
dour and majesty upon persons that can possibly be put upon them, 
Job xxix. 8-11 ; Pro v. xii. 26. There is nothing that imprints 
such a reverence and majesty upon man as holiness doth. There is 
nothing that is such a grace to man as grace. It is holiness that puts 
the greatest excellency and majesty upon man : Ps. xvi. 3, ' But to 
the saints that are in the earth, and to the excellent, in whom is all 
my delight.' Saints are the most excellent ones. The Hebrew word 
(veadire from adar) that is here rendered excellent, signifies (magni- 
Jicis) the magnificent ones, or the noble, glorious, or wonderful ones. 2 
Saints or holy persons are the most excellent, magnificent, noble, and~ 
glorious ones ; and in Dan. viii. 24 the holy people are called mighty, 
because there are no people upon the earth that have might and 
majesty stamped upon them as they have : Cant. vi. 10, ' Who is she 
that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, 
and terrible as an army with banners ?' 3 The light, grace, glory, and 

1 Holcot. [Qu. 'Murcot'?— G.] ^ Arias Montanus, Junius, &c. 

2 Some by the moon understand inherent righteousness, and by the sun they under- 
stand imputed righteousness. 


holiness of the church rises by degrees : and this makes her terrible 
to all her enemies. Every degree of holiness is terrible to the unholy; 
but the higher the church rises in holiness, the more terrible and 
majestical it grows. Holiness puts such a splendour and graceful 
majesty upon all persons that have it, as even dazzles the eyes some- 
times of wicked men, and begets in them an awe and reverence ; as it 
is evident in Saul : 1 Sam. xxiv. 17, ' And Saul said to David, Thou 
art more righteous than I : for thou hast rewarded me good, whereas 
I have rewarded thee evil.' So Herod : in Mark vi. 20, it is said 
that he ' feared John, knowing that he was a just man and holy, and 
observed him.' Holiness is very majestical. The greatest monarchs 
fall down before it. Herod reverences John, not for his birth or 
breeding, but for his holiness : not for his arts or parts, but for his 
holiness : not for his scholarship or greatness, but for his holiness. So 
that great monarch king Joash fell down before the holiness of 
Jehoiada whilst he lived, 2 Kings xi. 1, 2, &c. And so did the holiness 
of the three children command respect and honour from that great 
monarch Nebuchadnezzar. And so did the holiness of Daniel cause 
king Darius to reverence him, and to cast a favourable aspect upon 
him, Dan. iii. And so did the holiness that was written upon Judas 
the high priest cause Alexander the emperor to reverence him, and 
to fall down before him.i In hoUness there is such a sparkling lustre, 
that none can behold it but must admire it, and bow before the 
graceful majesty of it. It is not greatness but grace, it is not riches 
but righteousness, it is not outward pomp or splendour, but hoHness, 
that can overawe the vain spirits of men. A holy life is the upbraid- 
ing of that which is corrupt : Wisdom ii. 15, 12, ' He is grievous unto 
us, even to behold him ; for his life is not like other men's, his ways 
are of another fashion, he upbraideth us with our offending the law.' 
Grace wiU make a man majestical among those that have no grace. 
Bradford was had in so great reverence and admiration for his holi- 
ness, that a multitude that never knew him but by fame, greatly 
lamented his death, yea, and a number of Papists also wished heartily 
his life. 2 Holy men have a daunting presence and majesty with them, 
as Athanasius had, and Basil had ; for when Valens the emperor 
came to surprise him, he being in holy exercises, such a splendour and 
majesty was upon him, that it struck such a terror into the emperor 
that he reeled, and had fallen backward, had he not been upheld by 
those that were with him.s Henry the Second, king of France, being 
present at the martyrdom of a certain tailor, who was burnt by him 
for his religion, and so terrified by the boldness of his countenance, 
and by his holy and gracious behaviour in his sufferings, that he 
swore at his going away that he would never be present at such a 
sight more.* It is very observable, that the moral virtues of the 
heathen did put a great deal of splendour and majesty upon them : 
to instance only in Cato ; Cato was a man of much justice and integ- 
rity ; he was a man of an unspotted conversation and of high reputa- 
tion among the Komans.^ Now his morahty put such a splendour 

1 Quintus Curtiua evi nomine.— Q. * [Foie] Acts and Mon., page 1458. 

» Greg. Orat. de laude Basilii. * Epiet. Hiflt. Gall., 82. 

* Valer. Max., lib. ii. cap. 5. 


and majesty upon him, that when he was present the very worst 
of the worst durst not in speech or gesture discover any impiety or 
immodesty, any wantonness or wickedness. Now certainly if morality 
puts such a splendour and majesty upon men, true sanctity will put 
much more upon them. And therefore, sirs, as ever you would have 
a splendour and majesty upon you, labour to be holy. Maximilian the 
emperor had such a presence and majesty with Mm, that a stranger 
that never saw him before, pointed him out among thirty great per- 
sons. sirs, it is not the gray beard, nor the purple robe, nor the 
grim look, that makes a man so much a man of presence and majesty, 
as holiness doth ; and therefore as you would indeed be men of pres- 
ence, men of majesty, labour to be holy. But, 

13. Thirteenthly, Consider that the times and seasons ivherein ive 
live call aloud for holiness. Many say the times are bad, very bad, 
extreme bad : ay, and let me teU you that your hearts and lives are 
bad, very bad, extreme bad ; and it is these that have made the times 
so bad, so very bad, so extreme bad. It is in vain to talk of better 
times, or wish for better times, till you mend your manners, and get 
better hearts. The times would quickly mend, if every man would 
but in good earnest labour to mend one. If your hearts and lives 
were but more holy, the times would quickly be more happy. You 
say you shall never have peace and prosperity till all be brought to 
uniformity in religion; but I say you shall never have any lasting 
peace, felicity, or prosperity till you come to be holy : 2 Kings ix. 22, 
' And it came to pass, when Joram saw Jehu, that he said, Is it peace, 
Jehu ? And he answered, What peace, so long as the whoredoms of 
thy mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many?' The interro- 
gation carries with it a strong negation, ' What peace ? ' that is, there 
is no peace to such a wicked wretch as thou art : thou mayest wish 
for peace, and dream of peace, and long for peace, and look for peace, 
and pursue after peace, and yet thou shall be far off from peace. 
What Jehu said to Joram, I may say to all unholy persons. What 
peace and what prosperity can you expect whilst your drunkenness, 
and uncleanness, and worldliness, and lukewarmness, and dead-heart- 
edness, and wantonness, and wickedness remains? what good days, 
what happy year can you look for, whilst your formality, and indiffer- 
ency, and hypocrisy, and infidelity, do bear witness against you ? So 
when Israel was very superstitious and vain in her worship, then 
' there was no peace to him that went out, nor to him that came in, 
but great vexations were upon all the inhabitants of the countries. And 
nation was destroyed' (or beaten in pieces) ' of nation, and city of city ; 
for God did vex them with all adversity,' 2 Chron. xv. 5, 6.1 When 
men are unholy, God will vex them ; he will vex them with adversity, 
he will vex them with all adversity. When nations are ungodly, God 
will destroy them ; he will beat them in pieces, he will beat them in 
pieces one against another. When there is no holiness in him that 
comes in, nor in him that goes out, then there shall be no peace to 

^ Ver. 3 doubtless relates to Jeroboam's and the ten tribes' first revolt from the house 
of David, and from the house of God, and from all his ordinances ; and this was a very 
wicked and unholy time, as is evident in several scriptures. 


him that goes in, or to him that goes out. When all is said that can 
be said, and when all is done that can be done, wicked men will still 
be as unquiet as the raging and foaming sea, Isa. Ivii. 20, 21. God 
will one day or another be still at war with that man that is at peace 
with his sin. It is said of the locusts that came out of the bottomless 
pit, in Rev. ix. 7-9, that ' they were like unto horses, and on their 
heads were as it were crowns of gold, and their faces as it were faces 
of men, and their hairs as the hair of a woman, and their teeth were 
as it were the teeth of lions,' &c. Here are quasi horses, qtiasi crowns 
of gold, quasi faces of men, quasi hairs of a woman, and quasi teeth 
of lions, &c. Now just such things are all the comforts and content- 
ments of unholy persons : their gold and silver, is but as it loere gold 
and silver ; and their prosperity and plenty, is but as it were prosperity 
and plenty ; their peace and tranquillity, is but as it were peace and 
tranquillity ; and their victories and triumphs, are but as it were vic- 
tories and triumphs ; and their joys and rejoicings, are but as it were 
joys and rejoicings. But mark, when the holy evangelist comes to set 
down a description of the locusts' tails, he doth not say that there were 
as it were stings in their tails, but in plain, positive, downright terms 
he tells you that there were stings in their tails ; ver. 10, he tells you 
that their stings were true stings, real stings, certain stings. And so 
while men remain unholy, there are sure and certain stings in the tails 
of all their comforts, contentments, and enjoyments. The best way on 
earth to have a sure, a sound, a solid, a lasting peace with God, with 
ourselves, and with others, is to put on holiness as a robe upon us, 
Job xxix. 14, and to put all iniquity far from us, Job xi. 13, 20. 

O sirs, the worser the times are, the better should every man 
labour to be. Many complain of burdens, taxes, oppressions, and 
vexations ; and they say with those, that ' judgment is turned back- 
ward, and that justice standeth afar off, and that truth is fallen in the 
street, and that equity cannot enter, and that he that departeth from 
evil maketh himself a prey ; that judgment is far from us, and that 
justice doth not overtake us ; that we wait for light, but behold 
obscurity ; for brightness, but behold darkness ; that we grope for the 
wall like the blind, that we grope as if we had no eyes, that we 
stumble at noonday, that we roar all like bears, and mom-n sore like 
doves ; that we look for judgment, but there is none ; and for salva- 
tion, but it is far off from us,' Isa. lix. 9-11, 14, 15. These and a 
thousand more such complaints may be found amongst us. This 
scripture last cited, puts me in mind of a strange, but yet of a very 
true saying, viz., that there is more justice and equity in hell, than 
there is in France : for in hell the oppressor is oppressed ; in hell he 
that would not give a crumb of bread, shall not have a drop of water. 
In hell such as shed innocent blood, have blood to drink ; in hell there 
are no bribes ; in hell there is none to plead an unrighteous cause ; in 
hell there is no respect of persons ; in hell every man hath accord- 
ing to his deserts : but in France it is otherwise, &c. And do not 
the strong cries, tears, sighs, groans, and complaints of the poor 
and needy, of hirelings, orphans, and widows, &c., in most nations 
strongly demonstrate that there is more justice and equity in hell, than 


there is in most of the nations of the earth ? But now what is the 
choicest salve for all these sores ? Certainly holiness. What is the 
most sovereign remedy against all these maladies ? Nothing but 
holiness. sirs, the more holiness rises in a nation, the more will 
righteousness run down as mighty streams, and the more the hearts of 
the poor and needy will leap and sing for joy. There is no way to 
make a nation happy, but by making of it holy. sirs ! as you are 
men, as you are Englishmen, as you love your country, as you honour 
your king and country, and as you desire the peace, prosperity, and 
felicity of your country, labour to be holy. England, England, it 
is holiness that will be a wall of fire about thee, and a glory in the 
midst of thee : it is holiness that will make thee happy at home, and 
prosperous abroad. Among all Englishmen, there is no man to the 
holy man. Certainly that man that is most busy about mending his 
own heart and life, contributes most to the mending of the times. 
There are many sturdy blades i that will talk stiffly for their country, 
and that say that they will stand stoutly for their country, and yet by 
their daily ungodliness they do undo their country. These men 
destroy by their lives what they seem to build with their hands. And 
therefore, as ever you would have all things that are out of order in 
order, labour for a weU-ordered heart, and a well-ordered life. Holi- 
ness of conversation is the best means under heaven to prevent con- 
fusion and desolation. 

Again, if you wUl look upon the present times as times wherein the 
judgments of God are abroad in the world — I say, if you will thus look 
upon them, then, I say, the times call aloud upon you for holiness : Isa. 
xxvi. 9, ' When thy judgments are abroad in the earth, the inhabitants 
of the world will learn righteousness.' sirs ! when garments are 
rolled in blood, when the sword devours the flesh of the slain, when 
justice lays heap upon heap, when pestilence and famine destroys all 
on the right hand and on the left, oh ! then every one will say. Come, 
let us break off our sins, let us turn to the Lord, let us mend our ways, 
and reform our lives, and get holiness into our hearts. We behold 
many sorer, heavier, and worse judgments than these are upon us this 
day, if we had but eyes to behold them. Oh, that hardness of heart, 
that barrenness of soul, that blindness of mind, that searedness of con- 
science, that perverseness of spirit, that superstitious will-worship, and 
that looseness of life that multitudes are given up to this day ! Oh, 
those God-dishonouring, those Christ-denying, those ordinance-despis- 
ing, those conscience-wasting, those life-corrupting, and those soul- 
damning opinions, principles, blasphemies, and practices that multi- 
tudes are given up to this day ! Oh, the spiritual decays, the spiritual 
witherings, the spiritual slumberings, the spiritual faintings, the 
spiritual languishings that are to be found among a professing people 
this day! ^ Now certainly there are no judgments to spiritual judg- 
ments ; none reach the soul like these, none separate between God and 

^ ' Active young men.' — G. 

" Ps. Ixxviii. and Ixxxi. 12. That which was wont to be said of Africa, that it was 
ever a-producing some new monster or other, may be said of the age, yea, of the land 
wherein we live, 2 Thes. i. 8, 9; Amos viii. 11, 12. 


the soul like these, none lay men open to temporal and eternal judg- 
ments like these. Spiritual judgments are the most insensible judg- 
ments, they are the most dreadful judgments, they are the most incur- 
able judgments, they are the most damningjudgmentsof all judgments. 
Spiritual judgments have most of wrath, and most of horror, and most 
of heU in them. Oh that now these terrible judgments are abroad in 
the earth, you would learn righteousness, that you would learn to be 
holy ! For as there is no such sense against temporal judgments as 
holiness, so there is no such sense against spiritual judgments as holi- 
ness. Oh, the spiritual strokes, the spiritual arrows, the spiritual dis- 
eases, the spiritual sicknesses, the spiritual plagues that are abroad in 
the world ! and oh that the dread and sense of these might provoke 
you and prevail with you to labour after real holiness, to labour after 
the power of godliness, which will be your greatest security against 
these most deadly and soul-killing maladies ! 

Again, the days and times wherein we live call aloud for holiness. 
If you look upon them as days and times of grace, what greater and 
higher engagements to holiness were ever put upon a people, than those 
that God hath put upon us, who enjoy so many ways, means, and helps 
to make us holy ? Oh, the pains, the care, the cost, the charge, that 
God hath been at, and that God is daily at, to make us holy ! ^ Hath 
he not sent, and doth he not still send his messengers, rising up early, 
and going to bed late, and all to provoke you to be holy ? Have not 
many of them spent their time, and spent their strength, and spent 
their spirits, and spit up their lungs, and spent their very lives to make 
you holy ? sirs f what do holy ordinances call for, but holy hearts 
and holy lives ? What do days of light call for, but walking in the 
light, and casting off the deeds of darkness ? What is the voice. of aU 
the means of grace, but this. Oh, labour to be gracious ? And what 
is the voice of the Holy Spirit, but this. Oh, labour to be holy ? And 
. what is the voice of all the miracles of mercy that God hath wrought 
in the midst of you, but this, ' Be ye holy, be ye holy ' ? sirs, what 
could the Lord have done that he hath not done to make you holy ? 
Hath he not lifted you up to heaven in respect of holy helps ? Hath 
he not to this very day followed you close with holy offers, and holy 
entreaties, and holy counsels, and holy encouragements, and all to 
make you holy ? And will you be loose still, and proud still, and 
worldly still, and malicious still, and envious still, and contentious 
still, and unholy still ? Oh, what is this, but to provoke the Lord to 
put out all the lights of heaven, to drive your teachers into corners, to 
remove your candlesticks, and to send his everlasting gospel, that hath 
stood long a-tip-toe, among a people that may more highly prize it, 
and dearly love it, and stoutly defend it, and conscientiously practise 
it, than you have done to this very day ? Eev. ii. 4, 5 ; Isa._ xxxii. 25. By 
what hath been said, I suppose there is nothing more evident than that 
the times and seasons wherein we live calls aloud upon every one to look 
after holiness and to labour for holiness ; never complain of the times, but 
cease to do evil, and labour to do well, and all will be well ; get but 

1 Jer. vii. 13, 25; ixv. 3, 4; and xxiv. U, 15; Isa. xlix. 4, 5; 2 Cor. xu. 14, 15; Kom. 
xiii. 11-14. 


better hearts and better lives, and vou will quickly see better times, 
Isa. i. 16-19. 

14. Fourteenthly, Consider that holiness will render you most like 
to a holy God, a holy Christ, and to holy angels. God is frequently 
called the Holy One in Scripture ; he is called the Holy One above 
thirty times in the Old Testament. Angels are holy, and saints are 
holy, but it is God alone that is the Holy One.i His person is holy, 
Isa. vi. 3 ; his name is holy, Luke i. 49 ; his works are holy, Ps. xlv. 
17; his judgments are holy, Ps, xxii. 1-3; his habitation is holy, Isa. 
Ivii. 15; his temple is holy, 1 Cor. iii. 17; his kingdom is holy. Rev. 
xxi. 27; his word is holy, Ps. xix. 7; and his Sabbaths are holy, Exod. 
xvi. 23. Now this is God's own argument, ' Be ye holy, for I am 
holy,' Lev. xix, 2 ; 1 Pet. i. 15, 16. Concerning the holiness of God, 
I shall speak at large, by divine assistance, when I come to press you 
upon perfecting of holiness ; and therefore let this touch suffice for the 
present. Sirs, you cannot be h'ke to God in many other things, but 
you may be like to God in this one thing, in this noble thing, in this 
most necessary thing — holiness ; and therefore labour after it. 

Again, as holiness will render you most like to a holy God, so holi- 
ness will render you most like to a holy Christ, The apostle calls him 
*the Holy One,' 1 John ii, 20. Christ is essentially holy, he is infinitely 
holy, he is originally holy, he is singularly holy, he is eminently holy, 
he is perfectly holy, he is transcendently holy, and he is immutably 
holy. And so much the devil himself confesseth, in Mark i. 24, * I 
know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God,' or rather as the Greek 
hath it, a7to9, that Holy One, by way of excellency and eminency — 
alluding, as some think, to Exod, xxviii. 36. Yea, Christ takes de- 
light to characterise himself by this title : in Rev. iii. 7, ' These things 
saith he that is holy ; ' and in Dan. ix. 25, he is called ' the most holy;' 
or as the Hebrew hath it, * the holiness of holinesses.' These abstracts 
speak out the vigour and strength, the eminency and excellency of . 
Christ's holiness. Christ is holiness itself, yea, holinesses ; and what 
do these abstracts speak out, but that perfect and complete holiness 
that is in Christ ? The angels, in Isa. vi. 3, do three times iterate or 
repeat, ' holy, holy, holy.' Now though some do conceive that this 
threefold repetition hath reference to all the three persons, holy Father, 
holy Son, and holy Spirit, yet they that will but compare the text with 
John xii. 37-41, shall plainly see that it relates only to our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; and so the threefold repetition denotes only the superlative 
eminency of Christ's holiness. Christ is holy in his natures, in his 
offices, in his purposes, in his counsels, in his word, and in his works. 
His conception was holy, his conversation was holy, his converse was 
holy, &c,. Acts iv. 23; Luke i, 35; Eph, iv. ; Gal. ii. 20. Holiness is 
the image of Christ, it is the picture of Christ, the perfection of 
Christ, it makes a man conformable to the life of Clnrist. Christ's 
holiness is that noble copy after which we should all endeavour to 
write. Subjects may without treason or offence attempt to be like 
their prince, in wisdom, goodness, righteousness, holiness, peace, piety, 

1 Gold being the most precious metal, you lay it over those things that arc most 
precious to you; so doth God lay holiness over all those things that are most precious 
to him. 


clemency, and sanctity ; though they cannot without rebelHon and dis- 
obedience endeavour to be like him in power, greatness, might, majesty, 
splendour, and glory : so we may safely and honourably attempt to be 
like to Jesus Christ in wisdom, righteousness, and holiness, &c. ; 
though we may not, attempt to be like him in his miracles, signs, and 
wonders. 1 sirs ! some have counted it their greatest honour and 
glory in this world, that they have been like such and such, who have 
been high and glorious in the world ; and why, then, should not you 
reckon it your greatest glory and happiness to be like to Christ in holi- 
ness, though not in measure or quantity, yet in truth and reality ? As 
you would resemble Christ to the life, labour to be holy; in other 
things you cannot be like to Christ, but in holiness you may. You 
cannot be like to Christ in his greatness, majesty, or glory, nor yet in 
his omnipotency, omnisciency, nor omnipresence, nor yet in his general 
or special providence, nor in a thousand other things, but you may be 
like to Christ in his holiness. Look, as face answers to face, as Solo- 
mon speaks, so you may reach to that holiness that in reality may 
answer to the very holiness of Christ ; and this is your only way to be 
like to Christ. 

Again, as holiness will render you most like to a holy Christ, so 
holiness will render you most like to the blessed angels. The blessed 
angels are holy in their nature, and holy in their offices, and holy in their 
actings.^ They are called holy angels : Mat. xxv. 31 , ' When the Son 
of man shall come in his glory, and all his holy angels with him;' 
and so in Rev. xiv. 9, 10, ' Aid he that worshippeth the beast, or that 
receives his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, he shall be tor- 
mented \7ith fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, 
and in the presence of the Lamb.' The angels' holiness is their con- 
formity to the original pattern of purity and excellency. The crown 
of holiness was set upon the heads of angels at their creation. Those 
princes of glory were crowned with holiness, as it were, in the cradle. 
The angels are holy in their praises, and holy in their waitings, and 
holy in their operations, and holy in all their ministrations. Bodin 
tells a story of one who desired of God the guidance and assistance of a 
holy angel, and accordingly he had sensible manifestations of a holy 
spirit that assisted him, and followed him to his death. If in com- 
pany he spake any unwary words, he was sure to be advertised and 
reproved for it by a dream in the night ; or if he read any book that 
was not good, the angel would strike upon the book, to cause him to 
leave reading in it. When that sorcerer Balaam went to curse the 
people of God, a holy angel stood in the way, drew his sword upon 
him, and jostled his bones against the wall, and all to prevent the 
execution of his wicked and cursed intentions. Num. xxii. 22. Oh, 
how much more, then, do they stand in the way of the saints, to pre- 
vent those weaknesses and miscarriages which Satan and their own cor- 
ruptions would otherwise carry them to ! And doubtless as they have 

^ It ia Christ's particular honour to be imitated in all morals absolutely. 

' All angels, in respect of their nature, are alike ; but what the particular differences are 
between angels, archangels, principalities, and powers, and what their distinct offices are, 
I confess, with Austin, I understand not, neither is it my duty to know, nor my danger 
to be ignorant of these things, &c. 


a hand to restrain the saints from evil, so they have an eye and an 
influence upon them for good: 1 Tim. v. 21, 'I charge you before 
God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels,' &c. The holy 
angels have their eyes and their influences upon us ; they are our 
observers and overseers ; they are called watchers in Dan. iv. 17, for 
they watch our words, and they watch our works, and they watch our 
ways ; they watch us before duties, and they watch us in duties, and 
they watch us after duties. They watch us before duties, to see how 
we prepare and fit ourselves to meet with God ; and they watch us in 
duties, to see how our graces are acted upon God, and how our hearts 
and afi'ections are running out after God ; and they watch us after 
duties, to see whether we walk worthy of God, and worthy of our duties, 
and worthy of our profession, and worthy of our high calling, i In 
times of health, strength, peace, prosperity, &c., they watch to see 
how wisely, holily, humbly, fruitfully, cheerfully, and thankfully we 
will walk with God ; and in times of adversity, they watch to see how 
believingly, how contentedly, how self-denyingly, and how patiently 
we wiU submit to God, &c. ; all which speaks out the holiness of the 
angels. sirs, you cannot in this world be like to the angels in power, 
strength, might, nor in agility, activity, splendour, beauty, or glory ; 
but yet you may be like to them in purity and sanctity. Sirs, do not 
deceive yourselves. You shall never be like to the angels in glory, if 
you will not be like to them now in grace. If you will not with them 
now put on the robe of holiness, you shall not with them hereafter put 
on the crown of happiness. We are to foUow the examples of the 
best men not an inch further than they were followers of Christ, 1 Cor. 
xi. 1. Christians, saith father Latimer, are not bound to be the 
saints' apes, they are not to imitate them in everything. Where their 
examples were good, it is good to imitate them, and where they were 
bad, it is duty to decline them. The fairest copies that ever were 
written by saints have their blots, their blurs, and their erratas; and 
therefore it is best, it is safest, it is noblest, to set the most exact, the 
most perfect, and the most excellent copy of the angels before us, who, 
as they excel in strength, so they excel in holiness also : Ps. ciii. 20, 
' Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his com- 
mandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word.' The angels obey 
divine commands readily, cheerfully, faithfully, universally, reveren- 
tially, humbly, afi'ectionately, and unweariedly. sirs, such obedi- 
ence, such holiness will be your honour here, and your happiness here- 
after. To gather up all, as ever you would be like to a holy God, a holy 
Christ, and the holy angels, labour to be holy. In hoHness you may 
be like them, in other things you cannot resemble them. But, 

15. In the fifteenth and last place, To provoke you to labour after 
holiness, consider the stinging argument in the text, viz., that without 
it no man shall see the Lord. The expression is exclusive. Now to 
* see' is a Hebraism, and implies both vision and fruition. Now 
without holiness, no man, be he high or low, noble or ignoble, rich 
or poor, &c., shall ever come to a blessed acquaintance with God here, 
or to a glorious fruition of God hereafter. friends, if it were so 

^ 1 Cor. xi. 10 ; Heb. i. 14 ; Rev. xiii. 9. The angels watch you in all places, cases, 
and conditionB, &c. 


great a misery to Adam to be cast out of paradise, and so great a 
punishment to Cain to be cast out of his father's family — which was 
the only visible church of God on earth — and such a sore affliction 
for the lepers in the law to be shut out from all converse with 
men, and so great a trouble and torment to Absalom to be banished 
his father's court, and so great a hell to Jonah to be seemingly cast 
out of God's sight, and so great a tribulation to John to be confined 
to the isle of Patmos ;i oh, how great a misery, how great a punishment, 
how great an affliction, how great a trouble and torment, how great a 
tribulation, how great a hell, will it be for aU unholy persons for ever 
and ever to be banished the court of heaven, and to be shut out from 
the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power ! 2 Thes. 
i. 7, 11. If it were such an unspeakable grief and misery to the 
primitive Christians, as indeed it was, to be debarred of one another's 
society and company, by being confined to isles, and mines, and 
strongholds; oh, then, what an unspeakable grief and misery will it be 
to all unholy persons to be for ever debarred of the blessed society of 
God, Christ, angels, and saints, and to be everlastingly confined to the 
strongholds of hell, and to the society and company of that damned 
crew who will be still a-cursing and a-blaspheming of God, and adding 
to one another's torments ! sirs, it is the sight of God in heaven 
wherein man's happiness and blessedness doth consist ; it is the frui- 
tion of God in heaven that is the life, the honour, the crown, and glory 
of angels and saints. Heaven itself would be but a low thing, yea, it 
would be but magnum nihil, a great nothing, without the sight and 
fruition of God there. Now without holiness there is no seeing of 
God, there is no possessing or enjoying of God, there is no possibility 
of ever obtaining a part or portion in God. Ah, friends ! without 
holiness all is lost. Thy soul is lost, thy Christ is lost, thy God is 
lost, thy crown is lost, thy heaven is lost, thy glory is lost; and what 
are all other losses to these losses? Demorrathus of Corinth 2 saith, they 
lost the chiefest part of their lives' happiness that did not see Alex- 
ander sit on the throne of Darius ; but what was their loss to that 
unconceivable and unexpressible loss that all imholy persons must 
sustain, who shall never see the King of kings in his beauty, who shall 
never behold the Lord on the throne of his glory ? Well, sirs, if none 
of these arguments can prevail with you to labour after holiness, I 
must conclude that divine justice hath hardened you, and that Satan 
hath blinded you, and that your lusts have besotted you, and that this 
world hath bewitched you, and that it had been ten thousand thou- 
sand times better for you that you had never been born, than to live 
without holiness, and to die without holiness, and to be everlastingly 
damned for want of holiness. And thus much for the motives. 

I come now to lay down some means and helps to holiness. Sup- 
posing that the language of some of your souls may be this : Oh, what 
shall we do to be holy ! Oh, what course, what way, what means 
must we use that we may obtain this holiness, without which we now 
clearly see that we shall never come to a fruition of happiness! 
Methinks I hear some of you crying out, Oh, none but holiness, none 

» Gen. iii. and iv. 13; Lev. xiv. ; 2 Sam. xiv. 13, 14; Jonah ii.; Rev. i. 9. 
* More accurately Demaratus : Plutarch, Alexander IX. — G. 


but holiness ! as that martyi* once cried out, ' Oh, none but Christ, 
none but Christ ! ' Methinks I hear you crying out, Oh, give me holi- 
ness, or I die : as Samson once cried out, ' Give me water, or I die \ 
or as Kachel once cried out, ' Give me children, or I die/ So you cry 
out. Oh, give us holiness, or we die ; give us holiness, or we eternally 
die. Oh, what shall we do to be holy ! we see we are undone without 
holiness, we shall be damned without holiness. Oh that we were but 
made holy, that hereafter we may be assuredly happy ! 

Well, then, if you are in good earnest resolved to be holy, I would 
thus advise and counsel you: First, take heed of some things: Secondly, 
Labour to put in practice other things. The things that you are to 
avoid and shun, even as you would shun poison in your meat, or a 
serpent in your way, yea, as you would shun the devil himself, or hell 
itself, are these — 

I. 1. First, Take heed of mistaking some particular scriptures, as 
that of Ezek. xiv. 6 ; xviii, 30-32, and xxxiii, 11, 14, 16, 19. From 
these and such like scriptures, many unholy hearts are apt to conclude 
that they can repent when they please, and that though they do defer 
their repentance, yet it is no such difficult thing to confess their sins at 
last cast, and to be sorry for their sins at last cast, and to forsake their 
sins at last cast, and to beg the pardon of their sins at last cast ; and 
that if they do so, God hath given his word for it, he hath given it under 
his own hand, that he will pardon their sins, and save their souls. Now 
to prevent these soul-undoing mistakes, thou must know, sinner, 

[1.] First, That thou canst as well wash a blackamoor white at 
pleasure, as thou canst repent at pleasure ; thou canst as well raise the 
dead at pleasure, as thou canst repent at pleasure ; thou canst as well 
make a world at pleasure, as thou canst repent at pleasure ; thou canst 
as well stop the course of the sun at pleasure, as thou canst repent at 
pleasure ; thou canst as well put the sea in a cockle-shell at pleasure, 
and measure the earth with a span at pleasure, as thou canst repent at 
pleasure : witness the proofs in the margin.! \ confess that if to repent 
were to hang down the head like a bulrush for a day, or to whine 
with Saul for an hour, or to put on sackcloth and walk, softly with 
Ahab for a short space, or to confess with Judas, ' I have sinned,' or 
to say with Simon Magus, ' Pray to the Lord for me,' or to tremble 
with Felix for a moment — I say, if this were to repent, doubtless you 
might repent at pleasure ; but alas ! friends, to repent is another thing, 
to repent is the hardest and difficultest work in the world ; and that 
will appear in the next particular. And therefore, 

[2.] Secondly, To repent is to turn a flint into fl^sh, it is to turn 
darkness into light, hell into heaven ; and is this easy ? To repent is 
to make all clean : inside clean, and outside clean ; it is to make a clean 
head and a clean heart ; a clean lip and a clean life : and is this easy? 2 
True repentance includes a true sense of sin, a deep sorrow for sin, 
a hearty loathing of sin, and a holy shame and blushing for sin ; 
and is this easy ? To repent is for a man to loathe himself as well as 
his sin ; and is this easy for man, that is so great a self-lover, and so 

1 Jer. xiii. 23, and xxxi. 18; Lam. v. 21 ; Acts v. 31 ; Eph. i. 17-19 ; 2 Tim. ii. 25 ; 
Acts xi. 18. 

a Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26; Actfl xxvi. 18; Ezek. xvi. ^1-63, and xxix. 43; 2 Cor. vii. 10, 11. 


great a self-exalter, and so great a self-admirer, to become a self- 
loather .? To repent is to cross sinful self, it is to walk contrary tor 
sinful self, yea, it is to revenge a man's self upon himself ; and is this 
easy ? To repent is to pluck out right eyes, and to cut off right hands, 
and offer up only Isaacs; and is this easy ? True repentance is a daily 
turning of the soul further and further from sin, and a daily turning of 
the soul nearer and nearer to God. It is a repentance not to be 
repented of ; it is a repentance from sin, as well as a repentance for 
sin. Sin hath cast the soul at such a distance from God, that though 
the soul be every day a-turning nearer and nearer to God, yet it can 
never, in this life, get so near him as once it was, and as in heaven it 
shall be. And now tell me, soul, is this such an easy thing, to be 
every day a-turning thy back upon sin, and a-turning thy face nearer 
and nearer to God ? Surely no. True repentance lies in a daily dying 
to sin, and in a daily living to him who lives for ever. The very life 
of repentance is f he repentance of the life : and is this easy ? But, 

[3.] Thirdly, True repentance is a turning, not from some sin, hut 
from every sin : Ezek. xviii. 30, ' Kepent, and turn yourselves from all 
your transgressions ; so iniquity shall not be your ruin.' Every sin 
strikes at the law of God, the honour of God, the being of God, and 
the glory of God ; and therefore the penitent must strike at all. Every 
sin fetcheth blood from the heart of Christ, and every sin is a grief 
and vexation to the Spirit of Christ ; and therefore the penitent must 
set upon crucifying of all.l Every sin is an enemy to a man's peace, 
and to a man's comfort, and to a man's confidence, and to a man's 
assurance, and to a man's communion with God ; and therefore he 
must set upon forsaking of all. If ever thou art saved, man, thou 
must repent as well of thy Achans as thy Absaloms, of thy Kimmons 
as of thy Mammons, of thy Davids as of thy Goliaths, of thy secret as 
well as thy open sins, of thy loved as well as of thy loathed lusts, of 
thy babe-transgressions as well as of thy giant-like provocations. If 
thy repentance be not universal, it wUl never be effectual. If a ship 
spring three leaks, and only two be stopped, the third will certainly 
sink the shij) ; or if a man hath two dangerous wounds in his body, 
and takes only order for the cure of one, the other will undoubtedly 
kill him ; or if a man hath two grievous diseases upon him, and will 
only deal with the physician for remedies against the one, he will 
without all peradventure perish by the prevalency of the other. 
Herod turned from many sins, but not from his Delilah, his Herodias, 
which was his ruin. Judas, you know, was a devil in an angel's 
habit ; he seemed to be turned from every sin, but he was not ; he was 
a secret thief, he loved the bag ; and that golden devil, covetousness, 
choked him, and hanged him at last. Saul for a time turned from 
several evils, but his sparing one, Agag, cost him his soul and ,his 
kingdom at a clap. I have read a story of a devout man, who 
amongst other gifts had the gift of healing, and many persons resorted 

^ Ezek. xviii. 21, 31, and xx. 43. He that had the spot of leprosy in anj' one part of 
his body was accounted a leper, although all the rest of his body were sound and whole. 
Lev. xiii. ; so he that hath but one spot, one sin which he doth not endeavour to wash 
out in the blood of Christ, and in the tears of true repentance, he is a leper in the 
account of God. It was an excellent saying of Luther, Optima et aptissima poeni- 
tentia est nova vita. 



to him for cure. Among the rest, one Chromatins, who being sick, 
«ent for him, and told him of his sickness, and desired that he might 
have the benefit of cure, as others had before him. The devout man 
replied, I cannot do it till thou hast beaten all the images in thy house 
to pieces. Oh, that shall be done, said Chromatius. Here, take my 
keys, and where you find any images, break them in pieces ; which 
accordingly was done. Upon this the devout man went to prayer, but 
no cure was wrought ; whereupon the sick man cried out. Oh, I am as 
sick as ever ! oh, I am very weak and sick still ! It cannot be other- 
wise, replied the devout person, neither can I help it, for there is 
doubtless one idol yet in your house undiscovered, and that must be 
defaced too. True, saith Chromatius, it is so indeed, it is all of 
beaten gold, it cost £200. I would fain have saved it, but here take 
my keys again, you shall find it fast locked up in my chest, break it 
also in pieces ; which being done, the devout man prayed,^ and Chro- 
matius was healed. The moral of it is good ; the sin-sick soul must 
break, not some, but all its idols in pieces, before a cure will follow. 
It must deface its golden idols, its most costly idols, its most darling 
idols ; the returning sinner must make head against all his sins, and 
trample upon all his lusts, or else he will die and be undone for ever ; 
and though this be as difficult as it is noble, yet it is no more than 
what God hath engaged to do, and to see done, as you may see by 
comparing Ezek, xxxvi. 25-27 with Isa. xxx. 21, 22. Now is this 
an easy thing, to turn from every sin, to loathe every sin, and to 
abandon every sin, with a ' Get you hence,' for what have I more to 
do with you ? Hosea xiv. 8. Surely no. As Nehemiah cast out Tobiah 
and all his household stuff, in Neh, xiii. 6-8 ; so true repentance, it 
casts out Satan and all his retinue. As Moses would not leave so 
much as a hoof behind him, Exod. x. 26 ; so true repentance will not 
leave so much as a lust behind. A dispensatory conscience is always 
an evil conscience; he that can dispense with one sin, will, when 
opportunity presents, commit any sin. And as the flood made clean 
work, it swept away all Noah's friends, and drowned all his servants ; 
so the flood of penitent tears makes clean work, it sweeps away every 
lust, it drowns every corruption in respect of love and dominion. And 
as some conquerors would not give so much as one of their enemies 
quarter, so true repentance will not give one lust quarter; it falls 
heavily upon the bones of every sin, and nothing but the blood and 
death of sin will satisfy the penitent soul. The true penitent is for 
the mortifying of every lust that hath had a hand in crucifying of his 
dearest Saviour. It was worthily and wittily said by one, that true 
repentance strips us stark naked of all the garments of the old Adam, 
and leaves not so much as the shirt behind. Well, sirs, remember 
this, to repent of sin, and yet to live in sin, is a contradiction ; and if 
thou repentest with a contradiction, saith TertuUian, God will pardon 
thee with a contradiction. Thou repentest and yet continuest in thy 
sin, God will pardon thee, and yet send thee to heU ; there is a pardon 
with a contradiction. Again, 

[4.] Fourthly, If repentance be such an easy work as you suppose, I 
beseech you tell me, why do many men lie under such horrors and 
terrors of conscience as they do, for not repenting, whenas repentance 


would quickly give them ease, and turn their hell into a heaven ? I 
was last winter with a young man, who upon his dying bed for several 
hours together, being in a dreadful agony, lay crying out, I am 
damned, I am damned, I am damned, I am damned ! Ah, how soon 
would this poor wretch have got out of this hell, if it had been so easy 
a thing to have repented, as you imagine it is ! and how many, when 
they have been pressed to repent, have professed, that if they might 
have a thousand worlds to repent, they could not repent 1 And will 
you say that repentance is easy ? How many have sought repentance 
with tears, and would have bought repentance with the price of their 
dearest blood, but could not obtain it ! and will you say that repent- 
ance is easy ? sirs, is it good to be damned ? is it good to go to 
hell ? is it good to dwell with a devouring fire, and to live in ever- 
lasting burnings ? Is it good to have your habitations amongst devils 
and damned spirits ? Is it good to be banished the court of heaven, 
and to be separated for ever from the glorious presence of God, and 
the sweet enjoyments of Christ, and the blessed society of angels and 
saints, and the fruition of aU the happiness that heaven affords ? Oh 
no ! oh no ! Oh, why then do not men prevent all this by repentance, 
if it be such an easy thing to repent ! But, 

[5.] Lastly, If repentance be such an easy work, ivhy then do your 
hearts so rise both against the doctrine of repentance, and against those 
that preach it and press it? Of all words, is not the word of repent- 
ance the hardest word to read ? John vi. 60. And of all sayings and 
sermons, is not that of repentance the hardest to hear and bear? 
Luther confesses that before his conversion he met not with a more 
displeasing word in all the Scripture, nor in all his study of divinity, 
than that word repent. man ! if repentance be so easy, why doth 
thy spirit rage, and why doth thy heart so swell and rise against those 
that preach repentance unto life ? Of all preachers, there are none 
that do so displease and move thee, that do so cut and gall thee, as 
those that are still a-crying out, ' Kepent, for the kingdom of heaven is 
at hand,' Mat. iii. 2. Repentance is the vomit of the soul ; and ah, 
how do sinners' hearts rise against that physic, and those that bring 
it ! Repentance is the bleeding of the soul ; and ah, how do wicked 
men storm and take on at that hand that lets them blood ! You love 
those that preach pleasing things, that tickle your ears, though they 
never touch your hearts ; that please your fancies, though they never 
meddle with your consciences ; and one sermon of mercy you prefer 
before a thousand sermons of repentance.^ Now certainly if repent- 
ance were so easy to you, the doctrine of repentance would be more 
pleasing to you. For a close, know that that white devil who now 
presents repentance to thee as the easiest thing in the world, he will 
at last cast, to work thee to despair, and to cut the throat of thy soul, 
present it not only as a hard and difiicult work, but as an impossible 
work. Oh that these things may be so blessed unto you, as to preserve 
you from being deceived and deluded with a conceit that repentance is 
easy, and so by this means keep you from labouring to be holy ! 

Now as to that part of the plea, from the scriptures formerly cited— 
viz., that hereafter will be time enough to repent — I shall thus reply: 
1 Isa. XXX. 10 ; Jer. v. 30, 31 ; xiv. 14, and xxiii. 11 to the end. 


1. First, Certainly the present call of God, the uncertainty of the 
Spirit's motion, and the danger of delay, calls upon thee for present 
repentance. It is a dangerous thing to deal with God, as ill debtors 
do by their creditors ; first they put them off one week, and then another 
week, and then a third week, &c., till at last they provoke their creditors 
to cast them into prison, and to practise all severity upon them. They 
that thus deal with God shall be as severely dealt with by God, as you 
may see in Prov, i. 24-32. The ancient warriors would not receive an 
old man into their army ; and dost thou think, vain man ! that when 
thou hast spent thy time, and wasted thy strength, and exhausted thy 
spirits in the work of Satan, and in the service of thy lusts, that God 
will receive thee to his grace and favour ? If thou dost thus flatter 
thyself, it is ten thousand to one but that thou wilt deceive thyself ; 
that God, that hath made a promise to late repentance, hath made no 
promise of late repentance ; and though true repentance is never too 
late, yet late repentance is seldom true. Ah, how many millions are 
now in hell, who have thought, and resolved, and said that they 
would repent hereafter, but that hereafter never came ! Thou sayest 
to-morrow, to-morrow thou wilt repent, when thou knowest not what 
a to-morrow will bring forth. Alas ! how many thousand ways may 
death surprise thee before to-morrow comes ! Though there be but 
one way to come into the world, yet there is a thousand thousand ways 
to be sent out of the world. "^ Oh, the diseases, the hazards, the dangers, 
the accidents, the deaths, that daily, that hourly attend the life of 
man ! A Jewish Rabbin, pressing the practice of repentance upon his 
disciples, exhorted them to be sure to repent the day before they died ; 
to which one of them replied, that the day of a man's death was very 
uncertain ; to which the Rabbin made answer. Repent, therefore, every 
day, and then you shall be sure to repent the day before you die. O 
sirs, except you do repent to-day, you cannot tell that you shall repent 
the day before you die ; for who knows to-day but that he may die 
to-morrow ? It was once demanded of one, [Augustine,] what he 
would say of a wicked man who had lived loosely but died penitently, 
&c. ; to whom he replied, What would you have me to say ? That he 
is damned ? I will not, for I have nothing to do to judge him. Shall 
I say that he is saved ? I dare not, for I would not deceive thee. 
What then ? Why, this. Repent thou out of hand, and thou art safe, 
whatever is become of him. Ah, friends, you are never safe till you 
repent ; it is repentance that puts you out of all danger of miscarrying 
for ever. Shall the husbandman take his present seasons for sowing 
and reaping ? shall the good tenant repair his house while the 
weather is fair ? shall the careful pilot take his advantage of wind and 
tide, and so put out to sea ? shall the traveller mend his pace when 
he sees the night comes on ? and shall the smith strike when the iron 
is hot ? — and shall not we take the present opportunity of repenting 
and turning to the Lord, rememberiag that there will be a time 
when time shall be no more ; and when there shall be no place found 
for repentance, though it should be sought carefully with tears, Heb. 

^ It is reported that God should say to a man who desired to repent in his old age, 
Ubi conaumpsisti farinam, ibi consume/ur/urem : Where you have spent your flour, there 
go spend your bran, &c. 


xii. 17; and remembering that there will be a time when thy glass 
will be out, and when the door will be shut, and when there will 
be no entrance at all, Luke xiii. 24, 27; and remembering that it 
is a safer course, with prudent Prometheus, to foresee a danger and 
shun it, than, with foolish Epimetheus, to go on unadvisedly and be 
punished ? i 

Ah friends ! it is a dangerous thing to make repentance, which should 
be the practice of all your days, to be the task of old age. Doth not 
common experience tell us that the longer the ship leaketh, the harder 
it is to be emptied ; and that the longer the house goes to decay, the 
worse it is to repair ; and that the further the nail is driven, the harder 
it will be to get out ? and so certainly the longer any man defers his 
repentance, the more difficult it will be for him to repent ; his heart 
will every day grow more and more hard, and his will more and more 
perverse, and his judgment more and more corrupted, and his affec- 
tions more and more disordered, and his conscience more and more 
benumbed or enraged, and his whole life more and more defiled and 
debauched. Friends, do not deceive yourselves, old age is but a sad, a 
sandy, a tottering and sinking foundation for you to build your hopes 
and happiness upon — for you to build your everlasting condition, your 
eternal making or marring upon. Are the dog-days of old age, are 
the trembling hands, the wrinkled face, the dazzled eyes, the stinking 
lungs, the fainting heart, the feeble knees, and the failing legs — are 
these a sacrifice worthy of God ? is a body full of sores, aches, and dis- 
eases, and a soul full of sin, an offering becoming a God ? Surely no. 
Oh, what madness, what wickedness is this, to serve Satan, your lusts, 
and this world with full dishes, and to put off God with scraps ! to 
serve these in the flower, in the prime and primrose of your days, and 
to put off God with the dregs of old age ! Certainly repentance is 
rather a work for youth than old age, it is a work rather for strength 
than weakness, and for health than sickness.^ Oh, do not let Satan 
deceive you, do not let your own hearts delude you, but fall upon the 
work of repentance presently, knowing that as you have one day more 
to repent of, so you have one day less to repent in. What a piece of 
vanity is it, that while the ship is sound, the tackling sure, the pilot 
well, the sailors strong, provisions laid in, and the wind favourable, 
that the mariners and passengers should lie in the road,^ carding, 
drinking, dicing, dancing, and idling ; and when the ship is leak[y], 
the pilot sick, the mariners faint, provisions spent, and the winds 
boisterous, then to weigh anchors, and hoist up sail, to make a voyage 
into a far country 1 And yet such is the vanity of most men, who in 
the days of their youth, health, and strength, who when their memories 
are strong, and their fancies quick, and their reason ripe, &c., do sin 
away, and fool away, and trifle away the day of grace, the offers of 
mercy, the motions of the Spirit, and the entreaties of Christ ; and 
when old age comes, when their wits are cracked, their souls distracted, 

^ What madness and folly is it for a man that hath many young, strong, stout horses, 
and a long journey to go, to let these pass by, and to lay up his carriage, and get him- 
self upon an old feeble jade that can hardly bear himself ! The application is easy, 
Mai. i. 13, 14. 

* Spelled ' rode/ meaning ' a harbour for ships.' — G. 


their senses stupified, their hearts astonied, their minds darkened, and 
their bodies diseased and distempered, oh, then they think to leap into 
heaven, with a ' Lord have mercy upon me' in their mouths : and 
though they have Hved like devils, yet they hope they shall die like 
saints ; and though they never took no care of God's honour, yet they 
hope that God will take care of their souls ; but when the thread of 
their lives is cut, the next news that ever you shall hear of these is, 
that they are gone to hell. 

I have read of a young man, who being admonished of the evil of 
his way and course, and being pressed to leave his wickedness, and to 
break off his sins by repentance, upon the consideration of judgment, 
eternity, and death a-coming : he answered, What do you tell me of 
these things ? I warrant you I will do well enough, for when death 
comes I wiU speak but three words, and that will help aU, and so he 
went on in his wickedness : but in the end coming to a bridge on 
horseback to go over a deep water, the horse stumbling, and he labour- 
ing to recover his horse, could not, but at last he let go the bridle, 
and gave up himself and his horse to the waters, and was heard to 
say these three words, ' Devil take all.' Here were three words with 
a witness ! And oh that aU that think to repent at last, with a ' Lord 
have mercy upon me,' would lay this instance to heart ! The light of 
thy Hfe may be put out before thou canst once say, Miserere mei Deus, 
Lord be merciful to me a sinner ! Though the chariot wheels run all 
the day long very near one another, yet they never overtake one 
another. Oh, take heed of delaying thy repentance, for the more thou 
delayest it, the more will thy account be increased, thy debt augmented, 
Satan strengthened, thy body enfeebled, thy lusts emboldened, thy 
soul endangered, and all the difficulties of conversion more and more 
multiplied. By delaying of thy repentance thou goest the way to 
gratify Satan, to cozen thyself, to lose the opportunities of grace, and 
to damn thy soul for ever and ever. Well, remember this, if thou 
wilt not repent to-day, God may swear in his wrath to-morrow, that 
thou shalt not enter into his rest ; and then woe to thee that ever thou 
wert born ! And thus much for the preventing of these sad mistakes 
about repentance, which mistakes keep oiff many a man from look- 
ing and labouring after that holiness without which there is no 

2. Secondly, If ever you would be holy, oh, then kike heed of a 
ivitch. Take heed of the world. The world often swells the heart 
with pride; it makes men forget God, neglect Christ, slight ordinances, 
and despise holiness, Deut. xxxii. 15, 22. Ah, the time, the thoughts, 
the strength, the spirits that this enticing world hath made many to 
spend and consume, whilst their souls have lain a-bleeding, and eternity 
hath been posting upon them ! Oh, the deadness, the barrenness, the 
listlessness, the heartlessness to anything that is good, that doth attend a 
worldly temper ! Many men are so bewitched with the profits, pleasures, 
and honours of the world, that they mind not holiness, they regard not 
holiness, they care not for holiness, nor the means that lead to holiness : 
Phil. iii. 18, 19, ' For many walk, of whom I have told you often, and 
how I tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of 
Christ ; whose end is destruction, whose god is their belly, and whose 


glory is their shame, who mind earthly things.' i Who were those that 
walked disorderly? why, those that minded earthly things. Who 
were those that fetched tears from the apostle's eyes ? why, those that 
minded earthly things. Who were those that were enemies to the 
cross of Christ ? why, those that minded earthly things. Who were 
those whose end is destruction? why, those that minded earthly 
things. Who were those whose god was their belly ? why, those that 
minded earthly things. Who were those whose glory was their shame? 
why, those that minded earthly things. SicUy is so full of sweet 
flowers, that dogs cannot hunt there, [Diodorus Siculus] ; and what 
do all the sweet contents and delights of this world, but make men 
lose the scent of heaven and holiness? The world proves silken 
halters to some, and golden fetters to others : to some it is like the 
swallows' dung that put out Tobias's eyes ; to others it is like the 
waters of Nilus, that makes the inhabitants deaf. All the flowers of 
this world are surrounded with many briers. The world is all shadow 
and vanity ; it is like Jonah's gourd — man may sit under its shadow 
for a while, but it soon decays and dies. He that shall but weigh 
man's pains with his pay, his miseries with his pleasures, his sorrows 
with his joys, his crosses with his comforts, his wants with his enjoy- 
ments, &c., may well cry out, 'Vanity of vanity, and all is vanity.' 
The whole world is circular, the heart of man is triangular, and we 
know a circle cannot fill a triangle. 2 sirs, if your hearts be not 
filled with holiness, they will be filled with the world, the flesh, and 
the devil. Either holiness or Satan must possess you. Some there 
be that have much holiness, and much of the world too ; as Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, David, Hezekiah, Daniel, &c. ; and others 
there be that have no holiness, nor nothing of the world neither : these 
men are fair for two hells — a hell of misery here, and a hell of torment 
hereafter. Some have much of the world, but not a spark of holiness ; 
as Saul, Haman, Dives, Herod, &c., who had a world of wealth, but 
not a drachm of grace ; and others have a great deal of holiness that 
have but little or nothing of the world ; as the apostles and Lazarus, 
&c., James ii. 5 ; Mat. xi. 5. Now is it not infinitely better to have 
holiness without the world, and so be happy for ever, than to have 
much of the world without holiness, and so be damned for ever ? 

A man bewitched with the world will lose many precious opportu- 
nities of grace, which are more worth than a world : witness rich Felix, 
who had no leisure to hear poor Paul, though the hearing of a sermon 
might have saved his soul. Acts xxiv. 24, seq. A man bewitched with 
the world has his sinning times, and his eating times, and his sleeping 
times, and his trading times, and his feasting times, and his sporting 
times, &c. ; but he has not his hearing times, nor his praying times, 
nor his reading times, nor his mourning times, nor his repenting times, 
nor his reforming times, &c. He can have time, yea, and he will have 
time, for everything, but to honour his God, and to make himself happy 
for ever. 

A man bewitched with the world will, when it is put to his choice, 

^ That cardinal was wretched as well as rich, that would not leave his part in Paris 
for a part in paradise. [As before. — G.] 
* If the whole earth were changed into a globe of gold, it could not fill thy heart.. 


rather part with Christ to enjoy the world, than part with the world 
to enjoy,Christ: witness the young man in the Gospel, who preferred a 
drop before a sea, a crumb before a crown, and his treasure on earth 
before treasure in heaven, Mat. xix. 16, 23. He would not leave that 
on earth which he could not long keep, for the enjoyment of that in 
heaven which he should never lose ; rather than he would let his pos- 
sessions go, he would let God and Christ go, and heaven go, and all 
go, &c. If heaven can be had at no cheaper a rate than parting with 
his possessions, Christ may keep his heaven to himself, and make the 
best on't he can if he wiU, for he 11 have none on't upon those terms. 

Again, a man bewitched with the world will prefer the most base 
and contemptible things before the Lord Jesus Christ ; he will, with 
the Gergesenes, prefer his very swine before a Saviour, Mat. viii. 28, 
seq. ; when they saw what a sad market their hogs were brought to, 
they desired Christ to depart out of their country ; these Gergesites 
had rather lose Christ than lose their porkers ; they had rather that 
the devil should possess their souls than that he should drown their 
pigs ; they prefer their- swine before their salvation, and present a 
wretched petition for their own damnation ; they besought him that 
he would depart out of their coasts ; though there be no misery, no 
plague, no cm*se, no wrath, no hell to Clirist's departure from a people, 
yet men bewitched with the world will desire this. Men bewitched 
with the world will prefer a Barabbas before a Jesus ; they will with 
Judas betray Christ, and with Pilate condemn Christ, and with the 
Scribes and Pharisees they will cry out, ' Crucify him ! crucify 
him ! ' away with this Jesus, away with this Jesus ; let Barabbas live, 
but let Jesus die ; let Barabbas be saved, but let Christ be hanged. 
Ah, what incarnate devils will such men prove, who are bewitched 
with this world ! 

A man bewitched with the world will gain no good by the ministry 
of the word : witness Ezekiel's hearers, Ezek. xxxiii. 31-33 ; and 
witness the stony ground. Mat. xiii. 22 ; and witness Christ's fol- 
lowers, John vi. Some writers say that notliing will grow where gold 
grows ; certainly where the love of this world grows, there nothing 
will grow that is good. A heart filled either with the love of the 
world, or the profits of the world, or the pleasures of the world, or the 
honours of the world, or the cares of the world, or the businesses of 
the world, is a heart incapacitated to receive any divine counsel or 
comfort. It is a heart shut up against God and holiness, it is a heart 
possessed with many devils ; and therefore no wonder if such a heart 
loathes the honeycomb of holiness ; yea, it is no wonder to see such a 
heart to deride and scorn holiness as the greatest foolishness, Luke 
xvi. 14. The poets tell of Lycaon being turned into a wolf; but 
when a worldling is made holy, there is a wolf turned into a man, 
yea, a devil turned into a saint ; therefore the Holy Ghost, speaking 
of Zaccheus, who had long been bewitched by the world, brings him 
in with an Ecce ! — ' Behold ! ' — as if it were a wonder of wonders that 
ever such a worldling should be made holy. 

A man bewitched with the world will venture the loss of his soul to 
enjoy the world. Mat. xvi. 26 ; as that pope that sold his soul to the 
devil for the enjoyment of the j^opedom six years. We hate the Turks 


for selling of Christians for slaves ; but ah, how many be there among 
us that call themselves Christians, who yet sell themselves and their 
souls to the devil for slaves for half-a-crown, yea, for a halfpenny 1 
Look, as Shimei, by seeking his servant, lost his life ; so many, by 
seeking of the world, have lost their souls. Now though of all losses 
the loss of the soul is the greatest, the saddest, the "sorest, the 
heaviest, and the most intolerable, inconceivable, and irrecoverable 
loss, yet a man bewitched with the world will run the hazard of 
losing it, of damning it, to enjoy the world. You know the Keuben- 
ites in Joshua xxii. preferred the country that was commodious for 
the feeding of their cattle, — though it were far from the temple, where 
they might have fed their souls, and have got heaven and holiness 
for their souls, — before their interest in the land of promise. Well, 
so men that are bewitched with this world in these days, oh, how do 
they prefer their sensual delights, their brutish contentments, and 
their carnal enjoyments, before the heavenly Canaan, and before the 
beauties of hohness, and before the temple of God's holiness, where 
holiness sparkles and shines in all its bravery and glory, and where their 
souls might be abundantly satisfied and delighted with the most 
ravishing joys, the most surpassing delights, and the most tran- 
scendent pleasures which are at God's right hand! To draw to a 
close, the Arabic proverb saith that Mutidus cadaver est, et petentes 
eum sunt canes — The world is a carcase, and they that hunt after it 
are dogs. If this proverb be true, what a multitude of professors will 
be found to be dogs, who hunt more after earth than heaven, who 
hunt more after terrestrial than celestial things, who hunt more after 
nothingnesses and emptinesses, than they do after those fulnesses and 
sweetnesses that be in God, Christ, heaven, and holiness! Well, 
friends, as ever you would obtain that real holiness, without which 
there is no happiness, take heed of a witch, take heed of this world ; 
and to that purpose, oh that you would always look upon the things 
of this world, as you will look upon them when you come to die ! Oh 
that you would now look upon all the pomp, state, bravery, and glory 
of the world as you will look upon it when your souls shall sit upon 
your trembling lips ! Oh, with what a disdainful eye, with what a 
weaned heart, do men look upon those things then ! Do so now, and 
I dare assure you, that though the world may trouble you, yet it shall 
never bewitch you. I have read of a man that, lying in a burning 
fever, professed that if he had all the world at his dispose, he would 
give it all for one draught of beer ; at so low a rate do men value the 
world at such a time as that is. If men were so wise to value the 
world at no higher a rate in health than they do in sickness, in life 
than they do at the time of their death, it would never bewitch them, 
it would never be as a wall of separation between holiness and them. 
As ever jou would be holy here, and happy hereafter, take heed of 
this witch, and believe it to be a witch before it hath bewitched you, 
or else you may believe it too late. 

3. Thirdly, If ever you would be holy, then tahe heed of comparing 
yourselves ivitJi those that are, at least supposedly, loorse than your- 
selves. Many there be who by comparing themselves with those that 
are bad, very bad, think themselves to be good, very good, yea, to be 


too good to go to hell, and yet they are not good enough to go to 
heaven ; and many there be who are worse than others, and yet by 
comparing themselves with those they suppose very bad, they conclude 
themselves to be very good. Such a one was that proud Pharisee in 
Luke xviii., who thought himself a far better man than the poor 
publican, and yet he was not half so honest, nor half so just, nor haK 
so righteous, nor half so good as he was. The poor publican was 
ashamed of himself ; he loathed himself, he abased himself, he judged 
himself, and he condemned himself. The poor publican acknowledged 
God, he adored God, he dreaded God, he admired God, and he justified 
God ; in all which he exceeded the proud Pharisee ; and yet, oh how 
scornfully does this proud Pharisee look upon him ! and how disdain- 
fully and disgracefully does he speak of him ! And this was the 
general frame and temper of the Scribes and Pharisees, who thought 
no man's penny so good silver as their own, who thought themselves 
better than the best, when they were the very worst of the worst ; for 
publicans and harlots believed and repented, and entered into the 
kingdom of God before them. Mat. xxi. 31, 32. And so they in that 
of Isa. Ixv. were naught, very naught, yea, stark naught ; they were 
the basest among the base, they were the vilest among the vile, they 
were the most rebellious among the rebeUious, and the most supersti- 
tious among the superstitious : witness ver. 2-4. And yet, oh how 
do they stroke themselves, and bless themselves, and commend them- 
selves, and cry up themselves, and exalt themselves as the only holy 
ones, ver. 5 ; they could deify themselves, and yet damn and devilify 
others, though they were such monsters as God abhorred, ver. 6. Ah ! 
how many be there who, by comparing themselves with those that are 
worse than themselves, do judge themselves to be good enough, and 
holy enough ! They are good negative Christians, and they think 
that is enough to bring them to heaven ; they bless themselves that 
they are no Nabals for drunkenness, nor no Sodomites for filthiness, 
nor no Hamans for haughtiness, nor no Amnons for lustfulness, nor 
none of the old world for idleness, nor no Zaccheuses for covetousness, 
nor no Laodiceans for lukewarmness, &c. They bless themselves that 
they are no Gehazis for lying, nor no Shimeis for cursing, nor no 
Joabs for swearing, nor no Rabshakehs for railing, nor no Doegs for 
cruelty, nor no Judases for treachery, nor no Demases for apostasy, &c. 
And thus they cheat themselves, and find out fine ways to delude and 
damn their own souls ; they think it grace enough, and holiness enough, 
that they have attained to this — viz., not to be so bad as the worst, 
though they fall infinitely short of coming near unto the best. Well, sirs, 
remember this, if you are not so great sinners as others, your horrors, 
your terrors, your torments, your hell shall not be so great, nor so hot 
as others', but without holiness you shall be as certainly damned as 
others ; and what a cold comfort is this, to have a cooler and a lighter 
hell than others ; and yet this is all the comfort that can be handed 
to unholy hearts. But, 

4. Fourthly, Take heed of flatterers. Ah ! how good might many 
men have been, who are yet exceeding bad, had they not sold their 
ears to flatterers. Flatterers are soul-murderers, they are soul-undoers, 


they are like vain chirurgeons, that skin over the wound, but kill the 
patient. Flattery is the very mother of folly, and the very nursery of 
all impiety. Flatterers will cry up those for religious who are only 
superstitious, and those for wise men who are foolish, and those for 
knowing men, who are ignorant, and those for virtuous men who are 
vicious, and those for holy men who at best are but civil, and those 
for happy men who are certainly miserable. Flatterers dare call the 
proud happy, and bless them whom God has cursed ; they dare call evil 
good, and good evil ; they dare call darkness light, and light darkness ; 
they dare say that that man has grace that has none ; yea, they dare 
swear that such and such shall be saved, though for the present they 
live as if they were resolved to be damned ; they dare take upon them 
to tell you that such and such men's names are written in heaven, and 
that such and such belong to the election of grace, though their lives 
speak them out to be void of all grace. Ah ! how many a man has 
been kept off from the thoughts of holiness, and from the ways of holi- 
ness, and from the love and liking of holiness, by flatterers who have 
flattered them, that doubtless they are in the favour of God, and that 
certainly God did not make men to damn them, and that without all 
peradventure they have an interest in Christ, and that there is no 
question but that their hearts are as good as the best, and that their 
conditions are good, and their souls happy ; yea, they are so confident 
of their happiness, that they dare venture a-going to hell, if ever such 
should go to hell whom they fondly flatter ; they dare pawn their 
souls and their salvation on it, that such shall never miscarry ; and by 
these flatteries they harden men in sin, and arm them against holiness. 
Flattery is that sweet poison that has destroyed many a soul. Witness 
Eehoboam, Ahab, Herod, Nero, Alexander, &c. So true is that of 
the wise man : Prov. xxvi. 28, ' A lying tongue hateth those that are 
afflicted by it, and a flattering mouth worketh ruin.'i A flattering 
mouth ruins name, fame, estate, life, body and soul ; it ruins a man 
both temporally and eternally; it often undoes a man in both worlds ; 
it makes a man miserable both here and hereafter. Flatterers are 
devouring caterpillars : flatterers' tongues do more mischief than per- 
secutors' swords, for their swords can but destroy the bodies of men, 
but flatterers' tongues destroy the souls of men. Flatterers are the 
greatest soul-cheaters and soul-undoers in the world. Flatterers dare 
call vice virtue, they dare call pride neatness, covetousness good hus- 
bandry, drunkenness good-fellowship, prodigality liberality, wantonness 
a trick of youth, passion zeal, revenge courage, &c. They dare call 
enormities infirmities, and wickednesses weaknesses ; they dare call 
great sins little sins, little sins no sins ; they gild over all their poison- 
ous pills with gold, they draw the fairest glove upon the foulest hand, 
they lay their neatest colours upon the filthiest sores, they put their 
best paint upon the worst faces, and the richest robes upon the most 
diseased bodies; and by these devices they entangle many to their 
utter ruin: Prov. xxix. 5,. *A man that flattereth his neighbour 

1 The Hebrew word Dachah signifies to throw down, to drive on forwards till a man 
falls into destruction ; none drive so furiously to the ruin and destruction of souls as 
flatterers do. 


spreadeth a net for his feet.' The Hebrew word — Machalik from 
Chalak — that is here rendered flatterer, signifies a smooth-boots, a 
soft, butter-spoken man ; because flatterers, the better to deceive, do 
use to oil their tongues and to butter their lips, that so by their smooth, 
soft speeches they may the more insinuate themselves into men's affec- 
tions, and so make way for their destruction. Flatterers have their 
silken nets to ensnare and entangle poor souls to their eternal ruin. 
Look, as fowlers strew corn and lay baits to draw birds into their nets ; 
or look, as hunters spread their nets, that they may take beasts and 
prey upon them, or make a prey of them ; so flatterers, they spread 
their nets that they may catch poor souls, and either prey upon them, 
or else make a prey of them. Flattery is the devil's invisible net ; and 
happy is that soul that escapes it. The flatterer's net is worse than 
his sword, for his sword may be the more easily seen, feared, and 
avoided, than his net. Of aU arms the flatterer's net is the most 
perilous and dangerous, both to the lives, estates, and souls of men.> 
It were ten thousand times better to trample a flatterer under a man's 
feet, than for a man to sufier his feet to be taken in the flatterer's net. 
A flatterer is a sore enemy in the habit of a friend, he is a wolf in 
sheep's clothing, he is a devil transformed into an angel of light ; and 
■what punishment can be too great for such ? The severity of many 
ieathen princes and emperors has been very great against flatterers. 
Take one instance for all : Alexander Severus commanded one Turinus, 
a great flatterer, to be tied to a stake and stifled with smoke, with a 
herald standing by, and proclaiming to aU the people, that it was but 
just that he that lived by the smoke of flattery should die by smoke. i 
Now what a shameful thing is it that such as are called Christians 
should afiect to be flattered, when heathens have so severely punished 
flatterers. WeU, sirs, as ever you would be holy, take heed of flatterers, 
and take heed of flattery ; let Solomon's counsel be always in your eye, 
and let it always lie warm upon your hearts : Pro v. xx. 19, ' He that 
goeth about as a tale-bearer, revealeth secrets : therefore meddle not 
with him that flattereth with his lips.' A man that loves his soul, 
and would be happy in another world, should shun flatterers as he 
should shun a thief, a serpent, a wolf, a lion, a devil. Till thou 
stoppest thine ears against a spirit of flattery, there is little hopes that 
ever thou wilt be holy. 

5. Fifthly, If ever you would be holy, oh ! then toike heed of put- 
ting the day of death far from you. Man is a creature naturally prone 
to look upon death at a distance, to look upon death afar off", and to 
say with those in Ezekiel, ' Behold, they of the house of Israel say, The 
vision that he seeth is for many days to come, and he prophesieth of 
the times that are afar off,' Ezek. xii. 27. So the rich man in the 
Gospel reckoned upon many years, when he had not many months, 
no not many weeks, no not many days, no not many hours, to live in 
tills world. Unholy persons are very apt to say to death as Pharaoh 
said to Moses, ' Get thee from me, and let me see thy face no more,' 
Exod. X. 28. When death knocks at the poor man's door he sends it 
to the rich man's gate, and the rich man translates it to the scholar, 

^ Augustus Caesar, and Tiberius Csesar, and Sigismund, tlie emperors, all were great 
enemies to flatterers. 


and the scholar posts it away to the citizen, and the citizen to the 
coiirtier, and the courtier to his lady, and his lady to her maid, and so 
death is posted away, as it were, from one to another, every one crying 
out to death. Oh, let me not see thy face ! oh, let me not see thy face 1 It 
was even a death to Queen Elizabeth, Sigismund the emperor, Louis the 
Eleventh of France, Cardinal Beaufort, and others, to think of death, 
or to hear of death ; and therefore they strictly charged all their ser- 
vants about them, that when they saw them sick, they should never 
dare to name that bitter word death in their ears. And Pashur can- 
not cast his eye upon death, but he is presently a Magor-missahih, a 
terror to himself, Jer. xx. 3. And Saul, though he was a valiant 
king, yet at the news of death he falls on his face, 1 Sam. xxviii. 20. 
And so Belshazzar, though he was a mighty emperor — Dan. v. 1-7 — 
yet a letter to him, from him whom Bildad calleth the king of terrors. 
Job xviii.l4, ah, how does it amaze, astonish, affright, and terrify him I 
and how many are there who, with Meecenas in Seneca, had rather live 
in many diseases than die ; and, with the most famous heathens, prefer 
the meanest life on earth above all the hopes they have of another 
world ; like Achilles, who had rather be a servant to a poor country 
clown here, than to be a king to all the souls departed ; i or like Withi- 
poll, a rich and wretched man, who, when he was in danger of death, 
earnestly desired that he might live five hundred years, though it were 
but in the shape of a toad.^ Near Lewes in Sussex, a woman being 
ill, one of her neighbours coming to visit her, told her that if she died 
she should go to heaven and be with God and Jesus Christ, and with 
angels and saints ; the sick woman answered, that she had no acquaint- 
ance there, she knew nobody there, and therefore she had rather live with 
her and her other neighbours here, than to go thither to live amongst 
strangers. And thus you see how apt persons are to shrug at death, 
which is a common lot, and to say to it, as Ephraim did to his idols, 
' Get you hence, what have we more to do with you ?' But this is and 
must be for a lamentation, that men put off the thoughts of their lat- 
ter end to the latter end of their thoughts. Man naturally is a great 
life-lover, and therefore he will bleed, sweat, vomit, purge, part with 
an estate, yea, with a limb, ay, limbs, to preserve his life ; like him that 
cried out, ' Oh, give me any deformity, any torment, any misery, so you 
spare my life.' And upon this account it is that he desires that such 
a guest as death may not knock at his door ; but ah ! that all such vain 
men would consider, that by putting the day of their death far from 
them, they do but gratify Satan, strengthen their sins, provoke the 
Lord, and make the work of faith and holiness more hard and difficult, 
and so lay a deep foundation for their own eternal destruction. 

Well, sirs, remember this, the serious thoughts and meditations of 
death, if anything, will work you to break off your sins, to mend your 
lives, and to look to the salvation of your souls. There is nothing 
that will sooner work a man to a holy fear of offending God in any- 
thing, and to a holy care of pleasing God in everything, than the 
serious meditation of death. Though that text, ' Remember thy latter 

^ Homer: Odyssey, li. 488.— G. 

* Vitellius, looking for the messenger of death, made himself drunk to drown the 
thoughts of it. 


end, and thou shalt never do amiss,' be apocryphal, yet the truth 
asserted is canonical, i I have read a story of one that gave a young 
prodigal a ring with a death's-head, on this condition, that he should 
one hour in a day, for seven days together, think and meditate upon 
death, which accordingly he did, and it bred a great change and alter- 
ation in his life and conversation. man ! thou dost not know but 
that the serious thoughts of death may work that desirable thing in 
thee, viz., holiness, which yet has not been wrought in thee by all the 
holy counsels, the gracious examples, the fervent prayers, and the 
sorrowful tears of thy dearest friends. Thou dost not know but that 
the serious meditation of death may do thee more good than all the 
sermons that ever thou hast heard, or than all the books that ever 
thou hast read, or than all the prayers that ever thou hast made, or 
than all the sighs or groans that ever thou hast poured out ; and why 
then shouldst thou put the thoughts of death far from thee ? Cer- 
tainly as he is a sinner in grain that dares look death in the face and 
yet sin, that dares cut a purse when the judge looks on ; so he is a 
monster rather than a man, that dares look death in the face, and yet 
satisfy himself to live without hoKness ; that dares look death in the 
face, and yet say I '11 drink and be drunk, I '11 swear and swagger, 
I '11 roar and whore, I '11 cheat and cozen, I '11 hate and oppose, I '11 
quarrel and kill, and my hands shall be as bloody as my heart, and 
let death do her 2 worst ; if such a person be not in the ready way of 
being miserable for ever, I know nothing. 

1. Firstly, Well, sirs, remember these three things: 
[1.] First, That there is nothing more certain than death. That sta- 
tute law of heaven, ' Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return,' 
Gen. iii. 19, will take hold of all the sons of men. ' There is no man 
that lives and shall not see death,' Ps. Ixxxix. 48. Though Jacob 
wrestled with an angel and prevailed, yet death was too hard for 
him, Gren. xxxii. ; though Asahel was as light of foot as a wild roe, 
yet he could not outrun death, and Absalom could not outride it, nor 
Pharaoh outdrive it; though Saul and Jonathan were as swift as 
eagles, and as strong as lions, yet were they slain among the mighty : 
it was not Solomon's wisdom that could deliver him, nor Samson's 
strength that could rescue him, nor Haman's honour that could secure 
him, nor Goliath's sword that could defend him, nor Dives's riches that 
could ransom him from the grave ; and therefore why should men put 
this day so far from them ? But, 

[2.] Secondly, As there is nothing more certain than death, so there 
is nothing more sudden than death. When the old world, when 
Sodom, when Pharaoh, when Hagar, when Amalek, when Haman, 
when Nebuchadnezzar, when Belshazzar, when Dives, when the rich 
fool, and when Herod, were aU in their prime and pride, when they 
were in their most flourishing estate, when they were at the very top 
of their glory, ah, how suddenly, how sadly, how strangely, how unex- 
pectedly, and how wonderfully were they brought down to the grave, 
yea, to hell ! Oh, the thousand thousands of crosses, losses, diseases, 
sicknesses, calamities, dangers, and deaths which attends the life of 

^ Ecclesiasticus vii. 36. — G. 

* First occurrence that I have found of ' death' as feminine.— G. 


man, and by the least of which, he may be suddenly surprised and 
carried into another world ! and therefore why should man cry out 
eras, eras, to-morrow, to-morrow, when he does not know whether he 
shall have a to-morrow, when he does not know but that he may die 
before he has begun to live ? Waldus, a rich merchant of Lyons, in 
France, seeing one suddenly drop down dead in the streets, went 
home, repented, changed his life, studied the Scriptures, and became 
a worthy teacher, father, and founder of the Christians called the 
Waldenses, or poor men of Lyons. And oh that the serious 
thoughts of the suddenness of death might have that happy effect 
upon your souls, as to work you to break your league with sin, and to 
fright you, as it were, into a love of holiness, and into a life of holi- 
ness ! swearer, what dost thou know but that death may seize on 
thee whilst the oath is in thy mouth ? And what dost thou know, 
O drunkard, but that death may step in between the cup and the lip, 
as it did to Belshazzar ? And what dost thou know, adulterer, but 
that a poisoned dart may strike through thy liver whilst thou art in 
the very flagrancy of thy lust, as it did through Zimri's and Cozbi's ? 
And what dost thou know, proud Haman, but that thou who art 
thus nobly feasted one day, mayest be a feast for the crows the next 
day ? And what dost thou know who art so crafty, Ahithophel, but 
that if thy subtle counsel be rejected one hour, thou mayest hang thy- 
self the next hour ? And what dost thou know, thou opposing and 
murmuring Korah, but that the earth may suddenly open and swallow 
thee up ? and therefore why should you put that day so far from you, 
that may so suddenly overtake you ? 

Berline, in Germany, charged St Paul with a lie in the pulpit, 
and was suddenly smitten with an apoplexy, and fell down dead in 
the place. 1 And what dost thou know, who art so apt to charge the 
people of God with lying, but that God may strike thee both dumb 
and dead whilst the lie is in thy mouth ? Bibulus, a Roman general, 
riding in triumph in all his glory, a tile fell off from a house in the 
street and knocked out his brains. And what dost thou know, 
vainglorious man, but that whilst thou art triumphing in thy world- 
glory, by some unexpected blow thou mayest be sent into another 
world ? 

Lepidus and Aufidius stumbled at the very threshold of the 
senate and died ; the blow came in a cloud from heaven. God by an 
irjvisible blow may send thee out of this visible world. 

Sophocles died suddenly by excessive joy, and Homer by immode- 
rate grief ; excessive joy or excessive grief may suddenly bring thee 
to thy long home. Olympus the Arian heretic, speaking against the 
Holy Trinity as he was a-bathing himself, was struck dead by a 
threefold thunderbolt. 2 We may run and read some men's sins in 
the very face of their punishments. Mr Perkins speaks of one who, 
when it thundered, scoffingly said, it was nothing but Tom Tumbrel 
a-hooping his tubs, &c., and presently he was struck dead with a 
thunderbolt from heaven. There would be no end of recounting the 
several judgments that have suddenly surprised all sorts of sinners. 

^ Scultet Annal. 

" Theatre of God's Judgments, lib, i. cap. 9, p. Qi. 


Let these few instances suffice to stir up every unholy heart to take 
heed of putting far off the day of death. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, As there is nothing more sudden than death, so there 
is nothing more short than life ; and why then should you put the 
day of your death so far from you ? i If you consider the life of man 
absolutely, it is but short, it is but as a span, a shadow, a dream, a 
bubble, a blast, a puff of wind, a pile of dust, a fading leaf, or a tale 
that is told, &c. The life of man is as a dream that vanisheth when 
one awaketh, it is a wind that goeth away and cometh not again, it is 
as a cloud that is soon dispersed with the wind, it is as a vapour that 
appeareth for a time, and then vanisheth away, it is as the grass that 
soon withereth, it is as the flower that soon fadeth, it is as the candle 
that every light puff of wind bloweth out. The life of man is rather 
made up of days than years : Ps. xc. 12, 'So teach us to number our 
days, that we may apply our hearts to wisdom.' Moses does not say, 
Lord, teach us to number our years, but ' Lord, teach us to number 
our days.' Fallen man is apt to misreckon, and to compute days for 
years ; and therefore this holy prophet desires that God would teach 
them this divine arithmetic, of numbering their days, it being a lesson 
that none but a God can teach. So Job xiv. 1,2,' Man that is born 
of a woman is of few days,' or short of days, ' and full of trouble. He 
cometh forth like a flower, and is cut down : he fleeth also as a shadow, 
and continueth not.' He speaks not of an age, nor of years, nor of 
many days, but of a few days. Man's days are short in themselves, 
and shorter in respect of the troubles that attends this present life. 
Man's life is so short, Austin doubteth whether to call it a dying life, 
or a living death.^ Now these few days of man's life are upon the 
Aving, hastening and flying from us as the eagle hasteneth to his prey; 
and therefore man had need set a greater price upon every moment 
and minute of time, than he does upon all the world, and accordingly 
improve it. 

2. Secondly, If you consider the life of man comparatively, it is but 
short, and that will appear briefly thus : 

[1.] First, If you compare the life of man to what man might have 
reached to had he continued in his primitive glory. Had man stood 
fast in innocency, he had never known what death and misery had 
meant. Death is a fall that came in by a fall. Had man kept sin 
out of the world, he had kept death out of the world. Had maA kept 
fast his holiness and purity, he had remained a piece of immortality to 
this day ; death could never have carried man out of the world, had 
not man first let sin into the world, Eom. v. 12, seq. 

[2.] Secondly, If you compare the life of man to the long lives of 
the patriarchs before the flood, then the life of man is but short: 
threescore years and ten is man's age, Ps. xc. 10. And where one 
man lives to this age, how many thousands die before they come to it ! 
But what is this age to the age that men lived to in former times ? 
Enoch lived as many years as there be days in the year, and Adam 
lived nine hundred and thirty years, and Methuselah lived nine hun- 
dred sixty and nine years. Gen. v. JS'ow what were Plato's eighty 

1 Job viii. 9 ; Ps. cii. 11, Ixxiii. 20, and xc. 5 ; Job xx. 8, and vii. 7. 
* Aug., 1. i. Confess. 


years, or Thomas Paris's one hundred and sixty years, or Johannes de 
Temporibus, John of the Times's, tliree hundred threescore and one 
years, to the long Hves of the patriarchs? And though in David's 
time old age and seventy often shook hands, yet it is otherwise in our 
times ; for as men's wickedness do more and more increase, so their 
days do more and more decrease. The more wicked any generation 
is, the shorter hved that generation shall be. God will quickly 
despatch them out of the world who make quick despatches in ways of 

[3.] Thirdly, The life of man is but short, if you compare it to what 
it shall be after the morning of the resurrection. Oh, then man's 
days shall reach to eternity ! Eternity is that unum perpetuum hodie, 
one perpetual day that shall never have end. When men after the 
resurrection begin to live, they shall never die after that day ; every 
man shall live in everlasting bliss or in everlasting woe ; when the 
last trumpet has sounded, man shall live for ever and ever. 

[4.] Fourthly, The life of man is but short, if you compare it with 
the days of God : Ps. xxxix. 5, ' Mine age is nothing before him ;' all 
time is nothing to eternity ; man's life is but a minute, it is but a point 
of time to the days of eternity. What head, what heart can conceive 
or reckon up the duration of God, who ever was, who still is, and who 
ever will be ! Every child and every fool can tell you their age, but 
what man on earth or what angel in heaven can tell you the years of 
the Most High ? Surely none. 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly. The life of man is but short, if you compare 
it with the lives of other creatures. Some say that it is neither age 
nor sickness that killeth the eagle ; she casteth her feathers yearly, 
and so gets new, whereby her youth and strength is renewed, by which 
means she will live till she be a hundred years old ; she dies not till 
her upper bill be so grown over her under that she cannot take in her 
meat, and so at last she is starved, i And some elephants live three 
hundred years ; witness ^lian, Solinus, and Strabo, &c. : by all which 
you see the brevity of man's life. And why then should man be so 
weak, so vain, as to put the day of his death so far from him ? I 
have read of the birds of Norway, that they fly faster than the fowls 
of any other country ; they knowing, by an instinct that God has put 
into them, that the days in that climate are very short — not above 
three hours long, say some — do therefore make the more haste to 
their nests. And oh that all that hear me this day would learn by 
these birds of Norway, to make haste to believe, and to make haste 
to repent, and to make haste to love God, and to make haste to be 
holy, &c., seeing their day of life is so short, and their night of death 
is posting towards them. 

And as the life of man is very short, so it is very considerable that 
a very small matter, a very little thing, may quickly put an end to 
man's life. When the emperor threatened the philosopher with death, 
he replied, What is that more than a Spanish fly may do ? 2 An 
ordinary fly flying casually into the mouth of the proud Pope Adrian, 
stifled him that made the highest state then in the Christian world 

^ Pliny, Augustine, Calvin, Ps. ciii. 5. 

' Conrad., Vesperg., Naucler., and Jo. Boel. in Adrian. Paulus Jovius, Elog.. lib. ii. 


stoop, even to the holding of his stirrup. Tamerlane, a Scythian cap- 
tain, the terror of his time, died with three fits of an ague. Anacreon 
the poet was choked with the kernel of a grape, ^schylus was killed 
by the shell of a tortoise which fell from an eagle's talons, who, 
as some conceive, took his bald head for a white rock. The Lord 
Montaigne tells us of a duke of Brittany that was stifled to death in 
such a throng of people as is m some great congregations on the 
Lord's-day. An emperor died by the scratch of a comb ; and one of 
the kings of France died by the chock i of a hog ; and one that was 
brother to a great lord, playing at tennis, received a blow with a ball 
a little above the right ear, which struck him into his grave. There 
is nothing so small but may be a man's bane. The paring of a toe, 
the cutting of a corn, the scratch of a nail, the prick of a pin, a fish- 
bone, a hair, a drop of water, a crumb of bread, a bad air, or an evil 
smell, may bring a man to his long home, yea, a little smoke may soon 
stifle him, or his own spittle, let down unwarily, may suddenly choke 

And oh that all I have spoken upon this account might be so blessed 
as to work you to take heed of putting the day of your death so far 
from you ! The evil servant, when he thought his master was gone 
afar off, then he lays about him, distempers himself, and beats his 
fellow- servants, Luke xii. 45. And so the lewd woman in the 
Proverbs, chap. vii. 19, 20, when the goodman was gone a long 
journey, when he was far from home, then she grew wanton, vain, and 
secure ; so when men put afar off the day of their death, then they 
grow more loose, profane, and unholy ; "whereas a serious and frequent 
eyeing and minding of death as at hand, as at a man's elbow, would 
alarm a man to break off his sins by repentance, and to labour for 
holiness, as a man would labour for life itself I have read of the 
women in the Isle of Man, that the first web they make is their 
winding-sheet, wherewith they usually gird themselves when they go 
abroad, to shew that they are still mindful of their mortality. Ah, 
friends, a constant minding of your mortality would contribute very 
much towards the making of you holy. He that daily looks upon 
death will be daily a-looking after holiness. The oftener any man 
looks into the grave, the oftener that man will be looking up to 
heaven, and a-begging that God would make him holy even as he is 
holy. But, 

6. Sixthly and lastly, Take heed of settling yourselves under a lewd 
and scandalous ministry, or ofJiaving any inwardness with such whose 
lives give the lie to their doctrine. An ill-lived preacher is the greatest 
destroyer of the souls of men. He that preacheth well, but lives ill, 
does what he can to murder all his hearers at once. There is no 
greater bar to holiness than ministers' lewdness : an unholy life mars 
the soundest and the sweetest doctrine: Isa. ix. 16, 'The leaders of 
this people have caused them to err.' The sins of teachers are the 
teachers of sins ; as the corrupt glosses, so the lewd practices of many 
preachers makes many to stumble at that word, and to shuff,2 and 
chat, and contest, and kick against that word whereby they should be 
made holy and happy for ever. A scandalous minister is the greatest 
^ Ab before, ' neck.' — G. ' * Push ; ' sometimes ' sliuft.' — G. . 


pest, the worst plague, and the sorest mischief that can be to a people ; 
for his enormities, his wickednesses, will have the strongest influences 
upon the souls and lives of men, to make them miserable in both worlds. 
His falls will be the fall and ruin of many ; for people are more prone 
to live by examples than by precepts, and to mind more what the 
minister does than what he says, and to eye more how he walks than 
how he talks. It was said of one, long since, that was an excellent 
preacher, but a very bad liver, that when he was in the pulpit it was 
pity he should ever come out of it, he preached so well ; and when he 
was out of it, it was pity that ever he should go into it, he lived so ill. 
Certainly it is pity that ever such should go into a pulpit who preach 
well but live ill, who have much of God in their mouths, and much of 
the devil in their lives ; who have the earth as much at their fingers' 
end as they have heaven at their tongue's end, who puts a loud lie 
upon the truth, and whose lives puts their words to a blush ; who have 
much of heaven in their expressions, and nothing of heaven in their 
conversations ; who have much holiness in their books, but none in 
their bosoms, and much holiness in their lips, but none in their lives. 
The lewd lives of such persons causes people to slight and abhor the 
holy things of God, 1 Sam. ii. 17; yea, their bad lives often raise 
doubts in their hearers' hearts whether those things be true that they 
preach or no. Hearers will be ready to object and say. If these things 
be true that the minister says, why does he not practise what he 
preaches ? why does he not do as well as say ? and with what face or • 
coufidence can he appear against that in the pulpit, which he coun- 
tenanceth and patroniseth in his life ? Who will credi^ that man's 
doctrine, who has Jacob's voice, 'but Esau's hands ; who is a saint, yea, 
.an angel, in the pulpit, but a debauched sinner, yea, an incarnate 
devil, out of it ? I have read of a woman who, living in professed 
doubt of the Godhead, after better illumination and repentance, did 
often protest that the vicious life of a great scholar, under whose 
ministry she did live, did conjure up those damnable doubts in her 
soul.i There is nothing that brings holy truths so much into question 
as the unholy conversations of such preachers ; neither is there any- 
thing that exposes a minister's person and office to so much scorn and 
contempt as an unholy life. Let a minister be never so learned, solid, 
quaint, elegant, zealous, judicious, sententious, &c., yet if he be carnal, 
covetous, worldly, vain, and loose in his life and conversation, his 
hearers will rather deride his doctrine than reform by his doctrine, 
they will rather contemn it than study how to profit by it ; therefore 
he said right that said — 

' Turpe est doctori, cum culpa redarguit ipsum.' 

' Unto a teacher it 's no small disgrace 
When his own faults reprove him to his face.' 

There is nothing in all the world that is more powerful and prevalent 
to corrupt and mislead unholy men, and to harden, strengthen, and 
encourage them in ways of wickedness, than the looseness of their 
lives whose office binds them to look to the salvation of their souls, 
Ezek. xiii. 22, and Jer. xxxiii. 15 : Mai. ii. 8, ' Ye are departed out 

^ Mr [Samuel] Ward's Sermons. 


of the way ; ye have caused many to stumble at the law.' When the 
preacher departs out of the way of holiness, the people will quickly 
stumble at the law of holiness; when ministers are as wandering 
stars, no wonder if their hearers wander from all that is good. He 
whose life is not a standing reproof to sin, will, by his life, encourage 
sinners more and more in a way of sin. There is nothing that keeps 
men so off from a good opinion of holiness, and from the love of holi- 
ness, and the liking of holiness, and from the pursuing after holiness, 
than the unholy lives of their teachers ; and therefore, as ever you 
would be holy, fly their tents, and abandon their company and society. 
Ministers whose lives are lewd, though their parts may be high, are 
like a stone gutter, that conveyeth water into a garden, but receiveth 
no benefit itself thereby ; or like a harp that maketli others melody, 
but heareth nothing itself; they are like those carpenters that built 
the ark to save others, and were drowned themselves ; or like porters 
at great men's gates, that let in others, but lodge without themselves ; 
or like sea-marks, that rot themselves, and yet give others warning to 
avoid shipwreck ; or like Caesar's soldier, that digged a fountain for 
Caesar, and perished himself for want of water. ^ Oh, the folly and 
madness of such ministers that give light to others, and yet walk in 
darkness themselves ; that feast others' souls, but starve their own ; 
that rescue others from a devouring enemy, and yet suffer themselves 
to be devoured ; that forewarn others of the horrible pit, and yet fall 
into it themselves ; that give good counsel to others, and yet can't 
take good counsel themselves ; that study and strive to bring others 
to heaven, a^d yet have no mind to go thither themselves ! Certainly 
society and company with such upoif choice can't but be a mighty 
hindrance to holiness : he that is in good earnest resolved to be holy, . 
must resolutely be resolved to have nothing to do with such unholy 
persons. And thus you see the several things that you must decline, 
if ever you would be holy. But, 

II. Secondly, As there are several things that you must decline if 
ever you would obtain that real holiness without which there is no 
happiness ; so there are several things that you are to do, that you are 
to put in practice, without which you will never be holy here, nor 
happy hereafter. Quest But what are they? Ans. They are these : — 

(1.) First, Greatly lament and mourn over thine own unholiness, 
over thine own wickedness. The first step to holiness is melting and 
mourning over a man's own unholiness. Go to thy closet, and fall 
down before the most high and holy God, and mourn bitterly over 
the unhohness of thy nature, the unholiness of thy heart, the unholi- 
ness of thy affections, the unholiness of thy intentions, the unholiness 
of thy resolutions, the unholiness of thy expressions, and the unholiness 
of thy conversation : Joel ii. 12, ' Turn ye to the Lord with weeping 
and with mourning.' The foundation of a thorough reformation must 
be laid in a deep humiliation. The best way to be holy is to accuse, 
indict, arraign, and condemn thyself for thy unholiness.2 You shall 
as soon espouse light and darkness, and marry midnight to the noon- 
day, as you shall espouse or marry a holy God to an unhumbled sinner. 
Oh, who can look upon sin as an offence against a holy God, as the 

* Augustine.— G. ^ Ezra ri. 2 ; Jer. 1. 4 ; Ps. li. 5. 


breach of a holy law, as the wounding and crucifying of a holy Saviour, 
as the grieving and sadding of a holy Sanctifier, and as an eternal loss 
and undoing of his own soul, and not mourn over it ? Oh, who can 
cast a serious eye upon the nature of sin, or upon the exceeding sinful- 
ness of sin, or upon the aggravations of sin, and not have his heart 
humbled, his soul grieved, and his spirit melted for sin? Oh, who 
can look upon sin as it strikes at the honour of God, the name of God, 
the being of God, the glory of God, and the design of God, and not 
have his mouth full of penitential confessions, his eyes full of peni- 
tential tears, and his heart full of penitential sorrow ? Some, as they 
say of witches, cannot weep for sin ; but they that weep not for sin 
here, where there are handkerchiefs in the hands of Christ to wipe off 
their tears, shall weep out their eyes in heU hereafter. It is better to 
weep bitterly for thy sins on earth, than to weep eternally for thy folly 
in hell. Ah, how hard is that heart that can sadly lament and bewail 
the loss of a groat, a chick, a child, a sheep, a ship, a friend, &c., and 
yet can't let fall a tear to save a lost soul ! Jacob weeps and prevails 
with God, Hosea xii. 4 ; his tears made a happy conquest upon God. 
Jacob weeps and prevails with God for his life ; and what dost thou 
know but that by thy penitential tears thou mayest prevail with God 
for thy soul ? He weeps and prevails with God for temporals ; and 
why mayest not thou by weeping prevail with God for eternals ? He 
weeps and prevails with God for some outward happiness ; and why 
mayest not thou by weeping prevail with God for inward holiness ? 
It is an old observation, that the tears of repenting sinners are the 
wine of angels. Certainly God himself can smile to see a sinner grieve 
for his sins, and to see him grieve that he can grieve no more, for that 
he has sinned against a God so great, so gracious, so bountiful, so 
merciful, &c., Ps. li. 17. Though God be displeased with a sinner's 
sins, yet he is very well pleased with a sinner's tears, and therefore as 
he has a bag for the one, so he has a bottle for the other. It cannot 
but be a pleasure to God to see a sinner drown his sins in a deluge of 
penitential tears. Though tears of indignation, as was Esau's, and 
tears of dissimulation, as was Ishmael's, and tears of desperation, as 
was Judas's, be abominable to God, yet tears of godly compunction 
and contrition are acceptable and delightful unto God. A sinner 
never looks so sweetly, as when he weeps most penitentially : witness 
Mary Magdalene, Manasseh, and those murderers of Christ, Acts ii. 
A sinner 8 face never shines so beautiful, as when it is bedewed with 
penitential tears. Tears have a voice as well as blood, Ps. vi. 8. And 
God has an eye as well upon a man's tears as upon his prayers. Peni- 
tent tears are divine ambassadors, that never return from the throne 
of grace without answers of grace, Isa, xxxviii. 5. Peter said nothing, 
but went out and wept bitterly, and obtained mercy. Mat. xxvi. 75. 
Tears are a kind of silent prayers, that will at last prevail for mercy. 
Naaman the Syrian was cleansed of his leprosy by the waters of Jordan ; 
penitential tears may do much towards the cleansing of thy leprous 
soul from sin. He that really grieves that he cannot grieve for sin, 
is grieved for sin ; he that is truly sorry that he cannot be sorry for 
sin, is in a measure sorry for sin ; he that truly desires to drown his 
Mns in his tears, he has in divine account drowned his. sins in his 


tears. The maid in Scaliger swooned at the sight of a lily. Oh, how 
much more should you at the sight of your unholiness ! Basil wept 
when he saw the rose, because it brought to his mind the first sin 
from whence it had the prickles. Oh, how should a sinner fall a-weep- 
ing when he looks upon the greatness of his wickedness and his want 
of holiness ! As ever you would be holy, mourn over your own unholi- 
ness. But, 

(2.) Secondly, If ever thou wouldst be holy, thou must seek iJie 
Holy Spirit. The Spirit is the efficient cause of all that holiness that 
is in the world. The Spirit of God is a spirit of holiness, Rom. i. 4; 
he is frequently called the Holy Spirit : ' Cast me not away from thy 
presence; and take not thy Holy Spirit from me,' Ps. li. 11 ; 'But they 
rebelled, and vexed his Holy Spirit,' Isa. bdii. 10 ; ' And grieve not the 
Holy Spirit of Grod, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption,' 
Eph. iv. 30 ; 'He therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but 
God, who hath also given unto us his Holy Spirit,' 1 Thes. iv. 8 ; 
' In whom also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed by the Holy Spirit 
of promise,' Eph. i. 13. To make a man holy is more than to create 
a world ; it is a work too high and too hard for angels or men ; it 
becomes none, and it can be done by none but by the Holy Spirit. 
Sanctification is made the Spirit's personal operation, in that 2 Thes. 
ii. 13, and in that 1 Pet. i. 2. It is the great work of the Spirit to 
shape, form, and fashion the new creature holiness, in all the vessels of 
glory. The Spirit is the root of all holiness ; and therefore the several 
parte of holiness are called the fruits of the Spirit, Gal. v, 22. It is 
true, Grod purposes holiness to his people, and Christ has purchased 
hohness for lus people ; but it is only the Spirit that is the efficient 
cause or worker of holiness in his people. Though the Father, Son, 
and Spirit hath designed to re-imprint holiness upon man's heart, yet 
the Spirit has the greatest hand in that work. When man was in his 
primitive glory, holiness was his loveliness and his Likeness to God ; 
but being now fallen, that image is so broken and marred, that no 
hand can repair it or restore it but the hand of the Spirit. The great 
principle of holiness which was in Christ, as to his human nature, was 
the Holy Spirit, which he had above measure ; for he was anointed 
with the unction of the Spirit above his fellows. So that, look which 
way you will, the Spirit still appears to be the great principle of holi- 
ness. Holiness is the very picture of God, and certainly no hand can 
carve that excellent picture but the Spirit of God. Holiness is the 
divine nature, and none can impart that to man but the Spirit. A 
man never comes to see his sins, nor to be sick of his sins, nor to loathe 
his sins, nor to arraign his sins, nor to condemn his sins, nor to judge 
himself for his sins, evangeKcally, till he comes to be possessed of the 
Holy Spirit. A man never comes to spit out the sweet morsels of sin, 
he never comes to make a sacrifice of his only Isaac, and to cut liis 
delicate Agag in pieces, and to strangle his Delilah, and in good 
earnest to set upon an utter extirpation of those sins that his constitu- 
tion, inclination, custom, calling, and interest does most incline him 
to, till a Spirit of holiness comes upon him. Till this Holy Spirit, 
which is a spirit of judgment and burning, falls upon the hearts of 
sinners, they will never be fired out of their pride, formality, carnality. 


sensuality, and security. When this Holy Spirit comes as a spirit of 
glory and power to change thy heart, to destroy thy sins, to reform 
thy ways, and to save thy soul, &c., oh, then cry out, let him still go 
on conquering and to conquer, till all his enemies are made his foot- 
stool. Oh, let him cut off every right hand, and pluck out every right 
eye, &c., that does offend ! Oh, let him do justice upon every sin, 
upon every open sin, upon every secret sin, upon every bosom sin, 
upon every pleasing sin, and upon every gainful sin ! Oh, sot your- 
selves under the celestial influences and sweet distillings of the Holy 
Spirit ! Oh, prize his motions ! oh, welcome his motions ! oh, comply 
with his motions ! oh, follow his motions, that so you may be holy and 
happy for ever. When David asked counsel of Grod, whether he 
should go up against the Philistines or no, he received this answer : 
' When thou hearest the noise of one going in the top of the mulberry- 
trees, then remove, for then shall the Lord go out before thee to smite 
the Philistines,' 2 Sam. v. 24. So should every one wisely observe, 
when the Spirit sweetly and strongly moves them to mind holiness, to 
fall in love with holiness, to press after holiness ; when the Spirit 
moves them to leave off their sins, to turn to God, to open to Christ, 
to tremble at threatenings, and to embrace promises ; oh, make much 
of these holy motions ! oh, cherish these divine breathings 1 oh, don't 
quench these heavenly sparks, lest the Spirit never move thee more, 
nor never strive with thee more, Gen. vi. 3. Oh, when thou hearest a 
voice within thee, or a voice behind thee, saying, ' Come with me from 
Lebanon, my sister, my spouse,' &c., Isa. xxx. 21, and Cant. iv. 8, 
come away from thy cups, thou drunken wretch ! come away from 
thy wanton Delilahs, thou unclean wretch ! come away from thy sin- 
ful pleasures, thou voluptuous wretch ! come away from thy bags, thou 
worldly wretch ! come away from thy honours, thou ambitious wretch ! 
and come away from thy fraud, thou cheating wretch ! oh hearken to 
this voice ! oh obey this voice, that it may go well with thy soul for 
ever ! If now thou strikest whilst the iron is hot, if now thou hoistest 
up sail whilst the wind is fair, thou mayest be made for ever. In that 
John V. 4, there were certain times when the angel came down and 
troubled the waters, and whosoever did then step in, was healed of 
whatsoever disease he had: so there are certain times and seasons 
wherein the Spirit of holiness stirs the heart and affections, and moves 
and breathes upon the soul. Now if men were wise to observe these 
times and seasons, they might be happy for ever. The time of the 
Spirit's moving is the acceptable time ; if you observe it you are made, 
if you neglect it you are marred. All the movings and motions of 
the Spuit are in order to an eternity of felicity and glory, Spiritus 
sanctus est res delicata. Oh, therefore don't grieve the Spirit, don't 
cross the Spirit, don't vex the Spirit, don't tempt the Spirit, don't 
quench the Spirit, don't oppose the Spirit, don't resist the Spirit, don't 
deal harshly or unkindly with the Spirit, by sinning against illumina- 
tion, conviction, resolutions and promises of reformation. Oh, be more 
tender of the gracious motions of the Spirit, than thou art of thy name, 
thy estate, thy liberty, thy life ; for he designs thy internal good in 
this world, and thy eternal good in the other world ; and therefore 
don't affront him, nor carry it unworthily towards him. If thou 


shouldst, it may be as mucli as thy life and tliy soul is worth ; if a 
man slip the opportunity of a favourable gale, he may lie wind-bound 
tiU all be spent. When the Spirit moves salvation, and all the glory 
of heaven stands waiting at thy door, if now thou will but open, the 
King of glory will enter in, and bless thee for ever. Saul, by neglect- 
ing his opportunity, lost an earthly kingdom. Take heed lest thou, by 
slighting the motions of the Spirit, comest to lose a heavenly kingdom. 
The letting slip one season when the Spirit moves may undo a man 
in both worlds ; and some think Felix found it so. Well, sirs, as 
ever you would be holy, you must labour for a spirit of holiness ; and 
for your encouragement remember this, that though the Holy Spirit 
be the great jewel of glory, yet God is more ready to give it than you 
are to ask it : witness that 11th of Luke, from the 9th to the 14th 
verse. But, 

(3.) Thirdly, If ever you would be holy, then you must wait upon 
the word. The word of God faithfully preached, is the ordinary means 
by which holiness is wrought in sinners' hearts. The word is that 
triumphant chariot of the Spirit, wherein he rides conquering and to 
conquer the souls of men. The holy word is designed by God to be- 
get holiness in sinners' hearts, and to countenance, cherish, nourish, 
and strengthen holiness where it is begotten : John xvii. 17, ' Sanc- 
tify them through thy truth : thy word is truth.' And for their sakes, 
&c., ' I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the 
truth,' ver. 19. So chap. xv. 3, ' Now ye are clean through the word 
which I have spoken to you.' The ordinary way of making unclean 
souls clean, unholy souls holy, is the ministry of the word, Phil. v. 26. 
As there is a cleansing virtue in the blood of Christ, 1 John i. 7, so 
there is a cleansing virtue in the word of Christ : Ps. cxix. 9, ' Where- 
withal shall a young man cleanse his way ? by taking heed thereto 
according to thy word.' Of all men, the young man is usually most 
Avild and wicked, most licentious and rebellious ; and yet the word of 
God is the power of God to his conviction and conversion, to his sanc- 
tification and salvation. Though the cleansing of a young man's 
heart be one of the hardest works in the world, yet this may be done 
by the word. There are no lusts so strong but the word can cast 
them down, nor no stains so deep but the word can wash them out. 
Three thousand sinners were made saints by one sermon, Acts ii. 41 ; 
and five thousand more were converted and sanctified by another ser- 
mon, chap. iv. 4, Here were eight thousand men cleansed, sanctified, 
and saved by two sermons, and doubtless most of them were young. 
O sirs, as ever you would have holy principles laid in your souls, and 
holy afi'ections raised in your souls, and holy ends aimed at by your 
souls, hear the word in season and out of season. Oh attend it ! oh 
wait on it I It wUl be soap to cleanse you, and fire to purge you, and 
■water to wash you, and a wind to turn you from darkness to light, 
and from the power of Satan to Jesus Christ, Acts xxvi. 16-24. The 
gospel preached hath been the power of God to the salvation of multi- 
tudes of souls, Rom. i. 16. The word is that immortal seed by which 
holiness, which is not only a grace but the conjunction of all graces, 
is formed in the soul, 1 Pet. i. 23. It is the word that gives a spiritual 
birth and being to men, Gal. iv. 19. The v/ord enlightens the eye, 


Ps. cxix. 105 ; it softens the heart, Deut. xxxii. 2 ; it purges the con- 
science, and it converts the soul, Ps. xix. 7 ; it dethrones Satan, it 
casts down strongholds, 2 Cor. x. 4, 5>; it quickens the dull, Ps. cxix. 
50 ; and it raises the dead, John v. 24, 25. Oh, therefore, hear it, and 
wait on it, and come to it, that you may be made holy by it. Many 
come to hear the word to censure it, others to mock at it, others to 
enrich their curious notions by it, and others come to catch the min- 
ister at it ; but do thou come to it that thou mayest be made holy by 
it, and doubtless first or last thou shalt obtain thy end. Yea, it is good 
for a man to come to the word, though his design in coming be bad ; 
it is good for a man to sit under that great ordinance of the word, 
though he sits upon thorns, as it were, all the while he is there. They 
that come to see who hath got the newest fashions, may have their 
hearts fashioned into a conformity with the word. They came to 
catch, but were caught in that, John vii. 46. Austin coming to Am- 
brose to have his ears tickled, had his heart touched and turned. 
' Come,' saith old Father Latimer [1550,] in a sermon before king 
Edward the Sixth, ' to the public meeting, though thou comest to sleep, 
it may be God may take thee napping.' When thou comest, though it 
be but to taste the minister's spirit, yet then God may take hold on 
thy spirit, and make it the day of his power upon thy soul. Though 
thou comest with a heart full of prejudices against Christ, yet by the 
word thou mayest be brought to a love of Christ, to a liking of Christ, 
and to a choice of Christ, and to a blessed close and resignation of thy- 
self to Christ. They that came to surprise Christ, were so taken with 
Christ, that being filled with admiration they could not but proclaim 
his divine excellencies ; ' Never man spake like this man.' The word 
is the word of the Lord, let the hand be what it will that brings it. 
When gold is ofiered, men care not how noble or ignoble, how great 
or how base he is that offers it ; so men should not look so much at 
the hand that brings the word, as at the word itself. The word of the 
Lord was as much the word of the Lord in the hand and mouth of 
Amos, who was raised a prophet from amongst the herdsmen of Tekoa, 
as it was the word of the Lord in the hand and mouth of Isaiah, who, 
as some think, was a prophet of the blood-royal. Ambrose observes 
of the woman of Samaria, John iv. 7, that she came peccatrix to Jacob's 
well, but she went away prcedicatrix ; she came a sinner, but she 
went away a prophetess. sirs, let nothing hinder you from coming 
to the word ! oh come to the word ! though you come sinners, yet 
come, for though you do come sinners, yet you may go away saints ; 
though the dew of heaven hath richly and sweetly fallen upon your 
hearts, and yet, like Gideon's fleece, you are still dry, yet come to the 
word still, for who can tell but that by the very next sermon God 
may make thy soul like a watered garden, and Hke a spring of water 
' whose waters fail not,' Isa. Iviii. 11. It is reported of young king 
Edward the Sixth, that being about to lay hold on something that 
was above the reach of his short arm, one that stood by espying a 
great bossed Bible lying on the table, offered to lay that under his 
feet to heighten him, but the good young king disliked the motion, 
and instead of treading it under his feet he laid it to his heart, i Oh 

^ Sir John Hayward in vita. 


come to the word, but come not to trample upon it, come not to scoff 
or mock at it, come not to despise it or to revile it, but come and lay 
it to your hearts, and it may do you good for ever. There is no better 
way to make thee holy than to attend on the holy word. But, 

(4.) Fourthly, If ever you would be holy, then associate yourselves 
with those that are holy. Look, as he that walks with the wise shall 
be wise, so he that walks with the holy shall certainly be pressed and 
provoked to be holy, Prov. xiii. 20. As Socrates made it his business 
to better others by his company, so a holy man will make it his busi- 
ness to make others holy by his counsel, prayers, and example. He 
knows that it is one of the most noble and divine employments in the 
world to make others holy, and therefore he sets upon that work with 
aU his might. Look, as there is no greater a hindrance to holiness 
than the society of the wicked, so there is no greater a help to holi- 
ness than the society of those that are godly, Ps. cxix. 115, and i. 1. 
Look, as the beginning of ungodliness is to keep company with those 
that are ungodly, so the beginning of holiness is to keep company 
with those that are holy. Look, as one drunkard makes another, and 
one swearer makes another, and one proud person makes another, and 
one worldling makes another, and one formalist makes another, so one 
holy man makes another ; or look, as one sober man makes another, 
and one prudent man makes another, and one resolute man makes 
another, and one zealous man makes another, and one heavenly-minded 
man makes another, so one holy man makes another. Ah, sinners ! 
sinners ! there are no companions in the world that will pity you as 
these, that will weep and mourn over you as these, that will strive and 
wrestle with God for you as these, Kom. x, 1 ; there are none that will 
be so tender of your salvation as these, nor none that will labour so 
much for your conversion as these, nor none that wiU so spend them- 
selves to prevent your damnation as these, 2 Cor. xii. 15. sirs, 
upon trial you will find that there are none so able to counsel you, nor 
none so faithful to reprove you, nor none so ready to help you, nor 
none so compassionate to sympathise with you, nor none so strong to 
support you, nor none so advantaged to convert you, as those that are 
holy ; and why then will you not labour to be one of this society ? O 
sirs, of all fellowships the fellowship of saints is the most noble, the 
most honourable, the most pleasant, the most amiable, the most de- 
sirable, the most profitable, and the most commendable fellowship ; 
and why then will you still live strangers, yea, enemies, to this fellow- 
ship ? Ah sirs, holy men will still be awakening and alarmiag of 
your drowsy spirits, they will be still a-knocking at the door of your 
hearts, and asking of you whether it be good going to hell ; they will 
still be inquiring of you what provision you have made for another 
world, and how all things stand within ; they will still be jogging at 
your elbows, that you may not die in your sins ; and they wUl still be 
whispering in your ear, that your souls may live for ever. The Jews 
have a proverb, that ' two dry sticks put to a green one will kindle 
it.' Oh, there is nothing in all the world that contributes so much to 
the kindling, to the firing, and to the inflaming of men's hearts after 
holiness, as the society of those that are holy. Algerius, an Italian 
martyr, ' had rather be in prison with Cato, than to live with Ceesar in 


the senate-house.' Oh, it is ten thousand times better to live with 
those that are holy, though in a dark prison, than to live amongst 
those that are unlioly, though in a royal palace. Urbanus Eegius, 
having one day's converse with Luther, tells us, ' that it was one of 
the sweetest days that ever he had in all his life.'i sinners, did 
you but experience for one day the sweet and happiness of the com- 
munion of saints, you would then cry out, ' Oh, there is no society to the 
society of Grod's holy ones.' And therefore, as ever you would be holy, 
let holy men have more heart-room and house-room with you. But, 

(5.) Fifthly, If ever you would be holy, then dioell mitch upon those 
solemn vows and covenants tliat you have formerly made in the days 
of your distress. Ah, how often have you, in the days of your calamity 
and misery, and in the days when sicknesses and weaknesses did hang 
upon you, and when the terrors of death were upon you, how fre- 
quently in those days did you solemnly vow and promise that, by the 
strength and assistance of the Lord, you would break oflf your sins by 
repentance, and that you would make it your greatest care, and your 
greatest business and work in this world, to mind holiness, and to 
press after holiness, and to give your souls no rest till you had expe- 
rienced the power, excellency, and sweetness of holiness ! As David 
by an oath bound himself to keep God's righteous judgments : Ps. 
cxix. 106, ' I have sworn, and I wdl perform it, that I wiU keep thy 
righteous judgments/ — a religious vow is nothing else but a solemn 
promise or oath, whereby a man engages himself to the great God, 
that he will decline such ways, means, and methods as lead to wicked- 
ness, and that he will set in good earnest upon the practice of all the 
ways and means of holiness, by the strength and assistance of divine 
grace — so you have by many vows and promises engaged yourselves 
' to cast oft' the works of darkness, and to put on the armour of light,' 
— suitable to the apostle's exhortation, Kom. xiii. 12. And as the 
people in Nehemiah's time did enter into a curse and an oath to walk 
in God's law, and to observe and do all his commandments, Neh. 
x. 29 ; so you have in the times of your outward and inward distresses" 
vowed to the Lord, that you would observe all his statutes, and walk 
in all his holy ways, and do all his righteous commandments. Job 
once made a covenant with his eyes, that he would not lustfully look 
upon a maid. Job xxxi. 1,2; but how often have you made a covenant 
with your thoughts, that you would not think of vanity, and with your 
eyes, that you would not behold vanity, and with your ears, that you 
would not hear vanity, and with your tongues, that you would not 
speak vanity, and with your hearts, that you would not contrive 
vanity, and with your hands, that you would not act vanity; now 
your vows and your covenants are upon you, oh that you would not, 
with the strange woman in the Proverbs, chap. ii. 17, forget the cove- 
nant of your God ! Oh, it is better ten thousand times not to vow, than 
to vow and not to pay, Eccles. v. 5. God can take no pleasure in such 
as are off and on with him, nor in such who are forward to vow, but 
make no conscience to pay their vows. These are fools in folio, and 
therefore God cannot but detest them, and turn his back upon them. If 
good Jacob, who is called ' the father of vows,' was so backward to pay 

^ Adam in vita Regii, p. 78. 


his VOWS, that God was forced, not only to round him in the ear again 
and again with a * go up to Bethel, and there build me a chapel,' but 
also severely to punish his delays, both in the rape of his daughter, 
and in the cruelty of his sons, &c.. Gen. xxxv., ah, how severely then 
may God deal with such who do not only delay the paying of their 
vows, but who live also in the daily breach of their vows ! Most men 
have need of that counsel which the bishop of Colen i gave Sigismund 
the emperor, that asked him what he should do to be happy ; ' Live/ 
said he, ' as you promised and vowed to do when you were last sick of 
the stone and gout.' Ah, that all men would make more conscience 
of living out, and of living up to the covenants, vows, and promises 
that they have made to God in the days when the hand of the Lord 
has gone out many ways against them, and when terrors of conscience 
have been strong upon them ! Oh, what repentance ! oh, what refor- 
mation ! oh, what amendment have they promised in those days ! 
and yet no sooner have these outward and inward storms been over, 
but they have been as vain and loose and base as ever. In the time of 
the great sweat in king Edward's days, as long as the heat of the plague 
lasted, oh how did every one cry out, peccavi, pBccavi, I have sinned, I 
have sinned ; mercy, Lord ! oh mercy ! mercy, good Lord ! Then lords 
and ladies, and people of all sorts, cried out to the ministers, for the 
Lord's sake, sirs, tell us what shall we do to avoid the wrath of the 
Lord ? what shall we do to be safe in this evil day ? Oh take these 
bags, and pay so much to such a one whom I have deceived ! and 
restore so much to such a one whom I have in bargaining over- 
reached ! Oh give so much to the poor, and so much to other pious 
uses, &c. But after the sickness was over, they * returned with the 
dog to the vomit, and with the sow to the wallowing in the mire 
again ; and so their latter end was worse than their former.' There 
was a very great sinner, who in the time of his sickness was so sorely 
terrified in his conscience for his many heinous sins, that he made the 
very bed to shake upon which he lay, and cried out all night long, ' I 
am damned ! I am damned ! I am damned!' &c. ; and in this his sick- 
ness he made many great protestations of amendment of life, if God 
would but be pleased to recover him, and prevent his going down to 
the grave at this time. Well, in a short time after he did recover, 
and being recovered he was as base, wretched, and wicked as ever he 
was before. This man, with those that were cited before him, were 
like that cunning devil, of whom the epigrammatist thus writeth ; — 

'jEgrota dmmon, tnonachus tunc esse volebat, 
Convaluit dcumon, monachus tunc esse nolebat:' 

Which is thus Englished : — 

The devil was sick, the devil a monk would be ; 
The devil was well, the devil a monk was he.' 

But those who are now like to Satan in sin, may hereafter be like 
to him in torment. Such who now outUve their vows, shall, when they 

^ Query, Cologne ? — G. 
' Otherwise : — 

'jEgrotat daemon, monachus tunc esse volebat ; 
Daemon convaluit, dcemon ut antefuit' — 
Lines composed in the Middle Ages.— G. 


die, have hell enough. You count it a very shameful thing to break 
promise or covenant with men ; but is it not far more shameful to 
break with God ? The Egyptians, though heathens, so hated perjury, 
that if any man did but swear by the life of the king, and did not 
perform his oath, that man was to die, and no gold was to redeem his 
life. When the Romans made covenants, they took stones in their 
hands, and said, ' If I make this covenant seriously and faithfully, 
then let the great Jupiter bless me ; if not, so let me be cast away 
from the face of the gods as I cast away this stone, i Covenant- 
breaking was a sin greatly detested and abhorred among the very 
heathens ; and shall Christians make nothing of breaking their vows, 
promises, and covenants with the great G-od ? Well, sirs, remember 
this, those sins that you have vowed against must be deserted, and 
that holiness which you have vowed to follow must be pursued, or a 
worse thing than the curse of Meroz must be expected ; Judges v. 23 
compared with that John v. 14. But, 

(6.) Sixthly, If ever you would be holy, then dwell much upon 
the worth and preciousness of your souls. Christ, that only^ went 
to the price of souls, hath told us that one soul is more worth than all 
the world. Mat. xvi. 26. Christ left his Father's bosom, and all the 
glory of heaven, for the good of souls ; he assumed the nature of man 
for the happiness of the soul of man ; he trode the wine-press of his 
Father's wrath for souls ; he wept for souls, he sweat for souls, he 
prayed for souls, he paid for souls, and he bled out his heart-blood for 
souls. The soul is the breath of God, the beauty of man, the wonder 
of angels, and the envy of devils ; it is of an angelical nature, it is a 
heavenly spark, a celestial plant, and of a divine offspring, it is a spirit- 
ual substance, capable of the knowledge of God, and of union with 
God, and of communion with God, and of an eternal fruition of God. 
There is nothing that can suit the soul below God, nor nothing that 
can satisfy the soul without God ; the soul is so high and so noble a 
piece, that it scorns all the world in point of acceptation, justifica- 
tion, satisfaction, and salvation. What are all the riches of the East 
or West Indies ? what are rocks of diamonds, or mountains of gold, 
or the price of Cleopatra's draught, to the price that Christ laid down 
for souls ? 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. Christ made himself an offering for sin, 
that souls might not be undone by sin ; the Lord died that slaves may 
live, the Son dies that servants may live ; the natural Son dies that 
adopted sons may live, the only-begotten Son dies that bastards may 
live ; yea, the Judge dies that malefactors may live. Ah, friends, as 
there was never sorrow like Christ's sorrow, so there was never love 
like Christ's love, and of all his love none to that of soul-love. In a 
word, the spiritual enemies which daily war against the soul, the 
glorious angels which hourly guard the soul, and the precious ordin- 
ances which God hath appointed as means both to convert and to 
feed the soul, do all speak out the preciousness and excellency of the 
soul. There was once a great contest among some nations about 
Homer, an excellent poet — ^they severally pleaded their interest in 
him ; and truly so it is this day about the soul of man : many lay claim 

1 As Paulus Fagius observes in his Comment ou Genesis, &c. [As before.— G.] 
» ' Alone.'— G. 


to it, — sin lays claim to it, and the world lays claim to it, and Satan 
lays claim to it, and Christ and holiness lays claim to it, and oh that 
Christ and holiness might have it before all others ! sirs, there is 
no wisdom nor policy to that of securing our precious souls, for they 
are jewels of more worth than all the world ! All the honours, riches, 
greatness, and glory of tliis world are but chips and pebbles to these 
glorious pearls ; therefore, before all and above all other things, make 
sure work for your souls ; if they are safe all is safe, but if they are lost 
all is lost. Other things cannot be made sure ; riches cannot, for as 
they are lying, so they are flying vanities, they make themselves wings, 
and they fly away ; honours cannot : Haman is feasted with the king 
one day, and made a feast for crows the next ; Herod is one hour cried 
up for a god, and the next hour he is eaten of worms. Princes' courts 
are very slippery : a man may quickly get a fall there, that may easily 
break both back and neck, as many in all ages have experienced ; the 
applause and favour of creatures cannot, for many men's favours are 
got with an apple, and lost with a nut. Judas his heart was hardly 
warmed with the high-priest's favour, before they shut their doors 
upon him, with a * what is that to us ? look thou to that,' Mat. xxvii. 
4, 5. Most men's favours are as light as a feather, and so tossed up 
and down with every breath of windy vanity. The moon does not so 
often vary and change, as the respects of most men do vary and change. 
How many men have had their names written in golden characters one 
year, and in letters of blood the next ! What is the favour of man but 
a blast, a sunshine-hour, a puff of wind, a magnum nihil, a great 
nothing? and who then would spend an hour's time to secure it? Near 
and dear relations cannot, for the delight of Ezekiel's eyes is taken 
away with a stroke, Ezek. xxiv. 16 ; and all Job's children are snatched 
away in a day, Job i. 10. All our nearest and dearest relations are 
like a nosegay, which the oftener we smell to it, the sooner it withers. 
But now holiness may be made sure : witness the spirits of just men 
made perfect in heaven, Heb. xii. 23; and witness the many thousands 
of Christians this day in the world, who do experience the principles 
of holiness in their hearts, and who do evidence the power of holiness 
in their lives. sirs, if the serious consideration of the preciousness 
and worth of your souls will not draw you out to study holiness, to 
love holiness, to prize holiness, and to press after holiness, what will ? 
sirs, it is only holiness that is the happiness of the soul, the safety 
and security of the soul, the prosperity and felicity of the soul, and 
the lustre and glory of the soul ; and therefore why should you not 
labour, as for life, after this inestimable jewel, holiness ? Oh, let the 
remembrance of the preciousness of your souls be an effectual means 
to draw you to hear that you may be holy, and to pray that you may 
be holy, and to read that you may be holy, and to mourn that you 
may be holy, and to sigh and groan after holiness, as after that which 
is the soul's only happiness. sirs, there is nothing below heaven 
so precious and noble as your souls ; and therefore do not play the 
courtier with your souls. Now the courtier does all things late — he 
rises late, and dines late, and sups late, and repents late. Oh, do not 
poison your precious souls by gross enormities ! oh, do not starve your 
souls by the omission of religious duties ! Oh, do not murder and 


damn your souls by turning your backs upon holy ordinances ! I have 
read of a woman, who, when her house was on fire, so minded the 
saving of her goods, that she forgot her only child, and lefb it burning 
in the fire ; at last, being minded of it, she cries out, ' Oh, my child ! 
oh, my poor child !' but all too late, all too late. So there are many 
men now so mad upon the world, and so bewitched with the world, 
that they never mind, they never regard their poor souls, till they come 
to fall under everlasting burnings, and then they cry out. Oh, our 
souls ! oh, our poor souls ! Oh that we had been wise for our souls ! 
Oh that we had got holiness for our souls ! Oh that we had made 
sure work for our souls ! but aU too late, all too late. The Lord 
make you wise to prevent soul-burnings at last. If he be rather a 
monster than a man that feasts his slave but starves his wife, what 
shall we say of those that pamper their bodies but starve their souls, 
and that have threadbare souls under silk and satin clothes, and that 
please themselves with deformed souls under beautiful faces? Surely it 
had been good for these that they had never been born. I have read 
of a Scythian captain, who, having for a draught of water yielded up 
the city, cried out, Quidperdidi! quidprodidi! What have I lost ! 
what have I betrayed ! So all unholy persons wiU at last cry out, We 
have betrayed our immortal souls, we have lost a precious Father, we 
have lost a dear Redeemer, we have lost the company of glorious 
angels, we have lost the society of ' the spirits of just men made per- 
fect,' and we have lost all the pleasures and joys and delights that be 
at the right hand of the Most High ! We have lost these, we have 
lost all these, and we have lost them for ever and ever : surely there 
is no hell to this hell ! For a close of this direction, remember this, 
that as the soul is the life and excellency of the body, so holiness is 
the life and excellency of the soul, and as the body without the soul is 
dead, so the soul without holiness is dead. * This my son was dead, 
and is alive.' If you get holiness into your souls, your souls shall live 
for ever, but if you die without holiness, your souls shall die for ever 
and ever. I have read that there was a time when the Romans did 
wear jewels on their shoes. Oh that in these days most men did not do 
worse ! oh that they did not trample under feet that matchless jewel, 
their precious souls ! But, 

(7.) Seventhly, If ever you would be holy, then set in good earnest 
upon reading of the Holy Scripture. Many a man has been made holy 
by reading of the holy word. The Bible is the book of books, it is the 
only book ; all other books in the world are but waste paper to it.^ 
Augustine cries out, Away with our writings, that room may be made 
for the book of Grod. Notwithstanding the greatness and multiplicity 
of the affairs of princes, yet they were diligently to read the word : 
Deut xvii. 19, 'ibid it shall be with him, and he shall read therein 
all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to 
keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them.' God 
looks that the greatest princes on earth should make use of this 
library. Though David was a great prince, and had a multitude of 
weighty businesses upon his hand, yet he was so much in reading and 
meditating on the word that he made it his counsellors : the word was 
1 Luther Comment : in Qen. xiz. 


David's learned counsel, Ps. cxix. 24, to which he resorted for connsel, 
advice, and comfort, in all his necessities and miseries. Alphonsus, 
king of Arragon, hath been highly extoUed for reading the Scriptures 
fourteen times over, with glosses and expositions, notwithstanding his 
great public employments. And Alphonsus, king of Naples, read over 
the Bible forty times, notwithstanding many great affairs were upon 
his hand. Theodosius the emperor, and Constantine the Great, were 
much taken up in reading of the Scriptures. So Queen Elizabeth, 
when she passed in triumph through the streets of London after her 
coronation, and had the Bible presented to her at the little conduit in 
Cheapside, she received the same with both her hands, and, kissing it, 
laid it to her breasts, saying, ' that the same had ever been her 
chiefest delight, and should be the rule whereby she meant to frame her 
government.' ^ And it is very observable, that the eunuch was reading 
the Scripture when Philip was commanded, by commission from the 
Holy Ghost, to join himself to his chariot, and to instruct him in the 
knowledge of Christ, which proved his conversion and salvation. Acts 
viii. 26, 40. And Junius was converted by the reading of that first 
of John, ' In the beginning was the Word,' &c., being amazed with the 
strange majesty of the style, and the profound mysteries therein con- 
tained. And Augustine 2 was strangely converted by hearing a voice 
from heaven, saying, Tolle lege, tolle lege — Take and read, take and 
read ; and taking up the Bible, the first passage of Scripture that he 
cast his eyes upon was that Kom. xiii. 13, 14, ' Let us walk honestly 
as in the day ; not in gluttony and drunkenness, not in chambering 
and wantonness, not in strife and envying. But put ye on the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh to fulfil the lusts 
thereof; ' and no sooner had he read the verses but the work of con- 
version was finished, and pious resolutions for a thorough reformation 
of life was settled in him. The gospel read is sometimes the power of 
God to salvation, as well as the gospel heard, Kom. i. 16. Cyprian 
confesseth that he was converted from idolatry and necromancy 3 by 
hearing the history of the prophet Jonah read and expounded by 
CecUius, whom therefore he calleth the father of his new life. And « 
Luther confesseth that he was converted by reading. I have read of 
a scandalous minister that was struck at the heart and converted in 
reading that Kom. ii. 21, 22, ' Thou therefore which teachest another, 
teachest thou not thyself ? thou that preachest a man should not steal, 
dost thou steal ? thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, 
dost thou commit adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou 
commit sacrilege ? ' There is a scholar now alive, who being per- 
suaded by an honest poor man to leave reading of poetry, and to fall 
upon reading of the Bible, did so, and before he had read out Genesis 
his heart was changed, and he was converted. sirs, as you tender 
your conversion, your salvation, make more conscience of reading the 
Scripture than ever you have done ; be often in whetting of these scrip- 
tures upon your hearts, Deut. vi. 6-9, and xxxi. 11, 12 ; Jer. xxxvi. 
6, 7 ; John v. 39. In these scriptures God requires all sorts of people, 
both men, women, children, and strangers, both learned and unlearned, 

* Speed's Hist. • Lib. viii. Confessions, chap. xii. 

3 Spelled ' negromancy.' 


to read the Scriptures, and to search after the heavenly treasures that 
are laid up in them, as men search for gold and silver in the ore. And 
Paul charges Timothy that he give attendance to reading, 1 Tim. iv. 
13. ' And blessed is he,' saith John, ' that heareth and readeth the 
words of this book,' Kev. i. 3. Yea, Christ himself hath highly 
honoured reading with his own example ; for coming to Nazareth, as 
his custom was, he stood up to read the Scriptures, Luke iv. 16, 21 ; 
and the Bereans, for reading and searching of the Scriptures, are styled 
' more noble than the Jews of Thessalonica,' or as the Greek has it, 
they were better born and bred, they were better gentlemen, they were 
of a more noble and ingenuous disposition, though they did belong to 
the country town of Berea, than the Thessalonians were who dwelt in 
the rich and stately city of Thessalonica, Acts xvii. 11, ivryevia-Tepoi. 
Sometimes there is more true nobility and ingenuity i under a russet 
coat than there is under a satin suit. The Holy Ghost gives a very 
large encomium and high commendation of the Scriptures in that 
2 Tim. iii. 15, 'And that from a child thou hast known the holy 
Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, through 
faith which is in Christ Jesus.' It is observable that in these words 
you have not simply lepa ypdfifiaTa, holy Scriptures, but ra lepa 
ypdjjLfMara, the holy Scriptures. The article rd there is very emphat- 
ical, and it is used by the Holy Ghost to distinguish these sacred 
writings from all profane writings, and to note the eminency and 
excellency of the holy Scriptures above all other men's writings what- 
soever. Now the Scriptures have this adjunct, this epithet 'holy' 
given them in five respects. 

1.] In respect of their author and original, viz., a holy God. 
2. J They are holy in respect of the penmen, who were holy men of 
God, 2 Pet. i. 21. 

[3.] They are holy in respect of their matter ; they treat of the holy 
things of God ; a vein of holiness runs through every line of Scripture. 
The Scripture calls for holy hearts and holy lives ; it calls for holy 
principles and holy practices, holy words and holy works, holy aJBFec- 
tions and holy conversations, 1 Pet. i. 15. 

[4.] They are holy in respect of their effects and operations ; they 
are a means to effect and work holiness, and they are a means to 
complete and perfect holiness. Job xvii. 17. The word is not only a 
pure word, but also a purifying word ; it is not only a clean word, but 
also a cleansing word, Ps. xix. 8, 9. 

[5.] They are called holy by way of distinction, and in opposition 
not only to all human and profane wiitings, but also to the writings 
of the best and choicest men that ever wrote ; for they have had their 
failings, weaknesses, and infirmities, and therefore must have their 
many grains of allowance ; but the holy Scripture is most perfect and 
complete. Now, sirs, if ever you would be holy, it stands upon you 
to make more conscience of reading the holy Scriptures than ever yet 
you have done. Many a man has been made holy by reading the holy 
Scriptures ; and why mayest not thou also be made holy by reading of 
the same holy word ? Certainly aU the angels in heaven, and all the 
men on earth, can't tell to the contrary, but that thou mayest be made 

^ 'Ingenuousness.' — G. 
VOL. IV. » 


holy even by reading of the holy word. The Holy Ghost is a free 
agent, and he can as well work holiness in thy heart by reading as by 
hearing, and therefore set thyself about this noble and necessary work. 
Ah, friends, the Scriptures are God's epistle ; they are God's love-letter 
to the sons of men ; and why then will you not read them ? Count 
Anhalt, that princely preacher, was wont to say that the Scriptures 
were Christ's swaddUng- bands, the child Jesus being to be found 
almost in every page, in every verse, and in every line. Oh, who 
would not therefore be often in looking upon and in handling of these 
swaddling-bands ! sirs, there are no histories that are comparable 
to the histories of the Scripture. 

[1.] First, For antiquity. Moses is found more ancient than all 
those whom the Grecians make most ancient, as Homer, Hesiod, and 
Jupiter himself, whom the Greeks have seated in the top of their 

[2.] Secondly, For rarity. 

[3.] Thirdly, For brevity. Here you have much wrapped up in a 
little room : here you have Homer's * lUads' comprised in a nutshell. i 

[4.] Fourthly, For perspicuity. The foundations of religion and 
happiness are so plain and clear, that every one may run and read 
them. It was a true saying of Augustine, Inclinavit Deus Scripturas, 
ad infantium et lactentium capacitatem — That God hath bowed down 
the Scriptures to the capacities even of babes and sucklings. 

[5.] Fiftlily, For harmony. Though there may seem to be a con- 
trariety between scripture and scripture, yet there is a blessed harmony 
between all the parts of Scripture ; the contrariety is seeming, notjreal. 
As when a man is drawing water out of a well with two vessels of a 
different metal, the water at the first seemeth to be of a different 
colour, but when he draweth up the vessels nearer to him, the diversity 
of colours vanish, and the water appeareth to be of one and the same 
colour, and when he tasteth them, they have one and the same relish ; 
so though at first sight there may seem to be some contradictions in 
the Scriptures, yet when we look more nearly and narrowly into them, 
and compare one place with another, we shaU find no contrariety, no 
repugnancy in them at all, but a perfect harmony, and a full and sweet 
consent and agreement between one place and another, between text 
and text, scripture and scripture. 

[6.] Sixthly, For verity. The Scriptures are most sure and certain ; 
heaven and earth shall pass away before one jot or tittle of the Scripture 
shall pass unfulfilled. 

[7.] Seventhly, For variety. There are no varieties to those that 
are to be found in Scripture ; as in Noah's ark all sorts of creatures 
were to be found, so in this heavenly ark, the Scriptures, aU varieties 
are to be found. Here you may find physic for every disease, and 
balm for every wound, and a plaster for every sore. Here the lamb 
may wade, and here the elephant may swim ; here is milk for babes, 
and here is meat for strong men ; here is comfort for the afflicted, and 
succour for the tempted, and support for the distressed, and ease for 
the wearied ; here is a stafi" to support the feeble, and a sword to de- 
fend the mighty. That which a Papist reports lyingly of theii- sacra- 

. ^ As before. — G. 


ment of the mass — viz., that there are as many mysteries in it as 
there are drops in the sea, dust on the earth, angels in heaven, stars in 
the sky, atoms in the sunbeams, or sands on the sea-shore, &c. — may 
be truly asserted of the holy Scriptures ; there are many thousand 
thousand varieties in this garden of paradise, the Scripture. 

[8.] Eighthly, For fulness. The Scriptures are full of light, and 
full of life, and full of love ; they are full of righteousness, and full of 
holiness, and full of all goodness. It was a weighty saying of Tertullian, 
Adoro plenitvdinemScripturarum — I adore the fulness of the Scripture. 
Many men talk much of the philosopher's stone, that it turns copper 
into gold, and of cornucopia, that it had all things necessary for food 
in it, and of the herb panaces, that it was good for all diseases, and of 
the drug cathoUcon, that it is instead of all purges, and of Vulcan's 
armour, that it was full proof against all thrusts and blows ; but that 
which they vainly attribute to these things for bodily good, may safely 
and honourably be attributed to the blessed Scriptures in a spiritual 
manner. The Scriptures turns hearts of copper into hearts of gold ; 
it is a paradise that is full of the trees of life, and these trees of life are 
both for food and physic ; here is all manner of fruit to feed you and 
fill you, to delight you and satisfy you, and the very leaves of these 
trees are singular medicines to heal you and cure you, Kev. xxii. 2. 
The Scripture prescribes the choicest drugs to purge you, viz., repent- 
ance and the blood of Christ ; and it is the Scripture that furnishes you 
with the best armour of proof against all principalities and powers, 
and against all spiritual wickednesses in high places, Eph. vi. 11, 18. 
Oh, how should the consideration of all these things work you to be 
much in reading of the holy Scriptures ! If you will but make trial, 
you should be sure to find in them stories more true, more various, 
more pleasant, more profitable, and more comfortable than any you 
will find in all ancient or modern writers. Ah, friends, if you would 
but in good earnest set upon reading of the holy Scriptures, you may 
find in them so many happinesses as cannot be numbered, and so great 
happinesses as cannot be measured, and so copious happinesses as can- 
not be defined, and such precious happinesses as cannot be valued ; 
and if all this won't draw you to read the holy Scriptures conscientiously 
and frequently, I know not what will. 

It is said of Mary, that she spent the third part of her time in read- 
ing of the word ; and Cfecilia, a Roman maiden of noble parentage, 
carried always about her the New Testament, and spent much time in 
reading it. Alfred, once king of England, compiled psalms and 
prayers into one book, and called it a Manual, which he always carried 
about him, and spent much time in the perusal of it. Augustine 
caused David's penitential psalms to be drawn upon the walls of his 
chamber, that he might read them as he lay in his bed ; he read and 
wept, and wept and read.i Well, if all this wUl not prevail with you 
to be much in reading of the Scriptures, consider that Agesilaus, an . 
excellent king of Sparta, would never go to bed, nor rise up, before he 
had looked into Homer, whom he called amasium suum, his sweet- 
heart ; but what was Homer's books to God's book, which is the book 
of books, as Charles the Great did signify when he crowned it with 

^ Vide Pos. in vita Aug. 


his own crown. And Scipio Africanus was much commended for 
that he usually had in his hands the books of Xenophon.^ But oh, 
how much more commendable will it be for you to have always in 
your hands the book of God 1 Alphonsus had always in his bosom 
the Commentaries of Csesar, and he was so much delighted with the 
history of Titus Livius, that he once commanded certain musicians, 
that were very skilful in that art, to depart his presence, saying, he 
could read a more pleasant story out of Livius. Alas ! what are Livius 
his stories to the blessed stories that be in the Bible! sirs, if 
Lipsius, when he did but read Seneca, thought that he was even on 
the top of Olympus, above mortality and human things ; and if Julius 
Scaliger thought twelve verses in Lucan better than the German 
empire, oh, then, of what infinite worth and value is the blessed Scrip- 
ture ! Shall heathens take such pleasure in reading of the works of 
heathens, and shall not Christians take as much pleasure in reading 
of the holy Scriptures, wherein there is so much of the Spirit, hand, 
and heart of God ? Shall they set so high a price upon the books of 
heathens, and shall we so slight and undervalue the book of God as 
not to think it worth a-opening once a day ? Verily, I am afraid, I 
am afraid, that there are some among us that hardly open their Bibles 
once a week, and others that hardly open their Bibles once a month, 
and not a few that hardly open their Bibles once a quarter, &c. Cer- 
tainly as the rustiness of some men's gold will be a witness against 
them in the great day of the Lord, so the mustiness of some men's 
Bibles will be a witness against them in that great day, James v. 1-3. 

Quest. But is it not lawful for a, man to read other men's books, to 
read other men's holy works ? &c. 

Ans. Doubtless it is lawful ; and that, 

[1.] First, Because other men's holy works, so far as they are holy, 
are but the fruits, products, and operations of the Holy Spirit, &c. 

[2.] Secondly, Because their holy labours are of singular use for 
the clearing up of many hard, difficult, and mysterious scriptures, &c. 

[3.] Thirdly, Because they have been the means of many men's 
conversion. John Huss confesseth that the reading of Luther's works 
was the main cause of his conversion. 2 And whilst Vergerius read 
Luther's books with an intent to confute them, himself was converted 
by them. I doubt not but that there are many now in heaven, and 
multitudes now on earth, that have been converted by the books and 
writings of holy men ; and therefore it cannot but be lawful to read 
such books, &c. 

[4.] Fourthly, Though it be lawful to read other men's holy works, 
yet the holy Scriptures must still have the pre-eminence, they must be 
firstly, chiefly, and mostly read. All other books in comparison of the 
book of God must be cast by ; it is God's book that is indeed the book 
of books. Josephus, in his book of Antiquities,^ makes mention of 
one Cumanus, a governor of Judea, that, though he were but a 
heathen, and a wicked man, yet he caused a soldier to be beheaded for 
tearing a copy of the book of Moses's law, which he found at the 

^ Plutarch, Moralia. 

' An oversight : Huss long preceded Luther. Reverse the names. — G-. 

3 Lib. XX. cap. 4. 


racking of a town. And venerable in all ages and among all nations 
have been the books wherein the laws either of their belief or polity 
have been contained ; as the Talmud among the Jews, and the laws 
of the twelve tables among the Eomans, and the Alcoran among the 
Turks, yea, all pagans have highly valued the laws of their legislators ; 
and shall not Christians much more set a high esteem upon the holy 
Scriptures, which are the map of God's mercy, and man's misery, the 
touchstone of truth, the shop of remedies against all maladies, the 
hammer of vices, and the treasury of virtues, the displayer of all sen- 
sual and worldly vanities, the balance of equity, and the most perfect 
rule of all justice and honesty? What Chrysostom said of old to his 
hearers — viz., ' Get you Bibles, for they are your souls' physic' — that I 
say to you all. Oh, get you Bibles, for they are your souls' physic, your 
souls' food, your souls' happiness. Ah, friends, no book becomes your 
hands like the Bible, It was this book that made David wiser than 
his teachers ; this is the book that makes the best preachers, and this 
is the book that is the best preacher. This book, this preacher will 
preach to you in your shops, in your chambers, in your closets, yea, in 
your own bosoms. This book will preach to you at home and abroad, 
it will preach to you in all companies, whether they are good or bad, 
and it will preach to you in all conditions, whether they are prosperous 
or afflictive. By this book you shall be saved, or by this book you 
shall be damned ; by this book you must live, by this book you must 
die, and by this book you shall be judged in the great day, John 
xii. 48. Oh, therefore, love this book above all other books, and 
prize this book above all other books, and buy this book before all 
other books. In King Henry the Eighth's time, and in Queen Mary's 
days. Christians would have given cartloads of hay and corn for a 
few chapters in the New Testament ; and will not you part with three 
or four shillings to buy a Bible, that may save your souls, that may 
make you holy here and happy hereafter ? And read this book before 
all other books, and study this book more than all other books ; for he 
that reads much and understands nothing, is like him that hunts much 
and catcheth nothing. And let this suffice for this seventh direction. 
(8.) Eighthly, If ever you would be holy, then be much in prayer. 
Prayer is the most prevalent orator at the throne of grace. Many 
that have gone to that throne with tears in their eyes, have come 
away with "praises in their hearts ; and many that have gone to that 
throne with hearts full of sin, have returned with hearts full of grace. 
Jacob wept and prayed, and prayed and wept ; and in the close as a 
prince he prevailed with God, Hosea xiv. 4 ; so many a sinner has 
wept and prayed, and prayed and wept, and in the close as a prince 
he has prevailed with God. Ah, sirs, it may be that there are but a 
few weeks, nay, a few days, peradventure but a few hours, between 
your souls and eternity, between your souls and everlasting burnings, 
between your souls and a devouring fire, between your souls and 
damnation ; and will you not then pray and mourn, and mourn and 
pray, for that holiness, without which there is no happiness, yea, 
without which hell and destruction will be for ever your portion? Oh, 
take that blessed promise, Ezek. xxxvi. 25-27, and urge God with it ; 
oh, tell him that he has said that ' he will sprinkle clean water upon 


you, and that ye shall be clean from all your filthiness, and that from 
all your idols he will cleanse you', &c. Oh, tell him, 

First, That he stands engaged by promise to give his Holy Spirit 
to them that ask it, Luke xi. 13. 

Secondly, Oh, tell him that none can make an unholy heart holy, 
but a holy God. 

Thirdly, Tell him that surely it is no sin to beg holiness of a holy 

Fourilily, Tell him that ha has made such who were once notorious 
in wickedness to become eminent in holiness : witness Manasseh, Mary 
Magdalene, Paul, the murderers of Christ, and those vile Corinthians, 
1 Cor. V. 6, 9-11. 

Fifthly, Tell him that he has given holiness to them that have not 
sought it, and how then can it stand with his honour to deny it to 
them that seek it ? Surely if he has been * found of them that sought 
him not,' he will not hide himself ' from them that seek him,' Isa. 
Ixv. 1, 2. 

' Sixthly, Tell him that thou hadst rather that he should deny thee 
anything, than that he should deny thee holiness ; say to him, Lord, 
health is the prince of outward mercies, and wealth is the spring of 
many mercies, and wife, children, and friends are the set-oflfs of mer- 
cies, the cream of mercies, and that liberty is the sweetener of all thy 
mercies, and yet tell him that thou hadst rather that he should strip 
thee of any of these, nay, that he should deny thee all of these, than 
that he should deny thee holiness. 

Seventhly, Tell him that thou didst never read of any man that did 
ever make a hearty request for holiness, but his request was granted. 
The leper would fain be clean, and Christ's answer is, * I will ; be thou 
clean,' Mat. viii. 2, 3. Christ does neither delay him nor deny him. 
The poor leper could no sooner desire to be clean, but Christ com- 
mands him to be clean — ' I will ; be thou clean.' His prayer was short 
and sweet, and his answer was sudden and gracious. 

Eighthly, Tell him that thou art unwilling to be miserable for 
ever, tell him that thou canst not bear the thoughts of an eternal 
separation from him, and yet this must be thy portion, except he will 
glorify the riches of his grace in bestowing of that pearl of price, 
holiness, upon thee. Oh, tell him that thy want of holiness is now 
thy greatest hell ! tell him that thou art now fully resolved to give 
him no rest till he has changed thy heart, and made thee in some 
measure to be what he would have thee to be, &c. 

It is observable amongst the worst of men, the Turks, yea, amongst 
the worst of Turks, the Moors, that by their law it is a just exception 
against any witness, that he hath not prayed six times every natural 
day, it being a usual custom with them to pray for day before the day 
brake, and when it is day they give thanks for daylight, and at noon 
they give thanks to God that half the day is past, and then at last 
they pray that they may have a good night after their day. Ah, 
sinners, sinners, shall not these Turks rise up one day in judgment 
against you that think not holiness worth a-praying for ? 

Object. But the prayers of the ivicked are an abomination to the 
Loi'd, Prov. XV. 8, and xxviii. 9 ; and he casts their sacrifices as dung in 


their faces, Isa. i. 11-16, and Iviii. 1-7 ; their very prayers are sinful, and 
therefore they were better neglect prayer till God shall work graciously 
and savingly upon them, than to pray, and so to sin as often as they 
pray, &g. To this I answer, 

(1.) First, The prayers of the wicked may be materially good, when 
they are not formally good, yea, when they are theologically evil, 2 
Chron. xxv. 2. Amaziah did that which was perfect in the sight of 
the Lord, as to the matter, but not with a perfect or sincere heart. 
He failed not in the matter, but in the manner. He did not do that 
good he did from principles of faith, love, &c., nor to a right end, 
divine glory. Many unsanctified persons may have the gift of prayer, 
that have not the spirit of prayer, nor the grace of prayer, Mat. vii. 
21, and xxiii. 14.1 Now certainly where God gives such a gift, 
he requires the use of it. The gift of prayer is from the Spirit, as well 
as the grace of prayer ; and who can tell but that upon the use of the 
gift of prayer, the Spirit may give the grace of prayer ? However, it 
is dangerous to neglect a gift. The slothful servant was not cast 
into utter darkness for rioting out his talent, but for not improving of 
his talent, Mat. xxv. 30. That the prayers of a wicked man are not 
formally good, must be granted, yea, that they are abominable and 
ineffectual, cannot be denied ; they are like the precious stone Diac- 
letes, which though it hath many excellent sovereignties in it, yet it 
loseth them all if it be put in a dead man's mouth ; so prayer, though 
it hath many virtues and excellencies in it, yet it loseth them all 
when it is performed by a man that is spiritually dead — that is, dead 
God-wards, and Christ-wards, and heaven-wards, and holiness-wards ; 
but if you consider the matter of a wicked man's prayers, so they may 
be good, yea, so good as that they may prevail with a good God for 
much temporal good, as I shall shew you before I close up all my 
answers to this objection. But, 

(2.) Secondly, It is a less sin for an unholy person to do a religious 
duty, than it is to omit it. Now of two sins, whereupon, not God, but 
a man's self hath inevitably put him to commit one of them, he must 
choose the least, he must choose rather to sin in the manner, in not 
doing of it so well as he should, than to fail in the matter, and so quite 
neglect the duty itself. For this is most certain, when God commands 
a duty absolutely to be done, it is a greater sin not to do it at all, than 
to do it amiss, and the reason is evident, because our disobedience is 
total in not doing at all, and but only partial in doing it otherwise 
than we ought. As for a man wilfully and peremptorily to refuse to 
hear the word, is a greater and fouler fault than to hear it with a 
forgetful or disobedient heart, there being more hope of the latter than 
of the former ; for some that have come to catch, have been caught by 
the word, John vii. 46. And therefore ' come,' saith Latimer, ' to the 
word ; though thou comest to sleep, it may be God may take thee nap- 
ping.' When Mr Henry Sulphen was preacher at Bremen,^ several 
Roman Catholics sent their chaplains to trap him in his words ; but 
the power of God was so wonderfully seen in his preaching, that the 
greatest part of them that came to ensnare him were converted by 

1 Ps. Ixxviii. 36, 37 ; Prov. i. 27, 28; Isa. Iviii. 1-4. 
^ Joh. Sleidani. Comment. 


him. It is good to come to the word, though a man comes with an 
ill intent ; to come, though he should come with a purpose to catch, 
for in so coming he may be catched, as Augustine was by Ambrose. 
Without doubt there is no disobedience to that which is total. Partial 
disobedience is no disobedience to that which is total. That wife 
that totally disobeys her husband, and that child that totally disobeys 
the father, and that servant that totally disobeys his master, is much 
more to blame, and do much more provoke, than those that are only 
partial in their disobedience ; and so it is between God and sinners, &c. 

(3.) Thirdly, If there were any strength in this objection, it would 
lie as strong against a ivicked man's civil actions, as it does against 
his religious actions : Prov. xxi. 4, ' The ploughings of the wicked is 
sin;' not only the prayers of the wicked, but also the ploughings of 
the wicked are sin, not only the spiritual but also the natural and civil 
actions of a wicked man are sin ; and therefore, according to their 
arguing, a wicked man must not exercise himself in his caUing, in his 
ploughing and sowing, &c. , because that his civil actions are sinful as 
well as his religious ; and it is as impossible for him to please God in 
the one, as it is to please him in the other ; but surely all men that 
are in their wits, will either sigh or laugh at such kind of reasonings. 

(4.) Fourthly, This objection lies as strong against wicked men's 
natural actions-^xiz., their eating, drinking, and sleeping, &c. — as it 
does against their praying. When a wicked man eats, he is to eat to 
divine glory, and when he drinks, he is to drink to divine glory, 1 Cor. 
X. 31 ; and when he recreates himself, he is to recreate himself to 
divine glory ; and when he sleeps, he is to sleep to divine glory ; in all 
these natural and common actions, he is to make the glory of God his 
supreme scope. Now there is not a wicked man on earth that does 
or can eat or drink, &c., to divine glory ; he does not nor cannot set 
up the glory of God as the chief and ultimate end of his natural and 
common actions. Now who but fools in folio will reason thus : wicked 
men are to eat and drink, &c., to divine glory, but this they cannot 
do, Titus i. 15 ; and therefore wicked men must neither eat nor 
drink, &c. But, 

(5.) Fifthly, The force and spirit of this objection, if there were any 
in it, lies as flat and full against all other religious duties, as it does 
against prayer. It lies as strong against hearing, reading, and medi- 
tating on the word, &c., as it does against prayer ; and who but such 
who are sadly left of God, and woefully blinded by Satan, will be so 
wretched as to say, wicked men must neither hear the word, nor read 
the word, nor meditate on the word, because they cannot do these 
actions in faith, * and whatsoever is not of faith is sin,' Kom. xiv. 23. 

(6.) Sixthly, There are those that can say by experience, that the 
first special work of God tliat ever they perceived 07i their own hearts, 
was ivhile they were pleading with God at the throne of grace. There 
are those that have brought proud hearts to the throne of grace, but 
have returned with hearts humbled, and that have brought hard 
hearts, but have gone away with hearts graciously broken and melted, 
and that have brought carnal hearts, but returned with spiritual 


hearts, and that have brought worldly hearts, but returned with 
heavenly hearts. God sometimes hears prayers for his own sake, and 
for his Son's sake, and for his glory's sake, and for his promise sake, 
when he will not hear prayers for the sinner's sake. But, 

(7.) Seventhly, Sinful omissions lead to sinful commissions, yea, 
sometimes they lead to ruin ; as you may see in the angels that fell 
from the highest heaven to the lowest hell, and in Adam, who fell in 
paradise from the highest pinnacle of glory to the lowest step of sin 
and misery. Those reprobates in that 25th of Matthew did not rob 
the saints, but only omitted the relieving of them, and this proved 
a damning to them ; rich Dives did not rob the poor, but his not 
relieving of them was his ruin, Luke xvi. Moab and Ammon were 
banished the sanctuary to the tenth generation for a mere omis- 
sion, because they met not God's Israel in the wilderness with 
bread and water, Deut. xxiii. 3, 4, 6. Look, as the omission of 
good diet breeds natural diseases in the body, so doth the omission 
of good duties breed spiritual diseases in the soul. All sinful omis- 
sions make work for hell, or for the physician of souls. man ! 
thou dost not know what deadly sin, what deadly temptation may 
follow upon a mere single omission. Origen, going to comfort 
and encourage a martyr that was to suffer, was apprehended by the 
officers, and constrained either to offer to the idols or to have his body 
abused by a blackamoor that was ready pressed for that service. Being 
thus hard put to it, to save his life, he bowed to the idols ; but after- 
wards, when he came to himself, he sadly bewails his sin, and con- 
fesseth that he went forth that morning without making his prayers 
unto God, which sinful omission God did so severely punish, by leav- 
ing of him to fall into so great a sin, which pierced his soul through 
with many sorrows. I am apt to think that many a sin, many a snare, 
and many a faU might have been prevented, if such and such reli- 
gious duties had not been omitted. Sinful omissions prepare the way 
to sinful commissions, and both prepare the way to a fatal destruction. 
I believe many men had never been so abominable vicious, if they 
had not first cast off religious duties. He that lives in the neglect of ♦ 
prayer, tempts more devils than one to beset his soul, yea, to destroy 
his soul, &c. But, 

(8.) Eighthly and lastly, There are several iveiglity arguments tJiat 
may be produced to prove that it is the duty of wicked and unconverted 
men to perform religious duties, as to pray and seek the Lord, &c. 
Among the many that may be brought forth, I shall only give you 
these six: 

[1.] First, This is evident from divine commands, as you may clearly 
see by comparing of these scriptures together, Isa. Iv. 6, 7 ; Acts viii. 
21-23 ; Ps. Ixv. 21. 1 Thes. v. 17, ' Pray without ceasing,' is an inde- 
finite injunction ; and who art thou, man, that darest to prohibit 
what God commands ? Are not his commands obliging ? and may 
not disobedience to the least of them cost thee thy life, thy soul, thy 
all ? God's commands are neither to be slighted, censured, nor ne- 
glected. Woe to him that looks upon great commands as little com- 
mands, and little commands as no commands, Mat. xxiii. sirs, 
it is a very dangerous thing to act or run counter-cross to God's ex- 


press command ; it may cost a man dear, as you may see in that sad 
story, 1 Kings xiii. 24. The heathens, indeed, would frequently run 
cross to their gods' commands, for when their gods commanded them 
to oflfer up a man, they would offer up a candle ; and so Hercules, 
when he was to offer up a living man, he offered up a painted man ; 
but does it become Christians to deal thus with the great Grod, with 
the living God, with the God of gods, as the heathens did by their 
gods ? Surely no. God's commands are not like imto the commands of 
the heathens, that might be contradicted and changed, but they are like 
to the commands of the Medes, that cannot be reversed nor changed ; 
they must be evangelically obeyed, or you will be eternally destroyed. 
The Rechabites were very rigid observers of their father's commands ; 
and will you make slight of God's commands ? Jer. xxxv. 2, 5-7. 
And ' the angels that excel in strength do his commandments,' Ps. 
ciii. 20 ; and will you despise them ? Why should the peasant scorn 
that work in which the prince himself is engaged ? But, 

[2.] Secondly, Prayer is a viatural worship, and is incumbent upon 
all men, as they are created by God, Prayer is a duty which the very 
law of nature, as well as the law of the word, lays upon men. And 
this you may see in those pagans, Jonah i. 5, ' The mariners cried 
every man to his god.' That there is a God, and that this God is to 
be called upon, are lessons that are taught in nature's school : Isa. 
xlv. 20, ' They pray to a god that cannot save,' For any man to say 
a wicked man ought not to pray, is to say a wicked man ought not to 
worship God, nor acknowledge him to be his maker ; and who but 
such who are either blind or mad dare speak such language ? Cer- 
tainly they that live in the neglect of prayer under the gospel sin 
against a double light, the light of nature and the light of the gospel, 
and therefore they shall be double-damned. There is no heU to these 
men's hell who sin against a double light, &c. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, The neglect of prayer is charged upon wicked persons 
as their sin ; as you may see by comparing of these scriptures to- 
gether, Ps. xiv. 2, 4, and x. 4 ; Jer. x. 21 ; Hosea vii. 7 ; Zeph. i. 6. 
Now doubtless if it were not a duty for unregenerate persons to pray, 
it could never stand with the holiness, justice, and righteousness of 
God, to charge the omission of prayer upon them as a sin, and there- 
fore, without peradventure, it is their duty to pray. But, 

[4.] Fourthly, Wicked and unregenerate persons are again and 
again imprecated against for not calling upon the Lord: Ps. Ixxix. 6, 
' Pour out thy wrath upon the heathen that have not known thee, and 
upon the kingdoms that have not called upon thy name ; ' so Jer. 
X. 25, ' Pour out thy^fury upon the heathen that know thee not, and 
upon the families that call not upon thy name.' Now certainly if 
prayer were not a duty incumbent upon wicked men, they would never 
be thus imprecated against for the omission of it. To imprecate 
that vials, that full vials, that full vials of wrath and fury should be 
poured forth, as water is poured forth, suddenly and plentifully, upon 
those kingdoms and families that do not call upon the name of the 
Lord, is so dreadful a thing, that it had never been mentioned in the 
Scripture, had it not been to alarm the worst of men to the work of 
prayer. But, 


[5.] Fifthly, If absolute py^omises, or precious promises of special 
grace and mercy ^ he made to sinners, as sinners, then sinners may in 
prayer plead out those promises, and urge God upon making good his 
promises; but absolute promises, or promises of special grace and favour, 
are made over to simiers, as sinners, ergo, that such promises are made 
over to poor sinners, as sinners, is evident by comparing these scriptures 
together, Isa. Ivii. 17-19. These words drop nothing but myrrh and 
mercy. If Ennius could pick gold out of a dunghill, oh, what gold, 
what comfort, may be picked out of these golden promises ! In these 
words, let us consider two things : first, the precious promises that 
are here made ; secondly, the persons to whom they are made. In 
the words you have four precious promises of special grace and favour ; 
they are as so many streams of grace flowing from the covenant of grace. 

I. The precious promises that are here made. 

First, You have here a promise of healing : ver. 18, * I have seen 
his ways, and will heal him,' or, as you may read the words, though I 
have seen his ways and courses, and well observed how unworthily, 
how untowardly, and how obstinately he has carried it, ' yet I will 
heal him,' — ' I will heal his backsliding nature.' Though his disease 
be dangerous, though it be very dangerous, yet to an almighty physi- 
cian no disease is incurable. I will heal his inside by pardoning his 
sin and purging his conscience, and I will heal his outside by remov- 
ing of judgments and calamities from him ; and all this I will do 
upon the account of my promise and covenant : Hosea xiv. 4 ; Jer. 
xxxii. 38, and xl. 2, compared ; Ps. ciii. 3 ; Jer. iii. 22 ; Mai. iv. 2. 

Secondly, You have in the words a promise of leadiTig ; ' 1 will lead 
him also,' or, as the Hebrew hath it, ' and I will lead him, I will con- 
duct him in safety to his own country.' So some sense it, but you 
may understand it, doubtless, of a spiritual, as well as of a providen- 
tial leading. I will lead him by my word, and I will lead him by 
my Spirit, and I will lead him by my counsel, suitable unto many 
precious promises of grace that are scattered up and down in the 

Thirdly, In the words you have a promise of comfort; * I will restore 
comforts to him,' not comfort, but comforts ; that is, in the room of 
all those discomforts, sorrows, calamities, and miseries that he has been 
exercised with, I will, says God, lay in abundance of comfort, yea, I 
will store him with all sorts of comforts, both temporal, spiritual, and 
eternal, suitable to that word of grace that you have in Isa. xl. 1, 2. 

Fourthly, In the words you have a promise of peace: ver. 19, ' I 
create the fruit of the lips ; Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to 
him that is near,' saith the Lord. The gemination of the word 
Shalom, shalom, peace, peace, imports a large extent of peace ; it 
notes true peace, firm peace, sure peace, great peace, abundance of 
peace, yea, constant and lasting peace. Under the name of peace in 
the Hebrew is denoted all manner of prosperity, and the geminating 
of the word always notes a large measure of tranquillity, plenty, pros- 
perity, and felicity. sirs, peace with God, and peace with con- 
science, and peace with the creatures, are all the products of God's 
creating power and grace, Eph. ii. 16-18, and so must be referred to 
the covenant of grace. 


Let us consider, 

II. The persons to whom these precious promises are made ; and 
here let us observe these three things. 

First, Their sin ; and this you have in ver. 17, ' For the iniquity 
of his covetousness I was wroth.' The sin that is charged upon him 
is a very great and grievous, it is a very vile and heinous sin ; it is called 
not only covetousness, but the iniquity of his covetousness, to shew the 
height and transcendency of this their wickedness ; for covetousness is 
a mother-sin, it is a breeding sin, it is a sin that has all sin in the womb 
of it ; it is a sin not only against the light and law of grace, but also 
against the light and law of nature, for it makes the soul terrene which 
should be celestial ; and therefore the Persians, though heathens, have 
a law that no man ought to covet what belongs to any other man ; and 
they have another law, that they ought not to be worldly-minded. No 
sin lays men under greater woes, 1 Tim. vi. 10. Woe to him that 
joineth house to house ; and woe to you Scribes, Pharisees, and hypo- 
crites. Mat. xxiii. It is an evil that subjects men to the basest and 
vilest evils ; it is the root of all evil — it makes a man a fool : Luke 
xii. 20, ' Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be taken from thee.' It 
robs a man of all true peace, comfort, content, and quiet ; it brings 
men into snares which drowns their souls in perdition ; it renders men 
unsatisfied under aU their outward enjoyments. Though a covetous 
wretch may have enough to sink him, yet he can never have enough 
to satisfy him ; first he wishes for a bag-fuU, and then a chest-full, and 
then a chamber-full, and then a church-full, &c. The plague of 
unsatisfiedness is none of the least of plagues that covetous men are 
under. Certainly you shall as soon fill a triangle with a circle, and a 
chest with grace, and the body with air, as you shall be able to fill and 
satisfy a covetous mind with money. In a word, covetousness is a sin 
that renders a man unserviceable in his generation. A covetous man 
is like a swine, that is good for nothing whilst he lives. The horse is 
good to bear and carry, the ox is good to draw, the sheep is good for 
cloth, the cow is good to give milk, and the dog is good to keep the 
house, but the hog is good for nothing whilst he lives ; so a covetous 
man is neither good for church nor state — he is nowise serviceable in 
his generation, only when he is dead. That scripture often proves 
true, viz., that 'the riches of a sinner are laid up for the just,' Job 
xxvii. 17. By all which you may see the greatness of this sin of 
covetousness that is so closely charged upon them. But, 

Secondly, They grew worse under the afflicting hand of God; ' I 
was wroth, and smote him, and he went on frowardly in the way 
of his heart.' They were like peevish, fro ward, stubborn children, that 
grow more cross, crooked, and perverse under all the chastenings of 
their father ; and this was no small aggravation of their sin, that they 
grew worse under the rod. Plutarch writes i that it is the quality 
of tigers, that if the drums or tabors sound about them, they will 
grow mad, and rend and tear their own flesh in pieces ; and so it was 
with these sinners in the text. Oh, how did they fret and fume, and 
tear, and take on, when they were under the rebukes of God ! But, 

Thirdly, They persevered and went on against all gainsayings ; ' I 
^ Lib. de super*titione. 


have Been his ways,' that is, I have seen his obstinacy and incorrigi- 
bility in sin. Ah, poor creature ! says God, he sees not his present 
misery and slavery, he takes no notice of his own folly and vanity, of 
his own frowardness and peevishness ; he scorns to bend or bow under 
my mighty hand, he is resolved to stand it out to the death, he will 
persist on in his own ways, though he eternally perishes — though hell 
stands at the end of his ways, yet on he will. Well ! what is the issue 
of all this ? God saith, ' I have seen his ways, and will heal him.' 
It is not, I have seen his ways, and will curse him, no, but ' I have 
seen his ways, and will heal him.' It is not, I have seen his ways, and 
will never have any more to do with him ; no, but ' I have seen his 
ways, and will heal him.' It is not, I have seen his ways, and will 
damn him ; no, but ' I have seen his ways, and will heal him.' Oh the 
freeness, oh the unsearchableness, oh the riches of Grod's grace ! And 
thus you see that the precious promises last cited are promises that 
are made over to sinners as sinners. And this is further evident 
in that Isa. xliii. 22-25. For sins of omission and sins of commission, 
what can be more charged upon a sinful people than here is charged 
upon them ? They were not only negligent of his worship and service, 
but they were also weary of his worship and service, and counted 
it rather a burden than a benefit, a toil than a pleasure. In all 
their outward observances they did but court the Lord, they did but 
compliment with God ; for whilst they were in his service, their hearts 
were secretly weary of his service ; and by their sinful commissions, oh, 
how did they grieve, vex, oppress, and burden the Holy One of Israel ! 
And yet, in ver. 25, God does passionately and emphatically proclaim 
their free pardon, ' I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions 
for mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins.' The metaphor 
is taken from men's blotting out of debts out of their debt-book. Now 
when a debt is blotted out of the debt-book, it is never charged upon 
the debtor more, it is never regarded nor remembered more ; so when 
God proclaims the sinner's pardon, when he forgives him his trans- 
gressions, he blots, he rases, he crosses his books, and cancels all 
bonds, so as that he will never object his sins against him, and never 
charge his sins upon him; but being once forgiven, they shall be 
for ever forgotten, they shall never come into his remembrance more. 
And all this he will do for his name sake, and for the praise and 
glory of his own free grace. So in Ezek. xxxvi. 26-28, 37, compared. 
Now by all these scriptures it is most plain and evident that the 
precious promises of special grace and mercy are made over to sinners 
as sinners ; and if so, then doubtless sinners may lawfully put these 
promises into suit. sirs, don't you know that desire is the soul of 
prayer ? and who, but such as are witless and graceless, will say that 
a wicked man may not desire the accomplishment of God's gracious 
promises, that wiU say an unregenerate man may not desire to be par- 
doned, sanctified, and renewed; and that the Lord would bestow 
his Spirit upon him, and that, by the finger of the same Spirit, the law 
of the Lord may be written in his heart, that he may observe his 
statutes, and do them ? These are things that God has engaged him- 
self to do for poor sinners, and therefore certainly sinners may put 
God in mind of his engagements. But, 


[6.] Sixthly and lastly, God would never have encouraged and 
rewarded with temporal favours wicked and unregenerate mens 
religious duties and services as he has done, if he would not have had 
them exercise themselves in religious duties. Now that he has thus 
encouraged and rewarded wicked and unregenerate men, is evident in 
these instances, 1 Kings xxi. 19 ; Jonah iii. 4, seq. ; 2 Chron. xxvi. 
5. Uzziah sought God in the days of Zechariah ; and when he sought 
the Lord, God made him to prosper. Had he been really godly, had he 
had the root of the matter in him, had he been a sincere, a throughout 
Christian, he would have sought the Lord all his days, he would have 
held on and held out in well-doing ; but being carnal, hypocritical, and 
unregenerate, his religion dies with Zechariah. Another instance you 
have of this among the sailors, that usually are the worst of sinners, 
Ps. cvii. 23-30 ; and another you have in that known case of Jehu. 
From all which we may well conclude, that God expects and 
looks that wicked men, that unregenerate men, should be found in the 
exercise of religious duties. It is an excellent observation of Calvin 
upon God's rewarding the Kechabites' obedience : Jer. xxxv. 19, 
* God,' saith he, ' oft recompenseth the shadows and seeming appearances 
of virtue, to shew that complacency he takes in the ample rewards he 
hath reserved for true and sincere piety.' To conclude, it was as easy 
for Boaz to have given Ruth as much corn at once as would have 
yielded her an ephah of barley, and so have sent her home without any 
more ado, but he would not, being resolved that she should use 
her endeavour to gather and glean it, and beat it out too when she had 
gleaned it ; so it is as easy a thing for God to give his Christ, to give 
his Spirit, and to give his grace immediately to poor sinners without 
their using of the means, but he won't, being resolved that they shall 
use the means of hearing, reading, praying, and conference, &c., and 
when they have done, leave the issue of all their labours and endeavours 
to his good-will and pleasure. I have taken the more pains fully and 
clearly to answer this objection, that it may never more have a resur- 
rection in any of your souls. 

(9.) Ninthly, If ever you would be holy, then, when you have done 
all, wait. Oh, hear and wait, and wait and hear ; pray and wait, 
and wait and pray ; read and wait, and wait and read ; confer, and 
wait, and wait and confer ; watch and wait, and wait and watch. 
sirs, shall the husbandman wait for a good harvest ? and the merchant 
for good returns ? James v. 7, 8 ; and the watchman for the dawning of 
the day ? and the patient for a happy cure ? and the poor client for a 
day of hearing ? &c. ; and will not you wait for Christ, and wait for 
the Spirit, and wait for pardon, and wait for grace, and wait for 
glory? &c. sinners, sinners, remember you are at the right 
door, and therefore wait. Oh, remember that whilst you are waiting 
for mercy, God is preparing of mercy. Oh, remember that it is mercy 
that you may wait for mercy. Devils and damned spirits can't wait 
for mercy. Wait they must ; but, oh, it is for more wrath, anger, and 
fiery indignation. Oh, remember your condition bespeaks waiting, for 
you are poor, halt, lame, blind, and miserable creatures. Oh, re- 
member that mercy is sweetest when it comes after a patient waiting: 
Deut. xxxii. 13, 'He made him to suck honey out of the rock, and 


oil out of the flinty rock ; ' that is, he made him to suck water that 
was as sweet as honey out of the rock, out of the flinty rock. Oh, re- 
member that a patient waiting for mercy is the only way to greaten 
your mercy. The longer, said the emperor's son, the cooks are 
a-preparing the meat, the better the cheer will be. His meaning was, 
the longer he stayed for the empire, the greater it would be. So the 
longer a soul waits for mercy, the greater and the better it will be 
when it comes ; as you may see in that famous instance of the poor 
man that lay eight and thirty years at the pool of Bethesda, John v. 
2, 16. Famous was the patience of Elijah's servant, who, in obedience 
to his master's command, went seven several times up and down steep 
Carmel, 1 Kings xviii. 8, which could not be without danger and 
difficulty, and all to bring news of nothing, till his last journey, which 
made a recompense for all the rest, with the tidings of a cloud arising. 
Oh, so do but patiently wait upon the Lord, and that grace, that 
favour, that mercy, will come at last, which will fully recompense you 
for all your waitings. Kemember that the mercies of God are not 
styled the sioift^ but the sure mercies of David, Isa. Iv. 3, Mercy may 
be sure, though it be not presently upon the wing flying towards us. 
And the same prophet saith, ' The glory of the Lord shall be thy 
rere-ward,' Isa. Iviii. 8. Now this, we know, comes up last, to secure 
and make good all the rest, for where grace leads the front, glory at last 
wiU be in the rear. Oh, do but patiently wait, and he that shall come 
will come, and will not tarry, Heb. x. 37 ; not a year, not a quarter, 
not a month, not a week, not a day, no, not an hour beyond the pre- 
fixed time that he hath set of shewing mercy to poor sinners. Oh, 
how sad was it that Saul should lose his kingdom for want of two or 
three hours' patience ! but oh, how much more sad will it be if thou 
shouldst lose all the prayers that thou hast made, and all the sermons 
that thou hast heard, and all the tears that thou hast shed, and all 
other pains that thou hast taken, and all for want of a little more 
patience ! yea, how woeful-sad would it be if thou shouldst lose thy 
God, and lose thy Christ, and lose thy soul, and lose an eternity of 
glory, and all for want of a little patience to wait the Lord's leisure ! 
Oh, therefore resolve to hold on waiting to the death, and if thou must 
perish, to perish in a waiting way, which if thou shouldst, thou 
wouldst be the first that ever so perished. Oh, remember that if God 
should come, and mercy come, and pardon come, and grace come, 
when thy sun is near setting, when thy glass is almost out, and when 
there is but a short step between thee and eternity, it will infinitely 
recompense thee for all thy waiting ; and therefore wait still. And 
to keep up thy spirits, and to uphold thy soul in a waiting way, oh 
that thou wouldst make these following promises thy daily food, thy 
daily friends, thy daily companions : Ps. xxvii. 14, ' Wait on the 
Lord : be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart ; wait, 
I say, on the Lord ; ' Prov. xx. 22, ' Wait on the Lord, and he shall 
save thee ; ' Isa. xxx. 18, ' And therefore will the Lord wait, that he 
may be gracious unto you, and therefore will he be exalted, that he 
may have mercy upon you : for the Lord is a God of judgment. 
Blessed are all they that wait for him ; ' chap. xl. 31 , ' But they that 
wait upon the Lord shaU renew their strength : they shall mount up 


with wings as eagles, they shall run and not be weary, and they shall 
walk and not faint ; ' chap. xlix. 23, ' They shall not be ashamed that 
wait for me ; ' and chap. Ixiv. 4, * For since the beginning of the 
world men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear ; neither hath the 
eye seen, God, besides thee, what he hath prepared for him that 
waiteth for him ; ' Prov. viii. 34, ' Blessed is the man that heareth 
me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors.' 
Oh, how should these precious promises encourage your hearts to wait 
on the Lord ! Oh, how should they lengthen and draw out your 
patience to the utmost ! But, 

(10.) Tenthly and lastly, Divell much upon the memorable judg- 
ments of God, that even in this life has fallen upon unholy persons. 
' Remember Lot's wife,' Luke xvii. 32. Oh, remember her sin and 
punishment, that so fearing the one, you may learn to take heed of the 
other : Isa. xxvi. 9, ' When thy judgments are in the earth, the in- 
habitants of the world will learn righteousness ; ' that is, they should 
learn righteousness — for so the words may be read — they should learn 
to fear thee, and learn to turn unto thee, and learn to forsake their 
sins and amend their lives : when thy judgments, thy memorable 
judgments, are abroad in the world, it highly concerns all the sons of 
men to look after holy dispositions, holy affections, and holy conversa- 
tions, that so it may go well with them in the day of the Lord's wrath. 
Others sense the words thus : When thy judgments are on the earth, 
the inhabitants of the world, that is, sinners as well as saints, shall 
learn righteousness, that is, they shall learn to fear thee upon the ac- 
count of thy righteous judgment; suitable to that. Job xxxvii. 23, 24, 
' Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out : he is excellent in 
power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice. Men do therefore 
fear him ; he respecteth not any that are wise of heart ; ' and to that, 
Eev. XV. 4, ' Who shall not fear thee, Lord, and glorify thy name ? 
for thou only art holy : for all nations shall come and worship before 
thee, for thy judgments are made manifest.' The judgments of God 
upon Antichrist shall so awaken, alarm, and affect the nations, that 
they shall cast off all false ways of worship, and worship the Lord in 
a more pure, spiritual, high, and noble way than ever yet they have 
done. God is a free agent, and he can make sinners saints, as well by 
judgments as by mercies. Waldus, from whom the Waldenses had 
their name, when many were met together to be merry, seeing one 
among them suddenly fall down dead, it struck so to his heart, that he 
went home a penitent, and proved a very precious holy man. Pharaoh 
was not a pin the better for all the plagues that came upon him ; i 
but Jethro, taking notice of God's heavy judgments upon Pharaoh, 
and likewise upon the Amalekites, was thereby converted, and became 
a proselyte, as some observe. sirs, who can tell but that a fixed 
eye upon the remarkable judgments of God that has been inflicted 
upon notorious sinners, may be a means to change you and turn you 
to the Lord ? Forget not the plagues that came upon bloody Pharaoh. 
Remember how crafty Ahithophel, and proud Haman, and covetous 
Judas, came all to the halter. Forget not how the earth opened her 
mouth and swallowed up Korah and his companions. Forget not the 
^ Kabbi Solomoa on Prov. ix. 15. 


angel that drew upon Balaam, nor Samuel's sword that cut Agag in 
pieces, nor the royal oak on which Absalom was hanged, nor the 
javelin by which Phinehas, in his zeal for God, thrust through Zimri 
and Cozbi. Kemember how Ananias and Sapphira were struck dead 
with a lie in their mouths. Kemember how God rained hell out of 
heaven upon Sodom and Gomorrah. Kemember how suddenly, how 
unexpectedly, and how inevitably the flood came upon the old world ; 
and remember how the angels that kept not their first station of holi- 
ness are now in chains under everlasting darkness. Oh, who can 
seriously dwell upon the severe judgments of God upon these persons, 
and not resolve upon breaking off his sins, and pursuing after that 
holiness, without which there is no happiness 1 1 Oh, remember that 
God is as holy a God as ever, and as just a God as ever, and as jealous 
of his glory as ever ; and therefore turn from the evil of your doings, 
that your souls may live. Oh that the dreadful judgments of God 
that has been executed upon others might so alarm all unholy hearts, 
that they may with all their might cast off the works of darkness, and 
put on the armour of light, that so they may be children of the light, 
and their souls may live for ever ! And thus much for the means 
whereby men may reach to that holiness, without which there is no 

I come now, in the third place, to answer those objections which 
usually are made against men's pursuing after holiness. As, 

Object. 1. First, We have no power to make ourselves holy; we are 
as well able to make a world, to command the winds, and to raise the 
dead, as ive are able to cleanse our own hearts, or change our own 
natures, or sanctify our own souls ; and therefore, to what purpose 
should ive be so strongly pressed to do that which we have no poiver to 
do ? Now to this objection I shall give these following answers : 

1. First, That thou hast no power to perform any supernatural 
act, as to believe or love God, or repent, or to change thine own heart, 
or to sanctify or make thyself holy, must be granted; that by nature 
thou art dead in trespasses and sins, and hast lost all thy spiritual 
senses of seeing, hearing, tasting, and feeling, can't be denied, Eph. 
ii. 1. It is certain that thy nature is so corrupted that thou canst 
not think a good thought, nor speak a good word, nor do a good 
work ; thou art not sick, but dead, God-wards, and Christ-wards, and 
heaven-wards, and holiness-wards, &c.2 I have read of the lioness, 
how that she brings forth her whelps dead, and so they remain, till, 
after some time, by her roaring aloud over them, they come to live. 
Certainly all unholy hearts are spiritually dead, and till Christ, the 
Lion of the tribe of Judah, comes to roar over them, by uttering his 
voice in the gospel, they cannot live, John v. 25. It is Christ only 
that can quicken the dead. It was never known since the creation of 
the world that ever a dead man could make himself alive. Sin in 
dominion is the plague of the heart, 1 Kings viii. 38. Now as there 
is no disease so deadly as the plague, so there is no plague so deadly 
as the plague of the heart. Oh, this is a disease that none can cure 

1 See the ' Theatre of God's Judgments,' by Dr Beard and Dr Taylor : and see Mr 
Clarke's ' Looking-glass both for Saints and Sinners.' 
' 2 Cor. iii. 5 ; Mat. xii. 34 ; John vi. 44 ; 1 Cor. IL 14. 


but he who is the physician of souls. An unsanctified person is not 
half-dead, as the Pelagians, Arminians, and Papists say ; but as to 
spirituals he is stark dead, Col. ii. 13. An unsanctified soul is dead. 

[1.] Bespectu operis, In respect of working, and therefore his works 
are called dead works, Heb. ix. 14. There is death written upon all 
he does. 

[2.] Bespectu Iwnoris, He is dead in respect of honour ; he is dead 
to all privileges, he is not fit to inherit mercy. Who will set the 
crown of life upon a dead man's head ? The crown of life is for the 
holy Christian, and the holy Christian is for the crown of hfe, Kev. 
ii. 10 ; 2 Tim. iv. 8. When he in Plutarch had tried all manner of 
ways to raise a dead man, and to make him stand upon his feet, and 
saw he could not do it, then he cried out, There must be something 
within, there must be something within ; so when men have said 
and done all they can, there must be something within, there must be 
something of the power and spirit of Christ within, that must raise 
up spiritual life in those that are spiritually dead. But, 

2. Secondly, I answer, That God gave thee ability and power in 
Adam to obey him in all his commands, and thoiigh by Adam's fall 
thou hast lost thy poioer to obey, yet God has not lost his right and 
power to command thee to obey A Suppose a father should furnish a 
child with moneys and all other necessaries to go a journey, and he 
should be drawn in by some strong temptation to spend his money, 
his time, and his strength, so as that now he is not able to go his 
journey; whose fault is this ? Will you now say that the father hath 
lost his power to command, because his son hath lost his power to 
obey ? Surely no. It is no iniquity in God to require that of us, 
which once he gave unto us. It is no injustice in the creditor to caU 
for his debt, when the debtor is fallen into extreme poverty through 
his own default. But, 

3. Thirdly, I answer. Though an unsanctified person be not able to 
perform any theological or spiritual action, as to believe or repent, &c., 
yet he is able to perform all natural actions, as to eat, drink, work, 
walk, dtc, and he is able to perform all political actions also, as to 
trade, bargain, buy, sell, plant, and build, &c. The soul even in an 
unsanctified person is not dead, but a living principle; and there- 
fore it is able to understand, wHl, desire, discourse, reason, and to 
attend the means of grace. Though he be not able to work grace in 
his own heart, yet he is able to attend on the means of grace. An 
unsanctified person may as well go to a sermon as to a tavern, he 
may as well read the Scriptures as read play-books and pamphlets, he 
may as well associate himself with those that fear an oath, as he does 
with those that delight to blaspheme that name that all should 
tremble at, &c. Man's impotency lies in his obstinacy. Man pre- 
tends he cannot believe, nor he cannot come to Christ, nor he cannot 
repent, &c., when he is resolved that he will not believe, nor he will 
not come to Christ, nor he will not repent, &c.2 Christ in the gospel 
comes and offers pardon and peace and reconciliation, and thou 
turnest thy back upon him ; he woos and entreats and beseeches thee 

1 Gen. i. 26 ; Eccles. vii. 29 ; Ps. viii. 4, seq. 

^ Mat. xxiii. 37 ; Luke xiii. 34 j John v. 40 ; Acts vii. 5. 


by his ambassadors, but thou wilt not hear, &c. He sets life and 
death, heaven and hell, mercy and misery before thee, but thou slightest 
all, 2 Cor, v. 18-20. Christ brings a cordial in one hand to strengthen 
thee, and a remedy in the other hand to cure thee, but thou despisest 
both. Christ offers tried gold to enrich thee, and white raiment to 
clothe thee, and precious eye-salve to enlighten thee, Eev. iii. 18, 
and thou shuttest up thy heart against all his offers. Well, sirs ! 
remember this, in the great day all unsanctified persons will be 
damned, not for cannots but for loill-nots; it is neither men nor devils — 
it is neither the greatness of thy sins, nor the numberless number of thy 
sins that can damn thee, were it not for thy wifulness in sin, Hosea 
xiii. 9. sinners, sinners, if you are but heartily willing to forsake 
your sins, and to accept of Christ as your Lord and King, and to 
resign up yourselves to him to be really his, to be wholly his, to be 
only his, and to be eternally his, he will certainly change you, and 
sanctify you, and save you ; but if you will not be holy, if you will 
not be happy, if you will not be sanctified, if you wiU not be saved, 
if you will not go to heaven, but are resolved upon going to hell, 
what can be more just with God than that you should be Satan's 
bond-slaves, and firebrands of hell, and vessels of wrath to all eternity ? i 

4. Fourthly, I answer. If thou dost hut stir up thyself to obey the 
command as loell as thou canst, thou dost not know but that a power 
may go forth with the command, that may enable thee to act suitable 
to the command. In that Mat. ix. 1-9, Christ bid the palsy man 
' rise and walk, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house.' The 
palsy man might have objected, Alas 1 I am carried by four, I am not 
able to stir a limb, much less to rise, but least of all to take up my 
bed and walk, &c. Oh 1 but he puts forth himself as well as he could, 
and a power went forth with the command, that enabled him to do 
what was commanded. So in that Mat. xii. 10-14, there was a poor 
man that had a withered hand, and Christ commands him to stretch 
forth his hand. He might have objected. My hand is withered, and 
if I might have a thousand worlds to stretch it forth I could not 
stretch it forth, yea, if my life, if my salvation did lie upon stretching 
forth my withered, arm, I could not stretch it forth. Oh ! but he 
throws by all objections, and complies as well as he could, and a 
power went forth and healed his hand. God commanded Moses to 
go and deliver his people out of Egypt. Moses might have objected 
his old age, the power of Pharaoh, and his want of an army to force 
their way, &c. But he turns his back upon these objections, and 
addresses himself to the work, and such a mighty power went along 
with him as did effect it. He commanded the Israelites to take 
rams' horns, and with them to go and blow down the walls of Jericho, 
Joshua vi. They might have said. Lord, these are weak and con- 
temptible means, yea. Lord, if we may speak after the manner of men, 
they are such ridiculous means as will expose us to scorn and laughter ; 
but they pass over these things, and apply themselves to those weak 
and despicable means that God had appointed, and such a divine 
and glorious power went along with the means as made the walls of 
' Prov. xxviii. 13 ; 1 John i. 9 : Luke xix. 41, 42. 


Jericho not only to tremble, but to tumble down before them. Christ 
commanded Lazarus to come out of the grave, and there went a 
divine power and virtue with that call of Christ, which made him to rise. 
The means are the Spirit's triumphing chariot, in which he pleases 
to ride conquering and to conquer the souls of men, 2 Cor. ii. 14. 
' While Peter yet spake, the Holy Ghost fell on aU them that heard 
the word,' Acts x. 44. man, thou canst not tell but that whilst 
thou art in the use of divine helps, a secret power of the Spirit may 
break in upon thee, and make the means effectual to thy conversion 
and salvation. Many thousands have found it so, and therefore 
address thyself to the use of the means, and wait at the pool ; thou 
canst not tell how soon the Spirit may come and move upon thy 
soul ; it may be this day, this hour, yea, this very moment wherein I 
am thus speaking to thee. But, 

5. Fifthly, I answer. That the sense of thine own inability, insuffi- 
ciency, and impotency, should provoke thee to run to Christ, and to 
lay hold on his everlasting strength, and to pAy the throne of grace, and 
to give God no rest, till he has renewed and sanctified thy soul, till he 
has effectually turned thee ''from, darkness to light,' Acts xxvi. 18, 
till he has bespangled thy soul with grace, and filled thee with his 
Spirit, and made thee partakers of his holiness, Heb. xii. 10. It was 
a good saying of one, I)a quodjuhes, etjube quod vis. Give what thou 
commandest, and command what thou wilt.i Oh, go to God, and tell 
him that what he has commanded in some scriptures, he has promised 
to give in other scriptures, and therefore press him to make good his 
promises, that so you may obey his precepts. Oh, tell him that if he 
will but ' sprinkle clean water upon thee, and put his Spirit within 
thee, and give a new heart unto thee,' according to his promise, that 
then ' thou wilt walk in his statutes, and keep his judgments, and do 
them,' Ezek. xxxvi, 25-28. Oh, tell him that if he will but ' put his 
fear into thy heart,' according to his promise, that then ' thou wilt 
never depart from him,' Jer. xxxii. 40. Oh, tell him that he has com- 
manded thee to beheve, and that he has also promised to give thee 
faith, and therefore if he will but make good his promise, thou shalt 
be sure to obey his precepts, Phil. i. 29 ; James v. 17. Oh, tell 
him that he has frequently commanded thee to ' repent,' Acts v. 31, 
and that he has also graciously promised to give * repentance,' 2 Tim. 
ii. 25, and therefore if he will but perform his promise, thou shalt 
not fail to obey his precepts, &c. Oh, tell him that thou hast no mind 
to be damned, tell him that thou tremblest at the thoughts of hell, tell 
him that thou canst not without much horror think of ' dwelling with 
a devouring fire, of dwelling with everlasting burnings,' Isa. xxxiii. 
14 ; 2 Thes. i 7-10. Oh, teU him that thou dreadest an eternal 
separation from him, and therefore earnestly beseech him, for his Son's 
sake, and for his glory sake, and his promise sake, and thy soul's sake, 
that he would renew thy nature, and sanctify thy soul, that so thou 
mayest not perish to all eternity. But, 

6. Sixthly and lastly. What disingenuity, yea, what injustice and 
unrighteousness is this, that thou shouldst lie complaining of the loant 
of power ^ when thou dost not use and improve the power thou hast., 

* Augustine. 



Without the power and assistance of special grace, thou hast power to 
attend religious duties and services ; thou hast power to turn thy back 
upon the infectious and dangerous society of wicked and ungodly men ; 
thou hast power to keep at a distance from the * harlot's door/ thou 
hast power to keep thy mouth of blasphemy shut, thou hast power to 
keep thy hands from stealing, and thy feet ' from being swift to shed 
innocent blood;' thou hast power to bring thy body to an ordinance, 
though thou hast not power to bring thy soul to the ordinance. 1 The 
noble Bereans brought their bodies to the ordinance, and they took 
the heads of the apostle's sermon, and compared them with the Scrip- 
ture, and yet they were in an unrenewed and unsanctified estate, Acts 
xvii. 11, 12. sirs, you have power to come to public ordinances, 
and to set yourselves under the droppings of a gospel powerful min- 
istry ; you have power to lie at the pool of Bethesda, and there to wait 
till the cure be wrought ; but where is the unsanctified soul that im- 
proves the power he has ? Tell me, vain man, why should God 
trust thee with a greater power, when thou makest no conscience of 
improving that power thou hast ? Why should God trust thee with 
ten talents, when thou hast no heart to improve the two that he has 
already trusted thee withal ? What wise father or master will trust 
that child or servant with hundreds or thousands, who makes no con- 
science of improving far lesser sums to the honour and advantage of 
the father or the master ? How dost thou know, man, but that 
upon the faithful improvement of that power thou hast, God may add 
a greater power to thee ? If thou wilt but go that two miles thou 
canst, God may strike in with thee, and enable thee to go ten. It is 
a dangerous thing to neglect the doing of that which thou canst do, 
because that thou canst not do everything that thou shouldst do. 
Suppose a father or a master should say to his son or servant. Take 
such and such wares and commodities, and carry them to such and 
such places, for such and such chapmen ; and the son or servant should 
say. Well, though there be some small light burdens that I can well 
enough carry, yet there are many heavy burdens that I cannot carry, 
and therefore I will carry none at all : may not the father of such a 
son, or the master of such a servant, in much justice and righteousness 
severely punish such a son or servant ? Doubtless yes. Why, this is 
the very case of all unsanctified souls. God commands them to be- 
lieve and repent, and to love him with all their hearts, and to set him 
up as the object of their fear, and to give him the pre-eminence in all 
things, &c. But these are supernatural acts, beyond their power ; and 
he commands them to attend on the means of grace, and to wait at 
wisdom's door. He commands them to apply themselves to public 
ordinances, and to keep close to family duties, and to turn their backs 
upon such and such vicious societies, &c., and these are things they 
can do ; and yet because they cannot do the former, they wilfully and 
wickedly refuse to do the latter ; because they cannot bear the heaviest 
burden, they are resolved they will bear none at all; and because 
they cannot do everything they should, they will do nothing at all, 
except it be to complain that God is a hard master, and expects to 
reap where he does not sow. Now how just and righteous a thing it 

' James iii. 10; Eph. iv. 28 ; Kom. iii. 15. 


is with God to deal severely witli such, I will leave you to judge. 
And let this suffice for answer to the first objection. 

Object. 2. But hereafter may he time enough to look after holiness ; 
I may yet pursue after the pleasures and profits of the world, I may 
yet spend some years in gratifying mine own lusts, and in walking 
after the course of the world ; I have time enough before Tine, and 
therefore some years hence may be time enough to look after holiness, 
Now to this objection I shall give these answers : 

1. First, Tliou ivilt not say that thou canst be saved too soon, nor 
happy too soon, nor blessed too soon, nor pardoned too soon, nor in the 
favour of God too soon, nor out of the danger of lorath, hell, and ever- 

lasting burnings too soon; and if so, then certainly thou canst not be 
holy too soon; for thou canst never be truly liappy till thou art truly 
holy. No man wiU be so foolish and mad as to say he may be rich too 
soon, and great too soon, and high and honourable in the world too 
soon, and in favour and esteem with men, especially with great men, 
too soon ; and why then shouldst thou be so mad and foohsh, as prac- 
tically to say that thou canst be holy too soon ? and yet thus much 
thou dost proclaim upon the house-top, when thou criest out. Here- 
after, hereafter will be time enough to seek after holiness. But, 

2. Secondly, I answer. That it is thy wisdom and thy work to set one 
may-be against another ; thou say est now, that hereafter may be time 
enough to look after holiness, Eccles. vii. 14. Oh, set another may-be 
against this may-be, and say, If I now neglect this season of grace, 
may-be I shall never have another, Isa, Iv. 6 ; if I now slight the offers 
of mercy, it may be I shall never have such offers more ; if I now 
despise this day of salvation, it may be I shall never have such another 
day ; if I now withstand the tenders of Christ, it may be Christ will 
never make a tender to me more ; if I now resist the strivings of the 
Spirit, it may be the Spirit will never strive with my soul more, and 
then woe, woe to me that ever I was born ! ^ Oh, don't put off God, don't 
put off thy soul, don't put off the thoughts of holiness, don't put off 
eternity with may-bes, lest ' the Lord should swear in his wrath, that 
'thou shalt never enter into his rest,' Heb, iii. 18 ; and seeing that thou 
wilt not suffer holiness to enter into thee, thou shalt never enter into thy 
master's joy. Oh, why shouldst thou put off thy poor soul, so as thou 
wouldst not have God to put it off? Thou wouldst not have God to 
put off thy soul with may-bes ; as with a may-be I will pardon thee, 
it may be I will lift up the light of my countenance upon thee, it 
may be I will change thy nature and save thy soul, it may be I will 
fiU thee with my Spirit and adorn thee with my grace, it may be I 
will bring thee to my kingdom and glory. Oh, thou wouldst not have 
God to put thee off with such may-bes ! and why then shouldst thou 
deal more hardly and cruelly with thine own soul than thou wouldst 
have God to deal with thee ? But, 

3. Tliirdly, I answer, It is a clear argument that thou art not truly 
nor throughly sensible of thy present condition and danger, who thus 
objectest. Wert thou but truly sensible of thy lost and undone estate 
out of Christ ; didst thou but indeed know what it is to live one hour 
in a Christless and graceless condition ; didst thou but see that wrath 

^ Prov. i. 20-33 ; Heb. ii. 1-3 ; Luke xix. 41-45 ; Gen. vi. 3. 


that hangs over thy head ; didst thou but read the curses that are 
pronounced in the book of God against thee ; didst thou but behold 
how hell gapes to devour thee ; didst thou but see how far off thou 
art from God, Christ, the covenant, and all the glory and happiness of 
another world ; ah, how wouldst thou every day cry out, Give me holi- 
ness or I die, give me holiness or I eternally die ! Acts ii. 39 ; Eph. ii. 
12. The patient that is truly sensible of his disease will not say, 
hereafter will be time enough to send for the physician ; nor the 
wounded man will not say, hereafter will be time enough to fetch the 
surgeon ; nor the condemned man will not say, hereafter will be time 
enough to sue for a pardon ; nor the needy man will not say, hereafter 
will be time enough to look for relief; nor the fallen man will not say, 
hereafter will be time enough to lift me up ; nor the drowning man will 
not say, hereafter wiU be time enough to bring a boat to save my life. 
Now this is the very case of all unsanctified persons in the world ; 
and why then should they cry out, hereafter, hereafter will be time 
enough to be holy ? The boar in the fable, being questioned why he 
stood whetting his teeth so when nobody was near to hurt him, wisely 
answered, that it would then be too late to whet them when he was 
to use them, and therefore he whetted them so before danger that he 
might have them ready in danger. Ah, sirs, there is nothing more 
dangerous than for you to have your holiness to seek, when temporal, 
spiritual, and eternal dangers are at your heels. There is no wisdom 
to that which leads men forth to a present pursuit after holiness, nor 
no hell to that for a man to have his holiness to seek when he should 
use it. 

4. Fourthly, I answer, Tliat the brevity, shortness, and preciousness 
of time, calls alovd upon thee to pursue after holiness without delay} 
Time past is irrecoverable, time to come is uncertain, the present time 
is the only time, and on this moment of time depends eternity. This 
very day is a day of grace ; oh that thou hadst but grace to take notice 
of it. This very time is an acceptable time ; oh that thou hadst but a 
heart to accept of it, and to improve it. He that hath a great way to 
go, and a great deal of work to do in a Kttle time, had not need to 
trifle away his time ; and this is the case of every unsanctified soul. 
Oh, the sins that such a soul hae to repent of ! oh, the graces that such 
a soul has to seek ! oh, the evidences for heaven that such a soul has 
to secure ! oh, the miseries that such a soul has to escape ! oh, the 
mercies that such a soul has to press after, &c. ; and therefore of all 
men in the world, it stands upon unsanctified persons well to husband 
and improve their present time. Oh, it is a dangerous thing to put off 
that work to another day which must be done to-day, or else thou 
mayest be eternally undone to-morrow. The old saying was, Nunc 
aut nunquam : Now or never ; if not now done, it may be never done, 
and if so, then thou art undone for ever. Many sinners are now in 
hell, who when they were on earth were wont to put off the motions 
of the Spirit by crying out, eras, cra^, to-morrow, to-morrow. Time 
is so precious a thing that mountains of gold and rocks of pearl cannot 
redeem one lost moment; which that great lady [Queen Elizabeth] 
well understood, when on her death-bed she cried out, ' Call time 
^ Sumptus pretiosiasimus trempus. — Theoj>hrastu$, 


again, call time again ; a world of wealth for an inch of time/ Ah, 
what a precious and gainful commodity would time be in hell, where 
for one day to repent, yea, for one hour to seek after holiness, a man 
would give ten thousand worlds, were they in his hands to dispose of. 
Time is so costly a jewel that few know how to value it and prize it at 
a due rate. Witness that sad and frequent complaint among many, 
Oh, what shall we do to drive away the time ? come, let 's go to cards 
to drive away the time ! or let 's go to tables to drive away the time ! 
or let 's go to the tavern, and take a pint and a pipe to drive away 
the time ! or let 's go and take a walk in the fields to drive away the 
time ! &c. Thus most are lavishly and profusely prodigal of that 
precious time which is their greatest interest to redeem. Time is a 
precious talent, and the non-improvement of it God will charge upon 
men at last, as he did upon Jezebel, Eev. ii. 20, 21, especially upon 
such who trifle away, who play away, who idle away, yea, who grossly 
sin away their precious time. How many are there like children, who 
play till their candle be out, and then they go to bed in the dark ! 
So these play and fool away their precious time, till the candle of life 
be out, and then they go to their beds, they go to their graves in 
sorrow, yea, they go to hell in the dark. I have read of a young man 
who, living vainly and loosely, was very fearful of being in the dark, 
who after falling sick and could not sleep, cried out, ' Oh, if this dark- 
ness be so terrible, what is eternal darkness ! ' i He that makes no 
conscience of trifling away his precious time, shall one day experience 
the terribleness of eternal darkness. The poets paint time with wings, 
to shew the volubility 2 and swiftness of it.^ sirs, if the one sense 
of the brevity, shortness, and preciousness of time did but lie in its 
full weight upon your spirits, it would certainly put you upon a speedy 
and earnest pursuit after holiness ! Oh, then you would never say, 
hereafter, hereafter will be time enough to seek after holiness ; but you 
would address yourselves to a fervent and a constant pressing after 
holiness as the one thing necessary, and be restless in your own spirits, 
till you had experienced the power and sweetness that is in holiness ! 

5. Fifthly and lastly, I answer. That it is the greatest folly and mad- 
ness in the luorld for thee to put of^ the great God and the great 
concernments of thy soul, so as thou darest not put off thy superiors. 
Where is the subject that dares put off a lawful duty urged upon 
him by his prince with a may-be, or with a hereafter it may be I will 
do it, or hereafter I wiU do it ? or where is that servant that dares 
put off his lord's present commands with a may-be, or with a here- 
after it may be I will do it, or hereafter I will do it ? or where is the 
ingenuous child that dares put off a present duty pressed upon him by 
his parents with a may-be, or with a hereafter it may be I will do it, 
or hereafter I will do it ? or where is the affectionate wife that dares 
put off the just desires and requests of her husband with a may-be, or 
with a hereafter it may be I will answer your desires, or hereafter I 
will answer your requests ? sirs, you dare not put off your superiors 

^ Drexellius. ['Considerations on Eternity,' a favourite of the Puritans, as translated 
by Winterton.— G.] " ' Kapidity.'— G. 

* Sophocles, Phocilides, &c. [Aa before. — G.] 


with may-bes, or with hereafters, and how then do you dare to put off 
the King of kings and the Lord of lords, with may-bes and with here- 
afters ? it may be I will look after holiness, it may be I will study 
holiness, it may be I will prize holiness, or hereafter I will press after 
holiness, I will pursue after holiness, hereafter I will follow hard after 
holiness. Oh, remember that as there is nothing that does more 
incense, enrage, and provoke a prince against his subjects, a lord 
against his servants, a father against his child, and a husband against 
his wife, than the putting off of their services and commands with 
may-bes or with hereafters ; so there is nothing that does more incense, 
inflame, and provoke the great God, than to put him off with may-bes, 
or with hereafters ; as you may see by comparing the scriptures in the 
margin together, i And oh that for time to come you would tremble 
at the very thoughts of a may-be, and at the very mentioning of a 
hereafter, that so you may never put off the commands of God, to 
pursue after holiness with a may-be, or with a hereafter any more. 
And let this suffice for answer to this second objection. 

Object. 3. Thirdly, But if we should thus press and pursue after 
holiness, then we must take our farewell of all Joy and comfort, of all 
delight and pleasure, and never expect to enjoy one merry day more, 
for we observe that there are no persons under heaven that live such a 
melancholy, sad, sorrowful, pensive life, as those ivho press most after 
holiness, and wlio make most stir and noise about Jioliness, and there- 
fore if we should resolve to follow after holiness, we mu^t resolve to spend 
our days in sorrow and sadness, in sighing and mourning, and this we 
had as lief die as do, &c. 

Now to this grand objection, I shall give these eight answers : 

1. First, It may he thou loohest only on the dark side of the cloud, 
and not on the bright ; thou lookest only on thy left hand, where the 
mourners in Zion stand, but didst thou but cast an eye on thy right 
hand, there thou wouldst see many of the precious sons and daughters 
of Zion rejoicing and triumphing. 2 Now thus to look, what is it but 
to look for a straw to thrust out thine own eyes with. sirs, it is 
neither wisdom nor righteousness to look only upon those who mourn, 
and not upon those that rejoice, upon those that sigh, but not upon 
those that sing, Isa. Hi. 8, 9 ; Jer. xxxi, 7, 12. Before you pass a 
judgment upon the people of God, or the good ways of God, look on 
both hands, I say again, look on both hands, and then you will be sure 
to see some saints in their wedding attire, as well as others in their 
mourning weeds ; no man in his wits will argue thus, because such and 
such men of such a calling or trade are in their mourning weeds,' 
therefore all men of that calling or trade are in their mourning weeds; 
and yet so witless are many men as thus to argue against the people 
of God, and the ways of God. But, 

2. Secondly, I answer, As there are tears of sorroiv, so there are 
tears of joy? Jacob weeps over Joseph, but it was with tears of ex- 
ceeding joy. The sweetest joy is from the sourest tears. Tears are 

^ Pa. xcv. 6, to the end. Heb. iii. 7, to the end. 
2 Isa. Ixi. 1-3, 10, 11, and xixv. 10. 

' Compare these scriptores together; Gen. xliii. 30, xlv. 2, and xlvi. 29, 30; 1 Sam. 
i. 13-20. 


the breeders of spiritual joy. A holy man's heart is usually fullest of 
joy when his eyes are fullest of tears. When Hannah had wept, she 
went away and was no more sad. The bee gathers the best honey of 
the bitterest herbs. Christ made the best wine of water : the best, the 
purest, the strongest, and the sweetest joys are made of the distilled 
waters of evangelical repentance. Gospel mourning is no way incon- 
sistent with holy joy. Though it must be granted that the love of 
sin and true joy are inconsistent, and that the reign and dominion of 
sin and true joy are inconsistent, yet it must be confessed that mourn- 
ing for sin and holy joy are consistent in one and the same heart ; and 
though legal terror and evangelical joy are inconsistent, yet evangelical 
sorrow and evangehcal joy are consistent in one and the same soul. 
The same eye of faith that drops tears of sorrow, drops also tears of 
joy, Zech. xii. 10 ; 1 Pet. i. 8. A clear sight of free grace, of 
pardoning mercy, and of a bleeding dying Saviour, will at the same 
time fill the soul both with sorrow and joy, as the experiences of a 
thousand Christians can testify. A Christian always joys most, and 
mourns most, when he is most under the sense of divine love, the 
influences and incomes of heaven, the hopes of glory, the reports of 
mercy, and the precious sealings of the blessed Spirit. Look, as physic 
is the way to health, so godly sorrow is the way to holy joy; and look, as 
a wicked man's joy ends in sorrow, Prov. xiv. 13, so a godly man's sorrow 
ends in joy : Isa. Ixi. 3, ' To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to 
give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment 
of gladness for the spirit of heaviness, that they may be called trees of 
righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified.' 
Godly sorrow is the parent of holy joy ; a godly man's mourning time 
is his most joyful time. I have read of a godly man who, lying upon 
his dying bed, and being asked which was the joyfullest time that ever 
he had in all his life, cried out, ' Oh, give me my mourning days again, 
oh, give me my mourning days again, for they were the joyfullest days 
that ever I had.' The more a Christian ' sows in tears,' the greater, 
even in this world, shall be his 'harvest of joy;' his merry days 
shall be always answerable to his mourning days, Ps. cxxvi. 6. 

3. Thirdly, I answer. That this is a false charge, a mere slander, an 
unjtist calumny that Satan and his bond-slaves have cast upon holiness, 
and the ways of holiness, on purpose to hinder men from pursuing and 
following after holiness. The language of the objection is quite con- 
trary to the language of the holy Scripture ; witness that Ps. cxxxviii. 
5, ' Yea, they shall sing in the ways of the Lord ; for great is the 
glory of the Lord.' When the kings of the earth shaU be generally 
converted and sanctified, as it is in verse the 4th, ' then they shall 
sing in the ways of the Lord.' When they shall come to experience 
and taste the power, excellency, and sweetness of holiness, ' then they 
shall sing in the ways of the Lord.' Conversion and sanctification 
administer the highest grounds of joy and rejoicing : 2 Cor. i. 12, ' For 
our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity 
and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, 
we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to 
you-wards.' A holy conversation affords the greatest ground of 


rejoicing. There is no joy to that which springs from the testimony 
of a sanctified conscience. God has given it under his own hand, that 
* the ways of wisdom' (which are always ways of holiness) ' are ways 
of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace,' Prov. iii. 17. There is 
no pleasure nor felicity to that which flows from the ways of sanctity. 
The sweetest roses, the strongest comforts, and the greatest pleasant- 
ness, is to be found in the ways of holiness. Oh the joy, the peace, 
the tranquillity, the serenity that attends the ways of purity. I 
might call in many millions of saints, who from their own expe- 
riences are able to give the He to this objection, and further to tell 
you, that they have met with more comforts, sweetness, and plea- 
santness in one hour's communion with God, in one hour's walking 
with God, than ever they have found in aU the ways of ungodliness 
and wickedness, wherein they have wandered. Oh, they are able 
to tell you, that when they walked in ways of impiety, they found 
by experience that God had made a separation between sin and 
peace, between sin and joy, between sin and assurance, between sin 
and the light of his countenance, &c., Isa. Ivii. 20, 21; and they are 
able to tell you from what they have found, that there is no fear, no 
terror, no horror, no gripes, no grief, no stings, no hells to those that 
attend the ways of ungodliness ; and this were enough to blow off this 
objection, Kom. vi. 21. But, 

4. Fourthly, I answer, Tlud the joy of the saints is chiefly and mainly 
an inward joy, a spiritual joy, a joy that lies remote from a carnal 
eye. The joy of a Christian lies deep, it cannot be expressed, it cannot 
be painted. Look, as no man can paint the sweetness of the honey- 
comb, nor the sweetness of a cluster of grapes, nor the fragrancy of the 
rose of Sharon ; so no man can paint out the sweetness and spiritual- 
ness of a Christian's joy, it lies so deep and low in a gracious heart. 
And look, as the life of a Christian is ' hid with Christ in God,' Col. 
iii. 3 ; so the joy of a Christian is ' hid with Christ in God.' As their 
life is a hidden life, so their joy is a hidden joy. The joy of a Christian 
is ' hidden manna,' it is the ' new name and white stone, that none 
knoweth but he that has it,' Rev. ii. 20 ; Prov. xiv. 10, ' The heart 
knoweth his own bitterness, and a stranger doth not intermeddle with 
his joy.' The joy of a saint is a jewel that falls not under a stranger's 
eye. Look, as the greatest terrors and torments of the wicked are 
inward, so the greatest joys and comforts of the saints are inward ; and 
look, as the heart of man is deep, so holy joy is a treasure that lies 
deep, and it is not every man that has a golden key to search into this 
treasury, Jer. xvii. 9, 10. As a man standing on the sea-shore sees a 
great heap of waters, one wave riding upon the back of another, and 
making a dreadful noise, but all this while, though he sees the water 
rolling, and hears it raging and roaring, yet he sees not the wealth, 
the gold, the silver, the jewels, and incredible treasures that lie buried 
there ; so wicked men they see the wants of the saints, but not their 
wealth, they see their poverty, but not their riches, their miseries, but 
not their mercies, their conflicts, but not their comforts, their sorrows, 
but not their joys, 1 Cor. ii. 14. Oh, the blind world cannot see the 
joys and rejoicings, the comforts and consolations of the saints, that 
lie at the bottom of their souls. Their joys are inward and spiiitual^ 


and so must the eye be that discerns them. The joy of the saints is 
like ' a garden enclosed, a spring shut up, a fountain sealed,' Cant. iv. 
12 ; and as the glory of the church is inward, Ps. xlv. 13, so the joy 
of the church is inward. The waters of consolation lie deep in the 
wells of salvation, Isa. xii, 3. The richest veins of ore lie deepest 
under ground ; and so does the strongest and the choicest joys of the 
saints lie deep. The moon is often dark to the world, when yet that 
part which faceth the sun is very lightsome, beautiful, and glorious ; 
so many times, if you look upon the outside of a Christian, which is 
his dark side, you may see his countenance clouded, and his carriage 
and behaviour as to the world either damped or obscured ; but if you 
could but now look upon his inside, which is his best side, and which 
faces the Sun of righteousness, oh, then you should see the light of joy 
and comfort sweetly and gloriously shining forth. sirs, look, as 
there are many rich men in the world, who make no show of it by 
their garb, or table, or attendance, &c., so there are many Christians 
that are rich in divine consolations, who yet don't shew it in such or 
such an outward carnal way as the men of the world do usually express 
their joy in : and look, as many a wicked man has heaviness in his 
heart when he has laughter in his face, as the wisest of princes has 
long since observed, in Pro v. xiv. 13, ' Even in laughter the heart is 
sorrowful, and the end of that mirth is heaviness.' The heart often 
weeps when the mouth laughs. Every laughter is not hearty, for 
laughter being but a sign of joy, the sign may be where the substance 
is not. Many wicked men are inwardly sad when they are outwardly 
glad, 2 Cor. v. 12. The false apostles did glory in the face,i and not 
in the heart ; they set a good face on it, and seemed to be upon a merry 
pin, and yet all their smiles were but counterfeit smiles, all their joys 
were but skin deep ; the joy that was in their faces was nothing to the 
terrors, horrors, and torments that were in their hearts ; so the godly 
many times rejoice in heart, when sadness and blackness seems to 
cover their faces : 2 Cor. vi. 10, ' As sorrowful, yet always rejoicing,' 
&c. It is very observable that the apostle brings in the sorrow of the 
godly with a quasi, as it were sorrow, not that it is sorrow indeed, 
but ' as sorrowful,' as if their sorrow had been rather a painted sorrow 
than a real sorrow ; but when he speaks of their joy, there is no quasi, 
but true joy; he does not say ' as rejoicing,' but ' always rejoicing.' 
Their joy was a real joy, but their sorrow was but a seeming sorrow, to 
the weak and childish opinions of vain men. When a Christian is at 
worst, as to the eye of the world, he may say of his joy, as Christ 
speaks of his meat, &c., when he said, ' I have meat to eat that you 
know not of,' John iv. 33 ; so he may say, I have joy, I have great 
joy, that the world knows not of. Look, as there is life and sap and 
juice in the root of the tree, even in the winter season, when there is 
no leaves, nor blossoms, nor fruit hanging on the tree ; so there is joy 
and comfort and peace in the heart of a saint, when there are no 
outward visible discoveries of it to others ; and you may as rationally 
conclude that there is no life, sap, and juice in the root of the tree, 
because the tree has no leaves, blossoms, or fruit on it, as you may 
conclude that the saints have no joy in their hearts, because they do 

^ iy Trpoffwvu, in the face. 


not express it in such outward visible acts as may convince the world 
thaiii they have it, &c. But, 

5. Fifthly, I answer, That it is horrid injustice and disingenuity 
in thee, and in such as thou art, to make the hearts of the righteous 
sad, ivJiom God would not Imve sadded, hy your pride, profaneness, 
looseness, wickedness, worldliness, lukeivarmness, pithiness, camalness, 
dec, and then to cry out against them, that they are the saddest and 
uncomfortahlest people in the ivorld, Ezek. xiii. 22, 23. What is this 
but, with Nero, to set the city of Kome on fire, and then to lay it upon 
the Christians, and punish them for it ? What is this but to deal by 
the saints as the devil deals by them ? He loads them and follows them 
with most sad, grievous, blasphemous, horrid, and hellish temptations, 
on purpose to make them walk heavily, mournfully, and uncomfort- 
ably, and when he has accomplished his design, then he accuses them 
sometimes to God, sometimes to themselves, and sometimes to others, 
for their heavy and uncomfortable walking, Kev. xii. 10. Oh, what 
inhumanity, cruelty, and vanity was it in the Egyptians to double 
the Israelites' tale of bricks, and to take away their straw, and then 
to cry out ' that they were idle, they were idle,' Exod. v. 8, 17 ; so, oh 
what inhumanity and cruelty is this in unsanctified persons, to sad, 
grieve, and afflict the people of God with their drunkenness, wanton- 
ness, and lewdness, and with their cursing, swearing, and lying, and 
with their scorning and scoffing at godliness, and with their slandering 
of the Lord, his people and ways, and with their resisting and quench- 
ing of the blessed motions of the Spirit, and with their shifting off the 
glorious offers of grace and mercy, and with their treasuring up of 
wrath against the day of wrath, &c.,^ and then to cry out. Oh, how sadly, 
oh, how mournfully, do these men walk ! oh, what uncomfortable lives 
do these men live ! oh, what sorrow and pensiveness does still attend 
them ! But is this just ? is this fair ? Suppose a husband should do 
a,ll he could to afflict and grieve his wife, and a father his child, and 
a master his servant, and a friend his friend, &c., and when they had 
done, then fall a-complaining that there were none so melancholy, nor 
none so sad and sorrowful as they ; oh, what folly, what madness, and 
what injustice were this ! and yet this is the common dealing of un- 
sanctified persons with the people of God, Dan. iv. 27. Ah, sinners, 
sinners, if you would but break off your sins by repentance, and cease 
from doing evil, and turn to the Lord with all your hearts, and believe 
on the Lord Jesus Christ, and fall in with the ways of God, and 
trample upon this wicked world, and seek after the things of a better 
life, oh, how soon would the saints' sighing be turned into singing, and 
their mourning into rejoicing 1 Oh, the music, the mirth, the melody, 
that your conversion would make, both in their hearts and in their 
ears ! It is very observable that Abraham made a feast at the 
weaning of his son Isaac, Gen. xxi. 8. He did not make a feast on 
the day of his nativity, nor on the day of his circumcision, but on that 
day when he was taken from his mother's breast. sirs, if you were 
but once weaned from your lusts, and from the vanities of this world, 
if you were but once weaned from old corrupt customs, and from fol- 
lowing after your sinful lovers, oh, how would all God's faithful 
' Ps. cxix. 136, 158 ; Jer. ix. 1, 2 j 2 Pet. ii. 7, 8 ; Rom. ii. 4, 5. 


Abrahams rejoice ! 1 Pet. i. 18, 19 ; Hosea vi. 7. Oh, what a feast 
of fat things ! oh, what a heavenly banquet would this make in aU 
their hearts ! About three hundred years after the apostles' time, Caius 
Marius Victorius, an old pagan, was converted from his paganism, 
infidelity, and impiety, and brought over to the Christian faith; 
which, when the people of God saw, there was wonderful rejoicing, 
and shouting, and dancing for gladness, and psalms were sung in 
every church, ' Caius Marius Victorius is become a Christian, Caius 
Marius Victorius is become a Christian!' This was written as a 
wonder, and sung as a wonder, that this old pagan, this gray-headed 
pagan, should become a gracious Christian, that he should in his old 
age be renewed and sanctified. Ah, friends, if you were but once 
converted and changed, if you were but once turned from darkness to 
light, if you were but once brought to Christ, if the people of God 
could but once see that you had passed the pangs of the new birth, 
and that Christ and holiness was but formed in your souls, ah, how 
would their hearts be filled with joy, and their mouths with laughter ! 
Oh, what songs of salvation would they sing ! Oh, how would the 
high praises of God be in their mouths ! Thou sayest. Oh there are 
none so sad and sorrowful, &c., as such and such Christians ; but what 
is the cause of their sorrow and sadness ? is it not thy wickedness and 
ungodliness ? is it not thy unconverted and unsanctified estate ? Surely 
yes. Oh that thou wouldst therefore cease from complaining against 
them, and fall amending of thine own heart and ways ! and then all 
tears wUl be quickly wiped away from their eyes. But, 

6. Sixthly, I answer. That all the joys, delights, and pleasures that 
holiness debars men of, are sinful joys, delights, and pleasures.^ Unsanc- 
tified souls take pleasure in unrighteousness ; they rejoice to do evil, they 
make a sport of sin, and delight to dishonour their God, and damn 
their own immortal souls : Prov. ii. 14, ' They rejoice to do evil, and 
delight in the frowardness of the wicked/ And this is brought in as 
an aggravation of Jerusalem's sin : Jer. xi. 15, ' When thou doest 
evil, then thou rejoicest.' Ah, how madly-merry are they that can 
take delight and content in that which is their shame and misery ! 
ah, how is man fallen from his primitive glory, that he can now 
rejoice in that which is a dishonour to God, a reproach to Christ, a 
grief to the Spirit, a provocation to divine wrath, a blot upon his 
name, a curse upon his estate, a wound upon his conscience, and a 
plague upon his soul ! Now what a mercy must it be to be taken off 
from that carnal mirth that ends in mourning, and from those vain 
delights that ends in unspeakable torments, and from that foolish 
jollity that leads to everlasting misery! Rev. xviii, 17. I have read of 
king Lysimachus, that when he and his army were besieged in one of 
his cities, and in great danger of perishing by thirst, for a cup of cold 
water he delivered up the keys of the city to his enemy, which cold 
comfort he had no sooner tasted but his tongue bewrayed the grief 
of his heart, saying, ' Oh that, in lieu of so momentary a pleasure, I 
should be made of a sovereign a servant, of a king a captive ! ' 2 Ah, 
what folly and madness is it for men to run the hazard of losing the 

1 Rom. i. 32 ; 2 Thes. ii. 12 ; Amos vi. 13 ; Zeph. iii. 11 ; 2 Pet. ii. 13. 
^ Plutarch, as before. — G. 


kingdom of heaven, and the pleasures that be at God's right hand, 
Ps. xvi. 11, for those short-lived pleasures that are but like a blaze, or 
like the lightning, or like a morning cloud, or the early dew which 
soon passeth away ! i Ah, who would endure an ocean of torture for 
a drop of sensual pleasure, or for a few bitter sweets ? And therefore 
doubtless God can't do the soul a greater pleasure than to take it off 
from such vanishing pleasures. All sensual pleasures defile the soul, 
they debase the soul, yea, they debauch the soul; they take off the 
heart from God, and they deaden the heart towards God. The 
widow whilst she lived in pleasure is reckoned dead, 1 Tim. v. 6. She 
is dead God- wards, and dead Christ- wards, and dead duty-wards, and 
dead heaven-wards, and dead hoHness-wards, &c. Aristotle writes of a 
parcel of ground in Sicily that sends forth such a strong, such a sweet 
smell of fragrant flowers, that no hounds can hunt there ; 2 so the 
carnal pleasures of this world do send forth so strong a scent, that 
unsanctified persons cannot hunt after God, nor Christ, nor holiness, 
nor the great concernments of another world ; and therefore it is rather 
man's felicity than his misery to be taken off from such vain pleasures. 
Sensual pleasures and delights cannot satisfy the soul of man ; they 
are but frothy and flashy, they only wet the mouth, they never warm 
the heart. A man may sooner break his neck than satisfy his heart 
with sensual pleasures. They are Junes in the pursuit, and but clouds 
in the enjoyment. Xerxes being weary of his sensual pleasures, pro- 
mised great rewards to them that should invent new pleasures ; and 
when they had invented new pleasures and delights, yet then he could 
not be satisfied nor contented ; he would fain have had one pleasure 
to have taken off the weariness of another, but it could not be. There 
is nothing in carnal delights but imagination and expectation; for 
they can neither fill the heart nor satisfy the heart. 

O sirs, there is no real pleasure in sin. All the pleasures of sin are 
counterfeit pleasures ; they are but the shapes and shadows of pleasure ; 
they are the seeds of future grief ; they are but an earnest laid down 
for sorrow or ruin. It is observed by the mythologists that pleasure 
went on occasion to bathe herself, and having stripped off her clothes 
by the water-side, sorrow having hid herself at hand, steals the clothes 
away, puts them on, and so departs ; so that carnal pleasures are 
nothing but sorrow in pleasure's clothes. Certainly if there were the 
least real delight in sin, hell could never be hell, yea, then it would 
follow that hell should be the greatest place of pleasure, for doubtless 
hell is the greatest place of sin. Oh, don't deceive your own souls ! there 
can be no real joy in sensual pleasures. What real delight or pleasure 
can there be in tippling and fuddling in an ale-house or tavern, in 
swaggering and swearing, in dicing and carding, in dancing, masking, 
and whoring, in slighting of Sabbaths, in scoffing at saints, in despis- 
ing of ordinances, and in pursuing after lying vanities ? Surely none. 
And as for those seeming pleasures that attend the ways of sin, ah, how 
soon do they vanish and leave a sting behind them ! Now all the 
pleasures that holiness deprives you of are only such that you may 
better ten thousand times want than enjoy. Look, as all the pleasures 

^ Momentancum est quod delectat, aeternum quod cruciat. — Bernard. 
• Aa before. — G. 


that manhood takes a man off from are babyish and toyish pleasm-es ; 
as from delighting in a rattle, a pipe, a feather, a hobby-horse, a 
wooden sword, &c. ; so all the pleasures and delights that holiness 
takes a man off from, they are babyish and foolish, yea, they are base, 
dangerous, and devilish ; and therefore it must needs be rather a high 
felicity than a misery for God to take thee off from such sinful 
pleasures and delights, by laying principles of holiness into thy heart. 
Oh ! remember that holiness will be no loss unto thee ; it will be only 
an exchange of sinful delights for those that are holy, and of carnal for 
those that are spiritual, and of earthly for those that are heavenly. 
Isaac was not to be sacrificed, but the ram. All the delights that 
hoKness will put thee upon to sacrifice are but the rammish and rank 
delights of sin and the world, which may better be sacrificed than 
aspared. Holiness will secure thy Isaac — that is, thy spiritual laughter, 
thy spiritual joy, and thy heavenly delights and pleasure. Well, for a 
close, remember this, that sensual pleasures are below a man. Witness 
TuUy, who saith that he is not worthy of the name of a man, qui unum 
diem velit esse in voluptate, that would entirely spend one whole day 
in pleasures ; and witness Julian the apostate, who professed that the 
pleasures of the body were far below a great spirit. He that delights 
in sensual pleasures shall find at last his greatest pleasures to become 
iis bitterest pains. All that holiness will do is but to ease thee of thy 
pains, and therefore thou hast more cause to pursue after it than 
to turn thy back upon it. But, 

7. Seventhly, I answer. That it may be their present case and con- 
dition, bespeaks rather the exercise and evidence of sorrow and of grief, 
than of gladness, Joy , and triumph. 

[1.] For first. It may be some wound or guilt at present may lie hard 
upon their consciences, as once it did on David's, Ps. li.i And 
who then is able to rejoice under a wounded conscience, a guilty con- 
science ? As long as Adam did fast in paradise, he stood fast ; 
but having once wounded his conscience by eating the forbidden 
fruit, though he tarried a while in paradise, yet he could take no 
dehght nor content in paradise. It is true the sun did shine as bright 
as ever, and the rivers ran as clear as ever, and the birds sang as 
sweetly as ever, and the beasts played as pleasantly as ever, and the 
flowers smelled as fragrantly as ever, and all the trees and fruits 
of the garden did flourish as bravely as ever, &c. Ah, but now Adam 
had contracted guilt upon his conscience, and this mars his joy, and 
spoils his delight, and unparadises paradise to him ; his fall had made 
so deep a wound in his conscience, that he could take no delight 
in any of the dehghts of paradise. Guilt as an arrow did stick so fast 
in his conscience, that instead of sucking sweetness from the fairest 
fruits, he runs to hide himself under the broadest leaves, Gen. iii. 10. 
Guilt makes a man a Magor-missabib, Jer. xx. 3, a terror to himself. 
Put never such stately robes upon a wounded man, he minds them not ; 
set never such dainty fare before a wounded man, he relisheth it not ; 
lay him on never so soft a bed, yet it pleaseth him not ; and let him 
hear never such sweet music, yet it delights him not ; the smart 

^ Multi conscientiam habent, non ad remidium, aed ad judicium, saith one. And 
Tolle conscientiam, tolle omnia, saith another. 


and sense of his wound takes off the sweet of all : and so does a wound 
in the conscience take off the sweet of all a man's enjoyments and con- 
tentments. A guilty conscience, like Prometheus's vulture, lies ever 
gnawing. 1 What the probationer-disciple said to our Saviour — viz., 
' Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest,' Mat. viii. 19 — that 
a guilty conscience says to a fallen sinner : if thou fast I will follow 
thee, and fill thy mind with black and dismal apprehensions of God, 
of justice, of hell ; if thou feast I will follow thee, and shew thee the 
handwriting on the wall that shall make thy countenance to change, 
thy thoughts to be troubled, and thy joints to be loosed, and thy knees 
to be dashed one agaiust another, Dan. v. 5 ; when thou goest forth I 
will follow thee with terrors, and when thou returnest home I will 
follow thee with horrors ; when thou goest to board I will follow thee 
with stinging accusations, and when thou goest to bed I will follow 
thee with terrifying and affrighting dreams. Job vii. 14. Now what 
joy can be in such a man's heart ? what gladness can be in such 
a man's face ? Surely none. I remember a saying of Luther, Una 
gutiula rmilce conscientice totum mare mundani gaudii absorbet, One 
drop of an evil conscience swallows up the whole sea of worldly joy.^ 
Oh, it is better with Evagrius to lie secure on a bed of straw, than to 
lie with a guilty conscience on a bed of down, having the curtains 
embroidered with gold, and the fringes bespangled with pearls. Sin 
brings such a stain and such a sting with it, as spoils all a man's joys 
and delights. And if this be the present case of a Christian, as it 
may, then never wonder to see him hang down his head, and to walk 
mournfully before his God. Or, 

[2.] Secondly, This may arise from some great and heavy afflic- 
tion, which for the present may sadly distress and oppress a saint's 
spirit ; as Job's did his, or as Hezekiah's did his, or as Jacob's did 
his, &C.3 The disease may be so violent, the physic may be so strong, 
the wound may be so deep, the plaster may be so corroding, the melt- 
ing pot may be so hot, the iron chains may be so heavy, the gall and 
wormwood may be so bitter, that a Christian may be so far from joy 
and rejoicing, as that he may for the present be so shut up under 
trouble and amazement, and under sorrow and grief, as that he may 
not be able, if you would give him all the world, to open his case unto 
you ; his eyes may in some sort tell what his tongue can in no 
sort utter, Ps. Ixxvii, 4. Usually they are the smallest miseries, when 
he that hath them can presently teU all the world of them. The 
greatest sorrow hath for the most part the deepest silence attending on 
it. What Christian ever had joy in his heart or gladness in his face, 
when God was carrying of it harshly and roughly towards him ? Or, 

[3.] Thirdly, It may be they are deserted, happily ^ God is with- 
draion from them, and he that should comfort them stands afar qff.^ 
Ah, what Christian can rejoice when the countenance of God is 
not towards him as of old ? who can be pleasant when God is dis- 

^ Desperare est in infernum descendere. — Isidore. 

' It was guilt that made that despairing Pope say that the cross could do him no good, 
he had so often sold it. " Job iii. 38 ; Isa. ix. 16 ; Gen. xxxvii. 30, to the end. 

* ' Perhaps.'— G. 

' Lam. i. 16 ; Gen. xxxi. 2, 5 ; Ps. xxx. 7 ; read the 77th and the 88th Psalms ; Iga. 
viii. 17 ; Micah vii. 7-9, 17 ; Ps. iv. 6, and xlii. 5, 11, &c. 



pleased ? who can smile when God frowns ? who can sing when God 
sighs ? who can be merry when God is sorry ? Surely none that have 
ever experienced what the shinings of his face means ! sirs, the 
proper work of a deserted soul lies not in joy and rejoicing, but in 
mourning and waiting, and in seeking and suing at the throne of 
grace, that God would lift up the light of his countenance, and cause 
his face to shine, and his favour to break forth, that the bones that he 
has broken may rejoice : as Hudson the martyr, when he was deserted 
at the stake, he slipped from under his chain, and praying earnestly, he 
was comforted immediately, and suffered valiantly. ^ Look, as when 
Samson's locks were cut off, his strength was gone ; so when God 
is gone, a Christian's locks are cut off, his strength is gone, his strength 
to joy and rejoice in God is gone, his strength to delight and to take 
pleasure in God is gone ; and as Samson, when his locks were cut off, 
and his strength was gone, fell to prayer, Judges xvi. 28, ' And 
Samson caUed unto the Lord, and said, Lord God, remember me, I 
pray thee, only this once, God, that I may be at once avenged of the 
Philistines for my two eyes ; ' so when God is gone, the work of a 
Christian lies more in praying than it does in rejoicing. Though 
Joseph's heart was as full of love to his brethren as it could hold. 
Gen. xlii. 7-25, yet when he looked sourly upon them, and spake 
roughly to them, they were much afflicted and distressed ; so though 
the heart of Jesus be as full of love to his people as it can hold, yet 
when he looks sourly, and speaks roughly to them, they can't but 
be grieved and sadded.2 But, 

[4.] Fourthly, It may be they are sadly tempted and strangely huf~ 
feted hy Satan, as Paul luas, and from thence their present sadness 
may arise, 2 Cor. xii. 8-10. Tempted souls can tell you that it is one 
of the hardest works in the world to rejoice in the school of temptation, 
and to be merry when Satan's fiery darts stick fast in the soul. Adam's 
tempting-time was not his rejoicing-time, but his sinning-time ; and 
David's tempting-time was not his rejoicing-time, but his miscarrying- 
time, 1 Chron. xxi. ; and Job's tempting-time was not his rejoicing- 
time, but his complaining-time, Job iii. ; and Peter's tempting-time 
was not his rejoicing-time, but his cursing and blaspheming-time. 
Mat. xxvi. ; and Paul's tempting-time was not his rejoicing-time, but 
his humbling-time, 2 Cor. xii. 7, 8.3 The best men are most tempted, 
and oftentimes they are followed with the saddest, darkest, vilest, basest, 
and most amazing, affrighting, tormenting, and astonishing tempta- 
tions ; and how is it possible that they should be able to rejoice and 
be glad, when such dreadful storms beat upon them ! Certainly the 
work of a Christian in the day of temptation lies in his putting on 
the whole armour of God, Eph. vi. 10, 11, 16-18, and in a prudent 
handhng the sword of the Spirit and the shield of faith, and in ear- 
nest praying and vigilant watching, and a stout resisting of all Satan's 
fiery darts; for he who thinks, by disputing and reasoning, to put 
Satan off, does but shoot with him in his own bow, and wUl find to his 
cost that Satan will be too hard for him. It is open defiance, it is 
downright blows that makes Satan fly, and that secures the victory, 

^ Clarke, as before. — G. ' See the 3d and 5th chapters of Solomon's Song. 

^ Our whole life, says Austin, is nothing but a continued tentation. 


James iv. 7; 1 Pet. v. 9. Now joy and rejoicing attends not the com- 
bat, but the conquest. The Romans never used to ride in triumph, 
but after conquests obtained. A Christian's triumphing time is his con- 
quering time. Joy is most seasonable and suitable when a Christian has 
beaten Satan out of the field. The cock in the Arabic fable began to 
crow and clap his wings, as if he had obtained a perfect conquest, but, 
behold, on a sudden a vulture comes, and snatches this great conqueror 
away. They that triumph and rejoice over Satan before they have 
overcome him, are in no small danger of being worsted by him. But, 
[5.] Fifthly and lastly, To gather up many things together. I say 
that their present sorrow and sadness may arise from their going astray 
into some by-path of vanity and folly, wherein they have got a fall, or 
broke a bone, or put their souls out of Joint. As children sometimes 
get a fall, and then they come home by weeping cross ; so Christians 
too often go astray and get a fall, and then they are fain to weep it 
out.i When men keep not the king's highway, they are often robbed 
of their money, and stripped of their clothes, and wounded too, as he 
was in the Gospel who fell among thieves ; so when Christians keep 
not in the King of kings' highways, which are ways of righteousness 
and hohness, then they are often robbed of their comfort, and joy, and 
peace, and assurance, and communion with God, &c., and sorely 
wounded and bruised, and then it is no wonder if they are brought 
home with tears in their eyes. Or it may be their evidences for 
heaven are so blotted and blurred that they cannot read their title to 
heaven, and then it is no wonder if they are perplexed and grieved ; 
or it may be they call in question former grants of favour and grace ; 
or it may be a deeper sense of misspent time Kes harder than ever 
upon them ; or else the littleness and smallness of their graces under 
such soul-enriching opportunities and advantages do sorely oppress 
them ; or else the lateness of their conversion may sadly afflict them, 
&C.2 Now how absurd and unreasonable a thing is it for any men to 
argue thus, that surely godly men have no joy, no delight, no pleasure, 
&c., because there are some particular cases and conditions wherein 
they may be cast which rather bespeaks sorrow than joy, grief than 
gladness, mourning than mirth ! Certainly you may as rationally and 
as righteously expect mirth, joy, and gladness from carnal, worldly, 
and ungodly wretches when they are under burning fevers, loathsome 
diseases, or violent pains of the stone or gout, &c. , as you may expect 
upon a rational or religious account, joy and gladness, &c., in the 
saints in the forementioned cases that are incident to them. It was a 
very unreasonable request that they made to the people of God in that 
Ps. cxxxvii. 3, 4, ' For there they that carried us away captive re- 
quired of us a song ; and they that wasted us required of us mirth, 
saying. Sing us one of the songs of Zion. How shall we sing the 
Lord's song in a strange land?' And it is as unreasonable to expect 
or look that the people of God should sing and be merry, rejoice and 
be glad, when they are under soul distresses, and under the sore 
rebukes of God, and poured from vessel to vessel, &c. Music in 

^ Gal. vi. 1, KaTaprl^ere. Set him in joint again ; it is a metaphor from chirurgeons 
and bone-Betters, who handle their patients gently and tenderly. 
» Luke X. 30; Isa. xut, 8; Ps. cxix. 176. 


times of mourning is as unreasonable as it is unseasonable and un- 
savoury, Jer. xlviii. 11 : Prov. xxv. 20, ' As he that taketh away a 
garment in cold weather, and as vinegar upon nitre, so is he that 
singeth songs to an heavy heart.' Music and mourning, singing and 
sorrow, agree like harp and harrow. There is such a contrariety be- 
tween singing and sorrow, that he that sings does but add weight to 
his sorrow that cannot sing. sirs, as there is a time for rejoicing, so 
there is a time for mourning, Eccles. iii. 4; as there is a time to 
laugh, so there is a time to weep ; and as we must rejoice with them 
that rejoice, so we must mourn with them that mourn, and weep with 
them that weep, Eom. xii. 15. The condition of God's people in this 
life is a mixed condition. In this life they have their rejoicing times 
and their mourning times, their laughing times and their weeping 
times, their singing times and their sorrowing times, &c. It is true, 
in heaven there is all joy and no sorrow, all gladness and no sadness ; 
and in hell there is all sorrow and no joy, all grief and no gladness, 
all howling and no singing, all madness and no mirth ; but in this life 
it is otherwise, for if there should be nothing but joy, many would 
look for no other heaven ; and if there should be nothing but sorrow, 
most would look for no other hell. If men should have nothing but 
joy, how sadly would they be puffed up ! And if they should have 
nothing but sorrow, how easily would they be cast down ! But now, 
by a divine hand, our sorrows being mixed with our joys, our hearts 
come to be the more effectually weaned from the vanities of this life, 
and to long more earnestly after the pure and unmixed joys of a better 
life, &c. But, 

8. Eighthly, I answer. That it is possible that the sadness, sorrow, 
and grief of those particular saints that thou hast thine eye upon may 
arise from the natural temper and constitution of their bodies.'^ Many 
saints are often cast into a melancholy mould ; for though grace 
changes the disposition of the soul, yet it alters not the constitution of 
the body. Now there is no greater enemy to holy joy and gladness 
than melancholy, for this pestilent humour will raise such strange 
passions and imaginations, it will raise such groundless griefs, and 
fears, and frights, and such senseless surmises and jealousies, as will 
pasily damp a Christian's joy, and mightily vex, perplex, trouble, and 
turmoil, daunt, and discourage a Christian's spirit. A melancholy 
constitution is Satan's anvil, upon which he forms many black, dark, 
and dismal temptations, which do exceedingly tend to the keep- 
ing down of divine consolation from rising high in the soul.2 This 
black, dark, dusky humour disturbs both soul and body ; it tempts 
Satan to tempt the soul, and it unables the soul to resist the tempta- 
tion ; yea, it prepares the soul to hearken to the temptation, and to 
close and fall in with the temptation, as the experiences of aU melan- 
choly Christians can testify. Look, as coloured glass makes the very 
beams of the sun seem to be all of the same colour with itself — if the 
glass be blue, the beams of the sun seems to be blue ; if the glass be 
red, the beams of the sun seems to be red ; or if the glass be green, the 

^ The cure of melancholy belongs rather to the physician than to the divine, to Galea 
than to Paul. 

^ It is an old saying that melancholia eat vehiculum dcemonum. 


beams of the sun seems to be green — so tliis black melancholy humour 
represents all things to the eye of the soul as duskish and dark, and 
as full of horror and terror, yea, many times it represents the bright 
beams of divine love, and the shinings of the Sun of righteousness, and 
the gracious whispers of the blessed Spirit, as delusions, and as sleights 
of Satan, to cozen the soul. I have read of a foolish melancholy 
bird that stands always but upon one leg, for fear her own weight, 
though she be very small, should sink her into the centre of the earth, 
and holding her other leg over her head, lest the heavens should fall 
upon her and crush her. I shall not dispute the credibleness of the 
relation ; but certainly there is nothing that fills a Christian so full of 
fears and frights as a melancholy humour does ; and all know that 
know anything, that there are no greater adversaries to joy and glad- 
ness than such fears and frights. Now how absurd and unreasonable 
is it to father that upon holiness, or upon all holy persons, that pro- 
ceeds from the special constitution of some particular saints ! and yet 
this is the trade that unsanctified souls drive. And let thus much suf- 
fice for answer to this grand objection ; and oh that this objection may 
never have a resurrection in any of your hearts more ! But, 

Object 4. Fourthly, Some may further object, and say, We see tJiat no 
persons on earth are exposed to such troubles, dangers, afflictions, and 
persecutions, as those are exposed to who mind holiness, who follow 
after holiness. These are days tvherein men labour to frown holiness 
out of the world, and to scorn and kick holiness out of the tvorld ; and 
do you think that we are mad noiv to pursue after holiness? Now to 
this great and sore objection, I shall give these following answers : 

1. First, It must be granted that afflictions and persecutions has 
been the common lot and portion of the people of God in this tvorld A 
Abel was persecuted by Cain, 1 John iii. 12, and Isaac by Ishmael, 
Gal. ix. 29. That seems to be a standing law, ' All that will live 
godly in Christ Jesus must suffer persecution,' 2 Tim, iii. 12. A man 
may have many faint wishes and cold desires after godliness, and yet 
escape persecution ; yea, he may make some essays 2 and attempts as if 
he would be godly, and yet escape persecution ; but when a man is 
thoroughly resolved to be godly, and sets himself in good earnest upon 
pursuing after holiness and living a life of godliness, then he must 
expect to meet with afilictions and persecutions. It is neither a 
Christian's gifts nor his graces, it is neither his duties nor his services 
that can secure him. Whoever escapes, the godly man shall not 
escape persecution in one kind or another, in one degree or another. 
He that will live up to holy rules, and live out holy principles, must 
j)repare for sufferings. All the roses of holiness are surrounded with 
pricking briers. The history of the ten persecutions, and that little 
book of martyrs, the 11th of the Hebrews, and Mr Foxe his Acts and 
Monuments, with many other treatises that are extant, do abundantly 
evidence that from age to age, and from one generation to another, 
they that have been born after the flesh have persecuted them that 

^ Witness the sufferings of the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and saints in all ages : 
Acts vii. 52 ; Rev. xii. 13 ; Acts ix. 10 ; Lam. v. 5. The common cry of persecutors 
have been, Christiani ad Leones. 

* Spelled ' assays. '— G. 


have been born after the Spirit, Gal. iv. 20, and that the seed of the 
serpent have been still a-multiplying of troubles upon the seed of the 
woman. 1 Would any man take the church's picture, saith Luther, 
then let him paint a poor silly maid sitting in a wilderness, compassed 
about with hungry lions, wolves, boars, and bears, and with all manner 
of other cruel, hurtful beasts, and in the midst of a great many furious 
men assaulting her every moment and minute, for this is her condition 
in the world. As certain as the night follows the day, so certain will 
that black angel, persecution, follow holiness wherever it goes. In the 
last of the ten persecutions, seventeen thousand holy martyrs were 
slain in the space of one month. And in Queen Mary's days, or, if 
you will, in the Marian days, not of blessed, but of most abhorred 
memory, the Popish prelates in less than four years sacrificed the lives 
of eight hundred innocents to their idols ! and oh that that precious 
innocent blood did not still cry to heaven for vengeance against this 
nation ! But, 

2. Secondly, Christ and Ms apostles hath long since foretold us that 
ajffiictions and persecutions will attend us in this world. The Lord 
hath long since forewarned us, that we may be forearmed, and not 
surprised on a sudden when they come. Christ hath shot off many a 
warning piece in his word, and sent many a harbinger, that so we may 
stand upon our guard, and not be surprised nor astonished when 
afflictions and persecutions overtake us : Mat. x. 22, ' And ye shall be 
hated of all men for my name's sake : but he that endureth to the 
end, the same shall be saved.' Chap. xvi. 24, ' Then said Jesus unto 
his disciples. If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and 
take up his cross, and follow me.' Luke xxi. 12, ' But before all these, 
they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you 
up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and 
rulers for my name's sake.* John xv. 20, ' Kemember the word that 
I said unto you, The servant is not greater than the lord. If they 
have persecuted me, they will also persecute you ; if they have kept 
my saying, they will keep yours also.' Ah Christians, since they 
have crowned your head with thorns, there is no reason why you 
should expect to be crowned with rosebuds.2 Godfrey of Bouillon, 
first king of Jerusalem, refused to be crowned with a crown of gold, 
saying, that it became not a Christian there to wear a crown of gold, 
where Christ for our salvation had sometime worn a crown of thorns. 
John xvi. 33, ' These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye 
might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation : but be of 
good cheer; I have overcome the world.' Acts xiv. 21,22, 'And 
when they had preached the gospel to that city, and had taught many, 
they returned again to Lystra, and to Iconium, and Antioch, confirm- 
ing the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the 
faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the king- 
dom of God.' As there was no way to paradise but by the flaming 
sword, nor no way to Canaan but thi'ough a wilderness ; so there is no 

^ Within the first three hundred years after Christ, all that made a profession of the 
apostles' doctrine were cruelly murdered. 

" Non potest qui pati timet, ejus esse qui passiis est — He that is afraid to suffer, can- 
not be his disciple who suffered so much. — TerluUian. 


way to heaven but by the gates of hell, there is no way to a glorious 
exaltation but through a sea of tribulation. i They do but dream and 
deceive their own souls who think to go to heaven upon beds of down, 
or in a soft and delicate way, or that think to be attended to glory 
with mirth and music, or with singing or dancing. The way to happi- 
ness is not strewed with roses, but full of thorns and briers, as those 
of whom this world was not worthy have experienced. Ecclesiastical 
histories tells us that all the apostles died violent deaths. Peter was 
crucified with his heels upward — Christ was crucified with his head up- 
wards, but Peter thought this was too great an honour for him to be 
crucified as his Lord, and therefore he chose to be crucified with his 
heels upward ; and Andrew was crucified by Egeus king of Edessa ; and 
James the son of Zebedee was slain by Herod with the sword. Acts xii. 2 ; 
and Philip was crucified at Hierapolis in Asia ; and while Bartholomew 
was preaching the glad tidings of salvation, multitudes fell upon him 
and beat him down with staves, and then crucified him, and after all 
this, his skin was flayed off, and he beheaded ; Thomas was slain with 
a dart at Calumina in India ; 2 and Matthew was slain with a spear, 
say some, others say he was run through with a sword ; and James 
the son of Alpheus, who was called the Just, was thrown down from 
off a pinnacle of the temple, and yet having some life left in him, he 
was brained with a fuller's club ; Lebbeus was slain by Agbarus king 
of Edessa ; and Paul was beheaded at Kome under Nero ; and Simon 
the Canaanite was crucified in Egypt, say some, others say that he and 
Jude was slain in a tumult of the people ; and Matthias was stoned to 
death ; and John was banished into Patmos, Kev. i. 9, and afterwards, 
as some histories tells us, he was by that cruel tyrant Domitian cast 
into a tun of scalding lead, and yet delivered by a miracle. Thus all 
these precious servants of God, except John, died violent deaths, and 
so through sufferings entered into glory ; they found in their own ex- 
perience the truth of what Christ had foretold concerning their suffer- 
ings and persecutions. About the year 1626, a book formerly printed, 
and intituled, A Preparation to the Cross of Christ, composed by John 
Frith, martyr, was brought in the belly of a fish to the market in Cam- 
bridge, and that a little before the commencement-time ; when there 
was a confluence of much people from all places of the land, which 
was construed by them that feared the Lord to be no less than a 
heavenly warning to all the people of England to prepare for the 
cross. 3 But, ah, since that year, who can recount the heavy crosses 
that has generally attended the people of this nation ? Most have 
walked cross to God, and cross to one another, and God has walked as 
cross to them. You have crossed the commands of God, and the 
truths of God, and the ways of God, and the works of God, and the 
designs of God, and God has crossed you in your hopes, desires, prayers, 
and endeavours, and God gave you warning of this beforehand by a 
fish, by a miracle, to provide for the cross, but you would not, and 
therefore it is that the cross lies so heavy upon you this day. When Mr 

^ Loddela Corda computeth forty-four several kinds of torments wherewith the pri- 
mitive Christians were tried. — Adv. Sacr. cap. 128. [Query — Maurice de la Corde, the 
Huguenot scholar and physician ? — G.] 

" Sic ; cf . Butler's ' Lives of the Saints.' Dec. 21.— G. 

> Mr Jer. Dyke, in a Fast Sermon at Westminster. 


Bradford was told that his chain was a-buying, and that he must be 
burnt, he lifted up his eyes to heaven and said, I thank God for it ; I 
have looked for this a long time ; it comes not to me suddenly, but as 
a thing waited for every day, yea, every hour in the day ; the Lord 
make me worthy thereof. If upon God's warning you will but pre- 
pare for sufferings, you will never fear nor faint under sufferings, yea, 
then you will be able under the greatest persecutions to bear up 
bravely, and with holy Bradford bless the Lord that has called you to 
so high an honour as to count you worthy to suffer for his name. But, 
3. Thirdly, I answer. That all the troubles, ajfflictions, and persecu- 
tions that do befall you for holiness sake, shall never hurt you nor harm 
you, they shall never prejudice you, nor wrong you in your main and 
great concernments : Exod. iii. 2, ' And the angel of the Lord appeared 
unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush ; and he looked, 
and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not con- 
sumed.' 1 Here you have a bush, a dry bush, a bramble- bush all on 
a-light fire, and yet not consumed. This burning bush was an excellent 
emblem of the church in the fire of tribulation and persecution. 
Though the church may seem to be all on fire by reason of afflictions 
and persecutions, yet it shall be preserved, it shall not be destroyed. 
Though God be a consuming fire, yet he will never consume the 
bramble-bush. The bush was on fire, and yet the fire did not in the 
least hurt or harm the bush, it did not one whit prejudice or wrong 
the bush, Deut. iv. 24 ; Heb. xii. 29 : so though the church of God 
be on fire by the means of fiery trials, yet these fiery trials shall never 
hurt nor harm the church, they shall never prejudice it nor wrong it : 
Ps. cv. 12-15, * When they were but a few men in number ; yea, very 
few, and strangers in it. When they went from one nation to another, 
from one kingdom to another people ; he suffered no man to do them 
wrong: yea, he reproved kings for their sakes; saying. Touch not 
mine anointed, nor do my prophets no harm.' ^ God would not suficr 
his anointed ones, his sanctified ones, so much as to be touched, hm-t, 
or harmed by those who had malice enough in their hearts, and power 
enough in their hands, not only to hurt them, but even to destroy 
them.3 Sanctified persons are sacred persons, and they that touch 
them touch the apple of God's eye, and whosoever shall be so bold to 
touch the apple of God's eye shall dearly smart for it. It was no small 
affliction to have no settled habitation. To fly from place to place, 
from kingdom to kingdom, and from nation to nation, was without all 
peradventure an afflicted condition. Doubtless many fears and frights, 
many hazards and dangers did attend them, when they considered 
that they were as lilies among the thorns, and as a few sheep among a 
multitude of wolves. In the land of Canaan there were seven mighty 
nations, Deut. vii. 1. Now for the people of God, who were so few in 
number that they might easily and quickly be told, to sojourn and 
wander among these, could not but be very dangerous and perilous ; and 
yet such was the love of God to them, and the care of God over them, 

^ The Hebrew word, H^Dj signifies a dry bush, a bramble-bush, and therefore it was 
the more strange and miraculous that it was not consumed. 
' That is, the king of Egypt and the king of Gerar. 
* Gen. xii. 17, xx. 3, and xxxv. 5j Zech. iL 8. 


that he suffered no man, whether he was high or low, honourable or 
base, rich or poor, civil or profane, to hurt or harm them : Dan. iii. 
25, 27, ' And the king answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, 
walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt, and the form 
of the fourth is like unto the Son of God. And the princes, governors, 
and captains, and the king's counsellors, being gathered together, saw 
these men, upon whose bodies the fire had no power, nor was an hair 
of their head singed, neither were their coats changed, nor the smell 
of fire had passed on them.' i Though these holy men were cast into 
a furnace, into a fiery furnace, into the midst of a hot fiery furnace, 
yet God will work a miracle, yea, a glorious miracle, rather than the 
fire shall in the least hurt or harm them. God gives a commission to 
the fire to burn those mighty men that made the fire, and that cast 
his children into the fire, and whom the king would have to be spared 
and saved ; and he lays a law of restraint upon the fire, that it should 
not hurt nor harm them whom the king would have destroyed. Those 
whom the King of kings will not have hurt, shall not be hurt, let 
kings and princes do their worst ; that fire that burnt their bonds had 
no power to burn, no nor to touch, their bodies. God would not suffer 
the fire to singe a hair of their heads, nor to change the colour of their 
coats, nor to leave so much as an ill smell upon his people, that those 
heathen princes might see how tender he was of them, and how will- 
ing he was to put forth his almighty power rather than he would see 
them wronged or harmed. So chap. vi. 21-23, * Then said Daniel 
unto the king, king, live for ever. My God hath sent his angels, 
and hath shut the lions' mouths, that they have not hurt me : foras- 
much as before him innocency was found in me ; and also before thee, 
O king, have I done no hurt. Then was the king exceeding glad for 
him, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. 
So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was 
found upon him, because he believed in his God.' Holiness, innocency, 
and integrity will preserve a man even among lions. Daniel preferred 
the worship of his God before his life. He made no great reckoning 
of his life when it stood in competition with divine glory, and there- 
fore, rather than Daniel shall be hurt, God will by a miracle preserve 
him, he will stop the mouths of the hungry lions, and he will tame 
their rage, and overmaster their cruelty, rather than a hair of Daniel's 
head shall perish. When Daniel was taken out of the den, there was 
no hurt, no wound, no sore, no bruise found upon him. Daniel was a 
harmless man, and God keeps him from harms in the midst of harms : 
Acts xviii. 9, 10, ' Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision. 
Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace : for I am with thee, and 
no man shall set on thee to hurt thee ; for I have much people in this 
city.' Paul met with many trials and troubles, bonds and prisons, op- 
positions and persecutions, and yet none of all these hurt him, but God 
miraculously preserved him even to old age. Acts xx. 23. All the 
troubles, afflictions, and persecutions that attends holiness, can never 

^ As David laid a charge upon his soldiers, (2 Sam. xviii. 5,) that by no means they 
should hurt his son Absalom ; so God laid a prohibition upon the enemies and perse- 
cutors of his people, that they should not touch them, that they should not in the least 
hurt or harm them. 


reach a Christian's soul, they can never diminish a Christian's trea- 
sure ; they reach the shell, not the kernel, the case, not the jewel, the 
lumber, not the goods, the outhouse, not the palace, the ribbon in the 
hat, not the gold in the purse. The most fiery trials and persecu- 
tions can never deprive a Christian of the special presence of God, nor 
of the light of his countenance, nor of the testimony of a good con- 
science, nor of the joys of the Spirit, nor of the pardon of sin, nor of 
fellowship with Christ, nor of the exercise of grace, nor of the hopes 
of glory, Ps. xxiii. 4; 2 Cor. i. 8, 9, 12; and therefore certainly they 
can't hurt a Christian, they can't wrong a Christian in his greatest and 
chief est concernments. Christian, let persecutors do their worst, 
they can't reach thy soul, thy God, thy comfort, thy crown, thy para- 
dise, &c. ; and therefore let no man be kept off from pursuing after 
holiness because of afflictions or persecutions, seeing none of these 
can reach a Christian's great concernments. When the emperor 
Valens threatened to confiscate Basil's goods, and to torment him, and 
to banish him or kill him, Basil makes this noble reply : He needs not 
fear confiscation of goods that hath nothing to lose, nor banishment, 
to whom heaven only is a country, nor torments, when his body may 
be dashed with one blow, nor death, which is the only way to set him 
at liberty. The emperor, hearing of him thus undauntedly to speak, 
told him that he was mad, to whom he replied, Opto me, in cetemum 
sic delirare — I wish that I may be for ever thus mad. Basil knew 
that no torments nor sufferings could hurt him or harm him, and 
therefore he bravely triumphs over them. They may kill me, said 
Socrates of his enemies, but they cannot hurt me. So may a saint 
say, They may kill my body, but they cannot hurt my soul ; they 
may take away my natural life, but they cannot take away my spiritual 
life, for that is hid with Christ in God, Col. iii. 3; they may take away 
this and that outward comfort, but they cannot take away my Christ ; 
they may take away my costly ornaments, but they cannot take away 
that robe of righteousness that Christ has put upon me ; they may 
take away my earthly crown, but they cannot take away that crown of 
righteousness which Christ the righteous judge has laid up for all that 
love his appearing, 2 Tim. iv. 8. Methinks, said one of the martyrs, 
[Vincentius,] I tread upon pearls, when he trod upon hot burning 
coals ; and I feel, said he, no more pain than if I lay in a bed of 
down, and yet he lay in flames of fire. I have read of Nero, that he 
had a shirt made of a salamander's skin, so that if he walked through 
the fire in it, it would keep him from burning, it would keep him from 
being hurt or harmed by the fire. Our Lord Jesus Christ is this sala- 
mander's skin, that will keep the saints from burning, yea, from being 
hurt or harmed by the most fiery afflictions and persecutions that can 
befall them in this world. But, 

4. Fourthly, I answer. That the condition of persecutors, of all 
conditions under heaven, is the most sad and deplorable condition ; 
and this will appear by the consideration of these five things : 

[1.] First, By the prayers and indictments that the saints have 
jfyref erred against them in the highest court of Justice, I mean in the 
parliament of heaven: Ps. xxxv. 3-9, i ' Draw out the spear, and stop 

1 Ps. Ixix. 22, 29 ; Neh. iv. 3-5, turn to it. 


the way against them that persecute me : say unto my soul, I am thy 
salvation. Let them be confounded and put to shame that seek after 
my soul : let them be turned back and brought to confusion that de- 
vise my hurt. Let them be as chaff before the wind ; and let the 
angel of the Lord chase them. Let their way be dark and slippery,' or 
darkness and slipperiness ; ' and let the angel of the Lord persecute 
them. For without cause have they hid for me their net in a pit, 
which without cause they have digged for my soul. Let destruction 
come upon him at unawares ; and let his net that he hath hid catch 
himself: into that very destruction let him fall' i So in that 83d 
Psalm David sighs out his sad complaints against his persecutors, from 
verse 2d to verse the 9th ; and from verse the 9th to verse the 18th he 
prays against them. Turn to it ; it is a text that is worthy of your 
most serious meditation : Ps. cxix. 84, ' How many are the days of thy 
servant? when wilt thou execute judgment on them that persecute 
me ? ' Jer. xv. 15, ' Lord, thou knowest, remember me, and visit 
me, and revenge me of my persecutors ; take me not away in thy long- 
suffering : know that for thy sake I have suffered rebuke : ' chap. xvii. 
18, ' Let them be confounded that persecute me, but let not me be 
confounded ; let them be dismayed, but let not me be dismayed ; bring 
upon them the day of evil, and destroy them with double destruction,* 
or break them with a double breach : Lam. iii. 61, seq., ' Thou hast 
heard their reproach, Lord, and all their imaginations against me. 
The lips of those that rose up against me, and their device against me 
all the day. Behold their sitting down, and their rising up, I am their 
music,' or I am their song. ' Kender unto them a recompense, O 
Lord, according to the work of their hands. Give them sorrow of 
heart, thy curse unto them. Persecute and destroy them in anger, 
from under the heavens of the Lord : ' 2 Tim. iv. 1 4, ' Alexander the 
coppersmith did me much evil ; the Lord reward him according to his 
works.' Thus you see how the hearts of the saints have been drawn 
out against their persecutors. Prayers are the arms that in times of 
persecution the saints have still had recourse to. The Romans being 
in great distress were put so hard to it, that they were fain to take the 
weapons out of the temples of their gods to fight with their enemies, 
and so they overcame them ; so when the people of God have been 
hard put to it, by reason of afflictions and persecutions, the weapons 
that they have fled to has been prayers and tears, and with these they 
have overcome their persecutors, as is evident in the three children in 
Daniel, and many others, &c. I3ut, 

[2.] Secondly, Persecutions do but raise, ivhet, and stir up a more 
earnest and vehement spirit of prayer among the persecuted saints : 2 
Rev. vi. 9, 10, ' And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under 
the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and 
for the testimony which they held : and they cried with a loud voice, 
saying. How long, Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and. 
avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth ? ' The blood of 

^ Both good and evil angels are at God's beck, ready to execute rengeance upon hla 
and his people's enemies and persecutors ; and therefore the text may be understood of 

^ See Acts It. 17, 21, 29, 31, compared ; and Luke ztUL 7 ; Lam. v. 59-61, &c. 


the persecuted cries aloud for vengeance upon the persecutors.! By 
the ' souls under the altar,' you are to understand the persons of the 
saints which were martyred and lay slain upon the ground, like sacri- 
fices at the foot of the altar, under the Roman persecuting emperors. 
There is no blood that cries so loud, and that makes so great a noise 
in heaven, as the blood of the martyrs, as the blood of butchered per- 
secuted saints. Persecutors, like these Roman emperors, in all ages 
have causelessly and cruelly destroyed the people of Grod ; they delight 
in the blood of saints, they love to wallow in the blood of saints, they 
take pleasure in glutting themselves with the blood of saints, they make 
no conscience of watering the earth, nor of colouring the sea, nor of 
quenching the flames with the blood of the saints, yea, if it were pos- 
sible, they would willingly swim to heaven through their hearts' blood, 
whom Christ has purchased with his own most precious blood — ^as all 
historians know, and as you may all know if you would but search a 
little into ecclesiastical histories — and therefore it is no wonder if 
the blood of the martyrs cry aloud for vengeance upon such des- 
perate persecutors. The blood and prayers of persecuted saints will 
first or last bring down wrath and ruin upon their persecutors. 
Persecution puts an edge, yea, a sharp edge, upon the prayers of the 
saints : Acts xii. 5, ' Peter therefore was kept in prison ; but prayer 
was made without ceasing of the church unto God for him.' 2 The 
Greek word e/crei^? signifies earnest and stretched-out prayer. When 
Peter was in prison, sleeping between two soldiers, and bound with 
two chains, and the keepers standing before the prison door, oh, how 
earnest ! oh, how instant ! oh, how fervent ! oh, how vehement ! oh, 
how constant were the saints in their prayers for his deliverance! 
oh, their hearts, their souls, their spirits were in their prayers ! oh, their 
prayers were no cold prayers, no formal prayers, no lukewarm prayers, 
nor no dull or drowsy prayers, but their prayers were full of life, and 
full of warmth, and full of heat. They knew Herod's bloody intention 
to destroy this holy apostle by his imprisoning of him, and by the 
chains that were put on him, and by the strong guards that 
were set upon him, and by his bathing of his sword in the 
innocent blood of James, that his hand might be the more apt and 
ready for further acts of murder and cruelty ; and oh, how did the con- 
sideration of these things whet and provoke their spirits to prayer ! ^ 
Oh, now they wUl have no nay, now they will give God no rest 
till he has overturned the tyrant's counsel and designs, and sent his 
angel to open the prison doors, and to knock ofi" Peter's chains, and to 
deliver him from the wrath and fury of Herod ; and their prayers were 
successful, as is evident in the 12th verse, ' And when he had con- 
sidered the thing, he came to the house of Mary the mother of John, 
whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together pray- 
ing,' or rather, as the original has it, ' where many thronged together 

^ Blood hath as many tongues as drops to cry for vengeance, which made king James 
say, that if God did leave him to kill a man, he would think God did not love him, 1 Cor. 
vi. 20 ; 1 Peter i. 18, 19. 

2 All these circumstances do wonderfully declare the power of God in his deliverance. 
Some say he had sixteen, others say he had twenty soldiers for his guard ; the greater 
was his deliverance. 

3 James was the first of the apostles that died a violent death. 


to pray.' l The violence and rage of their persecutors did so raise, 
whet, and encourage them to prayer, that they throng together, they 
crowded together to pray, yea, when others were a-sleeping they were 
a-praying, and their prayers were no sleepy prayers, they were no lazy 
dronish prayers, nor they were no book-prayers, but they were power- 
ful and prevalent prayers ; for as so many Jacobs, or as so many 
princes, they prevaOed with God ; they prayed and wept, and wept 
and prayed ; they called and cried, and cried and called ; they begged 
and bounced, and they bounced and begged ; and they never left 
knocking at heaven's gates till Peter's chains were knocked off, and 
Peter given into their arms, yea, their bosoms, as an answer of prayer. 
Oh the power and force of joint prayer, when Christians do not only 
beseech God, but besiege him, and beset him too, and when they will 
not let him go till he has blessed them, and answered their prayers and 
the desires of their souls ! I have read that Mary Queen of Scots, 
that was mother to king James, was wont to say, ' that she was more 
afraid of Mr Knox's prayers, and the prayers of those Christians that 
walked with him, than she was of a knocking army of ten thousand 
men.' And that is a remarkable passage of the psalmist, Ps. cix. 3, 
4, ' They compassed me about also with words of hatred ; and fought 
against me without a cause. For my love they are my adversaries : 
but I give myself unto prayer ; ' or as the Hebrew has it, ' but I am 
prayer, or a man of prayer.' 2 Persecuted saints are men of prayer, 
yea, they are as it were made up all of prayer. David prayed before, 
but, oh, when his enemies fell a-persecuting of him, then he gave up 
himself whoUy to prayer. Oh, then he was more earnest, more 
fervent, more frequent, more diligent, more constant, and more 
abundant in the work of prayer ! When Numa, king of the Komans, 
was told that his enemies were in arms against him, he did but laugh 
at it, and answered, ' And I do sacrifice ; ' 3 so when persecutors arm 
themselves against the people of God, they do but divinely smile and 
laugh at it, and give themselves the more up to prayer. When men 
arm against them, then they arm themselves with all their might 
to the work of prayer ; and woe, woe to them that have armies of 
prayers marching against them. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, It will appear that the condition of persecutors is the 
most sad and deplorable condition of all conditions under heaven, if 
you loill but seriously consider and lay to heart the sore Judgments that 
are threatened, and that have been executed upon them : Deut. xxx. 7, 
' And the Lord thy God will put all these curses upon thine enemies, 
and on them which hate thee, which persecuted thee ;' Neh. ix. 9-11, 
' And didst see the afflictions of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest 
their cry by the Bed Sea : and shewed signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, 
and on all his servants, and on the people of his land ; for thou knewest 
that they dealt proudly against them. So didst thou get thee a name, 
as it is this day. And thou didst divide the sea before them, so that 
they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land ; and their 

^ This house is thought by many to be the house where the apostles commonly had 
their meetings. 
- The like speech you have in that Pa. cxx. 7. Vaani uzephillah, But I prayer. 
=* Plutarch in the life of Numa. 


persecutors thou threwest into the deeps, as a stone into the mighty 
waters. '1 Pharaoh and his princes and people were very great oppres- 
sors and persecutors of God's Israel, and therefore God visited them 
with ten dreadful plagues, one after another ; but when, after all these 
plagues, God saw that their enmity against his people was as great, or 
rather greater than ever, and that they were still set upon persecuting 
of his people, then God takes up Pharaoh and his mighty host, and 
throws them as a stone into the mighty waters, Exod. xv. 10 ; Ps. 
vii. 11-13, ' God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the 
wicked every day. If he turn not, he will whet his sword ; he hath 
bent his bow, and made it ready. He hath also prepared for him the 
instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.' 
God whets before he strikes, he bends his bow before he shoots, he 
prepares instruments of death before he brings men down to the grave, 
his hand takes hold on judgment before his judgments take hold of 
men ; but if all these warnings will not serve their turns, God will 
overturn them with a witness. ' He ordaineth his arrows against the 
persecutors,' or as the Hebrew has it, ' against the hot burning per- 
secutors.' 2 God hath his hot burning arrows for hot burning perse- 
cutors. Let persecutors be never so hot against the saints, God will 
be as hot against them; and let them be never so much inflamed 
against the people of God, God will be as much inflamed against them: 
Jer. XX. 10, 11, ' For I heard the defaming of many, fear on every 
side. Keport, said they, and we will report it. All my familiars 
watched for my halting, saying, Peradventure he will be enticed, and 
we shall prevail against him, and we shall take our revenge on him. 
But the Lord is with me as a mighty terrible one : therefore my per- 
secutors shall stumble, and they shall not prevail, they shall be greatly 
ashamed, for they shall not prosper ; their everlasting confusion shall 
never be forgotten.'^ When malicious and mischievous persecutors 
have done all they can to vex and fret, to daunt and affright, to dismay 
and discourage the people of God, then God will terrify the most 
terrible among them, and ' they shall not prevail nor prosper, yea, 
they shall stumble and fall, they shall be ashamed and confounded.' 
Isa. xxxiii. 1, ' Woe to thee that spoilest, and thou wast not spoiled; 
and dealest treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee : 
when thou shalt cease to spoil, thou shalt be spoiled ; and when thou 
shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall deal treacherously 
with thee.' When the time is expired that God has prefixed for his 
people's sufferings, then God will retaliate upon their persecutors, then 
they that spoiled his people shaU be spoiled, and they that dealt per- 
fidiously and treacherously with them, shall be dealt perfidiously and 
treacherously withal : 2 Thes. i. 6, ' Seeing it is a righteous thing with 
God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you.' It is but 
justice that God should trouble those that are the troublers of his 
people ; it is but justice that persecutors should be punished, and that 

^ As you may see in the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and twelfth chapters of Exodus. 

' Q^p7^7, from p7l, and from dalah is daleketh, that signifies a burning ague. 

* After the reign of Decius, under whom the seventh persecution began, God sent a 
plague ten years together, which made divers places of the world desolate, especially 
where the persecution most raged, &c. 


the persecuted should be righted ; it is but justice that God should 
trouble them in both worlds, who would be troublers of his people in 
both worlds ; it is but justice that God should trouble them to all 
eternity, who would be a-troubling of his people to all eternity, if their 
power were but answerable to their malice. And God has even in 
this life been a swift witness against the persecutors of his people. 
Cain was a persecutor, and his brother s blood pursued him to hell ; 
Pharaoh was a great oppressor and persecutor of his people, and God 
followed him with plague upon plague, and judgment upon judgment, 
till he had overthrown him in the Ked Sea ; Saul was a persecutor, 
and falls by his own sword ; Haman was a great persecutor of the 
saints, and he was feasted with the king one day, and made a feast for 
crows the next ; Pashur was a great persecutor, he smote the prophet 
Jeremiah, and put him in the stocks, and God threatened to make 
him a Magor-missdbih, a terror to himself and to all his friends, Jer. 
XX. 1-3; Zedekiah was a persecutor, he smote the prophet Micaiah- 
on the cheek for dealing plainly and faithfully with the kings, and in 
the day of trouble and distress he goes from chamber to chamber to 
hide himself, 1 Kings xxii. ; Jezebel was a great persecutor, she slew 
the prophets of God, and she was thrown out of a window, and eaten 
up of dogs, 1 Kings xviii. 4-13 ; 2 Kings ix. 30 ; Herod the Great, 
who caused the babes of Bethlehem to be slain, hoping thereby to 
destroy Christ, shortly after was plagued by God with an incurable 
disease, having a slow and slack fire continually tormenting his inward 
parts ; he had a vehement and greedy desire to eat, and yet nothing 
would satisfy him ; his inward bowels rotted, his breath was short and 
stinking, some of his members rotted, and in all his members he had 
so violent a cramp that nature was not able to bear it ; and so growing 
mad with pain, he died miserably. i 

Herod Antipas, who beheaded John Baptist, not long after falling 
into disgrace with the Koman emperor, with his incestuous Herodias, 
the suggester of that murder, they were banished, and fell into such 
misery and penury, that they ended their wretched lives with much 
shame and misery.^ 

Herod Agrippa was a great persecutor of the saints, and he was 
eaten up of worms. Acts xii. In the third year of his reign, as Josephus 
observes, he went to Caesarea to keep certain plays in the honour of 
Caesar.s The gown he was in, as the same author relates, was a gown 
of silver wonderfully wrought, and the beams of the sun reflecting 
upon it, made it so glister that it dazzled the eyes of the beholders ; 
when he had made an end of his starched oration in this his bravery, 
his flatterers extolled him as a god, crying out, * It is the voice of a 
god, and not of a man,' Acts xii. 21-23 ; whereupon he was presently 
smitten by the angel of the Lord, and so died vrith worms that ate up 
his very entrails. The blow the angel gave him was an inward blow, 
and so not visible to others, and his torments more and more increasing 
upon him, the people put on sackcloth and made supplication for him, 
but all in vain, for his pains and torments growing stronger and 
stronger ever}' day upon him, they separated his wretched soul from 
his loathsome body within the compass of five days ; and it is very pro- 

^ Eusebius. ' Ibid. > Josephus : Antiq., lib. xiic cap. 7. 


bable that the prayers of the persecuted church did help to speed this 
persecutor out of the world. Caiaphas, the high priest who gathered 
the council and suborned false witnesses against the Lord Christ, was 
shortly after put out of his office, and one Jonathan substituted in his 
room, whereupon he killed himself.^ 

Not long after Pontius Pilate had condemned our Lord Christ, he 
lost his deputyship and Caesar's favour, and being fallen into disgrace 
with the Roman emperor, and banished by him, he fell into such 
misery that he hanged himself.^ 

Nero, that monster of men, who raised the first bloody persecution, 
to pick a quarrel with the Christians, set the city of Rome on fire, and 
then charged it upon them ; under which pretence he exposes them to 
the fury of the people, who cruelly tormented them, as if they had 
been common burners and destroyers of cities, and the deadly enemies 
of mankind ; yea, Nero himself caused them to be apprehended and 
clad in wild beasts' skins, and torn in pieces with dogs ; others were 
crucified ; some he made bonfires of, to light him in his night-sports ; 
to be short, such horrid cruelty he used towards them, as caused many 
of their enemies to pity them ; but God found out this wretched per- 
secutor at last, for, being adjudged by the senate an enemy to mankind, 
he was condemned to be whipped to death ; for the prevention whereof 
he cut his own throat. 

Domitian, the author of the second persecution against the Christians, 
was, by the consent of his wife, slain by his own household servants 
with daggers in his privy chamber, his body was buried without honour, 
his memory cursed to posterity, and his arms and ensigns were thrown 
down and defaced. 

Trajan raised the third persecution against the church, and the 
vengeance of God followed him ; for first he fell into a palsy, then lost 
the use of his senses, afterwards he fell into a dropsy, and died in great 

There was not one of those persecuting emperors that carried on 
the ten bloody persecutions against the saints, but came to miserable 
ends ; yea, histories tell us of three and forty persecuting emperors, 
who fell under the revenging hand of God, and came to untimely 
ends. Among the many thousand thousands of instances that might 
be given of the judgments of God that have fallen upon the perse- 
cutors of the people of God in these latter days, I shall only give you 
a few. Faelix Earl of Wartenburge^ was a great persecutor of the 
saints, and swore that ' ere he died he would ride up to the spurs in 
the blood of the Lutherans ; ' but the very same night wherein he had 
thus sworn and vowed, he was choked with his own blood : nothing 
would serve him but the blood of God's people, and God makes him 
drunk with his own blood. Sir Thomas More, once Lord Chancellor 
of England, was a sworn enemy to the gospel, and persecuted the 
saints with fire and faggot ; and amongst all his praises, he reckons 
this the chief estj that he had been a persecutor of the Lutherans, i.e., 

^ Josephus : Antiq., lib. xviii. cap. 7. Thales Milesius, the prime wise man of Greece, 
being demanded what he had observed to be of most difficulty in the world, answered, 
Tyranmim senem, To see a tyrant live to be an old man. 

* Euseb. Hist., lib, ii. cap. 7. ' Qu. ' Wurtemburg ' ?— G. 


the saints ; but what became of him ? He was first accused of 
treason, and then condemned, and at last beheaded. Judge Morgan 
was a great persecutor of the people of God ; but shortly after he had 
passed the sentence of condemnation upon that virtuous lady, the 
Lady Jane Grey, he fell mad, and in his mad raving fits he would 
continually cry out, ' Take away the Lady Jane, take away the Lady 
Jane from me ; ' and in that horror he ended his wretched life. 
Drahomira, after the death of her husband, usurped the government 
of Bohemia, and was a cruel persecutor of the people of God ; but by 
a righteous hand of God it so fell out, that on that very place where 
the minister's bones lay unburied, the earth opened of itself, and 
swallowed her up alive, with her chariot and those that were in it, 
which place is now to be seen before the castle of Prague. The Arch- 
bishop of Tours was an earnest suitor for the erection of a court 
called Chamber-Ardent, for the condemning of the French Pro- 
testants to the fire, but before he died he had fire enough, for he was 
stricken with a disease called ' the fire of God,' which began at his 
feet, and so ascended upward, which occasioned one member to be cut 
off after another, and so he ended his miserable days.i Thomas 
Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, was a grievous persecutor of the 
people of God, and a great suspender and silencer of good ministers ; 
he made use of his tongue, brains, and power to stop the mouths and 
tie up the tongues of God's faithful ministers ; but God in his 
righteous judgment so struck him in his tongue, that it swelled so 
big that he could neither swallow nor speak for some days before his 
death, and so he was starved, choked, and killed by tliis strange 

tumour of his tongue. I have read of one Mr W , who was veiy 

busy in prosecuting an indictment against his minister at a quarter 
sessions, for omitting the cross in baptism ; and being a man in high 
favour with the justices, he made no question of prevailing. At night, 
according to his usual manner, he falls to drinking, till he was so 
extreme drunk that he was fain to be carried home ; in the morning 
his wife began mildly to blame him for his acting against the minister 
the day before, at which he with fearful oaths swore that ' he would 
soon rid the town of that Puritan ; ' but behold the hand of God, for 
as this wretched man was about to rise, and having put one arm in 
his doublet, even as the oaths were uttering, he was taken speechless, 
yea, and senseless, and so died.2 To conclude, the judgments of God 
upon the persecutors of the saints in Bohemia was such, that it was 
used as a proverb among the adversaries themselves, ' that if any man 
were weary of his life, let him but attempt against the Piccardines ' 3 — 
for so they called the saints — ' and he should not live a year to an 
end.' And thus you see by these instances, that most severe judg- 
ments have still followed the persecutors of the people of God. Let 
me close up this argument thus : look, as in princes' courts they are 
judged but silly, shallow-brained men that profess open and mortal 
hatred to the greatest favourites of the king, because in so doing they 
take the right and ready way to ruin themselves and families ; so they 
are doubtless the most silly, shallow-brained men in the world, how 

1 [Foxe] Acts and Mon., 1911. 2 jjj. Grove's Glcaniugs, pp. Il.5, 156. 

^ From ' Picardy,' — G. 



wise soever they may be in their own eyes, or in others' eyes who are 
like unto themselves, who persecute the favourites of the King of 
kings, that being the ready way to their own ruin and destruction. But, 
[4.] Fourthly, It ivill appear that persecutors are in the most sad 
and deplorable condition, if you do but consider that there is a day 
a-coming luherein God iv ill fully reckon ivith all persecutors for their 
persecuting of his saints : Ps. ix. 12, ' When he maketh inquisition 
for blood, he remembereth them ; he forgetteth not the cry of the 
humble.' There is a time when God will make inquisition for inno- 
cent blood. The Hebrew word doresh, from darash, that is here ren- 
dered inquisition, signifies not barely to seek, to search, but to seek, 
search, and inquire with all diligence and care imaginable. i Oh, 
there is a time a-coming, when the Lord will make a very diligent 
and careful search and inquiry after all the innocent blood of his 
afilicted and persecuted people, wliich persecutors and tyrants have 
spilt as water upon the ground; and woe to persecutors when God 
shall make a more strict, critical, and careful inquiry after the blood 
of his people than ever was made in the Inquisition of Spain, where 
all things are carried with the greatest diligence, subtlety, secrecy, and 
severity. persecutors, there is a time a-coming, when God will 
make a strict inquiry after the blood of Hooper, Bradford, Latimer, 
Taylor, Kidley, &c. There is a time a-coming, wherein God will 
inquire who silenced and suspended such and such ministers, and who 
stopped the mouths of such and such, and who imprisoned, confined, 
and banished such and such, who were once burning and shining 
lights, and who were willing to spend and be spent, that sinners 
might be saved, and that Christ might be glorified. There is a time 
when the Lord will make a very narrow inquiry into all the actions 
and practices of ecclesiastical courts, high commissions, committees, 
assizes, sessions, &c., and deal with persecutors as they have dealt 
with his people : Ps. xii. 5, ' For the opprcvssion of the poor, for the 
sighing of the needy, now will I arise,' saith the Lord ; ' I will set 
him in safety from him that puffeth at him.' When oppressors and 
persecutors do snuff and puff at the people of God, when they defy 
them, and scorn them, and think that they can with a blast of their 
breath blow them away, then God will arise to judgment, as the 
Chaldee has it ; at that very nick of time when all seems to be lost, 
and when the poor oppressed and afflicted people of God can do 
nothing but sigh and weep, and weep and sigh, then the Lord will 
arise and ease them of their oppressions, and make their day of 
extremity a glorious opportunity to work for his own glory, and his 
people's good : Mat. xxii. 6, 7, ' And the remnant took his servants, 
and entreated them spitefully, and slew them: but when the king 
heard thereof, he was wroth ; and he sent for his armies, and de- 
stroyed those murderers, and burnt up their city.' Christ sent his 
apostles and disciples to invite the Jews to a marriage-feast, to a 
stately feast, to a feast made by a king, upon the account of his son, 
of his only son, of his beloved son, of his Son that is King of kings 
and Lord of lords, but they entreated them spitefully, calling them 

' D^O"T> Damim, bloods, in the plural ; it notes the killings and murderings of God's 
afflicted ones, Gen. iv. 10 ; 1 Kings ix. 26 j 2 Chron. xxiv. and xxii. 


pestilent fellows, and movers of sedition, and some they imprisoned 
and scourged, and others they put to death, as Stephen and James, 
&c. ; and oh, what spitefulness and ingratitude was this, to return evil 
for good, to requite them with reproaches, prisons, scourges, and 
death, for their endeavouring to save their souls, and to make them 
happy for ever ! i But will this great King put up these injuries, 
indignities, and abuses that are done to his servants ? No, he will not: 
for as soon as he heard of it, he was wroth, and sent forth his armies to 
be revenged on them. The murderers in the text were the Jews, and 
the armies were the Romans. Now they are called ' God's armies,' Dan. 
ix. 26, because God employed them as the executioners of his wrath 
upon Jerusalem. Now these Roman armies did burn up their city, 
which was once the paradise of the world, and brought to ruin and 
destruction eleven millions of men, women, and children, besides mul- 
titudes that were sold for slaves, and others that were scattered among 
all nations ; and thus God took vengeance on these persecutors, and 
turned their temple and city into ashes.^ Plutarch, writing of the 
quality of tigers, saith, that if drums or tabors sound about them, 
they will grow mad, and rend and tear their own flesh in pieces."* 
Oh, there is a day a-coming when the last trumpet shall sound, and 
then all the persecutors of the saints will grow mad ! oh, then they 
will fret and fume, and tear and torment themselves, and wish for the 
mountains and rocks to fall upon them, and to hide them from the 
wrath of the Lamb, who in that day wiU with a witness avenge all his 
aflSicted and persecuted ones ! Rev. vi. 15-17. Alas, all the sorrows, 
troubles, afiiictions, vexations, torments, and punishments that befall 
the persecutors of the saints in this life, they are but qvMsi tales, as it 
were such, they are but the beginnings of sorrows, they are but types 
and figures of those easeless, endless, and remediless torments and 
pimishments that will at last inevitably fall upon all the persecutors 
of the saints. But, 

[5.] Fifthly and lastly. Persecutors at present are under an evident 
token of perdition and destruction; they have the marks and signs of 
divine displeasure upon them: Phil. i. 28, ' And in nothing terrified 
by your adversaries, which is to them an evident token of perdition, 
but to you of salvation, and that of God.'^ Persecuted Christians 
ought not to be disheartened or discouraged, but rather to take heart 
and courage, by all the persecutions that are raised against them, 
because they are most certain witnesses and evidences from God him- 
self, both of their own salvation, and of their persecutors' perdition and 
destruction. A state of unbelief, hardness of heart, blindness of mind, 
searedness of conscience, perverseness of spirit, slighting and despising 
of that which is good, hating of the light,^ and a mans being given 
up to the ways and lusts of his own heart, are dreadful tokens of per- 
dition, and fearful witnesses and evidences of destruction : and these 
tokens and evidences all persecutors are under, though it may be they 

' Rev. i. 5 ; compare these Bcripturea, Acta v. 40, vii. 58, xii. 2, and xxi. 32 ; 2 Cor. 
xi. 24; Heb. xi. 37, 38. » Josephus, Antiq., lib. xx. c. 8. 

*. Plutarch, lib. de superditione. 

* Mr Bradford looked upon his sufferings as an evidence to him that he was in his 
right way. 

" John iii. 18-36 ; lea. vi. 9, 10 ; 1 Tim. iv. 2 ; John iii. 19, 20 ; Ps. Ixxxi. 12. 


want eyes to see them, and hearts to be affected with them. Plain 
and evident tokens of wrath and ruin are stamped in Roman characters 
upon all persecutors, and did they but see those tokens, they would 
be as so many handwritings upon the wall against them. And thus 
you see by these five things, that there is no condition under heaven 
that is so sad and deplorable a condition, as the condition of persecutors 
is. But, 

5. Fifthly, I answer, Thxit God loill hear his people company in all 
their afflictions and persecutions. If the bush, the church, be all on 
a-light fire, the angel of the covenant will be in the midst of it : Isa. 
xliii. 2, ' When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee ; 
and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou 
walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt ; neither shall the 
flames kindle upon thee.'^ Both in the waters of affliction, and in 
the fire of persecution, God Avill bear his people company. So in 
that Dan. iii. 24, 25, ' Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonied, 
and rose up in haste, and spake, and said unto his counsellors. Did 
not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire? They 
answered and said unto the king, True, king. He answered and 
said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and 
they have no hurt ; and the form of the fourth is like unto the Son of 
God.' Christ is never so near to his people as when they are in their 
fiery trials ; and the hotter the furnace is, the more eminently present 
will Christ be with his people. Saints never enjoy so much of the 
supporting, emboldening, comforting, and encouraging presence of the 
Lord, as they do when the sun of persecution shines hottest upon them. 
Though Mr Glover wanted the presence of God for a time, yet when 
he came near to the stake where he was burnt, he clapped his hands for 
joy, and cried out, ' He is come, he is come.' 2 Cor. iv. 8, 9, ' We 
are troubled on every side, yet not destroyed ; we are perplexed, but 
not in despair ; persecuted, but not forsaken ; cast down, but not 
destroyed.' Divine help is nearest when a saint's danger is greatest. 
It is the deriding question which persecutors put to the saints in the 
time of their trials and troubles, Uhi Deus f Where is now your God ? 
Ps. xlii. 10 ; but they may return a bold and confident answer. Hie 
Deus: ' Our God is here,' our God is nigh unto us, our God is round 
about us, our God is in the midst of us, our God has given us his 
promise ' that he will never, never leave us, nor forsake us,' Heb. xiii. 5 ; 
in every trouble, in every danger, in every death, the Lord will be 
sure to keep us company. God will bear his children company, not 
only whilst they are in a delightful paradise, but also when they are 
in a howling wilderness, Hosea ii. 14, When a company of poor Chris- 
tians were going into banishment, one standing by to see them pass 
along, said that it was a very sad condition that those poor people 
were in, to be thus hurried from the society of men, and to be made 
companions with the beasts of the field. True, said another,^ it were 
a sad condition indeed, if they were carried to a place where they 
should not find their God; but let them be of good cheer, for God goes 
along with them, and will exhibit the comforts of his presence whitherso- 

1 Exod. iii. 2, 6; Mat. x. 17-20; Acts vt. 9, 10; Kom. viii. 33-35. 
^ Augustine de Civit. Dei., lib. ii. cap. 39. 


ever they go ; his presence is infinite, and filleth all places. The Eabbins 
put Makom, which signifies place, among the names of God ; Bythner 
brings them in expounding that text, Esth. iv. 14, thus, ' Deliverance 
shall arise from another place,' that is, from God. Now they called 
God place, because he is in every place, filling heaven and earth with 
his presence. Wherever God scatters his people, he will be a little 
sanctuary to them : Ezek. xi. 16, 'Therefore say. Thus saith the Lord 
God, Although I have cast them far ofi" among the heathen, and 
although I have scattered them among the countries, yet will I be to 
them as a little sanctuary in the countries where they shall come.'l 
The heathens were wont to say of a valiant man, Omne solum forti 
patria : Every soil is his country ; so I may say of a Christian. Every 
country is his home who enjoys the presence of God with him, who 
finds God to be a little sanctuary to him. Persecuted saints shall be 
scattered nowhere but God will be a little sanctuary to them ; in the 
want of a visible sanctuary, God will be an invisible sanctuary to them ; 
in the want of outward ordinances, they shall have the presence of his 
grace and favour. God will be a protection to them, and a spring of 
joy and comfort in them. His power shall be as a wall of fire about 
them, and his Spirit shall be the guide and leader of them. Though 
the Jews at Jerusalem, who enjoyed their glorious temple, and their 
pompous worship, and solemn assemblies, and precious ordinances, 
looked upon their brethren in Babylon as a poor, miserable, despicable, 
forlorn, and forsaken people, yea, as a people without God, and without 
his worship and ordinances, and as those that had nothing to do with " 
their magnificent temple, -they having no outward splendour or glory 
at all upon them ; yet says God by Ezekiel, I will have them to know 
that I have other thoughts, and better thoughts, concerning their 
captived brethren; for I have thoughts of grace, and thoughts of 
mercy, and thoughts of love, &c. ; for I will dwell among them, and 
be a little sanctuary to them, and make up the want of all outward 
ordinances and privileges to them. I have read of the Tyrians, that 
they bound their gods with chains, that they might not leave them in 
their greatest need ; but our God has bound himself with many golden 
chains, [I] mean promises, that he will never leave nor forsake his 
people in their greatest necessity and extremity. 2 Theodoret had a 
precious presence of God with him in his sufferings ; ior he found so 
much sweetness when he was on the rack, in the midst of his tortures, 
that he professed he did not find any anguish in his torments, but a great 
deal of pleasure ; and when they took him down from the rack, he 
complained that they did him wrong in taking of him down, and in 
ceasing to torment him ; ' For,' said he, ' all the while I was on the 
rack, and you were venting your malice against me, I thought there 
was a young man in white, an angel that stood by me, which wiped 
off the sweat, and I found a great deal of sweetness in my sufierings, 
which now I have lost.' Christians, in all your sufferings the angel 
of God's presence will bear you company, and he will sweeten the most 
cruel torments, and wipe off all the sweat, and take away all the pain, 
yea, he wiU turn your pains into pleasure, Isa. Ixiii. 9. If Joseph be 

^ A little sanctuary is opposed to that fair and glorious one that was at Jerusalem. 
" Josh. i. 5; Ps. Ixxxix. 33, 34; Jer. xxxii. 38-41. 


cast into prison, the Lord will be with him there, Gen. xxxix. 20, 21. 
If Jeremiah he thrown into the dungeon, the Lord will be with him 
there, Jer. xxxvi. G-14. If David walk through the valley of death, 
God's rod and his staff shall comfort him, Ps. xxiii. 4, 5. If the 
three children be cast into a fiery furnace, the presence of the Son of 
God shall preserve them ; if Daniel must to the lions' den, God will 
keep him company there, and chain up the lions' nature, and sew up 
the lions' mouths, and lay a law of restraint upon the lions' paws, that 
they shall not have so much as a disposition to touch him, or in the 
least to hurt him or harm him ; if Paul be brought before Nero's 
judgment-seat, God will stand by him, though all men forsake him, 
and bring him off with credit and triumph, 2 Tim. iv. 16-18. Thus 
you see that in all the afflictions and persecutions that do befall the 
people of God, God will not fail to keep them company ; and therefore 
let not troubles trouble you, let not afflictions afflict you, nor let not 
persecutions discourage you. But, 

6. Sixthly, I answer. That he shall he sure to suffer from Christ that 
re/uses to suffer, or that is afraid to suffer, for Christ's sake, or holiness' 
sake, or the gospel's sake. No man can suffer so much for Christ as 
he shall be sure to suffer from Christ, if he disdain and refuse to suf- 
fer for Christ : Mark viii. 35, ' For whosoever will save his life, shall 
lose it ; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake, and the gospel's, 
the same shall save it.' He that shall attempt to save his life by 
crossing his light, by shifting off of truth, or by forsaking of Christ, 
shall lose it.l He that thinks to shun suffering by sinning, shall be 
sure to suffer with a witness. It is a gainful loss to suffer for the 
truth, it is a lossful gain, by time-serving and base complying with 
the lusts and humours of men, to provide for our present safety, secu- 
rity, plenty, peace, and ease, &c., either by denying the truth, or by 
betraying the truth, or by exchanging the truth, or by forsaking the 
truth. When Henry the Fourth of France had conquered his ene- 
mies, he turned Papist, and gave this reason of it, ' That he might 
settle himself in peace and safety.' Ravilliak,^ who slew him as he 
was riding abroad in his coach to refresh himself, confessed that the 
reason why he stabbed him was, because he was of two religions ; and 
thus, by endeavouring to save his life, he lost it. One Philbert Ham- 
lin, in France, having converted a priest to the profession of the truth, 
was, together with the priest, apprehended and cast into prison at 
Bourdeaux ; but after a while, the priest, being terrified with the pri- 
son and fear of death, renounced Christ, and was set at liberty ; where- 
upon Philbert said to him, ' unhappy and more than miseraljle man, 
is it possible that, to save your life for a few days, you should so deny 
the truth ? Know, therefore, that though you have avoided the cor- 
poral fire, yet your life shall not be prolonged, for you shall die before 
me, and you shall not have the honour to die for the cause of Christ, 
but you shall be an example to apostates ; ' and accordingly, as he 
went out of the prison, two gentlemen that had a former quarrel with 
him met him, and slew him ; and thus he also lost his life by endea- 
vouring sinfully to save it. Though life be sweet, and every creature 

^ That husbandman that keeps his wheat loses his wheat, but he that bows his wheat 
renews his wheat. si Ravillac, as before. — Q. 


makes much of it, from the highest angel to the lowest worm, yet woe 
to him that is set upon saving of it, when Christ calls upon him to be 
divinely prodigal of it. No fool to him who thinks to avoid a less 
danger by running himself into a greater danger, who thinks to save 
his body by losing his soul, and to save his temporal life by losing 
eternal life. There is no loser to him who, by sinful attempts to save 
liis life, shall lose a better life than ever he can save. So ver. 38, 
' Whosoever, therefore, shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in 
this adulterous and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of man 
be ashamed when he cometh in the glory of his Father, with the holy 
angels.' Ah, friends, what are prisons and dungeons, and racks and 
flames, to Christ's being ashamed of a man in the great day, when he 
shall be attended with troops of saints and millions of angels ? wlien, 
in the face of the court of heaven, when all the princes of glory shall 
sit upon their thrones, Christ shall disdain a man, and scorn so much 
as to look upon him, or take any notice of him, or shew the least re- 
spect or favour towards him. Oh, what a sea of sorrow and a hell of 
horror will this raise in him ! I have readi that when Sapor, king 
of Persia, raised a violent persecution against the Christians, Ustha- 
zares, an old nobleman, and one of king Sapor's eunuchs and cour- 
tiers, being a Christian, was so terrified that he lefb off his profession, 
and sitting at the court gate when Simeon, an aged holy bishop, was 
led to prison, and rising up to salute him, the good bishop frowned 
upon him, and turned his face with indignation from him, as disdain- 
ing to look upon a man that had denied the faith ; upon this Ustha- 
zares fell a-weeping, and went into his chamber, and put off his 
courtly garments, and then brake out into these like words. Ah, how 
shall I appear before that Grod that I have denied ? with what face 
shall I behold that God of whom I have been ashamed, when Simeon, 
my old familiar acquaintance, will not endure to look upon me, but 
disdains to bestow a civil salute upon me ? If he frown now, oh, how 
will Grod behold me when I shall stand before his tribunal seat ! 
And this physic so wrought with him, that he recovered his spiritual 
strength, and went boldly and professed himself a Christian, and died 
a glorious martyr. The application is easy. Well, sirs, remember 
this, it is infinitely better to suffer for God, than to suffer from God : 
1 Pet. iii. 17, ' For it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer 
for well doing, than for evil doing.' 2 It is better to suffer for well 
doing from men, than to suffer for ill doing from God. Cyprian, in his 
sermon de lapsis, makes mention of divers, who, forsaking the profes- 
sion of their faith, were given over by God to be possessed by evil 
spirits, and so died fearfully and miserably. The Angrognians that 
yielded and complied with the Papists that came against them, were 
more sadly and cruelly handled by them than their neighbours that 
continued constant in the truth. Under the fourth persecution there 
were some Christians who, for fear of torments and death, denied their 
faith and sacrificed to idols, yet did not their bloody persecutors spare 

^ Sozom. Hist., lib. ii. c. 8. You may see the same story in Mr Foxe his Book of Mar- 
tyrs, fol. 97, 98. 

* Non poena, ged causa facit martyrem, It is not the punishment, but the cause, 
that makes the martyr. — Acts and Monu., fol. 835. 


them ; and it was observed that, being full of guilt, they went to their 
deaths with dejected and ill-favoured countenances, so that the very 
Gentiles took notice of it, and reproached them as degenerous persons, 
and worthy to suffer as evil doers. West, that was chaplain to Bishop 
Ridley, refusing to die in Christ's cause with his master, said mass 
against his conscience, and soon after pined away with sorrow.l A 
smith in King Edward the Sixth's days, called Richard Denson, was 
a forward professor of religion,^ and by his Christian instructions the 
happy instrument of the conversion of a young man to the faith ; after- 
wards, in the reign of Queen Mary, this young man was cast into 
prison for his religion, who, remembering his old friend and spiritual 
father, the smith, to whom he always carried a reverent respect for the 
good that he had received by him, sent to know whether he was not 
imprisoned also, and finding that he was not, desired to speak with him ; 
and when he came he asked his advice, whether he thought it best for 
him to remain in prison ? and whether he would encourage him to 
burn at a stake for his religion ? To whom the smith answered, that 
his cause was good, and that he might with comfort suffer for it. But 
for my part, said the smith, I cannot burn. But shortly after, he that 
could not burn for religion, by God's just judgment was burned for 
his apostasy, for his shop and house being set on fire, and he over- 
busy to save his goods, was burnt in the flames. They that will not 
burn for Christ when he calls them to it, shall burn whether they will 
or no. Oh, how much better had it been for this smith to have burnt 
for Christ, than that Christ should set his house on fire, and burn 
him in the midst of it ! He that will not suffer for Christ shall be 
sure to suffer worse things from Christ than ever he could have suf- 
fered, for Christ ; and therefore Doctor Taylor, the martyr, hit it: If I 
shrink from God's truth, said he, I am sure of another manner of 
death than Judge Hales had, who, being drawn for fear of death to 
do things against his conscience, did afterwards drown himself. 3 

In the Bohemian persecution, John Campan, the famous poet, 
having forsaken his religion, said to his wife, this day is salvation 
come to our house; whereunto she answered, this day a curse is 
brought into our house ; and so it proved, for he ended his life in 

Those apostates that left Galeacius to enjoy their sinful pleasures 
and delights, &c., were taken by the bloody Inquisition, and forced 
pubHcly to recant and abjure their religion, and when they had done 
it, they became the subjects of misery and infamy, and were equally 
odious to both parties, 

Christ seems to say to all that refuse to suffer for him, as king Re- 
hoboam said to the ten tribes, the order of the words being only in- 
verted, ' My little finger shall be thicker than your persecutors' loins, 
and I will add to your yoke, and whereas they would have chastised 
you but with whips, I will chastise you with scorpions,' 1 Kings xii. 
10-15. my friends, it is ten thousand times worse to be given 
up to a proud heart, a hard heart, a worldly heart, a formal heart, a 
hypocritical heart, a persecuting heart, an impenitent heart, or a de- 
spairing heart, &c. — for this is to be whipped with scorpions — than it is 
^ Foxe's Acts and Mon., fol. 1570. " Ihid., fol. 873. » lUd., fol. 1382. 


to be given up to prisons, or racks, or lions, or flames, or banishment, 
&c., for this is only to be chastised with whips, yea, with such whips 
that can only reach our bodies, but can never touch our immortal 
souls. And therefore, as you would not suffer such hard things from 
Christ, oh take heed of being unwilling to suffer anything for Christ's 
sake, or the gospel's sake ! But, 

7. Seventhly, I answer, That great are the advantages that will 
redound'^ to you hy all the troubles, affiictions, and persecutions that 
shall befall you for righteousness' sake, for holiness sake, Luke xxi. 13. 
Persecutions are the workmen that will fit you and square you for 
God's buildings ; they are the rods that will beat off the dust, and the 
scullions that will scour off the rust from your souls ; they are the fire 
that will purge you from your dross, and the water that will cleanse 
you from your filthiness. Physicians, you know, apply horse-leeches 
to their distempered patients. Now the horse-leech intends nothing 
but to satiate and fill himself with the blood of the sick patient, but 
the physician has a more noble aim, even the drawing away of that 
putrified and corrupt blood that endangers the life of his patient ; so 
though persecutors aim at nothing more than to draw out the heart- 
blood of God's people, that they may satiate and fill themselves with 
it, yet God has other thoughts and other aims, even the drawing 
away of that corrupt blood, that pride, that self-love, that worldli- 
ness, that carnalness, and that lifl^ewarmness, that otherwise would 
endanger the life, the health, and welfare of their souls. But this 
great truth I shall make more evident by an induction of particulars. 
Thus : 

[1.] First, Hereby you will give an evident proof of the sound- 
ness and uprightness of yotir oicn hearts, Phil. i. 27-29. Afflictions 
and persecutions will discover what metal men are made of. All is 
not gold that glisters : many there be that glister, and look like golden 
Christians, but when they come to the fire, they prove but dross : he ia 
a golden Christian indeed, who remains gold when under fiery trials. 
The stony ground did glister and shine very gloriously, for it received 
the word with joy for a time, but when the sun of persecution rose 
upon it, it fell away. Mat. xiii. 20, 21. Men that now embrace the 
word, will, in times of persecution, distaste the word, if it be not rooted 
in their understandings, judgments, wills, affections, and consciences. 
Men may court the word, and compliment the word, and applaud the 
word, and seemingly rejoice in the word, but they will never suffer 
persecution for the word, if it be only received into their heads, and 
not rooted in their hearts. The house built upon the sand was as 
lovely, as comely, as goodly, and as glorious a house to look upon as 
that which was built upon the rock ; but when the rain of affliction 
descended, and the floods of tribulation came, and the winds of perse- 
cution blew and beat upon that house, it fell, and great was the fall 
of it, Mat. vii. 26, 27. No professors will be able to stand it out in 
all winds and weathers, but such as are built upon a rock. All others 
will sink, shatter, and fall when the wind of persecution blows upon 
them, Mai. iii. 2 ; as sure as the rain will fall, the floods flow, and the 
winds blow, so sure will an unsound heart give out when trials come. 

^ Spelled ' redown.' — G. 


No heart but a sound heart will hold out bravely when hardships 
attends holiness on both hands ; no heart but a holy heart will bear 
the brunt of persecution for holiness' sake. The three children, 
Shadrach, Meshech, and Abed-nego, would rather burn than bow, they 
would rather suffer than sin, Dan. iii. 17, 18, which was an evident 
proof of their sincerity and ingenuity. They would be nonconformists, 
though court, city, and country cried up conformity, which was a sure 
argument of their integrity ; but now unsound hearts will exceedingly 
shuffle and shift to shift off persecution. Witness those false teachers 
in Gal. vi. 12, 'As many as desire to make a fair show,' or as the 
Greek has it, evTrpoacoTrf/aac, ' to set a good face on it,' ' in the flesh, 
they constrain you to be circumcised ; only lest they should suffer per- 
secution for the cross of Christ.' At this time the Jews, out of zeal 
to their law, did sorely persecute those that did either preach or prac- 
tise anything contrary to their law. Now these false teachers set a 
good face on it, and made a fair show, as if they were all for carnal 
rites and ceremonies, and they urged circumcision upon the Galatians, 
but not out of any affection or zeal that they did bear to the law, but 
only to procure favour on the one hand, and to avoid and escape the 
malice and persecution of the Jews on the other hand. They that 
were no Jews, to avoid persecution, would comply with them that 
were ; they would seem to be very earnest for Judaism, but not for 
Christianism, that so they might escape the fury of the Jews. 
Unsound hearts will say anything, and do anything, and be anything, 
to avoid persecution, and to ingratiate themselves with persecutors. 
The Samaritans, as long as the Jewish religion flourished and was in 
honour, caused a temple to be built on Mount Gerizim, that therein 
they might not be inferior to the Jews ; and they boasted themselves 
to be of the progeny of Joseph, and worshippers of God with them ; 
but when they perceived that the Jews were cruelly afflicted and per- 
secuted by Antiochus Epiphanes for worshipping of the true God, and 
fearing lest they should be handled in the like manner, they changed 
both their coat and their note, affirming that they were not Israelites, 
but Sidonians, and that they had built their temple not unto God, but 
to Jupiter. 1 Thus times of affliction and persecution will distinguish 
the precious from the vile, it will difference the counterfeit professor 
from the true. Persecution is a Christian s touchstone, it is a Lapis 
Lydius that will try what metal men are made of, whether they be 
silver or tin, gold or dross, wheat or chaff, shadow or substance, 
carnal or spiritual, sincere or hypocritical. Nothing speaks out more 
soundness and uprightness than a pursuing after holiness, even then 
when holiness is most afflicted, pursued, and persecuted in the world : 
to stand fast in fiery trials argues much integrity within. But, 

[2.] Secondly, All the troubles and persecutions which Satan or 
his instruments raise against the saints of the Most High shall not 
diminish their number, hut rather increase them. The more the 
Israelites in Egypt were oppressed, afflicted, and persecuted, the more 
they increased and multiplied, Exod. i. 10-13. Come, say they, let 
us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply; let us increase their task, 

^ Joseph. Hist., lib. xiii. [See Sibbes, iii. 475, where will be found more exact refer- 
ences. — Q.] . 


let US lay lieavy burdens upon them, &c. ; and accordingly they did, 
thinking by this means to cow out tlieir spirits, and to have brought 
them low, and to have lessened their number ; but did this stratagem 
prevail ? Oh no, as you may see in ver. 12 ; but the more they afflicted 
them, the more they multipHed and grew.i There were but seventy 
souls that went down to Egypt, but they multiplied to six hundred 
thousand, besides children, as is evident by comparing Exod. i. 5, 7 
with xii. 37, 38. So the Jews that were carried captive to Babylon 
were but twelve thousand six hundred, but they returned forty-two 
thousand three hundred and threescore, besides their servants and 
their maids, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred and 
thirty-seven, Neh. vii. G6, 67, &c. ; Ezra ii. 64, 65. The kingdom of 
Christ is set forth by a little stone cut out of a mountain without 
hands, Dan. ii. 34, 35 ; and though in all ages there has been many 
hammers at work to break this little stone in pieces, yet they have 
not been able to do it, but this little stone has proved a growing stone, 
and, in spite of the devil and a persecuting world, will grow more and 
more, till it comes to be a great mountain, and filleth the whole earth. 
In the 8th chapter of the Acts you read of a great persecution, and the 
storm beat so hard upon the churches, that it dispersed and scattered 
them up and down ; and this was so far from lessening of the number 
of believers, that it did mightily increase their number ; witness vers. 
4-6, 8, ' Tlierefore they that were scattered abroad went everywhere 
preaching the word. Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria, 
and preached Christ unto them. And the people with one accord gave 
heed unto those things which Philip spake, hearing and seeing the 
miracles which he did. And there was great joy in that city.' 
Samaria was a very wicked, corrupt place, and bewitched by the 
sorceries of Simon Magus, yet God had his people there, and by the 
ministry of Philip — not Philip the apostle, but Philip the deacon — 
who was a persecuted brother, he called them home to be partakers 
of his Spirit and grace, vers. 14-17. And thus the scattering of the 
church was the great advantage and increase of the church. The 
persecution of one church may be the gathering, edifying, multiplying, 
and erecting of many churches. 2 Such ministers who have been by 
persecution driven from their own churches have been eminently 
instrumental in the planting of many other churches. Though the 
gospel, and the faithful preachers and professors of it, was by the 
Scribes, Pharisees, high priests, elders, and great Council exploded, 
blasphemed, and persecuted at Jerusalem, which was once the holy 
city, yet it was with joy received in the polluted, bewitched, scorned, 
and despised city of Samaria. Oh, the freeness, oh, the riches of grace ! 
Persecution is the multiplication of the people of God ; in all ages the 
more the saints have been afflicted, oppressed, and persecuted, the 
more they have increased. The removing of the seven churches in 
Asia brought the gospel to Europe and Africa. During the ten cruel 
persecutions of the heathen emperors, the Christian faith was spread 

1 Cyprian, speaking of the Christians and martyrs in his time, saith, Occidi poterant, 
sed vinci non poterant — They may kill them, but they cannot overcome them. 

" Witness Faber, Farellus, Ruff [injus, and many others in France ; and witness our 
brethren who were forced to fly to New England. 


through all places of the empire ; because the oftener they were mown 
down, the more they grew, as TertuUian witnesseth ; and the more 
we are cut down by the sword of persecution, saith the same author, 
the more still we increase. Persecuted saints are like camomile, 
which grows and spreads by being trod upon ; the more persecutors 
tread upon the people of God, the more they will spread and grow. 
Austin has long since observed, that though there were many thou- 
sand Christians put to death for professing Christ, yet they were never 
the fewer for being slain. Julian the apostate devised all manner of 
torments to terrify the people of God, and to suppress them, and yet 
they increased and multiplied so fast, that at last he thought it his 
best course to give over persecuting of them, and this he did, not out 
of love to them, but because the more they were persecuted, the more 
they increased. 

In Dioclesian's time, under whom the last and worst of the ten per- 
secutions fell — for then Christian religion was more desperately opposed 
and persecuted than ever — and yet then religion prospered and pre- 
vailed more than ever ; so that Dioclesian himself, observing that the 
more he sought to blot out the name of Christ, the more legible it 
was, and the more he laboured to block up the way of Christ, the 
more passable it was, and that whatever of Christ he thought to root 
out, it rooted the deeper, and rose the higher : thereupon he resolved 
to engage no further, but retired to a private life.i 

And it is very observable, that the Eeformation in Germany was 
much furthered by the very opposition that the Papists made against 
it ; yea, and it is not to be forgotten, that when two kings wrote against 
Luther — viz., Henry the Eighth of England, and Ludovicus of 
Hungary, this kingly title being entered into the controversy, made 
men more diligently and curiously to examine the matter, by which 
means there was stirred up in men a general inclination to Luther's 

I have read of one who, observing the Christian religion to be so 
furiously persecuted by bloody Nero, concluded that surely that must 
needs be good, yea, very good, which was so cruelly persecuted by 
Nero, who was so bad, so very bad. If men would sit down and 
study which way to make most proselytes to such and such opinions 
and practices that are diflPerent from their own, certainly they cannot 
pitch upon a better way than to persecute those that differ from them. 
It is the sword of the Spirit, and not the sword of persecution, that 
will reduce the erroneous. When the disease lies in the head, the 
remedy must be answerable to the disease. Certainly a man shall as 
soon conquer a castle by spiritual arguments, as he shall conquer a 
conscience by club-law. When our Lord Jesus Christ sent forth his 
disciples to make a conquest upon an ignorant, erroneous, and deluded 
world, he did not send them forth with swords, pistols, or any such 
military weapons. Oh no ! but he sent them forth under the choice 
anointings of his Spirit, and with his everlasting gospel, and by these 
means he turned the world upside down, — these were the means by 
which he turned sinners from darkness to light, and from the power 
of Satan to Jesus Christ, Acts xxvi. 18. The weapons that the 

^ Ruffiuus. 


apostles used were not carnal, but spiritual : 2 Cor. x. 4, 5, ' For the 
weapons of our warfare are not carnal but spiritual, and mighty 
through God to the pulling down of strongholds, casting down ima- 
ginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the know- 
ledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the 
obedience of Christ.' i Satan had many strongholds, and sin had 
many strongholds, and carnal reason had many strongholds, and the 
world had many strongholds in sinners' hearts ; and yet all these 
strongholds, forts, towers, castles, &c. , were not able to stand before the 
apostles' spiritual weapons ; they all come tumbling down before the 
Spirit and the word of the Lord in the mouths of his faithful minis- 
ters ; by the spiritual weapons Satan was disarmed, and rebellious 
transgressors were conquered, captivated, and subdued to the obedience 
of the Lord Jesus. But, 

[3.] Thirdly, The troubles, afflictions, and persecutions that be/all 
you in the pursuit after holiness, may issue in the conversion and 
salvation of others ; as is evident in Acts viii., which chapter I recom- 
mend to your most serious perusal. So in that 2 Tim. ii. 9, 10, 
' Wherein I suffer trouble as an evil doer, even unto bonds, but the 
word of God is not bound,' (though Paul was fettered, yet the word 
was free,) ' therefore I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that 
they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus, with 
eternal glory.' 2 Paul, for preaching of the gospel clearly and faith- 
fully, was imprisoned at Kome, and handled as if he had been a male- 
factor, all which he was contented to suffer upon these very grounds, 
that the elect might be called, converted, saved, and glorified. It is 
very observable, that though Paul was a prisoner, yet he preached ; 
though he was in bonds, yet he preached; and though he was ac- 
counted as an evil-doer, yet he preached, that the elect might be 
sanctified and saved. Though his persecutors did lay irons upon his 
legs, yet they did not lay a law of silence upon his lips ; and though 
they shut him up from going to others, yet they did not shut out 
others from coming to hear him ; for even in bonds he exercised his 
ministerial office. As cruel as his persecutors were, they would not 
shut the prison doors upon them that waited on his ministry. 3 So 
Philemon^ was converted by Paul when he was in bonds : Philem. 10, 
' I beseech thee for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my 
bonds.' Paul had a blessing going along with his ministry, when he 
was in bonds, as well as when he was at liberty. Onesimus was con- 
verted when Paul was a prisoner. God made Paul's prison to be a 
paradise to Onesimus ; Paul by his preaching, patience, and cheerful- 
ness in suffering, converts Onesimus to the faith. Prisons in these 
times were turned into churches ; and so they were in Queen Mary's 
days,5 for as bloody as her reign was, most of the prisons in England 
were turned into Christian schools and churches, saith Mr Foxe : so 
that there was no greater comfort than for Christians to resort to 
prisons, and to hear the martyi's to pray and preach, and to behold 
their holy, humble, heavenly, gracious conversation. 6 So the afilic- 

^ Vide Calvin, Beza, and Estins. ' StA touto, For this cause. 

3 Several of Paul's epistles were written when he was in bonds. 

<Qu. 'Onesimus'?— Ed. « [Foxe] Acts and Mon., fol. 1457. ^ Ibid., 1381. 


tions and persecutions of the saints in the primitive times issued in 
the conversion and salvation of many souls. We read that Cecilia, a 
poor virgin, by her gracious behaviour in her martyrdom, was the 
means of converting four hundred to Christ. Adrianus, by seeing the 
martyrs suffer so patiently and cheerfully, was converted to the faith, 
and afterwards sealed to the truth with his blood. Justin Martyr was 
also converted in the same way. In the third persecution, Faustus 
and Jobita, citizens of Brixia, suffered martyrdom with such invincible 
patience, courage, and cheerfulness, that Calocerius cried out, Vere 
magnus Deus Christianorum, Verily, great is the God of the Chris- 
tians. Upon which words he was presently apprehended, and so 
suffered martyrdom with them.i And that was a remarkable saying 
of Luther, Ecclesia totum mundum convertit sanguine et oratione, The 
church converteth the whole world by blood and prayer. Now if by 
your troubles, afflictions, and persecutions, and the exercise of grace 
under them, you shall be instrumental to convert and save a soul or 
souls from wrath to come, it will turn wonderfully to your advantage, 
and you shall ' shine as the stars for ever and ever,' Dan. xii. 3. That 
same power, presence, wisdom, and grace, that converted others by the 
sufferings of former saints, is able to accomplish the same glorious 
effects by the sufferings of the saints of this generation ; and therefore 
bear up bravely, and neither fear nor faint under your present suffer- 
ings. But, 

[4.] Fourthly, The troubles, afflictions, and persecutions that Chris- 
tianas meet with in their pursuit after holiness, will furtlter the increase 
and growth of their grace. Grace never rises to so great a height as 
it does in times of persecution. Suffering times are a Christian's 
harvest times, Ps. Ixix. 7-9, 12. Let me instance in that grace of 
zeal : 1 remember Moulin speaking of the French Protestants, saith, 
' When Papists hurt us for reading the Scriptures, we burn with zeal 
to be reading of them ; but now persecution is over, our Bibles are 
like old almanacs,' &c. All the reproaches, frowns, threatenings, 
oppositions, and persecutions that a Christian meets with in a way of 
holiness, doth but raise his zeal and courage to a greater height. 
Michal's scoffing at David did but inflame and raise his zeal : ' If this 
be to be vile, I will be more vile)' 2 Sam. vi. 20-22. Look, as fire in 
the winter burns the hotter, by an avTL7repiaTaai<i, because of the cold- 
ness of the air ; so in the winter of affliction and persecution, that 
divine fire, the zeal of a Christian, burns so much the hotter, and 
flames forth so much the more vehemently and strongly. In times of 
greatest affliction and persecution for holiness' sake, a Christian hath, 
first, a good captain to lead and encourage him ; secondly, a righteous 
cause to prompt and embolden him ; thirdly, a gracious God to relieve 
and succour him ; fourthly, a glorious heaven to receive and reward 
him ; and certainly these things cannot but mightily raise him and 
inflame him, under the greatest opposition and persecution. These 
things will keep him from fearing, fawning, fainting, sinking, or flying 
in a stormy day ; yea, these things will make his face like the face of 
an adamant, as God promised to make Ezekiel's, Ezek. iii. 7-9, and 
Job xU. 24. Now an adamant is the hardest of stones, it is harder 
^ Clarke, as before, p. 28. — G. 


than a flint, yea, it is harder than the nether-millstone. The natural- 
ists [Pliny] observe, that the hardness of this stone is unspeakable : 
the tire cannot burn it, nor so much as heat it through, nor the ham- 
mer cannot break it, nor the water cannot dissolve it, and therefore 
the Greeks call it an adamant from its untameableness ; and in all 
storms the adamant shrinks not, it fears not, it changeth not its hue ; 
let the times be what they will, the adamant is still the same. In 
times of persecution, a good cause, a good God, and a good conscience 
will make a Christian like an adamant, it will make him invincible 
and unchangeable. When one desired to know what kind of man 
Basil was, there was presented to him in a dream, saith the history, a 
pillar of fire with this motto. Talis est Basilius, Basil is such a one, 
he is all on a-light fire for God. Persecutions will but set a Christian 
all on a-light fire for God. Look, as well-water is warmest in the 
winter time, so real Christians are warmest for God, his glory, truth, 
and ways, in the winter of afiliction and persecution. True grace 
rises by opposition and persecution. Many a man had not been so 
good if the times had not been so bad. Many a man had not been so 
gracious, if the times had not been so dangerous. Many a man had 
not been so holy, if the times had not been so profane. Many a man 
had not been so zealous, if the times had not been so lukewarm. 
Many a man had not been so stout and resolute against bowing the 
knee to Baal, if multitudes had not been worsliippers of Baal. All the 
afflictions and persecutions that befall the people of God do but add 
to their spiritual life, light, and lustre. Rev. xiv. 1-6. As stars shine 
brightest in the darkest nights, and as spices smell sweetest when 
pounded, and as vines are the better for bleeding, and gold the brighter 
for scouring, and palm-trees the better for pressing ; so the graces of 
the saints shine brightest, and smell sweetest, and rise highest in times 
of affliction and persecution. The naturalists have long since observed, 
that though the south wind be more pleasant, yet the north wind is 
more healthful ; for the south wind with his warmth raiseth vapours, 
which breed putrefaction and cause diseases ; but the north wind with 
his cold drieth up those vapours, purging the blood, and quickening 
the spirits : so the north wind of affliction and persecution contributes 
most to the drying up of sinful vapours, and to the quickening up of 
a Christian's graces. Though the wind may blow, and the rain in 
stormy weather may beat upon a painted post or sign, whose colour is 
laid in oil, yet the wind and rain is so far from blowing or washing off 
the colour or beauty that is upon the post or sign, that it rather adds 
to their beauty, and makes them shine more beautiful than before ; so 
the rain of affliction and the wind of persecution do rather add to the 
beauty and lustre of a Christian's graces, than any way cloud them, or 
take off the spiritual beauty and glory of them. But, 

[5.] Fifthly, Persecuting times are uniting times. Oh I the dis- 
cord, the division, the wrangling, biting and quarrelling that is to be 
found among professors in times of peace and prosperity ! but when 
affliction and persecution comes upon them, this unites them together. ^ 

' In persecuting times the saints have been but as one man ; which made their very 
persecutors to say, Ecce ut invicem fie diligunt ! Sec how these Christians love one an- 
other, see how they knit and, close together ! — Eusebius in Hist. 


Though the sheep in sunshiae days feed at a distance, and wander 
one from another ; yet when a storm comes, or the wolf comes, then 
they run all together ; and so it is with Christians. Some religious 
bishops, that could by no means agree when they had their freedom 
and liberty, yet could well enough agree when they were in prison to- 
gether. Though children in a family may fall out among themselves, 
yet they quickly unite when a common enemy assaults them. Perse- 
cuting times unite Christians closer together in their affections, resolu- 
tions, and prayers. They who formerly could hardly be brought to 
eat together, or trade together, or live together, or walk together, in 
persecuting times will be brought to hear together, and pray together, 
and fast together, and communicate experiences together, and stand 
together, and fall together, and rise together, &c., Ps. Ixxxiii. 3-9. 
When Gebal and Ammon and Amalek did combine, the people of 
God kept close together ; for they very well knew that broken forces 
were soon dissipated, 2 Chron. xx. 1, 4, 12. I have read of Ptolomeus 
Philadelphus king of Egypt, that he caused the Bible to be trans- 
lated by seventy interpreters, which seventy were severally disposed 
of in seventy several cells, and though they knew not the names of 
one another, nor never saw the faces of one another, yet they did so 
well agree in their several translations, that there was no considerable 
difference betwixt them in rendering the text : so when the people of 
God shall be put into cells and prisons and jails, then they will so 
agree together, that there will be little or no difference betwixt them. 
As all the stones that came about Stephen s ears did but knock him 
closer to Christ the corner-stone, Acts vii. ; so all the stones that come 
about the saints' ears will but knock them the nearer to Christ, and 
the closer one to another. But, 

[6.] Sixthly, As persecuting times are uniting times, so persecuting 
times are truth-advancing times. Veritas vincit, Truth thrives most 
when it is most opposed and persecuted : Phil, i. 12-14, ' But I would 
ye should understand, brethren, that the things which happened unto 
me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the gospel ; so 
that my bonds. in Christ are manifested in all the palace, and in all 
other places ; and many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident 
dy my bonds, are much more bold to speak the word without fear.' 
Both court, city, and country did ring of Paul's bonds, and the cause 
thereof. Paul's iron chain made more noise, and was more glorious, 
and wrought more blessed effects, than all the golden chains in Nero's 
court ; for by his bonds and chains many of the brethren were mightily 
emboldened and encouraged to preach the word without fear. The 
brethren, when they saw that Paul preached, and kept up the exercise 
of his ministry, though a prisoner, and though he was in bonds and 
chains, could not but reason thus with themselves : if Paul a prisoner 
holds up and holds on in preaching the word, though he be in bonds 
and chains ; ah, how much more ought we who are at liberty to hold 
up and hold on in preaching the truth, and advancing the truth, and 
in spreading of the truth.i There were many that took an occasion 
from ^Paul's imprisonment, bonds, and sufferings, to disgrace his 

^ Si Veritas est causa discordiw, inori possum, tacere non possum : If truth be the 
cause of our discord, I may die, but I may not be silent, said Jerome to Helvidius. 


apostleship. The apostle meets with these, and tells them, that 
though they designed and intended the disgrace and hindrance of 
the gospel by his imprisonment and bonds, ydt God had by his won- 
derful providence and goodness so ordered the matter, that his bonds 
and imprisonment turned to his great honour and fame, and an occa- 
sion of further spreading and advancing the gospel. Though Satan 
and his instruments may disturb the truth, yet they cannot suppress 
it ; for. Magna est Veritas et prcevalebit, Great is truth, and shall pre- 
vail. So upon the persecution of Stephen many of the brethren 
preached the word far and near, and the hand of the Lord was with 
them to the conversion of many: Acts xi. 19-23, 'Now they which 
were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen 
travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the 
word to none but the Jews only. And some of them were men of 
Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they were come to Antioch, spake 
unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus. And the hand of the 
Lord was with them : and a great number believed, and turned unto 
the Lord. Then tidings of these things came unto the ears of the 
church which was in Jerusalem ; and they sent forth Barnabas, that 
he should go as far as Antioch. Who when he came, and had seen 
the grace of God, was glad, and exhorted them all, that with purpose 
of heart they would cleave unto the Lord. For he was a good man, 
and full of the Holy Ghost, and of faith : and much people were added 
unto the Lord.' The brethren that were dispersed and scattered by 
reason of persecution, fall upon preaching of the Lord Jesus ; and 
though they were laymen, yet the hand of the Lord was mightily with 
them, so that a great number believed and turned to the Lord. God 
is a free agent, and can work the hearts of men over to himself by 
what hand he pleases, and many times he doth the greatest works by 
the most despised hands, as it is evident in this instance. The 
apostles did not fret, and fume, and storm, and take on because these 
brethren preached the Lord Jesus without ordination to the work of 
the ministry. Oh no ; but they were glad, and rejoiced in their bring- 
ing in of souls to Christ, and they made it their work to exhort, 
encourage, and build up those that were brought in ; neither did they 
prohibit these brethren from preaching, because they had not apos- 
tolical hands laid on them, 1 Cor. i. 21, 25, 27. By these laymen's 
preaching Christ is revealed, and multitudes are converted, and truth 
is advanced, and the apostles are gladded. Now, by what hath been 
said, it is most evident that persecuting times are truth-advancing 
times. But, 

[7.] Seventhly and lastly, As persecuting times are truth-advancing 
times : so persecuting times are a Christians rejoicing times. A 
Christian's heart is never so full of joy, as it is when he is under 
sufferings : Acts v. 41, ' And they departed from the presence of the 
council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for 
his name.' They counted it an honour to be dishonoured for Christ ; 
they took it as a grace to be disgraced for Jesus. Stephen found the 
joys of heaven in his heart as the stones came clattering about his 
ears. Acts vii. 55, 5Q. So Paul and Silas, when they were in prison, 
their hearts were so full of joy that they could not hold, but at mid- 



night when others were a-sleeping, they must fall a-singing out the 
praises of the Most High, Acts xvi. 25.1 They found more pleasure 
than pain, more joy than sorrow, more comfort than torment in their 
bonds. The rods with which they were whipped were as rods made 
up all of rosemary branches. Divine consolations rise so high in their 
souls, that their prison was turned into a palace, yea, into a paradise. 
Paul was a man that took a great deal of pleasure in his sufferings for 
Christ : 2 Cor. xiL 10, ' Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in 
reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's 
sake.' He did not only bear his sufferings patiently, but cheerfully 
also. He often sings it out, * I Paul a prisoner/ as you may see by 
comparing the scriptures in the margin together,2 ' of Jesus Christ;' 
not, I Paul an apostle, nor I Paul rapt up in the third heaven, nor I 
Paul that have more gifts, parts, and learning than others ; but ' I Paul 
a prisoner^ to shew how much he rejoiced in his bonds and suffer- 
ings for Christ. Chrysostom did not hold Paul so happy for his rap- 
ture into paradise, as he did for his imprisonment for Christ. So 
Rom. V. 3, 4, ' And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also, 
knowing that tribulation works patience, and patience experience, 
and experience hope.' Old soldiers could not glory and joy more in 
their marks and scars of honour, than these saints did in their tribu- 
lations and persecutions for Christ's sake. Eabbi Simeon Ben Jochai 
lived twelve years in a dark dungeon for fear of the Eoman persecu- 
tion in the reign of Trajan the emperor ; and he called his dark dun- 
geon Zohar, that is, splendour, because God had turned his darkness 
into light, and made up the want of the light of the sun by the light 
of his countenance, and by the shinings of the Sun of righteousness 
upon his soul. Eusebius tells us of Algerius the Italian martyr, how 
that, writing to his friend from a stinking dungeon, he dates his letter 
'from my delicate orchard;' such were his divine consolations, that they 
turned his dungeon into a pleasant orchard. ' I with my fellows,' 
saith Mr Philpot, ' were carried to the coal-house, where we do rouze^ 
together in the straw, as cheerfully, we thank God, as others do in 
their beds of down.'^ Mr Bradford put off his cap, and thanked the 
Lord, when his keeper's wife brought him word that he was to be 
burned the next day : and Mr Taylor fetched a frisk when he was 
come near to the place where he was to suffer. Henry and John, two 
Augustine monks, being the first that were burned in Germany, and 
Mr Rogers, the first that was burned in Queen Mary's days, did all 
sing in the flames. If men did but know by experience the sweet 
that is in suffering for Christ, they would desire with Chrysostom, if 
it were put to their choice, rather to be Paul a prisoner of Jesus Christ, 
than Paul rapt up in the third heaven. One of the holy women that 

* Oh, how my heart leapeth for joy, said Mr Philpot, that I am so near the apprehen- 
sion of eternal life ! 

2 Eph. iii. 1, and iv. 1; 2 Tim. i. 8; Phil. i. 9, 23; Col. iv. 10; Eom. xvi. 7. Paul 
rattles his chain which he bears for the gospel's sake, and was as proud of it as a woman 
of her ornaments, saith Chrysostom. 

» 'Lie in filth .'—G. 

* Acts and Mon., fol. 857. And Master Glover, the martyr, wept for joy of his im- 
prisonment. William Hunter's mother, that suffered under Bonner, told him that she 
was glad that ever she was so happy as to bear such a child as could find in his heart to 
die for Christ's sake. 


suffered martyrdom in this nation, rejoiced that she might have her foot 
in the same hole of the stocks in which Mr Philpot's had been before. 
And Luther reports of that famous martyr St Agatha, that as she 
went to prisons and tortures, she said she went to banquets and nuptials. 
Vincentius, laughing at his tormentors, said that death and tortures 
were to Christians jocularia et ludicra, matters of sport and pastime, 
and he joyed and gloried when he went upon hot burning coals, as if he 
had trod upon roses, i Philip Landsgrave of Hesse, being a long time 
prisoner under Charles the Fifth, it was demanded, what upheld him 
all that time, and he answered, that he felt the divine consolations of 
the martyrs. Basil, in his oration for Barlaam, that famous martyr, 
saith, that he delighted in the close prison as in a pleasant green 
meadow, and he took pleasure in the several inventions of tortures, as 
in several sweet flowers. William Tims, martyr, in a letter to a friend 
of his a little before his death, writeth thus, ' Now I take my leave of 
you till we meet in heaven, and hie you after ; I have tarried a great 
while for you, and seeing you are so long in making ready, I will tarry 
no longer for you : you shall find me merrily singing. Holy, holy, holy 
Lord Grod of Sabaoth, at my journey's end,' &c. And when they 
kindled the fire at the feet of James Bainham, ' Methinks,' said he, 
' you strew roses before me ; ' and Hawkes the martyr lifted up his 
hands above his head, and clapped them together when he was in the 
fire, as if he had been riding in state and triumph ; and holy Mr 
Saunders, speaking of his consolations in his sufferings, saith, that he 
found a wonderful sweet refreshment flow from his heart unto all the 
members of his body, and from all the parts of his body to his heart 
again.^ By all these instances it is most evident that persecuting- 
times are the saints' rejoicing-times. God reserves the best and 
strongest wine of consolation to a day of persecution ; suitable to that 
2 Cor. i. 3-5, ' Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Father of mercy, and the God of all comfort, who 
comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort 
them which are in trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves 
are comforted of God. For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, 
so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.' Oh, the sweet looks, the 
sweet words, the sweet hints, the sweet in-comes, the sweet joggings, 
the sweet embraces, the sweet influences, the sweet discoveries, the 
sweet love-letters, the sweet love-tokens, and the sweet comforts that 
Christians experience in their sufferings for Christ ! In all their 
afflictions and persecutions, they may truly say, we have sweetmeats 
to eat, and waters of life to drink, and heavenly honeycombs to suck, 
that the world knows not of ; and indeed, when should the torch bo 
lighted, but in a dark night ? and when should the fire be made, but 
when the weather is cold ? and when should the cordial be given, but 
when the patient is weak ? and when should the God of comfort, the 
God of all kinds of comfort, and the God of all degrees of comfort, 
comfort his people, but under their afilictions and persecutions ? for 

^ Fire, sword, death, prison, famine, are all pleasures, they are all delightful to me, 
saith Basil. Modestus, lieutenant to Julian the emperor, told him, that when the Chris- 
tians suffered they did but deride them ; and the torments, said he, with which Christians 
are tormented, are more terrible to the tormentora, than they are to the tormented. 

' Clarke, as before, sub nominibus. — G. 


then comfort is most proper, necessary, seasonable, and suitable, and 
then God will be sure to pour in of the oil of joy into their hearts. 
And thus you see the great and glorious advantages that will re- 
dound 1 to the people of God by all their afflictions and persecutions. 

, 8. Eighthly, I answer, That to suffer affliction and persecution 
for holiness sake, is the greatest and highest honour that you are cap- 
able of in this world. The crown of a martyrdom is a crown that the 
angels, those princes of glory, are not capable of winning or wearing ; 
and oh, who art thou ! what art thou, man ! that God should set this 
crown upon thy head ! 1 Pet. iv. 14, ' If ye be reproached for the name 
of Christ, happy are ye ; for the Spirit of glory and of God resteth upon 
you ; on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified.'^ 
The very suffering condition of the people of God is at the present a glori- 
ous condition, for * the Spirit of glory rests upon them,' and they must 
needs be glorious, yea, very glorious, upon whom the Spirit of glory 
dwells. The sufferings of ' the three children,' Dan. iii., tended very 
much to their honour and advancement, even in this world ; and had 
those vessels of honour slipped their opportunity of suffering, they had 
lost their glory.3 The apostles all along counted their sufferings for 
Christ their highest honour. And that is a remarkable scripture that 
you have in that Heb. xi. 36-38, ' And others had trial of cruel mock- 
ings and scourgings, yea, moreover, of bonds and imprisonment. They 
were stoned, they were sawn asunder, they were tempted, they were 
slain with the sword ; they wandered about in sheep-skins and goat- 
skins, being destitute, afflicted, and tormented.' Oh ! but these were 
surely the most sad, miserable, wretched, and forlorn creatures in all 
the world. Oh no ! and that is most evident if the testimony and 
judgment of the Holy Ghost may be received ; for, ver. 38, ' They were 
such of whom the world was not worthy.' The persecuting world was 
not worthy of their love, nor worthy of their prayers, nor worthy of 
their presence, nor worthy of their fellowship ; and therefore God 
called them home, and set them down upon thrones by himself. And 
to me it is very observable, that when that great apostle Paul would 
glory in that which he accounted his honour, glory, and excellency, he 
does not glory in his high office, nor in his being rapt up in the third 
heaven, nor in the interest that he had in the hearts of the saints, nor 
in his arts or parts, &c. ; but he glories in his sufferings, in that 2 Cor. 
xi. 23-27, 'In stripes above measure; in prisons more frequent; in 
deaths oft. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. 
Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered 
shipwreck : a night and a day have I been in the deep. In journey- 
ing often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by my own 
countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in 
the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren. In 

^ Spelled ' redowne. ' — G. 

* To die for Christ is the greatest promotion that God can bring any in this vale of 
misery unto, said Mr Philpot the martyr. 

^ In the primitive times, when some good people came to comfort some of the martyrg 
that were in prison, and ready to suffer, they called them blessed martyrs ; Oh no, said 
they, we are not worthy of the name of martyrs. These boly, humble hearts thought 
martyrdom too high an honour for them. 


weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in 
fastings often, in cold and nakedness.' Thus you see that this blessed 
apostle looks upon his sufferings as his greatest glory. To suffer for 
Christ is the greatest honour a