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Full text of "The works of the Rev. William Bridge, M.A. ...now first collected"





VOL. V. 








Sermon 1. Rom. viiii. 13. .. .. .. .. 3 

Sermon 2. Isa. ix. 1, 2 20 


Sermon 1. Man s Blessedness. Psalm iv. 6... .. 45 
Sermon 2. Affections Rightly Placed. Col. iii. 3. . . 60 
Sermon 3. How to Walk with God in our Callings. 1 Cor. 

viii. 20 v ..74 

Sermon 4. Of Good and Bad Company. Ps. cxix. 63. 90 
Sermon 5. The Carnality of Professors. 1 Cor. iii. 3. 117 
Sermon 6. What our Work is, and how to be Done. Eccles. 

ix. 10 ..133 

Sermon 7. Soul-Resignation into the Hands of God. Luke 

xxiii. 46. 150 

Sermon 8. The Dignity and Duty of God s Called Ones. 

1 Thess. ii. 12 165 


Chapter 1. The Old Man s Weakness 181 

Chapter 2. The Old Man s Staff. 183 

Chapters. The Old Man s Guide 187 

Chapter 4. The Old Man s Will and Legacies. . . 191 


Section 1. 
Section 2. 
Section 3. 
Section 4. 
Section 5. 
Section 6. 
Section 7. 


Epistle Dedicatory 


Chapter 1. 






Chapter 2. 277 

Chapters. 281 

Chapter 4. .. 293 

Chapters. 304 

Chapter 6. 309 


To the Honest- Hearted Reader 321 

The Loyal Convert 323 


To the Christian Reader. . . 364 

On Justification 365 

General Index. . 403 






PREACHED A.D. 1667. 

VOL. V, 


CHRISTIAN READER, Thou art desired to take notice that these two Ser 
mons are not exposed to public view by the Author s own hand, but were taken 
as they fell from his lips in his ordinary preaching : nevertheless the style, me 
thod, spirituality, conciseness and depth of them, give in ample testimony to all 
that have acquaintance with him that they are his genuine offspring ; and being 
suitable and useful to all persons, in all conditions, thou mayest, through the 
blessing of God, reap much advantage by them. 





" But sin. that it might appear sin, working death in me by that 
which is good; that sin by the commandment might become exceeding 
sinful." ROM. vii. 13. 

MY purpose is now to speak something concerning the evil 
and sinfulness of sin, and therefore have made choice of these 
words. In this chapter the apostle Paul doth give us some 
account of the way and manner of his conversion. Before I 
was converted, says he, ef I was alive without the law/ verse 
9 ; but " when the commandment came, sin revived, and I 
died ;" for without the law, sin was dead, and " I was alive 
without the law once." I thought myself a jolly man, I was 
very brisk and jolly, had good thoughts of my condition : " I 
was alive without the law once, but when the commandment 
came ;" when the word of the Lord came in power unto my 
soul for I had the law and the commandment always with 
me, " concerning the law I was blameless," Phil. iii. 6 ; the 
letter of the law was not absent from me but when it pleased 
God to set on the word of the Lord in power upon my soul, 
then, whereas I was alive before, now sin revived ; sin that 
lay dead before, and was hid, now revived, and did appear to 
be sin ; for that in the 9th verse, and this in verse 13, are the 
same : verse 9, 4C Sin revived, and I died " " But sin, that it 
might appear sin, working death in me;" in this 13th verse. 
But how did sin revive and appear ? By the coming of the 
law, by the coming of the commandment, thereby it broke 
out the more, and so was discovered ; as by the coming and 
shining of the sunbeams upon the dunghill, the filth stinks 
the more, not that the sunbeams are the cause, but the occa- 

B 2 


sion thereof. And sin revived by the coming of the com 
mandment, and appeared to be sin, appeared more to me in 
its own shape, and struck me dead with the apparition there 
of; whereas before, sin was dead and I alive, now sin alive 
and 1 dead. 

From whence then I take up this observation : 

That there is a great deal of evil and sinfulness in sin which 
doth not appear to a man until he doth convert and turn unto 
God. Look when a man doth convert and turn unto God, 
then sin appears to be sin indeed, and not before. 

For the clearing and prosecution whereof I shall labour to 

First, That there is a great deal of evil and sinfulness in sin. 

Secondly, That this evil and sinfulness of sin doth not ap 
pear to a man until conversion work pass upon his soul. 

Thirdly, Look when a man doth convert and turn to the 
Lord in truth, then sin appears in the sinfulness thereof unto 

There is a great deal of evil and sinfulness in sin. 

To make it out in the general, and then more particularly: 

In the general. This may appear by the names of sin, for 
sin hath taken up all the names of evil, of all evils. The 
Scripture doth not nickname sin ; and yet what evil is there 
incident unto man, but sin is invested with the name thereof 
in Scripture ? 

Is it an evil thing for a man to be unclean and filthy ? 
Sin is called filthiness : " I will wash you from all your filthi- 
ness," Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 

Is it an evil thing for a man to be naked ? Sin is called 
nakedness : " That your nakedness may not appear," Rev. 
iii. 18. 

Is it an evil thing for a man to be blind ? Sin is called 
blindness : " The blind shall lead the blind," Matt. xv. 14. 

Is it an evil thing for a man to be foolish ? Sin is called 
folly : " That you may no more return unto folly," Psalm 
Ixxxv. 8. 

Is it an evil thing for a man to be mad ? The prodigal 
returned unto himself, Luke xv. 17 ; and, "I was mad," says 
Paul, Acts xxvi. 1 1. 

Is it an evil thing for a man to be dead ? Sin is called 
death : " Dead in trespasses and sins," Eph. ii. 1. 


It is called an abomination, Prov. viii. 7 5 ar d because 
there is no word that can express the evil and sinfulness of 
sin, the apostle in this place says, " That sin might become 
exceeding sinful." Why ? Because there is no word of evil 
that can reach the evil of sin. Now look what that is that 
doth engross and take up all the names of all evils, that must 
needs be exceeding evil; so it is with sin. 

Look what that is that doth separate betwixt us and God, 
who is the chiefest and universal good, that must needs be 
the greatest evil. Now says the prophet, " Your iniquities 
have separated between you and your God/ 5 Isa. lix. 2. 

Look what that is that doth unite us to Satan, and make 
us the children of the devil, that must needs be very evil. 
Says our Saviour, " You are of your father the devil :" 
why ? " for his works you do" John viii. 44. Sin makes us 
the children of the devil. 

Look what that is that did put Christ to death, that was 
the cause of his death, that must needs be exceeding evil. 
So sin did : " He was made sin for us," 2 Cor. v. 21. " He 
bare our sins upon the cross," 1 Pet. ii. 24. " And the Lord 
made the iniquity of us all to meet on him," Isa. liii. 6. 

Look what that is that doth bring a general curse upon the 
whole creation, that must needs be evil. So sin hath done : 
" Cursed be the ground and the earth for thy sake," Gen, 
iii. I?. 

Look what that is that doth soil and stain all our glory, 
and the image of God in us, that must needs be great evil. 
Sin hath stained the beauty of the image of God that was 
stamped upon us, and by sin, saith the apostle, Rom. iii. 23, 
we come short of the glory of God, " For all have sinned, 
and come short of the glory of God." 

Look what that is that doth bring such horror of con 
science, that a soul is not able to bear, and cannot be allayed 
but by the blood of Jesus, that must needs be a very great 
evil : sin, and the eating of the forbidden fruit, hath bred 
this worm that never dies. 

Look what that evil is that is the fuel of hell, that feeds 
hell-fire to all eternity ; that must needs be great evil : take 
sin away, and hell-fire dies ; sin is that brimstone that hell- 
fire feeds upon to all eternity. 

Look what that evil is that is worse than the worst of 


afflictions, that must needs be very evil : the least sin is 
worse than the greatest affliction. For, 

Take an affliction, and though it be never so great, it doth 
not defile the man ; " for that which is from without doth not 
defile the man, but that which is from within," Mark vii. 15. 
Sin is from within. Affliction is not from within, but from 
without; but sin is from within. Therefore if I give a re 
proachful word to another, it more defiles me than a hundred 
reproachful words from another, because my word comes 
from within me, his words from without me. Now affliction 
is from without, and doth not defile ; but sin is from within, 
and doth defile. Therefore the least sin is worse than the 
greatest affliction. 

Take an affliction, and though it be never so great, yet 
notwithstanding, God is the author of it. et Is there evil in 
the city, and the Lord hath not done it ? " Amos iii. 6. God 
bade Shimei curse David : "Let him alone, God hath bidden 
him," 2 Sam. xvi. 11. I send famine, and I send pestilence, 
and I send mildew, says God. God is the author of afflic 
tion, but God is not the author of any sin. Indeed it is 
said God hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and others, but 
that is, non infundendo maliciam sed subtrahendo gratiam : 
not by infusing malice into their hearts, but by withdrawing 
his grace. God is not the author of sin, but God is the 
author of all affliction. 

Take an affliction, and though it be never so great, yet it 
is not contrary to God ; but sin, though never so small, is 
contrary to God. 

Take an affliction, and though it be never so great, yet 
notwithstanding it is but the fruit and the claws of sin. 
What are the claws to the lion ? If the lion be dead, the 
claws can do us no hurt, but if the lion be alive, his life puts 
strength into his claws. Afflictions are but the claws of sin, 
" The sting of death is sin," 1 Cor. xv. 56, and the sting 
of affliction is sin ; but as for afflictions, they are but the 
bare claws, and it is sin that puts life and strength into these 

Take an affliction, and though it be never so great, yet God 
doth not hate affliction, neither doth affliction make a man 
hate God ; but God hates sin, and sin makes a man hate 


Take an affliction, and though it be never so great, a man 
may be a blessed man in the worst affliction. " Blessed is 
the man whose transgression is forgiven, and whose sin is 
covered/ 5 Ps. xxxii. 1 ; but he cannot be a blessed man that 
lies in sin. " Cursed is every man that continueth not in all 
things written in the law to do them/ 5 Gal. iii. 10. Thus 
you see the least sin is worse than the greatest affliction ; 
therefore certainly the evil of sin is very great. 

Look what thai evil is that God doth punish with the 
greatest severity, both in his own and others, though it be 
but small in our eyes, that must needs be exceeding evil. 
Now he doth severely punish that which we look upon as a 
small sin, both in his own and others. In his own : you 
think it was no great matter for Adam to eat the forbidden 
fruit ; you think Moses was but a little in passion with the 
children of Israel, for which he was kept out of Canaan ; and 
you think it was no great matter for Uzzah to stay the ark 
when it was falling ; yet God punished these small sins, small 
in our eyes, he punished them severely in his own people. 
And, as for others : because there is an infinite evil in sin, 
and God doth justly punish, he punisheth them to all eternity 
for the least sin ; for amongst men, it is just to punish until 
a man repenteth, but in hell men never repent, therefore God 
punisheth them to all eternity. So that God doth punish 
sin with the greatest severity, both in his own and others ; 
therefore surely it is very evil. 

Look what that is that is a worse evil than hell or the 
devil, that must needs be a very great and exceeding evil. 
Sin is worse than the devil ; for the devil is a creature that 
God made, but sin is none of God s creature. And it is 
worse than hell ; for hell is of God s making too, but sin is 
not. It is worse to be given up to sin than to the devil ; if 
a man be given up to the devil, it is that his soul may be 
saved ; but if a man be given up to sin, it is that his soul 
may be destroyed and not saved. So that sin is worse than 
hell or the devil. 

Look what that evil is that is a punishment in itself, that 
must needs be exceeding evil, Sin in itself is a punishment, 
though there were no other punishment to follow. " In 
keeping thy commandments there is great reward," Ps. xix. 
11. So in breaking God s commandments there is great 


punishment. Therefore sometimes when God would punish 
men for their sins, he punisheth them by giving them up to 
great sins : " God gave them up to vile affections, to unclean- 
aess/" &c. Rom. i. 26. Now I say, look what that is which is 
in itself a punishment, that must needs be exceeding evil : and 
thus it is with sin ; this therefore must needs be a very great 
evil. Thus in the general, you see, there is a great deal of evil 
and sinfulness in sin. 

But now, more particularly, I shall shew it you in the sin 
of our nature, the sin of our hearts and thoughts, and the sin 
of our lives and practices ; especially living under the gospel, 
the evil of these sins. 

As for the sin of our nature ; the more universal and over 
spreading any leprosy or contagion is, the worse and the 
greater it is : now the sin of our nature spreads over all our 
faculties ; our understanding, reason, will, affections ; it 
spreads over all our faculties. 

Look what that contagion or leprosy is, that is so great 
that nothing will help against it, but the pulling down the 
house ; that must needs be very great : truly the sin of our 
nature is such, nothing will cure it but the pulling down the 

Look what that sin is that is most unwearied, and whereby 
a man is unwearied in sin, that must needs be very great. 
The sin of our nature is unwearied, as the fountain is un 
wearied in sending up water, bubbling up water. A man may 
be wearied in drawing up water out of the fountain, and so a 
man may be wearied in sinful actions : but sinful nature is 
never weary, and that sin that is unwearied is exceeding 

Look what that sin is that is the ground of all our relapses 
and returns to sin ; that must needs be very great. Now 
what is the ground of all our returns to evil, after all our 
repentance and reformation, but our nature ? Suppose water 
be heated ; after it is warmed and heated, it cools again. 
Heat it again, and it cools again ; why ? Because coldness is its 
nature. And so what is the reason that men return again and 
again to their sin, after all their repentance and reformation, 
but the sin of their nature? 

Look what that evil is which is the least lamented, and 
that whereby our sin is most excused; that is a great and 


dreadful evil. Now of all sins the sin of our nature is least 
lamented, and thereby men s sins are most excused. Bear 
with me, it is my nature ; I am passionate, but it is my 
nature ; I am froward, but it is my nature ; men excuse 
themselves thereby. Now, I say, look what that evil is which 
is least lamented, and that whereby our sin is most excused ; 
that is a dreadful evil. Thus it is with the sin of our 
nature . 

Again, But as for the sin of our hearts and thoughts, the 
evil thereof: 

Look what that sin is that is the most incurable; that 
is worst : a secret hidden wound within the body, or a 
disease within the body, is the most incurable. Such are the 
sins of our hearts and thoughts, secret sins, and so the most 

Look what that sin is that is a friend, a parent to other 
sins ; that must needs be very evil. Now what are the pa 
rents of all our sinful actions but sinful thoughts ? What 
puts life into evil actions but sinful thoughts ? So with the 
godly, and so with the ungodly : with the godly, for saith 
Abraham, " I thought the fear of God was not in this place," 
Gen. x. 11. and therefore I said she is my sister; she was 
indeed his sister, and he lied not in saying so ; but he dis 
sembled, and hid the truth, using an unworthy shift for his 
own preservation ; and where began this evil but in a sinful 
thought ? ee I thought the fear of God was not in this place." 
So with the ungodly, Ps. 1. 21, " Thou thoughtest I was altoge 
ther such an one as thyself:" the wicked steal, and commit 
adultery, and deceive, and slander others, and how are they 
led into all this, but by thoughts ? " Thou thoughtest I was 
such an one as thyself:" and you know what the Psalmist 
saith, " Cleanse thou me from secret faults, then shall I be 
upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression," 
Ps. xix. 12, 13. Sins of our hearts and thoughts do prin- 
cipiate, and give a being unto sinful actions, and therefore 
are very evil. 

Thereby also, by the sins of our hearts and thoughts, our 
former sin committed, that was dead, is revived again, and 
hath a resurrection by our musing on it, contemplating on 
it with delight. As the witch at Endor called up Samuel 
that was dead, so a delightful thought calls up a sinful ac- 


tion that was dead before. Thereby our sins that were dead 
before are revived, and have a resurrection. 

Thereby also a man may possibly sin that sin in effect, 
which he never did commit in act, and so the Lord may 
punish him for it : as the Lord said to David, because it was 
in thine heart to build me an house, I will build thy house : 
so says God to a man in a way of punishment, because it 
was in thy heart to do this evil, though thou didst it not, I 
will punish thee for it. Possibly, I say, by the sin of our 
hearts and thoughts, a man may sin that sin in effect, which 
he never did commit in act, and that is evil. 

Thereby a man may or doth repent of his very repentance : 
a man sins and afterwards is sorrowful, and repents thereof, 
and then after his repentance he thinks on his sin with de 
light ; what is this but to repent of his very repentance ? 
As by my repentance I am sorrowful for my sin, so by musing 
on my sin with delight, I repent of my repentance. Now 
is it not a very great evil for a man to repent of his repen 
tance ? Lo, this may a man do, and this men ordinarily do ; 
they repent of their repentance by musing on their sin, and 
delighting in it in a way of sinful thoughts. 

But again, As for the sin of our lives and practice, espe 
cially living under the gospel, the evil thereof, that is very 
great, for, 

Sin under the gospel is sinning against the remedy ; and 
of all sins, sinning against the remedy is the greatest ; and 
therefore it is worse for a man to commit adultery that is 
married, than for an unmarried man to commit fornication ; 
for he sins against the remedy. Now the great remedy 
against sin is the gospel ; therefore for a man to sin under 
the gospel, he sins against the remedy. 

The greater obligations a man sinneth against, the worse 
and the greater is his sin. By the gospel we are brought 
under great obligations, and by our sinning under the gospel, 
what do we ? We engage the very mercy of God to become 
our adversary: by our sinning under the gospel, we sin 
against mercy and grace, and thereby engage the very mercy 
of God, our greatest friend, to become our greatest adversary. 

Peccatum majus, ubi specialis repugnantia inter peccantem 
et peccatum ; the more repugnancy there is betwixt the sin 
and the sinner, the greater is the sin 5 and therefore it is 


worse for a judge to be unjust, than for another, because 
there is a special repugnancy betwixt the sin and the sinner. 
Now there is a special repagnancy betwixt the gospel, and a 
man that sins under the gospel ; for he professes the con 
trary, and therefore sin there is the greater. 

Peccatum me/jus, ubi majus nocumentum ; the more hurtful 
or mischievous any sin is, the greater is that sin : sinning 
under the gospel is very hurtful, to ourselves, and to others. 
To ourselves ; as poison taken in sack, or something that is 
warm, is the most venomous, so sin under the gospel is the 
deadliest poison. Why ? Because it is warmed with gospel 
heat ; and it is hurtful to others, because they are hardened ; 
for when men sin under the gospel, others are hardened 

The more able that any sin is to defend itself by knowledge, 
shifts and distinctions, the worse and greater it is. Now a 
man that lives under the gospel hath knowledge, and by his 
knowledge is able to defend his sin by many distinctions ; and 
sins bred under the gospel are able to defend themselves by 
knowledge fetched from the gospel, therefore the worse. 

The more deceitful that any sin is, and the better ends and 
pretences it hath, the worse it is, and holds the longer. Now 
sins bred under the gospel are most deceitful, and have the 
best ends and pretences, and therefore the worse. 

The more that a man doth cast contempt upon the great 
things of God by his sin, the greater and the worse is his sin. 
Sins under the gospel cast contempt upon the great things of 
God, the glory of God, the glorious offer of the grace of God. 
To sin under the gospel, is to cast contempt upon the glory 
of God and the great things of God, and therefore sin there 
is the greater. 

The more costly and chargeable that any sin is, the greater 
and the worse it is. Now a man that sins under the gospel 
cannot sin at so cheap a rate as another, though he sins the 
very same sin that another commits. Why ? " He that 
knows his Master s will and doth it not, shall be beaten with 
many stripes," Luke xii. 4J. What an evil and dreadful 
thing is it for men to sin under the gospel, says the apostle, 
" he shall come in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them 
that know not God, and that obey not the gospel/ 5 2 Thess. 
i. 8. Flaming fire ; not painted fire, but real fire ; but there 


may be real fire in a spark, therefore he doth not say real fire 
neither, but, " He shall come in flaming fire, taking vengeance 
on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel." 
Oh, what an evil and dreadful thing is it for a man to sin liv 
ing under the gospel. Now if there be so much evil in the 
sins of our lives and practices, living under the gospel ; if 
there be so much evil in the sin of our hearts and thoughts ; 
if there be so much evil in the sin of our nature ; if sin hath 
taken up all the names of all evils ; if sin doth separate be 
tween God and us ; if sin doth unite us to Satan, and make 
us the children of the devil ; if sin did put Christ to death ; 
if sin doth bring a general curse upon the whole creation ; if 
sin doth stain all our glory ; if sin doth awaken conscience to 
that horror that nothing but the blood of Christ can quiet it; 
if sin doth feed the fire of hell ; if the least sin be worse than 
the greatest affliction ; if God doth punish the least sin both 
in his own and others with the greatest severity ; if sin be 
worse than hell or the devil ; and, if sin itself be a punishment, 
certainly there is abundance of evil and sinfulness in sin. So 
I have done with the first thing, namely, that there is a great 
deal of evil and sinfulness in sin. 

Secondly, Though there be thus much evil and sinfulness 
in sin, this doth not appear to a man until he doth convert 
and turn unto God : till then his sin is dead, but then it is 
revived ; till then the sinfulness of sin doth not appear, for, 

Till then a man is in the dark ; and who can see the great 
ness of an evil in the dark ? 

Till then, grace, the contrary, is not placed in the soul ; one 
contrary doth shew the other : white is best seen by black, 
grace is best seen by sin, and sin is best seen by grace : till 
then a man hath no grace, no contrary to illustrate it, to make 
it appear. 

And till then sin is in its own place. Elementum non gra- 
vidat suo loco ; water is not heavy in its own place, it is not 
heavy in the river; a man may lay at the bottom of the river 
with all the water upon his back, and yet not feel the weight 
of it, because it is in its place ; but take but a pail-ful of water 
out of the river, and you feel the weight of it, because 
then it is out of its place. Now till a man convert and turn 
unto God, sin is in its own place, and therefore the sinfulness 
of it doth not appear. 


But you will say, How comes this to pass, that sin should 
not appear in the sinfulness of it, until a man convert and 
turn unto God ? 

I answer, Sin is a spiritual thing ; I mean a moral, not a 
natural thing : sin is a spiritual thing, and a man that liveth 
by sense cannot see what is spiritual. 

A man is blind unto what he loves ; till a man convert and 
turn unto God, he loves his sin; he loves it above all the 
world ; and therefore the evil and sinfulness of sin doth not 
yet appear to him. 

The rrore blinds a man hath that cover his sin, the less he 
sees it, and the less sin appears to be sinful : now before a 
man convert and turn unto God, all his duties are but blinds 
to cover his sin, all his morality is but a blind, all his natural 
uprightness is but a blind : True, says he, I am a sinner ; 
but I pray, and perform duty, therefore am not so great a 
sinner ; I have such and such moralities, and my heart is as 
good as any one s, therefore I am not so great a sinner. What 
are all his duties before he convert and turn unto God, but 
so many blinds to cover and hide his sin ? No wonder 
therefore that sin doth not appear as it is, until a man doth 
convert and turn unto God. 

The more a man looks upon sin as going into it, the less it 
appears to be ; and the more a man looks upon sin as coming 
out of it, coming from it, the greater it appears to be ; there is 
a going into sin by commission, and there is a coming from it 
by repentance. Now when a man is going into his sin, there 
he sees profit, pleasure, and his own concernments, and this 
makes his sin appear little ; but when he comes out of it, 
there he sees sorrow, and repentance, and that makes his 
sin appear great. 

Sometimes by the providence of God, sin meets with good 
events ; and holiness meets with bad events in the world : 
and so the evil arid sinfulness of sin is hidden from men. 

The less a man is at the work of private examination, the 
less sin appears to be sin, and the less he sees sin as it is : 
before a man convert and turn unto God, he is little in the 
work of examining his own soul in private : no wonder 
therefore sin doth not appear to him to be sinful, because he 
is little in the work of private examination. Thus ye see sin 


cloth not appear in the sinfulness of it until a man doth 
convert, and turn unto God. That is the second. 

Thirdly, Look when a man doth convert and turn unto 
the Lord, then sin appears in the sinfulness thereof unto his 
soul. For then, 

He is weary and heavy-laden under the burden of his sin ; 
the more a man is weary and heavy-laden under the burden 
of his sin, the more sin appears evil and sinful to him: now 
look when a man doth convert and turn unto God, then he 
is weary, and heavy-laden under the burden of his sin : 
" Come unto me all ye that labour, and are heavy-laden/ 
Matt. xi. 28. 

Then he sees God, and not till then ; the more a man sees 
God, the glory of God, the goodness of God, the wisdom of 
God, the holiness of God, the sovereignty of God : the more 
sin appears in its sinfulness to him : " Woe is me, I am un 
done, for I have seen the King, the Lord of Hosts," Is. vi. 5. 
And says Job, " I have heard of thee by the hearing of the 
ear, but now mine eye seeth thee." What then ? " I abhor 
myself, and repent in dust and ashes," Job xlii. 5, 6. Look 
when I see God, the glory of God, the goodness of God, the 
holiness ot God, the wisdom and the sovereignty of God, 
then sin appears in its sinfulness to me. 

Then also a man comes to see Christ crucified, and not 
till then ; there is nothing can give us such a sight of sin as 
Christ crucified : " By the law is the knowledge of sin," 
Rom. iii. 20, but by the sight of Christ crucified, I see the 
hatred that God hath against sin ; I do not see by the law 
so much the hatred that God hath against sin as in Christ 
crucified ; the more I see God s hatred against sin, the more 
I see the sinfulness of it. Now look when a man doth con 
vert and turn unto God, then he sees Christ crucified. 

Look when a man hath gotten the true prospect of hell, 
and of the wrath of God, then sin appears sinful to him : 
now look when a man convert and turn unto God in truth, 
then he sees the wrath of God, and hath the truejprospect of 
hell, from which he is delivered. 

The more a man is tired out, and wearied with the dogging 
and haunting of his sin, that he can rest no where for it, the 
more the sinfulness of sin appears to him. Now when a 
man doth convert and turn unto God, what says he ? Ah, 


I am never at rest, I am dogged and haunted, and tired out 
continually with my sin; oh, now it appears very sinful 
to me. 

Look when a man s heart is filled with the love of God, 
and possessed with the Holy Ghost, then sin appears to him 
to be very sinful ; for what comes the Holy Ghost for ? 
"To convince the world of sin/ John xvi. 8. Now look 
when a man doth convert and turn to God, then comes this 
convincing work of the Holy Ghost ; then his heart is filled 
with the love of God, and possessed with the Holy Ghost ; 
therefore then sin appears in the sinfulness thereof unto his 
soul. And thus I have done with the doctrine, namely, that 
there is a great deal of evil and sinfulness in sin, which doth 
not appear to a man until he doth convert and turn unto 

By way of application. 

If there be so much evil and sinfulness in sin ; behold the 
power of the grace of God, the grace of God without you, 
the grace of God within you. If a spark of fire should be 
preserved alive in an ocean of water, you would think it is 
some strong hand that did it; if a candle should be kept 
light in a great wind and storm ; you will say, it was a strong 
hand that kept it light : there is an ocean of sin in our hearts, 
and that a little spark, or candle of grace should be pre 
served in us, in the midst of this ocean of sin ; oh, the power 
of the grace of God. 

If this be true, behold the riches and the freeness of the 
grace of God, that you should be delivered from all this 
evil ; sin sinful, and so sinful, and evil, and you delivered 
from all this evil; oh, the riches, and the freeness of the 
grace of God. 

But if the sinfulness of sin doth not appear until a man 
convert and turn unto God. Then, 

Here we may see some reason, why some men are not 
sensible of their sins though very great, it is because they 
are not converted ; the commandment never came, the com 
mandment is not yet come : such a poor soul goes on in 
his sin, and is not yet convinced of the evil of it, for the 
commandment never yet came. 

If this be true, what a sad condition are all those in that 
not converted and brought home to God ; they are in 

are not con 


their sins, and their sin is in them ; "The whole world lies 
in wickedness," 1 John v. 19. They lie in their sin, and are 
full thereof; they are full of this evil; this evil is full of 
evil, and they are full of this evil : they are full of it. For, 

They are always filling and never emptying : a vessel that 
is always filling, and never emptying, must needs be full. 
Thus it is with a man not converted, not turned to God, he 
is always filling with sin, and never emptying ; yea, when he 
thinks he is emptying, when he thinks he is repenting and 
reforming, then he is filling with sin; always filling, and 
never emptying, therefore must needs be full. 

They are full of it, because they sin beyond their temp 
tation : if a beggar begs of me, and I give him more than he 
begs for ; if he begs for sixpence, and I give him a shilling, 
he will say, I am full, for I give him. more than he begged 
for : so when temptation begs, and a man sins beyond his 
temptation, what doth this argue but that he is full of sin ? 
Thus it is with men unconverted, they sin beyond their 
temptation, and what doth this argue, but that they are full 
of sin. 

And full they are, because they are dropping their sin 
wheresoever they go : you will say a beggar is full of vermin, 
that drops his vermin wheresoever he goes ; so men, not con 
verted, not turned unto God, they are dropping their vermin 
wheresoever they go : if they come in good company they 
are dropping their vermin there ; if they come in bad com 
pany they are dropping their vermin there ; why ? because 
they are full of vermin, full of sin. 

But again, As men not converted, not turned to God are 
full of sin, so they are under the power of it. Why, how 
doth that appear ? Because their sin commands them off 
from their duty. Suppose a company of men sitting at 
table at meat together, and another comes into the room, 
and says to one of them, Take your cloak and follow me, 
and he presently rises from his meat and follows him ; you 
will say, Certainly this man is his master, because he arises 
from his meat at his command and follows him. So when 
sin shall command a man off from his duty, from reading 
the word, from private prayer; what doth this argue, but 
that he is under the power of sin ? As when a man is 
sinning, and grace comes and calls him off from his sin, it 


argues he is under the power of grace 5 so when a man is 
at his duty, and his sin comes and calls him off from his 
duty, it argues he is under the power of sin ; so it is with 
men unconverted, they are under the power of their sin. 

As a man unconverted is full of sin, and under the power 
of it, so he knows it not ; for sin doth not appear to a 
man to be sin until he convert and turn unto God ; it doth 
not yet appear, as the apostle says in another case, 1 John 
iii. 2, " It doth not yet appear what we shall be, but it shall 
appear " so say I in regard of sin, It doth not yet appear, 
but it shall appear to a man s self, and others ; before a man 
convert and turn to God, it doth not appear ; but to such a 
one it shall appear : when a man comes to - die, and all his 
hoops be knocked off, then it will appear how full of sin he 
is : as a vessel that is full of liquor, and the liquor issue 
through the hoops, you see there is liquor in it, but you do 
not know how full it is till the hoops are knocked off. But 
then you will say, Oh, how full was this vessel. Ah, now 
our hoops are on, and it doth not yet appear how full of sin 
men are ; only it comes issuing through the hoops, through 
their duties, but a day is coming when all our hoops shall be 
knocked off, and then it will appear how full of sin men are. 
But again, If this be true, that when a man doth convert 
and turn unto God, then his sin doth appear in the sinful- 
ness thereof unto him ; then why should we not all labour 
to get the true sight of sin, to be sensible of sin ? It is the 
property of a man converted to be sensible of sin ; ee then sin 
revived." As therefore you desire to have upon you the 
character of a man converted, labour to be sensible of your 
sin, that it may appear in the sinfulness thereof. 

It is the mind of God, that all his converted ones should 
think much on, and be very sensible of the sins they com 
mitted before their conversion. <c Such and such were some 
of you, but ye are cleansed, but ye are washed." 1 Cor.vi. 11. 
I say it is the mind and will of God, that those that are 
converted should be very sensible of their sins which they 
committed before conversion. For, 

Thereby they pity others that are in their sins. 
Thereby they are kept from future sins : what is the reason 
that men are not kept from future sins, but because they are 
not sensible of their former sins. 

VOL. V. C 


Thereby also they are kept in the sense of free grace 
towards them, and so they magnify the free grace of God ; I 
was a blasphemer, a persecutor ; such and such a one I was ; 
but I am washed, but I am cleansed, and through grace 
justified ; oh, the freeness of the grace of God. Thus they 
magnify free grace. Therefore I say it is the mind of God, 
that those that are converted should be still very sensible of 
their sins committed before their conversion : and this is a 
character of a man converted, sin appears to him to be sinful. 
Now therefore as you desire to have the character of a 
man converted, labour more and more to see sin in the sin- 
fulness of it. 

Well, but then the question is, What shall we do, whether 
converted or not ; what shall we do, that we may be able to 
see sin in the sinfulness thereof? 

Be sure of this, that you look much upon Christ crucified. 
Christ on the cross is a glass wherein you may see the sinful- 
ness of sin. Study Christ crucified much. 

Labour more and more to walk in the presence of God, 
the shines of God s countenance ; for as when the sun shines 
into the room, you see little motes, so when God shines into 
your heart, you see little sins : the beams of God s coun 
tenance do discover sin in the sinfulness of it ; therefore 
labour lo walk more in the presence of God, and in the 
shines of his countenance, 

Labour more and more to examine your own souls ; be 
much in private examination : hardly an ungrowing Christian 
that is much in private examination ; hardly a proud man 
that is much in private examination. Do you desire to see 
sin in the sinfulness of it ? Go alone, call yourself often to 
account, be much in private examination. 

Take as much pains to keep the sense of sin upon your 
heart as ever you did to get it : some take pains to get them 
selves into a good frame, but take no pains to keep them 
selves in it when they have gotten it. As the apostle speaks, 
they view themselves in the glass of royal liberty, and go 
away and forget what manner of men they were. 

In case you find any particular sin, go round about it ; 
consider the circumstances thereof, aggravate it upon your 
own soul. 

Improve your afflictions this way. God sends afflictions 


sometimes to give you the sight of some sin that lay hid 
before ; and sometimes your afflictions have your sin written 
on their forehead. Improve then your affliction for the dis 
covery of the sinfulness of sin. 

Be sure you judge of sin as the scripture judgeth of it, and 
not as men judge of it : the Scripture judgeth of sin by the 
consequence thereof, as our Saviour Christ says, a I was an 
hungred, and ye fed me not ; I was thirsty, and ye gave me 
no drink ; naked, and ye clothed me not." How so ? " In 
asmuch as ye did it not to one of these, ye did it not to 
me" Matt. xxv. 42 45. Christ judgeth of sin by the con 
sequence of it ; therefore if you would see sin in the sinful- 
ness of it, judge of it as Christ judgeth of it, and as the 
Scripture judgeth of it, and not as men judge of it. 

If you desire to see sin in its own colours, in the sinful- 
ness of it ; then look upon the commandments of God as 
great things ; the more the commandment of God is great- 
ened to you, the greater will sin be in your eye ; if the 
commandment of God be great in your eye, the sin, contrary 
to the commandment, will be great in your eye too. 

Never think any thing small betwixt God and you ; there 
is nothing small betwixt God and us, for God is an infinite 

Never look upon sin in the time of temptation ; for then 
you are in the dark, and not fit to see the greatness of sin : 
labour to know the difference betwixt temptation and cor 
ruption, and betwixt the sins of God s people, and others ; 
but never look upon sin in the time of temptation, for then 
you are in the dark, and cannot see the sinfulness of it. 

If you would see sin in the sinfulness of it ; then go unto 
God for the coming of the commandment, that God would 
set on the commandment upon you, as Paul here ; says he, 
" When the commandment came, sin revived, and I died." 
Some, it may be here, never yet had the commandment set 
on upon their hearts ; Oh then go to God, and pray for the 
setting on of the commandment upon you; then shall you see 
sin in the sinfulness thereof. 

Now let me add two or three cautions to this, and so 

Take heed that you do not so think on sin as to forget 
Christ : if you think on sin without Christ you will despair, 

c 2 


if you think on Christ without sin you will presume ; never 
think on sin without Christ : labour to get the sight of your 
sin, but never think on sin without Christ ; but look on your 
sin in the wounds of Christ, and read your sins written out 
in Christ s blood. 

Humble yourselves for sin, though it be never so small ; 
but do not question your condition for sin though it be never 
so great ; I do not speak this to those that are unconverted, 
for they have cause to question their condition for every sin, 
though never so small ; but being converted and turned unto 
God, I say, humble thyself for every sin, though never so 
small ; but never question thy condition for any sin, though 
never so great. 

The more sense you have of sin, and the sinfulness thereof, 
the more labour to maintain your assurance of the pardon of 
it : and the more assurance you have of the pardon of your 
sin, the more labour for a sight and sense of it : let not your 
sense of sin quench your joy of pardon ; let not your joy 
of pardon hinder your sight of sin : if both these be true 
and genuine, the one is an help unto the other. 

And, to conclude, the more sense you have of sin, the more 
do you come to Christ : for in Scripture you shall find, that 
every good work is not for itself, but some good works are 
in order to others ; as for example, to instance in the keeping 
of the Sabbath, you are to rest on the Sabbath, and it is a 
good work, but not for itself, but in order to prayer, hearing, 
sanctification, and other duties. So here, sense of sin is a good 
work ; but it is not for itself, but in order to going to Christ ; 
therefore now go to Christ, and say, Lord, now I see the 
sinfulness of sin, let me also see the graciousness of grace, 
and the fulness of Christ ; yea, now I do come to thee for 
righteousness, because I see my sin is out of measure 



" Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexa 
tion, when at the first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun, and 


the land of Naphtali, and afterward did more grievously afflict her, 
by the way of the sea beyond Jordan in Galilee of the nations. 

" The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light : they 
that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the 
light shined," ISAIAH ix. 1, 2. 

THESE words do relate to the former chapter, as you may 
see by the word, nevertheless ; in the end of the former 
chapter the prophet shews, that great trouble and misery 
should befal the people of God, " It shall come to pass, that 
when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and 
curse their king) and their God, and look upward; (verse 21) 
and they shall look unto the earth, and behold trouble and 
darkness, dimness of anguish ; and they shall be driven to 
darkness : nevertheless the dimness shall not be such as was 
in her vexation/ 5 &c. 

So that in these words you have a greater affliction men 
tioned, and the mitigation of that affliction : the affliction, or 
trouble, is more easy, and more heavy ; it hath two parts, 
a more easy part, and a more heavy part : " at the first he 
lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun, and the land of Naph- 
tali, and afterward did more grievously afflict her by the way 
of the sea." The story whereof you have in 2 Kings xv. 19, 

" Pul, the king of Assyria, came against the land ; and 
Manahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his 
hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand, 
and Manahern exacted the money of Israel : so the king of 
Assyria turned back, and stayed not there in the land." 
There was the more light afflction : but in verse 29, there 
you have the more heavy affliction : " In the days of Pekah, 
king of Israel, came Tiglath-Pileset, king of Assyria, and 
took Ijon, and Abelbeth-Maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, 
and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, 
and carried them captive to Assyria." Here was the afflic 
tion wherewith they were vexed, both more light, and more 

The mitigation follows at verse 2 : " The people that 
walked in darkness have seen a great light, they that dwell in 
the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light 
shined." Here is an alleviation of this affliction by the 
promise of Christ, which is interpreted of Christ, in Matt. 
iv. 12, " Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into 


prison, he departed into Galilee, and leaving Nazareth, he 
came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast 
in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali : that it might be 
fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, 
The land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali, by the way 
of the sea beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles : the 
people which sat in darkness saw great light ; and to them 
which sat in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung 

So that Christ, and Christ alone is an alleviation to our 
greatest afflictions. 

And so the doctrine that I shall fall in with at this time 
is this : 

There is that in Jesus Christ alone, which may and can 
and doth afford sufficient comfort and relief in the worst of 
times and conditions. 

For the opening and prosecution whereof, 

First, We will inquire into the truth of it ; that it is so. 

Secondly, What that is in Christ, that may, or can suc 
cour, comfort and relieve in the worst of times and con 
ditions ? 

Thirdly, How far this concerns us ? 

And so to the application. 

First, As to the truth of it; it is said of Christ, "That in 
him the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth bodily/ 5 Col. ii. 9, 
and there is enough in God to supply all our wants ; as there 
is enough in heaven to pay for all at the last ; so there is 
enough in God to supply all at the present. He is too 
covetous whom the great God of heaven cannot suffice. When 
David was in the greatest strait that ever he met with in his 
life ; his wives and goods taken and carried away by the 
enemy, and his own men and soldiers mutinied, and ready to 
stone him; how did he comfort himself but in God ? "Da 
vid encouraged himself in the Lord his God," 1 Sam. xxx. 6. 
There is enough in God to comfort in all conditions, and 
the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth bodily in Christ; 
therefore there is that in Christ which may afford sufficient 
comfort and relief in the worst of times and conditions. 

If you look into Scripture you shall find, that the pro 
mises and prophecies of Christ are calculated and given out 
for the worst of times. It was usual with the prophets to 


prophesy of Christ ; but mark how their prophecies were 
calculated for the worst of times : in Jer. xxiii. 6, you have 
a prophecy of Christ, " In his days, Judah shall be saved, 
and Israel shall dwell safely, and this is his name whereby 
he shall be called, the Lord our righteousness." Well, what 
time doth this prophecy relate to ? A very evil time : " Woe 
be unto the pastors that destroy and scatter the sheep of my 
pasture," ver. 1. "Therefore thus saith the Lord God of 
Israel," ver. 2, " Against the pastors that feed my people, 
ye have scattered my flock, and driven them away, and have 
not visited them :" and then comes in the prophecy of 
Christ. So in Isaiah xxviii. 16, you have a great prophecy 
of Christ: "Behold I lay in Zion for a foundation, a tried 
stone, a precious corner-stone, a sure foundation :" a plain 
prophecy of Christ. Well, but how comes this in ? Why 
it was calculated for an evil time ; verse 14, " Hear the word 
of the Lord ye scornful men that rule this people which is in 
Jerusalem ; because ye have said, We have made a covenant 
with death, and with hell are we at agreement, when the 
overflowing scourge shall pass through : therefore thus saith 
the Lord God, Behold I lay in Zion for a foundation, a stone, 
a tried stone, a precious corner-stone ; judgment also will I 
lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet, and the 
hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall 
overflow the hiding place, and your covenant with death shall 
be disannulled, and your agreement with hell shall not 
stand :" a prophecy concerning Christ calculated for the 
worst of times. So in Ezek. xxxiv. 23, you have another 
prophecy of Christ, " And I will set up one shepherd over 
them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David, he 
shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd ;" plainly 
speaking of Christ. Well, but when doth he speak this 
prophecy of Christ ? Look into the beginning of the chap 
ter, verse 2, " Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds 
of Israel; prophesy, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord 
God unto the shepherds : Woe be to the shepherds of Israel 
at do feed themselves, should not the shepherds feed the 
flocks ? ye eat the fat, and ye clothe ye with the wool, ye kill 
them that are fed, but ye feed not the flock." Now in this 
time comes out the prophecy of Christ; you make mention 
of aquavitte at other times, but when there is special mention 



tnade of aquavita, and the aquavitce bottle in a fainting and 
dying time ; what doth this argue but there is a cordiality in 
it ? The first time that ever Christ was prophesied of, what 
time was it ? Adam fell, and all the children of men were 
in a most sad condition, what cordial was then brought forth 
but this ? " The seed of the woman shall break the serpent s 
head/ Gen. iii. 15, and this is ordinary ; the promises and 
prophecies of Christ are calculated for the worst of times : 
why ? but to teach us, that there is enough in Christ to com 
fort, succour, and relieve in the worst of times. 

If there was enough in the types of Christ to comfort and 
relieve the saints and people of God under the Old Testa 
ment in the worst of their times ; then there must needs be 
enough in Christ himself to relieve and comfort the saints, 
and people of God now in New Testament times, in the 
worst of our times. Now so it was, in the times of the Old 
Testament, in case they had sinned, what relief had they ? 
A sacrifice to make an atonement, Lev. iv. 20, and so a type 
of Christ the great Sacrifice, Heb. ix. 26. In case they were 
in the wilderness and wanted bread, what relief had they ? 
They had there, manna, a type of Christ, " The true bread 
that came down from heaven," John vi. 50, 51. In case 
they wanted water, what relief had they ? The rock opened, 
and " that rock was Christ," 1 Cor. x. 4. "The rock fol 
lowed them, and the rock was Christ." In case they were 
stung with the fiery serpents, what relief had they ? They 
had the brazen serpent, and that was a type of Christ, John 
iii. 15. Now, I say, if the people of God in Old Testament 
times had relief in the types of Christ, surely there is relief 
enough for us now, in New Testament times, in Christ him 

If all the promises of good things made to us were origi 
nated in Christ, and if all the promises that were made unto 
Christ of good things to come, do descend and run down upon 
us, more or less, then surely there is enough in Christ to re- 
heve and succour in the worst of times. For what are the 
promises but divine conveyances ? Now all the promises of 
good things that are made to us, they flow from Christ, " for 
all the promises are yea and amen in Christ," 2 Cor. i. 20. 

ea, that is affirmed; amen, that is confirmed: all the pro- 
:s made to us are affirmed and confirmed by Christ. And 


on the other side, all the promises that are made to Christ do 
descend upon us. Look into Psalm ii., there is a great pro 
mise made to Christ at verse 8 : ee Ask of me, and I shall 
give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost 
parts of the earth for thy possession : thou shalt break them 
with a rod of iron, thou shalt dash them in pieces like a pot 
ter s vessel." A promise plainly given to Christ, and see how 
it descends and falls upon us. Rev. ii. 26, " He that over- 
cometh and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I 
give power over the nations, and he shall rule them with a 
rod of iron, as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to 
shivers, even as I received of my Father." Even as I received 
of my Father; look what promise I have received of my Fa 
ther, the same doth descend and fall down upon you. Now, 
then, if all the promises of good things made to us were .ori 
ginated in Christ, and if all the promises that are made unto 
Christ of good things to come do descend and run down upon 
us, surely there is enough in Christ to succour and relieve in 
the worst of times. 

One thing more. If that all our want of comfort and sa 
tisfaction doth arise from the want of a sight of Christ s 
fulness and excellency, and all our satisfaction and comfort 
doth arise from the sight of Christ s fulness and excellency, 
then this doctrine must needs be true. Now look into Rev. 
v., and see how John weeps, and upon what account : ee I saw 
(says John) in the right hand of him that sat on the throne, 
a book written within, and on the back side sealed with seven 
seals." Arid at verse 2, " I saw a strong angel proclaiming 
with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book and to 
loose the seals thereof ? and no man in heaven, nor in earth, 
neither under the earth was able to open the book." Then 
at verse 4, says he, " I wept much, because no man was found 
worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look there 
on." What stilled him ; what quieted him ? The sight of 
Christ, at verse 5 : (e And one of the elders saith unto me, 
Weep not ; behold the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root 
of David hath prevailed to open the book." So he goes on 
opening the excellency and the fulness of Christ, and John 
weeps no more. So that, I say, all our want of comfort doth 
arise from our want of a sight of the fulness and excellency 
that is in Christ. Therefore certainly there is enough in 


Christ to comfort^ succour and relieve in the worst of times. 
And so you have this first thing. 

Secondly, Well, but then what is that in Christ that may or 
can comfort, succour, and relieve in the worst of times and 
conditions ? 

I answer, Look what that good thing is which the world 
can either give or take away, that is in Christ in great abun 
dance ; and if that be in Christ in great abundance which 
the world can either give or take away, then there is that in 
Christ that may or can succour, comfort, and relieve in the 
worst of times. Now what can the world give or take 
away ? 

Can the world take away your estate, gold, or silver ? Then 
read what is said in Prov. iii., concerning wisdom, where 
Christ is called wisdom : " Happy is the man that findeth 
wisdom, (verse 13) for the merchandize of it is better than 
the merchandize of silver, and the gain thereof than fine 
gold ; she is more precious than rubies, and all the things 
thou canst desire are not to be compared unto her." 

Can the world take away your liberty, your gospel liberty ? 
Then you know what Christ says, Rev. iii. 8, " Behold I have 
set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it." 

Can the world take away your life ? You know what 
Christ saith, " I am the way, the truth and the life," John 
xiv. 6. " Ye will not come unto me, that ye might have 
life," John v. 40. On the other side, what can the world 
give to you ? 

Can the world give you peace, rest, quietness ? Then you 
know what Christ saith, "Come unto me all ye that labour 
and are heavy-laden, and I will give you rest," Matt. xi. 28. 
" I create the fruit of the lips, peace," Isa. Ivii. 19. " Peace 
I leave with you, my peace I give unto you, not as the world 
giveth give I unto you," John xiv. 27. 

Can the world give you happiness or blessedness ? I am 
sure Christ can. Blessed (says he) are the poor in spirit ; 
blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness ; 
blessed are the pure in heart : yea blessed are ye when men 
shall revile you, and persecute you for my sake," Matt. v. It 
was the work of the high priest to bless the people, and 
Christ being our great High Priest, it is his work to bless us : 
he, and he alone can make us blessed. Would you therefore 


know what there is in Christ that can succour, comfort and 
relieve in the worst of times ? Look I say whatsoever good 
thing the world can either give or take away, that is in Christ 
in great abundance. 

There is in Jesus Christ the greatest excellency, under the 
best propriety. The greatest excellency; for, 

If the knowledge of Christ be the most excellent know 
ledge, then surely Christ himself must needs be most excel 
lent ; the knowledge of Jesus Christ is the most excellent 

It is the most certain knowledge ; you know other things 
by their shapes and species, you know Christ by the Spirit ; 
you know other things by the testimony of men, you know 
Christ by the testimony of the Spirit ; and as the testimony 
of the Spirit is more certain than the testimony of any man, 
so the knowledge of Christ is the most certain knowledge in 
the world. 

It is that knowledge that gives you possession of the thing 
you know ; by my knowledge of Christ, I am possessed of 
Christ; surely therefore it is the most excellent knowledge in 
the world, and therefore Christ himself must needs be most 

He is called " The desire of all nations, 5 in Hag. ii. 7 
Some nations desire one thing and some another, but Christ 
is the desire of all nations. What is most desirable that is 
not in Christ ? Is gold and silver most desirable ? says he, 
" I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire," Rev. iii. 
18. Is wisdom most desirable ? " He is the wisdom of 
the Father," 1 Cor. i. 24. " In him are hid all the treasures of 
wisdom," Col. ii. 3. He is wisdom in the abstract ; " Wisdom 
hath builded her house," Prov. ix. 1. and it is in the plural 
number, wisdoms hath builded her house ; he is not only 
wise, but wisdom, and wisdoms. And he is called, that good 
thing, Jer. xxxiii. 14 : ee Behold, the day is come, saith the 
Lord of Hosts, that I will perform that good thing which I 
have promised unto the house of Israel, and unto the house 
of Judah." That good thing, with an emphasis, what is 
that ? " At that time will I cause the branch of righteousness 
to grow up unto David, and he shall execute judgment and 
righteousness in the land." Christ is that good thing ; He 
is the excellency of Jacob, the greatest excellency. 



And this excellency is under the best propriety, insomuch 
as you may challenge it with a double my : " My God, my 
God/ says David, Psalm xxii. 1. " My Lord, and my God," 
says Thomas, John xx. 28. There is such propriety in this 
excellency as you may challenge it with a double my. And 
it is such a propriety as can never be lost ; " None shall take 
them out of my Father s hand/ John x. 28, 29. Would you 
then know what there is in Christ that can comfort, succour, 
and relieve in the worst of times ? I say there is the greatest 
excellency, under the best propriety. 

There is in Jesus Christ the greatest fulness joined with 
the most communicativeness : some things are empty, and 
not full : some things are full, but they are full of wind, as 
the bladders of the creatures are, that the least prick melts 
them down into nothing; full, but not communicative; and 
some things are communicative, but not full ; as springs, 
little water springs : but Christ is both full and communica 
tive; he is the " rose of Sharon, and the lily of the val- 
lies/ Cant. ii. 1. The rose of Sharon, not the rose of a 
garden, that only some can come and take the sweetness of; 
but the rose of the field, that every one may come and smell 
on ; his blood is a fountain opened, not a fountain enclosed, 
but opened ; he is the tree of life, whose leaves are for the 
healing of the nations. So that there is not only plenitudo 
abundantice, sed redundantios ; a fulness of abundance, but a 
fulness of redundancy ; flowing over in Jesus Christ ; would 
you therefore know what there is in Christ that can comfort 
and relieve in the worst of times ? I say there is the greatest 
fulness joined with the most communicativeness. 

There is in Jesus Christ the sweetest love, under the 
greatest engagement : the sweetest love ; " thy love is better 
than wine ; thy name is as ointment poured forth, therefore 
do the virgins love thee," Cant. i. 3. " Greater love than this 
hath no man," saith Christ concerning his death, John xv. 
13. There is love in Christ beyond all dimensions ; there is 
height, and breadth, and length, and depth of love in him, 
Ephes. iii. 18, 19. There is giving love in Christ, "who 
loved us, and gave himself for us/ Gal. ii. 20. Ephes. v. 25. 
There is forgiving and pardoning love in Christ; witness 
Peter, whom Christ forgave when he had denied him. 
There is in Christ condescending love, witness Thomas; 


" Come Thomas (says he) reach hither thine hand, and 
thrust it into my side," John xx. 27. I condescend to thee. 
There is in Christ accepting love ; (( I tell thee (says he) 
wheresoever this gospel is preached, that which this woman 
hath done, shall be told for a memorial of her/ 5 Matt. xxvi. 
13, accepting of what she did. And there is in Christ 
a sympathizing love ; " For he is not such an High Priest as 
cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities/ 5 Heb. 
iv. 15. There is the sweetest love in Christ. 

And it is under the greatest engagement; for, is not a 
brother engaged to help his brother ? " He is not ashamed 
to call them brethren/ 5 Heb. ii. 11. Is not a father engaged 
to help his children ? " He is the everlasting Father/ 5 Isaiah 
ix. 6. Is not a husband engaged to help his \*ife ? The 
church of Christ is his spouse, Cant. iv. 9. And now sup 
pose there were one person that could stand under all these 
relations ; a brother, a father, a husband ; how much would 
that person be engaged to help, that should stand under all 
these relations ? Thus Christ doth ; he stands under all these 
relations. Therefore there is in Christ the sweetest love under 
the greatest engagement. 

There is that in Jesus Christ that suiteth to all conditions : 
what condition can you come into but there is a promise 
suited to it; and what are the promises but the veins 
wherein the blood of Christ doth run ? There is no condition 
but hath a promise suited to it, and so there is that in Christ 
that suits to all conditions. To instance a little : 

Are you poor and needy ? " I counsel thee to buy of me 
gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich/ 5 Rev. iii. 18. 
Are you naked ? says he, " I counsel thee to buy of me 
white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the 
shame of thy nakedness do not appear. 55 Are you out of 
the way, wandering ? " I am the way/ 5 John xiv. 6. Are 
you in the dark in reference to any business or your condi 
tion ? " I am the light, (says he) and the light of life/ 5 John 
viii. 12. Are you hungry? " I am the bread of life/ 5 John 
vi. 48. Are you thirsty ? " I am the water of life ? He that 
drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst 
more/ 5 John iv. 14. Do you need justification ? He is " the 
Lord our righteousness/ 5 Jer. xxiii. 6. Do you need sanc- 
tification ? " For this cause do I sanctify myself that 



they also may be sanctified/ John xvii. 19. Do you 
need consolation ? " I will send the Comforter/ 5 John xvi. 7- 
Do you need protection ? " He is the Rock of ages ; the 
Lord Jehovah/ Isa. xxvi. 4. Are you in a paradise of 
prosperity ? He is the "Tree of Life/ Rev. xxii. 14. Are 
you in a wilderness of adversity ? He is " the Manna that 
came down from heaven/ John vi. 50. So, that then, 
there is that in him that is suited to all conditions. 

There is that in Jesus Christ that doth answer to all our 
fears, doubts and objections. Hearken, if there be ever a 
poor doubting soul here, there is that in Christ that doth 
answer to all thy fears, doubts and objections. 

Will you say, I am a poor lost creature ? Then saith 
Christ, <e I came to seek and to save that which was lost," 
Luke xix. 10. Will you say, Oh, but I am a sinner, a great 
sinner ? Saith Christ, " I came not to call the righteous but 
sinners to repentance," Matt. ix. 13. Will you say, Oh, but 
I cannot repent ? Then see what the apostle saith, Acts v. 
31, concerning Christ, " Him hath God exalted with his 
right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance 
unto Israel, and remission of sin ;" not only remission of 
sin, but repentance : it is Christ s work to give repentance 
as well as forgiveness of sin. Will you say, Oh, but I can 
not leave my sins, I cannot turn away from my sins ? Then 
read what the apostle saith, Acts iii. 26, " Unto you first 
God having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, 
in turning away every one of you from his iniquities." Will 
you say, Oh, but I cannot come to Christ ? Then he tells 
you that he is come to you : " I came to seek and to save 
that which was lost :" he brings the lost sheep home upon 
his shoulder, as in the parable. Will you say, Oh, but his 
sheep follow him, and I cannot follow him ? Then he tells 
you, " He will carry the lambs in his arms, and gently lead 
those that are with young," Isa. xl. 11. He will drive you 
at your own pace. Will you say, Oh, but I have provoked 
Christ, and he is angry, and will cast me off? You know 
what he says then ; " Those that come unto me I will in no 
wise cast out," John vi. 3?. He is meek and lowly: he is 
meek, and therefore will not be angry with you ; he is lowly, 
and therefore will not disdain you : Learn of me," says he, 
" for I am meek and lowly," Matt. xi. 29. Will you say, 


Oh, but I have sinned to the very utmost ? Then the apos 
tle tells you, that " He is able to save to the uttermost/ 
Heb. vii. 25. So that there is plainly that in Christ that 
answereth to all our fears, doubts and objections. 

Yet one thing more. There is that in Jesus Christ which 
doth and will supply all our wants. What is there that you 
want ; do you labour under desertion ? Then saith he, " I 
will lead you in a way that you have not known/ Isa. xlii. 
16. "And I will never leave you nor forsake you/ 5 Heb. 
xiii. 5. Do you labour under corruption and bondage to sin ? 
There is freedom in Christ ; " Those the Son makes free are 
free indeed/ John viii. 36, indeed really, indeed eminently; 
"Those the Son makes free are free indeed/ 5 indeed and 
indeed. Do you labour under great temptations ? It is he 
that " treads down Satan under our feet/ 5 Rom. xvi. 20 ; and 
says he, " My grace is sufficient for thee/ 5 2 Cor. xii. 9. 
Do you labour under the want of the means of grace, or the 
ministry of the word ? "He hath received gifts for men ; 55 
and what those gifts are the apostle tells you, Eph. iv. 11, 
apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers. Do 
you labour under weakness, spiritual infirmity ? Then he 
hath seven horns, and seven eyes, as you find him described, 
Rev. v. 6, answering to your infirmity or weakness. Or do 
you labour under any affliction, outward or inward, under 
persecution from enemies ? Then see what is said concerning 
Christ, Micah v. 5, " And this man shall be the peace when 
the Assyrian shall come into our land. 55 Are you afraid of 
an enemy coming into the land ? " This man shall be the 
peace when the Assyrian shall come into our land. 55 This 
man ; what man ? See at verse 2 it is plainly spoken of 
Christ : " But thou Bethlehem-Ephratah, though thou be 
little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall 
come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings 
forth have been from of old, from everlasting, and he shall 
stand and feed in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty 
of the name of the Lord his God, and this man shall be the 
peace : 55 this man, that is Christ ; he shall be our peace when 
the worst of enemies come into our land. 

Aye, but you will say, we see no likelihood of this ; mark 
then what is said at ver. 7 3 " And the remnant of Jacob shall 
be in the midst ot many people as a dew from the Lord, and 


as the showers upon the grass that tarrieth not for man, nor 
waiteth for the sons of men." If a garden be to be watered 
with a watering pot, it stays for man; but if it be watered 
with the dew, it stays not for man. So, saith the Lord, shall 
the remnant of my people be, as the ground that waits upon 
the dew, that tarrieth not for man ; though you see no likeli 
hood of deliverance, no means whereby ye should be deli 
vered, when the Assyrian comes into our land, when the 
worst of enemies come into our land ; yet ye shall be deli 
vered, For this man shall be the peace i" so that look what 
soever that is which you want, it is all to be had in Christ. 
And thus now you see in these several particulars, what there 
is in Jesus Christ that may and can and doth afford sufficient 
comfort and relief, in the worst of times and conditions. 
That is the second. 

Thirdly, Well but then you will say, This is good in the 
general, but what is this to us ? We know there is enough 
in Christ to succour, comfort, and relieve in the worst of 
times and conditions, but what is that to us ? 
Yes, it is to you, and to you very much ; for, 
If you be overcomers and do overcome the evil of the 
times and places where you live, then all this fulness and 
excellency that is in Christ doth belong to you ; for if you 
look into Rev. ii., and iii., you shall find, that unto every 
church there mentioned, there is a promise made of giving 
out some of the fulness and excellency of Christ ; and still 
the promise runs, to him that overcometh, at the end of 
every epistle : " To him that overcometh ;" that is, to him 
that overcometh the evil mentioned in that epistle ; not in 
the general, but the evil mentioned in that epistle. As now 
to instance in the church of Laodicea, saith he, Rev. iii. 21, 
" To him that overcometh, will I grant to sit with me in my 
throne ; even as I also overcame, and am set down with my 
Father in his throne." What is the thing promised here ? 
Communion with Christ in his kingdom on earth. Well, 
but who are those that shall partake thereof? Such as over 
come ; " to him that overcometh." That overcometh what ? 
That Laodicean lukewarmness; the sin forbidden in this 
epistle is lukewarmness, a mixture in the worship of God: 
hs that overcometh this mixture, he shall have communion 
with Christ in his kingdom on earth. Now I say, this ful- 


ness and excellency of Christ is promised to him that over- 
cometh. Then, friends, you know what the evils of the 
times are : if you overcome the evils of the times wherein 
you live and are, then shall you be made partakers of this 
excellency, and fulness of Christ, and so this concerns you. 

If our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ hath therefore re 
ceived all this excellency and fulness from the Father, that 
he may give it out to you ; then it concerns you, and much 
concerns you. Now why hath Christ received all this excellency 
from the Father ; why hath he received the Spirit ; why was 
he anointed with the Spirit ? He tells you in Isa. Ixi. ], 
" The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord 
hath anointed me." Why ? " To preach good tidings unto 
the meek, he hath sent me to bind up the broken hearted, 
to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the 
prison to them that are bound :" for this cause was I 
anointed. And why hath our Lord and Saviour Christ re 
ceived gifts ? The apostle tells us, and the Psalmist tells us, 
" for men, for the rebellious also," Eph. iv. 8 ; Ps. Ixviii. 
18. Will you say, Oh, but I am a poor rebel ? He hath 
received gifts for men, for wicked men, even for rebels : Paul 
was a rebel, and Christ received gifts for Paul, even that 
rebel. And why hath he received all power in heaven and 
earth from God the Father, but in reference to your con 
cernments ? Matt, xxviii. 18, " Jesus came and spake unto 
them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in 
earth." What then ? et Go ye therefore and teach all na 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you, and lo, I am with 
you alway, even unto the end of the world." Go ye there 
fore ; mark what a therefore is here : ee All power is given 
unto me in heaven and in earth ; go ye therefore." Jesus 
Christ hath received all power in heaven and in earth in 
reference to your concernments ; therefore it is much to you, 
that there is that in Jesus Christ whereby he is able to suc 
cour, comfort, and relieve in the worst of times. 

Yet again, If that our Lord and Saviour Christ doth there 
fore stoop to your infirmities, because he is clothed with 
majesty and excellency, and invested with all this power; 
then this that I have said is to you, and much to you. Now 
VOL. v. D 


look into John xiii., you have there an assurance of what 
you shall find in Christ now, by what he did then when he 
was to die, verse 3, " Jesus knowing that the Father had 
given all things into his hands, he riseth from supper, and 
laid aside his garments, and took a towel and girded himself: 
after that he poured water into a bason, and began to wash 
the disciples^ feet." Whence doth this arise ? See at verse 
3, " Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things 
into his hands;" he was not therefore proud, he did not 
therefore disdain his poor disciples ; no, but he did condes 
cend to them upon this account, and stoops to their infirmity : 
his humility prompts on his excellency to be good to us. 
Now if he therefore stoops to your infirmity, because he is 
clothed with excellency, then this that I have said is to you, 
and much to you. And so you have the doctrine cleared. 
Now by way of application. 

If this doctrine be true, that there is that in Jesus Christ 
alone, which may and can and doth afford sufficient comfort 
and relief in the worst of times and conditions ; what a 
mighty encouragement is here for every one to get into 
Christ, to get an interest in Christ ? Get but an interest in 
Christ, and you have a standing relief in the worst of times 
and conditions : no interest in Christ, no relief in the worst 
of times. Who would not get an interest in Christ? If 
there be any such here that are yet without an interest in 
Christ, man or woman, consider what there is in Christ; 
there is, as you have heard, that in Christ that will afford 
sufficient comfort and relief in the worst of times ; times 
are evil, oh, be encouraged to get an interest in Christ. 

If this doctrine be true, why should we then complain ? 
why should we be discouraged in such times as these, or any 
time or condition we can come into ? " Shall the living 
man complain ? Lam. iii. 39. Shall a living Christian com 
plain that hath a living relief by him ? The book of Job 
says of the wicked, "That in the fulness of his sufficiency 
e shall be in straits," chap. xx. 22, and shall we be in straits 
the midst of Christ s sufficiency ? Shall we complain or 
be discouraged when we have Christ s sufficiency for our 
relief at all times? You have heard of that woman, who 
when she met with any loss, would still comfort herself thus : 
True, I have lost such a child, or I have lost such a friend ; 


such a friend, or such a relation is dead, but still God is 
alive : and when she had lost her husband, and cried and 
lamented very much, her child came to her, and asked her : 
But mother, is your God dead ? So may men say to us, 
while we complain and are discouraged in these times, Is 
your God dead ? is your Saviour dead ? But either there 
is a reality in this doctrine or not; if not, why doth the 
Scripture speak at this rate as you have heard ? and if there 
be a truth in this doctrine, we should we be discouraged or 
complain whatever our condition be ? 

If this doctrine be true, why should we not own Christ in 
the worst of times ? Why should we not confess Christ in 
the worst of times ? Shall Christ be our relief in the worst 
of times, and shall we not own and confess him in the worst 
of times ? Shall we not own his truth, and ways, and ordi 
nances, and confess them before the sons of men in the 
worst of times ? When the sun shines scorching hot, men 
run to the shadow of the tree ; and when it rains much, men 
run under the tree for shelter ; but when the heat is over, 
and the rain over, the tree stands alone, and no man looks 
after it. So long as the sun shines upon the dial, you will 
run to the dial ; but when the sun is off the dial, you come 
not at it. So when the times shine upon the ordinances, the 
truths and ways of God, many will run to them, but when 
the shine is gone, and truth be in the dark, the sun off, how 
few will own Christ and his truth ? But if this doctrine be 
true, why should we not own and confess Christ in the worst 
of times? 

If this doctrine be true, here you may see, what an evil 
thing it is to sin against Christ. It is to sin against our 
remedy, our relief ; it is to sin against our succour; of all 
sins those sins are worst that are against the remedy: there 
fore, as I use to say, adultery in married persons, is worse 
than fornication in those that are unmarried, because it is 
against the remedy. Christ is our remedy, our relief, in the 
worst of times ; therefore to sin against Christ, oh, what a 
great sin is it ? It is to sin against the remedy. 

Now look when men offend the weak brethren in things 
indifferent, the apostle says expressly, they sin against Christ, 
1 Cor. viii. 12. 

And look when men and women will not believe, notwith- 

D 2 


standing all the offers of grace and love that Christ makes to 
their souls; then they sin against Christ. 

And look when a professor, a member of a church shall 
walk scandalously, haunt taverns or alehouses, or deal un 
justly, and is a dishonour to the name of Christ, he sins 
against Christ. 

And look when men persecute the ways and people of 
Christ, they sin against Christ. " Saul, Saul, why per- 
secutest thou me ? " Acts ix. 4. These and many other 
ways do men sin against Christ; and oh, what an evil thing 
it is to sin against Christ ; it is to sin against the remedy, 
the greatest remedy in the world : take heed how ye sin against 

If this doctrine be true, that there is that in Jesus Christ, 
which may and can and doth afford sufficient comfort and 
relief in the worst of times and conditions ; then here we 
may see, what we should do, and whither we should go for 
relief; why should we not go to Christ for relief in all con 
ditions, and relieve ourselves in him upon all occasions ? If 
there were a sovereign water that would cure all diseases, 
what flocking of people would there be unto that water : here 
is that water, that sovereign water; Christ alone, that can 
cure all diseases, that can succour and relieve in the worst of 
times : why should we not now come to him, and draw water 
out of this well of salvation ? 

But you will say, I confess indeed Christ is the well of 
salvation, and there is enough in him to succour and relieve ; 
but the well is deep, and my line is short, and my arm is 
weak, and I know not how to get this water : I know not 
how to improve Christ ; what shall I do that I may be able 
to draw water out of this well of salvation ? What shall I 
do that I may improve Christ, for my succour and relief in 
the worst of times and conditions ? 

I answer, If you would draw water out of this well of sal 
vation, and improve Christ for your relief and succour ; be 
sure of this, that you look upon Christ as the great institu 
tion and appointment of the Father for all those succours and 
reliefs that are in your eye. In John vi., saith Christ, " Ye 
seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye 
did eat of the loaves, and were filled :" but at verse 20, says 
he, " Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for the 


meat which endureth unto everlasting life." Where shall I 
have it? "Which the Son of man shall give unto you." 
How shall I get it from him ? Look upon him as the ap 
pointment of the Father, " for him hath God the Father 
sealed/ 5 him hath God the Father appointed ; look upon him 
therefore, and go to him, as the great appointment of the 
Father for the very thing you want. 

Be sure of this, that you make good your interest in 
Christ : get assurance of your interest in him ; else you will 
be afraid to come at him ; " For all things are yours, (saith 
the apostle) whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the 
world, or life, or death :" why ? " For ye are Christ s, 
1 Cor. iii. 21 23. But if you be not assured of this, that 
ye are Christ s and Christ yours ; how can ye relieve your 
selves in Christ in an evil day ? Get therefore an assurance 
of your interest in Christ. 

Observe what those attributes and titles of Christ are 
which are most suited unto your condition, and lay them 
much before you, and press your hearts therewithal; it is not 
enough for us to come to Christ in the general, but we must 
come to him, and deal with him according to those attributes, 
or titles, that are suited to our condition : Christ is willing 
we should do so, and hath on purpose clothed himself with 
such titles as suit our condition ; the iind and iiird of Rev 
elation are a proof of this very thing ; all the epistles to 
the seven churches begin with titles of Christ : in the epistle 
to the church of Ephesus, there is one title; in the epistle 
to the church of Smyrna, there is another title, and so to all 
the seven churches : every epistle begins with a several title 
of Christ, and according to the condition of the church he 
writes to, so is the title he begins with. As to instance in 
the church of Smyrna, verse 8, here his title is, "The first 
and the last, which was dead, and is alive," Rev. ii. 8. Why 
this title ? He writes to the church in Smyrna that was to 
suffer hard things, verse 10, " Fear none of these things 
which thou shalt suffer, behold the devil shall cast some of 
you into prison, :" is that all ? is the prison all ? No, says he, 
" Be thou faithful unto death, ye shall have tribulation ten 
days:" relating to the ten persecutions in the primitive 
times, dying times : what then ? Now remember my titles, 
my attributes ; this is my name and title ; the first and the 



last, which was dead, and is alive : see how this title suited 
to their condition. And, friends, assure yourselves of this, 
that Christ will certainly make good his titles that he is 
clothed with : David assured himself of it, "The Lord is my 
Shepherd." What then? " I shall not want," Ps. xxiii. 1. 
He will make good his title, I know I shall not want ; he re 
lieved himself in that title of Christ that suited his condition. 
So do you do this day ; as for example : Is there distress among 
the saints and people of God ? Remember his title, he is the 
King of saints," Rev. xv. 3. Is there great distress of 
nations ? Remember his title, he is " King of nations," Jer. 
x. 7. Are you under any dimness or vexation, as it is in 
this chapter ? Remember his title, " A light is risen up, a 
marvellous light." Thus be sure you deal with Christ ac 
cording to that title of his that is most suited to your con 

Be sure of this, that you study Christ and your condition 
together ; some study their condition, stand poring upon 
their condition, but they do not study Christ, and they are 
full of unbelief; some think much on Christ, but not on 
their own condition, and they are given to presumption ; but 
would you find true relief in Christ whatever your condition 
be? Then study Christ and your condition together, as 
thus : Christ is a King, a Priest, and a Prophet : if you be 
ignorant, now think on Christ as a Prophet ; if you be guilty, 
now think on Christ as a Priest ; if you be disorderly, now 
think on Christ as a King. Thus study Christ and your 
condition together. 

Be sure of this, that you put Christ upon it, to succour 
and relieve you in the worst of times ; to do that for you 
that he hath entitled himself unto : so David did Ps. xxxi. 
See how he argues, and his argument is exceeding good ; 
"Lord, (says he, verse 2) be thou my strong rock:" why? 
" for thou art my rock," verse 3. Lord, this is thy name, 
this is thy title : " Thou art my rock ;" then " be my rock :" 
and says he, verse 4, " Pull me out of the net that they have 
laid privily for me, for thou art my strength." I have to 
deal with enemies, and they have laid their net privily for 
me ; " Pull me out of the net that they have laid privily for 
me, for thou art my strength." So now, popish men have 
laid their net privily for us, and we may go to Christ and 


say, Lord, pull us out of the net that they have laid privily 
for us, for thou art our strength. Thus put Christ upon it 
to answer his titles. 

If you would find succour, comfort, and relief in Christ 
in the worst of times and conditions ; then rest upon him 
in opposition to all other helps and shifts, or unlawful means 
of deliverance, in case you come into any strait : Christ is so 
much yours, as you rest upon him ; as our resting on the 
promise makes it ours, so our resting on Christ makes him 
ours. And you know how graciously the Lord appeared to 
the three children ; Christ came and walked with them in the 
fiery furnace, and delivered them, Dan. iii. 25. How so ? 
They rested on him : " We know that our God is able to 
deliver us, we will not bow down to the idol/* whatever 
comes on us : " We know our God is able to deliver us/ 
verse 17, 18. Here they rested upon him alone in opposi 
tion to all unworthy shifts, and unlawful means for deliver 
ance, and then Christ appeared and gave out his succour and 
relief to them. 

If you would find succour, comfort and relief in Christ 
upon all occasions, and in all conditions, then go to God by 
prayer ; go and beg of God to open your eyes, that you may 
see this fountain that is by you : it is possible that your eyes 
may be held, as Hagar^s were ; Hagar had the fountain by 
her, but she did not see it, for her eyes were held : and thus 
it is with many of us, Christ our fountain is by, and we even 
sit down in despair ; why ? for our eyes are held. Go then 
to God and beg of him to open your eyes that you may see 
this fountain. 

And if you desire to draw water out of this well of salva 
tion, and to improve Christ for your relief and comfort in the 
worst of times ; then observe what those promises are that 
the Lord hath made to his people for the latter times, and be 
sure that you deal much with them. Christ comforts and 
relieves by promises : as the devil tempts by promises, so 
Christ comforts by promises ; and when a man is relieved by 
a promise that Christ hath made, he is relieved by Christ. 
Now there are nine or ten promises that the Lord Christ hath 
made to the latter times for the comfort of his people, to be 
as a relief for his people in these latter times. I will but barely 
e them, and so conclude. 


He hath promised them that they shall have understanding 
in the times : Dan. xii. 10, " The wicked shall do wickedly, 
and none of the wicked shall understand, but the wise shall 

He hath promised that they shall be sealed, set apart, hid 
den in the worst of times, in an ti Christian times: Rev. vii. 
compared with Rev. ix. 

He hath promised that though they meet with antichristian 
tribulation, they shall come out with their garments washed 
in the blood of the Lamb: Rev. vii. 14, " These are they 
which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their 
robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." 

The Lord hath promised to his people in these latter times, 
that they shall continue in his temple day and night; that is, 
they shall enjoy the ordinances of God without interruption ; 
though now they are scattered and driven from the house of 
God, the Lord hath promised such a time wherein they shall 
be in the temple day and night without interruption, Rev. 
vii. 15. 

He hath promised to destroy all their antichristian ene 
mies : (i Babylon is fallen, it is fallen, and as a millstone is 
thrown into the sea ; so shall Babylon be thrown down, and 
shall be found no more at all," Rev. xviii. 21. 

The Lord hath promised that his people shall prophesy, 
though they be in sackcloth, they shall bear witness to the 
truths and ways of God, and shall prophesy : Rev. xi. 3, " I 
will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall pro 
phesy twelve hundred and sixty days." I will give them 
power, they shall prophesy and not be silent. 

He hath promised, also, that the light and glory of his 
people shall be more than ever it was : Isa. xxx. 26, " More 
over, the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, 
and the light of the sun shall be seven-fold, as the light of 
seven days." When is this ? " In the day that the Lord 
bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke 
of their wound." 

He hath promised to his people that they shall cease from 
their labour : Rev. xiv. 13, " Blessed are the dead which die 
in the Lord," that die for the Lord ; " henceforth they 
rest from their labours, and their works do follow therr.." 



There shall be a time here on earth wherein the saints shall 
rest from their labours. 

The Lord hath promised that the number of his people 
shall be much increased. When the enemy went about to 
cut oft all the males of the children of Israel, then the Is 
raelites were much increased. And this the Lord hath pro 
mised, that in the latter days his people shall be greatly 
increased. When the witnesses shall rise (I do not mean an 
insurrection but a resurrection) it is said, " they ascend in a 
cloud/ 5 a company of people as a cloud shall come about 
them, to gratify them in their rising : " And there shall be a 
great earthquake, and in the earthquake slain of men seven 
thousand, and the remnant shall be affrighted, and give glory 
to God," Rev. xi. 12, 13. There shall be a great increase. 

And, lastly, the Lord hath promised that the saints shall 
rule the world, arid the government shall be given unto 
them ; not that any should go about to wrest the government 
out of the hands of the present powers ; but, in Dan. vii. 
27? the Lord hath promised, te that the kingdom and do 
minion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole 
heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most 
High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom." 

These ten things the Lord hath promised to his people in 
the latter days. Those that lived in the apostles days, 
they comforted themselves in these promises them ; they 
comforted themselves in the book of the Revelation then. 
The book of the Revelation is a book on purpose for the 
comfort and relief of the people of God in antichristian 
times : and if it was a comfort and relief to them in the 
apostles days, what may it be unto us upon whom the last 
days are come ? Christ comforts by promises ; and when a 
man is comforted and relieved by a promise made by Christ, 
he is comforted by Christ ; and Christ hath given out these 
great promises for the latter times. Now you see into 
what times we are fallen. Are the times evil? Do they 
grow worse ; and will they yet grow worse before they grow 
better ? Then remember this doctrine, and comfort your 
selves therein. There is that in Jesus Christ alone, that 
may, and can, and doth afford sufficient comfort and relief 
in the worst of times and conditions. Go then to Christ 


upon all occasions ; do not let relief stand by and not use 
it ; Christ takes it kindly that you make use of him, and the 
more you use him the more kindly he takes it. 












A. D. 1673. 

[This series of Sermons which was published in 1673, under the title of Bridge s 
Remains, was designed by the Author for the press, as appears by the margi 
nal notes, except the eighth Sermon, which was the last the author preached, 
and which was taken down in short-hand, and published by his son-in-law, 
after they were perused by the Rev. William Greenhill.] 



" Many there be that say, Who will shew us any good! Lord, lift 
thou up the light of thy countenance upon us." PSALM iv. 6. 

IN this psalm we are taught, by David s example, how to 
carry and behave ourselves in times of danger. By David 
two things are done, which are the parts of the psalm. 

First, He prays, ver. 1 . 

Secondly, He believes ; which appears by, 

His exhortation to his enemies, ver. 2 6. 

The profession of his faith, see ver. 7 to the end. Which 
profession of his faith is illustrated by an argument drawn 
a dissimili, ver. 7? (e Many say," &c. but, " Lord," &c. 

By his own security in this time of trouble, verse 8. 

te Many there be that say :" that is, not with the mouth 
only, but by the language of their lives and practices, for 
even those that are dumb do say, " Who will shew us any 
good ? " who will shew us, or will make us to see or enjoy 
any good ? The words note an ardency of their desire, 
" Who will shew us any good ? " But I say, u Lord, lift 
thou up the light of thy countenance (or face) upon me ;" 
that is, shew thy love and thy favour to me. The elevation 
of God s face or countenance, in scripture phrase, doth note 
the communication and manifestation of the gracious pre 
sence and favour of God. For it is a metaphor drawn from 
the rising sun, scattering the beams of its light so upon 
inferior creatures, that thereby life and comfort is brought 
unto them. This David prays for, and chooses in opposition 
to the generality of men s desires. And so the doctrine is 
this : 

Though men do ordinarily seek after something that may 

lake them happy in this world, yet a gracious man doth 

46 REMAINS. [SEE. 1. 

count himself fully happy in the enjoyment of God, and the 
light of his countenance. 

It is true, indeed, there is an happiness to be obtained, 
saith he, and ordinary men do seek this happiness in the 
crowd and throng of the creatures ; but as for me, I do not 
place my happiness there, but in the clear enjoyment of God. 
Whatever, therefore, men say or do in reference to their hap 
piness, this is that I say, " Lord, lift thou up the light of thy 
countenance upon me." So that, though men do ordinarily 
seek after something that may make them happy in the 
world ; yet a good and gracious man doth account himself 
fully happy in the enjoyment of God and the light of his 
countenance. For the opening and prosecuting whereof : 

First, I shall labour to shew you that there is a disposition 
in men, to seek after something that may make them happy. 

Secondly, That they are commonly mistaken in the matter 
of their happiness. 

Thirdly, Yet there is a generation of men, who have 
found out true happiness, and are truly blessed. 

Fourthly, Wherein this happiness doth consist, and why it 
doth consist therein ? 

Fifthly, How a man shall know, whether he hath ever been 
thus blessed, or enhappied with the light of God s counte 
nance shining on him ? 

Sixthly, How he may attain hereunto ? 

As for the first, That there is a disposition in men to seek 
after something that may make them happy. This text 
saith, " Many say, Who will shew us any good ? " By 
which many, we are, saith Dr. Ames, to understand all men.* 
But that cannot be, because here is an opposition in David s 
practice, to the practice of this many : but his practice was 
not opposed unto all, but to the generality of men generally ; 
therefore there is a disposition in men, to seek after some 
thing that may make them happy. In the beginning man 
was truly happy, and though he be now fallen from that 
happiness, yet there is a disposition in him still to grope after 

Nemo est mortalium qui habet in votis ut fruatur bono : hoc est, naturale 
est omnium creaturarum commune tendere in aliquem finem, sub aliqua ratione 
boni, finis enim et bonum convertuntur, homini autem maxime convenit, qui 
prseditus est intellectu, quo finem apprehendit ibi proponit et ad ilium per media 
contendit. Ames in Psalm. 
Agere propter finem est proprium creaturee rationalis. Aquinas. 

SER. 1.] REMAINS. 47 

happiness. Ye see how it is with a house that is burnt down, 
though it be burnt down to the ground, there are divers pieces 
of timber left ; though scorched and burned and spoiled, yet 
left: and so, though man be fallen, and that goodly building 
which God created at the first be now burned down to the 
ground, yet there are certain scorched and spoiled principles 
left in him ; and what more natural to man than to desire that 
he may be happy : surely, therefore, there is a disposition 
still in man to seek after happiness. Look how far a man 
knows that a thing is good, so far he may act and seek after it, 
because good is the object of man s will ; but every man knows 
in general that it is good for him to be happy. 

It is true, indeed, that naturally men do not distinctly know 
wherein their happiness lies; but as Aquinas observes,* there 
is a general knowledge of happiness, and there is a distinct 
and right understanding of it. Now though all men have not 
this distinct knowledge of our happiness, yet all men have a 
general knowledge of it, and they know that it is good for 
them to be happy ; surely, therefore, there is a disposition in 
all the children of men to seek after something that may 
make them happy. But, 

Secondly, Though there be such a disposition in men, yet 
they are generally mistaken in the matter of their happiness. 
Many say, Who will shew us any good ? but, Lord, lift thou 
up the light of thy countenance, &c. It seems, then, that 
there is a general mistake amongst men in reference to this 
happiness. Is not he mistaken herein that doth bless himself 
in the way of his sin? some do so, Deut. xxix. 19. Is not 
he mistaken herein that doth bless the covetous, whom God 
hates ? some do so, Psalm x. Is not he mistaken that doth 
place his happiness in the enjoyment of the creature ? and 
who doth not so ? Oh, says one, if I can but attain to such 
and such an estate, then I shall be happy. Oh, says another, 
I am now reviled and reproached ; if 1 can but clear myself, 

f Utrum omnis homo appetat beatitudinem ? Item quod beatitudo dupliciter 
potest considerari, et primo secundum communem rationem beatitudinis, et sit 
necesse est, quod omnis homo beatitudinem velit, ratio autem beatitudinis com- 
munis est, ut sit bonum perfectum, &c. Secundo possumus loquide beatitudine 
secundum specialem rationem quantum, ad id in quo beatitudo consistit, et sic 
non omnes cognoscant beatitudinem qui nesciunt cui rei communis ratio beatitu 
dinis conveniat, ut per consequens, quantum ad hoc non omnes earn volunt. 
Aquinas 12 &. q. 5, a. 8. 

48 REMAINS. [SER. 1. 

and come off with honour, then I shall be happy. Oh, says 
another, I have such and such an adversary, if I can but 
overcome him, then I shall be happy. What man is there 
that doth not place his happiness in one creature comfort or 
another ? Do not some place their happiness in pleasure, 
some in riches, some in honour, some in power, some in 
health, strength, and beauty of body ; some in knowledge, 
wit and learning; some in moral, civil life, and other excel 
lencies ? But if happiness cannot be found in these, either 
singly or together, then surely there is a great mistake^amongst 
the children of men in reference to there last end and happi 
ness. Now what creature excellency is there in all the world 
that can give this happiness to the children of men ? Cer 
tainly none.* 

For will ye instance in the strength and health and beauty 
of one s body. Indeed our health is the salt of all the mer 
cies and comforts which we do enjoy; but may not a bad and 
wiched man enjoy his health and strength and beauty as well 
as a good man, and can any wicked man be happy : happiness 
consists in a stable good, but what more unstable and uncertain 
than our health and strength and beauty. Surely, therefore, 
our happiness is riot to be found therein. Or, 

Will ye instance in riches, wealth, and this world s goods. 
It is the property of happiness to be desireable for itself; it 
is that good thing which all things are desired for, and which 
is desired for nothing else : but riches are desired for some 
thing else, not for themselves ; and if it be a man s duty 
sometimes to part with them and to despise them, then our 
happiness cannot consist in them, but we are sometimes to 
part with all these things for Christ. Surely, therefore, our 
happiness is not to be found therein. 

Will ye instance in honour, fame and credit in this world. 
What more uncertain than that which is not one s own ? Is 
it not a better thing to deserve honour than to be honourable ? 
But that is truly blessed which is best of all. And if it be 
more safe for a man to be reproached sometimes, than to be 
applauded, then our happiness cannot consist in honour; but 
as Seneca says, Beatus est qui contemnere potest et contemni : 
He is a happy man that can contemn and be contemned. If 
I be reproached, then I learn to walk humbly; if I be ap- 
* Vide Aquin, Sum. i. 2 re. contra gent. 1. 3. Suar. cle Beat. Anton, panth. ps. 1. 

SER. 1.] REMAINS. 49 

plauded, then I grow proud thereby. And ye know what was 
the issue of Ha man s honour. Surely, therefore, our happi 
ness cannot consist therein. Or, 

Will ye instance in power and outward greatness in this 
world. What doth more depend on others? That which 
depends on many other men s wills cannot be my happiness; 
so doth all worldly power and greatness do : there is nothing 
better than our happiness. Now worldly power may be used 
to evil ; and that is better which cannot be used or abused to 
evil : but so worldly power may be ; surely, therefore, our 
happiness cannot consist therein. Or, 

Will ye instance in pleasure, which is the great Diana of 
the world, that is common to brute beasts ; and can that make 
a man truly happy which the beasts have. If pleasure make 
a man happy, then the more pleasure he takes the more happy 
he is ; but the more pleasure that a man takes, the more 
wicked he is. It is the property of true happiness to elevate 
the mind, to ennoble the soul, and to justify the heart; but 
the more carnal pleasure a man takes, the more his mind is 
depressed, his soul effeminated, and the less his heart is sa 
tisfied. Surely, therefore, our happiness cannot consist 
therein. Or, 

Will ye instance in knowledge, wit and wisdom. Solomon 
tells you, that " in much wisdom is much grief, and he that 
increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow," Eccles. i. Surely, 
therefore, our happiness cannot consist therein. Or, 

Will ye instance in moral virtues, and in a civil life ; the 
more happy that any man is, the more he doth draw nigh and 
is made like to God ; but a man is not made like to God by 
moral virtues or a civil life : surely, therefore, our happiness 
cannot consist therein. 

But though our happiness doth not consist in any of these 
alone, yet it may be that all these together can make one 

Nay, for put all these things together, yea, put all the good 
things and comforts of this world together, yet they are not 
sufficient for to make one happy ;* for take the good things 

* Omnes creaturse sine Deo, non possunt esse sufficiens objectum humanae 
beatitudinis. Suar.de Beat. Disp. 1. 

Solus Deus, sine consorlio alicujus creaturse, est sufficiens objectum beatitu 
dinis. Ib. 2. 

VOL. V. E 

50 REMAINS. [SER. 1. 

of this world, and abstract them from the enjoyment of God, 
and though they be never so many, yet they are dependent 
things which do depend on another, and can that make you 
truly happy which doth depend on another? Take all the 
blessings and comforts of the world together, and they cannot 
make a man godly that is ungodly; now can that make you 
happy which cannot make you good ? What is there in the 
world, take it singly, or in society with others, which is free 
from imperfection ; and can that make you perfect which is 
in itself imperfect ? The more that any superior thing is 
mingled with its inferior, the more it is defiled. Is not gold 
defiled by being mixed with silver ; is not silver defiled by 
being mixed with brass ; is not wine defiled by being mixed 
with water ; is not wheat defiled by being mixed with chaff ? 
Now take all the creatures in the world together, and they 
are inferior to your souls. Surely, therefore, you may be 
defiled, but you cannot be made happy or blessed thereby. 
Yet, Lord, how many are there that say, concerning these 
outward things, Who will shew us any good ? Why ? Be 
cause they are mistaken in the matter of their happiness. 

But how comes it to pass that men are thus mistaken in 
the matter of their happiness ? 

Sometimes this mistake doth arise from ignorance of the 
right and true notion of happiness. If a countryman that 
hath heard of a king, go up to the court, and see a knight, or 
lord, or prince come out in fine and brave apparel, he saith, 
Lo, there is the king ; because he knows him not by face; a 
general notion he hath of a king, but not having the true no 
tion of his person, he is mistaken, and saith, Lo, there is my 
king and sovereign. So a man having heard that there is 
something that will make one happy, but not having the right 
and true notion of it, he is thereby mistaken in the choice of 
his happiness; as for example : it is truly said, that he that is 
happy hath what he would ; now men turn this principle, and 
say, He that hath what he would have is a happy man : and 
so if a wanton hath the embraces of his beloved, then he says, 
Now am I happy, because I have what I would ; so if a 
drunkard meet with his vain and wicked companion, he saith, 
Now am I happy, because I have what I would : whereas in 
truth, as Austin s mother said, He is not happy that hath 
what he would, but he that wills aright, and then hath what 

SER. 1.] REMAINS. 51 

he would.* But because men are ignorant thereof, and have 
not the true notion of happiness in their hearts, therefore 
they are so mistaken. 

Sometimes this mistake doth arise from the misapplication 
of the true notion of happiness. For what is happiness but 
the enjoyment of that which doth command all things else ? 
But now, through misapplication of this notion, men say, 
Money commands all things ; and therefore the more money 
I get, the more happy I am : and so are mistaken in the mat 
ter of their happiness. 

Sometimes men are mistaken herein, because they measure 
their happiness by their own present want. For, saith Aris 
totle, t if you look into your experience, ye shall find, that if 
a man be poor, then he thinks it an happiness to be rich ; 
if a man be disgraced, then he thinks it is his happiness to 
be vindicated ; if a man be sick, then he thinks there is no 
greater happiness in the world than to have his health ; and 
so men measuring their happiness by their own present wants 
are mistaken therein. 

But ordinarily men are mistaken in the matter of their 
happiness, because they do not hearken to and consider what 
is spoken to them about true happiness. Famous is that 
story of Cnesus among the heathens ; he was a king of a 
great country, and boasted in his gold and silver, and Solon, 
that wise man of Greece, coming into his country, he desired 
to speak with him, and when he saw him, after Solon had 
seen and viewed all his wealth and glory, he asked him, 
Whom he thought to be the most happy man in the world ; 
imagining that Solon would have said Croesus. But Solon 
answered, I think Tellus was the most happy man ; Tellus, 
saith he, why Tellus ? Because, said Solon, he having go 
verned the commonwealth well, and brought up his child 
honestly and religiously, he died honourably.J Well then, 
said Croesus, but who dost thou think is the second happy 
man in the world ? I think, said he, those two brothers, 

* Si bona velit et habet beatus est, si autem mala velit et quamvis habeat miser 
est. Augustini Confess. 

t Aristotle Ethic, i. 1. 

J TsXXw Tovrto) p.t> Tra^eg ~r\crctv xaXoi KQ.I aya&oi TroXXot fj.tr "yap 
TrXouroi UV^^TTUV a^oXj3o <TI, TroXXot ^i f^sl^ttt}^ i^ovrtQ j3tov 
Vide Heroditus, lib. i. 

E 2 

52 REMAINS. [SER. 1. 

that instead of horses, drew their mother in a chariot to the 
temple. Whereupon, said Croesus, What thinkest thou of 
me ? I think, said he, thou art a very rich man ; but a man 
may be happy though he be poor, and a man may be un 
happy though he be rich, for he may lose all his riches before 
he die ; and therefore, ante obitum nemo, I think none truly 
happy, but he that lives well, and dies well ; whereupon that 
wise man Solon was dismissed the court with neglect : but 
afterwards this Crcesus making war against Cyrus, he was 
overcome by Cyrus, and being taken captive, he was laid upon 
a pile of wood to be burned to death ; then lying on the 
pile of wood, he cried out and said, O Solon,, Solon. Cyrus 
inquiring what he meant, then he said, This Solon was a wise 
man of Greece, that told me, that happiness did not consist 
in riches, for they might all be lost, and a rich man might 
die miserable ; whose words, said he, I then neglected, but 
now I find true, and therefore now I cry out and say, O 
Solon, Solon. And truly thus it is at this day, preachers 
call upon men, and tell them, that our happiness lies not in 
these outward things, arid they do not regard it. But there 
is a time coming when men will cry out and say, O Solon, 
Solon ; but for the present, men will not hear and consider 
where their happiness lies, and therefore they are thus mis 
taken in the matter of heir thappiness. But thus now you 
have heard, that men are mistaken, and how it comes to pass 
that they are so mistaken ; and so I have done with the 
second general, now the third follows. 

Thirdly, Though men are generally mistaken in the matter 
of their happiness, yet there is a generation of men who 
have found out this happiness, and are truly blessed. Many 
say, Who will shew us any good, but I say otherwise ; plainly 
then, there is a generation of men that have found out this 
happiness, and are truly blest ; for those that the Scripture 
calls blessed, are blessed indeed. Now there is a generation 
of men whom the Scripture calls blessed, and if you would 
know who these are, I will instance to you in some particulars. 

The Scripture calls them blessed, that have their sins par 
doned, " Blessed is the man whose iniquity is forgiven, and 
whose sin is covered, 5 Rom. iv. 

The Scripture calls them blessed whom the Lord doth 
teach the mysteries of his kingdom, Blessed is the 


SEB. 1.] REMAINS. 53 

whom thou teachest out of thy law," Ps. xciv. 12. "Blessed 
art thou Simon Bar-jona : for flesh and blood hath not re 
vealed it to thee, but my Father/ 5 Matt. xvi. 1 7- 

The Scripture calls them blessed that wait at the posts 
of wisdom, and are made wise thereby, " Blessed is the 
man that heareth me, and waiteth daily at my gates, watch 
ing at the posts of my door," Prov. viiL 35. " Happy is 
the man that findeth wisdom and getteth understanding," 
Prov. iii. 13. so again, verse 18, "and happy is every one that 
retaineth her. 5 

The Scripture calls them blessed that are of a meek, hum 
ble, and a pure spirit. " Blessed are the poor in spirit." 
" Blessed are the pure in heart." " Blessed are the meek in 
spirit," Matt. v. 

The Scripture calls them blessed that do walk in God s 
ways, and not in the ways of the world. Ps. i. " Blessed is 
the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor 
standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the 
scornful, but his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his 
law doth meditate day and night." So Ps. cxix. 1, "Blessed 
is the man that is undefiled in the way," and so again, Ps. 
cxii. 1, " Blessed is the man that feareth the Lord, and de- 
lighteth greatly in his commandments." 

The Scripture calls them blessed that suffer for Christ, 
his way, and truth, and name. Matt v., "Blessed are ye 
when men persecute and revile you for my name s sake." 

The Scripture calls them blessed that consider the poor 
saints and people of God, who have bowels of love and com 
passions. Ps. xli. " Blessed is the man that considereth the 

The Scripture calls them blessed that know and do the 
work of their place and office, both to God and man. John 
xiii. 17, " I say unto you, saith Christ, the servant is not 
greater than the lord, if ye know these things, happy are ye 
if you do them." 

The Scripture calls them blessed that wait and prepare for 

e deliverance of the churches, and the coming of Christ : 

behold I come as a thief, blessed is he that watcheth and 
keepeth his garments," Rev. xvi. 

The Scripture calls them blessed that die in the Lord, and 
found so doing when Christ comes; blessed is that scr- 



vant whom, when the Lord conies he shall find so doing," 
Malt. xxiv. " And blessed are those that die in the Lord/ 
Rev. xiv. 13. Do you therefore ask who is this blessed man, 
the man that is truly blessed ? the Scripture tells you in all 
these particulars, so that doubtless there is a generation of men 
that have found this happiness, and are truly blessed; that 
is the third general, now the fourth follows. 

Fourthly, Wherein the true blessedness or happiness doth 
consist ; the text tells-you, " in the light of God s counte 
nance and the shine of his face ;" * for look wherein God 
did command the priests of old for to bless his people, 
therein true blessedness must needs consist ; now if ye look 
into Numbers vi. 23, ye shall find that therein God com 
manded Aaron and his sons for to bless the people ; " On this 
wise ye shall bless the children of Israel, saying, The Lord 
bless thee and keep thee, the Lord make his face to shine 
upon thee and be gracious unto thee, the Lord lift up his 
countenance upon thee;" and if you look into Ps. Ixvii. 1, 
ye shall find that when the psalmist prayed for a blessing, 
he prayed thus, " The Lord be merciful unto us, and bless 
us, and cause his face to shine upon us." Surely therefore 
the happiness and blessedness of man must needs lie and 
consist in the light of God s countenance, and the shine of 
his face. 

But if our blessedness doth consist herein, then some of 
God s own people are not blessed ; for God doth hide his 
face from some of them, and how many are there, even 
amongst the saints, that complain, saying, Oh, the face of 
God doth not shine upon me ? 

I answer, True they do so, and it is possible that God may 
hide his face from his own children for a time ; but what 
child of God is there in all the world, but the face of God 
hath shined upon. It is possible that a child of a natural 
father, may never see the face of his father ; his father may be 
dead before he is born ; but no child of God but hath seen 
his Father s face : for what is the face of God but his favour; 
and what is the shine thereof but the manifestation of his 
favour; and when God pardoned his sin at the first, did not 
he manifest his love and favour to him ? And doth he not 

H Beatitude formalis consistit in fmitione beatituclinis objective, beatitude 
autein objecliva est Deus : quia est bonum perfectum saticns appetitum. 

SER. 1.] REMAINS. 55 

daily do it in supporting him with his arm ? In the times 
of the Old Testament, the saints did measure the favour of 
God too much by outward mercies and blessings ; because 
the land of Canaan was promised them as a favour from 
God, when the enemy did break in upon them, they said, 
That God did then hide his face from them ; but ye know 
how it is with the day ; if it be day, the sun shines, and though 
ye see not the beams thereof, yet you see the light thereof; 
so here, though you see not the beams of God s countenance, 
yet if it be day with you, you see the light thereof. Now it 
is day with all the children of God, they are children of the 
day; and therefore whatever they say or think, there is none 
of God s children, but the face of God doth or hath shined 

Fifthly, But how shall I know that the face of God hath 
ever shined on my soul, for there are many delusions about 
this matter ; how shall I therefore know that God hath ever 
lifted up the light of his countenance upon my soul ? 

That is the fifth general, therefore I shall now speak to 
that. If God hath ever blessed you in truth, then hath his 
face shined upon you ; for his blessing and the shine of his 
face go together, as ye have heard. Now when God blesses 
a man, then he draws him nearer to himself, " Blessed is the 
man (saith the Psalmist) whom thou causest to approach unto 
thee ;" when God blesses a man, then he makes him to in 
crease and multiply ; if he bless him in his estate, then he 
doth increase and multiply therein: if he bless him in his 
parts, or gifts, or graces, or comforts, then he causeth him to 
increase therein ; so at the beginning the Lord blessed man 
and said, " Increase and multiply/ And therefore if thou 
hast been such an one as hath lived at a distance from God, 
and now art brought nigh to him, and increased in thy gifts, 
graces, and comforts, then hath the Lord blessed thy soul, 
and so hath shined on thee. 

If God hath ever shined upon thy soul, then he hath won 
derfully irradiated, and enlightened, and taught thy soul the 
mysteries of the gospel, which did never enter in thy heart 
before. Ps. Ixvii. 1, 2, the Psalmist saith, " Be merciful 
unto us, and bless us, and cause thy face to shine upon us, 
that thy way may be known/ &c. And says the apostle, 
2 Cor. iv. 4 6, u God that commanded light to shine out of 

56 REMAINS. [ER. 1, 

darkness, shine into your hearts, to give you the knowledge 
of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." 

If this light of God s countenance hath indeed shined 
upon your heart, then your other carnal, kitchen lights have 
been put out thereby. Ye see that when the sun shines 
upon the kitchen fire it doth put it out ; so if ever God hath 
shined upon your soul, there hath such a glory" fallen upon 
your hearts, that thereby all your carnal, kitchen comforts 
and delights have been put out thereby. 

If God hath shined upon thy soul in truth, then are you 
satisfied with the light of God s countenance, and yet your 
desire after it is the more increased, This seems to be a 
paradox, but it is true ; the more a man sees the light of 
God s countenance, the more he longs after it ; and the more 
he longs after it, the more he is satisfied with it. u Shew us 
the Father (saith Thomas) and it sufficeth ;" I have now 
that, saith the soul, which doth make me happy ; therefore 
I am fully satisfied, yet I have tasted such sweetness in it, 
as I cannot but thirst and long after more. Oh, when shall 
I come and appear before thee, that I may be fully satisfied 
with thy likeness. 

If the face of God hath ever shined upon your soul, then 
there hath been a time when you were in the dark, and by 
the light of God s countenance, your doubts and fears have 
been all dispelled at once. God never shines but upon 
those that have been in the dark; "God that commanded 
light to shine out of darkness, shine into your hearts," saith 
the apostle, and when God shines, then all your fears, and 
doubts, and objections are answered at once ; not by degrees, 
and one after another, but the face of God answers all at 
once. As when the husband comes home, though his wife 
have had many fears that she should never see him again ; 
yet when she sees his face, then all her fears and doubts are 
answered at once; so here, although you have had many 
fears that you should never see the face of God again, yet 
when his fac3 shines, then all your doubts are answered at 

If the face of God have ever shined upon your soul in 
truth, then have you been thereby enabled to do and act 
some great thing for God, and you have had a heart given you 
to do it. Cant. i. 12, " When the king sits at his table, my 

SER. 1.] REMAINS. 57 

spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof." By spikenard 
here, we are to understand the sweet smelling fruits and 
graces of the spouse of Christ. Now saith she,, these graces 
send forth their smell when Christ sits at his table : when I 
have the gracious presence of Christ, then are my graces 
most odoriferous, then can I act and do that for Christ which 
1 never could hefore, then my graces do send forth their 
smell, then can I do some great and special thing for Christ. 

If the face of God did never shine upon your soul, then 
you could and would not be so afflicted for the want thereof. 
Ignoti nulla cupido, if you had not tasted of this sweetness, 
you could not be so afflicted for the want thereof; but when 
you think that God hides his face from you, then you are as 
one that goes down to the pit, and you say, Oh, all the world 
for one smile from Christ. Lord, let me see thy face though 
I be a beggar, and though I have no comforts in this world, 
yet let my see thy face, for I am not able to live without the 
light of thy countenance. 

And if ever you have seen the face of God in truth, then 
hath your heart been inflamed with love to Christ upon that 
account : for by him you had your address into the presence 
of God, by him and in him God s face doth shine upon your 
soul. God that commanded light to shine out of darkness, 
shine into our hearts, to give us the knowledge of God in 
the face of Jesus Christ. Though you cannot behold and 
look upon the sun in his full glory ; yet if you look upon the 
water where the sun shines, you may see the sun. Now 
God shineth upon Christ, and in him you do see God s face; 
and therefore if ever God did in truth shine upon your soul, 
then hath your heart been inflamed with love to Christ upon 
this account ; but if your heart were never inflamed with 
love to Christ upon this score, if you were never afflicted for 
the want of God s face and presence, if you never were en 
abled to do any great thing for Christ, if you never were in 
the dark in reference to your spiritual condition, if your de 
sires after God were never satisfied and increased at once, 
if your kitchen fire was never put out by divine irradiation 
upon your soul, if you have never been so blessed by the 
Lord as thereby to be drawn out of the world to himself and 
to be increased in spiritual things, then hath not God shined 

58 REMAINS. [SER. 1. 

on you to this day, and therefore you are yet to seek for your 
true happiness. 

Sixthly, But suppose the face of God never yet shined on 
my soul, or that it hath shined, and is now hidden, what 
shall I do that the face of God may shine upon me, that so 
I may be made partaker of this true happiness and blessed 
ness ? 

That is the sixth general which I will only speak unto and 
conclude. Would you have this light of God s countenance, 
and the face of God shining on you ? then, 

Be sure that you take heed of all the sins which do or 
have hid the face of God from you, Isaiah lix. 1, the prophet 
saith unto the people of God, " Your iniquities have separated 
between you and your God, and your sins have hid his face 
from you " is God s face therefore hidden from you, look 
into your life and way, and consider what those sins are, and 
take heed thereof. 

The way to have any mercy from God is to be upright in 
the desiring of it ; " He will be a sun and shield to them 
that fear him, and no good thing will he withhold from them 
that walk uprightly." Is therefore the face of God shining, 
the good thing that you desire ? Take heed that you do not 
desire it, merely for the sweetness of it.* It is a sweet thing 
to behold the sun, much more the shine of God s face, but if 
I desire it only for the sweetness of it, then I am not upright 
therein ; take heed therefore of that. 

If you would have the face of God shining on you, then 
be sure that you stand where God shines and blesses. " Out 
of Zion, the perfection of beauty, hath God shined ; and 
there (saith the psalmist,) he commandeth his blessing, and 
life for evermore," Ps. 1. 2. What is his blessing, but the 
shine of his face ; and how doth he command it ? By giving 
it: there "he commandeth his blessing." There then do you 
stand, where the Lord blesseth and shineth. 

In case that God seemeth to hide his face from you at any 
time, then walk wisely and humbly towards God in the time 
of his supposed absence ; then lament after God and his 
presence, as the greatest loss in the world; then take heed 
of jealousies, and do not say. God is gone and will return no 
more ; then be much in obedience, and say, Well, though I 

* Multi sunt gulosi spirituals. Avila. 

SER. 1.] REMAINS. 59 

cannot see God, yet I will serve him, and though I cannot 
enjoy him, yet I will obey him : and if you carry it wisely 
arid humbly towards God in the time of his absence, then 
will he return again unto you, and will cause his face to shine 
upon you. But, 

Take heed that you do not dig too deep into the earth : he 
that is much under ground, cannot see the sun or the shinings 
of it. So if you be much in the world and under ground, 
you cannot see the face of God, and the light of his counte 
nance. Therefore take heed that you be not much under 
ground in your callings. And, 

Whatever frowns you meet withal from men, be quiet 
under them and improve them ; for usually God shines when 
man frowns. Do men therefore frown upon you, take their 
frowns quietly, and wait for a shining God now. And, 

Be sure that you do not frown nor look awry upon any 
that are Christ s ; for how should God look kindly on you, 
when you look unkindly on his ? How should his face shine 
on you, when your face doth not shine on his ? Therefore 
take heed that you frown not on any that are God s. 

Then throw yourself down at God s feet in a quiet resig 
nation of yourself unto God, for God will surely take them 
into his arms that do throw themselves down at his feet. If 
I can leave myself at Christ s feet, he will take me into his 
bosom, and I shall see his face : wherefore then throw your 
self down at God s feet. And, 

Pray, and pray much for the presence of God, and the 
shine of his face upon your soul. " Let him kiss me with 
the kisses of his mouth," saith the spouse. Ye have a com 
mand for this, " Seek the Lord and his strength ; seek ye his 
face evermore," Ps. cv. 4. And the Lord hath promised to 
give you this mercy; for look what God promised to his 
people of old, that he promised to you and to all his people. 
Now he saith, " Neither will I hide my face any more from 
them," Ezek. xxxix. 29 : though I have hid my face from 
them for a time, yet I will not hide my face any more from 
them. Would you, therefore, have the face of God to shine 
upon you? go and pray, and pray earnestly for the face and 
presence of God, and say with David here, ef Lord, lift up 
the light of thy countenance upon me ;" and thus shall you 
be made partakers of this great blessing. And thus I have 

60 REMAINS. [SER. 2. 

done with this argument, The blessedness of man, or the true 
blessed man. 


" Set your affections on things above." COL. in. 2. 

IN this verse the apostle Paul doth exhort the Colossians, 
and us by them, to seek and favour spiritual things. The 
exhortation is expressed and answered : expressed in the first 
verse, " Seek those things which are above," and in the 
second," Set your affections on things above." It is enforced 
by divers arguments. One is drawn from our communion 
with Christ in his resurrection and ascension : " If ye then 
(as I have told you in the former chapter) be risen with 
Christ, seek those things that are above, for Christ sitteth on 
the right-hand of God." Another argument is drawn from 
our communion with Christ in his death : "Ye are dead, and 
your life is hid with God in Christ ; therefore set your affec 
tions on things above, and not on the earth/ Another argu 
ment is drawn from the danger of inordinate affection, for 
which things sake " the wrath of God cometh on the chil 
dren of disobedience," ver. 6. " Therefore mortify your 
members which are on the earth, fornication, uncleanness, 
inordinate affection," ver. 5. Another argument is drawn 
from our present relation, state and condition : " In the 
which ye also walked sometimes when ye lived in them ; but 
you also put off all these," &c. ver. 7 5 8. So that the words 
of the text are part of the exhortation itself, " Set your 
affections on things above, TO. avw Qpovure. By things that 
are above, we must not only understand heaven, the joys and 
the glories of it, but all spiritual and heavenly things also, 
which are to be enjoyed and obtained here, which are from 
above, because " every good and perfect gift is from above, 
from the Father of lights ;" and whatever grace or spiritual 
enjoyment we have on this side heaven, is the seed of that 
heavenly glory. Now these heavenly things we are to mind 
especially, ^OVUTE, mind ye : but because the apostle had 


called upon us to seek these things, in the former verse, and 
there is somewhat more in this than in the former, and the 
word doth not barely signify to mind a thing, but to mind it 
with favour ;* therefore we translate it thus, " Set your affec 
tions on things above." According, therefore, to our transla 
tion of the words, the doctrine is, That it is the duty of all 
the saints, to set their affections on things above ; they are 
in a special manner for to mind the same, and to favour 
them, and they are to have their conversation in heaven ; 
their treasure is there, and therefore there is their heart to 
be ; and where our heart is, there our affections will be, for 
affections are the issues of the heart : as a man s heart is, so 
he affects, and as he affects, so his heart is. I know it is 
usual with philosophers and divines, to place their affections 
in parte sensitiva ; but if we look into them, we shall find 
that affections in the general are these movings of the rational 
soul, whereby the heart is sensibly carried out upon good or 
evil, so as to embrace the one or refuse the other. I say 
they are, 

The movings or motions of the reasonable soul. Ye shall 
observe, therefore, that when Jerusalem was much affected 
with the tidings of Christ s birth, it is said, ltf All Jerusalem 
was moved." And when the Jews were affected with envy 
against Paul and the brethren, it is said, " they were moved 
with envy :" why ? but because affection is the motion or 
moving of the soul of man. 

As it is the moving of the soul, so it is that motion of the 
soul whereby the heart is sensibly carried out upon what is 
good or evil ; for every act or moving of the soul is not an 
affection. The soul moves towards a thing, when it inquires 
into it, or doth will the same ; but every act of the under 
standing: and will is not an affection. But when the soul of 


man doth sensibly move, or is sensibly carried out unto good 
or evil, then it is said to be affected ; and therefore saith the 
church in the Lamentations, " Mine eye affecteth mine 

As the soul must be sensibly carried out unto what is 
good or evil, so it must embrace or refuse the same; for af- 

* Vocabulum 0poj tv duos actus complectitur, actum mentis sive intellectus 
de re aliqua cogitantis : atque actum voluntatis, sive affectus rem aliquam appro - 
bands et amantis. Davenant. in Col. xxxi. 

62 REMAINS. [SER. 2. 

fcctions are of two sorts, concupiscible and irascible : by one 
we follow what is good, and by the other we do shun what is 
evil; the Lord hath placed several affections in the soul; 
but all are the servants and ministers of love. I love a 
thing, and therefore if it be absent I desire it, if it be present I 
rejoice and delight in it. If any thing do oppose the thing that 
I love, then I am angry with it, or do hate the same. So that 
love is the great wheel, and as that moves, all love, some in a 
way of embracing, some in a way of refusing. And so you 
now see what these affections are which we are to set upon 
things above; they are these motions of the soul whereby a 
man is sensibly carried out unto good or evil, so as to em 
brace or refuse the same. 

But how and in what respect are we to " set our affections 
on things above, and not on things here below 1" What, may 
we not at all affect the things of this life ? 

Yes, ye may desire the things of this life, and desire is 
an affection ; and ye may grieve at the loss of them, and grief 
is an affection. But, 

Though in a good sense ye may affect them, yet ye may 
not affect them for themselves ; in deference to Christ, in sub 
ordination to God, ye may affect them : but for themselves 
ye may not affect them : for where do you find in all the 
Scripture that you are commanded to love the world, and the 
things of the world. " Husbands love your wives, wives 
your husbands, parents love your children, and children your 
parents." One man may, and must love another. But where 
are you commanded to love yourself? Implicitly, indeed 
this is commanded, " Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy 
self." But where have ye an express commandment for to 
love yourself, or where do ye find in all the word that you 
are advised to love your money, your gold, silver, house, or 
land, and estate ? Nowhere ; surely therefore you may not 
affect these things for themselves.* 

Though ye may affect the things that are here below ; yet 
in comparison with spiritual and heavenly things, your af 
fections to these things is to be as no affection, but a tanquam 
only ; as the enjoyments of this world is but a tanquam unto 
heavenly enjoyments, and outward afflictions is but a tan- 

* Non dixit nolite habere sed nolite diligere. Angustin. 

1R. 2.] REMAINS. C3 

to afflictions of the soul. So the affection that is laid 
out upon these things, in comparison is to be but a tan- 
guam. " Let him that rejoiceth, be as though he rejoiced 
not, and him that grieveth, as though he grieved not/ 5 saith 
the apostle; you may afford these outward things some relics 
of your love, and so much only as better things leave, for 
what is too cool for God, is hot enough for them. Toleramus 
potius prcesentia, quam diligamus, says Austin. " My son 
(saith God), give me thine heart." " Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with all thy soul, with all thy heart, with all 
thy might, and with all thy strength." Surely, therefore, our 
affection to these outward things is in comparison to be as no 
affection. But our affections are to be set and placed on 
things that are above, not on things that are below, but on 
things above. 

But why are we thus to set and place our affections on 
things that are above ? 

There are many great and important reasons, all which are 
as so many proofs of the doctrine. 

If you do not set your affections on Christ, and the things 
of Christ, you are no fit match for him ; you will not be 
found marriageable unto the Lord Christ. That woman is 
not fit to be married to a man, whose affections are not 
drawn out and knit to him : and if your affections be not 
drawn out to Christ, and the things of Christ, you are no fit 
match for Christ. Now we must all be espoused to Christ, 
and married to him ; as the church, so every believer is the 
true spouse of Christ; but the spouse of Christ ye cannot be, 
unless your affections be drawn out to him. 

As you cannot be married to Christ unless your affections 
be set on him and the things above, so you will never own 
him unless your affections be set on him. It is the duty of 
all the saints to own Christ, his ways, his truths, his ordi 
nances : " He that is ashamed of me before men, him will I 
be ashamed of before my Father which is in heaven," saith 
Christ. Now look what that is which a man doth much 
affect, that he will own and not be ashamed of; but if a man 
doth not affect a thing, he will not own it, but will be ashamed 
of it ; but we must own Christ here, or he will not own us 
hereafter. Surely, therefore, it is very fit a^d necessary that 
our affections be set on Christ and the things above. 

64 REMAINS* [SER. 2. 

If your affections be not set upon things above,, they will 
never be drawn off from things here beneath ; it is the gra 
cious affection that doth mortify carnal affection. Sin is ever 
truly mortified by the contrary good : the joy of the world, 
by the joy of heaven; worldly grief, by spiritual grief: the 
snow is not melted but by the warm beams of the sun, and 
the more your hearts are warmed and drawn out with love to 
Christ, the more your love and affections to the world will be 
mortified. Now is it not necessary that our affections should 
be drawn off from things here below ? Surely, therefore, it 
is fit and necessary for us to set and place our affections upon 
Christ and the things above. 

If your affections be not set upon things above, spiritual 
and heavenly things, you will never press much after the 
knowledge and obtainment of them. Ye see how it is with a 
child, if he have no affections to his book, he will never make 
a scholar ; and so if you have no affections to the things of 
Christ, you will never make a scholar in the school of Christ. 
Great is the power of affections. As it is said of conscience, 
Magna est vis conscientice in utramque par tern ; Great is the 
force of conscience either way, for truth or error ; so I may 
say of affections, Magna est vis affectionum in utramque par- 
tern; Great is the force of affections either way, to put us on 
to evil or good. Look what a man hath an affection to, that 
he presseth after. Now is it not our duty to press after the 
knowledge of Christ.* Surely, therefore, it is very fit and re 
quisite that we should place our affections on things above. 

If your affections be not thus set, you will never be zealous 
for God, for what is zeal but angered love ; it is, saith one, 
divina charitatis fervor ; the heat of divine love. Surely it 
is the top and extremity of affection. Now is it not our 
duty to be zealous for Christ ? The zeal of thine house 
(saith he) hath eaten me up ;" and shall the zeal of our own 
houses eat us up ? Zeal is commanded in opposition to luke- 
warmness : " Be zealous, therefore, and repent," saith Christ 
to lukewarm Laodicea : but zealous we cannot be for God 
and the things of God, unless our affections be set on things 
that are above. 

If our affections be not thus set on things above, you will 
never do any great tiling for God. We read of David that 
he gave three hundred and forty seven millions, three hundred 

SfiR. 2.] REMAINS, 65 

and eighty two thousand, five hundred pounds, in silver and 
gold of his own charges, to the building of God s house ; for 
so the learned do compute the matter ; a mighty, great and 
a vast sum. But if you look into 1 Chron. xxix., ye shall see 
how this came to pass that he gave such a gift : it is said, 
verse 3, ee I have set mine affections to the house of God ; 
and because I have set mine affections to the house of God, 
I have of mine own proper goods given," &c. And what is 
the reason that men give and do no more now for God, but 
because their affections are not set on the things of God : but 
if God have done great things for us, and Christ have suffered 
great things for us, shall not we do some great things for 
him ; this ye cannot do unless your affections be thus set. 
Surely, therefore, it is our duty to set our affections on things 
that are above. 

If your affections be not thus set, you can never please 
God in any thing that you do for God ;* for as he requireth 
truth in the inward parts, so he requireth that we should 
serve him with fervency of spirit: u Be fervent in spirit, 
serving the Lord/ Rom. xii. 11 ; as if no service could be 
acceptable without the fervency of affection. " Cursed is 
every one that hath in his flock a male (saith Malachi) and 
offereth a female to God. Go and offer it to thy prince/ 
saith God. Do you think that I will accept your female af 
fections ? no, saith the Lord, if you would have acceptance 
with me, I must have the best and the masculine affections 
from you. Surely, therefore, it is very fit and necessary that 
our affections be set and placed on things that are above. 

If your affections be not set on things that are above, how 
shall your heart be knit, engaged and united unto God, in 
opposition to all apostacy. If you look into Scripture you 
shall find there are three degrees of apostacy : first, the judg 
ment watches ; secondly, the affections cool ; thirdly, the 
conversation grows worse : accordingly men are said to apos 
tatize. Sometimes they are said to " depart from the faith," 
1 Tim. iv. 1 : there is the warping of the judgment. Some 
times they are said to lose their first love, Matt.xxiv. " Iniquity 
shall abound, and the love of many shall grow cold :" there 
is the cooling of their affections. Sometimes they are said to 

VOL. V. F 

* Affectum non vocetn audit Deus. Augustin. 

Affectibus appropinquamus Deum. Tostat. in Matt, torn iv. fol. 97. 

\Tf\T IT -K1 

fifi REMAINS. [SER. 2. 

make shipwreck of a good conscience, " to forsake the assem 
blies of the saints :" there is the declining in the conversa 
tion. But now if a man s affections be right set, they will 
keep both the judgment and the conversation. Ye see that 
if a thing be entangled, it is more hard to loosen it than 
otherwise ; now what is it that doth entangle the soul and 
heart of man, but his affections ? " No man (saith the apos 
tle) that goeth to war entangleth himself," that is, by purchase 
or marriage. So that it is affection that entangles, and the 
more we are affected with any thing, the more we are entangled 
with it ; and the more our hearts are entangled with any 
thing, the harder it is to part and to be loosened from it. 
Would you not, therefore, part or be loosened from Christ 
and the things of Christ ? then surely you must set your 
affections on him and on things above. Thus upon all these 
considerations and reasons, ye see it is the duty of all the 
saints to set their affections on things that are above. 

Now if it be our duty to set our affections on things above 
and not on things here below, then what an evil thing is it to 
set our affections on things below and not on things above. 
Shall the apostle, in the name of the Lord, command us to 
set our affections on things above and not on things belo^v, 
and shall we set our affections on things below and not on 
things above ? What is this but to walk contrary unto God ? 
And hath not he said, that if we walk contrary to him, that 
he will walk contrary to us. Oh, what an evil thing is it, 
then, to set our affections on things below and not on things 

But we do set our affections on things that are above, for 
we do truly affect the best things, and therefore we do set our 
affections on things above. 

That is well ; but are you sure that you do so ? 

It is a hard and difficult thing thus to set our affections on 
things above, for he that doth truly set his affections on things 
above, hath his sympathy and antipathy changed ; look what 
that is which before he had an antipathy against, that he now 
hath a sympathy with ; and that which he had a sympathy 
with, that he now hath an antipathy against. Now is it not 
a hard thing to change our antipathies into sympathies, and 
our sympathies into antipathies ? Suppose a man hath an 
antipathy unto some meats, as cheese, or the like, is it not a 

S&R. 2.] REMAINS. C7 

hard thing to love that most which he had an antipathy or 
natural hatred unto ? Thus it is when the affections are taken 
off from things below and placed on things above. Surely, 
therefore, it is a very hard thing to have our affections to be 
thus transplanted and altered. 

It is one thing to affect the best things, and to have some 
affections to the better things ; another thing to set our affec 
tions on things that are above. It is said of Herod that he 
heard John the Baptist gladly ; there he had some affections 
to the better things, yet his affections were not set on things 
above. The stony ground, in the parable, receives the word 
with joy ; there is some affections to the better things, yet 
this is not the setting of the affections on things above, 
plainly. Yet it is one thing to affect the best things, and 
another thing to set our affections on things that are 
above. Yet, 

Many there are who are deceived herein ; for as some have 
gifts, parts and knowledge, and thereby think they are in the 
state of grace when there is no such matter ; so some, having 
affections to the best things, think that they are godly when 
there is no such matter. 

But, by way of convincement, if men did truly set their 
affections on things that are above, then they would not be 
so indifferent in the things of God as they are ; they would 
not so easily be put by in their endeavours after them. 
This setting our affections on things above, is ordinarily des 
cribed in Scripture by our hungering and thirsting after them : 
tf As the hart panteth after the water-brooks, so doth my soul 
thirst after thee, O God/ saith the psalmist. " Blessed are 
they that hunger and thirst after righteousness." Now when a 
man is hungry or thirsty he is not easily put by, but there is 
an inward necessity unto the thing desired ; I must have drink 
or I die, I must have meat or I die; there is a necessity, and 
it cannot be answered without the thing. But now, though 
men say they do affect the best things, yet they are easily put 
by in their endeavours after them. Why ? But because their 
affections are not set on things that are above. 

If men s affections were thus set on things above, then they 
always carry these things about with them in their minds and 
thoughts. Look what a man hath set his affections upon, 

at he carries up and down with him ; wherever he goes, 

F 2 

fiR REMAINS. [SEB. 2. 

still he is thinking of it, and he cannot rid his heart of it, for 
his affections are set thereupon. But now men do not carry 
spiritual things about with them, they are not always think 
ing and minding of them wherever they come. Why ? But 
because their affections are not truly set on them. 

If your affections were thus set upon heavenly and spiritual 
tilings, then they would seek them in the first place ; in the 
first of their age and time, in the first of their day and morn 
ing, in the first of their competition. If a man have a mind 
to a journey, and his heart and affections be set upon it, he 
will be early up in the morning to go that journey; or if he 
have any business to do, that he hath set his heart upon, he 
will do it before any other : and so, if our affections be set 
on heavenly things, then we will mind them in the first place : 
but now men do not seek the kingdom of God and his righ 
teousness in the first place, but in the last place. Why ? Be 
cause their affections are not truly set on things that are above. 

If men s affections were thus truly set on things above, 
then they would be speaking of them, and love to hear others 
speaking of them. " I will speak of things concerning the 
King/ 5 saith David in the xlvth Psalm, " for my heart is in 
diting (boiling, bubbling up) a good matter." And ye see 
this by experience, that a man or woman loves to speak of 
what they affect. If a man s heart be set on the world, and 
the things thereof, he loves to be speaking of them ; if a 
woman s affections be set on fine clothes and fashions, she 
loves to be speaking of them, and to hear others speaking of 
them ; for if one s affections be truly set on things above, 
he loves to be speaking of them : but now, though men say 
they affect the best things, yet they are not usually speaking 
of them. Why? But because their affections are not in 
truth set on them. 

Look what a man is deeply affected with, that he is most 
indulgent to and tender of, he could not have a cold wind for 
to breathe upon it. Affections blind the judgment. Peril judi- 
cium cum res transit in affectum. Great affections take away 
the very judgment; infirmities are no infirmities to affection, 
love will kiss the warts off the thing affected ; oh, it is exceed 
ing tender of the thing affected. But now men are not so 
tender of the name of God and spiritual things. Why ? But 
because their affections are not set in truth upon things above. 

>ER. 2.] REMAINS. 69 

If a man s affections were thus set on things that are 
above, then he would not be put off with any slight evidence 
of his interest in them. Look what a man doth much affect, 
that he will have a clear evidence of his interest therein, and 
will never be satisfied, until he have a substantial and a clear 
evidence of it. But now, though men say that they do affect 
the best things,, yet they will be satisfied with slight evidences 
of their interest in them. Why ? Because their affections 
are not truly set on things that are above. Indeed men think 
they are, because they have some affections to the better 
things. But if all these things be true, as they are most 
certain, then surely many are deceived in the great matter of 
the right placing of their affections.* 

But suppose our affections be set on things above, or sup 
pose they be not ; what then ? 

Then is your portion accordingly. Look where your trea 
sure is, there is your portion : if your treasure be in heaven, 
then is your portion there ; if your treasure be in the earth, 
then is your portion there. And look where your heart and 
affections are, there is your treasure. And therefore if your 
affections be set on things above, then is your portion there ; 
if on things below, then is your portion there. Yea, 

If your affections be set on things that are above, then 
may you know that you have an interest in Christ, and in 
ose things above. Affections are the pulse of the soul ; if 
man be alive, then his pulse beats, but if his pulse beats 
t, then is he dead. For if your affections beat after things 
that are above, then are you alive to God ; but if this pulse 
ats not, then are you dead to God. Every man is as this 
Ise is, alive or dead : every man is as his affections are, 
animus cujusque est quisque; would ye so know whether ye be 
spiritually alive or dead. How doth this pulse of your affec 
tions beat ? I confess indeed, that affectio est meretrix, a 
man should not measure himself by any present affection, 
nor by the degrees of his affections ; but by the bent of his 
affections he should, and by the savour of them. Though I 
cannot know strong water by the colour of it, yet by the 




* Hinc colligere possumus, illus omnes qui pollicentur sibi gaudia superna, 
m interim non omnino sapiunt superna, quasi jucundo quodam somnio celec- 
tari, neque uuquam illis rebus saturandos, qui nunquam sitire et esurire, ex 
imo solebant. Davenant. in Col. Hi. 1, 2. 

70 REMAINS. [SER. 2, 

taste and savour of it I may ; and though I cannot know my 
spiritual estate by the degree of an affection, yet by the 
savour and bent of it I may. Therefore saith the psalmist, 
" Those that love the Lord hate evil." " By this (saith the 
apostle) shall ye know that ye are translated from death to 
life, because ye love the brethren." And if ye look into 
Scripture, how cloth the Lord distinguish the godly from the 
ungodly, but by the kind and bent of their affections ? 
" Let them that love thy name rejoice in thee," Psalm v. 11. 
" His delight is in the law of the Lord," Psalm i. " Blessed 
is the man that feareth the Lord, and delighteth greatly in 
liis commandments," Psalm cxii. 1. If therefore your affec 
tions be not drawn out and set upon things above, how will 
ye know that ye have any interest in them ? Yea, 

And if your affections be not set on things above, what 
shall relieve you in the day of your distress ? Look what 
you most affect while you are well, that must be your relief 
when you are sick. Can you relieve yourselves with the 
things here below^ when you are sick or count to die ? But 
if you now set your affections on things above, then they 
will relieve you in the day of your distress.* 

Then also you shall neither lose your affection nor the 
thing affected. If you set your affections on things that are 
below, you shall both lose the thing affected, and your affec 
tions too. Witness the case of Jonah s gourd. Now our 
affections are precious things, too good to be spilt and lost : 
lost they will be, and spilt they will be, if set on any thing 
on this side Christ ; but if they be set on things above, you 
shall neither lose them nor the thing affected.f 

And for the present these affections will make the ways of 
God easy to you. Hard things are easy to great affections, 
easy things are hard to him that hath no affection to them. 
You see how it is with the hunter, that runs up and down all 
day long, over hedges, through bushes, sweating and tearing 
himself yet with much ease and sweetness, because he affects 
the game ; but if a man be put upon a work which he hath 
no affection to, then it is hard to him, though never so easy 
in itself. So spiritually, though the work of mortification 

* Terrena nee plenitudinem ferre possunt continent!, nee fulcimentum invitenti, 
nee fructuin laboranti Parisiens. 

t YAjj TW 

SER. 2.] REMAINS. 71 

and repentance be an hard work, yet it is easy to some, 
prayer easy, reading easy, meditating easy ; why ? because 
they have affection to these things : but if your affections be 
not set on things that are above, how shall the ways of God 
be made easy and sweet unto you ? But besides all these 
things, ye know that 

God is a jealous God; and though Christ be a loving 
Husband unto e\ery soul that is espoused to him, yet he is 
very jealous of men s affections. What man is not jealous 
of his wife, when he sees that her affections are placed upon 
another ? And are our affections placed upon things below ; 
what doth that do but raise the jealousy of Christ against us ? 
Jealousy is the rage of man, what is it then in Christ ? Now 
therefore as you desire that the jealousy of the Lord Jesus 
may not be raised against you ; that the ways of God may 
be made sweet and easy to you ; that you may never lose 
your affections, or the things affected ; that you may have a 
standing relief in the day of your distress; that you may 
have full evidence of the interest in those things that are 
above, and that your portion may lie there ; oh, " set your 
affections on things that are above, and not on things on the 

What shall we do that we may raise and draw up our 
affections unto these things above? for our affections are 
indeed too much on things here below. How shall we draw 
them off from them, and draw them up to these better things 
that are above ? 

You must be sure to get a new heart, affections are the 
movings of the heart ; an old heart cannot move unto things 
that are above : therefore you must get a new heart.* 

Then you must get knowledge of these things that are 
above, for ignoti nullam cupido, there is no desire of unknown 
things, nor affections to them. Some desire knowledge and 
not affections ; some desire affections, and do not labour after 
knowledge. Give me knowledge hearted with affections, and 
affections headed with knowledge ; for as knowledge without 
affections makes wicked men secure, so affections without 
knowledge make godly men scrupulous. Study therefore to 

* Affection es bonas vel malas causat voluntas bona vel mala. Augustin, torn. 
5, fol. 169, 

72 REMAINS. [$ER. 2. 

know more, and that knowledge shall be a light and lanthorn 
to the feet of your affections. 

If you would draw up your affections unto things above, 
then put yourself under the most wooing discoveries of gos 
pel love. Wooings roll out affections. Christ woos in the 
gospel ; there doth the Spirit also breathe : and these motions 
of the soul can never be stirred up, but by the moving of 
the Spirit on the heart. " The living creatures went every 
one straight forward, whither the Spirit was to go," Ezek. i. 
12. Now the Spirit moves in the wooing dispensations of 
the gospel; there then place yourselves, and give up your 
hearts unto these wooings. 

And in case that any sensible dispensation fall upon you, 
either by affliction or enjoyment, let your eye affect your 
heart. Affections are sensible movings of the soul : doth the 
Lord therefore speak unto your soul by afflictions or sacra 
ments ? be sure that you improve these sensible dispensations 
to the working up of your affections unto things above. 

And be much in meditation ; for as reading and hearing do 
beget knowledge, so meditation doth beget affections. Either 
therefore you are in company, or you are alone: if you be in 
company, mutual exhortation will quicken your affections unto 
what is good; if ye be alone, then sit and meditate on the 
things that you have heard, or read, or seen, or done ; and 
thus your affections will and shall be raised unto things 

But my affections are most unsteady; though they be 
raised to-day, yet they are down to-morrow : what shall I do 
that I may so set my affections on things above, that they 
may be settled on them ? 

In case your affections have been raised, then take as much 
pains to keep your affections up, as you did to raise them up. 

In case you feel your affections begin to cool and decline, 
then stir up yourself, and the grace of God that is in you. 
The prophet Isaiah complains, that none stirred up themselves 
to take hold on God. The like complaint may we take up 
now ; for what is the reason that our affections die and cool 
away after raisings of heart, but because we do not stir up 
ourselves and hearts to take hold on God. In case, there- 

SER. 2.] REMAINS. 73 

fore, that your affections do begin to abate and cool, blow 
them up afresh, and stir up yourselves thereunto. 

Be sure that you make use of the variety in the ways of 
God, which he hath given you. Varietas refocillat : variety 
is refreshing and affecting. God hath given us divers ordi 
nances to be exercised in, that if we be dull and weary in 
one, we may go to another. If you be weary in prayer, you 
may go to reading ; if weary in reading, then go to medi 
tating ; if weary in meditation, you may go to conference. 
If you will spend yourself only in one duty, there will grow 
a dulness and deadness upon you ; but if you exercise your 
self according to that variety which God hath given you, 
your heart will be kept up with an holy freshness unto things 
above, But, 

Because that we are much affected with new things, there 
fore study the words and works of God much, and be always 
digging in them, then some new truth, or new discovery will 
arise upon you, which will affect your heart, and ever heap 
up your affections unto things above. And, 

In case that you have any great affections unto what is 
good, be sure that you labour more and more to refine that 
affection ; things refined keep longest ; distilled waters keep 
longer than the leaves out of which the waters are distilled ; 
if ye have rose leaves, they will not keep fresh so long as 
the water that you distil from them ; those affections that 
you now have, it may be are sweet unto you, but they are as 
the rose leaves, somewhat of a drossier matter, which doth 
adhere to them, if you would now take those very good affec 
tions and refine or distil the same, then would they keep the 
longer. Go then and carry in your rose leaves unto God s 
still, and labour more and more to refine your best affections. 
Thus your affections shall not only be set on things above, 
but be settled on them. 

And my beloved, is it not a good and blessed thing to 
have sweet and large affections for good ? Surely it is a great 
mercy to have large affections in good and for good ; some 
of us have had large affections to the things of the world, 
and shall we not have as large affections unto things that are 
above ? Old men generally want affections, and young peo 
ple do abound therein ; but what will all our affections do us 
good, if they be set on things here below ? Alas, we shall 

74 REMAINS. [SER. 3. 

but lose them, and the things affected too. But if you set 
your affections on things above, you shall neither lose your 
affections, nor the things affected. Wherefore let us all 
receive this exhortation, " Set your affections on things 
above, and not on things on the earth." 



" Brethren, let every man wherein he is called therein, abide with 
God." I COR. vii. 20. 

IN this chapter the apostle speaks to a case of conscience, 
whether it be lawful for the believing wife to depart from the 
unbelieving husband ; which he resolves negatively, ver. 10. 
" If the unbelieving will depart, let him depart," saith the 
apostle, ver. 15, but the believer may not depart ; which he 
persuadeth unto by divers arguments. The first is taken 
from the profit or good that the believer may do by his con 
tinuance, ver. 16, " For what knowest thou, O wife, whether 
thou shalt save thine husband." The second is taken from the 
call of God unto that condition, ver. I 1 ?, " But as the Lord 
hath distributed unto every man, as the Lord hath called 
every man, so let him walk :" and this is our duty ; for, says 
he, " So I ordain in all the churches." Why, but suppose a 
man be called being a servant, is he to abide therein ? Yes. 
says the apostle, ver. 20, " Let every one abide in the same 
calling wherein he was called." Art thou called being a ser 
vant? care not for it, but if thou mayest be made free, use it 
rather ; for, ver. 22, " He that is called in the Lord, being a 
servant, is the Lord s freeman ;" only saith he, fi Ye are 
bought with a price, be not ye the servants of men," serving 
men only, but the Lord in them. And so, brethren, let every 
man wherein he is called, abide with God by calling : so the 
apostle doth understand that state and condition wherein 
God hath placed us. We do ordinarily take the word calling 
for our civil employment, and outward occupation ; but the 
apostle takes it here for our outward state and condition, yet 
not excluding but including the other, for there is no state or 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 75 

condition that we are called unto, but some occupation, em 
ployment, or calling, is to be used therein; and therefore in 
speaking to one of these, I shall speak to both. And so the 
doctrine is this : 

That it is the duty of every man to abide or walk with 
God in his calling ; take calling for your state or condition, 
or take calling for your ordinary way of employment, the 
doctrine is true, that it is our duty to abide or walk with God 
in our calling. It is commanded ver. 17, <; As the Lord hath 
called every one, so let him walk." It is commanded again 
ver. 20, " Let every man abide in the same calling wherein 
he was called." And it is commanded again ver. 24, 
" Brethren, let every one," &c. Surely therefore there is 
some great concernment in this. And ver. 20 he saith, 
" Let every man abide;" but in ver. 17 he saith, ie As the 
Lord hath called every one, so let him walk ;" and saith the 
text, " Here let him abide with God." Plainly then, it is 

e duty of every man to walk or abide with God in his eall- 
For the prosecuting of which truth I shall labour to 
shew you : 

First, That it is a great mercy for a man to be placed in a 
good, lawful, and honest calling. A good calling is a great 

Secondly, That a man being so placed, is to abide therein. 

Thirdly, That it is our duty to walk with God in our 

Fourthly, What a man should do, that he may walk with 
God in his calling. 

Fifthly, I shall give you some motives and encouragements 
provoke you to this work, of walking with God in your 

First, therefore, I say, a good calling is a great mercy. It 
is a great mercy for a man to have an honest, good, and a 
lawful calling : whether you take the word calling for the 
calling of condition, or for the calling of employment, it is a 
great mercy to be planted in an honest and a lawful calling. 

This was the condition of Adam in the state of innocencv ; 
then the Lord set Adam for to till the ground : he gave him 
an employment in the state of innoccncy, and there was no 
thing given him in the state of iimocency but mercy. What- 

76 REMAINS. [SEB. 3. 

ever God called him to, or put him upon before the fall, was 
mercy. Now in that state God put an employment upon 
him. Employment did not come in by the fall ; it is not a 
badge of that conquest that the devil made upon us by the 
fall: therefore an honest calling is a great mercy. For 

A man is kept from idleness. Idleness is the nurse of all 
wickedness ; our vacation is the devil s term. Homines nihil 
agenda, fyc. : * Men by doing nothing learn to do evil. Idle 
ness, saith the heathen, f is the burying of a living man. Hie 
situs est. When a great senator of Rome would go live pri 
vately in his country house, that he might be more retired, 
Seneca coming by, said, Hie situs est ; Here lies such a man : 
as you say over a tomb, Here lies such a man, and there lies 
such a man, so said he, Hie situs est Vacia ; Here lies Vacia ; 
for idleness is the burial of a living man, but what more con 
trary to a man than to be buried alive. Now the honest law 
ful employment or calling will keep ever from idleness. Yea, 

Thereby also a man shall be kept from busy-bodiedness and 
too much meddling : the more idle a man is, the more apt he 
is to be too busy and meddling with others 5 matters. Mark, 
therefore, I pray, how they go together in 2 Thess. iii. 1 1 : 
" We hear that there are some which walk among you disor 
derly, working not at all, being busy-bodies." Working not 
at all, and yet overworking, being busy-bodies; how should 
this be cured ? Why, saith he, in the next verse, " Now 
them that are such, we command and exhort by our Lord 
Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work and eat their own 
bread. 55 Either a man must eat his own bread or he will eat 
another s; if he eat another s constantly that will be uncom 
fortable; if he would eat his own bread, then let him work; 
if he do not work when he should, he will be at work when 
he should not ; he will meddle with others matters, and be a 
busy-body. Now, therefore, I command and beseech you 
in the Lord (saith the apostle), that every one work." Thus 
shall a man be freed from busy-bodiedness. Yea, 

A lawful honest calling both of condition and employment 
is God s ground. As no calling is the devil s ground, so a 
good and honest calling is God s ground. As an unlawful 

* Homines nihil egendo mala discunt egere. Sen. 

t Otium est vera hominis sepultura. Sen. 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 77 

calling is the devil s ground, so a lawful calling is God s 
ground. And look when a man is out of his calling and place, 
he may then say, What do I here on the devil s ground ? and 
look when a man is in his place and calling, then he may say, 
What dost thou here, Satan, tempting me ? this is none of 
thy ground, this is God s ground to me. And so it is, in 
deed, for there God will appear to men. God did appear to 
the shepherds, bringing the news of Christ s birth ; but \A here 
did he appear to them, but in their calling ? They were 
keeping sheep, and suddenly they heard a noise of heavenly 
angels. He did appear to Peter and Andrew in their callings 
to follow Christ; but where did he appear to them, but in 
the way of their callings ? They were casting their nets into 
the sea, and Christ came and said to them, " Follow me, and 
I will make you fishers of men." Calling ground is appear 
ance ground; there God appears unto his people. Surely, 
therefore, it is a great mercy to be on this ground, to have an 
honest lawful calling and employment. And that is the first 

Secondly, A man having a honest and a good calling, he is 
to abide therein. " Let every one abide therein," saith the 
apostle here, again and again. Now for the opening of this 
I shall briefly speak unto these four things : 

1. That there is an aptness in us to change or lay down 
our callings. 

2. That it is not absolutely unlawful so to do. 

3. Yet ordinarily a man is to abide in his calling, and not 
readily to be removed from it. 

4. I shall answer to some objections or cases of conscience 
about the change or relinquishment of our calling. 

1. Therefore there is an aptness in us to change or lay 
down our callings, &c. Why should the apostle three times, 
one after another, call upon us to ee abide in our callings ?" 
And if ye look into 2 Thess. iii., ye shall find that as soon as 
the apostle had commanded the Thessalonians to work, and 
eat their own bread by working, verse 10, he presently adds, 
" But ye, brethren, be not weary of well doing." Why so ? 
But because there is an aptness in us, and an itching disposi 
tion to leave and desert our callings. 

2. But it is not absolutely unlawful for a man to leave or 
change his calling. This in some cases thou mayest do, says 

78 REMAINS. [SfiR. 3* 

Peter Martyr, modo teipsam non quaeras, vel timere agas, so 
that you do not seek yourself, nor be rash therein. For pos- 
sihly a man may be qualified for higher employments than his 
own calling bears. In this case, David left his calling of a 
shepherd and became a king ; Amos left the calling of a 
herd man and became a prophet ; the apostles left the calling 
of their fishing and became apostles. Possibly a man may 
be qualified for better and higher employments, and in that 
case it is lawful to change or leave his calling.* Or, 

Possibly a man may see the same hand of God leading him 
out of his calling which did bring him into it. So when 
Noah had the same "command to go out of the ark that he 
had to go in, then he went out, but not before, though the 
waters were gone oif the earth. Now sometimes a man may 
hear the sarre voice of God leading him out of his calling,, 
which did bring him in, and in that case it is lawful for a man 
to leave or lay down his calling. Or, 

Possibly the porter that standeth at the door of a man s 
calling may let him out ; there are porters which God hath 
set at the door of every condition : if a man be a single man, 
and would change his condition, and his parents are unwill 
ing, then he may not go out of that calling or condition, for 
the parents, which are the porters of the door, do not open 
to him. There are porters at the door of every condition ; 
possibly this porter may open the door, and then it is lawful 
for a man to change or lay down his calling. Or, 

Possibly a man may be forced through want, to change or 
desert his calling. Paul though a preacher and apostle, was 
sometimes forced to work with his hands. And though Mus- 
culus was a good and excellent preacher, yet he was some 
times forced to work, and to dig in the city ditch or moat, 
for his living.f Possibly I say, a man through urgent neces 
sity and want, may be forced to leave or desert his calling ; 
and then, and in that case, it is lawful for him to do it : so 
that it is not absolutely unlawful for a man to change or lay 
down his calling. Yet, 

3. Though it be lawful in some case to do so, yet 

* Si ad magistratum vel ecclesiae regimen adcersitus fueris justa ratione, turn 
tuipse non est qui te transferas ex una vocatione in aliara sed a Deo promoveris. 
Sic ab aratro ad consilium voleris roindis. Pet. Mart, in cap. p. 96. 

t Idem statuendum est, cum aliqua gravi necessitate compelleris, et subeas 
non as conditiones. Pet. Mar. ibid. 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 79 

ordinarily a man is to abide in his calling, and not readily to 
be removed from it : for a good calling is the Lord s gift. 

It is God that calls a man to that state, condition, or em 
ployment. Now a man should not readily leave or desert 
that calling or employment which God hath called him to, 
or owned and blessed him in. For how do I know whether 
God will own or bless me when I shall desert that calling, 
wherein he hath appeared unto me. It is my duty to follow 
God, and not to go before him ; as God hath distributed to 
every man. As the Lord hath called every man, so let him 
walk. God doth distribute and carve out our callings for 
us. Has the Lord therefore called me to a place or employ 
ment, then am I with thankfulness to walk therein. It is 
not for the private soldier, saith Peter Martyr, to appoint his 
own station ; but look where he is set by his commander, 
there he is to abide. Has the Lord therefore set me in this 
or that calling or employment, then am I to wait on God, 
and abide in it, and not readily to be removed from it. 

There is no calling either of employment or condition, 
but God may be served and enjoyed therein* No calling or 
employment so mean, but a man may honourably serve, and 
comfortablo enjoy God therein. Art thou called being a 
servant, care not, saith the apostle, ; why ? For he that is 
called being a servant, is the Lord s free man, verse 22. 
Likewise also, he that is called being free, is the Lord s ser 
vant. I remember I heard a preacher say some twenty-five 
years since, that a man is never ashamed of his calling, 
though it be never so mean, but a man is ashamed of his sin, 
although he be never so great. If, says he, you call a man 
tinker or cobler, yet he is not ashamed thereof, because it is 
his calling ; but if you call a man drunkard, or adulterer, he 
is ashamed thereof, because that is none of his calling. A 
man may honourably serve God in his calling, though it be 
never so mean, and he may comfortably enjoy God in his 
calling although it be never so great. 

4. But that is the reason why I would lay down my 
ling, because I cannot serve God so well therein. I meet 
ith many temptations, provocations, and impediments, which 
hinder me in the service of God ; if I were free from this 
calling, then I should be more free for God, and should be 


80 REMAINS. [SER. 3. 

more free from those snares and provocations that I now 
meet with. But for answer : 

Are you sure of that ? Luther tells us of a certain man 
that was given to anger, and to avoid provocation, he would 
go live alone, as an hermit; and going to the well with his 
pitcher, somewhat displeased him, and he threw down his 
pitcher, and he broke it in anger; which- when he had done, 
and reflecting on himself, and his own actions, he said, Well, 
now I see it is not in my condition, but in my heart and self, 
that doth cause anger and provocation ; therefore I will re 
turn to my calling again. And when men speak at the rate 
of that objection, what do they do, but lay the fault of their 
anger and provocation upon their condition, and excuse 
themselves ? But our Saviour saith, That that comes from 
within, that denies a man, not that which comes from with 
out. It is not the condition, or the place, or the employ 
ment, or calling, that denies the man, but that that comes 
from within, that denies the man. Mr. Greenham * being 
asked whether a man might avoid the doing of a thing where- 
unto he is called, because he feels corruption in himself, 
he said, In avoiding society, you shall cover, but not cure 
your infirmities; and though you depart from men, you 
cannot go out of yourself; it is not the use of the creatures, 
but the love of the creatures, that hinder from good. I 
never look, said he, for a better estate than that wherein I 
am; but I oft prepare for a worse. And I pray tell me, 
beloved, was not Joshua, when Moses died, and he was to 
lead the people into Canaan, a man of great employment ? 
" Yes even then/ 5 saith the Lord to him, " this book of the 
law, shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt medi 
tate therein day and night/ 5 Josh. i. 8. And was not David 
a man of great employments ? Yet, says he, "At evening, 
morning, and at noonday will I pray, yea seven times a day ; 
yea, I meditate on thy law all the day long. 55 Surely there 
fore our hinderance to good, doth not lie in our calling, place, 
or employment; but it lies within ourselves. And therefore 
why should we lay down our callings to be rid thereof. 

5. But this is not my reason, I know that a man may 
serve God in the worst of honest callings, but callings are 
made for maintenance. Now I have enough to maintain 
* Greenham on Calling. 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 81 

myself and mine; and therefore why may not I now lay 
down my calling ? 

Because you are mistaken. A calling is not only to main 
tain yourself and your family, but it is an ordinance of God 
to preserve and keep you from idleness : whereby you are 
not only to maintain yourself, but to help others, and there- 
fore ye find that Paul saith, "he wrought with his hands;" 
not only to maintain himself but others. " You know (says 
he) yea, yourselves know, that these hands have ministered 
unto my necessities, and to them that were with me," Acts 
xx. 34. He did not only work occasionally to maintain 
himself, but others also. And if ye look into Eph. iv. 3 the 
same church that he spake to in Acts xx., ye shall find that 
he layeth his injunction on them and us: "Let him that 
stole steal no more, but rather let him labour, working with 
his hands the thing that is good, that he may have to give to 
him that needeth," verse 28. Surely therefore a calling is 
not only appointed to raise a maintenance for ourselves : and 
therefore, though you can live, and have outward means 
enough to maintain both you and others, yet you may not 
therefore leave or desert your calling ; it is that trust that 
God hath committed to you, and you must make good your 

But though I may not leave my calling altogether, yet 
may I not leave it for a time, that on the week-day I may go 
and hear and enjoy the ordinances ? 

Yes, surely, for man is not made for the calling, out the 
calling is made for man. Ye read of a converted woman 
in John iv., that when she had a taste of Christ s preaching, 
she left her pitcher or pail, and went and called others to 
hear the same. And so, though you do not break your pail 
or pitcher, yet you may leave your pail or pitcher for a time, 
to tend on the words of Christ. Did not the Jews go up 
three times a year to Jerusalem from their several habitations, 
employments, and callings? Is it not said, "That the con 
verted Jews did continue daily with one accord in the tem 
ple, and breaking bread from house to house ? " Acts ii. 46. 
Indeed God will have mercy and not sacrifice ; but though 

may not leave or lay down your callings readily, yet for 
me you may leave them, that you may attend on the ordi- 
ices. But though you may so leave your callings for a 
VOL. v. G 


REMAINS. [Sen. 3. 

time, yet you must abide therein with God. And so I come 
to the third general, which is this : 

Thirdly, That it is our duty, or the duty of every man 
to walk with God in his calling, not barely to abide therein, 
but to abide and walk with God therein. For thus, 

It was so from the beginning. Adam had a calling, even 
in the state of innocency, but therein he was to walk with 

And if a man do not walk with God in his calling, how 
can he walk with God at all. A man is not said to walk with 
God because he prays in the morning or evening ; walking is 
a constant thing. Now it is the duty of every man to walk 
with God ; and therefore it is his duty to walk with God in 
his calling. 

Thereby a man is distinguished from the world and the 
men of the world. A man is not therefore one of another 
world, because he deserts his calling that he may give him 
self unto his devotions : for then the monks, and nuns, and 
anabaptists, should be men and women of another world ; 
he is a man of another world, " that doth use the world as 
if he used it not." Christ himself was in the world, " but 
not of the world." And if you would not be of the world, 
you must not go out of the world, but you must walk with 
God in the world. Hereby you shall be distinguished from 
the world, and men of the world. Now it is our duty so to 
walk, as it may appear that we are not ctf this world. There 
fore it is our duty to walk with God in our callings, not only 
to abide therein, but to walk with God therein.* 

This is that which will sweeten and elevate your callings : 
every thing is raised or depressed as God is present with it 
or absent from it. Bethlehem was but a little city, therefore 
says the prophet Micah, chap. v. 2, " Thou Bethlehem, though 
thou be little amongst the thousands of Judah ;" yet, Matt, 
ii., it is said, " And thou Bethlehem art not the least." Why ? 
Because Christ was born there. Look what place, or town, 

* At hodie summa habeter pietas, si quis domi relectis liberis et uxore aut 
etiam grandaevis parentibus, vel Hierosolymam adeat, vel in monasterium ; vide 
quo impudentiae ventum est in ecclesiam Christi, iiec in pari proxsus dementia 
decipiunt hodie et catebaptistae, relictis enim uxoribus liberis et familiis (tanquem 
attoniti et fanatici homines circumsitant, atque ita se pomariam regni Christi 
propagularos dejerunt ; turn interim rem familiarem concoquent subvertantque, 
totam et ecclesaam Christi miris modig obturbent. Bullinger in 1 Tim, v. 8. 

SEB. 3.] REMAINS. 83 

or condition that is where Christ is, though it be little in it 
self, yet it is raised by him. The more, therefore, that you 
walk with God in your calling, the more your calling is sweet 
ened and elevated. And yet further, 

Every man is as he is in his calling ; a man hath no more 
grace than he may or can use in his calling ; and though I 
have all parts and gifts, so as I can remove mountains, yet if 
I be not gracious in my calling, all is nothing, my parts and 
gifts are but as sounding brass and as tinkling cymbal. My 
calling is that ground whereon I am to plant all my gifts and 
graces. If I have grace, it will appear in my calling ; if I be 
wicked, it will appear in my calling : every man is as he is in 
his calling. Surely, therefore, it is not only our duty to abide, 
but to abide and walk with God in our callings. And that is 
the third general. 

Now, by way of application, I might speak something in 
reference to every branch of the doctrine. If a good calling 
be a great mercy, then why should not parents provide honest 
callings for their child, and children be thankful to God and 
their parents for such provision ? And if it be our duty to 
abide with God in our callings, then why should not every 
man be contented with his condition, whatever it be, though 
it be never so mean ? And if it be our duty to walk with 
God in our callings, then why should we not make it our 
business, not to be rich by our callings, but to walk with God 
in our callings. But you will say, 

Fourthly, What should a man do that he may walk with 
God in his calling ? This is of daily concernment. How 
should we, therefore, so walk in our callings, that we may 
walk with God in our callings ? 

I answer negatively and affirmatively. 

Negatively. If you would walk with God in your calling, 
you must not be ignorant of the way of your calling; for if 
you take up a calling, and are ignorant of the way and mys 
tery thereof, you may tempt God therein. " The wisdom of 
the wise (saith Solomon) is to direct his way," his own parti 
cular way. Every man should be the master of his art.* 
Possibly a man may step into a calling both of condition and 
employment before he knows the way and the manner of it. 

* Q. Qutenam requiruntur ad honestam vocationem honeste exercendum ? 

II. Requiritur peritia. 2. Attentio ad officia propria. 3. Sedula dili- 

84 REMAINS. [SER. 3. 

But as in marriage, though the parties meet in the flesh with 
out any sanctified means, yet if God afterwards give them 
grace to live holily together, he sheweth that not only their 
corrupt meeting is pardoned, but that now they are blessed. 
So, though a man enter into a calling without gifts at the first, 
yet if God afterwards furnish him with able gifts, he doth not 
only shew his former sin, in running into that calling, is par 
doned, but that he is blessed. But if a man be not the master 
of his art, and gifted for his calling, then he leaves God therein, 
and doth not walk with God. 

If you would walk with God in your calling, you must not 
be negligent in your place and calling. Diligence in our call 
ings is commanded, commended and rewarded in Scripture. 
It is commanded : " Whatever is in the power of thy hand 
I do, do it with all thy might ;" " Be not slothful in business, 
go to the pismire, O sluggard." It is commended : " He 
that is diligent in his business shall stand before princes." 
And it is rewarded : " For the diligent hand maketh rich." 
Now if God doth command, commend, and reward diligence 
in our calling, then surely you cannot walk with God and be 
negligent therein. 

If you would walk with God in your calling, you must not 
deal unjustly or unrighteously in your dealings with men. 
" God hath shewed thee, O man, what is good," saith the 
prophet, Micah vi. 8. " And what doth the Lord require of 
thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly 
with thy God ? Plainly, then, a man cannot walk humbly 
with God that doth not deal justly and righteously with men 
in his calling. 

If you would walk with God in yeur calling, then you 
must not be too familiar with your calling. God hath given 
you a calling that it may be a nurse to you, and your grace. 
Children sometimes are so fond of their nurse that they re 
gard not their parents ; and if you be too fond of your calling, 
you will forget the God of your calling. " Let him that 
marrieth be as if he married not (says the apostle), and he 
that useth the world as if he used it not." You will go with 
an apron into your shop that you may keep your clothes clean, 

gentia. 4. Providentia in opportunitate commoda observanda. 5. Fortitude 
et constantia in difficultatibus superandis. 6. Moderatio appetitionis lucri. 
7. Religiosa sanctificutio omnium laborem. Ames Cas. consc. lib. v. cap. 46. 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 85 

and hath not your soul as much need of an apron when you 
are in your shop and your calling. If the ivy clings too close 
unto the oak, it hindereth the growth of the oak ; so if your 
callings cling too close to you, and you to your callings, it will 
hinder your spiritual growth. The world may be well used 
at a distance : it is not evil to meddle with the world, but to 
mingle with it, Would ye, therefore, walk with God in your 
place, then you must not be too familiar with the world and 
the things thereof. Thus negatively. Now 

Affirmatively. If you would walk with God in your place 
and calling, then you must observe what those snares and 
temptations are that are incident unto your calling, and take 
heed thereof; such there are, for says the apostle, chap. vii. 
23, " He that is unmarried, careth for the things that belong to 
the Lord, how he may please the Lord ; but he that is mar 
ried careth for the things of the world, how he may please 
his wife." And this saith he, verse 35, " I speak for your 
own profit, not that I may cast a snare upon you, but for that 
which is comely, and that you may attend upon the Lord 
without destraction." Plainly, then, there are snares and 
temptations that are incident unto all, and the best conditions 
and callings ; and if we would attend unto God without dis 
tractions, we must observe what these snares and temptations 
are, and take heed thereof. 

If you would walk with God in your calling, then you 
must live by faith in your callings. " For by faith Enoch 
walked with God." " And the life that I live in the flesh, I 
live by the faith of the Son of God." Thereby you shall be 
kept from covetous ness and love of the world. " This is 
our victory, whereby we overcome the world, even our faith." 
Thereby you shall be contented with your condition, what 
ever it be ; thereby you shall be able to leap over a wall, and 
over all those difficulties that you meet with in your callings ; 
thereby you shall live sweetly and graciously in your calling, 
and walk with God. Now if you would live by faith in your 
calling, then you must have an eye to God s commandment, 
promise, and providence. You must go to your callings as 
to God s ordinance; otherwise you cannot look with both 
eyes to God, but with one eye to the world, and with the 
other to God. But you see that he hath taught us, that you 

fnot look with one eye to heaven, and with the other eye 

86 REMAINS. [SER. 3. 

to the earth ; but if you will look to the heavens, both eyes 
will look to heaven. So if you will look to God, you must 
look with both eyes to God. The way, therefore, to look 
with both eyes to God in your calling, is to go to your calling 
as to God s ordinance ; and because faith and the promise are 
as buckle and clasp, the one cannot be without the other. 
Therefore you must observe those promises that are made to 
your calling, and rest thereon. And because God doth some 
times guide us by his eye in the way of our callings, therefore 
you must have an eye to providence ; and whatever you do 
in the way of your calling, you must quietly leave the issue 
of it and success to God. And thus shall you live by faith 
in your calling, and so walk w r ith God in your place. 

If you would walk with God in your calling, then what 
ever you do therein, do all to the glory of God. " Whether 
you eat or drink, (saith the apostle,) do all to the glory of 
God." If I work in my calling for mine own profit only, 
then I walk with myself therein ; but if I do all for God s 
glory, not mine own profit, then I walk with God in my 

If you would walk with God in your particular calling, 
then be sure that you so manage your calling, that your 
general calling may not be an hindrance, but an help unto 
your particular ; and thus your particular calling may be no 
hindrance, but an help to your general calling. Woe to that 
calling which eats up prayer. The particular and general 
callings are joined together by God : " Those that God hath 
joined together, let no man put asunder." Be sure, there 
fore, that your general calling be an help to your particular, 
and your particular no hindrance to your general. Thus 
shall you walk with God in your calling. And, 

If you would walk with God in your calling, then be sure 
that you turn as God turns, sweetly complying with his dis 
pensations in the way of your calling. If two men walk 
together, when one turns the other turns, and if one do not 
turn as the other turns, they cannot walk together; but if 
one turns as the other turns, then they walk together. So in 
our walking with God, it may be God s dispensations in my 
calling are comfortable, then am I to rejoice and to praise the 
Lord. It may be God turns and his dispensation is sad, in 
the way of my calling ; then am I to humble myself before 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 87 

the Lord, and to comply with his dispensation ; which if you 
do in your calling, then shall you walk with God therein. 

If you would walk with God in your calling, then you 
must judge of things in your calling, as God judges, and 
measure things by his bushel. We are very apt to measure 
and judge of things in our callings, by the verdict of the 
means and second causes : if the means and second cause 
smile, then we smile, though God frown ; if the means and 
second cause frown, then we frown, though God smile : if 
the second cause be big, and promise a great mercy or bles- 
ing to us, then in the strength of the second cause, we pro- 

ise it to ourselves, though God threatens the contrary ; if 

e second cause or means threaten a misery, then in the 
strength thereof, we threaten ourselves with that misery, 
though God promise the contrary blessing. This is not to 
walk with God in our callings. He that walks with God in 
his place and calling, must judge and measure things accord 
ing unto God s verdict. But, 

If you would walk with God in your place and calling, 
then you must spiritualize your particular calling with hea 
venly things, and the things of God ; not put all upon a 
morning and an evening prayer^ but your particular calling 
must be sprinkled with holy meditations and gracious 
speeches. Thus it was with Abraham s servant when he 
went for Rebecca, he sprinkled his service with meditation, 
prayer, and godly speech. And if ye look into Judges v. ye 
shall find that upon a glorious victory that God gave to his 
people, it is said, ver. 11, " They that are delivered from the 
noise of the archers, in the places of drawing of water, there 
shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord/ Not 
only at their church meetings, and in prayer or duty, but 
while they are drawing of water. Thus our particular calling 
is to be sprinkled with heavenly things ; and if you do thus, 
then shall you walk with God in your calling. And oh, that 
tli ere were an heart in us all, thus to walk with God in our 
callings. This is every man s work, and every day s work. 
Now, therefore, that you may do it, give me leave by way of 
motive, to leave these few considerations with you. 

If you walk with God in your particular calling, God will 
walk with you in your general calling. Is it not a great 

88 REMAINS. [SER. 3. 

mercy to meet with God in your prayers and duties ; if you 
go up to him in your particular callings, he will come down 
to you in your general. 

Then shall your calling be a blessing to you indeed, and 
you shall have another, further and greater reward than the 
wealth of your calling. " Servants obey your masters in all 
things, not with eye-service as men pleasers, but in singleness 
of heart, fearing the Lord/ 5 Col. iii. 22. " And whatever ye 
do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men," ver. 23. 
" Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of 
the inheritance; for ye serve the Lord Christ." It seems 
then, by this scripture, that though a man be a servant, yet 
therein he may serve the Lord, and walk with God ; and if 
he do so, he shall not only have wages from his master, but 
of the Lord he shall receive the reward of the inheritance. 
Now he is best paid, which the Lord pays ; the Lord will not 
only give him his outward wages, but an everlasting inherit 
ance. Oh, what a good thing it is to walk with God in our 
callings. Yea, 

Thereby the knots and difficulties of your callings shall be 
taken off, and your way made easy ; that God whom ye walk 
with in your callings, will lift you over all the stiles that are 
in your callings. If a child walk with his father in the 
fields, when they come at a high stile, the father lifts him 
over it. So if you walk with God in your callings, then he 
will lift you over all the stiles and difficulties of your callings. 

Thereby you shall be kept from the sins and temptations 
of your calling. A man s calling is like to a great log or 
piece of timber in a green field ; look upon the field, and 
you see it all green and handsome, but take up the log or 
timber that lies in the midst thereof, and there you find 
worms, and sows, and vermin that do breed under it. So look 
upon a man s carriage, and generally it is very green, civil and 
handsome ; but if ye look under his calling, you will find no 
thing but sows, worms, and vermin. Now this walking with 
God in your calling, will keep you from the vermin of your 
callings. Yea, 

Thereby shall your way of godliness be convincing and 
winning. As God hath distributed to every man, as the 
Lord hath called every one, so let him walk and abide with 

SER. 3.] REMAINS. 89 

God," saith the apostle in this chapter. Why so? "For 
what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shall not save tliine 
husband;" or, "how knowest thou, O man, whether thou 
shalt save thy wife ?" Yea, says the apostle Peter, " Like 
wise ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands, that 
if any obey not the word, they also without the word, may 
be won by the conversation of the wives," 1 Peter iii. 1. 
It is not therefore a morning or evening duty, though that 
is good, that is so winning ; but a constant walking with 
God in our places and callings, is convincing and winning. 

Thereby also you shall be fit to die, and leave all the world 
with ease. The more a man runs his heart into the world in 
his calling, the harder it will be to die ; and the more a man 
walketh with God in his calling, the fitter he will be to die, 
and to leave all the world with ease. Now therefore as you 
do desire, that you may be fit to die, that your ways of god 
liness may be convincing and winning, that the knots and 
difficulties of your callings may be taken off, that your cal 
lings may be a blessing to you indeed, and that God may 
meet and walk with you in your general calling, labour more 
and more to abide and walk with God in your particular 
calling ; which that you may do, labour to be master of your 
art, be diligent in your place, deal not unjustly with men in 
your calling, be not too familiar with your callings, but keep 
your due distance from them ; observe what the temptations 
and snares are, that are incident, and take heed thereof; 
labour more to live by faith in your calling; let not your 
general eat up your particular, nor your particular destroy 
your general. Whatever you do in your calling, " do all to 
the glory of God," be sure that you turn as God turns, give 
when he gives, measure all things in your callings by his 
bushel, and be sure that you always sprinkle your outward 
employments with some heavenly refreshments. And thus 
brethren, " Let every one wherein he is called therein abide 
with God." For it is the duty of every man to abide and 
walk with God in his calling. And thus I have done with 

us argument, How to walk with God in our callings. 

90 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 



" / am a companion of all them that fear thee, and of them that 
keep thy precepts." Ps. cxix. 63. 

MY desire now is to speak something of good and bad 
company, and therefore have made choice of this scripture. 
In this section the Psalmist laboureth to confirm his faith, 
and to comfort himself in the certainty of his own grace, 
by seven or eight properties of a true believer. The first is 
drawn from his choice. A good man makes a right choice, 
he chooses God for his portion, verse 51, "Thou art my 
portion, O Lord." The second is drawn from the fixation 
of his resolution. A good man is fully resolved for to walk 
with God. " I have said I would keep thy words/ 5 verse 5 7- 
The third is drawn from his earnest desire of God s love and 
favour. A good man doth desire the favour of God above 
all things, " I intreated thy favour with my whole heart/ 5 
verse 58. The fourth is drawn from his self examination. 
A good man doth ponder, weigh, and examine his own 
doings and ways, " I thought on my ways, and turned my 
feft unto thy testimonies/ 5 verse 59. The fifth is drawn 
from his readiness to keep God s commandments. A good 
man doth not put off or delay his duty, " I made haste and 
delayed not to keep thy commandments/ 5 verse 60. The 
sixth is drawn from his adhesion to the ways of God in times 
of opposition. A good man will not be driven from the 
ways of God by the opposition of men. "The bands of the 
wicked have robbed me, but I have not forgotten thy law/ 5 
verse 61. The seventh is drawn from the thankfulness of 
his disposition under all dispensations. A good man will 
give thanks to God whatever his condition be. "At mid 
night I will give thanks unto thee, because of thy righteous 
judgments/ 5 verse 62. And the eighth is drawn from his 
company. A good man will keep company with those that 
are good ; " I am a companion of all that fear thee. 55 Which 
is explained by these following words, " and of them that 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 91 

keep thy precepts, I am a companion of all that fear thee." 
Though I be a king, and they be never so poor, I, even I, 
David the king, " am a companion of all that fear thee, and 
do keep thy precepts." Where then you may observe thus 
much, that a good man will have good company. It is the 
property of a good man to keep good company, his com 
panions are such as do fear the Lord. Yea, though they be 
much beneath him, yet if they be such as do fear the Lord, 
he will not boggle at their acquaintance and fellowship. " I 
am a companion," says David the king, " of all those that 
fear thee." So that a good man will have or keep good 
company. For the opening and clearing whereof, 

First, We will inquire what this good company is, and when 
a man may be said for to keep good company. 

Secondly, Why, and upon what account a good man will 
have good company. 

Thirdly, I will answer unto some objections or cases of 
conscience, about this company-keeping, and so come to the 

As for the first, If you ask what this good company is, I 

That is not good company which the world calls good 
company, nor he a good companion which the world calls 
a good companion. If a man will drink and take off his 
cups, he is a good fellow in the mouth of the world. And if 
a man be a jolly, frolic, merry man, that can make you laugh 
with some pretty tales and jests, he is a good companion ; 
but if he be a good natured man, and will not be angry, then 
he is a good companion indeed. This is the world s good 
company, or good companion, but I say that is not good 
company which the world calls good company. 

Neither is that good company which a man s own engage 
ments calls good company ; if a man be a good man, and I 
have a mind to hate him, then I will first make him wicked, 
that there may be room for my hatred : if a man be a wicked 
man, and I have a mincl to keep him company, or love him, 
then I will first make him good, and say he is good, that 
there may be room for my love and fellowship with him. It 
was a custom amongst the Jews, that the king should once in 
a year read over the chief part of Deuteronomy in the audi 
ence of the people, and as their stories tell us, when Agrippa 

92 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

came to those words, " One from among thy brethren thou 
shalt set king over thee ; thou mayest not set a stranger 
over thee, which is not thy brother. 53 Agrippa s eyes trickled 
down with tears, in remembrance that he was not of the seed 
of the Jews. Whereupon, saith the story, the people cried 
out three times, Fear not, Agrippa, for thou art our brother. 
So that when men please, they can for their own engagements 
make a man a brother, and a good companion ; but I say, 
that is not good company which my own judgment and 
engagement calls good company. But that is good com 
pany, which the saints generally call good company, and that 
is good which the Scripture calls sjood company. " Such are 
all those that do fear the Lord, and do keep his precepts," 
for so saith David, " I am a companion of all those that fear 
thee, and do keep thy precepts." 

Now a man is not said to keep company with others, 
either good or bad, because he doth occasionally fall into 
their society. Possibly a good man may occasionally meet 
with, or fall into the society of those that are \\icked, yet he 
is not thereby said for to keep wicked company, neither is 
this forbidden ; for says the apostle, " I have written to you 
that you should not keep company with," &c. 1 Cor. v., yet 
not altogether, for then you should go out of the world : 
and possibly a bad man may occasionally meet with good 
people, and be in their companies : yet he is not there 
fore said to keep good company, it is not this or that occa 
sion, that doth make a companion. 

Neither is a companion properly one whom a man doth 
ordinarily deal with in a way of trade and commerce. For 
the Christians in the apostles time, did ordinarily trade and 
commerce with the heathens, yet did not keep company with 
them. But a companion properly is such an one as I do 
choose to walk and converse with ordinarily in a way of 
friendship : so that company -keeping doth imply three things, 
first it is matter of choice, and therefore relations as such, 
are not properly said to be our companions; secondly it im 
plies a constant walking and converse with another, and so 
it is expressed, Job xxiv. 8 ; Prov. xiii. 20. And thirdly, 
this ordinary converse or walking with another, must be in a 
way of friendship, and upon this account. He that Sam 
son used as his friend is called his companion. Judges xiv. 20. 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 93 

A companion therefore properly is such an one as I do choose 
to walk and converse ordinarily with in a way of friendship. 
The apostle Paul expresses it by a word that signifies to min 
gle. ee I have written to you that you keep not company with 
the world " I Cor. v. 11 ; the word in the original is, that 
you mingle not with such. There is a meddling with the 
world, and there is a mingling with the world. It is not un 
lawful to meddle with the things of the world, but it is un 
lawful to mingle one s heart with the things of the world ; so 
it is not unlawful to meddle with the persons of the world, 
but to mingle with them is unlawful, and look, when I do 
choose the men of the world for to walk and converse with 
ordinarily, in a way of friendship, then do I keep them com 
pany ; but if men be such as fear God, and do keep his pre 
cepts, and I choose out such to walk and converse ordinarily 
with, then I am said for to keep them company. And thus 
now you see what good company is, and when a man may be 
said to keep bad or good company. 

Secondly, Well but, then, why and upon what account will 
a good man keep good company ? Why it is his duty to do 
it, he cannot but do it, and it is best for him to do it. It is 
his duty : for if it be his duty to avoid evil company, then it 
is his duty to have good company. Now for bad company, 
you know what Solomon says, Prov. i. 10, " If sinners entice 
ye consent tbou not to them ;" verse 15, " Walk not thou in 
the way with them, but refrain thy feet from their path." And 
again, chap. iv. 14, " Enter not into the path of the wicked, 

I and go not in the way of evil men ; avoid it, pass not by it, 
turn from it, and pass away. 55 Was not God greatly dis 
pleased with Jehoshaphat for his walking and fellowship with 
Ahab and his house ? Read, I pray, what is said 2 Chron. 
xix. 2 3 " And Jehu, the son of Hanani the seer, went out to 
meet Jehoshaphat, and said to him, Shouldest thou help the 
ungodly, and love them that hate the Lord, therefore is wrath 
pon thee from before the Lord." And ye know what is 
id in Ps. i., " Blessed is the man that walketh not in the 
unsel of the ungodly, that standeth not in the way of sin- 
ers, and sitteth not in the seat of the scornful." It may be 
you will say that you do not sit in the seat of the scornful, 
though you be amongst them ordinarily, but do not you 

94 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

stand in the way of sinners, nor walk in their counsel ? If 
you be found either in their counsel, or in their way, or in 
their seat, sitting, standing, or walking amongst them, the 
blessing doth not belong to you. If you be a professor, 
you ought not to be found in such company. It is the duty 
of all those that fear, to avoid evil company ; and as it is 
their duty to avoid evil company, so it is their duty to fre 
quent good company. Cant. i. 5, " If thou knowest not, 
O thou fairest among women/* saith Christ to the spouse, 
" go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock/* Cant. i. 8. 
And Solomon doth not only enjoin and commend this duty, 
but doth encourage us unto it ; for, saith he, ee He that walketh 
with the wise, shall be wise, but a companion of fools shall 
be destroyed/* Prov. xiii. 20. So that it is a good man s duty to 
keep company with those that are good, and as it is his duty, so 
he can do no other ; his spiritual disposition doth naturally 
lead him unto it. You say, Birds of a feather will together. 
And what is the reason that the sheep doth converse with 
the sheep, and not with the swine; that the pigeon doth 
converse with the pigeon, and not with the raven ? But be 
cause their disposition doth naturally lead them to converse 
with those that are in nature like to them. Now the divine 
nature of all good men is spiritually the same naturally; 
therefore as a good man, he cannot but converse and walk 
with those that are good ; and as he can do no other, so it 
is best for him to do so ; for in good company there is much 
safety ; as there is danger in bad, so in good company there 
is great safety. Our way to heaven is a journey, and we are 
all travelling thither ; now ye know that in a great journey, 
a good day, and a good way, and good company is very 
comfortable ; so in our journey to heaven, a clear gospel day, 
a plain, even way and good company, is a great mercy,, and 
a sweet privilege ; insomuch as John, that wrote the book of 
the Revelation, glories in it ; for, I pray, mark how he styles 
himself: I, John, am the penman of this book, and would 
you know, saith he, what my title is, it is this, " Your bro 
ther and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and 
patience of Jesus Christ/* Rev. i. 9. It seems then, 1. That 
he that lies in Christ s bosom, will lie in the bosom of the 
saints ; of all the disciples it is written of John, that he was 
the beloved disciple that lay in Christ s bosom : now says he 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 95 

to all the saints, " 1 am your brother and companion." 
2. It seems by this Scripture, that he that is our true com 
panion will keep us company into tribulation, " I am your 
brother and companion in tribulation/ 5 3. You may here 
see, that those who are the saints companions in tribulation, 
shall be companions also with them in the kingdom of 
Christ, " I am your brother and companion in tribulation, 
and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ." 4. That 
it is an honour, mercy, and a great privilege to be a com 
panion with the saints, though it be in matter of tribulation, 
for herein doth John glory, " I, John, who also am your 
brother and companion in tribulation ;" plainly then, it is a 
great mercy and a sweet privilege to have good company. 
But to clear up this thing to you, I shall only make use of 
one argument, which though one, hath many in the bosom 
of it. 

Thus if there be much benefit to be found in good company, 
and much hurt and mischief in bad company, then it is best 
for every good man to keep good company. Now in good 
company there is much benefit and in bad company there is 
much mischief. For, 

As for the benefit of good company. If in case you be 
going into evil, ready to fall into what is evil, he will put forth 
his hand, and will hold you from it, saying, O my friend, do 
not this thing, for it is displeasing unto your God and my 
God. Ye know how it was with David, when he was going 
to destroy Nabal and all his house, he met with Abigail, and 
by her counsel was diverted from it, insomuch as he blessed 
God for her counsel. " Ye are the salt of the earth," saith 
Christ. Now there are two properties of salt, it keeps the 
meat from putrefaction, and it makes it savoury : so will good 
company do, they will make you more savoury in your spirits 
and keep you from that corruption and putrefaction which you 
are apt unto. And, 

As good company will keep you from evil, so they will 
provoke, whet, and stir you up unto what is good, yea though 
they be of lower and meaner parts and gifts than yourself: 
for as the chips and shavings of wood and little sticks will 
set the great blocks and billets on fire, so warm and lively 
Christians, though weak in parts, will warm and put life into 
others, though in parts and gifts much b3yond them. Heb. 



x. 24, " Let us consider one another to provoke unto love, 
and good works." Solomon tells you, "That the lips of the 
righteous disperse knowledge," Prov. xv. 7 ; and if you look 
into verse 4, ye shall find, "that the wholesome tongue 
(which only dwells in the mouth of the righteous) is a tree 
of life." The word in the original is an healing tongue ; 
there is a cutting wounding tongue, and there is an healing 
tongue. Now the healing wholesome tongue is a tree of 
life : do you therefore desire to gather and eat of the tree of 
life ? Then must you keep company with an healing, not 
with a cutting and a wounding tongue. And if ye look into 
Prov. xx. 21, ye shall find, "that the tongue of the righ 
teous, is as choice silver ; the heart of the wicked is nothing 
worth ;" though he saith, his heart is good, and as good as 
any man s, though he cannot speak of good as others do. 
Yet says Solomon, The heart of the wicked is nothing worth ; 
but the tongue of the just, or righteous, is not only as silver, 
but as choice silver. And do you ask wherein theVorth of his 
lips doth consist ? I will tell you, saith Solomon, " The lips 
of the righteous feed many." Do you therefore desire to be 
fed, and to meet with such company as shall feed your soul, 
then you must keep company with those that are good and 
righteous. And if ye look into verse 11, ye shall find he 
saith, " That the mouth of the righteous is a well of life." 
Do you therefore desire to draw up the waters of life ? 
Then must you get your bucket, and come unto the mouth 
and company of the righteous. Now if the mouth of the 
righteous be a "well of life," and "his lips be as choice 
silver, that will feed many/ what a good thing is it, and 
profitable, for a man to keep company with those that are 
good. Yet, 

As good company will provoke unto what is good, so in 
case you fall at any time into evil, they wilF stretch forth 
their hand and lift you up again. For, says Solomon, " Two 
are better than one : For if they fall, the one will lift up his 
fellow ; but woe to him that is alone when he falleth : for 
he hath not another to lift him up." Eccles. iv. 9. Again, 
" If two lie together, then have they heat ; but how can one 
be warm alone ? And if one prevail against him, two shall 
withstand him." Are you therefore under some great temp 
tations, and do you fear that Satan will prevail against you, 

R. 4.] REMAINS. 

then you must keep good company ; for " if one prevail 
against him., two shall withstand/ 5 Or, is your heart grown 
cold and dead ? Then must you keep good company ; for, 
" If two lie together, then they have heat ; but how can one 
be warm alone ? " Or, are you fallen into any sin ? Then 
must you keep good company : (C for if they fall, the one 
will lift up his fellow ? " Is it not a good thing then to keep 
good company ? Surely it is. Yet, 

As good company will help to lift you out of the mire 
when you are fallen into it, so in case you be in any outward 
great strait, good company will help to pull you out of that 
ditch and strait. For what a great strait was Daniel in, 
when the king would put him. to death, unless he told him 
his dream, and the meaning of it. How is it possible for 
me to know what another dreams ? Yet Daniel must die 
unless he tell the king his dream. Well, what doth Daniel 
do in this case ? He goes up to God in his prayers. And 
chap. ii. 17, "He went to his house, and made the things 
known to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah his companions/ 
But why did he go to them ? It seems they were praying 
companions ; for says (he text, " He told it to them, that 
they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning 
this secret, that Daniel and his fellows should not perish." 
Well, and what then? "Then (verse 19) was the secret 
revealed unto Daniel." Suppose Daniel s companions had 
been drunken, wicked companions, what help could he have 
had from them ? But they were praying companions, and 
a praying companion is a great help in the time of strait. 

As good company is a great help to a man in the day of 
his straits, so it is a continual blessing. For says the psalm 
ist, Ps. cxxxiii., " Behold how good and pleasant it is, for 
brethren to dwell together in unity ; it is like the precious 
ointment upon the head," &c. " It is as the dew of Her- 
mon," &c. " For there the Lord commandeth his blessing, 
and life for evermore." It is not barely said, that there God 
blesseth, or doth pronounce a blessing ; but, " there he com 
mands his blessing," makes it effectual, " there he commands 
his blessing." Was not Laban s house blessed with the 
company of Jacob ? Was not Potiphar s house blessed with 
the company of Joseph ? Surely where good company is, 

VOL. v. H 

98 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

there is God s blessing; yea,, " There he commandeth his 
blessing, and life for evermore." It is recorded of one hea 
then, that when he would set his house and land to sale, he 
caused the crier to proclaim, Bonum habet vicinum ; thinking 
that it would sell the better for a good neighbour : and surely 
a good neighbour is a good commodity, and good company is 
a great mercy. " There the Lord commandeth his blessing, 
and life for evermore." And thus ye now see the benefit of 
good company. 

As for the mischief of bad company, there is much mis 
chief to be found therein. For as good company will pro 
voke and quicken you unto what is good, so bad company 
will cool and quench you to what is good. Bad company is 
a great quench coal, and will abate your affections unto what 
is good. Will not water mixed with wine, abate of the 
strength of the wine ? so will bad company abate your 
strength of affections unto what is good. Peter Martyr,* ob 
serving that many of the Jews stayed behind in Babylon, 
when others came out of Babylon with much heat and zeal 
to build God s house ; he inquires into the reason why any 
should stay behind, and he concludes, that the society and 
company of the Babylonians, had cooled their devotions unto 
God s service. They had been seventy years in Babylon, 
and having so long mingled themselves with the people of 
the nations, they were now cooled to the service of God. 
And indeed what is the reason that many are so cooled, over 
what they have been, unto what is good, but because they 
have mingled themselves with evil company ? 

As evil company will quench and cool your affections unto 
what is good, so they will insensibly infect you with what is 
evil. You see how it is with diseases, though a man have an 
infectious disease, yet if I keep at a distance from his breath, 
and the like, I am not infected therewith ; but if I come near 
him, to suck in his breath, then I am infected.f So here, 
though evil, wicked men are very infectious, yet if I keep at 
a distance, I shall not be infected with them ; but if I come 
so near, as to suck in their breath by keeping them company ? 
then I am infected by them. " A little leaven (saith the 

* Ideo pietatis amor et religionis studium refrigerati. Pet. Mar. in Judg. i. 

f Et solent vitia alibi connata in propinqua membra perniciem suam efflare, sic 
improborum vitia in eos derivantur, qui cum illis vitse habent consuetudinem . 
Tertul. advers. Voelnt. 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 99 

apostle) leaveneth the whole lump." And he speaks of per 
sons ; though you think there is but a little leaven of malice 
in such or such a man^s company;, yet it is leaven, and a little 
of that leaven will leaven all the lump. Who would have 
thought that Alexander should be infected with the fashions 
of the Persians whom he conquered ; yet by conversing with 
them, he was infected by them, say histories. Were not the 
Jews infected with the superstition of Egypt, by their con 
versing with them ? Had not Joseph learned to swear by 
the life of Pharaoh, by being in his house ? Was not Peter 
infected in the high priest s hall, by his converse with them ? 
Did not Isaiah cry out, " Wo is me, for I am undone ; be- 

tuse I am a man of unclean lips ; for I dwell in the midst 
a people of unclean lips." It may be you think that they 
all not infect you with their principles or their practices. 
But they do insensibly infect. Evil company doth insensibly 
infect a man with evil. You see how it is with a white loaf 
that is set into the oven, and doth stand near the brown 
bread, it comes out with a black patch on the side thereof. 
And ye have heard what he said that went thrice to Rome ; 
the first time, said he, I saw your fashions and manners ; the 
second time, I learned them ; and the third time, I brought 
them away.* So the first time you go into evil company, 
you see their fashions, and hear their words ; the second time 
ye learn them ; and the third time you bring them away. 
And will you say, No, I have been often in such company, 
yet I have not brought their fashions and manners away? 
Then remember what the apostle saith, " Evil communica 
tions doth corrupt good manners." And have you not 
brought a black patch away with you ? It may be others 
see it, though you yourself do not; I believe the word of God 
rather than your word, " Evil communications doth corrupt 
good manners." It will infect your judgment before you are 
aware, and your practice before you are aware, for evil company 
is infecting company. And, 

As they do insensibly infect a man with what is evil, so 
they do, by your company with them, draw you into the fel 
lowship and communion of Satan. For there are two great 
princes in the world, Christ and the devil ; and Christ ruleth 

* Qui semel it Romam, videre scelestum ; qui secundo, cognoscere, qui 
io, in patriam referre. Cluxeri Histor. mundi Epist. p. G87. 

H 2 

100 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

in the children of obedience, and those that have communion 
with them, have thereby communion with Christ ; so Satan 
ruleth in the children of disobedience, and those that have 
fellowship and communion with them, have thereby commu 
nion with Satan. For how can a man have communion with 
the members, and not with the head ? Now is it not a great 
evil and mischief to have communion and fellowship with 
Satan ? This you have that keep company with wicked 

And if you have communion with Satan and his members 
here, then you shall have communion with him and his mem 
bers hereafter. There is a draught of things to come in this 
life. Those that stand at the right-hand of Christ here, shall 
stand at his right-hand in the day of judgment; and those 
that stand on his left-hand here, shall stand at his left-hand 
at the day of judgment. So those that are bound up with 
the wicked here, shall be bound up with them hereafter. 
There is a bundle of life, and there is a bundle of death. 
Some men there are that shall be bound up in the bundle of 
life, and some men there are that shall be bound up in the 
bundle of death. " Take them and bind them hands and 
feet, and cast them into outward darkness/ 5 saith Christ. 
Here is a company of drunkards, bind them together, and 
cast them into hell for ever. Here is a company of swearers, 
and there a company of opposers and jeerers, and there a 
company of unclean persons, and there a company of mere 
moral, civil men ; take them and bind them up as so many 
faggots, and cast them into that fire that shall never be 
quenched. And I pray tell me, who do you think shall be 
bound up with these; shall not those that bundle up them 
selves with them now, that keep company with them now ? 
" Come out of her, my people, (saith Christ,) lest you par 
take with her in her plagues. 55 They that will partake with 
wicked men in their company now, shall partake with them 
in their plagues hereafter. And, 

For the present, what shall you get by all your wicked 
company, but a reproach and a blot that shall not be wiped 
off. Doth not the mingling of the water with the wine alter 
the colour of the wine? so shall your mingling with evil 
company do ; it shall not only abate of your strength unto 
what is good, but it shall alter the colour of your profession. 
Solomon says, It shall be a snare unto vou. Prov. xxii. 24, 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 101 

25, <e Make no friendship with an angry man, and with a 
furious man thou shalt not go, lest thou learn his ways, and 
get a snare unto thy soul." What will not a wicked man 
think of himself when you that are godly shall keep company 
with him ; will not he say, If my condition were not good, 
and if I were not godly, this man or woman would not keep 
company with me ? Thus you harden and offend him by 
your company with him; and who among the saints is not 
offended at your walking and conversing and keeping com 
pany with such men. Now is it nothing in your eye to of 
fend the generation of the righteous and the unrighteous too ? 
Yet this do you do, that are professors of the gospel, by your 
company with those that are evil. Yet this is not all ; but as 
you offend the godly and the wicked, so you offend God him 
self: for the more you converse with wicked men, the less 
you converse with God and God with you ; the more you turn 
in to them, the more God will turn from you ; the more 
society you have with the world, the less acquaintance you 
shall have with God. God is offended in a way of anger, 
the saints in a way of grief, and the wicked in a way of 
stumbling by your keeping company with them. Oh. what 
an evil thing, therefore, is it to keep company with those that 
are bad. And thus ye see the mischief of evil company. 
Now if there is so much benefit in good company, and so 
much mischief in evil company, then it is and must be best 
for every good man to keep good company. But as ye have 
heard there is much benefit in good company and moh mis 
chief in bad company, surely, therefore, it is best for every 
good man to keep good company. It is his duty to do so. He 
can do no other but do it. And it is best for him to do so. 
Therefore a good man will have good company, 

But though a good man will have good company; yet ? 
whether is it not lawful in some case to keep ev>] company ? 

Ye have heard, and seen, and read what the Scripture 
saith in this case : and the Scripture only is the rule of law 
ful and unlawful things. And pray do but mark what stress 
the Scripture lays upon this prohibition, and how it loads it with 
variety of expressions. Will ye instance in the persons of 
ungodly men, then it forbids your company with ungodly 
sinners and scorners, Psalm i., vain persons that have no 
;ood, but are merely vain, dissemblers, evil and wicked doers. 

I have not sat with vain persons, neither will I go in with 

102 REMAINS. [SfiR. 4, 

dissemblers. I hate the congregation of evil doers and I 
will not sit with the wicked." Psa. xxvi. 4, 5. And what can 
be said more to delineate and characterise the persons them 
selves^ whose company you are to avoid. Or will ye instance 
in the actions of keeping company ? Mark how the Scripture 
loads this prohibition in that respect. Here the psalmist saith, 
" I have not sat with them, neither will I go in with them." If 
they go into an ale-house, or elsewhere, " I will not go in 
with them, I will not sit with them," neither will 1 go in with 
them. And in Psalm i., there are three terms, standing, sit 
ting, and walking. " Blessed is the man that standeth not, 
sitteth not, walketh not with them." And in Prov. iv., there 
are no less than four expressions put together upon this pro 
hibition in one verse ; at verse 14, he saith, ** Enter not into 
the path of the wicked, and go not in the way of evil men ;" 
verse 15., fe avoid it :" there is one expression ; " pass by it," 
there is another; " turn from it," there is another; and 
(e pass away," there is another. Now if you will break 
through this hedge of expressions with some distinctions, 
take heed how you distinguish over and against the let 
ter of the Scripture that is so full, lest a serpent bite you. 

Why, but may I not then converse or be with relations, 
husband, wife, child, or kindred, if they be ungodly ? 

Yes, for says Paul, " If the unbelieving husband will not 
depart, let him not depart ;" but you must remember what I 
said in the beginning, that company is a matter of choice, 
and not of necessity ; and if you shall rather keep company 
with your carnal, jeering and opposing kindred, than your 
spiritual kindred, then it is not your kindred, but the car 
nality of your kindred that you keep company with. 

Why, but if it be unlawful for a professor of the gospel to 
keep bad company ; whether may it stand with grace so to 
(V> ? Suppose I do keep bad company, and suppose it be 
unlawful so to do ; whether is it such an evil as cannot stand 
with grace ? 

I answer, that it is in this sin as in all other sins : now 
says the apostle," He that is born of God sinneth not;" that 
is, he doth not so lie in his sin, but he purgeth it out ; " For he 
that hath this hope, (saith he) purgeth himself," else he were 
of the devil, saith he, who sins, and does not purge out his 
sin, but as the fountain or spring purgeth out the dirt that 

SEB. 4.] REMAINS. 103 

doth fall into it ; so " he that is born of God sinneth not," 
but he doth purge it out : and so in this case, as a good man 
may fall into another sin, so he may fall into this sin of evil 
company; but if a professor be convinced of the evil of it, 
and doth not leave his evil company, and purge himself from 
it, then he is not born of God ; thus it can no more stand 
with grace, than another sin. 

Why, but if it be unlawful to keep evil company, and it 
be our duty to keep good company, yea, to keep company with 
all those that do fear the Lord ; then, whether is it lawful to 
keep company with erroneous persons ? For David saith 
here, " I am a companion of all those that do fear thee." 
Now so it is, that some that fear God have fallen into er 
rors ; whether may I therefore keep company with them ? for 

It is ordinarily said, that a man must consider his own 
weakness, and their strength that are erroneous : if I will 
mingle a spoonful of wine with a pailful of water, shall I not 
lose the wine ? For so say some, If I am but weak in know 
ledge, and will go and mingle myself with them that are 
strong in errors, what shall I do but lose my own knowledge ? 
But there are two or three things that I shall speak to in this 
case of conscience. 

Ye must know that there are some errors that are less ; 
me that are so gross, that do manifest a wicked state and 
ndition in them that hold them : they are called ie errors 
the wicked," 2 Pet. iii. 1*J. Now though I may scme- 
es converse with those that are less erroneous; yet if 
eir errors be such, as cannot stand with grace, the gospel, 
r the power of godliness, then I am to shun their company, 
as much as the company of a drunkard, swearer, or unclean 
person. But, 

You must observe all this verse, the Psalmist doth not 
barely say, " I am a companion of all that fear thee," hut he 
explains who those are that do fear the Lord, and such as 
keep his precepts ; now men that depart from his ordinances 
do not keep his precepts ; and therefore though in regard of 
their other profession, they may seem to fear the Lord, yet 
if they do not keep his precepts, this scripture doth not 
warrant me to be their companion. And, 

You know and must remember what the apostle saith, " If 


any one that is called a brother, does walk inordinately, from 
such turn away and avoid them." So that though I must 
keep company with those that fear the Lord, while they stand 
right, yet if they do not stand right, but do walk disorderly, 
then I am commanded by another scripture to avoid them 
for a while, that they may be ashamed. And thus now I 
have answered to those several cases of conscience, and have 
cleared the doctrine. 

Now by way of application, if a good man will keep good 
company, then what shall we think of those that never kept 
good company all their days, twenty, thirty, forty years old, 
yet never kept good company. It may be they have kept 
company with civil, moral men ; but, saith David, " I am a 
companion of those that fear thee, and do keep thy precepts/* 
Or it may be they have sometimes occasionally fallen into 
good society, but they have not -chosen the company of 
such as do fear the Lord, and keep his precepts. Now if a 
good man will keep good company, what shall we think 
of those that never kept good company all their time ? Yea, 
what shall we think of those that have kept, and do keep bad 
company ? Every man is as his company is. The heathen 
could say, Noscitur ex comite qui non cognoscitur ex se, He 
is known by his company that cannot be known by himself. 
. A man s company is a commentary upon his life, thereby 
you may understand a man though he be never so close and 
mystical. It is recorded of Augustus Ceesar, that he came 
thus to know his daughters inclinations ; for being once at a 
public show, where much people were present, he observed 
that the grave senators talked with Livia, but loose young 
sters and riotous persons with Julia ; whereupon he con 
cluded, that the one was grave, and the other light and vain. 
And if you look into Ps. 1., ye shall find that God doth con 
clude a man to be a wicked man, by his converse and par 
taking with those that are wicked, verse 16, " But to the 
wicked, God saith, what hast thou to do to declare my sta 
tutes, or that thou shouldest take my covenant in thy 
mouth ? " Dost thou come to the ordinance, and dost thou 
speak of the covenant of grace ? These do not belong to 
thee. Why? For thou hatest instruction and castest my 
words behind thee ; for when thou sawest a thief, then thou 
consentedst with him, and hast been partaker with the adul- 


SER. 4.] REMAIN So 105 

terers. Oh, what a sad condition therefore are all those in 
that do keep bad company; God looks upon them as wicked, 
that do keep company with the wicked. 

Why, but is it not better to keep bad company than none ; 
it is not good for man to be alone, that is uncomfortable, is 
it not therefore better to have bad company than none ? 

No. For suppose you were to go a journey, whether 
would you choose to ride alone, or in the company of 
thieves ? Would you not rather choose to ride alone, though 
it be uncomfortable, than in the company of thieves ? Surely 
ye would. Why, such are all wicked company. Amid tem- 

ris fures, Friends are thieves of time, especially wicked 
iends ; for they will not only rob you of your precious 
me, but of your precious duties, principles, and graces. 

r, I pray, tell me which is worst, sin or sorrow ? Possibly 
it may be your affliction and sorrow to walk alone, but to 
keep bad company is your sin and guilt. 

Why, but are they all alike guilty that do keep bad com 
pany ? 

No. For there are three sorts of men that do or may 

ssibly keep bad company. Sorre are wicked themselves, 

me are professors, and some members of churches. It is 

for a wicked man to keep bad company, it is worse for a 
professor of the gospel, but it is worst of all for a member 
of a church. 

It is ill for any man to keep evil company, it is ill for a 
wicked man himself to do it; for the more companions that 
a man hath in his wickedness, the more he is enclosed 
therein, and the harder it is for him to break away from his 
wickedness. Is it not a hard thing for a bird to fly away 
that is taken in the lime-twigs ? Why, evil company is the 
devil s lime-twigs ; and what is the reason that many a man 
doth continue in his sin, who is convinced of the evil of it, 
but because he is held fast in the bands of his wicked com 
pany. Oh, saith one, I confess it is my duty to live other 
wise, but I cannot get away from my company. So that 
though a man be a wicked man himself, it is an evil thing for 
him to keep bad company. But, 

As it is an evil thing for a wicked man to keep bad com 
pany, so it is worser for a professor of the gospel to do it. 
Peccatum majus. The more repugnancy there is between 

106 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

the sin and the sinner, the worser and the greater is the sin. 
Now a professor of the gospel is such an one as hath dedi 
cated himself unto God, and separated himself from the 
world ; and therefore for him to keep ill company, is directly 
contrary unto his profession ; the more that any man sins 
against his knowledge and conscience, the greater is his sin ; 
such a sin is called rebellion. 1 Sam. xv., "And rebellion 
is as the sin of witchcraft." Now what professor is there of 
the gospel, but doth know that he ought to avoid evil com 
pany? Possibly a poor, ignorant, profane man, may not 
know his duty in this case, but a professor knows his duty ; 
and therefore as it is evil in any man to keep bad company, 
so it is worser for a professor of the gospel to do it. But, 

It is worst of all in a member of a church, for he sins 
against his present remedy. Sins against remedy are the worst 
sort of sins. It is a grievous sin for any young unmarried man 
to commit fornication ; but if a man be married and doth com 
mit adultery, he sins worse. Why ? Because he sins against 
remedy, and because he hath a remedy by him. So here, it 
is ill for any man to keep ill company, but worst for a mem 
ber of a church. Why? Because he sins against a remedy : 
he hath communion with the saints, he hath good company 
by him, a remedy by him, and therefore for him to keep bad 
company is the worst of all ; the more any man despises the 
ways and ordinances of God by his sin, the greater is his 
sin. Now if you look into Scripture ye shall find, that when 
a man hath two things before him, and doth choose the one, 
and refuse the other, look what that is that he leaveth, that 
he is said to hate and despise. Now a member of a church 
hath two sorts of companies before him, and therefore if he 
shall choose to walk with those that are evil, he is said in 
scripture language to hate and despise the company of the 
saints, and is it a small thing in your eyes to hate or despise 
the company and communion of the saints ? 

Why, but though I do keep company sometimes with those 
that are wicked, yet I do not despise or hate the company of 
the saints, for I keep company with them too. 

That is strange ; strange in regard of yourself, strange in 
regard of others. Strange in regard of yourself; for if you 
find any savour in good company, is it not strange that you 
should not refrain bad company ? surely good company will 


SER. 4.] REMAINS. 107 

either eat out the heart of your bad company, or bad company 
will eat out the savour of your good company. Strange, 
therefore, it is, if you should keep both companies ; strange 
in regard of yourself, and strange also it is in regard of others. 
When the deer is shot, the rest of that herd will push him 
out from amongst them; and if you be shot with the arrow 
of bad company, it is strange that the rest of yuur herd 
should not push you out of their society, and avoid you, be 
cause you will not avoid others. But, 

Again, You say that you keep company with the good too, 
but I pray tell me, is it not the mud of the good company 
that you converse withal ? As in a river or pond there is 
water and mud, so in all good company there is the water of 
life and there is the mud of their infirmities and vanities; if 
it be the mud of good company that you converse with, then 
do you keep bad company, even whilst you converse with 
those that are good. But, 

Again, You say you keep company with both good and 
bad, bad and good. But who art thou that dost so ? I read 
in the Old Testament, that those creatures which live both in 
the land and in the water, were counted unclean. I read, 
also, in Scripture, of a sincere Christian and a lukewarm pro 
fessor; and what is lukewarm water, but that water which 
hath both heat and cold in some equal degrees ; and what is 
the lukewarm professor, but one that can run with both, and 
comply with both companies ? I read, in Hosea vii., that God 
compared the declining people of Israel unto a cake dough- 
baked, baked on the one side and not on the other. Why ? 
But because they were for God and idols too : they could 
walk and converse with both. So now, when men are for both 
companies, they can stand with the saints and they can stand 
with sinners, they can sit with the scornful and they can sit 
with the faithful, they can go in and out with God^s people, 
and they can go in and out with the wicked. What doth 
this argue, but that they are dough-baked, and lukewarm 
professors ! 

Yet, if there be any such amongst us, which God forbid, 
give me leave to speak three or four words unto them. You 
say you can walk with both good and bad ; but what comfort 
can you have in walking at all with those that are bad ? Mr. 

Kjd said once, There are two questions, which if a man can 

108 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

rightly answer he may have comfort in every condition : the 
first question is, What am I ? the second question is, Where 
am I ? If, said he, in answer to the first, What am I ? I can 
truly say, I am godly, I am in Christ, I am one of those that 
fear the Lord in truth : and if in answer to the second, 
Where am I ? I can say, I am in my calling, I am on God s 
ground, Lam where God would have me be : then I may 
have comfort in every condition. But if you that are pro 
fessors of the gospel be in company with the wicked, can you 
say, I am where God would have me be, I am on God s 
ground ; surely no. What comfort, therefore, can you have 
in walking with such company at all ? But, again, do you 
not know that wicked company lie in wait for your halting, 
and desire your falling. Mark what David saith, Psalm xli. 
6, " And if he come to see me, he speaketh vanity, his heart 
gathereth iniquity to itself, and when he goeth abroad he 
telleth it." And mark what his son Solomon saith, Prov. iv. 
14, 15, 1", " Enter not into the path of the wicked, avoid it, 
pass not by it." Why ? ee For they sleep not, unless they 
have done mischief, and their sleep is taken away unless they 
cause some to fall." It may be you think they love your 
person, but do they not hate your way more than they love 
your person ; and will you walk with them that hate your 
way, because you think they love your person ? Be not de 
ceived. Do you not know, again, that in time of danger they 
will thrust you into danger, that they may save themselves 
out of danger. There was a correspondency between good 
Jehoshaphat and wicked Ahab ; and when they went into the 
field, what did Ahab say to Jehoshaphat ? read what he said 
and did, 2 Chron. xviii. 29 : ee I will disguise myself, and will 
go to the battle, but put thou on thy robes." But see the 
issue of it at verse 31. Plainly shewing thus much, that if a 
good man hold correspondency with a wicked man, in case 
there be any danger, the wicked will thrust the good man into 
danger to keep himself out. But, in the last place, if you 
have not considered this scripture before, yet have you not 
thought on that scripture, " As for those that turn aside by 
crooked paths, the Lord will lead them forth with the workers 
of iniquity ?" Now is not this a crooked path, to walk with 
both companies, with the godly in the light and with the 
wicVed in the dark. W^ell, woe be to him that doth so, God 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 109 

will in due time discover him, and lead him forth with the 
workers of iniquity. Oh what an evil thing, therefore, is it 
to halt between two, to walk and keep company with both 
good and bad, bad and good. 

Why, but I praise God, will some say, I do not keep com 
pany with the wicked at all, so as to walk and converse with 
them ordinarily in a way of friendship. 

That is well ; but what if God will count vain company in 
the number of bad company ? for ye have it, Ps. xxvi. 4. 
Again, What if God will account those for your companions, 
whom you would be with, if you were not restrained by the 
fear and shame of your friends ? We find in Scripture that 
a man is said to do all that which he would do if he were 
not restrained. Abraham is said to sacrifice his son, because 
he would have done it, if God not restrained him. For look 
what that company is, that I would be with if I were not 
restrained, that company, according to Scripture, I am said 
to keep. Again, What if God will account all those for your 
companions, whom you justify, like, or consent unto in the 
way of your sin and vanity? so ye read, Ps. 1. 20. Or what 
if God will account your companions according to your ser 
vants of choice, as David said, that he would not know a 
wicked person. Mark how he proves it, he saith, " A fro- 
ward heart shall depart from me, I will not know a wicked 
person," Ps. ci. 4. But says he, ver. 6, " Mine eyes shall be 
upon the faithful in the land, that they may dwell with me ; 
he that walketh in a perfect way, he shall serve me ; he that 
worketh deceit shall not dwell within my house, and he that 
telleth lies shall not tarry in my sight," ver. 7- It is ordi 
narily said, Servi sunt humiles amid. Your servants are the 
lowest friends ; and though a man s servants are not properly 
his companions, yet his companions may be known by his 
servants of choice. Possibly a man cannot get a godly ser 
vant, but if a man have godly and ungodly before him, and 
shall choose such as are vain or wicked, this argues what 
his company would be, if he had his choice and his mind. 
Now God can turn up all our leaves, and see what grows 
under them. And if all these things be true, how few are 
there that will stand free from wicked and ungodly company. 
But, my beloved, either there is comfort enough to be found 
in good company, or there is not : if there be not enough in 

110 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

good company, why should you converse with them at all ; 
and if there be comfort enough in those that are good, why 
should you not walk with them altogether ? 

But what shall we then do, that we may avoid evil com 
pany, that we may choose good company, and improve them ? 

Here are three questions; I shall speak something unto 
them distinctly. Do you ask, What you shall do that you 
may avoid evil company ? You must be sure to mortify 
your affection, inclination, and disposition to the vanity 
thereof; it is not the persuasions of evil company that doth 
lead you to them, but it is your own disposition and unmor- 
tified affections : you think it may be, that it is their spark 
that doth set you a fire, but it is your tinder that doth close 
with their spark ; if there were but water thrown on your 
own tinder, you could not be so fired with your evil company. 
" The woman that thou gavest me, (said Adam,) did give me 
to eat," and so I was drawn into this sin ; but it was his own 
disposition that did lead him to it. It is in this sin, as in all 
other outward sins, it is not the drink or wine that is in fault, 
but a man s own drunken disposition that doth lead him to 
drunkenness ; it is not the beautiful object that is in fault, 
but a man s own wanton disposition that doth lead him into 
unclean ness : so here, it is not your company, but your own 
disposition that doth lead you into it. Would you, therefore, 
avoid and abstain from your wanton company, then labour to 
mortify your own wanton affections ; would you abstain from 
and avoid your vain company, then must you first labour to 
mortify the vanity of your own heart and spirit, otherwise 
though you abstain from your company for a time, yet you 
will return again. Therefore mortify your own lusts and 
earthly affections. 

And again, Be sure that you avoid all those occasions, 
which though lawful in themselves, yet through your weakness 
may any way open a door unto evil company. When the 
Nazarites were forbidden wine, they were forbidden grapes 
also, whereof wine was made. Numb. vi. 3. And if ye look 
again into Prov. iv., you shall find, that when the Holy Ghost 
by Solomon doth forbid you to " enter into the path of the 
wicked, and going in the way of evil men ;" he doth in the 
name of God command you to c< avoid it, not to pass by it, 
to turn from it, and to pass away/* ver. 15 ; as if, says Mr. 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. Ill 

Greenbam, a physician should give directions to a man to 
avoid the plague ; the great receipt, saith he, that the phy 
sician gives against the plague, is made of three ingredients, 
cito, longe, tarde ; fly quickly, remove far from the place, and 
return slowly: so here, saith he, as if there were a plague in 
evil company, the Holy Ghost bids us to depart quickly, and 
not to come near. And what is the reason that many are so 
overtaken with evil company, but because they do not avoid 
all those lawful occasions, which through their own weakness 
doth lead them into it. Be sure, therefore, that you avoid 

And if you would avoid evil company, then you must part 
abruptly with them, you think thus it may be, though I part 
with my evil company, yet I will part civilly with them, I 
will go but once more ; and again, I will go but once more to 
them, and will part fairly, with them. Whereas our Saviour 
Christ saith, " If thy right eye offend thee. pull it out, and if 
thy right hand offend thee, cut it off. 3 Look what that is, 
that is near and dear to you, that must you part with in a 
way of violence ; if you will part fairly with your company, 
then go them and say, Well I have sinned, and sinned greatly 
in keeping your company, now God through grace hath con 
vinced me of it, I will never come in your company in any 
such way again ; and he that will part with wicked company 
must be abrupt in his parting with them. 

If you would avoid and part with your evil company, then 
you must humble yourself before the Lord, for all the vanity 
and folly of your company-keeping ; some men being convin- 
vinced of their sin in company-keeping, do resolve never to 
come in such company again : and it may be they do refrain 
for three or four weeks, but in a short time they are where 
they were. And what is the reason, that though men be 
convinced of their sin, yet they return again, but because 
they go forth in the strength of their own resolutions, and 
were never thoroughly humbled for their sin ? Would you 
therefore so refrain from evil company, that you may return 
no more ; then go and humble yourself before the Lord for 
the evil of it. 

And be sure that you do not follow the saints to that is 
good for their multitude : for he that follows the multitude 
to good, because they are many, will also follow the multi- 

112 REMAINS. [SEE. 4. 

tude, unto what is evil. Saith Austin,* We must not do a 
good thing because many do it, but because it is good ; if 
others do that which is good, saith he, I will rejoice because they 
do it, but I will not do it because they do it that -I may do 
good ; or, to do well few shall suffice ; yea, one ; yea, none. 
The way to follow the multitude to evil is to follow the mul 
titude to good ; because of this multitude take heed there- 
tore of that. 

And if you would avoid evil company, then be sure that 
you keep good company, and improve them. Intus existens 
prohibet alienum. It the vessel be full of wine., it keeps out 
air and water; good thoughts keep out bad thoughts, good 
words keep out bad words, and good company keeps out bad 
company. And what is the reason that many poor souls are 
led away with naughty and debauched company, but because 
they are not hedged in with good company, for as bad com 
pany keeps men from good company, so good company will 
keep men from bad company. Look what day or time that 
is wherein you depart from good, then are you exposed unto 
them that are evil ; yet it is not enough to have good com 
pany, but you must improve also, and gain by them ; for if 
you be in good company, and do get nothing by them, you 
will say, What need I make such a stir about my company, 
I see no difference ; as one company talks of the world, so 
doth the other also ; and as I get nothing by the one, so I 
get nothing by the other also ; therefore I will return unto 
my old company again. Would you therefore avoid evil 
company, then be sure that you keep good company and 
improve them. 

Why, but I do not know how to choose good company ; 
I confess good company is a great mercy, and bad company 
is a great misery, but how shall I be able to choose my com 

You must go to God and beseech him for to choose your 
company for you. Mark what David said and did; in this 
scripture he saith, " I am a companion of all those that do 
fear the Lord ;" yet, verse 79, he goes to God, and prayeth, 
saying, " Let those that fear thee, O Lord, turn unto me, 

* Non faciendum, quia multi faciunt sed quia. bonum ut bonum faciunt, aut 
bene satis mihi sunt pauci, satis unus, satis nullus. Augustin. 

Si potentiores faciunt, non faciam quia faciunt, sed gaudeo quia faciunt. 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 113 

and those that hare known thy testimonies." As if he 
should say, Of a truth. Lord, I am a companion of all that 
do fear thee ; but it is not in my power to bend their hearts 
unto me ; the hearts of all men are in thy hands, now there 
fore u let those that fear thee turn unto me." So do you go 
to God, and say likewise, Lord, do thou choose my company 
for me, let those that fear thee turn in unto me : oh, do thou 
bow and incline their hearts to be my companion. 

If you would act herein under God, and make a right choice 
of your company, then must you get your nature changed. 
The ravens keep company with the ravens, and not with the 
pigeons : but if the nature of the raven were changed into 
the nature of a pigeon, it would flock together with the 
pigeons. Every thing follows its nature. Labour therefore 
to get your nature changed ; and then though you have 
flown with the ravens, you will flock together with God s 

And if you would make a right choice of your company, 
then you must get a discerning spirit, that you may be able 
to put a difference between those that fear the Lord, and 
those that fear him not ; between those that are civil moral 
men, and those that are gracious. " The spiritual man judg- 
eth all things." And what is the reason that people keep no 
better company, but because they cannot discern of com 
pany ; and what is the reason that they discern not between 
company and company, but because they are not spiritual? 
Would ye therefore be able to make a right choice of your 
company ? then get this discerning spirit. 

And observe who those are that are most profitable in yout 
society ; who those are that are most sound in their faith, 
savoury in their spirits, and most communicative and profita 
ble in their lives, and with such close ; some have knowledge 
enough to discourse with, but they have no savour in their 
spirits; some are of a savoury spirit, but they want know 
ledge, and are not communicative ; but let those " that fear 
thee turn unto me, and those that have known thy testimo 
nies," saith David ; as if he should say, Lord, I would not 
only have knowing men to be my companions, but fearing 
men. Neither would I only keep company with " those that 
fear thee," but with such as are knowing, and do " know thy 
VOL. v. i 

114 REMAINS. [SER. 4. 

testimonies." Thus let his choice be yours, a knowing man, 
and a fearing man, a fearing man, and a knowing man, will 
make a meet companion for you. 

And if you would make a good and comfortable choice of 
your company, then in case you be a man, let the friend of 
your bosom be a man, and not a woman, unless it be your 
wife ; and if you be a woman, then let the friend of your 
bosom be a woman, and not a man, unless it be your hus 
band ; for if the special friendship be between a man and a 
woman, who knows how soon the spiritual friendship may 
degenerate into carnal affection ; and if it may be, let your 
friend or companion stand upon even giound and a level 
with you ; for the German proverb is often true, He that 
will eat cherries with noblemen, shall have his eyes spirt out 
with the stones thereof. Therefore affect not company too 
high for you. But whatever degree your company be of, be 
sure that it be not such as will be apt to take an offence from 
you, nor such as you shall be apt to take an offence from ; 
for then your society will always be uncomfortable. Thus 
do, and your choice shall be right. 

Well, but suppose I have chosen good company, and I can 
say in truth with David here, " I am a companion of all 
those that do fear thee, and do keep thy precepts ;" what 
shall I do, that I may improve my company ? I praise God 
I have good company, but I do not know how to improve 
them ; what shall I therefore do that I may improve my 
good company ? 

You must be humbled for all the mispence of your time 
with good company. The way to improve a mercy is to be 
humbled for our not improvement of it. 

If you would improve your good company, then lay your 
right ends together when you meet; yon see how it is with a 
fire that is half burned, if you would mend it, you take the 
sticks and lay them together; but then you do not lay the 
cold ends together, but the hot ends together. Now there is 
no company so good, but hath its cold ends, and its warm 
ends ; if ye lay your cold ends together when ye meet, what 
heat, what warmth, what good or improvement can you 
expect? Therefore lay your warm ends together when you 
meet together. 

Observe what that grace is wherein your companions doth 

SER. 4.] REMAINS. 115 

excel,, and labour more and more for to draw that forth, 
every saint and goodly man doth not excel in every grace. 
Non omnis fert omnia tellus, Every ground will not bear 
wheat or rye, but some one grain, and some another; so 
every Christian doth not excel in every grace, some in one 
grace, and some in another: it may be he hath life, and you 
have light ; or it it may be he hath light, and you have life ; 
and why hath he given this to the one, and that to the 
other, but that they may be beholden one to another, and 
have communion one with another ? Would ye therefore 
improve your commnnion and good company, then observe 
what that grace is wherein he doth most excel, and labour 
more and more to draw out the same. 

Take heed also of pride and envy, which is the bane of all 
good company : pride will make a man speak, arid pride will 
make a man hold his peace. I am a poor ignorant man or 
woman, saith one, and therefore I will not speak of that 
which is good before their company ; yet this may be out of 
pride ; I have an opportunity of doing good in this company, 
saith another, and therefore 1 will speak, yet that may be out 
of pride too. There was such an one spake good words at 
such a time, saith another, but it was little to the purpose, 
and that may be out of envy : now envy is between equals, 
and pride between unequals ; either therefore you con 
verse with your equals, or with your unequals ; if with your 
equals, take heed of envy ; if with your unequals take heed of 

And if you w\>uld improve your good company, and profit 
by them, then pray over them, and for them. Of all compa 
nies, says Mr. Greenham, I never profited and gained more 
by any, than by that that I prayed most for ; and what is the 
reason that you profit no more by your good company, but 
because you pray no more for them, and over them. You 
will pray over your hearing, reading or meditation ; why ? 
because it is an ordinance : so is this of good company too. 
And therefore if you would improve and profit by your com 
pany, then pray much over them, and for them ; yet 

Do not rest secure in your good company : for though you 
be in a good company you may possibly get more hurt than 
if you had been in bad company. And what is the reason 
that you come sometimes from bad company into which you 

i 2 

116 REMAINS. [SEE. 4. 

have been cast occasionally, or against your will, with your 
soul troubled for their sin, and through God s providence do 
get good thereby : and you come from good company with 
your heart flat, and dead and dull, but because you rest se- 
e.ire in your good company ? In the one you watch, in the 
other not. Wherefore rest not secure in your company, 
though it be never so good. Good company is God s ordi 
nance, but it is an ordinance that doth tend unto other ordi 
nances : some ordinances tend unto other ordinances. It is 
an ordinance that we should rest on the Sabbath-day. But 
why are we to rest then ; for rest sake ? No, but we are to 
rest in order to the positive sanctifi cation of the Sabbath ; 
so we are to keep good company, but why ; what for itself ? 
No, but in order to other duties. Now if it be an ordinance 
that lies in order to other ordinances, why should we rest in 
it? The more you rest in it, the less you will improve it. 
Therefore do not rest secure in your company, although it be 
never so good. Be sure that you look upon it as a duty in 
order to other duties ; and thus you shall improve it. Which 
that you may do, 

Consider with yourself what a great talent is put into your 
hand, when you are betrusted with good company; thereby 
you have an opportunity of gaining something which you 
cannot gain by your public ministry. You see how it is with 
the candle; I can take a candle in my hand, and go down 
into the cellar, and see that thereby which I cannot see by 
the light of the sun ; possibly the sunbeams may not reach 
that which the beams of the candle may reach ; so possibly 
the light and beams of private communion may reach that 
truth which the beams of the public ministry doth not reach. 
It is possible that a minister may speak to a truth in public, 
yet he may leave it in the dark ; when I come at home, then 
I may beat it out more fully with good company. So that 
this ordinance of good company is a great talent ; and will 
the Lord require an account of the improvement of our ta 
lents, then surely he will have an account of the improve 
ment of our company. In Mai. iii. it is said, " Then those 
that feared the Lord spake often, and a book of remembrance 
was written." God hath a table-book at work upon all our 
speeches and conferences when we meet together, and he sets 
down what we say and what we do when we meet together ; 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 117 

and shall we not, then, take heed what company we come in, 
and what we do and speak in our company ? It is recorded 
of Mr. Latimer, the martyr, that though he was somewhat 
free in his speech when he was examined, yet when he heard 
a pen writing behind the curtain, then he was more wary. 
Why, believe it, there is a pen behind the curtain that sets 
down what you do and say in your company, whether good 
or bad. Now, therefore, as ever you do desire that God s 
own hand-writing, that God s own table-book may not be 
brought out against you, take heed what company you come 
into, and what you do and speak in your company. Thus 
shall you be able to avoid bad company, to choose good, and 
to improve the same. And thus I have done with these 
arguments of good company. A good man will have good 
company : " For I am a companion (says David) of all them 
that fear thee, and do keep thy precepts." 


" For ye are carnal." 1 COR. in. 3. 

IN this chapter the apostle Paul doth charge the Corinthians 
with carnality, which charge he maketh good by divers argu 
ments. The first is taken from their incapacity of receiving 
and digesting the strongest truths of the gospel : verses 1, 2, 
" And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, 
but as unto carnal, as unto babes in Christ. I have fed you 
with milk, &c. For ye are carnal." The second argument 
is taken from the envyings, strifes and divisions that were 
amongst them : verse 3, " For whereas there are among you, 
&c., are ye not carnal ?" The third argument is taken from 
those sects that were amongst them : verse 4, " For while 
one saith, I am of Paul, and another, I am of Apollos, are ye 
not carnal ?" They set up one minister against another, 
crying up of one that they might cry down another, and so 
put themselves into sects ; this was carnality. And upon this 
account he saith to them, again and again, ee Are ye not car 
nal ?" Where then observe thus much, that it is possible for 

118 REMAINS. SER. 5. 

great professors of the gospel to be very carnal. These Co 
rinthians were a church of Christ, and of all the churches 
they had the greatest gifts ; and the apostle writing to them, 
calleth them " saints, sanctified in Christ Jesus/* chap. i. 2. 
Yet here he saith they were carnal. Possibly, then, a man 
may be a member of a true church, have great gifts, and be 
a good man too, yet he may be very carnal ; surely he that is 
a member of a church, greatly gifted, and a good man, is a 
great professor; this a man may be, and yet carnal. Possibly 
then a man or woman may be a great professor, and yet may 
be very carnal. Great professors may be very carnal. And 
if you ask what this carnality is, or when a man may be said 
to be carnal ? I answer, in the general, that you may know 
what this means by the opposition and the application of it. It 
is applied sometimes to the unregenerate : John iii. 6, " That 
which is born after the flesh is flesh," or carnal; so it is not used 
here, for the apostle doth not charge the Corinthians with an 
unregenerate estate. Sometimes this word, carnal, therefore, is 
applied to the regenerate, such as are weaklings, babes and 
sucklings in religion, who have more sin than grace, more 
flesh than spirit ; and so he speaketh of these Corinthians. 
But the word, carnal, is used also by way of opposition, and 
it is opposed sometimes unto what is mighty : so in 1 Cor. x. 
4, " Our weapons are not carnal, but mighty." And some 
times it is opposed unto what is spiritual, so Rom. xv. 27 ; 
vii. 14. Look, therefore, when a man s fleshly weaknesses 
do so far prevail, that he is not spiritual in his life and con 
versation as he should be, then he is said to be carnal, accord- 
igg to this scripture. Now thus it is possible that a member 
of a church, a gifted person, y<?a, good men may be very 
carnal. Possibly great professors may be very carnal. In 
prosecuting whereof we must inquire, 

First, How it may appear that great professors of the gos 
pel may be carnal. 

Secondly, How far that carnality may reach or extend. 

Thirdly, What is the difference between the carnality of 
the world and such as are good. 

Fourthly, What an evil thing it is for a professor of the 
gospel to be carnal. 

Fifthly, How we may be freed from this carnality and be 
more spiritual. 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 119 


And if you ask, 

How may it then appear that great professors may be very 

Tnal ? 

I answer, The more any man s judgment is defiled and 
dabbled with corrupt opinions, contrary to the grace of the 
pel, the more carnal he is, especially if he father them on 
Spirit, or on the gospel, for the gospel is the ministration 
of the Spirit. " The words that I speak (saith Christ) are 
spirit and life." Now two sorts of doctrines there are that 
are contrary to the gospel ; the doctrine of natural free-will, 
and the doctrine of legal and Jewish ordinances. The doc 
trine of natural free-will is contrary to the substance of the 
gospel, which is the word of grace. The doctrine of legal 
and Jewish ordinances is contrary to the dispensation of the 
gospel, and both carnal. The doctrine of natural free-will is 
a carnal doctrine, for saith John, chap. i. 13, " Which are 
born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the 
will of man." The will of the flesh and the will of man go 
together. Was it not a carnal thing for Abraham to go into 
his maid Hagar ? So is it also a carnal thing for a professor 
of the gospel to turn into a covenant of works, whereof 
Hagar was a type. And I appeal to yourselves, saith Austin 
to the Pelagians, pleading for the power of nature, and for 
natural free-will,* What is that which makes an outward dif 
ference between one man and another ? One is rich and an 
other is poor. Doth man s will make that difference^ or 
God s providence ? Saith Austin : One man is strong, and 
another weak; doth man s will make the difference, or God s 
providence ? One man or woman is fair, and another 
deformed ; doth man s will make the difference, or God s 
providence ? I suppose you will say that it is God s provi 
dence, not man s will that doth make the difference. And if 
you say that man s will makes the difference in these outward 
things, and not God s providence, " are ye not carnal ? " how 
much more, if you say, man s will, and not God s grace, doth 
make the difference between one man and another in spiritual 

Nee tribuuntur ista meritis voluntatum, sicut sunt celeritates, vires, bonse 
valetudinea, et pulchritudines corporum, ingeuia mirabilia, et multarum artium 
capaces naturae mentium, vel quse accidunt extrinsecus, ut est opulentia, nobi- 
litas, honorea, et csetera hujusmodi, quse quisque ut habeat, non est nisi in Dei 
testate, &c. Aug. de correp. et grat. sap. viii. 

120 REMAINS. [SETS. 5. 

things ? As for the doctrines of legal and Jewish ordinances,, 
they are expressly called " carnal commands," Heb. ix. Now 
possibly a professor of the gospel may be baptized into these 
opinions, possibly he may hold the doctrine of free-will under 
the gospel of free grace. Possibly he may be baptized into 
the doctrines of Jewish, legal customs, ceremonies, and sab 
baths, and of all the opinions that are now stirring and 
ranging abroad. What opinion is there, but the maintainers 
thereof do father it upon the Spirit ? What brat or bastard 
opinion is there abroad, but men do come to lay it down at 
the door of the gospel, and father it upon the Spirit ? Now 
when men do this, may we not say to them, as the apostle 
here, " Are ye not carnal ? " 

The more any .professor is guilty of levity and lightness in 
their ways of the gospel, the more carnal he is ; for says the 
apostle, " When I therefore was thus minded, did I use light 
ness ; or things that I purpose, do I purpose according to 
the flesh, that with me there should be yea, yea, and nay, 
nay ? But as God is true, our word towards you was not 
yea and nay," 2 Cor. i. 17. Levity therefore is a sign of 
carnality. Now there is a twofold levity : one in regard of 
judgment, whereby men are unsettled in their judgment, 
saying yea to a doctrine to-day, and nay to-morrow, or soon 
after. This levity of judgment is a sign of carnality. The 
other levity is in regard of practice, whereby men are slight, 
vain, and frothy in their communication. Now possibly a 
professor may be thus light in both these respects. Some 
are light in regard of their judgment, unsettled; some are 
light in regard of their practice, for they can sit and spend a 
whole afternoon in vain conferences, and not a word of God, 
of Christ. Are not these carnal ? 

If there be little or no difference sometimes between the 
carriage and behaviour of a professor, and of the men of the 
world, then possibly a professor may be very carnal. And 
what difference was there between David and the men of the 
world, in that matter of Uriah ? What civil man would have 
done as David did ? And so now, though a professor may 
be very good and gracious, yet if he be stirred sometimes in 
a business of his own concernments, what difference is there 
between his carriage and the carriage of the world ? May we 
not then say to such, " Are ye not carnal ? " 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 121 

If there be envyings, wranglings, strifes and divisions 
amongst the professors of the gospel, then it is possible that 
great professors may be very carnal ; nay, that ye read in the 
text, and I wish we might not read it in our daily experience. 
It is the property of a gracious, spiritual frame of heart, to 
rejoice in others* graces, and to mourn for others 5 sins ; it is 
the property of a carnal heart, to envy at others 5 graces, and 
to rejoice and triumph over others" failings. Now if profes 
sors be at variance, one of one judgment, and another of an 
other, in case a man of another judgment do fail or fall, what 
rejoicings will there be. If I were spiritual, then I should 
more grieve for God s dishonour by the fall of a professor, 
than rejoice at the fall of my adversary ; but yet so it is, though 
God s name be dishonoured by his fall, because he is a pro 
fessor, yet another will triumph therein, because he is his 
adversary. Is not this carnal ? 

If a professor of the gospel can neither give reproof with 
out anger, nor take a reproof without distaste ; is he not car 
nal ? " You that are spiritual, (saith the apostle,) restore 
him that is fallen, with the spirit of meekness/ 5 But now if 
an admonition or reproof be given, either it is given with 
anger, or it is taken with distaste ; why ? but because we are 

If a professor of the gospel do use carnal engines to obtain 
his designs, is he not carnal therein ? Now thus it may be 
possibly with some great professors of the gospel. Abraham 
was a good man, and a great professor, yet when he would 
secure and preserve himself, he said to Sarah, (t Say thou art 
my sister. 55 The thing was true, and no lie, but it was a 
carnal engine that he then used to obtain that design, We 
read of Abner, that when he would bring about the kingdom 
to David, for his own preferment, then he went to the heads 
of Israel, and told them of the promise that God made to 
David. Here he made use of a religious engine to obtain his 
own carnal ends. Sometimes men use their carnal engines to 
obtain religious designs ; sometimes they use religious engines 
to obtain their carnal ends : and \vhat more ordinary than 
this, even amongst professors. Why ? but because they are 

* Ne quis in honestas cupiditates religionis glaucomate oblegato. Vide 
Cluveri Histor. Mundi p. 108. 

122 REMAINS. [SER. 5. 

The more selfish any man is in seeking his own particular 
interest in the time or cause of public concernments, the 
more carnal he is; a selfish principle is a carnal principle. 
Now this may be amongst professors. Why, says the Holy 
Ghost to Reuben, Judges v., Why abidest thou amongst 
the sheepfolds, to hear the bleatings of the flock ; and why 
did Dan remain in ships ? " There was a great cause afoot, 
Zebulun and Naphtali came forth, but as for Asher they 
abode in the creeks, Dan in the ships, and Reuben abode 
among the sheepfolds to hear the bleatings, &c. That is, 
says Peter Martyr,* plus pecundum balatu quam reipublicoe 
cura; they were taken with their own particular interest, 
more than with the public concernments. Do I therefore 
mind my own particular interest, more than the public con 
cernment; and in times of public concernments or calamities, 
do I seek to raise myself, and to get a place, a preferment, 
and great things in this world ? then am I carnal. Yet thus, 
even thus it is with many professors at this day. Why ? 
Because they are carnal. Possibly then great professors may 
be very carnal, and that is the first thing. 

Secondly, Well, but suppose this doctrine be true ; great 
professors may be very carnal ; how far may this carnality of 
professors reach and extend ? 

It may reach and extend unto all our life, as a scurf may 
grow over all the body,- so this carnality may grow over all 
the body of a man s conversation, and extend unto every 
part thereof. 

For will you instance in our thoughts, apprehensions, 
reasonings, and conclusions ? Is it not a carnal thing to 
abound with carnal reasonings ? This the disciples did 
before Christ s ascension, therefore saith he often to them, 
" Why reason you so amongst yourselves ? " 

Or will you instance in the matter of our affections; is it 
not a carnal thing for a man to love and savour the things of 
the world ? This professors may possibly do, witness the 
parable of the thorny ground. 

Or will you instance in the matter of our words ? Is it a 
carnal thing to bite and devour one another, and to carry 

* HabiUbat Reuben ultra sordanem in pasevis videtur, que ob suas oves ut 
greges rei. pub. curam omisisse, eo nomine nos accusat, quod tune sua curarint. 
Plus pecadum balatu quam reipub. cura caperentur. Pet. Mart, in Judg. 5. 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 123 

tales between men. Yet this the Galatiaris did, If ye 
bite one another, shall ye not be consumed one of another ? " 
Gal. v. 15. 

Or will ye instance in the matter of our condition ? Is it 
not a carnal thing to be discontented with one s condition, 
and to think that I can carve better for myself, than God 
hath carved ? This the Israelites did when they said. Would 
God we had stayed still in Egypt. 

Or will ye instance in the matter of our lives, and refor 
mation of our practice ? Is it not a carnal thing for a man 
to run from one extreme to another ? Dum vitant stulti 
vitia, in contraria currant. Yet what more ordinary than 
this in the way. of reformation from no liberty, to all liberty; 
from prodigality to covetousness ? 

Or will ye instance in the matter of our duties ? Is it not 
a carnal thing for a man that hears the word of God, to 
apply it to another, and not to apply it to himself? Saying, 
that the preaeher met with such an one, and not think of 
himself; or to be more taken with the volubility of expres 
sion, than with the spirituality of the ordinance; or if a 
man preach the word, is it not a carnal thing to have flings 
and throws at particular persons, or to preach the gospel for 
hire, that he may get a living thereby, or to preach Christ 
out of envy ? Yet this the apostle says to the Philippians 
that some did in his days. 

Or will ye instance in the matter of the enjoyments and 
special communion with God ? Is it not a carnal thing to 
desire incomes from God, for the sweetness of them ? The 
ordinance of the Lord s supper is an ordinance wherein you 
enjoy much of God, and have special communion with him ; 
yet you know how the apostle blames the Corinthians for 
their carnality therein ; and if ye look into Luke xxii. 24, 
you shall find that even at the Lord s supper, the disciples 
of Christ were debating who should be greatest ; a carnal 
thing for any of them to desire greatness above the other, 
but that this question should be started then, what carnality 
was here ? 

Or will you instance in our approach unto Christ, and 
coming to Christ ? If carnality be excluded in anything, 
surely it will be excluded here ; yet, says the apostle, " hence 
forth know I no man after the flesh," no not Christ himself; 

124 REMAINS. [SER. 5. 

it seems that formerly they did thus know Christ himself, 
and were too carnal in their very knowledge of Christ, 
but says Christ to those that followed him, " Ye follow me 
not because of the miracles, but because of the loaves." 
Plainly then this carnality may extend and reach unto all our 
actions, and if there be no action that a professor can do, but 
this carnality may get and soak into it, then surely this doc 
trine is most true, that possibly a great professor may be 
very carnal, possibly great professors of the gospel may be 
very carnal ; and so much for the second. 

Thirdly, But you will say, If a professor may be carnal, 
and this carnality may possibly boil up to such a height; is 
there any difference then between the carnality of the world, 
and of the professors of the gospel ? 

I answer, Yes, much, if professors be godly, for all pro 
fessors are not godly. For though a professing good man 
may labour under much carnality and be too fleshly, yet he 
is not born after the flesh; for, saith the apostle Paul, 
"Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondwoman, the 
other by a free-woman/ 5 Gal. iv. 22, but he who was of the 
bond- worn an, was born after the flesh, but he of the free- 
woman, by the promise. Which things are an allegory, for 
these are the two covenants ; that is, the legal covenent, and 
the covenant of grace. Now we, brethren, saith he, verse 28, 
as Isaac was, are the "children of promise. We are born 
after the promise, the promise comes and works grace in us ; 
we are regenerated and born again by the word of the promise ; 
and therefore though these children of Abraham may labour 
under much carnality; yet they are not born after the flesh, 
as carnal, unregenerated men are, who are the children of 
the bond-woman, and belong to the legal covenant. 

Though professing good men may be very carnal, yet 
there is a grace and goodness that doth run along there 
withal, for they are the smoking ftax, and though there may 
be much smoke and carnality that may offend the eyes of 
beholders, yet there is a fire of grace and zeal that runs out 
therewithal. What a smoke did Jonah make when he ran 
away from God, and was fro ward and peevish even with God 
himself? But though therein he was very carnal, yet still 
there was a grace and goodness that did go along therewith. 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 125 

Though a good man may be very carnal, yet he doth not 
sow to the flesh^ or savour and relish the things of the flesh 
most. A carnal wicked man doth savour and relish the 
things of the flesh ; thus to be carnally minded is death, 
saith the apostle, "And these that sow to the flesh, shall reap 
corruption," Rom. viii. 

As for those that are carnal and wicked, it is not so with 
them, though a good man may be very carnal and may labour 
under much carnality, insomuch as his parts may be too big 
for his grace, and his passions may be too big for his parts, 
yet he doth not take up a carnal prejudice against the whole 
way or power of godliness ; the wicked are carnal, and they 
are carnally prejudiced against the very power of godliness 
in the strictness of it. Possibly a good man may be preju 
diced against this or that particular way of God ; but as for 
the power of godliness, he is not carnally prejudiced against 

Though a good man may be very carnal, and labour under 
much carnality, yet that carnality doth not bear the rule and 
sway in his life. Finis actionem domina et regina. Look 
what a man s general and utmost end is, that doth give a law 
unto all his actions, that rules, that sways, and is the yard 
wand unto all his actions; * as for example, if the world and 
profit be my end, my general and utmost end, then my ac 
tions generally are directed and swayed by it; and I must 
preach so much as may stand with my profit ; I must go to 
meetings and improve soul-opportunities so far as may 
stand with my profit; I must acquaint myself with men so 
far as may stand with my profit; and if such and such things 
may not stand with my profit in the world, then I must not 
do the same. Why ? Because the world is my great and 
utmost end, and every thing must strike sail unto it. Now, 
I say, though a good man may labour under much carnality, 
yet there is no carnal thing that doth bear sway with him as 
doth in those that are carnally wicked. 
Though a good man may be very carnal, yet his practical 
conclusions and therefores are not so carnal, as the men of 
the world s are. Mark what carnal therefores the men and 
people of the world have, Prov. vii. 14, 15, "I offered my 
peace offering, now therefore am I come forth to meet thee." 
* Finis dat mediis amabilitatem ordinem et mensuram. 

12G REMAINS. [&ER. 5, 

A strange therefore ; as if she should say : I have been at duty, 
and at the ordinance, and therefore now am some forth to 
play the whore. Ye know also what a therefore Pilate had 
upon the judgment of Christ, " I find no fault with him, now 
therefore scourge him and let him go." Oh, strange there 
fore ; I find no fault with him, therefore whip him ; nay 
therefore whip him not, for I find no fault in him. Are 
there not such therefores still in the hearts of men, The 
Lord is gracious and merciful, therefore I will go on to sin ; 
the Lord is patient and forbearing, therefore I will repent 
afterwards. But, says David, " Oh how great is thy loving 
kindness, therefore do the children of men put their trust 
in thee." Though a good man be too carnal, yet he is not 
so carnal in his main inferences and conclusions as the carnal 
world is. 

Though a good man may be very carnal, yet he is very 
sensible of his carnality, and is much humbled ; for when I 
saw, said David, the prosperous estate of the wicked, then I 
had such carnal reasonings as these, I have cleansed my 
hands in vain ; but, says he, " I was a beast therein," Ps. 
Ixxiii. 22. The more a man l^oks into the spirituality of the 
law, the more he will be sensible of his own carnality ; now 
a good man looks much upon that. As for the law, says Paul, 
" That is holy, spiritual, good, but I am carnal," Rom. vii. 14. 
Who was a more spiritual Christian than Paul ? Yet he was 
sensible of his carnality. Why ? Because his eye was upon 
the spirituality of the law. Now so it is with all those that 
truly fear the Lord ; they do not stand and compare them 
selves with others, for that would augment their carnality ; 
but they compare themselves with the law and word of God, 
and so they are exceeding sensible of their own carnality, 
and are humbled for it. So that then now you see, there is 
a difference, and what that difference is; and though the 
carnality of the good professor be not so bad as the carnality 
of the world and the men thereof, yet it is evil; the best of 
this carnality is naught, and if you ask me 

Fourthly, Wherein the evil of it doth appear ? I answer, in 
many things it is a very evil thing for a professor of the gos 
pel to be carnal. For, 

Is it not an evil thing for a man to walk contrary unto his 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 127 

profession ? Peccatum majus ubi repugnantia major ;* is it 
not an evil thing for a judge to do unjustly? Yea. Why? 
Because it is contrary unto his profession. Now the profes 
sion of the gospel is spiritual, and the professors of the gospel 
are so described and called. The spiritual man judgeth all 
things; and ye that are spiritual, restore such an one, &c. 
The weapons of our warfare, saith the apostle, are not carnal. 
Carnal weapons are suitable to carnal profession, but spiritual 
weapons are suitable to spiritual profession. It is observed, 
therefore, that the weapons of the papists, in advancing their 
religion, are very carnal. Somewhat they have in their reli 
gion which doth comply with every man s carnal humour.f 
If a man be devotional, they have a cloister for him; if he be 
disputative, they have their schools for him ; if a man or 
woman do pretend to chastity, they have their nunneries and 
priories for them ; if a man be given to filthy wantonness, 
they have their allowed stews for them ; if a man be given 
to honour and greatness, they have a cardinal s cap for him ; 
and if he be given to despise and neglect the world, they 
have a mendicant friar s place for him : some carnal thing 
still they have that doth suit with the carnal and wicked 
humours of men. Why ? But because their warfare is carnal, 
and so the weapons of their warfare are carnal. But the 
professed religion is spiritual and reforming : how have they, 
therefore, advanced their religion, but by powerful preaching, 
printing good books, translating the Scriptures into the vulgar 
tongue, catechising and instructing the younger,open disputings 
for the truth, and sufferings for the same : thus the reformed 
religion hath been carried on by good and spiritual weapons. 
Why ? For our warfare is spiritual. Now in these times we 
are upon another condition of reformation, we are reforming 
the very reformation, and therefore the weapons of our war 
fare should be most spiritual. Are we therefore carnal now 
in these days ? then do we walk contrary unto our profession. 
Again, Yea, though you be a good man, yet, if you be car 
nal, you do thereby make yourself unfit both to do good and 
receive good. Carnality makes you unfit to do good, it will 
hinder the vend of their commodity. I think sometimes, 

* Peccatum majus ubi specialis repugnantia inter peccantem et peccaturo. 

t Sir Edward Sandys Relig. West. 



says Luther,* to convert all the congregation, but the auditor 
comes and smells something of a man in what I say, and so 
he turns away, and no good is done. And in experience, 
what good doth admonition do, when administered in pas 
sion ? This carnality is an hindrance to your doing good ; 
and as it is an hindrance to your doing, so it is an hin 
drance to your receiving it. It stops your ears and eyes ; your 
ears from hearing the word, and your eyes from seeing into 
the dispensations of God. Yea, 

Thereby you will be apt to give and to take offence. As 
this carnality will make you unfit to do and receive good ; 
so it will make you apt and ready to give and to take offence. 
Who more apt to give and take offence than young chris- 
tians ? And why so ? but because they are babes and car 
nal. Yea, 

Though you may have some real goodness in you, yet if 
you be carnal, you may dishonour God more by your car 
nality, than you may honour him by your goodness. And 
is it not an evil thing for a man to dishonour God more by 
the carnality of his profession, than he can honour God by 
his profession ? 

The more carnal you are, the more you are exposed, and 
expose yourself to the temptations of Satan, and his instru 
ments. It was a carnal thing for David to number the 
people; Satan observed this carnal affection, and the text 
says, That he stirred him up to number the people. And 
if professors have their carnal ends hanging out, what may 
not the devil and his agents add and join thereunto ? Yea, 

The more carnal you are in your profession, the more you 
will lose the sweetness of your Christian communion. What 
happiness can a gracious spiritual heart take in conversing 
with a carnal professor ? Suppose a man deal but in out 
ward friendship, what happiness can he have in conversing 
with one that is selfish, that seeks himself in all his acquain 
tance and converse ? Is there any happiness in that friend 
ship where a man must always stand upon his guard, to keep 
himself from the selfish designs of him that he walks with ? 

* Sentit anima hominis verbum arte super se compositum esse, et stercore 
humane (ut apud Ezekielem est) opertum, humano affectupollutum, ideo nauseat 
super illo, et potius irritatur quam convertitur. Luther loc. com. clas. 4. de 
minister, verbi. 

. 5.] REMAINS. 129 

No, surely. Much more may I say in our spiritual converse 
and communion. What happiness, what sweetness can I 
take in conversing with him that is selfish and carnal ? Oh, 
this carnality is a great enemy to the sweetness of Christian 
communion, it will eat out all the sweetness of it. And 

It will hinder the advance and progress in the ways of 
God, and knowledge of Christ : for what growth or advance 
can a people make in their practices, when ministers cannot 
advance them in their preachings. Now, says the apostle 
here, " I could not deliver to you strong meat ;" why ? t( be 
cause ye are carnal/ 5 Wherefore says the apostle, " Would 
you grow in grace ? then laying aside all malice and super 
fluity of naughtiness, as new born babes desire the sincere 
milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby." How is it 
therefore with me ; am 1 a professor, and yet carnal ? Then 
do I walk contrary unto my profession ,- then am I thereby 
unfit to do good, or receive good ; then am I fit to take, and 
to give offence; then may 1 dishonour God more by the 
carnality of my profession, than I may honour him by my 
profession ; yea, and thereby do I expose myself to the 
temptations of Satan and the world ; then shall I lose the 
sweetness of Christian communion, and be kept from growth 
in grace. Surely therefore it is an evil thing, and very evil 
for the professors of the gospel to be carnal ; yet this may 
be possibly in great professors, members of churches, and 
men of great parts and gifts, and a good man too may be 
very carnal; such were these Corinthians. Possibly there 
fore, a man may be a great professor, yet he may be very 
carnal. That is the doctrine. 

Fifthly, Now if you ask, What then is our duty that doth 
flow from hence ? I answer, 

If great professors of the gospel may be very carnal, then 
why should any man stumble, or be offended at the ways of 
God and godliness, because of the carnality of professors ? 
Will ye be offended at that which ye know must and shall 
come to pass ? " These things have I told you before, (saith 
Christ) that when they come to pass, you may not be of 
fended." Now he hath told us beforehand, " That in the 
last days the kingdom of heaven is like to ten virgins waiting 
for the coming of the bridegroom, and they all sleep ;" that 

K there shall be a general scurf and carnality grow upon the 
VOL. V. K 

130 REMAINS. [SER. 5. 

face of all profession. And now ye know these things, will 
ye be offended ? Or will ye be offended if your own offence 
will he your own ruin ? " Woe to the world, (saith Christ) 
because of offences ; offences must come, and woe to him 
through whom they come." Here is a woe and a woe ; a 
woe to the offender, and a woe to the offended. " Woe to 
the world," why ? Because their offence will be their own 
ruin. And whoever you are that are apt to he offended at 
these things, either the lives of professors is the rule by 
which you walk, or the Scripture. If the lives of professors 
be the rule of your life then why do you not live as they 
do ; as the best of them do ? Why are you not rather 
convinced by their goodness, than stumbled by their carnality ? 
And if Scripture be your rule, why then do you not say in 
the midst of all these carnalities, Well, yet the Scripture is 
the Scripture, and godliness is godliness ; and therefore 
though all men have their failings, and the fairest face hath 
its wart, and there is none so spiritual, but hath some car 
nality, "yet I and my house will serve the Lord;" for I 
walk by Scripture, and Scripture is Scripture still, and god 
liness is godliness still. Oh, take heed and be not offended. 

If great professors of the gospel may be carnal, then why 
should we not all take heed of their carnality ? Possibly a 
member of the church may be carnal, and shall not we then 
take heed of carnality? Possibly a man of parts, and gifts, 
and graces too may be carnal, and very carnal, arid shall not 
we then take heed of carnality ? And in case that we have 
been, or are carnal in our profession, why should we not all 
labour to scale off this carnality ? 

But what shall we do herein ; I confess I have been and 
am very carnal in my profession, what shall I therefore do 
that I may be rid of this carnality, and be more spiritual ? 

I answer, In case you have been carnal, be humbled for 
it; a man will never leave a sin for the time to come, unless 
he be humbled for the time past. Now who is there in all 
the congregation, but may cry, Guilty, guilty ; I am the man 
or woman that have been carnal under rny spiritual and gos 
pel profession ? Why then, go to God and humble yourself 
before him, in reference to the carnality of your profession. 

In case you have begun a profession of Christ, be sure 
that you look well to your beginnings and settings out. It 

SER. 5.] REMAINS. 131 

is possible that a carnal beginning may make a spiritual 
ending; but ordinarily if men set out the wrong way at the 
first, they go wrong all the day after. And it is usual with 
men to be carnal at the entrance into their profession. 
Facite me, fyc. said he, Make me Bishop of Rome, and I will 
be a Christian : but dimidium facti, He that hath well begun 
hath done half his work. Be sure therefore that you look 
to your beginnings, and first settings out for godliness. And 
in case, 

That you are a professor of some standing, then make it 
your work and business to go over your work again, and to 
refine your work. " Ye are now come to that mount, where 
the Lord hath given you wine upon the lees well refined." 
Ordinances refined, and gospel enjoyments refined. And 
what do these call for but a refined conversation ; and how 
should that be, but by making it your work and business to 
refine all your duties? True, I have prayed many times, 
but now I will go and refine all my prayers. I have con 
versed with the saints, now I will go and refine my con 
verses; yea, I will make it my work now to refine my 

Whether you be of long or late standing in religion, pray 
much for the pourings forth of the Spirit upon you. Ye 
read in the gospel, that the disciples were very carnal before 
Christ s death ; but after his ascension, then they were very 
spirit ial. Why ? Because the Holy Ghost was then fallen 
down upon them. Would ye be more spiritual, and less 
carnal, pray for the pourings out of the Holy Ghost upon 
your soiils. And, 

Take heed of a selfish spirit, especially in matters of 
religion ; for a selfish spirit is a carnal spirit. The more 
plainness of heart you have, the more free you will be from 
designs and selfish carnalities. Go therefore to the Lord, 
and pray unto him for a plain and open spirit. 

And in case you are to deal with any fleshly concernment, 
there watch most. A good man should be spiritual in carnal 
things. But when we meddle with carnal things, we are apt 
to be carnalized with them ; and therefore the more carnal 
the concernment is, the more do you watch and pray, lest 
you enter into this temptation. 

Be sure that you take heed of conversing with carnal and 




wicked company : " Evil words corrupt good manners," saith 
the apostle. And what good words shall ye have with them ? 
With them ye shall meet with that which shall prejudice you 
against what is good, and those that are good. Would ye 
therefore be freed from the carnality of profession ? Take 
heed how you come into carnal wicked company. 

Call yourself often to an account, and examine your ways, 
whether they be spiritual or carnal. Come, oh, my soul, 
thou hast been in such a company, but hast thou not been 
frothy, vain, passionate, or carnal in it ? Thou hast been this 
day amongst those that are spiritual; but hast not thou been 
carnal in the midst of them ? Come, O my soul, thou hast 
been at such a work this day, but hast thou not been selfish 
in it ; hast not thou desired to be seen therein ; hast not thou 
been carnal even in thy spirituals ? Thus daily call your 
selves to an account. And 

Consider but this one thing, That the only way to lose a 
mercy, is to be carnal in it. If you be a professor, one that 
God loves, the more cainal engines you use to obtain a 
mercy, the more like you are to lose it; and in avoiding of 
misery, the more carnal your engines are to avoid it, the 
more like it is for to come upon you : if you be wicked and 
ungodly, the Lord, it may be, will let you obtain your ends 
by your carnal engines : but if you be godly, the more carnal 
engines you use to obtain a mercy, the more like you are to 
lose it. Now therefore as you do desire to avoid misery, and 
to obtain mercy, labour to be more spiritual ; take heed of 
carnal engines in all your designs ; make it your work and 
business to be more spiritual; rest not upon your holy mount, 
saying, " The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord ;" 
for it is carnal ; and take heed of divisions, strifes, and envy- 
ings ; f( For if these things be among us, are we not carnal ? * 
And this may easily be ; for you see the text, and you re 
member the doctrine. Possibly great professors may be very 
carnal. Wherefore let us all make it our work and business 
to be more spiritual. 

SER. 6.] REMAINS. 133 



" Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might : for 
there is no work," #c. ECCLES. ix. 10. 

SOME think that Solomon speaks these words in the 
person of an epicure ; as if he should say, " Let us eat and 
drink ; for to-morrow we shall die." But an epicure doth 
not use to speak so religiously. An epicure doth not mind 
(he acceptance of God. But Solomon here saith, " Eat and 
drink with joy, for God accepteth thy works. 55 verse 7- An 
epicure doth not look upon this life, " and the days thereof 
as vanity/ 5 which Solomon here doth (verse 9.) An epicure 
doth not look upon these outward things and blessings of 
this life, as the gift of God; Solomon here doth, verse 9. But 
in this Scripture, Solomon tells us. That a man should cheer 
fully take all the good that God doth put into his hand to 
have, verse 7> 8, 9 And that he should industriously do all 
that work which God hath put into his hand for to do, 
" Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do," &c. verse 10. Where 
ye have an injunction, and the reason of that injunction. The 
injunction in these words, " Whatsoever thy hand findeth to 
do," or is in the power of thy hand to do, as some transla 
tions have it, " do it with thy might." The reason in these 
words, " For there is no work," &c., that is, there is nothing 
in the grave which you can turn your hand unto ; for the 
word T is sometimes put for work, sometimes for device, 
sometimes for knowledge, and sometimes for wisdom. So 
that from these words you may observe thus much; that it is 
our duty to do that work with all our might, which is in the 
power of our hand to do. For the clearing whereof, we must 
first inquire what this phrase, " Whatsoever thy hand findeth 
to do," or whatsoever is in the power of thine hand, doth 
import. Now if ye consult the Scripture, it implies, autho 
rity, ability, opportunity. 

It implies authority or commission. That which falleth 
within the compass of our commission and authority, is, " in 
the power of our hand." Upon this account Abraham said 
unto Sarah concerning her maid, Hagar, " Behold thy maid 

in thine hand," Gen, xvi. 6., that is, within the compass of 

134 REMAINS, [SEE. 6. 

thine authority. Illud vere possumus, quod jure possumus ; 
Though a man be able to do a work, yet if it be not lawful, 
or within the compass of his calling and commission ; it is 
not in the power of his hand to do it. 

As the words do imply authority, so they do imply an 
ability. For though a man have the power of authority to 
do a work, yet if he have not the power of ability to do it, it 
is not in the power of his hand to do it, " Knowest thou not, 
(said Laban to Jacob) that it is in the power of my hand to 
do thee hurt ;" Gen. xxxi. 29, that is, knowest thou not that 
I have power and strength, and ability for to do thee hurt. 

As the words do imply an ability, so they do imply oppor 
tunity and occasion; for though a man have both power of 
authority and of ability to do a work, yet if he have not op 
portunity to do it, that work is not in the power of his hand 
to do, " And let it be when these signs are come unto thee, 
that thou do as occasion shall serve." 1 Sam. x. 7- In the 
Hebrew, as your margin tells you, it is, " as thy hand shall 
find to do." And if ye look into Scripture, you shall find 
that a man is said to do that work which he doth occasion, 
though that work be done by another. It is said of Judas, 
" That he purchased a field with the reward of iniquity." Acts 
i. 18. " He brought the thirty pieces of silver to the priests, and 
threw them down in the temple, and departed," Matt, xxvii. 
3, 5. If he threw them down in the temple, and left them 
with the priests, how did he purchase the field ? Yes, says 
the interlineary gloss, Possidit quiet, possideri fecit, he pur 
chased it, because he did that work which did administer the 
occasion of this purchase. Look therefore when a work is 
within the compass of our commission, and which we have 
ability and opportunity to do, then it is truly said to be in 
the power of our hand, and that is the work which our hand 
finds to do ; so that whatever work that is, which God doth 
betrust us with, if we have ability and opportunity to do it, 
that we are to do with all our might. 

Well, but then, when may a man be said to do this work 
of God with his might, or with all his might ? 

I answer, it imports several things, He that will do the 
work of God with all his might, must do it with all his soul 
in opposition unto heart-division. As in the New Testa- 


R. 6.] REMAINS. ]35 

ment, there is mention of ^VXOQ 01/17$, ff a double-mind 
ed man :" so in the Old Testament ye read of a divided 
heart, n^i n 1 ?, " An heart and an heart." And the word 
aV, heart is sometimes put for the affections, and sometimes 
for the conscience : yea, the Hebrew hath no other proper 
word for conscience, but the word heart. Therefore says the 
apostle, " If thy heart condemn thee, (that is) if thy con 
science condemn thee,"that is an Hebraism. Now the heart 
of the affection may run one way, and the heart of the con 
science may go another way. The heart of Herod s consci 
ence went with John the Baptist, but the heart of his affec 
tion went with the dancing damsel. The heart of a drunkard s 
conscience is to leave his drunkenness, but the heart of his 
affections is to his drunken company. But where a man 
doth the work of the Lord with all his might, he doth it with 
all his soul, in opposition unto heart-division. 

And as he must do it with all his soul in opposition unto 
heart-division, so he must do the work of the Lord with all 
his understanding, in opposition unto unskilfulness. For, 
says Solomon, " It is the property of a fool, not to know the 
way to the city," Eccles. x. " The labour of the foolish 
wearieth every one of them ; because he knows not how to 
go to the city," that is, saith Luther, he wearieth out himself 
in difficult things and questions, when he doth not know that 
which is ordinary and necessary for him to know ; " he knows 
not the way to the city :" but as for the wise man, saith he, 
" his heart is at his right hand," verse 2. te A wise man s 
heart is at his right hand :" that is, he doth his work with 
dexterity, in opposition unto all unskilfulness. 

And as he doth God s work with dexterity, in opposition 
to all unskilfulness, so he doth it with all his affections, in 
opposition unto lukewarmness and remissness. For as the 
philosopher observes, All remissness doth arise from the mix 
ture of some contrary : now where there is a mixture of 
the contrary, a man cannot do his work with all his might. 

As he must do God^s work with all his affection, in oppo 
sition unto lukevvarmness ; so he must do it with all his 
ability, in opposition unto all reserves ; Ananias and Sapphira 
did not do God s work with all their might ; why ? because 
they had their reserves : but Moses did God s work with 

136 REMAINS. [SER. 6. 

all his might, when he brought the people out of Egypt; 
why ? because he left not an hoof behind him ; he had no 
reserves. So now, when a man will not leave an hoof be 
hind him, but doth God s work without all reserves ; then he 
doth it with all his might. Yet. 

As he must do it with all his ability, in opposition unto all 
reserves; so he must do it with his diligence and industry, 
in opposition unto sloth and negligence. fe For he that is 
slothful in his business, is brother to the scatterer," saith So 
lomon. Do you therefore ask when a man may be said to 
do God s work with all his might ? I answer it implies these 
things. He must do it with all his soul in opposition to all 
division of heart : with all his dexterity in opposition unto 
all uuskilfulness : with all his affections, in opposition unto all 
lukewarmness and remissness : with all his ability, in oppo 
sition unto all reserves : and with all his industry and di 
ligence, in opposition unto all sloth and negligence. 

Well, but then, why and upon what account or reason 
must we do God s work with all our might ? 

I answer. It is God s will we should do so; it is his com 
mandment, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thine heart, with all thy soul, and with all thy might." Deut. 
iv. 5, 6. Here are three alls ; " All thy soul, all thy heart, 
and all thy might." And lest you should think that there 
may be some abatement in New Testament times, ye shall 
find that when Christ cites those words he adds a fourth all. 
" Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with 
all thy soul, with all thy strength, and with all thy mind," 
Luke x. 27. Here are four alls. There is no abatement then 
in our gospel times. Now if this be the mind and will of 
God, is not this reason enough for us ? I heye read of one 
bishop in the primitive times, whose name was Quodvulteus, 
that is, Quod vult Deus, What God will. And indeed me- 
thinks that this should be the name of every Christian, Quod 
vulteus, what God will. We all profess ourselves the chil 
dren of Abraham : he went blindfold into God s command 
ments, and subscribed to a blank. Now we have command 
ment for this both in the Old and New Testament. It is 

As it is scriptural, so it is a rational thing that we should 
do God s work with all our might. For is it not a reasonable 
thing that we should give God his due, his own ? 


Now all our might is God s due. Non est devotionis y 
says Prosper. It is not matter of devotion to give all unto 
God within a little ; sedfraudis est, it is matter of fraud to 
keep a little from God. 

And is it not a reasonable thing for us to love God, 
" who hath loved us, and given himself for us and to us;" 
who is the proper object of our love, " and altogether love 
ly ;" who only gives the affection of love, and the thing 
loved ; and who only can recompence your love with love 
again ? Now it is the only measure of true love to know no 
measure. Non amat, qui non zelat. 

And is it not a reasonable thing that we should do God s 
work as fully as our own ? Now if you have any business to 
do in the world, you will turn every stone, you will do it 
with all your might. Have you not sinned with all your 
might ; and shall your sins be crying sins, and your prayers 
whispering prayers ? Will your run when the world calls, 
and will you creep when God calls ? You will not bear it 
that a man speak to you when you speak to another ; and 
will you bear it, that the world should speak to you while 
you speak to God. But, 

Is it not a reasonable thing that we should do that work 
with all our might which is our only work, and the work 
which we came into the world for ? Now we did not 
come into the world to get riches or credit. We have 
nothing here to do but to serve the Lord ; all other things 
subordinate to that. And if you look into Scripture, 

u shall find that the Lord only stands upon this work. 
" Thou shalt worship the Lord, and him only shalt thou 
serve ; only let your conversation be as becometh/ &c. 
Here doth the only stand. Yea, says Solomon, this is the 
whole of man, Eccles. xii. 13, " Fear God, arid keep his 
commandments ; for this is the whole of man." The word 
duty is not in the original; but "fear God, and keep his 
commandments; for this is the whole of man." Now 

Kit not rational that we should give God his due ? That we 
)uld love God ; that we should do his work as fully as our 
n ; that we should do that work with all our might, which 
is our only work. Surely therefore it is very rational that 

K3 should do God s work with all our might. Yet 
As it is rational that we should do thus, so it is a dangerous 


138 REMAINS. [SER. 6. 

thing not to do it ;" For cursed is every one that doth the 
work of the Lord negligently." Sloth and the curse grow 
together upon one stalk. The Jewish Rabbins do observe, 
that there is a three-fold Amen that is not right, which, say 
they, is followed with a three-fold answerable punishment. 
There is Amen amputatum, Amen acceleratum, and Amen 
pupillare, or Or ban amen. Amputatum amen, when a man 
doth cut short his duty, and say, Amen, unto half duty : 
amen acceleratam, is when he doth huddle over his duty and 
say, Amen, to an hastened duty : amen pupillare, as when a 
man doth perform his duty without understanding and heart, 
and doth say, Amen, to he knows not what. Now say they, 
If a man shall cut short his duty, God shall cut short his 
comforts ; if a man shall hasten arid huddle over his duty, 
God will hasten and not prolong his days ; and if a man 
shall perform his duty without heart and understanding, then 
his children shall be orphans ; as his duty was without heart 
and knowledge, so his children shall be without parents. 
Thus they express the punishment of doing God s work 
negligently ; but ye know what the prophet Malachi saith, 
" Cursed is every one that hath in his flock a male, and 
offers a corrupt thing to God ;" as if he should say, Cursed 
is that man or woman who hath masculine affections for the 
world, and female affections for the work of God. Oh, now 
if it be the will and mind of God that we should do his 
work with all our might, and a rational thing to do so, and 
a dangerous thing not to do it, then surely it is our duty 
and matter of great concernment to do the work that God 
hath given us to do with all our might. 

Why, but will some say, this seems contrary to Scripture, 
reason, and our own judgment : to Scripture, for the Scrip 
ture saith, " Use the world as if you used it not ; to reason, 
for the magistrate is to do justice, and if he do it with all his 
might, there will be summum jus, and summum jus is summa 
injuria ; and to our own judgment, for according to our own 
principles we are able to do nothing, but according to this 
text and doctrine, there is something " in the power of our 
hand to do." How can this therefore agree either with 
Scripture, reason, or our own judgment and principles ? 

Yes, very well, for doth the scripture say that we are to 
use the world as if we used it not; and doth it say here, 

SER. 6.] REMAINS. 139 

* f whatever is in the power of thine hand to do, do it v\ith 
all thy might ? " Then put these together, and what is the 
result but this, that we should use all our skill and might, 
" to use the world as if we used it not." And as for the 
reason about the magistrate, though the magistrate is txr do 
justice, yet he is to shew mercy also ; if he have righteous 
ness in the one hand, he is to have mercy in the other ; " I 
will sing of mercy and judgment/ 5 saith David ; Seneca tells 
us, that many punishments are as much disparagement to the 
magistrate, as many funerals are to the physican. Ye know that 
Moses was the first magistrate that Israel had, and did not 
he do justice ? Yes, yet he was the meekest man upon 
earth. Why so ? But to shew that the dispensations of 
justice will grow very well upon the disposition of meekness. 
And as for our own principles and judgment, who doth not 
say, and say true, That every man hath power to do more 
than he doth ; and what if I should say with some, That God 
will condemn no man for that sin which he hath not a power 
to avoid ? The heathens ye know are judged by the law of 
nature, but though they are not able to keep the whole law 
of nature, yet they are able to avoid these sins against nature 
for which they are condemned ; so under the gospel, though 
a man be not able to convert and turn unto God, and keep 
the whole law of the gospel, yet he may be able to avoid tl.e 
sins against the gospel, as positive unbelief and resistance, 
for which he shall be condemned ; thus some. But I need 
not say thus, neither shall I need to enter into this debate here, 
for whoever liveth under the gospel is either godly or ungodly ; 
if he be ungodly, he hath power to do more than he doth ; 
and if he be godly, his will is freed ; for ee whom the Son 
makes free, he is free indeed," though his will be not liber a, 
free, yet his will is liberata, freed ; as Austin speaks. So that 
thus now you see there is nothing in this truth that is con 
trary to Scripture, reason, or our own principles ; yet give 
me leave to bound it with these cautions, 

Though you must do God s work with all your might, yet 
" your moderation must be known unto all men " some will 
not let God s work pass through their hands, but they will 
have some toll for their own interest. Joshua did not so, 
he conquered the land of Canaan, and when he came to 
divide it, what a little thong did he cut out of that leather 

140 REMAINS. [SER. 6. 

for himself and family ; some will not do God s work, but 
they will carry it on/with their own passion. It is said of 
Scanderbeg, that great soldier, that when he spake some 
times of Christ, he would be so earnest that the blood would 
spirt out of his lips : but as God s grace hath no need of 
our sin, so his work hath no need of our passions ; though 
therefore you do the work of the Lord with all your might, 
yet you are to manage it with mildness and sweetness, there 
in also your moderation is to be known to all. 

Though you do the work of your hand with all your 
might, yet you must not look upon the success of your work 
as the fruit of your hand, but of God s hand; when Israel 
went out against Amalek, Moses lifted up his hands, and 
Israel prevailed ; then Joshua built an altar, and called it 
Jehova-nissi; for, says the text, Exod, xvii. 15, "The Lord 
hath sworn that he will have war with Amalek ;" but, verse 
16, in the Hebrew, as the margin tells, it is the hand on the 
throne of the Lord ; and why, says Glassius, is it said, the 
hand on the throne of the Lord, but to shew that this vic 
tory was not from Moses hand, though it was a praying 
hand, but from God s hand. Luther tells us of Staupitius, 
that when he came to his government, he said, I will govern 
according to law ; but when he saw that his government did 
not succeed, then he said, I will govern according to the 
customs of the place ; when he saw that succeeded not, then 
said he, I will govern by the Scripture ; when he saw that 
succeeded not well, then said he, I will do what I can ac 
cording to Scripture and law, and leave the success unto 
God; and then his government prospered. And you see 
how it is with a child, a father bids him do this or that which 
he knows he cannot do ; therefore he secretly puts his own 
hand to the work, and he praises his child, and the child 
thinks that his hand did it. So here, God bids us do his 
work with all our might, and we do so, and have success in 
the work, and we think the success is the fruit of our hand, 
whereas in truth it is the fruit of our Father s hand. Mark 
therefore what follows in the next words to the text ; in this 
verse, saith Solomon, Whatever thou findest in thy hand to 
do, do it with all thy might ;" but in the next verse he says, " I 
returned and saw, that the race is not to the swift, nor the 
battle to the strong." Why doth he add these words imme- 

SER. 6.] REMAINS. 141 

diately, but to shew thus much, that though we do God s 
work with all our might, yet we must not look upon the 
success as the fruit of our own hand. And thus now this doc- 
is cleared, proved, vindicated, and cautioned ; and so I come 
to the application. 

Now, by way of application, methinks this doctrine looks 
wishly upon all the congregation, for what man or woman is 
there amongst you, whom God hath not betrusted with some 
work or other ? It is true, indeed, that he who had but one 
talent, wrapped it up in the napkin. Those are most apt to 
be idle that have least, yet every one hath some talent or 
other, some work or other, that every one hath in the power 
of his hand. Now, therefore, in the name of the Lord, I 
say unto you all, (C Whatever thine hand findeth to do, do it 
with all thy might/ 3 

But how shall I be able to do the work which God hath 
put into my hand with all my might ? 

I answer, you must know what that work is which is in the 
power of your hand, else you cannot turn your hand to do it 
with all your might. Now, 

Look what that work is which is opus diei, the work of the 
day, which can neither be done in heaven nor hell ; that is 
now in the power of your hand to do. There is some work 
which we may do in this life, that can neither be done in hea 
ven nor hell. Preaching and hearing the word cannot be 
done in heaven nor hell ; repentance cannot be done in hea 
ven nor hell; patience under affliction cannot be done in 
heaven nor hell ; contributing to or helping the poor cannot 
be done in heaven nor hell. Now look what that work is 
that can neither be done in heaven nor hell, that is the work 
of your present day, and is in the power of your hand to do. 

Look what that work is which is the work of your place, 
calling, or relation, that is the work which is in the power of 
your hand to do. As suppose you be a magistrate, it is the 
work of the Christian magistrate to safe-guard and defend 
religion : " Be wise now, therefore, O ye princes and nobles, 
kiss the Son," Psalm ii. 1. It is the work of the magistrate 
to preserve the public peace, for he is the head of the com 
munity, and therefore must look to the welfare of the body. 
It is the work of the magistrate to dispense justice and righ 
teousness, so as to encourage the good and be a terror to evil 

142 REMAINS. [SER. 6. 

doers. Rom. xiii. It is the work of the magistrate to assist 
the minister. By the hand of Moses and Aaron,, God led his 
people of old ; not by the hand of Moses alone, nor by the 
hand of Aaron alone, but by the hand of Moses and Aaron. 
It is the work of the magistrate to see that the poor be re 
lieved and provided for. Psalm Ixxii. Or suppose you be a 
minister, it is the work of the minister to walk before the 
people, as the dux gregis, before the rest of the flock, in all 
holy life and godly conversation. Conversation is continual 
preaching. It is the work of the minister to study the Scrip 
tures much, for he hath more help that way than others. It 
is the work of the minister to preach the word plainly, pow 
erfully and continually, both for conviction, conversion and 
edification. It is the work of the minister to separate be 
tween the precious and the vile in church administrations. It 
is the work of the minister to bind up the broken-hearted, to 
comfort the afflicted, to visit and pray over the sick : " Is any 
one sick, let him call for the elders of the church," James v. 
15. Or suppose you be the governor of a family, father or 
master, or you be governed, a child or servant; it is the work 
of the governor to bring up his children or servants in the 
nurture and education of the Lord. It is the word of infe 
riors to be obedient to their parents or master. It is the 
work of children and those that are young to learn some trade 
and calling, that they may live like men and women another 
day, and do good to others. It is the work of those that are 
young to stock and store themselves with principles of religion. 
Luther, a great doctor in the church, professed that he was 
yet, catechismi discipulus. And what is the reason, saith 
Calvin, that men fall into errors when they are men, but 
because they did not learn the principles of religion when they 
were young ? Or suppose you be one of this town or of these 
congregations, it is your work to pray for them that are over 
you in the Lord; it is your work to attend on the means of 
grace, to receive the gospel, and to improve your gospel op 
portunities. Have ye forgotten, O ye people of Yarmouth, 
how far ye would run and go formerly for a dishful of water; 
and now a spring and fountain of grace is opened amongst 
you, will ye not improve it ? If a mine of gold or silver be 
opened in a country, will they not dig it out ? Now through 
grace, there is a mine of gospel treasures opened amongst 

SER. 6.] REMAINS. 143 

you, and will ye not dig for it as for hidden treasure ? This 
is your work; for look what that work is which is the work 
of your calling, place and relation, that is the work that is in 
the power of your hand to do. 

Look what that work is, which is directly contrary to that 
sin wherein you have notoriously lived, or been guilty of; 
that is the work which God calls you to, and is in the power 
of your hand. I have read of a young man that was much 
given to scorning, jeering and despising of his mother ; but 
after it pleased God to work savingly upon his heart, when 
ever he saw his mother come into the room, he would fall 
down upon his knees. I commend not his discretion. But 
if ye look into the New Testament, ye shall meet with three 
great converts, Zaccheus, the jailor, and Paul; and what did 
they do, but that work which was directly contrary to the sin 
which they were notoriously guilty of and given to ? Zac 
cheus had been an oppressor, but being converted, <f Behold, 
Lord, (said he,) the half of my goods I give to the poor, and 
if I have wronged any man I restore fourfold." The jailor 
whipped the apostles, and put them into the stocks in the 
inner prison ; but when converted, then he brought them into 
his house, washed their stripes, and set meat before them. 
Paul was notorious for blaspheming, and persecuted the 
church ; but when converted, then he preached the gospel, 
which before he persecuted. So that look what that work is, 
which is directly contrary to your notorious sin ; that is the 
work that God calls you to, and which your hand should find 
to do. 

Look what that work is which you are spared or raised up 
, either from poverty or sickness; that is the work which 
is in the power of your hand now to do. There is a great 
controversy at this day, how God s pre--determination, and the 
liberty of man s will, can consist or stand together ; the re 
concilement whereof was committed to Francis de Arriva, 
which he shunning, fell into a great sickness, so dangerous, 
that tbe physicians gave him over for a dead man : but all of 
a sudden, in a day s time he revived, and was so well, that 
the physicians could not believe that he was well ; but he 
recovering, thought that he was spared on purpose to under 
take that work of reconcilement : which thereupon he did, and 
hath said as much in it as any other. And you know what 

144 REMAINS. [SER. 6. 

Mordecai said to Esther, " Who knows but God raised thee 
up on purpose/ &c. Look therefore what that work is, 
which your former po\erty or sickness points at, and for 
which you are thus raised up ; that is the work that is in the 
power of your hand to do. Yea, 

Look what that work is, that you have special ability and 
opportunity to do above others, that is the work that is in 
the power of your hand to do. As suppose you have a great 
estate in the world, and have no children, it is your work to 
relieve and help the poor. Therefore, says Solomon, " Thou 
shalt not withhold goods from the owners thereof, when it is 
in the power of thine hand to do it," Prov. iii. 27. Would 
ye, therefore, know what that work is, which is in the power 
of your hand ? I answer in these several things. Look what 
that work is which is the work of your present day, which 
cannot be done in heaven nor hell ; what work that is, that 
is the work of your place or relation ; what work that is, that 
is directly opposite to your notorious sin ; what work that is, 
which you are spared and raised up for ; and what work that 
is, which you have an ability and opportunity to do above 
others. That and all these are the works which are in the 
.power of your hand to do. 

But, if you would do God s work with all your might, then 
you must observe where your true strength lies, and apply 
yourself thereunto. Now your strength lies in Christ, " the 
Lord our righteousness and our strelngth." Under Christ 
your strength lies in your call to your work. " Go in this 
thy might," said the Lord to Gideon, when he gave him a 
call. Under Christ your strength lies in the promise, for lex 
jubet,gratiajuvat; the law commands, and the promise helps. 
Under Christ your strength lies in your comfort : he works 
faintly, that doth work uncomfortably. " The joy of the 
Lord is our strength." It is true in this sense; and under 
Christ your strength lies in dependance upon God for strength. 
Our strength is to sit still ; that is, to depend and wait on 
God for his strength. Herein lies your true strength. 
Would you, therefore, do God s work with all your might, 
then away to your true strength. 

And, if you would do God s work with all your might, 
then take heed that you do not think the way to heaven is 
easy, nor that any thing is small that lies between God and 

SER. 6.] REMAINS. 145 

you. Difficultas acuit conatum ; Difficulty sharpens diligence. 
But if a man thinks a tiling is easy, he will not put his full 
strength and might to the work. Gregory de Valentia tells 
of a merchant, that professed he would be a papist, and no 
protestant ; for said he. If I be a papist, my work is short and 
easy ; it is but believe as the church believes : but if I be a 
Lutheran, then I must learn catechisms, and search the Scrip 
tures, but I have no time for that ; therefore I will be a pa 
pist, for that way is easy. But we know that the way to 
heaven is up hill. Nulla virtus sine lapide. " Strait is the 
gate, and narrow is the way that leads to life/ 5 And the 
more ye see these difficulties of your salvation, the more you 
will put your whole strength to it, and will work with all 
your might. 

Yet if you would do God s work with all your might, then 
let your eye be much upon them that have done God s work 
fully in their day. If you be a magistrate, think on Moses ; 
if a minister, think on Paul ; if a private person, think on 
Caleb. It is recorded of Luther, that he did ordinarily spend 
three hours every day in prayer ; he preached much, read 
lectures, and wrote nine or ten great volumes in folio. It is 
recorded of Calvin, that he preached yearly two hundred and 
eighty sermons, and read one hundred and eighty lectures ; 
every lecture being the length of a sermon. Once in a week 
he met with the elders of the church. Much in private duty 
and wrote letters to all the churches. So that the care of all 
the churches lay upon him ; and wrote twelve great volumes 
in folio. Ye have seen the three volumes of Mr. Perkins in 
folio, all which he wrote with his left hand, for his right hand 
was naturally lame : his motto was, Hoc age ; as if he had 
said, What thou doest, do with thy might. Dr. Sibbs his 
emblem, was a candle burning with these words over it, Per lu- 
cendo pereo ; By giving light to others I consume myself. 
And ye have heard of that good old man Mr. Dod, who went 
up and down doing good, and preaching all the day long : 
when his friends observed that he was spent, and desired 
him to spare himself, his usual saying was, Hear this one 
thing more, it may be I shall never speak to you again ; and 
so he went on and continued till he was eighty six; and so 
died in his full strength of goodness. Now when I con 
sider these men, I confess before you all, that I am ashamed 

VOL. v. L 

146 REMAINS. [SBR. 6. 

And if men would but seriously consider these and such like 
examples of men that have done much for God in their day ; 
they would certainly be provoked to do God s work with all 
their might. 

Yet if you would do God s work with all your might ; 
then converse much with the greatness of God. Who can 
stand in the beams of the sun, and not shine with the beams 
thereof? Much less shall you stand in the beams of God s 
attributes, and not shine therewith. The sight of God s 
greatness will grandire, greaten your hearts and spirits, and 
make them do much and great things for God. Therefore 
converse much with the greatness of God. But, 

Be sure that you lay in against reproaches. For when 
you ride apace, the dogs will bark, and the dust will be 
raised : if you go easily, you raise no dust, neither will the 
dogs bark. So if you will go a slow pace to heaven, you shall 
not be reviled, or reproached by the world : but if you will not 
put on with all your might, then you shall be reproached. 
Therefore if you will do God s work with all your might, you 
must be well laid in against all reproaches, because it is the 
work of your hand. 

Again if you would do it with all your might, then you 
must go to God to open your hand ; and when he shall open 
your hand, and breathe upon your soul, be sure that you im 
prove all those gales. For Job tells us, " That he sealeth up 
the hand of every man, that all men may know his work." 
Sometimes he seals up the hand of the seamen, that they 
cannot sail; sometimes he sealeth up the hand of the husband 
men, that they cannot sow nor reap : sometimes he sealeth 
up the hand of the merchant and tradesman, that he cannot 
vend his commodity; sometimes the hand of the preacher, 
that he cannot preach ; sometimes the hand of the Christian, 
that he cannot pray. And why doth he thus seal up the hand 
of every man, but that all may know his work ? Would ye 
therefore do the work of your hand with all your might, then 
go to God to open and unseal your hand ; and if he breathe 
upon your heart, then be sure that you improve these gales. 

Do ye therefore now ask, What shall I do, that I may do 
the work of God with all my might. Then remember these 
several things. 

You must know what that work is which is in the power of 
your hand. 

!ER. 6.] REMAINS. 147 

You must observe where your true strength lies, and apply 
yourself thereto. 

You must not think the way to heaven easy, or any thing 
small that is between God and you. 

You must eye them much who have served God fully in, 
their day. 

You must converse much with the greatness of God. 

You must be well laid in against all reproaches. 

And then you must go to God to open and unseal your 
hand, improving all his gales. Now give me leave to lay 
some three or four motives before you that may persuade 
hereunto, and I shall wind up all. 

The first motive is this, Look whatever work that is which 
is in the power of your hand to do, that God will require at 
your hand. If you be a magistrate, and it be your work to 
preserve peace, to suppress the multitude of ale-houses, and 
profanation of the Lord s day, then God will require this at 
your hand. If you be a minister, and it be your work to 
" preach the gospel in season and out of season f* then God 
will require this work at your hand. If you be a parent, and 
it be your work to bring up your children in the nurture and 
education of the Lord ; if you be a child or young person, 
and it be your work to stock yourself with principles of re 
ligion ; then God will require these works at your hands. 
And if you be one of this town, and of this congregation, and 
it be your work to receive the gospel, and to improve your 
day of grace ; then God will require this work at your hand. 
Remember the parable of the talents, &c. If God will re 
quire the work of our hands at our hands ; why shall we not 
do that work with all our might ? But 

As God will call you to an account for all that work which 
is in the power of your hand : so you do not know how 
soon he may take your work out of your hands ; how soon 
he may take you from your work, or your work from you. 
We ordinarily think that we shall not die before our work be 
done : but if you look wishly upon God s dispensations, you 
shall find that death doth sometimes press men from their 
shop-board, when much work is cut out before them. You 
all know what an useful man good king Josiah was as a ma 
gistrate, yet he died in the midst of his work, when he was 
but thirty-nine years old. Ye know what an useful man 

L 2 

148 REMAINS. [SER. 6. 

John the Baptist was ; yet he died in the midst of his days, 
when not above thirty three years old. Is it not known to 
some what a great workman Dr. Whitaker was here in En 
gland, of whom it was said, That he never was less idle, than 
when idle ; yet he died in the midst of his work when he was 
but forty-four years old. It is ordinarily known what a 
blessed instrument Mr. Perkins was, of whom the preacher 
said at his funeral, Here lies that blessed Perkins, who first 
taught England for to worship God : yet he died in the midst 
of his work, when he was but forty-seven years old. And 
who hath not heard of Dr. Preston, what a great workman 
he was in God s vineyard, of whom I may say, Who though 
dead, yet speaketh, in his precious books that are amongst 
you ; yet he died in the midst of his work when he was but 
forty-one years old. I might instance in Mr. Burroughs, 
and others; yea, in divers good Christians in this place, who 
have died in the midst of their work and time. It was not 
long since a preacher now in heaven preached on this text at 
the Guild at Norwich at the installment of the mayor; and 
before the year came about, the mayor died. So that 
death doth sometimes press us from our shop-board 
before our work be made up. And I pray mind the 
text a little, " Whatever is in the power of thine hand 
to do, do it with all thy might :" for, says Solomon, 
" In the grave there is no work nor device, whither thou 
goest." He doth not say, whither thou shalt go, or whither 
thou must go, but " whither thou goest." You go some 
times to church, and sometimes not; you go sometimes to 
sea, and sometimes not ; you go sometimes into the country, 
and sometimes not : but whether you go to the church, or 
whether you go to sea, or whether you go into the country, 
still thou goest to the grave. And ye know what Christ 
saith, " The night cometh wherein no man worketh." Now 
if the night cometh, and thou goest ; then why should you 
not do your work with all your might whilst it is day. 
Certainly he that plays away his day shall go to bed in the 

Who is there in all this congregation, that doth not desire 
a comfortable death-bed when it comes. As the heathen 
man said to a great congregation, I know all your thoughts ; 
for every man desires to buy cheap, and to sell dear; so in 

SER 6.] REMAINS. 149 

this respect, I may say, I know all your thoughts, viz., that 
when death comes, you may have a comfortable death-bed. 
In the time of your death-bed sickness, you will then be 
able to do little ; when your pains shall be great, you will be 
able to pray little, to hear little, to read or meditate little, 
and then what will be your comfort in that death-bed-little 
but this ? Well, though I can do but little now, yet I have 
prayed and served God with all my might when I was well, and 
therefore I have comfort now. Now therefore if you desire that 
you may have much comfort in your death-bed-little, why 
should you not do the present work of your hand with all your 
might ? But, 

In the last place, Who is there in all this congregation 
that doth not desire to rejoice with all his heart in these 
blessings which he hath in his hand ; now look once more 
up^n the words of the text, and ye shall find, that as Solo 
mon in God s name commands you "to rejoice with all your 
heart in the blessings which you have/ ver. 7 9, so in 
these words he commands you to do God s work with all 
your might. And why are these things thus knit together, 
but to teach us thus much, that whoever will do with all his 
might the work that is in his hand to do, he may and shall 
rejoice with all his heart in the blessings which he hath in 
his hand to enjoy ? But above all ye know how fully Christ 
did your work for you, and will you do his work by halves ? 
Never speak of rest here, there is rest enough in the grave, 
and recompence enough in heaven. Either the work that is in 
your hand is worth your while, or it is not ; if it be not worth 
your while, why should you do it at all ; and if it be worth 
your while, why should you not do it with all your might ? 
And oh, that there were an heart in you all to do so. If the 
weight of this truth have fallen in power upon your souls, I 
dare say, some of you will go away and say, What have I done 
all this while ? I confess I have done God s work by the 
bye, and when I heard ministers pressing such truths as these, 
1 have said, Well, yet I hope I may go to heaven with less 
ado, but now through grace I will go away, and whatever 
is in the power of my hand to do, I will do it with all my 
might. Thus do, and I shall obtain the end of my preach 
ing, and you, under Christ, shall obtain the end of your 

150 . REMAINS. [SER. J. 

practice, the salvation of your souls. Wherefore think on 
all these things and the Lord bless them to you. 


" Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit," LUKE xxiii. 46. 

THESE are the last words of Christ on the cross, the 
seventh speech ; and of all others the most exemplary for 
us. " Into thy hands," that is, into thy charge, care, and 
tuition. God hath no hands at all, for he is a Spirit; but by 
his hands we are to understand his keeping, charge, and cus 
tody. Numb, xxxiii. 1, it is said, "The children of Israel 
went forth out of Egypt with their armies under the hand 
of Moses and Aaron " that is, under the charge of Moses 
and Aaron ; so the translators do interpret it. For whereas, 
chap. xxxi. 49, it is said by the officers of the army, " Thy 
servants have taken the sum of the men that were under our 
charge ;" the margin tells you that in the Hebrew it is, (e under 
our hand/ So Ps. xci. 1 1, 12, " He shall give his angels charge 
over thee, and they shall bear thee up in their hands." 
By the hands of God therefore, understand his keeping and 
tuition ; Father, into thy keeping and tuition I do commend 
my spirit; the word is, va^otSiiaopai, I will commend; but 
our Saviour follows the Septuagint, and the Septuagint the 
Hebrew of Ps. xxxi,, whence these words are taken. And it 
is ordinary with the Hebrew to put the future for the present 
time. I will, or I do commend my spirit, that is, my soul, 
myself, but especially my soul ; the thing commended was 
his soul; the person to whom he did commend his soul, was 
his Father; the time when he commended his soul, was at 
the instant of his death, for having said so, he gave up the 
ghost. Now if ye ask why Christ did at this time especially 
commend and resign himself and soul up to God ? I answer, 
For these reasons. 

Thereby he testified that he had not lost his confidence 
in God as a Father; in the former words he had cried out 
and said, " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?" 

SKR. 7] REMAINS. 151 

Men might think if he had so died, that he had quite lost 
his confidence ; but now that he concludes all with this, it 
shews that God had not forsaken him, and that he had not 
lost his confidence in God. Possibly a dying Christian may 
be in an agony at the beginning of his sickness, yet may 
sweetly believe at the last. In the former part of his death, 
Christ was in an agony, but he closes up all with full assurance 
of faith : " Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." 

Thereby also he did commend the souls of all those that 
he died for, into the hands of God : for he was now offering 
up himself through the eternal Spirit unto God for us, as our 
common person; and as in his prayer, John xvii., he did not 
only pray for himself, but for us, so in this act and deed 
he did commend the souls and spirits of all those thafc he 
died for, into the hands of God : and as he died in our room 
and stead, so in our room he said, " Father, into thy hands 
I commend my spirit." And when should he do this more 
fitly, than at the last of his suffering ? 

Thereby also he became an example unto us ; that when 
we come to die or suffer, we should die with the Scripture in 
our hearts and mouths, for this was Scripture, as ye read 
Ps. xxxi. 5. And that we should suffer and die believing 
and resigning up ourselves and souls into the hand of God as 
a Father. And for this end certainly Christ did now speak these 
words, for says he, " I have power to lay down my life, and to 
take it up again ;" and if he had power to take it up again, why 
did he resign it into the hands of God, as a depositum to be 
kept for him ? Surely for this reason, that in all this matter 
he might be an example unto us of soul-resignation into the 
hands of God. And so the doctrine is this : 

It is a good thing for us to resign up our souls into the 
hands of God, and that especially at the time of our death 
and greatest sufferings ; what Christ did, and did as our ex 
ample, that is good for us to do : this hath Christ done 
before us ; good therefore it is for us to do it, good at all 
times, especially at some times, and most especially at the 
time of our death and sufferings. 

It is God s due, and it is our duty ; for what is resignation 
of our souls or selves unto God, but that act of faith, where 
by we do put ourselves under the power, wisdom, and mercy 
of God, to be ordered and disposed of according to the good 

152 REMAINS. [SER. 7- 

will of God ? This is our duty, and it is God s due. Is it not 
the duty of an inferior to resign up himself and his will to 
the hands and will of his superior? Doth not the wife 
resign up her will to the will of her husband ; the servant to 
the will of his master ; the child to the will of his father ; 
and is not God much more our superior ; is not he our Hus 
band, our Lord, our Father in most transcendent manner ? 
Surely then, this soul-resignation is both God s due, and it is 
our duty. 

Yea, and it is a very profitable thing for us to do it, hereby 
we make a virtue of necessity ; and where can we lodge our 
souls in safer hands ? If a man cannot keep a thing him 
self, but must betrust and deposit it in other hands, will he 
riot do it in the safest hands that he can find ? Now three 
things there are that are required to a safe hand: power, 
wisdom, and love. If I deposit a thing in a man s hand to 
keep, he must be able to keep it for me against violence, else 
his hand is no safe hand ; though he be able and have power 
to keep it for me, yet if he be prodigal and lavish, and not 
wise, I shall not count his hand a safe hand to keep rny de- 
positum ; but though he be never so wise, yet if he be not 
my friend, I shall not betrust him with any great matter : but 
if a man be able, wise and friendly, then his hand is a safe 
hand to keep my depositum. Now God is all this, almighty, 
infinitely, wise, and our best friend and acquaintance ? Where 
fore, says the apostle, " I know whom I have trusted, and I am 
persuaded that he is able that which I have committed to 
him, against that day," 2 Tim. 1. 12. As if he said, Do ye 
blame me for venturing so much in the cause of the gospel? 
Why I have but deposited what I laid out for God, and am 
persuaded that he will not embezzle my trust; but will truly 
and faithfully keep it for me: for he is able, and I have expe 
rience of him : for I know whom I have trusted, he is no 
stranger to me, and I am perswaded that he will keep it for 
me unto that day. God s hand then is the safest hand. 

And again if we do not commend, commit, and resign our 
selves and souls into his hands, we must be responsible for 
them ourselves. If a woman have a child put to nurse to 
her, and she go abroad, and do not commit the child to some 
safe hands, and the child come to any hurt, she must be res 
ponsible for it. If we commit our souls into God s hands, he 

>BR. 7-] REMAINS. 153 

will be responsible for them. "Who will keep that which I 
have committed to him unto that day/ 5 says Paul: but if 
we do not commit our souls into his hands to keep, and they 
get any hurt, we must be responsible for them ourselves. 
And are we able to answer for our own souls ? Surely, no 
Oh, what a good thing is it then to resign and commit our* 
souls unto God. 

What benefit shall we get thereby ? Much every way. 
This resignation of our souls and selves unto God, is an inlet 
to many mercies, graces, and comforts. 

As for mercies and blessings ; what greater blessing can 
there be in this world, than to enjoy one s-self; under God to 
enjoy one s-self, and to be free from all things ? Paul counted 
it a blessing to have the comforts of this world, and to be 
under the power of none, but to stand free from all ; now 
there is no such way in the world, to stand free from all 
things, as to resign up ourselves, souls and wills unto God. 
H<BC est vera libertas servire Deo, True liberty doth consist in 
perfect subjection to God ; who more free than Christ, yet 
who more subject to the will of God then Christ? " Not my 
will, but thy will be done :" no such way to enjoy one s-self, 
as to give up ourselves unto God. Doth not the beggar en 
joy herself most in giving up herself to a prince in marriage? 

Yea, what greater blessing is there in the world, or in the 
world to come, than to enjoy God ? Now if you do resign 
and give up yourself unto God, you shall enjoy God, for God 
will give down himself unto you. It is observed, that God 
the Father never gave down that great dispensation of the 
Spirit unto Christ, till Christ had thus resigned up his spirit 
unto the Father. Look what we do give up to God, that 
God will give down to us in a better edition; yea, he will not 
only give ourselves to ourselves, if we resign ourselves un 
to him ; but if you resign and give up yourself unto him, he 
will give down himself unto you ; if you resign up your spirit 
unto him, he will give down his Spirit unto him. Thus this 
soul-resignation is an inlet to this mercy. 

Yet you will all say, it is a great mercy and blessing to have 
your prayers and desires granted ; then read what the Psalmist 
saith, Psalm xxxvii. 4, " Delight thyself also in the Lord, 
and he shall give thee the desires of thine heart. Commit 
thy way to the Lord, trust also in him, and he will bring it 

154 REMAINS [SER. 7- 

to pass/ 5 Dost thou say, I pray and use endeavours ; yet 
the thing prayed for, endeavoured after, doth not come to 
pass ? Why, then commit thy way to the Lord ; resign up 
thy way unto God, and he will bring it to pass. I remem 
ber a notable story that Thaulerus hath ; this Thaulerus lived 
in the beginning of the German reformation, a little before 
Luther, whom Luther seems to prize above all authors ; Da 
mihi istum insignem Theologum Thaulerum, said he, Give me 
that eminent author Thaulerus. Now this Thaulerus tells us 
of a certain woman, that was much given to prayer, and had 
so great credit in heaven, that she did but ask and had from 
the hands of God ; insomuch, said he, that divers came to 
her to pray for them, according to their necessities, whom 
she promised to pray for ; yet sometimes did forget to pray 
for them : yet, says Thaulerus, the things which her friends 
did desire were given to them ; and coming to her to thank 
her for her prayers ; Nay, truly, said she, I am ashamed and 
blush before you, for if you have received the mercy, it is 
no thanks to me, for I forgot you. And thereupon going 
unto God in prayer, she begged this of God, that he would 
please to tell her the reason why the mercies desired were 
given, though she did not pray for them ? Whereupon she 
received this answer from God, says Thaulerus,* Hear O my 
daughter, from the day that thou didst resign thy will up to 
me, I did give my will to thee. And the truth is, there is 
no such way to obtain what we would, as to resign up our 
wills unto God. Thus this soul or self-resignation is an in 
let unto many mercies. 

As it is an inlet unto many blessings : so it is an inlet unto 
many graces and duties. What grace or duty will ye instance 
in ? Will ye instance in prayer ? 

It opens the sluices of prayer ; and, as one speaks well, 
though you pray never so long or loud, yet if you do not re 
sign up your soul and will unto God, your prayer is but non 
sense, and a contradiction in re. 

Or will ye instance in Faith ? faith is a trusting unto God ; 
now the more you betrust God with yourself, the more you 
trust to God. And what greater betrustment, than the resig 
nation of ones-soul unto God ? 

* Audi filia mea, ex quo die tuam mihi resignasti voluntatem, ego viciesim 
dedi tibi meam. Thaulerus. 

SER. 70 BKMAIXS. 155 

Thereby you shall be contented with your condition what 
ever it be, with the best contentment : for there is a two-fold 
contentment. One, that arises from the fulness of your en 
joyment ; another, that arises from the apprehension of the 
wise carving hand of God. This last is best, and the most 
refined. Now if you can but truly resign yourself and will 
unto God, you will be thus contented. 

Thereby also you will rejoice in God, and mourn for sin at 
once ; some mourn for sin, and neglect joy in God ; some 
joy in God, and neglect grief for sin. But if I can truly 
resign myself unto God, I shall grieve for sin, and rejoice in 
God together. 

Yea, thereby also you will be able to answer unto your 
temptations, especially that great temptation that lies so hard 
upon some. You are now in a good condition ; but suppose 
it were so and so with you, what would you do then ? why, 
if ye have resigned yourself unto God, you will be able to 
say, I do not know what may befal me, but I am sure no 
thing shall come amiss, for I have resigned myself and my 
will unto God. Thus this holy resignation is, ye see, an in 
let to many graces and duties. 

As it is an inlet unto many graces, so it is an inlet also 

unto many comforts ; yea indeed, unto all our comforts : for 

what comfort can a man have in himself or condition, till he 

hath truly resigned and given up himself and soul and will 

unto God ? but being done, ye may freely go about your 

business. If a man have a suit in law, and have left his 

cause in the hand of an able, careful friend and lawyer, he is 

quiet: much more may we be quiet, when we have left and 

lodged our case and way and soul with God. " Commit thy 

works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established/ 

Prov. xvi. 3. Not thy business and works, but thy thoughts 

shall be then at rest. Do not all things rest in their centre ; 

and is not God our centre ? The more indifferently that a 

man s heart is carried out towards changes, the more quiet 

and sedate is his spirit. Now when a man hath resigned 

himself up to God, then he will be more indifferent unto all 

conditions. The private soldier doth march indifferently, 

this way or that way, at the command of his leader ; why ? 

because he hath resigned up himself to the wisdom of his 

commander. The sheep is indifferently led into this pasture, 

156 REMAINS. [SER. 7- 

or the other ; why ? because resigned up to the will of the 
shepherd. So t if our souls be truly resigned up to God, we 
shall be indifferently carried to this or that pasture : for we 
are the sheep of Christ. I remember a notable speech that 
Luther had to Melancthon : Melancthon being much trou 
bled about the affairs of the churches, and the low estate of 
the same, Luther wrote a letter to him ; and in that letter he 
hath this expression ; Thou art much troubled and afflicted, 
O Melancthon ; yet Philip is to be admonished and desired 
to leave governing the world :* as if he had said, Philip, thou 
undertakest to govern the world, therefore thou art thus de 
jected ; do but leave the cause to God, and let him govern, 
and thou wilt be quiet and not troubled. The only way 
therefore to be quiet within, is to resign and give up all unto 
God. This self or soul resignation is an inlet unto many 
mercies^ an inlet unto many graces, an inlet unto many com 
forts ; surely therefore it is a good and an excellent thing to 
resign and give up ourselves unto God. 

Well, but then how is this work to be done that we may 
truly resign and give up ourselves, our souls, and our wills 
unto God ? 

It is not to be done slightly and overly, but seriously and 
solemnly. It is an ordinary thing with men to say, " The 
will of the Lord be done." God s will be done, and the like. 
But it is one thing for a man to be indifferent in a business, 
saying, The will of the Lord be done ; and another thing for 
a man to give up himself and will effectually unto God. It 
is one thing for a man to do this in a slighty and general 
way, saying, The will of the Lord be done ; and another thing 
to make a distinct and clear resignation of his will to the will 
of God in particular things. Look into Scripture, and ye 
shall find, that wherever this work was done truly, it was 
done solemnly and seriously. 

As this work is not to be done slightly and overly ; so nei 
ther is it to be done forcedly and lastly, but freely and firstly. 
The first thing I do, I must commit myself, and cause, and 
will unto God. If a city or town be besieged, it yields and 
resigns at the last, because it can hold out no longer ; but 
this resignation is a forced work ; the resignation of ourselves 

ed monendus est Philippus, ut desinat gubernare mundura. 

SER. 70 REMAINS. 157 

and wills unto God is not such. When Pharaoh could stand 
out no longer, then he resigned up the Israelites: and so 
when men can hold out no longer, then they say, Well, it is 
the will of God that this thing should be ; wherefore now, 
the will of the Lord be done. When they can do no other, 
then they resign up the thing and themselves unto God. 
But this true resignation is done freely and firstly, not forcedly 
and at last. 

As it is not to be done lastly and forcedly, so it is not to 
be done partially, and by halves, hut fully and totally. " I am 
thine/ saith David to God, " Oh, save me/ Ps. cxix. 94. 
When a man comes to God for mercy, he pleads not for part 
but all. He doth not say, Oh save my body, and not my 
soul ; but " Oh, save me :" nor doth he say, Oh, save my 
soul, and not my body; but, " I am thine, oh, save me." 
When a man desires pardon of sin, he desires not the par 
don of some, but of all. When God gives himself unto us, 
he gives himself wholly. This resignation of ourselves unto 
God, is a great sacrifice, a great offering, and it must be of 
all, an holocaust. God cannot, will not take less than all. 
He that resigns himself unto God, with a reservation of a 
part, doth like Ananias and Sapphira ; he pretends the 
whole, and gives but part, and so he doth lie unto God. 

As this resignation must not be done partially, and by 
halves, so it must not be done conditionally, but absolutely. 
When you have taken a servant, and you bid him do this or 
that, it may be he will say to you, It was none of my bargain ; 
I bargained with you for to be your steward, but not to be your 
groom in your stable ; or, I bargained with you to be your 
clerk, but not to be your scullion ; this or that work which 
you set me about, is not according to my conditions. And 
so when a city besieged doth resign, it doth resign upon arti 
cles ; but when a soul doth truly resign itself unto God, then 
no articles, no conditions. " Lord, what wilt thou have me 
to do ?" says Paul, oh any thing, Lord, any thing : I will 
return to my father s house, " and let him make me his hired 
servant." Do but receive me^ Lord, and I will not article 
with thee; it is a resignation without articles. The cove 
nant of grace, whereby God doth give himself to us, is ab 
solute, and not conditional ; so is that covenant, whereby we 
do resign and give up ourselves unto him. Abraham 

158 REMAINS. [$ER. ? 

subscribed to a blank ; so must all the children of Abraham 

As this resignation is not to be done conditionally ; so it is 
not to be done passively, and in a way of submission only, 
but actively. It is one thing for a man to submit unto God s 
will, and another thing to resign up himself and will to the 
will of God. A man is properly said to submit, when he 
quietly yields unto what is done. A man is said to resign 
up himself and will unto God, when he doth quietly yield 
over his affections to the thing done as best, because God wills 
it. For example, I meet a thief on the way, and he takes my 
purse ; I submit because I cannot help myself, but I do not 
resign up my will to his will : I resign up my money into 
his hand, but not my will unto his will, nor my affections and 
judgment to the thing done ; judging that good which is 
done. But when a man doth truly resign up himself unto 
God, he resigns up his thoughts and judgment to the 
wisdom of God ; it is not a bare submission unto what is 

As this resignation is not to be done passively, so it is 
not to be done deceitfully and feignedly, but in all plainness 
and sincerity. We read of the enemies of the Lord, that 
they shall submit feignedly unto him ; kf Strangers shall sub 
mit themselves to me/ Ps. xviii. 44. The margin hath it, 
they shall yield feigned obedience, but the Hebrew is, They 
shall lie unto me. " Through the greatness of thy power thine 
enemies shall submit themselves to thee," Ps. Ixvi. 3 ; mar 
gin, shall yield feigned obedience ; Hebrew, shall lie unto 
thee. There is a feigned obedience, a feigned yielding, a 
lying resignation and submission unto God. The people of 
the Jews come to Jeremiah to go unto God for them, and 
they say, " The Lord be a true and faithful witness between us, 
if we do not even according to all things for the which the Lord 
thy God shall sand thee to us ; whether it be good, or whe 
ther it be evil," &c. Jer. xlii. 5. Wherefore Jeremiah did 
in treat the Lord for them, but they would not do what they 
said ; whereupon said Jeremiah, " Ye dissembled in your 
hearts, when ye said, We will do according to all that the 
Lord our God shall say," verse 20. So that there is a lying 
submission, whereby men in affliction and distress, do feign 
edly submit and resign themselves up to God. Possibly a 

SER. 7-] REMAINS. 159 

man may hear that the only way to have his will is to resign 
up his will unto God. Now that he may have his will he 
will resign it up unto God : this is but to serve himself of 
God. But where this work is truly done, it is done with the 
greatest plainness of heart, and the most sincerity. 

As this work is not to be done feignedly, so it is not to be 
done sinfully, but in well-doing. Some say, "The will of the 
Lord be done;" and they say they do resign and give up them 
selves unto God ; but if ye look into 1 Pet. 4. 19. he will tell 
you, that this work is to be performed in well-doing : " Let 
him commit his soul to God in well-doing, as unto a faithful 
Creator." And thus ye see how this work is to be done 

It is to be done solemnly, and not slightly; freely and 
firstly, not forcedly and lastly ; wholly and totally, and not 
partially and by halves; absolutely, and not conditionally, 
upon articles; actively, and not in a way of submission only; 
with much plainness and sincerity ; and in well-doing. 

Well, but when is this work to be done ? 

It is to be done daily. Once done, and yet ever doing. 
But there are some times wherein this work is to be done 
especially, but most especially at our death. 

I say, this work is to be done daily. Sometimes a man is 
to resign up his will unto God, in reference to his health ; 
sometimes in reference to his outward estate ; sometimes in 
reference to his relations; sometimes in reference to his spirit 
ual condition. But as the Psalmist speaks, "Trust in the 
Lord at all times ;" so I say, we are to resign up selves and 
souls and will to God at all times. 

There are some special times and seasons which do call for 
this work. I will name five. 

When a man doth convert and turn unto God. Then he 
is in a special manner to resign and give up himself unto God. 
"What wilt thou have me do ?" said Paul at his first conver 
sion. The priests that offered sacrifices unto God, were first 
offered themselves. After conversion we daily offer our 
sacrifices to God : at the first, therefore, we are to offer up our 
selves unto him. 

When a man is called forth unto any great work, or service, 
or employment, especially if it be beyond his own strength 

160 REMAINS. [SER. ?. 

and power, then he is to resign and give up himself unto 
God: so Moses did, so David did, so all the worthies of God 
have ever done, when they have been called out to any great 

When a man is in any great danger, distress, and affliction, 
then he is to resign and give up himself and will unto God. 
(e If the Lord have any pleasure in me (says David) he will 
bring me back again ; yet if not, his will be done/ 5 So Joab 
when he saw that enemies were round about him; " Let us 
fight, (says he,) for the cities of our God, &c. and the will of 
th e Lord be done/ 

When a man doth join himself unto the Lord and his 
people, then he is especially to resign and give up himself 
unto God. So the churches of Macedonia did ; for says 
Paul, 2 Cor. viii. 5. "And this they did, not as we hoped, but 
first gave their own selves to the Lord, and unto us by the 
will of God." 

When a man hath sinned greatly, and wandered from the 
Lord, and from his holy profession, and doth return again 
unto God, then he is in a special manner to resign and give 
up himself unto God. The same thing is to be done in our 
renewed as in our first conversion. And if ye look into 
2 Chron. xxx. ye shall find, that when all Israel had gone 
astray, Hezekiah exhorting them to return unto the Lord, he 
saith., verse 8. " Now be ye not stitTnecked as your fathers 
were, but yield yourselves unto the Lord :" Margin, give 
you your hand unto God. When we have stolen any thing 
from God, it is our duty to restore it. Have we therefore 
in our first conversion given ourselves unto God, and after 
ward by our sins taken them away again ? Whenever we do 
return unto God, then it is our duty to restore^ and so to re 
sign up ourselves unto him. And thus now ye see what those 
special times and seasons are which call for this work at our 
hands. The time of conversion calls for it; the time of 
special employment calls for it ; the time of great danger 
calls for it; the time ,.of joining to the Lord and his people 
calls for it ; and the times of our returns unto God after 
wanderings call for it. 

Bnt though we are to resign ourselves unto God in such 
times as these are especially, yet most especially we are to 
do it when we come to suffer; for then God is ready to re- 

SER. 7-] REMAINS. 161 

ceive us, Exod. xix. 4. Then men are ready to destroy us 
" The poor committeth himself to thee :" Ps. x. 14. When 
we come to die, for then did Christ do it especially. Then 
the soul is to return unto him that gave it. It doth not dig 
or sleep with the body in the grave, but it returns unto him 
that gave it. " This day shalt thou be with me in paradise," 
saith Christ. And the apostle tells us, that paradise is the 
third heavens and the place of glory. Paul saith, " I desire to 
be dissolved, and to be with Christ, which is best of all." 
2 Cor. xii. How can a man be said to be with Christ pre 
sently upon his death, if the soul dies and sleeps with the 
body ? Yea, says he, " I am in a strait ;" in respect to you, 
I desire to live: in respect of myself, I desire to die. But 
if the soul sleeps and dies with the body, why should not he 
desire to live in regard of himself? When the man dies, then 
the soul and spirit returneth to him that gave it. When a 
man therefore dies, it is fit to resign and give np his soul 
unto God. 

When a man dies, then, if his soul goes to heaven, it is to 
pass through the enemy s country ; for Satan is " the prince 
of Ihe air." The air is full of devils; the soul therefore hath 
need of a good convoy to pass through the enemy s country. 
And how should a man get this convoy, but by resigning and 
giving up his soul into the hands of God. 

When a man dies, then he launches forth into the ocean 
of eternity; and as God is the disposer of our times for the 
present, so of our eternity also. Fit it is that we should 
acknowledge his sovereignty over us, in reference to our 
eternity : and therefore when a man comes to die, he is in a 
special manner to resign and give up himself unto God, to 
be laid out and disposed of to all eternity. 

And when a man comes to die, then there is a great part 
ing between the soul and the body ; then I part with 
that which is most dear to me. Now when a man parts 
with his children, or those things that are dear to him, he 
will put them into the safest hands that he can ; but when we 
come to die, then is the great parting time. And therefore, 
then and then especially we are to resign and give up our 
selves and our souls unto God. Thus Christ did ; " Father, 
into thy hands I commend my spirit/ 

Well, but how and by what means shall I be able to resign 

VOL. v. M 

162 REMAINS. [SKR. 7 

and give up myself and soul unto God when I die, so as I 
may receive this depositum again to my comfort ? 

It is good for us to inquire into this matter; we know not 
how soon we may be called to this dying work. If the candle 
be newly lighted it may easily be put out, and if it have 
burned long it will easily go out. It was the desire of Dio- 
nysius, that Christ s last word on the cross might be the last 
word of his life.* Do you, therefore, desire to close up your 
life with this gracious resignation according to Christ s ex 
ample ? Then, 

Be sure that you do not give away your soul from God to 
any thing else whilst you live. If you have given away your 
soul unto other things whilst you live, it will be a vain thing 
for you to say Christ s words when you come to die. When 
men come to their death, ye know they do ordinarily make 
their wills ; and in the first place they say, I give my soul 
unto God ; then if they have lands, or houses, or money, 
they give them to their wives, children, relations and friends, 
according to their pleasure. But suppose, now, that a man 
shall give land or house to such or such a child or friend, 
which he hath sold or given away before, shall his will stand 
in force ? Will not all men say, This he could not give away, 
for he had sold that or given that before ? So in regard of 
one s soul ; though upon my death I say, As for my soul, I 
give that to God ; yet if I have sold away my soul before, for 
unjust gain, or have given away my soul before unto filthy 
pleasures, how can I resign and give that to God when I die ; 
will not the Lord say, Nay, this is none of your s to give, 
this you had sold or given away before ? Oh, then, be sure 
of this, that whilst you live, you do not sell or give away 
your soul from God, for then death-bed resignation will be 
but as the act and deed of a man that makes his will when he 
is not compos mentis. 

If you would so resign your soul unto God when you die, 
that you may receive this depositum again with comfort; then 
be sure that you make God your friend whilst you live, else 
what repose can you put on him when you die. Who doth 
trust a jewel in the hands of a stranger or enemy? We read, 
Judges x. 14, when the children of Israel had forsaken the 

* Domine, fac ut ultimum tuura verbum in cruce, sit etiam ultimum meum 
verbum in hoc luce. Gerard, ex Dionys. Harm. cap. xvii. 

SKR. 7-] REMAINS. 163 

Lord, and served other gods, that when they cried to the 
Lord to save them out of the hands of their enemies, the 
Lord said unto them, " Go and cry unto the gods which ye 
have chosen, and let them save you in the time of your tri 
bulation/ 5 So will the Lord say to us, if in the time of our 
health we follow after our pleasures and profits and our old 
sins, " Go and cry to the gods whom ye have served ;" go 
and repose your souls in their hands, and let them help you 
now if they can. No man will repose or commit that which 
he prizeth into the hands of a stranger or enemy. Oh, then, 
whilst we have our health and life let us make God our friend. 

And not only so. but get an assurance that God is your 
friend and Father : though God be our friend, if we do not 
know it, how shall we commit our souls to him when we die. 
Paul said, " I know whom I have trusted, that he is able to 
keep that which I have committed to him unto that day/ 
It is an hard thing for a doubting heart that cannot say, 
Father, distinctly, to resign as Christ did. Why then should 
you live upon hopes mingled with uncertainties ; is it not 
yet time to get your assurance ? Oh, labour more and tnore 
to attain to these rises ot assurance ; for the more assurance 
you have when you come to die, the more easily and truly 
you will say, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit/ 

And if you would resign up your soul unto the hands of 
God, so as you may receive that depositum again with com 
fort ; then observe what that depositum is which God doth 
now trust you with, and be you faithful in the keeping 
thereof. When Christ went away, he left us a depositum, he 
did leave and deposit some of his things in our hands ; his 
truths, his ordinances, his talents ; and if I do not keep his 
trust, his truths, his ordinances, his talents, how can I expect 
that he should keep my soul for me ? Mark how these go 
together. " I know whom I have trusted," says Paul, " and 
I am persuaded he is able to keep that which I have 
committed to him," 2 Tim. i. 12. Then ver. 14, " That good 
thing which was committed unto thee, keep." As if he 
should say. As we desire that he should keep our trust, so 
we must keep his trust. Some things the Lord hath com 
mitted to us ; some things we commit to him. Now, there 
fore, as you do desire that he may keep your souls for you, 

M 2 

164 REMAINS. [SER. 7- 

so do you keep his truths, his ordinances, and whatever he 
hath committed unto you. 

And if you would be able to do this work of soul-resigna 
tion in the day of your death rightly, then use yourself to do 
it every day. That is easily done which is often done. And 
if you look upon the example of Christ, ye shall find, that as 
soon as he drew near to the cross, the first thing he did was 
to resign up his will unto God, being in his agony in the 
garden. " If it be possible (saith he) let this cup pass; yet 
not my will, but thy will be done." And the last thing he 
did, was to resign up his soul unto God. This affliction was 
begun and ended with holy resignation. It is begun with a 
resignation of his will, it is ended with a resignation of his 
soul. So should all our afflictions be begun and ended with 
self-resignation; and if I can but begin my affliction with 
the resignation of my will unto the will of God, I shall end 
the affliction with the resignation of my soul into the hands 
of God. And the more frequently I do it whilst I live, the 
more easily I shall do it when I die, and say in truth with 
Christ, " Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." 

Study the sovereignty of God. The more your heart is 
possessed with God s sovereignty, the more resignation. 
" It is the Lord," said Eli, " let him do what seemeth good," 
1 Sam. iii. 18. And, Good is the word of the Lord," said 
Hezekiah, 2 Kings xx. 1 9. 

Then behold this example of Christ, being before you: 
" Whom beholding," &c. The sight of a resigning Christ, 
will make you resign and say, " Father, into thy hands I 
commend my spirit." 

And thus now I have done with this last speech of Christ 
on the cross. The words of dying friends are precious, and 
we remember them. Now ye have heard this living saying of 
a dying Christ. You that are the friends of Christ will 
remember them ; and the Lord teach us so to remember 
them, that thereby we may learn both to live and to die, both 
to do and to suffer. 




That you would walk worthy of God, who hath called you to his 
kingdom and glory." 1 THESS. n. 12. 

IN this chapter you have a relation of the apostle Paul s 
entrance unto the Thessalonians, how they received him, and 
how he preached to them. " For yourselves, brethren, know 
our entrance in unto you, that it was not in vain : but even 
after that we had suffered before, and were shamefully in- 
treated, as ye know, at Philippi, we were bold in our God to 
speak unto you the gospel of God with much contention/ 5 
ver. 1, 2. It was with much sincerity that he preached : 
" Our exhortation was not of deceit, nor of uncleanness, nor 
in guile/ 5 ver. 3. In opposition to worldly interests : " Not 
as pleasing men, but God which trieth our hearts. For nei 
ther at any time used we flattering words, nor a cloke of 
covetousness ; nor of men sought we glory, neither of you, 
nor yet of others, when we might have been burdensome as 
the apostles of Christ," ver. 4, 5, 6. It was with all gentle 
ness and love : " We were gentle among you, even as a nurse 
cherisheth her children : being affectionately desirous of you, 
we were willing to have imparted unto you, not the gospel of 
God only, but also our own souls, because ye were dear unto 
us," ver. 7? 8. It was with much industry and labour : " La 
bouring night and day, because we would not be chargeable 
to any of you, we preached unto you the gospel of God," 
ver. 9. It was with all holiness of conversation : " Ye are wit 
nesses, and God also, how holily, and justly, and unblame- 
ably we behaved ourselves among you that believe," ver. 10. 
With all manner of exhortation : " As ye know how we 
exhorted, and comforted, and charged every one of you, as a 
father doth his children, that you would walk worthy of God," 
ver. 11. So here then you have the matter exhorted to, and 
the motive pressing thereto : " Who hath called you to his 
kingdom and glory." Or, here you have, 
- The person calling : " God." 

The dignity called unto : " Who hath called you to his 
kingdom and glory." 

The duty that flows from thence : " That you would walk 

166 REMAINS. [SER. 8. 

worthy of God, who hath called you to his kingdom and 

Hence observe, That it is the duty of all who are called to 
God s kingdom and glory, to walk worthy of the kingdom 
and glory of God. I shall therefore shew you, 

First, What this vocation or calling is ; and that there is 
that in it, that may and should provoke us to walk worthy of 

Secondly, That when God brings home any man to him 
self, he doth it in a way of calling ; and why so ? 

Thirdly. That it is the duty of all that are called, to walk 
worthy of God. 

Fourthly, How a man shall know that he is truly called. 

Fifthly, What we should do, that we may walk worthy of 
God who hath called us. 

First, This vocation is an act of God s grace and mercy, 
whereby we are invited to the great supper of the gospel, to 
communion and fellowship with Christ. As it is an act of 
God s grace and mercy> so it is opposed to works. " For 
the children being yet unborn, neither having done good or 
evil, that the purpose of God according to election might 
stand, not of works, but of him that calleth," Rom. ix. 11. 
Calling is opposite to works. So 2 Tim. i. 9, " Who hath 
saved us and called us with an holy calling ; not according to 
our works, but according to his own purpose and grace/ &c. 
Vocation is an act of God s grace wholly. 

Men are invited to the great supper of the gospel ; that is, 
to fellowship and communion with Christ. " God is faith 
ful, by whom you were called unto the fellowship of his Son, 
Jesus Christ our Lord," 1 Cor. i. 9. 

If you look unto the persons that are invited to the great 
supper; Luke xiv. 16 ; Matt. xxii. 1, 2, 3, [that great supper 
is nothing but communion and fellowship with Christ] those 
that are invited, Matt. xxii. 3. are said to be called. " He sent 
forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the supper." 
And of those that refused to come, it is said, " Many are 
called, but few are chosen," ver. 14. 

Only this invitation to communion and fellowship with 
Christ, is to be considered two ways. Merely and barely, as 
it is an act of God inviting by the word ; or as it implies our 
answer or consent to that invitation. As when a man is 

SER. 8.] REMAINS. 167 

called to an office either in church or state, he is said to be 
called, though he does not accept of it; but when election and 
voluntary acceptation meet together, then there is a call. 
So our heavenly call, taking it in a large sense : all that live 
under the gospel are called, and invited. But in a proper 
and strict sense, men are said to be called only, when they 
accept, and consent upon Gods invitation. This distinction 
is very necessary: for Matt. xxii. 14, it is said, many are 
called, but few are chosen. And Rom. viii. 30, it is said expressly 
" That wjiom lie bath predestinated, them he also called, and 
whom he called, them he also justified." If those that are 
called, are predestinated and justified, how is it true, " That 
many are called, and few are chosen ?" I answer, taking 
calling in a large sense, for a bare invitation, many are called. 
Taking calling in a strict sense, as implying our answer, 
and acceptation, and consent thereto, so none are called but 
those ffyat accept the call, and are brought home to God. 
God^s calling is an effectual invitation of a person to the great 
snpper of the gospel, whereby a man does accept it, and is 
brought home to God. 

Secondly. How does it appear, that when God brings home a 
man to himself, he does it in a way of calling j and why so? I 
answer, if our conversion be called our calling, and the saints 
are described by their calling, the thing is true; " Make your 
calling and election sure," 2 Pet. i. 10, that is your conver 
sion. Rom. i. 6, 7 "Among whom also are ye called of 
God. Called to be saints." So 1 Cor. i. 2, Saints by call 
ing. If the saints and people of God be described by, the 
called ones, and our conversion be termed our calling, then 
when God brings home a man to himself, he does it in a way 
of calling. 

Because those that God brings home to himself, are afar 
off. We call men that are afar off: if they be near, we speak 
to them. By nature we are afar off from God ; therefore 
when he converts men, he is said to call. Acts ii. 14, 39 ; 
" Peter standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and 
said to them, Ye men of Judea, &c. hearken to my words. 
For the promise is to you, and to your children, and to 
all that are afar off, even to as many the Lord our God shall 
call." Called upon this account, because ye are afar off. 



Is it not necessary, that we shouldbe conformed to Christ our 
Head,, and to Abraham our father, " the father of the faith 
ful 1" You shall find Abraham was called,, Isa. li. 2, "Look 
unto Abraham your father, &c. for I called him alone." 
Christ is also said to be called in a way suitable to him, Matt, 
ii. 15, " Out of Egypt have I called my son." Heb. v. 4, "No 
man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that was called 
of God, as was Aaron." Isa. iv. 26, " I the Lord have called 
thee in righteousness," &c. Isa. xlix. 1, " Listen, O isles unto 
me, &c. the Lord hath called me from the womb." We are to 
be conformable to Christ our Head, and to Abraham our 
father, in our calling. 

If God shall bring a man home to himself, according to the 
practice of men, he must bring him home in a way of calling : 
" I drew them with the cords of a man," Hos. xi. 4. When 
God deals with man, it is in a way suitable to man : but why, 
when he brings a man home to himself, will he do it in a 
way of calling, when as he might do it immediately by his 
own infinite power? If I knew that a man would not accept 
my invitation to dinner, I would never send to invite him. God 
knows that every one will not come, what need he then stand 
calling and inviting ? We must consider, that as God will 
deal with man in the way, and according to the manner of 
men ; so he will deal with man also in the way of God too. 
Christ is God-man, God manifested in the flesh. 1 Tim. iii. 6. 
Because the work of our redemption was to be carried on by 
the hand of God, and by the hand of man both. Whereas 
should God deal with man only as God, then he would con-* 
vert him presently by his own infinite power, and never 
make any invitation to him : and if he should deal with man 
only as man, he would never invite any of the dead : for 
who is there of you that will send to the grave, and invite a 
dead man to your table ? But as God, he invites dead ones. 
There are some that think Christ need not to invite, because 
he can bring men home to himself by his own almighty 
power : but such do forget that the Deity works as a man. 
Others think men are to be converted only by moral suasions 
and persuasions ; such do forget that Christ works as God 
too. But Christ is God-man ; because the great work of 
our redemption and salvation, is to be carried on by the 

SER. 8.] REMAINS. 169 

hand of both. As God, he does invite and call irresistibly, 
omnipotently ; as man, he inyites by persuasion ; as God- 
man, he invites, and gives a heart to accept of his invitation. 

If all those blessings and mercies we are called to, are 
called God s blessings and mercies, (as so they are, te Who 
has called us out of darkness into his marvellous light/* 
1 Peter ii. 9, " who hath called us to his kingdom and 
glory/ ) it were presumption in me to meddle with the 
things of God, with " the things that are God s/ if he did 
not invite me to it ; but if a beggar comes to your house, 
and shall sit down at your table, he does not presume, be 
cause you have invited him. God will have his people 
know, that they do not presume when they come at his in 
vitation, and call and meddle with the things of God. 

If all the work of Christianity be bestrewed with difficulty, 
and affliction, we had need be called thereunto, for in the 
time of affliction or difficulty, what shall bear up our heart, 
and carry us through, but God s call ? God s call is our 
warrant, and our strength ; therefore fit that all that are 
brought home to God, it should be in a way of calling. 

Thirdly, What is the duty, then, of all that are called to 
God s kingdom and glory ? 

I answer, It is their duty to walk worthy of God. By 
worthy is not meant a worthiness of merit. No ; there is a 
four-fold worthiness mentioned in Scripture. 

1. In regard of merit; so only Christ is worthy. "For 
thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals," 
Rev. v. 9. 

2. In regard of acceptation ; so the saints are worthy. 
" They shall walk with me in white, for they are worthy," 
Rev. iii. 4. 

3. In regard of proportion ; so " Our present afflictions are 
not worthy to be compared with the glory that shall be reveal 
ed," 2 Cor. iv. 17. That is, there is no proportion between the 
glory of heaven, and the afflictions we meet with here below. 

4. In regard of meetness, suitableness, and fitness. " Bring 
forth therefore fruits meet for repentance/ Matt. iii. 8. 
And thus it is the duty of all that are called, to walk worthy 
of God, &c. 

Because dignity calls for duty ; and the more dignity, the 
more duty : what greater dignity than to be called to God s 
kingdom and glory ? 

170 REMAINS. [SSR. 8. 

The more sad and dismal any man s condition is, the more 
he is obliged, and engaged, and bound to God, to walk wor 
thy and answerably to God who hath called him out of that 
condition. The condition we are called out of, is a condition 
of great darkness ; for that is great darkness a man is in, 
which he cannot rise out of, nor lie still in. This is our 
condition ; we can neither rise out of it of ourselves, nor 
lie still in it. " Therefore arise from the dead, and Christ 
shall give thee light," Eph. v. 14. 

The more comfortable and glorious the condition is that a 
man is called unto, the more he is engaged to God, who hath 
called him to that condition. What is good in all the world, 
or desirable, but we are called to it, in this being " called to 
his kingdom and glory ? " Is light desirable ? We are " called 
out of darkness into his marvellous light." Is holiness 
desirable ? " God hath not called us to uncleanness, but 
unto holiness/ 5 1 Thess. iv. 7- Is peace desirable ? We are 
called to peace, 1 Cor. vii. 5. Is communion arid fellowship 
with Christ desirable ? We are called to that, 1 Cor. i. 9, 
" God is faithful by whom ye are called to fellowship with his 
Son, Jesus Christ our Lord." Is the kingdom of God and 
his glory desirable ? The text says, " We are called to his 
kingdom and glory." What is desirable, that by our voca 
tion we are not called unto. 

But may not these be lost ? No. 

The gifts and calling of God are without repentance. The 
gifts of the creation was not without repentance. " God 
repented that he had made man," Gen. vi. 6. But the gift 
of effectual calling is without repentance ; therefore the more 
obliged to God for calling ; and therefore our duty to walk 
worthy of our calling. 

The more dangerous it is to refuse the call of God, the 
more mercy it is to be called, and the more obliged we are 
to walk worthy of God who hath so called us. Prov. i. 24, 
" Because I called, and ye refused, I will also laugh at your 
calamity," &c. But that I would have you consider, in 
Matt. xxii. 1. If you mark the parable, you will find three 
threes run parallel one with another. Three invitations, 
verse 3, " He sent forth his servants to call them that were 
bidden " to the wedding feast formerly. Then, verse 4, there 
is the third invitation : " Again he sent forth other servants, 

SER. 8.] REMAINS. 171 

saying, Tell them which are bidden, behold, I have prepared 
my dinner, &c., all things are ready, come to the marriage/ 5 
Three refusals run parallel with these three invitations : 
at verse 3, they that were bidden formerly, at the second 
time of the servants being sent to call them, would not 
come. And again, verse 4, " He sent forth other servants, 
saying, Tell them which are bidden, behold all things are 
ready, come to the marriage ; but they made light of it/ 5 
Verse 5, there is the third invitation, " And the remnant 
took his servants, and intreated them spitefully, and slew 
them/ 5 verse 6. Observe three judgments run parallel with 
these three refusals, Luke xiv. 24, for it is one and the same 
parable. In Matt. xxii. 8, it is said, " That when the king 
heard thereof, he was wroth, 55 and said, " The wedding is 
ready, but they that were bidden were not worthy. 55 And, 
in Luke, " I say unto you, (says he) not one of those men 
that were bidden shall taste of my supper. 55 And verse 7* 
" The king sent forth his armies (there is a second judgment) 
and destroyed these murtherers, and burnt up their city ; 55 
that was a third judgment. What a dangerous thing is it 
to refuse God 5 s calling and invitation. It is a great mercy 
to be kept from refusing; and therefore if God calls, and 
gives us a heart to accept it, it is our duty to walk worthy of 
his calling, worthy of God. Therefore, 

Fourthly, When may a man be said to be called ; and how 
shall I know if I be truly called or no ? 

Those that do not live under a gospel ministry, nor never 
did, were never called ; for God does ordinarily call men by 
preaching of the word. But though men do live under the 
means of grace, if they have not a disposition suitable, they 
are not called effectually, though called outwardly. They 
have not the wedding garment ; for what is the wedding 
garment ? A call to the wedding supper, to communion 
with Christ in the gospel, and a disposition suitable to 
accept the call ; so that I shall know that I am effectually 

If the Lord hath put forth an infinite and an almighty 
power upon my soul, constraining me to turn from my sins 
to God. Do they that are called refuse ? u Go out into the 
highways and hedges, 55 says the Lord, " and compel them to 
come in, 55 Luke xiv. 23. When a man can say, " The love 

172 REMAINS. [SEE. 8. 

of Christ constrains me ;" I can do nothing against Christ, 
but for Christ ; they are effectually called. 

If you are begotten by the word of promise, then you are 
called effectually. " In Isaac shall thy seed be called," 
Rom. ix. 7 How was Isaac begotten ? Not in a way of 
nature, but "by a word of promise," verse 8. 

If you. be separated from the world indeed, from the things 
and persons of the world. 1 Pet. ii. 9, " But ye are a cho 
sen generation, a royal priesthood, a peculiar people, an holy 
nation, that ye should shew forth the praises of him that 
hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light." 

If there be in you an aptness, a readiness, and a willing 
ness to be ruled by the word in all things, then are you 
effectually called. So when Cornelius was called, and Peter 
came to preach to him, Acts x. 29, " We are all present (says 
he to Peter) to hear all things that are commanded thee of 
God." And so when Paul was called, "Lord, what wilt 
thtfu have me to do ? " says he, Acts ix. 6. 

If you can say in truth, that all things work together for your 
good, then are you indeed " called according to his purpose," 
Rom. viii. 28. Not to them that are called outwardly, but 
to them that are called according to his purpose, effectually 
and truly, do all things work together for good. Can you 
say, I was under such and such an affliction or temptation, 
and it wrought together for my good ; and under such a de 
sertion, and it wrought for my spiritual good ? Then you 
are called truly according to his purpose. 

If you hold forth the praises of him that hath called you, 
then are you called truly and effectually; for why are you 
called, but "that you should shew forth the praises and 
virtues of him that hath called you ?" 1 Peter ii. 9. 

If any shall complain, I fear I am not effectually called, 
because I was first wrought upon by afflictions; those 
that are truly called, I find are called by the servants, by the 
preachers of the gospel ; 

To this I answer : It is true that God does ordinarily call 
men effectually by his ministers, who are the servants he 
sends forth ; but remember also it is said. " He sent forth 
other servants to tell them which were bidden, all things are 
ready, come to the marriage," Matt. xxii. 4. Christ has 
other servants than these his ministers; though ordinarily 

SER. 8.] REMAINS. 173 

those he truly and effectually calls, it is by these. But he 
sends other servants too ; he can give commission to an 
affliction to bring home souls to himself. What think you 
of the prodigal ? Luke xv. Was not he brought home to 
his father by an affliction ? Was not Naaman brought 
home to God by his leprosy ? You will say perhaps, These 
were providentially, occasionally. But what say you then 
to Zaccheus ? Was it not a kind of accidental, providential 
call that he had ? And that Christ should call Matthew as 
he passed by, and saw him sit at the receipt of custom ? 
Waldus, the father of the Waldenses, he and a company of 
his friends had supped together, and been merry; and as 
they were returning home, one of them fell down dead in 
the street. This was an occasional means of his conversion, 
who was so famous a man, and an instrument of converting 
so many thousands to the true religion. But shall the 
prodigal say, I fear my conversion is not right, because 
affliction led me first home to my father ? Shall Zaccheus 
say, It was but an accidental thing that I ran up into the 
sycamore tree, being low of stature, and so could not else 
have seen Jesus for the press, whom I desired only out of 
curiosity to see, and therefore I fear my call was not right ? 
God knows how to make use of contingencies, occasional 
providences, and of your afflictions, to bring you home to 
himself. And if you be brought home to God by the hand 
and ministry of affliction, that you can say as one did, If my 
parents had not been undone, I had been undone for ever; 
be content then with affliction, and love it the better. 
Usually persons have the greatest love for that minister that 
was the first instrument of their conversion. 

Again, If any shall say, I fear I am not truly nor effec 
tually called, because I do not know the time when I was so 
called ; there being some that can tell you the very time, 
and the sermon, and the particular word in the sermon, that 
was effectual to their conversion ; but I can give no account 
of any of these, 

I answer, The sun when it comes into a room where the 
windows have no shutters, comes in by degrees; but it 
comes into a room where the windows have shutters all at 
once. Where there are the shutters of profaneness, drunk 
enness, uncleanness, and the like, when such men are 

174 REMAINS. [SER. 8. 

wrought upon; the sun comes in all at once. Those that 
are born of godly parents, and have been educated and 
trained up in a godly, religious way, they are converted ; 
but many times they cannot tell you neither the particular 
minister, nor the word, nor the time when converting grace 
came in upon their souls ; it came in by degrees ; shall such 
say therefore they are not truly converted ? Suppose a man 
had had the stone, but had got a powder, in the use of which 
the stone does wear out by degrees, shall that man say, I 
never had the stone, because many that are cured of the 
stone, it has been by cutting, and with a great deal of pain 
which I escaped, and therefore I never had the stone ? So 
shall I, because I have not had those terrors and troubles of 
conscience that others have felt, argue therefore I am not 
converted ? No, but go and bless God that you are con 
verted ; that the stone is wrought out of your heart in a 
more kindly and gentle way than in others. I say, What 
shall I do that I may walk worthy of God, who hath effec 
tually called me, and in so sweet and gentle a way ? 

Fifthly, What shall I do, that I may walk worthy of God that 
hath called me, since certainly called I am. I am either called 
outwardly only, or effectually. If a man invites me to din 
ner, and I do not go, I am yet to carry it answerably to his 
love, in inviting me : much more, when the Lord has called 
me, and that effectually, it is my duty to walk worthy of God 
who hath thus called me. I am come into a great and open 
field, through all these precedent gates, I may proceed to fur 
ther particulars hereafter, at present only remember, that a 
man is said to walk worthy of God, when he walks meetly, 
suitably, and answerably to that God hath called him. There 
are four expressions bishop Davenant hath in his notes 
upon the epistle to the Colossians, that run into this same 
matter. Sometimes a man is said to walk worthy of God ; 
sometimes of the Lord Christ; sometimes of the gospel; 
sometimes of the high calling whereunto he is called. But 
that I may speak clearly to the point, 1 shall begin with the 
first of these, and shew you how a man shall " walk worthy 
of God that hath called him to his kingdom and glory," that 
is, suitably and answerably. 

Observe the attributes and excellencies of God, and let 
them shine forth in you, that shine forth in him. God is a 

SER. 8.] REMAINS. 175 

great God; and if you will walk worthy of this great God, 
you must do some great thing for him. Solomon when he 
would build a temple for God, said, " It must be exceeding 
magnificent, for it was for the great God." It is no great 
thing to believe, love, and pray, and give alms to the poor; 
but it is a great thing to believe in the face of impossibilities. 
To love over the head of injuries; to pray when one s heart 
is dead and down ; to give alms to the poor out of but a mite 
or two, as the widow did ; and it is said, " She gave more than 
all the rest." It is no great matter, says one, for a man to 
do great things ; but to do great things, and to think himself 
nothing ; this is a great matter. If you will walk worthy of 
God, do some great thing for God. 

As God is a great God ; so he is a sovereign Lord, abso 
lutely free, and is determined by nothing from without, but 
himself, but only of his own counsels ; therefore if you will 
walk worthy of God, what is the thing wherein his good 
pleasure lies ? Labour to know that : and not only to do the 
thing he commands; but serve the good pleasure of God. 
Be ye more gracious, because God is so freely gracious. 

God is infinitely holy, therefore it is not said, almighty, 
almighty, almighty, not great, great, great, but, holy, holy, 
holy ; because God looks upon holiness as his greatest excel 
lency : so must you, if you will walk worthy of God, " and 
be holy as he is holy, in all manner of conversation," 1 Pet. 
i. 15, 16. 

He is a God all-sufficient, " I am God all-sufficient, walk 
before me, and be upright," Gen. xvii. You give him the 
honour of his all- sufficiency, in being upright. When you 
step out from God, to fetch relief some where else, you dis 
honour God : " Is it because there is no God in Israel, that 
you go out to the god of Ekron ?" 

He is a faithful God. His faithfulness is twice repeated. 
" Faithful is he that hath called you," 1 Thess. v. 24, " God 
is faithful by whom you were called," 1 Cor. i. 9. Then 
would you walk worthy of God who hath called you ; when 
ever God makes a promise, promise yourself that thing, be 
cause God hath promised it ; not because the creature pro- 
miseth it, being big and full of second causes ; but when God 
promiseth, assure yourself of it, because God hath promised 
it. This is to walk worthy of God, as he is faithful. 

176 REMAINS. [SER. 8. 

He is our chief good, and our utmost end, and therefore in 
all your affairs you are to begin with him, and to rest in him, 
and to be boundless and insatiable in your desires after him. 
A worldly man makes the world his end, and therefore is 
insatiable ; thinks he never has enough of it, because he makes 
it his utmost end. 

If you would walk worthy of God, &c. Observe what the 
great design of God is in the world, and labour all you can 
to advance the same : the great design of God in the world, 
is to glorify himself in his Son. Now when a man does pray 
to God, and Christ shall do the thing for him, that he prays 
for ; then the Father is glorified in the Son. " Whatever ye 
shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be 
glorified in the Son," John xiv. 13, And when a man does 
hear Christ, and believe in Christ, and obey Christ, as sent 
of the Father; then he glorifies God the Father in the Son. 

In case you have any work to do, first go to God before 
you try other means ; it is no great honour to God to come 
to him in the last place, when you have no whither else to go, 
and to trnst God when you can trust none else. But to be 
lieve in the face of impossibility, and to love over the head 
of injury, and to pray when all is dead and down ; this is 
worthy of God. 

Observe what that is that hath been your god, and give 
that to God. Bishop Babington, who was a good man in his 
time observes, that the children of Israel did sacrifice to God 
that which was the gods of other nations ; and herein they 
honoured God. If you can give that to God which hath 
been your god ; consider God the Father gave that to you 
that was dearest to him. If you give him that which is dear 
est to you, which you have made your god ; this is a thing 
worthy of God " who hath called you to his kingdom and glory." 

Take heed of sinning in secret, because God sees you; and 
be sure you be much in private duty, for God beholds you. 
The more I walk in the eye of an all-seeing God, the more I 
walk worthy of God. 

In case you do or have received any mercy from God, be 
not only thankful upon account of a benefit, but praise God. 
There is a great deal of difference between thankfulness and 
praise. I am thankful to God for a benefit, but I praise him 
for that excellency of God which shines forth in that benefit. 

SER. 8.] 



Let there be always something of God stamped upon all 
that you do, suffer, or enjoy. Do you think that a naked 
profession is worthy of God; that to pray morning and evening, 
and never think of God all the day after, is worthy of God ? 
No, but if you will walk worthy of God, something of God 
should be stamped upon all your doings, sufferings, company, 
converses and enjoyments. How is it with you as to what 
you have heard? Observe yourselves; would you walk 
worthy of God ? You have heard it is the duty of all that 
are called to his kingdom and glory ; but, Lord, how few are 
there that walk worthy of God, of the gospel, of Christ, of 
that high calling whereunto they are called ! Are there not 
some among us that sit under the gospel, that in point of 
righteousness live beneath heathens; that walk contrary to 
their profession ? Is this to walk worthy of God ? Are there 
not some of us that at the best walk in a legal way, as under 
a covenant of works ? Either you are called effectually or 
you are not ; called you are, outwardly, all of you that live 
under the gospel. If you be not called effectually, the time 
will come when you will have this dreadful question put to 
you, " Friend, how earnest thou in hither, not having a wed 
ding garment ?" not having a gospel disposition suitable to a 
gospel dispensation. If you be called effectually, you are 
called to a kingdom, and faithful is he that hath called you, 
who also will do it. " Only let your conversation be as be- 
cometh the gospel, worthy of him who hath called you to his 
kingdom and glory. 55 

VOL. V. 


A.D. 1667. 

N 2 




THERE is no state or condition of men, but some grace, 
goodness or virtue may and can plant upon ; as there is no 
condition but some sin will grow upon. 

Yet there is some grace or virtue that is most suited unto 
some condition, and will grow best upon such a soil ; there 
fore the apostle John saith, " I will write unto you, fathers, 
because ye have known him that is from the beginning. I 
will write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome 
the wicked one. I write unto you, little children, because you 
have known the Father/ 5 1 John ii. 13. It is our wisdom, 
therefore, to observe what our state and soil is, and to plant 
our ground accordingly. Now old age is a dry and barren 
ground. The state of old age is a state of weakness and of 
much infirmity. Solomon calls it "the evil day," Eccles. xii. 

1. Evil it is in regard of natural and moral infirmities. 
Evil in regard of natural infirmities, for then " the clouds 

return after the rain. 5 In the time of youth, if a man be 
sick, and that cloud hath emptied itself by some great sick 
ness, he is well again, and a fair day of health is upon him. 
But if a man be stricken with years, and a cloud of sickness 
doth arise upon him, though that cloud hath discharged itself 
by some great distemper, yet he hath still infirmitatis stilli- 
cidia post ingentem tempestatem ; still it rains in upon him, 
and he can hardly sit dry in his old cottage; and therefore 
Solomon saith of this evil day, that then (e the clouds return 
after the rain." Then, also, " the sun and moon and stars 
are darkened;" that is, the reason, memory, fancy, and all 
those faculties which do receive and give out our reason, ver. 

2. "Then the keepers of the house do tremble;" that is, 
the hands and the arms: <e and the strong men bow them 
selves;" that is, the thighs and legs: "and the grinders 
cease, because they are few ;" that is, the teeth : " arid those 


that look out of the windows be darkened;" that is, the eyes, 
verse 3 : " and the doors are shut in the streets when the 
sound of the grinding is low ;" that is, the lips are shut and 
kept close, lest the meat should fall out of the mouth through 
want of teeth : "and all the daughters of music are brought 
low ;" that is, both the speech and hearing, verse 4. " Then 
the almond tree flourisheth ;" that is, the head doth grow 
grey and hoary : " a grasshopper is a burden ;" for an old 
man cannot bear the lightest burden : e( and desire faileth ;" 
that is, the appetite unto meat, drink, and the marriage bed, 
verse 5. " Then the silver cord is loosed;" that is, the mar 
row of the back : " and the golden bowl is broken ;" that is, 
the skull, which is round, yellow, and doth contain and pre 
serve the brain : e( and the pitcher is broken at the fountain ;" 
that is, the bladder which did hold the urine, which in old 
age doth insensibly pass away : " and the wheel is broken at 
the cistern ;" that is, the lungs are broken off from their 
motion of respiration or inspiration by pleghm from the sto 
mach, or the circulation of the blood interrupted or hindered, 
verse 6. Thus the natural infirmities of an old man are very 
many, and the day of old age is an evil day in that respect ; 
yea, upon this account, an old man is but half a man, (f for 
eyes hath he, aad seeth not ; ears hath he, and heareth not." 

But as the day of old age is an evil day in regard of natural, 
so in regard of moral infirmities ; for, 

Then men are apt to be too drowsy and remiss in the 
things of God. 

Then they are apt to be too covetous and tenacious for the 
things of the world : fugientem sequimur mundum : as wan 
tonness is the young man s vice, so covetousness is the old 
man s sin. 

Then are they apt to be too timorous and fearful : we read 
but of one man that came to Christ by night, out of fear, and 
he was a rich and old man, Nicodemus. 

Then are they apt to be too touchy, peevish, angry and 
froward, for old age is a continued sickness, and in sickness 
men are apt to be angry. 

Then are they, also, unapt to be taught, and are very un- 
teachable ; they think they know more than others, and that 
they are not now to learn, Eccles. iv. 13. 

!HAP. 2.] WORD TO THE AGED. 183 

Then they are hard to be pleased, and as hard to please 

Full of complaints they are of the present times, praising 
the former days of old, which the old men of those days did 
as much complain of as they do of these. 

And of all men, if they be not good, they are the most 
impenitent, for by custom, and long continuance in sin, they 
are the most hardened, and so the least penitent. 

Apt they are, also, to think and speak of the sins of their 
youth with delight, and so to commit them again by thought 
and word which they cannot come at by their action. 

They are full of suspicions, and very apt to surmise, sus 
pect and fear the worst, for experience giving notice of former 
dangers, keeps their souls in continual alarm. 

Having therefore, and labouring under all these and other 
infirmities, both natural and moral, a threefold work is in 
cumbent upon the aged : First, To comfort and bear up 
themselves against their natural infirmities. Secondly, To 
strengthen themselves against their moral infirmities, and to 
root them out. Thirdly, To plant ^that positive grace and 
goodness in the. room thereof which doth best suit with their 
soil and condition. 



COMFORTS against the natural infirmities of old age are 
very many. 

Christ himself did bear them, and still, as our High Priest, 
doth sympathize with us under them ; such did he single out 
for his care and cure when he was here on earth. John v. 
There were many that lay by the pool of Bethesda, among 
the rest there was one that had lain sick and diseased thirty 
eight years ; a young man, therefore, he was not ; he would 
have stept into the pool, but others stept in before him, and 
he had no man to help him in. A poor neglected man he 
was, whom others minded not. Yet this was the man that 
Christ came to cure, whom Christ minded, and sought out, 
and cured. What, then, though you be a poor neglected old 


person, and have lien long under your infirmities, yet Christ 
hath a cure for you. The blind men cried, and their cries 
put Christ to a stand for mercy, Matt. xx. 31, 32. 

Though your infirmities he never so many and great, yet 
you have a peculiar honour that is twisted with your infirmity, 
for it is called the crown of old age. In times of the old 
testament they were to rise up and bow before the ancient ; 
yea, it is our duty to honour them, for this honour is joined 
and commanded with the fear of God. Lev. xix. 32, " Thou 
shalt rise up before the hoary, and honour the face of the old 
man, and fear thy God, saith the Lord." The fear of God 
and honouring the old man is commanded with the same 
breath, and linked together in the same sentence. 

Though you be very aged yet you may be very good. Was 
not Eli very good, yet very aged ? Was not David very good, 
yet he was very old when he said, " Lord, now lettest thou 
thy servant depart in peace ?" Was not Anna very good, yet 
she was very aged ? Who doth not know what a good man 
Paul was, yet, saith he, Paul the aged. Good John was r^ged 
John. Possibly, then, you may be very good, though you be 
very aged, labouring under much infirmity. 

And though your flesh be weak, yet your spirit may be 
willing. " The flesh indeed is weak/ said Christ, when his 
disciples slept through natural infirmity, for it was late at 
night, and they were full of grief; "but the spirit is willing/ 
said he, also, and where the spirit is willing, he will pass by 
the weakness of the flesh and accept the willingness of the 

These infirmities of old age are such as are not the fruit of 
our own sin. The more any infirmity is caused by sin, the 
more afflictive it is, for sin is the sting of death. I confess, 
indeed, they may be sometimes, for the sins of youth do 
sometimes bite sore in age. I ate so much of the forbidden 
fruit, said a good man, when I was young, that God was fain 
to give me vvormseed to kill the worm. But the infirmities 
of old age are generally the decays of nature, not of grace. 

They are good warnings of our change approaching, and 
by them we die daily, that at last we may die graciously and 

And who are those that God doth reveal himself unto, but 
to his old friends ; those he will acquaint with his secrets, 


and make known his mind unto. Job xii. 12, " With the 
ancient is wisdom, and in length of days understanding." 

And though your legs be weak, yet they may be strong 
enough to carry you to heaven, that better country, which you 
are now going to, and are very near; indeed your own present 
country is a good country, but the country you are now going 
to is a better country, Heb. xi. 16. 

Better in regard of buildings : " Whose builder and maker 
is God," Heb. xi. 10. 

Better in regard of inhabitants : " Where 110 unclean thing 
doth enter," Rev. xxi. 27- 

Better in regard of quietness and freedom from trouble : 
where all tears shall not only be wiped from our cheeks, but 
out of our eyes, as the greek word bears it, Rev. vii., inso 
much as the eye shall never breed a tear again, nor be the 
womb of tears. 

Better in regard of riches : where you shall have " an in 
heritance incorruptible, undefiled, that fadeth not away." 

Better in regard of pleasure : for saith the psalmist, " At 
thy right hand are rivers of pleasures, and that for ever 

Better in regard of largeness : for if the whole earth be 
but a pin s head in comparison of the heavens, then surely 
there is room enough in heaven for every one to enjoy a greater 
kingdom than all England doth amount unto. 

Better in regard of self-subsistence : here one country doth 
depend upon another, but heaven is that country alone which 
doth depend upon no other country. 

Better in regard of our freedom from needs and necessities. 
It was Augustine s prayer, Deliver me, O Lord, from my ne 
cessities. It is a great mercy now to have bread to eat when 
we want it, but it is a greater mercy to have no need of it. 
A great mercy it is to have a good bed to lie on, and so to 
sleep quietly, but it is a greater mercy to have no need of bed 
or sleep. This is the state of that heavenly country, where 
you have not these blessings, but where you have no need of 

Better, also, it is in regard of continuance, where every 
mercy and blessing glows upon the stalk of eternity. And 
if it be a good thing to have a lease of a good house and land 
fur a hundred years, what a blessed thing then it is to have a 


glorious mansion and inheritance lying in the fields of eter 
nity ? When you come to a great palace, and see fair barns 
and stables and out-houses, you say then, if the out-rooms 
and stables be so costly and sumptuous, how costly and glo 
rious is this palace within ? Yet this is that country, that 
better country that you are going and drawing nigh unto, and 
your passage thither is very short, for no sooner do ye step 
out of this world, but, if godly, gracious, and in Christ, you 
step immediately into that country ; there is no sleeping of 
the soul after death. Some have dreamed of such a sleep, 
but Solomon tells us that " the body upon death goes to the 
dust, and the spirit unto him that gave it," Eccles. xii. J. 
Christ said to the thief, " This day shalt thou be with me in 
paradise ;" and the apostle Paul tells us that paradise and the 
third heaven are one and the same thing, 2 Cor. xii. Yea, 
saith Paul, " I am in a strait betwixt two, not well knowing 
whether I should desire to die for mine own enjoyment, or to 
live for the service of the churches/* Phil. i. 22, 23, 24. 
Whereas, if the soul did sleep in the grave with the body, he 
needed not to have been in that strait. " I desire (said he) 
to be dissolved, and to be with Christ." If with Christ pre 
sently, how can the soul sleep with Ihe body in the dust ? 
" But we know," says he, 2 Cor. v. 1, " that if our earthly 
house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building 
of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the hea 
vens." What, then, though your turf house now be ready 
to fire into a fever with every spark of distemper, is there 
not enough in that house above to pay for all ? surely there 
is. Why, then, should ye not lift up your heads, ye old 
men, and be of good comfort under all your natural infir 

And as for your moral infirmities, if you would strengthen 
yourself against them, and root out these weeds there, 

Be sure that you study and think much on Christ cruci 
fied, who alone is our righteousness and our strength. Temp 
tations or sins blown out by reason or resolution, will easily 
light again ; but quenched in the blood of Christ, and they 
light no more. When the Israelite was stung with fiery 
serpents, he did not stand looking on his swoln arm or leg, 
but on the brazen serpent, and so was cured. Christ lifted 



upon the cross is our brazen serpent, and he hath said, 
" Look unto me, oh, ail ye ends of the earth, and be saved." 

Then by way of consideration, think, and think much with 
yourselves, what an evil thing it is to sin when a man is 
ready to cie. Thus you leave not your sin, but your sin 

Be sure that you do not chew the cud of your former sins, 
by musing on them with delight, for thereby you justify your 
former practice ; but rather mourn over them, for the way to 
keep from future sins is to mourn for former ; and the way 
to be kept from sins of old age, is to mourn for the sins of 
our youth. 

But, above all things, under your study of Christ crucified, 
be sure that you strengthen your love to God in Christ ; for 
if the boughs of the tree be weak, the way to strengthen 
them is, not to carry up dung to the boughs, but to lay the 
dung to the root, for by strengthening the root, you strengthen 
the branches. Now the root of all our mortification is love, 
for love is the cause of hatred. " Ye that love the Lord 
hate evil." Love to God eats out our love to sin, as the fear 
of God eats out our fear of men ; and your love to God is 
strengthened by the sight of his love to you. For love is 
the cause of love ; the more we see God s love to us, the 
more we love him, and do hate our sins. Would you, there 
fore, take up your sinful weeds by the roots ? then strengthen 
your love, and this shall be a staff in your hand, to strengthen 
and bear you up under all your infirmities, both natural and 



BUT there is yet one thing remaining and incumbent on 
the aged, and that is, to plant the positive grace and virtue, 
which doth best suit with his soil and condition. 

What are those good things, therefore, that old men espe 
cially are to do in their old age ? 

They are full of experience, and therefore should be full 
of faith ; for though God s word only be the ground of our 


faith, yet experience is a great help to faith. Now there is a 
faith of reliance, and a faith of assurance. Faith of reliance 
justifies, faith of assurance comforts. Old men, therefore, 
are to exercise the faith of reliance, relying upon Christ s 
righteousness, renouncing their own; and to exercise the 
faith of assurance, for it is ill dying with a doubting soul. 
As zeal is the young man s virtue, so faith is the old man s 

Then it is their work and duty to renew their repentance, 
for they are shortly to appear before the Lord, and to give an 
account of all that they have done in the flesh : and will they 
appear before him in their filthy rags ? Now though we are 
only washed from our sins by the blood of Christ unto justi 
fication, yet we are washed from our filth by the hand of 
repentance unto sanctification. For as God promises to 
wash us with clean water, so he commands us to wash our 
selves. Isa. i. And if a man will not wash and repent at the 
last, when will he repent? When the leaves are off the 
trees, we see the birds nests in the trees and bushes. Now 
in our old age our leaves are off, then therefore we may see 
those nests of sin and lust, in our hearts and lives, which 
we saw not before, and so be sensible and repent of them. 

Then are they also to be much in reading the Scripture, 
meditation and prayer ; for by this reading they shall gain 
knowledge, by meditation upon their reading they shall add 
affection to their knowledge, and by prayer they shall add 
devotion unto their affection. 

And because they are ready to weigh anchor, and to set 
sail for the other world, it will be good for them to observe 
what is the proper work of this world, and , to be much 
therein. For " every thing is beautiful in the time thereof." 
Now is a time for believing. Heaven is no time for faith, 
for in heaven we live by sight. Now is a time for repent 
ance ; in heaven there is no repentance, for there is no sor 
row. Now is a time of patience ; in heaven there is no pa 
tience under affliction, for there is no affliction. Now is a 
time of hearing the word preached, and for sacraments and 
ordinances; there is no preaching, sacraments or ordinances 
in heaven. Now is a time to relieve the poor; in heaven 
there is no room for such charity : it is that country where no 
beggar lies at your door. Now is a time to observe our 


relations ; in heaven there are no such relations, for (( they 
neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the an 
gels/ 5 Now, therefore, whatever is in the power of your 
hand to do, do it with all your might, for in the grave there 
is no work, nor in heaven there is none of this work, whither 
you are going. This, therefore, that is to be done here, and 
cannot be done there, is now to be done especially. 

Then it is the old man s duty to live much in a little time, 
and to be more exact and strict in his life than ever ; for the 
nearer the stone comes to the centre, the faster it moves ; 
the more wisdom any man hath, the more exactly he works. 
Wisdom and exactness go together : " See that you walk 
exactly, not as fools, but as wise/ 5 says the apostle. Now 
grey hairs should be found in the way of wisdom ; and the 
more frequently a man doth work, the more exactly he may 
do the same. Now those that are ancient, have, or should 
have been frequently in holy duties ; they therefore, of all 
men, are to live and walk most exactly. Thus it shall not 
be said of them, as Seneca says of one, he did not live long, 
but he was long. 

Then are they to knock off from the world, and to use the 
world as if they used it not : " For the fashion of this world 
passeth away, and the time is short, therefore their modera 
tion should be known unto all men, for the Lord is at hand." 
If a tooth be to be drawn, and the gum be cut, the tooth 
doth come out with ease ; but if it be fast set in the gum, 
and not first loosened from the gum, it comes out with much 
difficulty : and what is the reason that many die with such 
difficulty ? but because they are so fast set in their worldly 
gums, they are not loosened from their relations. Good 
therefore it is for old men, who are upon the brink of death, 
to cut their gum, and to loosen themselves from this world 
and all their relations. 

Then let the old man take heed of all these evils, that may 
and will stain the glory of his old age. All sins do leave a 
blot and stain behind them, but youthful sins do especially 
stain old age ; for the sin is the greater as it is more contrary 
to the sinner. It is an evil thing for any man to be unjust, 
but worse for a judge to be so, because there is a special re 
pugnancy betwixt the sin and the sinner : now there is a 
special repugnancy betwixt old men and youthful sins. Give 


me a young man indeed with an old man s virtue, wisdom. 
Give me an old man indeed with a young man s grace, zeal. 
But a young man vitiated with an old man s sin, covetous- 
ness ; or an old man defiled with a young man s sin, wanton 
ness ; are an abomination both to God and man, and are 
stained deeply and greatly. A certain Lacedemonian being 
asked why he suffered his beard to grow so long ; to the end, 
said he, that looking on my white hairs, I may be put in 
mind not to do any act unbeseeming my hoary whiteness. 

Then it is their duty also to prepare for death, their great 
change and dissolution. It was the complaint of Csesar 
Borgius, When I lived, I provided for every thing but death ; 
now I am ready to die, I am not provided to die. Such pro 
viders in the world there are very many ; but shall I provide 
for a journey, and not for this great journey ? This is every 
man s work, but the old man s especially. For though the 
young man s candle may go out, the old man s will and shall. 

But what should the old rran do, that he may be fit to 

God will give dying grace upon dying ground. Yet, 

He must be sure to do the work of his present day ; the 
only way to be fit for the work of the morrow, is to do the 
work of the present day. 

Then let him examine himself, and make his reckonings 
even with God, that when he comes to die, he may have no 
thing to do but to die. 

Then let him resign and give up himself and will to God 
afresh. Thus Christ did as soon as he drew nigh to death. 
" If it be possible," said he, " let this cup pass ; yet not my 
will, but thy will be done ;" which he did again and again, at 
his first approach unto death, and this he did in his last 
words, " Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." 

Let him long after heaven, and not be afraid to die, for if 
he be in Christ death itself is his. " All things are your s," 
saith the apostle, " life and death, for ye are Christ s :" and 
who is afraid of his own ? The child is not afraid of the 
great mastiff, but puts his hands into the dog s mouth ; and 
if you ask him, why so ? for he is our own dog, saith the 
child. Now if a man be in Christ, this great mastiff, death, 
is his own, and therefore why should he be afraid thereof ? 
Yea, why should he not be willing to die ? Was Elijah un- 


willing to go into the fiery chariot ? Is the child unwilling to 
ride home, because it is a trotting horse that he must ride 
upon ? No. What then, though it be an hard and a sore 
sickness that you must ride on, yet if it carry you home to 
your Father, why should you be unwilling to die ? Now the 
only way to be willing to die, is to get assurance of our in 
terest in Christ, and of our own salvation. For what is the 
reason that men are unwilling to die, but because they cannot 
tell where they shall land after death. True, says one, I am 
launching forth into the ocean of eternity, but on what shore 
I shall land, God knows. Oh, that I might live one year 
more, one month more, yea, one hour more, until I had 
assurance of my salvation. And when that comes, then the 
soul having thereby clasped about and gotten Christ into his 
arms, cries out and says, " Lord, now lettest thou thy servant 
depart In peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation/ 5 

Then, also, let him set his house in order, make his will, 
and leave his legacies to his children, friends and posterity. 
Shall Achitopel, when he changed himself, set his house in 
order before he died ; and shall not an ancient Christian set 
his house and heart in order, make his will, and leave his 
legacies unto his friends and posterity? 



BUT what good thing should the old leave, or give unto 
his posterity by his last will ? 

Why first, he must be sure to give his soul unto God while 
he lives ; for if a man gives his soul to the world and devil 
while he lives, what right hath he to give it unto God when 
he dies ? If I give away an house or land while I live, can I 
justly give it to another when I die ? And if I give away my 
soul to sin, world or devil, while I live, how can I justly give 
it to God when I die ? it being a maxim in the common law, 
that vendens eandem rem duobus falsarius est. 

Then let him leave a good example unto his posterity : a 
good example is a great legacy. Thus a man speaks when he 
is dead, as Abel doth. Heb. xi. 


And if he would leave some good things unto his posterity, 
then let him leave his experiences. An old man is, or should 
be, rich in experience ; an ancient Christian is, or should be, 
an experimental Christian : when therefore he comes to die, 
it is his work arid duty to leave those experiences unto his 

Yea, then let him leave some good exhortations and admo 
nitions with and upon his posterity, saying, Come, O my son, 
or daughter, or friend, I am now going the way of all flesh ; 
when I am gome, 

Be sure that you fear the Lord and keep his command 
ments, for if you keep God s commandments, you shall have 
the comfort of his promises. 

Be sure, also, O my son, that you give your first and best 
unto God, for God is the first and best of beings, and " If 
you honour the Lord with your substance, and with the first- 
fruits of all your increase ; then shall your barns be filled 
with plenty, and your presses shall burst forth with new 
wine," Prov. iii. 10. And why should you not give your first 
time and best of your all unto God, who hath given his best 
and only Son unto you. If you serve God while you are 
young, God will bless you when you are old ; and if you 
come unto him when you are young, you may build on it 
that he will not forsake you when you are old. Thus David 
argued, " Forsake me not, O God, now I am old and grey 
headed," Ps. Ixxi. 18. Why ? Ver. 17, " Thou hast taught 
me from my youth ;" ver. 5, " For thou art my hope, O Lord 
God, thou art my trust from my youth." God is engaged, it 
seems by this argumentation, to those that are "good while 
they are young, to shew mercy to them when they are old. 
The hand of a child may pull up a plant, when it is young 
and tender, but if it grows to a tall tree, all the horses in the 
town cannot pluck it up. So in regard of sin ; let ~your 
mortification of sin begin therefore betimes. If the paper 
be clear and clean, you may write any thing on it ; but if 
other things be scribbled on the paper, it is then unfit to 
receive any writing or impression : so in regard of the im 
pressions of good upon the soul and heart. Let "your vivifi- 
cation, therefore, and holiness, begin betimes. Thus let your 
first be given unto God. 

And though you have not so great parts and gifts as others 


have, yet let your desires of good be as full as any others ; 
what you want in expression make up in affection. When 
nature is wanting in one thing, it supplies it in another. The 
blind man hath the best memory. And that God which 
gives you a heart to desire, will give you your heart s desire. 
And if your parts be taller by head and shoulders than 
others, then expect envy, and pray much for humility. 

In case you sin at any time, as you will often, then be sure, 
O my children, that you delay not your repentance; for the 
green wound is most easily cured. The thief indeed was 
converted at the last, but it was as soon as he was called. 
Some come in at the last hour of the day, but they come 
when they are called. Now you are called to-day, and there 
fore defer it not until to-morrow. 

Let your company be good, for every man is as the com 
pany of his choice is. Solomon saith, Eccles. xii., ee Re 
member thy Creator in the days of thy youth ;" which, if you 
please, you may read according to the Hebrew, "In the days 
of the choice, or choices/ because in the days of youth a 
man makes choice of a trade or calling: then he makes 
choice of his religion, then he makes choioe of his wife, and 
then he makes choice of his company. Now then, my son, 
have a care of these choices. 

And let your discourse be always seasoned with salt, for, 
" By your words you shall be justified, and by your words 
you shall be condemned at the last day/ says our Saviour; 
for, sermo index animi, words are the index of the mind. A 
good soul never lives at the sign of ill speech. 

And as for the world and the things thereof, though you 
may pray for much, yet you must be content with little. 
The way to have a mercy or blessing, is to be content to go 
without it; and the way to avoid any evil, is to submit to it; 
and to remove it, is to bless God over it, as Job did. 

Let your recreation, O my children, be sparing, for they 
are but condimentum, your sauce, and not nutrimentum, your 
nourishment, your cordial, and not your diet. 

Of all books, study the Bible ; of all duties, be much in 
prayer; of all graces, exercise faith ; of all days, observe the 
Lord s day ; and of all things in heaven and earth, be sure 
that you get an interest in God by Jesus Christ. 

And by any means, O my children, and friends, " let bro- 

VOL. v. o 


tlierly love continue, for love is the fulfilling of the law." 
Who can break a faggot, when the sticks are joined together 
by the common band ? but if the sticks be parted, how easily 
they are all broken. And what is the reason that such judi 
cial breaches are made upon us, but because our pride and 
want of love doth make such sinful breaches among us. 
Cyprian tells us that the divisions and dissensions of the 
Christians was the cause of the persecutions in the primitive 
times ; for, said he, those evils had not come to the brethren, 
if the brethren had been united or animated into one. But 
I am sure that our Saviour Christ saith, u By this shall all 
men know that ye are my disciples, if ye love one another; 5 
and John, the disciple of love, saith, " By this ye shall know 
that you are translated from death to life, because you love 
the brethren." See therefore that you love the brethren, and 
that because they are brethren. For possibly a man may 
love those that are good, yet not because they are good, for 
then he would love them better that are better, and those 
best that are best. If you love those that are good it is well, 
yet this may be for some self-concernment, and your love 
then will be narrowed, and your affections monopolized, by 
some only of your own persuasion or relation ; but if you 
love those that are good, because they are good, this is better, 
for then you will love all that are good, though some of dif 
ferent persuasion from you : for a quatenus ad omne, &c. from 
all to all is a good consequence. Thus therefore, O my sons, 
let your love be stated, continued and increased towards 
men. But above all, be sure that you love Jesus also for 
Jesus. Jesus is hardly loved for Jesus, but do you love 
Christ for himself, and let the only measure of your love be, 
to know no measure. Thus let the old man do and die, and 
as he lived by faith he shall die in the faith. 

And as motives unto all these things, let the old man con 
sider : 

That in so doing he shall leave a sweet perfume behind 
him, and many shall bless God for him when he is dead. 

That there is enough in heaven to pay for all his pains 
here on earth. 

That he is not so weak but he is strong enough to sin, and 
shall we be strong to sin and not to serve ? 

That it may be it was late ere he came into God s 


work ; and if you played away the forenoon of your age, 
will you not work the harder in the afternoon ? 

That God will accept from youth and old age; from youth, 
because it is the first ; and from old age, because it is the 
last, and from much weakness. 

That God s promise is very full, for he hath promised and 
said, " Thou shalt come to thy grave in a full old age, and as 
a shock of corn cometh in his season," Job v. 26. Yea, he 
hath promised and said, that " those that are planted in the 
house of the Lord, shall flourish in the courts of our God ; 
they shall bring forth fruit in old age, they shall be fat and 
flourishing," Ps. xcii. 13, 14. 

That thus they shall not be afraid to die, but shall say with 
that good man dying, I have not so lived that I am afraid to 
die, but I have so learned Christ that I am not afraid to die. 

Yea, and thus shall his old age be a good old age, and he 
" so number his days, (it is not said his years, nor his months, 
nor his weeks, but days, for his life is so short that it is rather 
to be numbered by days than years, or months, or weeks,) 
that he shall apply his heart unto wisdom." 

o 2 






" Holding faith and a good conscience, which pome having put away, and con 
cerning faith, have made shipwreck." 1 Tim. i. 19. 

" Give unto Caesar the things that are Caesar s, and unto God the things that 
are God s." 

THIS Treatise was once before travelling abroad into the world, till it came unto 
the Author, who could not look upon it without much indignation, to see how 
that, and in it, himself also was so much wronged and abused ; being so perverted 
and misplaced (besides other errata) in the printing, that it was nothing like the 
book that was intended; so falsely, and so contrary to his meaning, that the Au 
thor may truly say as Martial to one : 

Quern recitas meus est, O Fidentine libellus, 
Sed male dum lecitas incipit esse tuus. 

O Fidentine, a book of mine 

Thou printedst with my will; 
And yet not mine, but it is thine, 

Because it s printed ill. 

Much wrong and damage accrued to many by it ; but such be the times, that 
all suffer in one thing or other, and so this may be the more easily borne. It is 
now corrected and much amended by the care and industry of a friend, who de 
sires to commend the book unto thy view, and serious thoughts upon it. 


READER, THOU hast conscience here once again brought unto the trial : the 
Doctor hath condemned the consciences of our parliament and soldiers, in their 
defensive war, which he cills resistance, as guilty of murder, and the prosecution 
of it. damnable : such perilous times are ours, when the best and most faithfullest 
subjects are laid under those false and foul slanders of treason and murder, while 
traitors and murderers are countenanced and encouraged. I desire thou wouldst 
take notice, while this Doctor is busy abroad, thinking to rectify the consciences 
of others, neglects his own, threatening damnation to others, while by the same 
sin he ventures the damning of his. He pleads for honour and obedience to au 
thority, whiles he dishonours, and would draw people to disobedience against the 
parliament, which he doth, while in the face of the world he makes them no bet 
ter than hypocrites, telling us of their plausible but groundless principles, their 
fair but deceiving pretences to draw people into arms, as if, like watermen, they 
looked one way and rowed another, pretending one thing, intending another. 
What doth he less, in his epistle, than charge them boldly, as if what they told 
the people about their dangers were mere figments, and to believe them (saying 
the taking up arras for their defence is warrantable by the fundamentals of the 
kingdom) is to trust without warrant, and to exalt them above their due, and make 
popes of them ; and if they look not to it, they will be blindly carried on against 
all rules of conscience. Much of this stuff is woven along in the book, I only 
give thee a touch of it, ut ex ungue lennem, and take notice, while he is busy in 
pulling the motes out of other men s eyes, he forgets the beam in his own ; and 
take heed how thou followest his guidance, who under shew of steering thy con 
science safe between two rocks, in seeking to bring thee off from one he split it 
on another ; while pressing honour and obedience to authority, he speaks evil of 
the rulers of the people, against an express word, Exod. xxii. 28, " Thou shalt 
not rail upon the judges, neither speak evil of the ruler of thy people;" and 
seeks to withdraw people from obedience to authority. Thou mayest take notice 
that three times already hath this case of conscience been pleaded, and our wor 
thies, both in their actions and consciences, vindicated, acquitted and justified both 
by the law of God and man, who have found the bill of indictment to be errone 
ous, a mere supposal of his own, calling that a resistance to the higher powers, 
which is only a contending for him, to deliver him out of the hands of those that 
seduce and mislead him ; not much unlike that in the people for David, 2 Sam. 
xix. 41, " Why have these men stolen away the king from us ?" This is the 
main work, to bring his majesty back to those who have the most and best interest 
in him, being the representative body of the whole kingdom. In this answer 
thou shalt find the question rightly put, and the main business rightly stated, 
objections fully answered, the Scriptures cleared, and so ground work truly laid 
to satisfy and settle people s consciences. The reasons why it comes so long after 
the rest, are : 1. The Author hearing that the book was already answered, did for 
a while lay aside his thoughts of it when he had begun, till he was strongly pres 
sed to perfect it by the importunity of some friends near him. 2. The distance 


of plac% living many miles from hence. 3. The oft news of terms of pacification, 
which, had they taken effect, would have put an end to these controversies for the 
present. 4. Thou shalt gain by this story, there being recompence made in the 
fulness of the answer, which thou shalt find if thou be willing to read it through 
judiciously, and without prejudice, with a desire to be informed in the truth, and 
satisfied in thy doubts. Truly there is nothing we should be more desirous of, 
than to have our consciences rightly enlightened and throughly stablished in these 
dangerous and unsettled times, the comfort and benefit of a good conscience being 
incomparable and unspeakable in such times and such cases where all other com 
forts fail, and man stands in most need of comfort ; which book, if we shall well 
study, and keep accordingly, we may be able to hold up our heads in the worst 
times. The Author hath to this end published a sermon also, preached to the 
volunteers [forming the second sermon in the fourth volume of this edition] to 
encourage them in the work, to draw the affections, to make them truly zealous 
in so good a cause ; and truly it is the goodness of conscience that makes chris- 
tians as bold as lions, and look all enemies in the face, and part with all to main 
tain it. Thou mayest have them both together, this being also a fit theme to 
press now, where be so many discouragements, that conscience being rightly en 
lightened, and interested in God, we may encourage ourselves in the Lord our 
God ; which is the earnest wish and fervent prayer of him that is desirous of thy 
good, in Christ, 

I. A. 




I HAVE perused Dr. Fearne s book, entitled, The Resolving 
of Conscience ; wherein I find that he hath exceedingly mis 
taken the question : the question in truth is, Whether the 
parliament now hath justly taken up arms ? we affirm it, he 
denies it, and withal slips into another question, Whether it 
be lawful for the subjects to take up arms against their king ? 
but if he will so propound the question, then I must preface 
these two or three distinctions, and one caution. 

First, That the subject is considered two ways, either uni- 
tive or divisive, conjunctively or divisively. The subject con 
sidered divisively hath always applied himself to prayers and 
tears, using no other remedy ; and of this we speak not : but 
conjunctively considered state-wise, so he now doth, and it is 
lawful for him thus to take up arms. Secondly, The subject 
may be said to take up arms, either as an act of self-preser 
vation, or as an act of jurisdiction exercised towards his prince. 
The first way we say it is lawful; the second way we contend not 
for. Thirdly, The subject is said to take up arms against the 
king, either as against the king s person, and of this we do 
not speak ; or as against the king s commandment for their 
own preservation, so we affirm it, and then our position is : 

That it is lawful for the subjects, conjunctively considered, 
to take up arms for self-preservation against the king s com 
mandment, where two things are to be cleared : First, That 
this is the case with the parliament. Secondly, That this is 
lawful for them to do. First, This is their case, for, as any 
reasonable by-stander may observe, there are three grounds 
of this their proceeding : the one is, to fetch in delinquents, 
and such persons as are accused before them, to be legally 
tried in that highest court of the kingdom ; the second is, to 


defend the state from foreign invasion, who see more into the 
danger than we do ; the third is, to preserve themselves and 
the country from the insurrection and rebellion of papists : 
and that this is lawful we prove by divers reasons, some drawn 
from nature, some from Scripture, some from the fundamental 
laws of the kingdom, some from the being of parliaments, 
and some from the common trust reposed on princes. 

First, From nature. It is the most natural work in the 
world for every thing to preserve itself. Natural for a man to 
preserve himself, natural for a community; and therefore 
when a commonweale shall choose a prince, or a state-officer, 
though they trust him with their welfare, then that act of 
their trust is but by positive law, arid therefore cannot destroy 
the natural law, which is self-preservation, cum humana potest- 
as supra jus natura non existit,* seeing that no human power 
is above the law of nature. 

Secondly, From Scripture. The word of God saith ex 
pressly, in 1 Chron. xii. 19, that David went out against Saul 
to battle ; yet he was Saul s subject at that time, for the lord 
of the Philistines sent him away, saying, He will fall to his 
master Saul : which text I bring not to prove that a subject 
may take up arms against the king s person, but that the sub 
jects may take up arms against those that are malignant about 
the king s person, notwithstanding the king s command to 
the contrary, which because this of David is said to be against 
Saul, and that David s heart smote him for cutting off the lap 
of Saul s garment : the meaning, therefore, must needs be, 
that he went out in battle against those that attended upon 
Saul, strengthened by Saul s authority, notwithstanding Saul s 
command to the contrary. And in the New Testament, Rom. 
xiii. 1, we are commanded to be subject to the higher powers; 
now the parliament being the highest court of justice in this 
kingdom, as king James saith in his Basilicon Doron, must 
needs be the higher powers of England ; though the king be 
supreme, yet they have the high power of declaring the law, 
as this Dr. Fearne confesseth, being most fit to judge what is 
law. They, therefore, declaring this to be the fundamental 
law of the kingdom, for the subjects to defend themselves by 
forcible resistance, notwithstanding the king s command to 

* Jacob Almain de auth. ecclesiaj apud Gerson. 


the contrary, it is the duty of all the subjects to be obedient 
to these higher powers. 

Thirdly, From the fundamental laws of the kingdom. It 
is according to the fundamental laws of the kingdom, yea 
written and riot unseen laws, that the parliament is trusted 
by the comrnonweale with the welfare and security thereof; 
whence I do reason thus : If it be the duty of the king to 
look to the safety of the kingdom, and that because he is 
trusted therewith by the commonweale ; then if the parlia 
ment be immediately trusted by the commonweale with the 
safety thereof as well as the king, though riot so much, then 
are they to look to it, and to use all means for the preserva 
tion thereof as well as the king; but so it is that the prince 
is bound to look to the safety and welfare of the kingdom, 
as is agreed by all; and, therefore, he is bound to it, 
because he receiveth this power original, I speak not in oppo 
sition to God, but, I say, originally from the people them 
selves, as appears by the government of the judges and kings 
of Israel, which government, this Doctor saith, was monar- 
chial, the best platform for England : for Judges viii. 22, 
" The men of Israel came unto Gibeon to make him their 
king ;" and Judges ix. 6, " They gathered together and made 
Abimeleck their king;" and Judges xi. 8 1 1, " The people 
covenanted with Jephthah, and made him their king; 55 and 
as for Saul, though he was designed by God to the kingdom, 
yet the people themselves chose the kind of their government 
first, when they said, " Give us a king to rule over us, after 
the manner of the nations." After that God had anointed 
Saul, it is said, 1 Sam. xi. 15, " And all the people went to 
Gilgal, and there they made Saul king before the Lord in 
Gilgal." And as for David, though he was anointed king by 
Samuel, yet we find that he continued a subject unto Saul 
after that; and 2 Sam. ii. " He came unto Hebron, and there 
the men of Judah were, and there they anointed David king 
over the house of Judah/ verse 4. After that he was thus 
anointed by Judah to be king over them, yet he did not rule 
over Israel till the other tribes, also, went out and made him 
king over them, 1 Chron. xii. 38. It is said that all these 
men of war came with a perfect heart to Hebron, to make 
David king over all Israel. And as for Solomon, though he 
was designed by God to the kingdom, yet it is said of him, 


also, 1 Chron. xxix. 22, that " all the congregation did eat and 
drink before the Lord, and they made Solomon, the son of 
David, king the second time, and anointed him unto the Lord 
to be the chief governor." Solomon being dead, 2 Chron. x. 
1, it is said of Rehoboam, that " he went to Shechem, where 
all Israel came to make him king." And in 2 Sam. xvi. 18, 
it is said thus : ee And Hushai said unto Absalom, ^God save 
the king, God save the king. And Absalom said unto Hushai, 
Is this thy kindness unto thy friend, why wentest thou not 
with thy friend ? And Hushai said unto Absalom again, Nay, 
but whom the Lord and this people and all the men of Israel 
choose, his will I be, and with him will I abide." So that we 
see that these monarchs, both of the judges and kings of 
Israel, were chosen and entrusted by the people, and had their 
power of governing from them. The parliament, also, is im 
mediately trusted by the people and commonweale with the 
safety thereof as well as the king, though not to be king, for 
they are the officers of the kingdom, and therefore chosen 
immediately by the people, and not designed by the king : 
and this kind of officers was in David s time also ; there were 
some officers then that were the king s officers, his cooks, his 
bakers, the steward of his house and the like. Others were 
the officers of the kingdom, called the elders, and heads of 
the tribes, which though they were under him, yet were they 
with him trusted in the affairs of the kingdom, whom there 
fore he did consult with in the great affairs of the state, 1 
Chron. xiii. I. Wherefore seeing the king is to look to the 
safety of the- kingdom, and that because he is trusted there 
with by the people, and the parliament are as well trusted by 
the people with the safety of the land, it is their duty in case 
of danger to look to it, which they are not able to do, and 
make good their trust, unless they have power to take up 
arms against an enemy when the prince is misled or defective. 
Fourthly, From the being of a parliament. As it is a par 
liament it is the highest court of justice in the kingdom, 
therefore hath power to send for by force those that are ac 
cused before them, that they may come to their trial ; which 
power, if I mistake not, inferior courts have, much more the 
highest. It is out of doubt agreed on by all, that the parlia 
ment hath a power to send a serjeant-at-arms to bring up such 
an one as is accused before them ; and if they have a power 


to send one serjeant-at-arms, then twenty, if twenty be accu 
sed ; then a hundred, if there be a hundred accused; then a 
thousand, if there be a thousand accused; then ten thousand, 
if there be ten thousand accused ; and so more or less as oc 
casion serves : for there is the same reason for two as for one, 
and for four as for two, and for a hundred as for twenty, and 
for a thousand as for a hundred ; and take away this power 
from the parliament and it is no longer a parliament : but the 
king and his forefathers have by law settled these liberties of 
parliament, and therefore, according to laws, they have a power 
to send for by force those that are accused to be tried before 
them, which they cannot do unless they raise an army, when 
the accused are kept from them by an army. 

Fifthly, From the common trust reposed on princes, and 
the end thereof, which is to feed their people. Psalm Ixxviii. 
70, u He chose David his servant, and took him from the 
sheep-fold to feed his people, Jacob, and his inheritance in 
Israel." The end why the people have trusted the prince, is 
the safety and security of the kingdom, the safety and welfare 
of the state; not that the king might be great and the sub 
jects slaves. Now if a people should have no power to take 
up arms for their own defence because they had trusted the 
prince therewithal, then by that trust they intended to make 
themselves slaves. For suppose the king will let in a com 
mon enemy upon them, or take his own subjects and make 
them slaves in gallies, if they may not take up arms for their 
own defence, because they had trusted their prince there 
withal ; what can this be but by their trust to make them 
selves slaves unto him ? 

The caution that is to be premised is this : notwithstanding 
all that I have said yet, I do not say that the subjects have 
power to depose their prince, neither doth our assertion or 
practice enforce such an inference. 

But if the power of the prince be derived from the people, 
then they may take away that power again. I answer, it fol 
lows not, neither shall the people need to think of such an 
inference. Indeed if the power were derived from the peo 
ple to the prince firstly, and that the people should be so 
strait-laced that they should have no power left to defend 
themselves in case of danger when the prince is misled, or 
unfaithful, then the people might be occasioned to think of 


deposing their prince : but though the power of the prince 
be originally from them, yet if they have so much power left 
as in times of danger, to look to their own preservation, what 
need they think of any such matter. 

Why but if the people give the power, then if abused, they 
may take it away also. I answer, no, that needs not, seeing 
they never gave away that power of self-preservation; so 
that this position of ours is the only way to keep people 
from such assaults, whereby the power of the prince is 
more fully established: whereas if people were kept from 
power of self-preservation which is natural to them, it were 
the only way to break all in pieces ; for Nullum violentwn 
contra naturale est perpetuum, no violent thing against nature 
is perpetual. Thus have I clearly opened our opinion, 
and proved our sentence, give me leave now to speak with 
the Doctor. 


THE Doctor saith, That in the proposition or principle, by 
the word resistance is meant, not a denying of obedience to 
the prince s command, but a rising in arms, a forcible resis 
tance: this though clear in the question, yet I thought good 
to insinuate to take off that false imputation laid upon the 
divines of this kingdom, and upon all those that appear for 
the king in this cause. 

Here the Doctor would insinuate in the very entrance of his 
book, that so he might the better capture benevolentiam, 
curry favour for the matter of his discourse following. That 
the divines of England are of his judgment. But if they be 
so, surely their judgment is lately changed : but indeed what 
divines are of his judgment ? not the divines of Germany, 
not the divines of the French Protestant Churches, not the 
divines of Geneva, not of Scotland, not of Holland, not of 

Not the divines of Germany, who say thus :* Governors 

* Gubernato res ergo in iis rebus quse cum decalogo et justis legibus pugnant 
nihil juris aut immunitatis habent prae caeteris hominibus privatis ; et perpretran- 
tes id quod malum est coguntur tarn metuere ordinationem Dei gladium prestante 


therefore in such things that are repugnant to the law of 
God, have no power or immunity above other private men, 
and they themselves commanding that which is evil, have no 
power or immunity above other private men, and they them 
selves commanding that which is evil, are as much bound to 
fear the ordinance of God, bearing the sword for the punish 
ment of vice as other private men. For St. Paul saith, 
Rom. iii., that God did institute and ordain a power both of 
defending that which is good, and punishing that which is 
evil, and he commands that every soul, and so the governors 
themselves, would be subject to this ordinance of God that 
is bound to do good, if they would be defended by this ordi 
nance of God, and not by their wicked deeds, make them 
selves liable to punishment. 

Not the divines of the French Protestant Churches ; wit 
ness their taking up of arms for the defence of themselves at 

Not the divines of Geneva : for Calvin in his Institutions, 
iv. 10, saith thus : For though the correcting of unbridled 
government be revengment of the Lord, let us not by and by 
think that it is committed to us, to whom then is given no 
other commandment but to obey and suffer ; I speak alway 
of private men, for if there be at this time any magistrates in 
the behalf of the people, (such as in the time were the 
Ephori that were set against the kings of Lacedemonia, or the 
tribunes of the people against the Roman consuls, or the 
demarchy against the senate at Athens, and the same power, 
which peradventure as things now are, the three States have 
in every realm when they hold their principal assemblies) I 
do so not forbid them according to their office to withstand the 
outraging licentiousness of kings, that I affirm, if they wink 
at kings wilfully ranging over, and treading down the poor 
commonalty, their dissembling is not without wicked breach 
of faith, because they deceitfully betray the liberty of the 
people whereof they know themselves appointed to be pro 
tectors by the ordinance of God. 

ad vindictara nocentium quam alii homines privati nam Paulus Rom. 13. docet 
Deum ordinasse et instituisse potestatem illam gladio defendendi bonum, et 
pnniendi malum, et prsecipit ut omnis anima (et sic ipsi gubernatores tali Dei 
ordinationi sit subjecta, hoc est obligat ad faciendum bonum si velit defend! ista 
Dei ordinatione et non obsua facinora impia puniri. Madgeburgensis Cent i. 
lib. 20. 


Not the divines of Holland, fo.r we know what their prac 
tice is towards the king of Spain. 

Not the divines of Scotland, for Buchanan saith,* For I re 
member twelve or more kings among ourselves, who for their 
sin and wickedness were either cast into prison during their 
life, or else eschewed the punishment by banishment. But 
this is that which we contend for, that the people, from whom 
the kings have all that they have, are greater than the kings ; 
and the whole multitude have the same power over them, as 
they have over particular men out of the multitude. Witness 
also their late taking up arms when they came into England, 
which by the king and parliament is not judged rebellion. 

Not our English divines, whose judgment Dr. Willet was 
acquainted with as well as our present doctor, who saith 
thus :f Touching the point of resistance, certain differences 
are to be observed : for when there is an extraordinary call 
ing, as in the time of the judges ; or when the kingdom is 
usurped without any right, as by Athaliah ; or when the land 
is invaded by foreign enemies, as in the time of the Maccabees; 
or when the government is altogether elective, as the empire 
of Germany ; in all these cases then is least question of re 
sistance to be made by the general council of the states ; yet 
where none of these concur, God forbid that the church and 
commonwealth should be left without remedy, the former 
conditions, namely, those alleged by Pareus, observed, when 
havoc is made of the commonwealth, or the church and 
religion. Thus also Dr. BilsonjJ whose book was allowed by 
public authority and printed at Oxford, speaks : If a prince 
should go about to subject his kingdom to a foreign realm, 
or change the form of the commonweale from empery to 
tyranny, or neglect the laws established by common consent 
of prince and people, to execute his own pleasure in these 
and other cases which might be named ; if the nobles and 

* Cap. iv. p. 457. Quod autem ad nos proprie pertinet possum enumerare 
duodecim aut etiam amplius reges qui ob scelera et flagitia aut in perpetuum 
carcerem sunt damnati, aut ex ilio vel morte voluntaria justas sceletum posnas 
fugerant nos autem id contendimus populum a quo reges nostri habent quicqnid 
juris sibi vindicant regibus esse potentiorem : jusqua ; idem ineos habere multitu- 
dinem quod illi in singulos a muldtudine habent. Buchanan de Gub. Regni 
apud Scotos. 

f Dr. Willet s Commentary on Romans xiii. q. 17. 

J Bilson s True Difference between Christian Subjection and Unchristian Re 
bellion, p. 5, 251. 


commons join together to defend their ancient and accus 
tomed liberties, regiments and laws, they may not well be 
accounted rebels. And the title of that page is, The law 
sometimes permits resistance ; and the margin is, In some 
cases the nobles and commons may stand for their public 
regiment and laws of their kingdom. 

All which judgments of several divines, I do not bring 
forth as if I were of their minds for deposing or punishing 
of princes by the people, which we plead not for in hereditary 
princes, but to shew how the Doctor s judgment is different 
from the judgment of the divines of all protestant countries, 
notwithstanding he would insinuate that our divines of Eng 
land are of his judgment. And that our judgment is no new 
upstart opinion, you see what was the judgment of the divines 
in the council of Basil, where one of them saith thus: That 
in every well-ordered kingdom it ought specially to be de 
sired, that the whole realm ought to be of more authority 
than the king ; which if it happened contrary, it is not to be 
called a kingdom, but tyranny. So likewise doth he think of 
the church, &c. 

And presently another of the divines of the same council 
saith thus : For the pope is in the church, as the king is in 
his kingdom ; and for a king to be of more authority than 
his kingdom, this were too absurd : ergo, neither ought the 
pope to be above the church; for like as oftentimes kings 
which do wickedly rule the commonweale, and exercise 
cruelty, are deprived of their kingdoms, even so it is not to 
be doubted, but that the bishops of Rome may be deposed 
by the church, that is to say, by the general council. Neither 
do I herein allow them which attribute so large and ample 
authority unto kings, that they will not have them bound 
under any laws, for such as do so say are but flatterers, who 
do talk otherwise than they think. For albeit that they do 
say that the moderation of the law is always in the prince s 
power, that do I thus understand, that when as reason shall 
persuade, he ought to digress from the rigour of the law : 
for he is called a king who careth and provideth for the com 
monweale, taketh pleasure in the profit and commodity of 
the subjects, and in all his doings hath respect to the com 
modity of those over whom he ruleth, which if he do not, he 
is not to be accounted a king, but a tyrant, whose property it 

VOL. v. p 


is only to seek his own profit. For in this point a king dif- 
fereth from a tyrant, that the one seeketh the commodity and 
profit of them whom he ruleth, the other only his own : the 
which to make more manifest, the cause is also to be alleged 
wherefore kings were ordained. At the beginning, as Cicero 
in his Offices saith, it is certain that there was a certain time 
when the people lived without kings ; but afterward, when 
land and possessions began to be divided, according to the 
custom of every nation, then were kings ordained, for no 
other cause but only to execute justice. For when as at the 
beginning the common people were oppressed by rich and 
mighty men, they ran by and by to some good and virtuous 
man, who should defend the poor from injury, and ordain 
laws, whereby the rich and poor should dwell together. But 
when as yet under the rule of kings the poor were oft op 
pressed, laws were ordained and instituted, the which should 
judge neither for hatred nor favour, and give like care unto 
the poor as unto the rich : whereby we do understand not 
only the people but the king to be subject unto the laws. 
Then the Doctor tells us, that he is against the arbitrary way 
of government. For, saith he, we may and ought to deny 
obedience to such commands of the prince, as are unlawful 
by the law of God, yea, by the established laws of the king 

This reason doth no way destroy arbitrary government, 
but rather erect it. For government is not said to be arbi 
trary, because the subjects may deny in word, and so left to 
suffer ; for then the Turkish government is not arbitrary. 
For when the great Turk commands his subjects to do any 
thing, if they will deny and suffer for their denial, they may 
and do sometimes deny their obedience. If there be laws 
whereby a king is to rule, which he shall command his sub 
jects to break, and his subjects are neither bound to obey 
him nor suffer by him, then his government is not arbitrary ; 
but if there be laws made, and he may enforce his subjects 
either to keep them or break them, and punish them at his 
pleasure that shall refuse ; and the whole kingdom bound in 
conscience, to suffer whatsoever he shall inflict for not breaking 
those laws ; then is his government arbitrary : for arbitrary 
government is that whereby a prince doth rule ex arbitrio ; 
which he doth, when either there is no law to rule by but his 




own will, or when he hath a power to break those laws at his 
will, and to punish the subject at his pleasure for not break 
ing them. And in truth this latter is rather an arbitrary 
government than the former, as it shews more liberty in the 
will, that it hath a power to act when reason persuades to the 
ontrary, than if there were no reason dissuading, and else 
ere should be no arbitrary government in the world. For 
no state but hath some laws whereby they rule and are ruled, 
even the very Indians ; only here lies the arbitrariness of a 
government, that notwithstanding the law, the ruler may, pro 
arbitrio, force his subjects according to his own pleasure. 
Then the Doctor saith, 

We must consider, that they which plead for resistance in 
such a case as is supposed, do grant that it must be concluded 
upon, omnibus ordinibus regni consentientibus, that is, with 
the general and unanimous consent of the two houses. 

1 answer, These words are ill translated ; for omnes or dines 
regni may consentire, and yet there may not be an unani 
mous and general consent of the members of the two houses 
as of one man. 

If so that the Doctor grant this to be our sentence, why 
then doth he object against us, that the Christians in the pri 
mitive times did not take up arms for the defence of them 
selves against the emperors, seeing they had not the consent 
of all the orders of the empire, and therefore their case is 
nothing to our s, as he pretends afterward. But if they had 
the whole senate of Rome with them, the representative body 
of the empire, then their case had been more like unto cur s, 
and then no question but they would have taken up arms for 
the defence of themselves. 

Then the Doctor saith, We suppose that the prince must 
be so and so disposed, bent to overthrow religion, liberties, 
laws, &c. 

Here he takes that for granted which was never given ; 
but we say not that we suppose, but seeing and finding expe 
rimentally, that a prince is misled by those about him that 
would overthrow religion, liberties, laws ; that then it is lawful 
to take up arms to deliver the king from them, and to bring 
them to condign punishment. Then he proceeds to propound 
three generals, which he endeavoureth to prove in his follow 
ing discourse, which I shall speak to in order. 

p 2 



The Doctor saith, that the principle is untrue upon which 
they go that resist, and the conscience cannot find clear 
ground to rest upon for making resistance ; for it hears the 
apostle expressly say, " Whosoever resist shall receive to 
themselves damnation." 

In this his resolving of conscience, he endeavours to scare 
those that are tender with the word of damnation, and for 
bids this resistance upon pain of damnation. But the word 
in the Greek is rather to be translated judgment and punish 
ment ; and as Piscator observes,* thereby is not meant eter 
nal damnation, but the punishment of the magistrate in this 
life : as appears by the following words, which are given by 
the apostle as a reason of the former, thus : " They that 
resist shall receive to themselves judgment, for rulers are not 
a terror to good works but to evil." 

Then he proceeds to some examples of Scripture, which 
are brought by us to strengthen our doctrine, wherein he 
takes what he pleaseth, and leaves out what he lists. The 
first example alleged is that of the people rescuing Jonathan 
out of the hands of Saul ; to which he answers, The people 
drew not into arms of themselves, but being there by Saul s 
command, did by a loving violence and importunity hinder 
the execution of a particular, passionate, and unlawful com 

Here the Doctor grants that the people used a violence, 
which is that that we would prove ; but he doth not make it 
out by that scripture that it was a loving violence, which is 
the thing he should prove. Neither is there any thing in 
that place which doth argue that he was delivered by love, 
for it is said that the people rescued him ; and what is the 
rescue by men in arms but a violence ? According to the 
Doctor s position, they should not have rescued him, but only 
have defended themselves by prayers and tears, and left 
Jonathan to suffer ; and therefore though he grants but a 
rescue by loving violence, he gives away his cause in the 
threshold of his work. 

* Poenatn K%ip.a sic malo quam condemnation em, putoenim hoc intelligendum 
de poena, quam infert magistrates, sicut verba fivqurntis declarant, et sic verbum 
accipitur pro punire. 1 Cor. vi. 11. Piscator, Rom. xiii. ; 1 Sam. xiv. 


The second example alleged, saith the Doctor, is David s 
resisting of Saul ; to which he answers, that David s guard 
which he had about him, was only to secure his person 
against the cruelty of Saul, who sent to take away his life. 

Therefore according to his own grounds, a parliament may 
take up a guard to secure their persons against the cut 
throats that are about a king, and this is more than prayers, 
or tears, or mere sufferings, which the Doctor only allows in 
the following part of his discourse. 

Herein also he gives his cause, for if David s guard was to 
secure his person against the cut-throats of Saul, if sent to 
take away his life, as he says, they could not secure David, 
but by fighting against those messengers of the king; and if 
he grants that messengers sent by the king, may be resisted 
by arms, he grants all that his adversaries contend for. 

The Doctor saith, this practice of David s, was a mere 
defence without all violence offered to Saul. 

But what think you then of David s words which he used 
to Achish, in 1 Sam. xxix. 8 : " And David said unto Achish, 
What have I done, and what hast thou found in thy servant, 
so long as I have been with thee to this day, that I may not 
go fight against the enemies of my lord the king ?" Amongst 
which enemies were Saul and his cut-throats, as the Doctor 
calls them. But, 

His adversaries desire no more from this instance of Da 
vid, but an hostile defence ; for where there is an hostile 
defence, though there be no blows given, yet the defender 
would strike if there were cause, else why is he in arms ? 

David also was but one subject ; and if it were lawful for 
one subject to defend himself by way of hostility, much more 
for the representative body of the whole kingdom. 

According to the Doctor s principles, David ought to have 
clone no more than to have sought God with tears and 
prayers, and given up himself in a suffering way to the fury 
of Saul. And, therefore, though it were merely an hostile 
defence, yet it is more than his doctrine teacheth, and so in 
granting of this, he is contrary to what he says afterwards. 

For the matter of Keilah, the Doctor answers our supposi 
tion, as he calls it, with his own saying : but whether David 
would have defended Keilah against Saul, I leave to the con 
science of the reader, considering that this only is made the 


reason of his removing from Keilah, because the men of 
Keilah would not be faithful unto him : for he did not inquire 
of the Lord whether it were lawful for him to abide in 
Keilah, but having inquired whether Saul would come down 
against him, and whether Keilah would deliver him up into 
Saul s hand ; he removed from Keilah, because the Lord 
answered him that they would deliver him up ; not because 
it was unlawful for him to keep the city, but because the city 
would be false to him. 

And whereas the Doctor saith, that in all this the example 
of David was extraordinary, for he was anointed and designed 
by the Lord to succeed Saul ; 

I answer, Though David was God s anointed, yet he was 
Saul s subject; and though God did extraordinarily protect 
David, yet his extraordinary protection doth not argue that 
his practice was unlawful, but doth rather argue it to be more 
lawful and commendable : for God will not give extraordinary 
protections to unlawful actions, and if David s demeanour 
herein was extraordinary, then he had an extraordinary com 
mand for what he did. For it is not lawful for a man to step 
from God s ordinary way, but by some special commandment 
from God ; and if he had such a command, then how is that 
true, which the Doctor saith afterward, that there is no com 
mand in Scripture for such a practice or kind of resistance 
as this. 

In the words immediately before, the Doctor saith, This 
practice of David was a mere defence without all violence 
offered to Saul; and if so, how was his demeanour in stand 
ing out against Saul a work extraordinary ? If it were a 
work extraordinary, then it was not a mere defence without 
all violence, for that is an ordinary work of the subjects to 
ward the king. 

Then the Doctor comes to other examples of his adversa 
ries, whereby thsy contend, as he says, for resistance, as that 
of the high priest resisting the king in the temple, and Elisha 
shutting the door against the king s messenger that came to 
take away his life; to the first he says, that the high priest did 
no more than what every minister may and ought to do, if the 
king should attempt to administer the sacrament, that is, re 
prove him, and keep the elements from him. 

But if that were all, the priests should not have been com- 


mended for their valour, but their faithfulness : and, 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 17, it is said, that " Azariah the priest went after him, 
and with him fourscore priests of the Lord that were valiant 
men." In that they were commended here for valour, it shews 
that their work was not only reproof but resistance. 

And whereas he says, That they thrust him out of the tem 
ple, because God s hand was first upon him, smiting him with 
leprosy, and by that discharging him of the kingdom also. 

I answer, How does that appear out of Scripture, that the 
king s being smitten with the leprosy was an actual discharge 
from his crown ? 

Then the Doctor saith, Elisha s example speaks very little, 
but let us thence, saith he, take occasion to say., that personal 
defence is lawful against the sudden and illegal assaults of 
such messengers, yea of the prince himself, thus far, to ward 
his blows, to hold his hand, and the like, &c. 

If you may ward his blows, and hold his hands, this is 
more than praying and crying and suffering. 

Suppose the king hath an army with him, how can you 
hold an army s hands without an army ? and therefore, accord 
ing to his own words, it is lawful for the subjects considered 
state-wise, to raise an army to defend themselves. 

But this instance of Elisha tells us, that messengers sent by 
the king to take away a man s life may be taken prisoners ; 
is not that resistance ? for Elisha said, " See you how this son 
of a murderer hath sent to take away my head ? look, when 
the messenger cometh, shut the door, and hold him fast at 
the door," 2 Kings vi. 32. 

Then the Doctor comes to answer a similitude of the body 
natural and politic, whereby it is argued, that as the body na 
tural, so the body politic may defend itself: to which the 
Doctor answers, As the natural body defends itself against an 
outward force, but strives not by schism or contention within 
itself, so may the body politic against an outward power, but 
not as now, by one part of it set against the head, and ano 
ther part of the same body. 

Now, therefore, here the Doctor granteth that it is lawful 
for the natural body to defend itself against an outward force, 
and what is the militia for, especially, but against foreigners ? 

Then the Doctor distinguished betwixt a personal defence 
and a general resistance by arms. He saith, A person de- 


fence may be without all offence, and doth not strike at the 
order and power that is over us, as general resistance by arms 
doth, which doth immediately strike .at that order which is 
the life of the commonweale, which, saith he, makes a large 
difference betwixt Elisha s shutting of the door against the 
king s messenger, and their resisting the king by armed men. 
But why was Elisha s defence personal ? Because he was 
but one person that was defended. Then if one man defend 
himself against a thousand in arms, that is a personal de 
fence ; or was it personal because only the person of the 
prophet made defence, and had none to assist him ? Not so, 
because he spake to the elders to shut the door and hold him 
fast. And if this act of Elisha was contrary to the king s 
command, why did it not as immediately strike at the order 
and power that was over him, as our resistance doth now ? 
Indeed if the subjects as private men, strengthened with no 
authority, should gather together in a rude multitude to op 
pose laws and governors, then that work should strike imme 
diately at the order and power and life of a state ; but that 
the state should send out an army to bring in delinquents to 
be tried at the highest court of the kingdom, that justice and 
judgment may run down like water which hath been stanched 
up, is rather to confirm and strengthen the order and power 
of authority ; and so it is in our case. 

Then the Doctor proceeds to some scriptures, wherewithal 
he thinks to strengthen his opinion ; let us follow him : First, 
saith he, we have the two hundred and fifty princes of the 
congregation gathering the people against Moses and Aaron, 
Num. xvi. 3, and perishing in their sin. 

I answer, that Moses and Aaron had not neglected their 
trust ; and our question is in the general, laying aside all res 
pect to our sovereign, whether a prince neglecting his trust, 
and doing that through his bad council which may tend to 
the ruin of a state, may not by the whole state be resisted 
therein ? Now see how extremely wide this instance is from 
this question. 

First of all, the two hundred and fifty princes of the con 
gregation were not the whole people, nor the representative 
body, nor any employed by the whole people. 

Secondly, Moses and Aaron had not offended, but were 


The Doctor answers, The other supposed they had him 
guilty, and that is enough, it seems. 

It seems so indeed, by him, that supposals are enough to 
charge the parliament; but with us supposals are not enough 
to charge our prince. 

The Doctor argues from 1 Sam. viii. 11, saying, There the 
people are let to understand how they would be oppressed 
under kings, yet all that violence and injustice that should be 
done unto them, is no just cause of resistance, for they have 
no remedy left, but crying to the Lord, verse 18. 

In this scripture Samuel shewed them what their king 
would do, not what he should do ; and when he saith at verse 
18, " You shall cry out in that day because of your king which 
ye shall have chosen you, and the Lord will not hear you in 
that day. 33 He telleth them not what should be their duty, 
but what should be their punishment; for he doth not say, 
Then shall you cry unto the Lord, and he shall hear you; as 
is the manner of Scripture when it enjoineth a duty to annex 
a promise of acceptance : but he saith, " You shall cry in 
that day because of your king, and the Lord will not hear 
you in that day ;" setting forth the punishment of that their 

The Doctor saith, that according to Scripture the people 
might net be gathered together, either for civil assemblies or 
for war, but by his cammand who had the power of the trum 
pet, that is the supreme, as Moses was, Num. x. 

I answer, The parliament hath sounded no trumpet for war 
but what the supreme power hath given commandment for. 
For the Doctor saith (Sect. I., p. 2), That in the established 
laws of the land, we have the prince s will and consent given 
upon good advice, and to obey him against the laws, were to 
obey him against himself, his sudden will against his delibe 
rate will : so that if there be any established laws whereby 
the king hath given his former deliberate consent for the 
blowing of the trumpet that now sounds, then this objection 
is but a false alarum. 

Now though I be no lawyer, and must refer you much to 
what the parliament hath said who are the judges of the law, 
yet thus much I can tell you, as consonant to right reason, 
that unless the parliament have a power to send for delin 
quents and accused persons to be tried in that highest court 


of justice ; I say, unless they have such a power, they are no 
parliament. The king hath often protested to maintain the 
liberties and privileges of parliament : now suppose a man 
be complained of to the parliament for some notorious crime, 
it is granted by all that the parliament hath a power to send 
a serjeant-at-arms for him, and if he refuse to come, that 
serjeant-at-arms hath power to call in more help ; and if the 
delinquent shall raise twenty, or thirty, or a hundred men to 
rescue himself, then the parliament hath power to send down 
more messengers by force to bring up the delinquent ; and if 
they may raise a hundred, why may they not, upon the like 
occasion, raise a thousand, and so ten thousand ? And if the 
king shall protect these delinquents, that is by his sudden 
will, the Doctor saith, his deliberate will in the law is to be 
preferred before his sudden will; now this is the known law 
of the kingdom, and the constant practice of all parliaments, 
that they have a power to send for their delinquents ; and in 
deed how else can they be a court of justice, if they cannot 
force the accused to appear before them ? And therefore, ac 
cording to the Doctor s own principles, the king s deliberate 
will being in his law, he himself hath sounded this trumpet, 
though by his sudden will, as he calls it, he is pleased to 
sound a retreat. For though the Doctor saith that the Dar- 
liament takes up arms against the king, yet herein he doth 
but abuse them, mistake the question, deceive many. 

The truth is, they do but in this army now on foot under 
the earl of Essex, send for those delinquents that have been 
obnoxious to the state ; and to deny them such a power as 
this, is to deny them the very being of a parliament ; for by 
the same reason that they may send one serjeant-at-arms for 
one, they may send one thousand for one thousand. 

Then the Doctor tells us, that it is a marvellous thing, that 
among so many prophets reprehending the kings of Israel for 
idolatry, cruelty and oppression, none should call upon the 
elders of the people for this duty of resistance. 

I cannot but wonder at the Doctor s marvelling : for what 
can be more plain than that text, 2 Kings vi. 32, " But 
Elisha sat in his house and the elders sat with him, End the 
king sent a man from before him, &c., but when the messen 
ger came to him, he said to the elders, See how this son of a 
murderer hath sent to take away my head, look when the 



messenger cometh, shut the door, and hold him fast at the 
door." The Doctor wonders if resistance were lawful, why 
no prophet should call upon the elders of the people for this 
duty of resistance, here is the prophet Elisha calling on the 
elders to imprison the king s messenger. 

Then lastly the Doctor saith that scripture Rom. xiii, " Let 
every soul be subject to the higher power/ and ver. 2, " Who 
soever resists the power, resists the ordinance of God, and 
they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation/ 3 
doth above all give us a clear manifestation upon the point. 

Now therefore let us here join issue, and if this place 
which the Doctor makes the very hinge which all his dis 
course moves upon, be not clearly and fully against him, 
Ben let the consciences of men be satisfied in all that he 
ys, but if it be against him, then let them reject all that he 

He would prove from hence that it is not lawful for any 
man to resist with a forcible resistance the command of a 
king, though he command what is unlawful, because, says he, 
That this commandment was given unto the Christians to be 
obedient unto Roman emperors whose commands were 
merely destructive to the Christian religion, and those powers 
nothing but subverters of that which was good and just. 

That there is no such thing commanded in this scripture 
I prove by these reasons. 

Because the power that every soul is here commanded to 
be subject to, and not to resist, is that power which is not a 
terror to good works but to evil. The third verse being 
made a reason of the second, verse 2, saith, " Whosoever re 
sists the power, resists the ordinance of God, and they that 
resist, shall receive to themselves judgment;" then the reason 
is given : ee for rulers are not a terror to good works, but to 
evil," verse 3., and therefore the subjection commanded, and 
resistance forbic ? den, is not in things that are unlawful, and 
contrary to the law of God. The power that we are com 
manded to be subject to, and not to resist, is the ordinance of 
God, and the minister thereof is the ordinance of God to us 
for good, verse 4., for so says the apostle, speaking of the ruler 
that we are to obey, " he is the minister of God to us for 
good : but when he commands a thing unlawful, and contrary 
to the law of God, he is not the minister of God to us for 

\J\J LLiVs X( 


good, therefore in this scripture there is no such thing com 
manded us to be subject to, and not to resist the ungodly 
command of princes. 

And if it be said that though his commands are unlawful, 
yet he may be a penal ordinance of God for our good. 

I answer, that in this scripture we are not commanded to 
submit unto a penal ordinance, because the submission enjoined 
here by the apostle reaches to all times and places ; and all 
times and places have not their authority and government 
by way of a penal ordinance. 

Therein the apostle commands us in this scripture to be- 
subject, and not to resist, wherein the magistrates are God s 
ministers, but in unlawful comrrands they are not properly 
and actively God s ministers, though God may make use of 
them : though in regard of their place they may be God s 
minister, yet in regard of the thing commanded they are not ; 
when they command things that are evil and contrary to law. 
Now so we are commanded to be obedient as they are in 
that action God s ministers. 

" For this cause pay you tribute also, for they are God s 
ministers attending continually upon this very thing." Ver. 6. 

It appears by all the first verses of chap, xiii., that the 
subjection and obedience here commanded by the apostle is 
not passive obedience or subjection, but active ; for the apos 
tle having said, " Let every soul be subject to the higher power, 
and not resist/ verse 1, 2., he saith at verse 3, te Why wilt 
thou not then be afraid of the power, do that which is good," 
and at verse 6, " For this cause pay you tribute also." But 
it the king command any thing that is unlawful and sinful, 
the Doctor saith, we are to be subject only passively: there 
fore the subjection commanded, and resistance forbidden in the 
Scripture, not such as relates to the unlawful command of prin 
ces, as he affirms when the Roman emperor commanded 
things destructive to the Christian religion, accordingly 
Hierom upon the place, Ostendit apostolus in his quce recta 
sunt judicibus obediendum; non in illi qua religioni contraria 
sunt. And besides the Doctor himself confesseth, p. 1 1, That 
this prohibition was not temporary, but perpetual : there 
fore to reach unto those times, when the prince should com 
mand that which was good, therefore the subjection here 
commanded was active subjection, and not merely passive. 


But the Doctor saith, he will free this place from all ex 
ceptions, and therefore he saith first, I may suppose the king 
supreme, as St. Peter calls him, or the higher power, as St. 
Paul here, though it be by some now put to the question. 

And is it but now put to the question ? What shall we 
say then of that speech of Dr. Bilson ? By superior pow 
ers ordained of God, we understand not only princes, but all 
public states and regiments, somewhere the people, some 
where the nobles, having the same intrust to the sword that 
princes have in this kingdom : and from this place Rom. 
xiii., we are commanded to be obedient to those that are in 
authority. Suppose we be in some country where there is no 
king but states, doth not this Scripture command us subjec 
tion there also ? How therefore by the higher powers here 
is meant only the king ? The Doctor acknowledgeth that the 
parliament is the highest court of justice in the kingdom ; 
and the highest court of justice must needs fall within the 
compass of these words, the higher powers : unto which, by 
virtue of this commandment of the apostle we are to be obe 
dient. How then is this true which the Doctor saith, That 
by the higher power is meant the king only or supreme, in 
opposition to the parliament. 

But I prove it, saith he. For St. Peter s distinction com 
prehends all that are in authority, the king as supreme, and 
all that are sent by him, 1 Pet. ii. 13, in which latter ranks 
are the two houses of parliament, being sent by him, or sent 
for by him, and by his writ sitting there. 

Calvin* and other interpreters herein is contrary unto the 
Doctor, who saith thus; Those that refer the pronoun him, to 
the king are much deceived : for this is that common reason, 
whereby the authority of all magistrates is commanded; be 
cause they do rule by the commandment of God, and are 
sent by him : by him, being referred to by God by other in 
terpreters, and to the king with the Doctor. 

Then the Doctor saith secondly : In this text of the apos 
tle it is said, all persons under the higher powers, are ex- 

* Nam qui pronomen (cum) ad regem reserunt multum falluntur. Estigitur 
hoc comnmni ratio ad commendandam omnium magistratum authoritate quod 
mandate Dei prsesunt et ab eo mittuntur unde sequitur quern admodum et Paulus 
docet Deo resistere qui ab eo ordinata non se obedientur submittunt. Calvin in 
2 Pet. i. J3. 


pressly forbidden to resist ; for, whosoever, in verse 2., must 
be as large as the, every soul, in the first. 

That which the Doctor aims at in these words, is to make 
the whole parliament subject unto the king. And who 
denies them to be the king s subjects ; and that as men, and 
Englishmen, they should not be subject unto the king ? But 
if he means, that as a parliament, they should be subject to 
enact and do whatever he commandeth, then how is that 
true which he saith in pages 25, 26, That there is such an ex 
cellent temper of the three states in parliament, there being 
a power of denying in each of them: for what might follow if 
the king and lords without the commons, or these and the 
lords without the king, might determine, &c. Or if he 
means, that as a parliament jointly considered, they are to 
submit passively unto the unlawful commands of the king, 
and that passive obedience is commanded, only here in this 
Rom. xiii, then this is to straiten the text, as never any yet 
hath straitened it : neither indeed can any conscience think, 
that when the apostle commands us to be subject unto the 
higher powers, his meaning is only by way of suffering in his 
unlawful commands, and not by way of obedieuce in his law 
ful commands. 

The Doctor saith, That the Roman state might challenge 
more by the fundamentals of that state, than our great coun 
cil, he thinks, will or can. 

But what then ? Is it not therefore lawful for the subjects 
now to resist the higher power commanding things unlawful, 
because the apostle commanded there that we should not 
resist the higher powers in things that are lawful ? Herein 
lies the Doctor s continued mistake : he thinks this com 
mand of the apostle was given to the Christians to be obedi 
ent to Nero in his unlawful commands; whereas the apostle s 
command in this place reaches to all times, and is made to 
all that are Christians : although they did live under Nero, 
yet it does not follow, that the apostle commanded them to 
be subject to him in unlawfuls. If indeed Nero s command 
ments were only unlawful, and this direction of the apostle 
was made only to the Christians in those times, and that the 
subjection commanded were only suffering subjection, then 
this scripture might make much for his purpose. But 
though Nero was an enemy to the Christians, yet some of his 


commandments were lawful; and this direction of the apos 
tle was not made only to the Christians in those times, but as 
a general rule for all good men : and the obedience and sub 
jection here commanded, was not only to be passive, but ac 
tive, which I have proved already, wherein I also appeal to 
the Doctor s own conscience whether that this scripture doth 
not command active obedience and subjection to the prince, 
and therefore his interpretation thereof is exceeding wide, 
and his argument null. 

Then the Doctor saith, If it be replied that that prohibi 
tion was temporary, and fit for those times, as it is said by 
some whom he answers; 

I answer, that the Doctor here makes his own adversary, 
and fights with him. Many other answers he refutes also, 
it being not in my purpose to make good every pamphlet, 
but to satisfy men s consciences : only I cannot but here take 
notice, that the Doctor professes against arbitrary power, or 
such as conquerors use, as he did, (Sect. I,) profess, that he 
was much against arbitrary government. But I wish the Doc 
tor would be pleased to consider his own principles, as he 
delivers them in these papers : for he says : That the Roman 
emperors were absolute monarchs, and did indeed rule ab 
solutely and arbitrarily, and that they did make themselves 
such absolute monarchs by conquest. Then he says, This 
crown of England is descended by three conquests. And 
therefore, if one conquest is a reason for the arbitary govern 
ment of the emperor, he cannot but think, though he con 
ceal his mind, that his government also ought to be much 
more arbitrary. 

What else remains in this section, I have either spoken to 
it already, or shall more aptly in the following discourse. 


THE Doctor saith, That for the proving this power of resis 
tance there is much speech used about the fundamentals of 
this power; which because they lie low and unseen by 
vulgar eyes, being not written laws, the people are made to 


believe that they are such as they that have the power to 
put new laws upon them, say they are. 

Herein he turns the metaphor of fundamentals too far, as 
if because the fundamentals of a house cannot be seen, there 
fore the fundamental laws cannot be seen ; which are not 
therefore called fundamental, because they lay under ground, 
but because they are the most essential upon which all the 
rest are built, as fundamental points of religion are most 
seen, and yet fundamental. 

He says, these fundamentals are not written laws. The 
parliament say they are, and produce several written laws 
for what they do. The Doctor and those that are of his 
sense say, they are not : who should the people be ruled by 
in this case, but by the parliament, seeing the Doctor himself 
saith, none are so fit to judge of the laws as they ? 

Then the Doctor saith, Those that plead for this power cf 
resistance, lay the first ground-work of their fundamentals 
thus ; The power is originally in and from the people ; and 
if when by election they have intrusted a prince with a power, 
he will not discharge his trust, then it falls to the people : 
or, as in this kingdom to the two houses of parliament, the re 
presentative body of this kingdom, to see to it : they may 
re-assume the power. This is the bottom of their fundamen 
tals, as they are now discovered to the people. 

We distinguish, as he doth, the power abstractively con 
sidered from the qualifications of that power, and the desig 
nation of a person to that power. The power abstractively 
considered, is from God, not from the people : but the quali 
fications of that power, according to the divers ways of 
executing in several forms of government, and the designa 
tion of the person that is to work under this power, is of 
man : and therefore the power itself we never offer to take 
out of God s hand, but leave it where we found it. But if 
the person intrusted with that power shall not discharge his 
trust, then indeed it falls to the people, or the representative 
body of them to see to it; which they do as an act of self- 
preservation, not an act of jurisdiction over their prince. It 
is one thing for them to see to it, so as to preserve them 
selves for the present, and another thing for so to re-assume 
the power, as to put the prince from his office. As for ex 
ample , suppose there be^a ship full of passengers at the 


sea in the time of a storm, which is in great danger to be 
cast away through the negligence and fault of the steersman ; 
the passengers may for their own present safety, that they 
may not all be cast away, desire the steersman to stand by, 
and cause another to stand at the stern for the present, 
though they do not put the steersman out of his office. And 
this is our case : we do not say that the prince not discharg 
ing his trust, the people and parliament are so to re-assume 
the power, as if the prince were to be put from his office ; 
which the Doctor not distinguishing thus, would obtrude 
upon us ; but only that the prince being abused by those that 
are about him, whereby the charge is neglected, the people, 
01 representative body, may so look to it for the present, set 
ting some at the stern, till the storm be over, lest the whole 
suffer shipwreck. And herein the Doctor does exceedingly 
wrong us, disputing against us, as if we went about to depose 
our king, which we contend not for, nor from these principles 
can be collected. 

Then the Doctor saith, That however the fundamentals of 
this government are much talked of, this is according to 
them, the fundamental in all kingdoms and governments ; 
for they say, power was every where from the people at first, 
and so this would serve no more for the power of resistance 
in England than in France or Turkey. 

If it be the fundamental in all kingdoms, and govern 
ments, then it seems it does not lie so low, and unseen, as 
the Doctor said before, because all the world sees it. 

Whereas he saith, This will serve no more for power of re 
sistance in England, than in France or Turkey : he seems to 
insinuate that France and Turkey have no such power of resis 
tance : but who doth not know that the protestants in France 
are of this judgment with us and practice ? witness that busi 
ness of Rochelle. 

Then the Doctor saith, We will clear up these two particu 
lars, whether the power be so originally, and chiefly from the 
people as they would have it ; then whether they may not 
upon just causes re-assume that power ; and saith, first of 
the original of power which they would have to be so from 
the people, as that it shall be from God only by a permissive 

If the Doctor takes power for magistracy itself and suffi- 

VOL. V. Q 


ciency of authority to command or coerce in the governing 
of a people abstractively considered, as distinguished from 
the qualification of that power, according to the divers ways 
of executing it in several forms of government, and the desig 
nation thereof unto some person, then I do not helieve there 
is any man in the parliament, whom the Doctor especially 
disputes against, or of those who write for them, that hold 
that the power is from the people, and by permission and 
approbation only of God ; neither can they : for in that they 
contend so much for the parliament, it argues they are of 
opinion that authority and power in the abstract is from God 
himself : and for the designation of a person, or qualification 
of the power according to several forms of government, the 
Doctor himself grants it in this Section to be the invention 
of man, and by God s permissive approbation. 

Then the Doctor comes to prove this by three arguments, 
That power as distinguished from the qualification thereof, 
and designation is of divine institution. 

Wherein he might have saved his labour in those three 
arguments, for none doth deny it : yet we will examine what 
he saith in the arguments : he saith, That the apostle speaks 
expressly, " that the powers are of God/ Rom. xiii. 1, (e and 
the ordinance of God," verse 2, by which power he under 
stands the power itself of magistracy as distinguished from 
the qualifications thereof or designation of any person thereto. 

And if so, how is that true which he saith before (Sect. II), 
where he saith, that the higher power in Paul, Rom. xiii., is 
all one with the king as supreme, 1 Peter ii. 12 ; whereas he 
confesseth, that the government of a king or prince is the 
qualification of the power ? so doth the apostle himself, call 
ing it, a^pwTrtyr/ KTicrei, a human constitution. 

If by power here, Rom. xiii., be understood magistracy and 
authority itself in the abstract, then when we are commanded 
to submit thereunto, the meaning cannot be that the Christians 
in those times must submit to the unlawful commands of the 
emperor, as the Doctor would have it before, seeing the way 
of governing by an emperor or prince, is but the qualification 
of the power 5 surely if by power we are now to understand 
magistracy and authority itself in the abstract, then all that is 
commanded in Rom. xiii. to submit thereunto, is to acknow 
ledge a magistracy, and then all the Doctor s arguments, and 


his strength whereby he would prove that we may not make 
forcible resistance to unlawful commands, from Rom. xiii., 
falls to the ground. 

Then the Doctor tells us, in the same argument, This power 
is called an ordinance of man, subjective ; wherein he lays 
this distinction, that power is considered two ways, either as 
it is subjective amongst men, and so it is av^onrtvri KTKTIQ, or 
else as it is considered causaliter, and so it is O.TTQ Qwv, of God. 

But this is too strait, for it is called ttt$pttitrti KTHTLS, not only 
because it is amongst men, but it is av^ioir^v-n KTunt, a human 
constitution, in four respects: 1. Because it is so causaliter, 
the form of several governments, being an invention of man. 
2. Subjective, because it is amongst men. 3. Objective, be 
cause it is busied about men. 4. Finaliter, because it is or 
dained for man and the commonweale, yet power itself is the 
constitution and ordinance of God. 

Then the Doctor proves, that the power is of God, because 
the magistrate is called the minister of God, Rom. xiii. 4. 

But here he slips from the power itself to the person de 
signed to the power ; for the power itself is not called the 
minister of God, which was the thing he undertook for to 

And so in this third argument, where he saith to the same 
purpose, speak those other places : By me kings reign ; I 
have said ye are gods : yet he confesseth, that the forms of 
government by kings and emperors is an invention of man, in 
the first argument. 

But now suppose the Doctor had proved that the power, 
abstractively considered, is of God s institution ; and had 
granted that the qualifications of this governing power in se 
veral forms of government, and the designation of the person 
thereto be of man ; what hath he gotten from or gained upon 
his imagined adversary? For suppose that his adversary 
should say, that they may depose their prince, if he neglect 
his trust, (which is not our case,) because that his power is 
originally from them ; how doth that which the Doctor hath 
said, weaken this argument ? For though he hath proved that 
the power of itself is from God, yet having granted that the 
forms of that government, and the designation of a person 
thereto, is from the people, they may as well urge and say, 
therefore we may alter the government, and may depose the 

Q 2 


person, because he was of our designing, as well as they might 
have argued so, if the power itself had been from themselves. 

Then the Doctor saith, The imputation is causeless which 
the pleaders on the other side do heedlessly and ignorantly 
lay upon us divines, as if we cried up monarchy, and that 
only government to be jure Divino. 

To let pass reproaches, how can we think otherwise if we 
should believe all that the Doctor saith ? For he proves that 
the power mentioned, Rom. xiii., is jure Divino, and yet he 
saith (Sect. II.), that the higher power there, is all one with 
the supreme, or king, in Peter. But this, with the nature of 
monarchial government, we shall come to consider more aptly 
in that which follows. 

The remaining part of this section is but to prove that the 
power itself is of God, that the qualification and designation 
was firstly of man, which we all grant. 


Now we come to the forfeiture, saith the Doctor, of this 
power: If the prince, say they, will not discharge his trust, 
then it falls to the people, or the two houses, the representa 
tive body of the people, to see to it, and to re-assume that 
power, and thereby to resist. This they conceive to follow 
upon the derivation of power from the people by virtue of 
election, and upon the stipulation or covenant of the prince 
with the people, as also to be necessary in regard of those 
means of safety which every state should have within itself. 
We will examine them in order. 

Herein he doth charge us with this opinion, that we hold it 
lawful for the people to re-assume their power, in case the 
prince dischargeth riot his trust ; making the world believe 
that we contend for deposing of kings, or that the parliament 
goes about such a work as that is ; for what else is it for the 
people or parliament to re-assume their power from the 
prince ? whereas we desire all the world should know, that 
we now take up arms as an act of self-preservation, not en 
deavouring or intending to thrust the king from his office, 


though for the present the state sets some under the king at 
the stern, till the waters be calmed, as we said before. 

Then the Doctor saith, Concerning the derivation of power, 
we answer, if it be not from the people, as they will have 
it, and as before it was cleared, then can there be no re-assu 
ming of this power by the people. 

How doth this follow ? for all that the Doctor had cleared 
before was this : that power, abstractively considered, was 
from God, not from the people. Now let us see whether the 
clearing of that will bring in such a consequence as this, that 
there can be no re-assuming of this power by the people. If 
it will enforce such a consequence, then the syllogism is this : 
If power and magistracy and authority itself be of God, and 
the forms of government and designation of pei sons be of 
man, then there can be no re-assuming of this power by the 
people. But the power itself and magistracy is of God, the 
forms of government and designation of persons is of man, 
saith the Doctor (Sect. III). Therefore there can be no re- 
assuming this power by the people, saith the Doctor (Sect. 

Will not his imagined adversaries easily deny the sequel ? 
indeed if he had proved that neither the power, nor the qua 
lification, nor the designation were of man but of God, and 
cleared that first, then he had taken that argument from his 
adversaries ; but seeing he hath granted that the ways of 
government and designation of persons to be of man, though 
he hath proved the power itself of God, sure he hath no way 
stopped the course of their arguments or practice against 
whom he disputes. 

Then he comes to shew the inconsequence, and saith, If 
the people should give the power so absolutely as they would 
have it, leaving nothing to God in it but approbation, yet 
could they not therefore have right to take that power away, 
for many things which are altogether in our disposing before 
we part with them, are not afterward in our power to recal 

He supposeth we go to take the power away from the 
prince, which we do not, as hath been said. 

There is a difference between disposing of things by way 
of donation or sale, and disposing of things by way of trust : 
true, those things which we dispose of by way of donation or 


sale are not afterward in our power to recal, as they were be 
fore the donation or sale ; as if a man give his child land, or 
sell land to his neighbour, it is not in the power of the father 
or neighbour to recal or dispose of the land as before the 
donation or sale. But if a thing be disposed of by way of 
trust, then if the fiduciary or trusted shall not discharge his 
trust, it is in the power, at least of the trusting, to look to 
the matter himself; as in case that a steward be trusted with 
a man s house. And thus when any government is set up in 
a land by a people, they trust the governor, they do not give 
away their liberties or rights, but trust them in the hand of 
the governor, who if abused that he do not perform his stew- 
ardly trust as he should, the people, or representative body, 
as an act of self-preservation, I do not say as an act of juris 
diction, are to look to it. Neither herein do they so re- 
assume their power, as to take away any thing which they 
gave to the king, but so as to actuate that power which they 
always had left in themselves, as the power of self-preser 

Then the Doctor saith : Although it were as they would 
have it, that they give the power, and God approves, yet be 
cause the Lord s hand also and his oil is upon the person 
elected to the crown, and then he is the Lord s anointed, and 
the minister of God, those hands of the people which are 
used in lifting him up to the crown, may not again be lifted 
up against him, either to take the crown from his head, or the 
sword out of his hand. 

If this be true, then princes that are merely elective, and 
not hereditary, and whose coming to the crown is merely pac- 
tional, cannot be deposed by the people, for they are the 
Lord s anointed, and the ministers of God ; and this is con 
trary to the Doctor himself, who in this same section saith 
thus : Although such arguments (speaking of the forfeiture of 
the prince s power in the next line before) may seem to have 
some force in states merely elective and pactional, yet can it 
never be made to appear by any indifferent understanding, 
that the like must obtain in this kingdom. And to this pur 
pose, saith the Doctor, P. Pareeus excuseth what his father had 
written, on Rom. xiii., in the point of resistance; that it was 
to be understood of elective and pactional government, and 


when the government is elective and pactional, are not the 
princes the ministers and the Lord s anointed ? 

Then the Doctor saith : How shall the conscience be satis 
fied that this their argument grounded upon election, and the 
derivation of power from the people, can have place in this 
kingdom, when as the crown not only descends by inheritance, 
but also hath so often been settled by conquest in the lines of 
Saxons, Danes and Normans? 

I answer, How can the conscience be satisfied in that which 
the Doctor writes in this his book, where he acknowledged), 
in this section, that it is probable, indeed, that kings at the 
first were by choice here as elsewhere ; and in Sect. V. saith, 
that the forms of several governments, whereof princedom is 
one, are from the invention of man, and so by derivation 
from man ? 

The Doctor s great design, I perceive, by his frequent 
touching this matter, is to make our king a king by conquest; 
for (in Sect. III.) he saith, God s vicegerents here on earth 
came into their office either by immediate designation, the 
election of the people, succession and inheritance, or by con 
quest ; now he cannot say that our king came in by imme 
diate designation, and he doth not say that our princes lay 
claim to the crown by virtue of their election, and if by inhe 
ritance, then by the right of an election or by conquest ; for 
by mere inheritance a man hath no more than what those first 
had whom he doth succeed, inheritance being but the contin 
uation of the first right upon the children ; the right of 
election he doth disclaim, and of derivation of power from 
the people, therefore the right that he makes our prince to 
have to the crown is only the right of a conquest : then if any 
man s sword be longer or stronger than his, he may quickly 
have as much right to the crown as the king ; which opinion 
of the Doctor s for my own part I must abhor from ; what 
danger will it not expose our dread sovereign to ? Did not 
Athaliah reign as a conqueress six years ; and who knows not 
that she was lawfully thrust from the throne again by a 
stronger hand than her own ; mere conquest being nothing else 
but an unjust usurpation ? And if the conqueror rule the 
whole kingdom, and keep them under by conquest only, why 
may not the subject rise and take up arms to deliver them- 


selves from that slavery ? Thus doth the Doctor open the 
door to greater resistance than those that he disputes against. 
Though a prince should hold his right by conquest as the 
next right; yet if he hold it also by derivation from the 
people as the remote right, and the last be the more natural 
and just way ; then arguments grounded on that remote right 
may be more valid, than those that are grounded on the next 
right. But thus it is with our prince, who although he doth 
succeed the conqueror, yet doth also lake in the voluntary 
and free consent of the commonweale unto his crown, which 
a mere conqueror doth not, but rules without the consent 
and against the good liking of the people. 

Then the Doctor saith, We tell them the Roman emperors 
were not to be resisted ; they reply that they were absolute 
monarchs : was it any other way than by force and arms, the 
way that the Saxons, Danes and Normans made themselves 
masters of this people ? Now in these words we see the 
Doctor s mind plainly, that he contends for an arbitrary 
government; for he saith, page II, that the emperors did 
rule absolutely and arbitrarily, and here he saith, How came 
they of subjects to be absolute monarchs ? was it any other 
ways than by force and arms? the way that the Saxons, Danes 
and Normans made themselves masters of this people, in 
whose right and lines, he saith before, the crown descended 
upon our king. What can be more plain than this for an 
arbitrary government ? It seems the Doctor was conscious 
to himself that herein he had discovered himself, and there 
fore he says this : I speak not as if the kings of this land 
might rule as conquerors : but that will not heal it. 

Then the Doctor comes to the matter of capitulation, or 
covenant, or oath, which the prince taketh to confirm what he 
promised ; which, saith he, are so alleged, as if the breach or 
non-performancs of the prince s part, were a forfeiture of his 
power. But we answer, saith he, the words capitulation or 
covenant, are now much used, to make men believe the king s 
admittance to the crown is altogether conditional; whereas 
our king is king before he comes to the coronation. 

Herein the Doctor mistakes us : for though we acknow 
ledge a covenant, yet we cannot be so weak as to think that 
any breach of the covenant is a forfeiture of the king^s 
power, for then the best man could not be king long ; but we 


first affirm a covenant, for though the kings of Israel were 
monarchs, and immediately designed by God himself to 
their office, and so one would think there should be no need 
of their coming to the crown by a covenant, yet to shew the 
necessity of this oath and covenant, when they came to their 
crowns, they also took an oath, and entered into covenant 
with the people to protect their rights and persons. 1 Chron. 
xi. 3. We say that this mutual covenant betwixt the king 
and the people, binds the king to the people, as well as the 
people to the king ; and that therefore it is as well unlawful 
for a king by force to oppress his subjects, and to take up 
arms against them, as for the subjects to take up arms against 

That hence it follows that the king s power is limited. 
From this covenant and capitulation we say, thereby it 
appears that the people do commit a trust to the king : 

If he doth neglect, as he doth not always forfeit his power, 
so neither are they to forfeit their right of looking to them 
selves for the present. And therefore all that the Doctor 
says, that we urge the covenant and capitulation so much, as 
if our king were a conditional king; and that which he brings 
to prove that he is a king before coronation, is needlessly 
urged against us : for we say and speak plainly, that though 
the right that our king hath to the crown, is firstly by deriva 
tion of power from the people, yet he hath his right by in 
heritance, and is not such an elective king as is chosen for a 
tirr?e, and his life, if he rule well ; and so his right to end in 
himself, but to continue upon his posterity : for the people dr> 
derive their power two ways, either so as to choose a man 
into office for his life only in case he rule well, and so our 
king s predecessors were not brought to the crown ; or so as 
to commit the trust of the state unto him, to descend upon 
his posterity, which when his posterity comes to, hath both 
a right of election and inheritance ; it being the right of in 
heritance as it is left by their forefathers, and the right of 
election in regard of its principle from whence it flowed : 
and thus we do estate our king in his throne, hereby estab 
lishing him more sure therein, and than the opposite opinion 
of conquest doth. 

Then the Doctor tells us, that though the king do break 


his covenant, or not make performance thereof, yet a forfeiture 
of his power doth not follow from thence : for, saith he, 
could they in this covenant shew us such an agreement 
between the king and his people, that in case he will not 
discharge his trust, then it shall be lawful for the states of 
the kingdom by arms to resist, and provide for the safety 
thereof, it were something. 

To which I answer, we do not press the forfeiture of the 
king s power upon non-performance of covenant, but we say 
this, that the end of his trust being to look to the kingdom, 
though there be no such words expressed in the covenant or 
agreement betwixt the king and his people, that in case he 
shall not discharge his trust, then it shall be lawful for the 
state of the kingdom by arms to resist, and to look to their 
own safety : their safety being the end of this trust, and ratio 
legis being lex, in reason that must be implied. There is a 
covenant stricken between a man and a woman at marriage : 
when they marry one another, it is not verbally expressed in 
their agreement, that if one commit adultery, that party shall 
be divorced ; and yet we know that that covenant of marriage 
carries the force of such condition. What follows in this 
section is either a repetition of what was before, or what in 
substance we have answered already. 

Only at the last the Doctor moveth this question, What 
then if the prince take to himself more power, or not perform 
what he is bound to ? and answers, Then may the subjects 
use all fair means as are fit to use : cries to God, petitions to 
the prince, denial of obedience to his lawful commands, 
denial of subsidies, &c., but are left without all means to 
compel by force or resistance. 

The subjects are considered two ways : socially ; severally. 

Severally, as private men ; and so it hath been taken for 
granted, that in case of oppression the subjects have used no 
arms but tears and prayers. Before this parliament, how 
many oppressions were there upon the people, both in their 
estates and in God s worship, by those who had unduly 
gotten authority from the king ; and yet we saw no forcible 
resistance made, but every man quietly subjecting himself 
under that suffering condition. 

Socially and jointly ; and so there is other remedy for the 
subjects than only prayers and tears, and that-the subjects 


are considered in this posture wherein now we are, professing 
that we take not up arms as we are private men barely, but 
as subjects united and joined in the representative body of 
the kingdom, which never yet was counted unlawful by any 
divines, as I have shewed before. 


HE Doctor comes unto that which he calls our last 
reason, the safety of the kingdom., where he saith, first, that 
we have many weapons sharpened for this resistance at the 
Philistines forge, our arguments being borrowed from the 
Roman schools, as he saith. 

But there is much difference between us and the papists in 
this particular. For, the papists contend for the lawfulness 
of deposing kings, which we do not. The papists plead for 
a power to depose a prince in case that he turn heretic, which 
we do not ; for we hold, that though a prince may leave and 
change his religion, the subjects are not thereby excused from 
their allegiance. The papists do not only hold it lawful to 
depose and thus to depose their prince, but to kill him also ; 
yea, that a private man invested with the pope s authority 
may do thus : all which we abhor from. Why, therefore, 
should the Doctor charge us thus, and make the world 
believe that we favour the popish doctrine in this particular ? 
But as the parliament s army is scandalized by the adver 
saries, saying, There are many papists in their army to help 
on their designs ; so is our doctrine scandalized by our 
adversaries, saying that we make use of popish arguments to 
strengthen our opinion. But the truth of this we leave to 
all the world to judge of. 

But to prove this, the Doctor saith further, that by this 
reason the pope assumes a power of curbing or deposing 
kings, for that if there be not a power in the church, in case 
the civil magistrate will not discharge his trust, the church 
hath not means for the maintenance of the catholic faith, and 
its own safety. 

But what likeness is there between that of the papists and 
this of our s ? The papists saying, the church hath a power 


of preserving its own safety, and therefore the pope may 
depose ; we say the kingdom hath a power to preserve itself, 
and therefore if the king neglect the trust, the state for the 
present is to look unto it. And as for the matter of the 
church, we turn the Doctor s argument upon himself, thus : 

If the church cannot be preserved where the officer is an 
heretic, unless the church have a power to reject him after 
once or twice admonition ; then cannot a kingdom have a 
power to preserve itself, when the officer is unfaithful, unless 
the kingdom have a power either to depose him, or to look 
to their own matters until things be better settled. But the 
church hath excommunication granted to it by Christ him 
self, for its own preservation ; neither can we conceive how a 
church can preserve itself from evils and errors, unless it 
have a power to cast out the wicked officers. As in the body 
natural it cannot preserve itself, unless nature had given it a 
power to deliver itself from its own burdens ; therefore the 
commonweale also, by the like reason, cannot have a power 
to preserve itself, unless it have a power to deliver itself 
from its burden. But in case that an officer be unfaithful, we 
do not say that it is lawful for the kingdom to depose him, 
therefore it may be lawful for themselves, socially considered 
statewise, in time of danger to help themselves. Neither 
herein, as the Doctor would, do we appropinquate to the 
Romish doctrine, for the papists from this power of the 
church, do infer a power unto the pope, and not unto the 
church or community. 

The Doctor asks us this question by way of his next 
answer: If every state hath such means to provide for its 
safety, what means of safety had the Christian religion under 
the Roman emperors, in or after the apostles 5 times ; or the 
people then enslaved, what means had they for their liberty: 
had they this of resistance ? Tertullian in his apology, says 
thus : The Christians had number and force sufficient to with 
stand, but they had no warrant. 

The question is wrong stated, it should have been made 
thus, If any state hath such means to provide for its safety : 
what means of safety had the Roman state under the Roman 
emperors, when as he doth say, what means of safety had the 
Christian religion under the Roman emperors? Christian re 
ligion, and the state are two different things. 


In the primitive times the Christians indeed had none of 
this power of resistance, nor warrant for it, as Tertullian 
speaks, because the Roman state was not with them : but 
suppose that the Roman senate or parliament had stood up 
for them, and with them, the representative body of the 
whole empire (and this is our case, not as the Doctor lays it), 
then, would not the Christians have made resistance for their 
own defence ? No question but they would, and would have 
known that they had warrant therein ; who may not see that 
hath but half an e) T e, the vast difference between the condi 
tion of the Christians in the primitive times, and ours ? they 
not having the state to join with them, they not being the 
representative body of the empire, as it is now with us; yet 
this objection maketh a great outcry, and there is some thread 
of it runs through the Doctor s book, but how easily it may 
be cut, let the world judge : there being no more likeness be 
tween our condition and the condition of the primitive 
Christians, than between the condition of private men whom 
the whole state doth move against, and the condition of peo 
ple whom the state is with. 

The Doctor replies : That though the senate of Rome were 
against the Christians of those times ; yet if the people have 
the first right, and all power be from the people, that people 
must rise up and resist, because the senate did not discharge 
the trust, and so it will be in this state, if at any time a king 
that would rule arbitrarily, should by some means or other, 
work out of the two houses the better affected, and by con 
sent of the major part of them that remain, compass his 
desires, the people may tell them they discharged not their 
trust, they chose them not to betray them, or inslave them ; 
and so might lay hold on this power of resistance, for the 
representative body claims it by them. 

Concerning the senate of Rome, and the people of the 
Roman empire, we say that though the emperor and the 
senate had been for the destruction of the Christians, yet if 
the whole body of the empire had jointly risen for the chris- 
tians, I make no question but that many of those that died, 
would so far have resisted that they would have saved their 
own lives ; but the emperors and senate being against them, 
and the body of the empire jointly considered, not rising for 
them : it is true indeed, they had no warrant to make 


resistance, but to suffer as they did. This is none of our 

Whereas the Doctor saith, both here and afterward in 
this section, that if upon our grounds the king will not dis 
charge his trust, that therefore it falls to the representative 
body of the people to see to it; then the people having this 
power, may also say, if the members of the two houses do not 
discharge their trust committed to them, they do not that 
which they were chosen and sent for, and then may the mul 
titude by this rule and principle now taught them, take the 
power to themselves. 

I answer, that there is not the same reason why the peo 
ple should be so ready to think that the parliament do neg 
lect their trust, being they are very many chosen out of the 
whole kingdom for their faithfulness, approved every way for 
their goodness and wisdom ; whereas a prince may be born 
to the crown, and so by virtue of his inheritance may rule, 
though he be known to be vicious ; as also because it is received 
by all the kingdom that we ought to be governed by laws, 
and the people all know that the parliament are better able 
to judge of the law than the prince is ; as also because the 
people do actually elect and trust the parliament men with 
the present affairs of the kingdom. Now though the prince 
indeed be trusted by the commonwealth with their affairs 
in our forefathers, whereunto the people do now consent, yet 
there is not that actual election or designation of him unto 
the present affairs of the kingdom, as there is of the parlia 
ment men chosen for these particular businesses ; as for 
example, suppose that a people do chuse their minister, 
trusting him with all the great affairs of their souls, and there 
doth rise a controversy between neighbours, wherein they 
choose an arbitrator to umpire the businesses, though these 
two parishioners that have fallen out, have formerly trusted 
their minister with all the affairs of conscience, yet they do 
not so readily stand to his verdict, by reason of the general 
trust, as to the verdict of those arbitrators whom they have 
now actually chosen for this business ; neither can they in 
law or reason so easily revoke or renounce the sentence of 
arbitrator, whom they have chosen to this business, as the 
sentence of their minister whom they have trusted in the 
general ; so in this case of ours, though the king be in- 


trusted by our forefathers and us with the general affairs of the 
kingdom, yet the parliamentary men are actually elected and 
designed by the people for the present aifairs of the king 
dom ; and therefore the people take themselves bound to 
stand to their arbitrement : neither can they think, that they 
are at the like liberty to renounce their arbitrement and 
sentence, as they are for the denial of their prince s command 

I say, There is not the same reason that the people should 
recal their power from the parliament, in case the parliament 
should prove unfaithful, as there is they should see to things 
in case the prince be misled : I say, there is not the same rea 
son, though both the parliament and prince have both their 
power originally by derivation from the people, because that 
the derivation of power from the people unto the prince, is 
not made the sole reason by those that the Doctor disputes 
against for this their resistance, but the authority that they 
are clothed with ; whereas if a people upon surmises that the 
parliament do not perform their trust, should call in their 
trust and their power, then they should have left themselves 
naked of all authority, and should be private men ; but now 
that they look to themselves in this time of danger, and in 
that sense do re-assume their power which they have derived 
to their prince, they are still led on by authority. 

The Doctor answers, that we cannot expect any absolute 
means of safety and security in a state. 

I answer, Neither do we expect it, though this be granted 
which we desire, or that granted which he contends for. 

Then he saith, that there is an excellent temper of the three 
estates in parliament, there being a power of denying in each 
of them, and no power of enacting in one or two of them 
without the third ; for what might follow if the king and lords 
without the commons, or those and the lords without the king 
might determine, the evils of these days do shew ; so is this 
power of denying for the security of each state against other. 
This both the Doctor and I must leave to the judgment of 
those that know the laws and the liberties and the privileges 
of all three estates. 

Further, he saith, that now not only the name of parlia 
ment, which implies the three estates, is restrained usually to 
the two houses, but also that temper is dissolved. 


I answer, It was always so, that the parliament was made 
distinct from the king, in ordinary speech, saying, The king 
and his parliament. When the parliament is mentioned 
alone, it may include the king, but when the king and par 
liament are mentioned together, the speech can intend no 
more than the two houses. As when the body is mentioned 
alone, it includes the head and the members ; but when the 
head and the body are mentioned together, then the body 
doth not include the head. 

Again, that the Doctor saith, this trust of the three 
states is dissolved, I conceive it is a scandalous charge, and so 
1 leave that to others. 

Then the Doctor saith : If it be replied, as it is, for the 
reasonableness of this means of safety through that power of 
resistance, and that many see more than one, and more safety 
in the judgment of many than of one : I answer, saith the 
Doctor, true ; but conscience might here demand for its 
satisfaction, why should one hundred in the house of com 
mons see more than three hundred ; or twenty in the lords 5 
house more than sixty that are of different judgment, and 
withdrawn ? 

I answer, If there be three hundred of the house of com 
mons withdrawn, and but an hundred left; and sixty of the 
lords 5 house withdrawn unto twenty : if indeed there be so 
many gone away, why did they not come all this while, and 
carry things by a vote, and the controversy had been now at 
an end ? Then could it never have been said to the people, 
thai the parliament are against the king; then might the 
three states have all joined together, and there had been no 
further question. 

Again the Doctor answers, that the prince though one, sees 
with the eyes of many, for which his houses of parliament 
are his great council, to present to his eyes the differences of 
things, with the reasons of them. 

This needs no other answer than that which follows in the 
Doctor s own words, where he saith, that the king sometime 
dissents from the major or prevailing part of the parliament, 
so that he may see with their eyes, and see other things than 
they do, and be of different judgment from them. And if 
he may see with other men s eyes that are of different judg 
ment from him, because they do present to his eyes the 


difference of things, with the reasons of them, then may the 
houses of parliament also see more than he does, because 
the difference of things, with the reasons of them, are pre 
sented to them also. 

Then the Doctor descends to prove that monarchial go 
vernment is the best, and that God made choice to set up 
that still, first in Moses, then in the judges, then in the kings. 

But how come we to this discourse, to compare monarchy 
and aristocracy ; and to say that monarchy is better govern 
ment than aristocracy ? Doth it follow from the word True, 
which the Doctor hath said to that proposition : Many see 
more than one, and more safety in the judgment of many 
than of one ? But seeing he is pleased to say, The govern 
ment which God made choice of to set up among his people 
was monarchial still, first in Moses, then in the judges, then, 
in the kings ; let us now diligently observe that monarchiai 
which God made choice of. If Moses, the judges and kings 
were all monarchs, and monarchy the best government, then, 

The best government is such, where the people have the 
free choice of their governor, for so they had in the time of 
the judges : chap. xi. 5, te And it was so, when the children 
of Ammon made war against Israel, the elders of Israel went 
to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob ; and they said unto 
Jephthah, Come and be our captain, that we may fight with 
the children of Ammon. And Jephthah said unto the elders 
of Gilead, If ye bring me home again to fight with the chil 
dren of Ammon, and the Lord deliver them before me, shall 
I be your head ? And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, 
The Lord be witness betwixt us if we do not so according to 
thy word. Then Jephthah went with the elders of Gilead, 
and the people made him head and captain over them," ver. 
11. Thus we see that that government which the Doctor calls 
the best, and set up by God, is such, when the people have 
the choice of their king, and the derivation of his power is 
from them, as I have proved at large, in the preface, to have 
been in the judges and kings of Israel. 

Then the best government is that where the king and 
people strike a covenant at his coronation ; which covenant 
the king is bound to observe : neither doth his covenanting 
with the people make him no monarch, for David was a mo- 

VOL. v. R 


narch, yet David " made a covenant with the elders of Israel, 
and so they anointed him king over Israel/ 5 1 Chron. xi. 3. 

Then the best government is such, also, where the prince 
doth advise with his people and elders, doing no great matter 
in state or religion without their consent, and with their con 
sent doing. So David, 1 Chron. xiii. 1 : " And David con 
sulted with the captains of thousands and hundreds and every 
leader; and David said unto all the congregation of Israel, 
If it seem good unto you, let us bring again the ark of the 
Lord our God unto us : and all the congregation said that 
they would do so, for the thing was right in the eyes of all 
the congregation." So that the people having an agency in 
the great affairs of the kingdom, is no way repugnant but 
consistent with monarchial government, or the government 
appointed by God himself. 

Then, also, is the best government appointed by God, 
such as doth carry along with it a lawfulness for the subjects 
to take up arms, and make forcible resistance for their own 
security, and safety of the commonweale, against their mo- 
narchs, when cause requireth : for did not the people some 
time in Israel take up arms against some of the judges ? and 
did not David, though yet a subject to Saul, take up arms 
and make forcible resistance ? It is said expressly, 1 Chron. 
xii. 18, 19, "Then David received them, and made them cap 
tains of the band, and there fell some of Manasses to David, 
when he came with the Philistines against Saul to battle." 
The Doctor said before in his treatise, that David took up 
arms only in his own defence. But do these words note no 
more ? Only I press them thus far, as may shew a lawfulness 
for the people to take up arms in a way of forcible resistance 
against the king s commandment, when the danger is immi 
nent; which we find agreeable to the best government, set up 
by God himself, as the Doctor acknowledgeth. 

Again the Doctor answers, that such power of resistance 
will be no means of safety to a state, but rather a remedy 
worse than the disease ; which he proveth from Rom. xiii., 
which I have answered already, and from some reasons, this 
power of resistance, if admitted and preserved, may proceed 
to a change of government. 

To which I answer, that if several forms of government be 
of human constitution, as the Doctor speaks, why should we 


think that they are utterly unalterable, as the laws of the 
Medes and Persians ? 

But this principle of ours cannot boil up to that height, 
for we only say, that when the prince shall neglect his trust, 
the people are to see to it, and contend not for deposing. 

Again he saith, This power of resistance is accompanied 
with the evils of a civil war. 

I answer, No, but therefore we are afflicted with civil war, 
because some people are misled from their own natures to 
take up arms against their own country. Civil war is from 
the cause thereof. Now the parliament calls for arms only 
to defend the country : these make the civil war that are 
against the country s defence. 

He saith, again, There is danger in this power of resistance ; 
for then, if the people be discontented, and have gotten pow 
er, they may say, The members of the two houses do not 
discharge their trust ; and so by this rule take up the power 
to themselves, and so all rapine and confusion brought into 
the kingdom. 

I answer, There can be no such inference made from this 
principle of ours, for the people do all acknowledge that we 
are to be governed by laws, and that, as the Doctor saith, the 
parliament is the judge of what is law : the people do ac 
knowledge, according to truth, that the parliament hath the 
declarative power, or the supreme power of declaring the law ; 
the king doth not profess this, but rather the contrary, that 
he is no lawyer, nor skilled in the laws. The parliament do 
profess it, and the people acknowledge them to be so ; and 
therefore there is not the same reason that they should take 
their power to themselves, in case that the parliament should 
neglect their trust : for why should the people take that power 
unto themselves, should it be according to law ? The parlia 
ment will then tell them, that they have done that which is 
according to law, wherein they confess, that the two houses 
have the power of declaring. But now if the prince shall 
neglect his trust, and the people take a power to look to them 
selves in times of danger, by way of forcible resistance ; the 
prince cannot say, when the parliament is against him : The 
supreme power of declaring law doth agree my course to be 
lawful. So that you see there is not the same reason of both. 

And whereas the Doctor saith, That upon the like reason, 



if the parliament shall neglect their trust, the people may 
call in their power. How can the people think that the 
parliament doth any thing contrary to the law of the land, 
when the parliament are the judges thereof, and the people 
confess so ; and therefore the Doctor may be out of fear for 
this matter. 

The Doctor saith, That seeing some must be trusted in 
every estate, it is reason that the highest and final trust 
should be in the higher and supreme power, and that he 
should have the best security, who is worth ten thousand of 
his subjects. 

I answer, Therefore the people do trust the king and his 
parliament, who are the highest power and court in the king 
dom : and if the greatest and best security should be about 
the king, because he is worth ten thousand subjects, then 
surely the kingdom itself should have the best security, be 
cause the king is ordained for his kingdom. 

In fine, the Doctor presses the oath of supremacy, 
allegiance, and the last protestation upon the conscience, and 
wishes men here to consider their power of resistance, and 
taking up of arms is contrary thereto ; in which he saith, 
We swear and protest to defend the king s person. 

And thus we do by taking up of arms : for what man is 
there that considers things rightly, may not easily perceive, 
that if the popish party should prevail, which are either 
about the king, or of his armies, I say, who may not easily 
think, if they should prevail, that either our king must be a 
rank papist, or a dead man ? Who knows not, that if the 
papists get the upper hand, though now they cry out for 
supremacy, supremacy, that either they will force the king to 
another supremacy, or else quickly make a hand of him ? Is 
it not their opinion ? What better service therefore can a 
true subject perform to his majesty s person, then by force of 
arms to deliver him out of the hands of those spoilers that 
lie in wait for his precious soul ? In the oath of supremacy 
we swear him our sovereign to be supreme in opposition to 
the pope, or any other particular person. How does our 
doctrine or practice infringe this ? In the oath of allegiance 
we swear to be his liege subjects according to law, and that 
which we do is so. And in our protestation we protest to 
maintain the king s person, the parliament s privileges, the 


subjects 5 rights, and our religion : if we do not take up arms 
in this time of popish insurrection, how can we with good 
conscience say, that either we defend the king s person from 
the violence of papists, which, according to their own doc 
trine, we know shall be made upon our king, or the privi 
leges of parliament, whose power is to send for delinquents, 
and those that are accused before them, even by force to 
bring them unto their trial ; or the liberty of subjects, who 
have this given by nature to defend themselves, or the truth 
of our religion, which notwithstanding all flourishes, we have 
seen such invasions made upon, and now in our conscience 
under more hazard ; because those that are opposite unto it, 
do profess to defend it: whereupon I presume that every 
good man that maketh conscience of his ways, considering 
these things, will not be backward to advance this public 
design. And though the Doctor be frequent with his dam 
nation both in this section and in others, charging men from 
this resistance upon pain of damnation ; yet a settled consci 
ence will be no more scared with the Doctor s damnation^ 
than with the cavalier s, God damn us. 


Now the Doctor comes to the application of all in these 
two last sections, in which I intend not to trace him into all 
that he says ; the application of all being left unto what 
men see and know experimentally ; yet something I must say 
unto these Sections. In this sixth he tells us that we do not 
walk up unto our own principles, which are, as he saith, that 
our resistance must be omnibus ordinibus regni consentienti- 
bus : that is, as he translates it, agreed upon and undertaken 
by the general and unanimous consent of the whole states. 

But is this a good and true translation of the words ? 
The Doctor may know that when the matter comes to a scru 
tiny in the regent-house the matter is to pass with the con 
sent of the regents, non-regents and heads of the univer 
sity : and though all do not unanimously as one man con 
sent yet it may be omnibus ordinibus consentientibus. 

But he saith, How shall conscience be persuaded that this 


resistance was agreed upon by an unanimous and free con 
sent of the states; for saith he, he that knows how the 
militia, in which this resistance chiefly began, was brought 
in, with what opposition especially in the lords 5 house and 
by what number that at length was voted : also how the like 
proceedings was voted since, how that a vote passed by a 
few upon the place, though it have the power and condition 
of a vote, for the formality of law was not passed in full as 
semblies, cannot be persuaded in conscience that this is such 
an unanimous, free and general consent as makes the judg 
ment of the whole kingdom. 

To the which I answer, that by the like reasoning, there is 
no act of parliament or law, shall be of any force ; and he 
may as well question any law that is made ; for when was 
there ever any law made, which all did unanimously as one 
man consent to ? By the constant law of the kingdom, though 
there be not so many in either house which have been pre 
sent at these late affairs of the kingdom, it is to be acknow 
ledged for an act of parliament, and so the judgment of the 
whole kingdom. 

Then he tells us, That we do not walk up to our second prin 
ciple, namely, that our resistance must be merely defensive, 
for, saith he, those that are first in arms cannot be upon the 
defensive part, page 22, and then page 21, saith he, Who 
were first in arms ? He that can number the succession of 
months and weeks in his almanack, may decide this, he 
shall find that armed men were thrust into Hull, the militia 
set up, &c. 

To which I answer, If those that are first in arms cannot 
be on the defensive part, then surely David s act was not 
mere defence, as the Doctor saith before : for we find in 
Scripture, that David and his men were gotten into arms be 
fore that Saul followed him : surely the Doctor s almanack 
hath not all the months in it, for he begins his account only 
at the business at Hull, whereas before that, the king came 
in hostile manner unto the parliament, gathered forces about 
Windsor, but this must be left unto men s eyes, and ex 
perienced knowledge, it being matter of fact. 

Then the Doctor, I know not how, comes to inquire into 
the cause of these arms, wherein after some flourishes, he 
saith, Would any man have defended the revolt of the ten 



tribes, if Rehoboam had promised to conserve their liberties ? 
Saying, further, What shall we then generally think of this 
revolt from allegiance, which hath possessed well near ten 
tribes of the twelve, and yet in page 21, he tells us of a vote 
passed by a few upon the place, that this work of resistance 

not carried on with a general and unanimous consent, and 

t here he saith, ten tribes of twelve are for it. 

In examining the causes of this war, and resistance, the 
Doctor saith, To speak truth, religion and liberties can be 
no other than the pretences of this war, the king having forti 
fied them with so many acts of his grace passed this parlia 
ment, that they cannot be in that danger that is pretended 
for the raising of this war : it must be something that his 
majesty indeed doth deny, for which the contention is raised ; 
which we shall find to be his power of arms, his power of 
denying in parliament the government of the church, and 
the revenue of it, which he is bound by oath to maintain, as 
by law they are established. 

This is a very bold assertion and scandalous to charge a 
parliament in the face of the world with hypocrisy : but how 
doth this agree to the Doctor s own principles, who doth de 
claim against men for their uncharitableness, in not believ 
ing the king s protestations ? Is this then no uncharitable- 
ness in him, charging the houses with pretending one thing, 
and intending another ? Is not conscience as well bound to 
be charitable, and to believe the protestations of the parlia 
ment, as those papers that come out in the name of the 
king; and hath the parliament and houses carried them 
selves so unworthily and basely, that under pretence of re 
ligion, we should think they gape after the revenues of the 
church ? Oh, where is this man s charity ? And if the king 
be bound by oath, as the Doctor saith, to maintain the 
government of the church as by law established, yet he is no 
more bound by virtue of that oath to maintain that govern 
ment than any other law of the kingdom ; and as for 
other laws, if the king and parliament, think fit to repeal 
them, they may, yet without breach of the king s oath : so in 
this also. 

Then the Doctor comes, in page 25, to open himself some 
what more freely concerning the government of the church 
by bishops: where he saith, That it is such a government 



which the church always had since the first receiving of the 
Christian faith in this land, and of all other governments 
simply the best, the abolishing whereof the king hath reason 
by power of arms to divert. 

To which I answer, that if the Doctor look into the story 
of queen Mary s time, he shall find, that suffering protestant 
churches, which by reason of persecution were fain to lie hid 
in London, were governed by elders and deacons : that is 
simply the best government of the church which is chalked 
and ruled out by the Scripture, as the Doctor will confess, 
And if this government be so, I wonder that those that are 
so much for it, should be of that judgment, that there is no 
particular form of church government laid down in the word; 
which judgment they must needs be of, unless they will hold, 
that the government of other churches is sinful, and contrary 
unto the word, which they are loth for to do. And truly if 
this government be simply the best, the best hath the worst 
success ; for there is no government in all the churches of 
Christendom, that hath had so many sects and schisms, or 
occasioned so much separation from the churches of Christ, 
as this hath done. There are many sects and divisions in 
the Low Countries, but none of them departing from the pro 
testant church there, by reason of the church government or 
discipline, but by reason of doctrine. 

Let any man but seriously consider the protestant churches 
in Switzerland, France, Holland, Germany, Scotland, and he 
shall easily observe, that there is no such separation or divi 
sion made from the churches, by reason of the church govern 
ment established in them, as hath been here in England, by 
reason of this diocesan government. And if any man shall 
say, this bad success here is rather to be imputed to the 
wickedness of the governors, than the corruption of govern 
ment; why should he think that the governors in England 
are more wicked than in other protestant churches, if the 
government itself did pot give scope to their wickedness ? 
And if the government of diocesan bishops, be of all govern 
ments the best, we wonder that Christ and his apostles 
should not appoint it: surely they appointed some govern 
ment in the church ; and what they appointed was jure 
divino, and so best : whereas this was never counted jure 
divino, until of late. But if this government be simply the 


best, it will abide trial in its due time and place : but that it 
should be so good, as that the abolishing thereof, the king 
hath reason by power of arms to divert, this is strange. 
Now the Doctor shews himself, that he had rather the king 
dom should be embrued in a bloody war, than episcopacy 
should be put down ; and that will stir up the king to an 
unnatural civil war for the upholding of that order. Judge 
ye, oh, all Englishmen, whether it be better for you to have 
this order taken away, than for the whole kingdom to lie 
embrued in their own gore ? 

In the conclusion of this Section the Doctor complains, 
that the king s spear and cruse, and necessary ammunition, 
and provisions, are taken away ; not restored, though often 
demanded ; contrary, saith he, to the example of David, who 
having taken the spear and the cruse from Saul his king, 
restored them again before they were demanded. 1 Sam. xxvi. 

But though Saul s spear was restored before it was de 
manded, yet not before Saul had humbled himself to David, 
saying, " I have sinned ; return, my son David, for I will no 
more do thee harm ; because my soul was precious in thine 
eyes this day : behold, I have played the fool, and have erred 
exceedingly 9 " ver. 21. Whereupon David arose, and said, 
ver. 22, " Behold the king s spear, let one of the young 
men come over and fetch it." Neither is mention here made 
of restoring the cruse. Some other things the Doctor hath 
in this Section, wherein he doth rather charge than prove ; 
but men s knowledge may sufficiently answer to those things. 



IN this last Section the Doctor tells us, that though con 
science could be persuaded that it is lawful to make a defen 
sive resistance, yet it can never be persuaded that the king 
is such as the people must be made to believe he is : for 
indeed it concerns all such as will resist upon the principles 
now taught, to render their prince odious to his people, 
under the hateful notions of tyrant, subverter of religion 
and laws, a person not to be trusted, or at least as one 


seduced to such evil designs, by wicked counsels, that he will 
bring in popery, that he will not stand to his promises. 

I answer, These are sad charges, but how groundless God 
and the world knows. Who may not see how tender the 
parliament hath been of the king s honour ? Therefore they 
have not been willing to believe that those declarations that 
came out in his name, are his own. Therefore they charge 
all that is done, on his counsellors, not on himself; herein 
being fully like unto David, who though Saul came out 
against him, yet did he not impute that unnatural war unto 
Saul himself, so much as unto those that were about him, 
saying unto Saul, " If the Lord hath stirred thee up against 
me, let him accept an offering ; but if they be the children 
of men, cursed be they before the Lord : for they have driven 
me out this day from abiding in the inheritance of the Lord," 
1 Sam. xxvi. 19. Therefore also, when the parliament hath 
written any thing that might in the least measure reflect 
upon his majesty, I have observed that they never did write 
so, but to vindicate and to clear themselves from some asper 
sions first cast upon them; and when they did write so, like 
Shem and Japhet, they took a garment and went backward ; 
desiring rather to cover than to behold any nakedness in our 
dread sovereign. And woe be unto them from the Lord, 
but I will not curse them with the curse of Cham, who put 
his majesty upon such actions, whereby any nakedness should 
be discovered. 

Then the Doctor comes to the examination of those fears 
and jealousies which have possessed the people, which he 
saith are raised on these grounds : report of foreign powers 
to be brought in, the queen s religion, the resort of papists 
to his majesty, his intercepting of means sent for the relief 
of Ireland. To which he answers, that the report of foreign 
invasions, given out to keep the people in a muse, the easier 
to draw them into a posture of defence, are discovered in time 
to have been vain. But, saith he, if there be now any foreign 
aid coming towards the king, (as all Christian kings cannot 
but think themselves concerned in this cause,) it will be just 
for him to use them against subjects now in arms. 

To which I answer, that it doth not appear that our fears 
were vain, because foreign invasion hath been prevented; for we 
may rather think that therefore we have not been invaded by 


foreigners, because the parliament hath been vigilant both by 
sea and land to prevent them. But who doth not see that 
so far as lies in the Doctor, he doth invite foreign forces into 
the land, and so stir up other princes for to send them, and 
cur king for to use them ? Whether this be agreeable to an 
English divine, or an English subject, I leave to be judged. 

Then he saith, the queen s religion is no new cause. 

To this I say nothing, but leave it, being matter of fact, to 
the judgment of eyes that have seen actions, whether there 
be no more cause of jealousy now than at her first entrance. 

And, for the resort of papists, and the king s entertaining 
them, the Doctor strengthens the intrust of it with that 
example of David : We may see, saith he, what manner of 
men were gathered to David in his distress, and how Ziba 
was rewarded. 

To which I say this only, how can the Doctor make it 
appear, that those that were gathered to David, were men of 
another religion from David, and of such a religion that by 
the state was counted rebellion, who also by the state was to 
be disarmed ? Which if the Doctor does not make good, 
this instance is nothing to our case. 

And, for the matter of Ireland, I leave that wholly to the 
parliament s declarations, who without doubt know the pro 
ceedings of those better than this Doctor ; and what con 
science enlightened will not rather rest for satisfaction upon 
parliamentary declarations, than upon this Doctor s assertion 
in this matter. 

The other things in this Section are mostly matter of fact, 
and therefore I must refer them to men s sense. Only I 
cannot but observe, how in all things the Doctor clears the 
king, and casts dirt upon the parliament, but still with this 
cunning, when he hath laid the greutest aspersion upon 
them, h3 retracts in these words : I speak not this to cast 
any blemish upon the wisdom of the great council. Like as 
before, when he had said what he could, or happily dared, for 
the king s ruling by conquest, he comes oft with this kind of 
speech : This I speak not as if the kings of the land might 
rule as conquerors. And this is an ordinary sleight, when 
men have preached against purity and holiness, with as much 
bitterness as they can, then they think to come off in this or 
the like manner : God forbid that I should speak against 


purity and holiness. But let him in God s name clear the 
king in what he may, as we are all bound to do as far as we 
can ; but can he not clear his majesty without such foul 
aspersions cast on the parliament ? of whom he saith thus, 
page 30: Men are highly concerned to consider, whether they 
also that are the main directors of this resistance, do dis 
charge this trust they are called to ? Whether to divest the 
king of the power of arms, and to use them, be to defend 
his person, right and dignity ? Whether the forcing of the 
subjects property to the advancing of this resistance, and 
the imprisoning of their persons for denial, be the maintain 
ing of the right and privilege, of the subjects ? Whether the 
suffering of so many sects to vent their doctrines, and to 
commit such insufferable outrages upon the worship of God, 
with such licentiousness, be a defending of religion, and the 
established worship of this church ? 

These are foul charges upon the parliament. How can the 
Doctor say : I enter not this discourse to cast the least ble 
mish upon the parliament. Well, " Blessed is the man that 
condemneth not himself in that thing which he alloweth." 
The Doctor confesseth, that man to be subject to higher 
powers, and that we are to submit to them. He confesseth 
also, that the parliament is the highest court in the kingdom, 
and it ought to judge what is the law. They having there 
fore judged this resistance to be lawful, if the Doctor shall 
resist this their declarative power, saying, it is not law, and 
cast such dirt and reproaches upon them, doth he not con 
demn himself in the thing which he alloweth ? 

But in this last clause of his book, he summons conscience 
to answer upon pain of damnation ; and I make no question, 
but when men shall have seriously considered his book, the 
verdict that conscience will bring in, will be this : 

As in the sight of God, I have perused this treatise of his, 
and I find it injurious to the king, to the parliament, to the 
divines of this kingdom, to the other subjects, and to the 
treatiser himself. 

To the king, for hereby he is put on and exasperated 
against his parliament and subjects, further engaged in this 
war, and encouraged to take the assistance of papists, who if 
he conquer by their means, what protestant good subject 
doth not bleed to think what will become of him ? 




To the parliament, being charged with the blood that is 
spilt in these wars, with the miseries of Ireland, with the 
schisms and sects of this kingdom, with open hypocrisy, 
pretending one thing and intending another. 

To divines, all whom he makes to be of his judgment. 

To the subjects, denying to them the liberty given them 
by God and nature, and the fundamental laws of the king- 

m, and calling in foreigners upon them. 

To the treatiser himself, who hath needlessly embarked 
himself in a bad cause. 

And lastly, to the Scripture and God, and his great officer 
on earth, conscience : the Scripture being wrested, God dis 
honoured, and the conscience deceived. 

Now the Lord grant that whilst we speak of conscience, 
we may in all things make conscience of our ways, for multi 
conscientiam habuit ad judicium, non ad remedium. As con 
cerning the king, " Give the king thy judgments, O God, 
and thy righteousness unto the king s son.- v And as con 
cerning the two houses of parliament, " Let the mountains 
bring grace unto the people, and the little hills thy righte 
ousness." Let the king and queen and people praise thee, 
O God, yea, let all our England praise thee. 






44 Except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain." Psalm 

cxxvii. 1. 
Quseso lector, ut memor tribunalis Domini et de judicio tuo te intelligens judi- 

candum, nee mihi nee adversario meo faveas, neve personas loquentium, 

sed causam consideres. Hierom. 


THOU mayest perhaps wonder that this answer was no sooner returned to 
the Doctor s reply, which came forth so long ago, so that now it may seem to 
come forth too late. Know therefore, first, that the Doctor s hook itself, 
some while went up and down in the dark, seen only of a few. Secondly, That 
the Author of the answer living far from London, it was much longer before he 
could have the sight of it. After he had it, he soon dispatched his answer, which 
he left in the hands of some friends here a month since to be published, but new 
licensers being appointed, much time was spent in carrying of it from one to 
another for leave to travel safely ; as, also, printers being full either of business 
or negligence, it comes to pass that it hath been much longer in the birth than in 
the breeding. I hope it comes not too late to satisfy the conscience of the well- 
affected, or to encourage those that are engaged in this so necessary a defensive 
war ; and it may be much more seasonable than if before, whiles people s minds 
are generally inclined to go up with one unanimous consent personally to main 
tain the true religion, life and liberty of the subject, which seems to be the like 
liest way to put an end to our unnatural uncivil wars ; and happy shall that man 
be called, that shall help forward that great work, and be a means to still the 
storm, the end of a just war being peace, as the lancing of the wound is for the 
cure of it. Farewell. 

I. A. 




HONOURED SIRS. Give me leave to join you together in one epistle, whom 
God and your country have joined together in one service. It is not in my 
purpose to blazon your worth before the world, your own actions speak you in 
the gate, and wise men had rather do worthily than hear of it ; only observing 
your unwearied labour of love for God and your country, I count it my duty to 
come forth and meet you with this pen-service, in testimony of my thankful 
respects to you. You read, Numb, xxv., when the wrath of God brake out 
against Israel, that Phineas stood up and executed judgment, arid the wrath was 
not only diverted, but himself blessed ; yea, the blessing was a blessing of peace, 
though wrought out by the sword. Your like action in this time of wrath, will 
carry the like blessing on yourselves and houses ; yet your work is rather to bring 
men to justice than to execute it. Many blessed comforts wait on your service ; 

1. We read in Scripture but of one man so potent in heaven, that he could com 
mand the sun to stand still, and he was a soldier, Joshua ; but of one man of 
whom it was said, that he had an heart after God s own heart, and he was a 
great soldier, David ; but of one man of whom Christ gave that great testimony, 
" I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel," ard he was a soldier too, the 
centurion. Thus hath God honoured your calling. 

2. Your work is good, for you are the ministers of reformation. I read 
of a king of Meath, sometime in Ireland, that being asked how certain noisome 
birds, that came flying into that country and bred there, might be destroyed ? was 
answered thus, " Nidos eorum ubique destruendos :" The way to be rid of them 
was to destroy their nests. Now for a long season many noisome birds have 
been flying over into this kingdom, and have bred here ; the work of these times 
is to destroy those nests of Jesuits and jesuited persons, and it is that work 
which now you are upon. Though it cost some pains, it is worth your labour : 
" Foelix necessitas quse ad meliora ducit :" Happy is that necessity which leads 
to better things. 

3. Your cause is just also, agreeable to the law of nature ; for, Conservatio sui 
ipsius est opus naturalissitnum," to the law of God : for David, though not the 
representative body, yet lawfully took up arms for his own defence ; to the law of the 
kingdom, for what more legal than that the houses of parliament should bring in 
delinquents to trial ; and how can that be without arms, when the delinquents 
betake themselves to their arms ? The schoolmen say, three things concur to a 
just war: 1. " Jurisdictio indicentis," and for that you have the authority of 
parliament, which, as one writes, " Vetustatem si species est antiquissima, si 
dignitatem e&t houoratissima, si jurisdictionem est copiosissima :" If you respect 
antiquity, is of all courts the most ancient ; if dignity, is of all courts the most 
honourable ; if authority and jurisdiction, is of all courts the most copious. 2. 
" Offensio patientis," and for that you have matter too much, and your enemies 

VOL. V. R 


too little ; the great cause of their arms is but some piece of prerogative, if they 
pretend truly, a cause infinitely beneath so unkind and bloody a war as this is. 
3. " Intentio boni convenientis," and for- that I dare say you are " bellando 
pacifici," your war being to prevent war, and your present bleeding to prevent 
some great sickness which this state would sink under. 

4. Your forces live and march under as many prayers as ever English armies 
did, you have " preces armatas :" and though Joshua fought valiantly, Exod. 
xvii., yet the prayers of Moses, who was not in the fight, got the field. 

5. If you do overcome, you shall not make yourselves slaves by your own 
victories; we may truly say of some, " Dum vincunt vied sunt ;" when they 
have overcome others, they are slaves themselves : your religion, laws and 
liberties, stand all ready to reward your prowess. 

And, 6. If you be overcome and die, you die for God and your country. 
Who can bring his life into a better market ? " Blessed are those that die for 
the Lord," so that word ev is rather to be read, Rev. xiv. 13. Wherefore as 
heretofore, so now much more labour to hold forth the virtues of Him that hath 
sailed you to this great employment. As soldiers are more honoured than 
others, so they should be more virtuous : he had need carry much grace in his 
heart, that doth daily carry his life in his hand ; and your soldiers should as well 
overcome the countries with their good examples, as the enemies with their 
swords. When Joshua went out to battle against the Amalekites, his men were 
all chosen or choice men, Exod. xvii. 9 ; and saith the Lord, " When the host 
goeth forth against thine enemy, then keep thee from every wicked thing," 
Deut. xxiii. 9. It is ordinarily observed, that when the Jews marched out of 
Egypt into Canaan, they carried in their colours some significative sign : Judah 
carried a lion in his standard ; Ephraim, an ox ; Reuben, the picture of a man ; 
Naphtali, an hind : a lion, noting their courage ; a man, noting their skill and 
understanding ; an hind, noting their swiftness and readiness for execution ; and 
an ox, for patience, strength and obedience. Such colours should those wear in 
their lives, that are soldiers for God. The enemies of the churches had their 
colours also; the bear, the leopard, &c., Dan. vii., cruel in human practices, 
being more fit to be worn in their lives than our s. " Quo modo fidem prsesta- 
bunt authoritati qui Deo sunt perfidi," Cons, satiff. a. 56. How can men be 
faithful to you that are unfaithful to God ? Dr. Fearne, your adversary and 
mine, writes thus of the parliament s forces : If a list of the army against his 
Majesty were examined, there would be found, if not a considerable number of 
papists, yet of such as they that employ them would have cause to be ashamed 
of, &c. It may be some of your soldiers would say as David s did, " Let me 
go over, I pray thee, and take off his head." But let your answer rather be, 
" Let him alone, and let him reproach; it may be that the Lord will look on 
mine affliction, and that the Lord will requite good for his reproaching this day." 
And as formerly, so now yet more and more let your endeavour be to wipe off 
such aspersions, by sending and employing such soldiers as may not stain your 
good cause with their ill practice. Let your motto be, " Militia sine malitia." 
And as for your success, either it will be good or bad ; if bad, measure not the 
goodness of your cause thereby. " Eventus est stultorum argumentum :" it is 
God s course to give by denying : " Non habendo habemus." Wicked Benja 
min, who took part with the delinquents of Gibeah, must first prevail against, 
not representative, but all Israel, who took up arms to do justice, that Israel 
might be the more provoked against them. Judges xx. And if your success be 
good, let your men carry it humbly : humility after mercy makes men fit for 





more mercy. " Qui gloriatur in virihus oorporis, gloriatur in viribus carceris." 

d he that boasts in his own body, boasts in his own prison. " Rejoice not 

ith Solomon) when thine enemy falleth," Prov. xxiv. 17. 

Your soldiers may rejoice in God s providence, but not in their enemies 
blood. Zonarus writes, that this was the manner amongst the Romans when 
any triumphed, that an officer stood behind him, saying, otaiau {3\E7re, look 
what is behind, and there he saw a bell and a whip ; a whip, noting that for all 
his greatness he might come under the lash of misery, which bell-like would 
sound very loud. 

Thus have I taken the boldness to present you with my rude thoughts and this 
small treatise, concerning which I say as Salvian, I have not sought smooth but 
profitable words : " Nos autem rerum magi s quam verborum amatores sumus 
utilia potius quam plausibilia sectamur, et in his scriptis non lenotinia esse 
volumus, sed remedia," Salv. Epist. ad Solon. And in which, because it hath 
pleased God to lay the foundation of your proceedings in your good success at 
Crowland, by the hand and command of that worthy gentleman, Sir Miles Ho- 
bert, I wish you that blessing which the Abbot of Crowland, when he began to 
build the Abbey, would have made the foundation thereof, " Perpetuam foelicita- 
tem." To the end that the Abbot might have an happy beginning of this work, 
from some lucky manner of presage, bs solemnly appointed the day of St. Per- 
petua, and of St. Felicity, in which he would lay the first foundation. Camden s 
Britannia : Lincolnshire. 

Your humble Servant in the Gospel of Christ Jesus, 




GOOD Reader, you see into what sad times we are now 
fallen : our English sun is almost set, our day of peace and 
plenty is almost done ; workmen go from their labour, and 
beasts go forth to their prey. And if war be the worst of all 
miseries, and civil war the worst of all wars, as indeed it is ; 
for there the parents do bury their children, whereas other 
wise the children do bury their parents ;* then is our condi 
tion of all the most lamentable. The disputing time is 
almost now over : the Doctor hath stayed so long in bringing 
up his rear, that I fear the controversy depending, is now 
rather to be determined with the dint of the sword than with 
the strength of the pen : yet because the temple must be 
built in troublous times, and the tide of truth doth usually at 
the first creep up by the bankside against the stream, I am 
not unwilling, for truth s sake, once more to appear in this 
cause, that I may deliver it from those exceptions wherewith 
the Doctor hath burdened the same. It is not long since I 
met with the Doctor s reply, and at the first I thought it not 
necessary to give any answer unto it; partly because the 
subject is so well beaten, that he is almost answered before 
he hath objected; partly because I count that reply scarce 
worth a sober answer, which is clothed with so many scoffing 
jeers and vile reproaches, things unworthy of a D. D., espe 
cially such as pretend satisfaction of conscience : but it will 
find entertainment with conscience according to its own na 
ture : for what Luther speaks of certain preachers, is true of 
writers also : Multi sunt, saith he, there are many hot and 
tumultuous preachers, who would have all things done as they 
say, not so much willing to be heard because they speak the 

* Nemo ita amens est ut bellum quam pacem malit : nam in pace filii patres, 
in bello patres filios sepeliunt. Herod. 


word of God, as because they are teachers of it, desiring ra 
ther that the organ than the sound may be commended ; who 
having meditated and conceived some words, do promise to 
themselves presently to convert those that hear them : 
whereas through the wonderful wisdom of God, they do no 
thing less than what they thought : for the soul of man per 
ceiving that the word preached is compounded with their art, 
and covered over with human dung ; that is, polluted with 
human affection and passion, it doth therefore nauseate the 
thing delivered, and is rather provoked than converted.* Yet 
because I have been earnestly desired by friends to open 
more fully the nature of government and civil government of 
England, I am not unwilling to set pen to paper again. For 
your better satisfaction therefore give me leave to lead you on 
by some steps or propositions which I shall lay down in the 
first and second chapters, and then shall come more nearly 
to answer the Doctor. 


Now because the basis of our question is, concerning the 
nature of government, rule and authority, or ruling and go 
verning power, in which principle our Doctor is so much mis 
taken, I must, though at last, shew what that is. Power in 
itself therefore, or eZowia, the word used, Rom. xiii, pro 
perly signifies a liberty or authority t to work or act towards 
others, translated licentia from ee<7T, as licentia a licet : 

* Multi sunt prsedicatores sestuantes et tumultuantes, artibus qui ut dixerint om- 
nia facta velint, non tarn volentes audiri quia verbum Dei dicunt, quam quia ipsi sunt 
verbi doctores, organum magis quam sonum commendari petentes horum portio, 
qui meditatis et conceptis a se verbis permittunt sibi ipsis nunc hos nunc illos 
pungere et noordere, et station convertere, ubi sit rniro Dei consilio, ut nihil mi 
nus implesnt quam quod cogitaverunt. Senlit enim naturalker animahominis ver 
bum arte super se compositum esse, et stercore bumano ut apud Ezek. est oper- 
tum, id est, hutnano affectu pollutum ; ideo nauseat super illo et potius irritatur 
quam convertitur. Luther. 

f Potestas in genere est facultas qusedam propinqua ad exercendum aliquam 
operationem in aliquo supposito, ut domificator habet potestatem domificandi, id 
est facultatem qua in propinquo potest ex ire in talem opera tionero. Alman. de 
potest Eccl. et Laic. q. 1. apud Gerson. 


sometimes the word is used in the abstract, as Luke iv. 6 ; 
Luke xix. 17- Sometimes in the concrete, as Matt. viii. 9; 
Rom. xiii. 1, 2. Where, saith Gerard,* not without great 
advice tne apostle Paul doth use an abstractive manner of 
speech to shew that subjects ought not so much to respect 
the persons commanding, as the office itself in their com 
mandments. Take the word in the abstract, so it is all one 
with jurisdiction, which is ordinarily described to be Jus di- 
cendi in invitum. Now this governing power is either eccle 
siastical or civil ; civil, concerning which our question is, ac 
cording to the apostle Paul, as Gerard, Buchanan, and others 
have it,t Is that ordinance of God, which is armed with the 
sword for the terror of those that are evil and encourage 
ment of those that do well ? Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 3. This do 
minion of jurisdiction is distinguished from dominion of pro 
priety: for dominion of propriety, as Medina observes, J is a 
power of disposing anything that is a man s own to his own 
profit. The power of jurisdiction or government is not so; 
which, while some have mistaken, they have attributed so 
much power to the prince, in regard of towns, castles and forts, 
as if he had therein dominion of propriety, which breeds 
much confusion in men s apprehension, and doth bias their 
thoughts into state errors. According to Alman,|| Secular or 
civil power, is that power which regularly is given to one, or 
more, by the people, for the ordering and preservation of the 
commonwealth, according to the civil laws thereof. I shall 
go no further than the Scripture will lead us plainly in this 

* Ubi non sine gravi consilio apostolus abstractiva locutione uti voluit, ut os- 
tenderet subditos non debere ad personas imperantium respicere, sed ad ipsorum 
officium quo divinitus sunt instruct!. Gerard de mag. polit. cap. 1. 

f In epist. ad Rom. Regem etiam definit prope ad dialectica subtilitatem 
esse enim dit ministrum qui gladius traditus est ut malos puniat, ac houos foveat 
et sublevet Buchanan de Jure Regni apud Scotos. 

Magistratus in abstracto ex loco apostolico, Rom. xiii sic dosinire potest, est 
potestas a Deo ordinata, gladio armata ut sit custos divinae legis et aliarum 
honestarum constitutionutn ad conservand. pacem in genere humano, et reipub. 
salutem obtinendam. Gerard de pol. mag. conclus. gen. 

J Dominium jurisdictionis est potestas gubernandi subditos suos cujus actus 
sunt prsecipere vetare, judicare, punire, premiare. Dominum proprietatis jus 
disponendi de realiqua in suum commodum. Medina de jure et justitia. 

|| Potestas secularis vel laica, est potestas a populo vel successione hseredi- 
tarea, velex electione alicui,vel alicubus tradita regulanter ad eedificationem com- 
munitaris quantam ad res civiles, secundum leges civiles pro constitutione habi- 
tationis pacificse.- Alman. ibid. 

264 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 1. 

particular ; as ecclesiastical power or jurisdiction is minis 
terial, and therefore called, Jus eluvium, the power of the 
keys; so civil power is lordly, and therefore called, Jus gladii, 
the power of the sword, whereby some are authorised to ex 
ercise jurisdiction in commonwealths over others, for the 
reward of those that are good, and the punishment of those 
that are evil : that is governing or ruling power. 

Again, If we take governing or ruling power as abstrac 
tively considered, so it is an ordinance appointed by God 
himself, " By me kings reign/ 5 saith God. And our Saviour, 
when Pilate said : " Knowest thou not that I have power to 
loose thee ? 55 &c. T said, " Thou hadst it not unless it were 
given thee from above/ 5 And again, " Give unto Csesar the 
things that are Caesar s/ shewing that as God hath his dues 
in the world, so the magistrate hath his. Besides we are 
commanded to obey and submit unto the higher powers^ 
Rom. xiii. And why should there be any obedience, if the 
power itself were not commanded of God ? yea, the Israelites 
are faulted for contemning of God himself, in casting off the 
government of Samuel, which there should not have been, 
had not government been appointed by God. EK &? <W /SatnX^ev, 
said the heathen. Luther calls magistracy, Necessarium na 
turae corrupts remedium, the necessary remedy of corrupt 
nature. And Tertullian saith well, Inde imperator unde 
homo antequam imperator. The voice of nature is the voice 
of God : now nature itself teacheth, that in a community, or 
body politic, there must be justice administered, otherwise 
the community can never be preserved : but justice cannot 
be administered, unless authority, power or jurisdiction, be 
first appointed ; for what hath a private man to do to put 
another to death ? " Thou shalt not kill/ 5 is made to all 

. But the apostle calls it, uvSpoTnvii KTHTIQ, an human consti 
tution or creature, how therefore is it true that ruling power 
is an ordinance appointed of God himself? 

The apostle doth nowhere say, that power itself, or ma 
gistracy in the abstract, is an ordinance of man, but the form 
or qualification of it, as monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, 
which are the channels in which this power runs is av^oTnvri 
KTtffiQ. And therefore the apostle having said, " Be subject to 
every ordinance of man/ 5 he addeth, (( whether to the king as 


supreme, or to the governors/ &c. Durandus here distin 
guishes between institution of power and acquisition of it.* 
Secular power, saith he, considered according to its institution, 
is of God, but according to its acquisition, and way of use, 
so not : our Doctor doth ordinarily confound these in his rea 
sonings; yea, though he distinguishes them when he sets 
down his own naked judgment, yet when he comes to reason 
against us, he will take no notice of his own distinction, nei 
ther can we persuade him to it : but the thing being as visi 
ble as the sun, I pass to the third and chief step of my dis 
course, which is this following : 

Though power abstractively considered, be originally 
from God himself, yet he hath communicated that power 
to the people, so as the first subject, seat, and receptacle of 
ruling civil power under himself, is the whole people or body 
politic. To this purpose Mr. Rutherford s words are very 
plain,t A free common-wealth, saith he, contains ordines regni, 
the states that have nomothetick power, and they not only 
by the law of nature may use just a tutela, a necessary de 
fence of their lives from a tyrant s fury, but also by the law 
of nations may authoritatively repress and limit, as is proved 
by Junius, Brutus, Bucherius, Althasius, Haenomus. There 
fore Heming, Amiceus do well distinguish between plebem 
and Iwov, populum : for indeed the multitude, excluding the 
states, or base of the people, can hardly have another law, 
against a tyrant than the law of nature. But the common 
wealth, including the states of a free kingdom, hath an au 
thoritative. So Isidore, Origen, Aristotle, Plato, Titus Livius, 
Plutarch, and that of the council of Basil, Plus valet regnum 
quam rex, the kingdom is more worth than the king, ap- 

* Potestas secularis sive laica est a Deo quantum ad debituna, sed frequen 
ter non est a Deo quantum ad acquisitionem vel usum nam secundum dictamen 
rectum debitum est talem esse potestatem naturaliter enim judicant homines 
quod oportet eos subdi alicui qui eis judicium et jus administret, ex ordinationem 
enim incitum est nobis tale judicium naturale ut conformiter ad ipsum veniamus, 
et hoc a Deo sed non est a Deo regulariter ad istum sensum quod alicui Deus 
communicaret istam jurisdictionem laicaca, &c. Durand. lib. de origine juris. 

f Job. Brut. q. 3. Bucher. lib. i. p. 6. Althasius polit. cap. xv. Heno- 
mias polit. dis. ii. 11. Isid. lib. ix. Origen cont. Celsum. cap. ix. Aristot. 
polit lib. i. c. 3, Plato de Rep. cap. viii. Livius lib. iv. ^Eneus Silvius de 
gestis concil. Basil. Vide Rutherford in his Plea for Presbytery, chap. iv. p. 46. 

266 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 1. 

proved by all. Thus far Samuel Rutherford, Professor of 
Divinity in Scotland. The reasons of my position are these : 

When God gave the power of the sword to men, Gen. ix. 
6, he gave it indiscriminatim, without difference, to all the 
world, Noah and his sons, being all the men that were then 
alive in the world ; and he gave not the sword only to Noah, 
but to all his sons that then were upon the face of the earth ; 
not that every one might ordinarily use it, but that they 
might, as they thought fit appoint one or more who might 
exercise that power that was given to all, as the first seat of 

Because the power of ruling and governing is natural, and 
whatever is natural, doth first agree to the community, or 
totum, and afterward to the particular person or part, as the 
power of seeing and hearing, as Facultas Parisiensis observes 
to this purpose,* is firstly in the man and from the man in 
the eye or ear or particular member. 

Because the fluxus and refluxus of civil authority, is from 
and to the people : if the authority of ruling in a commonwealth 
be given by the people to him that ruleth, I speak what is 
jure et regulariter, and returneth to them again to see jus 
tice done in case that there is no particular supreme magis 
trate left to rule, then the first subject, seat, and receptacle 
of ruling power must needs be in the people. Now so it is, 
that both these are true, which I shall prove one after an 
other : as the fluxus of civil authority is from the people, 
civil government or authority is derived from the people to 
the prince, or him that ruleth : they ordinarily and regularly 
do and are to communicate that governing power wherewith 
such or such a person is so invested : therefore saith the 
Lord, " When thou art come into the land which the Lord 

* Vulgare est atque indubitatum fidei axioma Deum et naturam prius atque 
immediatus ad totam supposition quam ad aliquam partem suppositi quamvii 
nobilissimam intendere ; eum que ob causum facultatem videndi datum esse 
homini ut per occulum tanquam per organum et mmistrum hominis exerceretur ; 
nam oculus per et propter hominem existit. Facultas Parisiensis de pol. Eccles. 
Et istud etiam deduci potest ex. Thorn. Aquin. ii. 2. se. q. 64. Omnis enim 
pars ordinatur ad totum, cujus est pars vel imperfectum ad perfectum, et si sa- 
luti totius corporis expediat ab scissio alicujus membri puta quia est putridum 
aut cseterorum mfectivuin in toto corpore residet potestatem illud perscindendi. 
Quid ergo quselibet persona comparetur ad totam communitatem sicut pars ad 
totum, ideo si aliquis sit pernitiosus in communitate laudabilitur a communitate 
interimitur. Almain. de anthori f . Eccles. apud Gers cap. 1. 


thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shall dwell 
therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me, like as all 
the nations that are about me, thou shalt in any wise set him 
kino- over thee whom the Lord thy God shall choose, thou 
shalt not set a stranger over thee which is not thy brother," 
Deut. xvii. ]4, 15. 

Where wr shall see that the whole power of appointing 
and setting a king over them, was given unto that people, as 
other nations had it, by God himself. For God direc 
ting them herein doth not say thus : When thou dwellest in 
the land which I shall give thee, take heed that thou do not 
set a king over thee, which thing belongs not to thee; but as 
a matter belonging to the people, he saith, When thou shalt 
say, I will set a king over me, be sure that he be a good one, 
and such as is pleasing to me. In that he doth take away 
the power from them of making a stranger, he granteth them 
a power to make a brother, as Mendoza well observes.* Now 
saith God to them, Thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, 
which is not thy brother. What can be more plain than the 
words themselves ? In verse 15, the words are reduplicated ; 
Ponendo pones, according to the Hebrew, in placing thou 
shalt place : and that there might be no mistake in the mat 
ter, God is pleased to explain the former word attf, which 
we translate, set or place, by an after word in verse 15, im, 
which signifies to give, thus, Thou mayest not give a stranger 
over thee ; so that setting and giving in these two verses, are 
all one, shewing that it is in the people to set or give a 
power unto others to rule over them. Again the apostle Pe 
ter calls this civil power avfyuirivri m<nc. Now it is not there 
fore called so, only because it concerns men, or because it is 
conversant about men, or appointed for the good of men : 
for then the government^ of the church also should be so 
called, but because the way of governing is raised, ap 
pointed, established by man himself, as is observed out of 

* Auferendo potestatem ad faciendum externum supponit ad faciendum nu- 
turalem nam qui potestatem solam excipit ad regem ex peregrina natione consti- 
tuendum plane illam supponit ad constituendam ex propria. Mendoza in 1. Sam. 
viii. 12. 

f Et sic tangitur prima differentia inter has duas potestates quia ecclesiastica 
cst immediate a Christo instituente, sed laica quamvis sit a Deo ex ordinatione 
quantum ad debitum nunquam tamen est a Deo regulariter et immediate insti- 
tuendum. Almain de poteat. Eccles. ct Laic. cap. 1. 


Oecumenius*. Again, this: derivation of authority from the peo 
ple will appear also, if men do seriously consider the state of the 
Jewish government. There was no people under heaven whom 
God did so immediately reign over, as their king ; yet if we ob 
serve those kings that were the most immediately appointed by 
God himself, we shall find the intervening choice of the peo 
ple, insomuch as it is said of Saul expressly, that the people 
did choose him, a Behold your king whom you have chosen 
and desired," 1 Sam. xii. 13, upon which words Mendoza 
observes,* that by the word chosen cannot be meant desired, 
because that word was added too, as different from the for 
mer, yet it is said, " That all the people went to Gilgal, and 
there they made Saul king:" 1 Sam. xL 15^ Whereupon, says 
Mendoza,f What is more plain ? Neither could they make 
him king otherwise, than by conferring kingly power upon 
him. I do not say that God did not make a designation of 
his person to the crown, there is much difference between the 
designation of person, and collation of power. When the 
Israelites were under the government of the judges, they de 
sired and chose a new way of government, saying to Samuel : 
" Now make us a king to judge us, like all the nations," 
1 Sam. viii. 5. And when God had yielded to them, and 
had designed Saul over them, the people also came in with 
their election and suffrages. Neither are these two, God s de 
signation and man s election repugnant, but may stand to 
gether : for as Zepperus observes on these words, J " Thou 
shalt set over thee a man whom God shall choose ;" Deut. 
xvii., the election may be of God, the constitution, suscep- 
tion and comprobation of the people by their suffrages. And 
Car. Scribonius, who purposely writes of the form and man 
ner of the Jews government and commonwealth speaks abun 
dantly and plainly thus:|| But for that which concerns the 

* Vocatur humana ordinatio non respectu prim SB originis et principals causae 
efficientis, sed respectu causse instrumentalis, quia per hominem ssepius consti- 
tuitur magistrates ut OEcumenium in Comment, humanam KTLCTIV opponit per 
Qtaiv quod constitutus et positus sit magistrates ab hominibus Deo tamea sic 
innuente et sancfr ente. Gerard. Loc. Com. fol. 481. 

f Quid apertius neque enim videtur aliter eum regem facere potuisse quam ei 
regiam potestatem confereudo. Mendoza in 1 Sam. viii. 

J Ubi electio regis Deo constitutio susceptio vel comprobatio populi suffrages 
tribuitur. Zepperus leg. Mosaic. Forens. explan. lib. iii. cap. 7. 

}| Quod autem ad creationem ipertinet creates est primum suffragiis populi 
universi, &c. Car. Scr. de rep. Heb, 1. 


creation of the king of Israel, he was first, saith he, created 
by the suffrages of the whole people. And if God would 
have it so then, among the children of Israel whom he in 
tended in a special manner to reign over himself, much more 
may we think that God would have the first constitution of 
kingdoms to be so ordered now, and amongst other people. 
Wherefore I conclude this, that the prince doth and ought at 
first to receive his government and authority from the peo 
ple, and that the people themselves do give it to him. And 
if so, then the first seat and subject of civil gonernment, is 
the people : for that nothing can give that to another, which 
it hath not itself first, either formally or virtually. 

And now for the reflux of authority, so it is, that in case 
there have been a supreme magistrate in a state, and all par 
ticulars cease, and the royal line be spent, and justice to be 
executed, it returns to the whole body to see to it. As when 
Joshua and divers judges had ruled in Israel, yet we read 
that after them, Judg. xix. 1., there was no king in Israel, 
and then was the great sin committed by the men of Gibeah 
with the Levite s concubine : whereupon all Israel did take 
the sword of justice, and they said, Judg. xx. 13. to the men 
of Gibeah, Deliver us the men, the children of Belial, which 
are in Gibeah, that we may put them to death ; which Gibeah 
refusing, they did all, as one man, go up in arms against 
them, God himself approving their act. And what had all 
Israel to do to execute justice, if the power of the sword did 
not return to the people, vacante magistratu supremo : 
neither can it be objected, that though Israel had no king 
and supreme magistrate amongst them, yet they had several 
heads of the tribes, by whose power they did come together 
for the execution of justice, as it might seem to be. Judges xx, 
2. For sometimes the chief of tbe tribes doth in scripture 
phrase, signify those that are chief in age, wisdom and riches, 
not such as were chief in authority. Besides, this action is 
imputed to all the people, there being four hundred thousand 
men that came together upon this design, verse 2, unto whom 
the Levite made his complaint, verse J. " Ye are all chil 
dren of Israel, give here your advice and counsel. And all 
the people arose as one man/ 5 verse 8, saying, verse 9. " Now 
this shall be the thing we will do to Gibeah," and verse 11. 
<e So all the men of Israel were gathered against Gibeah. 55 


And least that any should think that this work was done 
by the power of some remains of regal authority amongst 
them, it is not only said before this work begun, that there 
was no king in Israel in those days, Judg. xix. 1. but after 
all was done, it is said further, chap. xxi. 25. " In those dayS 
there was no king in Israel, and every man did that which 
was right in his own eyes ;" so that Jus gladii, the right of 
the sword, in case of defection, returneth to them again, so 
far as to see that justice be duly executed. And therefore if 
both the fluxus and refluxus of authority, be from and to the 
people, then must they needs be under God the first seat, 
subject and receptacle of civil power. 

But the scripture tells us, that the powers that be, are or 
dained of God, Rom. xiii. 1. And if ordained of God, then 
not of man, nor by any fluxus, or appointment from or of 

Not to speak of the word TO ray^va, which signifies rather 
ordered then ordained : government is of God two ways, 
either by immediate donation, as that of Moses, or by medi 
ate derivation, as that of the judges, and kings of Israel. 
The government of princes now is not by immediate dona 
tion, or designation, but by immediate Derivation, and so it 
is both of God and man too, as Fortescue speaks, Quicquid 
facit causa secunda, facit et causa prima. 

But the Doctor tells us, that kings at first were not by 
choice of the people, but that election was a defection from, 
and a disturbance to that natural way of descent of gov 
erning : kingly power by a paternal right; page 9. of his Re 
ply. That monarchial government is not a mere invention of 
man, as democracy and aristocracy are, but that it is rather 
ductu nature though not jure nalurce, we being led thereunto 
through the veins of nature in a paternal or fatherly rule, 
page 8. as is plain by the book of God, that the first fa 
thers of mankind, were the first kings and rulers. For we 
see, saith he, that the earth was divided amongst Noah and 
his three sons, and still as they increased, new colonies were 
sent out, who had the government both regal and sacerdotal 
by primogeniture : whence it appears, saith he, that mo 
narchy was the first government, it being late ere any popular 
rule, aristocratical or democratical, appeared in the world. 
And that monarchy, how ever we cannot say that it was 


jure divino, yet it was exemplo divino, the government which 
God set up over his people, being monarchical still in Moses, 
the judges and the kings of Israel, page 8. 

Whereas the Doctor saith, that the first kings were not by 
the choice of the people at the first, page 8, and that popu 
lar election was a kind of defection from and a disturbance 
to that natural way,. &c. I refer Dr Fearne unto Dr Fearne, 
who saith both in his first and second book, page 67- of his 
Reply, it is probable that kin^s at first were by election here 
as elsewhere. This I have spoke to already, and shall speak 
to yet afterwards ; neither do we take it unkindly that the 
Doctor cannot agree with us, seeing he cannot agree with 

Whereas he saith, monarchial government is not a mere 
invention of man, as aristocracy arid democracy are, I refer 
him to what he saith himself: for in his first book, page 13, 
14, he saith : We must distinguish power itself, and the 
qualification of that power in several forms of government : 
if we consider the qualification of this governing power, and 
the manner of executing it, according to the several forms of 
government, we granted it before to be the invention of man. 
And when such a qualification or form is orderly agreed upon, 
we say it hath God s permissive approbation. Yet in his 
Reply he makes this form of monarchical government, rather 
an appointmentof God, both ductu naturo, and exemplo divino, 
and not a mere invention of man, as other forms of govern 
ment are. Here I must leave him to agree with himself. 

Whereas he saith : That the first fathers of mankind, were 
the first kings and rulers : for we see the earth divided 
amongst Noah s three sons, &c. ; I refer him for information 
to 1 Chron. i. 10. where it is said expressly of Nimrod, 
that he began to be mighty upon the earth ; whereas if Noah 
and his sons were kings, their dominions being greater be 
fore the division of the earth into after colonies, they should 
have been more mighty than he. And what his might was, 
is declared to us, Gen. x. 10. And the beginning of his 
kingdom was Babel, &c. Here is the first time, as Mendoza 
well observes, that we read of a kingdom after the flood, and 
that is marked with a TID, Rebellavit : For Nimrod comes 
of "i"iE> to rebel, as if in erecting his kingdom, he had re 
belled against the way of government which before was used 


if not appointed. And it should seem strange if God had 
appointed that way of government, by making the sons of 
Noah, kings; that Cham, from whom came Nimrod, who was 
that cursed and wicked posterity of Noah, should keep that 
government alive which was set up by God ; and that Shem, 
who was the godly posterity of Noah, from whom came 
Abraham, should not : for we read not that Abraham was a 
king, or that his government was monarchical, but rather the 
contrary, as 1 Chron. i. 43. " Now these are the kings that 
reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over 
the children of Israel." To this purpose Mendoza* writeth 
who saith, Before the descent into Egypt, the Jews did not 
constitute a commonwealth, but a family : for, as Aristotle, 
a commonwealth did not arise but from a conjunction of 
many families ; but then Abraham s family was one, to which 
Isaac s succeeded, and to that the house of Jacob. And 
although in Jacob s time, after several marriages, there sprang 
up divers families, the government of all which could not be 
economical or domestical, yet were there not so many fam 
ilies as could constitute any political commonwealth, but a 
middle kind of community, which is called Vitalis, or Col 
lectanea. Yea in Section 6. he proves out of Austin, 
Anton, Isidore, &c. that kingly government fell in the fourth age 
of the world : and therefore Rupertus compares the fourth 
age of the world to the fourth day of the creation, because 
as that did shine with stars, so this with kings.f 

And whereas the Doctor tells us, that this regal monarchial 
government is natural, though not jure yet ductu naturae, 
we being led thereunto through the veins of nature, in a pa 
ternal or fatherly rule, as is plain by the books of God, that 
the first fathers of mankind were kings, and so regal govern 
ment to descend upon the first born by primogeniture as their 
families increased and spread further, &c. page 8. 

* Ante discensum in Egyptum in quo Hebrsei non rempublicam sed familiam 
constituebat : Nam (ut arist) non nisi ex multis familiis coalescit respub. tune 
autem una erat Abrahae domus, in quam successit Isaac, et in hanc domus Jacob, 
et quamvis in tempore Jacob : post connubia plures jam familise darentur, qua- 
rum omnium gubernatio non potuit esse oeconomica, tamen non erant ita multae 
ut politicum rempublicam conflarent, sed mediani quandam commitatem quam 
vitalem seu collectaneam appellant. Mendoza, Tom i. Annot. 3. Proem. 10. 

f Quia ut hoc sideribus, ita ilia regibus fulgurant, Proem. 6. 


I refer him to what Molina and Pineda say; Molina* 
will tell him that power is of two sorts, some that hath its 
rise ex solo jure natural^ and therefore called natural, as the 
power of the father over his children, and those that descend 
from him : other power there is, which hath its origination 
from the will of men, they being willing to subject them 
selves to the supreme, and is therefore called a civil power. 
So that paternaFand civil power are not the same, but have 
two originals. 

And if monarchial government should be by paternal 
right, then is it not only ductu, sedjure natura ; ductus na 
turae is that whereby we are led to any thing by the princi 
ples of nature :^and that which we are led to by the princi 
ples of nature, is jure naturae, : for naturale est, says the phi 
losopher, quod fluil ex principiis naturm. And so the mem 
bra dividentia should interfere, whereas they ought to be 
fully opposite. Besides, if paternal government do lead us 
to regal, and monarchial, then kings should and ought to 
rule as arbitrarily in their kingdoms, as fathers do in their 
families : and if subjects do deny this arbitrary power to 
them, they^ sin, because they are led thereunto by nature, 
and so all the kingdoms of the world should lie in this sin : 
for in what kingdom of the world doth a king rule as arbitra 
rily as a father in his family ? 

Again, this contrivance of government by the Doctor, 
supposes that the eldest man, or father after the flood, 
though he were never so silly and weak, should be king, and 
that this regal government must necessarily descend upon the 
first-born, by virtue of primogeniture. 

For this I refer him to Pineda,* where at large in his book, 
de rebus Salomonis, he may read Pineda proving that among the 

* Qusedam namque potestas est quse ortutn habet ex solo jure natural!, quae 
de causa potestas naturalis dicitur tails est potestas patris in filios et in alios des- 
cendentes alia vero est quse ortum habet ex hominum voluntatibus se illi sub- 
jicere voluntium et id circo crvilis potestas dicitur. Molina de Jure et Just. 
Disp. xx. Trac. 2. 

t Ex succedentium linea in qua paucissimos invenies primogenitos succedentes 
parentibus, quare Abulensis aperte fatetur se retractare communem sententiam 
quam ipse aliquando sequuntus fuisset, et jam tune asserere successionem in reg- 
num aut principatum nunquam fuisse alligatum aut debitum primogenitis, et con- 
firmat ex eo quod, Paralip. i. 5, 1. Primogenita Reuben data fuere Josephi, filiis 
et tamen Juda regnabat. Pineda de Rebus Salomonis, lib. ii. cap. 1. Ipso na 
turae jure omnes sequaliter filios patri succedere docuit. Arist. 7 Ethick. De- 
VOL. V. T 


Israelites the crown did not descend upon the first-born, but 
was always disposed of according to the will of the parent, ap 
pointing it to this or that child ; where he brings in Abulensis 
retracting his opinion, and professing that though he did for 
merly think that the crown did descend upon the first-born by 
virtue of primogeniture, yet at the last he was of another sen 
tence, because it is said, 1 Chron. v. 1. 2, Reuben the first 
born of Israel, because he defiled his father s bed, his birth 
right was given to the sons of Joseph ; yet, verse 2, Judah " pre 
vailed above his brethren, and of him came the chief rulers." 

Now as they argue, if the crown belonged to the first-born, 
as part of the birthright that should have been given unto 
the sons of Joseph ; unto whom it is here said expressly 
the birthright was given : but the rule and crown was given 
unto another tribe, arguing that it was no part of the birth 
right, or any necessary annexum to the primogeniture in 
those days. 

This doctrine Pineda proves by examining the series of all 
the kings, instancing especially in Solomon who was ap 
pointed king by David, notwithstanding he was not David s 
eldest son ; and Abiah who was appointed by Rehoboam, 
though Rehoboam had many elder children, as he clears from 
2 Chron. xi. 1822. 

Whereas the Doctor saith, This monarchial government was 
the first government that God set up ; in Moses, the judges, 
and kings of Israel, and so though not jure divino, yet ex- 
emplo divino, I confess I cannot but wonder at the conceit, 
seeing the difference between the government of judges and 
kings is so abundantly made out by Car. Sigonius, Feverden- 
tius, Ranervus, Abulensis, and many others. Sigonius saith 
expressly,* the first government among the Hebrews was by 
the chief of the people, and after by kings ; that by the 
Greeks, being called aristocracy, and this monarchy ; aris- 

creto item et voluntate divina indiscriminatim Salomonis posteritati pollicetur. 
Deus regnum sed ubi plures erunt filii ad solum parentis voluntatem spectasse 

Abulensis addit posteriorum regum tempore in valescente consuetudinem hse- 
reditarium regni jus ad primogenitos de volutum esse; ego vero perpetuum fuisse 
existimo ut regni successor ex parentis arbitrio et voluntate penderet ut ex serie 
regum patet. Pineda de Rebus Salomonis, lib. ii. cap. 1, 2, 3. 

* Ceterum cum deforma reipub. quaeritur nihil aliud quseritur nisi penes quern 
principatum summa rerum fuerit constituta ; hsec vero apud Hasbreos prim um 


tocracy, saitb he, was under the judges, Joshua and others, 
monarchy under kings, which aristocratical government of 
theirs, is signified to us by these words, " These are the sta 
tutes and judgments which ye shall observe to do in the 
land which the Lord thy God giveth thee," Deut. xii. 1 ; then 
verse 8, u Ye shall not do after all the things that we do 
here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own 
eyes." And indeed if the Israelites were under monarchial 
government in the times of the judges and monarchy was 
then on foot ; why should they desire it as another kind of 
government which yet they had not, 1 Sam. viii., saying to 
Samuel, " Now make us a king to judge us, like all the na 
tions," verse 5. By which it appears that the government 
which they had before, under the judges, was not monarchial 
as that which they had afterwards. 

Let no man, therefore, swallow this principle so often in 
culcated by the Doctor, that the government of Israel under 
judges was monarchial. For though some of the judges were 
called kings, yet, as Drusius and others observe, the word 
king was taken either more strictly for monarch s, or more 
largely for such captains and governors as did rule over them. 
Surely God, at the first, by all we can read in the Scripture, 
was pleased to appoint magistracy itself, and left the children 
of men free to set up that way and form of government which 
in prudence might best correspond with their condition, still 
making people the first subject and receptacle of civil power. 
In proof whereof I have staid the longer, it being the foun 
dation of all this controversy. And now pass on to another 
proposition, which is, 

Seeing that the people are, under God, the first subject of 
civil power, therefore the prince or supreme magistrate hath 
no more power than what is communicated to him from the 
community, because the effect doth not exceed the virtue of 
its cause.* 

Again, As the prince hath no more power than what is 
communicated from the community, so the people or commu- 

penes optimates posita fuit deinde penes reges quorum principatum ilium aristo- 
cracium, hoc regnum Greci vocarunt, aristocratia fuit sub Mose, Josua, senioribus 
et judicibus, regnum sub regibus de aristocratia significant Moses : Deut, xii., 
cum dixit non facietis, &c. Car. Sigon. lib. i. c. 5. 
* Effectus non excedit virtutem causae suse. 

2/6 TRUTH OF THE. [CHAP. 1. 

nity cannot give away from themselves the power of self- 
preservation ; because the same commandment that saith, 
Thou shalt not kill ; doth also say, Thou shalt preserve. Pre 
cepts that forbid evil, do command the contrary good. Now 
the moral, natural law of God forbids a man to kill himself, 
and therefore commands him to preserve himself; and as by 
a positive act men cannot make a law to kill themselves, no 
more can they not to preserve themselves, the one being as 
strongly commanded by the moral law, and as deeply seated 
in nature as the other. Because, also, if the community 
should give away the power of self-preservation, the state 
should not be in a better but in a worser condition than be 
fore. The king and prince is taken into office for the good of 
the people, therefore called pater patria, and pastor gregis ; 
not because he may arbitrarily rule in the commonwealth as a 
father doth in his family, but because of his tender care that 
he is to have over his people, and that the people might live 
more secure and peaceably in all godliness and honesty. But 
if the community should give such a trust to any one that 
they might not at all defend themselves beyond his actual 
appointment, they should be infinitely in a worser condition 
than before, because before such trust they should be freemen, 
but after the trust they should be slaves, unless it pleases the 
king, through his own gracious condescension, to let them be 
free still : for what is a slave but such an one who is so ab 
solutely at the power of another s command, that he may be 
spoiled, or sold, or put under the gallies, and there beaten daily, 
having no power to make any resistance or self-defence. It 
is, again, agreeable to the law of nations and reason, that no 
inferior court can undo what a superior court hath done. As 
where an estate is settled upon children by act of parliament, 
no inferior court of justice can cut oft the entail. Now self- 
preservation is enacted in the court 7>f nature, as h3 that hath 
read Magirus unbound, I mean common natural principles 
will grant, and therefore no act of a community can cut off 
this entail from their posterity, or make such a deed of con 
veyance, whereby themselves and their children should be 
spoiled of self-preservation. 

But though by nature a man is bound to preserve himself, 
yet he may destroy or put himself upon that which will 
be his destruction, for the public good ; doth not natura 
particularis go cross to its own disposition, ne detur vacuum ? 


I answer, True, I have read indeed that natura particularis 
gives way to natura universalis, but never heard before that 
natura universalis gives way to natura particularis, or that 
natura universalis doth seek its own destruction, or lose the 
power of self preservation for the good or betterness of some 
particular nature. Wherefore if the seat of power be in the 
community, and therefore no more power in the supreme than 
was and is derived from the community, and the people can 
not give away the power of self-preservation : then in case the 
prince doth neglect his trust, so as not to preserve them, but 
to oppose them to violence, it is no usurpation for them to 
look to themselves, which yet may be no act of jurisdiction 
over their prince, or taking away of any power from him 
which they gave him, but is in truth a stirring up, acting and 
exercising of that power which always was left in themselves. 


HAVING now spoken of power in general, I shall say 
somewhat of the governing and ruling power of England ; 
yet because that concerns the parliament to declare, which 
they have done, and lawyers for to clear, which they do ; I 
shall but touch upon it, and no more than comes within the 
compass and verge, I do not say of a divine, but subject, I find 
therefore in learned Fortescue, lord chief justice, and after 
lord chancellor in the time of king Henry VI., that he doth 
distinguish of governed or ruling power into two sorts, the 
one merely royal, and the other politic : When kingdoms are 
ruled by royal government, saith he,* then men in times past, 
excelling in power and greedy of dignity and glory, did many 

* Homines quandam potentia per pollentes, avidi dignitatis et glorise vicinas 
ssepe gentes sibi viribus subjugarunt ac ipsis servire obtemperare quoque; jussioni- 
bus suis compulerunt quas jussiones ex tune leges hominibus illis esse ipsi sancti- 
erunt. Fortescue de Laudibus Legum Angl. c. xii. 

Ad tutelam namq. legis subditarum et eorum corpus et bonorum rex homini 
erectus est, et ad hanc potestatem a populo efluxam ipse hsec, quo einon licet po- 
testate alia suo populo dominari. Ibid, c. xiii. 

Principatum namq. nedum regali sed et politica, ipse suo populo dominatur. 
Ibid, c. 9. 

278 TRUTH OF THE [CllAP. 2. 

times by plain force subdue unto themselves their neighbours 
the nations adjoining, and compelled them to do them service 
and to obey their commands, which commands they decreed 
afterwards to be unto the people very laws, cap. xii. The 
form of institution of a politic kingdom is, that were a king 
is made and ordained for the defence of the law of his sub 
jects, and of their bodies and goods, whereunto he receiveth 
power of his people, for that he cannot govern his people by 
any other power, cap. xiii. Now, saith he, the king of Eng 
land cannot alter or change the laws of his realm at his plea 
sure, for he governeth his people by power, not only royal but 
also politic. And accordingly William the Conqueror, to go no 
higher, in whose entrance to the crown Dr. Fearne makes the 
first contrivement of his English government for conscience 
to rest upon, seems to me to have possessed himself of this 
kingdom, who though he did conquer the same, yet the first 
claim or title that he laid to this crown was gift, which Ed 
ward the Confessor had made to him ; Harold the former 
king having promised the crown also to him.* In this right, 
he first set foot on the English shore, not in the right of a 
conquest, but in the right of a gift and promise, as Speed, 
Camden, and others affirm. And afterwards, when he had 
obtained the crown, he swore to use and practise the same 
good laws of Edward for the common laws of this realm ; 
notwithstanding, saith Mr. Fox, amongst the said laws I find 
in ancient records this was part, That the king, because he is 
vicar of the highest King, is appointed to rule the kingdom, 
and the Lord s people, to defend the holy church; which un 
less he do, the name of a king agrees not to him, but he 
loseth the name of a king, &c.* 

Again, As the king and conqueror came into the kingdom 
by this claim, so we find, that in those times the consent and 
choice of the people was in use for the establishing of kings 
amongst them : for when William I. sent to Harold to make 
good his promise, Harold answered that he was rightful king, 
as being so by the consent and choice of the people, as is 
reported by Camden in his Britannia, thus : As concerning 
the promise of king Edward, William is to understand, that 

* Fox Act. Monum. of Will. Conqueror. 

t Ex lib. regum antiquorum in Pretorio Londinensi. Mr. Fox s Act. Mo 
num. ibid. 



the realm of England could not be given by promise, neither 
ought I to be tied to the said promise, seeing the kingdom 
is fallen to me by election, and not inheritance. And as for 
his own stipulation, he said, it was extorted from him by 
force ; neither he if he could, nor might if he would, make it 
good, seeing it was done without the consent of the people. 
Yea, histories tell us, that when William I. had beaten Harold 
in the field, the people still were in doubt whom they should 
choose and set up for their king : For, says Guliel. Malms- 
buriens,* Edwin and Morcard came to London, and solicited 
the city that they would prefer one of them to the kingdom ; 
and the rest of the nobles would have chosen Edgar, if the 
bishops would have stuck to them : but the English, who 
then might have healed the ruins of the kingdom, whilst they 
would none of their own, brought in a stranger. So that 
though William I. had gotten the field, yet was not he brought 
to the crown, but with the consent and choice, though much 
overpowered and over-awed, of the people. So says Speed 
expressly : Consent thus gotten, and all voices given for Wil 
liam, he was crowned king at Westminster. 

Further, As the crown in those days was obtained by the 
consent and choice of the people, so, I say, that even William 
the Conqueror did not come to the crown without all condi 
tions : for the Kentish men would not receive him but upon 
condition, which they proposed thus : Most noble duke, be 
hold here the commons of Kent are come forth to meet and 
receive you as their sovereign, requiring your peace, their own 
free condition or estate, and their ancient laws formerly used. 
If these be denied, they are here presently to abide the ver 
dict of battle, fully resolved rather to die than to depart with 
their laws, or to live servile in bondage, which name and 
nature is, and ever shall be strange unto us, and not to be 
endured. The conqueror driven to these straits, and loth to 
hazard all on so nice a point, more wisely than willingly 
granted their desires, and pledges on both parts given for 
performance. So saith Speed in his Chronicles,f so that it 

* Nam prsecedentibus diebus Edwinus et Morcardus apud London audito in- 
territus Haroldi nuntio urbanos solicita verunt ut altevutrum in regnum subleva- 
varent, cseteri proceres Edgarum eligerent si episcopos hererent, sed Angli qui in 
unam coeuntes sententiam potuissent patrise reso mare ruinam dum nullum ex 
fuis volebant induxerunt alienum. Gui. Malms, de Will, primo, lib. iii. p. 102. 

f Speed s Chronicles of William the Conqueror. 

280 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 2, 

is plain, that even William I. came not to the full crown of 
England without all conditions, and therefore our kings and 
princes, pleading their right from him, cannot be kings and 
princes without all conditions. I know Dr. Fearne tells us, 
that the king s oath imports no condition, but is taken 
for confirmation and strengthening of mutual duties ; whether 
that be true, let any judge that reads but these things. And 
indeed, if the kings of England were such absolute monarchs, 
as that no resistance might be made to their commandments 
for the taking up of arms for the defence of the country, 
when enjoined by parliament, then the subjects and people of 
England must lose this power of self-defence, for they once 
had it ; all men by nature having a power to defend them 
selves ; either by conquest, as being by force spoiled thereof, 
or else they give it away by some indenture at the election of 
the prince, for inheritance is but succession of election, inhe 
ritance, or immediate donation from God, or else God hath 
forbidden this forcible resistance by Scripture. If it be said 
that this people are spoiled thereof by conquest, and are as a 
people merely conquered ; then any other sword that is longer 
than the prince s, may fetch back that power again. If it be 
said that this people give away this power by indenture at the 
first election of their prince, then let men shew us that in 
denture. If it be said that God hath forbidden such a forci 
ble resistance by Rom. xiii. 1 3, or the like scriptures ; then 
it must be affirmed that the parliament are not the higher 
powers, which Dr. Fearne granteth: for if the parliament 
come within the compass of those words, " higher powers/ 
then that scripture, Rom. xiii., doth not reach them, but ra 
ther requires others to be obedient to them: yea, if by "the 
higher powers," is understood only the king, then the two 
houses may not make any forcible resistance against any petty 
constable that comes in the king s authority to do violence to 
the two houses. Surely, therefore, this and the like scrip 
tures are much abused, the meaning being only to command 
obedience to authority in all things that tend to the encou 
ragement of good and punishment of evil; and therefore 
there is such a power in the subjects, both by the law of 
nature and constitution of the kingdom, to take up arms 
when the state, or two houses express it, notwithstanding the 
expression of any one man to the contrary. 



HAVING shewed the nature of power in general, in Chap 
ter I., and the way and manner of England s government in 
some measure in Chapter II., I now come to the vindication 
of the truth, as opposed by Dr. Fearne in his last book, called, 
Conscience Satisfied, wherein he spends the seven former 
chapters mostly in answer to a book called, A Fuller Answer. 
In Sect. VIII. he comes to examine such grounds as I pre 
mised for the lawfulness of parliamentary proceedings in tak 
ing up arms as now they do. That I may not weary the 
reader in turning from book to book, I shall sometimes briefly 
set down what I had written, then his reply, then give my 
answer unto it. 

Mr. Bridge tells us, saith the Doctor, that there are three 
grounds of their proceeding by arms : to fetch in delinquents 
to their trial, to secure the state from foreign invasion, to 
preserve themselves from popish rebellion. Dr. Fearne re- 
plieth : Yet this must be done in an orderly and legal way ; 
and if conscience would speak the truth, it could not say that 
any delinquents were denied or withheld, till the militia was 
seized, and a great delinquent, in the matter of Hull, was de 
nied to be brought to trial at his majesty s instance. 

I answer, How true this is that the Doctor writes, the world 
knows I need not say : the parliament to this day never de 
nied to try any that were accused by the king, so that they 
might be tried legally by himself and the two houses, which 
is the known privilege of every parliament-man according to 

But, says Dr. Fearne, Mr. Bridge tells us, All this is done 
as an act of self preservation, not as an act of jurisdiction 
over their prince; and the Fuller Answer would have us be 
lieve they are enabled to it by law, and constitution of this 
government, and that they do it by an act of judgment : let 
him and Mr. Bridge agree it. 

There needs no great skill to untie this knot, nor mediator 
to make us friends; the parliament hath raised this army by 
an act of judgment and jurisdiction, not over their prince., 
but in regard of delinquents : so the same act may be a work 
of jurisdiction in regard of others, and yet an act of preser- 

282 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 3. 

vation in regard of ourselves. The execution of any male 
factor in an ordinary way of law is both preservation to the 
state, and a work of jurisdiction in regard of the offender, so 
here ; yet I do not say it is a work of jurisdiction over our 
prince, but in regard of delinquents that are about him. 

Dr. Fearne says, Mr. Bridge gives us proofs for this way of 
self-preservation from the law of nature, it being natural to a 
man, and so to a community to defend itself. And were this 
argument good, then might private men and the people with 
out the parliament take up arms and resist, for self-preserva 
tion is natural to them. 

It follows not, because, though I say every thing may de 
fend itself by nature, yet I say also it must do it modo suo 
et natura sues convenient ; we say that all creatures do de 
fend themselves, and it is natural so to do; yet we do not 
therefore say that a beast defends himself in the same man 
ner as a man doth, or a man as a beast, but in a way suitable 
to every nature. Now if a private person be in danger to be 
oppressed by a prince, flying is more fit defence for him, and 
therefore saith our Saviour, " If they persecute thee in one 
city, fly to another :" but if the state be wronged and op 
pressed, which is a public grievance, then the state, and 
those that represent them are more fit to take up arms for its 
preservation. For nature in general teacheth self-preserva 
tion ; nature specificated teacheth this or that preservation : 
now the nature of a community, and of a particular person 
are distinct, and therefore though I say a community is to 
defend itself because sui tutela is natural to every thing ; yet 
I do not say, that a particular private person may ordinarily 
defend himself in that way which is most suitable to the 
community as the taking up of arms is, yet I suppose no 
moderate man will deny this, that the subjects, though, not 
invested with authority have a power to keep out an enemy 
from landing in case of foreign invasion, yea though the 
king s officers should be negligent therein ; or so malicious 
and treacherous as to forbid them to defend themselves and 
their country. 

Again, saith the Doctor, he proves it by scripture 
1 Chron. xii. 19. where the word of God saith expressly, that 
* c David went out against Saul to battle/ but he was Saul s 
subject at that time. A desperate undertaking to make peo- 


pie believe this is express scripture for subjects to go out to 
battle against their king. But he should have added what 
is expressed there, it was with the Philistines that he went 
out, and that he helped them not, for he did but make shew 
of tendering his service to Achish. 

Here I need give no other answer than repeat those words 
fully that he replies to, which were these, which scripture I 
bring not to prove that a subject may take up arms against 
the king, but that the subjects may take up arms against 
those that are malignant about the king s person, notwith 
standing the king s command to the contrary. For seeing 
that David s heart smote him formerly for cutting off the lap 
of Saul s garment, and yet it is said in express words in this 
text that he went out against Saul, it is likely that his in 
tentions were against those that were evil and wicked about 

Then the Doctor brings in another piece of my argument, 
not the whole reason or the sense of it, thus, " Be subject 
to the higher powers," Rom. xiii. but the parliament is the 
highest court of justice, page 3. To which he replies, modo 
suo, well assumed, and so it is, for is not the highest court 
of justice an higher power ? We grant, saith the Doctor, there 
is a subjection due to them, and if he meant by the parlia 
ment the three estates concurring, all manner of subjection is 
due unto them. It is well he will acknowledge any subjection 
due to the parliament without the third estate. And if any 
subjection, then they have some authority, but none they can 
have, if not power to bring in the accused to be tried before 
them. And if they have power to bring in twenty by force, 
then one hundred, then one thousand, then ten thousand, 
which cannot be done without raising an army. 

Then he undertakes, says the Doctor, to shew out of scrip 
ture, that kings receive their power from the people, and 
hath the ill hap to light on Saul, David and Solomon for ex 

The Doctor hath the ill hap always to miss the argument 
which lay thus : If it be the duty of the king to look to the 
safety of the kingdom, and that because he is trusted there 
with by the commonwealth; then if the parliament be imme 
diately trusted by the commonwealth with the safety thereof 
as well as the king, though not so much, then are they to 

284 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 3. 

look to it, and to use all means for the preservation thereof, 
as well as the king. But so it is that the king is bound to 
look to the safety thereof, and that because he is intrusted 
therewith, as was Saul, David and Solomon, who came to 
their government by the consent and choice of the people. 
Whereupon the Doctor replies, He hath the ill hap to light 
on Saul, David and Solomon. 

But it seems the Doctor had not the good hap to meet 
with these several authors which affirm that even these kings, 
Saul, David and Solomon, were chosen by the people, if he 
had read or minded them, he would not have imputed this 
as an ill hap unto me for to light on these examples. I will 
give him but the testimony of Mendoza* who though not of 
our judgment in this matter, yet ingenuously confesses, that 
with great probability authors do reason for a popular choice 
of Saul, David and Solomon. Whereas saith Mendoza, it is 
objected, that Samuel by anointing Saul without any consent 
of the people, saying, The Lord hath anointed thee king 
over his heritage, did thereby clearly shew, that the regal 
power was conferred upon Saul, not from the people, but 
from God ; that is easily answered, that that unction was not 
a sign of power already conferred, but to be conferred, as may 
be proved by the anointing of David, whom Samuel anoint 
ed, 1 Kings xvi. 13, during Saul s reign, yea while he had 
many years to reign. Whereby it appears that David did not 
receive regal power by that unction, but by that which he 
had afterward by all the tribes and elders; when coming to 
Hebron they anointed David king over Israel; therefore that 

* Quod si objiciis Satnuelem ungendo, Saulem absque ullo populi consensu, ac 
dicendo ecce unxit te Dominus super hseredifratem suam in principam, 1 Reg, x. 
1., manifeste indicasse regiam potestatem Sauli collatam non a populo, sed a 
Deo immediate profectam esse ; facile responderi potest illam unctionem non 
fuisse sigmim potestatis collatse sed conferendse, ut probati potest ex unctione 
Davidis quern Samuel unxit, 1 Reg. xvi. 13, regnante adhuc Saule, imo multis 
post annis regnaturo. Unde per earn unctionem non accepit David regiam pote 
statem, sed per earn quse postea facta est ab universis tribubus, et senioribus, 
quando venientes in Hebron unxerunt David in regem super Israel. 2 Reg. v. 3. 
Quare ilia prior unctio non fuit collatio regise potestatis, sed tantum significatio 
qusedam hujus posterioris unctionis, per quam conferenda erat ilia regia potestas ; 
sic igitur et prima ilia Saulis unctio ante populi consensum, non significavit 
regium potestatem collatam, sed conferendam, quando scilicet omnis populos a 
Samuele congregatus in Mispeh, suum praebuit consensum, et clamavit vivat rex. 
Ita possunt pro hac parte ejus auctores non parutn probabiliter argumentari. 
Mendoza in 1 Reg. viii. 5, p. 582. 


first unction was not the conferring the regal power, but only 
a signification of this latter unction, by which this kingly 
power was to be derived or conveyed : so also that first 
anointing of Saul before the consent of the people, did not 
signify the kingly power already conferred, but to be confer 
red upon him, to wit, when all being gathered together by 
Samuel to Mispeh, gave their consent, and cried out, Let the 
king live. 

Dr. Fearne says, He hath found an example and proof for the 
trust of parliament in David s time, 1 Chron. xiii. 1,2, because 
David consults with the captains and leaders which were officers 
not of the king, but kingdom, but those were officers of the 
king and kingdom, merely designed by him, not the people, 
and called by him to that trust, page 43, 44. 

True, I have found an example indeed in David s time for 
what I alleged : namely, that there were then certain officers 
of the kingdom, not of the king only, and though under him, 
yet were they with him trusted with the affairs of the king 
dom. This also was the judgment of the protestant divines 
in France, whose testimony I shall relate afterwards ; of 
Juriius, Josephus, Brutus, Zepperus, Sigonius, and many 
others. Zepperus saith thus,* that in Saul, David and Solo 
mon s time, and so before the captivity, the kingdom of Is 
rael was mixed with aristocracy, for it had a senate of seventy, 
or great synedrirn, which sat at Jerusalem, whose judges were 
called princes, who, sitting by the king, did dispatch the great 
affairs of the kingdom, unto whom was referred the choice of 
the king and high priest, and matters of war and other things 
greatly concerning the people. Of this synedrim Josephus 
saith, Nihil agat rex sine senatorum sententia, yea, these 
senators were in such place with the king, that they were 
called his friends and brethren. 1 Chron. ii. 2. And though 
the Doctor says, those officers in David s time were designed 
by the king, not the people, yet if we look to the original 
in Deut. i. 13, we find that the people did first give 

* Hujus autem temporis respub. monarcbica fuit, aristocratia tatnen permixta 
et accesset aliquid etiam democraticum, habuit enim senatura septuagint, cujus 
judices patricii et principes vocantur ; regi assidentes summum regni, judicium 
conficiebant, ad quod difficiliores causse, regis et pontificis electio, belligerendi 
consultatio, alia que totutn populi corpus concernentia referrebantur. De hoc 
synedrio Josephus nihil agit ex sine senatorum sententia fuerunt que hi eo apud 
reges loco, ut fratres eos suas dicerent. Zepperus Mosaic, foren. Expla. 1. 3, c.6. 


them to Moses before he did make them rulers, for, verse 13, 
Moses, relating the first constitution of that government, saith, 
I said unto you, give me wise men, and understanding and 
known men among your tribes, and I will make them rulers 
over you : the English translation readeth, Take ye wise men, 
the Hebrew is, Give ye us, as Montanus hath it; and when they 
had given them to Moses, he saith, verse 15, So I received 
them ; so is the Hebrew : he would not make any rulers over 
them, but such as he had first received from them, and they 
had given unto him, and so though at the first it pleased God 
to appoint those rulers or council of state called the sanedrym 
or synedrion, whereupon Mendoza saith, that they were equal 
to Moses being appointed by God as Moses was, Numb. xi. 
14, 15, 16.* Yet that was by and with the consent and choice 
of the people, not merely by appointment of the king, as 
our Doctor would. Car. Sigonius will tell him,t out of the 
Talmudists, and other divines, that he had searched into, 
that this synedrion, or college of elders, did represent the 
sceptre, that the sceptre itself did depend on it, that none 
did judge the tribe and the sceptre, but this house of judg 
ment. To this purpose Gerard shews/j: that this synedrion 
was chosen of the chief men of Israel, in whom was power 
of judging controversies, exercising of public justice, yea, of 
choosing and deposing kings : and therefore of the Talmud 
ists, this council was called the house of judgment, or the 
house of the sceptre and public authority. And Zepperus, 
with Dr. Bilson, saith, || this synedrion continued with that 
people of God unto the time of Herod, Josephus being 
witness. I press not so much as these authors speak of, but 
whether there were not in those times of David, officiarii 
regni, which were not merely designed by the king : and 
what inference I do make from thence, let conscience judge. 

* Dedit illis Deus seniores, qui per omnia illi equales forent, ut patet. 
Numb. xi. 14. 

f Et in ipsis sceptrum ipsum pendebat, nemo autem dijudicat tribum scep- 
trum, &c. nisi domus judicii. Car. Sig. lib. v. c. 7. 

J Penes quos erat summa potestas judicandi controversas et exercendi judicia 
publici, quin et leges elegendi, et deponendi, unde a talmodistis vocatur domus 
judicii magna, vel collegium sceptri et publici potestatis. Gerard de Eccles. pol. 

|| Hoc seniorum synedrian perpetuum fuit in populo Dei, usque ad Herodem 
teste Josepho. Zepperus, lib. iii. c. 5. So Dr. Bilson of Subjection and Rebel 
lion, page 338. 


Again, whereas I argue from the being and nature of 
parliament, that if it hath not power to send for by force, 
those that are accused to be tried before them, that should 
not be a court of justice ; seeing that even inferior courts 
have a power to force those before them that are to be tried : 
and if the parliament may send one sergeant-at-arms, then 
twenty, then a hundred, then a thousand, &c. The Doctor 
replies : Therefore inferior courts have a power to raise 
arms. I answer, this follows not: for though I say every 
court hath power to force in the accused, yet it must be in a 
way suitable. Now this raising of arms is not suitable unto 
an inferior court, but to the parliament, being a more 
national and public court than any other is. The Doctor 
tells us indeed, that other courts have their posse comitatus. 
So the parliament have their orders, to fetch and force in the 
accused, which are established by law, as well as his posse 
comitatus is. But saith the Doctor : I did not know before 
that all the parliament soldiers were sergeants-at-arms. I 
answer, how doth he catch at the word, and let the sense go; 
the sense, scope and drift of the argument, was to shew, that 
as they might send forth one, who by force should fetch in 
the accused, by the same reason they may send forth ten ; 
and by the same reason that they may send forth ten, they 
may send forth twenty, so a hundred, so a thousand, so ten 
thousand. The Doctor puts off the argument with a jeer, 
because he hath no list to meddle with the reason. 

In page 45, he would enervate the testimonies of divines, 
which I brought to shew that all protestant divines were of one 
mind. Let us see, therefore, what he saith to them. And first 
he begins with the testimony of the German divines, and for 
that, saith he : The testimony of the Centurist speaks nothing 
to this purpose. A short answer, soon and easily given. But, 
why nothing to our purpose ? Nay, stay there, the Doctor 
will keep his reason to himself. I set down therefore the tes 
timony again, and let men judge whether it be to the purpose. 
Governors, say they, in such things as are repugnant to the 
law of God, have no power or immunity above other private 
men, and they themselves commanding that which is evil, 
have no power or immunity above others ; yea, they them 
selves commanding that which is evil, are as much bound to 
fear the ordinance of God, bearing the sword for the punish- 


ment of vice : for St Paul, Rom. xiii., saith that God did 
institute and ordain a power both of defending that which is 
good, and punishing that which is evil ; and he commands 
that every soul, and so the governors themselves should be 
subject to this ordinance of God if they would be defended 
by it, and not by their wicked deeds, makes themselves liable 
to punishment.* 

Of the French and Low Country divines, he brings no tes 
timony, saith the Doctor, but for proof tells us we know 
their practice ; so I for answer may return him his own 
words; we know what hath been the practice of those pro- 
testants, and so they are parties interested, not so fit to give 
in witness. 

Very well, if they be parties interested, and so not fit to 
give in witness, then they are of our judgment : observe, 
reader, here he granteth that the protestant churches, and the 
divines of France and the Low Countries, are parties interest 
ed, and so of our judgment; what protestant churches or 
divines then will he allege for his sentence ? Will he have 
the divines of Switzerland ? I brought a testimony of the 
divines of the council of Basil, and that he doth not contra 
dict : are the divines of Geneva of his mind ? I brought the 
testimony of Calvin ; that he saith nothing to, but it passeth 
with him as granted by him. Are the divines of Scotland ? 
I brought him the testimony of Mr. Buchanan, that testimony 
also he doth not deny ; it may be that was but one, and so 
he would not take notice of it; read therefore what Mr. 
Knox saith: Because this occasion is laid against God s 
true ministers, we cannot but witness what trade and order 
of doctrine they have kept and keep in that point; they 
affirm that if wicked persons abusing the authority estab 
lished by God, command things manifestly wicked, that such 
as may and do, bridle this inordinate appetite of princes, 
cannot be accused as resisteries of authority, which is God s 

* Gubernationes ergo in iis rebus quee cum decalogo et justis legibus pugnant, 
nihil juris aut immunitatis habent prse cseteris hominibus privatis, et perpetrantes 
id quod malura est, coguntur tarn metuere ordinationem Dei, glad um prsestan- 
tern ad vindictam nocentium, quam alii hones privum nam Paulus Rom. xiii. do- 
cet. Deum ordinasse et instituisse potestatem illara gladio defendendi bonutn, et 
puniendi raalum, et praecipit, ut omnis anima (et sic gubernatores) tali Dei ordi- 
nationi sit subjecta; hoc est obligat ad faciendum bonum, si velifc defendi ista Dei 
ordinatione, et non ob sua facinora impia puniri. Magdeburgensis Cent, 1. 20. 


good ordinance, to bridle the fury and rage of princes in free 
kingdoms and realms. They affirm it appertaineth to nobil 
ity, sworn and born councils of the same, and also to the 
barons and people, whose wills and consents are to be re 
quired in all great matters of the commonwealth : which if 
they do not, they declare themselves criminal with their 
princes, and subject to the same vengeance of God. This 
was the doctrine and judgment of the divines in Scotland, in 
the beginning of the Reformation, as related by Mr. Knox.* 
And what the judgment of the Scots divines is for the pre 
sent, seeing he will not take practice for testimony of judg 
ment, he may read in their answer to Lysirrachus Nicanourf 
thus : As for the lawfulness of resistance, he may understand 
that that hath been the tenet of our church since the Refor 
mation ; it hath been the right and practice of our king 
doms, since the first foundation. A number of instances 
thereof are approved in our standing acts of parliament, un- 
repealed to this day. It hath been the practice of all 
reformed churches abroad, wherein by queen Elizabeth; king 
James, and king Charles, they have been all allowed, and the 
most of them allowed by powerful assistance both with men 
and money. To this purpose Mr. Rutherford also, as I -have 
shewed already, Chap. I. 

But it may be the Doctor will tell us that the Scottish di 
vines are also parties, and interested in the cause. Veiy 
good. We shall shortly have a great party in the protestant 
churches for us and with us; what divines then are against 
us in the Doctor s opinion ? Are the divines of England ? 
He tells us also page 45, yet do some of them allow of re 
sistance in some cases : good still ; by and by it will arise to 
somewhat, here is yet more of our party, as the Doctor calls 
them, by his own confession. As for the testimonies that I 
brought of Dr. Bilson, and Dr. Willet, he saith, That is plain 
they speak of such government, such states, such cases as 
will not agree to this kingdom at this time. But why not, 
the Doctor will not tell us. If I tell him that Peter Martyr 
also professor of divinity in England, was of our judgment, 
as he may read plainly, J he will tell me, it may be, 

* Mr. Kuox s History of the Church of Scotland, p. 343. 
f Answer to Lysimachus Nicanour, p. 8. 
Peter Martyr in Judg. c. i. 
VOL. V. U 


that Peter Martyr speaks not of this time, or of this case, or 
of this state : if I refer him to Polanus,* who writes 
largely in this matter with us, it may be he will tell us 
also that Polanus speaks not to our case, to our time, or to 
our state : but I refer him to Barcley and Hugo Grotius 
who well knew the judgment of the Low Country divines ; 
I suppose the Doctor will not say those are parties : Barcleus, 
saith Hugo Grotius,f the most strong defender of regal 
empire, yet descends thus far to yield unto the people, and 
the chief part of them a power to defend themselves against 
immane cruelty, when yet notwithstanding he confesses that 
the people are subject unto the king : and as for me, saith 
Hugo Grotius, I dare not indiscriminatim condemn those or 
that part of the people which do use this defence having res 
pect unto the public good : for David had many armed men 
about him, that he might repel violence offered unto him ; 
and at that time David was commended by a prudent wo 
man, that he fought the Lord s battle, which words many do 
ill refer to David s former battles, whereas Abigail s speech is 
rather a correction of what Nabal said. Many subjects are 
now fallen from their king, which words that Abigail might 
correct, she saith the wars of David were godly, as being un 
dertaken not out of defection from his prince, but for tuition 
and preservation of his own life. But because the Doctor 
seems to want some testimonies of the French Protestant 
divines, I will give him one for all, and surely he will not 
say the words are not spoken of such government, such 
states, such cases, or such times as ours are. This question 
being on foot in the time of Charles IX : what is to be done 
by the subject when he is violenced by the magistrate ; or if 

* Polanus in Dan. xi. 

f Barcleus regii imperil assertor fortissimus, hue tamen descendit, ut populo, 
et insigni ejus parti jus concedat se tuendi adversum iromanem saevitiam. Cum 
tamen ipse fateatur totum populum regi subditum esse ; ego indiscriminatim dam- 
nare aut singulos, aut partem populi minorem, quse ultimo necessitatis prsesidio, 
sic utatur ut interim et communis boni respectum non deserat. Vix ausim nam 
David armato, circum se aliquanto habuit ; quo nisi ad vim arcendam, si inferetur. 
Et hoc ipso tempore Davidi prudente feemina dicitur bella Dei, i. e. pia gerere ; 
quod male multi ad sola bella priora trahunt, quum potius emendatio sit ejus quod 
Nabal dixerat, multos subditos a rege suo deficere, quod ut corrigat Abigal bella 
Davidis pia esse dicit, ut pote non defectionis, sed solo vitse tuendse consilio sus- 
cepta. Hugo Grotius de Jure Belli et Pacis, 1. i. c. 4. 


the chief magistrate degenerate into a tyrant, may the sub 
jects resist by force of arms ?* 

That was answered by one learned man, for, and in the 
defence of the protestants in those times, thus,f Subjects are 
of three sorts, either mere private men, bearing no public 
office, or else they are in some inferior and subordinate place 
of magistracy ; or else they are such as are so inferior to the 
chief magistrate that by the laws of the land are appointed to 
bridle the chief: as for private men, saith the author, it is 
evil for them to resist with force of arms, either they must 
fly or suffer : as for the second sort they not being the king s 
household servants, but rather to be called officers of the 
crown, depending not so much on the king as kingdom, the 
king abusing his power to the overthrow of laws ; these in 
ferior magistrates ought to oppose, for the conservation of 
those who are committed unto their trust ; and if need be to 
take up arms till things be otherwise provided for by the 
estates of the kingdom. As for the third sort, saith he, 
though they in some respect are under the chief magistrate, 
yet in some respect they are keepers of the supreme dignity, 
that the chief magistrate may be kept in his office ; these 
may, if need require, repress and chastise him, for the people 
is not made for the magistrate, but the magistrate for the 
people ; his power taking its rise from them. 

* Quid agendum est subjecto cum a magistrate violatur ; vel si summi magis- 
tratus in tyrannos degenerarent, et quid subjectis faciendum ? necessarione illis 
ob temperandum an illis repugnandum, et quidam armorum vi adhibita. 

f Respondeo, varia ease subjectorum discrimina, alii mere sunt privati homines 
nullum publicum munus gerentes ; alii inferiorem et quasi subalternum magistra- 
tum gerant ; alii ita sunt summo magistrate inferiores ; it tamen ex patrise insti- 
tutis et legibus summi magistratus, moderandi causa tanquam frsena quedam con- 
stituantur, quod ad primum attinet certum est, nefas esse private cuilibet privata 
authoritate vim tyranni vi opponere, sed vel tyranni vis subcunda, et tolleranda 
est aut cedandum, et alio migrandum. Quod ad secundum subjectorum genus 
attinet eorum qui subalternos magistrates gerunt ; non regis quidem familiie do- 
mestici, sed regni potius ministri ; quos officiarios corona? vulgo noncupant ; ita 
statuendum est, illos non tama regi quern a regno pendere, illi regi tnanifeste 
tyranno, et ad lege, evertendas sua potentia abutenti oponere se, daberit ex jure 
jurando prestito ; obligati ad eorum salutem, et conservationem qui suae fidei 
commissa sunt ; armis si opus est etiam adhibitis, donet a regni to dinibus aliter 
provisum sit. De tertio autem subjectorum genere, illud constituendum est 
quamvis illi revera ; et certa quadam ratione summum magistratus imperio sub- 
mittuntur ; alia tamen ratione dura urgit necessitas supremi iliius pignitatis vin- 
dices, et custodes constituuntur, ut suprcmum magistratum in suo officio contine- 
ant ; imo ut et ilium cum necesse fuerit reprimant, atque castigent. 

u 2 


But though this were the first rise of magistracy, yet after 
the people have chosen their magistrate, they have resigned 
up their power to him. 

But the people never created or received their kings^ but 
upon certain conditions, which being manifestly broken and 
not kept, those have power to abdicate, who have power to 
create ; and this has always been in use amongst all the most 
famous nations in the world, the Israelites, Lacedemonians, 
Romans, Danes, Swedes, Scotch, Polonians and English.* 

But if a magistrate do degenerate into a tyrant, as we are 
not to be obedient to him, so neither are we to resist him. 

That is only understood of private men. 

But David spared Saul though it were in his power to cut 
him off. 

That is no way contrary to the doctrine delivered, for 
David had many armed men about him whose help, if need 
had required, he would without doubt have used against 
all, yet thus he did, having respect rather to his own defence, 
than his enemies 3 oifence.f This testimony tells us what 
hath been the practice of all nations : the testimony of the 
Scots in their answer to Lysimachus Nicanour, saith ex 
pressly, That our doctrine is according to the judgment of all 
the reformed churches. And if these testimonies will not yet 
prevail with the Doctor, I must leave him to his resolves. 
He tells us that our homilies are against us, but let him pro- 

* Si quis excipiat ut prima ilia fuerit magistratuum, origo verum tamen esse 
populos omnem suam libertatem in sol dum iis resignasse quos sumtnos magistra- 
tus sibi preficerent csedo vero resignationis illius ullam probationem , qum statuo 
populus quantum quidem valuit jus et equitas, nee creasse, nee recipisse reges 
nisi certis conditionibus, quibus a magistratu manifeste violatis consequitur eum 
jus illorum abdicandorum habre, qui habuerat creandorum. Id deet populum 
summos magistrates legitimo imperio abutentes ; abdicare imperio posse. Et id 
quidem apud omnes rationes celebriores usurpatum fuisse perspicuum est, Roma 
nes, Athenienses, Israelites, Danos, Swedos, Scotos, et Anglos. 

Secundo excipatur regibus si in tyrannos degenerarent ; non esse scelerum qui 
dem prsebendum ministerium, illis tamen vim minime opponendam ; de privatis 
concedo ; de inferioribus vero magistratibus minime. Ad superiores vero regum 
quasi Ephoros de tyrannis coercendis curam maxime eorum pertinere contendo. 

f Deinde affertur exemplum Davidis qui Sauli tyranno tarn studiosa pepereit, 
quamvis illius interficiendi facultatem haberet illud exemplum superiori doctrinse 
minime repugnare alio ; David enim militarem hominum turmam coegerat, quo 
rum opera si ita postulassit necessitas, baud dubie adversus Saulem usus fuisse. 
Ita tamen egit defensionis potius quam offensionis causa. Commentariorum 4 
partis de Statu Relig. et Reipub. in Regno Gallie, sub Carol, nono Reg., lib. x. 
fol. 120126, in 8vo. 


duce any place out of the homilies where it is said that 
the two houses may not take up arms to bring armed 
delinquents to their trial. Indeed the homilies speak against 
subjects taking up of arms against their king, so do not the par 
liament, but to defend themselves, and to bring delinquents 
to trial. And therefore when the Doctor or others bring forth 
testimonies of divines, ancient or late, to prove that subjects 
may not take up arms against their prince, they had as good 
say nothing ; that is not to our case ; but let them prove by 
testimonies, that it is not lawful for the parliament to take up 
arms to secure the kingdom, to bring accused persons to trial, 
and to deliver the prince out of the hands of rnalignants, 
and then they say something to us, else it is but clamour, 
not reason. 

At last the Doctor speaks somewhat of arbitrary govern 
ment (page 46), which is no way any answer to the reasons 
that were given by me, proving that his opinion raised the 
king to an arbitrary government, only he sets down his fur 
ther sentence about arbitrariness, eadem facilitate rejicitur qua 
affirmatur : the rest of that section is either spent in naked 
assertions, or jeering expressions^ or seeming answers to his 
other answerers. 


THE Doctor having spent some time upon his other an 
swerers, at page 49, he is pleased to return to me, where he 
would prove that the people of Israel did not by any forcible 
resistance rescue Jonathan out of the hands of Saul, which 
work, says he, was but set off with a soldier-like boldness. 
Let the Doctor call this work what he please, Saul the king 
had sworn that Jonathan should die, and the people swore 
he should not die ; and they being in arms did rescue Jona 
than, saith the text. This rescue the Doctor calls in his first 
book, a loving violence ; and in his reply, a setting off the 
matter with a soldierly boldness. I hope the Doctor will 
give us leave to use the like terms. If a prince swear the 
death of some parliamentary- man, who deserves not to die 
but to be preferred, and the people rise up in arms and rescue 


their Jonathans, saying, As we live they shall not die that 
have wrought this great deliverance for us; this is no resis 
tance, it is but a loving violence, and a setting off the matter 
with a soldierly boldness. Why may we not call this so, 
as well as the Doctor that ? But I appeal to all reason whe 
ther a rescue by men in arms, from those that have sworn a 
man s death, be not forcible resistance ? 

But, say we, this is more than prayers and tears, which is 
the only remedy allowed by the Doctor, to which he replieth, 
The Doctor hath nowhere said, though Mr. Bridge makes 
him often say so, that prayers and tears is the only remedy 
left for subjects ; but besides their cries to God, he allows 
them intercessions, reproofs, denial of subsidies and aids. 

I will not search into the Doctor s book for every word, 
but take what he granteth here : yet this soldierly boldness of 
rescuing is more than prayers, tears, reproofs, or denials of 
subsidies and aids, which is all the remedy that he affordeth, 
as he confesseth now. Yet the Doctor is so full of this sen 
tence still, that in page 51 of this book, he saith, That the 
children of Israel being under the oppression of their kings, 
had no remedy but crying to the Lord. And again, in the 
same page, saith, All the remedy they had, was by crying to 
the Lord. So, also, in his first book, page 10, the people are 
let to understand, 1 Sam. viii. 18, how they should be op 
pressed under kings, and have no remedy left them but crying 
to the Lord. Thus do men forget themselves, and what they 
have said, whilst they contend against truth. 

Then the Doctor comes down to the example of David. 
And whereas it is urged by us, that David did take up arms 
to defend himself from the violence of his prince, Saul; the 
Doctor replies now as before, that David s example was ex 
traordinary. Well, but when it is said, that David having 
advantage of Saul, did not lay hands upon him to cut him 
off as he might have done ; what if we should say, that act 
of David s was extraordinary, would not the Doctor tell us, 
that our answer was but ordinary ? He tells us, page 31 of 
his Reply, that conquest is one of the means by which God 
translates kingdoms, and that David being provoked by the 
king of Ammon, brought the people under. 2 Sam. xii. And 
that the Edomites were so brought under the dominion of 
Judah. What, if we should give this answer, that these were 


extraordinary cases ; would not the Doctor take it for a poor 
shifting answer from us ? When we say any practice is 
extraordinary, we must also prove by circumstance, that there 
was an extraordinariness in the fact, or else acquiesce in it 
for our example. But be it so, that David s example was 
extraordinary, is not our case now extraordinary ? Is Eng 
land s case ordinary ? Hath it been thus ordinarily, that 
arms have been taken up against the parliament, and delin 
quents kept from legal trial by force of arms : has this been 
for many years ? See how the Doctor helps himself by this 
extraordinary answer. He tells us in his first book, page 8, 
that this work of David was a mere defence, without all 
violence offered to Saul ; and is not this ordinarily lawful for 
subjects to do so much ? The Doctor grants it himself, page 
9 of his first book : That personal defence is lawful against 
sudden and illegal assaults of the prince himself, thus far, 
to ward his blows, to hold his hands, &c., and the like. But 
the Doctor in his Reply has thought of a new reason to 
prove David s example extraordinary : because else may pri 
vate and single men do so too. 

I answer, Not so, David was not as every private man ; he 
was anointed of the Lord, one that fought the Lord s battles, 
the great statesman in the kingdom ; with whom were joined 
Jonathan, and many other chief of the tribes: therefore it 
follows not from David to every private man, but to the par 
liament rather, who though not anointed as king, and as Saul, 
yet with some anointment from the Lord into the place of 
magistracy, especially being, as the Doctor confesseth, co 
ordinate with the king in supremacy, so far as concerns 

I said before, if David s example were extraordinary, then 
he had an extraordinary command for what he did; if so, 
how doth the Doctor say, there is no command or warrant in 
Scripture for such a practice or kind of resistance ? 

To which the Doctor replieth : As if all extraordinary 
warrants and instincts, given to special persons, should be 
written in Scripture. 

I answer, So then this work of David s, which before was 
called by the Doctor a mere defence, is now come to be a matter 
of special instinct; though acts done by special instinct,had not 
always warrant from written Scripture before they were done: 


yet being done and recorded in Scripture, there is ground 
and written warrant for the lawfulness of our actions upon 
the like occasions. I did not say, why then doth the Doctor 
say, there was no warrant in Scripture for David ; but why 
then doth the Doctor say, there is no warrant or ground out 
of Scripture now for us to do what we do ? Though it might 
be instinct then, and without written Scripture, yet it may be 
written warrant now. 

Then, whereas that scripture is urged, though not to take 
p arms against our king, as the Doctor suggests, 1 Chron. 
xii. 19, where it is said expressly, that David went out to 
battle against Saul, the Doctor replies : Desperate shifts that 
these men are put to, when pretences and simulations must 
be Scripture ground for conscience. It is said before, David 
made shew of madness before king Achish : Mr. Bridge 
might as well infer therefore he was mad. 

I answer, Will any else besides this Doctor make such an 
inference ? The Scripture saith, totidem verbis, that he went 
out to battle against Saul ; that this was but a simulation is 
not said in Scripture, but the Scripture doth not say that 
David was mad, but that he feigned himself so : is there 
then the same reason of the one and the other ? 

The example of Uzziah is next to be cleared. We find 
that the priests are commended for valiant men, because they 
thrust out king Uzziah from before the Lord, 2 Chron. xxvi. 
To which instance the Doctor saith, that Uzziah the king 
was stricken with leprosy, and by the law the leper was to be 
put out of the congregation, and dwell apart, which is not 
consistent with government ; therefore it is said of the king, 
he was a leper, and dwelt in a several house, and Jotham his 
son reigned in his stead. 2 Kings xv. 5. 

I shall ever give the Doctor the full weight of his reason. 
It seems by this answer, that he would have conscience 
believe, that the king was discharged from his crown by his 
leprosy, and ipso facto thereby dethroned. Now see what 
Dr. Bilson saith,* directly contrary unto this Doctor: Uz 
ziah, saith he, dwelt apart in a house from others, because of 
his leprosy; but you do not find that he was deprived of his 
kingdom, Jotham his son governed his house, and judged 
the people of the land, because the king might not be con- 
* Dr. Bilson on the Difference between Subjection and Rebellion, page 326. 


versant amongst men, by reason of his sickness ; but the 
crown still continued in the father though a leper, and Jothani 
began not his reign until his father was dead : whom the 
Scripture calleth the king of Judah, in the twentieth year of 
his reign, and the last year of his life. 2 Kings xv. 5, 7 
Thus Dr. Bilson ; and though our Doctor can, with what 
conscience I know not, join these words together, 2 Chron. 
xxvi., thus : He was a leper, and dwelt in a several house, 
and Jotham his son reigned in his stead, 2 Kings xv. 5 ; as 
if all these words were one, and did touch one another in 
holy writ, yet in truth they are part of two several verses, 
and two other verses come in between them. As in ver. 5 
it is said, " The king dwelt in a several house, and Jotham 
the king s son was over the king s house, judging the people 
of the land ;" not reigning in his stead, as the Doctor reads 
it. Then at ver. 6, 7> the Scripture having spoken further of 
the king, his deeds and death, at the end of ver. 7 it is added, 
" And Jotham his son reigned in his stead " these words 
being annexed to his death as a consequent thereof: and the 
Doctor takes them and annexes them to ver. 5, at the men 
tioning of his leprosy, as if upon his leprosy his son reigned, 
whereas it is plain he only governed and not reigned, until 
his father died. Here I cannot but wonder, that the Doctor 
should so boldly venture to lay violent hands upon Scripture, 
that he may lead men s consciences into his own sentence : 
but I hope the consciences of those that fear God, will take 
notice of such dealing as this, and abhor that sentence, that 
must be born up with such practices. He would persuade us 
also, that the priests here are said to be valiant men, because 
of their home reproof which they gave to the king, or because 
of their withdrawing from him the holy things, which he was 
not to meddle with. But let him shew us any one place of 
Scripture, where valour being joined with an expression of 
force, as here it is, it being said that they thrust him out, 
doth only note faithfulness in one s place, by giving reproof 
or the like. 

At last the Doctor comes to his own arguments, and 
labours to recruit them : and first he tells us, that none might 
blow the trumpet for war amongst the people of Israel, but 
the supreme magistrates; and therefore the parliament may 
not take up arms or blow the trumpet for war, as now they 


do. To this argument divers answers, unanswered, have 
been given, yet he is not satisfied, but still replieth. And I 
wonder that he should, considering there is no such matter, 
that I can find, as he allegeth, in Numb. x. It is true the 
Lord speaks there unto Moses, saying, ver. 5, < When ye 
sound an alarm ;" and ver. 6, " When you blow an alarm the 
second time ;" and ver. 7> " When the congregation is to be 
gathered together, ye shall blow :" and ver. 9, " If ye go to 
war in your land, ye shall blow an alarm with your trumpets." 
But these words in the Hebrew are all in the plural number, 
shewing that the blowing of the trumpet belonged as well to 
the state and princes of whom he spake, ver. 4. It is not 
said that Moses should use those trumpets, exclusively, he 
and not they, but rather he joined with them. 

Again, he comes for his defence to that place of Samuel, 
1 Sam. viii. 18, where, saith he, it appears that the people 
had no remedy against their unjust kings, but their crying to 
the Lord. Mr. Bridge answers, saith he, Samuel tells them 
not what should be their duty, but what their punishment, 
" The Lord will not hear you," &c. It was indeed, saith the 
Doctor, their punishment, because all the remedy they had, 
which was by crying to the Lord, should not help them ; 
which had not been such a punishment, if they had had 
means to help themselves by power of arms. 

Here the Doctor saith, that all the remedy this people had 
was by crying to the Lord, which scripture he brings against 
our resistance, to prove what is our duty, and how far it 
extends : yet on page 49 of his Reply, he will not own such 
a speech as this, saying : The Doctor has nowhere said, that 
prayers and tears are all the subjects 3 remedy. 

Again, it appears plainly that this scripture, 1 Sam. viii,, 
is not spoken of the king s right, what he might do, but of 
his fact, what he would do ; for the king had no such right 
over his subjects, as to take their children s fields and vine 
yards from them, for which Ahab was so severely punished. 
Yet saith this text of Samuel, tc He shall take your daugh 
ters, fields and vineyards," &c. Neither can it be objected, 
that the word used in the Hebrew is BB^O, which signifies, 
judicium, judgment or right seeing ; it also signifies, consue- 
tudoy order or manner, as it is well translated in the English, 
ver. 9. 


Again, though it be said, ver. 1 8, " Then shall ye cry out 
iii that day, because of your king which ye shall have chosen, 
and the Lord will not hear you in that day ;" yet it doth not 
follow tnat they had no other remedy but crying to the Lord. 
That is said in Scripture, that the people being oppressed 
with foreign enemies, should cry unto the Lord in their dis 
tress, and because of their sins the Lord threatens not to 
hear them, but bids them go to their idols, and let them help 
them if they can ; doth it therefore follow, that they might 
not defend themselves against foreign enemies ? no such matter. 
Wherras the Doctor saith in this Reply : It was no such 
judgment to cry and not be heard, if yet they had a power 
to defend themselves by taking up arms. This answer is 
very strange from one that calls himself a divine : for suppose 
that God should say to his people, that had a power to take 
up arms against their foreign enemies, that they should not 
withstanding their power cry unto him, and he would not 
hear them, nor deliver them from their oppressors ; was this 
no such judgment, because they might take up arms ? Alas, 
what will all our taking up of arms do either way, if God 
will not hear our cries and prayers ! 

The Doctor for his own defence and the defence of his 
cause, said in his first book : That if such a defence as we 
now use were lawful, it is a marvellous thing that so many 
prophets, reprehending the kings of Israel and Judah for 
idolatry, cruelty and oppression, none should call upon the 
elders of the people for this resistance, page 10. 

To this I answered, See the prophet Elisha expressly call 
ing on the elders (o imprison the king s messenger, 2 Kings 
vi. 32. The Doctor after he comes to himself out of a rail 
ing and jeering fit, replies : What did Elisha call upon those 
elders for ? to imprison the messenger ? that is more than 
the text will bear, unless to shut the door against a man be 
to imprison him. 

I answer, But the prophet Elisha not only called upon 
them to shut the door, but to hold him fast. 2 Kings vi. 32. 
Shutting the door indeed doth not note imprisonment, but, 
shut the door and hold him fast doth : for what is imprison 
ment, but arcta et violenta custodia, and these are the words 
of that text, " Shut too the door, and hold him fast at the 
door." But it is the Doctor s manner to take part of the 


text, and leave the other part which makes against him; so 
he dealeth by our answers, so he dealeth by scriptures. At 
length the Doctor having left me to visit my fellow answerers, 
as he calls us, for the space of three or four leaves, he is 
pleased to return again to me about Rom. xiii., and page 60. 
He takes it unkindly that I will not stand to the English 
translation of the word Kpi/ua, damnation, but rather translate 
it so, u They that resist shall receive to themselves judg 

To which I say, that I do not deny but grant, that the 
word may be translated damnation ; , but seeing the word 
firstly signifies judgment, as Piscator observes, I would not 
have the Doctor so peremptory scaring people with the word 
damnation, when as more naturally the word may be rendered 
otherwise. I told him before what Piscator s reason is for 
the translating of it, judgment. He may read what Musculus 
also said,* and in him what many other divines, who speaks 
thus : It is doubtful what judgment the apostle speaks of 
here, whether the judgment wherewithal the disobedient are 
punished by God himself, or that which is to be expected 
from the magistrates ; the latter way those things that follow 
do favour, the former way those things that are precedent : 
but it matters not which way we understand it, neither doth 
any thing hinder but that we may expound it to both, when 
as both judgments, both of God and magistrate, are to be 
feared by those that are unruly. But the Doctor gives, as he 
thinks, a good reason why it must needs be translated dam 
nation, and so meant, because resistance there forbidden, is a 
breach of the fifth commandment, which deserveth damna 

I answer, What then we read, Rev. ii., that the church of 
Thyatira had broken the second commandment in her idolatry 
and superstition, yet she is threatened with an outward pun 
ishment. Wisd. xxii. 23. " Behold (saith Christ) I will cast 
her into great tribulation, and kill her children with death." 

* Ambiguum est autem quod de jud : cio insert, an de eo quo divinitus olim 
punientur inobedientes loquatur, vel de eo quod expectandum est a magistral! - 
bus ; in posteriori sententise videntur sequentia favere, priori vero prsecedentia. 
Verum nihil refert utrum intelligamus, nee quicquam prohibet quo minus de 
utroque exponamus, cum utrumque sit tiinendum immorigeris. Musculus in 
Rom. xiii. 


Yea, the fifth commandment is strengthened with an outward 
promise, " Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days 
may be long in the land ;" and therefore well may the breach 
hereof be threatened with an outward judgment. 

Again, saith the Doctor, Mr. Bridge answers, that only 
active obedience to lawful commands is there enjoined, but 
passive under unlawful commands. To which the Doctor 
answereth, Both say we. But not so Origen,* not so Jerome, 
not so Chrysostom, and divers others ; and Pareus his rea 
son is good, who observes,t that according to the apostle, the 
denying of obedience is all one with resistance, forbidden in 
this Rom. xiii. : for in one verse the apostle saith, submit or 
" be subject unto the higher powers ;" in the next verse he 
gives the reason, " For he that resisteth," &c. : so that 
resisting, and not subjecting or obeying, is all one. It is no 
sin not to obey unlawful commandments ; but the apostle 
makes it a sin here to resist, and therefore the resistance 
forbidden doth not relate to unlawful commandments, but if 
lawful. But then the Doctor tells us, that if these words 
should be understood only of active obedience to lawful 
commands, and not of passive to unlawful commands ; the 
apostle had given the Romans but a lame instruction, page 
60. And his reason for that speech follows at a distance, 
page 61 : Because then the Romans should not have been 
sufficiently instructed how to answer the unlawful command 
ments of princes, as also, there would have been a gap open 
to rebellion, for, saith he, how easy would be the inference : 
therefore we may resist when they command unlawfully. 

I answer, This is a strange work to charge the apostle with 
larne instructions, in case that a passive obedience should not 
be here commanded ; God doth not command every thing in 
every scripture, yet those scriptures wherein he commandeth 
something and not all, are not lame instructions. The first 
commandment commands the substance of worship, the se 
cond the right means, the third the manner, and the fourth 
the due time of worship; yet the first is not lame because it 

* Itaque qui resistit non hie, &c. de illis potestatibus dicit quse prosecutores 
fuerint fidei, ibi enim dicendum est, Deo oportet obtemperare magis quam ho- 
minibus. Sed de istis communitatibus dicit quae non sunt terrori boni operis, 
sed mali, quibus utique qui resistit, &c. Origen in Rom. xiii. 

f Negate vero obedientiam est resistere. Pareus in Rom. xiii. 


doth not command what the second, nor the second lame be 
cause it doth not command what the third, nor the third lame 
because it doth not command what the fourth ; so here, 
though God should command only active, not passive obedi 
ence in this text, this instruction would not be lame . But why 
should it be a lame instruction ? The Doctor tells us, Because 
the Romans should not be sufficiently directed how to answer 
the unlawful commandments of princes : yes, surely, if God 
did here command them obedience to lawfuls, he should at 
once forbid them disobedience to unlawfuls ; but, saith the 
Doctor, Then there will be a gap for rebellion, for how easily 
would men infer, therefore we may resist in things unlawful. I 
answer, The Doctor takes this for granted, which is to be 
proved, that all forcible resistance is rebellion. Suppose that 
true which himself granteth, in page 1 of the first book, that 
it is lawful to resist unlawful commands, though not with 
forcible resistance. And if so, then why might not the Ro 
mans as well say, This instruction you give us is lame, for you 
forbid resistance, and yet in some kind resistance is lawful, a 
suffering resistance lawful, and a forcible resistance unlawful. 
And yet you have not in this xiiith chapter given us any such 
distinction, so are we left in the dark, and your instruction 
lame. But, good Doctor, let us take off our own baitings, 
whilst we go about to charge the apostle with lame instruc 
tions, in case he come not just up to our opinions. But to 
put an end to this matter concerning this text, I appeal to the 
Doctor, whether he doth not think that these words, " higher 
powers/ 5 verse 1, did not include the Roman senate : I say, 
when the apostle commands, " Let every soul be subject to 
the higher powers," did he not command the Christian Ro 
mans to be subject to the Roman senate ? We know that 
after this epistle was written to the Romans, as Eusebius re 
ports, the Roman senate was not only in being, but so potent 
and powerful, that when that was propounded to the senate, 
whether Christ should be acknowledged as God, that was in 
the senate s power to grant or refuse, and they refused. So 
Estius also saith,* that the governors of provinces were ap 
pointed by the senate, as well as by Caesar, when Peter wrote 
his epistle. So that still, notwithstanding Csesar, the Roman 

* Prsesides provinciis prgeficiebantur non tarn authoritate Caesaris quam sena- 
tus. Estius Ep. Pet. i. 2. 


Senate was a high power, and the higher powers unto the 
people ; and if they were the higher powers, who were to be 
obeyed by this commandment of the apostles, then why doth 
the Doctor bring this scripture to urge our higher powers and 
senate to obey, especially when the Doctor himself confesses 
(page 62) that the two houses, as distinct from the king, fall 
under the words, " higher powers 1" At last, in page 62, the 
Doctor comes to that place of Peter, 1 Epist. ii. 13, " Submit 
yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord s sake, 
whether to the king as supreme, or unto governors, as those 
that are sent by him." Where, after the Doctor hath a little 
stroked himself on the head, and laboured to spit some filth 
on our faces, he comes to that testimony of Calvin, for that 
which he says concerning Dr. Bilson is not much material, 
who proves that the pronoun him relates to God, and not to 
the king, for the reason which I alleged in my first book ; 
now the Doctor replies, True, all are sent by God, but it is 
as true that the governors of the provinces were sent by the 
king, or the Roman emperor. 

The reader may observe how the Doctor doth deal by the 
scripture again, for he sets down the words thus : To the king 
as supreme, or the governors as those that are sent by him : 
and thus indeed the word him must needs relate to the king, 
but conceals that part of the verse wherein the word God is 
expressed thus : " Submit yourself to every ordinance of 
God :" for the Doctor knew that if he had set down that part 
of the verse, the reader would have perceived that the pro 
noun him should have related to God, and not to the king. 
Then, again, observe what he answers : he tells us, that the 
governors of provinces were sent by the king or emperor; 
that is not the question now, but whom the pronoun him doth 
relate, whether God or the king. And for this he gives no 
reason, nor answers Calvin s, and therefore I need add no 
more ; yet Estius reasons are very full, proving that the pro 
noun him must relate to God and not the king : for says he,* 
The apostle Peter would move the people to obey the king 

* In eo quod additur, tanquam ab eo missis pronomen eo ad regem referunt 
nonnulli, quod non placet, nam apostolus vult hoc in prsesidibus istis considerari 
quod Deus eos miserat, id quod ad obediendum movere debet, ac ut taceam quod 
prsesides provinciis prseficiebant non tarn authoritate Csesaris qu^.m senatus, illi 
alter! relat ioni non quodrat quod sequitur ad vindictam milefactorem, &c. quern 


and governors, which argument is full, because they were sent 
by God ; whereas if the pronoun him should relate to the 
king, here were no motive. Again, Because the apostle Peter 
saith that they are sent by him for the punishment of evil 
doers, and the praise of them that do well, for which cause 
the wicked heathenish governors did not send the governors, 
it being known that they sent them for the punishment of 
those that were good, and for the praise of those that were 
evil ; and therefore the pronoun him is to be carried on God, 
and to have relation to God, not to the king, in this place ; 
and therefore what the Doctor brings from this place to set 
the parliament at a greater under than God would have, is 
nothing worth. The rest of the chapter is spent with his 
other adversaries. I having thus delivered the scriptures 
from his objections, shall be the more brief in answer to the 
after part of his discourse, because the only ground of con 
science is God s word. 


IN Section X. of the Doctor s reply, I find little to hold 
us long ; I had told him in my former book, that the parlia 
mentary proceedings were an act of self-preservation, and 
used the similitude of a steersman, shewing that in case he 
do not his duty, even the very passengers in time of a storm, 
for their own preservation may look to the matter, which doth 
not imply the unofficing of a steersman ; so in state, where 
the chief magistrate neglecteth his duty, &c. The Doctor 
replies (page 64), that the prince is not as the steersman, but 
as he that stands above, and commands to the starboard or 

This is to hang upon the word, and let go the sense, for the 
reason holds to him that stands above, and commands, as 
well as the steersman, neither will common reason say, that 

scopurn mail reges non usque quaque habebant propositum, rectius igitur ad De- 
um refertur, qui hunc finem omnibus magistratibus prsescribit, unde et Paulus de 
potestate Rom. xiii. Dei enim minister est tibi in bonum, &c. ex quo apparet 
missos a Deo hie intelligi debere non solum duces sed regem ipsum. Estius in 
1 Epist. Pet. ii. 


lie is unofficed, because the passengers for the present desire 
or cause him to stand by, that they may look unto their own 
safety in the time of a storm. 

Then he comes to prove that authority and magistracy, ab 
stractively considered from the qualification or several forms 
of government, is of divine institution ; wherein we do all 
agree, only I excepted against some of his media, that he 
used to prove it thus : By those words, the powers that are 
ordained of God, the Doctor understands, the power itself of 
magistracy, distinguished from the qualification thereof, and the 
designation of persons thereto ; how then did he say, (Sect.II.) 
the "^higher power " in Paul, is the same with the " king as su 
preme 5 in Peter? The Doctor replies, The power of magis 
tracy, abstractively taken, may by these words be proved to 
be of God, though the " higher powers " here be understood 
concretively with connotation of the persons that bear the 
power, for they are here proposed as objects of our obedience 
which cannot be directed but upon power in some person. 
And here it is said, as cu ovcrai, existent, &c. 

But how doth this prove either what the Doctor would, or 
answer me ? It is true the words, higher powers, note both, 
as I have shewed already, both the authority and persons in 
the authority. But then the word, rtiay^vat, I say, signifies, 
ordered, and so to be translated, not, ordained ; for otherwise 
if the words, higher powers, note both the abstract and con 
crete, and this word be translated, ordained, then this scrip 
ture shall as well pro\e the qualification and designation to 
be of God, as authority itself: which thing the Doctor denies, 
and first brought this scripture to prove that magistracy is of 
God, in opposition to qualifications and designations. Some 
metaphysical notions about esse and existere the Doctor would 
find out in the word, ovo-a*, but I pass them as never intended 
by the apostle. 

At last the Doctor promiseth, or rather threatens to give 
me a visit, for so he saith, page 65, I must come home to 
Master Bridge, to make him understand the force of my in 
ference. I had said thus : In like manner the Doctor proves 
that power itself is of God, because the magistrate is called 
the minister of God : slipping from the power itself to the 
person designed, for the power itself is not called the minister 
of God. Whereupon the Doctor saith, I must come home 

VOL. V. X 

306 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 5. 

to Master Bridge ; the mayor of N. is the king s minister, 
therefore his power is from the king; will Master Bridge re 
ply, No, for the power itself is not the mayor, or called the 
minister of the king ? 

Thus whilst he comes home to me, he comes from his own 
home and reason, forgetting what he had said before (pages 
60, 61), A lawful prince, though commanding unlawfully, is 
still the minister of God. So then it seems one may be the 
minister of God in that which is evil : and it is true a penal 
minister one may be ; a man may sin in afflicting another, and 
yet he may be the minister of God to him that is afflicted ; 
how, therefore, doth this argue, that because the magistrate 
is called the minister of God, that his authority is lawful ? 
And therefore, whereas the Doctor saith the mayor of N. 
is the king s minister, therefore his power is from the king ; 
will Master Bridge say, No ? I answer, He will say, there is 
not the same reason in regard of God and the king, for a man 
cannot be the king s minister in a bad action, but he must 
receive power from him, but he may be God s minister, I 
mean penally, in an unlawful action, which God never gave 
him right or power to do. 

In the after lines of this page the Doctor says, that both 
the Fuller Answer, and Master Bridge s, every where takes it 
for granted by me, that monarchy, aristocracy and democracy 
are equally the inventions of men ? I answer, I do indeed, 
and the truth of it may appear from your own words (pages 
13, 14 of your first book) as I have shewed already. 

Lastly, saith the Doctor, Master Bridge concludes that my 
proving of the governing power to be of God, but the quali 
fication of it, and designation of the person to be of man, 
gaineth nothing against resistance, or deposing a prince that 
doth not discharge his trust; for still the people may say, We 
may alter the government, and depose the person, because he 
was of our designing. Doctor Fearne says, Nothing so, for if 
they resist, they usurp authority, and invade the power that 
God hath given him ; if they depose him, they quite take 
away that power which God and not they placed in him, 
because he is still the minister of God. 

This seems to prove that people cannot depose their 
prince, or alter the government that is set up amongst them ; 
but what is this to the reason that he pretends an answer to ? 


to which was thus : If the Doctor grant that the qualifica 
tion of the power is from man, and the designation of the 
person, then though the power itself be confessed of God by 
the Doctor, yet his adversaries that are for the deposing of 
princes, if any such be, may as well plead a power to de 
pose the person or alter the government, as well I say, as if 
the power itself was appointed, or set up by men. Now the 
qualification and power of designation is granted by him to 
be of man : and therefore he helps himself nothing by prov 
ing that authority, or magistracy in the abstract is of God . 
To take away this, he proves, that the people cannot depose 
their prince, or alter the government ; I will not say a wild, 
but surely a wide answer as ever came from a D. D. The 
other part of this section is against others, who are sufficient 
ly able to plead their own cause against this Doctor. 

In Sect. ii. page 64, the Doctor complains that we have 
left the king nothing we could take from him ; and this kind 
of speech is ordinary amongst some, who are so bold as to 
affirm, that because we do not make ourselves slaves, we 
make our sovereign no king. Let him and them read what 
Almain saith.* A polity, saith he, is not therefore said to 
be regal because there is one above all that is greater than all 
the commuuity, but because there is one above the rest, who 
hath jurisdiction over every particular man in that commu 
nity ; neither were it fit that there should be one such who 
were so superior, unless he were indeviable as Christ who is 
able to rule the community according to his own will, then 
the polity should be perfectly regal. And Fortescue saith, 
Posse male agire potestatem potius minirit quam augmentat : 
we do not say that God is less powerful because he cannot 
sin ; nothing is more regal than to keep one s will within the 
bounds of good laws. It is some misery not to do all which 
you would, it is more misery to will what you may not ; it is 

* Non ideo dicitur politia aliqua regalis, quia unicus ei prsesit qui sit tota 
communitate in jurisdictione major, nee ei querns modo subjectus, sed solum prop- 
ter hanc causam, quia unicus pre est qui in quemblibet alterum de communitate 
jurisdictionem habet et est eo superior. Nee conveniens foret aliquem unum ta- 
lem taliter communitati prefiti, qui esset ea tota in omni casu superior, nisi talis foret 
indeviabilis, quern admodum de Christo confiretur, qui communitatem erige e 
potest sua voluntate, non secundum legem tune ista politia esset perfecta regalis. 
Sen. Almain de pot. stat. laica ad Gerson. cap. 1. 

x 2 


most misery to have a power to do what you see will.* But 
if you do not, saith the Doctor, re-assume power from the 
prince, what means the difference you make of things dis 
posed of by trust, from things disposed of by donation, be 
cause they may be recalled, these may not, so you say, page 

I said not so, but that there is a difference between things 
disposed of by way of donation or sale, and things disposed of 
by way of trust : things disposed of by way of sale or dona 
tion are not in our power to recal, things disposed of by way of 
trust, are in our power to look to when the trust is neglected : 
I would this Doctor would but do us the favour as to allege 
our words rightly. 

Pages 67 5 68, of his book, are spent in proving assertions 
of the same things that he had said before, only page 67, he 
confesseth it is likely that kings were at first by election, 
which acknowledgment we receive : but how doth this agree 
with what he had said before, Sect, hi. page 8, 9, where he 
had said, that election was a defection from that government 
that God set up at the first ; in page 69, he cometh to the 
matter of the king s covenant and oath, which, saith the 
Doctor, is no condition on which the kings of this land are 
admitted to the crown, but a confirmation and strengthening 
of their mutual duties by oaths and promises, as it was with 
the kings of Israel. 

The nature of this oath we must leave unto the parliament 
and lawyers, who better know than we how it is taken, and 
on what terms, only thus much I read in Speed s Chronicle, 
That the Kentish men would not admit William the Con 
queror to the crown, but upon condition as I have shewed 
before ; and if the taking of the oath were only for confirma 
tion, carrying no condition with it, why should it be taken 
at the first coming unto the crown, and not rather afterwards ? 

What else remains in that section is so easy, that the dim 
mest eye that hath conscience in it, may see through, for who 
knows not, that it is a greater evil, for a committee to be 
wronged by a particular person, than for a particular person 
to be wronged by a committee. Bonum quo communius eo melius, 
malum quo communius eo perjus. And why doth not nature 

* Miserum est non facere omnia quse velis miseries vero velle quod non licet 
raiser rimum posse facere quod ita velis. - Jun. Brut. 


teach, that a prince who is married unto his people, is to be 
faithful to them, as well as that the husband is to be faithful 
unto his wife, and therefore that conditions are implied, 
though not expressed between the king and his subject, as 
well as between a man and his wife ; and so I pass from that 
section to the Doctor s two last. 


HEREAS the Doctor had said, We sharpen many of our 
weapons at the Philistines forge ; and I had shewed the 
difference between us and papists in this cause : he replieth, 
Difference there must needs be between you and papists in 
this particular, for they challenge such a power from the 
pope, you from the people. 

Very well, and is not here a vast difference ? The papists 
say, the pope may depose princes ; we say, in case that 
the prince doth not perform his trust, the people may look to 
their own safety. 

Dr. Fearne says : But we see your party making use of 
those examples, which the papists bring for deposing of 
kings, as of Saul, Uzziah, and Athaliah. 

The papists bring these examples of Uzziah, Athaliah, &c. 
to shew that the high priests did, and so the pope now may, 
depose princes, proving that the pope is above princes. We 
say with Chrysostom and others, that every soul, even 
priests, as they and you call them, are to be subject to higher 
powers : that that lies in the power of no priest to depose 

Is this to whet our scythe at the Philistines forge, to use 
the same scripture for one purpose, which the Philistines do 
for another ? The papists use that scripture, Tibi dabo claves, 
" Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church/ 
to prove the pope s supremacy ; the reformed churches use 
the same scripture, to prove that the power of the keys is 
penes ecclesiam, given to the whole church, and not unto a 
Peter only : do all the reformed churches, therefore, whet 
their weapons at the Philistines forge, or are they therefore 

310 TRUTH OF THE [ClIAP. 6. 

popish, because they use the same scripture to other pur 
poses ? so here. 

But you will give the prince leave, saith the Doctor, to 
change his religion, so will the papists, if all his subjects 
may have free liberty for their religion. 

Not so, but he turning heretic, as the papists phrase it, is 
to be excommunicated, and so deposed. Dr. Fearne says : 
But in case he endeavour to force the contrary religion upon 
his subjects, for that must be supposed, how then will your 
allegiance hold ? 

Very well, and yet not whet our scythes at the Philistines 5 
forge, for they say, that a prince apostatizing is to be excom 
municated, and so deposed, as you shall presently see : we say 
that princes are not to be deposed for altering their religion ; 
yea, though they should be excommunicated, for the crown 
is not entailed upon religion. 

They deprive princes, we only defend ourselves. 

They deprive by the pope s authority, we defend ourselves 
by the highest civil authority of the land. 

Again, whereas I said the papists hold it lawful to kill a 
prince, and that a private man invested with the pope s au 
thority may do it; we abhor it. The Doctor replieth: That 
is their new forge under ground, set up of late by Jesuits : I 
did not mean you sharpened your weapons there, but at the 
old forge ; and however you say you abhor this doctrine of 
killing kings, yet I fear and tremble, to think if your sover 
eign had fallen in battle by the edge of your sword, or shot 
of your artillery, you would have found him guilty of his 
own death, in that he would not, being desired, forbear to 
go down himself into battle. 

It is well the Doctor will excuse us from Jesuitism in this 
particular, and well he may in all things else, especially here, 
where he knows there is so much correspondency between 
his own opinion and the Jesuits, who, for the most part of 
them, hold, that as all ecclesiastical power is given to Peter, 
and so to the pope and bishops, not to the church ; so, that 
all civil power is given immediately to the king, and not to 
the commonwealth, but only as derived from him : and 
therefore well may the Doctor excuse us from whetting our 
swords at the new forge of the Jesuits, that being a forge 
which he reserves to whet his own weapons at. 


Neither do we whet our weapons at the old forge, for I 
suppose the Doctor will say, that Aquinas 5 forge is of the 
oldest frame, and he speaketh directly contrary to us, thus :* 
As soon as ever any is denounced excommunicate for apos- 
tacy from the faith, his subjects are ipso facto absolved from 
his dominion, and the oath of allegiance, whereby they were 
bound to him. 

We say, if a shot of our artillery had fallen on the king, 
whereas you say we would have found him guilty of his own 
death ; we say, we would have found you, and such as you 
are, guilty thereof, that put him on such designs. As if a 
man make a fire to preserve himself and his family, and an 
other comes and thrusts a third man into it, we will not fault 
him that made the fire to preserve his family, but him that 
thrust the man into it. But in this matter, Doctor, you have 
answered yourself, for you told us in your former treatise, 
that it is lawful for subjects to ward their prince s blows, to 
hold his hands, and the like, page 9. Now if the prince 
raise an army against his subjects, how can his blows be 
warded, but by an army ? and if his army discharge their 
ordnance and muskets upon his subjects, how can his sub 
jects ward them blows, but by discharging likewise ? And 
then answer yourself, What if a shot of artillery should fall 
upon your prince ? But, saith the Doctor, if you back again 
will gather strength for your assertions from the papists rea 
sons, be as like as you will to one another, &c. 

I answer, Who are most like to the papists, you or we ? I 
refer you to all that knows us. See the Canterburian self- 
conviction. And if we may not gather strength of reason 
from popish authors to dispute against them, why do either 
you or we read them ? Reason is good, wherever we find it. 
Neither would Abraham refuse the use of the well, because 
Abimelech s men had used it ; no more will we refuse good 
reason, because the papists have used it : they using it rather 
from us, and not we from them. And yet in this matter, as 
I have shewed, we do differ much from them. 

But you prove a power in the body politic, saith the Doc- 

* Et ideo quam rito aliquis per senteotiam denunciator excommunicatus 
propter apostaciara a fide, ipso facto ejus subditi absoluti sunt a domnio ejus et 
juramento fidelitaris qua ei tenebantur. Thomas Aquinas, 2, 2, 12, art. 2. 

312 TRUTH OF THE [CiiAP. (>. 

tor, to disburthen itself, as the church hath, of evil members, 
as papists do. 

I answer, But not as the papists ; for we only press a 
necessity of power in the body, to defend and save itself 
from the injury of princes : they plead for a power in the 
church, and who that church is you know, to depose princes. 
But then, saith the Doctor, hath this church a power of ex 
communication still; so it should be indeed, but since the 
act which took away the high commission ; and, as the party 
you plead for would have it interpreted, all ecclesiastical cen 
sure too, where doth the exercise of that power rest, upon 
whom now is the argument turned ? page J3. 

I answer, Surely upon yourself, for there is no church of 
Christ, but whilst it remains a church, hath a power left in it, 
though the exercise may be long suspended, to see to itself 
and its own preservation. I say a power from Christ to ex 
communicate, though it should be denied from men. And it 
seems a strange thing to me, that the churches of England 
have no power left, because the high commission is down, as 
if that court were set up by Christ himself. The body natu 
ral hath power to disburthen itself, saith the Doctor, so hath 
the commonwealth too ; but will you have the natural body 
disburthen itself of the head, or work without it? 

Neither do we go about to cut off our head, but say in the 
general, if the head should be distempered, through ill 
vapours that arise from inferior parts, so that it cannot dis 
charge its office, it is lawful for those that are in place, to 
give physic to the body, that even the very head itself may 
be the more healthful. 

And whereas I had shewn, that there is not the same rea 
son, that the people should re-assume their trust in case the 
parliament be negligent; as there is, that in case a prince 
neglect his trust, the parliament and people should see to it: 
the Doctor replies, But if by ordinances thence issuing, they 
be spoiled of their property and liberty, which is supposed in 
the case, they will quickly feel it so. 

This is but an insinuation of a gross scandal, no reason. 
Only the Doctor argues, page 75, Will not the people as 
easily conclude, they may free themselves from the trust 
given to those parliament men, chosen by them, as renounce, 
according to your lessons, their trust given to their prince ? 


In all reason they will hold their representatives more 
accountable to them than their prince can be. 

This is a scandalous charge, to say that we lesson men to 
renounce their trust given to their prince, whereas we only 
say, the people have a power to defend themselves, and when 
cause requires, to excite and actuate that power, which was 
always residing in them, and never given from them. Again, 
how can the people as easily renounce the trust given to the 
parliament, when the people themselves conclude and say, 
that what is done by the parliament is law ; which they do 
not say as concerning the prince, but rather know that for 
law he is directed by them. But, saith the Doctor, this is to 
make them arbitrary, and to lead the people after them by an 
implicit faith. 

The Doctor is much against the implicit faith of the peo 
ple, both in this and his former book. It were well that men 
of his strain had been so much against implicit faith in the 
matters of the church, where it is more dangerous, where 
they were not, witness the &c., as now they are against the 
implicit faith in the commonwealth, where it is of less danger. 
Again, why will this make the parliament arbitrary, or cast 
the people into an implicit faith ? It is granted by all, that 
the king and both houses may enact laws, whereby the peo 
ple are to be ruled, believing that those laws are best for the 
commonwealth ; doth this make the government of king 
and parliament arbitrary, or raise the people to an implicit 
faith ? no more doth it here. An arbitrary government is 
where a king may rule^ro arbitrio, as a father in his family ; 
which power the Doctor doth give unto the king by his 
paternal right, Sect. III.; and so indeed there is room for an 
implicit faith, for that children have most of all an implicit 
faith in that which their fathers say. Finally Master B. en 
deavours to shew, saith Dr. Fearne, how they can answer the 
oath of supremacy, and the protestation, by taking of arms ; 
but who knows not, saith the Doctor, if that party of Brown- 
ists and Anabaptists, which are now so prevalent in the arms 
taken up against the king, should get the upper hand, what 
would become of the king s supremacy and government ? 

Here is a loud cry against Brownists and Anabaptists, but 
who are Brownists ? Not all those that are against prelates, 
and not for the English Common Prayer Book, for then all 


the reformed churches are Brownists. And as for Anabap 
tists, I wish it may be considered, whether they do not take 
some footing for their opinion from the Common Prayer 
Book ? They deny baptism to infants upon this ground, 
because actual faith and repentance is pre-required to bap 
tism : and doth not the Common Prayer Book seem to 
acknowledge as much, when as before baptism, the witnesses 
in name of the infant must answer to these questions : Dost 
thou believe ? dost thou renounce the devil and all his works ? 
I must nakedly profess my judgment against that opinion, 
yet were it not good, that the very Common Prayer Book 
should come under consideration upon this and other 

If men were so much for protestant religion, and against 
papists, as is here pretended, they would never be more afraid 
of Brownists and Anabaptists, than of papists, seeing they 
are of the protestant religion, and differ not from us in fun 
damentals, as the papists do. 

Suppose that that army should prevail, wherein there are 
Brownists and Anabaptists, as you say ; yet is there not so 
much danger that they should prevail to mislead the parlia 
ment, who are three or four hundred, as that papists should 
prevail to mislead one. 

Though there should be Anabaptists and Brownists in the 
army, yet they do not fight against the king s supremacy and 
his government as the papists do against the protestant reli- 
ligion and being of parliaments, whose powder treason is fa 
mous, or rather infamous to all generations. 

At last the Doctor tells us, concerning supremacy, that 
the king is supreme, not so much in opposition to particular 
persons, as in relation to the whole body politic of which he 
is head. 

We say the king is supreme and head of the kingdom se 
verally and jointly considered. Dr. Fearne, indeed, tells us, 
that the two houses of parliament are in a sort co-ordinate 
with his majesty, to some act or exercise of the supreme 
power, that is, to making laws, by yielding their consent. 
And if they be co-ordinate in that act of supremacy, Pareus 
and others will tell him that the nomcthetick part of supre 
macy is the highest. We acknowledge the king our supreme 


to defend us ; but not to defend ourselves where cause re 
quires, gives a supra-supremacy unto him.* 

What else remains in this section, is either matter of words 
and bare denial to what hath been said or answered to his 
other answerers. 

In the next section (page 49), the Doctor saith, Mr. Bridge 
enters upon a loose discourse against episcopal government, 
I refer him, for his better instruction, to a book entitled, 
Episcopacy Asserted. 

I answer, No other loose discourse than what his loose 
treatise led me into ; and for the Doctor s better instruction, 
I refer him to Mr. Bayne s Diocesan, Mr. Parker s Ecclesi 
astical Polity, or, Altare Damascenum. And whereas I 
said, Now the Doctor shews himself, he had rather the king 
dom should be imbrued in a bloody war, than episcopacy 
should down ; because he had said in his treatise (page 25), 
That the king has reason, by power of arms, to divert the 
abolishing of episcopal government. 

The Doctor answers, Nay, Mr. Bridge, you and your party 
in arms shew yourselves what spirit you are of, who will have 
this land embroiled in a bloody war, rather than episcopacy 
shall not down. 

Not so, Doctor, there is not the same reason why you 
should retort these words upon us, for I had nowhere said, 
the parliament hath reason by power of arms to divert the 
evil of that government ; yea I am so far from it, that I pro 
fess freely that if the king and parliament would establish 
that government still to be continued, that the people is not 
bound to rise up in arms to root it out, though I judge it 
evil. Yea, if any man is of that opinion, I think he is to be 
suffered to live enjoying himself and his estate here. 

Then (page 56) the Doctor saith to that of Saul s spear 
restored : Mr. Bridge replies, Though restored before de 
manded, yet not before Saul had humbled himself to David, 

* Dr. Fearne s Reply, page 6. 

Potestas politica seu civilis dupliciter consideratur ; vel ut architecto nica, quoe 
occupat in legibus ferendis ad quodvis bonum reipub. pro novendum ; et vocatur 
vofJLO&t-rixr) ut architectionicse subordinata, quse remp. secundum leges illas 
deliberando, judicando, et exequendo, administrat et vocatur simpliciter WoXirwt 
seu civilis, lib. vi. Ethic, c. 6. Per se vero patet quod architectonica i/oyuoOertx?; 
sit superior civili simpliciter dicta, et omnibus aliis pottstatibus subordinatis quod 
que sit potestas suprema. Pare-as in Rom. xiii. 


saying, I have sinned, &c. We know, says he, what you look 
for ; his majesty hath not been ashamed to do it with great 

I answer, It is possible a king may fail for not humbling 
himself before his subjects. 2 Chron* xxxvi. 12, " And Ze- 
dekiah did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord his 
God, and humbled not himself before Jeremiah the prophet." 

And though his majesty had yielded and humbled himself 
yet lower, he would be no loser thereby : we know what the 
old counsellors said, 2 Chron. x. 7> " If thou be kind to this 
people, and please them, and speak good words to them, they 
will be thy servants for ever." 

Finally, Whereas I had shewed that Ziba, and those that 
resorted to David in his distress, were not of another religion, 
and by law to be disarmed, as the papists now are, who 
have entertainment in his majesty s army ; the Doctor an 
swers, Though by law papists are not to have arms at their 
disposal, yet are they not quit of the duty and service of 

They owe no more duty to the king, but according to law, 
and by law, they are to be all disarmed. Wherefore, good 
Doctor, maintain this illegal way no longer, give glory to 
God, and say you are convinced of this truth, which indeed 
you cannot but be, if you do not shut your own eyes ; for 
you teold us in your former treatise, that subjects may law 
fully, for their own defence, hold the king s hands; and how 
so, if he raise an army, but by an army. Neither can you 
be so weak as to think that the great senate of the kingdom, 
that all the commons, gentlemen and nobles, should be so at 
the mercy of every mean person, invested with the king s 
authority, that if a petty constable, or other inferior officer 
do offer violence unto them, that it shall not be in their power 
to make a forcible resistance, because they are clothed with 
the king s authority. Good Sir, in the fear of God make your 
humble addresses to his majesty, and petition him to return to 
those that are faithful to him. The worst that he can lose, 
you know, if you pretend rightly, is but a piece of prerogative, 
or some exercise thereof for the present. Why should so 
good a land as this be imbrued in blood for such a cause, 
war being the worst of all evils, and therefore not to be un 
dertaken but to prevent gravissimum malum. And is the loss 

CHAP. 6.] 



of some part of the prerogative, or exercise thereof for the 
present such ? I believe you cannot say so. Wherefore 
labour, labour you to take off those exasperations that are 
amongst men with you, and do not still put your unguem in 
ulcere ut recrudescat dolor. Tell the people amongst whom 
you are, of that sinful way wherein they now are, so shall 
you liberare animam tuam. But if you will not, it may be 
those words which you read in Ezek. iii. 12, will lie hard on 
your conscience another day. Now the God of all peace 
give us peace, but truth with peace in Christ Jesus. Amen. 


According to the Oxford copy. 


A.D. 1644. 

Improbus hsec tarn culta novalia miles habebit? 
Barbarus has segetes? 


, SIQ KOlOOtrVO? CffTb), 


Quseris uter melius, rex ne imperet anne sonatas 

Neuter (quod saepe est) si sit uterque malus. 
Sin sit uterque bonus, numero prsestare senatum ; 

Inque bonis multis plus reor esse boni. 
Difficile est numerum, forsan reperire bonorum, 

Sic facile est unam ssepius esse malum. 
Et fuerit medius saepe inter utrumque senatus, 

Sed tibi vix unquam rex mediocris erit. 
Consilioque malus regi^ur meliore senator, 

Rex consultores sed regit ipse suos : 
Alter ut eligitv>r populo ; sic nascitur alter 

Sors hie cseca regit, certura ibi consilium. 

Reader, if thou wouldst read any more such poetry as this, see Thorn. Morus 
Anglus, where there is much to this purpose. 


" READER. I HERE protest* before the Searcher of all hearts, that I have 
11 no end, either of faction or relation in this ensuing treatise. 1 am no papist, f 
" no sectary,!}; but a true lover of reformation and peace : my pen declines all 
" bitterness of spirit,)] all deceitfulness of heart; and I may safely, in this par- 
" ticular, with St. Paul say, I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not, my con- 
" science bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost, that I neither walk nor write in 
" craftiness, nor handle the Holy Scriptures deceitfully : therefore if thy cause 
" be Jesus Christ, in the name of Jesus Christ I abjure thee to lay aside all 
" wilful ignorance, all prejudice, all private respects and interests, and all uncha- 
" ritable censures : deal faithfully with thy soul, and suffer wholesome admoni- 
" tions : search the several scriptures herein contained, and where they open a 
" gate, climb not thou over a stile; consult with reason herein exercised, and 
11 where it finds a mouth, find thou an ear : and let truth prosper, though thou 
" perish ; and let God be glorified, although in thy confusion." 

* When you have taken the protestation to shew yourself any thing for the 
Searcher of hearts, then I shall be persuaded to give you some credit, and shall 
desire the honest-hearted reader to think he hath to do with such a writer ; but 
such gentlemen as you seem to me to be, can take a solemn national covenant and 
spit it up again, and without conscience fall into that desperate jesuited maxim, 
That no promise is to be held with such, whom you can soon call, heretics, or 
schismatics, or any thing. The Searcher of hearts hath a controversy witb cove 
nant breakers. I would you did read such places as Jer. \xxiv. 18, 20, and 
would learn to apply them better than you have done any scripture than I can see 
in this treatise, and yet I desire to see without prejudice. 

f You do not know what you are, nor indeed doth any carnal man ; he that 
doth not stand only for the one thing, Luke x. 42, may and indeed, at some time 
or other, will fall into an any thing: better men than you have confessed, that 
they did never think a man had need to be converted, till they themselves were 
converted. But you are even the same that thousands of your stamp are, that is 
to say, sure service-book men, and (the worst of men) moderate men, falsely so 
called, lukewarmness, neutrality, and ignorant pride with obstinacy, see the wis 
dom of God concluding them inseparable, Rev. iii. 15, 16, 17. 

J Your sectary, we know what it is, namely, any one that is truly religious, a 
reformation and a religion at large is the thing such as you love, that is to say, 
Sundays no Sabbaths ; and the book of liberty put into practice again, wakes, 
church-ales, rushbearings, &c. Oh, it was a merry world in those days : upon 
which terms I must say of your peace, as once the father said, Ubi non hoc bel- 
lum ibi pax diabolica ; Where there is not this strife (namely, between the better 
and worse part) there is a devilish peace. With this introduction, commonly, 
these men begin such pamphlets, and they think they prevail much upon the rea 
der s affection : I say to the honest-hearted reader, Look about thee, in nomine 
Domini incipit omne malum : Satan can transform himself into an angel of light, 
VOL. V. Y 


and so do his ministers also ; if thou espiest this protestation before, the sound of 
his master s heels are behind him : and he is a stone cold formalist, some Christ 
mas zealot, as full of obstinacy as an egg is of meat, one that will tell you he 
would be resolved, but he is resolved aforehand : of such an one let Solomon 
give the true character : Prov. xxvi. 16, " The sluggard is wiser in his own con 
ceit than seven men that can render a reason." 

|j That we shall leave to the judicious reader, if there be not exceeding much 
of both bitterness and deceit too,judicent impartiales, good reader, have thine 
eyes about thee, and see without prejudice. 

Our cause is the cause of Jesus Christ, as hath been clearly and plentifully 
proved, nor ever yet gainsaid, but by sophisms, lies and quarrellings. And that 
defensive war the parliament hath now a foot, hath been sufficiently vindicated, 
as is to see in the several treatises to that purpose, if we had to do with reason 
able men ; wherein, good reader, thou hast the question rightly stated without 
any andabatism, which this gentleman hath not either so much wit or so much 
honesty to do : we desire him, therefore, to take the good counsel that he gives, 
and in the name of Jesus Christ, laying aside all wilful ignorance, pride, preju 
dice, private interests, and uncharitable censures, to deal seriously, and not so 
deceitfully with a truth of God. Reader, he knows our question is not what he 
here says it to be, for all his specious presence. We will, therefore, in these An 
notations, Christ willing, search his several scriptures, and where they open, God 
and thou be judge, reader, we will not seek to shut : we desire to consult not 
only with reason, but with religion too, which, in the power of it, such men are 
sadly ignorant of ; and then to his last clause : Let truth prosper, though we pe 
rish ; and God be glorified, though in our confusion : we say, Amen, and so be 


" THE kingdom of England, that hath for many ages 
" continued the happiest nation on the habitable earth, enjoy- 
" ing the highest blessings that heaven can give, or earth 
ff receive ; the fruition of the gospel, which settled a firm 
" peace ; which peace occasioned a full plenty, under the 
" gracious government of wise and famous princes, over a 
(e thriving and well -contented people, insomuch that she 
" became the earth s paradise, and the world s wonder, is 
" now the nursery of all sects ; her peace is violated, her 
fe plenty wasting, her government distempered, her people 
" discontented, and unnaturally embroiled in her own blood, 
f( not knowing the way, nor affecting the means of peace ; 
" insomuch, that she is now become the by-word of the 
" earth, and the scorn of nations." 

If you speak for yourself, Sir, you are no good subject ; if 
for us, you are no good Christian. All our practices of mercy 
have shewed, and all our prayers for mercy to God and man 
too, do shew this to be most false : we do affect the means, 
all the lawful means of peace, but our misery is, that when 
we speak to men thereof, they make them ready to battle. 
The language of this proem is neat, but very Jesuitical and 
dangerous. Take heed, good reader, we live in the times 
now, that even the Jesuits begin to plead for the taking of 
the oaths of supremacy and allegiance. See the Safeguard 
from Shipwreck for a Prudent Catholic, with Dr. Featley s 
annotations thereupon, published by order. Sure our church 
is either altered, or the pope s stomach, that he can now 
digest us ; but here it is, reader, give thine observation, when 
there is hope that kings will preserve popery, then popery 
itself will swear to preserve them. 

" The cause and ground of these our national combustions, 
" are these: our national transgressions, which unnaturally 
" sprung from the neglect of that truth we once had, and 
" from the abuse of that peace we now want : which, taking 

Y 2 


u occasion of some differences betwixt his majesty and his 
" two houses of parliament, hath divided our kingdom within 
" itself, which had so divided itself from that God, who blest 
" it with so firm a truth, so settled a peace, and so sweet an 
" unity. 

" As that sin brought this division, so this division, sharp- 
et ened with mutual jealousies, brought in the sword. 

" When the lion roars, who trembles not ? And when 
" judgments thunder, who is not troubled ? 

" Among the rest, I, who brought some faggots to this 
6f combustion, stood astonished and amazed, to whom the 
" mischief was far more manifest than the remedy ; at last I 
" laid my hand upon my heart, and concluded, it was the 
" hand of God : where being plundered in my understanding, 
Cf I began to make a scrutiny, where the first breach was 
tf made that let in all these miseries. 

" I found the whole kingdom now contracted into a par- 
" liament, which consisted of three estates, a king, a house 
" of peers, and a house of commons ; by the wisdom and 
" unity whereof, all things conducible to the weale-public 
" were to be advised upon, presented and established. 

" I found this unity disjointed, and grown to variance even 
" to blood. The king and his adherents on the one party ; 
" and his two houses and their adherents on the other. 

u The pretence of this division, was the true protestant 
" religion, which both protested to maintain ; the liberty of 
" the subject, which both protested to preserve ; the privi- 
" leges of parliament, which both promise to protect : yet, 
" nevertheless, the first never more profaned, the second 
" never more interrupted, the third never more violated." 

Sure this gentleman thinks that any thing will be granted 
him. I am confident, and in this I dare appeal to God and 
all good men, that England never saw her religion and ordi 
nances in that glory of lustre, as they have been since this 
parliament began ; such a spirit of prayer and preaching is 
gone out amongst us, as is indeed wonderful. But that 
which you call religion s profanation, is indeed and truth 
religion s purging and reformation ; namely, to pluck down 
idolatrous crosses, to silence organs, to abolish relics of 
popery, to scum off the filth of our liturgies and church 
service, and to put away out of our cathedrals, those bawling 


boys, and drunken singing men. This is the profanation of 
religion we are guilty of, in such men s opinions as this is. 
True it is, in these sad times of our s, and exceeding full of 
destraction, sectaries creep in and increase abundantly, whose 
suppressing, in their and the Lord s due time, we do not doubt 
but the great Reformer will bless us with. This you can 
remember, and object against our side ; but your open 
masses on your side, I hear no complaint of; not a word of 
your Irish rebels now, cum privilegio, in the land here. Ac 
cidental profanations, in such times as this, will happen ; it 
cannot otherwise be ; but voluntary and desperate ones, 
volent and violent profanations your side is guilty of; you 
authorise, defend, fight for, or at least with, professed pro- 
faners, yea, professed enemies of religion ; yea, all religion 
which hath any power or piety joined thereunto. This 
writer, which, in this strain of wit, desires to strike through 
the sides of our parliament and profession too at one blow, 
dares not here undertake to instance any one piece of the 
profanation of our religion, justifiedly published, preached or 
practised in this distracted strait of time, by the authority of 
parliament ; religion, liberty, privilege, and all is trodden 
under foot by that side, to which this gentleman is now a 
loyal convert, as is seen daily ; but what impudence dare aver 
that we do any such thing ? Good reader, do not be be 
guiled, but hear what this man saith, religion, liberty, privi 
lege, never more profaned, interrupted, violated; but by 
whom ? Let him speak out and tell thee, or do thou open 
thine eyes, and tell thyself, rather, and then thou wilt tell me, 
that the gentleman hath in this, but thrown dirt in his own 
side s face. 

" Standing amazed at this riddle, I turned mine eyes upon 
" his majesty, and there I viewed the Lord s anointed, sworn 
" to maintain the established laws of this kingdom : I 
" turned mine eyes upon the two houses, and in them I 
" beheld the interest of my country, sworn to obey his ma- 
" jesty, as their supreme governor. 

" I heard a remonstrance cried from the two houses : I 
" read it ; I approved it; I inclined unto it: a declaration 
" from his majesty ; I read it ; I applauded it ; I adhered to 
" the justness of it : the parliament s answer ; I turned to 


" the parliament : his majesty s reply ; I returned to his ma- 
" jesty. 

(( Thus tost and turned as a weathercock to my own weak- 
" ness, I resolved it impossible to serve two masters. 

" I fled to reason ; reason could not satisfy me : I fled to 
" policy ; policy could not resolve me : at length, finding no 
ee counsellor, but that which first I should have sought, I 
" hied me to the book of God as the great oracle, and 
" ushering my inquest with prayer and humiliation, I opened 
" the sacred leaves, which, not by chance, presented to my 
" first eye the xxth of the Proverbs, verse 2. The fear of a 
" king is as the roaring of a lion, and whoso provoketh him 
66 to anger, sinneth against his own soul/ 

" Now I began to search, and found as many places to 
" that purpose as would swell this sheet into a volume ; so 
" that in a very short space, I was so furnished with such 
" strict precepts, backed with such strong examples, that my 
" judgment was enlightened, and my wavering conscience so 
" throughly convinced, that by the grace of that power which 
" directed me, neither fear, nor any by-respects shall ever 
" hereafter remove me, unless some clearer light direct me." 

And was there ever any pestilent heresy in God s church 
that had not numerous quotations of Holy Scripture ? Augus 
tine observes it sweetly, that heresies and perverse opinions, 
ensnaring the souls, they are not vented but when the good 
Scriptures are not well understood, and then that which men 
understand wrongly, they assert to others as rashly; See 
Aug. Tract, in Jo. x. It may be this gentleman would be 
ready to do to me as he did to Jeremiah, or as that other 
Zedekiah did to Micaiah, for he smote him on the cheek and 
said, When went the Spirit of the Lord from me to speak to 
thee ? 1 Kings xxii. 24. For indeed some men think that 
none are in the favor of God so as they, and that God hath 
given to none his graces in that measure that they, though 
Christ knows they never knew what belonged to any saving 
grace or knowledge; but Sir, I must needs tell you, you have 
made Augustine s words true. And such as you verify that 
of the apostle, 1 Tim. i. *J. they would be Doctors of the law, 
and yet understand not, what they speak, neither whereof 
they affirm. 

" But, above all the rest, a precept and an example out of 


" the Old Testament, strongly confirmed by a precept and an 
<f example out of the New^settled my opinion and established 
" my resolution. 

" The first precept out of the Old, Jer. xxvii. 6. where it 
" pleased God to own Nebuchadnezzar his servant, although 
" a known pagan, a professed idolater, and a fierce persecutor 
" of all God s children, concerning whom he saith, verse 8, 
" They that serve not the king of Babylon, and that will not 
" put their necks under his yoke, I will punish them with 
(i the sword, famine, and the pestilence, till I have consumed 
" them, verse 9. Therefore hearken not to your diviners and 
" prophets, that say unto you, You shall not serve the king of 
ee Babylon, for they prophesy a lie unto you, verse 10, But 
" the nations that shall serve the king of Babylon, and bring 
es their necks under his yoke, those will I let remain in their 
" own land, (saith the Lord) and they shall till it, and dwell 
therein. " 

I could not have thought that a royalist, and one of so 
tender a conscience, as this gentleman would seem to be, 
would have quoted a text of the Holy Scripture with such 
perverting. And so strangely derogatory to that which he 
seems to be so earnest for. For good reader, do but mark 
well : It pleaseth God to own, saith he, Nebuchadnezzar for 
his servant ; we grant it, but to do what ? amongst other 
things, To conquer that which is none of his. To be a 
scourge to the people of God. To destroy others a while, 
till at length others destroy him. Thus God may, and doth 
own the devil for his servant for such services as these. Sir, 
you will have small thanks at court for such parallels and 
comparisons as these, we hope and pray yet, that God hath 
appointed our gracious sovereign to preserve our right and 
yours, to be a nursing father to God s people, to help to 
save them, which I will assure you, Sir, will venture their dear 
est bloods to save him : you do exceeding ill, Sir, and I must 
tell you, it is an unreverent and unbeseeming comparison. 
But let us see what this scripture contains. That to God be- 
longeth the kingdom, rule and government of the whole 
world. He doth give the rule thereof even to the beast of 
the field, to whomsoever pleaseth him. That he hath less 
reason than a beast, which doth not submit to accept the 
punishment of his iniquity, Levit. xxvi. 41., and to seek a 


place of hiding there, where God will secure him. For two 
great reasons are given hereof, Secret from the purpose of 
God and his decree, I have given, &c. v. 6. From the sin of 
man which God doth intend hereby to scourge for a time, 
for so the Lord tells them plainly, verse 7. And therefore 
whosoever shall dare to strive or resist, must now know it is 
no less than a disobedience and God-resistance. Therefore : 
our land, oh, ye Jews, heretofore yours, while ye were mine, 
and governed by your own king, I have now given away unto 
a strange king, even the king of Babylon, and the govern 
ment shall be his over you all, yea, and what yours is to the 
beast of the field. Now your wisdom, will be to submit to 
me and him ; yea, to me in him that you may shew your 
passive obedience, if otherwise two mischiefs will ensue 
against you, namely : severe punishments, sword, famine, 
&c. and that until they be wholly given into his hands. 
Hereupon a double exhortation is given. Do not hear, ex 
pressed ; much less believe, implied, those that say, ye shall 
not serve the king of Babel, and a binding reason, verse 10. 
For they prophesy a lie, &c. Lastly, the direction and pro 
mise, verse 11. But now what doth this text conclude. 
Hath God given away our land and king to a foreigner? 
Who sent you to preach this doctrine ? They are commanded 
by God to this which is not our case. Thus you argue, the 
people of Israel must not refuse the means of their safety 
how unlikely soever ; therefore the people of England 
must not refuse the means of their slavery how unlaw 
ful soever. It is very well argued, Sir, indeed. But, honest 
reader, mark a little and see what the gentleman would 
conclude hence. Our king is as that king of Babel, 
whom God had appointed to do what he will. Our parlia 
ment, the people that will not obey, therefore designed to fire, 
sword, &c. All the holy learned of the land are dreamers, 
enchanters, sorcerers, and men that prophecy a lie unto you. 
Therefore, countrymen, put your necks under the yoke of the 
king, and you shall remain still in your land, occupy and 
dwell therein; yes, marry, shall you and wear wooden shoes, 
as the peasants do in France : reader, I appeal to thy soul, is 
not here pestilent perverting GocPs truth ? Do not such men 
torment and set on tbe rack (VT^S gX^tv) God s truth, 1 Pet. iii. 
16. This is the first precept with which this good man was 
so satisfied. 


" Can there be a stricter precept ? or could there be a 
" more impious prince ? And yet this precept, and yet this 
" prince must be obeyed : nay sub pcena too ; upon the pain 
" of God s high wrath, fully expressed in famine, sword and 
" pestilence, not only upon the people, but upon the priests 
ct also, that shall persuade them unto disobedience. 

" The second precept is enjoined us out of the New Tes- 
" tament, Rom. xiii. 1. Let every soul be subject 
" to the higher powers, for there is no power but of God ; 
" the powers that be are ordained of God : whosoever there- 
" fore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God, 
" and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation/ 
" This power, this king, to whom St. Paul commandeth this 
" subjection, was Nero, the bloody persecutor of all that 
" honoured the blessed name of Jesus Christ. 5 

The second precept is the old place, Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 3, &c. 
To this I answer, that this gentleman sure doth suppose that 
he can say more than Dr. Fearne, or else he would never 
press it so far ; but I will not dare to suppose that I can say 
more than they, which have given him answer. Let the rea 
der apply himself unto Master Burroughs in the end of the 
treatise, intitled, The Lord of Hosts : and others labouring 
excellently upon that subject. Only thus much give me 
leave to advertise : the gentleman doth first hoodwink you, 
and then abuse you ; God s command, his reason, and that 
under, thereat, they are altogether, yea and every one by 
himself, that which we desire to tremble to think of disobe 
dience to : for they are such a threefold cord as cannot be 
broken, but we break with them. Equality with our sove 
reign, superiority, or supremacy over him, let this book ob 
ject against them that are guilty of desiring such a thing. 
We utterly disclaim and renounce the thought thereof; and 
therefore herein the author fights with his shadow, and not 
with us. His distinction of active and passive obedience, 
power, praise, pliance, prayers, &c. Suppose all this should 
be admitted, yet the author hits not the question, alas, he 
comes not near the mark. Indeed no more they do any of 
them by their good will. The parallel too between the two 
scriptures, that is to say, between Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 3, and 1 
Cor. xi. 29 ; with that flash of wit discerning the Lord s 
body, and discerning the Lord s anointed, that he says of or 
dinance, and the punishment of disobedience, &c., allow him 


all this, and all this is beside the business in hand, and hath 
nothing in it but froth. How easily and with no noise falls 
a)l this Babel to pieces thus : He that rebels against God s 
commandment, shall receive to himself judgment, true, but 
we do not so ; therefore &c. He that desires to be equal 
with, or above his king, he, &c. But we abhor it with our 
hearts ; therefore &c., and so of all the rest. This spider s web 
is soon swept down you see ; much reading I know by myself is 
a wearisomeness to the flesh; and though there be many books, 
yet every one hath not time to read them ; observe therefore, 
good reader, without prejudice, these following things in an- 
wer to this precept ; obedience to the king may be denied, 
not only in things unlawful by the law of God, but man also ; 
this is granted by the king s side, this position, That God s 
law, and man s law do limit king s power. Resistance is law 
ful with these three cautions. If there be the consent of the 
two houses of parliament. If that resistance be defensive. 
If the king be bent to overthrow all religion, laws, liberties, 
&c., and shew nothing but will : for you know, Sir, arid for 
shame do not dissemble it, that Aristotle s old rule is, He 
that governs by law is a king ; by lust, is a tyrant. The next 
book therefore that this gentleman writes, we shall intreat 
him to satisfy the reader in those particulars above, and such 
as these below, namely, what is the difference between eZovvta, 
power, and Swapw, strength, for surely this must be regarded. 
There is difference between these two, he hath, and he is 
the greatest power, let it be spoken of whom it will. The 
resistance of the power, and the resistance of the will, are 
things different. These concurrences in a governor, which all 
have granted : the power, which is from God ; person, which 
is from men ; qualification, which is from himself; limitation, 
which is from from the law divine and human. Let him also 
satisfy us in these two things more, that is to say, though 
duty, breach of oath and covenant, doth not make forfeiture 
of power, yet, whether any breach doth so. Whether power 
given to king, parliament, &c., may be re-assumed; when, 
how, in what cases, and by whom ? The light of reason we 
have, hath taught us this, and we cannot forget it, that spi 
ritual good things have such means to preserve them : which 
is a truth warranted by God s word. That natural and 
civil good things must surely have means to preserve 


them also : such therefore would I entreat the next dis 
course of this gentleman s to be, as may give satisfaction in 
these things, or else he doth nothing to the purpose. 

" God s command should he a sufficient argument, avlog (f>rj 
" is enough ; but when he adds a reason to, he answers all 
" objections : but when he threatens a punishment, no less 
" than damnation, upon the resistance thereof, he hath used 
" all means to persuade a necessity of obedience. 

" Let every soul be subject. 

" Not equal, much less superior. And what is taking up 
" of arms, but an implied supposition of at least equality ? 
" What are the hopes of conquest but an ambition of supe- 
" riority; what is condemning, judging, or deposing, but su- 
" premacy ? For it is against the nature of an inferior to 
" condemn, judge, or depose a superior. 

6S And, lest the rebellious should confine his obedience to 
" a good prince, the next words reply, 

" For there is no power but of God. 

" Power in itself, is neither good nor evil, but as it is in 
" subjecto the person ; if an evil king, an evil power : if a 
" good king, a good power : God sends the one in mercy, and 
" we must be subject : the other in judgment and we must be 
" subject: in things lawful, actively; in things unlawful, passive- 
" ly : if a good king, he must have our praise and our pliance ; if 
" an evil king, he must have our prayers and our patience. 

" ( He that resisteth the power, whether good or evil, for 
" all power is of God, ( resists an ordinance of God/ Or- 
" dinances of men are not resisted without ruin, f and who- 
" soever resisteth, shall receive/ but what? xpipa eavloiQ, c dam- 
" nation to themselves/ 

" Now compare this place with that 1 Cor. xi. 29 : e He that 
" shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unwor- 
" thily, eateth and drinketh/ what ? Kp^a ecu;, c damna- 
" tioii to himself/ If then there be proportion betwixt the 
" sin and the punishment, you may hereby gather the hein- 
" ousness of disobedience, the punishment whereof is the 
" very same with his, that is guilty of the ( body and blood 
" of our Lord ; to the one, for not discerning the Lord s 
" body/ to the other, for not discerning the Lord s an- 
" ointed/ 

" Obj, The Lord s anointed ; and who is he ? None but the 


" regenerate : Christ is not Christ to any, to whom Jesus is 
" not Jesus. 

u Ans. God s word answers your silly objection, not I : was 
" not Saul, God s anointed, 1 Sam. xvi. 9. Was not Cyrus, 
" God s anointed, and many more whom God acknowledges 
" so and yet wicked kings ? 

(( Cyrus is mine anointed yet he hath not known me/ 

" The first example for our obedience the Old Testament 
" proposeth to our imitation, Dan. iii. 16. Nebuchadnezzar 
" the king of Babylon sets up a golden image, Shadrach, Me- 
" shach, and Abednego, were commanded to fall down and 
" worship it." 

For the first example ; truly I do but desire to appeal to 
judgment which is sound, and without prejudice, not idol 
izing the name of king, court, &c., as not long since we were 
commanded to do something else ; and by those which now 
desire to preach us as deep into the blind obedience, as ever 
they did. I have, I thank God, three rules fitted to that 
threefold obedience, which have not yet failed me in the trust 
I have committed to them ; I am informed that, 

Blind obedience wanteth discretion. 

Implicit obedience wanteth truth. 

Seditious and servile obedience wants justice. 

Reader, do but observe with what obedience they would 
have thee obey ; and also take the good memorandum given 
thee by an ancient, and be not blindly obstinate, and I de 
sire no more: Tertullian^s censure of the people of his time, 
is thus ; Major e formidine, Ccesarem observatis, quam ipsum 
de Olympo Jovem : which is in English thus in effect : I 
would to God some of you would learn to fear God a little, 
which pretend you fear, and love the king so much, and I 
could like it well. Michior Canus takes occasion to say of 
the Italians these words ; Vos Itali vultis Deum habere in 
pane, quern non eredisis esse in calis : in English, You Italians 
will needs have God lo be in the bread in the sacrament, 
which I am afraid you hardly believe to be in heaven. Sic 
ille in vita Melanct. But to the point ; this first example, 
reader, I judge it, to this business, very incongruent and ab 
surd ; absurd I say ; for do but observe, and the force of reason 
ing lies thus : three children captives do yield passive obedience 
to the lawful commands of a free monarch, in a strange land; 


therefore all free men ought to yield passive obedience with 
out resistance, to the mere will of a mixed monarch, (the par 
liament then sitting and dissenting thereto) in their own land. 
I shall pray the reader to observe well the agreement between 
this case and ours. It is not lawful in any case to resist, no, 
though the commands be altogether unlawful, a king that is 
to govern by will ; therefore unlawful also to resist him, or 
his bad council, which is to govern by law. Thus the gen 
tleman argues from the first of those examples which did so 
confirm him. 

" The king, a known pagan, commands gross idolatry, did 
" these men conspire ? Or, being rulers of the province of 
ee Babel did they invite the Jews into a rebellion ; did these, 
(( to strengthen their own faction, blast their sovereign s name 
ef with tyranny and paganism ? Did they endeavour by scan- 
" dais and impious aspersions, to render him odious to his 
" people ; did they encourage their provinces to take up arms 
" for the defence of their liberties or religion ; did they seize 
" upon or stop his revenues, or annihilate his power : did 
ee they estrange themselves from his presence, murder his 
" messengers, or would they have slighted his gracious offers ? 
" No, being called by their prince, they came ; and being 
" commanded to give actual obedience to his unlawful com- 
" mands, observe the modesty of their first answer, Dan. iii. 
" 19, ( We are not careful to answer thee in this matter; 5 and 
e( being urged, mark their pious resolution in the second : 
e( Dan. iii. 18 : e Be it known, O king, we will not serve 
" thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set 
" up/ 

" The king threatens the furnace, they yield their bodies 
" to the furnace, and say, Dan. iii. 17, < God whom we 
" serve will deliver us out of thy hands, and not, He will 
" deliver thee into our hands. They expect deliverance 
" rather in their passive obedience, than in their actual resis- 
" tance. 

" Obj. But they were few in number, and their forces not 
(( considerable. 

" Ans. Admit that, which all histories deny, was not God 
" as able to subdue him with so few, as to deliver them from 
" so many; had their weakness less reason, for the cause of 
" God s apparent dishonour, to expect a miraculous assis- 


" tance in those days of frequent miracles,, than we, after so 
" long a cessation of miracles ? Gcd s glory will not be 
" vindicated by unlawful means, or unwarrantable proceed- 
" ings. 

" Obj. Aye, but we take up arms not against the king, but 
" against his evil counsellors. 

" Ans. Adherents ye mean, a rare distinction, and, tell me, 
" whose power have his adherents ? The king s ; by which 
" appears, ye take up arms against the king s power, Eccles. 
" viii. 6 He that resisteth the power (it is not said the 
ce prince) shall receive damnation/ Again, Where the word 
" of a king is, there is power/ God joined the king and his 
ee power, and who dare separate them ? They that take up 
ee arms against the parliament s power, you say, take up arms 
" against the parliament; do not they then that take up arms 
" against the king s power, by the same reason, take up arms 
" against the king ? Now look back upon your intricate dis- 
" tinction, and blush. 

" Obj. But if the king betray the trust reposed in him 
" by his subjects, they may suspend their obedience, and re- 
6( sist him. 

" Ans. Kings are God s vicegerents, and cannot be com- 
" pelled to give an account to any but to God, Psa. li. 4. 
" e Against thee, against thee only have I sinned, that is, To 
" thee, to thee only must I give an account. Though I have 
" sinned against Uriah, by my act, and against my people 
" by my example, yet against thee have I only sinned. You 
" cannot deprive, or limit them in what you never gave them. 
" God gave them their power, and who art thou that darest 
" resist it? Prov. viii. 15, By me kings reign. J 

You, and such as you, the king s flatterers ; and it is a pity 
to see what daubing here is with untempered morter. 

" Obj. But his crown was set upon his head by his sub- 
" jects, upon such and such conditions. 

te Ans. Why was the penalty upon the fail not expressed 
ei then? Coronation is but a human ceremony, and was he not 
" proclaimed before he was crowned ? Proclaimed ; but what ? 
" A king. And did not you at the same instant, by relative 
" consequence, proclaim yourselves subjects ? And shall sub- 
" jects condition with their king, or will kings bind themselves 


" to their subjects, upon the forfeiture of their power, after 
" they have received their regal authority ?" 

He is bound by the law to the law, which is the common 
sponsor between him and the subject, viz. that the subject 
shall pay tribute, give obedience, &c., and then, that he shall 
enjoy his protection too, or else he is in an ill case. 

" Obj. But the king hath, by writ, given his power to his 
ef parliament, and therefore what they do, they do by virtue 
ee of his power. 

" Ans. The king by his writ, gives not away his power, but 
a communicates it : by the virtue of which writ they are 
ef called ad tractandum et consulendum de arduis regni, to 
" treat and advise concerning the difficulties of the kingdom. 
t( Here is all the power the writ gives them, and where they 
" exceed, they usurp the king s power, being both against 
" the law of God and the constitutions of the kingdom." 

Yes, to enact something too, surely. Sir, you have forgot 
yourself: but if delinquents be found out, and rescued from 
the hand of justice, what then ? nay, if they be armed against 
them which should do justice on them, what then? 

" Obj. Well, but in case of necessity, when religion and 
" liberty lie at the stake, the constitutions of the kingdom, 
" for the preservation of the kingdom, may suffer a dispen- 
" sation. 

ee Ans. Admit that, but what necessity may dispense with 
" the violation of the law of God, the deviation wherefrom 
"is evil; and, thou shalt do no evil that good may come 
" thereon." 

Here is no law of God broken yet, unless you shew us more. 

" Obj. But we take not arms against the king, but only 
" to bring delinquents to condign punishment. 

" Ans. And who are they ? Even those that take up arms 
" for the king ; which an unrepealed statute (2 Henry VII.) 
" acquits. But admit statutes may be broken, and you seek to 
" punish them ; who gave you the power so to do ? The law. 
" And what law denies the king s power to pardon delin- 
" quents ? God that hath put power into the hand of ma- 
" jesty, hath likewise planted mercy in the heart of sovereignty. 
" And will ye take away both his birthright and his blessing 
" also ? Take heed you do not slight that which one day may 
" be your sanctuary." 


Our rejoicing is the testimony of our conscience, that we 
shall have mercy with the King of kings, which is our souls 
sole sanctuary. In the mean time you reason well ; the king 
may pardon some delinquents, therefore ought to pardon any, 
yea all. A king hath mercy for delinquents, therefore let 
him spare them, nay, arm them against those that endeavour 
to do their duties in ridding the commonwealth or church of 

" Obj. But the king, being a mixed monarch, is bound to 
" his own laws. 

" Ans. There be two sorts of laws, directive and coercive: 
" as to the first, he is only bound to make his account to 
" God ; so to the second, he is only liable to the hand of 
66 God : who shall say unto him, What doest thou ? 

" Obj. But kings now-a-days have not so absolute a power 
" as the kings mentioned in the Scripture. 

" Ans. Who limited it, God or man ? Man could not limit 
" the power, he never gave ; if God, shew me where : till 
" then this objection is frivolous/ 5 

See, before confessed, that the king s power is limited by 
God s law and man s law too ; where is the limitation if he 
may do what he will and must account to none but God ? for 
in vain is he petitioned, or subsidy or aid denied him, for he 
may take all when he pleaseth, and is to account to none but 

" Obj. But when kings and their assistance make an offen- 
" sive and a destructive war against their parliament, may they 
<c not then take up defensive arms ? 

" Ans. It is no offensive war for a king to endeavour the 
" recovery of his surrepted right; however, are not the mem- 
" bers of a parliament subjects to their sovereign ; if not, 
" who are they ? If subjects, ought they not to be subject ? 
" God s people, the Je\vs (Esther viii.), that were to be des- 
" troyed by the king s command, neither did nor durst make 
" a defensive war against his abused power, until they first 
" obtained the king s consent." 

Prove a surrepted right and you say something. 

" But admit it lawful, though neither granted nor warranted, 
" that subjects may upon such terms make a defensive war, 
" does it not quite cross the nature of a defensive war, to as- 
" sail, pursue, and dispossess ? 


* c When you shot five pieces of ordinance before one was 
" returned at Edgehill, was that defensive ? When you be- 
ft sieged Reading, which you after slighted, was that defensive ? 
" When yon affronted Basing-house, was that defensive ? 

" The warrantable weapons against an angry king are ex- 
" hortation, dissuasion, wise reproof by such as are nearest 
" to him, petition, prayer, and flight : all other weapons will 
" at last wound them that use them. 

" The second example was left us out of the New Testa- 
" ment, by him that is the true precedent of all holy obedi- 
" ence, our blessed Saviour; whose humility and sufferance 
" was set before us as a copy for all generations to practise 
" by. 1 Peter ii." 

For the two examples of our blessed Saviour to it, I an 
swer, that this example also I judge to be like the former, and 
very impertinent. My reason is, our blessed Lord had an 
aim only at the business which he came to do, viz. to do the 
work of his ministry, Isa. Ixi. 1, 2, and in due time to suffer 
the death on the cross, upon which two of the parts of his 
office were dependent, viz. the prophetical and priestly office ; 
for the other part, that is his kingly, 

" The temporal kingdom of the Jews, successively usurped 
" by these two heathen princes, Augustus and Tiberius, two 
66 contemporaries, was his natural birthright, descended from 
" his type and ancestor king David. Had not he as great an 
" interest in that crown as we have in this commonwealth ? 
" Was not he as tender eyed towards his own natural people 
ce as we to one another ? 

" Was not the truth as dear to him, who was the very truth, 
" and the way to it ; as direct to him, that was the only way, 
" as to us ? 

" Was not he the great reformer ? 

" Had the sword been a necessary stickler in reformation, 
" how happened it that he mistook his weapon so ? Instead 
ee of a trumpet, he lifted up his voice. 

" Were plots, policies, propositions, profanations, plunder- 
" ings, military preparations, his way to reformation ? Were 
u they not his own words, He that taketh up the sword, 
" shall perish by the sword/ Matt. xxvi. 53. Nor was it 
" want of strength, that he reformed not in a martial way ; 

VOL. V. Z 


" Could not he command more than twelve legions of 
" angels ? 

" Or had he pleased to use the arm of flesh, could not he 
" that raised the dead, raise a considerable army ? Sure St. 
u John the Baptist would have ventured his head upon a 
" fairer quarrel, and St. Peter drawn his sword to a bloodier 
" end ; no question but St. Paul, the twelve apostles and 
" disciples, would have proved as tough colonels, as your 
" associated Essex priests did captains : and doubtless St. 
te Peter, who converted three thousand in one day, would 
" have raised a strong army in six. 

6f Our blessed Saviour well knew, that Ceesar came not 
" thither without divine permission. In respect whereof, he 
" became obedient to the very shadow of a king ; and whom 
" he actively resisted not, he passively obeyed. 

" Obj. Aye, but there was a necessity of his obedience 
" and subjection, to make him capable of a shameful death. 

(( Ans. No, his obedience as well as death was voluntary, 
" which makes you guilty of a shameful argument." 

Bona verba, qu&so ; you are peremptorily ignorant, Sir, 
and forfeit your discretion very often. The death of our 
Lord was voluntary, quod depositionem, it is true ; himself 
saith so, " I lay down my life, no man takes it away," John 
x. 18. But yet necessary too, quo ad decretum, as I shall 
shew you out of your own scriptures, Matt. xxvi. 34 ; how 
then should the scriptures be fulfilled, which say that it must 
be so ? 

66 Obj. But, he was a single person ; we, a representative 
" body : what is inexpedient in the one, is lawful in the 
" other. 

" Ans. Worse and worse : if our blessed Saviour be not re- 
" presentative, tell me whereof art thou a member ? Woe be to 
" that body politic, which endeavours not to be conformed 
" according to the head mystical. 

66 He preached peace." 

If always, you say something ; but if ever otherwise, either 
by himself or his, your parallel is not worth a point. See 
Matt. x. 34, and be not rash. 

" Your martial ministers, by what authority they best 
" know, proclaim war." 

He preached obedience with limitation, Matt. xii. 21, Cse- 


sar s due, no more. You. like a company of flatterers as 
you are,, preach it without limitation. 

ee He, obedience ; they sedition." 

Do not impudently tax us of preaching lies, shew any one 
so doing, and name him, otherwise you must needs father the 
lie. The gentleman you glance at, in the word martial) is 
quite beyond your aspersion, and until the court admire such 
Micaiahs, I am afraid the king s undertakings will be but like 
Ahab s journey to Ramoth Gilead, though four hundred such 
as you all say, " Go up and prosper." 

He, truth ; they lies. He, order ; they, confusion." 

Order is a word of great latitude, Sir, and I believe you 
mean, order of bishops, order of cathedrals, order of church 
service, &c. Look about you, and you have been answered. 
No, know God is the God of order, and not of confusion. 

" He, blessedness to the peace-makers ; they, courage to 
" the persecutors. He, blessedness to the persecuted ; they 
" brand them with malignity that call them blessed." 

In your two last particulars you beg shamefully ; you 
would have us think such as you mean to be peace-makers, 
who are indeed our only peace-breakers. You are such, and 
we have found you such on every treaty that we have had 
with you, like him that shed the blood of war in peace. We 
have found you as the men of Mesech and Kedar, degene 
rating indeed; which while we, and you too, talk of peace, 
make you ready to battle. Ps. cxx. J. Again, you would 
have us think that imprisonment for malignity, and as in 
cendiaries in a state, is persecution for righteousness. No, 
we know you suffer as evil-doers, are buffetted for your faults, 
and desire you to remember the old rule, Nonpcena sed causa 
martyr em facit ; it is not the punishment, but the cause 
which makes the martyr. Sir, it becomes them that bring 
such a railing accusation as this, so full of bitterness and 
gross falsehood, to draw it to particulars, and to say, This 
and this was done by such and such a person and persons. 
We who desire information, believe me, do think the blas 
phemies, lies, and brass-browed impudencies to be on your 

" God was not heard in the whirlwind, but in the still 

z 2 


" But,, his thoughts are not as our thoughts, neither are 
" our ways like his ways. 

" But whence proceeds all this ? even from a viperous 
te generation, which hath long nested in this unhappy island, 
es and those increased multitudes of simple souls, seduced by 
<f their seeming sanctity, who taking advantage of our late 
ee too great abuse of ceremonies, are turned desperate enemies 
ff to all order and discipline, being out of charity with the 
fe very Lord s prayer, because it comes within the popish 
" liturgy. 

e( How many of these have lately challenged the name of 
(f sanctified vessels, for containing the poison of unnatural 
ee sedition. How many of these have usurped the style of 
" well-affected, for disaffecting peace. How many of these 
" have counterfeited the honour of good patriots, for largely 
(e contributing towards the ruin of their country. How 
" many does this army consist of. How for their sakes is 
" blasphemy connived at, sacrilege permitted. How for 
" their encouragement, are lies and brass-browed impuden- 
" cies invented, nay published, nay published in their very 
ee pulpits, and tolerated, if not commanded, even by them, 
" who perchance, were this quarrel ended, would throw the 
<e first stone at them. How many of our learned, religious, 
" and orthodox divines, who by their able tongues and pens, 
" have defended and maintained the true ancient and catholic 
" faith, and vindicated the reformed religion from the asper- 
" sions of her potent adversaries ; are now plundered in their 
" goods, sequestered in their livings, imprisoned in their 
" persons, if not forced in their consciences ; whilst their 
" wives and poor children, begging their bread, are left to the 
<e mercy of these unmerciful times ; 

There shall be judgment merciless to him that sheweth no 
mercy. James ii. 13. I pray you open your eyes, and see 
the justice of the Lord of Hosts in this thing. Adonibezek 
shall rise up in judgment against you ; his confession is, 
" As I have done, so God hath rewarded me," Judg. i. 7. 
So must you say too. Remember your ear-cutting, undoing, 
depriving, suspending, merciless high commission court, and 
then say, God is just. When a ship s lading of those that 
your party drave to New England, were sailing thither, Oh, 
says a creature of one of your courts, that a storm would 


come now, and sink all these into the bottom of the sea ! 
This is a piece of your charity. Believe it, Sir, you have 
been bloodily merciless, and the just God is now in making 

(e Even for the encouragement of them, whose pedantic 
" learning durst never shew her ridiculous head before an 
" easy school-man, whose livelihoods they unworthily usurp, 
" not dispensing the bread of life, but the darnell of giddy- 
" headed fancy and sedition, abhoring the way to peace, and 
" maligning those that ensue it." 

Surgunt indocti, et rapiunt cselum, et nos cum omnibus 
doctrinis nostris detrudimur in gehennam. Augustin. 

" Obj. Aye, but we desire peace, so we may have truth 

" Ans. What mean ye by having truth ; the preservation 
" of the old truth, or the institution of a new ? 

" If ye fear the alteration of the old, having your sover- 
" eign s oath, which you dare not believe, what other assur- 
" ance can you have ? 

ge The blood you shed, is certain ; the change you fear, is 
" uncertain : it is no wisdom to apply a desperate remedy to 
" a suspected disease." 

It is an easy matter for you to write so ; but it is not so 
easy for you to make wise men think so. Solomon s prudent 
man, and his fool, with their previsions and provisions, are 
to be seen, Prov. xxii. 3. You are very confident of your 
abilities, that dare oppose your judgment to that of a whole 

" If the enjoyment of peace depends upon a full assurance 
" of truth, our discords may bear an everlasting date. God 
" hath threatened to remove his candlestick, and our wicked- 
" ness justly fears it; and so long as we fear it, shall we 
"abjure peace, the blessed means to prevent it? He that 
" seeks to settle truth by the sword, distracts it. 

" Or is it a truth ye want ; if so, is it of doctrine, or of 
" discipline ? If of doctrine, actum est de nostra religione ; 
"farewell our religion. Or, is it of discipline ? Discipline 
" is but a ceremony. And did the Lord of the sabbath dis- 
" perise with a moral law, for the preservation of an ox s 
" life, or an ass , and shall we, to alter some few indifferent 
" ceremonies, allowed by the parliaments of three pious and 


" wise princes, and the practice of many holy martyrs, who 
fe sealed the true protestant religion with their blood, cry 
" down peace, and shed the blood of many thousand chris- 
" tians ? 

" Our seduced protestants will have no set forms of prayer, 
" but what proceed immediately from their own fancies. 
" This is their truth. 

" Our semi-separatists will hear our sermons, if they like 
" the teacher, but no divine service. This is their truth. 

" Our separatists will not communicate in our churches, 
" nor join in our congregations. This is their truth/ 

Truth is one, as is the God of truth ; and as for the separ 
atists, anabaptists, antinomians, &c., what the state thinks of 
them, and how it proceeds against some of them, you should 
seek to know before you seem to censure. We contend not, 
Sir, for such a truth as must have a touch of an Irish tolera 
tion. The independents, those gentlemen do differ in judg 
ment in that point, it is true, yet modestly, and without 
morosity. Reckon them with reverence, Sir, I pray you ; 
they shall for learning, go cheek by jowl with your side of 
the first form. And if you take them in their pulpit em 
ployment, believe me, none of jour s are to be compared 
with them. Alas, Sir, preaching, that is to say, opening the 
whole counsel of God, hath been out of fashion at court ever 
since I was born. More the sin and shame of somebody ; 
and the judgment which is denounced, Amos vii. 12, 16, 1?? 
reader, observe if it be not accomplishing. Neither is the 
quarrel for a few ceremonies ; we contend for substance, for 
all our liberties, as we are men and Christian men, do lie now 
at stake, and we hope the Lord will discover himself to be 
for us therein. 

" Our anabaptists will not baptize until years of discretion, 
" and re-baptize. That is their truth. 

" Our antinomians will have no repentance. This is their 
" truth. 

" Our independents will have an universal parity. This is 
" their truth. 

" Good God, when shall we have peace, if not until all 
" their truths meet ! 

ee Obj* But Christ says, c I come not to bring peace, but 


" the sword/ Mark x. 34 ; therefore for the propagation of 
<f peace, it is lawful to use the sword. 

" Ans. So he is termed a stumbling block/ 1 Cor. i. 23 ; 
ee and does that warrant to stumble ? So he says, e All you 
" shall be offended because of me/ Matt. xxvi. 31 ; and 
" doth this patronize our offences ? The law is good and 
" just : because then, we had not known sin but by the law/ 
" Rom. vii. 7j is it therefore lawful for us to sin ? God for- 
" bid. 

(e Our Saviour brings the sword among us, as wholesome 
" meat brings sickness to a weakly, sick stomach, or physic 
" to a body abounding with humours ; not intentionally, but 
" occasionally. 

Thus, by your erroneous and weak mistakes, you make 
" the Prince of Peace the patron of your unnatural war; and 
" the God of truth, the precedent of your unexamined 
" errors." 

This hath been answered before, and if an accusation 
against us were enough, who should be guiltless ? If you 
think, Sir, you can yet bring any thing against our proceed 
ings, or what hath been said, and defame the name of any 
more than such a cavil as this, you have your liberty. 

" But Almighty God, the champion of his own truth, and 
" maintainer of his own cause, hath, to more than common 
ee admiration, appeared in this great enterprize. 

" He that delivered Israel s handful from the hand of Pha- 
" raoh s host, hath shewed himself, in the almost incredible 
" proceedings of this heaven- displeasing war, the brief rela- 
" tion whereof may move those hearts, that are not seared, 
" or stone, to melt into a thankful acknowledgement of his 
ee power, and remain as monuments of his mercy, that chil- 
" dren, yet unborn, may say hereafter, e God was here/ 
Namely : 

es The two houses of parliament made first a general seiz- 
" ure of all the arms, ammunition, castles, forts and maga- 
" zines, and ships, being the whole visible strength of this 
(i unhappy kingdom," 

That is to say, before the papists could get them, for in 
deed they were designed to have had them, that we might 
have had what they have in Germany, that is to say, neither 
house, home, nor habitation ; " The tender mercies of the 


wicked are cruelty/* for this parliament therefore, and that 
seizure, we humbly bless the name of our good God. But 
good Sir, not first before the plot for bringing of an army 
against the parliament. Nor first before many other things 
which conscience hath not silenced among some of you, and 
in due time the kingdom will take notice of, Sir, with all your 
tricks and ambiguities ; you dance in a net, and your dissim 
ulation and prevarication cannot be hid. 

" To whom, having now settled the militia, both by sea 
" and land, in their own hands, tides of proposition gold 
" came in upon the public faith ; money, like blood from 
" the liver, conveyed through all the veins, issued to make a 
" large supply, and where it stopt a while, mountains of mas- 
66 sive plate, from the vast goblet to the slender thimble, this 
"faith removed into their safe possession. And when the 
" great milch-cow began to slake, they prest her nipples, and 
" by hard straining renewed the stream. As physicians 
" evacuate the body, sometimes by vomit, sometimes by 
" purge, sometimes by phlebotomy, semetimes by sweating, 
" sometimes fluxing, sometimes diuretically, yet purge but 
" the same peccant humour ; so did they, first by proposi- 
" tion, then by way of contribution, now by way of loan, 
" then by way of subsidy, no less than fifty at one time, here 
" by way of assessment, there by way of twentieth part, then 
" by way of excise, one while by way of sequestration, then 
" by way of plunder, but still the issue, money. And to 
Cf work the better upon the affections of the multitude, all 
" this for the behoof of king and parliament, for the pre- 
" tended defence of, God knows what, religion ; insomuch 
" that men came in like swarms to the next tree, or rather 
" like treacherous decoys, with their innocent multitude into 
" the net, and horses without number/* 

Truly our gold came not in as it ought to have done ; we 
had then, and yet have too many amongst us whose earrings 
were laid by for an idol of their own making. But now you 
speak of our incomes for the war : remember I pray you, Sir, 
that we do not forget some of your receipts also. 1. The 
lands and money of almost all the nobility and gentry of the 
land. 2. Malignant merchants and citizens, not a few. 
3. All the civilians in the kingdom, and, reader, into their 
hands, all the treasure of the kingdom was running, out of all 


their coffers you expend. And indeed it must be so, for it 
was ill got, and must not be better spent. 4. You received 
one sum from beyond sea upon a good pawn. 5. And one 
hundred thousand pounds came in, they say, elsewhere that was 
holpen to be gotten by us, and now is spent to fight against 
us. 6. All the wicked ones which are scummed off the three 
kingdoms are on your side, these usually love not any thing 
better than that which God hateth, and will give their first 
born to a Moloch ; the gentleman observes it well, we are 
fain to strain hard for money, every thing. expended in the 
things of God came too too hard. But to idolatry, every 
thing comes easy ; the health, 1 Kings xviii. 28. they cut 
themselves with knives, &c. the wealth, Exod. xxxii. 6. they 
plucked off their earrings : the ease, Exod. xxxii. 6. rose 
early; their very children too, Psalm cvi. 3?. they offered 
their sons and daughters to devils. 7 All the papists in 
Christendom yield you their prayers and purses, then I shall 
desire thee, good reader, to mark with me these two things : 
1. who they are that fight against us, that is to say, a gra 
cious prince, and some others misled into the deep mire, 
alas, where now they stick so fast that God only can help 
them out. 2. What it is to be feared these men will do, if 
they should prevail, namely : pull down any thing to set 
themselves up again, and to repair the ruins of their thus 
spent states and fortunes. 

66 Thus were they supplied with all necessaries which the 
" arm of flesh could provide, for the waging of an uncon- 
te querable war, whereon the money already expended, makes 
" no less figures then seventeen millions sterling, besides the 
" revenues of the king, queen, prince, Duke of York, and the 
u whole estates of all such as take up arms against them, be- 
" sides free quarter, and soldiers yet unpaid. His majesty 
" on the other side driven away with a few attendants, not 
" having among them, so many swords and pistols, as these 
" had cannons, wanting both money, horses, and ammunition, 
" only what he received from the piety of some believing 
fe subjects, whose ears were pamphlet-proof against all detama- 
" tions and scandals cast upon sacred majesty, finding slen- 
" der provision in his own dominions, and that stopt, or 
" seized which came from foreign parts. No shipping, but 
" what he purchased with the precious and extreme hazard of 

" what h( 


" his few, but valiant, subjects. No arms, but what he gained 
te by the courageous venture of his own neglected life, the 
" subject of our continual prayers. Yet hath God covered 
" his head in the day of battle, and blest him with such suc- 
" cess, that he is, by the divine providence, become a great 
t6 master of the field, and almost able to maintain fight with 
(e his own ships at sea." 

It is the desire of our souls, that his majesty were master 
of his own passions, and then of all the three kingdoms. 
And we do not doubt of both these, if God would once 
please to rescue his sacred person out of your hands; in the 
mean time, we will not cease to pray, that God would give 
him the great evidences of his external love to great ones, 
that is to say, a wealthy family, solid honour, and a sure pos 
terity, yea, and that his soul may be bound in the bundle of 
life, with the Lord his God, while the soul of his, and our 
adversaries be by God cast out, as out of the middle of a 
sling : surely God is just, and the misleaders houses have 
been as the moth, or as the lodjje, that the watchman mak- 
eth. Job xxvii. 18. 

ee The God of heaven bless him, and prosper him, and 
ee make his days as the days of heaven, that being here the 
" faith s defender, he may still be defended by the object of 
" that faith. 

" Nor is the providential hand of God more visible, in 
" prospering him than in punishing his enemies, whose ruins 
" may remain as sea-marks to us, and pyramids of God s 
" power ; whereof a touch :" 

To your providential observations, I say thus : Sir, 
surely were not profaneness, and blasphemies as toys and 
trifles among you, you durst not speak, much less print such 
blasphemies as these, such language, as indeed benefits hea 
thens, rather than Christians. Solomon saith, Eccles. ix. 2, 
3 : That all things come alike to all, and the same condition, 
in regard of outward things, is to the just, as to the wicked; 
as is the good, so is the sinner ; he that sweareth as he that 
feareth an oath. On all this, this gentleman concludes pre 
sently, that which Solomon gave his heart to know, and could 
not comprehend, verse 1. This gentleman concludes, that 
Master Hampden was punished. Thus, and in this manner. 
For this, and this. Though you dare deal thus boldly with 


the secrets of human majesty, yet if you presume so with the 
divine, look for your reward, and be sure the damnation doth 
not sleep of those, who like brute beasts made to be taken 
and destroyed, speak evil of things and men they know not. 
But to the particulars, reader, the reproach which he would 
cast upon that honourable man, Master Hampden, hear the 
truth of: Master Hampden, as many other godly and gallant 
patriots, stood against ship-money and such things, as being, 
for so indeed they were, against law, and liberty of the sub 
ject ; denying to pay those things which indeed ought not to 
have been demanded : here hence a suit is commenced against 
the said Master Hampden, a suit in his majesty s name for the 
things aforesaid, wherein he endeavoured legally to defend him 
self and with himself us, and ours, and the kingdom : choos 
ing rather to suffer imprisonment, &c., than to do act, either 
against conscience within, which is and will be, index, judex, 
carnifex, or law without, which ought to be to every good sub 
ject sicut murus abenem as a sure defence. Sir, had his ma 
jesty had about him such as Master Hampden was, and would 
have pleased to have given ear unto them, which we do not 
desire to doubt his gracious disposition in, he would have spo 
ken to our sovereign, words of truth and soberness, which 
would have been as so many precious preservatives against 
precipices ; but the court was then, as it is now, full of pesti 
lent sycophantism, more the pity, wherein I believe your rea 
der will allow you none of the least share ; Sir, I must tell you 
many bless God for those few, such as this gentleman was, 
and what aspersion you cast on him, you will never keep from 
recoiling in your own face. 

" Sir John Hotham, then governor of Hull, who first de- 
" fied and dared his sovereign to his face, what is become of 
" him ? how stands he a mark betwixt two dangers, having 
" nothing left him but guilt enough to make him capable of a 
" desperate fortune ? 

" Master Hampden, that first waged law and then war 
" against his own natural prince, hath not he, since these un- 
" happy tioubles began, been first punished with the loss of 
" children, nay, visited to the third generation, to the weak- 
" ening, if not ruining of his family, and then with the loss 
" of his own life in the same place where he first took up 
" arms against his gracious sovereign ? Was it not remarka- 


< ble that the Lord Brooke, who so often excepted against 
" that clause in the liturgy : From sudden death, good Lord 
" deliver us : was slain so suddenly ? who was so severe an 
" enemy against peace, should perish in the same war he so 
" encouraged ? who so bitterly inveighed against episcopal 
" government, should be so shot dead out of a cathedral 
" church? who labouring to put out the left eye of established 
" government, his left eye and life were both put out toge- 
ther ?" 

TheLord Brooke is the next man you bark at, and he is dead; 
more the pity had it otherwise pleased our good God ; had he 
lived he would have made an excellent instrument of refor 
mation indeed. But he took exception against that clause 
in the liturgy, From sudden death, good Lord deliver us ; if 
he he did so it is answerable in the father s language, Nulla 
subita mors pits, so St. Augustin, there is no sudden death to 
the godly. I believe that noble lord was better prepared for 
that which God was pleased to call him to, even that day he 
died, I mean death itself, how suddenly soever it might 
seem to you to come, than you ever were, while you studied 
the writing of this book ; he that is a mortified, and yet 
mortifying Christian seeks to die daily, and desires to be dis 
solved, and to be with Christ which is best. Those that 
make their covenant with death, and their agreement with 
hell, whose only preparation for death is by endeavouring to 
forget it, to these men death is the terrible of terribles, but 
the righteous is bold as a lion, and is persuaded that neither 
life nor death, &c., shall be able to separate him from the 
love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. But he was 
slain out of a cathedral : Sir, I do not wonder that any friend 
of reformation should be killed thence, they would kill refor 
mation itself, were it in their power, and this that you allege, 
Sir, is one of the least of their sins : alas, the bishops and 
the cathedrals have killed thousands of souls, here they kill 
ed the body indeed, but they could go no further, you set a 
character upon that honoured lord, though against your will, 
which will not be forgotten, and indeed the memory of the 
just must be blessed. You, give him, as Caiaphas an excel 
lent epitaph. Deo et ecclesite occidit hie, my Lord Brooke 
fell for God and the church. And bishops are down already, 
what then should the cathedrals do up ? Truly I do not 


know, unless to be a nest, and cage of all unclean birds, 
a harbour for dumb dogs, proud prebends, non resi- 
dentiaries and a crew of ale-swilling singing men, who with 
their boatus strenuus, loud lowing, as that learned man calls 
it, sing loud abominations, morning, evening, and midday, 
where the counsels of God should be opened to his people, 
and converts gathered in to our Lord Jesus Christ. I have 
known that city, and cathedral, Sir, this many a year, and I 
believe there is not less, belonging to Michael s Church, Stow 
Church, the chapel, and the minster, than five thousand 
pounds per annum. And for the space of these forty years 
there hath hardly been a preaching minister in three of those 
four churches, nor sermons twice on the Lord s day in any 
one. Michael s and Stow were for the most part not used at 
all, saving for their burial places ; there was one Maxfield and 
one Maddox, blind readers both, stipendiaries successively to 
three of these churches, as, I believe, not above twenty 
pounds a year, and in Maxfield s time, the clerk, John Bird 
by name, read the first lesson, and gave the responsals. 

" How is Duke Hamilton, scarce warm in his new honour, 
" taken in his own snare, having entangled his lord and master 
" in so many inconveniences. 

" How is Holland, whose livelihood was created by his so- 
" vereign s favours, branded with a double treachery, and like 
" a shuttlecock fallen at the first return, and scarce able to 
" raise himself by a sorry declaration ? 

" Is not Bristol Fiennes, who at his council of war condemn- 
" ed and executed innocent blood, hire self condemned, plead- 
" ing innocence, at a council of war, from the mouth of his 
" own general, though finding, perchance, more mercy than 
" he either deserved or shewed ? But that blood that cried 
" to him for mercy, will cry to heaven for vengeance. 

" And are not many more ripe for the same judgment, 
" whose notorious crimes have branded them for their respec- 
" tive punishments ? 

" How many of those blood-preaching ministers have died 
" expectorating blood, whilst others at this time, labouring 
" under the same disease, can find no art to promise a re- 
" covery ? All whom I leave to possible repentance, and 
" pass over." 

If you would name us some of these men and ministers it 


would give much satisfaction, and make us to believe that you 
had not undertaken the impudent lying which is gone out 
through the land. I pray you do not forget. Sir, what you 
are to make appear to us: 1. That our s are blood-preaching 
ministers. 2, That some are dead, and many sick of that 
bloody disease. 3. And that if any one chanced to be sick, 
or die of a pleurisy, therefore, for this gentleman can tell, 
God smote him, because he at any time seemed to dislike a 
peace even as bad, yet blindly sought and sued for, as the 

" Cromwell, that professed defacer of churches, witness 
" Peterborough and Lincoln, &c., and riflerof the monuments 
" of the dead, whose profane troopers, if fame has not forgot 
" to speak a truth, watered their horses at the font, and fed 
" them at the holy table ; that Cromwell ! 

" Sands, whose sacrilegious troopers committed such bar- 
" barous insolencies, with his at least connivance, in the 
" church of Canterbury, and used such inhuman tortures on 
" the tender breasts of woman, to force confession of their 
" hidden goods, the golden subjects of their robbery." 

Sure this gentleman was a prebend, had some college lease, 
or some such thing, he is so zealous of cathedrals. But let 
us see for answer. It is but, if fame speaks true, andfama 
mendax aulicus will lie. If the thing were so, as he says, 
namely, watering the horses at the font, &c., I do not know 
but that it may be easily answered, necessity makes that 
lawful sometimes which at other times is prohibited ; read, 
Sir, and be not rash, Matt. xii. 3, 4. Reader, thou seest the 
method these malignants have in making parliament proceed 
ings odious, viz. Oh, they pull down old monuments, &c. I 
believe wise men think that in Peterborough, Lincoln, and 
Canterbury too, there were many things nut fit to stand, 
or else they were in a better condition than many of their 
sister churches. Gentlemen of your strain would rail at 
Henry VIII., if he were now living, for pulling cown the 
good old abbeys. But if you could see, there are two most 
especial pieces of providence herein : blind zeal set them up 
I am sure, and you said, such pulls them down again. See 
God in this ; here is a clear amw0v$M , a very retail between 
the sin and the punishment: such zeal set them up, and such 
zeal pulled them down again. Shall not these soldiers rise up in 


judgment against many of our great rabbins and doctors, 
these drones, and no-conscienced seniors daily saw, set by, 
and cried up, this Diana ; and will you hear the reason ? By 
this craft we have our gain, Acts xix. 25. These that would 
be thought to be some great ones, came daily themselves, and 
caused others so to do, to offer near the holy table, as my 
author reverently calls it, the blind whelps of an ignorant de 
votion in sacrifice ; of which sacrifice I may say as the apos 
tle, The things which the heathen offer in sacrifice to their 
idols, they offer them to devils, not to God, 1 Cor. x. 19, 20; 
or as God himself of the then sacrifices, Isa. Ixvi. 3. At 
length come the soldiers in the spirit, though not the wisdom 
and authority of Hezekiah, and they seeing this brazen ser 
pent abused, break it all to pieces, and call it Nehushtan. 
You are angry, Sir, they care not for it ; and for my part, I 
must needs say, Digitus Dei hie est, the finger of God is here. 
Some other things there are here, which I cannot pass over 
silently : your naming these gentlemen so oddly : Fiennes, that 
Cromwell, and plain Sands, &c. If you be a clergyman, I 
must tell you, in vain seems he to be religious which refrains 
not his tongue, James i. 26. I pray you let us leave to be 
proud, the Lord hath pretty well begun to humble us ; ego et 
rex meus, are strains too high to hold long. This exalting of 
ourselves above what is called God and good, is a footstep of 
antichrist. Brother, amend this, I will shew you your portion 
else, 1 Sam. ii. 36., to cry out for a place in the priesthood, 
that you may eat a morsel of bread. Again, For the rifling 
of monuments. Was it matter of coin he rifled for ? You 
speak language as if there had been something of gain there 
to be found. No, surely, there was nothing of that nature 
there. Upon the sepulchre of Semiramis there was written, 
Si quis regum, fyc. If any king want money, in this tomb he 
shall find enough : that very tomb did Cyrus open, and there 
found an inscription, Avare, tu> fyc. Thou covetous fool, see 
here an emblem of misery and mortality too, which should 
make thee, if thou wert wise, to regard no such trash. Then 
sure it was for conscience h? did it; and if so, Sir, I will tell 
you, the monuments of the dead had as much need to be 
rifled and looked into, almost, as the monstrosities of the 
living. A church in London, and that no mean one, had, 
w ithin these twelve months, as many brasses, yet to be seen 


taken off the stones, as came to a great number, whereon is 
written such inscriptions as this: Of your charity pray for 
the souls of A. B., and C. D. his wife, &c., upon whose souls, 
and all Christian souls, the Lord have mercy, &c. Are these 
dead poperies fit to stand before the eyes of living protestants, 
and in a time of reformation ? St. Paul spies an altar, when 
time was, and at Athens too, (I pray you mark that universi 
ties and cathedrals too are not without their gross supersti 
tions,) directed, To the unknown God, Acts xvii. ; he cries it 
down then, and if the church had been constituted, I doubt 
not but he would have pulled it down too, and yet is blame 
less ; but if we do any thing, the kingdom must ring on it. 
The wolf on a time looks over the hedge, and sees the shep 
herd killing a lamb, one of the flock for his food ? Yea, 
saith he, he may do this, but if I should do so, &c. You can 
apply it. We desire you should tell us where, when, and by 
whom any tortures were used on the tender breasts of wo 
men ; this takes, I suppose, like a ballad that is new among 
boys and ignorant people, 2 Sam. xvi. 2, 3. Ziba s lie, and 
the purpose thereof, I am sure, you know, viz. to ingratiate 
himself, by disgracing a far honester man. Remember, rea 
der, and take heed, it was David s sin, his rash credence, yea, 
such a sin, as upon which followed a worse than that, the 
bestowing of that upon a knave, which was the inheritance 
of a honest man ; yea, and mark how fast a lie sticks, upon 
better information David mended it not, 2 Sam. xix. 29. 
That all our reformers need reforming we agree with you ; 
and it is our daily suit at grace s throne, that it may he so 
with them ; for if any cannot rule his own house, how shall 
he guide the church of God, 1 Tim. iii. If then the re 
formers need reforming, what do the deformers do ? If the 
cleanest places in England need washing, what do the foul 
holes and filthy sinks do ? This prelatical hog-stye hath been 
swept but twice since the conquest ; and the temple at Jeru 
salem had three sweepings, and in the three years of our 
Lord s ministry. 

" What can the first expect, and what reward the other hath 
" fo.und, I neither prophesy nor judge. If these, and sudi as 
" they, do fight for the reformed religion, God deliver every 
t good man both from them and it : f Cursed be their wrath, 
" for it is fierce ; and their anger, for it is cruel. 


c These (and of such many) are they, that whilst they pre- 
" tend a reformation, need first to be reformed. 

tf Nor do I, in tasking this army of such impious barbar- 
" isms, excuse or rather not condemn the other, whereof no 
" question too great a number are as equally profane ; whilst 
" all together make up one body of wickedness, to bring a 
" ruin on this miserable kingdom, for whose impieties his 
" majesty hath so often suffered. 

" Aye, but his majesty s army, besides those looser sorts of 
" people, consists of numerous papists, the utter enemies of 
" true religion. 

:( To whom the king hath sworn his protection, from those 
" he may require assistance. 

ee But, unto all his people, as well papists as protestants, 
f - he hath sworn his protection ; therefore from all his sub- 
" e jects, as well papists as protestants, he may require assist- 
" ance." 

Your logic is just like your divinity, Sir, I must be plain 
with you, and both stark naught; you say, To whom the king 
hath sworn his protection, from those he may require assist 
ance : but unto the papists he hath sworn protection, there 
fore of them he may require assistance. To your minor. 
If you say the king hath sworn protection to the papists so 
as to the protestants, you speak ighorantly ; not so as to the 
protestants, nor so as to the parliament. For the best sub 
jects are to have the best protection Josh. ix. 9. 27- Gibeon- 
ites they may be, if you will, but no more ; and if the king 
of Israel should have craved the help of the Gibeonites 
against the Israelites, sure it had been preposterous. 

If you say, The king hath sworn to protect them, every 
way, you speak sadly : and it is as much as to say, the king 
hath sworn to protect them, which if they grow strong, and 
have not content, will powder, and poison him ; you remem 
ber, and we too, the king of France, and I believe some of 
the assistants of his majesty that now is, the son, their near 
friends, should have been the assassinates in the time of his 
majesty that then was, king James, his royal father; if you say 
the king protects them other way, then by the law, it is no 
protection, but a toleration, like that of usury, &c. in our 
land ; but the papists themselves renounce our laws : the last 
Jesuit that died, did, in my hearing, at the gallows rail upon 

VOL. V. A A 


them all, he said, they were bloody, ill made, and worse kept, 
&c. Then it must be toleration, but that word will sound ill. 
Nay, if you say the king protecteth, or that he ought 
to protect papists any way, you speak illegally ; for, 
whom the law protects not, the king either cannot, or ought 
not to protect, but the law protects not papists, therefore the 
king ought not to protect them. Whom the law disarms, 
of them the king ought not to require an armed assistance, 
and that against parliament and protestant party ; but the 
law disarms papists, therefore the king ought not to require 
an armed assistance of them. Again, I consider his majes 
ty s subjects : as men and subjects, and so while they live 
amongst us, doubtless they have, and ought to have a kind 
of protection, namely, Quoad sanguinem, as to blood, no 
man may kill them ; Quoad jus et possessionem, no man may 
rob them ; but, if you look on them as enemies to religion, 
and papists, their portion is no more than to be tributaries ; 
to pay so much an hour sleeping and waking ; to hold them 
selves in their ubi, their place ; to be uncapable of some offi 
ces, and many other things, which other men of the protes- 
tants have, &c. 

" Neither does he call in papists, as papists, to maintain 
" religion, as himself hath often manifested, but as subjects to 
" subdue, or at least qualify sedition. 

" The aid of the- subject, is either in his person, or in his 
" purse, both are requirable to the service of a sovereign. 

<e Put case : his majesty should use the assistance of none 
" but protestants ; tell me, would you not be apt to cavil 
" that he is favourable to the papists ; neither willing to en- 
" danger their persons, nor en damage their purses ; or at 
" least, that they are reserved for a last blow 1" 

As to your case, Sir, I give you this answer ; It cannot be, 
but that offences will come, but woe unto them by whom 
they come ; what necessity is there to use defence, where 
there is no opposition ? Your devilish counsel tells his ma 
jesty, that they are against him, which are indeed most of all 
for him : and hereby he thinks himself straitened, to call 
about him those to help him, which indeed will neither help 
him nor you, longer than they think you help to help on their 
design, which is to set antichrist in his throne in England 
once again ; the case then is this, let his majesty please once 


to return to his great council again, let delinquents stand 
upon their own legs, let papists betake themselves to their 
tribute, restraint, &c. And then see, Sir, if you be not will 
fully blind, what necessity will be of this sin, of calling in 
papists, rebels, foreigners, &c. As to your distinction, that 
they are called in, not to maintain religion, &c. Why ? Your 
religion, Sir, and that of Rome, will be enough consistent. 
See Vertum. Roman., and you have the Jesuits judgment 
in it, which I believe is of great authority with some of you. 
I tell you once again, that the prctestant religion at large, 
and that is it which you would have, there went but a pair of 
shears between it and popery; and such a religion I believe the 
rebels and recusants too will be easily persuaded to maintain. 
As to that, that they are called in to subdue, or at least to 
qualify sedition ; truly, you remember me of the trouble in 
Israel, in Absalom s time, which when it was composed, and 
the people of the land begin to differ among themselves 
again, 2 Sam. xx. 1, &c., there was come thither one Sheba 
the son of Bichri, a man of Belial, a wicked man, and he 
blew the trumpet, &c. and made a worse sedition than there 
was before. Believe it, Sir, those Shebas that you have cal 
led in, when our division is at the height, and their time is 
come, will be the first that will blow the trumpet, and say, 
We have no part in David, &c. we fought for the king, be 
cause we thought he would fight for the pope, otherwise we 
cannot be for him, unless he be against the power of protes- 
tant religion. As to our using of evil instruments, I give 
two things in answer. Woe to that wicked counsel which 
brings the good men of the land into such bad straits. I 
am persuaded there are some, which put themselves into the 
service of the parliament, and are wicked, that they may rob 
and steal, and do wickedly, and thereby, in the eyes of them 
which cannot see, asperse the cause and parliament side. 
One captain was hanged not long since, who at his death 
confessed and professed himself a roman catholic, I was a by- 
stauder, and died for plunder. 

" Or in case papists should largely underwrite to your pro- 
" positions, send in horses, arms, or other provisions, would 
" you not accept it, and for its sake their persons too ? 

" Are you so strict in your preparations, as to catechize 
A A 2 


" every soldier ; or to examine, first, every officer s religion ; 
" or having the proffer of a good popish or debauched com- 
" mander, tell me, should he be denied his commission ? 

e - Remember Sir Arthur Aston, whom his majesty enter- 
" tains by your example. 

" These things, indifferently considered, it will manifestly 
" appear, that the honest-minded vulgar are merely seduced, 
te under the colour of piety, to be so impious, as by poison- 
" ing every action of their lawful prince, to foster their im- 
" plicit rebellion. 

" But in case your side should prosper and prevail, what 
ff then ? would then our miseries be at an end ? Reason 
" tells us, No. God keeps us from the experience. Think 
" you that government, whether new or reformed, which is 
" set up by the sword, must not be maintained by the sword ? 
" And how can peace and plenty be consistent with perpetual 
" garrisons, which must be maintained with a perpetual 
<e charge ; besides the continual excursions and connived at 
" injuries committed by soldiers, judge you." 

As to the maintaining the government by the sword, &c., 
and if so set up it must be so preserved, &c., I am sorry to 
see that a gentleman, a wise man, as you would make the 
world believe you are, should wrap and involve together so 
many, so gross, and so absurd ignorancies. I will but ask you 
and the men of your side these questions : Is the govern 
ment of Christ s church now to set down ; or the judgment 
to be executed upon his adversaries, is it now to be written ? 
See Psalm cxlix. 9, " To execute on them the judgment 
written," &c. See the places whereto all our expositors send 
us, as Deut. vii. And then I must tell you, you have told 
the world what a divine and text-man you are. Do we dream 
of our power, or of an arm of flesh, to maintain the govern 
ment of the church of our Lord, once recovered out of the 
devil s hands ? Alas for you. Dare we distrust the Lord s 
blessing, think you, we doing our utmost duty herein, both 
upon our king and us ? You render yourself to me a mere 
carnal man : he who hath promised to be with us to the end 
of the world, to set his kingdom in the midst among his ene 
mies, to tread clown Satan shortly under our feet, to give a 
spirit of life to the two dead witnesses, that great fear may 
come on them which see them, Rev. xi. ; into his hands and 


protection we commend our poor endeavours, and let him do 
what seemeth him good. 

" Or, put the case, this necessary consequence could be 
" avoided, think you the ambition of some new statesmen ac- 
" customed to such arbitrary and necessitated power,on the one 
<e side, and the remaining loyalty of his majesty s disinherited 
<e subjects, watching all opportunities to right their injured 
" sovereign and themselves, on the other side, would not raise 
fe perpetual tempests in this kingdom ? 

ee Or, if such an almost unpreventable evil should not en- 
" sue, think you such swarms of sectaries sweat for nothing ? 
" Are their purses so apt to bleed to no end ? Will not their 
<e costs and pains expect at least a congratulatory connivance 
" in the freedom of their consciences ? Or will their swords, 
" now in the strong possession of so great a multitude, know 
fe the way into their quiet scabbards, without the expected 
" liberty of their religions? And can that liberty produce 
({ any thing but an established disorder; and is not disorder 
" the mother of anarchy, and that of ruin ? " 

You speak ignorantly and poorly, so you think and write. 
Sectaries purses ! Alas, Sir, God help our treasuries, if we 
spent out of their coffers: these are the men who hinder us; you 
are deceived. There is about London, one, and I believe he 
is not alone, Jesuit, in the sect of the anabaptists ; he 
labours, sweats, confers, preaches, defends that point with all 
his might. And why ? Because he knows, that all the dis 
ciples he gets into that way, are all clearly withdrawn from 
the parliament. Their tenet is, you know, if you know any 
thing, that Christ can defend his kingdom without war; and 
their usual quotation, that of our Saviour to Peter, " He that 
takes the sword, shall perish thereby." 

" Open then your eyes, closed with craft, and wilful blind- 
" ness, and consider, and prevent that, which your continued 
" disobedience will unavoidably repent too late. 

" But the truth is, they are all papists, by your brand, that 
" comply not in this action with you. Admit it were so ; are 
C not papists as tolerable for his majesty, as anabaptists, 
" Brownists, separatists, atheists, antinomians, Turks, and 
" indeed all religions and factions, nay, papists too, for his 
<c subjects ? These of his majesty s side come freely, out of 
a their allegiance as subjects ; your s are preached in, coming 


" out of obstinacy as rebels : they at their own charges, 
" proportionable to their abilities ; these, like Judas, selling 
" their sovereign s blood, for ill-paid wages. Yet, both sides 
" pretend a quarrel for the true protestant religion. 

" Good God, what a monstrous religion is this, that seeks 
" protection from the implacable opposition of her two 
" champions ! 

" His majesty protests to maintain it; the two houses 
" protest to maintain it : oh, for an (Edipus to read this 

" His majesty adds one clause more, wherein if the other 
" party would agree, the work will be at an end, which is : 

" According to the established constitutions, by oath taken 
" by him at his coronation : and there the two houses leave 
" him, contending for a yet undetermined alteration." 

You may blush to mention such a word ; was it not 
enough for yourselves to forswear, lie, &c., but you must 
seek to be guilty of other men s sins also ? Your oath, &c., 
was it not a fine one ? And that I may say no more, horresco 
refer ens, God is, to the everlasting shame of that party, now 
shewing what the head of the faction durst do, and did do, 
in the great oath you mention, of which the world will, ere 
long, receive enough of satisfaction in his condemnation, and 
the truth s vindication. 

" And, for my part, I dare not conceive such evil of the 
" Lord s anointed, and my gracious sovereign, as to fear him 
" perjured. 

" Hath not his majesty, in the presence of that God by 
" whom he reigns, imprecated the curse of heaven on him 
" and his royal posterity, (sub sigillo sacrament, too) if he, to 
" his utmost, maintain not the true protestant religion exer- 
" cised in that blessed queen s days, and propagated by the 
" blood of so many glorious martyrs, at which time God 
" blessed this island in so high a measure, if he preserve not 
" the just privileges of parliament, and liberty of the sub- 
u ject. 

" Nay more, did not his majesty so promise the severe 
" execution of the statute against all recusants, that if he 
u failed, he desired not the aid of his good subjects ? 

" What inferior person would not think his reputation 
" wronged, not to take up confidence upon such terrible 


terms ? What notorious evil hath his majesty perpetrated, 
to quench the sparkles of a common charity ? 
" Consider, oh, consider ; he acts his part before the King 
of kings, whose eye is more especially upon him ; he acts 
his part before his fellow princes, to whom he hath de- 
" clared this his imprecation ; he acts his part before his 
" subjects, whose stricter hand weighs his pious words with 
" too unequal balances. 

" Were he the acknowledger of no God, yet the princes 
<( of the earth, if guilty of such a perjury, would abhor him. 
" Or, were all the princes of the earth blind, deaf, or partial, 
" would not he think his crown a burthen, to be worn upon 
" his perjured brow, before his own abused people ? Or, 
ee having renounced his subjects 5 aid upon his fail, could he 
(e expect that loyalty, which now he wants upon a mere sus- 
" picion ? 

" But he is a prince, whom God hath crowned with graces 
" above his fellows ; a prince, whom for his piety, few ages 
" could parallel." 

He is our dread sovereign ; never the better, I must tell 
you, Sir, for such as your commendation, if the old rule be 
true, which is, a perversis vituperari decorum est ; it is ill to 
be commended of wicked men. We desire that our king 
may be inferior to none of the kings of Israel in heavenly 
graces, no, riot Josiah, Hezekiah ; to none of the kings of 
England in earthly glory ; no, not Henry VII. in riches, nor 
Henry VIII. in works of reformation : the evil counsels that 
are about him being taken from his throne, we doubt not the 
prosperity thereof. The pulling of feathers from our gar 
ments to make pillows, and put under the elbows, is both 
the work and emblem of a parasite. There were certain 
families in Africa, saith my author, which if they did but 
only commend trees, beasts, or children, for the most part 
they never did thrive after it. Gell. lib. ix. cap. 1. God 
bless his majesty, and his. 

" What vices of the times have branded his repute ? His 
" youth, high diet, strength of body, and sovereign power, 
" might have inclined and wrapped him to luxurious vanity, 
" as well as other monarchs, whose effeminacies have enerved 
" the strength of their declining kingdoms. How many 
" would have held it a preferment, to be attorney to his royal 


e( lust, or secretary to his bosom sin ? yet he remains a pre- 
" cedent of unblemished chastity. 

" He might have pleased and pampered up his wanton 
" palate with the choice of curious wives, to lighten cares 
" which wait upon the regal diadem ; yet he continues the 
" pattern of a chaste sobriety. He might have magnified 
" his mercy, and sold his justice, to reward a service, in par- 
" doning offences committed by those of near relation ; yet 
" he abides the example of inexorable justice. 

" These and many other eminent graces and illustrious 
" virtues, can claim no birth from flesh and blood, especially 
" in those whose pupilages are strangers to correction ; nor 
" is it safe divinity, to acknowledge such high gifts from any 
fe hand but heaven. 

" Which being so, my conscience and religion tell me, 
" that Almighty God, who is all perfection, will not leave a 
" work so forward so imperfect ; but will, from day to day, 
(f still add and add to his transcendant virtues, until he 
" appear the glory of the world, and after many years be 
" crowned in the world of glory. 

" Rerum prima salus, et una C&sar" Martial, lib. viii. 
" Ep. 66. 

" Rerum prima salus, et una Christus" Phil. iii. 8. 


" Now thou hast heard the harmony of Scriptures without 
" corruption, and the language of reason without sophistry." 

Reader, thou hast read these notes upon this unanswerable 
piece, as they are pleased to style it ; I appeal to thee, whether 
this be not Scripture full of corruption, and language which 
is nothing but sophistry : do not forget that the devil quotes 
Scripture, but our Saviour cites it right, Matt. iv. 3, 4, &c. 
He is the Jew that is one inwardly, Rom. ii. 29, and not he 
that praiseth himself is allowed, but he whom the Lord 
praiseth, 2 Cor. x. 18. 

(f Thou hast not only heard divine precepts, but those 
" precepts backed with holy examples : neither those out of 
" the Old Testament alone, but likewise out of the New." 


The precepts and examples too, how impertinent, thou hast 
seen reader, before ; be not cozened with a blind confidence ; 
remember Solomon s rule, Prov. xiv. 15, " The fool believes 
every thing, but the prudent will consider his steps." 

" Being now no matter left for thy exceptions, prevaricate 
" no longer with thy own soul : and, in the fear of God, I 
now adjure thee once again, as thou wilt answer before the 
" tribunal at the dreadful and terrible day ; that thou faith- 
" fully examine and ponder the plain texts which thou hast 
" read, and yielding due obedience to them, stop thine ears 
" against all sinister expositions; and remember that histo- 
" rical scripture will admit no allegorical interpretation." 

Your rule for the exposition of Scripture is a fine one, are 
you not ashamed of it ? 

" If any thing in this treatise shall deserve thy answer, do 
" it punctually, briefly, plainly, and with meekness. If by 
" direct Scripture thou canst, without wrestling, refute my 
(e error, thou shalt reform, and save thy brother; if not, re- 
" cant thine, and hold it no dishonour to take that shame to 
" thyself which brings glory to thy God." 

Your answer you have had plainly, Sir, by direct Scripture, 
and those your own too, delivered from the pestilent pervert 
ing, as is to see to all men, not wilfully blinded. Now, there 
fore, I retort your admiration, and what you say to the reader 
I say to you, As you will answer before God s tribunal, be 
not ashamed to vomit up your poison you have given and 
taken, and receive this antidote, Exod. xxi. 33, " If a man 
shall open a well, or dig a pit, and not cover it again, the 
owner of the pit," &c. Read and apply with trembling. 
There was a bird in those countries named Justus, because she 
always hid her excrements, which she knew to be exceeding 
hurtful to men. Phot, in Biblio. I would you would get a 
paddle and cover your dung. 

1 Peter iii. 13 : 6f Be always ready to give an answer to 
every one that asketh you a reason, with meekness and fear." 

If the sons of Sion get advantage hereby to establish them 
in the present truth, I have enough, and let Christ, the king 
of kings and Lord of lords, have honour in this, that great is 
truth, and it will prevail. 

Deo trin-uni gloria. 


Acts vi. 9, 10 : " There arose certain of the synagogue, 
which are called libertines, but they were not able to resist 
the wisdom of the Spirit by the which he spake." 







Never before printed, but now made public for the benefit of weak Chtistiant. 

" Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace, to the end the promise 
might be sure to all the seed." Rom. iv. 16. 


WHAT is here presented to public view, was not designed in the least by the 
Author, as may be seen by its being buried in oblivion all the time of his life, and 
its being posthumous. No doubt but we are great losers thereby, for had the 
Author published it, no doubt but it would have come forth with greater advan 

Nay, the publisher had not the least thoughts, for many years, of making it 
public, had not importunity, and the great need he sees weak Christians stand in 
of information in this weighty point, prevailed. 

And although the whole of what you have here is not Mr. Bridge s, yet you 
have nothing here but what is agreeable to his manuscript. 

And where there is any thing in this treatise that was taken out of any author, 
and the book whence it was taken not pointed to, it was because the publisher 
only designed it at first for private use, and afterward could not do it without 
great trouble. 

That the God of all grace would be pleased to bless this small piece to those 
into whose hands it shall come, is the hearty prayer of him who is thine, in all 
Christian love, to serve. Farewell. 


" Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is 
in Jesus Christ. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, 
through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remis 
sion of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God." ROM. 
in. 24, 25. 

THE apostle is here treating of that fundamental article of 
the Christian religion, viz. justification before God by faith in 
Christ, which is plainly laid down in this place ; wherein he 
clearly opens the doctrine of justification, denying it to be by 
the works of the law, and affirming it to be by faith in Christ. 

Negatively, he shews we are not justified by the works of 
the law, which he proves by divers arguments. 

In that all the world have sinned, and (e are come short of 
the glory of God." The gentiles he proves have sinned 
against the light and law of nature, and so are condemned by 
that law: Rom. ii. 12, " For as many as have sinned without 
law, shall also perish without law." Here we see, though the 
gentiles had not the written law of Moses, yet they having 
the light and law of nature, should be condemned for sinning 
against the same. 

And the Jews who had the written law of Moses, and hav 
ing broke the same, should be judged by that law : Rom. ii. 
12, "And as many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged 
by the law." So that here is the whole world, both Jews and 
gentiles, concluded under guilt. Oh, what a solemn condition 
is poor man by the fall brought into ! Rom. iii. 19, " That 
every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world become 
guilty before God," Being hereby rendered utterly unable 
to frame any excuse in their own defence, or to find out any 
righteousness of their own by which they might be justified 
before the holy God. And this he brings in as the inevitable 
conclusion of what he had been before discoursing of: verse 
20, " Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh 
be justified in his sight." 


There can be no justification for poor man, in God s sight, 
by the works of the law, and the reason is rendered, verse 20, 
" For by the law is the knowledge of sin." Here we may 
see, the law is so far from being our justifying righteousness, 
as that it convinceth us of sin, and concludes us under the 
guilt of the same. 

The apostle proves all men by breaking of the law, " are 
come short of the glory of God," verse 23. As when per 
sons run in a race, and faint by the way, so missing of the 
prize ; even so hath poor man by the fall, lost the image of 
God, come short of heaven, and can in no wise reach eternal 
life by the law s righteousness. Hereon the apostle proceeds 
to shew how poor man may be justified, and what that righ 
teousness is by which he only can be justified before the tri 
bunal of God. Which 

Affirmatively, he declares to be by the righteousness of 
God. Verse 21, " But now the righteousness of God with 
out the law, is manifested, being witnessed by the law and 
the prophets." Verse 22, " Even the righteousness of God, 
which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all, and .upon all that 
believe, for there is no difference," that is, both Jew and gen 
tile are justified one and the same way ; and in the text he 
comes to lay down more particularly, the true nature of jus 
tification in its several causes. As 

You have the principal efficient cause, which is God : it is 
his work or act, chap. viii. 33, " It is God that justifieth." 
So in the words of my text, " being justified by his grace," 
that is, by God s grace. The Scripture constantly speaks of 
justification, as to us, in a passive sense; it is not our own, 
but God s act. 

The impulsive or moving cause is here denoted ; " freely 
by his grace," so that there is nothing in any man which 
might move God to act thus towards him, but it is free grace, 
from whence the motion first came. 

The meritorious cause, namely, the righteousness of 
Christ, here said to be " through the redemption that is in 
Jesus Christ." His blood is the atoning sacrifice for man s 
sin, upon which account Christ is here called a propitiation. 

The formal cause is, remission of sin, and imputation of 
righteousness ; so that in this act of free grace, God remits 
all sin, and imputes Christ s righteousness to the believing 

BY FAITH. 367 

person : this is implied in the text, and expressly mentioned, 
chap. iv. 6, " Even as David describeth the blessedness of 
the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness without 
works/ 5 saying, ver. 8, " Blessed is the men to whom the 
Lord will not impute sin." Here is the non-imputation of 
sin, and the imputation of righteousness both expressed. 

The instrumental cause is faith, here called, " faith in his 
blood." Faith is the hand whereby we receive Christ s 
righteousness for the justifying our persons in the sight of a 
holy God. 

The final cause of a sinner s free justification is expressed 
in the following words, ver. 26, " To declare his righteous 
ness, that he might be just, and the justifier of him that be- 
lieveth in Jesus. Here God shews to men and angels how 
exactly righteous he is in punishing of sin, though not in the 
person of the sinner, yet in his surety : so that free justifica 
tion is carried on in such a way as all grace comes down on 
the sinner, and the glory of all returns to the great God. 

Thus the words being opened, I take up this point of doc 
trine : 

That there is much of the free grace of God shines forth 
in the justification of a sinner, by faith in Christ. 

By justification I understand that gracious and just act of 
God, whereby through the imputation of Christ s righteous 
ness, the believer is judicially freed from the guilt of all sin, 
and accepted as righteous in Christ unto eternal life, to the 
praise of God s free grace and justice. 

Now there is much of the free grace of God shines forth 
in this way of justification, therefore, says Paul, " being jus 
tified freely by his grace." Freely, in opposition to any 
thing done by man ; so that we have God s free act held 
forth in this blessed doctrine of justification. 

And by his grace, that is, God s free favour, not in any 
wise deserved by us, but freely extending itself to all those 
that, through grace, believe in the Lord Christ. 

Now, for the clearing of this doctrine, I shall 

First, Open it by answering some questions which concern 
the same. 

Secondly, Shew wherein free grace so much shines forth 
by this doctrine. And 


Thirdly, How this doth concern the comfort and practice 
of all true believers. 

As for the questions which concern the doctrine take 
these : 

Whose and what kind of act is this justifying act ? 
It is God s act, he doth it, as Rom. viii. 33, " It is God 
that justifieth." And it is opposed to condemnation, verse 
34, f( Who is he that condemneth ?" Now it being opposed 
to condemnation, it most plainly appears to be an external 
act of God, who as supreme judge is here brought in : then 
we have also the person justified, and that is an elect person, 
one who is effectually called, ver. 30, " Moreover, whom he 
did predestinate them he also called, and whom he called 
them he also justified/ 5 Here is also the only ground of the 
believer s plea brought in, ver. 34, " It is Christ that died, 
yea rather that is risen again, who is even at the right hand, 
of God, who also maketh intercession for us." And from 
hence arises a full discharge, God justifies. Ver. 35, " Who 
shall separate us from the love of Christ ?" So that the 
Holy Ghost seems here to carry a sinner s justification in a 
way of judicial process, that so it may most evidently ap 
pear that justification is an external act of God, and so done 
in time ; and not an internal act, which ever was, and always 
remains in God, but makes no change in a person justified : 
but God s act in justification, makes a relative change, it 
changes a person s state. 

As, suppose a malefactor be condemned to die, a pardon 
comes from his prince ; now, of a condemned person he 
becomes uncondemned, his state is hereby changed. So, jus 
tification makes a real change of a person s state, and there 
fore must needs be an external act of God s free grace and 
justice, and so done in time. It is an act of free grace as it 
is devolved on the believer, but it is an act of justice as it is 
carried with respect to the merit of Christ, and in each res 
pect it appears to be acted in time. 

Again, If justification were by an internal act in God, then 
would the elect be justified from eternity : but that it is not 
so, will thus appear. 

All men naturally are " children of wrath," says Paul, Eph. 
ii. 3, which could not be, had they come into the world in a 
justified state j for a person cannot be in two contrary states 

ON FAITH. 369 

at one and the same time. How a person can be obnoxious 
to wrath , and yet at the same time be in a justified state; 
how persons can be under the guilt of sin, and yet at the 
same time be justified from the same guilt, seems somewhat 
strange ; but thus it must be, if persons were justified from 
eternity. Sure I am that Paul doth both clearly and fully 
prove other doctrine. u For we have before proved both 
Jews and gentiles, that they are all under sin," Rom. iii. 9. 
Under the guilt of sin, which is directly opposite to a jus 
tified state : so that the persons of the elect could in no wise 
be justified from eternity. 

Justification being opposed, as hath been shewn, to con 
demnation, they can in no wise stand together, but the set 
ting up of the one destroys the other, as John iii. 18, " He 
that believeth on him, (on Christ) is not condemned ; (that 
is, he is justified,) but he that believeth not, is condemned 
already." Hence we may see there is nothing more obvious 
than this, that on a person s believing in Christ, there is a pass 
ing from one state to another, from a state of condemnation 
to a state of justification. Thus we find the same, " Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, he that heareth my word, and believ 
eth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not 
come into condemnation, but is passed from death to life," 
John v. 24. Here we are to take notice that this life here 
spoken of comes in a way of believing, and so is to be un 
derstood of the life of justification : and here we have a pass 
ing from death to life, on a person s believing; here is a pass 
ing from a state of condemnation to a state of justification, 
and that on a person s believing; from whence it doth most 
evidently appear, that justification, properly so called, is not 
until persons believe in Christ, for then, and not until then, 
is their state changed. 

That justification is not until believing, will clearly appear 
from Christ s own words, u Then Jesus said unto them, 
verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the 
Son of Man, and drink his blood ye have no life in you," 
John vi. 5:3. Here Christ asserts the absolute necessity of 
the application of a crucified Saviour, without which there 
can be no life. Now, the eating here intended is plainly 
meant of believing, " Jesus said, this is the work of God, 
that you believe on him whom he hath sent." ver. 29. And 
VOL. v. B B 


Christ being here speaking to his followers under the metaphor 
of eating, he holds forth himself as the only bread of life ; and 
believing in him is the eating of his flesh here intended in 
this chapter. " And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread 
of life, he that cometh to me shall never hunger/ 5 which the 
next words shew, is meant of believing, " and he that believes 
on me shall never thirst," ver. 35. Now the eating here 
being believing, the life intended by Christ, must be meant 
of justification; so that from Christ s own mouth, we have 
it evidently asserted, that no man is personally justified until 
believing and so not from eternity. 

If persons are justified in a proper sense by faith, then are 
we not justified from eternity, for we believe in time, not 
from eternity. And that we are justified by faith, is the 
doctrine of the gospel, as is apparent from the whole current 
of God s word : " Knowing that a man is not justified by 
the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ : even 
we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified 
by the faith of Christ," Gal. ii. 16. That the apostle is here 
speaking of personal justification in the sight of God, is 
beyond all doubt, to any that shall duly consider the scope 
of the Holy Ghost in the place ; though some to evade the 
force of the text, would have no more intended than this : 
that we might know we are justified. And this opinion 
makes all faith to be assurance, which would condemn many 
of the generation of the just. Christ speaks for the comfort 
ing of those who were true believers, that knew not their 
own state, so as to take that comfort that did belong to them. 
Matt. v. They were poor in spirit, mourning, and wanted 
comfort; they were meek, yea, they were hungring and 
thirsting after righteousness. Under many blessed promises 
they were, and so assuredly were true believers, yet they 
wanted assurance of their interest in those promises ; so that 
their faith, though justifying and saving, was not risen so 
high as assurance. And if all faith were assurance, then 
might John have spared himself that labour of writing to 
those that had eternal life, but did not know they had it, 1 
John v. 13. Now, by eternal life, in this place, no doubt 
but justification is one principal part, if not the main thing 
intended by the Holy Ghost. Now, this he says they had, 
and true believers they were, though they did not know it ; 

BY FAITH. 371 

so that their faith was not assurance, though their justification 
was in a way of believing. The apostle brings in the exam 
ple of Abraham as a pattern in this work of justification : 
" For what saith the Scripture ? Abraham believed God, and 
it was imputed to him for righteousness/ 5 Rom. iv. 3. And 
the same way are the gentiles justified : " And the Scripture 
foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, 
preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee 
shall all nations be blessed/ 5 Gal. iii. 8. Here are two words 
in this text, that lie directly against justification before 
believing : thar God would justify the heathen ; this must 
needs respect time to come, and cannot properly be said of 
that which is then past : the other is, <e In thee shall all 
nations be blessed," that is, justified ; now, how can a shall 
be, be put on a thing already done ? Thus, ee In the Lord 
shall all the seed of Israel be justified, 5 Isa. xlv. 25. That 
is, in union with Christ, shall the persons of all the elect be 
not only declared, but justified. Paul also speaks to the 
same purpose, " For as by one man s disobedience, many 
were made sinners ; so by the obedience of one man, many 
shall be made righteous/ 5 Rom, v. 19. Here it is remark 
able, when the Holy Ghost speaks of Adam s sin, condemn 
ing of his posterity, he speaks of it as already past. But 
when he speaks of Christ s righteousness for the justification 
of poor sinners, he changes the tenses, and says, " Many 
shall be made righteous : 55 as if the Spirit on purpose de 
signed, to prevent our thoughts in running after justification 
before believing. And thus the Scripture speaks of our 
personal justification to be wrote in time only. 

Again, if the elect were justified from eternity, then should 
they be righteous from eternity; for when God justifies any 
person, he clothes hin? with righteousness, as with a garment. 
And this is one great thing the church of God hath to glory 
in, "I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall be 
joyful in my God," Isa. Ixi. 10. Now, what is the ground 
of all this joy, but this : " For he hath clothed me with the 
garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of 
righteousness." Here is the true state of those that believe 
in Christ. But, if we would see the true state and condition 
persons are in before believing, let us hear what the Holy 
Ghost saith in this case, " For we have before proved both 

13 B 2 



Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin," Rom. iii. 9. 
Now who can suppose that the elect of God are here 
exempted from this deplorable condition, before they are 
brought by faith to close with Christ ? Nay, Paul here 
speaks of himself, with the rest ot the saints : " What then, 
are we better than they ? no, in no wise." Their state had 
been better in Paul s account, no doubt, had he thought them 
to have been in a justified state from eternity ; but alas, his 
thoughts were otherwise, as the next words shew : " As it is 
written, there is none righteous, no not one/ ver. 10. To the 
same purpose we find him speaking, " And such were some 
of you, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye 
are justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit 
of our God," 1 Cor. vi. 11. Here the apostle gives us to 
understand, that, before their calling, they were neither sanc 
tified nor justified in the name of Christ. And surely there 
is no other name given under heaven, whereby any can be 
justified, but the name of Christ only. Acts iv. 12. So then, 
in Paul s judgment, while persons are unbelieving and unrigh 
teous, they are not justified persons, and so not justified from 

But Paul says, " God justifies the ungodly." 
In this place the Holy Ghost is setting forth the doctrine 
of justification by faith, in opposition to justification by 
works : " Now to him that worketh, is the reward not reck 
oned of grace, but of debt," Rom. iv. 4. If persons could 
fulfil the law s righteousness, then would their justification be a 
debt due to them, and notafavour graciously bestowed on them* 
Then he proceeds, " But to him that worketh not," ver. 5, 
that is, with an intent to seek justification by his works, as 
the pharisees did, Luke xviii. 11, 12, 14, " but believeth," 
as the publican, who had recourse to the free grace of God 
for his only relief, Luke xviii. 13, smiting his breast in a way 
of self-abhorrence, and saying, " God be merciful to me a 
sinner," his only help was in believing " on him that justifies 
the ungodly." Let us observe, the ungodly person here 
spoken of is a believer, and may be said to be ungodly in a 
comparative sense, if he compare himself, as Paul did, with 
the holy, pure, spiritual law of God, Rom. vii., and so can in 
no wise seek justification by the law s righteousness, but must 
in a way of believing, betake himself to him that justifies 

BY FAITH. 373 

the ungodly, not in, but from their ungodliness, as, " And by 
him all that believe are justified from all things, from which 
they could not be justified by the law of Moses," Acts 
xiii. 19. 

Again, The persons here justified may be said to be un 
godly, because the state of the elect is such, when grace lays 
hold of them, Ezek. xvi. 6. " Cast out to the loathing of 
thy person." verse 6. " Polluted in thine own blood, yea, I 
said to thee, when thou wast in thy blood, live." So that 
free grace finds persons in their ungodliness, and freely ab 
solves them from the same : so that this text is so far from 
speaking of any person s justification, whilst wallowing in 
sin, that it clearly proves justification by faith only. 

f( But the elect of God were chosen in Christ before tha 
foundation of the world," Eph. i. 4. " And loved with an 
everlasting love," Jer. xxxi. 3. Therefore could not be 
under wrath, but must needs be in a justified state, though 
they knew it not; it was not evidenced to them until be 

That the elect were chosen in Christ, and loved with a love 
of benevolence and good will, is very true; God willed them 
all good from everlasting; and it is also as true, that the 
same elect and beloved (e persons, were dead in sin, and chil 
dren of wrath, by nature," Eph. ii. " Yea without Christ 
and God in the world," verse 12. So that notwithstanding 
God willed them all good, yet, until some temporal external 
act of God s free grace was put forth, they remained in a 
state of wrath and alienation from God. So that it is most 
certain, that God s gracious purpose and good will towards 
them, did not exempt them from condemnation, until in time 
it was put in execution. The Father loved Christ, yet he 
was under wrath, when he cried out, " My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ?" Indeed, the elect are not under the 
execution of wrath, that would be no less than damnation to 
them ; but whilst they remain uncalled, they are assuredly 
under the dispensations of wrath, and are also under a wrathful 
covenant, as they proceed from the loins of the first Adam, and 
so remain, until brought to Christ by the grace of the Father, 
and that their wrathful state changed. So that it is evidently 
plain, that God s electing love, and present dispensations of 


wrath, may well stand together, and then it will follow, that 
notwithstanding the elect were chosen in Christ before time, 
and loved with an everlasting love, yet their persons cannot 
be said to be justified until they believe. 

But if the elect were not justified from eternity, (say some) 
then when they are justified, God is changed, his will is 

God is no more changeable in changing the state of the elect 
in justification, than in changing their natures by regenera 
tion. No, all the change is in the creature, not in God : for, 
though God did absolutely decree, and that from everlasting, 
to justify all his^ and in the fulness of time he executes the 
same decree, in justifying of their persons, yet this argues not 
the least shadow of change in God. If we do but distinguish 
between the grace of God decreeing and executing of the 
same decree, this will be most plain, Eph. i. 3. " Blessed be 
the God aud Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath 
blessed us with all spiritual blessings/ 5 Of which justifica 
tion is one principal one. And in the 4th verse, he shews 
from whence these spiritual blessings all come : e( According 
as he hath chosen us in him." So that all saving blessings 
come down on the saints in time, according to God s ancient 
decree. Thus, we find him speaking to the same purpose, 
verse 11. ee In whom we also have obtained an inheritance, 
being predestinated, according to the purpose of him that 
worketh all things after the counsel of his own will." And 
thus we find, all those blessings the saints have from time to 
time, coming down on them, are the fruits of God s electing 
love to them ; and how justification in time should argue in 
the least any change in God, will not from hence, in any 
wise, appear. 

Christ hath brought into his church an everlasting righte 
ousness,, Dan. ix. 24. Therefore his elect must needs be jus 
tified thereby, though they see it not until they believe. 

That Christ hath brought into his church, a most complete 
and everlasting righteousness is most true, but it doth not 
thence follow, that all the elect are from thence immediately 
justified, for there is more concurs to a sinner s justification 
than the matter, which is Christ s righteousness. For, not 
withstanding Christ s blood be a sovereign balm to heal our 
wounds, yet it heals them not, if not applied by faith. And 

BY FAITH. 375 

though Christ s flesh be meat indeed, and his blood drink 
indeed, yet they afford no spiritual nourishment to any, if 
not by faith received. So, though Christ s righteousness be 
a wedding garment, yet it covers not our nakedness until it 
be put on by faith ; and herein the order of God must be 
observed, and a concurrence of all causes which he hath ap 
pointed, must meet together : The Father justifies as the prime 
working cause, Christ s righteousness as the material cause, 
imputation as the form, the Spirit as the applying cause, and 
faith as the hand or instrument to receive the atonement. 
So that God the Father justifies, through the Son by the 
Spirit, who works faith to receive the same. And until these 
things meet together, our persons are not properly justified, 
notwithstanding Christ hath wrought out a most complete 

But the elect are called sheep before they believe, and in 
God s esteem they are then in a justified state ; and his 
judgment is most just. 

They as so called as to the certainty and immutability of 
God s decree, which cannot be frustrated. And on this ac 
count, God calls " things that are not, as though they were," 
Rom. iv. 17. Yet the text says, " They are things that are 
not." They are certain, as touching the decree of God, they 
are not, as touching the accomplishment of the same. Paul 
was a sheep in the decree of God, when he was wolf-like 
destroying the sheep of Christ. And surely none will say he 
was actually a sheep, while he was devouring Christ s flock. 
Hence we may see that it is most safe to argue from the de 
cree of God, for the certainty of the accomplishment of all 
things decreed. The event shall be certain and sure ; yet 
from thence to argue that all things are actually accomplished, 
because certainly decreed, is a dangerous and unsafe way of 
arguing. So, for any to think the elect are justified, whilst 
they lie in unbelief, because they are called sheep at that time, 
this surely is a great mistake. 

" God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not 
imputing their trespasses unto them," 2 Cor. v. 19. Now, 
where sin is not imputed, there persons are justified : so that 
the ehct were justified from everlasting. 

I answer, Whatsoever God s transactions are in himself, or 
between the persons in the Holy Trinity, we know not, and 


no doubt but they transcend all created capacity ; but if we 
come to God s holy word, there we may see that Christ, in 
the fulness of time, took man s nature into union with his 
divine person, and in that nature did make full and complete 
atonement to justice for the sins of his people. When he 
died on the cross, then was the full price of man s redemp 
tion laid down : to this it was that all the old testament saints 
faith did look, through the sacrifices under that administra 
tion, " But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was 
bruised for our iniquities, the chastisement of our peace was 
upon him, and with his stripes we are healed," Isa. liii. 3. 
Oh, how did the faith of the old testament saints fix on 
Christ, their true and full atonement. And is it not to this 
fe Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world," 
that the new testament saints faith, at all times, looks for 
reconciliation with their heavenly Father ? So that when we 
know not how to fathom the transactions which were before 
time, between the persons in the sacred Trinity, let us come 
to God s holy word, and therein may we see his established 
order, for the justifying of our persons, set down by the Holy 
Ghost: (e Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also 
called, and whom he called, them he also justified, and whom 
he justified, them he also glorified." Rom. viii. 30. Here we 
have the golden chain, as some call it, of man s salvation, 
with the links of the same set in their proper places. Here is 
predestination, which was before time ; here is effectual calling 
and justification in time ; here is glorification after time : and 
as this chain cannot be broken, neither ought the links of it 
to be misplaced, but to be kept in their proper places, where 
the Holy Ghost hath set them ; and if so, then we may evi 
dently see how to time justification. But if any shall ob 
ject, and say, The order of words is not always to be followed 
in Scripture ; I readily grant that, but I think none can make 
any such objection here, if the place be duly weighed and 
considered by them. And hence it will follow, though recon 
ciliation was decreed from everlasting, and fully and actually 
made when he died on the cross, yet until the elect are by 
the Spirit brought to Christ in their effectual calling, their 
persons are not justified; for justification flows from union 
with Christ, " Of him are ye in Christ," 1 Cor. i. 30, that is, 
of the Father s grace ye are implanted into Christ, and thence 

BY FAITH. 377 

it is that " he is made to us righteousness,," for the justifying 
of our persons. Thus 2 Cor. v. 21, " For he hath made him 
to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the 
righteousness of God in him." Our sins were imputed to 
Christ when he died on the cross, and his righteousness is 
imputed to us when we believe, Rom. iv. 24. 

But the elect are said to be reconciled to God whilst ene 
mies, Rom. v. 10. 

Redemption wrought out by Christ, is not justification or 
forgiveness, formally considered but casually, forgiveness being 
meritoriously procured thereby : for though it may be said the 
elect are reconciled meritoriously by Chrises blood, before they 
believe, yet actually they are not until they believe. Forgiveness 
is a most sure and certain fruit of Christ s death, though this 
blessed fruit be not ours until we believe : " Then said Jesus 
unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the 
flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, ye have no life 
in you," John vi. 53. Having spoken somewhat to this place 
before, I only now bring it, to shew that Christ here holds 
forth the absolute necessity of the application of his death to 
our souls, in a way of believing, if we would have any saving 
benefit thereby. Though this be not spoken ot a sacramental 
eating, as papists would have it to be meant, (for these words 
were spoken some considerable time before the institution of 
that ordinance of the Lord s supper,) yet they clearly hold 
forth the application of Christ crucified, for the justifying of 
our persons, and that, no doubt, is the main design of Christ 
in the same. 

But if the elect, say some, were not actually and personally 
justified from eternity, yet they were from the resurrection of 
Christ : " He was raised for our justification," Rorn. iv. 25. 

The apostle having stated and proved the doctrine of jus 
tification by faith in Christ, in the former chapters, comes in 
chap. iii. 28, to a conclusion in that weighty point : " There 
fore, we conclude, that a man is justified by faith without the 
deeds of the law." And in this ivth chapter, he brings in 
the example of Abraham for a farther confirmation of the 
point in hand, and shews that Abraham was justified this 
same way, through this chapter ; and what was written, of 
his justification, " was not written for his sake alone, but for 
us, also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him 


that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was deli 
vered for our offences,, and was raised again for our justifica 
tion," verses 24, 25. Here the design of the Holy Ghost 
being to prove justification by faith, that any should endea 
vour to draw these words of the apostle, to a justification 
before believing, no where spoken of in the Scripture, seems 
strange : but what some speak of, a justification from Christ s 
resurrection of the persons of the elect, though they do not 
believe, may, with some advantage, be said of the resurrection 
of the saints bodies. For Christ rose out of the sepulchre 
as the public head and representative of all his, yea, as the 
" first fruits/ 1 Cor. xv. 20. Again, The saints are said " to 
be risen with him," Col. iii. 1. Further, They are said to be 
set in "" heavenly places in Christ Jesus," Eph. ii. 6. And, 
lastly, many of the bodies of the saints did rise* and came 
out of their graves after his resurrection, Matt, xxvii. 53. 
And from hence Hymeneus and Philetus took occasion to 
preach the resurrection was past, 2 Tim. ii. If, 18. But this 
their opinion, says Paul, overthrows the faith, verse 18. Now 
because Christ, as man s Surety, was justified in his resur 
rection, will it thence follow that the persons of all the elect 
were then justified ? Now this seems to be as dangerous to 
the souls of men ; his justification, as our Surety, was no 
more our personal and actual justification, than his resurrec 
tion our actual resurrection ; so that notwithstanding these 
things, yet justification is an external act, and wrought in 
time. Thus, as to this question, the objection made against 
this point have occasioned me to use some prolixity, but I 
shall be the more brief in what follows : 

Whether we are justified by the passive righteousness of 
Christ only ? 

I answer, we are not justified by the passive righteousness 
of Christ only : there are two essential parts in justification, 
namely, remission of sin, and imputation of righteousness. 
By Christ s redemption, the guilt of sin is taken away, and 
by his active obedience, the believing person is made com 
pletely righteous, in the sight of God ; and although these 
always go together, yet are they to be distinguished one from 
the other: for as it is one thing to obey the command, and 
another to suffer the penalty, even so it is one thing to be 
fre3d from hell, by the merit of Christ s death, and another 

OX FAITH. 379 

thing to be entitled to heaven by the merit of his obedience, 
Rom. viii. 3. Here we have the end and design of the Father s 
sending of Christ asserted. " For what the law could not do, 
in that it was \veak through the flesh, God sending his own 
Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned 
sin in the flesh." Here is sin made an end of, and put away 
by the sacrifice of Christ, yet that did not answer all the 
demands of the holy law of God, but a "farther design is 
asserted, (( That the righteousness of the law might be ful 
filled in (or for) us," ver. 4. Here we see, the law must be 
" magnified and made honourable," in and by Christ s under- 
dertaking. Thus, " For Christ is the end of the law for 
righteousness to every one that believeth," Rom. x. 4. And 
doth not the law require to do if we would live ? Now had 
Christ only suffered the penalty, and not fulfilled the precep 
tive part of the same, we might thereby have been freed from 
hell, but could not from thence have had any right and title 
to an eternal kingdom. See how distinctly the Holy Ghost 
treats of them, " Much more, being justified by his blood," 
Rom. v. 9. Here is the full and free remission of all sin : 
6i So, by the obedience of one shall many be made righ 
teous," chap. v. 19. And thus it briefly appears, that be 
lievers are justified by the whole righteousness of Christ, ac 
tive and passive. 

But doth not somewhat of the saint s own works, or 
graces, come in as the matter of their justification in the 
sight of God ? 

No, not in the least degree : we read in the holy Scripture 
of two righteousnesses, Christ s and our own. Now, what 
soever is wrought in man, or done by him, is the righteous 
ness of the law : for that requires all inherent holiness. 
Now, " by the righteousness of the law, shall no flesh be 
justified in his sight." And holy David deprecates this way 
of justification : " And enter not into judgment with thy 
servant, for in thy sight shall no man living be justified," Ps. 
cxliii. 2. So the whole of man s righteousness in this work 
of justification, is to be laid aside, and the righteousness of 
Christ alone introduced. 

But, say some, though none can be justified by the works 
of the law, yet they may, by the works of the gospel, as 
Abraham was, James ii. 


Works are works, let them come under what denomina 
tion they will. " Lord, thou hast wrought all our works in 
us," Isa. xxvi. 12, that is, they are all the fruits and effects 
of thy grace working in us, yet they are said to be the church s 
works, though wrought by the Holy Ghost in them. And 
what James speaks of Abraham s works, they were wrought by 
him many years after his person was justified before God, by 
faith, and they, are brought by James to evidence Abraham s 
faith to be no dead, but a living, working faith, and so he 
was justified by works ; that is, in James s sense, his faith 
was justified, or evidenced, by his works, to be no dead, but a 
lively working faith, a justifying faith. To the same purpose 
speaks Paul, ee But faith which worketh by love/ Gal. v. 6. 
So that James is speaking of the profession of faith before 
men, ee Shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will 
shew thee my faith by my works/ chap. v. 18. And on this 
account it is that Abraham s works, are brought in for his 
justification, " Was not Abraham our father justified by 
works," ver. 21, then here was the time when he was so jus 
tified, and that is expressed, u When he offered his son Isaac 
upon the altar," which was about forty years after his person 
was justified by faith. So that Paul, in Rom. iv, and Gal. iii. 
is speaking of personal justification before God, and brings 
Abraham, with all saints, as believing in Christ for justifica 
tion, which is the main doctrine of the gospel ; but James 
is speaking of justification, evidenced by the fruits of faith 
in true believers, and so brings in Abraham s works; and 
shews, " The scripture was fulfilled, which saith, Abraham 
believed God, and it was imputed to him for righteousness," 
ver. 23.. And thus, this illustrious instance of Abraham s 
obedience, spoken of by James, did clearly evidence the sin 
cerity of his faith ; he believed in God for the justifying of 
his person, he wrought righteousness, by which his faith was 
evidenced before men. Now, what Paul speaks of Abraham s 
personal justification before God, Rom. iv. 1, 2, 3, where 
he excludes all Abraham s works from having any share in 
his justification ; and what James speaks of his faith, being 
justified or evidenced by his works, before men, are so far 
from any contrariety one to another, that they not only well 
stand together, but cannot be separated : for if I, in Paul s 
sense, betake myself to the free grace of God in Christ, in a 

DY FAITH. 381 

way of believing, for the justifying of my person before God, 
then ought I, in James s sense, to be fruitful in good works, 
that I may shew my justification, and the sincerity of my 
faith, before men. And this is the way the holy Scripture 
directs all saints to go in, " Not by works of righteousness, 
which we have done," Titus iii. 5. And if not by righteous 
works, we may be be sure that persons are not justified or 
saved by unrighteous ones, " But what things were gain to 
me, those I counted loss for Christ," Phil. iii. 7. Here was 
his pharisaical works all laid aside, " Yea, doubtless, and I 
count all things but loss, for the excellency of the knowledge 
of Christ Jesus my Lord," ver. 8. Here comes in all his 
righteous works, from the time Christ had made him an 
apostle, and they are all laid aside in the work of justifica 
tion, and Christ s righteousness is only exalted, by this bles 
sed apostle. " And be found in him, not having on mine 
own righteousness, which is of the law, (as all inherent righ 
teousness is,) but that which is through the faith of Christ, 
the righteousness which is of God by faith," ver. 9, that is, 
of God s ordination, and of faith s application. Thus, there is 
not any thing of man s righteousness, no not in the least, 
comes into his justification in the sight of God : so that 
man is not justified by nature or operation, but by grace and 
free donation. 

But in what sense doth faith justify, for we are said to be 
justified by faith, Rom. v. 1. 

I answer, Faith doth not justify as an habitual grace, for 
so it is part of our sanctification, and we are not justified by 
an inherent righteousness. Faith, as a quality, is no better 
than other graces, says Dr. Reynolds en the life of Christ. 
Or, as another saith, Faith doth not justify, as it is a grace 
or quality inherent, or as it is part of our inherent righteous 
ness ; neither doth faith properly, but the object thereof, which 
it apprehendeth justifies. Downham on Justification, p. 103. 
Neither doth the act of faith properly justify; for it is not 
the receiving, but the righteousness received that justifies, or 
by which we are justified. Sedgwick on Faith, page 53. 

Neither doth faith justify in God s sight, by any inward 
dignity or worth of its own, as if faith itself were our justi 
fying righteousness ; for it is not the excellency of faith, but 
the excellency of Christ, whom faith apprehends, that justifies. 


The ring is not so much worth, because of the matter of it, 
though excellent in itself, but because of the diamond that is 
in it. And so it is with faith; it is the diamond, Christ, that 
faith lays hold on, that makes it so precious : so that it is not 
the dignity of faith that justifies. Thus, negatively, how 
faith doth not justify. 

Affirmatively, How faith doth justify in the sight of God. 

Faith justifies instrumentally, as it is the hand to receive 
Christ and his righteousness, who is freely tendered in the 
gospel to poor sinners ; or, correlatively, as it hath relation 
to Christ and his righteousness; or, as it is the eye of the 
soul that looks to Jesus, Heb. xii. 2, as when Israel was stung 
in the wilderness, it was not their eye, but the serpent looked 
on that healed them. Thus Isa. xlv. 52, " Look unto me and 
be ye saved, all the ends of the earth, for I am God, and there 
is none else :" that is, there is no other object for sinners to 
look to for their justification nor salvation, but me only; 
neither will you find that the Holy Ghost speaks absolutely 
that faith justifies, but that we are justified by faith ; that is, 
as it hath respect to Christ; for what is faith if it be separated 
from its object Christ ? Neither will true faith own any such 
thing, but will say as John did, I am not the Christ; I was 
not crucified for you, I did not fulfil all righteousness for you, 
but it carries the soul to Christ, saying, " Behold the Lamb 
of God, which taketh away the sin of the world ! " Here is 
the work and true nature of justifying faith ; see how dis 
tinctly the apostle speaks of its work: " Receiving the atone 
ment," Rom. v. 11 ; and, " Receiving abundance of grace," 
verse 1?. So that faith lives purely on alms, fetching all 
justifying righteousness from Christ, justifying in a relative 
sense, and as it hath relation to him only. 

Is a believer s justification complete at once ; are all his 
sins, past, present and to come, on his first believing, par 
doned ? 

Justification, as hath already been shewn, changes a per 
son s state ; and a believer s state being changed, all his legal 
condemnation is at that time taken from off his person: 
union with Christ exempts from the same. " There is there 
fore now no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus," 
Rom. viii. 1. Here is the high privilege of those in Christ 
asserted, namely, exemption from God s condemnation ; and 

BY FAITH. 383 

the Holy Ghost here tells us, " There is therefore now no 
condemnation," not the least condemnation remains to them 
6f in Christ/ but their sins are freely remitted, (e for his 
name s sake, and all that believe are justified from all things/ " 
Acts xiii. 39. Here is a most complete absolution from all 
sins, for all those that believe in the Lord Christ. Thus 
Col. i. 13, f( Having forgiven you all trespasses." God doth 
)t, in the justification of his people, forgive some sins only, 
id leave others standing on the score. " Who forgiveth all 
tine iniquities/ Ps. ciii. 3. And not only so, but Christ 
>vers the believer with the robe of righteousness. Isa. Ixi. 
LO. For no sooner doth a man truly believe in Christ, but 
iis righteousness is imputed to him, and in and by that righ 
teousness, he standeth righteous before God, as well at the 
first as at the last ; that righteousness of Christ by which we 
are justified, whether first or last, being most perfect : there 
fore the righteousness of justification cannot be increased, 
leither doth our justification before God admit degrees, 
ther in one and the same person, or yet in divers men. 
townham on Justification, page 7 
But God only forgives the sins that are past ? Rom. iii. 25. 
I answer, This looks to the sins of the saints, that were 
committed before Christ s coming in the flesh, and holds 
forth God s indulgence in pardoning of them, on the account 
of Christ s engagement, though the price of their redemption 
was not actually laid down. To the same thing does the 
Holy Ghost speak, " And for this cause he is the Mediator 
of the new testament, that by means of death, for the 
redemption of the transgressions that were under the first 
testament," Heb. ix. 15. Here is that most excellent sacri 
fice, that looked as high as Adam, being the Lamb slain from 
the foundation of the world, from whence all the old testa 
ment saints had both full and free remission of all sin : and 
this I take to be the true meaning of this scripture. And 
though sin cannot properly be said to be actually forgiven, 
before it be committed ; yet when the elect are, by the Holy 
Ghost, united to Christ, their persons are completely justi 
fied, and Christ having fulness of pardoning grace in his 
hands, their justification is continued and maintained by his 
itercession in heaven. 1 John ii. 1. And thus the saints 



justification is, and continues to be, one constant and com 
plete act of free grace, never to be reversed again. 

But doth not this doctrine of the constant continuance of 
the saints justification, tend to looseness, and open a gap to 
licentiousness ? 

This is an old objection, thrown against the doctrine of 
the grace of God. When Paul taught, " that where sin 
abounded, grace did much more abound," Rom. v. 20, 
then comes this a shall we continue in sin that grace may 
abound ?" But he rejects any such inference, as unworthy of 
any answer, chap. vi. 2. (( God forbid, how shall we that are 
dead to sin, live any longer therein ?" And how shall those 
that are justified from all sin, from thence take encourage 
ment to go on in sin ? But those persons that make this ob 
jection, no doubt, are great strangers to the grace of God 
themselves. Indeed, were the elect justified whilst in unbe 
lief, there would be some strength in the objection ; but their 
natures being renewed at that moment of time, their state is 
changed, the objection hath no force in it; " for the grace of 
God teacheth to deny ungodliness/ Titus ii. 11, 12. 

But believers sin greatly, after they are in a justified state, 
and so stand in need of renewed pardon, from time to time. 

That believers sin after they are in a justified state, sad 
experience, as well as God s word, doth daily shew ; but the 
sins of those who are in a justified state, come under another 
consideration, for their " persons are not under the law, (or 
legal covenant) Rom. vi. 14. They are in Christ, who is "the 
end of the law for righteousness, to every one that believ- 
eth," Rom. x. 4. So that as believers have nothing to do 
with the law, so as to seek justification for their persons, by 
their obedience to the same ; neither can the law, with its 
condemning power, reach them, so as to bring them into 
legal condemnation again : so that unless the covenant of 
grace be made void, the believer s justified state remains, and 
he is no more under the law for ever. 

But may some say, are not believers then under the law, 
are they lawless ? 

The law comes under a twofold consideration. As a cove 
nant of works for justification. As a rule of life for conver 

As a covenant of works for justification. All saints 

BY FAITH. 385 

through grace, are delivered from the same, Rom. vii. 4. 
(e Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are dead to the law, by 
the body of Christ/ 5 that is, ye are taken off from all hopes 
of justification, by your obedience to it; and the " law is 
now weak through the flesh," chap. viii. 3. that is, as to justi 
fication : man cannot keep it, and so can expect no justifica 
tion by the same ; yea, all true believers are, as to justifica 
tion, dead to the law, Gal. ii. 19. And as true believers 
seek not to the law, in a way of working, but to Christ in a way 
of believing, for their justification, so hath Christ delivered 
them from the malediction of the same, Gal. iii. 12. " Christ 
hath redeemed us from the curse of the law." So that all the 
dread and terror of the broken covenant is taken away by 
Christ, for all true believers. Indeed, a Christless person is 
under the covenant of works, and to such the law is full of 
dread and terror, the voice of which we may hear, Gal. iii. 10. 
(e For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the 
curse, for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not 
in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do 
them." Sinners had need look after a Christ in time, or they 
will fall under the law s curse for ever. 

The law is to be considered as a rule of life, and so Christ 
hath for ever established the same, that he may thereby 
guide all his people in ways of holiness, Prov. vi. 23. " For 
the commandment is a lamp, and the law is light," to guide 
in ways of true happiness; and in this respect all saints 
" are under the law to Christ," 1 Cor. ix. 21, and ought to 
keep close to the same, and to say as holy David, Psalm cxix. 
97. " O how I love thy law, it is my meditation all the day." 
And thus we see how the saints are under the law, and how 
not, they are delivered from it as a covenant of works ; they 
are, and will be, eternally under it as a rule of life. 

The saints of God being renewed but in part, and having 
a two-fold image, of the first and second Adam, may they 
not be under the covenant of grace, so far as renewed, and 
under the covenant of works, so far as they are unrenewed ? 
Is it not so with believers, strong in the covenant ? 

That the saints of God, whilst here in this world, are, and 
will remain, partly flesh and partly Spirit, having a two-fold 
image, is assuredly true ; but this cannot imply a two-fold 
covenant, in any wise. The image respects the nature of the 

VOL. v. c c 


believer, but the covenant respects the person, as there are 
two natures in Christ, and both of them have their distinct 
properties, yet the sonship of Christ is but one, for that 
hath relation to his person. So, although believers have flesh 
and Spirit, yet it is not possible they should, at the same time, 
be under two contrary covenants, for the covenants respect 
the person, which is but one ; and the change of a person s 
covenant is a legal act, and done at once, and but once, and 
God accounts the persons of believers, under the legal cove 
nant, no more for ever, Rom. vii. 4. " Wherefore, my breth 
ren, ye also are become dead to the law, by the body of 
Christ." Here is the believer s freedom from the first cove 
nant asserted, and the way and manner how it is brought 
about, namely, by union with Christ, ei That ye should be 
married to another, even to him that is raised from the dead/ 
Christ being the head of the new covenant, our union with 
him brings us under the same. And though Paul, in this 
chapter, complained of the remains of sin, which made him 
groan, verse 24, " O wretched man that I am, who shall de 
liver me from the body of this death." Yet this did not, in 
the least, infringe his covenant state. So, though all true 
believers are partly flesh, and partly Spirit, yet their cove 
nant relation is neither, nor can be, but one, Rom. vi. 14. 
" For ye are not under the law, but under grace." 

But if the saints are not under the law, or legal covenant, 
then it should seem from thence, that they need no pardon 
of sin, and so ought not in their daily prayers to pray for the 
same : so where there is no law there is no transgression. 

Though believers are not under the law, or legal covenant, 
yet it doth not from thence follow, that they stand in no need 
of daily pardon. Indeed, they stand not in need of such 
pardon as unbelievers stand in need of, they are under a legal 
condemnation, obnoxious to the curse, and stand in need of 
a change of their state, God being to them a God of terror. 
But if at any time they are, through grace, brought savingly 
to believe in Christ, then God, as a God of all grace, freely jus 
tifies them, by remitting of their sins, and imputing of Christ s 
righteousness for their justification, and properly this is Scrip 
ture justification, Rom. iv. 6, 8. 

But believers standing in relation to God, as children to a 
tender-hearted Father, this alters the case quite, and shews a 

BY FAITH. 387 

vast difference between the state of the one and of the other, 
the believer being " justified from all things," Acts xiii. 39, 
and the unbeliever being " condemned already/* John iii. 
18. Now though God deal as a Judge with those that con 
tinue in their unbelief, yet he deals as a tender-hearted Father 
with all true believers. "Like as a father pitieth his children, 
so the Lord pitieth them that fear him : yea, he remembereth 
that we are dust/ Psalm ciii. 13, 14. Now when the 
saints sin against a loving Father, then does God come forth 
with his fatherly corrections : " Then will I visit their trans 
gressions with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes/ Psalm 
Ixxxix. 32. And sometimes in a very sore manner; ee Behold 
thou art wroth, for we have sinned/ Isa. Ixiv. 5. Indeed the 
sins of the saints shall not make void God s covenant, there 
fore the prophet comes in the next words, saying, In those, 
that is, in thy mercies, is continuance, and we shall be saved ; 
yet they highly provoke a tender-hearted Father by sinning 
against him; and as often as the saints sin against their hea 
venly Father, in this their new covenant relation, so oft they 
stand in need of fatherly forgiveness. Thus with holy David, 
who had sinned in the matter of Uriah, yet when brought to 
confess the same, " Nathan said unto David, The Lord hath 
put away thy sin, thou shalt not die," 2 Sam. xii. 13 ; for by 
God s law adulterers ought to be put to death, Lev. xx. 10. 
Now God remitting this temporal chastisement to David, is 
said to pardon, or put away his sin : and the church cried 
out, Lam. iii. 42, " We have transgressed and rebelled, thou 
hast not pardoned ;" that is, their afflictions were not re 
moved. And in this sense God oft lets sin lie on his other 
wise justified children for some time unpardoned, and as often 
as he is pleased to remit these chastisements, so often he may 
be said to pardon his children ; and as long as the saints sin 
against their God and Father in their new covenant relation, 
so long shall we need renewed pardon, which will be whilst 
we are in this world. And this should keep the saints at the 
throne of grace, daily begging of pardon, confessing of sin, 
bewailing of corrupt nature, and entreating a farther disco 
very of their covenant state. 

Now in this respect the saints daily need pardon of sin, 
and a more full discovery of their new covenant relation with 
God ; so that it is not true in every respect, you see, to say 

c c 2 


all pardon is at once : but with respect to the justifying of 
our persons, in a proper sense, justification is but one con 
stant, complete act of grace, admitting of no degrees, nor 
revocation, but remains firm for ever. 

But if God correct his justified children for their sins, doth 
it not dishonour the cross of Christ ? 

That God doth correct his saints here for their sins, and 
not only from them, as some would have it, is most plain 
from the New, as well as from the Old Testament : " For 
this cause," namely, the abuse of the Lord^s supper, " many 
are weak and sickly among you, and some sleep," 1 Cor. xi. 
30. Some, indeed, would have this to be spoken only of 
hypocrites, that were mingled among the godly, but this seems 
to me to have no weight in it; for the apostle speaks here of 
no more than what might befal him, should he do as they 
had done, as may be seen by the next words. And some 
think that the word sleep argues they were godly, penitent 
Christians, that so died, to let us know, that even good people, 
who yet may be saved, may bring judgments in this life on 
themselves, by the profanation of God s name in his ordi 
nances : see the late Annotations on this place. To the same 
purpose the Holy Ghost speaks : " As many as I love I re 
buke and chasten ; be zealous, therefore, and repent," Rev. 
iii. 19. Now what were they to repent of but their sins ? 
And if so, then this chastisement was for sin, being procured 
thereby. Thus James v. 15, 16: " And if he hath com 
mitted sins, they shall be forgiven him/ 5 Now this forgive 
ness was the healing of his body, that is, the removing of a 
temporal affliction, which God as a loving Father had in 
flicted. See Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs s Sermon on 1 Sam. 
iii. 18, pages 89, 90, who calls it a vain conceit to think that 
God doth not afflict his people for their sins. See his work 
on Hosea, vol. ii. page 449. 

So that though God doth not, as a judge, take vengeance 
on his justified children for their sins, yet as a loving Father 
he assuredly corrects them when they go astray. And cer 
tainly there can be no good argument drawn from the perfec 
tion of Christ s satisfaction, to exempt believers from fatherly 
corrections here for their going astray. Nay, holy David 
looks on God s corrective dispensations, as his keeping of 
covenant with him : " I know, O Lord, thy judgments are 

BY FAITH. 389 

right; (that is, thy corrections,) and that thou in faithfulness 
hast afflicted me, * Psalm cxix. 75. 

The old testament saints lived under a more legal dispen 
sation, and so might be corrected for their sins, but not so 

I hope they were in the same covenant of grace as we, 
though not under the same administration, and that Christ 
did as fully satisfy for their sins as for ours, yet he did afflict 
Moses, Eli, David, and the rest of his children, then, for their 
sins, and why not now, if they go astray ? And certainly 
God hath not, by Christ s satisfaction, divested himself of his 
fatherly authority, but will shew the same if his children go 
astray, Psalm Ixxxix. 30, 31, 32. Thus as to the first branch 
of the doctrine. 

Secondly, I come to shew wherein the free grace of God 
so much shines forth in a way of a sinner s justification by 
faith in Christ. And, 

The Holy Scriptures run altogether this way : " They 
which receive abundance of grace," Rom. v. 17- Here is 
faith, the hand to receive ; here is abundance of grace re 
ceived. So that a believer not only receives grace in his jus 
tification, but much grace. Thus Rom. iv. 16: "Therefore 
it is of faith, that it might be by grace." Here, observe, 
that to be justified by faith and by grace, is all one in the 
account of the Holy Ghost. And this way of grace makes 
the promise sure to all the seed, that is, to the whole 
election of God : " In whom we have redemption through his 
blood, even the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of 
his grace," Eph. i. J. In the former verse the apostle was 
speaking of the saints* acceptance in the Beloved, that is, in 
Christ, the God-man ; and in this verse he shews the riches 
of grace flow down in free forgiveness : ef That in ages to 
come, he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace, in his 
kindness to us through Christ Jesus," chap. ii. 7 ; that is, in 
all succeeding ages, to the end of the world. Grace, through 
Christ, might flow down for the free justification of all those 
that should believe, as, verse 8, " By grace are ye saved, 
through faith." Now this way of justification drowns all 
men s excellencies : as when the sun arises there is no need 
of candle, even so when the Sun of Righteousness arises, as 
Mai. iv. 2, then doth man s own righteousness disappear, and 


is like the morning cloud, and early dew, that soon passeth 
away, that so free grace may the more illustriously appear in 
this work of free justification : " Not by works of righteous 
ness which we have done, but according to his mercy he 
saved us," Rom. iii. 5. Here all works are denied, that grace 
may take place altogether in this work, " that being justified 
by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope 
of eternal life," verse J: as if the apostle had said, that be 
lievers, through the free grace of God, having the guilt of 
their sin removed, and Christ s righteousness imputed, should 
be made " children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint-heirs 
with Christ," Rom. viii. 17 See late Annotations. And if 
we look into Isa. xliii. 25, there we find the great God thus 
speaking, " I, even I am he that blotteth out thy transgres 
sions for mine own sake." Here God writes an / on thi 
work ; he looks on it as his prerogative royal to pardon si 
and that not for any worthiness in man, but for his own sake. 
He will not give the glory of his free grace to any other ; 
nay, poor man has nothing of his own, but must be beholden 
altogether to free grace : " And when they had nothing to 
pay, he frankly forgave them both," Luke vii. 42. Here free 
forgiveness is on the throne, and " reigns, through righteous 
ness, unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord," Rom. v. 
21. Oh, then, let all saints say as the prophet, " Who is a 
God like unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by 
the transgression of the remnant of his heritage ; he retaineth 
not his anger for ever, because he delighteth in mercy," Micah 
vii. 18. And thus we find the Holy Scriptures hold forth 
much grace in a sinner s justification by faith in Christ. 

The more low and miserable our state is, when grace finds 
us, the more it shines in the sinner s advancement. As, sup 
pose a great and mighty prince should take a mean person 
from a dungeon, as Pharaoh did Joseph, and advance him 
so high as to make him the second man in his kingdom; this 
was, and would be great grace in a prince, but what is this 
to the high advancement God bestows on poor sinners in a 
way of mere grace ? The church says, " God remembered 
them in their low estate," Psa. cxxxvi. 23. Now, surely 
grace finds sinners as low as hell, and advanceth them as 
high as heaven. Mordecai was in a low state when he sat 
at the king s gate in sackcloth, and a gallows being made to 

BY FAITH. 391 

hang him on, and his people also designed for utter ruin, 
Esther vi. And then for the king to advance him so high, 
as to have " the royal apparel brought, which the king 
useth to wear, with the crown royal," and to have it set on 
his head, by one of the most noble princes, e( who should 
proclaim before him, Thus shall it be done unto the man 
whom the king delighteth to honour/ 5 This was great fa 
vour shewn to Mordecai : but what was this to the grace 
of God in a sinner s free justification by faith in Christ ? 
In Luke xv., we read of the prodigal, who had spent all and 
was feeding of swine, but on his return, is embraced in the 
arms of tender love, and the best robe is brought forth, the 
righteousness of Christ, to cover the poor sinner s naked 
ness. Now doth not grace herein shine, in bringing of pro 
digals from their swinish lusts, and in embracing in the arms 
of divine love ? Saul once said to David, " If a man find 
his enemy, will he let him go well away ?" But grace finds 
sinners in their enmity against God, Rom. viii. 7- Enmity 
in the abstract, separated from all amenity, and this heightens 
man s misery: yet free grace calls, justifies, and glorifies, 
ver. 30. And thus we find, 6i When thou wast cast out, to 
the loathing of thy person, (here is man s low estate set, 
then comes free grace, and its language is,) I said to thee, live," 
Ezek. xvi. Here is free absolution : and what shall we say 
to Joshua the high priest, Zech. iii. He was in a low estate, 
" clothed with filthy garments, and Satan (taking the wall of 
him) standing at his right hand, to resist him." His condi 
tion was very low, but then comes free grace in, speaking, 
" Take away the filthy garments from him, and unto him he 
said, Behold I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, 
(here is free pardon of sin) and I will clothe thee with change 
of raiment," ver. 4. May not this well be understood of 
imputed righteousness, " And I said, let them set a fair 
mitre on his head," ver. 5. Here is high advancement from 
this low estate. And thus, free grace shines, in a sinner s 
justification, by faith in Christ, for it finds sinners very low, 
and advanceth them very high. 

The more distinguishing any mercy is, the more free grace 
shines in that mercy. As, suppose two great sinners alike, 
and one taken to free justification, and the other left to his 
justly deserved condemnation, doth not free grace shine forth 


on that person that is taken ? Thus, " For he saith to 
Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I 
will have compassion on whom I will have compassion, Rom. 
ix. 15. And from hence he infers, ei That it is not of him 
that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that shew- 
eth mercy :" ver. 16, and what is here spoken of election, is 
as applicable to justification. * God distinguishes person from 
person, in justification, (( Two men went into the temple to 
pray, the one a pharisee, and the other a publican," Luke 
xviii. 10. Now, see how free grace laid hold on the publi 
can, and passed by the pharisee, ee I tell you this man went 
down to his house justified rather than the other," or not 
the other, ver. 14. Here distinguishing grace did most evi 
dently appear, in the justification of the publican. And was 
it not free grace that brought Paul from the rest of his com 
panions, and that when he was in the height of rebellion 
against God ? Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ?" Acts 
ix. Was not this the voice of free, distinguishing grace, 
that Paul heard ? So we have his own words for it, 6e But 
by the grace of God, I am what I am," 1 Cor. xv. 10. So 
that there appears to be much of the free grace of God, in 
the justification of a sinner, by faith in Christ, by the dis 
tinguishing of person from person, in the same. 

The more considerable any mercy is, and the less consider 
ation it is given upon, the more free grace shines in that 
mercy. Now justification is a most considerable mercy, and 
it is bestowed without the least respect to man s worthi 
ness, " But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him 
justifieth the ungodly," Rom. iv. 5. Here we may see, though 
poor man is in a state of ungodliness, when grace lays hold 
of him, yet notwithstanding here is free justification bestowed, 
which is a most considerable mercy, and will evidently appear 
so to be, by such considerations as these. 

If I am justified, then I have peace with God, " Therefore, 
being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our 
Lord Jesus Christ," Rom. v. 1. Reconciliation with God 
being the great and fundamental blessing of the gospel, must 
needs be a considerable mercy: and all justified persons, 
their state is a state of friendship : Abraham my friend. 

Being justified, all our sinful debts are discharged, " To 
him give all the prophets witness, that through his name, 

BY FAITH. 393 

whosoever believeth on him shall receive remission of sins/ 
Acts. x. 43. And here we may see this is the doctrine of all 
the prophets. And to the same purpose the apostle Paul 
speaks, " And by him all that believe are justified from all 
things/ Acts xiii. 39. Here is a most complete discharge from 
all guilt, for the believing person; therefore, justification 
must needs be a considerable mercy. 

And then if justified, God will never leave nor forsake us. 
It is a good saying of one of the ancients : He that jus- 
tifieth the ungodly, will never forsake the godly. And the 
Holy Ghost speaks the same thing, " For he hath said, I will 
never leave thee nor forsake thee/ Heb. xiii. 5. So that 
justification is a most considerable mercy. 

And if justified, then shall we be assuredly glorified, " And 
whom he justified, them he also glorified/ Rom. viii. 30. 
So that the next remove the saints shall make, will be to 
glory in the heavens. Now, these and such like blessings 
following on our justification by faith, shew that it is a very 
considerable mercy, and that there is much of free grace 
shines forth in the same. 

Thirdly, I come now to shew, how this doctrine doth con 
cern the comfort and practice of true believers. And, 

As touching the comfort of the saints of God, this doc 
trine of justification, by faith in Christ, is a foundation of 
divine consolation. After Paul had been speaking of justi 
fication by faith, Rom. v. 1, he comes ver. 2., to speak of the 
saints rejoicing, " We rejoice in hope of the glory of God," 
that is in that glory, which God hath graciously promised to 
all his justified children. Here is present justification and 
future glory, for the saints to solace themselves in, " And 
not only so, but we glory in tribulation also," ver. 3. This 
blessed doctrine not only fills the saints hearts, with respsct to 
future happiness, but makes them rejoice in their tribulations 
hep, ; nay, in ver. 11 : " and not only so, but we also joy in 
(Tod through our Lord Jesus Christ," that is, we not only joy 
* in hopes of heaven hereafter, and in tribulations here, but we 
joy in God himself, who is our reconciled Father, in Christ. 
Thus, holy David, " My soul shall make her boast in the 
Lord," Psa. xxxiv. 2. When he hath been speaking of this 
blessed doctrine of free remission, " Blessed is he, whose 
transgression is forgiven, and whose sin is covered. Blessed 


is the man unto the Lord imputeth not iniquity," Psa. xxxii. 
I, 2, then he comes in ver. 11, to call the saints to rejoice 
in the Lord, u Be glad in the Lord, and rejoice ye righteous, 
and shout for joy, all ye that are upright in heart." Whatso 
ever others do, let the saints of God rejoice in Christ, as 
holy Paul did, Phil. iii. 3, " For we are of the circumcision, 
that worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, 
having no confidence in the flesh." As if he had said, let 
others rejoice in what they will, Christ shall be the true com 
fort of our souls, we will rejoice in the merit of Christ, in the 
righteousness of Christ, in the person of Christ, and all that 
know the doctrine of God s free justification by faith in 
Christ, in a saving manner, ought to rejoice. This doctrine 
of free grace is a firm basis of consolation. When the Holy 
Ghost is speaking of the joyful sound of free grace, Psalm 
Ixxxix. 15, ee Blessed is the people that know the joyful 
sound ;" then he comes to speak of their true consolation : 
" They shall walk, O Lord, in the light of thy countenance 
(verse 16), in thy name shall they rejoice all the day, and in 
thy righteousness shall they be exalted." Oh, what a sweet 
life is the life of faith, that leads the soul to the fountain of 
free grace for consolation here and for salvation hereafter ! 
We find the church full of heavenly consolation in Isa. Ixi. 
10, (e I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall be joy 
ful in my God;" and the ground of this joy was this, " For 
he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath 
covered me with the robe of righteousness." 

And thus we see, the doctrine of free justification by faith 
in Christ, doth much concern the comfort and consolation of 
the saints of God. 

This doctrine of free justification doth much concern the 
saints practice, and will thus appear : 

Seeing there is so much of free grace shines in this blessed 
doctrine, then surely it highly concerns us to study the same. 
Oh, why should we not search more into this doctrine of free 
justification by faith in Christ. This is the article the church 
stands or falls by, Rom. xi. 20. " Well, because of unbelief 
they were broken off, and thou standest by faith." If this 
doctrine be kept entire, the church stands ; but if this be 
left, the church falls. When the Jews left this doctrine, they 
fell. " If ye believe not that I am lie, ye shall die in your 

BY F"AITH. 395 

sins. 3 All those persons that do not, by faith, cleave entirely 
to Christ the only Mediator, for the remission of their sins, 
and for the justification of their persons, will, no doubt, die 
in their sins. This doctrine of justification by faith, is the 
church s Magna Charta, and so greatly concerns all saints 
to be firmly established in the same. When the church of 
Rome left this doctrine, she became anti-christian, 2 Thes. 
ii. 10, " Because they received not the love of the truth, that 
they might be saved." This truth, by which sinners are 
saved, here spoken of, is beyond all doubt, (to me) justifica 
tion by faith in Christ, as John xiv. 6. " I am the truth ;" 
that whosoever receives by faith, shall be assuredly saved, 
and whosoever rejects, through unbelief shall undoubtedly 
perish, John iii. 36. So that when the church of Rome left 
this glorious doctrine, then did God give them up, verse 11, 
" And for this cause God shall send them strong delusions, 
that they should believe a lie, (namely, that lie of justifica 
tion before God, by a man s own righteousness) verse 12, 
That they all might be damned, who believe not the truth." 
that is, the truth of free justification, as before. And were 
this doctrine received, what would become of the pope s par 
dons, their indulgences, their purgatory, and the like trash ? 
Now, for a round sum of money, they can, as they say, ab 
solve men in this life, from their sins, and deliver out of 
purgatory in the life to come. Bnt were this doctrine of free 
justification understood, all these cursed delusions would 
soon vanish. So that it highly concerns us to be careful in 
the study of this blessed doctrine of free justification by faith 
in Christ. When Peter had made a confession of his faith, 
Matt. xvi. Christ said to him, " Thou art Peter, and on this 
rock will I build my church," that is, on the confession he 
made; which see, verse 16, "Thou art Christ, the Son of 
the living God." Here is the main doctrine of the gospel in 
this confession, and by this it is that the church of Christ 
stands. O then let us all labour to keep close to this most 
blessed doctrine of justification by faith in Christ, for it 
highly concerns us so to do. 

This doctrine of justification by free grace, concerns the 
saints practice, for it is their main defence against the wiles 
and artifices of Satan, it is their shield and buckler, as Luther 
calls it, against the temptations of the devil. 


Are you tempted to pride, do you think highly of your own 
righteousness ? a right understanding in this blessed doctrine 
will lay souls humble at the feet of Christ, as it did Paul, 1 
Cor, xv. 10, " But by the grace of God I am what I am." 
A right understanding in this soul-humbling and Christ-exalt 
ing doctrine, brought him from the pinnacle of pride, and 
laid him at Christ s footstool, crying out, " I am less than the 
least of all saints." When this proud pharisee came to un 
derstand the doctrine of free grace, then did he look on him 
self as one of the chief of sinners, 1 Tim. i. 15, and his only 
plea was, Christ s coming into the world to save sinners. 
Here is not a word that tends to the priding of himself in his 
own righteousness, those vain conceits are now gone, and 
Christ and free grace now take place and reign in his heart. 
And so it will be with us, when we come to have the doctrine 
of free grace to reign in our hearts. Dagon and the ark could 
not stand together, neither can man s own righteousness and 
free grace stand, but the setting up of the one throws down 
the other. So that a right understanding in the doctrine of 
free justification, will tend much to allay the pride of our 
spirits. Or, 

Are we tempted to covetousness ? a right sense of the doc 
trine of justification, by free grace, will help much to cure our 
souls of that evil also : " Yea, doubtless, and I count all 
things but loss, for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ 
Jesus my Lord, Phil. iii. 8. Oh, how was his soul cured 
when he came to know free grace, and what he speaks of, 
godliness with contentment being great gain, 1 Tim. vi. 6. 
Now wherein does the practice of true godliness lie, but in 
exercising of faith in Christ, which both purifies the heart, 
Acts xv. 9, and works by love, Gal. v. 6. And in this prac 
tice the heart will be brought from the love of the world, and 
all true gain will be brought to the soul thereby, so that this 
doctrine doth highly concern the practice of all true believers. 

Or, are you tempted to despair, this doctrine of free grace 
only can relieve you ; for says the soul, I hear there is abun 
dance of grace, and this grace infinitely free, for the worst of 
sinners, and that the Lord Christ saves to the utmost, all 
that come to the Father by him, Heb. vii. 25 ; oh, how can I 
then despair of mercy for my soul ? Let my condition be 
what it will, this doctrine of free justification, will carry the 

BY FAITH. 397 

soul above the temptation of despair, let its sins be never so 
many or great. So that this doctrine concerns the practice 
of true believers. If we look into Ephes. ii. 7> the apostle 
speaks of the grace of God extending itself to great sinners : 
" That in ages to come, he might shew the exceeding riches 
of his grace, in his kindness towards us, through Christ 
Jesus." And if we inquire who those us, that are here 
spoken of, are, we shall find here was Paul, a blasphemer and 
an injurious person, yet he obtained mercy, and is set forth 
as an example, that none might despair. " Howbeit, for this 
cause I obtained mercy, that in me first, Jesus Christ might 
shew forth all long-suffering, for a pattern to them who 
should hereafter believe on him to life everlasting," 1 Tim. i. 
16, Here we have a pattern of God s patience and free 
grace to other sinners, that shall afterward cast themselves 
into the arms of free grace, as Paul did ; so that none that 
know the doctrine of free grace might despair : nay, though 
persons have lived long in sin, yet there is hope. When 
Christ died on the cross, there was one left, that none might 
presume ; there was one saved, that none might despair. So 
that this doctrine of free justification, if rightly understood, 
will carry souls above the temptations of despair, and so 
highly concerns the practice of all true believers. 

And seeing there is so much grace in this blessed doctrine 
of free justification, how should this draw souls to Christ. 
Here is grace, free grace, much grace, abundance of grace, 
yea, all grace, for graceless sinners. Oh, souls, what do you 
mean, that you come not to Christ ? Do you not, by this doc 
trine of free grace, hoar a solemn call ? " Be it known unto 
you, therefore, men and brethren, that through this man is 
preached unto you the forgiveness of sins," Acts xiii. 34. 
Now let us look into the next verse, and see what the design 
of the Holy Ghost is, in making known this grace to poor 
sinners. " And by him, all that believe are justified from all 
things," ver. 39. In or upon their believing, free justification 
terminates on their persons : and what, not come to Christ, 
when the arms of free love are open to embrace you ! Oh, 
sinners, can you stay from Christ, when the voice of free 
race sounds so sweetly in your ears ! 66 I will give to him 
at is athirst, of the fountain of the water of life freely,* 
v. xxi. 6. Now what sayest tLou, O sinner, wilt thou sell 


thy soul for a swinish lust, and despise the grace of Christ ? 
Is there here this day, any swearer, or drunkard, or sabbath- 
breaker, or any other profane person ? I will not say to 
thee, How earnest thou in hither? thou mayest hear that 
time enough, to the amazement of thy soul, if grace do not 
speedily change thy heart ; but I will say to thee, here is a 
possibility of thy being saved. If we look into Luke xv., 
we have a parable of a prodigal, which represents to us a 
state of profaneness ; yet on his return, the father " met 
him, fell upon his neck and kissed him/ embraced him in 
the arms of free love, the best robe is brought forth and put 
on him, the fatted calf is killed, and making merry. Now 
what is all this for, but to illustrate the free grace of God to 
the worst of sinners ? Oh then, if you love your souls, and 
desire salvation, fall at the foot of free grace, and cry as the 
publican, " God be merciful to me a sinner." Now the 
sceptre of free grace is held out to poor sinners ; oh, that 
their hearts were inclined to receive the same: the Lord 
make them a willing people in the day of his power. And 
is here any that are only civil persons, or hypocrites ? Oh, 
have a care of resting on your own righteousness, as those 
did, Rom. x. 3, " For they being ignorant of God s righte 
ousness, and going about to establish their own righteous 
ness, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of 
God." Here both their ignorance and their pride did most 
evidently appear ; they were not for being beholden to Christ 
for that, which they thought they had of their own. Oh, 
the cursed pride that is in man s heart, that sinners should 
think it beneath them to submit themselves to the righteous 
ness of God ! But, may the God of all wisdom, shew 
sinners their great mistake, and bring them, by the workings 
of his grace, to see a shortness in their own righteousness, 
and lead them into the knowledge of Christ and his righte 
ousness, that they may see and betake themselves to the way 
of free grace, for the justifying of their persons here, and the 
saving of their souls hereafter ; and that, while God is in a 
way of mercy, for " now is the accepted time, now is the 
day of salvation." 

And to you that are the saints of God, why should you 
not magnify and praise the grace of God ? " In thy name 
shall they rejoice all the day, and in thy righteousness shall 

ON FAITH. 399 

they be exalted." Shall angels sing, " Glory to God in the 
highest/ for his great grace and love to poor man, and shall we, 
whom it so nearly concerns, be dumb ? Nay, rather let the 
high praises of God be in their mouth, that they may give 
glory to him that sits on the throne, and to the Lamb for 

But I fear I am not justified, for I find much sin remaining 
in me, and would it be so if I were in a justified state ? 

The saints of God have the remains of sin in their natures, 
notwithstanding the guilt is taken off from their persons. 
As, suppose a person under condemnation, that hath an evil 
disease cleaving to him ; a pardon comes from his prince, 
and takes off his condemnation, and at the same time a me 
dicine is applied for the cure of his disease, only that must 
operate gradually. Now, should such an one say, he is not 
pardoned from his guilt, because his disease is not fully 
cured ? And is not this the case in hand ? Pardoning grace 
takes away the believer s guilt, and at the same moment of 
time, the Holy Ghost renews and changes his nature. Now, 
because there is not presently an abolition of all sin, and an 
infusion of all grace, some trembling hearts fear their guilt 
remains on their persons, because the remains of sin still 
cleave to their natures, not so well knowing these are two 
distinct benefits : as Psalm ciii. 3, " Who forgiveth all thy 
iniquities, who healeth all thy diseases." Here are two dis 
tinct benefits, one by God s act of grace in justification, the 
other wrought by the Holy Spirit in sanctification. Now we 
must distinguish between sins being in the soul, and sins 
being imputed to the person. <e Blessed is the man to whom 
the Lord will not impute sin," Rom. iv. 8. Holy Paul found 
the remains of sin in his nature, Rom. vii. 25, which made 
him cry out, " O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ?" Yet at the same time, he 
could see the guilt of his sin taken off from his person, and 
from the persons of all true believers : " There is therefore 
now no condemnation, to them which are in Christ Jesus," 
Rom. viii. 1. Oh, most blessed privilege the saints of God 
are privileged withal, to be exempted from guilt, though the 
remains of sin still abide in us. 

But how shall I discern that I am a justified person ? 

If you have been effectually called, by the Spirit of God 


working with the word,, so as to convince you of sin, the 
great evil of it, as it is contrary to the holy nature of God, 
as well as destructive to the souls of men ; and to turn you 
from the same, if you have seen a shortness in your own 
righteousness, and a fulness in Christ and his righteousness ; 
and, by the work of the Spirit, your soul hath been drawn to 
Christ, as Jer. xxxi. 3, " With loving-kindness have I drawn 
thee ;" then are you a justified person. " And whom he 
called, them he also justified," Rom. viii. 30. 

If you have been brought by the Spirit s conviction, to 
renounce your own righteousness in point of justification, as 
Paul was, Phil, iii., and to rely on Christ s righteousness, by 
faith, for the justifying of your person before God, then are 
you justified. " And by him, all that believe, are justified 
from all things," Acts xiii. 39. 

And if you have the same dispositions wrought in your 
heart, by the Holy Spirit, as those justified persons spoken 
of in the Scripture had, then are you justified persons. 

What dispositions were those ? 

Look into Ezek. xvi. 62, 63, " And I will establish my 
covenant with thee, and thou shalt know that I am the 
Lord." This is summarily a promise of grace and glory : 
then it follows, " That thou mayest remember, and be con 
founded, and never open thy mouth more ;" that is, you 
shall neither justify yourself, nor condemn others, nor quarrel 
with thy God, but shall take shame to thyself, that grace 
may be alone exalted. Thus, " Then will I sprinkle clean 
water upon you, and you shall be clean," Ezek. xxxvi. 25 ; 
and in ver. 31, " Then shall ye remember your own evil 
ways, and shall loathe yourselves in your own sight." Here 
is a loathing of ourselves, that is, a self-humbling disposition 
in the soul, when free grace comes to take place. 

And what do you think of that woman, Luke vii. ? Was 
not her heart sweetly disposed, when Christ turned to her, 
ver. 44, " Seest thou this woman ? " Here was faith in 
Christ, ver. 50. Here were the tears of true repentance; 
here was great humiliation for sin ; here was true love in her 
heart to Christ. Oh, what sweet dispositions were here 
wrought in her heart. 

And the ground of all this was, the free grace of God 
shining forth in the remission of her sins. " And when they 




had nothing to pay, he frankly forgave both," ver. 42. 
" Wherefore, I say to thee, her sins, which are many, are 
forgiven," ver. 47. And then comes the fruits of this free 
forgiveness, " For she loved much." Now if you have the 
like dispositions wrought in you, then are you a justified 

rson also. 

If you can heartily justify the ways, ordinances, and dis 
pensations of Christ, then are you justified by Christ. 
" Wisdom is justified of her children," Luke vii. 35, because 
Wisdom s children are first justified by Wisdom. Here, by 
Wisdom, we are to understand Christ, who by his free grace, 
justifies his children, and then works dispositions in their 
hearts to justify him, his ways, ordinances, and righteous 


VOL. V. 

o o 


The Numerals are inserted to signify the Volume; and the Figures the page in the Volume. 

AARON, caused the Israelites to sin, i. 15. Unfaithful in his office, ib. 33. A 
type of Christ, ib. 40, 67. His anointing typical of Christ s, ib. 40. 

ABNER S works illustrative of the wicked, i. 307. 

ABRAHAM, God s blessing of Abraham typical of that conferred on the saints, 
i. 77, 80. Met and blessed by Melchizedec as he came from battle, typical of 
Christ and his spiritual warriors, ib. 83. Christ discovered to him, ib. 245. 
Abraham and Hagar, typical of believers and the law, ib. 333. He believed 
when all means failed, ii. 307. Our example in the work of believing, ib. 307. 

ABSOLUTION, the nature of, i. 72. Alone the prerogative of Christ, ib. 72. 

ACCEPTANCE, of persons first, then works, i. 48. 

ACCUSATIONS, against believers, answered by the Saviour, i. 26. 

ACHAN S sin and its discovery, instructive to the saints, iv. 52. 

ACTIONS, their end descriptive, i. 307. Whereby it appears that Christ hath a 
greater hand in the actions of believers, than themselves, ib. 382, 388. 

ADAM, parallel betwixt the first and the second, i. 202, 325. Christ discovered 
to him, ib. 244. Christ our second Adam, ib. 280. 

ADOPTION, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. The grace of it had in a way of receiving, 
ib. 223. God s adoption superior to man s, ib. 249. 

ADVOCATE, Christ as an, i. 28, 38, 41. His work, ib. 28. 

AFFECTIONS, what they are, v. 61. In what respect we are to set them on 
things above, ib. 62. Why we are to set them on things above, ib. 63. 
Marks of having them so placed, ib. 67. The result of having them placed 
on things above, or not so, ib. 69. How to draw them off from things below, 
and place them on things above, ib. 71. How to settle them more on things 
above, ib. 72. 

AFFLICTION, a Christian must give thanks to God in, iv. 95. 

AFFLICTIONS, no legal punishment to believers, i. 16. Arrests to reprobates, 
ib. 16. Sometimes the discouragements of the saints arise from their outward 
afflictions, ii. 187. Saints apt to be much discouraged by them, ib. 187. 
What they are in the saints, ib. 189. Whence they come, ib. 190. What 
comes with them, ib. 191. Their fruit and benefit, ib. 193. No cause for 
discouragement, ib. 193. They open a new work, ib. 197. They both dis 
cover and heal sins, ib. 197. What visible characters of love are upon them, 
ib. 200. Whether Christians are to be discouraged by those of the public, ib. 
201. Afflictions should lead us to search out our sins and the cause of them, 
iv. 52. 

ALLEGIANCE, the oath of, v. 323. 

ALTAR, the Jewish typical, i. 61. 

ANABAPTISTS, the tenets of the, v. 314. 

AN GET. of the Covenant, Christ as the, i. 50. When the destroying angel is 
abroad, then is a fit time for the protecting angel to step in, ib. 492. The 
s:unc angel may destroy and spare, ib. 492. 

D D 2 


ANGKLS fittest for the execution of providence, i. 487, 490. They are strong 
and potent, ib. 487. They are wise, ib. 488. They are quick and active, ib. 
488. They are faithful to God and man, ib. 488. They are loving towards 
the saints, ib. 489. Why they are called to the protection of the saints in 
time of plague, ib. 489. They supply the wants of God s people in a time of 
plague, ib. 492. The extraordinary interposition of angels still continues, 
ib. 493. 

ANGER of God, difficult to be appeased, iv. 68. It is compared to a stream, ib. 
68. God hath his days of anger, ib. 349. God is willing to hide his own 
people in the day of his anger, ib. 354. God sometimes leaves his people at 
uncertainties at the time of his anger, ib. 357. When the tokens of God s 
anger are abroad, then especially it is the saints duty to seek unto God, ib. 
3>9 Signs of God s anger, ib. 360. What the saiats shall seek in the day 
of God s anger, ib. 363. What they shall then do, ib. 363. Only the meek 
of the earth can do any good in that day, and their duty, ib. 368. 
ANOINTED, Christ as the, i. 41. 

ANTICHRIST, what and who is, iii. 92. His unbloody sacrifices, ib. 93. 
APOSTATE, persecutors always headed by some, iii. 304. 

APOSTLES, a commendable thing to discover false, iv. 241. False ones dan 
gerous and mischievous, ib. 241. A hard matter to discover false ones, ib. 
243. Whether to find out false ones we may go to their meetings, ib. 245. 
Why we should all strive to discover false apostles, seeing it is a com 
mendable work, iv. 246. How we shall discover false ones, ib. 248, 254. 
Difference betwixt true and false apostles, ib. 251. The special work of 
church officers to discover false ones, ib. 256. Christ hath said to all, Be 
ware of false apostles, ib. 258. 
APPEARANCES, of God for his people, iii. 387. 
APPOINTMENTS of Christ, what they are, iv. 131. 
Ass, Christ riding upon an, i. 292. 

ARMS, may be lawfully taken up by subjects conjunctively, for self-preservation 
against the king s commandment, v. 201. Motive of the parliament in taking 
them up, ib. 201. The taking up of them for self-preservation, justified from 
nature, ib. 202. The same from Scripture, ib. 202. The same from the laws 
of the kingdom, ib. 203. The same from the being of a parliament, ib. 204. 
The same from the trust reposed on princes, ib. 205. Whether the parlia 
ment may at any time take up arms. ib. 336. 

ASSURANCE, the ground of, i. 16. It is the flower of faith, ib. 156. The want 
of it a bar to comfort, ib. 221. Exhortation to get it, ib. 222. Christ hath 
a greater hand in our s than ourselves, ib. 390. The want of it no cause of 
discouragement, ii. 124. The disadvantages of the want of it, ib. 125. The 
want of it not damning unbelief, ib. 126. The want of it works for good, ib. 
127. How to get assurance of God s love, ib. 273. 

ASTROLOGY, judicial, cried up by some as a great light, i. 437. It is a work of 
darkness, ib. 437. It is forbidden of God, ib. 437. It cannot stand with a 
perfect heart, ib. 437. It destroys prophecy, ib. 437. Difference betwixt it 
and Astronomy, ib. 438. It is contrary to Scripture, ib. 440. It is some 
times correct in its predictions, through the assistance and impressions of 
Satan, ib. 440. Wholly from the devil, ib. 440. 

AUTHORITY, derived from the people, v. 268. When there is a reflux of it, ib, 

BABYLON, the destruction of ancient, great and dreadful, iv. 294. What is 


meant in the Revelation by this late Babylon, ib. 295. Exhortation to set in 
array against antichristian and Romish Babylon, ib. 297. What we shall do 
to help forward its fall, ib. 298. Antichristian and Romish Babylon shall as 
suredly fall, ib. 309. The duty of the saints to speak of its fall as already 
happened, ib. 311. 

BACKSLIDER, the child of God not a, iv. 233. 
BACKSLIDING, in Scripture phrase, is called rebellion, ii. 71. Backsliding and 

relapsing denned, iv. 233. 

BACKSLIDINGS of the saints, the pleasure of Satan, as an occasion of the dam 
nation of reprobates, i. 132. Greatly the work of Satan, i. 139. A reason 
for grief and humility in the saints, i. 140. 
BALAAM, typical of the church s enemies, i. 79. 
BAPTISM, of Christ, attended with glory, i. 292. An appointment of Christ, 

iv. 135. 

BEGGARS, spiritual, relieved by Christ, i. 59. 
BELIEVE, the command to, i. 155. 
BELIEVER, a true, may meet with most unworthy usage from the hands of men, 

ii. 359. 

BELIEVERS, the blessedness of, arising from Christ s fulness, i. 213. Christ is 
in all believers, ib. 362. How Christ maybe said to be in them, ib. 362, 370. 
Believers in Christ as their common Head, ib. 370. Christ in them by his 
Spirit, ib. 370. Christ in them not only in the habit of grace, ib. 370. The 
profit arising from Christ being actually in them by his Spirit, ib. 371. Christ 
liveth in them, ib. 382. Christ hath a greater hand in their actions than they 
themselves, ib. 382, 388. Few believers in the world, ib. 391. Their num 
ber in tirae of the old testament not small, ii. 354. They stand in need of 
daily pardon, v. 386. 

BELIEVING in Christ, commanded by God, i. 38. Warranted by the promise, 
ib. 38. Taught by example, ib. 38. The hardest thing possible, ib. 164. 
What it is, ib. 176. A mark of spiritual life, i. 306. The saint beholds God 
as a faithful Creator when in the act of believing, ii. 305. The first work, ib. 
311. Believing in the face of difficulty most pleasing to God, ib. 335. Be 
lieving against all opposition recommended, iv. 125. 
BELLARMINIAN religion destroys law and gospel, iv. 399. 
BEZA S arguments before the court of France, iv. 344. 
BIRTHRIGHT, warning to saints against selling their spiritual, iii. 123. 
BLESS, Christ s willingness to, i. 73. Christ blesses when the world curses, ib. 
77. Christ blesses when under persecution, ib. 77. Or, reproach, ib. 77. 
Or, ordinances, ib. 78. 

BLESSING, the people, the work of the high priest, i. 67. Blessing of Christ, 
wherein it consists, ib. 68, 71, 74, 80. Of the gospel, spiritual, ib. 69. Of 
the law, temporal, ib. 69. Of the high priest, ib. 70. Evangelical blessing, 
ib. 70. Of the high priest authoritative, so Christ, ib. 71. Blessing peculiar 
to Christ, ib. 72. Christ s prodigality of it when on earth, ib. 73. Blessing 
of Christ hardly to be discerned, ib. 74. Blessing of Christ the root of all 
blessing, ib. 74. Blessing of the world bestowed upon the rich, ib. 74. Bles 
sing of Christ cross-handed, ib. 74. Christ s blessing unlike the world s, ib. 
75. Blessing of Christ superior to that of godly men, ib. 75. Of Christ, 
different to that of professors, ib. 76. Of Melchisedec, typical of Christ s, ib. 
77. Of Isaac, surpassed by Christ s, ib. 79. Of Christ, draws near to him 
self, ib. 80. Increasing and multiplying natural to blessing, ib. 72, 80. Bles- 


sing and bounty synonymous, ib. 80. Blessing of Christ a reason to bless 
him, ib. 84. 

BLESSINGS, so given by God to his people as that he may be seen therein, ii. 287. 

BLOOD, of Christ, the ground of his intercession, i. 25. A very great privilege 
to come unto the blood of sprinkling, iii, 104. Of sprinkling, what it is, ib. 
104. Grounds and reasons thereof in the times of the old testament, ib. 105. 
Of sprinkling speaketh better things than that of Abel, ib. 107. What the 
blood of sprinkling speaketh, ib. 107. In what respect it speaketh better than 
Abel s, ib. 110. Of sprinkling speaks better than the personal blood of Abel, 
ib. 110. Or, sacrificed blood of Abel, ib. 111. We are come unto that of 
sprinkling or of Jesus, ib. 112. How a man should know whether it be sprink 
led upon his soul, ib. 113. A very great privilege to be sprinkled therewith, 
ib. 116. The benefits flowing from the blood of Jesus, ib. 116. The blood 
of Jesus, the blood of sprinkling ; what we shall do to get our hearts sprinkled 
therewith, ib. 118. What our duty is if our hearts be sprinkled therewith, 
ib. 121. 

BOASTING, excluded by the actings of spiritual life, i. 390. 

BOLDNESS at a throne of grace, warranted by the indwelling of Christ by his 
Spirit, i. 373. 

BRAND plucked from the burning, so saints, i. 27. 

BROTHER, Christ a brother to his church, i. 3, 172. 

BROTHERLY love, commended, ii. 432. Profitable, ib. 434. Why should not all 
abound therein, ib. 436. If real, is a praying love, ib. 437. How far it is to 
be exercised, ib. 438. It consists in the matter of our judgments, ib. 438. 
And of our affections, ib. 438. \nd of our practice, ib. 438. How it can be 
increased, ib. 439. The things which hinder it, ib. 441. 

BROWNISTS, their tenets, v. 313. 

CALL, of Christ, an insurance of blessing, i. 84. Rules in calls from one condi 
tion to another, ib. 103. The advantage of considering one s call to a work, 
ii. 335. 

CALLED, the duty of all who are, v. 169. How shall we know if we be so truly, 
ib. 171. What we shall do that we may walk worthy of God who hath called 
us, ib. 174. 

CALLING, every man s duty to abide by his, v. 75, 77. A good one a great 
mercy, ib. 75, An aptness in us to change it, ib. 77. Not absolutely unlaw 
ful for a man to change his calling, ib. 77. Some cases of conscience answered 
about the change of it, ib. 79. Every man s duty to walk with God therein, 
ib. 82. What a man should do that he may walk with God therein, ib. 83. 
Motives to walk with God therein, ib. 87. What is the calling of the saints, 
ib. 166. How God brings a man to himself in a way of calling, ib. 167. 

CANDLESTICKS, figurative of the churches, iii. 352. 

CARNALITY, what we fhall do that we may be rid thereof, v. 130. 

CARPENTERS, the three in Zechariah s vision symbolical of God s workmen, iv. 
329. Their work, ib. 332. When they arise the times are troublous, ib. 337. 

CAST-DOWN, a psalm for the afflicted and cast-down, ii. 25. How far it is pos 
sible for a good man to be cast-down, ib. 26. 

CAUSE, actions attributable to each particular cause, not to the universal, i. 269. 

CENSER, Christ s golden, i. 47. 

CENSURES of the church, appointed by Christ, iv. 136. 

CHANGES of believers, how they stand with grace, ii. 34. The evil therein, 
ii. 35. 


CHRIST, made like unto his brethren, i. 3. As such a suitable High Priest, ib. 
4. His priestly office a source of support against temptation, ib. 4. A 
means of reconciliation, ib. 4. No terror in it, ib. 6. Those of his excel 
lencies most opposed are most beneficial, ib. 6. The only relief for sin, ib. 
7, 14. His priestly office a magazine of grace and comfort, ib. 21. Unknown 
to professors, ib. 21. He was in the bosom of his Father from eternity, ib. 
29. Received honourably into heaven, ib. 31. He sat down at God s right- 
hand, ib. 31. He did so as High Priest, ib. 31. Anointed to intercede, ib. 
40. His willingness to intercede for those who believe, ib. 40. Anointed as 
an Advocate, ib. 41. His public acknowledgement of sinners, an incentive 
to open discipleship, ib. 44. Fore-ordained to his work, ib. 51. His favour 
with God improved for the saints good, ib. 52. Himself and his saints 
equally loved of God, ib. 54. Greater than Moses and Elias, ib. 65. He 
washed his disciples feet, ib. 67. His relation to his people, ib. 73. His 
apparent contrarieties, ib. 100. He succours tempted souls, ib. 109. His 
names, ib. 109. He is the contrary of sin, ib. 109. Casting out devils, ib. 
112. His willingness to succour the tempted, ib. 112. Troubled o deliver 
tempted souls, ib. 113. He wept, ib. 113. His willingness to succour the 
tempted, argued from his willingness when on earth to cure diseased bodies, 
ib. 114. Taking our infirmities and bearing our sicknesses, ib. 115. His 
willingness to succour the tempted, a ground of consolation to the saints, ib. 
120. The same an argument for the saints to succour each other, ib. 122. 
The same an argument to resist sin and temptation, ib. 122. His love and 
care of his people evinced under temptation, ib. 165 70. Testimonies of 
him, ib. 185. Fulness of grace in him, ib. 186. Of his fulness all his peo 
ple have received, ib. 186. His heart in heaven the same towards men as 
when upon earth, ib. 187. The same after death as before, ib. 189. He was 
anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows, ib. 191. His anointing 
running down upon his mystical members, ib. 191. Proofs of the fulness 
of his excellencies, ib. 193. He came himself and graciously visited our 
forefathers in a hidden way, ib. 247. His all-sufficiency, ib. 260. He hath 
taken upon himself all names, ib. 262. Commissioned by God the Father as 
to his fulness, ib. 263. Furnished with ability unto his office by God the 
Father, ib. 264. He and his Father are one, ib. 264. Christ the only one 
fit for his work, ib. 264. The blessedness of being in him, ib. 286. The in- 
being of Christ in believers, ib. 365. It is of a twofold manner, ib. 366. 
His going to the Father, matter of a disciple s rejoicing, iii. 4. Blessings 
proceeding from the same, ib. 4. The glory that followed, ib. 6. The duty 
of believers to rejoice in his exaltation, though it be to their debasement, ib. 
0. How we shall rejoice in it in such a case, ib. 11. His own disciples may 
be wanting in love to him, ib. 11. Love to his person more excellent than 
love to the benefits received from him, ib. 13. Love to benefits received from 
him, is good, ib. 13. Whereiu love to his person, rather than to the benefits 
received from him, excels, ib. 14. What we shall do, that our hearts may be 
drawn out to his person, ib. 17. The knowledge of him insisted upon, ib. 
295. He will come again, iv. 409. He will come at midnight, ib. 410. He 
will come again spiritually and visibly, ib. 409. Upon whom the doctrine of 
his coming at midnight looks wishly, ib. 414. The saints duty flowing hence, 
ib. 416. His coming at midnight, a sign that his personal coming is not far 
off, ib. 421. Sufficient in him to relieve in the worst of times, v. 22. What 
there is in him that can relieve in the worst of times, ib. 26. How it affects 
us. that there is a sufficiency in Christ for the worst of times, ib. 32. His 


sufficiency an encouragement for souls to get into him, ib. 34. Improvements 
of the doctrine of his sufficiency, ib. 34. What we shall do to improve him 
for our relief in the worst of times, ib. 36. His promises for the relief of 
his people in the latter times, ib. 39. 

CHRIST crucified, the object of faith, iii. 20. The one theme of the apostle 
Paul, ib. 20. That which the apostles taught and the churches learned, ib. 
21. What it is to know Christ crucified, ib. 21. How it may appear that it 
is our work to know this, ib. 22. What there is in it desirable to be known, 
ib. 26. Here is a full answer to all the believer s wants, ib. 27. Whether a 
man may live under the gospel, and not know Christ crucified, ib. 28. The 
benefits of a right knowledge of it, ib. 30. A knowledge of this, the best of 
knowledge, ib. 34. What shall be done to know him in a right manner, ib. 
34. The means of attaining a right knowledge of this, ib. 36. The duty of 
such as know him aright, ib. 39. 
CHURCH, the government of by bishops, v. 248. Every church hath a power to 

see to its own preservation, ib. 312. 
CHURCH of God, under the name of a temple, divided into the outer and inner 

court, iii. 343. Its government, iv. 339. 
CHURCHES, love to them evidenced by prayer for them, iv. 23. The churches of 

Christ greatly interested in the prayers of individual believers, ib. 24. 
CIRCUMSTANCES of the Lord s people observed by the Lord, i. 58. 
CITIES of refuge, typical of Christ, i. 110. Cities of our God, what the term 

implies, iv. 33. 

CLAIM, of the people upon the high priest, i. 61. 
COLDNESS of living and dead men, a difference betwixt the, i. 311. 
COMFORT for believers, i. 4, 15, 35, 58. Under temptation, ib. 141, 173, 181. 
Under the trial of faith, ib. 178. Arising from Christ s unchangeableness, 
ib. 189. Arising from Christ s fulness, ib. 211, 218, 221, 239. Arising 
from the indwelling of Christ by his Spirit in believers, ib. 375. Except it 
wholly arise from Christ it will not stand, ii. 31. If laid upon outward bles 
sings, will never hold, ib. 31. Is not without thankfulness, ib. 31. Comfort 
from impressions rather than the word, is not good, ib. 32. It may be known 
where there is no assurance, ib. 129. It is the proper fruit and effect of the 
Holy Ghost, ib. 394. A main part of the kingdom of God, ib. 395. A duty 
and reward, ib. 395. The grace whereby other graces are read, ib. 395. That 
whereby you joy in all good things, ib. 395. It is that grace whereby you are 
enabled to bear up under all afflictions, ib. 395. It is the grace that stablishes 
in the good ways of God. ib. 396. It is that grace that will give a beauty and 
lustre to your profession, ib. 396. Sometimes not experienced by the saints 
for a long time, ib. 396, Beyond the power of any creature to give it, ib. 
397. It is bestowed, by God in a way of free grace, ib. 397. Wherein the 
free grace of God is manifested in the matter of our comfort, ib. 399. Di 
rections in going to God for it, ib. 408. Comfort arising from the doctrine of 
Christ as Mediator, iii. 78. The soul s comfort in God, ib. 162. 
COMFORTED, a great mercy to be truly, ii. 394. When a man may be said to be 
so in a way of free grace, ib. 402. What shall be done in order to be so in a 
way of free grace, ib. 405. 
COMFORTS and Consolations, why God deals with us in a way of free grace in 

the matter of our, ii. 401. 
COMING of Christ, the promise in the Old Testament, i. 71. What it is, iv. 406. 

The manner thereof, ib. 407. Is at our midnight, ib. 408. 
COMING to Christ, a neglect of, a profane state, i. 82. Its duty urged from the 


fulness of Christ, ib. 194. Warranted by Christ s invitation, ib. 195. Simple 
souls welcomed therein, ib. 195. 

COMMANDMENTS, the need of, notwithstanding the indwelling of Christ, i. 386. 

COMMONWEALTH, abuses practised in the time of, stated by Dr. Hammond, v. 
349. The partizans of the parliament justified in the time of the common 
wealth, ib. 350. 

COMMUNION with Christ, enhanced by Christ s indwelling by his Spirit, i. 371. 

COMPANY, marks of good and bad, v. 90. What good company is, ib. 91. 
When a man may be said to keep good company, ib. 92. Why a good man 
will keep it, ib. 93. The benefit of good, ib. 95. The mischief of bad, ib. 
98. Whether a good man in some case may keep evil company, ib. 101. The 
keeping of good or bad a mark of character, ib. 104. Are all alike guilty who 
keep bad, ib. 105. Some words to those who keep both good and bad, ib. 107. 
What we shall do that we may avoid evil and choose good company, ib. 110. 
How to improve good company, ib. 114. 

COMPASSION, Christ full of, i. 33. 

CONDEMNATION, none for the saints, i. 26. 

CONDESCENSION of Christ admirable, i. 188, 350, 373. 

CONDITION, the promise of God made to believers in every condition, ii. 47. Of 
the saints, no cause for discouragement, ib. 228. The saint s is sometimes 
worse after conversion than before in regard of outwards, ib. 229. The saint s 
is carved out by the hand of his Father, ii. 229. Is not to be lived upon, ib. 

230. Is always intermixed with mercy, ib. 231. However mean is no cause 
for discouragement, ib. 232. However unsettled is no cause for discourage 
ment, ib. 234. That of the soul, however sad, no cause of discouragement, 
ib. 236. That of the saint, though apparently different from that of others, 
no cause for discouragement, ib. 251. Ways of preparation against a sad 
condition, iv. 84. Rules for behaving under a sad condition, ib. 86. How to 
have comfort and support therein, ib. 88. 

CONFESSION, the root of a good, iii. 348. 

CONFORMITY, to Christ s image, a great matter, i. 249. To Jesus Christ, the 

fitness of believers, ii. 289. 
CONSOLATION, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. Under the failing of faith, ib. 177. 

See Comfort. 

CONTENTMENT, an evidence of increase of faith, i. 177. A great matter, i. 255. 
CONTROVERSY, of the Lord with his people, ii. 444. 
CONVERSION, the same power required therein as in the resurrection of Christ, i. 

231. A sovereign work, ib. 231. Christ has a greater hand in it than our 
selves, ib. 389. 

CONVERSATION, three things that make up a gracious, i. 326. 

CONVICTION, without faith, will not carry through difficulties, ii. 325. 

CORINTH, the church of, abounded with spiritual gifts, iv. 163. 

CORINTHIANS, the carnality of them, v. 117. 

CORRUPTION, charged by the wicked on Satan as his temptation!, i. 188. 

COUNSELS under temptatzon, i. 153, 157, 159, 160. 

COURAGE, a description of good, iv. 34. Very requisite in evil times, ib. 37. 
For whom it is requisite, ib. 39. 

COVENANT of grace, founded on Christ s satisfaction, i. 18. So is a plea with 
God, ib. 19. That which God made with Noah, ib. 209. The purport of the 
covenant of grace, ib. 210. Difference betwixt that of grace and works, ib. 
267, 330. The covenant of grace insures perseverance 1 , not so that of works, 
ib. 268. Every gracious man is in covenant with God, ii. 103. The covenant 
VOL. V. E B 


of grace the magna charter of the saints privileges, ib. 103. A new cove 
nant stricken with the children of men, iii. 43. What the new covenant is, 
ib. 44. Why it is called new, ib. 46. What its properties are, ib. 50. Who 
the persons are wi h whom God strikes it, ib. 53. The good and evil of being 
in covenant with the Lord, ib. 54. What must be done to get into covenant 
with God, ib. 56. How such as are so shall walk becomingly, ib. 56. Seve 
ral ways wherein we do sin against the covenant, ib. 75. 

COVETOUSNESS, satisfied in Christ s blessing, i. 84. 

CROSS, the bearing it a mark of a true discipie, i. 175. The cross of Christ 
attended with glory, i. 292. 

CRCESUS S son illustrative of believers, iv. 23. 

CURSES, rendered blessings, i. 79. 

CURSERS, converted into blessers, i. 79. 

DANGER, angels succour in the time of the greatest, i. 491. David s example 
how to behave ourselves in such times, v. 45. 

DARKNESS, a fit time for Satan s temptations, i. 129. That of God s people is 
only as of a cloud, ii. 52. How it is evidenced to be but as that of a cloud, 
ib. 53. 

DARK, a good man may be in the, i. 403. A good man may live in a dark part, 
ib. 403. Though a good man may walk in it, yet he hath scripture light to 
walk by, ib. 408. A good man not left in it by God, ib. 410. Impressions 
comfort a good man when in it, ib. 424. 

DAVID and Abigail, i. 29. Christ discovered to David, ib. 245. His history, 
ib. 307. 

DAY of judgment, comfort of hope in the, i. 59. Saints not judged then, ib. 59. 

DAY-DAWN and day-star, what is signified thereby, i. 402. 

DAYS, the 1260 of the witnesses defined, iii. 355. 

DEAD, Christ raised three from the, i. 319. Which illustrates three kinds of 
sinners Christ saves, ib. 319. 

DEADNESS, opposed to liveliness, i. 311. 

DEATH of Christ, voluntary, i. 12. As for sinners, a ground of hope to sin 
ners, ib. 17. Spiritual death, cannot happen to those in whom Christ dwells 
by his Spirit, ib. 372. Fruits and effects of the death of Christ, iii. 219 
240. How it appears that Christ shall see the obtainment of the fruits and 
effects of his death, ib. 240. The death of Christ of particular not universal 
benefit, ib. 246. Fears as to be interested in it, ib. 246. Not equally for all 
men, but expressly beneficial to believers, ib. 259. 

DEBASEMENTS of Christ attended with glory, i. 292. 

DEEP, the Lord s way in the, ii. 314. 

DEFENCE of the witnesses in the days of their prophecy, iii. 359. 

DELIVERANCE, what the saints are to return to God for every, iv. 401. 

DEPART from God, a very dangerous thing to, iii. 427. When a man may be 
said to do so, ib. 427. What we shall do, that we may not do so through 
unbelief, ib. 434. 

DEPARTED, the saints greatly desire his return when the Lord has, iii. 167. 

DEPARTING from God, a disease that Christians are subject to, iii. 426. An un 
believing heart the cause of it, ib. 429. 

DEPARTURES of God, very afflictive to the saints, iii 165. How a soul shall 
know at such a time, that God will return again, ib. 171. How a nation may 
also know it, ib. 176. 


DEPENDENCE upon Christ, how to live in, i. 270. 

DESERT, God doth sometimes, his people for a time, iii. 163. And that for the 
good of others, ib. 165. 

DESERTION times, dark times, i. 407. The saints winter time, ii. 170. The 
lot of all the saints, ib. 174. Not always the fruit of sin, ib. 175. The les 
sons God teaches by it, iii. 163. Faith and love then best seen, ib. 164. 
The saints very sensible of the Lord s departures and desertions, ib. 165. 

DESERTIONS, sometimes the discouragements of the saints are taken from their 
spiritual, ii. 168. No cause for discouragement, ib. 169. 

DESIRE of all nations, Christ is the, i. 194. 

DEVIL, cast out of one who was possessed, iv. 112. 

DEVOTEDNESS of Christ to his church, a reason for their s to him, i. 45. 

DIFFICULTY commends duty, ii. 122. 

DIFFICULTIES, impressions a help to a good man when in, i. 425. How to 
grapple with them, ii. 332. The greater ones our graces are recovered out of, 
the more comfortable they will be, ib. 334. What great ones Jesus Christ 
hath broken through to come to his people, ib. 336. They should never be 
spoken with apart from the promise, ib, 337. Conclusion to come to under 
them, ib. 337. 

DILIGENCE in our particular calling a great matter, i. 254. 

DIRECTIONS, under the want of assurance, ii. 144. How to be of good courage 
in evil times, iv. 46. 

DISCIPLE, difference betwixt a true and false, iv. 212. The sin of a true one, 
ib. 212. 

DISCOURAGED, why God suffers his people to be, ii. 27. What must be done 
that believers may not be, ib. 58. Why the saints have no reason for it, not 
withstanding sin, ib. 65. Why the saints have no reason to be discouraged 
under their sin, though it be one never pardoned before, ib. 69. The same, 
though their sin be against conscience, light and knowledge, ib. 70. The 
same, though gross and heinous, ib. 70. The same, though revolting or 
declining, ib. 71. The same, though they have sinned foully, and yet feel they 
cannot repent enough, ib. 73. Difference betwixt being discouraged and hum 
bled, ib. 77. W T hat we should do that we may not be discouraged under afflic 
tions, whether public or private, ib. 204. 

DISCOURAGEMENT of a gracious spirit, ii. 3. Remedies against it, ib. 3. The 
saints have no reason for it, whatever their condition be, ib. 43, 56. What is 
in or for the saints, that may be a sufficient bulwark against it, ib. 45. None 
met with by the saints, but a greater encouragement is bound up with it, ib. 
50. Reproof for some of God s people under it, argued from the transitory 
nature of their trials, ib. 55. Believer s apology for it, ib. 55. Exhortation 

to beware of it, ib. 57. Reasons against it, ib. 57. Whence drawn, ib. 63. 
Sometimes arises from the saints greater sins, ib. 63. Under great sins 
argued against, from its being itself a further sin, ib. 64. What a man should 
do to bear up his heart against it, and yet be humbled, ib. 79. In the saints 
it sometimes arises from the weakness of their graces, ib. 83. Arising from 
the unserviceableness of weakness in grace, ib. 93. Arising from weakness of 
grace, ib. 94. Sometimes the case with God s people through the want of 
their evidence for heaven, ib. 124. What must be done to bear up against it 
under temptation, ib. 163. And under spiritual desertion, ib. 182. 

DISCOURAGEMENTS, make afflictions to stay the longer, ii. 188. Those of the 
saints do arise Irom their employments, ib. 206. What must be done to bear 
up against all discouragements in the work of God, ib. 224. Those of God s 


people sometimes drawn from their condition, ib. 228. The groundlessness 
of the saints discouragements, a necessity to consider whether we be in Christ 
or no, ib. 252. Which holds forth an invitation for souls to come to Christ, 
ib. 253. Which urges them to see that they walk in the comforts of the Holy 
Ghost, ib. 254. Faith a help against all discouragements, ib. 275. The 
means appointed against, ib. 255. 

DISTRESS, an opportunity for God s appearance, ii. 55. 

DIVISIONS, between friends, the work of Satan, i. 132. That time a dark time, 
ib. 407. 

DOUBTS, as to interest in Christ s intercession, i. 37, 39, 43, 176. As to com 
ing to Christ, ib. 44. As to the acceptance of our prayers, ib. 55. Arising 
from infirmity, ib. 56. As to Christ s sanctifination of duty, ib. 60. As to 
interest in Christ s blessing, ib. 80. They are favourable to temptation, ib. 
99. Of Christ s willingness to succour in temptation, ib. 118. Respecting 
interest in justification, ib. 121. Arising from temptation, ib. 137, 174. 
Through mistaking temptation for corruption, ib. 138. Answers to them, ib. 
174. Concerning faith, ib. 177. As to interest in Christ s fulness, ib. 220. 
Of possessing spiritual life, ib. 311. Whether justified by faith alone, or no, 
ib. 333. Of protection in the time of plague, ib. 481. Whether peace be 
true or false, ii. 17. Of finding comfort in reading the Scriptures, ib. 40. 
Arising from the Lord apparently not answering prayer, ib. 114. From the 
length of time of a temptation, ib. 154. In the time of desertion, ib. 173. 
Arising from afflictions, ib. 193. Whether afflictions proceed from God s 
love, ib. 200. From want of abilities in God s work, ib. 213. Arising from 
the saints mean condition, ib. 232. From an unsettled condition, ib. 234. 
Originating in a sad state of soul, ib. 236. Of proving a hypocrite at last, 
240. Arising from the doctrine of God s decrees, ib. 243. As to personal 
interest in Christ s redemption, arising from the particular nature of it, ib. 
250. Arising from the apparent dissimilarity of condition with that of the 
saints, ib. 251. Through delay of the promise, ib. 272. Doubts in the soul, 
whether it hath had some special mercy, or no, ib. 290. Of possessing the 
fear of the Lord, ib. 425. 

DRAKE (Mrs.) troubled in conscience respecting the sin against the Holy Ghost, 
iv. 206. 

DREAMS, much vanity in, i. 420. They do not consist with the fear of God, 
ib. 420. Are uncertain, ib. 420. Difficulty of ascertaining whether they are 
from God or the devil, ib. 420. To interpret them the work of a prophet, ib. 
421. Whether God speaks by them now or not, ib. 421. No ordinance of 
God, ib. 421. No mark of God s love, ib. 421. Have been had by the 
wicked, ib. 421. The soul not to be ventured upon them, ib. 421. Inferior 
to the light of Scripture, ib. 422. Dreams and voices, a bard matter and un 
profitable, ib. 423. 

DOORS, three great ones to be opened before a man s conversion, i. 261. 

DUTY, of the saints to resist temptation, i. 123. It is not to stand in the room 

[; of Christ, ib. 332. Exactness in it a mark of growing in grace, ii. 98. Of 
heartlessness in it as a cause of discouragement, ib. 107. The excellency of 
enlargements in it, ib. 108. 

DUTIES, sanctified by Christ as Mediator, i. 49, 57. Accepted in him, ib. 54, 
66. None lost, ib. 58. The least not despised by Christ, ib. 62. Flowing 
from Christ s fulness, ib. 194. Arising from an answerableness of grace in 
the saints to every grace of Christ, ib. 287. Called for on possessing spiritual 
life, ib. 316. No ground of acceptance with God, ib. 332. When a man 


may be said to make them a ground of acceptance with God, ib. 333. Flow 
ing from the indwelling of Christ by his Spirit, ib. 379. Christ a greater 
hand in them than ourselves, ib. 389. May be observed unprofitably, ii. 37. 
Failings in them, sometimes the cause of the saints discouragements, ib. 101. 
Christ in all the saints duties, ib. 103. 

ELECT, chosen in God from eternity, v. 373. Not justified from eternity, ib. 374. 

Not justified at the resurrection of Christ, ib. 377. 

ELECTION-, the doctrine of, no cause for discouragement, ii. 243. The doctrine 
set forth, ib. 243. How a man may know his election of God, ib. 244. When 
musing thereon the saint beholds God as a potter, ib. 305. 

ENCOURAGEMENT, from Christ s willingness to intercede, i. 43. For sinners to 
come to Christ, ib. 43, 62, 81. To look for the Lord s blessing, ib. 81. To 
go on in the ways of Christ, ib. 83. To good and bad men to come to Christ, 
ib. 218, 257. To saints who doubt their interest in 1 Christ s fulness, ib. 220. 
To the godly to come to Christ, ib. 257. To come unto God in prayer, duty, 
&c., ii. 120. Under the want of assurance, ib. 139. To doubting souls la 
bouring under sad temptations, ib. 162. In the time of spiritual desertion, ii. 
177. Arising from God s putting the sentence of death upon his chiefest 
blessings, ib. 299, 311. Three words of encouragement to the English volun 
teers, iv. 43. To hearken unto Christ as a Prophet, ib. 160. 

ENCOURAGEMENTS, to be thankful in every condition, iv. 107. 

ENEMIES, to Christ, a cursed state, i. 82. God himself hath many, iv. 4. The 
children of God being in covenant with God, their enemies are his, ib. 5. The 
Lord is pleased for a time to sleep unto his enemies, ib. 6 When God ariseth 
then his enemies are scattered, ib. 8. Who are God s, ib 13. The enemies 
of God cannot endure the sight of God, ib. 16. Our prayers do raise up 
God to the scattering of our enemies, ib. 20. Of the church, and the saints 
strength against them, ib. 326. 

ENGLAND, the ruling power thereof considered, v. 277. Its misfortunes, ib. 323. 
The causes of its misfortunes, ib. 324. Her religion and ordinances clearer 
during her misfortunes ib. 324. 

ENGLAND S mercy, how to open a way to, and appease God s anger, iv. 68. 

ENJOYMENT of God, a gospel blessing, i. 69. The meanest employment and the 
highest enjoyment may stand together, ib. 495. 

ENVY, there is none in heaven, iii. 323. 

EPHESUS, Christ commends the church of, for many things, iv. 240. 

ERRONEOUS times dark times, i. 406. 

ESAU, a profane man, i. 82. His vain search for a place of repentance, ib. 82. 

ESTABLISHED, a man unfit to look upon trouble until his heart be established in 
God by believing, iii. 161. Great evil of not being so in the truth, iv. 273. 
What we shall do that we may be established in the truth, ib. 273. What a 
nation shall do that they may be so established, ib. 274. Also, what a church 
shall do so to be, ib. 276. Also what particular persons shall do so to be, ib. 
278. W T hat a man shall do that he may so be in the ways of God, ib. 283. 

ESTABLISHMENT in the truth, the blessing thereof, what it is, iv. 261. 

ETERNAL generation of Chriet di covered to old testament believers, i. 245. 

;ELICAL, when a man maybe said to be so in opposition to Moses, iii. 86. 

EVIDENCES, for heaven, in God s keeping, ii. 138. 

EVIL times described, iv. 38, 

EXCELLENCIES of Christ, i. 89. 


EXHORTATION, to hear Christ, i. 63. To come to Christ, ib. 82, 85, 196. How 
to acl under temptation, ib. 104. To turn away from temptation, ib. 104. To 
trust in Christ as a succouring Saviour, ib. 121. To keep a sense of Christ s 
love on the approach of temptation, ib. 123. To look unto Christ in tempta 
tion, ib. 124. To give the soulinto Christ s hands in temptation, ib. 124. To 
rest upon Christ in temptation, ib. 125. Not to despise any means when under 
temptation, ib. 125. Not to live upon the letter of the promise in such times, 
ib. 125. To go to Christ under all temptations, ib. 127. To the wicked to 
seek after Christ s fulness, ib. 218. To live by faith, ib. 242. To duties 
arising from Christ s fulness, ib. 291. To fellowship with Christ in his suffer 
ings, ib. 291. To get the indwelling of Christ in the soul, ib. 380. For the 
saints to love one another, ii. 443. To pray for the army under the Prince of 
Orange, iv. 28. To volunteer in the service of one s country, ib. 41. To be 
all of good courage, ib. 45. To give thanks to God in every thing, ib. 94. 

EXPERIENCE, Christian, great matters in, i. 253. Its light borrowed from Scrip 
ture, ib. 431. Short of the Scriptures, ib. 431. A great help to faith, ib. 
431. Cannot heal our unbelief, ib. 431. Its use, ib. 431. It brings forth 
hope, ib. 431 . A help to, but not the ground of faith, ib. 431. Through all, 
trust in the promise, ib. 432. It must be reduced to the written word, ib. 432. 
The test of some, ii. 290. Experience of former mercies, without faith, will 
not carry through difficulties to Christ, ib. 327. 

FAITH, strong, productive of great holiness, i. 19. Strengthened by Christ s 
priestly office, ib. 19, 20. Of the woman with the issue of blood, ib. 38. 
The object of the epistle to the Hebrews to strengthen it, ib. 89. A shield in 
time of temptation, ib. 105. An anchor in the sea of temptation, ib. 105. 
What it is to fail in faith, ib. 147. The inconvenience of failing therein, ib. 

149. To fail in it, a loss of comfort, ib. 149. To fail in it, a loss of present 
prize, ib. 149. To fail therein a loss of the sweetness of promised mercy, ib. 

150. Why Satan designs upon it in time of temptation, ib. 152. How Satan 
weakens it in time of temptation, ib. 152. The three acts of faith, ib. 153. 
Satan s attack upon the faith of reliance, ib. 153. Satan s attack upon the 
faith of assurance, ib. 156. Disagreement between faith and doubting a plea 
of Satan, ib. 158. Satan s attack upon the faith of acknowledgment, ib, 159. 
Two differences of feeling in faith, ib. 176. Feelings that accompany faith, ib. 
176. Reliance upon grace an evidence of its increase, ib. 177. The grace 
most put on in Scripture, ib. 232. Faith and love the two wheels of spiritual 
obedience, ib. 235. Justifying faith makes a man live a spiritual life, ib. 352. 
It makes a man deny himself, ib. 352. Hopes of having all faith, ib. 353. 
Self-denial a mark of true faith, ib. 354. What that is which God has pro 
mised to honour in the time of plague and pestilence, ib. 471. The ground of 
the faith of assurance, ii. 250. The ground of the faith of reliance, ib. 250. 
That of reliance before assurance, ib. 251. How its exercise will allay discou 
ragements, ib. 257. The Christian s duty to exercise it when discouragements 
arise, ib. 260. Its power to allay and bear up under discouragements, ib. 261. 
It sees that in God which answers to all wants, ib. 263. It puts the soul under 
God s commandment, and leaves God to answer all that may come thereby, ib. 
265. Its proper work is the resignation of our wills to God, ib. 266. Is to 
fall with a suitable promise and apply it, ib. 266. Is to trade with the call of 
God, ib. 266. Is to see the hand of God in every dispensation, ib. 266. Is 
to look on both sides of God s dispensations and of our condition, ib. 266. Is 
to see one contrary in another, ib. 266. Is to engage God to succour, ib. 267. 


The difference betwixt feigned and unfeigned faith, ib. 267, How it is to be 
exercised to bear the heart up against all discouragements, ib. 268. Its several 
helps stated, ib. 274. Abraham s faith commended, ib. 283. The matter of 
it, ib. 283. The subject of it, ib. 283. The manner of it, ib. 283. The 
cause of it, ib. 283. The effect of it, ib. 283. The great field faith hath to 
work in, ib. 304. Such to be exercised unto God as is suitable unto him, ib. 
307. Its great necessity urged, ib. 310. No difficulties can stand before it, 
ib. 318, 332. True justifying faith will carry through all difficulties to Jesus 
Christ, ib. 321. It carries through abundance of difficulties, ib. 324. What 
is in saving faith that can carry the soul through difficulties to Christ, ib. 327. 
It shows the soul the invisible things of God, ib. 328. It tells the soul that 
all things are its own, ib. 328. It shows greater excellencies in Christ than 
all difficulties can come to, ib. 329. It enables the soul to leave the event of 
all with God, ib. 329. It is that whereby the soul takes up the yoke of Christ, 
ib. 330. It teacheth to pick up the love of God from under his anger, ib. 331. 
It fills the soul with God s infinity, ib. 331. Strengthened by the strength of 
that God which it grasps upon, ib 332. How a man shall raise his faith as he 
may break through all to Christ, ib. 332. The soul s venture upon Christ, ib. 
333. Called in Scripture, knowledge, ib. 334. The great things it can do 
under all circumstances, ib. 338. An active grace, ib. 340. Faith incarnate 
is our sanctificatiou, ib. 341. The first worker in the soul, ib. 341. Can turn 
its hand to every work, ib. 341. Works best when it works alone, ib. 341. 
And, sometimes, when it works in the dark, ib. 341. The longer it works the 
better, ib. 342. What are the great things it will do, ib. 342. The matters 
which it accomplishes, ib. 342. The three great agents which faith out-works 
in the world, ib. 344. How it appears it can do greater things than gospel 
parts and common grace, ib. 346. How it comes to pass that saving faith can 
do such great things, ib. 348. The want of faith is the cause of so little work 
ing for God. ib. 350. When there is any great work to do, it should be called 
in, ib. 351. How it should be so improved as we may do great things thereby, 
ib. 352. True saving faith can and will suffer very hard things, ib. 359. It 
will keep from fainting under suffering, ib. 362. How it carries through all 
sufferings, ib. 365. How it should be improved as that we may bear up under 
sufferings, ib. 369. Faith and repentance no conditions of the covenant, iii. 
267. Faith commended by the Lord Jesus, iv. 123. In what lies the strength 
of faith, ib. 124. 

FAITHFULNESS, Christ beyond Moses therein, i. 34. 

FATHER and Brother, Christ as both to his people, i. 3, 172. 

FEARS removed, i. 4, 63. Of approaching a throne of grace, ib. 63. As to 
possessing spiritual life, ib. 319, 391. Whether Christ indwells by his Spirit 
or no, ib. 375. Whether called to the Lord s work or no, ii. 215. Saint 
fears to believe when all means fail, ib. 312. Of presuming, ib. 315. Ex 
pressed for ths safety of the church in England, iv. 74. Of miscarriage under 
a sad condition, ib. 91. Whether Christ and the promise belong to the soul 
or no, ib. 126. Of having sinned against the Holy Ghost, ib. 202. 

FEAR of God, twofold, servile and filial, ii. 423. A man possessing it cannot do 
as others do, ib. 424. What is in it that causes the soul not to do as others 
do, ib. 425. Is it possible for a man having it to do as others do, ib. 426. 

FEAR the Lord, if a man do truly, what is the issue thereof, ii. 427. Marks 
of so doing, ib. 429. Directions for strengthening it. ib. 431. 

FEARNE S (Dr.) argument, what it is, v. 201. To whom his treatise is injuri 
ous, ib. 252. 


FELLOWSHIP with Christ, the blessedness of, i. 278, 289. 

FIRE which consumed the sacrifices under the law, typical, i. 60. 

FIRST-BORN, Christ as, i. 260. 

FOLLOWING Christ, reasons for, i. 46. The mark of a disciple, ib. 175. 

FORGIVENESS, matter of the saints rejoicing, i. 37. 

FORSAKE, how God and Christ doth his church, ii. 171. How far so, ib. 172. 
God doth not, unless we forsake him, ib. 180. When he doth so finally, and 
how known, ib. 179. 

FREE grace, its benefits, i. 241. 

FRIEND, Christ one that never dies, i. 36. One that never changes, ib. 37. A 
blessed state to have Christ as one, ib. 82. Christ as a friend, ib. 172. God 
such to his people, ib. 190. 

FRIENDSHIP, the greatest between Christ and a believer, i. 384. 

FRUIT must be gathered, so spiritually, i. 22. 

FRUITFUL, how to be, i. 271. 

FRUITS of Christ, the best fruits, i. 22. Enumerated, ib. 22. 

FULNESS, of the saints, the fulness of sufficiency, ib. 191. Of Christ s fulness 
a fulness of efficiency, ib. 191. That of the saints a paticular fulness, ib. 191. 
That of Christ an universal fulness, ib. 191. That of saints ebb and flow, ib. 
191. That of Christ is a dwelling fulness, ib. 192. Is a reason for trussing 
in him, ib. 196. How it may be drawn forth, ib. 197. Sufficient for all his 
people, ib. 199. The glory arising from it due to himself, ib. 199. Who it 
is receives of it, ib. 201. Partaken of by all his saints, ib. 202. Commu 
nicated to all believers, ib. 202. The willingness of Christ to communicate of 
his to his people, ib. 205. Christ s p easure in communicating his to his 
saints, ib. 206. Nothing can hinder Christ from communicating his to belie 
vers ib. 208. The fulness of grace in a believer often hid from himself, ib. 

211. The fulness of Christ not communicated as an universal cause, ib. 211. 
But, communicated in proportion, ib. 212. Or, according to necessity, ib. 

212. The fulness of Christ and of the world compared, ib. 213. Christ s 
fulness a sufficiency under all temptations, ib. 219. And against all discou 
ragements, ib. 219. And, against all afflictions, ib. 219. Christ s fulness had 
by the saints in a way of receiving, ib. 222. Objections to the doctrine of 
Christ s fulness had in a way of receiving, ib. 234. The objections answered, 
ib. 234. Why the Lord hath so ordered it, ib. 236. A mark of God s infi 
nite care over believers, ib. 238. A great mark of union with Christ, so con- 
trarywise, ib. 240. A proof of salvation being by grace, ib. 241. Christ s 
fulness does not derogate from the Father, ib. 162. But, conducive to the 
Father s honour, ib. 262. The good arising therefrom, ib. 270. A reason for 
hallowing his name, ib. 272. Fulness of Christ conducive to grace and holi 
ness, ib. 284. 

GENTILES, Christ forbids his disciples to go unto them, yet goes himself, iv. 114. 

GIFTS, the work of the high priest to offer them, i. 46. As such, Christ s work, 
ib. 48. Received by Christ for the rebellious also, ib. 221. The gifts of the 
Holy Ghost had in a way of receiving, ib. 223. All good gifts come from 
above, ib. 260. The two great gifts of God, ib. 290. Their meanness no 
cause for discouragement in duties, ii. 104. Christ possessed better than them 
all, ib. 105. Their want recompensed by the Lord some other way, ib. 106. 
Gifts and parts without faith will not carry through difficulties to Christ, ib. 
Their excellency, iv. 163. May all desire them, ib. 163. Their way distinct 
from that of grace, ib. 164. What excellency there is in them, ib. 164. 


Wherein grace and love is more excellent than them, ib. 166. Not the foun 
dation of religion, ib. 176. 
GLORY, degrees in, iii. 301. 
GOD and man, Christ as, i. 72. 

GOD S children, being in covenant with him, their enemies are his enemies, iv. 5. 
GOD, seen of the saints only in Christ, i. 72. How he is to be presented to the 

soul, ii. 82. 
GOD the Father, his pleasure in Christ, i. 32, 54. His trusting in Christ, ib. 51. 

The right of all things in his hand, ib. 264. 

GODLY men, of contrary dispositions to the world, i. 344. Tender of trenching 

on the Lord s prerogative, ib. 344. Do not make away with themselves, ii. 156. 

GOING forth of the Israelites, their prayer at that time, iv. 4. 

GOSPEL, the nature of gospel perfection, i. 56. Tempered with the law in Old 

Testament times, ib. 247. Cumbered with ceremonial rights under the law, 

ib. 248. Disparagement between the law and the gospel, ib. 248. Its way 

a self-denying way, ib. 341. Its objections to working self denial in men, ib. 

345. The holy Ghost fulfils it in the soul, ib. 387. What we shall do that 

we may be found with a gospel spirit, iii. 98. Its preaching a regenerating 

work. ib. 320. 

GOVERNMENT, nature of, v. 262. Whether annexed to primogeniture, ib. 274. 

Government of Israel under judges not monarchial, ib. 275. 
GOVERNORS, commanding that which is evil, have no power above other private 

men, asserted from several divines, v. 287. 

GRACE, conducive to grace, i. 35. Larger under the gospel, ib. 61. Grace and 
gifts increased by Christ, ib. 76. Grace and gifts provoke Satan s malice, ib. 
131. Grace for grace received by the saints, ib. 186. Controversy on the 
meaning of the words grace for grace, ib. 186. Sometimes taken for love and 
favour, ib. 187, 259, 277. Or, holiness, ib. 187, 189, 223, 259, 277. Or, 
for gifts or ability, ib. 137, 192, 223, 259. The weak in grace Christ s pecu 
liar care, ib. 188. Its fulness in Christ, ib. 189. Christ s fulness thereof, 
a reason for more among the saints, ib. 198. A treasury of grace and holi 
ness in Christ, ib. 203. Not to be resisted with an overcoming resistance, ib. 
210. Of Christ causes the saints fruitfulness, ib. 224. A supernatural thing, 
ib. 230. An abundance of grace received by believers, ib. 249. An abun 
dance of grace discovered, ib. 244. Doctrines of grace known imperfectly 
under the law, ib. 248. Reason why so little grace is seen among the saints, 
ib. 250. The opposition of it, ib. 250. Grace, its retinue, ib. 251. The 
mystery of it, ib. 252. Grace of God not to be lowered or degraded, ib. 255. 
The more received, the more sin is aggravated, ib. 256. All received from 
Christ, ib. 258. The meaning of the word, ib. 259. Sometimes taken for 
God s assistance, ib. 259, 277. Sometimes is used for an office in the church, 
ib. 259. Grace in the heart, sent thither by Christ, ib. 261. Dispensations of 
grace so ordered by God, as that he m ly delight in the duties of his people, 
ib. 265. Objections as to all coming from Christ, ib. 266. The habit of it 
dependent on Christ, ib. 267. Exclusive of all boasting, ib .269. An answer- 
ableness of it in every Christian to that of Christ, ib. 276. Sometimes used for 
privilege, ib. 277. An answerableness of it in the Christian to every grace of 
Christ ib. 282. Duties arising therefrom, ib. 287. Growing in grace a true 
sign of spiritual life, ib. 312. The disadvantages of weakness in grace, ii. 85. 
No reason for discouragement in weak grace, ib. 87. If true grace, though 
weak, it involves as great an interest in Christ for justification as the strong 
Christian has, ib. 88. Promises fall thick upon those that are weak in grace, 
TOL. V. F F 


ib. 88. Why and wherefore the weak in grace, are encouraged by Christ, ib, 
90. Weakness in grace uncomfortable, ib. 91. The weakness of grace ac 
companied with doubts and fears, ib. 92. Strength of grace accompanied with 
joy and comfort, ib. 92. Though weak it may do much for God. ib. 94. 
What true grace will do and not do in opposition to common grace, ib. 96. 
The freeness of the grace of God, ib. 381. The grace of God is free both for 
service and for suffering, ib. 382. Growing in grace the great aim of the 
saints, iii. 280. The end of sanctified afflictions, ib. 281. The end of Christ s 
coming, ib. 281. The duty of the saints to aim at growing in grace, ib. 281. 
The characteristic state of the saints to grow in grace, ib. 282. Growing in 
grace ttnobservable sometimes to the saints themselves, ib. 283. Fears as to 
its growth, ib. 284. In what it consists, ib. 285. Doubts of growth in grace 
answered, ib. 285. Growing in grace fourfold, ib. 287. Certain signs of 
growth In grace, ib. 288. What we shall do that we may insure cur growth in 
grace, ib. 291. Means for growth in grace, ib. 295. When we do grow 
therein then our gifts and graces multiply, ib. 295. Evidences of saving grace, 
ib. 303. Its way distinct from the way of gifts, iv. 164. Grace and love be 
yond gifts, a doctrine that looks wishly upon those who have gifts and those 
who have none, ib. 171. Grace and gifts ; in what they differ, ib. 172. Great 
difference betwixt a variety of grace and instability of spirit, ib. 2/2. 

GREAT matters, in experience, i. 253. Connected with leaving any thing for 
Christ, iii. 327. 

GREATNESS of God, by what it is illustrated, iii. 124. 

HABITATION, a sore affliction for a man to be driven from his, and aliens brought 
into it, iv. 75. What a man s is to him, ib. 75. 

HABITATIONS, God many times suffers his own people to be driven from their s, 
iv. 77. Four causes why men have been driven from their s, ib. 78. Why 
God suffers his children to be thus driven from their s. ib. 80. 

HAND, an instrument of work, i. 190. The names of the saints written on the 
Lord s hand, ib. 190. 

HANDS of God, what is meant by the phrase, v. 150. A good thing to resign 
our souls into his hands, ib. 151. The benefit of resigning our souls therein, 
ib. 153. 

HAND-LEADING of Jesus Christ to the Father, i. 49, 191. 

HAPPINESS, wherein true doth consist, v. 54. How to obtain true happiness r 
by the light of God s countenance shining on his soul, ib. 58. 

HAPPY, how a man should know whether he hath been rendered truly so, by the 
light of God s countenance shining on his soul, v. 55. 

HEART-SEARCHINGS, through limiting Christ s fulness, i. 200. Through taking 
to creature sources rather than to Christ s fulness, ib. 200. 

HEAVEN, to be saved and go to, a matter of infinite concernment, ii. 410. Its 
blessedness, ib. 410. How the way to it maybe made sweet and easy, iv. 286. 

HEAVENS, a teaching work in them, i. 438. A knowledge of them unable to 
convert the soul, ib. 438. The lights thereof are for signs, ib. 438. Fore- 
shew the weather, ib. 438. Import God s displeasure, ib. 438. An ordinary 
sign when to sow, plant, &c. ib. 438. Are signs for mariners, ib. 438. Man 
foretelling events thereby, puts himself in the chair of God, ib. 438. 

HELL, contentedness to go there no saving mark, i. 357. A man may endure its 
very torments in this life, iii. 210. Degrees of torments therein, ib. 301. 

HIDINGS of God s face, the saints very sensible of it, i. 304. A. Christian to be 
thankful under it, iv. 99. 


HIGH -PRIEST, his work, i. 7, 35, 46, 67, 85, 111. The Jewish always acces* 
sible, so Christ, ib. 17. Christ beyond all former ones, ib. 33, 53, 72. Christ 
the most faithful, ib. 33. 115. Christ one that ever liveth, ib. 34, 45, 111. 
The work of the Jewish occasional, Christ s perpetual, ib. 34, 53. Christ a 
suitable and sympathetic one, ib. 90, 108. Christ as High Priest, ib. 4, 14, 
50, 89, 111, Christ as such cannot refuse to shew mercy, ib. 20. Christ a 
merciful and faithful one, ib. 90. A type of Christ, ib. Ill, 189. 

HOLINESS, Christ s priestly office conducive thereto, i. 21, 15, 57, 62, 63. The 
blessing of Christ conducive thereto, ib. 78, 81. Christ s credit with the Fa. 
ther conducive thereto, ib. 179. A fulness of it in Christ, ib. 190. The im 
puted righteousness of Christ a source thereof, ib. 325. Justification a 
source of it, ib. 321, 329. Objections thereto, ib. 327. Remission of sin a 
source thereof, ib. 325. Spiritual life an occasion of it, ib. 397. 

HOLY GHOST, the promise of the Father, i. 70. Is in all believers, ib. 3^4. 
His indwelling a recompence for an absent Christ, ib. 384. He works no fur 
ther than God pleases, ib. 387. He comes into the soul to fulfil the gospel, ib, 
387. His Godhead asserted from the nature of the sin against him, iv. 200. 

HOLY of holiest, entrance into, belonged only to the high priest, i. 24. Typical 
of heaven, ib. 24. Its appurtenances, ib. 46. Christ enters therein with his 
people, ib. 53. The entrance of the high priest therin, ib. 90. 

HOLY things, their iniquity taken away by Christ as High Priest, i. 50. 

floNOUR, ho,v to honour Christ, i. 272. Christ gets it when we offer up our 
Christs to him, ib. 272. We honour Christ when we count it a great matter 
to belong to him, ib. 273. Or, when we offer him the best, ib. 273. Or, 
when we honour his work, ib. 274. Or, when we trust on him for help, ib. 

274. Or, when we walk worthily, ib. 274. Or t by a constancy in grace, ib. 

275. Or, by humility, ib. 275. Or, by standing for him in days of declen 
sion, ib. 275. Or, when we stoop to any work for him, ib. 276. 

HOOPER S (Bp.) prophecy, iv. 339. 
HOPE in God, what it is, ii. 255. 
HYPOCRITE, how such are known, ii. 241. 

IDLENESS breeds temptation, ii. 200. 

I-MPRESSIONS on the soul, whether by a particular word or not, inferior to the 
Scripture, i. 423. Not our daily food, but the word, ib. 423. Made excel 
lent by Scripture, ib. 423. The danger of walking and living by them, ib. 

424. Good people kept unsettled by them, ib. 424. Followed by some to 
the neglect of Christ s ordinances, ib. 424. Often end in apostacy, ib. 424. 
Sometimes regarded to the neglect of the word impressed, ib. 424. Of what 
use they are, ib. 424. Whether light shines through them, ib. 424. They 
comfort in the time of temptations, desertion or affliction, ib. 424. Not the 
certain judge of doctrines, ib. 425. Instanced in the case of Mr. Fox, ib. 

425. Only from God, when strictly coinciding with the word, ib. 426. Are 
from the devil, when Scripture is perverted, ib. 426. Sometimes injured by 
a misapplication, ib. 427. 

INABILITY of man to any thing that is good, i. 225. To overcome sin by na 
ture, ib. 225. To rise when once fallen, ib. 226. To stand spiritually, ib. 
227. To do any good work, ib. 228. To prepare himself unto what is good, 
ib. 229. 

INCKNSK, mingled with the people s prayers, i. 47. 50. That of Christ s inter 
cession mingled with the saint s prayers and duties, ib. 18. 

lxj>iFKKiu;.s r things, in what they consist, ivt 301. 


INDWELLING, of the Holy Ghost, a gospel blessing, i. 70. That of Christ by 
the Spirit, what no hypocrite can attain unto, ib. 372. Christ thus in belie 
vers, an argument against the opposition of men to them, ib. 374. It causes 
the soul to do great things for God, ib. 375. Evidenced by the servants that 
go in and out of the soul, ib. 376. Naturalizes the soul to Christ s work, ib. 
376. Carries its own witness, ib. 376. Grace in the soul an evidence of it, 
ib. 377. 

INIQUITY, the ground of Satan s accusations, i. 27. 

INSURING office, Christ s, i. 58. 

INVITATION, to come to Christ, i. 44, 83. 

INTERCESSION, the essential part of Christ s priestly office, i. 24. Wherein it 
consists, ib, 24, 27. Its power, &c. ib. 28, 30. Illustrated by David and 
Abigail, ib. 29. Conducive to grace and holiness, ib. 36, 43. For whom it 
is made, ib. 38. The end of Christ s ascension, ib. 43. Its acceptance with 
God, ib. 51. Best security of the saints in temptation, ib. 146. 

INTEREST of Christ with God the Father, i. 28. 

ISAAC S blessing surpassed by Christ, i. 79. 

ISRAEL, did not forcibly rescue Jonathan out of the hands of Saul, v. 293. 

ISRAELITES, followed the manners of the Egyptians, so saints, i. 97. Provoked 
to destroy the Egyptians, so saints, ib. 97. Vexed by the Egyptians they de 
sire rest, so saints, ib. 97. Their vexations from the Egyptians overruled by 
God, ib. 97. 

ISSUE, Christ s assurance of in the day of his travail, iii. 218. What this is 
which Christ did travail for, ib. 219. Wherein Christ does express content in 
the sight of it, ib. 249. What the issue of Christ s travail is, ib. 249. The 
marks of Christ s delight and contentment in it, ib. 250. Why Christ took 
such delight in it, ib. 255. 

JACOB and Esau, tvpical, i. 78. Of the gospel and the law, ib. 334. 

JACOB S ladder, typical of Christ, i. 49, 62, 1 18. His blessing peculiar to the 
open field, ib. 118. 

JESUITS, why one joined the sect of the Anabaptists, v. 357. 

JESUS, the Mediator of the new covenant, iii. 61. The practical duties that 
flow from the doctrine, ib. 74. What is meant by coming to him, in opposi 
tion to Moses, ib. 80. Whether a man professing to come unto him, may 
still have recourse to Moses, ib. 84. How those shall walk suitably, who have 
come unto him, ib. 100. 

JEWS, ignorant of justification by faith alone, i. 334. 

JOAB S speech to his army, iv. 33. Advice to his army seasonable for English 
volunteers, ib. 42. 

JOB, his temptation a test of his sincerity, i. 135. 

JOSEPH, a type of Christ, i. 51. Christ the world s Joseph, ib. 265, 272. 

JOSHUA, typical of believers, i. 27. Stripped and clothed, ib. 27. His justifi 
cation, ib. 28. 

JOY, the cream of comfort, iii. 3. 

JUDGE, Christ as a, i. 59. 

JUDGMENTS from the Lord always preceded by warnings, ii. 445. The nature 
of those pronounced by Amos against Israel, ib. 457. When God is specially 
seen in his judgments upon his enemies, iv. 18. 

JUSTIFY the ungodly, God does, v. 372. In what sense faith doth, ib. 381. 

JUSTIFIED, men are not by the works of the law, v. 365. But by the righte 
ousness of God, ib. 366, The elect not so from eternity, ib. 368, 370. Be- 



lievers sin after they are so, ib. 384. If God correct his justified children, 
doth it dishonour the cross of Christ, ib. 388. God will never leave those 
that are justified, ib. 393. The blessings arising from being so, ib. 393. 
Fears of not being, answered, ib. 399. How a man may discern if he be, ib. 

JUSTIFICATION, practically considered, i. 57. The grace of it had in a way of 
receiving, ib. 223. A great matter, ib. 249. By faith alone, ib. 299. And 
as such the ground of the apostle s exhortations, ib. 321. The source of 
holiness and godly conversation, ib. 321, 329. What is meant by it, ib. 322. 
How it appears to be the original of all holiness and spiritual life, ib. 323. 
Why the doctrine is abused, ib. 328. The neglect of the doctrine the cause 
of spiritual declension, ib. 332. A doctrine well pleasing to God, ib. 335. 
It is the way in which the attributes of God are reconciled, ib. 337. The way 
in which the believer is reconciled to his duties, ib. 337. What a man should 
do, to stand clear of his own duties in a way of justification, ib. 338. It is 
not by the works of the law, but by faith in Christ, v. 365. Its causes, ib. 
366. The grace of God shines forth in it, ib. 367. Destroys condemnation, 
ib. 369. Not until believing, ib. 369. Its two essential parts, ib. 378. Not 
by the works of the law nor the gospel, ib. 379. Whether a believer s be 
complete at once, ib. 382. Whether the doctrine of its continuance tends to 
licentiousness, ib. 384. Wherein the free grace of God shines forth in a sin 
ner s, ib. 389. How the doctrine concerns the comfort of believers, ib. 393. 
And the saints practice, ib. 394. How the doctrine should draw souls to 
Christ, ib. 397. 

JUSTIFYING act, where and what it is, v. 368. 

KING, Christ as, i. 89, 283. The saint one, ib. 283. The whole realm of more 
authority than the king, v. 209. Whether subjects may take up arms in their 
own defence against their king, ib. 211. Covenant between him and his peo 
ple, ib. 233. The people commit a trust to him, ib. 238. Though he break 
his covenant, yet his power not forfeited : the subject maintained and corn- 
batted, ib. 234. Means which his people may use in reference to him, ib. 234. 
Though one, he sees with the eyes of many, ib. 240. Is bound to his own 
laws, ib. 336. Is sworn to protect his people, ib. 353. Arguments urged by 
Dr. Hammond against the possibility of his becoming perjured, ib. 358. His 
many virtues eulogised by Dr. Hammond, ib. 359. 

KINGDOM, description of Christ as the head of his, iv. 406. What is meant by 
the kingdom of heaven, ib. 428. What we are to understand by its being at 
hand, ib. 429. It comes to us before we approach to it, ib. 430. The saint s 
duty from its approaching to him, ib. 443. Exhortation to those who have not 
yet submitted to this kingdom, ib. 446. Its approach the greatest motive to 
true repentance, ib. 449. 

KINGLY office of Christ, i. 4. Its fulness, ib. 192. 

KINGS, their origin considered, v. 231. By whom chosen, ib. 270. Means 
used for their establishment, ib 278. They receive their power from the peo 
ple, ib. 283. 

KNOWLEDGE, difference betwixt that of the notion and of the things themselves, 
i. 409. 

LAMB of God, i. 8. Who taketh away the sin of the world, ib. 10. 
L ATI MR day, how it shall be in it, set forth by our Lord in two similitudes, 
iii. 441. 


LAW, ceremonial, a carnal commandment, i. 189. It came by Moses, but grace 
and truth by Jesus Christ, ib. 193. A shadow of Christ, ib. 245. Insufficient 
to justify, ib. 324. Christ the fulfilling of it, ib. 387. The difference betwixt 
the law and the gospel, iii. 41. Believers not under it for justification, v. 384. 
Rule of life to believers, ib. 385. 

LAWS, the difference betwixt the two, i. 328. 

LEARNING, human, not to be despised, i. 448. Its usefulness in translating the 
Scriptures, ib. 448. 

LEGAL, whether a man may be so in gospel times, iii. 84. When a man maybe 
said to be so, in opposition to Jesus as Mediator, ib. 86. The danger of being 
so rather than evangelical, ib. 90. 

LEGALITY, its baneful effects, iii. 91. 

LEPROSY, the soul that feels itself to be covered with it, is to rely on Christ as 
if he was fully cleansed, ii. 308, 

LIBERTY, Christian, the more a man understands of it, and yet walks the more 
strictly, the more he grows in grace, ii. 99. 

LIFE, eternal, known in the world a great matter, i. 250. Christ as the life, ib. 

LIFE, spiritual, and inbeing of Christ in all believers, i. 299. Every godly man 
is in a state of spiritual life, ib. 300. What it is, ib. 301. A supernatural 
perfection, ib. 301. Arises from union with Christ by the Spirit, ib. 301. 
The perfection whereby a man acts and moves Godward, ib. 301. The life of 
plants and herbs illustrative of it, ib. 302. Life of beasts and birds illustra 
tive of it, ib. 303. Rational life of man illustrative of it, ib. 304. How it 
may appear that wicked men are not partakers of it, ib. 305. Its contrast to 
natural life by its working towards God its utmost end, ib. 306. The most 
pleasant of lives, ib. 308. The most communicative of lives, ib. 309. What 
its doctrine teaches those dead in sin, ib. 318. A self-denying life, ib. 340. 
It is divided into four streams, ib. 352. A Christ-advancing life, ib. 361. No 
stumbling-stone to weak Christians, ib. 391. A conflicting life, ib. 391. Is 
evidenced by Christ reigning in the soul, ib. 391. And, a disposition to the 
commands of the gospel, ib. 392. And, impulses to what is good, ib. 392. 
And, by impulses to what is good beyond a man s intention, ib. 393. And, by 
divine persuasions springing up in the soul, ib. 393. Evidences of spiritual 
life, ib. 394. Practical conclusions deduced from it, ib. 394. A reason for 
thankfulness, ib. 393. An engagement unto duty, ib. 396. A reason for ad 
miring the love of Christ, ib. 397. 

LIGHT, true scripture, peculiar to saints, i. 408. To the wicked like that of the 
sun to the blind, ib. 408. A good man s eyes held from it in some things, 
ib. 409. But, not shut against it by himself, ib. 410. A good man feels more 
of it than he can utter, ib. 410. A wicked man utters more of it than he feels, 
ib. 410. Greater at intervals to good men, ib. 410. The most excellent light, 
ib. 411. 440. The true light, ib. 411. Its work to make manifest, the same 
as natural light, ib. 411. An admirable and wonderful one, ib. 411. A safe 
one, ib. 412. Pleasant and satisfying, ib. 412. Full and sufficient, ib. 412. 
Clear and shineth, ib. 413. Beyond all others, ib. 413. Wherein it exceeds 
all others, ib. 413. Full, in opposition to revelations and visions, ib. 413. 
Higher than that of visions and revelations, ib. 414. More certain than vi 
sions and revelations, ib. 414. No danger in taking heed unto it, ib. 415. 
Superior to the light and law of grace in the eaints, ib. 428. Light within the 
saints imperfect, ib. 428. Light within unable to convince others, ib. 428. 
Whether God directs by the light, law and spirit within, ib. 428. Light within 


discovers evil, ib. 428. And, inclines to good, ib. 428. And, enables a man 
to do good, ib. 428. And, is not the rule of our lives, ib. 429. Light and 
law within to be tried by the written word, ib. 430. The saint s duty to take 
heed unto scripture light, ib. 441. 

LIVES, three ordinary in the world, i. 302. 

LORD, the evil of prescribing him, i. 355, 

LORD Keeper, Christ as, of all our graces, i. 203, 272. Of his Father s ward 
robe, ib. 261. 

LORD S supper, an appointment of Christ, iv. 136. 

LORD Treasurer, Christ as, of all our graces, i. 21, 51, 203. Of all our com 
forts, ib. 203, 272. 

LOT S wife, what of her is to be remembered by us, iii. 443. Why she is to be 
remembered by us, ib. 445. How she is to be remembered by us, il). 447. 
When is the special time she is to be remembered by us, ib. 447. What good 
we shall get by remembering her, ib. 448. How we should so remember her 
as that we may not decline in declining times, ib. 453. 

LOVE, of God to his church, i. 30. God s love to his church displayed in the 
work of the Trinity, ib. 30. To the saints, ib. 60. Measured by its profita 
bleness, ib. 89. Enhanced by suffering, ib. 90. Christ s heart full of par 
doning, ib. 187. Christ s aboundeth over sin, ib. 187. Christ s to his saints 
beyond that to his natural relations, ib. 188. How to have the heart wanned 
with it, ib. 270. Its good effects between Christ and a Christian, ib. 281 . Of 
Christ manifested in his indwelling by the Spirit, ib. 372. When doth God 
employ a man in a way of love and mercy, both for himself and the good of 
others^ ii. 221. Love to Christ will make us rejoice in his exaltation, 
though it be to our debasement, iii. 4. Towards whom it is to be exercised, 
iv. 178. Its way an excellent way, ib. 177. What we shall do to get into the 
way of love, ib. 182. 

MAGISTRACY, whether it be of divine institution, v. 305. 

MARKS of being a child of God, i. 259. 

MASS, popish, i. 6. 

MEANS of grace, shortness of the, i. 231. Ordinary means not to be given up 
for extraordinary, ib. 418. When visible ones fail, then is the fit time for 
invisible help, ib. 491. Having lien long under the means of grace, and not 
converted, no cause for discouragement, ii. 240. Their deadness, proves God 
to be a living God when the blessing comes, ib. 288. And makes known the 
power of God, ib. 288. And, as a Being that gives a being to all other 
beings, ib. 288. A rational considering of the means, a great enemy to the 
work of believing, ib. 303. When all fail, God promises to help believers, ib. 
306. Then to believe, is exceeding pleasing to God, ib. 308. The faith that 
a man then has, the most successful, ib. 309. Then to have faith, most 
honours God, ib. 310. Purposely taken away to try a man s faith, ib. 312. 
Sufficiently given to supply cur wants, but not our lusts, ib. 313. Faith is a 
means to a means, ib. 313. What a man should do, that he may believe when 
all fail, ib. 316. 
MEDIATION, Jesus hath undertaken the work of, iii. 65. What assurance we 

have that Jesus will carry on the work, ib. 66. 

MEDIATOR, Christ as, i. 186, 332, 369. His fulness partaken of by the saints, 
ib. 186. All the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth in him, ib. 204. Christ s 
fulmess as such received for the saints, ib. 204. The same a reason for them 
to come with boldness to a throne of grace, ib. 205. What is his proper work 


between God and us, iii. 61. Jesus the fittest one between God and us, ib. 63. 
In what respect Jesus is said to be the Mediator of the new covenant, ib. 68. 
What benefit we derive from Jesus being so, ib. 71. In these gospel times we 
come not to Moses the mediator of the old covenant, but to Jesus the Mediator 
of the new, ib. 80. Erroneous notions of Christ as Mediator, ib. 97. 

MEDITATE on God, in what respect a man may be said to, iii. 126. How it 
appears that it is a sweet thing, ib. 127. Whether a wicked man may do so 
sweetly, ib. 136. It is the saints duty, ib. 144. 

MEDITATION, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. Is sweet work, iii. 124. What is the 
true notion of the work, ib. 125. A great help to knowledge, ib. 130. Great 
friend to memory, ib. 131. It keeps the heart from sinful thoughts, ib. 131. 
Tunes the heart for every duty, ib. 132. The sister of reading, and the mo 
ther of prayer, ib. 132. A great help to holy conference, ib. 132. A help 
unto growth in grace, ib. 132. Very satisfying to a gracious soul, ib. 134. 
A most delightful work, ib. 135. Two things that make it hard, ib. 136. 
What shall be done to carry on the work of meditation with sweetness, ib. 139, 
143. Four things that will lead out to it, ib. 146. Every man s work, every 
day s work, and consistent with every business, ib. 146. What the help and 
means to this work are, ib. 148. What the rules and directions are that will 
help therein, ib. 153. Arguments to press the soul unto this great work, ib. 

MELCHISEDEC, a type of Christ, i. 67. 

MEN, a disposition in them to seek after something that may make them happy, 
v. 46. Generally mistaken in the matter of their happiness, ib. 47. There is 
a generation who have found out true happiness, ib. 52. 

MERCIES of England, shall there be a stoppage made for ever in the, iv. 59. 

MERCY-seat of God, sprinkled with the blood of Christ, i. 25. Liberty to ap 
proach it, ib. 59. How a man shall know, whether a mercy with the sentence 
of death upon it shall rise again, ii. 297. A burthen to God to turn into the 
way of mercy, iv. 68. 

MINISTRY, an appointment of Christ, iv. 135. 

MISERIES of the churches, the saints very sensible of the, i. 304. 

MITRE, motto on the high priest s, i. 49. 

MONARCHIAL government the best, v. 241. Whether it be natural, ib. 272. 
Whether it be by paternal right, ib. 273. Whether the first set up by God or 
no, ib. 274. 

MONARCHY, of divine origin, v. 271. 

MORAL virtues, their goodness described, i. 308. Without faith, they will not 
carry through difficulties to Christ, ii. 326. 

MORTIFICATION, a preventative to temptation, i. 144. That of sin, springs 
from being under grace, ib. 327. 

MOSAICAL economy surpassed by the gospel, i. 78. 

MOSES, typical of Christ for faithfulness, i. 33. And Elias, at the transfigura 
tion, ib. 65. A type of Christ, ib. 114. Christ discovered to him, ib. 245. 
Resorting to him, rather than to Christ, a plain apostacy, iii. 93. What we 
shall do, that we may stand clear from Moses, and come off unto Jesus the 
Mediator of the new covenant, ib. 95. He is inferior to Christ as mediator, 
ib. 95. 

MOURNING for sin, counsels under, i. 154. 

MYRTLE trees, man among the, i. 36. Typical of saints, ib. 36, 43. 

NATURE, the insufficiency of, i. 259. 


NEW Testament, the Holy Spirit the great promise of it, i. 387. 

NOTWITHSTANDING, God doth sometimes save his people with it, iv. 374. Ar 
guments drawn from God saving his people with it, ib. 376. What is the duty 
of such as the Lord saves with it, ib. 380. When God saves his people with 
it he leaves evident proofs of his power upon their deliverance, ib. 388. 

OATH of the king, whether conditional or no, v. 308. 

OBEDIENCE of Christ, i. 11. Induced by Christ s priestly office, ib. 64. Some 
times hidden from the saint himself, ib. 158. Comes from a sense of mercy 
and free remission, ib. 327. Littleness of a man s obedience a cause of fear, 
ib. 334. Christ a greater hand in ours than ourselves, ib. 389. Its increase 
a mark of growing in grace, ii. 98. What sort the apostle enjoins in Rom. 
xiii. v. 300. A threefold, urged by Dr. Hammond, ib. 332. Objections 
against implicit obedience answered by Dr. Hammond, ib. 335. The Saviour s 
true precedent of all holy obedience urged by Dr. Hammond, ib. 337. Whe 
ther the Saviour s was voluntary or no, ib. 338. 

OBJECTIONS against taking comfort in Christ, answered, iv. 126. 

OFFENCES, the times of, dark times, i. 405. 

OFFERINGS, under the law, i. 56. Measured by proportion, ib. 56. 

OFFERS of mercy, Christ to sinners, i. 44. 

OFFICE, intercession, the work of Christ s priestly, i. 42. Christ s pleasure in 
doing the work of his, ib. 207. 

OFFICES of Christ, discovered to old testament believers, i. 246. 

OLD age, the evil of, v. 181. Evil in regard of natural infirmities, ib. 181. And, 
moral infirmities, ib. 182. A three-fold work arising from the evil of it, ib. 
183. Comforts against its natural infirmities, ib. 183. What the aged shall 
do to withstand the moral infirmities thereof, ib. 186. What those good things 
are especially incumbent upon it, ib. 187. 

OLD man ; what he should do that he may be fit to die, v. 190. What good 
thing he should leave his posterity by his last will, ib. 191. The exhortation of 
an old man to his son, &c. ib. 192. Considerations and motives to good for 
an old man. ib. 194. 

OLD Testament, Christ hidden then, i. 91. Satan and his temptations masked 
under it, ib. 91. Old testament saints typical of Christ, ib. 204. Christ the 
great promise of it, ib. 387. 

ORDINANCES, the enjoyment of, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. Sovereignly blest of 
Christ, ib. 75. The love of them a great matter, ib. 252. Great need of them, 
ib. 384. Used for the enjoying of God, ib. 384. Used as a testimony of 
obedience, ib. 384. Of Christ still to continue, iv. 138. What need of them, 
ib. 141. The state of some who neglected them, ib. 142. The neglect of, un 
founded in Scripture, ib. 143. In what sense they are only to continue till 
Christ come, ib. 145. Not for the weak only but for the strong, ib. 146. To 
be attended to, because commanded, ib. 148. In what sense they are trampled 
upon in anti-christian times, ib. 149. No true revelation for casting them 
off, ib. 150. The danger of renouncing them, ib. 151. What we shall do 
that we may be kept close to them, ib. 154. How they shall be attended unto 
savingly, ib. 157. 

OVERCOME, who those are that shall, iii. 334. 

PAPISTS and Nonconformists, differences betwixt their arguments for resistance, 
v. 309. Why called in by the king to help in the time of the commonwealth, 
VOL. V. G G 


ib. 354. Reasons why the king may receive succour from papists urged by 
Dr. Hammond, ib. 355. 
PARDON of believers, called for by Christ, i. 28. An incentive to holiness, 

ib. 106. 

PARLIAMENT, whether if it fail in the trust committed to them, the people may 
see to it, v. 238. What is included in the term, ib. 240. The judges of the 
law, ib. 244. Charged with hypocrisy, ib. 247. Foul charges upon it, ib. 
252. Entrusted with the affairs of the kingdom, ib. 285. Authorized by its 
very nature to send for delinquents by force, ib. 287. 

PARLIAMENTARY proceedings in taking up of arms, its lawfulness considered, 
v. 281. An act of self-preservation, ib. 304. The evil of their disputes 
discovered by Dr. Hammond, ib. 340. 
PASCHAL lamb, typical, i. 9. 
PAUL S thorn in the flesh, i. 92, 94. 

PEACE, inward, of soul, ordinary with the people of God, ii. 4. God the Fa 
ther engaged to give it to his people, ib. 5. God the Son engaged to give it 
to his church, ib. 8. God the Holy Ghost, as executor of Jesus Christ, en 
gaged to give peace unto believers, ib. 10. The continuance of it apparently 
contrary to a believer s experience, ib. 10. Is it possible for it to be inter 
rupted, ib. 10. 25. Difference betwixt fundamental and additional peace, ib. 1 1 . 
Difference betwixt peace, comfort and joy, ib. 11. In opposition to what one 
hath been and would be, ib. 12. Differencebetwixt secret and awakened peace, 
ib. 12. Tts blessedness within, ib. 13. The peace of believers inexplicable to 
the wicked, ib. 14. A cause of thankfulness, ib. 14. False and counterfeit, 
ib. 14. Difference betwixt true and false, ib. 15. The way to attain inward, 
ib. 19. True peace may be interrupted, ib. 25. What must be done to re 
cover it when once lost, ib. 36. What must be done on its return, ib. 41. 
PENANCES, i. 6. 

PEOPLE, when God may be said to go forth against a, ii. 461. The duty of a 
people to prepare to meet the Lord when he is coming out against them, ib. 
463. The nature of God s anger with his own, ib. 464. The duty of all 
God s people to hold a compliance with his dispensations, ib. 467. God s 
people are quiet, peaceable and meek, iii. 391. God s people and the men of the 
world contrary to each other, ib. 392. They hinder the men of the world in 
their proceedings, ib. 394. They are sometimes scattered, iv. 11. When God 
intends any good to his, he first suffers enemies to rise against them, ib. 320. 
Though God suffer the enemies of his people to be strong, yet he will raise up 
strength against them, ib. 326. 
PERSECUTING times, dark times, i. 405. 

PERSECUTION, whether it be lawful to fly in the time of, i. 472. Beauty raises 
it, iii. 325. It raises beauty, ib. 326. It grows upon the second command 
ment, ib. 330. The Christian to give thanks to God in it, iv. 97. 
PLAGUE and pestilence, what it is called in Scripture i. 466. Protection pro 
mised in the time of it, ib. 466. Promised especially to those who trust in 
the Lord, ib. 467. The danger of it, ib. 467. There is a generation whom 
God will protect in that day. ib. 469. Why God will protect those who trust 
in him in that day, ib. 470. It is called the hand of God, ib. 473. Not so 
much the hand of God, as if there was no infection in it, ib. 473. Whether a 
believer may die of it, ib. 474. Promise of protection under it made to a be 
liever as acting faith, ib. 474. Also, made to a believer in opposition to the 
wicked, ib. 474. By what means God will protect in the time of it, ib. 475. 
The great work in the day of it, ib. 476. What we shall do that we may trust 


in the Lord in that day, ib. 476. Motives to trust in God in that day, ib. 478. 
Protection in the time of, promised to those found in their right way and call 
ing, ib. 483. Its time, the time when God s people may want outward pro 
vision, ib. 492. And, are obliged to fly for it, ib. 493. And, want physi 
cians, ib. 493. 

POPE, mis-named high priest, i. 6. 

POVERTY, no bar with God, i. 55. 

POWDER plot, the awful nature of the, iv. 397. 

POWER, of our hand, what is meant by the expression, v. 133, Whether it be 
originally from the people, ib. 225. Of divine institution, ib. 226. Passes 
from the prince back to the people, if he fail to discharge his trust, ib. 228. 
Whether it may be taken away from the prince-, ib. 229. What is meant by 
the term as used by the apostle, ib. 263. Abstractively considered, an ordi 
nance of God, ib. 264. Communicated by God to the people, ib. 265. 
Committed to the king as a matter of trust, ib. 308. 

POWERS, what is implied by the higher powers being ordained of God, v. 221. 
Whether they may be resisted if commanding things unlawful, ib. 222. What 
is signified by the term " powers that be," v. 263. 

PRAYER, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. And intercession, the work of the high 
priest, ib. 23. So typical of Christ, ib. 24. Christ s, accordant with the 
Father s will, ib. 30. Oppositions to it, ib. 58. The saints refuge in the 
time of temptation, ib. 181. The soul s begging, ib. 234. Repetitions in, 
before company, ib. 355. What it is, ii. 111. Distractions in it, a cause of 
discouragement, ib. 112. The Lord apparently not answering it, no cause of 
discouragement, ib. 115. God s forbearance in answering it is attended with 
much profit, ib. 117. Discouragements in it, ib. 118. Difference betwixt 
that of a godly and a wicked man, iii. 121. What to do, when left without 
any visible answer to it, iv. 118. Temptations may rise higher after it, 
ib. 120. 

PRAYERS of the saints, heard on Christ s account, i. 54. Glorified in Christ s 
hand, ib. 64. Those of Christ stronger than Satan s temptations, ib. 209. 
What kind do excite God to scatter our enemies, iv. 21. 

PRAYING to saints and angels, i. 6. A praying man cannot be miserable, ii. 51. 

PREPARE to meet God, what we shall do to do so. ii. 467. 

PRESENCE of God, what it is, iii. 168. Most desirable to an army, iv. 4. 

PRESUME, what it is to, ii. 315. 

PRESUMPTION, none to trust in the intercession of Christ, i. 37. What it is, ii. 

PREVENT, in what respects God will prevent us with his mercies, iii. 182. 
What those choice blessings are, wherewith God will prevent his people, 
ib. 185. 

PREVENTING love, why God will carry on the work of his mercy in a way of, 
iii. 187. What there is in it so sweet to a gracious soul, ib. 190. What is 
the duty of such as have tasted it, ib. 192. 

PREVENTING mercy, worthy of all our thankfulness, iii. 180. No new thing 
for God to walk in the way of it toward the children of men, ib. 180. 

PRIDE, spiritual, ignorance of it a mark of the want of self-denial, i. 355. A 
knowledge of it the first step to humility, ib. 356. 

PRIEST, Christ as a, i. 283. The saint one, ib. 284. 

PRIESTHOOD, an office of love and mercy, i. 33. 

PRIESTLY garments, typical of Christ s office, i. 53. 

PRINCE, subjects have no power to depose their, v. 205. His power being de- 


rived from the people, may be taken away by them, ib. 205. By what he 
holds his right, ib. 231. What is entailed by his oath, ib. 232. He hath no 
more power than what is communicated from the community, ib. 275. 

PRINCES, whether they are to be obeyed as God s ordinance, v. 220. 

PRIVILEGES, spiritual, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. Rejoicing in them, ib. 66. 

PRODIGAL son, the parable explained, iv. 437. 

PROFESSORS, great sinners, i. 256. How it appears that great professors may 
be very carnal, v. 119. How far their carnality may extend, ib. 122. Dif 
ference betwixt the carnality of them and the world, ib. 124. A very evil 
thing for professors to be carnal, ib. 126. The saints duty flowing hence, 
ib. 129. 

PROMISE, it is to be applied by the saints under temptation, i. 155. The want 
of a particular one no cause for discouragement, ii. 130. The nature of it, 
and its conditions, ib. 131. It shall never be reversed, ib. 135. Its fulfil 
ment, when delayed, no cause for discouragement, ib. 272. Why it is first 
given, and then a sentence of death upon all means affixed, ib. 293. Given 
out twice, ib. 293. Given out by God because he intends to defer the mercy, 
ib. 294. Also, as a prop against discouragement, when the womb of the 
second cause shall be dead, ib. 294. This and faith, the buckle and clasp fit 
for each other, ib. 306. To be rested on, though God s providence seem to 
cross it, ib. 337. To be believed, although the threatening should have taken 
hold, ib. 337. 

PROMISES of God, absolute and conditional, iv. 79. 

PROPHESYING of the witnesses, what it is, and how it is they prophesy in the 
time of their sackcloth, iii. 357. What the term is taken for in Scripture, 
ib. 357. 

PROPHET, Christ as a, i. 89, 283; iv. 130. He is the fittest of all, i. 193. 
As such to be hearkened unto, iv. 130. When a man is said so to hearken, 
ib. 130. 

PROPHETICAL office of Christ, i. 5. Its fulness, ib. 192. 

PROPHETS, Christ in his person, work and offices, foreseen by the, i. 246. The 
two witnesses as such, ib. 283. 

PROSPERITY a burden, ii. 232. 

PROVIDENCE, inferior to Scripture, i. 432. God sometimes tries us by his pro 
vidence, ib. 432. God s extends over all aetions, therefore cannot be a rule 
of actions, ib. 432. Doth God guide and direct by it, ib. 432. Those that 
honour it, shall be kept by it, ib. 470. Providence of God singular and spe 
cial over his people, ib. 484. Its care managed by the hands of angels, ib. 
486. Why God makes use of angels in his providence, ib. 487. 

PROVIDENTIAL dealings of God, to the several parties under the commonwealth, 
v. 346. 

PUNISH ; God sometimes seems at a stand whether he shall punish a people or 
not, ii. 459. 

RAIN, cometh by special appointment from God, so Christ, i. 225. Cometh 
with a kind of discrimination, so Christ, ib. 225. Falleth upon the earth, that 
receives it, so spiritually, ib. 225. 

READING, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. 

REASON, human, less excellent than scripture light, i. 433. A beam of divine 
wisdom, ib. 433. Cannot discover a man s sins, ib. 434. Cannot strengthen 
against sin and temptation, ib. 434. Its light good but not saving, ib. 434. 
The use of it, and of its light, ib. 434. Its light useful in civil things, and to 


compare spiritual things with spiritual, ib. 434. A handmaid to Scripture, ib. 
435. Must yield to Scripture, ib. 435. To be mortified, ib. 436. 
REBELLION, is as the sin of witchcraft, ii. 71. 

REDEMPTION, universal, in what sense it is so, ii. 245. Its doctrine an enemy 
to the comfort of afflicted saints, ib. 246. The redemption of Christ is for all 
who believe on him, ib. 251. 
REFINER and Purifier of silver, Christ as, i. 50. 

REFORMATION work, hard and difficult, iv. 302. Enough in heaven to compen 
sate for danger in it, ib. 304. What a man shall do that he may quicken his 
spirit to the work of, ib. 304. Its stones to be laid with most exactness, ib. 
335. Especially to be endeavoured when God shall raise up his carpenters 
against his church s enemies, ib. 336. 
RELATIONS, partakers of oue another s preferments, so Christ and his church, 

i. 41. Christ in his nature possessed of the quintessence of all, ib. 172. 
REPENT, what it is for God to, iii. 169. Whether God doth so at any time, 

ib. 170. 

REPENTANCE, springs from remission of sin, i. 327. True repentance the 
cause of self-denial, ib. 345. The preaching of it, ii. 73. What is meant 
thereby, iv. 428. Difference betwixt legal and evangelical, ib. 448. Its par 
ticulars, ib. 450. What influence the grace and love of God hath upon the 
repentance of the saints, ib. 450. Only produced by the approach of the 
kingdom of heaven, ib. 453. A fruit of faith, ib. 453. Flows from love, ib. 
454. Evangelical, distinct from natural convictions, ib. 455. The sad state 
of those who are without it, ib. 458. Exhortation for all to come unto it, ib. 
459. An infinite cause for professors to search if their s be genuine, ib. 461. 
Rules for judging the nature of our repentance, ib. 462. 
REPROBATE, testimony of being one, ii; 137. 

RESIGN, how we may resign our souls and wills to God, v. 156. When we do 
especially resign ourselves to God, ib. 160. How we shall be able to do it 
when we come to die, ib. 161. 

RESIGNATION, when the work of, is to be done, v. 159. 
RESIST, whosoever does shall receive damnation, &c. ; the text considered, v. 

212, 300. 

RESISTANCE, what is meant thereby, v. 206. As maintained by the different 
protestant churches, ib. 206. Examples in its favour argued for and combatted 
against, ib. 213. Arguments against it deduced from Scripture, ib. 218. If 
it be right or no pleaded for on the ground of fundamental laws, ib. 224. The 
difference betwixt the papists and nonconformists opinion of it, ib. 235, 309. 
The primitive Christians had no power of resistance, ib. 237. It may proceed 
to a change of government, ib. 242. Whether it be accompanied with the 
evils of a civil war, ib. 243. May lead to rapine and confusion, ib. 243. Whe 
ther it be contrary to the oath of allegiance, ib. 244. Whether resistance be 
unanimous or no, ib. 246. Is merely defensive, ib. 246. The causes of 
resistance, v. 247. Motives employed to urge the people to resistance, ib. 
249. Urged from David s example, ib. 295. And, the example of Uzziah, 
ib. 296. Arguments of Dr. Fearne against it, ib. 297. Urged from the ex 
ample of Elisha, ib. 299. Scriptures apparently against it, ib. 326. Its un 
lawfulness urged by Dr. Hammond from Rom. xiii. 1, 2. 3, and 1 Cor. M. 29, 
ib. 329. Examples prejudicial thereto quoted by Dr. Hammond, ib. 332. 
RESOLUTION, without faith will not carry through difficulties, ii. 3^5. 
RETURN, when the Lord doth to his people, he then repents concerning his ser 
vants, iii. 169. What we shall do that God may returu again, ib. 174. What 


a nation shall do that God may return again, ib. 175. What we shall do in 
the interim until God return, ib. 178. What a nation shall do until God doth 
return, ib. 178. 

REWARD, what is it of Christ s disciples, iii. 299. What is it of every one, ib. 
299. Not the same given to all in glory, ib. 301. Of those who forsake any 
thing for Christ, is twofold, ib. 324. What that is which is to be had in the 
life to come, ib. 332. What assurance there is of it, ib. 333. 

RIGHTEOUS, saints so in Christ, i. 55. 

RIGHTEOUSNESS, of Christ, i. 15, 53. Is destructive to self- righteousness, ib. 
20. The only rest in temptation, ib. 158. Of the saints, as the morning dew, 
ib. 192. The imputation of Christ s the source of all grace and holiness, ib. 
325. The preaching of Christ s a cause of self-denial, ib. 343. 

ROD, what is the voice of it, ii. 444. What is the Lord s rod, ib. 445. God 
smites his own people in the way of it, ib. 447. God s is a teaching rod, ib. 
449. What it teaches, ib. 450. How it teaches, ib. 450. The wisdom of 
the saints to hear it, when the Lord visits their transgressions therewith, ib, 
453. What shall be done in order that we may hear it, ib. 456. 

ROMP, described under the name of Babylon, iv. 292. The destruction of it 
described, ib. 292. 

ROMISH and antichristian Babylon truly Babylon, iv. 292. 

SACKCLOTH, what it represents as worn by the witnesses, iii. 354. And, by their 
lying in it 1260 days, ib. 355. 

SACRIFICE, Christ as a, i. 8. The morning and evening, ib. 47. 

SACRIFICES, typical, i. 8. The living, slain, ib. 8. The solid, bruised, ib. 8. 
The liquid, poured, ib. 8. And offerings, purged by Christ, ib. 59. 

SAINTS, their great dignity, i. 494. Their great security, ib. 495. How gra 
cious the Lord is to them, ib. 496. Are infinitely beholden to Christ, ib. 496. 
Difference betwixt them and the wicked, ib. 497. Should trust in the Lord 
in the time of plague, ib. 497. Should stoop to any work commanded, ib. 
497. Should be holy in conversation, ib. 498. And be found in that way 
within the compass of the protection of angels, ib. 498. 

SALVATION, the working out of, with fear and trembling, a great matter, i. 253. 
If of free grace why need means be used, ii. 412. Wherein doth the free grace 
of God appear in the matter of our, ib. 413. A work of grace, ib. 416. 
What ghall be done that a man may not doubt of his, ib. 420. Its freeness a 
motive for seeking it boldly, ib. 421. 

SANCTIFICATION, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. The grace of it had in a way of 
receiving, ib. 223. The characters of justification upon it, ib. 336. A truth, 
when justification is hidden, ib. 336. Savours of justification, when a man s 
obedience springs from remission, ib. 336. 

SATISFACTION, of Christ, i 13. The ground of assurance, ib. 16. Gives bold 
ness at the throne of grace, ib. 16. Open to all comers, ib. 17. Faith in it, 
not presumption, ib. 17. A sea of mercy, ib. 18. Infinite, ib. 12, 14. 
Conducive to grace and holiness, ib. 18, 20. Ground of his intercession, ib. 
28. Christ as High Priest willing to make it for his church, ib. 208. 

SATAN, the accuser of the brethren, i. 26. Tempting Christ, ib. 32. His desire 
to tempt, ib. 93. Not suffered to touch the saints, ib. 98. His names full of 
malice, ib. 109. An angel still, and so possessed of superior powers, ib. 128, 
133. A spiritual creature, so able to commune with the spirits of men, ib. 
129. Experienced in tempting, ib. 129. Able to provoke to temptation, ib. 
129. Able to prevent all aid but heavenly, ib. 129. Has the same names 


given him for evil that God has for good, ib. 129. Exercises power on the 
saints, ib. 131. The saints to hold no parley with him, ib. 143. How to 
answer him, ib. 143. The restraint he is under towards the saints, ib. 179. 
Ruleth in the children of disobedience, ib. 179. Answers to him drawn from 
Christ s fulness, ib. 197. 

SAVE, Christ able to save to the utmost, i. 192. Why God chooses to save men 
in a way of free grace, ii. 416. 

SAVED, how a raan comes to the attainment of the way in which he can be, ii. 

SCATTERINGS of the people of God, is the remainder of the curse of them, iv. 
11. The use of it, ib. 11. 

SCRIPTURE, the most sure word of prophecy, i. 423. In it are the words of 
eternal life, ib. 433. More sure than dreams, ib. 421, 440. Or, visions and 
revelations, ib. 419, 440. Or, immediate voices, ib. 422, 440. Or, impres 
sions, ib. 423, 440. The word of the Son of God, ib. 441. The only rule of 
life, ib. 442. The salt that seasons all enjoyment, ib. 443. Will be judge at 
the great day, ib. 444. Shall be established upon men if they be not upon it, 
ib. 444. What need to take heed unto, ib. 445. Why the saints are to take 

!heed to it especially in dark times, ib. 446. A preservative against the power 
of darkness, ib. 447. All heretics do not lay claim to the whole, ib. 447. 
One thing to cite but another to take heed to it, ib. 448. The sad state of 
those who forsake it, ib. 448. What must be done to take heed to it, ib. 449. 
In taking heed to it, go to God for the Spirit, ib. 456. Its best interpreter, 
ib. 457. Take heed of those things whereby many are carried away from it, 
ib. 458. Things which lead away from it, ib. 458. Consider its particular 
truths in taking heed unto it, ib. 460. Take such heed to it as you may walk 
thereby, ib. 460. Should be a continual companion, ib. 461. 

SECOND death, endured by Christ for his people, i. 11. 

SECTS, in the time of the commonwealth, reviewed by Dr. Hammond, v. 342. 

SELF, a threefold, mentioned by divines, i. 341. How to deny sinful self, ib. 
342. And religious, ib. 342. A cause of fear and mistrust to a believer, ib. 
356. Always in a believer, ib. 356. 

SELF-denia), a mark of a true disciple, i. 174. Proper for those who receive of 
Christ s fulness, ib. 200. What it is for a man to exercise it in spiritual 
things, ib. 341. Opposed to self-seeking, ib. 342. And to self-advancing, ib. 
342. Does not consist in speaking evil of the grace of God within, ib. 342. 
Consists in renouncing all in a way of justification, ib. 343. And attributing 
all strength to Christ in the matter of sanctification, ib. 343. How it appears 
the gospel works this grace in the heart of man, ib. 343. Argued for from 
the moral self-denial of the heathen, ib. 346. The deficiencies of the mere 
moral man s, ib. 346. It is exercised by a believer towards all things, ib. 
346. flow so, ib. 347, 359. Mysteries in it, ib. 347. The one thing that Sa 
tan does not, ib. 348. Only spiritual men can do it, ib. 348. What there is 
in the gospel to work it, ib. 348. A sight of the glory of God conducive to 
it, ib. 348. Or, of the humility and self-denial of Christ, ib. 350. Christ s, 
ib. 351. A sense of dependance on Christ conducive to, ib. 352. And of his 
sufficiency, ib. 352. What it is in obedience, ib. 352. In sufferings, ib. 
352. In enjoyments, ib. 353. A real sign of grace, ib. 354. The more it 
is exercised in spiritual things, the more they are kept, ib. 358. Then a man 
is more humbled in other things, ib. 358. And more exalted in them, ib. 359. 

SELF-preservation, natural to the people, v. 276. 

SENTENCE of death, put by God upon his special blessings to the children of 


Abraham, ii. 285. Why God puts it upon his special blessings, ib. 287. Put 
upon God s chiefest blessings to teach believers to trust more unto him, ib. 

288. And, that the comforts of his people may be more sure and stedfast, ib. 

289. And, is true, also, in regard of all spiritual blessings, ib. 290. Not put 
always upon common and ordinary blessings, ib. 291. Sometimes put upon 
our mercy in another man s hand, ib. 292. Put upon God s chiefest blessings 
an encouraging doctrine to the saint in the darkest times, ib. 294. How it 
cuts off discouragements, ib. 296. When God does put it upon the means 
that lead to a blessing, it is the duty of the children of Abraham to believe in 
him, ib. 302. 

SERVANT, Christ as a, i. 12. 

SERVE and suffer, in a way of free grace, what shall be done in order so to do, 
ii. 391. 

SERVICE of God, a waiting upon God, i. 236. A limitation in it, ib. 355. It 
keeps from the dint of temptations, ii. 209. The more a man is employed in 
it, God will bless him, if faithful, ib. 210. Special, ib. 211. Sometimes 
taken for ordinary obedience, ib. 211. In what it consists, ib. 211. Appa 
rent want of success in it, no cause for discouragement, ib. 219. Why some 
are employed in it, and not others, ib. 386. Distinguished from other ser 
vices, it is in a way of free grace and love, ib. 390. 

SERVICEABLE man to God, the only man that when dead speaks for God, ii. 
210. Every good and gracious man is such, ib. 217. The more any man is 
so for God, the more he honours him, ib. 383. And God will accept his work, 
ib. 383. The more comfortably he will die, ib. 383. Speak when he is dead, 
ib. 384. 

SERVICEABLENESS to God, the greater a man s, the more ready God will be to 
pardon his failings, ii. 209. 

SERVICES and sufferings, a great matter to be used by or for God in the matter 
of, ii. 383. Wherein the grace of God shines forth through them, ib. 386. 
Why God will carry them on in a way of free grace, ib. 388. 

SETTLED in the truth, a great mercy for a nation to be, iv. 263. And, for the 
church of God to be, ib. 265. And, a particular soul to be, ib. 266. The 
fruits of being so, ib. 267. A good man is so, ib. 270. Worthy of all our 
prayers so to be, ib. 271. 

SIN, laid on Christ, i. 9. In the conscience, ib. 13. Christ made so, ib. 55. 
And, a curse for it, ib. 72. Not to be tampered with, ib. 144. Against the 
gospel the greatest sin, ib. 150. Grieving for and striving against, a great 
matter, ib. 254. Should not a gracious man be fully grieved and humbled for 
his sin, ii, 75. Makes a stoppage in the proceedings of God s mercy, iv. 53. 
Reasons why the sin of God s people rather stops his mercy than the sin of 
others, ib. 56. Hath made a stoppage in England s mercies, ib. 58. A good 
man may fall into the same again and again, ib. 213. Though a man do fall 
into one again and again, yet it may be one of infirmity, ib. 215. Its evil and 
sinfulness, v. 4. A great deal of evil in it which doth not appear until a man 
turn to God, ib. 4. In our nature, ib. 8. Of our hearts and thoughts, ib. 9. 
Of our lives and practices, ib. 10. Is dead until a man is converttd, when it 
revives in him, ib. 12. A moral thing, ib. 13. Its evil displays the power of 
God s grace, ib. 15. Why some men are not sensible of it, ib. 15. God s 
will that his converted ones should be very sensible of their s ib. 1 7. What 
we shall do that we may see it in its sinfulness, ib. 18. Cautions against the 
misapprehensions of it, ib. 19. 


SIN against the Holy Ghost ; the unpardonableness of it, iv. 187. An obstruc 
tion to the comfort of some souls, ib. 187. Whether the Jews did commit it, 
ib. 188. Why he that commits it shall never be forgiven, ib. 188. An un 
pardonable sin, ib. 189. What it is, ib. 189. Why this is, above all other 
sins, unpardonable, ib. 199. Unpardonable; the lessons which this doctrine 
teaches, ib. 201. A man may fall into gross sins and yet not sin it, ib. 203. 
Described by opposites, ib. 204. Questions whereby a man may judge whe 
ther he has committed it or no, ib. 206. Believers cannot commit it, ib. 207. 
The professor s sin especially, ib. 208. What we shall do that we may be kept 
from committing it, ib. 209. 

SIN of infirmity, Christ will not leave a man in it, iv. 213. When a sin may be 
said to be one, ib. 217. Is there any evil in it, ib. 231. Christ will not cast 
a man off for it, ib. 232. What advantage it hath over other sins, ib. 235. 
What a man shall do under it, ib. 237. What we shall do that we may not 
fall often into it, ib. 239. 

SINGING of psalms, appointed by Christ, iv. 137. 
SINNERS, their very prosperity a judgment, iv. 55. God smites their souls with 

blindness and spiritual death, ib. 55. 

SINS, relief against, i. 6. Only some to be atoned for under the law : Christ the 
great atonement for all sins, ib. 35. Saints very sensible of theirs, ib. 303. 
Of those that are spiritually alive beheld by the Lord under mollifying consi 
derations, ib. 310. Shall not always be pocketed up, but discovered, iv. 52. God 
hath strange ways to discover men s, ib. 52. Why small sins make such great 
stoppages in God s mercy, ib. 57. The largeness of God s heart in forgiving 
sins, ib. 187. 
SINS of infirmity described by opposites, iv. 222. Denned, ib. 225. Drawers 

of water unto graces, ib. 229. 
SOCINIANS doctrine of Christ as Mediator, iii. 74. 

SOLEMN assembly, sometimes under reproach, iii. 408. When so, ib. 408. For 
what end, ib. 411. How its members are then affected, ib. 413. Members of 
two sorts, ib. 413. What is in its reproach, so to affect the people of God, 
ib. 416. When the Lord and his saints are well pleased with its reproach, ib. 
417. If we are sensible of its reproach, what blessed results will follow, ib. 
420. Comfort for those thus sensible, ib. 422. What it is to be so, ib. 423. 
What we shall do to be more so, ib. 424. 
SOLOMON, a type of Christ, i. 224. Christ discovered to him, ib. 245. No 

epicure, v. 133. 

SOUL, one as beheld by Christ, Moses, Satan and the law, i. 42. 
SouL-resignation, an inlet to many mercies, v. 153. 
SOULS, saved on the engagements of Christ prior to the atonement, i. 51. 
SPIRA (Francis) in reaching after outward, lost inward comforts, ii. 37. Noto 
rious for his despair, ib. 137. 

SPIRITUAL things, their success to be left with God, ii. 123. 
SPIRIT, the same in a Christian as in Christ, i, 282. The Holy Spirit withiu, 
the same as inspired the Scriptures, ib. 429. He is sent to open the Scrip 
ture, ib. 429. He gives not the same inspiration as he gave for the writing of 
the Scriptures, ib. 429. The Holy Spirit within is no rule for living, or we 
might do any thing without sin, ib. 430. The Spirit of adoption the pledge 
and earnest of the whole inheritance, ii. 92. 

STAND, how God is at a stand towards his people, ii. 460. When it appears, 
ib. 460. When so, if men do not meet him, he will go forth against them, 
ib. 461. 
VOL. V. H H 


STARS, whether things come to pass by their influence, i. 438. The lawful 
knowledge of them, ib. 438. Their use, ib. 438. Foretelling events by them 
makes God the author of sin, ib. 439. Held by astrologers to be the causes 
of all events, ib. 439. 

STATE, the means of it to provide for its safety, v. 236. 
STRAITS, the time of great ones the time of darkness, i. 405. Then impressions 

are a guide to a good man, ib. 424. 
STOPPAGE, in the proceedings of mercy, twofold, iv. 59. What sins have caused 

it in England s mercy, ib. 60. 
SUBJECTS, whether they may resist when the chief magistrate degenerates into a 

tyrant, v. 291. 

SUCCESS, in the work of God, sometimes hidden from the workman, ii. 219. 
SUCCOUR, Christ able to, i. 94, 110. Having been tempted, ib. 108. Christ 
does, all who come to him, ib. 117. And that with a notwithstanding, ib. 119. 
That of the Jews in the wilderness, typical of Christ, ib. 120. 
SUCCOURING, pre-supposeth suffering, i. 92. 

SUFFER for God, a great mercy to, ii. 384. God graciously singles out some for 
it, ib. 385. To do it freely for the name and cause of Christ, ib. 392. How 
to know that we do so, Hi. 336. What it is, ib. 337. What we shall do, to 
be willing so to do, ib. 338. Willingness and unwillingness distinguished, 
ib. 338. 

SUFFERER, marks of a true, iii. 311. 

SUFFERING, there is a great deal that will amount to little, and a little that will 
amount to much, iii. 309. What we are apt to under it, ib. 310. Exhorta 
tion to look to our hearts in it, ib. 311. Reasons for not giving in under it, 
ib. 312. Fears of unfitness for it, no reason for discouragement, ib. 313. If 
through sin, turns to a good account by grace, ib, 313. Not to rush into any 
without a call, ib. 315. Praise God over it, and pray to God under it, ib. 318. 
Suitable grace given, ib. 338. 
SUFFERING times, counsels for, ii. 368. Profitable, ib. 371. Conscience a great 

matter in, ib. 376. 

SUFFERING work, the first shall be last, and the last first in it, iii. 300. What 
it is to be so, ib. 300. How this appears, ib. 302. In what respects this is 
true, ib. 304. How this comes to pass, ib. 307. 

SUFFERINGS and death of Christ, consequences thereof, i. 52. When Christ 
was under, ib. 100. Christ a greater hand in our s, than ourselves, ib. 390. 
Endured by some without saving faith, ii. 363. Difference betwixt those of 
believers and others, ib. 363. However great, no reason for doubting God s 
love, ib. 374. Upon what account they are endured, ib. 375. W T herein the 
grace of God doth appear as to our, ib. 387. Three things to behold in those 
of Christ, iii. 199. What he effected thereby, ib. 211. In what they con 
sisted, ib. 212. A man may lose his former, by his after sins, ib. 304. To 
be underlaid with godliness, ib. 314. Their burden to be drawn upon the 
wheels of faith and love, ib. 317. Labour to be serviceable in them, ib. 317. 
Offered in Christ for acceptance, ib. 318. 
SUGGESTIONS of Satan, no excuse for unbelief, i. 101. 
SURETY, Christ the sinner s, i. 10. For time to come, ib. 15. 
SYMPATHY, Christ cannot but have it, i. 33. Which is his guidance in suc 
couring his people in temptation, ib. 203. 

TABERNACLE, the Jewish, i. 46. Its appurtenances, ib. 46. Its service typical 
of Christ, ib. 47. 


TEACHING, of God to his people, i. 386. 

TEMPLE, a type of Christ, i. 189. 

TEMPT, Satan s power to, i. 89. God is said to, ib. 91. Man is said to, ib. 91. 
Satan is said to, ib. 91. Satan never said to in the Old Testament, ib. 91. 
Satan does the saint under divers forms, ib. 144. What it is to tempt the 
Lord, ii. 271. 

TEMPTATION, support under, i. 4, 180. Christ endured more than any one, ib. 
32. None to his people but what Christ passed through, ib. 32. Christ s 
love to and care of his people under it, ib. 89, 165. Sometimes used for prov 
ing, ib. 91. Or, trial, ib. 91. Or, solicitation to evil, ib. 91, 108. What it 
means, ib. 91. Christ able to succour under it, ib. 92. Afflictive, ib. 92, 94, 

101, 141. Its entertainment a sin, ib. 93. If resisted no sin, but an afflic 
tion, ib. 93. Always the lot of God s children, ib. 94. Strongest when the 
soul is nearest to God, ib. 94, 127. Often discouraging, ib. 95. Sometimes 
long, ib. 95. God s means of cleansing, ib. 95. And, of preservation, ib. 95. 
And of increasing grace, ib. 95. And, of discovering the saint to himself, ib. 
96. And of fitting for Christ, ib. 96. A means of conforming to Christ s 
likeness, ib. 96. Its vexation overruled of God, ib. 96. No cause to doubt 
God s love, ib. 99, 136. A comparison of temptation and affliction, ib. 101. 
The improvment of it a harvest, ib. 102, 106. What to do when under it, ib. 

102. Warning against yielding to it, ib. 103. Natural to all conditions, ib. 
104. Moderation in it recommended, ib. 106. Objection to it as regards 
God s children, ib. 98. Christ succours therein, ib. 115, 123. And before 
it, ib. 115, 123. And, after it, ib. 116, 123. /Vnd, most when under most, 
ib. 119, 165. Having the worst of it a cause for humility but not of discourage 
ment, ib. 125. Victory over it to be improved to more assurance, ib. 126. 
A proof of Satan s malice and Christ s love, ib. 126. Its danger, ib. 128, 164. 
Remedy against it, ib. 128, 164. Christ s best disciples exposed to it, ib. 
128, 131. Mortification of self an aid against it, ib. 145. Satan s power of 
it strengthened by his universal influence over the unregenerate, ib. 133. Why 
suffered of God, ib. 134. The saints endurance thereof, a testimony of up 
rightness, ib. 135. Of Christ a ground of consolation to his tempted brethren, 
ib. 137. Mistaken by the godly for corruption, ib. 138. The difference be 
tween it and corruption in the saints, ib. 140. The continuance of it a great 
grief, ib. 142. Should be dipped in the blood of Christ, ib. 145. Overcome, 
a cause of rejoicing, ib. 145. A cause of grief to the Lord s family, ib. 146. 
The uselessness of creature works under it, ib. 158. Rules whereby faith may 
stand in it, ib. 161. In the time of, use the shield of faith, ib. 163. Christ s 
love and care of his people under, evinced in ordering their s, ib. 166. Evinc 
ed in measuring it out, ib. 166. Evinced in overruling Satan s designs, ib. 
166. Evinced in turning tbeir temptation, ib. 167. Evinced in sanctifying 
their temptations, ib. 167. Evinced in teaching his people by their s, ib. 168. 
Evinced in upholding them under it, ib. 168. Evinced in giving larger sup 
plies of accepting grace, ib. 169. Evinced in giving them breathing time under 
their s, ib. 169. Evinced in praying for them then especially, ib. 170. How 
it appears Christ s mercy is more at work under it, ib. 171. Christ s dealings 
with his disciples under it, a pattern to the end of the world, ib. 171. Why 
Christ indulges his saints under it, ib. 173. The time of doubts and fears, ib. 
180. Its times dark times, ib. 408. In regard of weak grace, how to bear up 
against discouragement under it, ii. 99. Sometimes the diccouragements of 
the saints arise from it, ib. 148. A great affliction, ib. 148. A conflicting 
with Satan, ib. 148. No cause for discouragement, ib. 150. The good aris- 


ing therefrom, ib. 153. Sometimes strange and horrid, ib. 156. Sometimes 
blasphemous, ib. 156. What it is to be overcome by it, ib. 160. Taken for 
trial ; so Christ tempts, iv. 117. 

TEMPTATIONS of God s people, what they are and how they take them, ii. 161. 
Felt more after a knowledge of God than before, ib. 162. A Christian should 
be thankful under them, iv. 101. What to do under several, iv. 120. 

TEMPTED, how Christ was, i. 91, 9 l . God suffers his servants to be, ib. 92, 

99. To use indirect means, ib. 100. To lay violent hands on one s self, ib. 

100. To blasphemy, ib. 100. Christ was so, that he might succour, ib. 101, 
103, 108. The wicked not properly so by Satan, ib. 137. The wicked are so 
only in a way of solicitation, ib. 138. 

THANKFULNESS, the duty of a Christian under hindrances, iv. 105. How it is 
to be attained in every condition, ib. 109. 

THANKS to God, reasons for giving, under every condition, iv. 95. 

THREATENINGS, sometimes make way for the promise, ii. 40. Those that draw 
to Christ give no cause for discouragement, ib. 134. May be repealed, ib. 
135. God s threatenings make way to his promises, ib. 337. Usually end in 
promises, iii. 407. 

TOUCHING, used as harming, i. 98. Used as fellowship and communion, ib. 98. 

TRAVAIL of his soul, Christ shall see of the, and be satisfied, iii. 200. Christ see 
ing of the, an argument against universal redemption, ib. 269. An argument 
against the saints apostacy, ib. 269. A doctrine that looks wishly both upon 
godly and ungodly men, ib. 270. 

TRAVAIL of Christ, in what it consisted, iii. 201. A sore travail in regard of 
both soul and body, ib. 201. A long and tedious travail, ib. 213. An help 
less travail, ib. 214. Our duty to come and behold it, ib. 214. The great 
wonder of love, ib. 214. The profitable lessons it teaches, ib. 215. The 
ground of encouragement for sinners to come to him, ib. 217. How it ap 
pears that Christ shall certainly obtain the ends of his travail, ib. 257. 

TREASURY of the commonwealth, whence supplied, v. 344. 

TREMBLING at the word, a great matter, i. 252. 

TRUST in God, what it is to, ii. 255. 

TRUTH, an argument for its reception, i. 64. Christ the truth, ib. 261. Its 
greatness hidden from the wicked, ib. 409. Scripture truth beheld by wicked 
men in a natural way, ib. 409. 

UNBELIEF, help against, i. 4. The root of apostacy. iii. 429. 

UNBELIEVING heart, an evil heart, iii. 429. Is the heart God will punish with 

the most severity, ib. 431. 
UNFRUITFULNESS, causes of, i. 271. 
UNION, of Christ and believers, i. 202, 240, 366. Its mystery, ib. 278, 366. 

With Christ by the Spirit the source of spiritual life, ib. 308. Of Christ with 

believers one of similitude, ib. 369. The double nature of union to Christ, 

iii. 17. 

UNIVERSAL redemption, the doctrine refuted, iii. 260. 
UNWORTHINESS felt, a gracious mark, i. 60. 
URIM and Thummim, i. 5. 

VIRGINS, parable of the wise and foolish, iv. 405. Some awakening remarks 

arising hence, ib. 422. 
VISIONS and revelations, an attendance to, easily leads men to despise the written 

word, i. 415. Draws into popery and superstition, ib. 416. Used by Maho- 


met for setting up his Alcoran, ib. 416. Used by papists for prevailing over 
the world, ib. 416. Disregarded by Luther in his reformation, ib. 416. An 
attendance to, easily leads to atheism, ib. 416. Whether God speaks by them 
in these days, ib. 41fi. God has spoken by them and doth now, ib. 417. An 
itching desire after them, an ill desire, ib. 417. God not to be put upon speak 
ing by them, ib. 417. If contrary to Scripture they come from the devil, ib. 
418. If brought to confirm the gospel, not from the Lord, ib. 418. 

VOCATION, the fruit of Christ, i. 22. 

VOICE, an immediate, whether comparable with Scripture, i. 422. Either from 
heaven or hell, ib. 422. Of an angel to be disregarded if contrary to Scrip 
ture, ib. 422. None superior to Scripture, ib. 422. Whether God doth now 
speak by any, ib. 422. Not an ordinance of God, ib. 422. 

WAIT on God, what it is to, ii. 255. 

WAITING on God, its blessedness, ii. 277. Argued for from God s waiting on 
us, ib. 277. Reasons for not giving it over, ib. 278. Reasons for giving it 
up, ib. 278. 

WALKING humbly with God, its blessednsss, i. 66. A great matter, ib. 253. 
How to do it, ib. 270. 

WAR, when the people of the land go forth to it, then the saints should go forth 
to prayer, iv. 26. 

WAY, Christ the, i. 260. Marks of being out of it and in it, ib. 312. The way 
to Christ clogged with many difficulties, ii. 319. 

WAYS, when a man may be said to be filled with his own, iv. 234. 

WEANING times, parents bear most with their childi-en in, so God, iv. 91. 

WEAKNESS, in the time of temptation, no cause for discouragement, ii. 158. 

WEEDS, plucked out of the saints nosegay by Christ, i. 49, 50. 

WILLIAM the Conqueror, in what right he first set foot on the English shore, v. 
278. He came to the English crown with conditions, ib. 279. 

WITNESS, what we shall do that we may witness a good confession in these days,