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Full text of "An entire commentary upon the whole Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians : wherein the text is learnedly and fruitfully opened with a logical analysis, spiritual and holy observations, confutation of Arminianism and popery, and sound edification for the diligent reader ..."

tihtary of Che t^heolo^ical ^tminavy 


The Stuart Fund 

BS 2695 .B361 

Bayne, Paul 

An entire commentary upon 

the whole epistle of St Paul 

Itkljors S>tm flf Cflnimentarifs. 



W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. 

THOMAS J. CRAWFORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, Edinburgh. 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh. 

AVILLIAM H. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church History, Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Jlinister of Broughton Place United Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

^tmxnl €bitor. 

REV. THOMAS SMITH, M.A., Edinburgh. 


















o'^ . Q - e ^ r^j - 

THERE is a great deal of tnith in Wordsworth's saying, tliat ' the boy is father to the man ; 
and the boyhood of men who have attained to eminence in after life is always an interesting 
study. But the boyhood of most of the great Puritan Divines is shrouded in impenetrable 

It is a common platform platitude, in our day, to hear the soul-life of men of our own time 
traced back to Richard Baxter, and through hini to Richard Sibbes. We can trace it one step 
farther back, to Paul Baynes, and there again the darkness gathers thick. 

The real instrument, however, of Baxter's awakening, was ' an old tattered book, which a poor 
cottager had lent him.' That tattered old book was Bunny's ' Booke of Christian Exercise 
appertaining to Resolution.' Its author was Parsons, the famous English Jesuit ; and it was 
afterwards purged from Popery, corrected, and improved by Edmund Bunny, who was rector of 
Bolton Percy ; and the book was familiarly known as ' Bunny's Resolution.' One may almost 
read in this book the seeds and germs of ' The Call to the Unconverted.' The reading of that 
book did the law work on Baxter's conscience ; but that was afterwards completed, as he himself 
tells us,* when ' a poor pedlar came to the door that had ballads and some good books, and my 
father bought of him Dr Sibbes's Bruised Reed.' Bunny brought him to the law, Sihhes to 
the gospel. As one has said,t ' If Bunny's Resolution strung Baxter's harp, it was Sibbes's 
Bruised Reed that tuned it to the love of Christ.' 

Sibbes himself had passed his school days, and had nearly completed his studies at Cam- 
bridge, before he knew the grace of God that bringeth salvation. Clarke tells us of Baynes,J that 
'It pleased God to make him an instrument in the conversion of that holy and eminent servant 
of Jesus Christ, Doctor Sibbes.' Baynes himself, as also Sibbes, is silent on the matter, making 

♦ ReliquiiE Baxteriante. 

t Dr TI103. W. Jt-nkyn's Life of Baxter, prefixed to 
selections from his Practical Writings. London, 1840. 

J A General Martyrologie, containing a Collection of all 
the greatest persecutions, &c., &c. Wherounto is added, 

the lives of thirty-two English Divines, famous in their 
generation for learning and piety, and most of them suf- 
ferers for the cause of Christ, &c., &c. The third edition, 
corrected and enlarged. By Samuel Clarke, late Pastor of 
St Bennet Fink, London. London, 1677. 


no allusion to it, so far as we know, in any of his writings. Conversions were not so rare in 
those days. 

All the accounts agree in stating that Paul Baynes, — for so his name is most frequently spelt, — 
was born in London. The date, and all concerning his early days, has, so far as I know, perished. 
' He received his school education at Withersfield in* Essex' — under one Master Cosens, his school- 
master, adds Clarke— 'and was afterward admitted of Christ College, Cambridge.' Of this col- 
lege he was afterwards chcsen fellow. It was a famous school of the prophets. Fuller says.t 
' It may without flattery be said of tliis house, " Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou 
excellest them all," if we consider the many divines who in so short a time have here had their 
education.' Among its learned writers, up to his own day, who had also been fellows. No. 10 is 
'Paul Bains ; he succeeded Mr Perkins at St Andrew's.' It is interesting to go over Fuller's list 
of thirteen names in this row, most of which are familiar as household words. The first in the 
list is Edward Bearing. The fifth is ' Richard Clerk, one of the translators of the Bible, and an 
eminent preacher at Canterbury.' The sixth is William Perkins, who jDreceded Baynes as 
lecturer at St Andrew's. Perkins died in 1 602, which fixes the date of Baynes' appointment 
as lecturer, for he immediately succeeded him. Perkins was buried at St Andrew's Church, at 
the expense of Christ College. Strange enough, he, too, was renowned only for his wickedness 
in his youth. Brookl tells us, that ' for some time after his going to the university, he continued 
exceedingly profane, and ran to great lengths in prodigality. While Mr Perkins was a young man, 
and a scholar at Cambridge, he was much devoted to drunkenness. As he was walking in the 
skirts of the town, he heard a woman say to a child that was froward and peevi.sh, " Hold your 
tongue, or I will give you to drunken Perkins yonder." Finding himself become a byword among 
the people, his conscience smote him, and lie became so deeply impressed that it was the first step 
to his conversion.' Brook says, on the authority of Granger, that Perkins was deprived by 
Archbishop Whitgift, but this is a mistake : he died at his post. His works were collected and 
published, in three volumes folio, in 1 606, and are very precious. 

Number twelve in Fuller's list of literary fellows, is a clarum et venerahile nomen, William 
Ames, better known as Amesius. He was fortunate in having Perkins for his tutor at Cam- 
bridge ; and one may infer from his godly life that he was taught more things than Latin and 
Greek. Ames was a contemporary of Baynes ; they were both lifting up their voices like a trumpet 
together from about the beginning of the century till the year 1610, when, like so many 
others, Ames had to flee to Holland. Amesius writes an introduction to one of Baynes'posthumous 
works — alas, they were all posthumous, so far as we know. 

We may as well add the last name on the list of Fuller's worthies : it is that of ' Joseph Mede, 
most learned in Mystical Divinity.'g This list has greatly lengthened since Fuller's day : curious 
readers will find much information about this college, and many other things of the period, in 
Professor Masson's Life of Milton, in that first volume, which makes us long for the second, so 
slow in following its predecessor. 

Clarke tells us, that at first Bayne's ' conversation was so irregular that his father, being 
grieved at it, before his death, being intimately acquainted with one Master Wilson, a salesman 
in Birchin Lane, he left with him forty pounds by the year, desiring him that if his son did forsake 
his evil courses, and become an honest man, he would then give him that forty pounds per annum ; 

* Chalmers' General Biograpli. Die, London, 1812, 
vol. iv. p. 229. 

t The Church History of Britain, from the Birth of Jesus 
Christ until the year 1648, endeavoured by Thomas Fuller. 
London, printed by John Williams, at the sign of the 
Crown in St Paul's Churchyard. Anuo 1655, folio. 

X The Lives of the Puritans, by Benjamin Brook. 

i ' The History of the University of Cambridge since 
the Conquest.' Printed in the year of our Lord 1C55 
(added to Fuller's Ch. Hist. The copy before me contains 
a map of Cantahrigia qualis extitit Anno D'ni 1634). 


if not, that he would never let him have it.' The result may be best told in Clarke's quaint 
but choice words : ' It pleased God, not long after his father's decease, to shew him his sins, and 
to work effectual repentance in him for the evil of liis ways, so that, forsaking his former evil 
company and practices, he became eminent for his piety and holiness, and according to that of 
our Saviour, much being forgiven him he loved much.' Soon after this gracious change his 
father's friend, Mr Wilson, was seized with a dangerous sickness, and having heard of God's 
merciful dealings with Baynes, he sent for him. By his prayers and by ' his savoury discourse,' 
the restored prodigal gave proof that he had fairly earned his father's legacy. 

Faithful to his trust, Mr Wilson told Baynes of his father's bequest, and delivered up ' those 
writings of agreement which had passed between his father and him.' As Wilson had a wife 
and two children, he besought for them the kindly care of his newly-found friend after he had 
departed. ' And Master Bayne.s, after Master Wilson's death, tliat he might fully discharge 
that trust which was reposed in him, and also by way of gratitude for that friendship and 
fidelity which he had found in Master Wilson, married his widow.' Whether there were more 
chddrcn that followed, and whether the son he speaks of in his letters was his own .son or Mr 
Wilson's, we cannot say : beyond this glimpse into his family affairs, nearly all is darkness. We 
may gather, however, that he must have had a family, from the fact that even with his annuity 
of £iO ' by the year,' a large sum in those days, his latter years were passed in penury. 

Baynes was a distinguished student. Clarke says that, being chosen fellow in his college ' foi 
his eminency in learning,' he so much, ' through God's blessing on his studies and endcavourf, 
improved his time and talents, that he became inferior to none for sharpness of wit, variety of 
reading, depth of judgment, aptness to teach, holy and pleasant language, wise carriage, hea- 
venly conversation, and all other fulness of grace.' He adds : ' When Ma.ster Perkins, who was 
lecturer in Cambridge, had there for many years held forth a burning and shining light, thfe 
sparks whereof did fly abroad into all the comers of the kingdom, and after he had served in 
bis generation, was taken up into heaven, there was none found so meet to receive, as it were, 
the torch out of his hand, and succeed in that great office of bearing it before such a people, as 
Master Baines, upon whom also the spirit of that Elias was by experience found to be doubled. 
In which station he so demeaned himself for some years, that impiety only had cause to com- 
plain. But all that favoured the ways of God, or savoured of religion, rejoiced, and gloried in 
him and his ministry, as in a spiritual and heavenly treasure.'* 

We have said that, so far as we know, Baynes published little, if anything, during his own 
lifetime. All that we have been able to lay hands on as undoubtedly his, bears date from 1618 
onwards. He died in Cambridge in 1617. One of his larger works is named ' The Diocesan's 
Trial' It seems to have been first published in 1621. There is a copy in the British Museum 
library, which is thus catalogued : ' The Diocesans Tryall wherein all the Sinnewes of Doctor 
Downham's Defence are brought into three heads and orderly dissolved : Published by Dr W. 
Ames. London, 164!l, 4to.' The edition before me is a small thin quarto of about ninety pages, 
and has the following title-page : ' The Diocesan's Tryall, wherein the main controversies about 
the former government of the churches of Christ are j udiciously stated, and learnedly discussed, 
in the opening and thorough debating of these three questions following : 1st. Whether Christ 
did institute or the Apostles frame any Diocesan form of Churches, or whether Parishionall 
only. 2d. Whether Christ ordained by himself, or by his Apostles, any ordinary pastor, having 
both precedencie of order and majority of power over others ? 3d. Whether Christ did imme- 
diately commit ordinary power ecclesiastical!, and the exercise of it, to any one singular person, 

♦ Clarke's Martyro'.ogie, p. 23. 


or to an uuited multitude of Presbyters. A work seasonable and useful for these times, being 
very helpfull to the deciding of the differences now in question upon this subject. Written long 
since by that famous and learned divine, Mr Paul Bayne, and now published by authority. 
London, printed for John Bellamie, and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the three 
golden lyons, in Comhill near the Royal Exchange. 1644.' This work has a long, learned, 
and loving preface by Amesius, and in it there is a pretty full account of the silencing of the 
earnest and eloquent lecturer at St Andrew's. He says : ' It is hard to say whether the 
silencing of him were more odious or the manner of it shameless.' The manner was in the form 
of a visitation : the visitor for the Archbishop Bancroft was his Chancellor, Harsnet. It seems 
to have been determined beforehand that Baynes should be silenced, but he had conducted him- 
himself with such prudence — knowing nothing among men save Jesus Christ and him crucified 
— that a plausible pretext was wanting. He was ordered to preach the visitation sermon : it 
was thought that out of it matter of accusation might be found against him. But he preached 
a plain, simple, gospel sermon, full of sound doctrine, and applicable to those present. 'Mr 
Baines, having greatly heated his weak body by straining to speak fully unto a great audience, 
retired himself presently on his coming down from the pulpit, to provide for his health.' Not 
knowing that he was expected to appear before Harsnet, and being cited in his temporary 
absence, he was immediately silenced for contumacy in not appearing. 

Afterwards, he appealed to the Chancellor for a revocation of the hasty and unjust sentence, 
but in vain. When on this occasion the Chancellor was summing up the charges against him, 
Baynes received them with a complacent smile of conscious innocence ; this smile was translated 
into one of contempt for his superiors, and the sentence was confirmed. Baynes afterwards 
appealed to the Archbishop, Bancroft, but appealed in vain. Amesius tells us, in the preface 
from which we are quoting, that so soon as he presented himself, at the very first salutation, 
Bancroft sharply rebuked the good old man for a little black work which was upon the edge of 
his cuffs, asking him how he dared come before him with such cuffs ; it were a good turn, he 
said, to lay him by the heels for so doing. Brook, quoting, in his imperfect way, from this pre- 
face, adds the following note :* — ' How a little black edging could offend his Lordship is cer- 
tainly not easy to discover. It was not prohibited by any of the canons, nor any violation of 
the ecclesiastical constitutions ; therefore, unless the archbishop had some enmity against the 
good man previously in his heart, it seems difficult to say how he could have been offended with 
so trivial a matter.' Amesius tells us, that after this he preached as he had liberty ; that he 
spent his time in reading, meditation, and prayer ; that he had a weak body, and was much 
and often pressed by want, having, as he often complained to his friends, no place in which to 
lay his head. 

Clarke informs us that whilst he lived a private life his wife died, and ' being thunderstruck 
by the bishop's bolt, he had time and leisure to apply his able wit and judgment about the 
discussing of many questions which, if the prelates had not forced such leisure upon him, it may 
be he would have passed by with others.' ' He was of such an holy and heavenly temper that 
he was reverenced by all good men that knew him. His manner was, in the summer time, to 
go from one gentleman's house to another, and happy were they who could get such company. 
He had such a divine and heavenly majesty that it would awe any man to look upon him. 
Little recreation he used, but sometimes to play at chess.' 

Once after this, — under the auspices of Harsnet, then Bishop of Chichester, and afterwards 
Archbishop, — he was called before the council, under the accusation of keeping conventicles, 

* Brook's Lives of the Puritans, vol- ii. p- 262. 


which pretence was founded ou the simple fact, that being an excellent casuist, many repaired 
to him for the resolution of cases of conscience. When he was accused of the crime of keeping 
conventicles before the Privy Council, one of the noblemen at the table said, 'Speak, speak for 
yourself Whereupon, says Clarke, 'he made such an excellent speech, that in the midst thereof 
a nobleman stood up, and said, " He speaks more like an angel than a man, and I dare not stay 
here to have a hand in any sentence against him," upon which speech they dismissed him, and 
he never heard more from them.'* 

Brook tells the following anecdote, for which he quotes as authority Clarke's ' Examples,' 
p. 72, edit. 1671. 'A religious gentleman placed his .son under his care and tuition, and Mr 
Baynes, entertaining some friends at supper, sent the boy into the town for something which 
they wanted. The boy staying longer than was proper,' as boy.s, then and now, will do, ' Mr 
Baynes reproved him with some sharpness, severely censuring his conduct. The boy remained 
silent, but the next day, when his tutor was calm, he thus addressed him: "My father placed 
me under your care, not only for the benefit of human learning, but that, by your pious counsel 
and example, I might be brought up in the fear of God ; but you, sir, giving way to your passion 
the last night gave me a very evil example, such as I have never seen in my father's house." 
" Sayest thou so," answered Mr Baynes, "go to my taylor, and let him buy thee a suit of clothes, 
and make them for thee, which I will pay for to make thee amends." And it is added that Mr 
Baynes watched more narrowly over his own spirit ever after.' 

Clarke tells another anecdote concerning him, which we may as well add to the former, as 
illustrative both of the man and his age. ' Upon a time he went to the house of Mrs Sheafe, 
who was his wife's sister, at Craabrook in Kent, where, observing that she and others of the 
family used to play much at cards, and such like games, as the custom was and still is too much 
used in gentlemen's houses, he took occasion on the Sabbath-day, in his sermon, to speak against 
such games. And it pleased the Lord so to work upon MLsti'ess Sheafe 's heart by that sermon, 
that when she came home she came crying to him, saying, " brother, why should you thus 
suffer me to live in sin to the dishonour of God, and would never tell me of it before?" To 
which he replied, that it was best of all that God had wrought on her by the public ministry, 
and that it might not have been so well if he had spoken to her in private.' 

There is another characteristic touch of the man and his times, added by Clarke, which we 
must give. 'His prayer in his family ivas not usually above a quaiier of an hour long, and 
having respect to the weakness and infirmities of his servants and children, he used to dissuade 
others from tediousness in that duty.' So that a quarter of an hour's prayer was considered 
'judicious brevity' in those da3's ; what would it be thought now ? 

The exposition of the first chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians was first published by 
itself, separately, a year after the author's death, in 1618, so that it is likely it may have received 
its finishing touches from his own hand. Our copy is complete, ' London, printed by M. F. for 
R. Milbourne & J. Bartlett. 16-1'3.' After an epistle dedicatoiy to Sir John Dingley and Sir 
Robert Wood, signed by W. Jemmat, of Kingston, there follows, ' Dr Sibbes his judgment of the 
author of this commentary, in a preface to the exposition of the first chapter, publ'shed divers 
years agoe.' Clarke, in his quaint old way, gives an excellent summary, wiiich the reader can 
compare with the text of Dr Sibbes as now reprinted in this volume. ' He was a man of much 
communion with God, and acquaintance with his own heart, observing the daily pas.sages of his 
life, and was much exercised with spiritual conflicts, whereby he became the more able to com- 
fort others with the same consolations which himself had received from God. He had a deep 

• Clarke, Brook, Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. i. p 463. 


insight into the mystery of God's grace, and man's corruption, as appears by his commentary 
upon the Epistle to the Ephesians. He was one that sought not after great matters in the 
world, being taken up with comforts and griefs unto which the world is a stranger. One that 
had not all his learning out of books ; of a sharp wit, and a clear judgment. So that though 
his meditations were ofan higher strain than ordinary, yet he had a good dexterity, furthered by 
his love to do good, in explaining dark points with lightsome similitudes.' 

' In his last sickness he had many doubts and fears, and God letting Satan loose upon him, 
he went out of this world with far less comfort than many weaker Christians enjoy. He resigned 
up his spirit into the hands of God, in Cambridge, anno Christi 1617.' 

There is a little pocket volume of Mr Baynes' letters extant, which is not so well known as 
it ought to be, even by lovers of the good old Puritan theology. We have not seen it mentioned 
in any list of his works. We give the title in full : ' Christian Letters of Mr Paul Bayne, 
replenished with divers consolations, exhortations, and directions, tending to promote the Honour 
of Godliness. Heb. 3. 13 (quoted). London. Printed for William Sheffard, and are to be sold 
at his shop in Popes Head Alley, at the Entering in out of Lumbard Street. 1628.' This is a 
choice little volume, and well deserves to be reprinted. It contains much precious truth, put in 
the happiest style. It sparkles with metaphor and simile, and is illustrated by apt proverbs. 
Unfortunately there are no dates to the letters, and no directions ; and the personal matters, which 
we would have prized most, are apparently left out designedly. Here is a glimpse of his wife, to 
whom, throughout, there are the most loving allusions : ' My most Christian wife (your sister) 
hath since Easter last been very ill, and it hath not pleased God to blesse any means which she 
hath attempted here or elsewhere. But now of late, and especially this week, her strength is 
more than ordinarily enfeebled, that I fear you shall not long enjoy such a sister, nor I such a 
wife, of whom I am unworthy.' Here is a reference to Chancellor Harsnet's ^nsitation, as the 
result of which he was deprived : ' I have great business. Our metropoliian's visitation cometh 
shortly, and I am warned to preach, besides many other occasions. Yet because I love not after- 
wisdom, I do make way by force to send you in time a word by friendly admonition.' Here is 
another brief personal reference : ' I was scarce alighted from my horse but an aguish distemper 
did seize on me, and follow me in manner of an hecticJce, to which I have a habitude, even in 
my best health. Besides, I have been troubled with such an inflammation of some of those 
interiora viscera that I could not sleep two hours, but extremity of inward heats would awaken 
me. In which kind I went some weeks, but now I thank God my body, though a little more 
bettered, is in such a state as formerly it hath been.' Again, ' If my son go on setting his heart 
to get learning, I will set my heart to procure him all due encouragement in so good a course.' 
This is the only reference we have found to his children. Here is the last : ' Sister M., my wife 
and I held it meet to signify both our remembrance of you, whom your token hath testified not 
to be unmindful of us both ; for, when my wife is thought on, I think then I am not quite for- 
gotten. You will be desirous of knowing how my wife and her place agreeth. Concerning which 
I inform you thus much, that both of us in regard of all circumstances do think our lines well 
fallen. If we should speak otherwise we should not sanctifie Him in our hearts who is merciful 
to us.' We give one choice proverb from this collection of letters, ' The slowest fire makes the 
sweetest malt.' So it appears in the life and death of this ' worthy.' 

As we have said, the Commentary on the first chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians was 
first published separately in 1G18. The succeeding chapters were published separately also, and 
finally collected in a folio in 104:3. The reader will note that the Commentary goes no further 
than to the 10th verse of the last chapter : a judicious reader has added to our copy, ' See Gur- 
nall's Christian in Complete Armour.' Of the Commentary we say nothing ; it is in the reader's 


liands, and he can judge for himself. His other works are (2.) ' A Commentarie upon the first 
and second chapters of St Paul to the Colossians. Wherein the text is clearly opened, observa- 
tions thence perspicuously deducted, uses and applications succinctly and briefly inferred ; sundry 
holy and spiritual meditations out of his more ample discourse extracted : together with divers 
places of Scripture briefly explained. By Mr Paul Bayne, B.D. London, printed by Richard 
Badger, for Nicholas Bourne, and are to be sold at his shop at the Royal Exchange, 1G34.' This 
is a small quarto. It is dedicated to the reader by one J. S., who says of Baynes : ' Thus 
thundering in doctrine, and lightning in conversation, he left no stone unturned that might 
further the building of the New Jerusalem. By his exemplary deportment he fastened the nail 
which was driven by judicious instruction. In precept and practice a man of God, a beacon on 
a hill, a burning and a shining lamp. Blessed saint ! quce sparsa per omnea in te multa 

The Commentary occupies about one half of the volume, the other half consists of ' Lectures 
preached from these texts of Scripture, by Mr Paul Bayne.' There are thirteen of them, with 
no Wsible bond of connection ; short, terse, and having every appearance of being taken ver- 
batim from his MS. preparation for the pulpit. At the close of the volume are ' Spiritual 
Aphorisms, or Divine Meditations, suteable to the pious and honest life and conversation of the 
author, P. Bayne." Tlie aphorisms are sixty-six in number : we give a specimen, ' What thresh- 
ing will make me fly out of my iiusk ? Even as Lot was forcibly drawn out of Sodom : so for 
his mercies must my God pluck me out of my natural corruption.' Again, 'A strait shoe mak- 
eth us feel a little stone ; so a strait conscience a small sin. They that will not mend a gutter, 
must amend a whole house.' Here is another, ' We can see the branches of a tree without 
labour ; but to behold the root requires labour and digging : so the fruit of sin is manifest, the 
root lieth hid.' The Commentary on the two first chapters of Colossians, which forms the first 
part of this volume is complete so far as it goes ; and, like the rest, seems to be a transcript fronj 
his pulpit MS. It is forcible, practical, and full of sound doctrine, good to the use of edifyino'. 

3. The Diocesan's Tryall, already referred to ante. 

4. ' Christian Letters,' &c., also referred to previously. 

5. ' A Brief Direction unto a godly Life : wherein every Christian is furnished with most 
necessary helps for the furthering of him in a godly course here upon earth, so that he may 
attain eternal happiness in heaven. Written by Mr Paul Bayne, minister of God's word, to Mr 
Nicholas Jordan his brother. London, printed by A. E. for J. N., and are to be sold by Samuel 
Enderly, at the Star in Pope's Head Alley, 1637.' This is a handy little pocket volume, in 
appearance exactly like ' The Letters.' It is dedicated ' To the Right Worshipful Mr Nicholas 
Jordan, Esq., and one of his Majesty's J. P. and Quorum in the county of Essex.' The dedication 
is signed N. N., i. e. Natiianael Newberry, bookseller in Cornhill. 

6. 'A caveat for cold Christians, in a sermon preached by Mr P. Bayne, sometime minister 
of God's word at St Andrew's in Cambridge, wherein the common disease of Christians with the 
remedy is plainly and excellently set down for all that will use it, John xv. 9, 1 0. At London, 
imprinted by Felix Kyngston, for Nathanael Newberry, and are to be sold at his shop under St 
Peter's Church in Cornhill, and in Pope's Head Alley, right against the sign of the White Horse, 
1618.' Tliis is an earnest, stirring sermon, on the text Rev. ii. 4, 5. It is a thin small square 
octavo, and is dedicated to the worshipful Mr Robert Clavering, town-clerk of Newcastle (on Tyne). 
The dedication contains the following sentences worth extracting: ' If, considering the good 
acceptance that some former few sermons of that religiously-learned and learnedly religious 
divine, Master P. Bayne, have had with the church of God, the ensuing sermon being hitherto 
by me, I was (without difiicultyj induced to make it public. For if I should longer conceal it. 


what know I whether somebody else, who had not the Uke interest to it that myself have, might 
not prevent me in printing this, as well as they have done in publishing some other things of 
the like nature. Moreover, looking into the carriage and frame of this draught, I did not see 
how it could disparage any of the rest who are now flown abroad.' From which we may gather 
frst, that the author's sermons were greatly prized at the time of then- first appearing ; and 
second, either that the author had lent his MS. to friends, or that diligent hearers had taken 
large notes wliich, afterwards expanded, were handed about by friends to friends This appears 
from the title of the next, a thin quarto, wliich I found in the catalogue of the British Museum, 
with some others. 

7. ' The Trial of a Christian's Estate : or a Discourse of the causes, degrees, signs and differ- 
ences, of the Apostasie, both of true Christians and false : in a sermon on Heb. x. 39. Preached 
by P. Baynes, and aftenvards sent in writing by him to (and edited by) his friend, W. F. 
London, 1618. 4'to.' 

8. Two godly and faithfid treatises, the one upon the Lord's Prayer, and the other upon the 
Sixe Principles. Edited by E. C. London, 1619. 12mo. Also in British Museum. 

9. The Spiritual Ai-mour, with which being furnished, the Christian may be able to stand 
fast in the day of trial. London, 1620. 12mo. 

10. An Epitome of Man's Misery and Delivery, in a Sermon on Romans iii. 23, 2i. Edited 
by J. E. London. 1690. 4to, 

I have only been able to find the titles of two more sermons; 11. Holy Helper in God's 
building ; and 1 2. Help to true Happiness : explaining the fundamentals of the Christian 
religion. London. 1635. 3d edition, 12mo.* I am pretty sure this list miglit be considerably 
enlarged ; but I am pretty sure also that it contains all that is of any real importance in the 
works of Baynes. If anything is omitted, it can only be a few occasional and single sermons ; 
which are of value chiefly to the curious, and to those who have a passion for possessing a com- 
plete set of the writings of an author. And now my task is done ; with more leisure, it could 
have been made more worthy of this prince among the early Puritans. 

Chelsea, Feb. 1866. 

* Chalmers' Biograpical Dictionary, Art. Baynes. 




SIRS, — In this age of pamphlets true and false, my 
stationer, as a friend of piety, hath (with a dis- 
wontod boldness) adventured to print and send forth 
this worthy Commentary on that divine Epistle of 
Paul to the Ephesians, which, as at other times it 
might be useful to the church of God, so, especially 
at this time, it may be of use (by the novelty) to take 
off the hearts of Christians from idle pamphlets too 
much in request, and pitch them on the grave and 
weighty points of religion, which herein are pithily 
opened and applied to the conscience. The epistle in 
general may be called (by the apostle's own direction) 
his knowledge in the mystery of Christ, chap. iii. 4. 
In the two first chapters, he discourseth of election 
and the free grace of God in saving his people by 
Christ, Gentiles as well as Jews. In the third, he re- 
capitulates his doctrine, and applies it to this church 
of Ephesus, praying they may have the sense, use, 
and comfort of it in those troublesome times, where- 
into the churches were soon cast. In the fourth and 
two last, he exhorteth this people to all holy duties 
which do best suit with so holy doctrine as he had 
delivered. And if in these days our apostle were con- 
sulted withal as such an oracle deserveth, and this 
holy interpreter, who had both his name and spirit, 
neither Arminianism and popery on the one side 
could so prevail upon the world as it hath done, nor 
on the other side profaneness and carnal-mindness in 
them that turn the grace of God into lasciviousness. 
For the church's sake are these things thus published, 
that, though Israel play the harlot, yet may not Judah 
transgress ; and it will be good wisdom in Christians, 
amidst all these fears and distractions (which prove 
also distractions to many a man's course of piety, 
especially in reading good books), to withdraw them- 

selves from the noire and dust of the world, and 
redeem as much time as they can for perusing those 
holy truths which are here skilfully and in a spiritual 
manner expounded. Most unhappy is that man who 
is too well known among others, and at last dieth un- 
known to himself. 

To you both, noble Sirs (being, by God's providence 
and goodness, near neighbours both in place and piety), 
I am bold to dedicate these meditations of that worthy 
servant of God, whose name is yet so sweet in the 
church : which I have adventured to do, not so much 
to crave patronage for the work, which is able to de- 
fend itself, as to give you thanks publicly for your 
love to this poor town of Kingston, for your kind 
respect to us the preachers, and your daily attending 
at the courts of wisdom, which might be a good 
example to provoke the dulnesa of our backward and 
negligent people. And oh that this late affliction might 
awaken us all out of that deep security which had too 
much possessed us ! The sword is now come to second 
the word, that what was not done in a mild way may 
be done in a rugged. And happy we if we sin no 
more, lest a worse thing come upon us. I shall be 
glad if, by perusing these treatises at leisure, there 
shall be anything added to your zeal in religion, that 
you may get Christ more into your hearts and advance 
him more in your lives, which will be your true honour 
and lasting comfort, when all titles and good things of 
the world will vanish into nothing. And thus, com- 
mending you both, with all yours, to the grace of our 
heavenly Father, I humbly take my leave, and entreat 
your pardon for this my boldness, being, 

Your worships' much obliged, 

Kingston, D^c. 12. 1642. W. Jemm.vt. 



NOTWITHSTANDING the world's complaint of 
the surfeit of hooks (hasty wits being over for- 
ward to vent their unripe and misshapen conceits), yet 
in all ages there have been, and will be, necessary 
nses of holy treatises, appliable to the variety of 
occasions of the time ; because men of weaker con- 
ceits cannot so easily of themselves discern how one 
truth is inferred from another, and proved by another, 
especially when truth is controverted by men of more 
subtle and stronger wits. Whereupon, as God's truth 
hath in all ages been opposed in some branches of it, 
so the divine providence that watcheth over the church 
raised up some to fence the truth, and make up the 
breach. Men gifted proportionably to the time, and 
as well furnished to fight God's battles, as Satan's 
champions have been to stand for him ; neither have 
any points of Scripture been more exactly discussed 
than those that have been most sharply oppugned, 
opposition whetting both men's wits and industry ; 
and in several ages men have been severally exercised. 
The ancientest of the fathers had to deal with them 
without (the pagans), and especially with proud 
heretics, that made their own conceits the measure 
of holy truth, believing no more than they could 
comprehend in the articles of the Triuitv, and natures 
of Christ, whence they bent their forces that way, 
and for their matter wrote more securely. Not long 
after, the enemies of grace, and flatterers of nature, 
•stirred up Saint Augustine to challenge the doctrine 
of God's predestination and grace out of then- hands, 
which he did with gi'eat success, as fitted with grace, 
learning, and wit, for such a conflict ; and no Scrip- 
tures are more faithfully handled by him than those 
that were wrested by his oppositcs, and such as made 

for the strengthening of his own cause. In other 
wi-itings he took more liberty ; his scholars, Prosper, 
Fulgentius, and others, interested themselves in tha 
same quarrel. 

In process of time men, desirous of quiet, and tired 
with controversies, began to lay aside the study of 
Scriptures, and heai'ken after an easier way of ending 
strife, by the determination of one man (the bishop of 
Rome), whom virtually they made the whole church ; 
so the people were shut up under ignorance and im- 
plicit faith, which pleased them well, as easing them 
of labour of search ; as upon the same irksomeness of 
trouble, in the eastern parts, they yielded to the con- 
fusion and abomination of Mahometism. 

And lest scholan? should have nothing to do, they 
were set to tie and untie school knots, and spin ques- 
tions out of their own brain ; in which brabbles they 
were so taken up, that they slightly looked to other 
matters. As for questions of weight, they were schooled 
to resolve all into the decisive sentence of the see 
apostolic, the authority of which they bent their wits 
to advance ; yet then wisdom found children to jus- 
tify her ; for scriptures that made for authority of 
princes, and against usurpation of popes, were well 
cleared by Occam, Marsilius, Patavinus, and others, 
as those of predestination and grace by Ariminensis, 
Bradwardine, and their followers, against Pelagianism, 
then much prevailing. At length the apostasy of 
popery spread so far, that God, in pity to his poor 
church, raised up men of invincible courage, unwearied 
pams, and great skill in tongues and arts, to free 
religion so deeply enthralled ; from whence it is that 
we have so many judicious tractates and commentaries 
in this latter age. And yet will there bo neccssarj' 


nse of farther search into the Scriptures, as new 
heresies arise, or olJ are revived, and further strength- 
ened : the conviction of which is then best when 
their crookedness is brought to the straight rule of 
Scriptures to be discovered. Besides, new exposi- 
tions of Scriptures will bo useful, in respect of new 
temptations, corruptions in life, and cases of con- 
science, in which the mind will not receive any 
satisfj-ing resolution but from explication and applica- 
tion of Scriptures. Moreover, it is not unprofitable 
that there should be divers treatises of the same por- 
tion of Scriptures, because the same truth may bo 
better conveyed to the conceits of some men by some 
men's handling than others, one man relishing one 
man's gifts more than another. And it is not meet 
that the gloi-y of God's goodness and wisdom should 
be obscured, which shineth in the variety of men's gifts, 
especially seeing the depth of Scripture is such, that 
though men had large hearts, as the sand of the sea- 
shore, yet could they not empty out all things con- 
tained ; for though the main principles be not many, 
yet deductions and conclusions are infiuite, and until 
Christ's second coming to judgment, there will never 
want new occasion of further search and wading into 
these deeps. 

In all which respects, this exposition of this holy 
man deserves acceptance of the church, as fitted to 
the times, as the wise reader will well discern. Some 
few places are not so full as could be wishe 1 for clear- 
ing some few obscurities ; yet those that took the care 
of setting them out, thought it better to let them pass 
as they are, than be over bold with another man's 
work, in making him speak what he did not, and take 
them as they be. The greatest shall find matter to 
exercise themselves in ; the meaner, matter of sweet 
comfort and holy instruction ; and all confess that he 
hath brought some light to this excellent portion of 

He was a man fit for this task, a man of much com- 
munion with God, and acquaintance with his own 
heart, observing the daily passages of his hfe, and ex- 
ercised much with spiritual conflicts. As St Paul in 
this epistle never seemeth to satisfy himself in advanc- 
ing the glory of grace, and the vileness of man in him- 
self, so this our Paul had large conceits of these things, 
a deep insight into the mystery of God's grace and 
man's corruption'; he could therefore enter further 
into Paul's meaning, having received a large measure 
of Paul's spirit. He was one that sought no great 
matters in the world, being taken up with comforts 
and griefs, unto which the world is a stranger ; one 
that had not all his learning out of books ; of a sharp 
wit and clear judgment. Though his meditations were 
of a higher strain than ordinary, yet he had a good 
dexterity, furthered by his love to do good, in explain- 
ing dark points with lightsome similitudes. His man- 
ner of handling questions in this epistle is press and 
Bchool-likc, by arguments on both sides, conclusions, 

and answer.=, a course more suitable to this purpose 
than loose discourses. 

In setting down the object of God's predestination, 
he succeeds him in opinion whom he succeeded in 
place ; in which point divines accord not, who, in all 
other points, do jointly agree against the troublers of 
the church's peace in our neighbour countries ; for 
some would have man Ho before God in predestinating 
him, as in lapsed and miserable estate ; others would 
have God in that first decree, to consider man ab- 
stracted from such respects, and to be considered of 
as a creature alterable, and capable either of happiness 
or misery, and fit to bo disposed of by God, who is 
Lord of his own, to any supernatural end ; yet both 
agree in this, first, that there was an eternal separation 
of men in God's purpose ; secondly, that this first 
decree of severing man to his ends, is an act of sove- 
reignty over his creature, and altogether independent 
of anything in the creature as a cause of it, especially 
in comparative reprobation, as why he rejected Judas 
and not Peter. Sin foreseen cannot bo the cause, be- 
cause that was common to both, and therefore could be' 
no cause of severing. Thirdly, all agree in this, that 
damnation is an act of divine justice, which supposeth 
demerit ; and therefore the execution of God's decree 
is founded on sin, either of nature or life, or both. 
My meaning is not to make the cause mine by unne- 
cessary intermeddling ; the worthiness of the men on 
both sides is such, that it should move men to modera- 
tion in their censures either way. Neither is this 
question of like consequence with others in this busi- 
ness, but there is a wide difference between this 
diflerence and other difl'erences. And one cause of it 
is the difficulty of understanding how God conceives 
things, which difl'ers in the whole kind fi-om ours, he 
conceiving of things altogether and at once without 
discourse, we one thing after another, and by another. 
Our comfort is, that what we cannot see in the light 
of nature and grace, we shall see in the light of glory, 
in the university of heaven ; before which time, that men 
should in all matters have the same conceit of things of 
this nature, is rather to be wished for than to be hoped. 
That learned bishop, now with God, that undertook 
the defence of Mr Perkins, hath left to the church, 
together with the benefit of his labours, the sorrow for 
his death, the fame of his worth, an example likewise 
of moderation, who, though he differed from Mr Per- 
kius in this point, yet shewed that he could both 
assent in lesser things, and with duo respect main- 
tain in greater matters. If wo would discern 
of difl'erences, the church would be troubled with 
fewer distempers ; I speak not as if way were to be 
given to Vorstian, lawless, licentious liberty of pro- 
phecy ; that every one, so soon as he is big of some new 
conceit, should bring forth his abortive monster ; for 
thus the pillars of Christian faithwouldsoonbeshakeOr 
and the church of God, which is a house of order, 
would become a Babel, a house of confusion ; the dole- 


fnl issues of -which pretended liberty, we see in 
Polonia, Transylvania, and in countries nearer hand. 
We are much to bless God for the king's majesty's 
firmness this way, unto whose open appearing in these 
matters, and to the vigilancy of some in place, we owe 
our freedom from that schism that troubleth our 

But for diyersity of apprehensions of matters far 

remote from the foundation, these may stand with 
public and personal peace. I will keep the reader no 
longer from the treatise ; the blessing of heaven go 
with it, that through the good done by it, much 
thanksgiTing may be to God in the church. Amen. 

Gray's Inn. 





TTER. 1. Paid, (It! ajinstJe of Jesus Christ hij the 
\ vitl of God, to the saints of God, to the saints 
uhich are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in CItrist 

Before the words be entered, it is fit to premise 
some few words concerning, 1, the occasion ; 2, the 
Bcopo ; and, 3, the method of this epistle. First, 
the occasion was the state of the church, foreseen 
by Paul, Acts xx., 2 Peter i. 15. 2. The scope 
is to teach them the doctrine of God's most rich grace, 
and to stir them up to everj- duty, in way of thank- 
fulness. The parts of the epistle are three : 1, the 
preface, in the two first verses ; 2, the matter or sub- 
stance of the epistle, which rcacheth from the 3d verse 
to the 21st of the sixth chapter ; 3, the conclusion, 
thence to the end. In the preface, three things are 
contained : 1, the author's name, who is described by 
his office, ' an apostle ;' which is further amplified, 
first, from the person to whom he appertained, or for 
whom be was emplo^'cd ; secondly, from the efficient 
cause by which he was made an apostle, ' the will of 
God.' This answereth to our subscriptions, for we 
write our own names under our letters. 2. The names 
of the persons to whom he writcth, who are first pro- 
pounded more briefly, with the place they were at, 
' saints at Ephesus ;' secondly, it is expounded more 
clearly whom he meaneth by saints, not such as are 
written in the pope's calendar, having divine honour 
done them, but such as are ' faithful in Christ.' 
Again, these words may seem to lay down persons ; 
first, more specially, as the saints at this place ; 
secondly, more indefinitely and generally, as true be- 
lievers on Christ everywhere ; but the note of quan- 
tity wanteth to make this sense ; for Paul would 

have spoken in this manner, to the saints at Ephesus, 
and to all that believe on Christ, if this had been his 
meaning, as in 1 Cor. i. This part of the preface 
answereth to our superscriptions, wherewith we en- 
dorse our letters ; fur on the back of om- letters we 
use to express the name of our friend to whom they 
are directed. The third thing in this preface is his 
salutation. The words of this verse needing no fur- 
ther expHcation, we will note out the chief instructions 
which ofler themselves to our observation, and so pass 
on to the second verse. 

Doct. 1. First, that Paul doth use to set forth his 
calling, before he entereth his matter with them, it 
doth teach that ministers must inculcate to themselves, 
and such as they have to deal with, their callings from 
God. St Paul doth not text this forth in the fore- 
front of every epistle, ' Paul, a servant of Christ,' 
' Paul, an apostle of Christ,' but that he found it a fit 
thing to be proposed, both for his own sake, and 
theirs with whom he had to do. Even as civil magis- 
trates do give out their writs in the king's name, with 
mention of the office they bear under him, to the end 
that due respect might be given them of the subject ; 
so this great church- officer doth mention what place 
he held under Christ, the king of his church, that the 
things delivered by him might be accordingly received. 
In a word, this is good for the minister himself, and 
for the people. How can he speak the words of God, 
as the mouth of God, with reverence and all authority, 
if he considers not that God hath commanded to him 
this piece of service ? 

Doct. 2. The ministry is a work so weighty, that 
no man of himself is sufficient for it. Now, what can 
more assure me that I shall be made able, than to look 


[Chap. I. 

at God, who hath called me to such an office ? Princes 
call not their subjects to any scrnce, but that they see 
them furnished with things requisite. 

Doct. 3. Lastly, whereas the difficulties and enrai- 
ties which encounter faithful ministers are many, how 
could they look to be shielded against all, but by hold- 
ing their eyes on him who hath called them ? For 
people this is behoveful, for it maketh them sanctify 
God in hearing, while they look not so much at man, 
as at God teaching by man, Acts x. 33, 1 Thes. ii. 18. 
It maketh them obey those that are over them, when 
they have conscience of this, that God hath sent 
them ; as a servant, when he thinketh his lord or 
lady hath sent any to him, doth readily do that he is 

Use. The use of which is to stir up ministers wisely to 
teach this, and laj' it as a foundation. People Hkewise 
must willingly hear it ; for to acknowledge God's call 
in such as minister to them, is their great advantage. 
When we hai-p on this string much, then people think 
it a spice of pride and vainglory in us, coming only 
from hence, that ^e think ourselves not enough re- 
spected. Thus Paul himself might have been mis- 
construed. What ! Nothing but Paul an apostle ? 
Cannot Paul have the office of apostle, but all the 
town must be of counsel ? But as St Paul feared not 
to prefix this, howsoever his custom might be de- 
praved, so must we imitate the same, in prudent pro- 
posing the ministry we have received from God, though 
evil-minded men misinterpret the fact to their own 

raid an apostte. Observe more particularly, first, 
the quality and degree of him who bringeth the doc- 
trine of this epistle to us. He is an apostle, one of 
the highest degree, an ambassador of state, sent from 
Christ, for so the word signifieth. Look, as kings 
have their superior and inferior magistrates, from the 
chancellor to the constable, so Christ, the glorious 
King of his church, hath divers orders of ministers, 
the order of apostles being supreme, and most excel- 
lent above any other, Eph. iv. And look, as kings 
despatch lords ambassadors into other countries, con- 
cerning important business ; so the Lord Jesus, now 
about to ascend, did send forth his twelve apostles to 
publish the charter of the world, even forgiveness of 
eins, and fi'ee acceptance to life eternal, to all such as 
would take their pardon forth, by a lively belief. Many 
were the privileges of these apostles. 1. They were 
immediately, no person coming between, designed by 
Christ. 2. They were infalhbly assisted, so that, in 
thtir office of teaching, whether by word of mouth or 
WTiting, they could not err. 3. Their commission 
was universal, throughout all nations, though the 
usual exercise thereof was limited and determined 
by Christ, doubtless for the gi-eater edification of the 
church. 4. They could give, by imposition of hands, 
the gifts of the Holy Ghost, which Simon Magus would 
Lave redeemed. 5. Ihcy were eye-witnesses of Christ, 

and saw him ordinarily and miraculously in the flesh, 
as Paul. 

Use. That, therefore, a person of such quality doth 
bring us these things, must stir us up to seek into 
them, and entertain them accordingly. Should the 
king send his mind by the meanest messenger, we 
would receive it dutifully ; but if my lord chancellor, 
or some gi'eat statesman, should in person publish his 
pleasure, we would attend it more reverently. The 
atheism of these times is much to be lamented. Our 
superstitions ancestors, if the pope's nuncio or legate 
came amongst them, bringing the pope's blessing, in- 
dulgences, relics, such wares as were the mock of the 
world, oh, how were they received, how were their 
commodities (if I may so call them) entertained ! But 
our atheism is such, that we let these things lie by, 
many of us not asking after, nor vouchsafing to read 
with devotion, these things which the true legates 
of Jesus Christ have brought unto us, and left pub- 
lished for our sakes. 

Secondly, We see hence the firmness of all those 
things delivered in this epistle; for it was not so much 
the apostle, as God in him, who indited these things ; 
as when a lesson is sounded forth upon an instrument, 
it is not so much the instrument as his who pla3'eth 
upon it. So here, ' I preach not myself, but Christ 
the Lord,' ' an apostle of Christ,' that is, an apostle, 
whom Christ doth take and own as his apostle, who 
is employed about him, 2 Cor. iv. And, indeed, this 
phrase doth import his being made by Christ, rather 
than include it; and, therefore, 1 Tim. i. 1, he is 
said, ' an apostle of Christ, by the commandment of 
Christ ;' where an apostle of Christ is an apostle per- 
taining to Christ, now possessed of him, and employed 
about him, having been advanced to this place by the 
ordination of God and Chi'ist. 

Doct. 3. Now Paul's fact holding out this as his 
glory, that he was Christ's apostle, doth teach us, that 
we are to account it our gi'eatest dignity that we be- 
long to Christ. We see in earthly servitors, their 
glory is so much the greater by how much their lords 
and masters are in greater pre-eminency. Hence it 
is that we sue for the cloth of noble persons especially, 
who are great favourites with the king. We see it so, 
and not without reason, for it is a matter of counte- 
nance, of protection ; yea, if they be in good place 
about them, of gi-eat emolument. But how much 
more glorious is this, to retain to the King of glory, 
and that not as a common servitor, but in some spe- 
cial place, very near him ! 'VMiat greater honour had 
Moses, Abraham, David, than that God's name was 
called on them, ' Abraham the friend of God,' ' Moses 
my servant,' David, ' Oh how thy servant loveth thy 
statutes !' Ps. cxix. 

Use 1. Again, our duty that we owe to the name of 
our God, doth require that we should truly confess 
this, and boast of it, as our highest preferment, that 
he hath made us his servants. Let us therefore who 

Ver. 1.] 


are Christians, rejoice and triumph in this, that Christ 
hath taken us into his service. Men that belong to 
great persons, will bear themselves stout on it, and 
count it the height of their good fortunes ; yet who 
seeth not that uutbaukfulness creepeth into noble 
breasts, or there could not be found a young courtier 
and an old beggar ? What shall be our sin, if we hold 
not up our heads with holy gladness of heart, that 
we are entertained by such a Lord, who is faithful, 
whose largeness is oven above all we can think, to his 
true-hearted servants. 

Use 2. Again, this must rebuke such white-hearted 
Christians who are ashamed of their Master, and work 
he settcth them about, if any profiine ones be in pre- 
sence, who shrink in, and ai'e afraid to be known 
whose men they are ; how far would these have been 
in the times of those first Christians, so full of persecu- 
tion ! Should our servants serve us thus, we would 
pull their cloth over their ears and send them packing. 

Dvct. 4. AcconUiui to God's uill. Observe hence, 
that it is the will of God which doth assign to us our 
several callings ; for the aposUe doth acknowledge in 
this phrase, two things: fii'st, the providence; secondly, 
the free grace of God. Civil men will set forth the 
wisdom and bountifulness of their benefactors. Those 
that rise by the king's ftivour £i-om one place to 
another, oh how they will extol his princelike cle- 
mency ! So this heavenly mind of the apostle every- 
where is afi'ected with the free grace of God, who did 
assign to him such a high calling as this was. The 
truth is, it is God's providence and goodness which 
do design us to every calling, Gal. i. 15; even from 
his mother's womb, did God set him apart, Jer. i. 5 ; 
before he was born, did God decree him a prophet ; 
yea, the smith that bloweth in the coals, the Lord 
createth him, Isa. liv. 16. No wise man doth make a 
thing, but he knoweth the ends to which he will use 
it ; much less doth the Lord make any of us, but he 
knoweth to what ends he will employ us ; and look, as 
a wise governor in the family setteth one to his work 
in this place, a second to another, in a diverse place, 
so doth the Lord in this world, which is a piece of 
his household. 

AVc must therefore hence be stirred up to acknow- 
ledge the grace of God to us, and providence over us; 
if it reach to the hairs of our head, much more to so 
great a benefit as the allotting of our callings is. Yea, 
it must be a ground of contentation in every state 
of life, and of settled persevering in such callings in 
which we have been trained, remembering that whoso 
changcth his place unadvisedly, is like a bu'd now 
from her nest, who maj' be well weather-beaten before 
she return ; yet when God doth orderly lead us to 
more free and comfortable conditions, wo are rather 
to nse them, 1 Cor. vii. 21. 

Saints at Eplwsiis. From this, that he calleth the 
members of this church saints, observe, 

Docl. 5. That all the members of the visible church 

are to be saints. A saint is inwardly a saint, or by 
outward profession. Now, Saint Paul was not 
ignorant that there wore bad fish as well as good, 
chafl' as well as wheat, in this visible church ; never- 
theless, he doth well call them saints : first, because 
they were all by outward profession so, yea, and con- 
formity, for anght wo know ; secondly, because there 
were many true saints. Now the better part, not the 
bigger, giveth the denomination. Wine and water is 
called wine ; gold and silver ore unfined, is called 
gold and silver, though yet much dross be intermeddled 
with it. Look how a civil, virtuous man doth not 
like to have in his house uncinl rake-shames, so the 
most holy God will not allow any in his family openly 
unholy. Like master, like man, at least in outward 
conformity ; and look as no man can think well to 
have swine in his house, or dogs and swine come to 
board with the rest of his family, so here, open sin- 
ners, who, after their names given to Christ, return to 
their vomit, they have no allowance from God to be 
in his household; when we see it otherwise, it is 
through sinful neglect of due censures, and such as 
have the power of them shall answer it. Bat here the 
Brownists must be answered, who reason thus, every 
true visible church standeth of visible saints; our 
churches stand not of visible saints ; civ/o, they are 
not true, and by consequent to be separated from. 
The proposition hath a double sense : first, every 
true church hath in it some visible saints, this is true ; 
but then the second part of the reason is false, ours 
have in them no visible saints. The second sense is, 
every true visible church st;indeth, or hath in it only 
visible saints; standeth entirely of these, no others any 
way intermingled. Now if one understand this de 
jure, viz., of what kind of persons the church should 
stand, it is true ; but if it bo understood of that which 
through iniquity of some men falleth out in the 
church, then it is false ; for the church of Corinth 
was a true visible church while the incestuous person 
remained uncast forth, though he was of right to have 
been excommunicate ; and how absurd is it that one 
sinner, by the negligence of some uncast forth, should 
degrade a thousand from the dignity of a church. 

Use 2. This doctrine then, that the members of the 
church are to be saints, doth let us see the fearful 
estate of many amongst us, who, likeas they tell of 
Halifax nuts, which are all shells, no kernels, so those 
profess themselves saints, but their ignorance, their 
idle courses, their riots, their blasphemies, proclaim 
that there is nothing within which belongeth to a saint. 
Nay, many will not stick to profess they are none of 
the holy brotherhood, to jest at such as endeavour to 
holiness, saying, that young saints prove old devils. 
It is a wonder that such hellish owls dare fly in the 
sunshine of so Christian a profession as is made 
amongst us. 

Use 3. This letteth ns see what we must endeavour 
to, even that we profess. We hate in civil matters 


[Chap. I. 

that any should take upon him that he is not seen in ; 
we count it a gross kind of counterfeiting. Let us 
take heed of taking on us to be members of God's 
chui'ch, and saints, when we have no care to know 
God, and get our hearts cleansed from all filthy sinful 
coiTuptions that reign in them. The rather let us do 
it, for our pride, covetousness, injustice, drunken 
sensualities, they are double iniquities, and make us 
more abominable than Turks and heathens. Whether 
is it more odious for a single maid, or married wife, 
to live in uncleanliness ? It is naught in both, but 
most lewd in the latter ; she doth not only defile her 
body, but violate her faith which she hath given to 
man, and that in sight of God. Thus for us who 
profess otu-selves saints, married to God, for us to 
live in the lusts of our own hearts, doth exceed all 
Turkish and heathenish impiety ; they are loose and 
free (as I may so say), they have not entered any 
covenant with the true God in Christ. 

Use 4. We see the vanity of many who think they 
are not tied so strictly as others, because they make 
not so forward profession. Warn them of an oath of 
wanton dissoluteness, they slip the collar with this, 
that they are not of the precise brotherhood ; yea, 
they allow themselves in that, for which they will be 
on the top of another, because they profess no such 
matter, as the other doth ; but this is their gross 
ignorance ; ask them whether they will be members 
of the church, they answer yea. If thou wilt be a 
member of God's church, thou professest thyself a 
saint, and what profession I pray thee can be more 
glorious ? 

In Ephesus. This was a mother city, famous for 
idolatry and conjuring, as the Acts of the Apostles 
testify, so given to all riot, that it banished Hermodore, 
in no other consideration but that he was an honest 
sober man. This people were so wicked, that lieathens 
themselves did deem them from their mouth worthy 
to be strangled ; yet here God had his church. 

Boct. G. Observe then, that in most wicked places 
God gathereth and mainlaineth his people. Thus 
when the world was so wicked, that the patience of 
God would bear no longer, the Lord had a Noah in it ; 
thus he bad a Melchisedec in Canaan, a Lot in Sodom, 
a Job in Uz, a church in Pergamos, where the devil 
had his throne. Where God hath his church, we say, 
the devil hath his chapel ; so on the contrary, where 
the devil hath his cathedral, there God hath his people. 
Look, as in nature we see a pleasant rose grow from 
amidst the thorns, and a most beautiful lily spring out 
of slimy waterish places ; look, as God in the dark- 
ness of the night maketh beautiful lights arise ; so 
here, in the darkest places, he will have some men who 
shall shine as lights in the midst of a perverse genera- 
tion. This God doth, first, in regard of himself, that 
he may display his mighty power and wisdom so much 
more clearly. Thus in the creation, to bring the 
creature out of nothing, light out of darkness, did 

display the riches of his almighty power, goodness, 
and wisdom : in regai-d of the saints, that they may 
more clearly discern his great grace to them, who hath 
so separated and altered them from such, with whom 
they formerlj- conversed ; in regard of the wicked, 
that by the example of these, the world may be con- 
demned in their unbelief and unrighteousness, and all 
other darkness which they chose rather than light ; 
as Noah is said to have condemned the old world, 
while he builded the ark, of the impenitency and care- 
less unbelief in which they lay, without respect to 
God's thi'eatening, Heb. xi. 7. 

Use 1. The use is, first, that we should not be dis- 
couraged if we live amongst factious persons in wicked 
towns, lewd families. Being made, by God's grace, 
new creatures, we must rather wonder at his power, 
wisdom, grace unto us; and no doubt but that he who 
hath kept his in the wickedest places, will keep us also. 
Secondly, we must think of om- happiness, if we did 
use it, above these ; they did dwell pell-mell, heathen 
and Christian under one roof, whereas we live with 
none but such for the most part as profess the Chris- 
tian name ; crrjo, in many regards our condition is far 

Now, he Cometh to explain whom he meaneth by 
saints, describing them from. their faith in Christ : ' To 
the faithful in Christ.' For those words are added, 
first, to point at the root of sanctification, which is 
belief; secondly, to distinguish God's church from the 
synagogues of the Jews, who professed faith towards 
God, but not in Christ Jesus. And he doth fitly note 
out the saints by their faith in Chi'ist Jesus ; for who- 
soever is faithful is a saint, and whosoever is a saint 
is faithful ; though to be a saint, and to be faithful, 
are not properly and formally (idcntkc, Jormaliter) 
both one. 

Boct. 7. Observe, then, that he calleth those sainta 
whom here he describeth to be faithful ones in Chi'ist ; 
that is, faithful ones who are through faith united with 
Christ, so that he dwelleth in them and they in him ; 
for in Christ noteth rather the efl'ect of their faith than 
the object, tcimimim iwii ohjectum. Observe then who 
are the true saints, viz. all who by faith ai-e in Christ 
Jesus. Saints and faithful ones are carried as indif- 
ferent with tho apostle. Col. i. 2 and elsewhere. For 
though the formal efl'ect of faith be not to sanctify, 
whence we are denominated saints, but to justify, 
whence we are called righteous, thronyh forgiveness 
of sin and adoption unto life, yet faith cfl'ectually pro- 
duceth our sanctification, whereupon we have the name 
of saints.'* Three things go to this : 1, the purifying 
of the heart ; 2, the profession outward of holiness ; 
3, holy conversation. Now, Acts xv. 9, by faith our 
hearts are purified ; for as a counter poison coming in, 
the poison that is weaker is expelled ; and as the sun 

* Fides non furmaliter sed eft'ective sanclificat, Christum 
siquidem approlienditjper quern formaliter justificamur, sanc- 
tilicamur effective. 

Yek. 2.] 


rising, tho darkness of the night is expelled and van- 
isbeth ; so Christ, the Sun of righteousness, bj- faith 
arising in our hearts, the ignorance, and lusts of igno- 
rance, are dispersed, and liy before him. 

Secondly, Faith begetteth profession of holiness : 
' Having the same spirit of fuitb, we cannot but speak,' 
saith tho apostle ; and believing with the heart, and 
confessing with tho mouth, go together. Thirdly, 
holy conversation springetb from faith. If you have 
learned Christ as the truth is in him, you have so 
learned him as to put oil' the old man and to put on 
the new. Faith workelh by love, even as a true hath 
both his leaf and fruit. And as if a tree should bo 
changed from one kind to another, the leaves and fruit 
should likewise be changed ; as if a pear tree should 
be made an apple tree, it would have leaves and fruits 
agreeing to the change made in it ; so man bj' faith 
having his heart purified, made a tree of righteousness, 
he hath his leaves and fruit ; leaves of profession, fruit 
of action. So again a man, as a new tree set into and 
growing out of Christ, beareth a new fruit : he con- 
verseth in hohness and newness of life. Thus you see 
how those that are faithful are also saints, because by 
faith their heart is purified, their profession and con- 
versation are sanctified ; wherefore such believers who 
are mockers of saints, who will not be accounted saint 
hol_y, and such who are not changed into new creatures, 
■walking in newness of life, they may well fear that their 
belief is nut true, such as doth unite them with Christ; 
for whosoever is a true behever is a saint, whosoever 
is by faith in Christ is a new creature. We would be 
loath to take a slip or be deceived with false commodi- 
ties in a twelve pound matter; let us be here no less 
diligent, that we take not an ungrounded, fruitless pre- 
sumption for a true faith, which resteth on God's word, 
made known, and is effectual to the sanctifying of the 

Use 2. Secondly, Hence we see the vanity of the 
papists in transferring and appropriating this name of 
saints to those whom the pope hath put in his calendar, 
and to whom he hath adjudged divine honour, holi- 
days, invocation, candles, churches, &c. These saints 
were not heard of in St Paul's time. A man may be 
in hell who hath all such things performed about him. 
Saints are triumphant or militant : triumphant, such 
who now walk by sight, enjoying the presence of God ; 
angels, spirits of the righteous departed, who have now 
rested from all the labours of their militant condition, 
holding Christ their head, by whose power, apprehended 
by faith, they are kept to salvation. 

Use 3. This may strengthen us against temptations 
from our imperfections; the Lord doth reckon of us and 
doth hold us as saints. He that by faith hath put on 
the Sun of righteousness, is more clear and bright than 
if he were arrayed with the beams of the sun. Again, 
though we have sins too many, yet the better part giveth 
the name. Com fields we see have many weeds, yet 
we call them corn fields, not fields of weeds ; so here, 

yea, grace, thongh it seemeth little over that sin sheweth 
to be, yet it will in time overcome it; as carloe is much 
higher than barley, yet the barley getteth up and killeth 
it. The Spirit that is in us from Christ is stronger 
than the spirit of tho world. 

Ver. 2. Now the salutation followeth, which standeth 
of an apostolical blessing, which he ever giveth the 
churches. In it two things are to be considered : first, 
the things wished ; secondly, the persons from whom 
they are desired : ' God the Father and the Son.' 

Observe, first, in general, that it is the duty of a 
minister of Christ to bless the faithful children of the 
church as in the name of God. This for the substance 
of it was not proper to the apostles, no more than to 
be a spiritual father was appropriated to them, much 
less doth it belong to the pope, as the times of super- 
stition imagined ; but to every faithful minister, who 
is a shepherd and instructor, and so in the place of a 
spiritual father: Num. vi., 'Aaron and his sons shall 
bless the people in my name.' As God hath given a 
power to the natural parents to convey good things to 
their children — ' Honour thy father, that thy days may 
be long,' or that they may prolong thy days by their 
blessing deservedly coming upon thee — so God hath 
given spiritual fathers a power of blessing, yea, and of an- 
athcmatising or cursing, the children of the church who 
so deserve, and that etlectually. So tbat Paul maketh 
good what they do iu this kind. This good Hannah 
found, 1 Sam. i. 17, when she had meekly answered 
so harsh and false a suspicion. ' The God of Israel 
grant thy request,' saith Eli ; and she, glad of the 
favour she had found iu his sight, went away, and it 
was presently granted. For more distinct conceiving 
of the matter, I will briefly shew, 1, what this bless- 
ing is; 2, on what it is grounded. It is a ministerial 
act, which doth apply God's blessing to the well- 
deserving children of the church, and entercth them 
into the assured possession, through faith, of God's 
blessing toward them, which doth apply, I say. For 
it differeth thus from a prayer : a prayer seekcth to 
obtain the things for us; this doth, in God's name, 
apply and assure our faith that the blessing of God is 
upon us, and shall graciously follow us. When the 
minister eutreateth forgiveness of sin, it is one thing; 
when again he doth assure a repentant heart that God 
hath done away his sin, this is another thing. Iu the 
one he seeketh to obtain this benefit for the party ; in 
the other, he doth assure the party that it is now ap- 
plied to him. 

The grounds are two : 1, the spirit of discerning — 
I mean ordinary, not miraculous — which maketh them 
by fruits see who are such members of the church whom 
God doth promise to bless ; the second is, the autho- 
rity which God hath put upon them, who will have 
them to be his mouth and instrument, whereby he will 
both ascertain his children of their blessedness from 
him, as likewise execute it in them. Now, from these 



[Ch.\p. I. 

two, that I discern a child of the church, to whom 
blessing pertaineth, and know myself to be his month 
to signify it, and instrument with whom he will con- 
cm- to produce it, from these two it is that this act of 
blessing springeth, be it a blessing in general given, or 
singularly applied. And hence you may see a difler- 
ence betwixt our blessing and the patriarchs' prophe- 
tical blessings ; for their blessings were grounded upon 
a revelation in them made of things which should befall 
their posterity. 

The use of this is to rebuke the foolish custom of 
running forth before the ministers of God have given 
their blessing. What a miscreant would he be held 
that would not suffer his father to bless him, so far 
were he from seeking it at his hand ! It were not 
allowable behaviour, if the church were about to curse 
them, and make them as utter execrations. 

Secondly, This letteth us see that we must not 
lightly let pass the blessing of the minister ; but 
strengthen our faith by it, and be glad that it cometh 
upon us. Doth not every virtuous child rejoice, and 
know themselves the better, that the blessings of their 
fathers and mothers have been heartily given them ? 
So shouldst thou further thyself in the faithful per- 
suasion of all good toward thee, that the blessings of 
such who are the spiritual fathers have come upon thy 
head. In times of superstition, every hedge-priest's 
blessing was highly esteemed ; if he had given his bene- 
diction in nomine Patris, Filii, et Spirilus Saiicti, how 
well they thought themselves ! But as everywhere 
else, that which they snperstitiously and idolatrously 
often magnified, that the atheism of our time utterly 
neglecteth. Thus in general, now in particular. 

Doct. First, Note that he wisheth them grace whom 
he had called saints and believers in Christ. ■\ATience 
observe, that the holiest justified persons have need 
of grace. The papists will grant it mere grace in com- 
parison that our sins are forgiven, and that we have 
the spirit of grace given us ; but after this they say 
we have to deal with justice, from which we must 
expect eternal life. A miserable doctrine ; grace is in 
the beginning, grace is in the middle, gi'ace is in the 
ending. A Christian man may be considered in three 
distances of time : 1, in the time of his conversion ; 
2, in the time betwixt his believing and receiving the 
end of his faith ; 3, in the time when God will give 
him the crown of glory, life eternal. Now, for the 
first, all grant that we enter by faith into grace ; but 
for our after time, that we stand not under justice, 
but gi-ace, it is manifest : Kom. v. 2, ' In which grace 
also we stand.' At the day of judgment, that we have 
to deal with mercy, not with justice, it is manifest, 
2 Tim. i. 18, where the apostle prayeth that the Lord 
would shew Onesiphorus (a most godly man) mercy 
in the day of judgment, and life itself, the very thing 
we come to. Now, the gift of God's Spirit, whereby 
we come to it, is called grace: Eom. vi., 'the end, 
life eternal;' not a stipend, but j/ag/ff.oa, a gift of 

grace. Thus it is one way cleared. Again, in wfeat 
should grace manifest itself but in these three things : 
first, forgiving sin ; secondly, in attaining life ; thu-dly, 
in continuing in the present grace '? Now, when we 
are converted, we have need of forgiveness of sin, 
otherwise what need we to pray, ' Lord, forgive us our 
trespasses ' ? Beside, every saint findeth himself sold 
under sin, and that as an evil within the will of him, 
which cannot therefore increase his merit, but maketh 
him more guilty. For heaven we have no need* of 
grace ; for according to the law, ' Continue in all per- 
fectly to do them, and live ;' none conscious of sin can 
hope to live this way. Now, for persevering in a state 
of grace, we have need of grace ; for this we cannot 
deserve, but as God's gracious pleasure made him to 
come unto us, so it maketh him abide with us, to 
accomplish his good work, which should he not, all 
would come to nothing in us. For as the soul enter- 
ing into the body giveth it Ufe, sense, and motion, 
which presently cease in the body if the soul depart- 
eth, so here, God, the soul of our souls, returning to 
them, doth produce by his Spirit a life of grace, which 
would presently be extinct if he should forsake them. 

The use is, to let us see the fearful estate of the 
papists, who make Christ and his grace last no longer 
than till they are (as they think) enabled to justify 
and save themselves by course of gi-ace according to 
the law. They account it grace, that God would 
enable me, rather than another, to come effectually to 
life, but no grace that I come to hfe ; as when I might 
sell a horse to many, it is my favour that I will sell 
him to one, and not to another ; but it is not my 
favour that he hath the horse which buyeth, and cn/o, 
by force of communicative justice, is to have him. 
Thus they say it is God's grace that he will have 
some to have life, and give them wherewithal to buy 
it; but that they have life, is justice, not his grace. 
Poor souls ! thus they forsake their mercies ; besides 
that, they make mercy to have nothing to do at the 
day of judgment, and life itself not to be grace, con- 
trary to that which is above named. 

Use 2. We learn, hence, ever to humble ourselves, 
and fly entirely to God's mercy ; let us confess our- 
selves miserable, unprofitable servants in a thousand 
regards, having nothing but gi-ace to cleave unto. The 
arch-papists confess, that for uncertainty of our own 
righteousness, and danger of vain glory, it is the safest 
to trust only on God's mercy in Christ ; surely let us 
take the safest way. I would never trust my soul to 
thorn who will not go the sm-est way to work in their 
own salvations. 

Observe, 3, from this, he doth wish grace with 
them when he would wish them the gi-eatest good. 
Observe, I say, what is the most excellent thing, which 
is to be sought afore all other, viz., the favour of God, 
that his grace may be with us. To open it before we 
discourse of it : grace, joined with pity, doth signify 
* Qu. ' For life we have need ' ? — Ed. 

Ver. 2.] 




God's love only so far as it is a fountain, from whence 
springeth his pit.v to us in misery ; out of which mercy 
ho doth, when now wo are miserable, save us. Thus 
grace soundeth nothing but love ; and the object of it 
is more general, for gi-aco is toward us, and every 
creature, in innocency and miseiT ; but mercy is only 
toward us as wo are considered in misery, unless the 
preserving the mntallo creature, subject to fall, may 
also be an object of mercy ; but when grace is put 
indefinitely, then grace includeth mercy in it, for 
mercy is but grace restrained and limited to man, as 
in misery ; the difference is rather in the manner of 
containing themselves. Now wishing them grace, out 
of which came true peace, he wisbeth three things: 
1. That God himself should be still mercifully and 
graciously inclined to them ; ' for God is love,' 1 John 
iv. 16. 2. He doth assure them of all effects of God's 
grace and love towards them, partly in procuring them 
all things that wore good ; the grace of the Father of 
lights being as a sun, Ps. Ixxsiv. 2, partly in protect- 
ing them from all evil ; this favour being as a shield, 
wherewith the saints are compassed about, Ps. v. 13. 
8. In grace is included the signification, the report of 
bis gi'ace, in such sort as that they might have the 
sense of it, that is, the displaying it on their heads as 
a banner, the shedding of it into their hearts, the lift- 
ing of his countenance upon them, Lam. ii. 4, Kom. v., 
Ps. iv. Thus when we wish him* that he may be in 
their love, inwardly afl'ected, holpen with the fruits of 
their love, and courteously and kindly entreated, in 
regard of loving usages, which is the signification of 
their love ; for if God should love us, if he should do 
us good, and shield us from evil, yet should he hide 
this from our sense and experience, we could not have 
this peace, which is next mentioned. Now, then, we 
may betttr see that this love of God is above all 
things to be desired ; there is no lack in this love, no 
good thing shall be wanting unto us ; nay, if evils in 
our taste should be good for us, we shall not want 
them ; as the love of a parent makcth him, when 
need is, provide bitter physic for his child, as well as 
other contentments. No evil shall have access ; no, 
if things good in themselves be harmful for us, they 
shall not have access to us ; as the love of a parent 
layeth away a knife, which is a good thing in itself, 
out of the reach of his child, for whom it were hurt- 
ful. All things which to our sense and in themselves 
are evil, this love maketh them work to our good. 
If the skilful art of a physician may make of a poison- 
ful viper a wholesome treacle, no wonder if God's 
gracious love turn even the devil himself to become a 
helpful instrument, setting forward our perfection, 
2 Cor. xii. 9. In a word, it makcth a little estate 
great riches, every state contentful. A little thing, 
given as a token of the king's good will, do we not 
prize it more than thrice the value of that which is no 
pledge of his favour ? And when the love of a sinful 
Qu. ' lie wieheth ' ?— Ed. 

man is of such force that many a woman, while she 
may enjoy it, fceleth not beggary itself to be grievous, 
what a force is there in the grace of God, while it is 
perceived, to make us find no grievance in greatest 
extremity ! Whereas without this, were a man in a 
paradise of the earth, with all the good of it, all were 
nothing. There are noblemen in the tower who may 
ride their great horses, have their ladies, fare dcli- 
ciously, want not for wealth, yet because they are out 
of the king's favour, no wise man would be in their 
coats, none esteem their state happy. How much 
more, then, are all things of no value, if they be pos- 
sessed without this favour of which we entreat ? This 
grace is our life, it is better than life. As the mari- 
gold opcneth when the sun shineth over it, and shulteth 
when it is withdrawn, so our life followeth this favour : 
we arc enlarged if we feel it ; if it be hidden, we are 
troubled. Finally, that which the king's favourable 
aspect doth in his subject, that which the sun and dew 
do in the creatures of the earth, which they make to 
smile in their manner, the like doth this grace, through 
all the world of spirits, who feel the influence of it. 

Une 1. Which doth let us see their fearful estate 
who walk in their natural conditions, children of wrath, 
never seeking to be reconciled to God. If we stand 
in man's debt, and in danger of the law, we will com- 
pound the matter. If we are faulty towards some 
great person, and out of favour-, oh, how will we turn 
every stone, and use the mediation of all we can, to 
procure us good-will with them ! Here wo are other- 
wise ; and like these impudent adulteresses, we care 
not to return into favour with our husband, with God, 
from whom we are most disloyally estranged. 

Use 2. We must, hence, be exhorted above all 
things to seek God's grace ; the better it is with us, 
the more need we have to seek him with reverence ; 
for look, as we have no less need of the sun to con- 
tinue with us, that we may have light still continued, 
then we had need of it to rise over us that our light 
may be begun, so w'e want God's gracious presence, 
as much to continue our comforts, now we have them, 
as we did at the first to begin them. 

Now, if you ask by what means we may grow up 
in favour with God, I answer, first, we must every 
day shew unto God that well-beloved of his, in whom 
he is well pleased, Ps. cv. 4, from whom favour floweth 
upon all his, as the ointment trickled down from the 
head on the garments of Aaron. Secondly, we must 
provoke our hearts earnestly to petition for this : 
' Seek my face ; Lord, I will seek thy face,' Ps. xxvii. 8. 
Thirdly, wo must grow up, in conscience of our vile- 
ness, to be humble, Isa. Ivii., Luke i. : ' God re- 
sisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble,' 
that is, sheweth fivour. As the lowest valleys are 
blessed with the happiest influence of the heavens, so 
here, the contrite, humble spirit is the place God de- 
lighteth to let his grace dwell in. Fourthly, we must 
labour daily more and more to depart from evil, and 



[Chap. I. 

purge our hearts from all the corruptions which re- 
main in them : ' The pure iu heart shall see God,' 
Mat. v., even the light of his countenance, in grace 
and glory, Heb. xii. Look as a clear, transparent 
thing, as crystal, hath the light coming through it, 
which cannot pierce through gi'osser bodies, so in 
those hearts which are the purest shall this hght of 
God's countenance difl'use itself most abundantly. 

Doct. 4. And pence. Observe from this, that he 
wisheth them, in the next place, peace ; that true 
peace is a most singular blessing. The apostle cannot 
speak of it, Philip, iv. 7, but he setteth it forth with 
this commendation, that it ' passeth all understand- 
ing.' This is that golden bequeath which Christ did 
leave us, now ready to die, ' My peace I give unto 
you : not as the world giveth you,' John xiv. 22. 
Thcit it may be the better conceived, I will open three 
things : 1. What it is. 2. In what kinds it may be 
considered. 3. Whence the one and other peace 
floweth. It may thus be described : Peace is a tran- 
quillity or rest in the mind, springing out of Christ's 
death, wrought in us by the Spirit, through the word 
of God. It is a quiet, I say, or heavenly tranquillity ; 
for peace, in these salutations, is opposed to fear, 
grief, to any kind of pertm-bation which breaketh the 
sweet consent and hai-mony of the mind : ' My peace 
I leave with you,' ' fear not,' ' be not troubled.' It 
is a sweet concord, making joy in the mind, as the 
concord of well-compounded discords begetteth a most 
delightful harmony, in which the ear joyeth and 
triumpheth. Secondly, it cometh from Christ's death ; 
his chastisement was the chastisement of our peace, 
his stripes our healing ; for as an imprisoned debtor's 
peace springeth from some surety's satisfaction, so 
here, &c. Thirdly, I say it is wrought through the 
Spirit, Gal. v. 22. Anybody may put an instrument 
out of tune, but none can reduce it to true consent 
but he that hath the skill of it ; and as it is in any 
man's power to distemper himself, and breed trouble- 
some sicknesses, but a skilful physician onty can re- 
store a temperate constitution, so we of ourselves were 
able to disorder our souls, putting all out of frame ; 
but it is God only, by his Spirit, who can heal all 
jars, and bring forth sweet peace in us. Lastly, I 
say. By the gospel, which is therefore called the gospel 
of peace. Now, as man leadeth us by his outward 
words to see his good meaning toward us, so God, by 
this outward word, as well as inward, doth reveal to 
us his rich grace. Now we may consider this true 
peace, as for the substance of it, begun in us, or as 
more full for the circumstantial degree of it ; for as 
Christ insinuateth a joy in part, and respectively a joy 
full, so we may conceive of peace ; for as there is a 
light more cloudy, and more bright and clear, so there 
is a pence with which more or less distuj-bance is in- 
termeddled. Now peace, considered in the first kind, 
cometh first from this, that God's amity is restored ; 
whereas his wrath was toward us, now he is atoned 

and reconciled through Christ. The working there- 
fore of our peace is chief!}' ascribed to this, that Christ 
did abolish the enmity betwixt God and man, Eph. 
ii., Col. i. The angels, singiug on Christ's nativity, 
' Peace on earth,' in the next words, opening the 
fountain, viz., ' good-will to men ;' for look, as there 
can be no peace to a traitor till the king tui'n favour- 
able to him, in like sort it is with us, who from the 
womb are rebels, if we knew our condition. 

Further : hence it cometh that the whole creature 
is accorded with us, even the beasts, yea, the stones 
of the field are at league with us, Hosea ii. 18, Job vii. 
For as servants follow their master, soldiers their 
chieftain, so do all the creatures obediently follow him 
who is the Lord of hosts. Secondly, this peace com- 
eth from the doing away of all disturbance which was 
within man against himself, as the accusation of his 
thoughts for guiltiness of sin, the rebeUion and fight 
of lust against his reason, or rather the spirit of his 
mind renewed : ' we being justified by faith, have peace 
toward God,' Rom. v. 1 ; ' the God of peace sanctify 
you throughout ;' by which we may gather, that while 
God sanctifieth us, he doth shew himself a God that 
maketh peace ; and so many as walk by this rule, viz., 
rejoicing in Christ crucified, w'ho hath crucified the 
world to us, and i;s to the world, ' peace shall be upon 
them,' Gal. vi. For look, as the body sick with dis- 
temper cannot be healed with the physician's good 
affection, unless his action also be afforded, so it is 
here ; it is not sufficient that God should be graciously 
inclined, unless he should, by his will and power, cure 
those disturbant aberrations which deprived us of all 
peace. Thirdly, from a securing us for time to come, 
in regard of enemies both inward and outward, from 
breaking the power of them, of hell, death ; that they 
are not able to hurt us, much less to prevail against 
us. For it is not the molesting power of enemies, but 
the hurting power, whith standeth not with peace. 
You see how gainful troubles, and worldly peace, stand 
well together; so the trouble of our militant condition, 
accruing to us from these outward spiritual enemies, 
doth not let out peace, while we know that all things 
shall work to our good ; that we shall be more than 
conquerors, that God will not leave us, nor forsake us. 
Fourthly, and lastly, Our peace considered as above 
said, doth flow from the gift of the Spirit, which 
teacheth us in some manner to know these things 
which are next above named. We have not received 
the spirit of the world, but the Spirit of God, which 
teacheth us to know the things bestowed npon us ; for 
nothing can work upon the affections, as to muke us 
fear, joy, further than it is known : Nihil iioit pracog- 
jiitiim affii-it vuliiiitatem. And we see that a con- 
demned prisoner, though that his pardon be sealed, 
yet is no less subject to fear than before, till the matter 
cometh to his ear, and he be infallibly certified of it. 

Thus much for the grounds, which are in some 
measure wheresoever true peace is in any degree. The 

Ver. 2.] 



more full peace cometh from a further work of God's 
grace in us, which represseth or vanquisheth for a 
time all perturbations, which spiritual wickednesses, 
unbelief, unholiness in general, want of godlj' conten- 
tation, defects in our conditions, might occasion. For 
look, as unto bright clear light, more is required than 
that the sun should be present enlightening the air, 
to wit, that it should be in that strength present as to 
waste and disperse all darksome clouds, so here to this 
full peace, it is necessary that all perturbations should 
be more fully removed. Thus much for the opening 
this benefit. 

Use 1. Now, the use of this is, first, to stir us up 
to seek after the true peace. Peace is a sweet thing, 
80 sweet that many a man doth so love it that he will 
Bufl'er much wrong, rather than to give any way to 
disquiet. What wore all the riches of this kingdom, 
what were all the contentments of our private state 
unto us, if wo wanted this peace ? If we could not 
eat our meat, but with danger of having our throats 
cut before we should rise, were the case thus, would 
we not fly from our native countries, and seek us 
habitations where we might live peaceably ? That 
which a wound is in the flesh, that which a sick dis- 
temper is in our body, that is disquiet and trouble in 
the mind. Wherefore, let us fly by faith to the prince 
of peace, Christ Jesus. 

Use 2. We must stir up ourselves to be thankful for 
this so excellent a benefit. Should God sufler the 
devil to trouble us with the guilt of sin, should he let 
the power of it rage and usurp so in us as to enforce 
ns to cry, miserable that we are I should the Lord 
Bufibr the devil to have such power as to tempt us with 
blasphemous suggestions, with provocations to self- 
murder ; should he let such discontented frets dwell 
in our minds, which did waste our livers, and make us 
pine away with the anguish of them, even in this it 
were our duties to be thankful : how much more when 
we walk all the day long with inward tranquillity ? 
Would not any think himself faulty that should not 
thank God for this temporal peace of our kingdom, 
that we hear not the drum, the trumpet, the clattering 
of armour; but that thou hast part in this peace which 
maketh thee free from fear of death, hell, the world, all 
wickednesses ; which maketh thee sleep secure where- 
soever the wind lie, for none can blow but to bring 
thee in profit ; if thou kuowest this peace, how much 
more art thou bound to break forth into the praise of 
thy most merciful God ? 

Doct. 5. Observe further from this, he first nameth 
grace, then peace, as springing from the former. Ob- 
serve hence, that all true peice is that which is bred 
in us from the knowledge of God's love towards us. 
Would we know true peace ? If we find that God's 
love doth cause in us this grace here spoken of, we 
may be sure our peace is sound. To open this, you 
must know that God's grace, or love, doth prove itself 
in common to all, or more specially to some, and may 

be called a common or a special grace. Now, the 
peace which is grounded upon conceit of a common 
goodness of God towards us, is not sound peace, for 
even the boasts enjoy common fivour from their 
Creator : ' God saveth man and beast ; he openeth 
his hand and filleth thorn ; his mercy is over all his 
works :' this more common or universal mercy, as I 
may call it. But here ariseth a necessary question, 
viz., How I may discern God's special grace from this 
more common? Ans. First, this special grace spring- 
eth from another fountain ; common grace cometh 
hence. God is a faithful Creator, patient and kind 
toward the unkindest vessels of wrath. Hence it is 
that he doth them good, that his goodness may not 
want a witness in their own conscience. Acts xiv. 17; 
but this special grace cometh from hence, that he is 
reconciled to us in his Son, grace and truth, through 
Christ Jesus ; he hath made us beloved in his well- 
beloved, John i., Eph. i. 7. Secondly, hence cometh 
a difierencc iu the benefits, for that common favour 
giveth benefits to the preservation of this natural life; 
but this love in Christ giveth supernatural benefits of 
repentance, faith, hope, inward change of heart and 
afl'ections. Hence followeth a third difference, for 
common grace is acknowledged sometimes while the 
benefits of this life are aflbrded men, but they neither 
feel nor confess grace when these are bereaved ; but 
this spiritual grace which cometh from Christ, and 
standeth chiefly in supernatural gifts, this is felt often 
most abundantly in afflictions : llom. v., ' Afflictions 
breed patience, patience experience, experience hope, 
the love of God being shed into the heart ;' for as the 
darkness of the night hindereth not the bright shine 
of the star, no more doth the darkness of afflictions 
obscure the bright shine of this grace toward us. Yea, 
we shaU find this in experience, if before our troubles 
we do not overtly skin our sores, sparing ourselves in 
our sins, partly by not provoking ourselves to due 
repentance, partly by not seeking to get the roots of 
rebellion throughly mortified, partly by not endeavour- 
ing to wean ourselves from all inordinate earthly delight 
in the creature ; for our superficial sleighting in matter 
of repentance, our boisterous proud impatience not 
well subdued, our unweanedness to some thing or 
other ; these three do make an eclipse of the light of 
God's countenance, when now wo are afflicted. This 
by the way. A fourth difference in these graces may 
be taken from the efl'ect of them in the heart ; for the 
gi'ace a carnal natural man feeleth, never maketh his 
heart fly up from all earthly things, and rejoice in 
God, whom he sceth favourable; but even as a harlot, 
her love is more to rings, bracelets, or gold sent her, 
than it is to the senders ; so the world, an adulteress, 
her afl'ections are altogether on the creatures, and good 
benefits given them, nothing in comparison upon God 
himself. But the true special grace maketh us love 
him who hath loved us above all things, delight our- 
selves in him, say, ' What have I in heaven but him. 



[Chap. I. 

in earth in comparison of him ?' Thus, then, we see 
that true peace cometh from sight and experience of 
God's special grace to us, and how we may distinguish 
this special favour. But before we pass to the use, a 
question may be asked, viz., Whether a man may not 
be in favour with God, and yet without this peace ? 
To which I answer briefly, First, that he may be in 
favour, and want this outward sensible peace in him- 
self. The reason is, because this followeth not my 
being in favour, but my knowing and my being per- 
suaded that I am in favour. Now, it is not impossible 
for a man to lose his sense and persuasion which yet- 
while he hath had of being in tavoui- with God ; his 
faith may be for a time in a swoon, and overcast with 
unbelief. Secondly, I say, though a man may be with- 
out this operation of peace, yet the grace of the Spirit, 
which, as a root doth bear this fruit, cannot fail in 
any who is in God's favour ; the fruit may be pulled 
when the tree itself standeth still thus in joy. Faith 
we may likewise distinguish, the seed of God abiding 
ic us, though these outward secondary effects are not 
always conspicuous. 

Use 1. Seeing, then, that true peace is such as 
springeth from this special mercj', let us take heed we 
be not deceived with false peace. Look into thyself, 
what hath made thee think thou art in God's favour '? Is 
this it ? Because he prospereth thee in outward things ? 
Alas ! thou buildest upon sands. The beasts have 
the fruits of his gi-ace this way, so far as agreeth with 
their kind, no less than thyself. There is a peace in 
the tents of the wicked ones: look Job xsi. 9. There 
is an ease which doth slay the foolish, which is the 
ease that men do live in ; it cometh not from feeling 
this special gi-ace toward them, but from the sleepi- 
ness of the conscience, which maketh them without 
feeling ; from ignorance, which maketh them without 
knowledge of the evil imminent over them. If a man 
hath twenty diseases never so painful, while he is fast 
asleep he is at ease, because his senses are bound, not 
because his diseases ai-e healed. So again, say a man 
were in a house ready to fall on his head, let him 
know nothing of the danger, he is as quiet as if all 
were safe. Thus men's souls are asleep, and igno- 
rant of their peril. Take heed of this sick sleep, lest 
it pain you at waking : take heed lest, while you say 
' Peace, peace,' that destruction be not at the doors. 
Yea, let the Lord's children take heed, who have full 
peace, but not from the grounds above rehearsed, 
their peace cometh not from seeking physic where- 
with to purge their sick souls ; from not exercising 
their feeble strength in works of repentance, faith, 
thankfulness, forgetting themselves in human occa- 
sions and contentment?, from Laodicean-like conceits. 
A body of ill habit, while you stir it not with some 
courses which fight with such humours, it is quiet ; 
a lame leg, while it is rested, is at ease ; while the 
senses are pleased or stounded with some kind of 
anodynes, those pains are not felt which are present. 

Finally, a man in a golden dream, thinketh things far 
better with him than they are, and is highly contented 
for the time. These are ways, my brethren, whereby 
we walk in a full peace, when yet our unbelief hath 
not been out-wrestled, when our unholy lusts have not 
been crucified by us. 

Use 2. In the second place, this letteth you see how 
you may try the truth of your peace. Is thy soul 
at rest because thou feelest his grace shed into thy 
heart, which is better than life ; this grace in Christ, 
this grace which reacheth to the forgiveness of sins, 
to thy sanctification, which no darkness of affliction 
can eclipse, which di-aweth thy heart up to God, so 
that thou makest him thy portion '? Is it because 
the Lord assureth thy heart that he will never leave 
thee, that nothing shall separate thee from him ? Is 
it because his grace hath scattered some black clouds, 
which did overspread thy condition ? Happy art thou 
whose repose issneth from these considerations. 

From God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Thus we come from the things wished to 
thepersons from whom they are to be efl'ected ; whence 
mark, who are the authors of true peace, and with 
whom it is to be sought. Hence it is, that God is 
called ' the God of peace,' Chi-ist is called ' the Prince 
of peace.' God making peace, none can trouble ; as, 
' when he hideth his face, who can bear it ?' Job 
ss.xiv. 29. Look, as kings are authors and main- 
tainers of the civil peace within their countries, they 
keep their subjects from disturbance by foreign and 
domestical enemies ; so God, the King immortal, and 
Christ who hath received the kingdom, are fitly brought 
in as the authors of this spiritual peace. And it is to 
be noted, that he fitly uameth God the Father, and 
the Son our Lord; for the principal and subordinate 
power which do work anything are fitly combined. 
Now the Father hath all power, and he hath subjected 
all things unto the Son, himself and Spirit excepted. 
But why is not the Spirit named ? It may be said, 
because the apostle here is directed to express only 
these persons who have a kind of principal authority 
and agency. Now the Spirit hath the place of exe- 
cuting these things, as sent by the Father and Son ; 
but in unfolding these things, as it is good to use 
diligence, so it is requisite to use sobriety. For con- 
clusion : Let these be remembered, that though both 
the Father and Son be fitly named, for the reason 
above, and the Father first, both for his principal au- 
thority, as likewise, because he worketh both by him- 
self, and from himself ; the Son by himself (as who 
hath the selfsame divine nature), but not from him- 
self, as who is not from himself, but from his Father, 
and therefore in his working keepeth the same order ; 
nevertheless, in wishing the efi'ecting of things, it is 
not necessary to name any persons, nor yet God inde- 
finitely. 2. It is necessary to conceive in mind the 
true God, in Christ, though not distinctly to consider 
the three persons. The reason is, because every act 

Ver. 3.] 



of relii,'ion doth require that we some way apprehend 
the object of it ; aud as there can be no sight without 
some matter visible propounded, so no act of religious 
worship, without this object, in some wise conceived. 
8. Miuk, that it is lawful, when we name persons, to 
name one on!}-, two, or all the three, provided that wo 
name not one, as excluding the other two, nor yet 
two, as excluding the third ; for thus calling on one, 
we invocate all, and as naming no person distinctly, 
wo do not dishonour the persons ; so naming one and 
not others, doth not breed any inequaUty of honour 
in our worship. And lastly, note, that we may name 
the Spirit before the Son, and so by proportion, the 
Son before the Father ; see Rev. i. For as that pre- 
cedency seemeth derived from priority of order and 
inequality of office, which is found amongst the per- 
sons by voluntary agreement, so this later naming 
of them seemeth to be grounded in the equality of their 

Let us, then, hence learn whither to fly, that our 
souls may be settled in true peace, such as the world 
cannot take from us. Come and seek to him, who if 
he quilt, nothing can disturb thee. Many men, when 
they are disquieted in mind or body, thej' fly to such 
means as may still those pains which they feel smart 
upon them ; and when they have, with Cain's city- 
building, and Saul's music, with company, good cheer, 
music, employments, tables, cards, &c., quieted the 
melancholic spirit, then they think their- peace is well 
restored. God setteth these things upon us, to arrest 
us, as it were ; we seek to still them, never looking 
to God, that he would, through his Christ, be recon- 
ciled to us. Now, what is this but extreme folly ? If 
a creditor should set a sergeant upon our backs, were 
it wisdom in the debtor to compound with him, and 
corrupt him, and to think all safe, while the sergeant 
winketh at him ? Everybody would account this folly ; 
for he is never a whit the more out of danger, till the 
creditor be agreed with. Thus it is likewise in seek- 
ing our peace, by stilling our evils, not by quieting 
God's anger, which is justly kindled against us. (Thus 
much of the preface.) 

Verse 3. The matter of the epistle followcth, partly 
respecting doctrine, partly exhortation : doctrine to 
the beginning of the fourth chapter; exhortation, to 
the 21st verse of the sixth chapter. In the doctrinal 
part two things chiefly are to be marked : first, ho 
proponndeth doctrine concerning the benefits where- 
with we are blessed in Christ, which is done more in- 
definitely in the fii'st chapter, applied from comparison 
of their former estates in the second ; secondly, the 
scandal which his cross might cause, and the impedi- 
ment which it might put to the fruitful receiving of 
these things, is prevented, chapter thuxl. In the more 
absolute handling of these benefits, we must mark, 
that first, in this third verse, they are summarily pro- 
pounded, then more particularly from their several 

kinds expounded. Now, in this third verso, the apostio 
doth not barely propound them, but breaketh out into 
thanksgiving, before he maketh mention of them. 
Three things being to be observed in this verse : 1. 
His praise. Blessed. 2. The person praised, ihal God 
and Father of our Lord. 8. The arguments, which 
are two : first, from that which God is to Christ our 
Lord ; for this is usual with the apostle, that when ho 
describcth God in petition or thanksgiving, that the 
description containeth matter of strengthening faith, 
and whetting desire, in the one, and motives of praiso 
in the other ; ' The God of peace sanctify you through- 
out,' 1 Thcs. V. ; ' Blessed be God, the Father of our 
Lord Jesus, the God of all mercies and consolations,' 
2 Cor. i. 8. The second argument is from that God 
hath done by us in Christ, in those words, ' Who hath 
blessed us, with all spiritual blessings, in heavenly 
things in Christ.' Now, before we come to the more 
particular consideration of these words, some things 
ai-e to be opened for the clearing of them : first. What 
is meant hj our blessing God ? Aiis. Blessing is 
sometime operative, working and efl'ecting the h«ppi- 
ness of him that is blessed. Thus God blesst-th us. 
Sometime it is declarative, confessing and extolling the 
blessed estate of those whom we bless. Thus we bless 
God ; we acknowledge him blessed, praise, and extol 
him, Ps. cxlv. ver. 1, 2, 21, where blessing and \nnis- 
ing are made equivalent. Secondly, it is to be marked, 
that these words, God, cren the Fatlter, contain a de- 
scription of God, from two relations unto Christ: one 
from this, that he is the God by covenant of Christ ; 
the other from this, that he is the Father, according 
to that John xx. 17, ' I go to my Father and your 
Father, to my God and your God.' For this tho 
words bear better, than that first God indefinitely, 
then limited to the person of the Father, should be 
conceived in this sense, ' Blessed be God, to wit, God 
the Father of our Lord ;' for the article should rather 
be prefixed to ■rarjis, and the particle y.ai doth re- 
dound. The last thing to be marked is, that the word 
heari'iihj, which may signify thinijs, or places, is fit- 
liest taken to note the place where our spiritual bless- 
ings were given us, for spiritual blessing noteth not 
the action of God blessing, but the efl'ects proceeding 
from it, to this sense, who hath blessed with spiritual 
things ; for the apostle construeth all spiritual bless- 
ings by predestination, vocation. Now, to say, ' who 
hath blessed us with spiritual things, in heavenly 
things,' is absurdly superfluous. Again, this word is 
in two other places of this epistle, used to note the 
circumstance of place, and therefore is here in that 
sense to be construed, without more urgent rer.son to 
tho contrary. The sum is, Praised be the God of our 
Saviour, praised be the God of our Lord Christ Jesus, 
who hath blessed us ; that is, by his blessing made 
ns partakers of all spiritual benefits, such as take their 
beginning from heaven, are kept in heaven, shall all 
have their accomplishment in heaven ; and all this in 



[Chap. I. 

Christ, who is the root and second Adam, whence 
every benefit supernatural springeth, and is derived 
unto us. 

Doct. 1. To come, then, first to the action of praise. 
Observe thence, in general, that a good heart must be 
ready, on consideration of God's benefits, to break 
forth into praises. The apostle cannot speak or think 
of them, but that his heart and mouth glorify God ; 
the manifold doxologues in Paul's epistles may give 
suflicient argument of this truth. Nay, we see how 
David, ' a man after God's heart,' was so afi'ected, that 
he did not only stir up himself, his soul, spirit, all 
within him, but all the creatures, everything that had 
breath, from the highest angel to the lowest creature ; 
this grace being like fire, which, once kindled, catcheth 
hold of all that is near it. For our better understand- 
ing this duty, I will open two things : 1. What must 
concur in this practice ; 2. How we may keep our 
hearts in a good disposition to this duty. 1. To the 
praising God three things are required. (1.) That our 
epirit do acknowledge his goodness in any kind shewed 
US. Hence it is that the saints call on their hearts, 
souls, spirits in this business. God is a spirit, and 
hateth every service from which the spirit is estranged. 
As no music is graceful unless the instrument be first 
tuned, no more is any voice of praise acceptable unless 
the heart be first ordered. (2.) There must be a de- 
claring before men of that kindness and love the Lord 
hath shewed us : ' Come, I will tell you what God 
hath done for my soul ;' Ps. Ixvi. 16, ' I will daily 
tell of thy righteousness.' We count it ingi-atitude in 
men when they will smother benefits, and never be 
known to other of whom they have received them. 
(3.) There must be an endeavouring of requiting 
God's love, by answering his benefits with thankful 
duty, by walking worthy of them : ' What shall I re- 
pay the Lord, for all his benefits upon me ?' Thus 
we count him unthankful who doth not bend himself 
to requite love with the like, so far as ability reacheth. 
2. Now, for means disposing us this way, we must 
labour, /!«;, to know and keep in remembrance God's 
benefits : that which is forgotten is not known for the 
present ; nothing unknown atfecteth or moveth the 
will. A danger unknown maketh us not afraid ; a 
benefit unknown maketh us not joyful or thankful. 
Hence it was that holy men often made catalogues of 
God's benefits, and repeated them to their souls : see 
Ps. ciii., ' My soul, praise the Lord; forget not all 
his benefits.' 

Secoiullij, Men must labour their hearts to a sense 
and feeling of the worth of the benefits which they en- 
joy ; for not having benefits, but esteeming and know- 
ing the worth of them, maketh thankful. Now, in 
this we greatly fail, for our corrupt natures heed no- 
thing they enjoy ; like the eye in this regard, which 
seeth nothing that lieth on it, but, taken away some 
distance, doth brightly discern it ; so we, when good 
things are taken away, know them wuU, which we see 

not to be such benefits while we enjoy them. Again, 
the plentiful use of the best things breedeth a satiety, 
and maketh them no dainties. And hence it cometh 
that good things, which are commonly and constantly 
with us, are not regarded. Let us, therefore, the 
rather practise this second rule, for the neglect of it 
maketh us want our comfort while we possess things, 
(for who can take joy in that he esteemeth not ?) and 
it mxketh us have double grief, when now they are 
removed ; for then the conscience of our carelessness 
doth bite and sting us. 

A third rule is, still to labour to be poor in spirit, 
and keep the conscience of our own unworthiness, that 
we may still know ourselves to be ' less than the least 
of God's mercies,' as Jacob said. Hunger is sauce 
which maketh everything well tasted ; so this poverty 
of spirit maketh the least blessing seem great toward 
us. The humbled poor take the least scraps thank- 

Use 1. The use of this is, first, to rebuke our dead- 
ness, in whose hearts are no afl'ections, in whose 
mouths are no words, magnifying the Lord, for his 
continual mercies. If men do us small favours, 
especially if they be of countenance and authority, oh 
how we think ourselves beholding ! Our mouths run 
over in speaking of their courtesy ; we give them a 
thousand thanks ; we profess ourselves at their com- 
mands : but, alas, that being thus one to another, we 
should ofi'er God such measure as we do ! But this 
exceedeth all the rest, that because God doth con- 
stantly continue to us benefits, that therefore we should 
slacken our thankful duty. If one give us twenty 
pound one time only, we thank him ; but to give it us 
yearly for twenty years together, this is far more 
thankworthy ; to give it us as an inheritance for ever, ■ 
this is most of all obliging us. Thus it is with God's I 
benefits, which he constantly leaseth out to us, and 
maketh them as it were a freehold with us. We for 
these, even in this consideration, should most extol 

Use 2. Let us, in the second place, stir ourselves 
up to be thankful. It is God's fine and rent, every- 
thing which he requireth for his benefits : ' Call on I 
me in the day of thy trouble ; I will deliver thee, and 1 
thou shalt glorify me.' We would not forfeit anything 
worth the holding for non-payment of rent. Let us . 
take heed lest, for want of thankfulness, we give God I 
occasion to re-enter, and dispossess us of all good ' 
things we enjoy. 

Doct 2. The God and Father of our Lord Jesiis 
Chrixt. Observe first, particularly, that every Chris- 
tian heart is to magnifv God, in that he hath been the 
God of Christ our Lord. This doth the apostle, who 
doth not say, ' Blessed be God the Father for bless- 
ing of us,' but first, ' Blessed be the God of our 
Lord Jesus Christ.' Before he cometh to consider 
what God was to himself, with the rest of behevers, he 
doth extol him for that he was to Christ the head. 

Ver. 3.] 



\Vliich doctrine, before we can prosecute profitably, it 
is fit to unfold what this doth comprehend, to be the 
God of any ; for, this opened, we shall conceive more 
clearly the equity- of this, that we are to be thankful 
in this regard. This is a fundamental favour, whence 
all other do spring, and it containeth the eternal love 
of God, loving us, and predestinating us to super- 
natural happiness, as likewise ever}' subordinate grace, 
by which it is executed. First, therefore, the fore- 
knowledge and predestinating Christ as man to the 
grace of personal union, and glorious office of a medi- 
ator, of which we have 1 Peter i. 20, this eomolh here 
to be conceived. ' I have sheep that are mine, which 
arc not of this sheepfold,' John x. 18, saith Christ ; 
where we see that we are God's, and God ours, before 
we are called, even by predestination. Secondly, 
Christ's calling, of which is spoken Heb. v. 1, and the 
confederation entered with our Mediator, wherein God 
required, on his part, the fulfilling of righteousness, so 
far as served to qualify his person that he might be a 
fit high priest, and especially the offering his body, 
that is, his soul and body, by the cursed death of the 
cross, wherein God promised, on his part, that he 
would be with him to strengthen him, and deliver him 
from all evil, and to crown him with glory, yea, that 
all his seed should be blessed with righteousness and 
life through him. The Scripture is plentiful to prove 
that it is all kind of blessedness to have God for our 
God. Now then, if we be members with Christ our 
head, have we not cause to be thankful to God even 
in this respect, that he hath been, and is, his God ? 
The ancient church did magnify God, that he had 
made himself 'the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,' 
their forefathers ; how much more reason is there for 
us to glorify him in this regard, that he is the head of 
Christ oor Lord ! Again, if any man should help and 
deliver from great evils some of our friends, should do 
them many favours, would we not return them in this 
consideration thanks, and much commend them ? If 
Christ be dear unto us, we must needs bless and praise 
the Lord, inasmuch as he hath been a God assisting, 
preserving, and is a God glorifying our Lord and Sa- 
viour. In the head of Christ lay all our happiness ; 
had not God been a God to him, and covered it in the 
day of battle, we had all of us perished ; all our super- 
natural happiness stood and fell in him. 

Use 1. We may make a double use of this ; one of 
instruction in doctrine, the other respecting manners : 
for, seeing Jesus Christ hath God for his God, he hath 
as well a created nature within his person as the un- 
created nature of God ; he could not be a proper Sa-. 
viour of us, were he not God ; he could not have God 
for his God, were he not a creature. For the Son of 
God, as God, could not be predestinated to the per- 
sonal union, which the human nature, coming from 
without, was only capable of. Again, he did need no 
protector nor blesser ; he did need a God in these re- 
gards, as man. 

Use 2. Secondly, we must hence be stirred up to 
magnify God, for that he hath been and is unto our 
head. We see in the natural body, the members joy 
in the good of the head, yea, they prefer it before 
their own ; for hence it is that if one strike at the 
head, the hand will ward the blow, though it be quite 
cut ofl". Thus, if we were such members to our Christ 
as we should be, we would more rejoice and magnify 
God, for that he hath been, and is, to his Christ, 
than for that which he worketh for ourselves. If we 
love not and extol not the God of Christ in this re- 
spect, that ho is a God to him, it is a sign we bear 
not that love to Christ which we should. 

And Father oj our Lord Jesus Cliiist. Observe 
secondly, that we are to magnify God in this regard, 
that he is the Father of our Lord. This respect is 
here placed in order of nature, duly, for it floweth 
from the other. God is not first the Father of Christ, 
in regard of his human nature, and then his God ; 
but because he was of his own accord the God pre- 
destinating the human nature in Christ to the personal 
union, therefore he cometh to be the Father of his 
Son, so far as he subsisteth in flesh. As we are not 
first the children of God, and then come to have him 
for our God, but because God hath freely set his love 
upon us, and been our God so far as to predestinate 
our adoption, ergo, he cometh to be our Father, and 
we his children. That Christ therefore, as man, or 
in regard of his extrinsic nature, is the Son of God, it 
cometh from the grace of predestination ; yet we must 
not think that this doth make in God the Father a 
double generation, for, as the respect of Fatherhood 
is not multiplied from hence, that his son is now 
single, now married, so God's generation is not 
multipUed in regard that his Son sometime only was 
in the nature of God, but now is married by an in- 
dissoluble personal union unto our nature. To come 
unto the doctrine. 

Doct. 3. If we see Christ to be the fountain of all 
our happiness, how can we but bless him who is the 
Father of him. We see that all generations call the 
virgin blessed, who found grace so far as to bear him ; 
how much more therefore must our hearts be far from 
neglecting to extol him who is the eternal Father of 
our Lord. Yea, the hearts which do afl'ect Christ, 
do bless those that publish his name, and have any, 
though the least place, about him. If we see any whom 
we love and admire for their excellencies, we account 
those blessed who may any way belong to them. 
Thus the queen of Sheba accounted the servants of 
Solomon happy men ; nay, there is nothing so mean, 
which doth any way enjoy this or that excellent thing, 
but we esteem it blessed. David, admiring the beauty 
of God's tabernacle, did almost emulate the happiness 
of the swallows, who might yet make their nest near 
the allar ; he counteth all that have access to it, and 
that doorkeeper who dwelleth in it, exceeding happy. 
Again, we see that if any be more markable for wisdom, 




[Chap. I. 

valour, favour with their prince, if any be a deliverer 
of his country oppressed, will not civil men prononnce 
the parents of such children thrice happy? We shall 
tlierefore neither shew ourselves to have Christ in due 
iidmiration, neither to be heavenly-minded, having 
understanding of things heavenly, if we can think of 
the Father of Christ without magnifying of him in this 
respect, '\^^lo doth not glorify God in that he is the 
creator of this aspectable world which we behold ? 
But in being the Father of our Lord and Saviour, his 
ionour is much more displaj-ed. The rather let us 
strive to magnify God in this respect, because we shall 
then assure our hearts that we love and honour our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus, and that we have union and 
communion with him, as head and members ; for 
where fellowship is, there is conjunction. Then shall 
our praises be distinguished from Jewish and hea- 
thenish doxologios, which sound not in them a syllable 
■of Christ Jesus. If we look at God the Father, we 
iave reason to laud him in this regard, for it is the 
greatest manifested glory ; if we consider Chi-ist, we 
are bound to it, for who can think honourably of him 
that is begotten, but will honour the begetter in regard 
of him ? If at ourselves, we may gather from that hath 
been spoken arguments enough obliging us to this 
duty. I speak the more to this point, for the love of 
Christ Jesus is cooled, yea, almost extinct, even 
amongst Christians. 

Now followeth the second argument from that which 
God hath done by us in Christ : where, first, we are to 
consider the action of God's blessing ; secondly, the 
persons blessed ; thirdly, the blessings themselves, 
set down by enallage of the number and metonymy 
of the cause, bli'ssiiu/ for blessed benefils, which are de- 
scribed from the quantity and kind of them, ' with all 
spiritual blessings ;' fourthly, the place whence those 
blessings come, and where they are reserved, ' heavenly 
pla.'es;' fifthly and lastly, the fountain, 'in Christ.' 

First, it is to be marked that he had in his heart 
an apprehension of God's blessing him, with these faith- 
ful ones he wrote unto, before he breaketh forth to 
bless God. 

Doitt. i. Observe then in general, that the sense 
and knowledge of God's blessing us, is it which maketh 
ns Mess God again. Look through the thanksgivings 
of David and others, you shall find that the conscience 
of some benefits received from God did move unto 
them. ' I will praise thee, because thou hast exalted 
rue ;' ' Praise the Lord, my soul, who hath forgiven all 
thy sins', &c., Ps. ciii. 3 ; that receipt of benefits is 
;h« fo;indation of thankfulness. AYhen the leper saw 
himself cured, ho returned and gave thanks. As St 
•John saith in love, ' we love him, because he hath 
loved us first,' 1 John iv. ; so in blessing, we bless 
laini, because we find that he hath blessed us fu-st. 
\s a will cinnot refle^'t light and heat from it till the 
sun h.ath fii'st shined on it, and as an echo cannot re- 
sound anything to us, till we have first spoken unto 

it ; so, till our God hath spoken his blessings to us, we 
cannot resound blessing to him. 

Use. The use is to stir us up, that as we desire to 
praise God, so we would labour to get that spirit 
which may make us know the things bestowed on us. 
The papists are the cut-throats of thankfulness, while 
they will not let us know the graces given us. We 
know our earthly things (yea, which is the pity), we 
know them too well, know them so that we are proud 
of them ; let us labour to know our best blessings, 
and our hearts will not be unthankful. In particular, 

Doct. 5. First observe, that our heavenly Father, 
he blesseth all his children. Look into the common- 
wealth, church, family, the fathers in them all do 
bless those that are under them ; princes, their people ; 
teachers, those that depend on them ; parents and 
masters, children and servants ; for the greater hath 
power to bless the lesser. Thus is it with our heavenly 
Father, Father of all fatherhoods in heaven and earth, 
he giveth his blessing to those that are his. Again, 
as we see earthly parents bless their children, both in 
word and work, wishing them blessed, and giving 
many benefits ; for parents treasure up for their 
children ; thus our heavenly Father doth both in 
word pronounce us blessed, who are his by faith : 
' Blessed are you that believe on me, that hunger and 
thirst for righteousness, that are pure in heart;' and 
he doth also bestow on them many benefits which do 
make them blessed, for to bless signifieth, both as well 
to give a giff, as pronounce blessed. 

Use 1. This then must teach us, first, to seek bless- 
ing of our heavenly Father's hand ; seek it as Jacob 
did, wrestle for it with prayers and tears. Gen. xxsii. 
20 ; come to God and confess that we are accursed 
children of his wrath, but entreating, that for Christ's 
sake, who was made a curse for us, that for his Son's 
sake he would bless us. The blessing on mount Sinai 
was gotten by doing ; but seeing the law is impossible 
to our sinful weakness, we must seek the blessing only 
in believing. Would we not count that child a mis- 
creant, which would not come to the parents and ask 
their blessing ? It is a token we are bastards, and not 
children, if we come not to God in secret, and enti'eat 
him to bless us, through his Christ. What may they 
think of themselves who have never heartily and 
humbly sought this way ? That reprobate Esau shall 
condemn them, for he sought his earthly parent's 
blessings importunately, and with tears, when now it 
was too late, which these never did toward their 

Use 2. W^e who are his children must rejoice in this, 
that we have such a Father, whose blessing we know 
to be on us. It is with us as it is with little children, 
who have many blessings, but think little on that 
matter, which yet an understanding child, more gi"Own 
up, hath in great account. We must amend this, a' d 
not still be babes in understanding ; our blessing is 
the fountain of all happiness : ' Come, ye blessed 

Ver. .3.] 



of my Father, inherit,' &c., ergo, is not lightly to be 

A third use may be for imitation. 

Use 3. Observe thirdly, ' who hath blessed us,' 
myself with yon, who are faithful saints. Observe 
what kind of children hive their Father's blessing. 
The faithful ones, who are sanctified, these are blessed 
of God ; for St Paul saying, ' who hath blessed us,' 
doth not speak rhetorically, like great men, who speak 
in the plural number for the singular. Wo will you. 
This or that was done to u? ; but he hath reference to 
these Ephesians, whom he described in the first verse, 
of whom, joined with himself, ho nlKnnoth that they 
wore blessed. The truth is, first, wo are really and 
actuiilly blessed, blessedness being received into them- 
selves ; but such as are believers, and now sanctified ; 
though others are predestinated to blessedness, yet 
this doth only make them blessed so far as that their 
blessedness is intended in time future, it doth not for 
the present work any alteration in them tending this 
way. Predestinate and reprobate, before faith come, 
are in themselves all one|: ' Know ye not that drunk- 
ards, railers, shall^not enter into God's kingdom ; such 
were yon, but now ye are washed ;' these ergo, who 
now are blessed, enjo predestinated, before their 
callings were the same with them who shall not enter 
into God's kingdom. 

Doel. 6. Secondly, I say, as none are actually blessed, 
so none can be known and affirmed to be blessed in 
God's purpose, which are not believers and saints. The 
reason is, because that which is in God's mind cannot 
be known fiu-ther than the word or work of God doth 
reveal it. Now God's word doth tell ns only thus far, 
that such as are and shall be called to faith and 
sanctified, they are predestinate. Now then, further 
than wo can see faith, we cannot discern any to be 
predestinate ; but the faith of such who are already 
believers, is only such as we may perceive (for there 
is no word revealing whom God will give faith to here- 
after; I say, so revealing it that their persons thereby 
are made evident to us), ergo, we can see none to be 
predestinate to salvation, unless we can by fruits be- 
hold him to be in present a believer. Again, our faith 
and grace is the work beginning our salvation ; till there- 
fore faith is wrought,[there is no work of God apparent, 
which doth let us see ho hath a'pnrpose to save. This 
then is a truth, that the believing and holy person is 
only such, of whom we may say that he is blessed of 
God ; yet this caution is to be taken, that as we can- 
not say any is blessed, so we cannot say any man in 
particular, wanting faith and grace, shall not be 
blessed, or that he is not predestinated. If a man up 
afore day should reason thus. Here is no sun up, erqo, 
none will rise to-day, his sequel were frivolous ; so 
here, &c. 

Uxe 1. The use of this doctrine is first to comfort 
the Lord's, who believe so on Christ, that their hearts 
are pturified, and their desire is to walk precisely, Eph. 

V. 15. The world aecounteth them, as they did before 
of St Paul, Christians, and Christ himself, as if they 
were olT-scourings, 1 Cor. iv. ; base, cursed people, 
John vii. ; cursed and plagued of God, rather than 
blessed, Isa. liii. 4. But this is our comfort, God 
thinkelh and pronounccth otherwise of us. 

Use 2. We sec the vain judgment of worldlings, 
they give sentence according to sense, think often 
wicked ones happy, Mai. iii. 15. To ride on a fino 
palfrey, to.have a cap and knee given them, to fat their 
hearts with laughter and all earthly contentments; 
these things our epicuroan-Hke Christians count felicity. 
But if thou hast not faith and grace, cleansing thy heart 
and life, though thy excellency doth touch the clouds, 
and thou dost seem to make thy nest in the stars, yet 
shalt thou perish like the dung. The higher thou hast 
been lifted up, so much the more deadly downfall 
shalt thou take into those hellish torments, that fear- 
ful destruction. Thus much for the persons blessed. 

Now for the blessings. 1. The quality, ' with spiri- 
tual.' 2. The quantity, ' with all spiritual blessings.' 
First, for Paul, mark what kind of benefits provoke 
him to bless God ; even those which are spiritual. 

Doct. 7. Observe what benefits make a regenerate 
man thankful. Those that are spiritual, those bestowed 
upon himself, or on bis brethren or sisters, do make 
him thankful. There are natural, civil, and spiritual 
benefits. Whatsoever things live a natural or civil 
life, natural and civil benefits are welcome to them ; 
so are spiritual, with such as have received a life 
spiritual. The very horse will scrape and neigh, and 
if he could speak would say, I thank you, when you 
bring him his provender. Let a civil man be taught 
skill in some faculties, give him wealth, honour, and 
favour with those that are great, you win his love ; 
give a voluptuous gentleman a dog or hawk, you shall 
have more thanks than for a better matter ; when 
these things befall their friends, it rejoiceththem. Thu3 
a spiritual man, when he seeth on himself or other 
spiritual things bestowed, it doth make him both glad 
and thankful, Fvom. i. 8, 1 Cor. i. 4, Rom. vi. 17. 

Vie 1. The use of which consideration is to let U3 
see what kind of creatures we are. If we be risen 
with Christ, we will aflect things spiritual, forgiveness 
of sin, the gift of faith, sanctification, and such like, 
so as to be thankful for them, joyful of them. Yea, 
if we have any fellow-feeling, as members knit to- 
gether in the same body, we shall not be able to see 
these benefits in any but they will move us to be 

Observe, thirdly, in regard of God, what kind of 
benefits he doth give his children ; to wit, such as arc 
spiritual. Everything in nature doth communicate with 
that which is begotten of it, such a like nature as it- 
self retaineth. Thus it is also with civil men, for 
they leave their children gold and silver, house and 
land, and such like other good civil benefits. Thus 
our heavenly Father, he is a spirit, he, ergo, maketh 



[Chap. I. 

us partakers of a divine nature who are his children, 
and blesseth us with spiritual blessings. 

Now a blessing is spiritual in two regards : 1. In 
respect of the nature, when it is a thing wrought, not by 
any power of nature or means natural, but by the yLt- 
tue of God's Spirit, and means supernatural, such as 
is God's word. 2. Things are then in some sort 
spiritual, when, though for their essence and being 
they exceed not nature, yet they are directed by a 
supernatural providence to work unto an end above 
nature, even to bring us unto happiness with God, 
such as is spiritual and supernatural. Now God doth 
thus give his children many blessings spiritual for na- 
ture, and doth so guide all things, health, wealth, 
sickness, poverty, that they work together unto the 
spiritual and supernatural salvation of those who are 

If then one should object and say. Why, the godly 
have the benefits of this life, natural and civil, as well 
as those belonging to another, ergo, are not blessed 
only with spiritual blessings ; I answer, That even 
these benefits are in some sort spiritual, while by God's 
providence they are elevated and guided to a higher 
end than is the service of this life only. Hence we 
make a rule whereby we may know whether we be 
God's true children, whether we have the children's 
blessing. Let us enter into ourselves, and look if we 
find these spiritual blessings, then we may secure our- 
selves that we are the Lord's. These are all of them 
appurtenances to the matter of inheritance. Now we 
know, though parents give legacies to many uses, 
to many persons who are no kin to them, yet they con- 
vey the matter of inheritance only to children. So 
doth our God give many blessings to men devoid of 
grace, to castaways ; but these spiritual blessings of 
sound faith, repentance, &c., which serve to enter us 
into the inheritance of that everlasting kingdom, he 
bestoweth these on none but children. Let not men 
deceive themselves because they have these outward 
things. Esau got the blessing which the dew of heaven 
and the fatness of the earth might yield him ; Abraham 
gave gifts to the children of his concubines, though 
not Isaac's blessing. Thou canst not know thyself 
blessed of God by outward things, unless thou findest 
them to provoke thee to love and fear, and be 
thankful to the Lord, and so set forward thy spiritual 

Use 2. Secondly, we see here that the happiness, 
that the riches of the spiritual man are not known, nor 
discerned with outward senses and carnal reason ; 
for spiritual things cannot be discerned but spiritually, 
1 Cor. ii. The godly man hath a white stone, in which 
is written a name that none can read but himself, 
Rev. i. 17 ; he is absolved from sin, and accepted to 
be a son of God, through Christ, and heir of heaven. 
And yet because he is thus made a son of God through 
Christ, the world doth not know him, 1 John iii. 3 ; 
even as we know not the sons of princes (were they 

amongst us), who dwell in nations far from us. But 
this must not dismay us. Some men that carry a low 
sail, being of great wealth, living at an under rate in 
regard of that their state might bear, when some of 
greatest show, but mean wealth, scorn them as poor, 
they smile at the matter, knowing themselves in matter 
of estate not inferior to the other, and they please 
themselves thus that they are unknown. ^Vhile we 
have hidden treasures that the world knoweth not of, 
we are not to be dejected. 

Dnct. 8. In heavenly places. Observe, where all 
our blessings are given us, in heavens. There they are 
iii'st framed, thence they come which we have, there 
being the confirmation of them reserved ; our hope, 
not the habit whereby we hope, for after all things 
present this shall have no place, 1 Cor. xiii. ; but the 
things we hope for, are in heaven. Our incorruptible in- 
heritance is heaven, reserved for us, where Christ our 
head was ; there St Paul, there all things, may well be 
said to be which are given us in him. Now when the 
apostle did write, Christ, the common treasury of all 
his church's good, was in heaven. Earthly parents 
give and leave their children blessings there where 
themselves have their abode ; they give not commonly 
inheritances to them in countries they never did dwell 
in. Our heavenly Father's dwelling is in the heavens, 
and there he giveth us our blessing. Again, we see 
that is the place where everything resteth ; that, I say, 
in which it is first bred, from which it first cometh. 
Fish bred in water, there they abide, they cannot Uve 
being out of it ; so the creatures in the earth. And 
thus these spiritual benefits, the place of them is 
heaven ; there is kept the fulness of them, thence they 
come, thence they shall have their consummation. In 
this regard, earthly things are called things below ; 
heavenly, things above, where Christ sitteth ; this is 
our advantage. What man in a strange country, as a 
sojourner a while, would not wish, were he to receive 
great sums, that thej' were paid in his own country for 
his use, rather than tendered to him there, where he 
was a stranger ? So it is with us under sail toward 
our country where our Father dwelleth, it is our com- 
modity that our treasures are there reserved. 

Use 1. The use is, first, to let us see our security in 
regard of these benefits. Such as have earthly trea- 
sures, they love when it is kept in safety ; so it is that 
the treasure laid up in heaven is safe there, neither 
rust cankereth nor yet the thief breaketh in. 

Use 2. This should stir up our hearts^heavenward, 
for where our chief treasure is, should not our hearts 
be there with it ? Were land fallen us by the death of 
any in the remotest shire of England, we would not 
think much of going to see and take possession of it. 
Thus it should be here, we should strive while on earth 
to get a large entrance into this heavenly kingdom 
while we are here on earth. 

Use 3. This considered is a great ground of patience. 
We see men on the way wUl content themselves with 

Ver. 3.] 



eorry lodging, and pass by little diseasements, for they 
know that onco at home they shall take their ease and 
■want no contentments. Here we have many wants 
spiritual, wo are encountered with many difficulties ; 
but at home, in the heavens, we have all kinds of bless- 
ings reserved for us: see Heb. xi., ' They endured 
with joy the spoiling of their goods, knowing that in 
heaven they had a more enduring substance.' 
• Doct. 9. Again, that ho saith «// spiritual bleasiiiga, 
we may note how liberally God dealeth with his chil- 
dren. To give us any blessings were mere}', for we have 
justly forfeited them all. To give us spiritual blessings 
is more ; but thus to give us all kind of spiritual 
blessings, yea, as you heard in the last doctrine, to 
make every blessing after a sort spiritual, this is his 
exceeding bountifulness. He hath given us all things 
that pertain to life eternal in the world to come, and 
to ' live godlily in this present world,' 1 Pet. ii. 1. We 
see great men on earth do not only give their heirs 
earthly blessings, but all kind of earthly blessings, dig- 
nity, offices ; they take their wives, bestow on them 
house, land, money, everything abundantly ; thus doth 
our heavenly Father in things spiritual. To understand 
it more fully, know these spiritual benefits are eternal ; 
I mean, given us for eternity, or, in time performed to 
ns. The first are our election, predestination, of which 

Now these given us in time are double, such as we 
have for the present, such as are kept to be revealed 
hereafter, 1 Pet. i. 3. These which we have for the 
present are positive, such as do confer some good thing 
upon us ; or privative, such as keep evil from us. 
God's positive spiritnal benefits are inward or outward : 
inward, all illuminations, inspirations, gifts of the 
Spirit, all moving and confirming of grace once re- 
ceived ; outward blessings, word, sacraments, occa- 
sions outwardly moving us to good, all the gifts of 
grace in others by which we are edified, they are our 
spiritual blessings whom they profit, not theirs only in 
whom they are received. In a word, eveijthing which 
is made to further our salvation is made in this regard 
a spiritual outward blessing to us. 

Now the privative blessings, in not letting tempta- 
tions come, not come in such strength, in putting them 
by, in defeating the efl'ect which otherwise they would 
have, they are above all can be spoken or compre- 

The blessings to be revealed in the last time, which 
respect both the soul and body, for that shall be 
made spiritnal, they are such as never eye saw, nor 
ear heard. And though we have them not in possession, 
yet they arc ours ; we are blessed with them, though 
we are not yet possessed of them, as an heir hath right 
to his lands during his wardship. Let these then suf- 
fice to give yon some taste of this bountifulness of God 
toward us. 

Use 1 . The use is to stir ns up to seek to be par- 
takers of this our Father's blessing. Happy are we 

whom he hath thus blessed, if we be stirred up to cry 
to him, that wo may be partakers of it ; and cursed are 
we who hear such bountifulness of his towards us if we 
despise it, not looking after nor caring for it. Many 
profane Esaus prefer their pottage before this blessing. 
If men capable of great hopes from their earthly 
parents should choose a wandering life, not setting by 
all their fathers could leave them, would not every one 
cry out of them as forlorn miscreants ? Thus it is with 
us ; we are capable of all kinds of spiritual blessings 
from our heavenlj' Father, things so great as never en- 
tered into the heart of any fully. If we live like prodi- 
gals, stray from his house, not setting by these things, 
how woful is our case ! 

Use 2. Secondly, we see the great happiness of the 
godly man. What if he had not a cross to bless him 
with, yet he hath in reversion great things ; he hath 
all abundance in hope, though not in hand. A great 
heir is even accounted wealthy, though during his non- 
age and wardship he is often held to strait allow- 
ance ; so here, &c. 

Use 3. Lastly, we see their error who seek blessings 
out of Christ, who is made everything, in whom all is 
Amen. Such who seek justification, perseverance, 
pardon of sins after baptism in themselves, their own 
satisfactions, in the church's treasury. 

Doet. 10. In Christ. Observe, lastly, in and through 
whom we come to be blessed, even in and through 
Christ our Lord : 2 Pet. i. 3, we are blessed through 
the acknowledging of Christ, with all things that belong 
to hfe eternal and godliness ; 1 Cor. i. 31, Christ is 
made of God our sanctifier, justifier, rather redeemer. 
In Christ was the fulness of grace, that we might re- 
ceive from him, the Sun of righteousness, and Head of 
us. We have life begun in us, I mean the life of 
grace. Where was it before our calUngs ? Where 
was the life of us before we were born ? AVas it not 
in our parents ? Thus this life we have before it come 
to be convej-ed to us, was in Christ the second Adam, 
and common parent of us all. We look for life in the 
heavens. Where is it ? Where is the life of a tree in 
winter ? Is it not in the root ? At the spring it 
will be manifested by leaves, blossoms, fruits. So 
' our life we look for is hid in Christ,' our root as 
it were. Col. iii. 3 ; when he, the Sun of life and 
righteousness, shall approach to us in judgment, 
then shall we have that life, now hidden, manifested 
in ns. 

Use. The use of this is, first, to let us see to whom 
we are to give praise of all we have received, even to 
Christ the head of us. We have received our spiritnal 
being from him. 

Again, we must labour to get more near communion 
with Christ, seeing he is the fountain. Whither should 
we have recourse but to him ? The more we could 
approach to the sun, the more should we be enlightened 
with the light of it. Want of union and communion 
with this fountain maketh the grace in temporisers 



[Chap. I. 

come to nothing, as waters do which have no running 
spring to feed them. 

Ver. 4. Who hath elected «s. Now, he doth prose- 
cute the doctrine of God's benefits, which were sum- 
marily propounded, and proveth that he spake by 
particular enumeration : first, of benefits before all 
times, which we have so in Christ that we have them 
through him ; secondly, of those benefits which we 
have so in Christ that we have them also for his sake 
and through him, as he speaketh in the 7th verse, 
changing his phrase : ' In whom we have redemption, 
through his blood.' The former are two : 1, election, 
in this verse ; 2, predestination, in the 5th and 6th 
verses. In this verse we are to mark these things : 
1, the spiritual blessing, as he hath elected; 2, the 
persons here said to be elected, us; 3, the person in 
whom, in him; 4, the time; 5, the end. 

1. First, To open the meaning of them, and then 
to come to the instruction to be deduced. First, for 
election, it is put sometime for that election which is 
made in temporary execution of God's purpose, whe- 
ther it be a separating of men to the state of grace, 
which maketh them as the chosen first-fruits of the 
creature — thus it is taken John xv. 19, ' The world 
hateth you, because I have chosen you out of the 
world;' and thus, 1 Peter i. 1, 2, ' To the elect of the 
dispersion,' seemeth to be understood — or a separat- 
ing of them to any office or dignity, as Saul ; yea, 
Judas might in this sense be said [lobe] chosen. But 
here he speaketh of that choice which God made with 
himself fi'om all eternity, as is manifest. 

2. Secondly, By the persons, iis, he meaneth him- 
self, with those Ephesians which he had called saints 
and believers, ver. 1. 

3. In him is diversely construed : first, in him, that is, 
in God the Son, not considered as God-man, Head and 
Mediator of the church, but as second person, God 
with the Futber. Thus all things are said created in 
or bj' Christ; not that he is considered as man-God 
in this work, but because Christ, God-man, as the Son 
of God, God with the Father and Spirit, as that person 
by whom all things are created. But, ver. 3, it is plain 
he doth consider Christ as we are blessed in him, in 
regard of both natures, even as he hath God for Lis 
God by covenant. In him who hath God for his God 
and Father, we are blessed. 

Some make this in Christ, not to be refeiTed to that 
action of eleclion, but to the end, in this sense, ' He 
Lath chosen us in Christ, that we should be holy,' that 
is, he hath chosen us that we should be holy in Christ. 
But besides the harshness, it is impertinent, though a 
truth ; for his scope is to prove, not that in Christ we 
are made holy, but that we have this blessing of elec- 
tion in Christ. 

Some take in Christ as if it belonged to the persons 
elected, in (his sense, as he hath chosen us now by 
faith in Christ, to that foresight of his which bcholdeth 

all things as present which are to come ; but this is 
beside the scope of this scripture, which intendeth not 
to lay down our union with Christ by faith, but God's 
electing Christ ; ergo, in him must needs belong to the 
action of electing, not that object about which it is 

In him therefore noteth Chi-ist, God-man, as the 
head and first elect, after whom, and in whom, all of 
us, his body (for order of nature), are elected ; so that 
this phrase noteth the order in which we come to be 
elected, not the cause of eleclion. 

4. For the time ; there are three phrases which seem 
note the same thing : 1, from the beginning, 2 Thes. 
ii. 13; 2, before worlds; 3, before the foundation of 
the world, 2 Tim. i. 9. These all may note that 
eternal love of God toward us ; there understand 
nothing but eternity ; but because within eternity God 
doth foresee the things which are done in time, and 
therefore, though he chose from eternity, nothing 
hindereth (as some think) but that he might foresee 
something whereupon to choose. Therefore this 
phrase may be extended not only to respect the actual 
creation, but the decree itself of the world's being ; 
to this sense, that he chose his in order of nature, 
before by his decree he laid the foundation of the 

5. The end is all one with salvation elsewhere named, 
for love made perfect is the formal blessedness we look 
for in heaven ; it is nothing else but the supernatural 
being and life of a Christian, which is begun in gi'ace, 
perfected in glory. The sum of these words more 
amply is this, ' Blessed be he who hath blessed us in 
Christ with every spiritual blessing.' As, for example, 
first, he hath with himself set his hking on us, chosen 
us before others ; us, I say, who now believe on Christ, 
and are sanctified by his Spirit. This his election, 
beginning first at Christ our Head, and so descending 
downward on us his members in him, and this his grace 
was towards us before there was any world ; yea, for 
order of nature, before his decree did lay the founda- 
tion of the world, that to which he hath elected being 
no less than salvation, that glorious life of love which, 
begun here, shall one day be made spotless and perfect 
before him. 

Now, to come to the doctrine hence to be deduced. 

Doct. 1. First, We see what is a blessing worthy all 
thankfulness, even this of om- election : ' I praise God 
always, who hath elected you from the beginning.' 
This is the root, out of which all these blessings grow, 
which in time we partake ; even as the body, and 
bough, and branches of the tree issue from the root, 
and are borne up by the same ; ergo, this is in nature, 
and in St Paul's reckoning, before predestination itself. 
For as, first, I agree upon this end, I will help a sick 
man to recover his health before I determine to send 
for any physician, so here, God doth first ly election 
choose to the end, and agree on that in order of nature 
before he predestinate means by which he will most 

Vh.R. k] 



certainly bring to this end. For Ihe better understand- 
ing of this benefit, two things shall be briefly opened : 
1, what it is ; 2, why God the Father is here said only 
to elect. For the first, the common matter which doth 
concur to the being of this benefit, is love, a love which 
God hath to us to bring us to that life which is above 
nature ; therefore sometime God's choosing is ex- 
pressed by loving : ' I have loved Jacob, and hated 
Esau,' tliat is, not yielded Esau that measure of love, 
which the Hebrews called hating. But there is a fur- 
tlicr tiling in election, which duth dill'erence it from 
love, and that is a respect which is in this love, whereby 
it is carried to some before other some. It so loveth 
some, that it rojecteth other some from having part in 
it : Deui. vii. 7, ' I have loved thee, and chosen thee.' 
Should God have loved every reasonable creature to 
life, there had been love to all, but election of none. 
He who taketh all, maketh no choice of any ; therefore 
God maketh it a difl'erent thing : ' I have loved thee, 
and chosen thee.' 

Some make this all one with that foreknowledge men- 
tioned Eom. viii.29; audit cannot be denied but know- 
ledge is often put for love and approbation, and that 
God knowelh his church and chosen far otherwise than 
other things ; even as a man knoweth all his goods and 
substance, but bis wife and children after a special 
manner: nevertheless it may well note that knowledge 
which is in order to this action of God's choosing, whe- 
ther going before it or coming after it. If we have chosen 
any to anything, we know whom we have chosen, and 
if we are about to choose any, we know whom we are 
about to choose ; so God doth not only know whom 
he hath chosen, which knowledge (to our manner of 
conceiving) doth follow the act of his will, now being 
put forth ; but he doth know whom he is in choosing, 
or about to choose, and this doth go leibro to our 
nnderstanding. And this I think the meaning of fore- 
knowledge in that place. Such whom he did foreknow 
to be the persons whom he would choose, such he did 
predestinate; and thus that place, 1 Peter i. 1, may 
be more fitly resolved, where he saith, ' The faithful 
of the dispersion were chosen, according to fore- 

Kow, God the Father is said to choose, not that the 
Son and Spirit choose not also (for if three of us had 
but one will common to ns all, one could not will any- 
thing which the will of the other two should not also 
will), because the Son sustaincth the person of one 
elected, the Spirit is the witness, sealing this grace to 
pur hearts. As the Father is often alone named in 
invoc.ition, not that the other persons are not to be 
prayed unto, but because the Son is considered as the 
mediator, and the Spirit as the schoolmaster, teaching 
us what to pray as we ought, therefore the Father only 
is expressed. 

C.vf 1. Wherefore this benefit, being matter of 
thanksgiving, let us labour to acknowledge the good- 
ness of God this way. We will thank men even for 

the good meanings and purposes we perceive them to 
have towards us, though they have done nothing by ns. 
When I)avid leaped, rejoicing in spirit, before the ark, 
what was before him ? That God who had chosen him 
hath rejected the house of Saul from ruling over his 
people. How should we rejoice in spirit to think that 
God hath elected us to an eternal kingdom, from which 
many, no way our inferiors, are rejected ! If any shew 
us common countenance, we do not so much respect it; 
but if they admit us into such peculiar favour as they 
will not communicate with any who arc not their best 
beloved, then we do highly esteem it. To be taken 
unto these riches of grace, this so restrained favour, 
in which the greatest part of mankind have no part, 
how should it afl'ect us ! 

Voct. 2. The second doctrine, who they are of whom 
we may say that they are elect, even such who have 
true faith and holiness. As we may know faith, so we 
may know election. If wo sec in judgment of charity 
that any hath a faith unfeigned, and true endeavour of 
holiness, we may, in judgment of charity, say that such 
are elected. Thus St Peter and John may give the 
name of elect to the members of the visible churches 
to whom they write. If we know by experimental 
certainty, or by faith, that any have true belief and 
holiness, we do in the same manner certainly know- 
that we or they are elected. Thus we may by faith 
know that in every true visible church there are some 
elect of God ; because the word teacheth, that where 
God giveth his word, there are some saints whom he 
will gather and edify, some ground good where he 
sendeth his seedsmen. Thus we may know certaiuly 
ourselves elect, because we may by certain experience 
know ourselves to have faith. If I see one put into 
the oilice of the court of wards, or into the treasurer's 
place, or so, I know that such a man was the man 
whom the king had chosen with himself to have the 
place ; so when God now hath by faith and sanctifica- 
tion taken one out of this world unto life, wc may know 
that he was chosen forth of the world unto hfe. Things 
may be said to be when now their being is made mani- 
fest. While a babe is in the womb, we luiow not what 
is there conceived, but when we see a man-child born, 
then we know that such an one was conceived ; so when 
the babe is bom, when the being of faith and hohness 
are apparent, we may say that such a person, before 
all worlds, was conceived in the womb of God's secret 
election. We may know a \\ill secret three ways : 

1. If a man will himself tell us ; 2. If he will write 
to us ; 3. If he do this or that, we know then by event 
he had a will to such matters, which now we see him 
execute. So here God may speak by extraordinary 
revelation, which hath been the privilege of some few. 
2. God may make his will known by the ordinary en- 
lightening of his Spirit, which is that unto the mind,, 
as a word unto the car. We have received the Spirit,, 
to teach us to know these deeps of God's gracious 
purpose towai'ds us, 1 Cor. ii. 12 ; by the letter of his 



[Chap. I. 

word, that golden chain, Eom. -viii. 29. If I be sanc- 
tified with the divine nature, in which glory is begun, 
I am justified ; if justified, 1 have been called accord- 
ing to purpose ; if called, I was predestinate ; if pre- 
destinate to means, I was foreknown, as one whom 
God would choose to the end, even to glory. 

8. When I see myself set apart by God from the 
world, the event doth tell me, God chose me from 
amongst others. When I love God, come out of the 
world, choosing him as my portion, then I may know 
he hath loved me first, and chosen me, even as I 
know a seal hath been set there, where I behold the 
print of it. 

Obj. One may object, that God only knoweth who 
are bis. 

Ans. God only knoweth by himself who they are 
whom he approveth for bis own ; but with this, may 
stand the knowledge of such to whom God revealeth 
it ; as none but the Son knoweth the Father, and 
such to whom the Son revealeth it. 2. God only 
knoweth his collectively taken, that is, the whole uni- 
versity of his chosen ; no mere man nor creature doth 
in this sense know who are God's. 

Obj. Could we know that we have true faith and 
holiness, we might know our election, but we cannot ; 
for many who have them not, think they have them ; 
many who have them in some sort, fall from them ; 
many who have them, so as they shall not fail, yet 
may miss in judging of their estates, as Peter, ' If all 
should forsake thee,' &c. 

To this I answer, first, though a man dream he 
eat, or be in this or that condition, and be deceived, 
yet a man who is that or that waking, doth know it, 
and is not deluded. So here, though the dreaming 
man, who is asleep in sin, may mock himself, the man 
who is awake, and walketh with God, is not mistaken. 
To the second, I answer, many have temporary graces, 
fall from them, but this letteth not but a man who 
hath that grace which maketh the heart honest, may 
know that his grace shall abide, and is such as shall 
be accompanied with perseverance. Because some 
think counterfeit money good silver, it followeth not, 
but that we may know that which is good from that 
which is otherwise. Finally, though a true sanctified 
man may be deceived in judging of his measure of 
love or strength, it followeth not, that therefore he 
cannot judge at all truly of his estate. I may be de- 
ceived in judging bow wise I am, how strong, but not 
in judging that I live, have sense, move ; so it was 
with Peter. But this is by the way. 

Use 1. The use of this doctrine is to let ns see that 
we may come to know our election. If we find that 
our hearts have that faith on Christ, by which they 
are purified, he who may know he hath that faith, 
which is the faith of the elect, he may know he is 
elected also ; wherefore, let us ' strive "to make our 
election sure.' We will dive into the afi'ections of 
men, we cannot be at rest till we know how they are 

minded towards us. What beseemeth a child more 
than to labour that he may know his father's good- 
ness to him ? We should seek to God to wit- 
ness to ns by his Spirit this grace, to make us 
understand it through the word ; we should try our 
faith and sanctification ; this is the counterpane writ- 
ten out by the original copy, that will of God within 
himself, choosing us to holiness. The want of this 
pains maketh some that they come to call in question 
God's love, election ; yea, whether ever they had 
grace, yea or no. Should any corporation choose us 
to any place of dignity and profit, we would quickly 
learn it, and if we had but an inkling, we would not 
rest till we had found the whole matter. I would 
faithful souls were as wise in this matter. 

Use 2. They are hence rebuked, who think that 
those that are elect cannot be known, that it is 
presumption to go so far ; but shall we give thanks, 
as Paul doth, for that we do not know ? besides, are 
we bid to believe the gospel, a part whereof this is ? 
We must not be proudly arrogant, to think we can 
search these things to the full ; for to see things invi- 
sible, and search things unsearchable, are alike im- 
possible. We must not, therefore, be arrogant above 
that is written, nor yet unthankfiilly negligent, so far 
as to neglect that which is written for our instruction. 
Doct. 3. In him. Observe in what order we are 
chosen. This grace of election beginneth first with 
Christ our head, and descendeth to us in him. It 
noteth the order in which we are elected, not the cause 
of election. We must not think that we are first 
elected, and that Christ then, by occasion of our fall, 
is elected. No ; he is the first begotten amongst all 
his brethren, having the pre-eminence. He was sealed 
and set apart to be the Prince of our salvation, to the 
glory of grace, before (for nature) that we were elected. 
He was ' foreknown before the foundation of the world,' 
1 Peter i. 

The wise providence of God doth dispose every- 
thing, so much more principally and timely, by how 
much it is more excellent. Hence it is, that it doth 
not think of electing and predestinating us, who are 
as a body, and come by occasion to think on him, 
who is the head, afterward. 2. We are predestinated 
to be made hke unto him. Now that master-picture 
and first pattern is before that which is drawn by it, 
and done after. Christ was the chief pattern of the 
election of grace ; and look, as it were an unnatural 
thing for the feet to come forth of the womb before 
the head, so for us to come forth of this womb before 
our head, to me seemeth very preposterous ; yet I say, 
though he is first chosen to that glory which became 
him as a head, he is not the cause why we are chosen. 
Even as the first Adam is not the cause why God did 
love me, so that I should be a man, and have this na- 
tural life and being, though in and through him I 
come to have this being ; so Christ is not the cause 
why God would have me, rather than others, have this 

Ver. 4..] 



being and life above nature, though I attain to and 
receive this being in him, for his sake, and through 
him. The love of God as immediately comelh from 
himself to me, as to Christ ; this love whereby he 
would have me to receive supernatural life and blessed- 
ness with himself. But here two weighty objections 
are to be answered ; for hence two erroneous conclu- 
fiions are inferred in this wise : the first proveth that 
we, as elected, are now considered as fallen into sin. 

Ohj. 1. Those that are chosen in him, whose pro- 
mise and exhibition cometh in after sin, they are con- 
sidered as now in sin, before they are chosen. ' But 
we are chosen in him,' &c. 

Ans. The first part is not true, as which presup- 
poseth that things are in God's intention in the same 
order in which we see them in execution. Things in 
their material existing have one order, in their intend- 
ing another. I want a house to dwell in, I must hire 
or build one, I cannot get any let to me, say I. Well 
then, I intend to build me a dwelling-house, I cannot 
without workmen. I intend, in the third place, to 
hire carpenters and masons, but because my workmen 
can do nothing without matter, hence I decree to pre- 
pare stone and wood. Now, in executing, I first set 
stone and wood, the matter, then I hire workmen, then 
I raise the frame, then I enter and dwell in it. In 
order of material existing, Christ is revealed, promised, 
exhibited, after sin, but he was intended before sin. 
The apostle reckoned the order in which things exist, 
1 Cor. iii. 22, 23, the world, you the elect, Christ, 
God ; but he giveth us to understand the order of in- 
tention : first, God intendeth his own glory, then 
Christ, then the church, then the world. 

He who is elected and foreknown to be a Lamb 
taking away sin, a Mediator redeeming from sin and 
death, he is elected himself after sin foreseen, and 
by consequent all in him ; but Christ is so foreknown 
and elected, ergo. 

I should deny the first part of this reason ; for I 
see not why God should not choose and predestinate 
him who should save his chosen from sin, before he 
decreed or ordered that they should fall into sin. It 
is no ill providence to prepare my salve before I will 
let my child cut himself. 

But some say. If God do first appoint Christ to re- 
deem from sin, then he must procure the being of sin, 
and so be the author of sin. Beside that this were 
nothing but to break one's head, that I may after heal 
it, to this I say, that it is good that sin should be 
(as Augustine saith), and that which is good, so far 
as it is good, God may efl'ectually procure it.- He is 
said to be the author of those things which he com- 
mandeth, and worketh, moving the heart by habits 
which himself infuseth, err/o, cannot be said to be 
the author of sin. If a man make a gash to prove 
the excellency of some healing balm, I see not why 
God may not prepare and give way to the sinful fall 
* Prsccipiendo et movendo, non quiesceudo, consentiendo. 

of his creature, especially seeing he knowcth how to 
mend better than his first making. 

To the second part of the reason might be answered, 
that Christ was not primarily and immediately chosen 
and predestinated a Lamb, a Mediator of redemption, 
but a Head and Prince of salvation, who should save 
all, to the glory of grace. Now, being chosen to this 
end, he is by force of this, he is chosen upon sin 
falling forth, to be a sacrifice, a Lamb taking away 
sin ; for he who is chosen to the end is chosen to the 

The second thing hence inferred, is that foresight 
of faith, and perseverance in it, as a necessary condi- 
tion, before we can be elected. 

Obj. 2. Such who are chosen in Christ, such are 
now foreseen believers when they are chosen, for none 
are in Christ but such as believe. ' But we are chosen 
in him,' &c. 

Alls. The first part of this reason is denied, with 
the proof of it. There is a double being in any thing, 
the one in virtue, the other in actual existing. In the 
root of corn there is blade, ear in virtue ; but in har- 
vest time the ear and blade are, as it were, actually 
having their existence in and with the root. So we 
are two ways in Christ : first, in virtue, inasmuch as 
by force of God's election we shall in time have life 
and being from him ; secondly, when now by faith we 
come actuallj- to exist in and with him, who is the 
root of us. Now the first being in Christ requireth 
not faith, but the second ; the first being here to be 

To the second part we deny that this or any text 
saith. We are chosen, being now by faith in Christ ; 
for this sense maketh in Christ to belong to the object 
of relation ; whereas the scope of this place doth ne- 
cessarily make it belong to the act of electing in this 
manner ; as, for example. He hath chosen us in him, 
viz., Jesus Christ, myself with yon. Thus we might 
here take occasion to discuss these two great ques- 

1. Whether man, as now fallen, be the subject of 

2. Whether election is of such who are in God's 
foresight faithful. 

But I will handle the first in the next doctrine ; the 
latter in the last conclusion or doctrine of this verse. 
From this then, that we are beloved in Christ as our 
head, we may gather our happiness. Oh how firm is 
that conjunction which is begun in such a head, who 
is God with God, blessed for ever ! If kings bear good 
will to some family, if his love begin in some chief one 
who is with him at court, as his special favourite, it is 
so much the firmer to all the rest of them. Thus here ; 
how firm and sure is his love to us, whom he hath 
loved to life in Christ our head and eldest brother, who 
is his natural Son, from whom it is impossible that his 
love should ever start ! And when it is sure to the 
head, can the body be forsaken ? 



[Chap. L 

Before the foundation of the icorld. Doct. Observe 
what ancient love the Lord hath bonie us in Christ. 
It is not of yesterday, but before all worlds, that his 
love rested on us, electing us to salvation, such as 
should stand with the praise of bis glory, 2 Tim. i. 9. 
There is mention of grace given us before all worlds : 
John xvii. 2-1, ' Make it manifest that thou lovest them, 
as thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.' 
' I have loved thee with an everlasting love,' saith the 
prophet. Earthly men will purchase to themselves 
and heirs, when it is but a possibility whether they 
shall have heirs of their body, yea or no. Again, they 
will shew their care of posterity while yet they are un- 
born, by making sure entails. But our Father of all 
the fatherhood in heaven and earth, doth, when we 
were but possible creatures before him, love us to this 
end of supernatural blessedness ; for, by this phrase, I 
take, not only eternity, but the degree of order in eternity, 
is noted, that for order, before the being of the world 
was willed by him, he did shew us this grace of choosing 
us to life. Here therefore is fit place to consider of that 
question. Whether God foreseeth man as fallen before 
he elect him ? The question I should answer nega- 
tively, but in determining of it we will consider, 1, 
the arguments which affirm it ; 2, the reasons which 
deny ; 3, we will shew what we take to be the truth 
in this matter, answering the arguments which are here 
propounded to the contrary. 

1. First, then, the execution is urged to prove our 
election after sin. 

(1.) Those whom God (now fallen into sin) justifieth, 
saveth, and condemneth, those now being in sin he 
chose to save and decreed to condemn. 

But God saveth and condemneth men now fallen 
into sin, ergo. 

(2.) Those who are chosen out of mercy, and repro- 
bated out of justice, they are now foreseen in misery 
by sin. 

But our election is out of mercy, and reprobation 
is out of justice, cigo. 

(3.) Those which are not, or have not any way being, 
they cannot be elected or rejected. But before decree 
of creation, men are not, ergo. The first part is plain, 
that which hath no being can have no aflections ; that 
cannot be thus, or thus, which is not at all. 

(4.) That which maketh God first decree man's re- 
jection, to the glory of his justice, before his being or 
corruption is considered, that is absurd. 

But this doctrine of choosing and reprobating before 
man's fall doth so, ergo. 

(5.) That which maketh God to create mankind out 
of necessity, not out of liberty, that is absurd. But 
choosing some, and reprobating others to ends fore- 
named, maketh him create out of necessity. 

(C.) He who cannot do worse than annihilate his 
creature, cannot reject it to the glory of justice. God 
cannot do worse, for he gives it but being, ergo, can do 
no worse than take away that he giveth it, ergo. 

(7.) Such who are chosen to salvation through faith 
and sanctification, such are in sin. But we are chosen, 

(8.) Such who were all alike loved in creation, amongst 
such was no election or rejection. But we are all alike 
loved, received like favours, had all alike ofl'ered us. 

(9.) That which maketh the fall of man necessary, so 
as man was not free to fall is not to be granted. God's 
decree to have mercy glorified in some, and justice in 
other some, doth impose necessity of falling, ergo. 

These be the chief reasons which I have observed 
for the vouching our election to be both after the decree 
of creating us, and permitting us to fall into sin. Now 
then, 2, let us set in equal parallel the arguments 
which shew that God's electing of us cannot be after 
the consideration of our creation and fall. 

(1.) That which is a mean by which God bringeth 
some to salvation unto the glory of grace, and others 
to glorify his justice in deserved punishments, that is 
after these ends decreed. But the permission of the 
fall is used by God as a moan, &c. 

The first part is plain, for the ends must be in na- 
ture before the means to the end. The second part 
may be thus cleared : "We see some by occasion of the 
fall saved to the glory of mercy, which without the fall 
they could not have been. Had Adam stood, it is 
manifest that justice should immediately and properly 
have had the glory in all our salvations, for we should 
have lived according to covenant, ' Do these things and 
live in them.' 

Again, that sin in whose jiunishment justice doth 
glory herself, the permitting it could not but be a mean ; 
but the punishment of Adam's sin lieth unremoved on 
all unpenitent and unbelieving persons ; for we are by 
nature the children of wrath, and God's wrath abideth 
on him who believeth not ; abideth, I say, intimating 
that the wrath is not first inflicted upon unbelief, but 
further continued ; whereas, could we by faith come to 
God, he would be reconciled. That which some object, 
that the sin of Adam, not as it was contracted by him, 
condemneth any, but as it is continued by our unbe- 
lief, this is nothing to the matter. For, first, it is 
false that many remain not in the death of sin and 
trespass in which by nature they are conceived. Now 
these who have the punishment of that sin never re- 
moved from them must needs be under that fin once 
contracted by him. And though the latter part of that 
exception is true in this sense, that bj' reason of unbe- 
hef that sin hurteth them which otherwise would not, 
yet in this sense it is not true, viz., unbelievers are 
only condemned for that sin of unbelief, not for that 
sin they sinned in Adam also, and other actual trans- 
gressions. But whether at first contracted, or after 
continued, it condemns. This is sure, that unless it 
may be verified that the siu doth not by any means 
stand on any man's score so as to be condemned for 
it, that it must needs le jioldcd a mean whereby jus- 
tice is glorified in the just revenge of some. 

Ver. 4.] 



Argument 2. Either God had do end in making 
his creature, or this end, which now ho compasscth, 
or some other which he hath not attained.* 

But he could not he without his end in making him, 
nor have any other end which ho hath not attained. 

The first proposition is undouhted ; the second is as 
clear ; for to huve no end in working agrceth not to 
God, a wise and understanding agent. To have an end 
and not attain it, standeth not with his blessedness ; for 
to have a primary principal end, which one afi'ecteth, is 
more blessed than not to have it. Again, ho whose 
providence is so perfect that no inferior cause can de- 
fault beside his intention and permission, his end 
cannot be disappointed. Now, it is plain that no in- 
strument can default further than he iuteudeth it shall, 
and chooseth to permit it ; for if any defect befall an 
inslrument, which the artificer chooseth not, his work 
is troubled, and it argucth ignorance or imputency in 
him that so workcth. 

Anjuminl 8. Either God did by his antecedent pro- 
vidence propound this end, or he cometh to it by occa- 
sion of some event. 

But he doth not come to His end of saving in Christ 
by occision. 

First, this after-providence is imperfect, not beseem- 
ing God ; when one, after a thing is fallen out, maketh 
the best of it, and is rather post-rulfiilia than provi- 
dent ia. 

Secondly, this maketh God use a more imperfect 
providence about his most excellent works, and come 
to that, besides his primaiy intention, which is fivr 
more glorious than the first end could have been in- 

Thirdly, this maketh God, like men, to do' as he may, 
when he is hindered from that he would. 

Arfliniient 4. That which doth take away the mi- 
searchable mystery of election aud reprobation, is not 
to be admitted. 

But to choose, reject, after the fall, doth evacuate this 

For, though God deal diversely with men now in 
equal condemnation, yet the justice of this fact is ap- 
parent; for God may punii-h with death, or make that 
treason trespass which is committed against him. Who 
will challenge this fact of injustice ? 

Ari/umeni 5. That which maketh God will some of 
his creatures conditionally, that is not to be granted. 

But to make God choose after the fall maketh him 
to have willed inefi'cctually some other end. 

God's will were not omnipotent, should it not effect 
whatever it willeth ; God's ivZ/c is /)'««> ; neither can 
he have a conditional will. 1 will give my creature 

* No wonl teachetli tliat God liacl .in y olber event ; for Do 
this and lire doth not prove tlmt God iiropimndid to attain 
this as liisuud,tliatwc Blight nlllivc, no more than /n icltalday 
thou calcsl thou shalt die Ute death, dolli aij;iie that God )iad 
tin's end, viz , that all mankind breaking his law sliould die 

life if he keep this commandment. For, either ho 
must suppose that his creature must do something 
which he will not make him, and then he were not om- 
nipotent ; or think that ho will make him do that thing, 
and on doing it give him life, and this in effect a will 
mott absolute ; or he must know that he neither will 
nor can do it, and yet will this on a condition which ho 
doth see impossible ; and this were frivolous. 

Arijitment G. That which maketh God look out of 
himself, for determining his will. 

But to elect and reject after the fall suspendeth that 
determination of his will on qualificatiou foreseen in the 
creature, ergo. 

The first part is manifest, for it maketh him, not 
having all sufiicieucy in himself, and as it were imper- 
fection in his understanding, to go forth of himself, 
seeking knowledge from things without him, as we do ; 
so is it for his will to look at things without himself, 
that thereupon he may determine his will. 

Aniument 7. That election and reprobation which 
are shadowed in the persons of Jacob and Esau, that 
is the true election and reprobation. 

But election and reprobation of persons, yet not 
actual existing, but in some kind possible, of persons 
without merit, or demerit, are shadowed forth, ertjo. 

Argument 8. That election and reprobation, which 
make God a potter, framing his clay from his mere 
pleasm-e to contrary ends of honour and shame, that 
election and reprobation are of man before his fall. 

3. These latter reasons do more sway with me, and 
seem to me far more unanswerable. For I cannot see 
how God can be thought to have other ends without 
many absurdities, as for example : 1. 'Without holding 
he may suffer defeasance in the intentions he purposeth, 
aud by his providence endeavoureth. 

2. That God is mutable, going from one intention to 
another, and that his will is not effectual in every- 
thing it willeth ; that his will doth on foresight of 
something in the creature determine itself to that, to 
which of itself it is not determined. 

Secondly, I hold that the surest way tracing tiul 
the order of things in God's intention, is to mark well 
the existiu" of them in execution. Now, we see first 
the world was made ; secondly, man, and so God's 
chosen, were brought forth in their natural being, holy, 
blessed, capable of life, if their wilful defection hin- 
dered not ; thirdly, they were permitted to fall into sin 
and misery; fourthly, they are by Christ delivered from 
this miserV, being called, justified, glorified ; fifthly, 
Christ glorious, as ft mediator and Saviour of God's 
chosen, to the glory of grace or mercy ; sixthly, God his 
mercy glorious, who chose aud predestinated Christ, 
that he should be made everything to us. In intention, 
then, this order is to be kept : 1, himself, or his glory, 
in the manifestation of his mercy ; 2, he glorifying 
his Christ with supernatural glory ; 3, the bringing us 
to supernatural being and gJory with himself, through 
Christ. Now, because he may bring us to supernatural 



[Chap. I. 

glory, to the praise of his grace and mercy, either by 
keeping us from misery or permitting us to fall into sin 
and misery, and restoring us out of it to more blessed 
estate then ever, it is plain that he purposed so to 
work by his permission, that we should wilfully through 
our own default run ourselves into sin and misery. 
Now, because such whom he will bring to supernatural 
life and being must first have natural hfe and being, 
and for that man must first be natural, then spiritual, 
1 Cor. XV. 4G ; and because that which he purposeth to 
permit to fall into sin and misery, must be holy and 
happy, enio, he purposeth to make man, to make him 
holy, not knowing any misery. Lastly, because he that 
will have man thus made must have some fit place, 
fitly furnished, in which such a creature might be 
placed, enjo, he decreeth to make this world which we 
behold, \^^lerefore approving the latter arguments, I 
will come to answer the former, and to pass from this 
question. To the first objection, 

Ohj. Such as men are when God executeth salvation, 
such he elected or decreed to save. 

Alls. If this proposition be understood in this sense, 
such men are foreseen, when our God chooseth them 
to salvation, it is false ; for it maketh God's election 
find such as it doth take, fitted to salvation, and not 
make them such as are fit, by means predestinate. 
For his reason proveth a man not only foreseen in sin, 
but foreseen as persevering in faith, before God's de- 
cree to elect him to salvation, for in time such only 
are saved who persevere. It maketh God's decree, 
choosing some persons to this or that end, presuppose 
everything which after cometh in, before the end be 
attained. But in this sense, such whom God saveth 
in executing'salvation, such be elected to salvation ; in 
this sense, I say, he elected those who should become 
such and such by his predestination, not those who 
■were foreseen such things before his election ; in this 
sense it is true, and inferreth nothing against our 
assertion : the reason why this latter is true being 
this, because God choosing any to the end, doth 
choose him to the means also. 

Obj. 1. But they object, either he must choose to 
save such as now in time he saveth, or this execution 
difl'ereth from bis decree, but it doth not. 

Ans. I answer, to the first part of the reason, the 
consequence isfaulty, because it reasoneth falsely from 
a part of the decree, as if it were the whole, in this sense : 
God considered not these, such and such, when he 
elected them to salvation, as they are, when now they 
are saved, eryn, his execution difl'ereth from his decree. 
Whereas they should reason. Those whom God neither 
foresaw such when he elected them, nor predestinated 
to make such as now they are when they are saved ; 
those are saved otherwise than God decreed, for the 
decree of God is as well of the means as of the end. 

To the second, I answer, the first part is false, and 
the reason of it is, viz., that mercy and justice can do 
nothing where it seeth not sin and misery, for mercy 

may work where there is possibility of misery, either 
by preventing the entrance, or by decreeing to save 
and deliver from that miseiy, which by permission 
shall befall the creature; and though revenging justice 
cannot by way of execution, yet I see not why God 
may not, out of love to the glory of his justice, pass by 
some, intending to glorify himself in their just punish- 
ment ; for what show of injustice is in this act of God 
most just, I intend to be glorious in the just punish- 
ment of such and such ? It is one thing to make a 
just intendment, another thing to make an unjust 
execution. It is answered to the second part, that 
election is out of grace ; 2 Tim. i., Paul saith by One- 
siphorus, ' The Lord shew him mercy in that day.' 
In divers respects the same thing called by difl'erent 
names. And whereas it is said, that rejection or re- 
probation is an act of justice, it is. denied, seeing it 
is an act of God's dominion, hberty, or holy self-love, 
whereby he loveth the glory of his justice in the 
manifestation of it, rather than a formal act of justice 
herself ; as likewise, the permitting the fall was not an 
act formally from mercy or justice, but by wisdom and 
providence, making way, that both mercy and justice 
might exercise their proper works about the creature. 

The first part is not true. Look, as God may call the 
things that are not, and love some things possible 
before other, so far as to give them being, not other ; 
so he may elect or reject even a creature, as it is but 
possible in his sight. 

I answer, it is as much absurdity, as to set down 
the end with myself, before I consider the mean which 
leadeth unto it, or to appoint the end why he maketh 
his creature before he go about to make. 

The second part of the fifth argument is denied ; 
that which is free in the first rise, is fi-ee, though it be 
now necessarily performed. God giveth a true per- 
severing believer life, and that necessarily, for he can- 
not deny himself, and yet he doth it freely, in regard 
he passed his promise freely. 

The first part is false, viz., that he who cannot 
execute worse on the creature than annihilation, can- 
not so dispose of it that worse will at length befall 
the creature than annihilation ; for God's making the 
creature doth give him right, not only to annihilate 
it, but to use it to the utmost, that lawfully may be 
to his glory. Now to pass bj' a creature in regard of 
grace no ways due to it, and to decree the glory of his 
justice, in the just deserved punishment of it, hath no 
appearance of injustice. 

The former proposition is not trae ; it is enough, if 
by God's decree of permitting sin they may become 
sinful, which is the truth ; for God did by his decree 
of permission shut up all in sin that he might have 
mercy upon all. 

The assumption is denied, the efi'ect was alike by 
creation, but the love borne to some, in regard of life 
eternal, was not yielded to other some ; the event 
doth tell it aloud, for why, on the like fall and misery 

Ver 4.] 



of all, doth he shew sach riches of grace to some, 
above other some ? Cortainl}-, because before the fall 
he had loved them to life ; hence it is, that all grace 
shewed after sin is but an epiphany of that love which 
God did bear before the fall. 

To the last, I deny that God's decree of permitting 
sin doth take away liberty in sinning. While God's 
decree did not take away his judgment, but that ho did 
work by counsel, and think the thing such as ho might 
do or not do; while he sinned with this judgment, ho 
sinned freely, though never so necessarily. If God's 
decree to permit a sin doth not bring on of necessity 
the being of that sin, then God may permit or deliver 
a sinner to sin, and no sin followeth. But this latter 
is most absurd, for God might have his action made 
frustrate ; and when God giveth a man penally up to 
sin, it should be in the creature's power whether God's 
judgment should be executed on him, yea or no. 
Thus, having discussed this question, we pass to the 
last circumstance, the next end of our election. 

Use 1. The use of this doctrine is, first, to endear 
this love of God to us. We see in human loves, if 
one have of twenty, thirty, of forty years, borne us 
good will, this circumstance of antiquity doth make 
it more respected of us. How should we account of 
this love, which before all worlds the Lord did bear 
us, accordingly as he hath manifested the same in us 
who believe ? 

Use 2. This doth give us to consider how constant 
the Lord's love is; as we find it in time, so he did in- 
tend it towards us from all eternity. Thus he goeth on, 
not only within himself, but towards us, without any 
alteration or shadow of change ; and thus he will do, 
for whom he once loveth unto life, he doth love him 
ever, as Christ speaketh. We do feel changes, but 
look as the sky is variable, the sun in itself being no 
whit changed, thus "the effects of God in us vary, 
though himself in his affection (if I may so speak) is 
immutable toward us. 

Use 3. Lastly, we may hence gather the freedom of 
God's love, choosing us to life. Things which are not 
cannot have virtue of causing this or that. When we 
were not, nor yet had done anything, before all worlds, 
we were chosen by him, ergo. St Paul, Rom. is., saith, 
' God chose Jacob before he was,' or had done any- 
thing, that the election might be according to free 
purpose; and St Paul, 2 Tim. i. saith, ' that we are 
saved, not by works, but according to grace given us 
before all worlds,' whereas merit of works, and grace 
given US before all worlds, are opposed. If any say 
that Paul excludeth works then present, when God 
electeth, it nothing hindereth but that he might from 
eternity foresee works whereon, before all worlds, he 
came to elect ; this is but an old Pelagian evasion ; 
for Paul spoaketh against all works which stand not 
with free grace in electing. Now, works meritorious 
foreseen, are as opposite to grace as works meritorious 
really existing. If I do anything for reward, which I 

see will befall me, it is as far from being done freely 
as if it were done on reward beforehand received. 

Again, he cannot choose on works foreseen, because 
he cannot see an}' to come, which he doth not first 
predestinate that they should be. Now then, for him 
to choose on foreseen works, is to say that God first 
predestinateth, and causeth such whom he will choose 
to have such and such works, that after he may choose 
them, which is to turn the cart before the horse. 
This frank love of his can never bo enough extolled. 
If a man of eminency choose to him for wife, some 
woman, who hath neither dowry nor friends, nor yet 
hath beauty or breeding extraordinary, the part is 
marvellous in our eyes. But well may we wonder at 
this fact of God, who, when we were not, nor yet had 
anything which might commend us, did freely set his 
liking on us, and love us to life. But of this more in 
the next doctrine. 

Now we come to the last point to be observed in 
this verse, to what God hath chosen us : ' That wo 
should be holy and spotless before him in love.' 
This end is all one with that otherwhere named, viz., 
salvation; ' Who hath chosen you from the beginning, 
to salvation, through faith and sanctification ;' that is, 
to be entered by belief, and the first beginning of it, the 
sanctification of the Spirit ; and here three things are 
to be marked : 1, the state of perfection which 
agreeth to the life whereto we are chosen, that we 
may be holy and without spot ; 2, the circumstance 
of person in whose presence we shall live this life, 
before him ; 3, the life itself, which is as it were the 
subject of this perfection, in love. A little to insist 
in the explication of this clause, because it containeth 
more than is commonly marked. 

Holiness is put sometimes for all, or any sanctifying 
graces of God's Spirit which make us holy, 1 Thes. 
iv. 7 ; 2 Cor. vii. 1. Sometime it is put more par- 
ticularly, either to note a virtue which inclineth us to 
do in such manner as beseemeth both the presence of 
God and ourselves, who are saints by profession ; or a 
state of purity and perfection, to which we come in 
virtue, and this life of love which here is begun in us; 
thus when Christ saith, ' Blessed are the pure in 
heart,' he doth not so much note any singular virtue, 
as a state to which some here come above other some 
in virtue ; and thus I think it is taken here, both 
because these words do signify a state of Christian 
perfection, and because here is love expressed as the 
subject, the life in which we shall attain this perfec- 
tion. For that second circumstance, those words, 
before him, do note sometime this presence of God, 
which we have here in state of grace by sight,* Luke i. 
But here it doth directly signify that presence which 
we shall have of God, when now we are brought to 
state of perfection, when we shall walk by sight, and 
see him as he is. Lastly, when he saith, in lure, he 
noteth that supcmatoral life in which wo shall be 
♦ Qu.' faith'?— Ed. 



[Chap. I. 

brouglit to this perfection, as if he should have spoken 
more lai-gely ; — 

Who hath chosen ns, as who should have that 
supernatural being and life of love, yea, that we should 
grow to such a state in it, that we should be pure and 
holy, without the least spot, and that in his glorious 
presence, whom we shall then see as he is. 

Three things, then, here ofl'er themselves to obser- 
vation : 1. That God hath of grace chosen us to that 
supernatural life of love which is to be perfected in 
the heavens. 2. That he hath not .only of grace 
chosen us to this life, but to the perfection of it. 3. 
That he hath of gi-ace taken us to have this perfection 
of life to bis own glorious presence. To handle them 
briefly in order. 

Ohs. 1. First, for the former, St Peter saith, the 
faithful were chosen of God to the sanctification of 
the Spirit, that is, in etJect, to be made partakers of a 
divine nature ; and when we are said chosen to salva- 
tion or glory, this is chiefly perfection of love, which 
doth make the soul glorious, even as whiteness maketh 
the wall white. Thus God hath loved ns, that we 
should not only have such a life of God given us in 
the first Adam, as was due to our natm-e, and created 
together with it, but such a hfe as is both for kind 
and degree above all that nature created did know, 
the root whereof is that second Adam, Christ Jesus. 
Look, as all of us who have this natural life and being, 
which now as men and women all of us have, we were 
loved of God so far as to receive it in Adam, and be 
brought to it through him ; and look as all that shall 
be born to the end of the world, and be in time, men 
and women, were loved of God, and chosen, as it were, 
that they should in their times have the nature of 
man ; so here, we who now have this life of God live, 
and all that ever shall have the holy life which the 
Spirit of God worketh in the hearts of believers, we 
and they were from eternity chosen, that in time we 
should have it derived and propagated through Christ. 
Now this is to be marked, that being chosen to have 
this holy love, the divine nature, we are chosen to 
fiiith also ; for look, as all who are loved to the re- 
ceiving of this natural and bodily being and life are 
together chosen to this, that they shall be born of 
Adam, and have a natural nativity from him, so all 
who are chosen to have the being of holiness and love 
are together taken to this, that they shall have a 
supernatural nativity from Christ, that is, they shall 
be brought to believe : ' He that believeth is born of 
God,' 1 John v. 1. 

Use 1. Let us then first recount his wonderful love 
to us, whom his Spirit hath in any measure sanctified, 
and made us to partake in that divine nature which 
Cometh from Christ ; we deem it his favour, and wor- 
thily, that he hath made us men and women, not 
toads, or creatures of such vile being ; but how much 
more are we bound to him, that he bath made us 
Christian men, and not left ns to such a state in which 

men shall come to worse pass than if they had never 

Because God doth not raise all who are dead, nor 
give all sight who are blind, therefore we think them 
to have found great favour whom God did choose to 
this, that he would restore their sight though they 
were born blind, and raise them to life though they 
were dead. But what love hath he shewed us, in 
choos'ug us whom he would make light when now we 
are darkness ; make to live, when now we had been 
dead in sins and trespasses ! For this we have to 
thank his gracious pleasure ; for as his will is the 
chief cause why one is poor, another rich, one in ex- 
cellent state, another in vile condition, so here, why 
one is left in that miserable estate into which sin hath 
brought us, others delivered from it. 

Use 2. Secondly, we see here how they take this 
doctrine who think it maketh men licentious, and 
giveth them leave to live as they list ; for all that are 
chosen of God are chosen of him to this, that they 
should be holy in love ; and therefore such as resolve 
to go on in unrighteousness, they may fear lest the 
sentence be thundered out against them, ' Depart from 
me, ye workers of iniquity,' I never knew you. Nay, 
there is no more efl'ectual argument persuading Chris- 
tians to sanctification than this of our election : now, 
'as the elect of God, put on meekness,' Col. iii. If 
we hear that we are chosen to any place or condition 
on earth which is beneficial, this, that we are chosen 
to it, maketh us ready, and stirreth us up to get pos- 
sessed of it. 

Use 3. Thirdly, we see here that God doth not 
choose because of faith, and holiness, and persever- 
ance, foreseen ; seeing he chooseth us to these things, 
these things follow by force of his election, and there- 
fore cannot be the cause of that which is before them ; 
for every cause must needs be before that it causoth. 

Quest. Now here is fit place to consider of that 
question. Whether God, in foresight of belief and 
perseverance in faith and holiness, do choose us to 
salvation ? I will discuss the question after the 
former manner, in which I will propose divers articles. 

First, then, the arguments alfirming, which I have 
observed, are these : 

1. They who are chosen in Christ, are chosen on 
faith foreseen ; but ail the elect are chosen in Christ, 

2. Such whom God doth adopt and save, such he 
decreed to adopt and save ; he adopteth and saveth 
believers, &c. 

3. On what condition God ofi"ereth life, upon that 
condition, foreseen, he chooseth to life ; but he offer- 
eth life upon believing. 

4. If God choose not all, on condition they will 
believe, then some are bound to believe a lie, for they 
are bound to believe that God will save them ; but wo 
are not bound to believe a lie, &c. 

5. If God choose some to salvation before faith and 

Vf.r. 4 J 



perseverance foreseen, then he loveth some to salva- 
tion, whom his wrath followeth to death at the same 
present ; but God's angor to death, and love to salva- 
tion, cannot take place at once, erijo. 

6. If God cannot choose any in particular before 
some general conception that such and such who be- 
lieve shall be chosen, then ho chooseth not but on 
faith foreseen ; but God cannot, &c., for we prove 
in our understandings that we do things in particular 
according to general conceptions withia our mind. 

7. That which maketh God choose persons to life 
which are not eligible, is not to be admitted ; but an 
absolute election, without any foresight of faith, doth 

8. The Scriptures say we are predestinated and 
elected according to foreknowledge : ' Fly lusts of 
youth,' &c. 

The reasons for the denying part are many. To 
leave such named before, which are common to this 
question also ; — 

1. This election on faith foreseen maketh God go 
out of himself, looking to this or that in the creature 
upon which his will may be determined to elect. Now 
this is against the all-suiiiciency of God ; for as if he 
should get knowledge from things as we do, it were 
an imperfection in his knowledge ; so in his will, if 
he must be beholding to something in us before it can 
be determined. Besides, it maketh God intrinsecally 
changed, now in suspense touching that wherein after 
on some sight he cometh to be fully determined, I 
will choose this man, if so be be will believe ; I will, 
upon foresight of my condition, absolutely choose 

2. That election of persons, which hath annexed to 
it a decree preparing faith and justification for the 
persons that are elected, that is, of men unbelieving ; 
those who, being elected, are predestinated to have 
faith wrought in them, those are considered without 
fiith, as BOW they are elected : Eom viii. 39, these 
verses, 4, 5, of this chapter. 

3. If God decree to elect none till he doth see them 
leheving with perseverance, then he doth decree to 
give faith and perseverance before he doth decree to 
take or ordain to life. But this is absurd, for God 
should decree to [give] that, by which as a mean ho 
cometh to elect, before he should decree to elect. Let 
the Arminlans tell us what is God's end in decreeing 
to give this man faith and perseverance, if not that he 
may choose him to life ? If he have this end in de- 
creeing to give faith, he must needs intend the elec- 
tion of this pei'son before he decree to work in him 
effoctually faith with perseverance ; besides, the Scrip- 
ture saith, ' So many as were ordained to life be- 

4. That which maketh God choose ns when we 
have chosen him, and love us when we have loved 
him first, is contrar}- to Scripture ; but if God choose 
us, when now we have held the faith and love of him 

to the last moment, he doth choose us after we have 
chosen him. 

5. Christ saith, wo hear or believe because we are 
sheep ; this saith, we are sheep or elect, and ordained 
to life, because we believe. 

C. From this verse, that to which any action tendeth 
as an eifoct, that is after the action itself ; but this 
eternal election tendeth to this, ' that wo should bo 
pure in love.' 

7. That which standeth not with the freedom of 
God's will, yea, of his mere will within himself, that 
is not to be endured in election ; but a condition 
qualifying the person maketh God's election not 
merely from his will. 

8. His faith, sanctification, works, being the con- 
dition on which we were elected, it is like St Paul 
would have thought on them, Rom. ix. 11 ; but he 
findeth no such consideration in which reason might 
stay itself, but exclaimeth, ' Oh the depth,' &c. 

9. That which Israel's election doth typify, Dout. 
vii. 7, is not an election on foresight, or any worthi- 
ness ; but oars is typified by it, en/o. 

10. That which Austin retracted, as coming near 
Pelagianism, is not hke to be orthodox. This he did 

First. The latter arguments persuade me fully that 
God doth not elect upon anything foreseen in us which 
should move him to this action of election in us. God 
cannot have such a conditional decree, I will elect all 
if they will believe ; for he must either think they can 
do this without him, and then he were not an omni- 
potent, or that he would give them effectually to be- 
lieve, and then it is all one with an absolute will, as, 
for example, I will elect to life such as shall believe ; I 
will give these belief with perseverance, and will choose 
them to life, having thus believed. This is all one 
with this decree we maintain: I choose these to life, 
and decree to give them faith and perseverance, by 
which they shall be brought to life. They are alike 
upon the matter absolute ; only the former m.aketh 
God to decree the giving of failh that he m.ay decree 
election ; this latter maketh God decree the giving 
faith only for obtaining salvation, to which we are 

Secoinllij. I say, he [who] can make us fit to any 
end he chooseth us, may choose us to that end before 
he order his means to bring us thereunto. Arminius 
will first have him make us fit, and then decree to 
choose us to life, which is to set the cart before tho 
horse, to predestinate means before the end be agreed 
on, to set predestination before foreknowledge and elec- 

Th'ndhj. This proposition, God hath chosen us to 
life, believing and persevering, this is true in this 
sense : we nre chosen to life, to which he will bring ns 
through believing ; but if it be referred to the ac'iion 
of choosing, in this sense, God doth choose ns, when 
now he doth see us believing, that we should have 



[Chap. I. 

life. It is not true, nor agreeing to those scriptures : 
' God Lath chosen us to salvation, through sanctifi- 
cation and belief ;' ' God hath ordained us to obtain 
life through Jesus Christ.' 

These three conclusions premised, we will answer 
those arguments propounded for the contrary, and so 

For the first, see that which is before[answered on 
these words, in Christ, viz. that God chose us, being 
in Christ virtually, not actually. 

2. To the second. If each part be rightly taken, 
all may be granted, and our cause nothing hurt. 

Those persons whom God saveth and adopteth, thus 
and thus qualified in time, those he did decree, when 
they were made such by force of his predestination, to 
adopt and save. 

This conclusion is true. God did decree to save 
certain persons, by working in them effectually faith 
and perseverance. But Arminius by decree under- 
standeth the decree of election to life, as it is distin- 
guished against predestination, which is the decree of 
means whereby the chosen of God may infallibly be 
brought to hfe. Now the first part of the reason thus 
limited is false. Such whom God saveth, such he 
doth foresee them in his decree of electing them to 
salvation ; for this taketh away all predestination of 
means, serving to bring the elect to life, and presup- 
poseth falsely, that God cannot choose any to life 
whom he doth not find or foresee as actually fitted 
then when he doth choose them, whereas lie may 
choose though never so unfit for the end, if having 
chosen us he can make us fit ; for our unfitness for 
the present to the end doth not make us unfit for God's 
election ; as, for example, I may choose a pen to wi-ite, 
■which never so faulty for the present, and unfit to 
■write with, while I know I can mend it, and make it 
fit for this purpose. 

I answer thirdly, even of the decree of election 
this is true, if rightly taken, viz. : such whom God 
saveth in time, such he elected to salvation, such now 
when he was in electing them ; this is false. Such he 
elected, to wit, becoming such through bis election ; 
this is true. The first pre-supposeth in God's fore- 
knowledge an antecedency of faith before the act of 
electing ; the latter a concomitancy of faith in the 
person chosen to salvation, and that by force of God's 
electing ; for election doth choose men as well to means 
as to the end ; and these decrees, though diversely 
named, and in our conceits different, yet they are one 
thing in God. 

3. To the third I answer, that the first part is false, 
for it pre-supposeth that whatsoever is a cause or an 
antecedent to hfe, must be an antecedent going before 
election to life. It is not necessary that all which is 
required to life should be required to election unto 
life. Say, I have twenty pounds a year, which I may 
give to any I shall choose ; and that my will is none 
shall have my land but he shall pay forty shillings a 

year to the use of certain poor whom I shall design. 
Having many good friends, I choose one amongst them 
all who shall have my land, paying to such poor I 
name forty shillings a year. In this example his pay- 
ing forty shillings yearly is a condition on which he 
hath the land, not any condition moving me to choose 
him before others to have my land. So God chooseth 
such to salvation upon condition they believe. This 
condition belongeth not to the action of God choosing, 
but to the terminus to life to which we are chosen. 
Would they prove that God doth choose to life on 
faith, they should reason thus : 

Upon what condition God ofi'ereth life, upon that he 
chooseth ; 

But on condition of our faith he offereth to choose 
us with this eternal election, ert/o. 

But we see the second part of this reason would be 
evidently false, for in what gospel is it written. Believe 
and thou shalt be elected ? Lastly, I answer that we 
cannot gather the decree of God within himself by 
promise or threatening, for then we may truly gather 
that God hath decreed the eternal death of all man- 
kind, but on sinning in the forbidden tree he did 
threaten, erz/o, he did decree. Arminius's distinction 
of peremptory decree, and not peremptory, would not 
help anything; indeed, this pre-supposeth that the sig- 
nifying will of God may not any whit differ from his 
secret will, which he keepeth within himself, which is 
a most palpable falsehood. 

4. Such who are bound to believe their salvation, 
when the decree of God is not that they should be 
saved, such are bound to beheve a lie. I deny the 
consequence ; for the truth of my faith dependeth not 
on a conformity with God's secret wiU within him- 
self, but with that which he hath revealed unto me. 
While I believe according to that he revealeth, I can- 
not believe a lie, though the thing I believe agree not 
■with that which God within himself hath purposed. To 
illustrate the answer : Abraham did verily believe that 
he was to offer up his son without any exception, for he 
did sustain his faith in thinking that God could raise 
him from the dead, not thinking God would repeal his 
command ; yet Abraham believed not a lie, because 
he behevod according to that which was revealed unto 
him. But then you will say, God may bid us believe 
this or that, as if it were his will, when he knoweth it 
not to be his will ■svithin himself. Doubtless he may, 
to prove us, as he did Abraham, whether we will address 
ourselves conscionably to obey him, or carelessly out 
of wilfulness disobey his commandments. As the 
goodness of the creature is not in doing what God 
within his secret will hath appointed, so the truth of 
the creature standeth not always in beheving what he 
within himself hath determined. 

To the second part I answer, that God doth not 
bind any directly and immediately to believe salvation, 
but in a certain order in which they cannot but be- 
lieve them truly, for he bindeth men first to believe on 

Ver. 4.] 



Christ unto salvation, and theu being now in Christ, 
to believe that he lovoJ them, gave himself for them, 
did elect thorn, will save them ; and none can trulj' 
believe in Christ to salvation, but infallibly believeth 
all these other. 

5. I deny that God's love to life, and wrath exe- 
cuting deatii, may not stand together. To love so as 
actually by his intluence to execute life, cauuut stand 

. with wrath executing death ; to kill and quicken 
' actually, God cannot at once ; but to love to life, so as 
to choose some persons to be brought to life through 
certain means, this standeth well with wrath to death 
for the present ; and God would never have given nor 
called Christ to sutler death for us now in sin and 
death, had he not thus loved us. Look, as God may 
bodily inflict death on him whom he so far lovcth, that 
he meaneth to give him life by raising him from the 
dead by his almighty power, so it is hero : he may 
yield them dead to his justice, whom he so loveth to 
life, that he will by means predestinated bring them 
from death to life. 

6. The consequence of the first proposition is denied. 
If he must have some general before ho choose par- 
ticular persons, then he hath thus : I will choose these 
if they believe. It is enough that we conceive some 
such general as this : I will choose whom I will choose. 
We deny the assumption, with the reason of it. Let 
them tell me when God raised Lazarus, or chose 
Lazarus whom he would raise from the dead, such a 
blind man whom he had restored to sight, such a piece 
of earth which he would make into the body of Adam, 
what general rules he did these by, rules which pre- 
suppose that things or persons thus and thus qualified 
should be thus and thus used. The reason is denied. 
For to measure God by our scantling is foolish, and to 
imagine as it wore created general verities in his under- 
standing like as it is in ourselves, is fitter for doating 
authropomorphists than grave divines. Beside that, 
raan doth many things to some particular persons for 
which he hath no general rule, but that he may do as 
he will, where there is no reason which doth oblige 
him and sway him to the contrary. 

7. The second proposition of this seventh reason is 
denied : for, as I showed before, any person is eligible 
to life, though he were never so unfit, presently and 
immediately for the state he is in, to receive Ufe, if so 
be that God can by just means prepare and make fit 
to life. 

8. That foreknowledge Paul and Peter speak of 
cannot be the foreknowing of faith and sanctification 
in certain persons ; for then what need is there that 
those who are foreknown should be predestinated to be 
called, justified, and sanctified ? And if Peter's fore- 
knowledge wore a foresight of faith and holiness, what 
need we to be chosen to holiness ? For that place in 
Timothy, ' If ye fly the lusts of youth, ye shall be 
vessels of gold and silver.' Besides, there is no ne- 
cessity to construe that whole passage of election. 

though it be so usually taken. The faith of some hath 
been subverted, but the groundwork or foundation of 
saving faith and grace abidoth sure ; and God doth 
know thorn in whom it is, and they may know them- 
selves by their caro to depart from iniquity. But why 
doth not God work this well-grounded grace in all ? 
It is fit there should some, not all, be precious and 
golden vessels, having that precious faith, to wit, 
which caunot bo subverted, and those precious graces 
of the sauctifying Spirit. How may one know that 
ho is one of these, and not a vessel of alchymy, or 
baser matter ? Whosoever doth purge himself, he 
shall be a vessel of gold ; he shall have in him that 
foundation of God, that is, that sure-grounded faith 
and grace which shall not be subverted. But this by 
the way. Now to proceed. 

Doct. 2. Now we come to the second doctrine, viz., 
that God hath chosen us who believe, not only to 
have this life of grace, I mean, of love and holiness, 
but to have thorn in perfection. Thus the text saith, 
' He hath chosen us, that wo should come to such a 
state in this hfe of love, wherein we shall be perfect 
and pure without any spot in it.' Here we have life, 
but all is in part. We know in part, we love in part, 
we are holy in part. This state is a state of child- 
hood or imperfection ; but in the other life, that which 
is in part shall bo done away ; wo shall know as wo 
are known ; we shall love with all our hearts and 
strength ; we shall be perfectly holy, without defect or 
spot, because God hath chosen us, not only to life, 
but to a state of perfection in this life spiritual. Look, 
as God hath loved plants, birds, beasts, men, not only 
thus far, that they should have a being, but that th y 
should grow up, and attain to a perfect state in this 
life and being to which he hath chosen us. 

Use 1. Let us then, considering this, be stirred up to 
think of the Lord's exceeding love. We see men though 
thoy are lame, know painful Uvos In some measure more 
tolerable, yet thoy think life a benefit, counting it a 
mercy to live, though for manner less comfortable. So 
hero, had God taken us to have such a life of grace as 
here we lead, it had been mercy, though we know sick- 
ness and lameness with it ; but to choose us to come 
into such a state, wherein we shall be pure without any 
spot or defect, not only to ordain us to find life, but life 
in abundance in Clirist, this is the riches of his mercy. 

Use 2. This serveth to strengthen our faith in appre- 
hending and attaining our perfect redemption from the 
relics of sin and death. When we find that we cannot 
get ground of corruption as we would, what must we do? 
Speak to God ; say. Lord, if the attaining perfect holi- 
ness did he upon my hand, I know there were no hope; 
I find these works of the devil too strong for me ; but 
thou hast chosen me even to this, that I should be 
without spot. Lord, execute thy own pleasure more 
and more, purge me and sanctify me, and in thy time 
possess me of that state to which thou hast chosen me. 
Even in earthly princes their choice is operative. If 




[Chap. I. 

tho king choose one chamberlain, or treasurer, his 
choice makoth him th.it to which he is chosen. Where- 
f -re let no goo,1 soul that striveth against any imper- 
fections be dismayed. Look as surely as thou hast 
received this perfection of thy human nature ; thou, I 
say, whom God did choose not only to be born but to 
live to full manhood ; so surely shall all of you who 
have true faith and love attain to the perfection of this 
divine natm-e, for God hath chosen you to be holy and 
without spot in it. And howbeit men are here taken 
away in their spiritual being as in their natural, some 
so soon as they are born of Go J, as the thief on the 
cross was no sooner converted than translated, some in 
youth, some in the aged progi'ess of sauetLfieation, yet 
sliall not this hinder ; for he who is no sooner begotten 
to God than he is hence removed, even he shall in that 
day, wherein all of us shall grow to a perfect man in 
Christ, attain this state of perfection, as that natural 
creature which is carried out from bu'th to burial shall 
at last day be raised up, not in infancy (which entereth 
as a present penalty of sin), but in the full stature, 
which beseemeth such a nature. 

Doct. 3. The third thing followeth, viz., that God 
bath taken us of gi-aee to this, that we shall live in his 
glorious presence. Had he given us a perfect life, with- 
out shewing us himself as it were face to face, it had 
been much favour ; but to choose us to this most near 
communion with him, is the height of his grace and our 
happiness. There is a being before God in state of 
grace, such as now we have. Thus Xoah, thus Abra- 
ham, Hezekiah, Zacharias, Elizabeth, ai-e said to have 
' walked before the Lord ;' and it is no small privilege 
that we may converse in his presence after any man- 
ner. But all we see of him here is but as it were the 
reflection of him in a glass ; there is another being be- 
fore him, when we shall be now with him in the place 
of his glorious presence, when we shall walk by sight, 
when we shall see him as he is, when we shall follow 
the Lamb and see God with that blessed vision, even 
face to face as it were ; and this is it which is our chief 
blessedness, even to be with him, and see him, in whose 
presence is the satiety of everlasting delights. That 
perfection of quality and action which w^e shall attain 
is a great blessedness, as great as can be inherent in 
our persons ; for what can be gi'eater than to know 
God as we are known, to love him with the whole 
heart, to praise him most constantly and joyfully ? 
But all this is nothing so good to us as to have our 
God before us, and tasle the joy of his presence. All 
our walking in light tendeth to this, that we may have 
communion with him. Look as a wife who found 
sometime much difficulty in pleasing her husband and 
doing things to his mind, she taketh great pleasure 
when she can now with ease fit every thing to his mind, 
but nothing so much pleasure in this as in her husband 
himself. And, look as there is no luving wife which 
taketh half the pleasure in her bridal apparel that she 
doth in her husband himself; so it is here, I daresay, 

all that glory in which we shall be in that day clothed 
upon shall be as nothing to us in comparison of that 
blessed object of God, whom then we shall see as he 
is. If in this life God is so good to his children that 
they can wish themselves a cui-se for his sake, what 
will he then be when we see him in glory ? 

Use 1. The use is to stir us up even to desire, with 
Paul, to be dissolved and be with Christ. We are 
chosen to this manner of presence, and for that pre- 
sence which then we shall have when we come to state 
of perfection in love, is no other ; we are chosen to it, 
crijo, let us aspire after it. If a loving wife's husband 
be absent in some fiir country, though she have by 
messengers and by letters some communion with him, 
yet this will not satisfy, there is a great desire to sea 
him, to be each in the embrace of other ; so it should 
be with us ; this letter of his word, this recourse of 
his messengers, should rather excite desires fully to 
enjoy our (>od than occasion us to rest contented in 
this present condition. I remember Absalom, when he 
was now recalled fi-om exile, but not admitted to see 
his father's face at court, he was so impatient that his 
exile seemed almost as easy as such a condition. Thus 
it is with us : from what time God hath brought us to 
believe, we are called back again from our exile spiri- 
tual to the church or city of om' God : but, alas, we 
are not admitted into the court, into the glorious pre- 
sence of our great Lord. Let us, erijo, if we be risen 
with Christ, groan after this prerogative to which God 
hath chosen us, and take no delight to dwell here 
further than the serving God in his saints doth sweeten 
our abode. 

This sheweth us the Lord's exceeding gi-ace. If 
the king should pardon a traitor and give him compe- 
tency of living in the remotest parts of his kingdom, 
with prohibition once to pass the bounds of them, it 
were prince-like favour ; but to enrich him with pos- 
sessions and take him to court, yea, to reckon him in 
midst of his dearest favourites, what clemency and 
bounty were in such a fact '? Such is this dealing of 
God towards us. 

Yer. 5. Who hath predestinated. In describing which, 
these things are to bo observed as they lie in the text : 

1. The benefit itself: ' Who hath predestinated.' 

2. The persons who are predestinated : ' us.' 

8. The thing to which he hath predestinated us: 
' to adoption,' amphfied from the cause of it, ' through 

4. The manner, which is propounded in this word, 
'within himself,' expounded, i.e. 'according to the 
good pleasure of his will.' 

5. The end : ' to the praise of his glorious grace,' 
which grace is described from the effect of it in us, 
which is amplified from the manner of working, q.d. 
out of which his grace he hath made us accepted, or 
done us favour, in and through his beloved. 

Three things, for better understanding, are to be 

Ver. 5.] 



insisteil on ; because they are not of so vulgar expli- 
cation : 

1. With what this word is to be continued. 

2. What it is to predestinate. 
8. What is meant by adoption. 

To the first, some refer it to in hve in the fourth 
verse, in this manner, ' ^Vho hath predestinated ns in 
love ;' but that he should absurdly repeat the cause of 
predestination, which he expresseth after to have been 
his gracious pleasure, it is fitlier set as in equal pareil 
to that in the third verse, ' Who hath blessed us, who 
hath predestinated us,' o EuXoy^na;, cjooj/'ffas. Some 
imagine it joined within, after this manner, ' Who 
hath chosen us to adoption, having predestinated us 
in him before worlds, that we should be holy before 
him." But I have shewed above that in him must 
needs be referred to the benefit of election, or the 
apostle should not conclude pertinently that God in 
Clu'ist hath blessed us with every blessing. Beside 
that, this sense confoundeth the sentence, to decUne 
the force of the argument above mentioned. 

To the second I answer, that God doth condescend 
so fai- to our capacity as to teach us his one only action, 
by which he loveth us eflectually to life, by two, which 
in us are diverse, because one infinite action of God 
doth eminently note that those two are in us, though 
they are distinct and diverse. As the first act of elec- 
tion laid down God's choosing us, or loving us to an 
end, so this doth signify the ordaining of us to the same 
end, by such a course of means as shall effectually 
work thereunto. Thus it is with us, when we will do 
anything, we do appoint by what means we will do that 
we are agreed on. When one is agreed to bring up his 
son at a trade, then afterward he determinoth to choose 
some trade forth, to seek him a master, to bind him 
apprentice, and let him serve his time, and get his 
freedom in it. Thus when God hath set his love upon 
ns, to bring ns to life, he doth next determine, by such 
an order of means as counsel suggesteth or presenteth 
within him, to bring ns to this end, which is to pre- 
destinate ; for to predestinate is to decree the attain- 
ing of some end, by such like means as counsel shall 
prompt us with. Predestination may be defined to bo 
an act of counsel, shewing means effectually bringing 
about some end ; as now it is accepted of the will, it 
differs therefore from election. First, election is in 
the will, this is in the understanding : ' those things 
which' thy counsel hath predestinated,' Acts iv. 28. 
Secondly, election is only of the end, this of means 
also. Thirdly, that is seated in the will only, this 
primarily in the understanding, in the will by parti- 
cipation, in so much as the will doth accept ; for 
should God's wisdom shew means which would efl'ect- 
nally work anything, if his will should not accept of 
them, he could not be said to predestinate anything 
by them. 

This predestination is twofold, according to his 
ends. The first is an act of counsel, shewing or pre- 

paring means whereby his grace in some shall be glo- 
rious ; and of this only here he speaketh, as is plain 
in the text ; he speaketh of it as a benefit in Christ, 
as it respocteth persons elect, ver. 4, as it hath his 
terminus, adoption. The second is an act of counsel, 
accepted of his will, which doth shew and decree the 
being of all such means by which his justice shall 
in some persons be glorious. Thus Fulgentius doth 
make predestination not only a preparation in his 
eternal disposition of things which he did foreknow 
himself about to work, whether in mercy or justice ; 
and the Scripture doubteth not to say, that God did 
predestinate all those things done to the person of our 
Saviour, than which the sun never saw viler. Tho 
fathers do define God's predestination in evil things by 
foreknowledge, only to shew a difference between tho 
working of his providence in good and evil, viz. that 
he doth not work these by himself, or by command, or 
by concurring effectually to them, as he doth to good 
actions. Now, that which is spoken respectively must 
not be absolutely taken, neither need men to fear the 
use of such phrase, which God himself hath not de- 
clined. But enough of this for this place. 

Touching the third point, adoption, it noteth the 
same matter for substance which was the end of elec- 
tion, even glorious life with God ; but it includeth 
further a dignity or sonship, which doth interess us 
in some sort to life of glory. And look, as the royalty 
of a lordship may be distinguished from the lordship 
itself, though they go together, so may this dignity or 
title of sonship from the inheritance itself, which doth 
go with it. By adoption, then, be meancth here the 
dignity and glory of the sons of God . U nder what main 
benefit, whether under justification or glorification, it 
is to be conceived, I will shew after in unfolding tho 
doctrines. The sum of these two verses is, in larger 
term of speech, as foUoweth, ' Blessed be God, who 
hath blessed us in Christ with all spiritual blessing.' 
As, for example, who hath elected us, and not only 
chosen us to the end, but hath so ordered all things, 
by an eternal disposition for us who believe, that they 
shall bring ns to that dignity and full glory of the sons 
of God, which is both begun in ns here believing, and 
is also to be accomphshed hereafter through Christ. 
And this he doth not looking out of himself to any- 
thing foreseen in us, but within himself. My mean- 
ing is, out of his mere gracious pleasure, that thus his 
glorious eternal grace might be magnified, out of which 
this grace flowcth, that he hath now in his time done 
us favour, and made us accepted in his beloved. First, 
it is to be marked in the order that God doth to our 
conceiving ; first, love ns to life, before the means 
bringing us to Ufe are decreed. This is the order in 
which we are to conceive that one simple action of 
God which worketh our salvation. Here election is 
the first in this enumeration Paul maketh ; and, Rom. 
viii. 89, Paul setteth foreknowledge before predestina- 
tion. Aud when the Scripture saith, we are elected 



[Chav. I. 

to life through faith and holiuess, as the way of life, 
needs must the end be first in order of natui-e before 
those things which serve to the end. As it is with us, 
we first are at a point concerning the end before we 
seek means which lead unto it ; as I am first at a point 
to write before I take in hand pen, ink, or paper. 

Olij. 1. But bow may God love to life such who are 
now the children of wrath, and not eligible to it ? He 
must first make them lovely or eligible, then choose 
them to life. 

Alls. I answer. It is one thing to love any so as that 
I will bring them to life by just means, another thing 
to love any so as immediately to communicate life with 
them. In the first sort, God may love those who are 
sinners before him ; the latter cannot consist with his 
■wrath infliciing death. And thus he did love them 
before the giving of Christ : ' So God loved the world, 
that he gave his only begotten Son ;' that he spared 
him not, but gave him all to death for us. This is to 
be marked against them who make God first decree the 
giving of Christ to death, of faith and perservance to 
some, before he make either inward or outward election 
of them. 

Doct. Observe, secondly, that God hath not only 
chosen some, but ordained eflectual means, which shall 
most infalliby bring them to the end to which they are 
chosen. Such whom he hath foreknown, mark, such 
he predestinated ; not all, but some, are forekuowTi ; 
God hath set an order of means which shall bring them 
to glory. Or look, as when God appointeth any to live 
forty, fifty years, his providence in nature doth so work 
that everything, from a man's first birth to his last 
breath, doth pass him on to this period preordained ; 
so those whom God hath appointed to that last final 
end of life supernatural, his supernatural providence 
doth so work that all things do after a sort conspire 
and work to that end ; even as we do nothing about 
anything further than the ends we have do move us to 
work. If we look at the things before our callings or 
after, we shall find this true, though tbey work not in 
the same manner: some promoting it directly by them- 
selves, some by accident occasionally. Before our 
callings, the good things we have ourselves in ourselves, 
or which we see, or have given us in others, they per- 
fect us to salvation. When God doth call us, the good 
things we have ourselves in ourselves make us admire 
God's bounty and patience, when we see what we were 
when he shewed us that kindness ; yea, they are after 
our calbngs, dispositions, and helps, which make us 
serve God with more facility and fruitfulness. Some 
conjplexions and constitutions are far more accom- 
modable instruments to grace now received than others. 
The good we see in others, we glorify God in it in the 
day of our visitation, though we scorn it for the pre- 
sent. The good given us in others is often ordained 
as an antecedent to our conversions ; as when God 
doth give us love in the eyes of some good man, stir 
him up to pray for us. Thus Austin thinketh that 

Stephen's prayer was ordained of God as a mean to 
work Saul's conversion. The evils we know before 
our conversions work to this end likewise : the jailor's 
afirighfment God had ordained as a means to make 
him seek out himself; so the sicknesses which were upon 
many in the Gospel made them seek out to Christ ; so 
the deformity which befalleth some, the infirmities, the 
fears and griefs of mind which follow them, though 
they know not why (as we say) nor w-herefore, are 
often disposed as occasions of their greatest good, 
of preserving them from many sins. Nay, the sins 
they lived in before their calling, God maketh them 
occasionally work to this end ; for, after our conver- 
sion, they make us more to love, as Mary ; more 
humble and merciful, as Paul's persecuting ; more 
diligent in well-doing when we were in the flesh, 
Kom. vi. Even as the art of the apothecary maketh 
vipers into treacles, so doth our God. Now, when 
God hath visited us, we prove then by experience that 
our good which he giveth us in ourselves and others, 
whether it be spiritual or temporal; yea, the evil we 
suffer, whether of sin or of punishment, whether the 
punishment come immediately from God or mediately 
from the hands of men ; that all, I say, are ordained 
to cany us home to the end unto which he hath chosen 
us. In the good things we find to help us, it is more 
apparent than that we need to speak of it. In good 
gifts which wicked men have, they are often predes- 
tinated for our good. Even as carriers have money 
often, not for themselves, but for those to whom they 
are sent ; so men unsanctified have golden gifts, some- 
time for the sake of others, to whom they are sent. Our 
sins and evils we sustain, God doth even use them as 
physic to our souls, and he prepareth wicked men often 
to do that by his children which those of the scullery 
do by a vessel when it is foul, even to scour them from 
their rust. Even as he predestinated his Son's sntfer- 
ings, so ours also, whom he hath predestinate that we 
should be like to his Son, as well in sufierings as in 
glory. St Paul proveth that to the called according to 
God's purpose of life, all things did work together unto 
good ; and he proveth it hence, because God had pre- 
destinated them. Now, if God's predestination did not 
contrive everything befalleth us to this end, his proof 
were insufficient. 

Use 1. The use of this is : Hath God ordained means 
by which his shall come unto the end to which they 
are chosen ? then how do they reason, who will say, 
if they be predestinate, then though they live never so, 
they shall be saved ? God had given Paul the life of 
all in the ship, yet, when the shipmen would have left 
them, Paul telleth them, Acts xxvii. 31, ' If these men 
bide not in the ship, ye cannot be saved.' God's de- 
cree doth stablish means, not remove them. Thus we 
might refuse meat in health, medicine in sickness, and 
say, So long as God hath appointed us to live, we 
shall live. The devil teacheth men in outward things 
wholly to distrust God, and rely altogether on means ; 

Vl-.R. .-),] 



in these spiritual things, he maketh them lay all on 
God's mercy and purpose, never taking heed to moans. 

Use 2. We see it is hopeful, where God givoth 
means which bring to life ; where he manifesteth that 
wisdom of the gospel, which is a means predestinated 
to our glory, that God hath there a gracious work to- 
ward some. While a man doth carry reapers further 
into his field, it is a sign he hath some corn to be 
inncd ; so is it with God. 

r.sc 3. Let us labour to acknowledge God and his 
most wise order in all things which have befallen us. 
If we find that our courses before our conversions, and 
the things befallen us since, have brought us nearer 
God, then it is a seal to us that we are the predestinated 
of the Lord ; those whom he doth bring nearer him 
by means in time, those he did predestinate to draw 
to himself in such order, from all eternity. We will 
say in choler, when things come cross upon us. Now 
I was ordained to it, I think it was mj- destiny. But 
happy is he, who can by event learn to see how God 
halh destinated before hand everything for his good. 

Ihcl. 1. Observe of whom we may say this, that 
they are predestinated, even of such as have believed, 
and are sanctified ; the persons which are ordained to 
life and predestinated, they are called, that is, brought 
to have a true faith, and justified, and they shall be 
glorified. This chain of four links is such, two whereof 
are kept with God in heaven, two are let down into 
earth, as it were ; this chain is so coupled, that who- 
soever are within these midlinks, are within the two 
nimost also. While a man carrieth a frame or plot 
of this or that in his mind, we cannot say what is his 
meaning, but when he now doth execute it, then we 
know what he had predestinated, and aforehand de- 
signed within himself. Wlien God doth lay the 
foundation of faith and holiness, such as shall never 
be subverted, then we may know that he did predes- 
tinate in his time to work a glorious work in such a 
person. How precious, then, is this faith which puri- 
fieth the heart, which doth let us be able, even to 
read our names, written in this predestination of God, 
as a book or register of life ; which maketh us dis- 
cern ourselves in that state, that all things shall work 
for our good, every wind, even the crossest, shall help 
us to the haven of true happiness. I know faithful 
Bonis cannot always find this comfort, because they 
find themselves worse, rather than better, for many 
things which betide them ; but we must not be dis- 
mayed, things work together, when thou seest the last 
with the first, then thou shalt see that harmony which 
is in ail for thy best good. A physician doth, with 
one thing or two, make that man more sick than ever 
whom yet at length he most comfortably healeth ; but 
what I spake of this circumstance in the former verse, 
may hither also be reduced. Only let us endeavour 
to know ourselves predestinated by him, for this is 
our strength, which cannot be shaken, when we know 
that God hath determined and contrived such means 

as shall infallihly bring us to glory. Tiiis known, wo 
may say, ' If God be with us, who shall be against usV 
Tluit ue sliould he adopted tlirour/h Christ. Docl. Ob- 
serve what God halh determined to bring us unto 
before all worlds, even to this, that we should be his 
children ; those whom he predestinateth, he doth or- 
dain they shall be like his Son, Rom. viii., like even 
in glory, as well as suffering; like in being sous, as he 
is a Son ; like in having a state of glorj' fitting them, 
as he hath glory such as is fit for him, the head or 
first-born of us. For this cause, Heb. xii. 21, the 
predestinate are called the church of the first begotten, 
who are written in heaven, because all God's chosen 
are by this predestination appointed to this, that they 
shall be sons of God ; even as great men appoint with 
themselves some that think nothing of it, that they 
shall be their heirs, and do adopt them by this means 
children to them. So God did within himself ordain 
of us, that we should be brought to this estate of being 
his adopted children. For our better understanding 
this matter, three things shall bo opened: 1, What 
this adoption containeth in it ; 2, Through whom we 
come to be adopted; 3, In what order we do receive 
in time this so great benefit, or to what benefit this is 
to be reduced, whether to calling, justification, or 

1. For the first, it containeth the dignity of being 
the sons of God. 

(1.) The inheritance of light, or the divine nature, 
begun here, to be perfected hereafter : for the first, 
see John i. 22, 1 John iii. 1. He giveth us this dig- 
nity, sheweth ns this love, that we should be called 
his children; not that we are children, as Adam was, 
who, because he was produced in the similitude of 
God, might be called a son of God, but sons through 
a mystical conjunction with Jesus Christ, that natural 
Son of God. 

(2.) Secondly, we have the inheritance of light, or a 
divine nature, which standcth not in such a life of 
God as Adam had, which was a knowledge of God 
only as a creator of all things, and a righteousness 
and holiness which were in order to God known only 
as a creator, not such a life as may fall away, but a 
life which standeth in knowing [GodJ, as an author in 
Christ, of supernatural grace ; such righteousness and 
holiness as are in order to God, as now made manifest 
in Christ Jesus ; such a life as shall never end, accord- 
ing to that, ' Those who are born of God cannot sin, 
for the seed of God nbideth in them.' 

(3.) Thirdly, all that glory we look for in heaven 
is comprehended in this adoption: Rom. viii., 'We 
expect our adoption, even the redemption of our 

2. Now we come to have this executed on us by 
faith on Christ : for ' so many as believed, to them it 
is given to be his children, sons and daughters.' Upon 
our marriage with the natural Son, we come in the 
place of sons and daughters also. But for the order 



[Chap. I. 

in which we receive this dignity, it is somewhat doubt- 
ful, whether when we ai'e justified, or when we are 
glorified. To which I answer briefly, that it belong- 
eth to our glorificatioD, and is to be recalled unto that 
head ; for redemption, which is put for forgiveness of 
sin and justification, when it doth not note out our 
final deliverance, this redemption is made to go before 
it : Gal. iv. 5, ' That he might redeem us who were 
under the law, and that we might receive adoption.' 
Beside, justification doth nothing but sentence tbis of 
me, that I am just before God, so as to receive life 
from his grace. Now, to be just, is one thing ; to be 
reckoned a son, another. Again, this adoption is 
called by the name of a dignity, or eminency, zar' 
i£,0X^i^', yea, glory itself is called by the name of adop- 
tion : Kom. viii., ' Waiting for our adoption, even 
the redemption of our bodies.' To omit that, Rom. 
ix. 4, those two words, adojjtion and ;/lo)i/, may be 
put for one thing, viz., glorious adoption. For the 
ark is well comprehended in that head of service, as a 
principal type belonging to the law ceremonial ; and 
look, as not only actually to possess the kingdom, but 
to be heir-apparent of it, is a great point of glory, so 
the dignity of adoption, adopting us as sons, and heirs 
apparent of the kingdom of heaven, is a great part of 
glory, as well as the inheritance itself. There are but 
two things of moment which I know to be objected. 

01 j. 1. That which we have immediately on be- 
lieving, that belongeth to om- justification ; but be- 
lieving we have this privilege, nothing coming between, 
John i. 12. 

A IIS. The second part of this reason is not true, and 
the proof is unsufficient ; for though we are adopted, 
believing on Christ, which the testimony voideth, yet 
it followeth not that we ai"e immediately adopted, 
nothing coming between our faith and adoption. We 
are said to be saved by faith, to have eternal life be- 
lieving, yet between faith and life justification must 
be conceived ; so here also. 

Obj. 2. The second reason is : that which giveth 
us a title to life, that must be a branch of oui' justifica- 
tion to life ; but onr adoption giveth us title to life. 

Ans. To the first part I answer with limitation, 
thus : that which giveth us title to life, being itself no 
circumstance, nor part of life, now executed in us ; 
but so adoption doth not, which is the giving of Ufe, 
in regard it makcth life now ours, as an orphan's lands 
are his ; ours, as who have a right to it, but are not 
yet actually possessed in it. Should not the proposi- 
tion be limited as I have said, it would prove that the 
giving of the Spirit belongeth to justification, for that 
doth give me right to life, as an earnest-penny, or 
part of payment, doth give a man right to challenge 
the whole sum. This benefit then is fitly couched 
under that last of our glorification, Kom. viii. ' Whom 
he predestinated he called, whom he called he justified, 
whom he justified he glorified ;' in this manner exe- 
cuting their glory. First, he giveth them of grace the 

dignity of sonship, and so a right to glory, and after 
he doth actually possess them of it, thus glorifying 
those whom out of grace he had justified to the re- 
ceiving of life from him, as a gift of his mere grace. 

Use 1. This then being, that God did before all 
worlds dispose the means whereby we that are his 
should be brought to adoption, how should we admire 
this so great grace which we found in his eyes from 
all eternity ! Thou believing soul, who by faith art 
married to Christ Jesus, thou who hast received the 
Spirit, which maketh thee call Abba Father, the Spirit 
of this adoption, what is this now wrought in time, 
but that which God did preordain before all time, 
even thy adoption through Christ ? See then what 
love the Father did bear thee, that thou shouldst be 
made a son, admire it. When David was told of 
matching with Saul's daughter. What ! said he, 
' seemeth it a small thing to be son-in-law to a king ?' 
And shall it seem a small matter to us that we are 
now, according as we were predestinated, that we are 
sons-in-law, adopted heirs, joint-heirs with Christ of 
the kingdom of glory ? 

We may see hence what duty we owe to God ; we, 
I say, whom he hath now adopted for his children, 
even as of grace he did predestinate. ' If I be a 
Lord, where is my fear ? if a Father, where is my 
honour ?' Earthly parents, the greater things they 
mean to leave their children, the more they expect all 
obsequious and dutiful behaviour from them ; so doth 
God from us.: the greater and more excellent condition 
he hath appointed us unto, the more he doth challenge 
fr-om us all such care and duty as may declare us not 
unworthy so great favour. 

Doct. Secondly, that we are predestinate to adoption. 
Observe that the life which God hath ordained by 
means prepared to bring us [to], is a life coming imme- 
diately from his grace, that hfe which is a consequent 
of adoption, yea, called adoption itself. That which 
accompanieth sonship is an inheritance ; that life can- 
not but come from the free grace of God our Father. 
Adoption and sonhke inheritance are not things pur- 
chased by contract of justice, but are freely vouchsafed. 
' Behold what love the Father hath shewed us, that 
we should be called his children,' 1 John iii. 1, en/o, 
life is called a 'gift of God's grace,' Rom. vi. 23 ; and 
that which God will do about his children in the day 
of judgment, is called a mercy: 2 Tim. i. ' The Lord 
shew Onesiphorus mercy in that day !' This is to be 
marked against the papists, the first force of their 
error in the matter of merit beginning here. For they 
grant this proposition true, that God doth out of his 
grace predestinate us to life ; but this they will not 
admit, that God doth predestinate us to life, which 
shall come immediately from this grace." Now, to con- 
ceive thus of predestination, is to take away all the 
gr;icc of predestination ; for to choose one oirt of 
grace to have this or that he shall well pay for, is 
grace not worth God have mercy, as they say. This is 

Vek. 5.] 



grace, when bo might Lave chosen others, and left us, 
he did take us, as who should have life purchased 
from his justice. I answer. Hero is an action of liherlj', 
to take one before another, but while this is it to which 
I am taken, viz., to have a pennyworth for my penny, 
there is no grace at all shewed me. For when actions 
are defined according to the object about which they 
are conversant, if the object of life have not grace in 
it, there can be no grace in electing to it. 

Secondly, Predestination should be an intermeddled 
action, partly a preparation of things God would do 
out of his grace, as of calling, the first justification 
according to the papists ; partly a preparation of 
things God would do out of justice, as of our glori- 

Thirdly, This maketh all that God doth out of grace 
tend to this end, that his justice may be glorious in 
giving life. We read the contrary, that justice shutteth 
all under sin, that grace may be glorious in all ; this 
we read not, and it were absurd to think it, when all 
bis justice doth in reprobation tend to this end, that 
the riches of his grace may be more displayed. 

Fourthly, The life to which we arc hero predestinated, 
is here included in this word adoption ; it is called a 
gift, an inheritance ; it is here said to be attained 
through Christ: Rom. v. 21, 'As siu reigneth to death, 
so doth the righteousness of Christ to life.' But grace 
by Christ's righteousness reigneth unto life ; the imme- 
diate cause, eiyo, of life is God's grace, for the imme- 
diate cause of death is sin ; and God is said to have 
made Christ everything to us, that our whole rejoicing 
might be in God, shewing us gi-ace through him ; not 
that we might be able to rejoice in ourselves, as now 
re-enabled to deserve from justice through him. This 
then is to be held as a principle of great moment, 
that the life to which we are chosen and predestinated, 
is a life immediately flowing from the grace of God. 
For this doth shew that the justifying righteousness 
which God doth prepare for us, must be such that 
God may upon it reckon us just from his mere grace, 
to the receiving of life from his grace. But here is 
no place to enter the doctrine of justification and 
merit, tho which we shall have fit occasion to nnfold 

Doct. Now followeth the manner, vithin himsel/, 
that is, according to the good pleasure of his will. 
The first phrase I rather read thus, because in that 
we are said to be ordained to adoption through Christ, 
it doth intimate that we are ordained to be children to 
him, and because he would rather have said, ' Who 
hath predestinated us to be sons through Christ to 
himself,' than 'to adoption through Christ to himself;' 
but it skilleth not how we take it, seeing the latter 
words doth sufficiently ground tho instruction to be 

Observe, that God out of his mere good will doth 
determine both tho end, and nil the means by which 
he will bring us to the end. If God do choose and 

predestinate us to life, because that he doth foresee 
that we will so uso his grace as to persevere in belief 
by moans of it, then must he call us rather than 
others, because he doth foresee that we will use his grace 
ofl'ered well, and concur with it in manner forenamed. 
For so far as foreseen considerations move me to take 
any to the end of life, so far they move to intend and 
execute tho means which must bring to life. But tho 
papists themselves in this are sound, who hold, that 
therefore God doth freely ordain us to the end, and 
that he doth therefore freely call and justify us. 
Hitherto they grant grace, even in the execution of 
God's predestination, and it may be proved by scrip- 
tures ; for in calling, two things may be marked : 1, 
tho sending his word ; 2, tho working with it by his 
Spirit. Now he doth both these out of his free plea- 
sure ; for the word, ho doth send it to those whom he 
doth see will less profit by it than others. ' If the 
things done in thee had been done in Tjtus and 
Sidon,' they would at least have humbled themselves 
in Nineveh-like repentance ; and Ezek. iii. ' I send 
thee not to a people of a strange tongue ; they would 
hear thee, but these will not hear thee.' Now, he 
teacheth inwardly no less freely : Luke x. 2, ' Father, I 
confess thou revealest those things to babes, and 
hidest them from wise ones, even according to thy 
good pleasure.' Therefore Paul saith, 2 Tim. ii. 9, 
' Ho hath called us with a holy calling, according to 
his pnqiose and grace.' Now, if God do call us to 
salvation without anything foreseen in us, it cannot bo 
but that he did ordainus to salvation without foreseeing 
anything which might move him unto it. This is 
taught, Rom. ix. that the purpose of God is according 
to flection ; that is, free, depending on him only who 
calleth us to glory, not on anything in us called. Tho 
reason why God sheweth mercy, or hardcneth, that 
is, denieth mercy, is Lis mere will. That as the 
potter hath nothing but his pleasure moving him to 
appoint or make of tho same lump vessels to so divi. rso 
ends, no more hath God. And here it shall not bo 
amiss to clear that scripture from some misconstruc- 
tions which have been made, obscuring the true 
meaning of it to some understandings. 

Rom. ix. 11 cleared from false constructions. Some 
make the purpose of God, ver. 11, to note out such a 
pm-pose by which God determineth to choose out to lifo 
such whom he doth foresee will seek it by constant 
fiiith in Lis promises, rejecting others from life who 
seek salvation by their own righteousness in the works 
of the law. This construction floweth from a former 
error, viz., that the apostle in this passage of Scrip- 
ture, from the sixth verse downward, doth speak of tho 
Jews taken and rejected, not as persons by carn.il 
generation descended from Abraham, but as persons 
who seek salvation by cleaving to the promise, or 
otherwise by works, according to the tenor of the law. 
This likewise doth presuppose that those Jews, whoso 
objection Paul prevcnteth, verse G, do by the word of 



[Chap. I. 

God conceive the word of the covenant legal in this 
manner. What then ! if we be rejected from salvation, 
who seek it by works of the law, then the word of 
God's covenant is come to naught. Which objection 
they should seem to make by occasion of the former 
doctrine of justification. But in all of these, and in 
all inferred on them, Arminius is deceived, for it is 
not the doctrine of justification so much as the doctrine 
of predestination, which in the eighth chapter went 
before, which maketh the apostle enter this discourse ; 
for he having taught in the former part of the epistle, 
Rom. iv. that those who traced the steps of Abraham's 
faith were his children, and in the chapter next before, 
that such whom God did foreknow and acknowledge 
for his people, they were predestinated and called to 
faith in Christ, every one might be ready to gather 
that the Jews, for the body of them, were not acknow- 
ledged of him as his people, because they did set 
themselves stiffly against the faith of Christ, and 
therefore they were not the Israel of God, the chosen 
seed of Abraham, the people whom God did know 
before ; and this is that which he leaveth to be gathered 
in that lamentable preface, Rom. ix. from the first to 
the sixth verse, viz., that a great part of the Jews, 
carnally descended of Abraham, are rejected now fi'om 
being the people and Israel of God, the seed with 
which God had promised his presence and blessing. 
Compare Rom. viii. 29 with Rom. ix. 6, 7, Rom. xi. 
8, he speaketh not of a rejection from righteousness 
and life, befalling such as followed salvation by works, 
for thus were the greatest part always rejected, when 
yet they could not be said rejected ever before in this 
manuer which did befall them, and is here lamented. 
This rejection intimated, he preventeth an objection, 
which some might make against it in this manner : 
That which would make God's word to Israel, and that 
seed of Abraham frustrate, that is not to be granted : 
but the rejection of the Jews from being God's Israel, 
and the seed whom he will bless, maketh his word in 
vain, ergo. The reason which confirmeth this assump- 
tion is to be gathered from the apostle's answer. Such 
as are the Israel, whom God hath loved, and chosen, 
and promised to bless for ever, such cannot be rejected, 
but the word of God will be made frustrate ; but, said 
they, we are God's Israel, we are Abraham's seed ; 
which are plainly to be gathered from verses 6 and 7. 
From these circumstances, well marked, we may see 
that the word here meant is that word which opened 
God's gracious election of this people to be his people 
and children, and which promised his perpetual pre- 
sence with them, and blessing towards them. The 
word here meant is such a word as taketh efi'ect in 
that part of the Jews whom God did know before, and 
is still made good in them ; but the word of the legal 
covenant is abrogated to all the chosen of the Jews. 
Secondly, Jeremiah declared the word of the legal 
covenant to be made in vain, yet did not this give 
place to such an objection, that God's word to his 

people was made of none effect. Again, the apostle 
his answer was direct, the word is'made by man's sin 
in vain ; and to have informed them in the true end 
of the word of the law, and not to answer them, that 
the word of the gospel's covenant is not frustrate, 
when they object that the word of the covenant of the 
law is come to nothing, this were but being asked of 
chalk, to answer of cheese. Again, we see that Paul 
doth not intimate the rejection of the Jews, as from 
righteousness and life, as they were followers of the 
law, which is a point he cometh to in the beginning of 
the next chapter, but he considereth them as part of 
Israel, and the seed of Abraham onlj'. For had this 
been the thing in which they grounded themselves, if 
those who follow the law be rejected, God's word is 
come to nothing; then should not Paul have answered, 
all who are from Israel are not Israel, all who are 
Abraham's seed are not children ; but all who follow 
the law are not the true Israel to which God did tie 
himself by promise. Secondly, it is plain he intimateth 
their rejection as they were the people of the Jews, 
as they were denominated the Israel of God, which 
may be gathered from the first verse of the eleventh 
chapter, ' Hath God cast away his people ? God for- 
bid, lam an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of 
the tribe of Benjamin.' Thirdly, 'no godly faithful 
ones could think the word of God falsified, if such as 
did seek justification in the law by the works of it 
were rejected ; but the apostles and go lliest awhile 
were exercised with this doubt, they could not see 
how it could stand with God's word, that Israel should 
be forsaken, and the Gentiles called. It is certain 
therefore that he doth intimate the rejection of the 
Jews as those who had been the Israel of God, and 
seed of Abraham. The apostle denieth the reason on 
which they thought their rejection a thing which could 
not stand with the immobility of God's word. He 
answereth the assumption of the latter syllogism by 
distinguishing of Israel and children, denying that all 
Israelites are that Israel to which God's word be- 
longeth, or that all Abraham's seed are those children 
whom God adopted to himself, verse 7, but such only 
who were like Isaac, first begotten by a word of 
promise, and partakers of the heavenly calling. The 
reason is to be conceived in this manner ; the rejecting 
of such who are not the true Israel, nor belong not 
to the number of God's adopted children, cannot 
shake God's word, spoken to Israel and Abraham's 
seed ; but many of the Israelites and Abraham's seed, 
are such to whom the word belonged not, ergo, the 
word of God is firm, though they be rejected. This 
assumption is propounded in the end of the fifth and 
sixth verses ; secondly, it is proved to the fourteenth 
verse. Here Arminius having presupposed this word, 
the word of the legal covenant, and this rejection of 
such as sought righteousness in the law, he thus 
taketh up the argument. 

If the word respect the children of promise, then it 

Vi:k. .VJ 



is firm, though the children of the flesh are rejected ; 
but it concerncth children of the promise, that is, 
believers ; enjo, it is safe, though justiciaries, children 
of the flesh, be rejected. 

But this assumption is no word of it in Arminius 
his sense here expressed ; for though children of the 
flesh, in some other scripture, doth note out justi- 
ciaries, seeking salvation in the law, yet here the 
literal meaning is to be taken, a child of the flesh 
being such a one who descendeth from Abraham ac- 
cording to the flesh ; for it is most plain, that these 
dill make them'think themselves within the compass 
of the word, because they were Israelites and the seed 
of Abraham in regard of bodily generation propagated 
from him ; and Arminius doth decline that, in ob- 
jecting and answering which this discourse consisteth. 
Beside that, though the sons of the flesh may signify 
such who carnally, not spiritually, conceive of the 
law, yet the seed of Abraham, without an_y adjoined, 
is never so taken. The assumption which is to be 
proved is this : that many of Abraham's seed are such 
to whom the word belongeth not. The word which 
belonged not to Ishniael and Esau, but to Isaac and 
Jacob only, and such as were like to them, that word 
belonged not to man}- of those who are the seed of 
Abraham and Israelites ; but the word, shewing God's 
love, choice, adoption, blessing of Israel, and Abra- 
ham's seed, belonged not to Esau, Ishmael, and such 
as they were, but to Isaac and Jacob. Here Armi- 
nius, having those legal justiciaries, thus gathered his 

Ishmael and Esau were types of such as sought 
justice in the law. Ishmael and Esau were rejected ; 
Isaac was reckoned in the seed ; Isaac was a type of 
the children of the promise ; enjo, the children of the 
promise are the seed. Ishmael was not in the seed, 
bat Ishmael was a type of all who sought righteous- 
ness in the law, of all the children of the flesh ; ergo, 
the children of the flesh were not in the seed. 

The conclusions are true, but not pertinent to this 
sense ; for the children of the flesh here are those 
only who in course of nature came from Abraham ; 
the children of the promise, those who were so born 
of Abraham, that they were in Isaac called to the 
heavenly benediction. But in laying down this rejec- 
tion of Esau from benefit of this word, belonging to 
the seed and taking of Jacob, he shcweth plainly that 
it is not a rejecting of those in Abraham's seed who 
were justiciaries as justiciaries, because that Esau was 
rejected before he was born, or had done good or evil, 
from part in that word made to Israel and Isaac, taken 
to the heavenly benediction before anything which 
might move thereunto; mark, ov/o, in the 10th, 11th, 
12th, 13th verses, three things : First, the equality 
of Esau and Isaac in parents' conception, merits, 
demerits ; only in birth Esau had pre-eminence. 
Secondhj, mark the word come, signifying the election 
of the one, and calling him to the heavenly inheritance, 

with the rejection of the other, which is laid down, 
ver. 12, 13. ThinUy, mark the end why God did 
choose and refuse, before merits or demerits, in the 
end of the 11th verse, by a parenthesis, viz., that 
God's purpose, according to his free election, might 
abide for ever, while it depended not on works in men, 
which are changeable, but on himself, who freely 
calleth whom he will to this heavenly glory. The 
scope of this example is the same wilh the other, viz., 
to prove that all of Israel, and all the seed of Abra- 
ham, were not such to whom the word, declaring 
God's free election and adoption to the heavenly in- 
heritance, belonged. 

That word which belonged not to Esau, but to 
Jacob, that belonged not to many of Abraham's seed, 
and by consequence that may stand firm, though a 
multitude of Abraham's seed be rejected, but the word 
declaring God's election, &c. But the apostle doth 
lay down the manner after which the word, choosing 
and adopting Israel, refusing Esau, was given forth, 
viz., that it came without respect of good or evil which 
might move unto it, that he may prevent a second 
objection which the Jews might make from their own 
righteousness, in respect of the Gentiles, sinners ; for 
they might think it impossible that God's word could 
stand with rejecting them, who were righteous in com- 
parison of the Gentiles received, for ho conceived this 
included in that querulous objection : first, Is God's 
induration a cause why he is angry with us ? secondly, 
Can he be angry with us who are hardened by his un- 
resistible will ? thirdly. Can he bo angry with us 
justly ? The apostle in this 21st verse telleth us that 
that induration is not the cause of God's anger, but 
anger of induration ; for none are hardened but vessels 
now of wrath by their own deserving. 2. Saith he, 
God beareth them with much patience, and doth not 
harden them by will irresistible. 3. God doth it for 
most just ends, and thus a reddition mit;ht be framed, 
saith he, a majori ad minus. Shall the potter have 
such absolute power in his clay, and shall not God 
have power to decree the hardening of those who 
justly deserve it ? and that with such a will as doth 
expect with much patience their conversion, and all 
for the obtaining of most just things ? But for this 
latter, it is plain the argument of the potter is A pari 
or iniiiori, if it be compared to God. Shall we think 
that God hath less power over his creatures than the 
potter '? God, I say, who createth and maketh the 
clay, he disposeth. And to use this similitude to 
Arminius, his order is to illustrate a thing by that 
which hath nothing like ; for God's work (by that Armi- 
nius conceiveth) hath no resemblance to that the potter 
doth, as is already shewed. For the matter answered. 

First, he conceiveth not the question right. They 
ask not whether God's induration be cause of his 
anger, but whether God may be angry at them who 
come to this state of being hardened. Now this is 



[Chap. I. 

certain, that men hardened and forsaken are the ob- 
ject about which God's anger is exercised, as a male- 
factor punished is the object about which the magis- 
trate's anger is exercised, though punishment is not 
the cause why he is angry, but the eti'ect of it ; neither 
is there one word in this verse which testifieth God 
to harden such with whom he is angry for sin, unless 
to bear with patience signify to harden, and vessels 
made or prepared to destruction, men now having by 
sin provoked God : the first absurd, that an act of 
patience should be induration opposed to mercy; the 
other equivocal, as a vessel prepared to glory is not a 
vessel now believing and sanctified, and actually fitted 
for glory ; so, on the contrary. 

For the second, it is false that here is anything to 
testify God's will unresistible, which the apostle did 
never except against, but rather justify, and yet main- 
tain it equal by a comparison fore-construed. And 
this is no argument why his decreeing will should not 
be irresistible ; this, I say, that he nseth patience to- 
ward those whom he hath decreed to reject; he con- 
ceiveth the will of God to have come to election, and 
otherwise to include in appetite, as it were, of having 
something which he will not work by his omnipotency, 
but he whose omnipotency is not in everything, he is 
not a God omnipotent, for there are some things in 
which he is not omnipotent ; not to name the same 
things he would have of us, he hath covenanted to 
work them in us : 'I will put my Spirit in your hearts, 
and make you,' &c. ; and that there is no power in 
God which is not infinite and omnipotent. True it 
is, that the verse setteth down just ends, and that 
therefore God hath power to purpose and work most 
justly that which is decreed and done to so just pur- 
pose. These are collections which his head hath de- 
duced, but not once imagined by the apostle ; and 
mark now how the apostle hath foiled the cause of 
God,* by struggling so laboriously and mystically 
against that which might so easily be answered. They 
seem to murmur against God, if he be angry at them 
who are hardened by his will, or a decree of his will 
irresistible. The plain answer is, God is not unjust 
though he be angry, because the decree of his will did 
detennine the hardening of none but such who should 
first, by their ungrateful and horrible unbelief, provoke 
his just anger and induration (whereas you think that 
he did decree to bring you to this with a will unre- 
sistible) ; the truth is, he did decree nothing about 
you, but conditionally, putting also the condition so 
in your power that you might have kept yourself fi-om 
coming into the number of those who are in his anger 
hardened, if you would, but you would not. The 
manner, enjo, laid down preventeth such a thought, 
inasmuch as this might be deduced from it. That 
■word which doth signify such an election and adop- 
tion as do not depend, nor once respect any merit in 

* That is, according; to the inteipretation i>ut upon his 
worJs by Aimiiiius. — Ed. 

the creature, that word is sin, though the Jew, righteous 
in comparison of the Gentile, be rejected, and the 
sinful Gentiles received. The end shewing why God 
would not look at anything in such whom he elected 
and called, viz., that his decree and word about some 
whom he had elected might abide surely, taking eti'ect, 
while the stability and eflicacy of it depended on him 
freely calling, not on us ; for did God's decree, or word 
touching salvation, depend on men, it would prove 
more unstable than a decree in Chancery ; as we see 
in Arminius his decrees, I will save them all if they 
will obey me ; I see they will not, but they will sin. 
Well, I must let them, but I will condemn them all. 
Ay, but my mercy here must moderate justice ; this 
decree must not be peremptory. I will send Christ 
to redeem all, that I may save all again ; I decree to 
save all if they will believe, but I see they will not ; 
I will save such as I see now believe with persever- 
ance, and reject others. That order was fit in elect- 
ing which doth make God's decree most firm, of most 
etiect to his elected ; but to choose them without any 
respect to their works, was fit to this end. Er<jo, he 
did choose in this order, not looking at anything in 
them, but at his gracious pleasure ; and in these ex- 
amples, as in types, are laid down all the high points 
of election, viz., that God doth choose us before we 
are ; that God doth not look at anything in us for 
which to choose us ; for though it is true they were 
in their causes, yea, in some degi-ee oat of them, yet 
they are brought in as now chosen when they were not 
manifestly in the nature of things, but creatm-es to be 
bom afterwards ; and though they both had in Adam 
ofl'ended, yet this is excluded in their typical conside- 
ration, and they are here brought in as having done 
nothing. Like as Melchisedec had father, moiher, 
length of days ; but as he is a type, none of these 
things come to be considered in him. What said 
Anninius here ? He maketh the 10th, 11th, 12th, 
13th verses to contain these two things, the tj-pe, and 
the explication of the tvpe ; the type set forth with 
sundry circumstances, which are not so much to be 
heeded as the things typified, expressly set down in 
these words : ' That the pui-pose of God, according to 
his choice of some, or in which he chooseth some to 
hfe, rejecting others, might be firm, while it dependeth 
not on works of the law, but on faith, obeying him 
that calleth.' From which explication he gathcreth 
two syllogisms, pro'\ing things to his thought, which 
go before. 

1. That purpose which is according to election of 
some, with rejection of other some, that pui-pose may- 
stand sure though many be rejected. 

But God's word and purpose is according to election, 
or is such as discernt;th and chooseth some from other 
some to salvation ; enjo the word of God is not made 
of none eti'ect, though many of the Jews be rejected. 

2. That purpose which dependeth not on works, 
but on faith obeying him, that calling, that purpose. 

Ver. 5.] 



comprehendeth not such as sock bj- tbo works of the 
law salvation. 

But this is such, err/o. 
Esnn the first born is hated of God. 
Esan is a type of such as seek righteousness in the 
law ; en/o, such as seek righteousness in the law are 
hated of God. 

Jacob the younger was loved. 
Jacob was a type of all who follow life by grace of 
calling ; ergo, all who thus follow life, are beloved of 

To answer which things briefly, the persons named 
are here to be considered personally and typically : 
personally, because else he doth not prove that Is- 
raelites, the seed of Abraham, may be rejected ; typi- 
cally, because they are heads of all the chosen and 
rejected, both in the seed of Abraham and in the Gen- 
tiles also ; but that they are types here of persons 
qualified with zeal of the law, or faith on Christ, this 
is a dream without proof, merely presumed, which 
before hath been sufficiently refuted, and shall be fur- 
ther touched, in this which foUoweth. First, then, to 
the circumstances, why are we not to stand upon Ihcm, 
seeing between types and things typified there is such 
analogy, as that thereby one doth lead us to the other ? 
But he doth see well that these things here set down 
in the types cannot stand with that he would have 
typified. How can Esau, now considered without 
works, good or evil, when he is rejected, be a type of 
those who are rejected as sinners for righteousness by 
works of the law ? Or how can Jacob, as he is con- 
sidered without faith, or any other work, when now 
he is chosen and called, be a type of such who are now 
chosen, when God doth see belief with perseverance 
in them ? Again, this decree electing Jacob, did ollbr 
him grace above Esau; but the decree of saving Jacob, 
if he would believe and obey the heavenly calling, 
doth oiler no less to Esau, or any other. Now his 
conceiving the apostle to explain his tj-pe in that pa- 
renthesis is most absurd ; doth the note of a final 
cause or event, that, or to the end, that his purpose 
doth thus, begin the accommodation of a type pro- 
pounded ? It is an example not to be seconded ; 
nothing is more plain than that it is added to note the 
end or event of that manner, electing or rejecting, 
which are here expressed. And for the two conclu- 
sions he doth argue from these words, the first is 
true, but not a thing here to be proved ; for the 
apostle hath said that, e>yn, the word was true, not- 
withstanding the multitude of Israehtes were rejected ; 
because that all Israelites were not that Israel, and 
all the seed of Abraham were not those children to 
whom the word belonged. This is, then, that which 
here is to be concluded, that those who are the seed 
of Abraham, and Israelites in course of nature, were not 
that Israel, and that seed, to whom the word signifying 
God's election and adoption belonged. The force of the 
argument, therefore, is in this, not that the decree is 

after election, but that Jacob only was in decree of elec- 
tion, and Esau, born alike of Isaac, was not. 

The second syllogism concludoth a thing that never 
came into the apostle's mind, and cannot be accom- 
modated to these types, unless types in that wherein 
they are types may be contrary to the thing typified 
by them, as I have shewed above. ]5eside, who will 
yield him that God's calling is here put for faith obey- 
ing God's calling, when the sight of faith and eveiy- 
thing else was before excluded in this election "ot 
Jacob ; and therefore the decree electing him cx- 
cludeth and opposetL itself in works to this faith, us 
well as any other thing. Now, then, we see that this 
decree electing and adopting, is so from God's will, 
that nothing in man is considered in it, as a mean or 
cause, but only his mere pleasure ; for clearing which 
I entered the explication of this place. To this only 
the context following will agree, which seeing I am 
thus for entered, I will shew so shortly as I can. 

' What shall wo say then ?' saith the apostle, ' Is 
there injustice with God ? God forbid. For he saith 
to Moses.' This is plain, that the doctrine next before 
delivered giveth occasion to this objection. Let any 
judge, then, whether Arminius his sense is made pro- 
bably a ground of this imagination. We see this doth 
naturally arise from our construction ; for if God, 
from his mere pleasure, doth choose one, and call him 
to adoption and the heavenly inheritance, rejecting 
another every way equal to him, then God seemeth 
unjust ; for upon his mere pleasure, to deal so un- 
equally with equals, upon mere pleasure, seemeth very 
hard. Do but lay that of Arminius by it, and there 
need no other confutation. If God decree to reject 
his grace* oflered in Christ, stiflly cleaving to their 
own righteousness, and if out of his mere pleasure, 
none deserving it, ho decree to save such as shall by 
faith lay hold on his mercy oflered in Christ, then he 
seemeth unjust. I answer : here is no show of injus- 
tice to the reason of man ; for that which he sup- 
poseth to be the ground of their suspecting injustice, 
namely, that God should of his mere pleasure decree 
that believers on Christ, not fullowers of the law, 
should be saved, contrary to his former decree in the 
covenant with Adam ; for had this been the ground of 
their imputation, the apostle should have answered, 
that God did not of mere pleasure decree otherwise 
about attaining hfe, than at first he had ; but he came 
to this covenant of the gospel, by reason that we had 
broken the former, and through weak flesh made it 
impossible to us. But he maintaiueth the will of God 
from mere pleasure, shewing mercy to Jacob to have 
been just in him. It followeth, 

He who hath power to shew saving mercy where 
himself pleascth, he is not unjust in shewing to some, 
without any consideration on their parts, and denying 
to other some. 

But God hath power to shew mercy, electing, 
* Qu. ' to reject those who n ject his grace '?— Ed. 



[Chap. I. 

adopting, calling to the heavenly inheritance, to whom 
he will. 

This is the express testimony of Moses, which tend- 
eth to prove God free from injustice in his grace to 
Jacob, and in denying it to Esau. For if he may 
shew it to such as he please, he may refuse it others 
by the same liberty. He doth amplify this by a con- 
sectary deduced. 

That which is wholly in the free pleasure of God, 
that Cometh not from any thing in the power of man. 
But this mercy, electing, adopting, calling, is merely 
in God's free pleasure ; it is not therefore in man to 
procure it, but in God's liberty to shew this mercy. 

This answer doth plainly shew, that the point which 
distasted was this : that God should at his mere plea- 
sure shew mercy to Jacob, when he refused Esau ; 
which would make our election, calling, adoption, quite 
out of our power, merely depending on God's free 
pleasure ; for both these are here avouched to stand 
with justice in God, whatever might be surmised. 
And mark here, that the apostle doth maintain it 
without injustice, to shew and refuse mercy, when he 
cousidereth not anything in the persons which might 
make this equal. For were the equity of God's mercy 
shewed to Jacob, and denied Esau in this, that now 
all were become children of wrath, whom God might 
pardon and restore, or leave and execute at his plea- 
sure, then the apostle should, in the honour he owed 
to the name of God, have here expressed this consi- 
deration, that God might justly shew mercy to some, 
and deny it to other some, who were now such, that 
they had by sin brought themselves under sentence of 
condemnation. For if he had not shewed it to any, 
he had not been unjust ; but St Paul did know that 
he had afJirmed that God, looking neither at merit in 
the one, nor demerit in the other, had chosen and 
loved the one, refused and less loved the other. Here 
mark Arminius. 

If that purpose, God rejecting such as seek right- 
eousness by their own works, electing believers, de- 
pend only on bis mercy, then it is not unjust. 

But that purpose is neither from him that runneth, 
&c., but dependeth on God's mere mercy, en/o, it is 
not to be accused of injustice. 

First, mark how he maketh the apostle not answer 
the dithculty of the objection, which was this : How 
could God go from one covenant, decreeing salvation 
on works, and decree contrary, that not workers, but 
believers, should be saved ? for God's mercy cannot 
be the cause, nothing else coming between, why God 
should change his order, and go from one unto a con- 
trary. Secondly, let him shew how mercy can be the 
only cause, why a justiciary, cleaving to his own right- 
eousness, is rejected from salvation. Thirdly, the 
apostle doth not prove this decree, tbat believers shall 
be saved, to be just in God, but God's shewing mercy 
in destination and execution to one before another. 
Now this decree, I will save all that shall behove, doth 

not shew any mercy to one before another, but offers 
mercj- to all alike. Lastly, who would ever accuse 
the mercy of God, for decreeing in a just course to 
bring men to salvation, when now they had made 
themselves guilty of wrath ? Mark how he depraveth 
that consectary, which sheweth that it is not in our 
power, now under wrath, to deserve that God should 
decree the salvation of us, in case we would believe. 
But why God's decree of election falleth on my per- 
son to life, this he maketh in our power, which is the 
chief thing here excluded ; for from that God had pur- 
posed and performed to Jacob, and from that privi- 
lege that God will at his pleasure both intend and 
manifest his saving mercy and compassions, this is 
deduced, that his mercy, electing, calling, and adopt- 
ing one before another, is not in the will or endeavour 
of man, but in God freely shewing compassion. Not 
to say, he should tell us a great matter, in concluding 
with a solemn epiphonema, such a point as this, that 
man, under sin and death, could not deserve, or any 
way cause why God should strike that covenant of the 
gospel, and promise salvation upon believing. 

For the scripture saith to Pliarnoli. The 17th verse 
followeth : The connection may be diversely conceived, 
either to prove that God sheweth mercy at his plea- 
sure to some, so as he denieth it to other some ; or 
that which went before, that it is not anything in us 
which maketh us elected like Jacob, or rejected as 
Esau. And then the proof were thus : the Scripture 
doth testify, that hardening and denying mercy de- 
pendeth on God's mere pleasure, no less than shewing 
mercy. Or we may conceive it as in reference to the 
unrighteousness formerly objected ; for that objection 
had a double fact giving occasion ; God electing Jacob, 
rejecting Esau, without anything that deserved it, 
whence God might seem subject to injustice in two 
regards ; first, for shewing his grace to the one before 
the other, when thoj' both were alike ; secondly, in 
refusing the one out of his mere will, and excluding 
him from the grace shewed the other, when he had 
done nothing to deserve it. 

Hitherto he hath answered the first part of the ob- 
jection, that God, in shewing mercy to equals, une- 
qually, is not unjust. Now he answereth the other part. 

That which God hath done, that is in the freedom 
of his will justly to do. But God hath for ends of his 
glory, without any thing done on their parts to move 
him, denied grace to some, and hardened them, which 
is plain in this example; he did raise up Pharaoh, not 
yet being purposed to harden and punish him. Krrjo, 
as he sheweth mercy where he will, so he hardeneth, 
that is, denieth mercy, and so hardens and punisheth 
whom he will. 

The assumption is the example, the conclusion fol- 
loweth it. Arminius is here still hke himself ; he 
frameth a double syllogism, taking away show of un- 
righteousness in his decree, made with election of some, 
rejection of other some. 

Ver. 5.] 



That which God justly doth, that ho may decree 
to do. 

But he stineth up, hardenoth some justly. 

Erijo, he may decree it without injustice. 

The second syllogism, from the 18th verso. 

He who shewetli mercy and hardenoth, may decree 
according to election, to shew mercy to some believ- 
ing, and to nject such as seek righteousness in the 
works of the law. But God sheweth mercy on whom 
he will, kc. 

For the first, it is true that is gathered, but not per- 
tinent, for this example is brought to shew that God 
may reject a person without injustice when ho hath 
done nothing for which God's will should be moved to 
reject him ; and it is to be well noted that the mind of 
God cannot be too prone,* that he may make a decree 
to reject a person that followeth righteousness in the 
law, for Pharaoh cannot be considered as in the num- 
ber of those Jews who were zealous for the law. Be- 
side that, it could never seem in appearance unright- 
eousness to decree when a man is now a child of death, 
that if he will not accept of God's mere}' in Christ his 
Son, but cleave to his own righteousness, then ho shall 
be rejected. And for the latter syllogism, it is no new 
argument, as Arminins would have it, but the conclu- 
sion affirming from all gone before, that il is in God's 
liberty to shew mercy to some, as to Jacob, and to 
deny it to other some, and that, enjo, he cannot be 
unjust in doing that which he hath liberty to do. 
Agaiu, the first part of the proposition doth fight with 
itself; for he who may shew mercy on whom he will, 
he may not make the creature the cause why he should 
shew mercy, for he cannot shew mercy on any out of 
his mewipi'asure, and yet shew mercy on some con- 
sideration in the creature moving him to it. 

Now, from this, that here it is said, God may shew 
mercy on whom he will, he gatliereth that God may 
make a decree to shew mercy to such as believe, re- 
pent, and persevere, &c., in sanctifieation. 

He who ma}' shew mercy to whom he will, he is not 
restrained to some persons, who shall be of this or 
that condition, but is as free to one as another. 

Now the grounds of this new learning, or old error, 
I know not which to call it, say that God camiot choose 
any but such whom he seeth eligible, as being qualified 
with such condition as the justice of God admitteth, 
which is the moderatrix of his mercy. 

He who can shew mercy where he will, can do more 
than that which may possibly be done, and yet not any 
receive mercy. 

But such a decree as this might be made, and it 
still possible that not one in all mankind should bo 
partaker of mercy. 

He who sheweth mercy where he will, is the cause 
why mercy lighteth on these piu-ticular men, rather 
than others. 

But he who can make a decree, that such as will 
* Qu. ' to prove ' ?— Ed. 

believe shall have mercy, he is not the cause in par- 
ticular why this man hath mercy shewed to him rather 
than another. 

His conclusion misconstruing that word and decree, 
is above refuted, and hath no concord with this objec- 
tion following, which is most evident after this manner. 

If it be by his mere irresistible will that men be in 
the state of such as are rtjected and hardened, then 
he hath no reason to blame them being so. 

But he out of his pleasure, without anything in the 
creature causing it, doth' reject some from mercy and 
harden them, ergo. 

Now St Paul doth answer* this either by denying 
that the will of God is unrcsistible, or by denying that 
the efficacy of God's will doth reach thus far, that 
some men are in the number of those who are rejected 
and hardened ; but first, by rebuking the insolencj- of 
this fact, that a creatiu'e should expostulate with his 
Creator ; secondly, bj' shewing the right of the thing, 
viz., that God may at his pleasure reject and harden 
some. The first in the 20Lh verse. 

That which the pot may not do with the potter, that 
mayest not thou do to God thy Creator. 

But the pot may not find fiiult with the potter fur 
framing it thus or thus, the end of the 20th verse. Thou 
mayest not find fault with God, as if he were in fault, 
by whose irresistible will thou art in this case wherein 
thou standcst, rather than thyself, who dost suflfer his 
unavoidable pleasure. 

Having thus chidden the insolency of this muttering 
imputation, he proveth that it is equal God should out 
of his mere pleasure shew mercy to some of his crea- 
tures, and reject other some to induration and punish- 

The right which the potter hath over his cla_v, that 
and much more hath God in his ; for the potter must 
have his clay made to his hand, but God must create 
and make the clay which he will work with. 

But the potter hath the power that he may sever 
certain distinct parcels of his clay out of his mere plea- 
sure to contrary uses, ver. 21. 

The potter doth not sever his clay in this manner : 
if it shall all be fit to receive some noble form, I will 
make it to such end ; if not, I will turn it otherwise ; 
for then it must be from the clay, not the potter, why 
this parcel were a vessel to honourable use, and that 

The conclusion followeth, ver. 22, 23. 

Err/n, shall not God have the same right to appoint 
some of his creatures to bo vessels of dishonour, how- 
beit he useth much patience towards them, that he may 
the better declare his wrath and power in them, and 
his most glorious mercy towards his chosen ? 

The words have a rhetorical reticency in them, nn i 

are thus laid down. What if God, willing to shew his 

wrath and power, have borne with much patience, 

&c., and that he may shew his glorious mere}' towards 

♦ Qu. ' doth uot auswer ' ? — Ed. 



[Chap. I. 

the vessels of mercy. Now, something must be un- 
derstood : shall his power for this be the lesser ? or 
any plead against the freedom of God in denying his 
mercy, and rejecting some, from the great patience he 
useth towards them ? Or we may conceive it, if not 
preventing this objection, yet laying down the conclu- 
sion with a double reason, after this sort : If God have 
most just ends of his glory and the good of others, who 
are vessels of mercy, and if he execute his decree with 
much patience and longsufferance towards the vessels 
of wrath, shall he not have power to ordain them 
to this end, whom in so just manner and upon so good 
considerations he bringeth unto ? &c. In answering 
these, Arminins seemeth very accurate, but it is a wily 
diligence ; such as those poor creatures use, which 
being hard beset will run round often and fetch running- 
jumps, that by this means they may bring to a loss 
all that pursue. To leave him therefore in impertinent 
discourse, what I can gather out of him touching these 
words respecteth one of these three things : 1, the 
occasion which went before, ' God hardeneth whom he 
will, as ho sheweth mercy to whom he will ; 2, the 
objection ; 3, the answer. 

Let us begin with the first, for if you mark the an- 
tecedent in the sense Arminius taketh it, it will not 
bear the objection following. Secondly, if the objec- 
tion could be made, yet St Paul's answer would prove 
impertinent ; the antecedent occasion, Arminius must 
understand of God's decreeing to harden, or actually 
hardening according to his decree. His decree is, I 
will deny 'thee mercy, harden thee, punish thee, if 
through unbelief and impenitency thou shalt make thy- 
self worthy. His actual hardening is a powerful exe- 
cuting this punishment of induration and rejecting on 
him who hath by final impenitency deserved it. Neither 
of these will bear his objection with show of reason. 
And because Ai'minius seemeth rather to respect the 
decree, we will take up that, and join this murmuring 
objection with it. If I am hardened by God's decree, 
which doth set down the hardening and rejecting of all 
snch who shall by final unbelief and impenitency pro- 
voke him to it, then hath God no reason to be angiy 
with me on whom this sentence is executed by his 
unresistible will. But I am hardened according to that 
decree. Take the antecedent in the other sense : if 
God now in his wrath execute induration on me, having 
deserved it by my final impenitency, and that with 
such power that I caimot resist him, then hath he no 
cause to bo angi-y with me who am thus hardened by 
his almighty power. I do appeal to any conscience 
what show of reason there is, inferring such a conse- 
quence on such antecedents. No ; had God's will been 
not absolute within himself, but respecting conditions 
meritorious in the creature, or had his induration been 
a mere inferring of punishment now deserved, and not 
a denial of mercy which should have removed the en- 
trance of the other (which the opposition teacheth to 
be meant by induration), then there had been no show 

of reason thus to grant against God. But come to the 
objection. He conceived in it thus much, as if it 
should say : Can God's induration cause him to be 
angry against us who are hardened ? Can that which 
is the effect of his unresistible will cause him to be 
angry with us justly ? First, the apostle chideth this 
insolency, suggesting the state of the person murmur- 
ing, and the person of God against whom it is murmured. 
Secondly, from comparison. Well, having thus repelled 
it, he defendeth the equit}' of God and answereth to 
the matter, first in the 2d verse. 

He who hath power to decree the life and death of 
his creature on some conditions, and so to harden some 
and shew mercy to others, if he harden or shew 
mercy, we must not reason against it. 

But God hath this power set down in the comparison 
of the potter ; but the comparison of a potter pleadeth 
a far higher thing in God than making a decree of 
saving such as should become fit through use of their 
own liberty, and condemning such who should most 
justly deserve it. For this legal kind of induration, 
as some of his scholars call it, giveth no occasion of im- 
puting with show of reason any fault to God, seeing 
God's decree doth not anything to me unless further 
than I make myself a vessel of dishonour. Secondly, this 
sense hath no affinity with the potter's fact ; this decree 
doth not make definitely any persons vessels of honour, 
but such of them as should believe ; all if they will 
believe ; this doth not make the persons become vessels 
of honour, but the performance of the condition in the 
decree, this maketh God to frame persons diversely 
qualified to diverse ends ; whereas the potter £i-ameth a 
mass all alike to diverse purposes. Thus, Imviug re- 
pelled this murmuring, he doth make ans^ff to the 
matter of their objection three ways, which likewise 
may make to his judgment a limited reddition of the 
former comparison. 

Thus by the way I have run over part of the ninth 
to the Romans, in which, were not all error a thing 
connatural, I should marvel how any could ever imagine 
things so directly against the meaning and discourse 
of it. The plot of his election was as strong in his 
brain as numbers in theirs who thought they saw them 
in everything. Let us ever hold that the choice and 
purpose of calling to the heavenly inheritance is merely 
from his will, because he will without any respect to 
the works or condition of his creature ; framing man- 
kind to diverse ends with as much freedom as the potter 
doth his clay, though it seem to fiisten unrighteousness 
on God and to excuse the creature, to flesh and blood. It 
is one thing to do things with will, another thing to do them 
from free pleasure of his will, or because we wiU only. 

Again, the decree is therefore made to depend on 
God calling that it may bo firm ; but did it depend on 
perseverance in faith, left altogether in our liberty, it 
could not be firm, seeing it dependeth on such a condi- 
tion as to the last breath is uncertain, by his own 
principles otherwhere delivered. 

Vkr. G.] 



Now folio weth the end : Ver. G. For the praise of the 
ylory of his ijrace. First, to open some words in this 
verse, that so we may see the mcaninf;, and consider of 
it more fruitfully. It may be asked what praise is. 
There are words which sound this way, the difference 
whf reof I think good to unfold. Prdiic, when it is 
taken restrainedly, doth signify the setting forth by 
speech of this or that iu any which is praiseworthy. 
Honour is larger, for it is done by word, work, gesture, 
and scrveth to report our reverent respect to God's 
excellency. Thankfulness is a praising of God, as 
having bestowed some benefits on ns. Glory is the 
afcount which we have of God when now he is made 
known to us. Now, here praise is put in a larger ac- 
ceptiou, and may contain all of them, both the admira- 
tion and high esteem of it when it is once manifested, 
the praising it in word and honouring it, the thanks- 
giving which is most worthily yielded to it. 

Glory of God is sometimes used in a singular man- 
ner, to note a glorious instrument, coming immediately 
from God, and made immediately for God. Man is 
' the image and glory of God.' Sometimes it is used 
in an acception more frequent for the glory of God 
which is in us who glorify him, or the glory of God in 
himself, who is glorified of us, even the glorious being 
or essence of God. Thus it is used here, and, Rom. ix., 
' that he might show his glory to the vessels of mercy,' 
that is, glorious nature so merciful and gi-acious ; so 
2 Thes. i., from the glory of his power, that is, his 
glorious essence, which is most powerful. Thirdly, 
for his grace. Here we must know that St Paul useth 
divers words, which signify one thing, but clothed or 
putting on divers respects, ayaTri, ^priSTorr,;, £/.£o;, 
tpiXoLidiitria,, X"-V' ' R'tn- ^-i lo^c, bountifulncss, 
mercy, philanthropy, grace. Now all these are the 
same thing ; even love hath these ends. What love 
is, I need not shew. Bountifulness is love, as now it 
is in work beneficial ; mercy is love, as now it helpeth 
the miserable ; philanthropy is love, as it respocteth 
mankind ; grace is love, as it giveth good things freely 
without desert to make accepted. The word significth 
to do a favour, to follow one with some real favour 
now executed. The sum then is this. 

All this spiritual blessing wherewith God hath 
blessed us is to this end, that he might manifest his 
most glorious essence, which is grace itself ; and that 
to the intent we might admire it, esteem it highly, 
honour it, set it forth in words, yield thanks to it ; 
which grace of his, before all worlds, is it which now 
in the appointed time hath made us, who are children 
of wrath, accepted and followed with many favours in 
his beloved Son our Saviour. 

The verse containeth two things : 

1. The end, in these words, ' For the praise of the 
glory of his grace.' 

2. A description of grace, from the effect, which is 
set forth both by the principal cause, God, by his eter- 
nal grace ; and ministerial or secondary, God, out of 

his eternal grace, in and through his Christ, hath made 
us accepted. 

First, then, we observe, that all ho did fi'om eternity 
intend about man hath no end but his own glory : ' Ho 
made all things for himself,' Prov. xvi. 4 ; ' All things 
are from him, through hiu, for him.' ' Bring my 
sons and daughters every one, whom I have created 
for my glory,' Isa. xliii. G, 7. The reason is plain : 
God, who is wisdom itself, cannot work without au 
end. A wise man will do nothing but to some purpose. 
That which must be God's end, why he maketh all 
things, must bo better than all those things which 
serve unto his end, for the end is better than that 
which serveth for it, as the body is better than food, 
raiment, and all things which serve for the body. In 
the third place, it is plain that nothing is better than 
all the works of God, beside God, nothing better than 
every creature but tho creator. If, then, he must 
needs have an end why he makoth things, and this 
end must needs be better than the things made for it, 
and nothing is better than all the creatures, but only 
God the Creator, hence it followeth that God must 
needs have himself as his end in everything which he 
worketh. Now, God being so perfect that he uecdoth 
not our good, that nothing can hurt him or make him 
bettor in himself, hence it followeth that his cud 
must needs be some external matter, as the making 
himself known, that he may be accordingly honoured 
of us, and that to the benefit of us who j-ield him this 
honour. The Scripture intimateth three ends iu that 
God worketh towards his chosen : 1, the glory of us. 
The wisdom of the gospel is said to be predestinate ' to 
our glory ;' all things arc ours. The second is, the glory 
of our Mediator: 'all are yours, you are Christ's;' 2i'bes. 
i., ' Christ shall be glorious in his saints, yea, admir- 
able in them that believe.' The third is God him- 
self: ' all are yours, j'ou Christ's, Christ God's ;' that is, 
for God and his glory. Now, those two foiiner are 
ends to which, not for which, God worketh. He that 
buildeth a house, that he may lay a sure foundation, 
that he may raise the frame, gives it the due filling 
which belongeth to it ; but those aro not his proper 
ends, but that he may have a house for his habitation. 
So God worketh many things to our glory, and that 
in ns his Christ may be glorious ; but the proper end 
which he hath in all is his own glory. 

Use 1. Wherefore, seeing this is God's end, let us 
in all things labour to yield him glory ; whatsoever 
we are, let us be it in him, and through him, and for 
him. We see everything that cometh of the earth 
goeth to that common parent again ; every body made 
of these elements is resolved into these elements. So 
must it be with us ; wo must return back to him in 
glorifying him, from whom wo come, as the work- 
manship of his hands. It is certain, if he bo not 
glorified of us, ho will glorify himself in us. What a 
shame is it that we should not have his glory, as tho 
end we aim at in eTerything, who hath made all things 



[Chap. I. 

in heaven and earth serve as their end to which they 
may be reduced ! 

jDoct. Secondly, observe that he doth generally in- 
tend his praise of his grace in all such who are pre- 
destinated by him. Th:it which God doth out of his 
grace must needs be to the glory of his grace ; but he 
doth elect and predestinate us out of his grace. We 
see that if one doth this or that in wisdom, he is 
praised for his wisdom, which in this or that he hath 
shewed. So in any other virtue, thus it is, those 
things which God doth out of his gi-ace, he must 
needs intend to have his grace notified in them ; and 
to have it, being known, admired, honoured, and 
praised accordingly. Again, those things which God 
doth out of justice, though diversely, justice from 
which they come, shall be glorious in them ; j-et all 
that justice doth is reduced to this, as the just supreme 
end, even to lend a voice to the riches of God's glorious 
mercy, which he sheweth the vessels of mercy ; for 
look, as in us the actions of inferior virtues, which 
commend the virtues they come from, they are ser- 
viceable in some sort to actions of superior virtues, 
erfio, what my temperance doth upon the Sabbath, it 
doth it for religion's sake, that my devotion may more 
fully and fruitfully occupy himself ; so would God 
have ns conceive, in his dispensation, that what his 
justice doth, it is such, that in some sort it hath a 
respect to, and is serviceable to, this most supreme 
end, this praise of his grace. This is it in which he 
most delighteth. Even as virtuous kings, after the 
matters of God, affect above all things to be had in 
honour for clemency and bounty, so it is with our 
God, King of kings; all he doth is to this end, that 
his grace may be made manifest, unto his greater glory. 
Men indeed may look at praise as a spur, but not 
drive at it as their highest end ; nay, they may not 
seek it but for a further end, God's glory, the good of 
others, their own due encouragement. But God may 
seek his glory as his utmost end, because he is not in 
danger of pride as man is, and there is none higher 
than himself to whom he should have respect ; this 
maketb him, when he sheweth himself to Moses, pro- 
claim this in himself without comparison above others. 
See the place. 

Use 1. The use of this is, first, to stir us up to 
glorify him in regard of his grace to us. How will 
servants, who belong to bountiful lords, commend them 
for their frank housekeeping, liberality to the poor, 
bounty to their followers ! So should we never cease 
to have this grace in our hearts and mouths, to his 
glory who hath shewed it. Let ns not be like those 
grounds which swallow seed, and return nothing to 
the sower. They are not the children of grace, in 
whom God obtaineth not this end ; for all such as 
belong to his grace, he hath chosen them to this end, 
that his grace should be known, praised, and magnified 
by them. St Paul : ' I thank God in Christ,' Kom. vii. ; 
' Praise be to God in Christ,' 1 Cor. xv. ; ' Blessed 

be God, even the Father,' 1 Peter i. If the light of 
God's graces, shining in men, must make us glorify 
God in them, how should this most high grace of God, 
before all worlds thiuking on us for good, how, I say, 
should it be extolled of us ? When the love in a good 
man must be glorious in our eyes, yea, seeing his 
predestination hath so wrought that all things shall 
work for our good, let us in evil, as well as in good, 
praise him ; he loves in everything love itself. Even 
as waters come from the sea, and return again to it, 
so from this ocean cometh every blessing ; and every 
benefit shoulci, by praising this grace, be resolved 
to it. 

Use 2. This doctrine hath use for confutation. If 
this be the last end, and the direct and immediate 
end, of all God doth toward his children, then it can- 
not be that their life of glor}- in the heavens should 
be given them from the hand of justice ; for if that 
should nest of all and immediately be given them from 
justice, then the last things, to which God's predesti- 
nation should come, is the glory of God's distributive 
justice. If they say, God doth give it as an act of 
grace and justice, I answer. Then God hath not done 
all in election and predestination to life unto the glory 
of his grace, but to the joint glory of his grace and 
justice. Again, it is impossible that God should alike 
immediately give life jointly from grace and justice ; 
for if grace give it freely, justice cannot together give 
it as a matter due by meritorious purchase. God may 
as possibly condemn the same man, both out of re- 
venging justice and mercy at once, as he can give a 
man life at once, both from free grace and distributive 
justice ; for mercy aud revenging justice are not more 
opposite than grace is to distributive justice. 

Again, we see them confuted who think that God 
propounded an indefinite end about his creatures, 
destinating his creature to his gloiT in a manner in- 
definite ; whereas we see, in the highest acts of God's 
counsel the Scripture mentioneth, God is testified to 
have his end, not in general, but specified as it is 
here, the praise of his glorious grace. Beside that, 
God cannot propound ends indefinitely ; for this sup- 
poseth that God may provide for some particular end, 
and be frustrated in it ; that he dependeth on the will 
of man in his decrees touching his glory, in this or 
that particular manner ; that he doth not see in that 
instant moment, or sign of his eternal act, whereby 
he did decree to make. When he doth decree to make 
his creature to what particular end he shall bring him, 
only he is sure some kind or other to have his glory. 

Doct. Observe, thirdly, from this he saith, 0/ the 
glory of his prace. And so the other attributes of God 
are his essential glory, a most glorious essence ; in 
earthly things, that is, a glorious body, which is light- 
some and radiant, and hath a kind of lustre ; enjii, St 
Paul saith, ' There is one glory of the sun, another of 
the moon and stars,' making these lightsome bodies 
subjects of glory. Thus it is a property of a body 

Ver. G.] 



glorious to shino as the snn ; needs then must God 
lie essentially glorious who dwclleth in light, who is 
light itself, such as that to it there is no access ; such 
as that the seraphims, conscious of their infirmity, do 
veil themselves before it. The light natural, which 
this bodily eye secth, the light of reason, of grace it- 
self, all are as nothing before this light. When iloses 
said, ' Lord, shew me thy glory,' Exod. xxxiii., the 
Lord said, ' I will shew thee my excellency.' And 
what was it ? Even his ' grace, mercy, bounty, long- 
suffering,' &c., Exod. xxxiv. 

Use 1. I name this by the way, to stir us up that 
we may endeavour to know the properties of God, 
and view as we maj' the reflection which we have in 
his word and works of so infinite glory. How dull of 
heart are we, that we no more seek to have the eyes 
of our minds wiped, that wc may get some glimpse of 
it ! We will run after glorious sights on earth, and 
are much aflected with them, to see the glory of kings, 
especially when their royal estates have annexed 
prince-like wisdom, it maketh that befall man which 
did once happen to the queen of Sheba. There is 
no spirit remaining in them, they are overcome with 
it ; but how would this delight us did we in any 
measure discern it ? What shall be onr glory in 
heaven, our blessedness, but to enjoy the continual 
view of this glory, -this most blessed vision ? By 
meditation and contemplation to fix the eye of our 
souls on this glory, will transform us into the likeness 
of it. All the glory of this world is but like the shine 
of rotten wood, which seemcth bright for the night 
season, but is nothing, as wc see by day, but rotten- 
ness itself. Wherefore, let it not bewitch us, but let 
us all seek to God to take away the veil of our hearts, 
to the end that we may yet, as in a mirror or glass, 
get some sight of this most rich glory, Rom. ix., this 
grace of his which hath been always towards us. 

Observe, fourthly, nheivwilh he hath made us ac- 
cepted. That is, with which grace electing and pre- 
destinating us, that it might bo glorified of us, he hath 
now in his time done us favour, or made us accepted 
in his Christ. Observe then what grace it is which in 
time doth work all good things for us ; even the same 
grace which before all time did purpose them to us. 
God's loving us to life doth not begin when now we are 
brought home by conversion to believe on him ; but 
\\hen we were his enemies, ' he did so love us, that he 
gave his Son all to death for us,' John iii., Rom. v. 
And when he calleth us in time, ho doth it out of that 
grace which was given to us in Christ onr head before 
all worlds. For this cause the Scripture doth not say 
that God beginneth to love us to life when we believe, 
but that he giveth us life eternal, executing that to 
which he had loved us ; neither doth the Scripture 
say that in Christ, now sent to work our redemption, 
love in God is first conceived, but that it is manifested 
when that saving grace appeared, Titus iii., when the 
philanthropy or love of mankind appeared, Titus 

iii. 5. So God doth call us according to grace given 
us before worlds, but now made manifest, 2 Tim. i., 
1 Tim. i. ; yea, life and immortality are said to be 
brought to light, as things which had been over- 
fhadowed, by the gospel. Now, look, as if the sun, 
having her light long eclipsed, should after break out, 
it wore no new light, but an irmpaviia, or new getting 
up of the old light, which for a time was eclipsed ; so 
it is with this sun of God's eternal grace: the interpo- 
sition of sin, through the virtue of justice, did for a 
time keep from us all the gracious influence of it, till 
at length, in Christ removing that which hindered, it 
breaketh out, piercing our hearts with the beams of it, 
and working in us many real efl'octs, which it could 
not put forth till justice was satisfied. Even as God 
knew how to love Christ his Son to that glorious life 
to which he had chosen, and j-et execute the cursed 
death on him, as our surety ; so he could love us 
with his eternal love, unto that life to which he had 
chosen us, and yet execute on us the cursed death, 
when we had ofl'cnded. 

I'se 1. This first serveth to excite in us godly joy : 
in us, I say, who see this light risen over us, this 
love shining upon us, in Christ, which was sometime 
so overcast by sin and death, that no glimpse of it 
might be discerned. If this bodily sun had his light 
but two or three days eclipsed, oh how sweet and 
amiable would it seem to us, when getting the victory, 
it should shine in manner accustomed ! But shall it 
not aft'cct, that the grace of God quite hid from us, 
while we were the children of wrath, lay in all kind of 
darkness, that this grace so hidden should, like a 
spring sun, return to us, and refresh us ? 

Use 2. Again, we see them confuted, who would 
not yield that God loveth any sinner unto life, till he 
doth see his fiiith and repentance. But the love 
which destinateth to bring one to life, may stand with 
wrath, executing death ; and whj' doth he work in sin- 
ners repentance, faith, sanctiflcation, which arc the 
means tending unto life, if he may not purpose the 
end unto them ? What shall hinder him from loving 
them thus far as to purpose to them that he can justly 
execute ? 

Doct. Observe, lastly, in and through whom the 
grace of God doth bring us to receive favour and grace : 
oven in, and through, his beloved. ' The law can.e 
by Moses, but grace and truth through Jesus Christ.' 
The angels did sing at his birth, ' Glory to God, peace 
on earth, good will to men.' In him God was recon- 
ciling the world, and God did give this testimony 
of him, ' This is my beloved, in whom I am well 
pleased.' For Christ hath performed such an obe- 
dience at the commandment of grace, as doth yield 
such satisfaction to justice, that grace may justly give 
us every good thing ; yea, such an obedience, as doth 
procure from grace every good thing for us ; for grace 
and justice kiss each other in Christ ; grace freely 
bestowing all her gifts unto her glorv, anl that wilh- 




[Chap. L 

out any wrong, nay, with full contentment of reveng- 
ing justice. See the first to the Colossians, what is 
written on those words, ' Who hath translated us into 
the kingdom of his beloved Son.' 

Ver. 7. ' /« uhom ive have redemption through his 
blood, even,' &c. Thus we come from that gratifying, 
mother, child-bearing grace, from all eternity in God 
himself, to that grace which is freely given us, and 
hath his real eflect in us. And this is handled, first, 
in regard of the Jew, who had received it, Paul with 
the rest believing ; secondly, in regard of the Gen- 
tiles, and, in particular, these Ephesians. The grace 
toward Paul, with the rest of those who are first called 
to faith, hath two roain branches : first, the grace of 
redemption, or justification ; secondly, the grace of 
glorification, beginning ver. 11, reaching to the 13th. 
Now, in handling this first benefit, first, in this verse, 
he doth propound in the farmer part of the verse, ex- 
pound it in the latter; secondly, he doth set down the 
benefit of vocation effectual, which did go before it, 
and make way to it, ver. 8 ; thirdly, the means of 
their vocation, ver. 9, 10. 

In his propounding the benefit, first, we must mark 
in whom we come to have it, in Christ ; secondly, 
■what this redemption is, that is the bringing us out 
of bondage ; thirdly, the ransom in which we are re- 
deemed, ' through his blood.' The exposition, viz., 
that he meaneth nothing by redemption, but remission 
of sins, the fountain whence it springeth being an- 
nexed, viz., the riches of God's gi-ace. The sum is, 
out of his eternal grace he hath made us accepted in 
his Christ ; for in his Christ (whereas by nature we 
are in thraldom and bondage) he hath delivered and 
redeemed us, through no other ransom than the blood 
of his Son. He hath, I say, set us free both from 
guilt and punishments of our sins, through his most 
rich and abundant grace towards us. 

Doct. Observe first, in whom deliverance is to be 
found from all spiritual thraldom, even in Christ. It 
is often said in Christ, as above, we are blessed thus 
and thus. The reason is. 

Because God hath made Christ an Adam, head, 
root, common receptacle and storehouse, in whom are 
treasured all those good things which from him arc 
communicated to us. There are three phrases in 
speaking of Christ : sometime we are said to have 
things in him, sometime for him, as Philip, ii., ' To 
you it is given for Christ his sake, not only to believe 
but to suffer ;' sometime we are said to have things 
throiifih him, as 1 Cor. v. Rom. vii., ' Blessed be God, 
who hath given us victory through Christ.' Now the 
reason of the first is, because that in Christ, as a com- 
mon storehouse, everything is first placed which after- 
ward is to be imparted to any of us; as in Adam onr 
being natural, our hopes of life and death, and in event 
our condemnation, was received before ever they came 
to be applied and received actually into us. The se- 

cond is said that Christ doth by his obedience obtain 
every good thing, which in time is communicated to 
US ; for as Adam hath procured all the guilt, condem- 
nation, misery, which in time we know, so Christ, the 
second Adam, in regard to the contrary. The third 
phrase is spoken in respect that Christ is a mediator, 
not only of impetration but execution ; that is, not 
only obtaining and receiving from grace all good for 
us, but executing, and by efficacy applying the samein 
us ; as the first Adam doth efl'ectually propagate his 
being, sin, guilt, condemnation. 

Use. The use of this doctrine is to stir us up to seek 
this above all, that we may be by faith in Christ. We 
love to thrust amongst them with whom we may find 
benefit and profit ; yea, we mnst strive by faith to 
grow up in him. The more nearly we are united with 
anything, the more we partake in the virtue and opera- 
tion of it. Those who are nearest the fire partake in 
the heat of it more than those who are further removed. 
So it is here ; alas, men seek to be made one person 
in law, to be most nearly joined to such as may bring 
them in wealth ; allies beneficial. But who doth seek 
by a spiritual marriage to become one with him La 
whom is every good blessing ? (See above, the end 
of the third verse.) 

Doct. Observe, secondly, from this, that he saith, 
' We have redemption in Christ,' what all of us are 
by nature, viz., no better than in a spiritual captivity 
or bondage. Were we no way taken or held captive, 
there could be no place for ransoming or redeeming of 
US. Now captivity or bondage is a state opposite to 
liberty, wherein men live under the power of hard lords, 
deprived of liberty, and grievously entreated many 
ways. The bondage of captives is in this : first, that; 
they are in hands of such as rule severely over them j 
secondly, they have not freedom to do anything which 
formerly they might when they were at liberty ; thirdly, 
they are forced to endure many things most grievous. 
Thus it is in the spiritual consideration, which I will 
briefly unfold. "UTiat lords, as it were, reign over a 
man, thej' are of two sorts, the principal, or ministe- 
rial ; the principal is the most just God, whose justice 
we have wronged by sin, err/o, we are said to be re- 
deemed from under the law, that is, from under the 
revenging justice of the law. Look, as subjects taken 
in murder, robbery, and committed, are the king's 
prisoners principally, not his who keeps them, so it 
is with us. Ministerial, the devil and his angels, the 
conscience accusing and condemning for sin, Acts ii. 
Men are said before their conversion to be under the 
power of the devil, 2 Tim. ii., to be taken as beast* 
alive of the devil, to bis will ; not that he is the prin- 
cipal lord that hath right in the prisoner, but he i^ the 
jailor and executioner, and so the prisoners are his, to 
keep them in the dungeon of darkness and in the chains 
of lusts and darkness. Yea, God hath put a man under 
the power of his conscience, which is a keeper con- 
tinually going with him and haling him to condemna- 

Ver. 7.] 



tion, while ho is out of Christ ; and therefore that 
effect which the Spirit workoth through the law, in the 
conscience fearing, is called a ' spirit of bondage.' As 
amongst the llomans, prisoners had under-keepers, 
who were chained arm to arm unto the prisoner 
whithersoever he went. Thus doth God, to guilty 
man his prisoner, he doth join to him his conscience 
fts a continual keeper, which though it may be brought 
asleep, yet it shall ever be found when God shall call, 
bringing him forth, and witnessing against him. 

For the second : Natural man hath no spiritual 
liberty to do anything spiritually good, as he did before 
sin entered, but is led as a slave by lusts, by passions, 
by objects which please him, so that he is in a brutish 
bondage : for, even as the brute beast hath no liberty, 
but is carried by the appetite to everything that doth 
agree ; so natural men, as Peter speaketh, are led 
with sensuality, covetousness ; that look, as one would 
lead a sheep with holding out hay or ivy, an ox with 
fodder carried before it, so doth the devil natural 
man, with such objects as he knoweth doth fit their 
corruption : 2 Pet. ii. 19, ' Every one is servant to him 
of whom he is overcome.' Now, sin hath overcome 
all men, and this Paul did confess of himself before his 
conversion. Tit. iii. 3. 

Natural man's bondage is that he is exposed to suffer 
a thousand evils, to wearisome vanity in everything, 
yea, through fear of death, the upshot of evils, he is 
subject to bondage all his days while in that slate he 
abideth, Heb. ii. 15. Pharaoh did never put Israel to 
such hard services, as the devil putteth those to, whom 
he keepeth under bis power. You may amplify these 
considerations. Having shewed what it is, and in 
what it standcth, I will conclude this point with shew- 
ing how it entered. 

Our first parents, by the devil tempted, wilfully 
breaking God's commandment, brought themselves into 
bondage. Now, our parents once in bondage, we that 
are bom of them cannot be in better condition, till 
God by Christ, out of his mere grace, set us free. The 
children, yon know, of persons in bondage, are all 
bondmen likewise ; partus seqtiitiir ventrem. 

Use. This should make us enter into ourselves, to 
see if we be not in this woful thraldom. Oh, the 
misery of men surpasseth all that is in the beast; for 
they take it as a grievous thing to be ensnared and 
taken, but man laugheth in midst of his bondage, he 
countt th it liberty to live a slave of Satan ; they think 
that to follow things and courses pleasing their nature 
is liberty, though it be no more liberty than an ox is j 
in, while with fodder held before him, he is led to the 
place where he is to be slaughtered. Again, they | 
know, nor think nothing of bondage. Whtn Christ | 
told them, ' If the son set you free, you are free in- i 
deed, what reply they ? ' We are the sous of Abra- 
ham, we were never in bondage.' Spiritual thraldom 
could not enter their thoughts. Look, as it was with 
those men Elisha did lead to Samaria, those bauds of ^ 

the Syrians, so fareth it with these ; while the devil 
leadelh them to hell, where thty will die without re- 
pentance, see themselves in the midst of murdering 
spirits, they follow him as if they went to heavin it- 
self, as those followed, being led wiih a mist depraving 
their sight ; they followed to the city of their enemies, 
thinking they had gone to Damascus, their own 
strength. Many such souls there are led in this 
fashion, who yet will have the devil in their mouths, 
and defy him in words, as having nothing to do with 
him ; but as many profess in words that they deny in 
deed, so many defy in word what they do in work. 
Take a young gallant, who now in his ruff doth swagger 
it, and run the next way to the hospital ; tell him of 
beiug poor, he will defy that ever it should come near 
him ; but yet while he doth play the prodigal, he doth 
go apace in the way to beggaij : so thou dost defy to 
be in bondage to the devil, and follow him ; but while 
thy ignorant mind, thy lusts, thy passions, customs, 
corrupt example, while these guide thee in thy course 
of life, the devil leadeth thee as in a string, to all he 
pleaseth. If thou didst never feel any spiritual bond- 
age, this is sign enough thou art still in bondage. 
Even as deadly sicknesses are felt when now nature 
somewhat recovereth, so bondage is felt when now 
God restoreth in the beginnings, by work of his grace, 
some true liberty ; then a man liiuleth his unregenerate 
part yoke him, the things of this world too much pre- 
vailing over him, that he thiuketh himself even sold 
under sin and captive to it. 

Doct. Observe, thirdly, that we have deliverance 
from our spiritual thraldom by Christ. Christ for 
this is called our Redeemer, or redemption of his 
people, who doth deliver them from the hand of all 
their enemies, that ' they may serve the Lord without 
fear.' Those whom God did raise up to redeem his 
people, as Moses, the judges, Sec, yea, those who re- 
deemed, as kinsmen, this or that, were shadows of 
this our great Redeemer, who was in time to be re- 
vealed. Now, redemption noteth sometime the action 
of God working our deliverance, sometime the effect 
of this action in us, who are redeemed and enlarged. 
Thus it is here taken for a state of freedom, which be- 
hevers attain through Christ his redemption ; and this 
state is twofold, either begun only in this life, or con- 
summate, in which sense wo have ' the redemption of 
the body,' Rom. viii., and Ci.rist is said to be made our 
redemption after our sanctification ; where redemption 
noteth out that consummate deliverance from the 
bondage of mortality itself, which these vile bodies of 
ours shall be brought unto in heaven. Here he spcaketh 
of the former, which faithful ones are brought unto 
now believing. This may bo amphfied by branches 
correspondtnt to the contrary bondage ; for from what 
time we are in Christ we are freed from being under 
the law and revenging justice of God, there being ' no 
condemnation to those that are in Christ,' Hum. viii. 
1. Again, this strong man is cast forth from nhat time 



[Chap. I. 

Christ the stronger entereth. The conscience is made 
a sweet companion and comforter, rather than a rigor- 
ous keeper. Being justified by faith, we are at peace. 
Where the king hath released a prisoner, the jailor 
can have no further power over him ; for he is but to 
keep him during the king's pleasure. Again, by grace, 
God doth Set our wills at liberty ; so that sin cannot 
reign in us as heretofore, Eom. vi. Grace which 
fighteth against the lusts of the flesh, and will not let 
ns come under the power of anything ; yea, the world 
is crucified to us, and we to the world. For as when 
health cometh, a man beginneth to walk abroad and do 
such things as he could not stir to, while his sickness 
did keep him under, so it is here. Finally, we are 
so set free that we can suffer nothing which our wills 
have cause to be unwilling with, all things being such 
as shall work together for our good. Count it all joy 
when ye fall into temptation, which is the height of 
freedom, that so far forth as we are regenerate, we 
cannot sufi'er anything though all the creatures should 
conspire, but what our own wills like well of; yea, ask 
by prayer, in some sort at God's hand. But it may 
be objected, that the devil doth still prevail against us, 
that sin leadeth us captive, ergo, we are not delivered. 
I answer, redemption is double ; either, as I said, be- 
gun, or perfected. These things stand not'with full 
and perfect redemption, but they may stand with it 
while it is in the beginnings. We must distinguish 
the power of the devil to hold us under condemnation, 
from his power of molestation ; and we must distin- 
guish the power of sin reigning over men, with willing 
subjection, and usurping over him, as now set free, 
and making resistance. 

In the former respects we are redeemed and de- 
livered from what time we believe ; the latter, we are 
so subject to, that they shall be more and more 

Use 1. The use of this is, first, to stir us up to 
thanksgiving, even to sing with Mary our Magnificat 
to God. What cause have we to praise him who hath 
visited and redeemed us with such a redemption ! We 
should ever}' one sing the song of Moses, to see our- 
selves thus delivered. Let us remember how this 
lust and that passion were wont to tyrannise in us. Let 
us remember when it was death to us to be held to 
duties of godhness, in which is the exercise of true 
freedom. Let us think of those times wherein sin did 
hold us so fast, that though we saw the mischief of it, 
and purposed sometime a new course, yet we could not 
but return to it as before. Let us remember when 
fears of conscience and death have held us in thraldom, 
that these may set an edge upon our thanksgiving. 
Lest we should forget this duly to God, God hath left 
some trouble, some remainders ; like the weather in 
ache of a wrested joint, when now it is restored. How 
thankfully would we take it to be set free from the dark- 
ness, deadness, sensualit}', earthly-mindedness, which 
we still find, as a clog and chain to the spirits of us 1 

If this would be so grateful, to be set free fi'om circum- 
stances which molest ns only, how much more is that 
our substantial deliverance from the revenging justice 
of God, from the power of the devil, holding us under 
the curse ; from the power of our conscience justly 
condemning us, from the power of sin, commanding as 
king, how much more is this to be extolled ! This 
mercy was not shewed to the angels, creatures more 
excellent than ourselves. Should one set us free from 
the state of villainage, or ransom us from the gallows, 
we could not think ourselves thankful enough to them, 
much less can we ever be thankful enough for this 

Vse 2. It should stir up spiritual joy. Look Isaiah 
xliv. 23, where the insensible creatures are called upon 
to rejoice for the redemption of God's people, when they 
were redeemed from Babel. The joy did put them into 
an ecstasy ; they knew not whether they were asleep or 
awake. Let us pray to God to move the scales from 
our eyes, and take the veil from our hearts, which will 
not let us rejoice in so excellent mercy. 

It followeth, through his Mood. Observe what it is 
by which we are ransomed, even the blood of Christ. 
This was it which in the blood of all the sacrifices was 
prefigured. ' We are redeemed,' saith Peter, ' not wiih 
silver or gold, but with the blood of Christ, a lamb 
undefiled.' Wlien any are captive here and there, we 
have but two ways usually by which we redeem them : 
the first is by force of arms, when we powerfully rescue 
them ; the other is by course of justice, when we send 
some ransom, and by way of change set them free. 
Now, it is in vain to dispute what God might have 
done by absolute power ; for God may out of his 
absolute sovereignty not have punished Adam's sin, 
both because it was against himself, not others, to 
whom he is tied to do justice ; and especially for tliat 
the demonstration of his revenging justice springelh 
not from the necessity of his nature, but from his 
voluntary disposition, as well as the giving life perpe- 
tual, to obedience for a certain space performed.* And, 
finally, because God is able, were he pleased to shew 
this power, to turn it to his glory ; which men's im- 
potency not attaining, maketh them that they cannot 
always with justice forgive even that in which them- 
selves are trespassed. Yet seeing God hath deti r- 
mined that his justice shall take her revenge, if by 
breach of covenant she be wronged, he cannot but 
execute punishment, neither may he set us free from 
the same, but so as wronged justice may receive satis- 
faction. Again, we know which maketh the Scripture 
saj' it was meet and nccessarj' that Christ should lie 
consecrated through sufi'ering, that he should sulfi'r, 
and 60 enter his glory; see Luke xxiv. 20, Heb. ii. 17. 
Death, corporal and spirituiil, such as is a punish- 
ment of sin, but not sinful. Desertion, not in regard 

* For witlidraw that voluntary covenant, who doul>teth but 
th:it, had the creature kept his innocfincy a thousand years, 
God was free to have annihilated him ? 

Ver. 7.] 



of union and sustentation, but of consolation. Im- 
pression of wrath, death being made as serviceable 
for our good, and the fear of it being taken away by 
him who hath tasted it for us, and swallowed it up 
into victor)-. 

We know that ho hath by way of ransom redeemed 
us, as being the fittest way both to deliver us out of 
his grace freely, and yet to shew himself just, in so 
justifying or redeeming of us, see Rom. iii. 25. For 
further opening this point, mark two things: 1. What 
is understood by Christ his blood ; 2. How it hath 
set us free from bondage. By his bloody death upon 
the cross, or his bloody and cursed death, the Scrip- 
ture makoth us redeemed. Bj- his death, Heb. ix. 12, 
and by yielding himself to bo made a curse for us. 
Gal. iii. 13, the commandment given to Christ, being 
this, ' that he should lay down his life for our re- 
demption ; ' for look, as a surety must pay in such 
death as the law inflicteth on sinners, such death as 
is joined with the curse. As he was our surety, and 
undertook to answer our sins, the Godhead did but 
sustain him, that he should not be swallowed up of 
it, as the brazen covering of the altar, did make it tit 
to endure that material tire. 3. The assault of those 
impure spirits ; for the hour or time for all those 
powers of darkness was then come, when this his 
redemptory sufl'ering approached. 

Christ our surety was to take upon him our debt of 
death, both corporal and spiritual, so far as he might, 
neither the union of his person, nor yet the holiness 
of his nature any whit diminished. The Scripture 
doth mention his blood so frequently, both because 
this circumstance is most sensible, and was the body 
in which all the typical blood of sacrifices in the law 
had his accomplishment. 

And ei(jo, as when we read that Christ was flesh, 
we must not think as Apollinarius, that he took no 
Boul ; so when we read his hlood shed, or bodily 
death, wo must not think that he died not a spiritual 
death in soul also. The fathers, who denied that he 
died in soul, deny it not absolutely, but after a sort, 
viz., that ho died not such a death in soul, as did 
destroy the essential life of it, like as death bodily 
doth the life of the body ; nor yet any such death as 
did either separate his soul from union with God, or 
did imply any sinful corruption, as it did in us, whose 
souls are dead in sins and trespasses. 

Now this death is it, by means whereof God's grace 
doth set us free, and that in most just manner. 
First, from the guilt of sin, inasmuch as it doth pacify 
and satisfy justice her displeasure against sin : this 
obedience of that great God, our S.iviour, being far 
more effectual to please and satisf}', than the sin of 
the whole world could be to displease and provoke 
justice against us ; for though it be finite in itself, yet 
in the person it bccometh infinite for the value of it. 
Hence it is that God, that is God, as now in his re- 
venging justice is gone forth, is said to smell a savour 

of rest in the death of Christ, and by Christ's being 
put under the law, or curse of God's revenging justice, 
made manifest in the law, wo are s.iid to bo redeemed 
from tho law or curse, as by an all-sufficient ransom 
accepted of justice. 

Secondly, Now this blood or death doth free us 
from the devil, for Satan's power over us was by 
reason of sin, and the punishment duo to it from the 
justice of God : Col. ii., ' By his cross he triumphed 
over and spoiled principalities,' &c. ; by death he 
destroyed him that had the power of executing death. 

Thirdly, This death doth obtain tho Spirit to be 
given us, which doth free us from the captivity of 
lusts, and enable us to find liberty in actions of godli- 
ness. Christ was put under the law, that we might 
be redeemed and receive the Spirit of God. This 
Spirit is that life of the world, for which he did suffer 
death, as the gospel speaketh. 

Last of all, through this death we havo deliverance 
from all evils, so that all tears in God's time shall be 
wiped from our eyes, and in the mean while all our 
sufferings are so changed, that they are not effects of 
God's revenging justice to destroy us ; but they aro 
such things in which God doth ofl'er himself as a 
father, intending to make us partake further, by 
means of them, in the quiet fruit of righteousness. 

Use 1. The uses of these are manifold : 1. It letteth 
us see that love of Christ to die for us, when now we 
did practise nothing but open hostility against him, 
iiom. V. 

U>ic 2. Again, we see how fitly that is spoken of 
this blood, that it ' crielh for better things than the 
blood of Abel.' This doth appease revenge, not pro- 
voke it ; this doth call for all kind of blessings. 
Wherefore, let us get our consciences sprinkled with 
this, and fly to it by faith, as they were wont to the 
sanctuary, to the horns of the altar, for this is our 
true refuge in every necessity. 

This doth shew us how we should esteem of all 
those benefits, as remission of sin, Ac, which are pur- 
chased by it. Things bought at high price, wo do 
esteem of them accordingly. Many will not come out 
of their vault}', but leave the thing as not worth the 
taking, which Christ hath purchased with his dearest 
blood : ' Knowing that you are redeemed from your 
vain conversation, not with silver and gold, but with 
the blood of Christ, a lamb undctiled.' 

Duct. Reinixsivn of sins out of his rich grace. 
Whence observe, first, that to have our sin forgiven, 
is to be redeemed, or set free from all evil. That 
which before he called redemption is here called re- 
mission of sin. Our natural estate, if it be considered 
as a spiritual bondage, Christ his deliverance is re- i 
demption ; but if it be considered as a state in which 
we stand guiltj-, and under punishment of the law, 
then Christ his deliverance is the procuring of remis- 
sion of sin, and they cannot but be one in substance, 
though in reason and consideration they differ. For 



[Chap. I. 

what is forgiveness ot sin, but an act of grace acquit- 
ting us from all the guilt and the whole punishment 
of all our sin ? And as we did speak of redemption, 
so we may speak of remission. For though the sen- 
tence of pardon be wholly and at once passed to us, 
yet the execution of the sentence is here begun only, 
and shall then be consummate, when eveiT tear shall 
be wiped from our eyes ; in which regard we may 
grant, without any danger of popery, that in the life 
to come, even at the time of Christ's appearing to 
lefresh us, or to reanimate our bodies by the return of 
the soul to them, that even then sins shall be blotted 
forth, that is, the sentence which had absolved us 
from all the punishment and consequences of sin 
shall then be fully executed. Again, the force" of this 
remission is such, that it setteth men free from the 
•condemnation of God's justice in the law, from that 
power of the devil, and my conscience condemning of 
me, from the hfe and power of sin, which is the death 
of the soul, from all miseries and death, which come 
in as a wages of sin. 

Use. This then should stir us up to seek remission 
of sin. It is to be redeemed or set free from all evil, to 
get our sin forgiven ; therefore David saith, ' Blessed 
is the man whose sin is forgiven, to whom God im- 
puteth not sin.' Look, as malefactors will turn eveiy 
stone, make all their friends thej' have, to get a par- 
don for their lives, so should we bestir us to get this 
pardon, which once gotten, we shall be sure to have 
in God's time all tears wiped from our eyes, we shall 
see ourselves delivered from all evil. 

Observe, secondly, that every believer in Christ 
receiveth forgiveness of his sins. Though by nature we 
are in our sins, lie in evil of guilt and punishment, 
yet once getting faith on Christ's blood we are justified, 
we have forgiveness of sin, and are accepted as 
righteous to life, through Christ his obedience; though 
the one is named, yet the other is by a synecdoche to 
be conceived. Even as kings, to shew their clemency 
in entering their reigns, they give out free pardons to 
many kind of trespasses ; so God, to glorify his mercy, 
it pleaseth him to give us in Christ the forgiveness of 
all our sins. My meaning here is to speak precisely 
of remission of sin, as it is distinguished from im- 
puting righteousness, which I conceive as a distinct 
part, concurring in our justification. 

About this, then, we will inquire three jioints. 

1. In what order we have it. 

2. What is the extent or latitude of it in respect of 
sin and punishment. 

3. How we who have it can be faid to believe the 
xemission of our sins. 

« 1. For the first. As the supreme power of saving 
or destroying is with God, so of remitting and holding 
sin unremitted. We are therefore to conceive our re- 
mission, first of all, as in (he gracious purpose of 
God toward us, who knoweth on whom he will have 
mercy, and whom he will harden. Aswe thus had [it] in 

God's eternal purpose, so we have it given us in time 
by way of execution. First, we have it given to Christ 
our head, for us all ; for he being made sin for us, 
even as a surety, having all our debt laid on him, he 
could not be raised up till now all our sins were done 
away; cy/o, Paul, 1 Cor. xv. saith, that 'if Christ 
were not risen, we were still in our sins ,' where he 
maketh the clearing of us all from sin, and Christ his 
resurrection, to be accompanied one with the other. 
Again, God did reconcile the world, not imputing sins 
in Christ, which could not be without remitting all 
their sins for whom his Christ did undertake. Be- 
sides, were not our sins forgiven in him, we could not 
be raised up, set in heavenly places with him ; for 
before we can have quickening given us in Christ, we 
must have pardon of sin given us. 

Further, what did Christ shed his blood for, but 
that he might actually get the pardon of our sins "? 
Finally, he doth distribute nothing to us, which by 
virtue of his obedience he receiveth not for us. 

In the third place, this remission is communicated 
from Christ to us in manner following : 

(1.) Christ sendeth his ministers, as legates, with 
the word of reconcihation or pardon, inviting them 
to believe on him, that they may receive forgiveness 
of sin. 

(2.) He doth work together by his Spirit, making 
those who are his children beUeve on him, that they 
may find forgiveness in him. 

(3.) He doth communicate with them the forgive- 
ness which himself had procured and obtained for 
them. Thus, even as condemnation was first within 
the pleasure of God ; secondly, come forth against 
Adam, and us all in him ; thirdly, is communicated 
actually from Adam to us, what time we come to be 
born of Adam ; so, on (he contrary, our justification 
or remission of sin is first with God ; secondly, in 
Christ, who hath by his obedience obtained for us the 
remission of all our sins ; thirdly, it is communicated 
to us whensoever we are supernaturally begotten of 
him, that is, brought to believe. ' He that beheveth 
is born of God ;' for though we have not justification 
actually applied before we are called (o faith, yet we 
do receive it virtually in Christ, when he was quit 
from all our sins, as it is in Adam, who was his type; 
for though condemnation is not actually applied till 
we are born of him, yet in virtue of his condemnation 
was the condemnation of us all. And, by the way, 
we may see here how God forgiveth sins, how Christ 
the mediator, how the ministers : God, by the prin- 
cipal and prime authority; the Mediator, by a secondary 
derived authority ; man, by a ministerial publica- 
tion of the word of pardon. For Christ doth not 
ministcriiilly declare pardon, even as he is man ; for 
though he be a servant and subject as Blediator, yet 
he is such a servant as hath an under power of judg- 
ment. The Father giveth all judgment to the Son, 
he judgetb none himself : such a servant as my lord 




•chancellor is to Lis majesty, not such a servant as an 
ordinary or special messenger, in forgiving sins. Then 
conceive it thus, as in citing one to .appear, the ori- 
ginal authority is the king's, the under authority is 
with the judge of this or that court, the ministerial 
■authority in the messenger, which doth carry and 
servo the writ ; and the messenger may be said to 
fetch such a man up, not because any authority in 
him doth it, but the writ he carrieth, as a sign, hath au- 
thority to do it ; so here God first pardoueth, as having 
the prime and original authority ; then Christ, as 
chief Judge under God, in the court of chancery, that 
throne of grace ; the ministers, as messengers, par- 
don, because they dispense the word of God and 
Christ, which giveth pardon, and hath authority to 
give it. But this by the way. 

2. The second point followeth, concerning the sub- 
ject of this forgiveness, how far it is to be extended. 
I answer, it is to be extended to all our sins past, 
before our conversions, following after our conversions, 
to the whole guilt or blame, and to the whole punish- 
ment of them. We must not think that only sins past 
■are forgiven, but all the sins which shall escape us 
thi'ough intirmity ; for the covenant of God is to for- 
give us our sins, and to remember them no more. 
Now, who shall limit this to sins past before conver- 
sion, when God speaketh it iudetinitcly, and when 
suqh a pai'tial forgiveness may be, and yet the sins 
forgiven come again to be remembered ? Col. ii., ' God 
hath freely pardoned unto us all our sins.' He doth see 
no iniquity in his Jacob, he to whom things to come, 
and things past, are alike present. The remission, 
which leaveth no place for condemnation, must needs 
be of all sins ; but we being in Christ, are so remitted, 
that now there is no condemnation to us, though we 
daily sin, through the flesh which dwelleth with us. 

That justification, between which and the giving of 
eternal life or glorification nothing cometh, that is 
from all sins. But whoso believeth, hath such a for- 
giveness, that he receiveth eternal hfe ; or is so jus- 
tified, that he is presently glorified with the beginning 
of glory. 

Again, we believing, receive that forgiveness of sin, 
which Christ hath obtained by his blood for us ; but 
this was a full remission of all our sins, from the first 
to the last of them. Beside that, the redemption 
and righteousness Christ doth bring are everlasting, 
Heb. ix., which they could not be if our remission 
were but of sins past ; for then should every conse- 
quent sin make us again unrighteous, till we were 
restored. If the sin present at our conversion be 
such as cannot bo done away without the forgiving 
those that follow, then we have forgiveness of both ; 
but our sin dwelling in us is such that it cannot be 
forgiven, but all the rest must be forgiven likewise, 
for all the other are in it, as an eflfect in the cause, 
as the fruit is in a tree, and the guilt of the cor- 
ruption present reacheth to the last sin which is to 

spring from it ; and oyo, it is sure, that when God 
forgiveth us this, he doth forgive us all other like- 
wise, which he doth see are in it, and will in time 
issue from it. Did not God covenant with us, be- 
lieving, to forgive all our sins, and seal this grace by 
baptism ; all, I say, past, present, and to come ; then 
we could not help ourselves in our after fall, by look- 
ing to that grace sealed in baptism, for that was help- 
ful for the sins committed before it only, which is 
contrary to all good experience and doctrine. Again, 
were a man pardoned for sins past only, then must 
we grant that either he may quite fall from his union 
with Christ, or be in Christ, and yet be subject to 
condemnation. .And if we had not pardon of sins 
after committed, as well as before, whence cometh it, 
that daily many sins of infirmity escape us, the peace 
which followeth our justification not once disturb cd 
by them ? If any say we have pardon of those sins 
for after, without which none liveth, but not of crimes 
more grievous, this is to yield what they please, and 
to dfcsist where they please, without any motive from 
reason. Neither doth that parable* teach that God 
forgiveth us our sins before our conversion, but not 
sins after, which he doth charge upon us at his plea- 
sure ; for the letter of the parable doth, if it be fol- 
lowed, seem to sound as if God might require our s ns 
after those sins which before he had forgiven us, :uid 
80 did forgive us nonf absolutely, which the popish 
school will not abide by. The parable, therot'ore, 
must be construed by the end which it is brought for, 
viz., to teach that such as will not forgive, shall rot 
find forgiveness with God. Neither is that Rom. iii., 
where God is said to be just in forgiving the .sins 
passed before time, through his patience, it makcth 
not any thing to this purpose ; for sins are said to bo 
before committed, which were committed under llio 
former testament, as Heb. ix., it is made plain, and 
so not the time of a man before and after convers-ion, 
but the time before and after, or under the New Tes- 
tament, is there compared. And howbeit we are still 
to seek forgiveness, it is not that we are not in a state 
of being justified and forgiven, but because it is need- 
ful that God should as well preserve and continue this, 
as at first give it ; and that this his mercy should be 
more and more manifested in ns, and that the execu- 
tion of this sentence should be further and further 
performed ; finally, that the fatherly chastisements 
our sins daily incur might be prevented. For these 
causes we make this petition, though we know all our 
sins are, in regard of God"s gracious sentence, remitted 
to us. Neither doth the church's censure, excommu- 
nicating any, argue that he is one who, before the tri- 
bunal of God, is in a state of condemnation, or doth 
not continue united to Christ, but that he hath 
DO manifest external communions with her in tho 
duties of godliness, and secondary operations of the 
Spirit ; yea, that as the leper was civilly dead in rc- 
* The parable in Mat. xviii. 23.— Ed. t Qu- ' not ' ?-Ed. 



[Chap. I. 

gard of civil communion, so is he to her in regard of 
spiritual ; but she doth take him to have inward union 
aud life, which floweth fi'om it ; for even as we seek 
the he;ilth of none by way of medicine, whom we can- 
not take to have life in them, no more can the church 
the restoring of these by this so sharp ccnsurn, might 
she not think there were some life in them, though it 
is oppressed, as the life natural by a fit of the apo- 
plexy. If we have not all our sins forgi%'en, past, 
present, to come, it is because Christ hath not the 
pardon of them all to give vxs ; or because the word 
and sacraments cannot apply to us at once the pardon 
of them all ; or because our faith cannot receive this 
plenary remission ; or else it is not fit for some con- 
sequence which would ensue. But the former three 
none will doubt of, and the latter is fondly surmised, 
when this grace which forgiveth is the parent and 
nurse of holy fear in us, Ps. cxxx. Wherefore, for 
this first part, let us assure ourselves, God doth give 
us full pardon of all our sins, and that this his gift is, 
as bis efl'ectual calling, without repentance, aud we 
believing, do receive this whole mercy. So that, 
though we are subject to grievous falls after it, and 
unbelief, yet not to any such unbelief as shall ever 
make the faith of God and his gracious gift in vain ; 
which, concerning God's forgiveness, so far as they 
conceive it to extend, the best of the papists' school 

Now, to shew that the whole guilt and pimishment 
is released. 

Such who are set free from all condemnation, are 
as well set free from temporal as eternal. Now all 
in Christ are thus set free, &c. 

Such who are set free from the curse of the law, 
are set free from temporal punishments of sin ; such, 
I mean, as come from revenging justice, that she may 
be satisfied in them, as well as from eternal ; for all 
these are the curses of the law ; see Deut. xvii. He 
who coveretb them, Isa. xliii. ; blotteth them out. Acts 
iii. ; throweth them into the bottom of the sea, Blicah 
ix. ; sealcth them up, Dan. ix. ; removeth them as fur 
as the east from the west, Ps. ciii. ; he doth not par- 
don them by halves. The baptists-' do yield this full 
pardon in baptism ; but in sins which we fall into after 
baptism, I mean mortal sins, they say, that we receive 
forgiveness only of the eternal, not of the temporal 
punishment, which remaineth to be suffered by us, to 
the satisfaction of God's justice. This is a \vicked 
doctrine, derogating from Christ, that the revenue of 
purgatory might not be diminished; and not to speak 
that all this doctrine of sacramental penance leaneth 
on false grounds, as namely on this for one, that sins 
only before baptism are forgiven when we are baptized ; 
that there are some venial sins not deserving eternal 
punishment ; it is to be detested, because it maketh 
Christ not solely and perfectly to saTe us from sin ; 
it maketh Christ not the purger of us by himself from 
* Qu. ' papists' ?— Ed. 

sin, which is affirmed, Heb. i. 3 ; while it doth make 
US to satisfy for ourselves, in regard of the guilt in 
part, and temporary punishment. Here are argu- 
ments in the text against it. 

(1.) That remission which is given upon a price 
more than sufficient to answer all the punishment of 
sin, that is not a half remission. 

(2.) That sin which is remitted or pardoned, that 
is not to be satisfied for ; to pardon is, without satis- 
faction, or any revenge taken, to forgive that which is 
committed against me. 

Should the king, when he might execute a traitor, 
not take his life, but keep him in prison, he should 
not forgive the fault, but change a greater punishment 
into a less. 

(3.) Again ; that which is given from the riches of 
grace, is no scant half pardon. 

But the remission which God glveth is from his 
rich grace. 

True it is, that God doth, after he hath forgiven a 
sin, take temporary correction still, as in David ; but 
to offer himself as a Father for our good, is one thing, 
to revenge himself as a Judge, for the satisfying of his 
justice, is another. The sting of revenging justice is 
pulled forth, from what time we have forgiveness ; this 
done, the evil is no curse of the law, and ergo, it may 
stand with full and free forgiveness.* Should some 
Turk have sentence pass on him to die for some mur- 
der, which amongst Christians he is found to have 
committed ; should Christians, between the sentence 
and time of execution, labour with him, and convert 
him to the faith of Christ ; should he now, when the 
hour of execution were at hand, being dulj* prepared 
to it, take baptism, I hope he should be fully forgiven, 
and yet he should have no release from this death, 
which by his murder he had deserved. In a word, 
there is no ground for this opinion, but it is only de- 
fended that the flame of purgatory might not be 
extinguished. Ask the question, Why doth this man, 
having after baptism fallen to some mortal sin, and 
then repenting, why doth he, on his faith and repent- 
ance, receive only forgiveness of the eternal punish- 
ment '? Is it that Christ his death is not as suffii-ient 
as before ? Are there not sufficient means ? Will not 
the same qualification in faith and repentance serve, 
that did before ? They say, the first is all-suflicient 
in itself ; they say, the sacrament of their penance is 
perfect; they say, if a man have such confession, sa- 
tisfaction, contrition, as do not put any impediment 
to the sacrament, then it sufficeth. Then, say I, ever}- 
man who receiveth pardon of the eternal punishment, 
by the sacrament, must receive pardon of the tempo- 
ral also ; for the sacrament sufficeth to give both. If 
he come with such contrition and qualification as doth 

* Which some see. and, erg'y, yield tliat haptism doth not 
take away all punishment in this life, but in the life to como 
it shall. It lakrth all away which wtvc to Lc sufl'ered in 
purgatory, aud uU penalties the church may enjoin. 

Veh. 7.] 



not put impedimcut, be receiveth tlio whole benefit ; 
if be come not with sucb, be receiveth no grace by 
niL'iius of it, no reniissiou of the eternal. 

8. Now followetb the third tbiug, to which I answer, 
AYe do believe romissiou of sius, because though we 
have it, in regard of God's sentence, and feel some 
eli'ects of it, as peace, joy, Ac, yet we see it not fully 
executed, nor shall not, till the time of refreshiug. 

Use 1. Now then, how should this comfort our 
hearts, that God bath dealt thus richly with us. Fear 
not, thou repenting, believing soul, feai' not sins past, 
present, to come, thy God hath put all from bis sight, 
and so that he keepeth no back reckonings for thee ; 
all the blame, all that is a proper plague or punish- 
ment for sin, is removed from thee. What would come 
to us under couJemuatiou, more pleasant than this 
word of pardon '? What can we believers receive more 
gladly than this general acquittance of all our sins ? 

i'se 2. This must make us fear the Lord. There is 
mercy with God, that be may be feared; mercy reach- 
ing to forgiveness, the word signitieth. For a traitor 
once pardoned in treason to be found a second time 
in conspiracy, how unthankful, how intolerable; so it 
is with us, i!cc. 

Use 3. Seeing we get this remission in Christ his 
blood, lot us lay it up and keep it carefullj'. We keep 
all things which testify our discbarge from debts. 
Let us lay up this by faith in our hearts, even this 
pardon iii Christ bis blood, which our God giveth us. 
It is a blessed thing to exercise faith in the promise 
and seals which we have received. Blany, measuring 
themselves in God's favour by feelings, when these 
fail, call all in question ; many seeking comfort no 
further than the smart of terrors drive them, and then 
giving over, at length are distressed with their old 
fears and donbtings ; for wounds over-hastily skinned 
break forth afresh. But not a few, never exercising 
their senses in apprehending this benefit, and so in 
careful laying it up, they cause God to hide that com- 
fortable experience of it, to the end they may seek it 
up, and keep it, receiving it, more careluUy ; as if one 
look loosely to plate, we will lay a piece aside for a 
while, and make one think his negligence hath lost it, 
that thus we may teach him to keep it more carefully 
when it is returned. 

Use 4. Let us maintain our spiritual liberty, in 
which Christ hath set us, hating these lying vanities, 
which would make the grace of God not to forgive, 
but to change a greater punishment iuto a lesser. In 
outward matters, we will stand for the utmost of our 
liberty, not sufl'ering a word of our charters to be re- 
strained ; and shall we bear it, that when God giveth 
us in Christ a pardon of all our sins, men should 
limit it to sins before baptism, of sins in regard of 
their eternal punishment '? In human matters, we 
hold that clauses which are in favour to us, are to be 
censured in the amplest manner which they may bear 
with probability. 

Doct. Observe, lastly, in the seventh verse, from 
whence it is that God giveth us pardon of sin : even 
from his rich gi-aco. This made the saints in the Old 
Testament lly to God's mauifold and tender mercies, 
and feel in them remission of sin. See Exod. x.\xiv., 
' Jehovah, gracious, merciful, rich in kindness, for- 
giving sin and iuiquities.' As if the riches of his 
grace were in this act above all others manifest : Isa. 
xliii., ' For my own sake do I put away thy sin ; not 
for your sake, but for my own name's sake, will I purge 
you, and wash you from j-our sins, you house of 
Israel,' Eiiek. xxxvi. We see that giving benefits, 
though it Cometh from kindness, yet it doth not any- 
thing so much testify the clemency and kindness of 
oiu- natures, as the bearing and passing injuries which 
do highly provoke us. This then is the fruit of God's 
most rich grace ; indeed, nothing but grace can for- 
give, forgiveness being a free pardoning of some 
otlence, without taking any revenge or satisfaction. I 
cannot forgive that fault, for which I take my revenge, 
or something which doth couuturvail the injury ofl'ered. 
Justice may cause revenge, but cannot forgive. 

OhJ. But how can God out of his rich grace forgive 
our sins, when he doth not forgive them, but upou the 
blood of his Son shed for us, as a ransom or redemp- 
tion '? That which we get upon a ransom tendered, 
that is from justice due to us, not fi'om free grace 
given us. 

Alls. JIany limit this sentence thus : that we receive 
on a ransom which om-selves tender, that is due, not 
on a ransom which is given us out of grace ; but this 
seemeth not to answer the dilficulty. For what I 
purchase with money never so mercifully bestowed on 
me, is mine in justice, though the money were not 
mine till mercy did furnish me with it. A price of 
redemption, <')y/<^ must be considered two ways: 1, 
as a thing demanded of justice, that she may iu heu 
do something upon it ; thus Christ's blood was no 
ransom ; for justice did not call him to this mediator- 
like and priestly otfice, nor bid him lay down his life ; 
2, it must be considered as a thing provided and en- 
joined by mercy, thai by it, as by a mean, mercy may 
do something justly, which otherwise she might not ; 
and such a ransom is Christ his blood, and eiyo, doth 
excellently accord with free grace, and the work of 
grace in everything. 

Ol'j. But when Christ bis obedience is such as 
ceaseth justice, bow can God out of grace release to 
this obedience, that punishment of sin, from which 
now justice in regard of it hath ceased ? 

Atis. Because the obedience of the son is due to the 
father, and may be required from the son of duty, to 
be rewarded at his pleasure. If my sou do that at 
my command, upon which I can demand ten shillings, 
I who have the right of my son and bis work, may 
take the whole, and yet give him of grace what I 

Use 1. It doth confute the former dream, that which 



[Chap. I. 

the riches of grace doth, is full and perfect, no im- 
perfect forgiviug. Should the king imprison a man, 
when he might hang him, it were not an act of mercy 
pardoning, but an act of justice tempered with mercy. 

ObJ. But (say they) punishment abideth to those 
whom God forgiveth out of his mercy, as David, and 
those for whom Moses prayed that God would forgive 
them, according to his rich mercy. 

Alls. It doth so ; but it so abideth, that all guilt'of 
sin to God-ward is taken out of it ; as it is in the 
hanging due to a murderer, who, hard before time of 
execution, is converted and baptized ; in which case, 
if the abiding of the punishment do not let, bat for- 
giveness may be full and free, why should the remain- 
ing of punishment argue in the other a partial re- 
mission only ? 

Use 2. Secondly, This doth let us see what thank- 
fulness we owe to God. Should one forgive us some 
great debt, or shouldone pass by some provocations at 
our hands, full of indignit}', as David did at Shimei's 
sometimes, how would we tell of their love, and set it 
forth ! But what indignities have we offered our 
God ? What debt stand we into him ? The greatest debt 
of a thousand talents. Oh then we would love much, 
be much thankful. The want of this maketh God 
sometime hide the sense of forgiveness from us ; even 
as when plenty maketh his blessings no dainties, he 
doth take them from us, that we may seek after them, 
and learn to enjoy them with greater thankfulness. 

Use 3. Thii-dly, Let us like children imitate him, 
forgiving each the other, as he for Chi-ist his sake hath 
forgiven us. But of this hereafter. 

Now he Cometh to the second benefit ; which 
seemeth here annexed, not so much to begin a second 
branch of his enumeration, as to make us conceive 
aright of the order in which we come to receive re- 
mission from grace, viz., to prevent us that we may 
not think that in the first place forgiveness is bestowed, 
because that was first named, but that we receive 
pardon from grace, when now that rich grace of God 
abounded toward us in giving us wisdom and under- 
standing. Thus I conceive the coherence. Now, the 
points which are to be marked in this matter are 
these : first, the abundant i/racc of God, the principal 
cause of it ; secondly, the persons, to ».s, who have 
found in him remission of sin ; thirdly, the benefits 
in which this rich grace had formerly abounded, in 
' wisdom and understanding,' and these are in the 
eighth verse ; fourthly, the manner of working these 
benefits, viz., the revelation of the mystery of his will, 
which is amphfied partly from the efficient cause 
thereof, God's free pleasure, a.nd this is verse 9; partly 
from the ends, verse 10. 

Ver. 8. To return unto the eighth verge. Before we 
■can consider the doctrines, it is fit to open the true 
meaning of it. Our books read, ' by which grace he 
abounded toward us, in wisdom ;' ^as if this were the 

sense, by which grace he did abundantly give" ns all 
wisdom ; but this is not the meaning ; for abundance is 
not to be adjoined to the grace bestowed, but to God's 
grace bestowing. The abundant measure of the gifts 
is sufficiently shewed by the note of quantity, ' all 
wisdom ;' and the phrase doth not signify bij which, 
but in, or uith which, for here is no particle to intimate 
any such thing. The second case noting the matter, 
subject, wherein God is here said to have abounded. 
The truth is, as when we say. Such an one is abundant 
to me in his love, our meaning is. The love of such a 
one was abundant toward me ; so when he saith, God 
hath abounded towards us in gi-ace, or with grace, bis 
meaning is, the grace of God had been abundant to- 
wards us, who have in him the remission of sins. 

Ill wisdom and understandiiif/. These must further 
be opened. Wisdom is put sometime generally ; thus 
St James, chap, iii., useth it for a gift of the mind 
given us from above, which teacheth us to know, and 
inclineth us to do that which is good, and serving to 
some good purpose. It is taken more strictly, and 
then sometime it signifieth the doctrine of wisdom, 
the doctrine of Christ crucified ; sometime the grace 
by which we know and believe on Christ to salvation, 
even as faith is put sometime for the doctrine of faith, 
sometime for the grace and exercise of it, as now it 
actually believeth, 1 Cor. ii. The doctrine of Christ 
crucified, it is called the wisdom of God, predestinated 
to our glory, so in the first it is called the wisdom of 
God. Now, if the doctrine of knowing and believing 
on Christ be wisdom, needs must the grace by which 
we know and rest on him be wisdom, making wise to 
salvation. I take this to be principally intended, if 
not solely. Understanding is light supernatural of the 
mind, whereby it conceiveth the meaning of God, in 
his word and works, and pierceth into the nature of 
the things of Goil, of things spiritual. As wisdom is 
opposed to foolishness, so understanding to dulness, 
and to the superficial overture or childish shallowness 
of knowledge. Be not children in understanding, but 
in maliciousness. The doctors which boasted them- 
selves of knowledge in the law, because they did abide 
in the letter, and not go to the inward meaning of it, 
the apostle saith they did not understand the things 
they did speak of. Israel knew what God had done, 
yot not perceiving the end to which his great works 
tended, so as to follow and to cleave to it, they are 
said not to have an understanding heart. Knowdedge 
is a gift of the mind, which perceiveth the truth and 
falsehood which is in things ; it is opposed to ignorance. 
These two former words answer to Chockmah and 
Dinah, or Tehiniah,* which in the Hebrew are of like 
importance. For that note of quantity, all wisdom, it 
doth signif}' a rich measure in these things, not 
absolute perfection : ' Who enriched you with all 
speech, all knowledge,' 1 Cor. i. The sum briefly. 
We have found redemption in Christ through his 
* That is, n03n, and nj<3, or njun.— Ed. 

Ver. b.] 



rich grace, which ^lie had abundantly shewed us, inas- 
much as he hath given us wisdom, whereby we know 
and rest on Christ's salvation ; and understanding, 
which maketh us see into the things of God, yea, both 
of them in plentiful measure. 

Doct. 1. In which words mark three things : 1. That 
God giveth pardon of sins to none to whom he hath not 
first given wisdom and understnnding; he doth quit 
none from sin in Christ whom he hath not taught to 
know and believe on his Christ, 1 Cor. i. 31. God 
doth make Christ an author of righteousness to none, 
to whom he is not first wisdom, that is, who do not 
first receive the gift of wisdom from Clirist. Acts 
xxvi., Paul is sent to bring men from darkness to 
light, that so being brought to be light, that is, to 
have wisdom and understanding, they may receive 
remission of sins, aud inheritance with saints. We 
must learn from the Father, that is, we must be made 
to understand, before we can come to Christ. ' My 
servant by his knowledge shall bring many to remission 
of sin, shall justify many.' Look as it was in the type 
of Christ, none were healed by that brazen serpent 
who did not first behold it ; so here, if wo be not 
taught of God to see that Christ crucified, made a 
curse on the cross for us, we cannot bo healed of sin 
wherewith that old serpent hath stung us. Which is 
to be marked of them who presume forgiveness of sin 
in Christ, and yet have no wisdom, no understanding 
in the things of God ; whereas Christ will be avenged 
on all who know not God ; whereas God saiih, he 
hath no delight in a people of no understanding, nay, 
that he is augry with them to destroy thera. There 
is no sign so fearful as to live, especially, where 
means of the word are, without this understanding ; 
for it is a token that the God of the world hath power 
over such to keep them blindfolded to their endless 
perdition ; even as in the body, the eye which is still 
blind after the most sovereign ej'e-salve apphed, it is 
a shrewd presumption it is u-recoverably blind, and 
altogether helpless. 

J)oct. 2. The second thing to be observed is, that 
true wisdom and understanding are gifts of God's 
grace in Christ Jesus. We receive such wisdom from 
the first man as did now remain with him after sin, 
but this was no true wisdom, but rather an earthly, 
sensual, aud devilish wisdom. That wisdom therefore 
which is heavenly, making wise to salvation, must be 
from the second Adam, who is the Lord from heaven. 
Even as reasonable understanding is beyond the com- 
pass of that knowledge which the beasts have by kind, 
so is this understanding far beyond the reach of all 
that wisdom left in corrupted nature. To clear this 
point, observe these two things : first, that it is freely 
bestowed on us ; secondly, that it is a benefit, than 
which we receive none of greater use. Were it never 
so good a thing, yet if I did purchase it meritoriously, 
it were no grace to me. Were it never so freely given 
me, were it of no use no ways to me, it could not be a 

f ivour, much less a thing given me in riches of grace ; 
for that which is a gift of rich grace must come freely 
from the donor, and be greatly to the good of the 
donatory or receiver. Now, how freely we have this 
wisdom we all know, it is bestowed on us when all wo 
are at enmity against it, yea, count it foolishness. 
How behoveful it is for us, we may easily know, when 
the sight of the body is so precious a sense, when the 
reason which we have as civil men is so beneficial that 
a man were no man did he want it, for this doth lift 
him above the order of those inferior creatures ; how 
can it bo but this wisdom and light must needs be 
precious, by which we see God, Christ, those things 
within the veil, kept in the heavens for us, by which 
we are above ourselves and ail this world, to have 
ccmmunion with God, Christ, and angels, spirits pcr- 
fectcil, which maketh us far higher above the state of 
natural man than natural man is above the beast. 
Now then it being freely given, and a thing of all 
others most behoveful, it must reeds be a gift of the 
rich grace of God. 

Uae 1. What thankfulness then do we owe to God, 
who hath visited us with so precious a blessing. 
Should we be through frenzy out of our right minds 
a mouth or two, oh how graciously would we think 
God dealt with us to restore us again to our right 
senses, as we use to speak. But for him, when now 
we had through sin cast ourselves into all folly and 
spiritual lunacy, for him then to visit us, and by his 
almighty power to bring us to the understanding of 
the wise, it is such a blessing, for which he cannot be 
sufficiently praised. Let us praise him for his good- 
ness, and praise him for his faithfulness, for ho did 
promise that the hearts of the foolish should be made 
wise, that those who did err in heart should under- 
stand, and lo, he hath performed in to us. 

Use 2. We must take knowledge what we are by 
nature, men empty of true understanding. Did wis- 
dom come from nature, and grow out of the earth, it 
were not a gift of gi-ace in Christ Jesus ; no, the 
princes of this world's wisdom, such who have seemed 
to ransack all the creatures, from the highest star to 
the lowest mineral within the bowels of the earth, even 
these are as devoid of true wisdom, as the ass-colts of 
the wilderness. Men are out of their right minds till 
they come by faith and repentance to God iu Christ 
Jesus. What can the foolishness of folly work, which 
is in men while they are converted ? Folly maketh a 
man know nothing of these civil things. A fool cannot 
tell how many twice two are ; and what doth a natural 
man know of his estate by nature, of God's grace in 
Christ '? He knovveth not, nay, he cannot know the 
things of God, for ho counteth them foohshness. 
Secondly, a fool is unteachablo, not more unlearned 
than unteachable, Prov. xxv. 9. Persuade him, smile 
on him, chall' at him, nothing will enter ; so natural 
men : let God from heaven, and Christ by his ambas- 
sadors, beseech them to be reconciled to God; let tiod 



[Chap. I. 

threaten them with the eternal curse of his heavy 
wrath, nothing will sink into them. Thirdlj-, a fool 
juJgeth not aright of that civil end to which his life 
should serve. Wise civil men know that they live for 
the good of their countrj', and their own private ; but 
a fool wanteth this wisdom. And what do all natural 
men ? They see not what is the last end at which 
all their life should aim, as at a mark, viz., that 
through faith and obedience they may come to live 
blessed everlastingly with God. As a fool judgeth 
not of the end to which he Uveth, so he maketh no 
provision of means which tend to the good of other, 
or himself, and yet seeketh after a commonwealth of 
baubles, such as are his dagger, collar, cap, &c., for 
these are as good to him as the Tower of London. 
So it is with natural men : they gather a heap of 
transitory things, but lay up no treasure in heaven, 
which might stand them in stead for afterward. Again, 
though fools are thus poor and miserable, yet they 
think themselves to have all the wit, and have no 
sense of all their misery, for the eye of reason is out 
with which it should be discerned. Thus it is with 
natural men : they think they know what they have 
to do, they feel no want of grace, they see not 
their misery which is come on them through sin. 
To reckon up particulars in this kind would be too 
tedious. Wherefore, let us labour to see ourselves 
fools, that we may be made wise. It is a sign some 
beam of heavenly wisdom hath shined into the soul, 
which now findeth itself empty of true saving wisdom. 
_ Doct. 3. The third and last thing is, that God doth 
give understanding and wisdom plentifully to us whose 
sins he forgivcth. This phrase is often used, ' all 
knowledge,' Rom. xv. 14, 1 Cor. i. 3, Col. i. So 
James counteth it ' all joy ;' and seemeth to note a 
kind of fulness and rich measure in the things to which 
it is adjoined; see Col. i. 9 and 1 Cor. i.; and so God 
doth give us plentifully these things, wisdom, life, 
regeneration ; he sheddeth and giveth them abund- 
antly, James i., Tit. iii. This God did foretell, that 
after his Christ manifested, the earth should bo filled 
with his knowledge ; that he would pour out his Spirit, 
not give it by drops, but plentifully. Even as gracious 
kings and princes on earth will not only give things 
which are good, but will bestow them in such measure as 
may set out their prince- like bounty, so it is with our God. 
Now, for the further understanding of this point, 
we who believe may be said to have all wisdom : 1, 
in regard of excellency ; 2, in regard of the quantity. 
For the first, when a man hath one thing so good that 
it serveth him instead of all ; as if a man hath gold, 
silver, enough, we say he hath everything, because he 
hath that serveth him for every purpose; so, though 
this wisdom is not, for kind, all wisdom, yet being so 
excellent that it serveth us to all purposes, it may bo 
callcd_«// wisdom. But here is a further thing to be 
conceived, oven in regard of the quantity of it. Now 
it cannot bo said all in regard that it is absolutely full 

and perfect for degree ; for ' we know in part' only ; 
it must be said so then comparatively only. Now, it 
may be said all wisdom, thus in a double respect : 
first, in comparison of that measure which was given 
the believing Jew ; and thus every faithful Christian 
may be said to have all wisdom given him. It is a 
great speech, that the least in the kingdom of God 
shall be greater than John Baptist ; for look, as we who 
now are up after the dawning of the day and rising of 
the sun, have far more light than such who are in the 
night ; thus it was with the Jew, he had the star of 
prophecy as in a dark night ; we have the Sun of 
righteousness now risen over us, and frgo, our light is 
far greater than theirs. Secondly, Christians maj' be 
said to have received all knowledge, in regard of those 
who are more imperfect. As there are some Christians 
more carnal, weak, than others, so more ignorant also. 
For as this earthly understanding is not in that degree 
in a child or young man as it is in an aged, so when 
there are babes, j'oung men, old men in Christ, there 
is a measure in wisdom answerable to these ages, as 
it were, in Christ ; but St Paul here seemeth to set 
this down so as it may admit a common application, 
rather than otherwise. 

Use 1. Seeing then that God doth give wisdom 
plentifully to all, to whom he giveth pardon of sin, 
how fearful is their estate who even seem to fly from 
knowledge ! Some think it a dangerous thing to kaow 
much ; they will live without saving light rather than 
disquiet their sleep ; some hope if they be but baptized, 
and can [say] their prayers, creed, and that men must 
love God aljove all, their neighbours as themselves, 
they think they know enough, and who can teach them 
more ? Nay, even in these days of light, some will 
speak as if they would bring people to the old implicit 
faith. Some are so without understanding, that if you 
ask them any common question, they are ready to put 
it off, they are not book learned. Ask them a reason 
of that they do, they have nothing but a childish imi- 
tation, they see others do so ; they put ofi' understa,nd- 
ing more fully, as if it were a thing appropriated to 
our coat. Suspect yourselves. While the darkness 
of night abideth, who will think the sun is risen ? and 
how can the Sun of righteousness be risen in thy heart, 
who still doth remain in so great darkness ? Some 
cry out against much knowledge, they say men lived 
better when less was known ; as if they would set that 
on foot again, that ignorance is the mother of devotion; 
or were of the mind that men might have too much of 
their heavenly Father's blessing. Finally, such as 
upbraid Christians, counting it pride in them to take 
upon them knowledge in the Scriptures, or judgment 
in the particularities of divinitj'. 

Use 2. Let us seek to God for wisdom, seeing he 
will give plentifully, even that anointing which shall 
teach us all necessary things. As God hath not set 
any certain degree of sanctification which shall serve 
us for salvation, so he hath not stinted us to any cer- 

Ver. 9.] 



tain degree of knowledge, bat would have ns seek to 
be filled with all knowledge and wisdom, as ho would 
have us strive to perfection of holiness. Wherefore, 
though we see but things, as the Mind man did when 
now he was restored, yet we need not be dismayed while 
we strive to make proceeding. We take great pains 
to get the knowledge of earthly things, and we esteem 
it as a great benefit to have insight into earthy mat- 
ters, which belong to our estates ; but what is it to 
have this understanding in the things which concern 
onr heavenly condition, the rather let us seek, because 
God will hear us graciously. He who answered Solo- 
mon, seeking politic wisdom, and granted him above 
all he did think and ask, what would he do to us were 
our hearts set to beg heavenly understanding ? 

Use 3. This must comfort us who have received our 
part in this heavenly wisdom. Commonly the most 
Christians are counted good men, God wot, but simple 
souls, of no parts. The wisdom of God is folly with 
the world ; it is like the waters oi Shiloh, which, be- 
cause it giveth not the loud report, like these human 
wisdoms, it is not in request with men of carnal judg- 
ment. Lot this weakness be far from us. This wis- 
dom maketh the face to shine, is able to satisfy the 
soul : ' I care to know nothing but Christ, and him 
crucified ;' yea, to save the soul eternally, bringing it 
to endless glory. Such who have the wisdom to get 
honours and treasure here on earth, they laugh at all 
learning besides in comparison of this, counting that 
skill folly which a man may have and yet go bare foot. 
But how truly may we deem all that wisdom foUj' 
which a man may have, and yet lose his own soul ! 

Ver. 9. Having despatched the three circumstances 
which were included in the former verse, we come now 
unto the fourth, in this verse, namely, the manner of 
working this wisdom in us, in these words, having 
opened unto us the mtistenj of his xcill. Which is am- 
plified, 1, by the cause, God's good pleamre, the free- 
dom whereof is argued in the words following; uhich 
he purposed in Itintself, not considering anything in us 
which might move him unto it. Here is nothing 
needeth explication unless those words, the mijstenj af 
his xiill. Which phrase doth note out the hidden 
wisdom which the pleasure of his will ordained to our 
glory, and is for matter all one with ' the word of 
truth, the gospel of salvation," verse 13. The sum is. 

Which so rich benefits of wisdom and understanding 
he did work in us, when now he had opened unto us 
that secret wisdom which his will had ordained to our 
glory; that gospel of salvation, which he did out of 
his gracious pleasure, which within himself, not look- 
ing at anything in us, he purposed toward us. 

Doct. Observe, first, God worketh saving wisdom in 
none to whom he openeth not the doctrine of wisdom, 
the gospel of salvation. As God did promise that the 
hearts of the foohsh should understand, so likewise he 
did promise that all of us should be taught of him. 

And look, as the precepts of grammar and doctrine of 
logic must be made known and opened unto us, before 
we can get the art or wisdom of grammar and logic, 
so it is, we must have unfolded the doctrine of God's 
saving wisdom before we can have wrought in us the 
divine quality of this wisdom, which comtth from 
above. For further understanding it is fit to consider 
what things the opening of the gospel compreheudeth 
in it, or how God doth open this saving wisdom to us : 
1. Outwardly, by propounding the doctrine of it unto 
our ears, which he doth by his ministers. For this 
cause ministers are called such as teach others in wis- 
dom. Col. ii. the end ; such as feed with wisdom and 
understanding, Jer. ; such as make wise, as it is, 
Dan. xii. 3. For though it be read uise, the word 
hath an active signification, and importeth to make 
wise or bring to wisdom, as the next word doth not 
signify just men, but such as turn others to righteous- 
ness. Even as in great schools there are inferior 
ushers as well as the principal master, so it is here. 
It pleaseth God by man's outward ministry to open 
the eyes of the mind, and bring from darkness to 
light ; but man's teaching, which goeth but to the ear, 
cannot do this matter. We must therefore consider 
God speaking within the mind, by holding out some 
such light, and causing such an inward illumination 
as doth speak things no less to the mind than a word 
audible doth report them to the ear. This is it which 
we are said to hear and learn from the Father. Should 
not the Father speak and teach, we could not hear ; 
neither is it an outward voice, for all that hoar this 
voice come to Christ, which is not verified in the other. 
And this is that light which , diffusing itself through 
the word we hear, doth make the things of God visible 
to the soul. Even as not the air alone, but the air 
now enlightened, is the mean by which things are made 
discernible to the bodily eye. 

In the third place, we must consider that God doth, 
together with this illumination, which speaketh and 
propoundeth things within the mind ; he doth, I say, 
together'with it, open the eye of the uuJer.stanJing, 
the ear of the deaf heart, to see and attend unto it. 
This is called sometime the renewing the understand- 
ing, giving light, opening the heart to attend, remov- 
ing the veil. For if I will shew to a blind man any- 
thing, it is not enough to propound the object and to 
procure an external light by which it may be discerned, 
but I must restore the sight of the blind eye before I 
can shew it the thing proposed. So it is with us who 
are spiritually blind, before we can have opened to us 
the things of God. 

Use 1. The use of this is, first, to rebuke such who 
think they can be wise enough to save their souls, 
though they have none to open to them, to instruct 
them in this hidden wisdom of the gospel. Blindness 
and bold presumption accompany each other. But de- 
ceive not yourselves. Thou who canst not go to a 
town two miles off which thou never wentest to, but 



[Chap. I. 

thou mu=t inquire and get some guide and direction, 
canst thou tind the way to heaven having no guide, no 
direction ? Thou who canst not learn thy ABC but 
thou must have a schoolmaster, why wilt thou imagine 
thyself able without help of teaching to learn this high 
point of wisdom, which teacheth to live happy with 
God, world without end ? 

Use 2. Let us attend upon the preaching of the 
word and the teaching of this wisdom, as ever we 
would have it begun or increased in us : ' Blessed are 
they who wait at her gates, at the posts of her door.' 
A speech borrowed from clients or patients who wait 
to have access to their learned counsel, and to the 
phvsicians whose advice they seek for. Yea, let us 
Beek for that inward teaching of God, in whose light 
only we come to see light. 

Pnct. Observe, secondly, that the doctrine of our 
salvation through Christ is a hidden secrecy. The 
apostle c lUcth the doctrine of Christ crucified a hidden 
wisdom, 1 Cor. iii. ; which the chief for wisdom in 
this world knew not: 1 Tim. iii., ' Without doubt,' 
Baith the apostle, ' great is the mystery of godliness ;' 
naming after points of doctrine concerning Christ 
Jesus. And needs it must be so, for the great volume 
of the whole creature hath not one letter or syllable 
in it of this wisdom. They reveal a wisdom, for in 
wisdom God made the heavens, and founded the earth 
in understanding, Prov. xiii. ; but those who knew this 
wisdom best learned nothing of this saving wisdom in 
Christ, 1 Cor. i. Again, there is no spark of Hght in 
man by nature able to conceive this secret. The wis- 
dom of the law the light of nature reacheth not, for 
the light of reason discerneth that God is to be loved and 
honoured ; that I am to do as I would be done to, and 
not after that measure I would not receive. But of 
saving mankind lost, by faith on Chi-ist and repent- 
ance, there is no light left which can trace any step of 
this doctrine. Thirdly, the knowledge itself is of that 
height, that from what time we have the Spirit which 
doth teach it, we cannot in this mortality know it 
anything as we should ; we see but in a glass, know but 
in part, like children which know not fully the things 
they know. Now, that which is hid in so great mea- 
sure from us, who are now light in the Lord, how 
great a secret is that in itself ? 

But to open this a little further. The gospel of 
salvation may be called a mystery in three regards : 
1. Absolutely, because it is a thing of itself, within 
the will of God, which no creature by itself is able to 
know. If a thing within my mind be such that no 
creature can know it, further than I make it known — 
none doth know the things in man but the spirit of 
man — how great a deep and secret is that which is 
within (jod himself! 2. Thus it ceased when God 
did first reveal it, but yet a mystery still in regard of 
the spare revelation, and small number of those to 
whom it was manifested. For a thing is not only 
Lid while I keep it in myself, but while I shew it only 

to some few persons more near me, it i-; a secret 
matter still. If the king acquaint some tivo or three 
of his most near favourites with a secret, it remaineth 
hid still, and a secret in comparison of things com- 
monly known. Thus was the gospel a mystery when 
it was made known to the people of the Jews only ; 
but continued no longer a mystery in this sense, 
when now it was notoriously published to all nations. 
3. Thirdly, the wisdom of the gospel is still a mystery, 
when it is now divulge J, in regard of those whose 
eyes are not opened to see it, and their ears bored to 
attend to it. As news so common everywhere, that 
they are no news, are still secret to such who, being 
deaf, have never heard of them ; thus it is at this 
day a hidden riddle to many Christians by outward 

Use 1. Now the use of it is to rgbuke the presump- 
tion of men who think so of their understanding, as 
if a word were enough for them in these matters, who 
hope they are not to learn this point now ; yea, 
some proud shallow heads, who can find no things in 
the Scripture eloquent for phrase, or profound for 
matter. But this knowledge of Christ is so hidden 
in a deep, that nothing is to be compared for secresy 
with it in the whole world ; and when human arts 
are so abstruse, that we cannot conceive them without 
some reading and explaining of them, how can we 
find out this deep riddle of God, if we plough not 
with his heifer ? How can we understand the mys- 
tery of his word, if we have not an interpreter ? 

Use 2. This must move us to diligence and humble 
dependence on God for the teaching of us ; we must 
think upon them, commune of them, not in proud 
bashfulness conceal our ignorance one from the other. 
Above all, let us labour to see ourselves fools and dull 
of heart, that God may make us wise. Many are 
more prone to blame the preacher as confused, ob- 
scure, and I know not what, rather than themselves ; 
like the woman, which taken blind in the night, did 
blame the curtains as keeping the light from her, 
when the fault was in her blindness within, not the 
curtain without. 

Use 3. Thirdly, We see hence the love of God to 
tell us a secret, yea, a hidden secret within his own 
will. In what can his love be more testified ? John xv. 
15, ' I call you friends, for I have shewed you what I 
heard from ray Father.' When God revealed the 
secret of Nebuchadnezzar to Daniel, and Pharaoh his 
secret to Joseph, was it not a mercy for which they 
were thankful? see Dan. ii. ; and do not we account 
them to have found much favour? But this is above 
all, to make known his hidden wisdom, which sheweth 
us what things await us to everlasting, life and death. 

Doct. Observe, thirdly, that the reason why God 
revealeth or openeth the gospel to any, is his mere 
gracious pleasure within himself. Were it any dispo- 
sitions foreseen in men, then those should be called 
and taught who were of lost capacity and towardness, 

Ver. 10.] 



who were for civil carriage most unblamenble ; bnt not 
many wise, nor many of great wit, but babes and 
simple ones are called, yea, publicans and harlots 
■were made know these things when philosophers and 
Pharisaical civilians were excluded. To shew it in 
particular : as it is a grace of God to give his laws and 
ordinances, Ps. cxlvii. 19, so it is his mere grace 
that they are bestowed on any, rather than others. 
This is shewed in giving them to Israel, who were worse 
than Tyre and Sidon, than Nineveh, than the nations : 
Ezek. iii. 3, 'I do not send thee to a nation of a strange 
tongue ; they would hear thee :' ' Had these things 
been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have re- 
pented : Nineveh repented at the preaching of Jonah; 
lo ! a greater than Jonah is here.' Yea, God is forced 
everywhere to upbraid them with stifl'-neckedness, a 
neck of steel ; with hard hearts, hearts like adamant; 
with brazen foreheads ; yea, to call them a gainsaying 
and rebellious people. Even as his pleasure carrieth 
rain to one place, and not to another, so he makoth 
his ministers drop the word of wisdom amongst some 
and not amongst other some : Mat. x. C, ' Go not to 
the way of the Samaritans ;' so Acts. xvi. 7, ' Go not 
whither thou intemlest, but into Macedonia. Now, if 
man's outward teaching be afforded out ot mere grace, 
how much more God's inward teaching, yea, his open- 
ing the e_ve of our minds ! In truth, as no reason can 
be given why one man's eyes were opened, one dead 
man raised, rather than all the rest, so no man can 
give a reason why these who now see and believe, 
should be made to see rather than others. 

This serveth to contuse those who think the word 
to be given or detained, according to something in them 
to whom it is given, or from whom it is detained, in 
them or their progenitors ; but we have shewed sufB- 
ciently that it is first sent amongst any freely, and if 
it be withheld from any it must be for their own 
deserts ; or some who have been before them, pa- 
rents to them, not for their own deserts ; for many 
of the heathen were not so hard-hearted and im- 
penitent as the Jew ; and for their parents' fault it 
could not be withheld, unless we would make particu- 
lar parents to stand for themselves and their children ; 
whereas, to be a typo of Christ, a public person stand- 
ing for him and his, doth agree to Adam as a thing 
appropriated to him, Rom. v. Yea, some think that 
the inward teaching which doth so teach that it 
changeth the mind, that this teaching, I say, is given 
to such whom God doth see as fit to work with it, and 
nse to this purpose ; as a captain setteth a man on a 
horse whom he doth see will manage him well. But 
this doth presuppose a connatural correspondency in 
corrupt nature, to the supernatural grace of God, and 
a power in nature to use grace aright, which hath long 
since been condemned as a Pelagian error, from these 
grounds, that we c:innot do anything which profiteth 
to salvation, out of Christ, that we are not fit lo think 
a good thought. 

The. Secondly, Let tis acknowledge God's free 
grace, that we have these things opened and re- 
vealed to us ; we, of mean parts for understanding, in 
comparison of other ; we who have been often more 
vile and viciously disposed than others. Let us ac- 
knowledge that he hath opened those things, and hid 
them from other, even because it so pleased him. 
Finally, let us labour to walk worthy these ordinances, 
to be fruitful in them, lest he say to us as to Caper- 
naum, ' Woe be to thee ; thou wert lifted to heaven, 
but I will throw thee down to hell.' 

Ver. 10. Now foUoweth the tenth versa, which is 
somewhat difficult, and, erpo, we must dwell a little 
on the explanation of it. First, we will consider of 
the connection it hath with the former, then of the 
meaning and parts of it, and so come to the instructions 
which it atfordeth. For the dependence of it on that 
which goeth before, it may seem brought in either as 
an explication of those words in the verse before, ' the 
mj-ster}' of his will,' or as an efi'oct intended by some- 
thing which is in the former verse reported. The first 
sense is to be taken up after this sort : God hath 
opened to us the mvstery of his will, out of his gra- 
cious pleasure. Where I mean nothing by the mys- 
tery of his will, bnt that he meant in fulness of time 
to gather to a head in Christ, with those things already 
in heaven, all things in earth, even an universal 
church, through the ftce of the earth. This cannot, as 
I think, be an exposition of those former words. For 
to say nothing that the gloss is harder than the text, 
words which are adjoined by way of construction are 
not commonly so far removed from them they con- 
strue, as you may see in the 7th and 13th verses of 
this chapter, and all abroad. Again, the apostle, 
by other equivalent tei-ms in the 13th verse, doth 
open what he meaneth by the mystery of God's will, 
viz., no other thing than the word of truth and gos- 
pel of salvation. Thirdly, the mystery made known, 
did work in them all wisdom and understanding, made 
them wise in good fnll measure to salvation ; but the 
knowledge of this, that God would call and gather to 
his Christ an universal church on earth, is such a 
point, in which men ma lo wise to salvation were long 
ignorant, as Peter himself. Now, then, if it be no 
explanation, then must it depend on the former, as 
an effect intended, and flowing from something before 
mentioned. Now the matters in the verse precedent 
are but two ; first, the revealing of the gospel to Paul, 
with some others ; secondly, the gracious good will 
which God did purpose within himself, concerning this 
benefit of opening his hidden saving wisdom to the 
sons of men. Some join it with the former ; God did 
open to ns, the Jews and Gentiles, the gospel, that 
thus he might, in that full time which he had ap- 
pointed, gather to all things now in heaven when he 
wrote, all the things in eartli also, even a church uni- 
versal. But neither would I sabscribe to this expo- 



[Chap. I. 

sition ; for, first, it taketh the persons to whom God 
is said to have opened the mystery, to be both 
Jews and Gentiles, yea. Gentiles principally ; whereas 
Paul, ver. 12, seemeth to appropriate this passage of 
his epistle, from the 7th verse to the 13th verse, unto 
the Jews only. Secondly, this taketh that fulness of 
times to note the fulness of that particular season, 
wherein God had purposed to pubHsh his saving 
wisdom to the Gentiles ; but the text hath it not the 
fulness of any certain time, as in Gal. iv. 3, but the 
fulness of times indefinitely and universally. Thirdly, 
the publishing of the gospel to all nations did not 
gather those just spirits before in heaven, but here 
they are as properly said to be gathered into Christ 
their head, as the things on earth ; as when God is 
said to reconcile all things in the blood of Christ, as 
well the things in heaven as the things in earth, recon- 
ciliation doth as properly agi-ee to the heavenly things 
as earthly, so here by proportion ; for otherwise he 
would have said, that he might gather to all things 
which were now joined to their head in heaven, all 
the things in earth also. Lastly, all in 'earth, through 
all times and places, were not gathered by that first 
publishing the gospel to Jew and Gentile, but all who 
then were ordained to life through the whole world. 
Now these are not all absolutely, but respectively, in 
comparison of that few and small remnant which, out 
of one nation, God sometime gleaned. 

It remaineth, then, that these words come in, as 
shewing the intended efiect which God did aim at, in 
his gi-acious purpose of opening the hidden saving 
wisdom to the sons of men, viz., that thus he might, 
in the fulness of those seasons, which himself in wis- 
dom fore-appointed, have gathered to a head in his 
Christ, all things ; both those who now were, by 
having this revelation, gathered in heaven, and all 
the things which are in earth, through all places and 
times, to the end of the world. This I take to be the 
truest coherence, both because gathering to a head in 
Christ is the efiect to which God doth destinate this 
gracious purpose of opening the gospel, and al<o for 
that this purpose of opening the gospel, outwardh- and 
inwardly, or at least inwardly, is extended to every 
one, through all ages of the world, who is to be united, 
as a member, to Christ the head ; so that no more, 
nor fewer, have been, are, or shall be, gathered, than 
those whom God did purpose to teach in every ge- 
neration. Lastly, the words fit no sense but this, 
which to shew we must search a little the meaning of 

First, touching the time; secondly, the thing to be 
done in time. In the time two things must be opened : 
first, what is meant by ' dispensation ;' secondly, by 
' fulness of times.' Bispenxation is a word taken from 
stewards, and such as have the keeping of things in 
common, and are to distribute them as they see fit, 
for singular persons and occasions. To dispense, 
then, is to distribute that I have in common, as is 

fitting in wisdom, to persons and occasions in par- 

Now the dispensation of times is put by a meto- 
nymy of the adjunct, for fulness of times wisely dis- 

The fulness of times indefinitely, universally not- 
ing the consummation of all those seasons succes- 
sively, which God hath appointed for the gathering of 
his children. 

But the thing to be done, mark the action, that God 
' might gather to a head in Christ ;' that is the force 
of the word. Secondly, mark the object of this action, 
' all things ;' that is, all persons, who in God's coun- 
sel belonged, as members making that body whereof 
Christ is head. Thirdly, note the point, as it were, 
in which all are to be gathered into one, or united, in 
Christ, ' in him.' Having propounded the object, he 
doth explain them by a distribution taken from the 
place; all things which now are in heaven with Christ, 
gloriously conjoined to him; and all who are in earth, 
that is, who are in all places, and all times, to be ga- 
thered to Christ in the earth. The sum of them is 
thus much. 

God, I told you, did open to us the gospel of salva- 
tion, which thing he did according to his gracious 
pleasure, whereby it pleased him to open it to all his 
chosen, which he purposed fseely within himself, that 
thus by opening his will, he might, in the consumma- 
tion of all those seasons which his wisdom hath dis- 
pensed, that he might, I say, have gathered, as it 
were, to a head, all things in Christ, both those mem- 
bers who had in their times this mystery revealed to 
them, and are now gloriously united to him in the 
heavens ; and all those who, by means of this revela- 
tion, shall in all places, and through all times, to the 
end of the world, be gathered upon earth, as it were, 
to one head in him. 

Thus we have, to my conceit, the most probable 
connection and meaning of these words ; we have seen 
the parts also into which they may be divided. Now 
it remaineth that we come to the instructions. 

Bod. 1. First, when he saith, that in the fulness of 
times in which God hath dispensed, God will do thus 
and thus, observe hence, that God hath set seasons 
wherein he will accomplish all his purposed will, 
Eccles. iii. He bringeth out everything beautiful 
in the season of it. As he bringeth things natural, 
the spring, summer, autumn, winter, every thing in 
season, so in all the works he will do about his chil- 
dren, whether it be the punishing of wickedness for 
their sake, the delivering his children from evils, the 
giving them benefits, he will bring them all forth in 
the fit appointed seasons. The Canaanite, when his 
iniquity is full and ripe, shall be visited ; Israel, 
when four hundred and thirty years expired, shall be 
delivered, Exod. sii. 41. When the seventy years are 
expired, Dan. ix., Christ, in the fulness of time, shall 
be exhibited. It cannot be, but that God should both 

Ver. 10.] 



appoint times for every purpose, and execute in them 
the thing that he hath purposed. To design times is 
his prerogative : as a master of a family hath this 
power, to set ail times which he will have this or that 
business taken in hand, so Acts i. 7. Secondly, such 
is his wisdom, that ho only knoweth how to appoint 
the fittest season for all his works ; as the husband- 
man, it is his wisdom or skill in husbandry, which 
maketh him know the fittest seasons for earing, sow- 
ing, graffing, and such like businesses. Now look, as 
man's fidelity doth bind him, if ho hath said he will 
do this or that at such a time, to make his word good, 
and do it accordingly, so God's fidolity doth so bind 
him, that he will not but most faithfully execute all 
that good he hath purposed to us, in the seasons which 
with himself he hath dispensed thereunto. 

Uxe 1. The use is, first, to reprove our weakness, 
who think God often to delay. No; God is not slack, 
as men count slackness ; he doth but wait his fit 
opportunities, which his wisdom hath prefixed. If 
the husbandman do not reap at midsummer, he is not 
said to delay reaping, because it is not time to reap 
then ; so God, who doth never stay but till the fit 
time come, may not be said to delay. To our sense 
it seemeth otherwise ; but we must learn to judge 
righteous judgment. How long it is fit for me to 
purge, and when I must have restoratives given me, 
this the physician must prescribe. 

Use 2. Secondly, we must learn to wait on God. 
It is not fit we should teach him his time, make him 
be at our call, dance attendance at our wills. Supe- 
riors would take it in great snuff that their inferiors 
should offer them this measure. Again, we would not 
now in winter have midsummer weather, for it would 
not be kindly. Thus, in the winter seasons of any 
trial, we should not wish the sunshine of this or that 
blessing, before our God doth see it may be seasonably 
bestowed, remembering that the man who believeth 
must not make any preposterous haste. 

Doct. 2. Observe, secondly, that he saith, the 
gracious purpose of opening the gospel is that we 
might be gathered. Observe, that God, by opening 
to us the gospel, doth bring us to his Christ, chap. iv. 
Ho giveth a pastor and teacher who may outwardly 
reveal these things, that he may gather his saints, 
knitting them to their head and one with another; so 
he gave the priest, Levite, and prophet to this end. 
'How often,' saith Christ, 'would I have gathered 
thee, as a hen doth her chickens under her wing ! and 
you would not.' Look, as the news of a gracious 
prince calleth together subjects who were fled under 
tjTauny hither and thither, so the opening to us of 
this our King and Saviour, who must save us from 
sin, this doth make us fly home to him, as pigeons 
use to their own lockers. For the better understand- 
ing of this point, first, we must know that by nature 
we are many ways dispersed and severed ; secondly, 
the order in which we come to be gathered. 

For the first, we are disjoined from God our Father. 
The prodigal is the type of us, who was now wandered 
from his father's house, and would needs be at his 
own hand. By nature all are without God. Secondly, 
wo are scattered from Christ like sheep in the valleys 
of death running after the wolf, and leaving the Shep- 
herd of our souls. Thirdly, we are divided one from 
another, a man being by nature a wolf to a man, his 
feet being swift to shed blood further than God re- 

Now for the order in which we are gathered : First, 
the opening of the gospel doth gather us into one 
faith. Secondly, by faith as a spiritual sinew or nerve, 
it doth unite us with Christ, making us to become 
one person with him, as man and wife in law make 
one person. Thirdly, it doth thus unite us with God, 
as a woman marr3-ii>g a man's natural son becometh 
upon it daughter-in-law to him, with whose son she is 
one by marriage. Yea, we are so much nearer to 
God, by how much God and Christ are more nearly 
united, than any natural son can be with his natural 
parent, who cannot have the selfsame singular being 
his father hath, but one in kind like unto him, and 
derived from him. Fom-thh", we by being gathered 
to Christ, are gathered to the whole body of Christ, 
to all who exist under him, by a kind of pure sub- 
ordination, as angels are spiritual generation from 
him, as it is in all redeemed by him, the angels be- 
coming ministering spirits for our good, and we most 
strictly knit with all both in heaven, earth, already in 
Christ ; not only that we are under one head with 
them, but we are quickened with one Spirit, and con- 
tained together, as the members of a natural body are 
both contained and quickened by one soul. Nay, we 
are gathered to all who in God's predestination belong 
to Christ. As one born of this or that man is not 
only linked with those brethren he hath in present, 
but hath a respect of consanguinity to all that may be 
gotten of him, so it is with us ; from what time Christ 
hath brought us, by a supernatural nativity, to be bom 
of him, we have a respect of near conjunction to all 
who arc in time to be brought to faith by him. Who 
can unfold the society which the gospel revealed 
causeth ? 

Use 1. The use is, fii-st, to move us that we would 
consider of God's gracious purpose, according to which 
he revealeth the doctrine of his Son to us. WTiat do 
we it for but to bring you to Christ ? Even as a 
friend, which goeth between his lover and his love, so 
Christ sendeth us with that his mind, that we might 
win you to him. It were happiness for a poor woman 
to be contracted to a man virtuous, wealthy, honour- 
able ; but what shall be thy happiness when thou 
shalt, by an unfeigned faith, have got thyself con- 
tracted unto Christ ? Refuse not wisdom sending 
forth her maids, Prov. ix. ; refuse not God sending 
out his servants, ^lat. xxii., and inviting you to come 
and partake in his Son Christ, and all his benefits, to 




[Chap. I. 

forgiveness of sins, ami salvation of your souls, lest 
you, by despising his grace, most highly provoke his 

Use 2. We see the vain slander of the world, who 
say the gospel marreth all fellowship. Indeed, it doth 
break sometime good fellowship, falsely so called ; but 
it breedeth and holdeth together all fellowship that is 
good indeed ; it bringeth us to have fellowship with 
Christ the mediator, with God, with angels, with 
spirits of just men departed, with the predestinate 
ones, whose names are written in heaven, with all in 
earth who are believing members in Christ ; it breaketh 
company by reason of men's corruption, which maketh 
them they had rather live thralls of Satan, in their 
ignorance and lusts, and customs of ignorance, than 
sutler themselves, yielding obedience, to be gathered 
to Christ. 

Dvct. 3. Observe, thirdly, from hence, that this 
pleasure of opening the gospel was proposed for 
gathering all things to Christ their head. Observe, 
that whosoever have been, are, or shall be gathered 
to Christ, they are brought to this by opening the 
gospel. God did purpose this grace of opening the 
gospel, not for our sake only, who are, from Christ to 
the end of the world, to be brought to him, but for 
their sakes who were then in heaven when Paul did 
write these words in hand. There is but one eternal 
gospel ; never was there other name made known, in 
which men might be saved, than the name of Jesus 
Christ, yesterday, to-day, and for ever, the only way 
of salvation. Abraham saw the day of Christ, and 
rejoiced ; yea, from Abel downward, it was by faith 
on that promised seed that they were accepted. What 
is the whole redeemed church ? A number called 
forth by God cut of the world, to partake in forgive- 
ness of sin and life eternal thi'ough Christ. When the 
whole church is a multitude of such as are called, and 
God's call is nothing but the inward and outward, or 
at least the inward opening of the gospel, to such 
whom he hath predestinated to salvation, it cannot be 
but that every one, who is of or belongeth to the 
•church, must have this wisdom of God opened to him. 

Use 1. It is to be observed, not only against those 
old heretics, but many deluded souls in our times, 
who are of mind that if they follow their conscience, 
and live ordrrly in any kind of belief, it will serve 
their turn ; but he that followeth such a blind con- 
science will find our Saviour's speech true, ' If the 
blind lead the blind, both will come into the ditch.' 
His conscience and he will both perish, if he learn 
not this way of faith and obedience to the gospel of 

Use 2. Again, it must teach us to come under this 
ordinance of God revealing his truth ; for this is the 
great drag which taketh all such good fish, such per- 
sons as belong to the kingdom of heaven. 

Doct. 4. In Christ, even in him. Observe who it 
is in whom we are gathered together, as fellow-mem- 

bers each with other. We are fitly said to be gathered 
in Christ together, both because he hath abolished the 
enmity betwixt God and us, and so removed that 
which did disperse us. 2. He doth call us, and efl"ec- 
tually draw us home in his time, even as shepherds 
do their llocks which are now scattered : ' When I 
am lifted up, I will draw all ;' ' How often would I 
have gathered you !' 3. ' In him ;' as in the same 
point we are all of us one. Even as all the families 
of the earth, in regard of Adam, their first parent, tie 
common root and stock of all mankind, they are all 
but one ; or as the subjects of England, Scotland, 
Ireland, are in our king united, and all made one 
body politic, so it is with the members of Christ in 
heaven and earth ; now being gathered under Christ 
their head, they must needs be gathered one to an- 
other, as fellow-members in one and the selfsame 
body, Rom. xii. ; there being not only a bond from 
Christ to us, even the bond of his Spirit, and from ns 
to Christ, even our faith, but a bond of love, the bond 
of perfection, which doth hold us one with another. 

Use 1. Let us, then, to preserve our union, walk 
with Christ and keep by him. Even as it is in draw- 
ing a circle with compass, and lines from the circum- 
ference to the centre, so it is with us : the more they 
come near the centre, the more they unite, till tbey 
come to the same point ; the further they go from the 
centre in which they are united, the more they run 
out one from the other ; so, when we keep to Christ, 
the nearer we come to him, the more we unite ; but 
when we run forth into our own lusts and private fac- 
tion, then we are one disjoined from the other. 

Use 2. Again, we must, seeing in Christ our head 
we are joined as members of one and the same body, 
therefore we must be so afi'ected each to other, as we 
see members are. The}" envy not one another ; the 
foot envieth not the eye; they communicate each with 
other; the mouth taketh meat, the stomach digesteth, 
the liver maketh blood, the eye sceth, the hand hand- 
leth, all fcjr the good of the whole : they will not 
revenge themselves. If going hastily one foot strike 
the other leg or foot, it will not strike again ; they so 
bear the burden one of another, that their afl'ection 
each to other is not diminished ; as if the head ache, 
the body will not carry it and knock it here or there, 
but beareth the infirmity, doing it the ease it may, 
yea, being well afi'ected to it no less than before. 
Now that God, who is love itself, teacheth us these 

Doct. 5. From this that he saith. All the things 
which are in henren or in earth, observe that there is 
no place in which are any members belonging to 
Christ but either in heaven or in earth. Thus, Col. i., 
the apostle did not know any belonging to reconcilia- 
tion, wrought by the blood of Christ, but they were 
either in heaven or earth. The Scripture doth not 
know but two kinds of men : some believing, passed 
from death to life ; some unbelieving, over whom 

Ver. 10.] 



wrath abideth. Though some have greater faith and 
snnctiticatioD, it mattereth not ; degree changeth not 
the kind ; a child is a m»u no less than a man for the 
kind of him. It acknowkdgeth not but two states : 
some as pilgrims here, wrestlers, soldiers, runners of 
the race; some as at home, having received the crown, 
the garland of victory. So it acknowledgeth but two 
times ; the one in this life of labour, which endeth in 
death, Eccles. ; the other of rest, after this life ended : 
' Blessed are thej- that die in the Lord, they rest from 
their labour.' In like manner, two places belonging 
to all faithful soldiers : the one is earth, in which they 
are for time of their warfare ; the other is heaven, 
where they rest, receiving the crown which belongeth 
to them. Even as those material stones were either 
hewing and polishing in the mountain, or transported 
and laid in the temple, so it is with us : either we are 
squaring and fitting here, or else we are by glorious 
conjunction laid on Christ, the corner-stone in the 
heavens. But some who will grant that, when Paul 
did write these words, which was many years after 
Christ's ascension, that then all were in heaven, but 
they will not yield that souls were there from the 
beginning, but only siuce Christ his entering thither. 
For answer, I say that the contrary doth seem clear 
to me, for they were taken to glory and saved as we. 
Now such as arc taken to glory are taken to heaven, 
for the Scripture knoweth no place in which God 
doth ordinarily display his glory but in heaven. 
Again, they were received into everlasting taber- 
nacles, Luke xvi. Now, if the godly at the instant 
departed were bestowed in any place but heaven, they 
then did go to mansions which they were to leave 
within a year or two, even then when Christ was to 
ascend. They whose pilgrimage and sojourning ceased 
with this life, they could not but be in their country 
at home after this life. Heaven is the country of 
saints: '0 our Father which art in heaven,' Ubi 
Pater, ibi palria. Those who walked as strangers hero 
on earth, because they looked for a heavenly Jeru- 
salem, a city whose maker was God, they leaving 
this earth were translated thither ; neither was there 
anything to hinder it : not their sins, for they which 
could not hinder them from sanctification, fitting them 
for heaven, could not hinder them from heaven ; not 
want of faith (who now hath that faith which Abraham 
and many of them had ?), no want of efficacy in Christ : 
' he was yesterday, to-day, and for ever ;' his death 
was effectual to cause them to find pardon of sin and 
the spirit of sanctification ; not any privilege of Christ, 
for not simply to ascend into heaven in soul was Christ's 
prerogative, but to ascend, soul and body, as heir of 
all things, and the author of salvation to all that obey 
him. Finally, the translating of Enoch, Moses, and 
Elias, seem to figure out no other thing ; wherefore, 
though David be said not to have ascended into hea- 
ven. Acts ii., it is spoken in respect only that he was 
not raised in body, and gone into heaven, body and 

soul, as the heir of all things and person who was to 
sit at God's right hand ; and though, Heb. ix., the 
way into heaven bo said not to have been opened, and 
then to bo new, the meaning is not that none went this 
way, but only to shew that the way was not really 
entered by the true high priest after the order of Mel- 
chisedec, as the repealing of sacrifices did shew that 
yet remission of sins was not obtained ; that is really 
received of our Surety, upon performance of that satis- 
faction undertaken, not that believers found not pardon 
of their sins under the former testament. Again, it ia 
one thing for a way not to have been traced at all, 
another not to have been fully manifested ; the latter 
was not under the Old Testament. To conclude : 
though it be said they received not the promises, say 
in their real exhibition, and that they were not per- 
fected without us, the meaning of which is not that 
they were not taken to heaven, no more than to deny 
that they had not forgiveness, or the same spirit wo 
have, but to teach that they had not before Christ 
that perfect state in heaven which now we and they 
are presently possessed of, for they did expect in hea- 
ven their Redeemer, on whom they had believed for 
forgiveness of sin and life, even as souls now expect 
the resurrection of the body, the second appearance of 
Christ to judgment, in regard of which things they are 
not perfected. Now hence followed a want of much 
light and joy, which on the sight of Christ, Godman, 
entering the heavens, did redound unto them, as wo 
in heaven now have not the fulness of joy which then 
we shall have when we see the accomplishment of the 
things we expect. While the fathers do set out this 
imperfection of their estate, the papists have fancied 
their limbus, which never entered into their hearts. 

Use 1. The use of this doctrine is first to confute 
such academical doubting spirits who will not say 
where they were : I mean the souls of the fathers 
before Christ's ascension. Certainly, unless we will 
be as fruitful in multiplying heavens as the papist is 
in his hells, we must grant them received into one 
only receptacle of blessed perfected spirits. 

Again, it sheweth the vanity of the popish limbiis 
and purgatory. They are well seen in hell who can 
tell you all the stories and chambers of it so exactly ; 
the truth is, they are Marcionites in this point, who 
did hold that the fathers had refreshing and ease from 
pain, but not salvation, and the reward of them was 
not in heaven. 

Use 2. Secondly, we see to our comforts, whither 
we shall be taken when this life is ended ; this taber- 
nacle dissolved, we shall have another not made with 
hands in the heavens. ' Ask,' saith God to Christ ; 
' I will give thee tho nations for thine inheritance.' 
What did Christ ask ? John xvii. : ' Father, where I 
am, there let these be, that they may see the glory 
thou hast given me.' The thief went from the cross 
to heaven, to Christ's kingdom, which was a short 
one if it were in limbos, which waa to be broken up 



[Chap. I. 

within a few hours' space. This should make us 
desire to be dissolved, seeing we shall presently be 
with Christ in heaven. ShonlJ we have waited for 
admittance into heaven as long as for the resurrection 
of our bodies, there were not that comfort ; but to fly 
forthwith to those blessed mansions, how willing should 
it make us to depart ! Who is it doth not willingly 
bid farewell to his smoky inn, when he knoweth that 
he shall come to his own house every way contentful ? 
Use 3. Thirdly, seeing heaven must find us when 
we leave this earth, let us send our treasure before 
ns. This earth is but God's nursery, in which God 
doth set his tender plants ; not that they should grow 
here still, but that he may transplant them in his 
time, and set them in heavenly paradise, where they 
shall abide for ever, Why, then, seeing our eternal 
mansion is there, what should we treasure here below ! 
Blen care not for furnishing things they must leave 
quickly ; they send all before to the places wherein 
they mean for their times to make abole. 

Yer. 11. In whom also u-e have been chosen to, or ob- 
tained, an inheritance. Now he cometh to the third 
blessing, even our glorification. Having laid down 
our justification, ver. 7, and our vocation, vers. 6-10, 
he doth set down this third before mentioned, in this 
11th and l'2th verses. We are to mark, 1, the bene- 
fit ; 2, the foundation of it ; 3, the end. The benefit 
hath reference to the 7th verse, ' In whom we have 
redemption,' in whom also we have obtained an inhe- 
ritance. The old books read it, ' We are chosen ;' 
the latter. We have obtained an inheritance. The 
word signifieth we have been chosen, as it were, by 
lot, to an inheritance. The ground sheweth us, first, 
our predestination ; secondly, the author of it, by him 
who is described from the effect, in which we are to 
mark, 1, the action, who doth work efl'ectually; 2, the 
object, all things ; 3, the manner, according to the 
counsel of his will, the end of this, and all the other 
benefits following. The words being easy, we will 
come to the instructions : 

Doct. 1. First, we see that being in Christ we find 
not only righteousness in him, but life everlasting. 
God doth not sot us free from sin in Christ, that by 
ourselves we might, by works meritorious, work out 
salvation ; but even as sin causeth death, so his grace 
through Christ reigneth to life eternal. Now, the 
order in which we receive this inheritance you may 
see, Acts xxvi. 18, Rom. viii. God enlightens their 
eyes, l)rings them to know and believe on Christ, that 
so they may receive in him, first, remission of sins ; 
secondly, inheritance with the saints. Those whom 
he bath called, he hath justified ; so those whom he 
hath justified, he hath glorified. Sin is a wall of par- 
tition which must be beaten down before the light of 
grace and glory can shine unto us. Now, sin being 
removed from us, who are with the natural Son, what 
should hinder but that we should be heirs, even joint 

heirs, with him ? Being one with him, we are the seed 
to whom was promised under Canaan the inheritance 
of the world to come. The better to understand this 
matter of our inheritance, you must know what it is 
in general. 2. In what order we come to receive it. 
That is an inheritance which I hold as the son or ally, 
or as out of favour I am written the heir of this or 
that man ; so whatever we obtain by our principal 
birth from Christ, that is our inheritance. That which 
we obtain is twofold : first, in this life we receive the 
first fruits, the earnest of the Spirit, and all our bless- 
ings are given to us as part of a child's part. Wards, 
while they are in their minority, have some allowance 
from their inheritance ; and parents will prove their 
children with some lesser stocks, to see how they will 
husband them, before they give them the full estate 
they mean to leave them ; so doth God. 

Secondly, we receive the fulness in the life to come, 
which standeth partly in prerogatives ; secondly, in 
the glory that shall be put upon our persons ; thirdly, 
in the things which shall be given us to possess. 
Some inheritances have prerogatives annexed, as to be 
Lord High Steward, Lord High Chamberlain ; so our 
inheritance hath this royalty annexed. We shall be 
kings and priests to God; we shall be judges of the 
world, and angels with Christ, standing by Christ as 
benchers and assistants in place of judgment. Our 
glorj' respecteth soul or body ; the soul shall be fiUed 
with the light of knowledge, even as the air upon the 
comiug of the sun to it is rather hght to appearance, 
than enlightened. 

2. Our love shall as a flame rise up to God. TMien 
the water which runneth in any channels is brought 
int^ one, it maketh a little sea. When all our self-love, 
love of wife, children, earthly things, yea, of sinful 
lusts, is turned into the love of God, then doubtless 
great and glorious shall be our love. 3. Our joy 
breaketh forth in praise. Who is able to utter, when 
here it is unspeakable sometime and glorious! The 
glory of the body shall be such, that it shall shine as 
the sun in the firmament, both from the glory about 
it and the glorious spirit within it, as a lantern shineth 
from the candle within it. For the things we shall 
possess, they are, in a word, all things : the world to 
come, the new heavens, and the new earth ; and the 
creature being a little thing, we shall possess God 
himself in Christ as our husband and all-sutlicient 

Use. For the use ; first, we see that heaven cometh 
to us freely. Did we deserve it, and in efl'ect pay for 
it, it were purchase, not inheritance ; but it is not said 
simply an inheritance, but such an one as is assigned 
us by lot, for this word seemeth'^to respect that divi- 
sion of Canaan to the twelve tribes, whoso several 
seats were by lot designed. Now, if our inheritance 
cometh by lot, then it is not our own industry, but the 
divine disposition which worketh all in all in it. 

Use 2. This should cause us to rejoice. Oh, if meo 

Ver. 11.] 



have small things befall them in earth, their hearts 
are soou raised to rejoice in them ; yea, in the vain 
pleasures of this life, how are the hearts of men filled 
with gladness, who yet hang down their heads all 
amort while these things are piped ! Ah, alas ! there 
are too many who taste their pottage like Esau, better 
than their birthright. Oh, let us be ashamed, that in 
these outward toys, which are but like the shaking of 
a child's rattle, that in these our hearts should bo 
tickled, and with the matter of their freehold in heaven 
should not bo moved. This should make us rejoice 
when we are made heavy with divers temptations, 
1 Peter i. So they did in those apostolic times, but 
the hidden light of this star is not so discerned by us 
vbo live in this day of outward prosperity. 

Use 3. This would stir us up to aflcct these things, 
and be desirous of them. The creature groaneth in 
kind, waiting when this our inheritance shall be given 
us. What dead births are we who lie in the womb of 
the church militant, never ofl'ering to break forth 
into the heavenly liberty ! Children are so aflected to 
their earthly inheritances, that they sometimes practise 
against their own parents, aflecting over-timely pos- 
session. Great purchasers, if they make a purchase 
in the remotest parts, are not well till they have seen 
it; so should we be afiected toward our inheritance. 
Why hath God given us the first fruits, even as the 
spies did bring to the Israehtes some of the fruits of 
Canaan to make them long after it, and desired to be 
possessed of so good a land ; so doth the Lord give us 
to the like end the first fruits of the Spirit, to make us 
desire and long after the fulness thereof. 

Use 4. Finally, see the fear we are to walk with 
npon this consideration, Heb. sii. The greater thing 
we expect from any, the more must be our observancy 
toward them, and endeavour in all things to please 

iSow followeth the ground of all these benefits in 
time, having been predestinate, which is described from 
the purpose going before, having been predestinate, 
according to Jiis purpose; which purpose is argued 
from the author of it, who is not named, but de- 
scribed. In the description, three things are to be 
noted : first, his action or working ; ii7io tvorketh ; 
secondly, the object, all things ; thirdly, the manner, 
after the counsel of his uill. 

To speak a word of predestination according to pur- 
pose, which is here made the ground of all the former, 
and so to come to this description, in which we must 
dwell with more diligent consideration for the unfold- 
ing of it. 

For predestination see above. But it may be asked. 
What is this purpose according to which we are said 
here to be predestinate? Wereadof some purposed and 
ordained to the obtaining of life. Acts xiii. 1, 1 Thes. v. 
Now, God's purpose and ordinance touching the end 
doth seem to follow npon God's election ; for when we 
have a will to do anything, there followeth upon this 

in the mind a settled purpose to eflect it; so whea 
God hath loved some to life, there cometh to be as it 
were in God a settled purpose of bringing some to 
life, which once settled, all things come to be predes- 
tinated for performance of it ; and, Rom. ix., this may 
be grounded when he saith, 'that the purpose of God, 
which is according to election, might be sm-e.' Where- 
fore I deem foreknowledge, by which God now about 
to choose knoweth whom he will choose ; election, by 
which he setteth his love to life on some before other 
some, purpose settled of bringing some to life before 
other some. These belong all to the same benefit, 
viz. election. Foreknowledge, as that which goeth 
before; for God doth not blindly choose he knoweth 
not whom ; purpose following it, as a shadow doth the 
body ; and therefore where the one is named, the other 
by discourse are to be understood. He hath purposed 
us to attain life through Christ, he hath chosen us to 
attain life; as Rom. viii., 'Those whom he did fore- 
know himself to choose and purpose unto hfe, those 
whom he predestinated.' And thus you see why it is 
said predestinate according to purpose. But note here 
by what method the apostle doth gather themselves to 
have been predestinated, even a posteriori ; from this, 
that they were now called, justified, that they had re- 
ceived an inheritance by faith, he gathereth that they 
had been predestinate. Observe, then, 

Doct. What is the way to find ourselves to have 
been predestinate before all worlds ; even to find that 
we are called, justified, sanctified. We must go up by 
these stairs, or we cannot come to the height of God's 
counsel. Look as by the counterpane of a lease or 
will we know what is in the original will, which it may 
be is kept a hundred miles from us; so by these things 
written in our hearts in God's time, we may know and 
read what things it pleased him from everlasting to 
purpose towards us. But in this point we have before 
been large. 

To come to the description of the author of this 
purpose, according to which we were predestinate. 
The parts to be marked in it have been mentioned. 
Let us first, then, consider the meaning of the words; 
secondly, of the scope, for which they are brought in ; 
thirdly, of the doctrines to be marked in them. 

First, This word uorketh doth signify such a working 
which hath efiicacy to the bringing forth the being of 
that which it worketh. 

All things. Noteth out whatsoever things are, whether 
good or evil. 

Counsel. Noteth sometime the faculty of wisdom, 
which giveth advice touching things to be done, and 
means of doing them. And thus, according as the 
nature of the thing hath itself to him who giveth ad- 
vice, is something present and ready, sometime need- 
ing deliberation ; but deliberation, so far as it is grounded 
in imperfection of knowledge, and argueth doubtful- 
ness, cannot be ascribed, but only so far as it signifitth 
the maturity and ripeness of counsel. Secondly, 



[Chap. T. 

connsel signifieth not the faculty, but the effect, wise 
advice given in any case from that faculty of wisdom 
which giveth counsel. Thus we nnderstand when we 
say, AYhat counsel did such a one give you ? Kow, 
thus it is here taken for that wise order of things, and 
means which God's wisdom suggested. Lastly, it is 
to be considered, why it is called counsel of his it ill. 
First, because it is propounded to his will ; secondly, 
it is accepted of by his will. The meaning is, we ob- 
tain all these blessings before-named, having been pre- 
destinated according to that gracious pru-pose of God 
towards us, whose working bringeth about all things 
according to that wise order which his counsel did pro- 
pound, and his will for the liberty of it did freely 

Now, the scope of this description tendeth hither, 
to prove that we attain the benefits before-named, 
having been predestinated by God's counsel (for pre- 
destination is an act of God's connsel, as I have said 
before) thereunto ; ho proveth this particular, by this 
general. He who worketh all things after the counsel 
of his will, he doth work these benefits in us, his coun- 
sel having predestinated us to them. But God worketh 
all things, &c. These are frivolous exceptions, that 
God speaketh only of the things before, which he doth 
out of his gracious pleasure ; for this were an imper- 
tinent superfluity to say, that God had wrought us 
these benefits, when his counsel had predestinated us, 
who doth work these benefits according to his counsel. 
He hath wrought them in us according to his counsel, 
who doth work them according to his counsel. 

Secondly, "Whatsoever things are according to God's 
counsel, those he is said to work ; for these last words 
may as well determine the subject, as shew the manner 
of his working. 

Thu-dly, What reason is it to say, he worketh these 
things after counsel ? as if all the works of God were 
not alike after counsel. 

Lastly, To say he speaketh of things he doth out of 
gracious pleasure, is in their sense, who except, frivo- 
lous; for he saith not, the counsel of his iudoxia, but 
of his ^iXri,aa. Beside that, the Scripture doth attri- 
bute those things, which as judgments God doth exe- 
cute in reprobates, to God's eu&cxla, mere free plea- 
sure : Mat. si. 25, and xiii. 11, ' Thou hast hidden 
these things from the wise ; even so, because it pleaseth 
thee.' Now, to come to the doctrines. 

Doct. 1. First, we see that everything which cometh 
about is God's eflectual working": ' Of him, by him, 
and for him, are all things,' Rom. xi. 3G, 1 Cor. viii. 
6. Things are of two sorts, good or evil ; good things 
are natural, or supernatural, such as are wrought in 
Christ. Now, all these the Lord's efficacy is in making 
them, yea, of nothing. Though man must have some 
matter to work on, God can give being, and call the 
things that are not, making them stand out as if they 
were. Secondly, his work is in sustaining them. He 
doth not leave those things, as a carpenter his build- 

ing, or shipwright his ship, but still is with them sus- 
taining them in the being received from him. That 
which bath not heat of itself, but is made hot (as 
water) with fire, it dependeth on fire to be kept in 
heat, and no longer than fire is under it, it will not keep 
hot. So these things, not having being of themselves, 
depend on him for their continual sustentation, who 
did first give them th^ir being. Thirdly, God's action 
is in them, governing them to that end for which he did 
make them. Things depending on another, are go- 
verned by that on which they depend. Beside, our 
servants depend on us, to be governed by us ; what 
are all the creatures but so many things ministering to 
him who is the Lord of hosts ? Not to speak that the 
same wisdom which teacheth us to get anything, for 
this or that purpose, doth teach us likewise, when now 
we have it, to govern and apply it to that purpose. 
So God's wisdom, which made all things to an end, 
must needs govern and use them to that end. There 
is no question in these things. For that anything 
should beget a thing like in kind to itself, it is not 
strange ; and that anj- workman should work anything 
like himself, is no wonder. The difficulty is in evil 
things. Evil is either of punishment or sin. Now, 
God is by himself an author of the first : see Amos 
iii. 6, ' Is there evil in the city, which I work not ? ' 
' Out of the mouth of the Lord cometh evil and good,' 
Lam. iii. 88. For punishment, though it be evil to 
his sense who sufi'ereth under it, yet it is good in itself, 
when now it is deserved ; as to execute a man is evil 
to him who sufi'ereth, good in the judge, who cutteth 
ofl' a hurtful member for the good of the public. Evil 
of sin is either of the fii'st sin, or the sins ensuing. 
Now these, to speak in general, neither of them are 
without God's eflectual permission. They who so are 
in God's power that they cannot sin without his suf- 
ferance, his permission is efl'ectual to the being of sin 
from them ; that is, necessary to this, that they should 
actually commit that they are inclined to commit. 
Now, thus it is with God, for he doth efl'cctually work 
some things by himself without others ; as the creation 
of all these things ; some things, in and with othere, 
working as instruments under him and with him. Thus 
he worketh all the works of grace ; some things by 
permitting others, and that when he could hinder 
them. Thus his efficacy reacheth to the being of sin, 
and this is most just in God ; for though evil is not 
good, yet it is good that there should be evil. God, 
who bringeth light out of darkness, being able to do 
good of evil ; and it is just in him to permit, where he 
is not bound to hinder. 

Use 1. Seeing then God's effectual work is in every- 
thing, let us labour to behold his work and to praise 
him in it. It is the workman's glory to have his art 
discerned. Look on the foulest thing that ever was 
committed, look at God's work in it, it is most holy, 
as that killing the Lord of life. Acts iv. 21. That look, 
as it is in those double two-faced pictures, look at 

Vrn. 11. J 



tLcm on one side you Fee monsters, on the other 
beautiful persons ; so it is in these wicked works, the 
same that man workcth sinfully, God worketh most 
holily. They work idtiii, but not ad idem. 

V^f 2. This is our comfort, that nothing can be in 
which our heavenly Father's hand worketh not. 
Earthly pirents, though provident, may have their 
children meet with many casualties which they do not 
intend before, but help when now they sec them brought 
about ; but nothing can be in which our Father's hand 
must not have a chief stroke before it can come to pass. 
This must quiet us, even for times to come, our secu- 
rity being in it ; yea, for whatsoever is befallen us, we 
must sustain ourselves even from hence, the efi'ectual 
working of our God is in it. We must hence, I say, 
sustain ourselves from being swallowed up of grief; 
we must not prevent hereby due grieving, and humb- 
ling ourselves under the hand of God. Hold this for 
ever, that nothing can fall out to us, in which is not 
the elTectual working of our heavenly Father. We 
cannot solidly fear God, if evil may befall us with 
which he is not willing, in which he hath no hand. 
We cannot have that patience in our evils, nor that 
comfortable security for times to come. Neither let 
any excuse his wickedness hence, for God's work doth 
leave a man liberty to be a cause, by counsel, of this 
or that he doth ; so that thou dost go against God's 
will advisedly, when he worketh his will in thee. And 
if a man do execute one raahciously, his murder is not 
excused, because the judge by him doth take away the 
life of the same man most justly. 

Doct. 2. Secondly, observe, that what God worketh 
or willeth, be doth it with counsel. Though his will be 
most just, yet we must not conceive of it as moving 
merely from itself, without anything to direct : ' With 
him is counsel, with him is understanding,' Job xii. 
13; and Isa. xlvi. 10, ' My counsel,' saith the Lord, 
' shall stand.' Even as the foot of the body hath an 
eye bodily to direct the moving of it ; and as the rea- 
Bonable will of a man hath a light of wisdom to go be- 
fore it ; so would God have us conceive in himself, 
that the light of advised wisdom is with him, in what- 
soever ho willeth or worketh. This is to be marked : 
first, that we may see how all things befalling us are 
good, for the Lord bringeth them about according to 
bis counsel, they seem good to his wisdom. Now, 
wisdom judgeth nothing good, but as it is fit to some 
good end ; now that which is fit for some good end, 
that cannot but be good. 

U:>e 1. Wherefore let us correct our thoughts. In 
many things we sutl'er, we think other courses would 
do better. What is this but to say. This befalleth us 
n<,t with so good advice ? AMiat but to teach God 
wi.-dom, that judgeth the highest things ? Let us deny 
our own wisdom, and give glory to God, acknowledg- 
ing that there is wiser counsel in everything we suffer 
than we can attain. 

J7^e 2. This may rebuke rash, indeliberate, and 

self-willed persons. Some, if a thing come into the 
head, turn them forthwith to it, as busily as if they 
would go nine ways at once. Some, again, are so self- 
conceited, that their will must stand, as if it were a 
law. Oh, it is a sign of small wisdom to be so strong- 
willed : Prov. xii. 14, ' He that heareth counsel is 
wise.' It is good to look before we leap, and to re- 
member that two eyes sec more than one. Solomon,, 
the wisest for politic wisdom, hath his sage counsel- 
lors, whose advice, while Rihoboam followed not, he 
did lose ten parts of his kingdom. It is in our little 
personal commonwealths, as in those wide ones, 
' where counsel fails, all goes to ruin,' Prov. xi. 24. 

Docl. 3. Coiiiist'l of his uill. That is, which his 
will propounded to it, did fi-eely accept. Observe 
hence, that what God willeth once, that he efl'ectually 
worketh : see Ps. cxv., ' Our God is in heaven, and 
doth whatsoever he willeth.' ' Who hath refused his- 
will ?' so Isa. xlvi. 10. We see in beasts that they 
have an appetite to that they move after ; in men 
that which they will, that they put out their power to 
efl'cct : so it is in God, if he will any thing, he doth 
work it effectually. That is a frivolous distinction of 
an effectual and an ineffectual will in God, which 
standeth neither with proof of Scripture, as in this 
place, nor with the blessedness of God, nor with the 
nature of things ; all that shewed him which his will 
accepteth, he doth efl'ectually work it. Against bless- 
edness of God ; for might God will a thing and not 
have it, he were not fully blessed, when to have every 
good will is more blessed than to want it. Against 
nature of things, for every thing which will and abi- 
lity worketh, if God almighty have will to any thing, 
the thing must needs follow. Where there is full 
power to work anything, applied to the working it, the 
thing wrought must needs foUow. 

Here some distinguish and say, that in things 
which God will do, his power doth work them efl'ect- 
ually ; but the things which God would have on con- 
dition from us, those his power doth not work : an 
old Pelagian conceit. Would not God have us walk 
in his commandments ? and hath he not said, that he 
will put his Spirit in us, and make us walk in them ? 
St Austin learned that God did promise to work 
mightily those things he requireth of us. If to have 
the conditional will be more happy than to want it, 
then God, who hath power to work the condition in 
us, will not want it. Not to say that this conditional 
is absurdly imagined in God, he must will the having 
a thing on condition which he will not work, and then 
it is impossible, unless the creature can do something 
good, which he will not do in him ; or on condition 
which he will work, and then he worketh all he will- 
eth ; or on such a condition which he sccth the crea- 
ture cannot perform, nor himself will not make him 
perform ; and this were idle and frivolous. 

Use l.'The use is, first, for our comfort. While we 
know that all that good which God hath willed to us, 



[Chap. I. 

he will work it for ns; faith, repentance, perseverance 
in his fear, sanctification, and salvation ; his will is, 
we should be raised up at the last daj' ; all these he 
will effectually work for us. Did our good depend 
npon our own wills, as things exempted from subjec- 
tion to his power, all our comfort were at an end. If 
the preserving me from evil, and bestowing on me 
good, depend not entirely for principal efficacy on God, 
farewell all religion. 

Use 2. We see them confuted that make God's will 
tend man's, and work accordingly as that inclineth ; 
which is to set the cart before the horse, to make the 
supreme governess come after the handmaid. We 
cannot go to the next town, but we must say, ' UGod 
will,' saith James. God can have nothing with man, 
no faith, no conversion, but if man will; and that not 
as coming to him in obedience, but as able to cross 
him, and resist his pleasure. 

Olij. He doth still work after the counsel of his 
will, seeing it pleased him to jield so to the liberty of 
his creature. 

Alts. Where learn they that God had suspended his 
omnipotency, and put the staff out of his hand ? The 
Scripture telleth us, that ' God hath the hearts of 
kings, to carry them as he will;' that the power that 
raised Christ worketh faith in us. 

Secondly, I say, that did God look to the will of 
another, as the rule of that he will work, he could not 
be said to work after the counsel of his will, though 
he might be said to work willingly ; as it is with ser- 
vants and subjects, who look to the wills of others for 
their dii-ection, of others to whom they are in power 

Use 3. Lastly, Let us, seeing all things are accord- 
ing to his will, yield him obedience in all things. It 
is fit children or servants should be subject to the will 
of parents and masters, how much more for us to sub- 
ject ourselves to his will, which is ever guided with 
unsearchable wisdom ! 

Having thus admonished what I deem fit to be 
spoken more generally, as fitting to popular instruc- 
tion, before I pass this place, I think it good to deliver 
my judgment touching that question. 

Quest. Whether Adam's voluntary fall was pre- 
ordained, and in seme sort willed by God, yea or no ? 
Or whether God did only foresee it, and decree to suf- 
fer it, not willing or intending that it should fall out, 
though he saw how he could work good out of it ? 

I will first set down the arguments on both sides ; 
secondl}', lay down conclusions opening the truth ; 
thirdly, answer the arguments propounded to the con- 
trary. Those who defend the latter, reason thus : 

1. That which maketh God cruel, and more cruel than 
tigers themselves, and unjust, is not to be granted ; but 
to make him will the undeserved fall and ruin of his 
creatures doth make him so. 

2. That which maketh God will an occasion of 
shewing his own wrath, is foolishly ascribed to God, 

no wise man will make work for himself to be 
angry at. 

3. That which fighteth with the end of God in 
creating man, that is not to be ascribed to God ; but 
to will the fall of his creatures, fighteth with his end 
he propounded, namely, that by serving him, they 
might live happy everlastingly. 

4. That which standeth not with God's truth in his 
word, is not to be granted; but that to say he did will 
and determine the fall, standeth not with his truth. 
His word saith, I would have thee come to life, and 
persevere in obeying me ; this saith, I will not have 
thee come to life, nor continue in obeying. Eryo, it 
maketh God to have deceived man. 

5. That which maketh God will the taking away of 
some guilt,* by which Adam should have been enabled 
to have obeyed, or to withdraw some grace, and so 
forsake him, before he had sinned, that is not to be 
granted ; but to make God will and decree that his 
creature should fall, doth infer the subtraction of some 
grace, and sufficient abilities to keep the law, and that 
while Adam yet had not offended. Ergo, it is not to 
be granted. 

6. That which he willeth, that he worketh, and is 
author of ; but the fall you say he willeth. Ergo. 

7. He who gave strength enough to have avoided 
sin, did forbid it in pain of death, he is not willing 
that sin should be ; but God did so. 

8. That which maketh God will that which hath 
disagreement with his nature, is not to be yielded ; but 
to will sin, is to will a depravation of his image, dis- 
agreeing with his nature. Ergo. 

9. That which taketh away man's liberty in sin- 
ning, maketh his sin no sin, and is not to be granted. 
God's ordaining that man should fall doth so. Ergo. 

10. He that punisheth sin, is not the author of sin. 
God doth punish it. Ergo. 

'; 11. He who doth give his Son all to death for the 
abolishing of sin, he doth not will that it should be ; 
but God doth so. Ergo. 

12. If God willed the being of sin to some ends, 
then he hath need of sin ; but he hath not need of sin. 

13. That which maketh God will the being of sin, 
that he may shew mercy in Christ, and shew mercy 
in Christ fur the taking away of sin, that maketh God 
run a fond circle ; but this doth so. 

14. He who cannot tempt to sin, cannot will sin : 
God cannot. Ergo. 

Now to prove that God did will, that through his 
permission sin should enter, or that he did will sin so 
fai- forth as that it should be, or the being of sin (for 
these are one), the arguments following are used : 

1. Ho who doth make his creature such who may 
fall, and setteth him in such circumstances in which 
he doth see he will fall, and then permitteth him to 
himself, he doth will and ordain that his creature, 
through his mutability and freedom, shall fall ; but 
* Qu. 'gift'?— Ed. 

Vl-.R. 11] 



God msike'.h him such who mny fall, and settcth him 
in such circumstances, in which he doth foresee he 
will fall, and then leaveth him to fall. Kri/o. 

If au}- except, God doth make him such as may fall, 
and set him iu circumstances in which he will fall, not 
that he intendeth his fall, but for his trial, I would 
ask, why God, knowing such circumstances, in which 
his creature might possibly have fallen, not actually 
falling, and so have proved him without falling, why 
be did choose to set him in such, in which he did 
foresee that he would fall certainly '? 

2. That about which an act of God's will is occu- 
pied, tliat thing is willed. God's permission is an act 
of his will, and is occupied about sin, the entering or 
being of it ; ertjo, this is willed. 

The first part is plain. As love, hatred, fear, cannot 
be about anything, but the thing must be loved, 
feared, hated ; so here, neither doth man pennit any- 
thing, having power to withstand it, but he is willing 
with it. Now permission is so an object of will, that 
it is likewise an act of will, conversant about that 
which it permitteth. 

8. He who, prohibiting anything, nilleth it, or willeth 
it shall not be, he permitting anything, willeth it shall 
be. But God doth ever nill that which he hindereth. 

4. That which God so permitteth that he hath^his 
end in permitting it, that he willeth it ; for whatever 
hath an end, that so far forth is good ; whatever in 
any degree is good, that so far forth is a fit object of 
the divine will. Eut God permitting sin hath his 
end why he will permit it, as all grant. 

5. He who willeth the antecedent, on which'another 
thing doth infallibly ensue, he doth will that which 
foUoweth also. As God cannot will the being of the 
sun, but he must will the illumination following it. 

But God willeth to permit, on which infallibly fol- 
loweth the sin permitted ; otherwise God might per- 
mit, and the thing permitted not happen, which is 
absurd to think ; for then he might deliver a person 
np to sin, and he not fall into the sin into which be 
is delivered. For though the action of free will come 
between God's permission, delivering up, and the 
sin to which we are delivered and permitted, yet God 
doth never permit, but that the creature will fall most 
infallibly to that which is permitted. 

6. He who cannot but either will that sin should 
be, or will that it should not be, he hath willed that 
it should be; but God must either will it or nill it; 
erffo, he whose omnipotency is in the being of all 
things, he must will the being of all things. God's 
omnipotency is in the being of everything ; for look 
as if his knowledge be not in everything, he were not 
omniscient ; and look as if his presence were not in 
everything, he were not omnipresent, so if his power- 
ful will work not in everything, he is not omnipotent. 

7. No defect of an inferior instrument can trouble 
the work of an all-knowing and almighty artificer ; for 
the instrument cannot do anything, nor yet fail in 

anything, without his sufferance and knowledge. But 
a defect in an instrument, not intended and chosen 
by the artificer, doth disturb his work ; therefore 
Adam's defection from God's order was not without 
the will and intention of God. 

8. That which maketh God's providence more im- 
perfect toward man, is not to be granted ; but to say, 
God lettelh man fall into sin without his will ordain- 
ing it before, doth so. For God doth not only fore- 
know the evils which befall the basest creatures, but 
he doth ordain the falling of them forth. 

9. Whatever God's providence worketh to his will, 
is to have that be to which his providence worketh, 
for providence is joined with will, and of things willed; 
but God's providence doth set the creature such cir- 
cumstances in which it will sin ; doth keep back all 
efl'ectual hindrances which might hinder the creature 
from sinning ; doth intend the use of sin fallen out ; 
figo, God's will was that his creature should sin. 

10. That which taketh away the true ground of 
fearing God, solid trusting in him, patience in evil, is 
not to be admitted. But the opinion that saith that 
evil may befall us, which God neither willeth nor in- 
tendeth, maketh us we can neither soundly fear, nor 
stay on God ; for how can we fully fear and rest on 
him, in whose hand it is not entirely to keep us from 
all evil, or to bring about all that evil which may over- 
take us. Now to say that man had power to fall into 
sin without God's will or intention, doth affirm both 
these, viz., that it is out of God's baud to preserve 
us, for though he will, and intend our preservation, 
yet we may fall into evil, and that evil may befall us, 
which God doth not will, nor effectually bring about. 
I need not shew what a ground of patience is taken 
away, when we cannot think that God had any will 
or intention in that which is befallen us. 

11. He who may holily will and ordain to good 
ends and uses after sins, he may ordain the first also, 
and will it as a mean which he can use to his glory. 
This is thus shewed ; after sin, as sin, hath no less dis- 
proportion with God's nature, nor can be no more 
approved by him than the first. It must then only 
be respects for which God may will an after sin, 
rather than the first ; but if respects make sin a fit 
object of his will, the first putteth on as good respects 
as any other ; for it was fit the first sin should' be, to 
teach the hberty and withal infirmity of the creature, 
that he might take occasion of unfolding his mercy 
and justice, that his admirable wisdom, goodness, and 
power might be manifested, while he did bring good 
out of such evil. The assumption, but God most 
holily willeth and ordaineth after sins ; as for example, 
the unjust crucifying of Christ, Acts iv. 28, Acts ii. 
23. None are blind like such as will not see ; for to 
say that God would not that his Son should bo killed 
by the Jews' procurement, and the hands of sinners, 
but only that God would have him delivered into their 
hands, to suffer what God would have him to eudure, 


[Chap. T. 

is but an escape of a turn-sick brain, blinded with 
wilfulness ; for what is it but to say, God would not 
that bis Son should be killed by them, but given into 
their hands that be should be killed by them ; for it 
was death, even the death of his cross, yea, and that 
under the hands of sinners, that God did lay upon 
upon him to suffer. Neither doth it help to say they 
■were now refractory sinners ; for if sin in one, now a 
wilful sinner, doth by respects it hath and uses, 
become a fit object for God's will to will and ordain, 
then the sin of a creature defectible may be ordained 

12. That in which is God's counsel, in that is his 
will and work ; but God's counsel reacheth to^ the 
being of sin, otherwise sin should fall out God unad- 
vised. The proposition is in the test; his counsel is 
accepted by his will, and he doth work effectuallj- 
aftcr some manner that which his will allowetb, and 
counsel adviseth. 

13. That which is a truth must needs have some 
former truth, a cause why it is true ; and so there is 
no stay till we come to the first truth, cause of all 
truth. But that sin is a truth, ergo. 

14. If there were but one fountain of water, there 
could not be any water which were not thence derived ; 
so there where is but one fountain of being, whatever 
is found to be, must needs thence take the original, so 
far forth as it is esistent. 

Having heard what chiefly is brought in one judg- 
ment and other, we will lay down these conclusions 
for way of answer to those arguments which were 
first laid down, opposing the truth in this question, as 
I take it. 

Conclusion 1. God cannot possibly sin. He may 
work beside his rule who may sin. God's rule is his 
most just and wise will, which he cannot but work 
after, no more than he can deny his own nature ; 
ergo, he cannot sin. 

2. God cannot be author of sin in and with his 
creature, as he is of every good word and work ; for 
that which the creature doth, God being the author 
and principal worker of it, God must inform the 
manner of it by his commandment, and work it in him 
by his Spirit. But it is impossible for the creature to 
sin in working after that which is commanded him of 
God ; c/y/o. 

3. God cannot so far will sin as to approve it for 
good in itself. It hath no proportion to his nature, 
such as he cannot be author of in the creature, nor 
yet the creature work while it keepeth communion 
with him. Wherefore God cannot allow it as good in 
itself, though he hath liberty whether he will punish 
it thus or thus, according as he doth with freedom 
toward such things which he 
good, such obedience to his 

4. Though God cannot will it as good in itself, nor 
approve it as good, yet he may will it so far forth 

cannot but approve as 
law had his creature 

that it shall be, as being able to work good out of it. 
God might have willed that none of these things 
should have been which had agi'eement with his nature ; 
and, ergo, by proportion may will that such things 
shall be which disagree in some sort from his nature ; 
for though these things are not good, the bting of 
them is good to him who can use it to his glory. 
God's efficacy, ergo, reacheth not to the essence, but 
to the being and beginning of sin ; for though the will 
of man doth make sin exist immediately, yet the will 
of man could not do it, did not the will of God give 
way by his permission. I see thieves coming to rob, 
and ready to enter at such a door ; I have power to 
shoot the bolt and lock it, so that they could not enter. 
Notwithstanding, having company about me to take 
them at pleasure, I leave all, that they may freely 
enter and take some booty, that so I may come on 
them, apprehend them, and bring them to their de- 
served end. In such an example, though the unjust 
will of these men did immediately make this robber}" 
exist ; yet I do make it exist more principally than 
they, inasmuch as they could not have done it had 
not I given way to them. Yet howbeit I am a cause 
why this robbery is committed in this place and at 
this time, in which I could have withstood, yet am I 
no cause to them of committing it. 

5. Sin, though it hath an outward disagreement, 
such as maj- be in a creature from the Creator, yet it 
hath no inward positive repugnancy or contrariency 
to God's nature, such as is twixt fii'e and water; even 
as the good created, though it hath an outward agree- 
ment with and resemblance to the Creator, yet it hath 
no inward agreement, such as is twixt nourishment 
and a thing nourished, for then should the divine 
nature inwardly in itself be better for the one and 
worse for the being of the other, and so should neces- 
sarily vnW the one and nill the other. Again, sin, 
though, as sin, it hath an outward disagi'eement, and 
be evil in the nature of it, yet is it not absolutely cvU 
to God as it is sin, but to the instrument sinning, in- 
asmuch as God can make sin, as it is sin, serve to divers 
good uses. No wonder, then, wicked men can use 
God's best things to evil. 

Sin, as sin, God can turn to an occasion of his 
glory; for not permission, but the thing permitted, is 
it which God doth take occasion by to give the pro- 
mise of the Mediator. He can use sin as siti for a 
punishment : Kom. i. 14, Because they did provoke 
him by idolatry, he did punish them with giving them 
up to buggery. These latter sins were not punish- 
ments, in regard they deserved further punishment 
and condemnation than the former, yea, a further de- 
sertion of God, but in regard of committing these acts 
themselves. Had God, by conversion, prevented fur- 
ther desertion and condemnation in one of these ido- 
laters, now come to masculine filthincss, his idolatry 
even in this act, once exercised, should have been 
punished. The sinful respect in this fact is more 

Veu. 11.] 



penal than Jeserlion or punishmeut fullowing after. 
Goil ma}- use sin as sin for exercising his children. 
The cup of sutl'ering God rcacheth us is to be sinfully 
and injuriously handled. God would hiivo Christ not 
only die, but suffer, being innocent, an unjust con- 
dtiiination ; yea, the sinful manner of afflicting is 
heavier to God's children than the alHiction itself. 
Beside that, in many of their exercises, it is not the 
act which doth or could afflict them, but the sin of 
the act ; not speech from Shimei, but sinful reviling 
speech was David's exercise. Wherefore being not 
absolutely evil, but good to God in regard of the use 
of it, he may ordain and will it as good, or rather the 
good use of it. 

G. Though God's will and work may be in sin, yet 
it is not alike in the sin which his creature in inno- 
ceney may fall into, as it is in regard of that sin which 
be may fi»ll into when now he is for state sinful. 

7. God may furnish forth his creature so that be 
may per se* and yet may per aecidens, make defection, 
and he may will that his creature shall sin, being suf- 
fered to itself, by accident of its own liberty and ver- 

8. Or having made his creature so, that when he 
may obey, he will, in such and such circumstances, 
take occasion and willingly and wittiugly sin, God may 
decree to set him in such conditions in which be will 
sin, and leave him without putting any impediment, 
which in cfl'ect is to will that sin shall be by his per- 

9. God may do that which may' directly bring a 
sinner to commit sin, as he may smite him with blind- 
ness in understanding ; for as death bodily is a good 
fern in the nature sinful of things, though not good 
to a living person, so is this blindness; pronity to sin, 
hardness of heart, good in themselves, though not good 
to man, who should be conformable to the law, and 
free from them ; good as inflicted, not as contracted 
and received. Secondly, God may suspend all actions 
which in any degree tend to hinder. Thirdly, God 
may provoke by occasions of sinning, not only set 
things, which he may take occasion to pervert. The 
reason of all is, it were just with God to consummate 
spiritual death upon his creature now sinful, and erfio, 
much more lawful to execute such a degree as is in- 

These conclusions premised, the arguments used 
for defence of the negative part may be more easily 
answered than many of those for the affirmative. 

Argument 1. To the first, it is denied that it is 
either cruelty or injustice in God to ordain that the 
creature shall fall through its own wilful defection, and 
60 glorify his justice in deserved punishment. To 
constrain the creature and make it sin unwillingly, and 
yet to determine to punish it, wore to punish it with- 
out cause, as delighted with cruelty. Secondly, I 
answer, as much may be objected against their per- 
* Qu. 'not^erw'?— Ed. 

mission, that which is cruelty and injustice not befall- 
ing savage men, that is far from God; but to set his 
child, never having offended him, in such a taking, in 
which he doth see he will certainlj* make away him- 
self, and not to hinder him, when be might every way 
as well do it, and that with speaking a word, is cruelty 
and injustice, far from savage men. Now all this dif- 
ferent divines confess of God ; first, that he did set 
him, being every way yet innocent, in such circum- 
stances ; secondly, that he could have hindered him, 
by suggesting some thought effectual to that end ; 
thirdly, that if God had thus hindered him, man's 
will should have been no less free, and God's primary- 
purpose should have been more promoted ; fourthly, 
that God determined, notwithstanding all this, ho 
would permit him fall. Revenging justice cannot bo 
glorious but in just punishment ; just punishment 
cannot be where there is no just merit on the creature's 
parts; just merit there can be none, if the creature do 
not wittingly and wilfully sin against God from tho 
voluntary counsel of it; enjn, as God will have tho 
end, so he cannot will the creature shall sin otherwise 
than from the wilful defectibility of it. 

Arijumcnt 2. To the second I answer, denying the 
proposition. God may will an occasion of manifest- 
ing his just wrath, or else he cannot will the demon- 
stration of his own perfections ; but to say God cannot 
efl'ect the shew of this or that perfection in himself, is 
over-harsh, and unbeseeming the power and wisdom 
of the Almighty. He who hath the creature so in his 
power, that he cannot make defection further than he 
willeth, he must needs will the being of that which his 
justice shall punish before it can come to be. Yea, 
it is so with men, that sometime they do draw this or 
that fact from another, with which they are justly 
angi-y so far as to punish it in the ofl'enders. Thus a 
master di-aw-eth forth the unfaithfulness of a servant, 
of which somewhat more in the last argument. This 
may be retorted. That which maketh God unable of 
himself to shew his perfections is not true, but that 
which saith ho cannot ordain or will the being of sin, 
maketh him unable of himself to shew his revenging 
justice; cn/o, it is absurd. 

Argument 3. The second part of that third argument 
is denied. It is one thing to make mankind iu some 
part capable of life, another thing to will and intend 
it should ail attain life. This latter was never in God; 
but God said, ' Do this and live.' 

Objection. This doth shew what God would have 
the creature take as his will, not what was his secret 
will within himself; or it shewed what way the crea- 
ture might attain life both for himself and his seed; 
but it doth not shew that God had this will within 
himself that his creature should with efl'ect perform 
this, for then he would have wrought it in his crea- 
ture ; even as the threatening doth not shew that it 
was God's final pleasure within himself that we should 
all lie in death if that we sinned. 



[Chap. I. 

Argument 4. The second part is again denied. To 
give a commandment to my creature to do this or 
that, which I am minded within myself he shall not 
do, is no untruth, when it is not for to deceive, but 
for trial or otherwise; as in Abraham, ' Offer thy son 
Isaac,' yet God's will was not to have him offered. 
The command, enjo, doth not lay down what was 
God's will within himself; for these were contradic- 
tory in the divine will, if he should be said to will in 
himself at the same time and not to will within him- 
self the offering of Isaac. Thus here it is no untruth 
for God to signify this as his will to Adam, that he 
should do unto life that in charge, when it was not his 
will to have him with effect perform it. And look, as 
God in his thi-eatening did signify as his final wDl that 
which was not his final pleasure touching mankind 
without any untruth, so here. 

Aiyument 5. The second part is denied. We do 
not affirm the subtraction of any grace he had, neither 
doth this follow on decreeing his fall, but only the not 
superadding of that grace whereby he would infallibly 
not have fallen. God's decreeing that he should sin 
out of his own voluntary doth not diminish any power 
he had, whereby he might have stood if he would, but 
doth only hold back that gi'ace which would have made 
him with eft'ect to will that thing which he was other- 
wise able. The not putting to grace no way due, 
which should make him infallibly stand, is one thing ; 
the subtracting of grace, enabling him to stand if he 
would, is another. 

Argument 6. That which he willeth, that he is 
author of and worketh. We distinguish that which 
he willeth so as to command it, that he is the author 
of to his creatui-e, and that he worketh in him. But 
to v.ill the being of sin is to will that his creature shall 
of his own accord, without his warrant, do this or 

Argument 7. He who gave strength enough to avoid 
sin, and forbade it on pain of death, would not have 
sin. Ans. It followeth not, but thus only, that he 
would not have his creature sin, so as the blame of it 
should redound on him. Had he willed that he should 
not have sinned, he would have given that grace with 
which he saw he would not have fallen. 

Argument 8. That is not to be yielded which 
maketh God will a thing disagreeing with his nature, 
as allowing it for good, not that which maketh him 
will it so far only that it should exist, and have being, 
for it is good that the evil should bo which God dis- 
alloweth ; or thus, that which bath naturally and iu- 
trinsecally a positive contrariety with God's nature, 
that he cannot will ; such a thing sin is not, for such 
contrariety cannot stand with the impassibility of the 
divine nature. 

Argument 9. God's decree taketh not away man's 
liberty ; God doth not by any outward force determine 
the will, but as being more intimate to it than it is 
uuto itself. If man can determine his will, and no 

way diminish his power to the contrary, how much 
more shall God be able ? Not to say that though man 
for exercise be determined to one, yet while he doth 
this out of free judgment, counting it such as he may 
do, or not do, he cannot but work most freely. 

Argument 10. He that is author of sin doth not 
punish it so far forth, or in that respect in which he 
worketh it. Again, God is not said author, but of 
such things which he doth not morally by command, 
and physically bj' inward operation work in us. They 
should say, he that punisheth sin willeth not that sin 
should be, which is false. 

Argument 11. He^who giveth his Son to abolish 
sin, he doth not allow sin as good : this followeth, or 
he would not that it should still dwell in those for 
whom his Son eff'ectually suffereth. But it will not 
follow, that whoso giveth his Son to abolish it, never 
willed the existing or being of it ; these may be sub- 
ordained one to the other. 

Argument 12. That which God willeth for ends, 
that he hath need of. 

Ans. God is all-sufficient, not needing anything out 
of himself ; nevertheless, upon supposition that God 
freely will have some ends, those things are in some 
kind necessary, which his will guided with wisdom 
chooseth, and his counsel adviseth as behoveful to 
such purpose. Thus the being of sin may be said 
needful, so far as it signifieth a matter advised by 
counsel, and chosen by God's free pleasure as fitting 
to such ends which he propounded. The denial of a 
wise man is respective to this, that sinners think 
there is such need of their sin as may excuse them in 
sinning. As Peter saith, God was not slack, as men 
count slackness, so he saith, God needeth not sinners 
as sinful men think him to need them. 

Argument 13. It is a cuxle which Saint Paul is not 
ashamed of, God shut up all under sin, that he might 
shew mercy on all. We see every day he woundetb, 
that he may heal again ; he bringeth to the grave, 
that he may raise up. 

Argument 14. To that in James, it is true, first, 
that ' God doth not tempt any man,' so as man can 
excuse himself ; secondly, he tempteth not the creature 
to that which is sin uuto him, or merely aiming at 
the seduction of the creature ; for this darkness of sin 
goeth into light, this evil is good, so far as it is an 
object about which his will may be occupied ; never- 
theless, God may lead the creature into temptation, 
suff'ering the devil to tempt, and God may prefer such 
objects to his creature, on which he doth see that he 
will sin, and intend that he shall sin accordingly as 
he doth see him inclined. This is not to be an author 
of sinning to his creature, but to detect unto good 
purpose the defcctibility which he doth see to be in 
his creature. It is then denied that he who ordaineth 
that his creature shall fall, or willeth it, becometh a 
tempter to his creature to fall, or sin against him. 
As God willed that sin should be, so he willed that it 

Ver 13.] 



should be by the will of man freely obejin" the sednc- 
ing suggestion of the devil, anJ perverting by accident 
such things as should have coutaiucd him iu due 

Thus have I endeavoured to unloose this Gordian 
knot, which hath exercised the wits of the learncdest 
divines that ever were. In a point of so great ditH- 
culty, I presume not peremptorilj- to detine, but sub- 
mit all that I have conceived for the opening of it to 
the judgment of the church of God. 

Ver. 13. Now followeth the end why we are said to 
have obtained an inheritance in Christ ; in which we 
are to consider, first, of the persons ; secondl}', the 
end itself. The persons are described from the eft'ect, 
their hope, which is amplified from the circumstance 
of time, and the object about which it was occupied, 
< Who hoped in Christ first of all ;' that is, then when 
as yet the Gentiles were not called to believe and 
hope on him ; which here is mentioned to their 
honour. The end is, ' that we might be to the praise 
of his glory,' that is, to the setting forth both by 
words and works of his glorious mercy ; so ijh>rij is 
taken, Rom. ix., as it is above- noted more at large. 

Doct. 1. Observe then, that this is set down in com- 
mendation of the Jew, that they first hoped on Christ ; 
whence we learn, that to be brought to faith before 
others, is a prerogative which persons so called have 
above others. The Jews had a promise that Christ 
should be given them, and seek them first. It is 
Israel in whom I will be glorious through thee ; 
accordingly, Christ did walk with them as the minister 
of them who were circumcised, and did charge his 
disciples to keep them within the same bounds, to 
seek the lost sheep of Israel ; accordingly, a church 
was gathered amongst them. Though for their number 
they were but few in Christ's time, in comparison of 
the multitude which would not receive him, yet the 
kingdom did sutler violence, the poor did receive the 
gospel ; j'ea, after his ascension the church in Jeru- 
salem did grow numbersome before the gospel was 
carried to the Gentiles. Now, this is here set down 
as an honourable circumstance, that they did believe, 
when yet the Gentiles were strangers from the cove- 
nant. When subjects have made a revolt from their 
lawful prince, those who shall first return and receive 
again the lawful king, it is unto their commendations. 
Thus, 2 Sam. xix. 15, it was Judah his praise to be 
first in fetching home David their king ; so for us who 
have made defection from God and Christ, it is our 
glory to be with the first in receiving him our true 
David and king. Again, the first-born hath a privi- 
lege, and so here it was a privilege of the Jew, that 
he was the first begotten to the faith. 

C/ie 1. Let us then acknowledge with honour this 
circumstance in others ; have they been long in the 
fuith before us, we must honour this antiquitj". The 
young rise up before the ancieut^in uatore, so should 

it be with us who are babes, when we meet with them 
who are old men in Christ ; see llom. xvi. 6. Paul, 
mentioning Audronicus and Junia, doth not omit this 
circumstance of honour, that they were before him in 
Christ ; and so he doth repute it the honour of an- 
other that he was the first-fruits of Achaia, 1 Cor. 

Uae 2. This must move those who are before others 
to walk worthy this dignity, by adorning this their 
ago in Christ with graces correspondent, viz., experi- 
ence, wisdom, weanedness, all kind of mortification. 
Should one of fifty have no more wisdom nor staid- 
ness than another at fifteen year old, it were able to 
make their age despised. Let us look to this ; many 
that were first prove lafst, even as it is with these 
Jews, then before all, now behind all. 

Docl. 2. Observe, secondly, what is the end of all 
our benefits we attain in Christ, even this, that we 
may set out his glorious grace and mercy towards us ; 
for this is not brought in as the end of God's predes- 
tination, but of our obtaining an inheritance in Christ. 
Our faith, our redemption, our glorification, all is to 
the glory of Christ. Even as it is the glory of kings 
to have their subjects yield them homage, and swear 
them allegiance, so this obedience of faith is a spiritual 
homage which the subjects of Christ's kingdom do 
yield unto him. Our redemption, whether we look at 
the thing itself wrought, or the intention of him work- 
ing it, is to the praise of his glory. If princes out of 
their clemency send and ransom some subjects, the 
very deed is much to their glory ; so it is in this re- 
demption of Christ. Now the end why we are bought 
with a price, both soul and body, is that in both we 
might glorify him ; the inheritance given us is to the 
praise of his glory, yea, all the glory tfiat shall be put 
upon us in heaven shall be his glory. Look, as the 
inheritances, dignity, riches, glorious pomp of sub- 
jects is to the praise of the glorious bounty and power 
of those kings to whom they live subject, so here, see 
2 Thes. i., the end why we receive this inheritance of 
light is, ' That we might set forth his virtues, who 
hath called us into admirable light,' and that it might 
so shine forth before others, that they might glorify 
God and Christ. 

Use 1. Let us then endeavour ourselves to set forth 
the praise of him who doth give us all those spiritual 
benefits in which we partake. Let our words, let our 
works, let our whole man, be at his command, ser- 
viceable to him. The church in the Canticles, she 
doth so praise the beauty of her spouse, that she 
awaketh others. We should so from our hearts set 
out the praise of our Christ, that others might by our 
means be brought to inquire after him, and ask, ' Who 
is thy beloved ?' Those who find bounteous lords on 
earth, how will they tell of their atVability, liberality, 
of every circumstance wherein they do them any grace 
and favour ! How will they protest tliemselves de- 
voted to their service, drinking healths npon their 



[Chap. I. 

knees to them ! How impatient of anything which 
doth so much as in show tend to their disparagement ! 
What a shame is it that we should walk, neither feel- 
ing our hearts affected, nor yet opening our mouths 
to praise him who hath redeemed us, and brought us 
to the hope of an immortal, incorruptible inheritance ! 

Having in the end of the sixth verse shewed that 
all of us come to receive in Christ the grace shewed 
in time, as well as that which was given us before all 
worlds, he doth prove it, first, from benefits given to 
the Jews unto this thirteenth verse ; secondly, from 
benefits bestowed on the Gentiles. Now this matter 
is first handled simply to the end of this first chapter ; 
secondly, is set down comparatively, illustrated from 
their former estate in miserj'. Now, in setting down 
the benefit, we must first mark the benefit itself which 
they are said to have received ; secondly, the effect 
which this mercy shewed them had in Paul, whom it 
moved to pray for them. In the benefit, these par- 
ticulars are observable : 1. In whom they received it, 
' in Christ.' 2. Who receive it, ' even ye ;' for this 
circumstance, ye is set out, as it were, in text letters : 
Ye who were before without God in the world, who 
walked in the vanity of your minds. 3. The order in 
which this benefit did befall them, which is to be 
gathered from the precedency of two other : 1, of 
hearing ; 2, of believing. The hearing is amplified 
from the object, which is propounded more indefinitely 
' the word of truth,' expounded more distinctly ' the 
gospel of salvation.' The second thing going before 
it is faith, ' in whom also having believed.' 4. The 
last thing is their benefit, which was their sealing, in 
which we consider, 1, their sealing ; 2, the seal and 
sealer, viz., the Spirit, set down more generally from 
his holiness, inherent to his person, from this eternal 
circumstance, that he was the Spirit fore promised. 
In the fourteenth verse he is described more particu- 
larly, from that respect in which he is to the saints, 
viz., ' an earnest," &c. 

The sum. As we in Christ have been thus blessed, 
so in him even ye Gentiles, sinners, when ye had 
heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, 
in him, I say, even ye, when ye had not heard only, 
but also believed, were sealed with the Holy Spirit, 
which had been before promised unto life eternal. To 
omit the first cLixumstance, which hath met us before, 
and the second also, which doth give occasion to con- 
sider what impure persons the Lord doth choose to 
sanctify, we will come to the third and fourth points 
propounded : first, handling the general circumstances 
of them ; secondly, touching those things which may 
by the way be pointed at in them. 

Doct. 1. You, uhfii you had Iward, were sealed uith 
the Spirit. Observe how God, by hearing his word, 
doth bring us to be partakers in his Spirit. Hearing 
is everywhere made the beginning of our coming to 
God : ' He that hearcth, and learnelh from the Father,' 
John vi. ; ' If ye have heard and learned Christ, as 

the truth is in Christ,' Eph. iv. 21 ; ' The word hath 
been fruitful in you, from what time you heai-d,' etc., 
Col. i. This was the sense by which first death 
entered : Eve, hearing the serpent, was seduced ; and 
this is the sense by which we are restored. Look, as 
the ground cannot be quickened with fruits till it re- 
ceive seed aud the dews from heaven, no more cm our 
soul be quickened with the Spirit, and fruits of the 
Spirit, till by hearing it hath taken in this seed im- 
mortal, drunk in this heavenly shower of God's word. 
Xow it is not every hearing which is accompanied 
with the Spirit, but hearing with the heart, so as the 
heart is affected to do that it heareth. There is a 
hearing with the ear bodily ; thus many may hear 
who do not understand, and, iiyo, hear and do not 
hear. If outlandish men were here, such as did only 
know their own foreign language, we might talk loud 
enough in English, not fearing their hearing of us. 
There is a hearing joined with understanding, when 
yet the heart is not affected to do after it, and this 
hearing is no hearing also. If one hear us asking him 
to do this or that, if he have no mind to perform it, 
we say he cannot hear on that side. It must, erijo, 
be such hearing as Lydia heard with, whose heart God 
opened to attend to Paul's preaching. 

Use 1. The use of this is, to let us see that where 
there is much hearing, yet the word is not there heard 
as it should be. Who cometh to have his heart burn 
within him ? to be filled w-ith the Spirit by hearing, 
by being taught, being admonished ? It is pitiful. 
We may observe some like Judas, who was, when now 
he had heard Christ, and taken the sop, he was filled, 
but with Satan ; they are viler after hearing than 
before, and the most like children when schooling 
time is ended. Nay, it is to be feared that some with 
hearing are grown past hearing ; as those who dwell 
near the continual roaring of mighty waters, they was 
deaf, through continual hearing such vehement noise, 
so that they cannot hear anything at all ; so many, 
the sound of God's word hath so long beaten thtir 
ears, that they cannot discern anything in it, whatever 
is spoken. 

Use 2. Secondly, this must teach us to attend on 
hearing. Wouldst thou k ep the Spirit from being 
quenched ? Despise not prophecy, hearing the Scrip- 
tures opened to thy use. Even as the conduit-pipes 
carry the water hither and thither, so doth the word 
convey the graces of the Spirit into our hearts. It is 
a peal to bed when men can be without hearing, not 
feeling need of it, as sometimes they have done. 

Docl. 2. Secondly, observe what word heard bring- 
eth us the quickening Spirit, the word of the gospel. 
A man's drooping heart, upon the coming of good 
news to him, it feeleth, as it were, new spirits return 
to it ; so our dead hearts, when God hath made this 
glad tidings of salvation and pardon of sin be brought 
them, there doth return to them a quickening spirit of 
peace aud joy unspeakable aud glorious. ' Received 

Ver. 13.] 



yoa the Spirit by hearing the law, or by the doctrine 
of faiih preaohod ?' Gal. iii. 3. And for this cause 
the ministry of the gospel is called the ministry of the 
Spirit, not of the letter, because this doctrine doth only 
bring us to receive the quickening Spirit which doth 
work in us a life eternal. The law may bring us to 
feel ourselves dead, Rom. vii., but it cannot quicken 
any ; though, when the gospel hath now quickened 
us, it may instruct us, reform us, yea, delight us in 
the inner man, Rom. vii. Many things may help us 
when now we live, which could not be means of restor- 
ing us from death to life. But it may be objected the 
gospel is said a savour of death, as well as the law is 
said a killing letter. I answer. The gospel is said so, 
not that directly the nature of it is to kill, but by acci- 
dent of men's corruption, who reject and will not obey 
it, it tnrneth to their further condemnation. As the 
king's pardon cannot kill any by itself, yet, despised 
by a malefactor, it may double his guilt, and bring 
him to more hasty and fearful execution, so the gra- 
cious pardon of ftod oflcreJ in the gospel killeth not 
any by itself, saveth many who receive it, yet, de- 
spised, it may by occasion work heavier death and 
destruction. But the law doth of its own nature hold 
a man now in state of sin under death and condemna- 
tion, and cannot of itself bring any to life who now 
hath offended. ' The words I speak to you,' saith 
Christ, ' they are spirit, they are life.' Even as the 
body of the sun diffnseth as an inslrument the beams 
of this material light, so it is the gospel, that instni- 
ment of God, by which he sendeth out the light of his 
gracious Spirit into our hearts. 

Use 1. The use of it is, to stir us up earnestly to 
desire this sincere milk of the gospel. Even as there 
goeth out natural spirits with the milk the babe 
draweth from the mother, so the Lord doth accom- 
pany this word of his, which the church ministereth 
as milk, with that supernatural spirit which giveth 
quickenance to life everlasting. Even as we do renew 
our feeding to repair the decay of natural spirits in 
ns, so must we never be weary of renewing and in- 
creasing that supernatural life and spirit which we 
have received from Christ. If thou bast the Spirit, 
hear that thon mayest keep it ; if thou wouldst have 
it, and wantest it, attend on hearing, remembering 
how the eunuch received the Spirit, Acts viii., and 
how, wh'le Cornelius and his friends heard Peter 
opening the good word of salvation, the Holy Ghost 
did fall on them, to the wonder of the believing Jews 
who accompanied Peter. 

Doct. And here, before we pass to the general 
doctrine, note from this that the gospel is called the 
word of truth, that all God's promises made in Christ 
are true and faithful. They are ' yea and amen,' 
2 Cor. i. ; they are ' true, and worthy all entertain- 
ment,' 1 Tim. XV. The whole word is true, for, like 
ns the witness is, like is the testimony or deposition 
which Cometh irom him. Now God is faithful and 

cannot lie, but this is attributed to the doctrine of 
the gospel, as agreeing to it, with a certain excellency 
before other parcels of the word ; for the gospel is 
sometime called by general names, as a doctrine of 
godliness, a law, a testimony ; sometime it is de- 
scribed by the author, the gospel of God ; sometime 
from the object, the gospel of Christ, of the kingdom; 
sometime from the property, as an eternal gospel, a 
good word, a true word, as here ; sometime from 
effects, as in the next words, a gospel of salvation. 
Now it is testified to be a word of truth, after an emi- 
nent manner, for three causes : first, it is occupied 
about Christ, who is the truth and substance of all 
the shadows legal which now are vanished ; secondly, 
the truth of this word is further confirmed to us than 
the truth of any other, by word, by oath, by the tes- 
timony of the great apostle Christ Jesus, by a jury of 
solemn witnesses chosen for this purpose, by a multi- 
tude of miracles ; thu-dly, this property is the rather 
annexed to this doctrine of the gospel, that thus our 
unbelief might be holpen, for our mind is corrupted 
with error, prone to any unbelief, but hard to believe 
these points so high above the natural reach and ap- 
prehension of it. Now, as a physician doth say of 
his medicine that it is excellent, not that it needeth 
commendations, but that be may induce his patient 
the better to take it, so God and his ambassadors do 
testify of these things that they are true, that we 
might thus be brought to yield them belief. 

But it may be objected, that word, which biddeth 
many reprobates believe the forgiveness of their sins, 
and life everlasting, that is not a word of truth ; but 
the gospel doth so. The reason of the former propo- 
sition is, because that which biddeth me believe a lie 
cannot be true, but to bid a reprobate believe his sins 
are forgiven is to bid him believe a lie. The sum put 
together comcth to this, that word which biddeth a 
man persuade himself of that which is untrue, that is 
a l3'iug word. First, I say this may be denied, unless 
I bid him persunde himself so with a mind of deceiv- 
ing him.* Abraham, by God's command, was bound 
to persuade himself that Isaac was to die under his 
own hand, yet was not that a lying word by which 
God spake to him, because the intent of it was but 
to prove him. Some say he was bound to think so, 
unless God should countermand and reverse his for- 
mer command. Answer, Abraham did absolutely 
believe it, and cn/o, did not comfort himself by think- 
ing God might call back his former precept, but 
by considering that God could raise him from tho 
dead. Much more may God bid the reprobate beUeve 
this or ihat, while he doth it but to evince their con- 
tumacy, and doth see well how far they are from be- 
lieving any such matter. 

* To believe that my sins are now pardoned iriP, and that 
I am saved, this is not the first act of faith, but follnwelh 
them when now a man ilotb see himself to be justified ia 



[Chap. I. 

Secondly, I answer that the second part of the first 
reason is not true. God doth bid them believe on 
Christ to forgiveness of sin : he doth bid any repro- 
bate dii-ectly believe that his sin is forgiven. 

Use 1. Oh then, let us take heed that we do not 
give God the lie in all these things which he promiseth 
to us. Every man will bless himself from this iniquity, 
from charging God with falsehood in word, yet no man 
is afraid to do that with his deed which he trembleth 
to pronounce with his lips. As we may deny God not 
by word only, but by work, so we may make him a 
liar, not only by charging falsehood on him by word of 
mouth, but by our deed, going away, and not heeding 
all the grace he oflfereth us in Christ. ' He that be- 
lieveth not maketh God a liar,' 1 John v. 10. Should 
one promise me an hundred pound, doing this or that, 
though I should not tell him he did but gull me with 
words, yet should I go my way, never heeding what 
had been promised, never endeavouring performance 
of the condition on which I might claim the benefit 
oflered ; by doing this, I should shew plainly that I 
did not take for truth that I heard spoken. So it is 
between God promising to us on believing and repent- 
ing, and our turning our backs on him without endea- 
vouring after these things. 

Use 2. This must strengthen our faith toward the 
promises of God. Oh they are purer than silver seven 
times fined 1 Should an honest man, in telling us any- 
thing, when he came to this or that which he saw us 
not easy to believe, should he intersert but this pro- 
testation, that what he would tell us he knew it most 
true, we would the easier receive it and give credence 
to it ; how much more when God doth condescend so 
far to our infirmity as not only to tell us these things, 
but to testifj' to us that they are truth itself ! 

Secondly, It might be noted here that the gospel is 
such a doctrine as worketh salvation. God's power 
to salvation ! It may well be called a good spell, or 
word, for it briiigeth us the tidings of all our good : 
First, it bringeth immortality and life to light ; se- 
condly, it ofiereth us the grace of forgiveness and life 
everlasting ; thirdly, it is God's instrument whereby 
he worketh faith, receiving these things ; fourthly, it 
is the word of grace which must build us up and bring 
us to that blessed inheritance. Acts xs. 32. But I 
hasten to the things remaining in this verse. 

Doct. 3. The third general doctrine is, that it is not 
enough to hear, but we must believe, before we can be 
partakers of the good Spirit of Christ : Gal. iii. 14, 'By 
faith we receive the Spirit of promise.' The Gentiles 
having heard and believed, God did give them his 
Spirit : Acts xv. 7, 8, ' He that believeth, rivers of 
water shall flow from him,' which is spoken of that 
Spirit which they receive who believe on Christ, John 
vii. 28. This fore-promised Spirit is first, in the ful- 
ness of it, received by Christ our head, Acts ii. 33, 
and from Christ it cometh to us ; for ' from his ful- 
ness we receive grace for grace.' Now look, as a 

member cannot receive those spirits from the head 
which cause sense and motion in the body, but they 
must be united with the head, so it is here, we cannot 
have this Spirit from Christ our head, but we must, by 
this sinew or nerve of faith, be united to him. 

But how can we receive the Spirit by faith, when we 
cannot believe before we have the Spirit ? Some think 
that we have first actual grace, that is, that the Spirit, 
as an aid without us, doth make us actually believe, 
that so the Spirit afterward, by habit of faith, and all 
other sanctifying graces, may come to dwell in us. 
Now, they would answer, that though we cannot be- 
lieve without the outward aid of the Spirit, yet we 
might believe without the Spu-it, by any supernatural 
habit dwelling in us ; but this is the error of the 
school, for we are said to have a spirit of faith before 
we can bring forth the act of faith : 2 Cor. iv., ' Hav- 
ing the selfsame spirit of faith we speak.' Again, no 
extern help can make us bring forth good fruit, till it 
makes us first good trees ; and a blind man may be 
lifted up to see without a faculty of seeing, as well as 
an unbelieving man lifted up to an act of faith without 
a faculty, a supernatural habit of believing. We, eiyo, 
are said believing to receive the Spirit, because then 
we receive it more fully and manifestly, dwelling in us 
to our sanctification and assurance, touching our re- 

Use 1. Wherefore let us labour by faith to be one 
with Christ ; let us eat, as it were, and drink him, by 
belief on him ; then shall we feel the quickening Spirit 
coming out of him ; yea, let us strive for a further 
measure of faith, for the wider the mouth or neck of 
a vessel is, the more it receiveth, the faster it filleth ; 
so here, the more our faith dilateth itself, the more 
abundantly doth this Spirit flow into us from Christ. 
Use 2. We see the idol faith which many rest on, 
for it bringeth them not to be partakers of a Holy Spirit, 
nay, their faith is accompanied with a spirit of sen- 
suality, fleshly profaneness, filthiness, covetousness, 
even such a spirit as is fit to come from a groundless 
and fruitless presumption. 

Thus, having considered the benefit in general, we 
will sift it more particularly ; for he doth not barely 
say, in whom, when ye also had believed, ye received 
the Spirit, but ' ye were scaled with the Holy Spirit 
fore-promised.' Two things are to be marked: 1. The 
sealing, which doth figuratively signify a singular con- 
firmation given to faithful ones touching their redemp- 
tion. The seal, the Holy Spirit, that is, both the per- 
son of the Spirit dwelling in us, and the graces of the 
Spirit inherent in us, which is here said a ' Spirit of 
promise,' because God had fore-promised to put his 
Spirit into our hearts, that his word and Spirit should 
never leave the faithful seed ; that he would pour^out 
the Spirit on all flesh, which solemn promises make 
me think that this phrase is in this sense rather to be 
construed, as Gal. iii. 4, we are said by faith to re- 
ceive the promise of the Spirit, that is, the Spirit of 

Ver. 13.] 



promise, or that had been promised, as here it is 

Docl. 4. First, observe that the faithful are, as it 
were, by seal confirmed, touching their salvation and 
full redemption ; for this is to be supplied from the 
4th chap., ver. 80: 'Who conlirmeth us, who hath 
. anointed us, yea, who hath scaled us,' 2 Cor. i. As 
God did seal his Christ, as the person in whom he 
would bo glorious by working our redemption, so he 
doth seal us who are believers, for persons who shall 
have redemption by him. Even as persons contract- 
ing do mutually seal and deliver each of them their 
deeds in several, so between God and the believer : 
the believer doth by faith set to his seal, as it were, 
that God is true in that which he promiseth, John iii. 
83 ; and God he doth seal unto the believer that he 
shall be infallibly brought to the salvation he hath be- 
lieved, for to seal up believers to redemption, or to 
seal redemption to believers, are here equivalent. 
Look what a seal set on anything doth, it agreeth well 
to believers ; for, first, a seal maketh sometimes things 
sealed secret. Thus the graces of the Spirit make be- 
lievers unknown to the world, who have not received 
the same spirit with them, yea, such as none can 
ordinarily know their happiness beside themselves : 
' My love is like a fountain sealed ;' ' for this cause 
the world knoweth you not, because it knoweth not the 
Father,' 1 John iii. 2. Secondly, a seal doth dis- 
tinguish. Thus the believers are a peculiar to God, 
are set apart, as the first fruits of the creature are 
taken out of the world. Thirdly, a seal doth make 
things authentical. Thus measm-es, clothes, deeds, 
anything by the seal coming, is confirmed and war- 
ranted in the kind of it. Thus believers they have 
that given them which doth fully assure their salvation 
always, yea, which doth not only make it sure in it- 
self, but sometime put it out of all doubt with them, 
that they can say, they know whom they have be- 
lieved, and that he is able to keep their salvation they 
have trusted him with to that day. Look, as kings 
when they take any to great offices, or to have and 
hold lands, matter of inheritance here or there, they 
give their seal that they may the more secure it unto 
them ; so doth God to us, when now he taketh us be- 
lieving to that heavenly inheritance. But it may be 
objected by many believing hearts, we find no assur- 
ance, but much doubting ever and anon, though we 
hope we have and do truly believe. 

It is one thing to have this or that surely by deed 
and seal confirmed, another to know that we have a 
thing so sealed. As men in earthly things may have 
sure evidence for this or that, and yet not always 
know the certainty of their hold, and so doubt cause- 
lessly, thus it is in believers ; they have their redemp- 
tion ever surely sealed, but not knowing the certainty 
hereof in themselves, they are yetwhile subject to 

Use 1. The use is, that seeing God hath thus sealed 

to us onr salvation, we should, ergn, labour to be fully 
persuaded touching this his grace toward us. Though 
trae believers are not always sure of their salvation in 
their sense and judgment, yet they should ever strive 
to this ; for as men would be trusted confidently in 
that they promise and seal, so God much more would 
have us be secure, touching that which he hath pro- 
mised, written, sworn, oirtwardly and inwardly sealed. 

Use 2. Let us all strive to get ourselves sealed to 
redemption, seeing God doth seal those whom he will 
deliver in that great day ; if we be not in this number, 
we shall not escape damnation. Even as in the 9th 
of Ezckiel, and Revelations vii., those were kept from 
the judgment spiritual in the one place, corporal in 
another, whom God had sealed and marked thereto ; 
so is it here, etc. 

Doct. 5. The last point followeth, viz., that the 
Holy Spirit, and the graces of the Spirit, are the seal 
assuring our redemption, the seal sealing us to redemp- 
tion. For assurance of outward things we have only 
the seal sealed on wax or otherwise ; we need not the 
signet sealing : but we are confirmed touching salva- 
tion both by the Spirit of God, who is, as it were, the 
seal sealing, and by the graces of the Spirit, which is, 
as it were, the seal sealed and printed upon us ; yea, 
these two, both of them are together as a seal, while 
it standeth upon the matter which it now scaleth. 
Look, as the kings of England grave on their broad 
seal their own image, and so print, as it were, their 
own picture in this or that which they seal ; so our 
God, by his Holy Spirit, essentially like himself, he 
doth print upon our souls his own image, upon us, I 
say, whom he sealeth to redemption. 

Now that both God's Spirit and this image of God 
in us do, as it were, seal us up to salvation, is plain. 
For, first, of the person of the Spirit it is spoken, 
Rom. viii., that it 'beareth witness to our spirits, that 
we are God's children, and heirs with Christ.' Tho 
Spirit of God doth, by his own testimony, in special 
manner confirm us and assure us this way. Now for 
the other. ' We know by this,' saith Saint John, 
' that we are translated from death to life, because we 
love the brethren.' Now, seeing it is the Holy Spirit 
dwelling in us, and God's holy image in our souls, 
which seal up our salvation, how should we labour for 
the Spirit and for holiness, without which none shall 
ever see God ? Had we great matters to be conveyed 
to us, though all were concluded, and the instruments 
ready drawn, yet we could not rest till we had got all 
sure sealed ; so it is with us, we should not rest, but 
seek this Holy Spirit, that we might see oiu: heavenly 
inheritance safe and sure, even sealed within us. 

Secondly, We see by this that the seal is God's Holy 
Spirit, that God doth not intend by sealing to make 
our salvation certain in itself, but to us also. For he 
who sealeth us with such a seal which we may know, 
he would have us assured in ourselves, touching that 
to which we are sealed. But the Spirit may be known 



[Chap. I. 

of ns ; for that which is a sign manifesting other 
things to us, must needs itself be manifest. Now, 
Saint John saith, ' By this we know God dwelleth in 
ns, and we in him ; because he hath given us of his 
Spirit.' Unreasonable sheep cannot know the marks 
wherewith they are marked, but reasonable sheep may 
know the seal wherewith they are sealed. 

Thirdly, We may gather how fearful the state of 
Buch is who will scolf at the Spirit, at purity, holiness. 
Surely as God hath his seal, so the ie\i\ hath his ; 
when he filleth men with darkness in the midst of 
teaching, hardens their hearts till they know not how 
to be ashamed and penitent, filleth them with hatred 
and scorn of such as are more conscionable than them- 
selves, it is a presumption God hath given them up to 
the power of Satan, that he might seal them to eternal 

Ver. 14. WJio is the earnest of our inheritance, until 
that redemption purchased, to the praise of his iihry. 
He cometh to describe the Spirit more particularly 
from that which he is unto us. First, for the words. 
It is to be marked that he speaketh not of the Spirit 
as a thing in the neuter gender, but useth the article 
masculine, to point out the person of the Spirit ; and 
our English relative who duth more distinctly answer 
to the Greek than u-hich. This word earnest is in the 
original tongues more large than our English, and may 
signify pledges, pawns, hostages, as well as earnest, 
■which is in contract of buying and selling only eser- 
cised, and is a giving some small part of a sum to as- 
sure that the whole shall be tendered accordingly in 
due season. Inheritance is put for that consummate 
inheritance of glory kept for us in heaven, 1 Peter i. 

Until the redemption, noi for the redemption ; it is 
the same proposition which we read chap. iv. 30. The 
redemption is here to be understood, not of that which 
■we are said to have, ver. 7, but of the redemption of 
the body, or of the full liberty of the sons of God, 
■«hich is kept till that great day. 

The sum is, ye are sealed with the Spirit, who is in 
you with his gilts, and is unto you as an eai-nest in 
hand, assuring you that you shall have that perfect 
inheritance bestowed on you ; yea, it dwelleth with you, 
as an earnest confirming you in this behalf, till that 
redemption of glory befall you which is purchased, to 
the praise of God's glorious mercy. 

The parts are two : first, that the Spirit is said to 
be ' an earnest of our inheritance ;' secondly, the 
durance of time in those words, to, or ' until the re- 
demption,' which is described from the property ad- 
joined, a 'redemption purchased ;' secondly, from the 
end, ' to the praise of his glory.' 

Docl. 1. First, then, that he changeth the gender, 
and speaketh of the Spirit as a person, uho is, it is to 
be marked not only as confirming the Spirit to be a 
distinct person from the Father and the Son, and also 
giving us to consider that we have the person of the 

Spirit dwelling ■with us, and the gifts and graces 
wrought in our souls. It is not with the Spirit and 
his gifts as with the sun and his hght, the body of the- 
sun being in the heavens, when the light is with ns 
here in earth ; but we are to conceive the Spirit him- 
self dwelling in this sanctuary of grace, which him- 
self hath erected in our souls. This by the way. 

Docl. 2. The main point to be marked is, that tho 
Spirit doth not only as a seal, but as an earnest-permy 
given us from God, confirm unto us our heavenly in- 
heritance, assure us that we shall receive in due time 
the fulness of grace and glory : 2 Cor. i. 22, ' Who 
hath given us the earnest of his Spirit in our hearts.' 
Even as men do assure others that they will pay them 
the whole sum due for this or that by giving an earnest, 
so God doth make us as it were part of payment, doth 
execute in part his gracious promise, that we may be 
the better ascertained touching his gracious purpose 
of bringing us to that our heavenly inheritance. He 
knoweth our unbelieving mould, and, fc/zo, omitteth no 
mean which may help us forward to assured persuasion. 

There is twixt an earnest, and the Spirit with the 
grace wrought in us, great resemblance. First, an 
earnest is part of the whole sum, which is in regard of 
this or that, to be paid in times appointed ; so the 
Spirit we have, and grace, is the beginning of that 
glorious being we shall receive, the same for substance, 
differing in degree.* 

2. An earnest is but little in comparison of the 
whole. Twenty shillings is earnest sufficient to make 
sure a sum of an hundred pound. Thus all we have 
is but a small thing in comparison of the fulness we 
look for, even as the fust fruits were in comparison of 
the full harvest. 

3. An earnest doth assure him that reeeiveth, of the 
honest meaning of him with whom he contracteth ; so 
the Spirit and gi'ace which we receive from God do 
assure us of his settled purpose of bringing us to 
eternal glory. 

Use. 1. Tho use is, first, to he fully persuaded, 
without doubting that God will bring us to that perfect 
redemption both of soul and body. We are not to 
doubt about that which God by earnest, by pledge and 
pawn, confirms unto us, though we will not believe a 
man's word, nor trust his bill or bond, yet upon suffi- 
cient pledge or earnest we will deal, no whit fearing 
our man, though he be never so ■«eak ; and shall we 
not trust to God for that for which we have so good a 
pawn lying with us ? But because this is a point con- 
troversial, I will set down my judgment briefly con- 
cerning this, viz. : 

Whether we may in ordinary course be infallibly 
persuaded touching our salvation. 

The truth is. Christians may come to it. That 
which is sufficiently confirmed on God's part to Chris- 

* An earnest doth stay with liim that rcceivetli the com- 
plete sum ; a jiledge is given back when the sum undertakea 
is fully iierformed. 

7er. Ik] 



tians, and that whose confirmation ma}' he sufficient!)' 
received on Christians' part, concerning that thoy may 
infallibly be assured ; but God hath sulUciontly con- 
firmed it, as is plain by his word, seals, oath, pledge, 
&c. ; and what God ofl'ereth or confirmeth, so we liy 
faith may receive it, for faith doth enable us suffi- 
ciently to believe that God revealeth to us. Now his 
will to save us by all the former is particularly re- 
vealed, as we shall shew further hereafter. That 
which maketh us unable to have sound joy, hearty 
thankfulness, courage to proceed in a godly course, 
that is contrary to the truth ; but to take away this 
certain persuasion of our inheritance doth this. How 
can I jo\' in a thing which I know not whether I shall 
have it or no ? I mean with sound and full rejoicing. 
How can I be thankful for that which I know not 
whether I shall ever get it or no ? How can a man 
have heart to proceed, while he cannot know whether 
he is in a course right or wrong, and cannot tell 
whether all he doth will come to anything, yea or no ? 
To explain the truth more fully, I will open these four 
points : 1, what this certainty is ; 2, on what grounds 
it riseth ; 8, in what state the faithful attain it ; 4, 
that the sense of it may alter even in those who have 
attained it. 

1. This certainty is no other thing than the testi- 
mony of a renewed conscience, which doth witness 
through the Spirit, that we are in state of grace, and 
that we shall be brought by God to life everlasting. 
I call it a testimon}' of the conscience, for the] con- 
science doth not only shew us what we arc to do, what 
state we should seek to get into, but it doth witness 
and give judgment about that we have done, and the 
state we stand in, be it good or evil. The conscience 
accuseth of sin, and witnesseth to a man that he is in 
the state of damnation ; it doth witness to a man that 
he is in state subject to God's temporary displeasure, 
and so likewise that a man is in such state as that 
God will shew him favour for the present, and bring 
him to see his promised salvation. That it is a testi- 
mony of our spirit, that is, our conscience renewed, it is 
plain, Rom. viii. 16. That oui' spirit doth witness it, 
through the Spirit witnessing our state unto it, it is 
plain in that place also, ' The Spirit of God doth 
witness with our spirit;' and Rom. ix. 2, ' My con- 
science beareth me record through the Spirit ;' for the 
conscience doth but speak it as an echo. That it tcsti- 
fieth to us both our present estate of grace, and our 
inheritance with Christ, it is evident there also ; nay, 
when the conscience, through the ministry of the law, 
doth testify to a man his state in sin, and under the 
curse, it is through the spirit of bondage that it doth 
BO testify, this being the office of God's Spirit to teach 
us to know the things bestowed on us, 1 Cor. ii. 12, to 
work in us not faith only, but spiritual discerning of 
those things which are wrought in us, and look tow ard 
us believing. 

The conscience doth testify this, partly through faith 

believing it, partly through discerning the faith, love, 
obedience which are by God's Spirit brought forth in 
us : 1 John iv. 10, ' We have known and behevedthe 
love the Father beareth us.' I know whom I have 
trusted, and that ho is able to keep my salvation com- 
mitted to him unto that day, 2 Tim. i. 9. Faith may 
receive what the word doth testify, but there is a word 
testifying thus much, that my particular person be- 
holding the Son, and believing on him, shall have eternal 
life, and be raised up at the last day, John vi. 4.0; that 
there is no condemnation to me, being in Christ ; that 
ho who hath begun his good work is faithful, is con- 
stant, and will tiuish it also ; that Christ is made of 
God, not only an author, but a finisher of my faith, 
not only a justifier of me, but a perfect redeemer ; that 
I, being justified and called, shall also be glorified. 
Neither could John with the faithful bclieTe God's love 
toward them in particular, if some word did not shew 
it ; neither will the papists say that all of them were 
privileged with singular revelation, for though no word 
expressly say, Thou, Thomas, beUeviug shalt be saved, 
yet that word which saith, ' Every one believing shall 
be raised up,' that word saith, ' I believing shall be 
raised up.' Otherwise we might ask what word saith, 
Thou, Thomas, shalt not kill, steal, &c., if the general 
did not sufficiently contain every particular person ? 

But it will be said. How do you know that you truly 
believe ? To which I answer, coming to that second 
ground, by a gift of distinction or understanding, we 
know these things wrought in us by God; and by dis- 
cerning these things, we are assured touching that full 
salvation promised to us. First, that we may know 
them, then that these known do further assure us. 
Paul did know on whom he had believed. How could 
we say every one, We believe, if we might not know 
it ? Can we speak that truly whereof we can have no 
certainty ? Thirdly, when I see one, or trust to any, 
promising me this or that, I know I see him and trust 
to him, rest on him for that he hath promised. Shall 
I b)' faith see Christ the Son, and rest on him, and 
yet know no such thing ? We may know we havo 
some kind of faith, but not that we have the true lively 

A lis. St Paul bids us to ' try and prove ourselves 
whether we have not that faith by which Christ dwell- 
eth in our hearts,' which is the faith of such as are 
accepted with God, 2 Cor. xiii. 5, G. Now to bid mo 
make search and examination for that which cannot 
be found out, were ridiculous. Our love to God and 
our brethren, by which we know ourselves translated 
from death to life, we may know also. St John maketh 
it a sign of onr being translated, enjo it may be known. 
Signs manifesting other things must themselves be 
more manifest. Secondly, he that may know he hath, 
true faith, may know, (i jTiuii, that he hath love also, 
for love is in true fuith as the fruit in the root from 
wliich it springeth. Wo love God when now wo 
I have found that he loveth us fiist. Now by faiih we 



[Chap. I. 

perceive God to bear us love, and be reconciled, for 
God doth offer bis love to me believing. Again, if I 
love men, I know my love to them, yea, and in what 
degree I bear them love. Shall I love God to the de- 
nying of my earthly profit, yea, my life often, and not 
be able to know that I love him ? Were this true, 
when Christ asked Peter, ' Lovest thou me ?' he should 
have answered. Lord, thou knowest we cannot tell 
truly whether we love thee. Again, St John saith, 
' B}' this we know that we love him, if we keep his 
commandments,' If any say, we know that we have 
a natural love, but we are not sure that we have this 
Christian love. 

Again, many Christians think they have true love ; 
yea, Peter himself was deceived in his love. 

Ans. The love of a mere natural man to God is as 
like Christian love as an apple is like an oyster, and 
therefore we pass by it. Christians are either enlight- 
ened only, and not sanctified, or sanctified also with 
their enlightening. The former may think themselves 
to have love, not having it ; but because a man, dream- 
ing, or running upon some mistake, may be deceived, 
shall this prejudice but that a man walking may judge 
truly of this or that which is before him ? A man 
that hath no charity, thinketh himself to have it; there- 
fore may not one that hath it judge infallibly that he 
hath it ? Now, for those that have it, as Peter, they 
may be deceived, not in judging simply of the thing, 
but of the measure of that which is circumstantial in 
their spiritual life, not in that which is substantial. 
Peter was not deceived in thinking that he had faith and 
love, but in presuming above bis measure. Thirdly, 
■we may know our works, which are fi-uits growing 
from the tree of grace in our hearts. St John maketh 
them signs, which do evidently declare love, en/o, they 
are mauifest. He who knoweth when he doth sin and 
swerve from obeying God, he may know how far he 
obeyeth God. They who do spiritually obey God, 
either they know it, or their consciences are not priv}- 
to that they do, cannot bear witness and judge of that 
they do ; but this is false. Paul's conscience did 
testify to him, that he did walk in simplicity, accord- 
ing to the gi'ace of God. True it is, that for the out- 
side, the works of unsanctified men are like to the 
works of the sanctified, but they are without the life 
and spirit which is in the work of a true believer, to 
which he is no less privy than to the external work 
which Cometh from him. To conclude : they who 
have the testimony of a good conscience may know 
that they obey God sincerely ; but Christians may 
have the testimony of good consciences. Beside that, 
tlie Spirit doth teach our consciences to bear witness 
of the grief and joy we have, and so by consequent of 
all we do according to good. Now, the conscience, as 
through faith so discerning these things, doth testify 
to us from these our salvation, which he hath pro- 
mised, and God will not forget to finish what he be- 
ginneth. Should a king promise to erect some college, 

and give liberal maintenance to students in it, we are 
certain by a human faith that he will do such a thing, 
though it be not begun ; but when now the foundations 
were in laying, then we should not only believe his 
purpose, but in part know it by that we saw executed, 
and by that we saw in execution, we would assure our- 
selves the thing should be finished. But here it will 
be objected that, though knowing these things, we 
might come to see ourselves in present state of grace, 
yet we cannot be sure of our salvation unless we could 
know that our faith, love, and obedience should per- 
severe to the end. To this I answer, that the Scrip- 
ture could not say that he that believeth hath an 
everlasting life, that there is no condemnation to them 
that are in Christ, did it not take our faith and the 
fruits of it to be such, from which we should never 
fall, through the power of God; and this the conscience 
comoth to know by faith in God, conceived through 
such promises as these : ' I will make you walk in my 
commandments ; I will put my fear in j-ou, that you 
shall not depart ; I have begun my work, and I will 
perfect it in you ; I am author and finisher of thy 
faith ; it is my will thou shouldst have eternal life, and 
be raised up at the last day.' Now, though the con- 
science doth testify this our present being in favour 
and our future salvation, yet it doth not this in every 
state of a believer. For, first, there is a state in which 
faith is a smoking wick, desiring that it could believe 
rather than getting up to feel itself believe. Again, 
though faith be not troubled, but doth quietly stay on 
Christ, and taste God good in letting them find peace 
with him, yet such is the infancy of spiritual under- 
standing in Christians now first converted, that they 
do not return unto themselves and judge of that they 
do, and of the great consequence which followeth from 
that which they do. Hence it is that they will tell 
you they find God good to them, and go on cheerfully 
in duties for the present, but they come not to behold 
the stability of their salvation for time to come. There 
is a state in which faith is exercised with temptation, 
from unbelief or otherwise, by which opposition tlie 
soul is kept from attaining this certainty, being en- 
countered with doubtful appearances which it cannot 
well answer and clear for the present. There is a state 
wherein faith is now grown up, and either hath out- 
wrestled, or otherwise is exempted from knowing such 
temptation ; and the faithful in this state do persuade 
themselves that God's mercj', and truth, and power, 
shall carry them through unto salvation. Look in 
1 Peter v. 11, ' The God of grace, who hath through 
Christ called you unto eternal glory, when you have 
a little suffered, he perfect you, stablish you, strengthen 
you, ground you sure.' 

Lastly, when now our consciences are come to tes- 
tify through faith and experience this happy estate, 
we are subject, by neglecting means, by tailing into 
some more grievous sin, by secret desertions, erewhiie 
to lose for a time this comfortable persuasion, the 

Ver. 14.] 



Spirit not spoaking in us by his ligbt as heretofore, 
and our consciences and faith so hurl and wouuded, 
that the actions of thorn are troubled, depraved, as we 
see the like befall the natural reason and senses. Wo 
Bee through melancholy what reason comolh to ima- 
gine, how the eye thinks it sees things j'ellow and red, 
when they arc nothing so ; the taste things bitter, 
when they are sweet ; so the sight of faith and con- 
B^-ieuce, when nothing but sin, guilt, wrath, angry 
desertion overlay it, it seemeth to see everything for 
the time of like colour to those things wherewith it is 
possessed. These things I thought good to set down, 
that we might conceive the nature of this point more 
fully. One thing is to be answered, which seemeth 
to me of greatest moment, namely, that this doctrine 
doth leave no place for fear, but breedeth presump- 
tion. But this is utterly denied ; for the grace and 
mercy of God believed breedeth love of God, and con- 
sequently true fear, which is opposed to senseless 
stupidity and carnal presumption, though it casteth 
out fear which proceedeth from unbelief. 

Secondly, Such who may be certain of salvation by 
faith, they may be secure, if they did not as well 
stand in this grace by faith as first enter into it ; but 
this we teach with the Scripture, and cr(jo our doctrine 
doth shew, that those who see this grace have still 
need to look to Christ, the author and finisher of it, 
that the}' may so stand in it unto the end. 

Thirdly, It is false that such as are sure of salvation 
have no cause to fear, unless no other evils but final 
damnation need to be feared ; but while the soul is 
subject to bring upon it God's temporary wrath, sick- 
nesses spiritual, hellish anguish to the sense of it, 
there is still left cause enough to fear. 

Use 1. Iiut us then detest that damnable doctrine 
which doth condemn this particular persuasion as 
presumptuous heresy, which makcth the Spirit play 
all-hid in us, so that wc cannot know what we have, 
what we do, what things abide us through God's 
mercy. Yea, let it reprove many of our conceits, who 
have left popery, and yet think that this is impossible; 
that it is too high a point, somewhat presumptuous ; 
that it is not necessary ; that a common hope is suf- 

Use 2. Seeing the Spirit we have is but as an ear- 
nest, a small thing in comparison of that whole sum, 
let us not be dismayed though our knowledge and 
faith be but little. The imperfect life in a babe is 
life as truly as that life which a man attaineth at his 
constant age. Though we must not take occasion to 
live in lust, with a literal knowledge and common pro- 
fession, as many do from hence, that all is imperfect 
and nothing which wo obtain here, yet having the 
grace which doth make us in any measure cleanse the 
heart, though it be never so little, even hence we are 
not to be discouraged, seeing it may be little, and yet 
a true earnest of that fulness to be given us. 

I'jf 3. Lastly, How should wj labour bot'i to get 

and keep this Holy Spirit, holy in itself, making us 
holy iu whom as temples it dwelleth ! Men, if they 
deal in great matters, they love to get earnest and 
good ones ; the fuller earnest, the more security. 
Again, they keep and esteem an earnest more than 
other money, which hath no such reference to further 
matters as that hath. So it should bo with us. Let 
us then desire this spirit of grace at him who giveth 
it. Let us not despise good; means, and so quench 
it. Let us not, by not heeding the suggestions and 
inspirations of it, grieve it. Let us frequent the com- 
pany of those who are spiritual, able to quicken us 
in this kind. I 

Duel. Until the redemption purchased, &c. "Whence 
first observe, that the Spirit abideth with us as a 
pledge, confirming us till our redemption, our full 
redemption. First, that it abideth ; secondly, as an 
earnest or pledge. Isa. lix. 21, God promiscth that 
his word and Spirit should never depart from that 
blessed seed, and all those who should be born after 
a sort of him ; and Rom. viii., the Spirit of Christ is 
said to dwell iu us who are Christ's ; yea, so that it 
shall at length quicken our mortal bodies. The seed 
of God is said to abide in those who are born of God, 
that they cannot sin ; but I will not prosecute this 
here, which I have done elsewhere. It abideth a 
pledge, confirming that full redemption ; for even 
souls now perfected have the sanctifying graces for 
substance which here they had ; though their faith and 
hope be changed into sight and quiet expectation, and 
by that executed iu their spirits, they do expect the 
consummation of glory both in body and soul. But 
it may be said, Doth the Spirit leave us at the time 
of our full redemption ? No ; but though it dwelleth 
with us, yet it ccaseth to be a pledge of further matter, 
even as the money given a man in earnest bideth with 
him when he hath the whole sum paid, but it is no 
longer an earnest of further money to bo received. 

Ufc. This, then, is our comfort, who have found 
this Holy Spirit dwelling and working in us. Though 
it may leave such as Saul, whom it never sanctified, 
yet it shall never depart quite from them whom it 
hath in truth sanctified, but they shall, like David, 
then have it praying in them, that is, teaching them 
to pray, when they think themselves most devoid 
of it. 

Doct. Observe, lastly, that he saith we have a 
pledge given us, till the redemption come which is 
purchased for us. That here the faithful see not 
themselves fully delivered : ' We are the sons of God, 
but it appeareth not what we shall be.' We believe 
life everlasting ; we do not see it ; yet we by nature 
lie in darkness of sin and misery. God will have our 
light return successively, even as the hght of the sun, 
which shineth from one degree to another, till it come 
to full strength, Prov. iv. There is a double redemp- 
tion, the one which we have by faith, ver. 7, the other 
which we shall have iu that great day. This redenip- 



[Chap. I. 

tion belongeth immediately and directly to man, to 
the creature mediately ; for in that great day the 
creature shall be changed from the vanity and bondage 
of corruption to which it is subject. As the first 
Adam's treasonable defection deserved to be punished 
both in his person and in all the things which apper- 
tained to him, so it was meet that the second Adam's 
obedience should not only restore man, but the crea- 
ture also, which might any way be a fit appurtenance 
to him in his state of glory. But one may ask what 
use there shall be of these visible heavens, of the 
earth, when man's mansion is prepared in those third 
heavens ? In these things we are not to be curious. 
What if God will have them stand as a monument of 
his former power, wisdom, goodness, toward us in our 
pilgrimage. Again, we see it is a state belonging to 
earthly princes to have houses here or there, which 
sometime, through all their reigns, they do not once 
visit. What respecteth man ye may find in that I 
have written on the 13th verse. 

Use 1. The use is, to encourage ns equally to bear 
the evils which press us. Had we nothing to com- 
plain of, our redemption might well seem already past. 
Oh, this is our rejoicing, here we know misery in 
many regards, but our jubilee, our year of redemption, 
hasteneth. God doth so feast his children, that he 
will have their best dish last. When travellers set 
out in the fog and dark mist of the morning, it doth 
comfort them that they know the day is at hand, and 
they shall have it fairer and fairer. On the contrary, 
if thou gettest not this pledge of the Holy Spirit of 
Christ, thou hast received thy consolation ; nothing 
doth abide thee but weeping, wailing, and gnashing of 
teeth, an eternal night, a reckoning which will be more 
bitter than the pleasures of sin have seemed sweet. 

Ver. 15. Having thus laid down the benefit, he 
cnmeth to mention the effect which the consideration 
of it wrought in him, which reachelh to the end of 
this chapter, wherein two things may be observed : 
1, the occasion, in this loth verse ; 2, the fact, which 
hath two parts; 1, his thanksgiving; 2, his prayer. 
Concerning the latter, first, we have set down that he 
prayed ; 2, what he prayed, in the end of the 16th 
verse, and so downward. In setting down the occa- 
sion, 1, we are to consider the apostle his hearing of 
them ; 2, what he heard of them, which was, first, 
their /ni7/i, set down with the object of it, //! ilie Lord 
Jexiix : secondly, their love, which is amplified from 
the object, to saints, from the quantity and extension 
of it, tn all saints. The verse hath nothing difficult 
to be explained. 

Doct. 1. Observe first from this, that Paul getteth 
hearsay bow the matter of grace went amongst them ; 
that ministers must labour to know how grace goeth 
forward in those with whom they are to deal. This 
was the news that Paul asked after ; his desire was to 
be certified of this before all other things. Thus 

Epaphras told him of the Colossians' estate ; thus he 
learned out the famous faith of the Romans ; thua he 
learned by some of the house of Chloe the state of the 
Corinthians. Natural men will inquire and hearken 
after the health of their friends, how they are in body 
and estate. Thus this spiritual man he was still 
learning how the souls of the churches prospered. It 
behoveth shepherds to know their flock. Natural 
parents, if they have children at the university, they 
will inquire how they go on in learning and virtue ; 
thus this father of souls, absent from them, could do 
no other but be delighted to learn how they did grow 
toward God. 

Use 1. Which thing may check many pastors now- 
a-days, whose epistles, if one read, you shall find 
nothing they listen after but news, like those Athe- 
nians, Acts xvii., news fitter for men that follow the 
Exchange than for those who are fathers in churches. 
Again, this doth shew how wide they are who think 
it curiosity in ministers if they look into the manners 
more nearly of their people. What need they busy 
themselves, and thrust their oar into other men's 
boats ? For a private person, without any calling, to 
be so inquisitive, and to pry into others, that I may 
know how to come over them, cast something in their 
teeth if they a little displease me, is great wicked- 
ness ; but for a minister, to the end he may discharge 
his duty more fruitfully, it is no other thing than God 
requireth for the good of people. Some who would 
hear nothing but omnia bene, would have ministers 
quiet men, stop their ears with wax, and never wear 
their eyes about them but when they have a book in 
their hand ; but, alas, they consider not that ministers 
are shepherds, watchmen, overseers, itc, and that 
this is the key which openeth them the way into all 
the parts of their duty, viz., the knowledge of their 
states to whom they are to speak. 

Boot. 2. Secondly, Observe about what the faith of 
these Ephcsians was occupied, even about the Lord 
Jesus Christ. We read sometime the faith of Christ, 
sometime the faith on Christ, sometime faith in Christ, 
as here. They note much the same thing, but that the 
first may be conceived as propounding Christ the 
simple object of faith. The second phrase noteth 
Christ the object, together with our adhering to him. 
The third noteth Christ the object, our inhering in 
him, together with the word propounded, as the way 
and means by which we come believingly to inhere in 
him ; for that distinction which some make, following 
some of the ancient, is not by Scripture warrantable, 
which doth indifl'crently appropriate these two phrases 
to the saints, to believe in the Lord Jesus, and to be- 
lieve on him. Christ is everj-where made the thing 
which faith embraceth to salvation. ' So God loved 
the world, that he gave his Son,' ' whom he hath set 
forth a propitiatory sacrifice, through faith on his 
blood.' Through faith on him we hope to be saved, 
as others ; not that Christ is the only object about 

Ver 15.] 



which faith is exercised, but it is the principal of all 
others, and the solo object about which it is occupied, 
that it maj- obtain righteousness and life everlasting ; 
otherwise, as faith is called justifying faith, — not that 
to justify is the sole adequate or full act of it, but be- 
cause to justify to life is the most eminent act of all 
others, — so it is said to apprehend Christ, not that 
Christ is the adequate, the full object of faith, as 
colour is of sight, but because it is the most eminent 
of all others. In like sort, love is called the love of 
God, not that the same love wherewith we love God 
doth not love men also, the contrary whereof sec 1 
John iv. 12, hut because God is the most excellent 
object about which it is conversant. Further, to open 
this point, two things must be shewed : first, what 
faith in Christ, or on Christ, is; secondly, why faith, 
as it justifieth and saveth, is carried to Christ only. 
Faith on Christ is not only to know, and with the eye 
of the mind to see, that God sent his Son, that he 
was bom and sufiered for mankind, but to rest or stay 
on Christ, that we may find mercy in him, to the for- 
giveness of our sins ; to stay on him, for faith is not 
only a knowledge in the mind, but a godly affection in 
the will, which doth go to embrace, rest upon Christ, 
or the grace offered in Christ, crf/o, receiving is made 
an effect of faith, John i. 12 ; and going to Christ, he 
that believeth, he that cometh to me, John vi. ; and 
the nature of faith, is described by words which sig- 
nify to roll ourselves on God, to lean on him as one 
would stay himself upon a staff ; for the word of pro- 
mise, not only containing truth, but offering some good 
thing unto us, we cannot fully receive it with under- 
standing, but the will also must move toward it. 

Again, let me be distressed for a hundred pound or 
so, if one promise me I shall have it off him, I do not 
only know and think and persuade myself he saith true, 
but I tmst to him, rest on him, and write, as we say, 
on that he hath spoken. Besides, if there were no 
particular confidence in a Christian's faith, the repro- 
bate might have all that is in his belief. Now, though 
our faith believe many other things, yet it justifieih 
and reconcilcth us to God, as it doth see and rest upon 
Christ. As a malefactor, though his hand will re- 
ceive innumerable matters, yet, as it receiveth the 
king's pardon only, it doth acquit him and restore him 
to liberty, so it is with us condemned ones ; as our 
faith receiveth God's pardon in Christ, it doth obtain 
remission of sin, and set us free from fear of damna- 
tion. The matter objected may easily be answered, 
if these two things be remembered : first, that when 
the words of knowledge do together by connotation 
imply affection, much more do the words of belief; 
and, erfin, where I find to believe that Christ is the 
Son of God, I must conceive this belief to contain 
confidence in the Son. Secondly, to remember that 
when faith of any temporary promise is said to be ac- 
counted for righteousness, it is because it doth, in 
believing the thing temporal, apprehend him in whom 

'all the promises are Yea and Amen,' who is at least 
the removed object of a justifying faith in everything 
it apprehendeth. Thus Abraham, believing the pro- 
mise of seed of Isaac, did apprehend that blessed seed 
which had from the beginning been promised, and saw 
his day, which the apostle doth testify, Gal. iii. 
Neither did he look at the power of God, but to sus- 
tain his belief of a seed before promised against the 
temptations wherewith God did exercise him. That 
we have a particular word, and in efl'ect to believe on 
Christ unto forgiveness of our sins, I have shewed 

Use. 'WTiercfore, let us rest on Christ alone as our 
rock, lly to him as our true sanctuary. This papists 
come to in death, renouncing any confidence in their 
fooleries ; this themselves give testimony unto, that 
it is the surest ; and he is not wise who will not fciko 
the safest way for his soul's salvation. 

Doct. 3. The third doctrine is, that faith and love 
are never disjoined, but go each in hand one with the 
other. From what time we believe men will do any 
great good things for us, we feel a love arise toward 
them ; so from what time by faith we apprehend love 
in God toward us through Christ, we feel love re- 
flecting from us toward him ; according to that, ' we 
love him, because we have kno^^Ti and believed his 
love to us.' First, faith must bring the holy fire of 
God's love into our frozen hearts, or they will never 
be warmed with fervent love to God again. The sin- 
ful soul doth see God's love forgiving it many sins, 
then it loveth much again. In nature we see nothing 
can move in desire to this or that, till first it hath ap- 
prehended it lovely. So our affections cannot in love 
and desire move to, and unite themselves with, God, 
till by faith we do discern him as reconciled to us, and 
so becoming an amiable object for us sinners to em- 
brace ; till that faith discerneth this, nothing but wrath, 
like a consuming fire, abidcth over us. Hence it is 
that Saint Paul, 1 Tim., maketh love to flow from 
faith unfeigned ; and. Gal. v., he saith that ' faith 
worketh by love,' not as fire maketh hot by heat, 
which is a formal property inherent in it, but as the 
soul doth this or that by the hand, which is an extern 
instrument conjoined unto it ; for love is not any 
essential cause which doth give being to faith, but it 
is a grace without the being of faith, though joined 
unto, by which, as an instrument, faith worketh. 

Use 1. The use of this doctrine is, to shew how un- 
justly they slander us as teaching a faith alone with- 
out other graces, when we hold, according to the 
Scripture, that there can be no true faith without love, 
nor love without true faith ; for the first is but a dead 
carcase, this latter is but blind devotion, neither is 
pleasing to God. Indeed, we teach that faith justi- 
fieth us alone without other graces, not in regard of 
their presence, but in regard of their co-working with 
faith to this effect of our justification. It is one thing 
to say the eye is in the head without other senses, and 



[Chap. I. 

another thing to say the eye doth see alone, no other 
sense seeing with it. 

Use 2. This must make us try the truth of our 
faith ; for if our hearts have not been kindled with 
love to God, they never truly believed his love in 
Christ. We may easilier carry coals in our bosom 
without burning, than by faith apprehend truly this 
love of our God, without finding our hearts burn in 
love to him answerabl}'. 

Use 3. We see that love is an effect following faith, 
even love to God himself. They make the tree to 
bear the root who will have love give being to faith ; 
but this is but a consequent of Lombard's error, who 
did hold love to be no other thing than the Holy 
Ghost himself. 

Doct. 4. Observe lastly, who are the persons on 
whom the love of true believers is sei,\\z. the saints, yea, 
all saints. True Christian love, next to God and our 
own souls, maketh us affect those who are sanctified, 
who express the virtues in their life of our heavenl}' 
Father, by whom we are called from darkness to light. 
Hence it is that the saints, the household of faith, the 
brethren, are commended as persons whom we must 
aflfect and do good to before all other : thus ' Our God 
loveth,' Ps. cxlvii. 10, ' not the strength of horse ; nor 
legs of man. But those that fear him are his delight.' 
Thus Christ loved: ' Who is my father and mother ?' 
Sec. ; he that heareth and oboyeth. Thus Paul and 
David loved: ' We love none according to the flesh ;' 
' All my delight is in the saints, in them who excel 
in virtue.' Every creature loveth and liketh to be 
with those who are united with it in communication 
of the same nature ; so sanctified Christians cannot 
but love and like to be most with them who have re- 
ceived the like divine natiu'e in which themselves are 
partakers ; yea, it loveth all saints ; not such who 
have other parts pleasing and contentful, but it loveth 
every one in whom it can see the image of God shin- 
ing. For it cannot be, but that love which truly lov- 
eth one person as he is holy, should love every one, 
so far forth as he is holy ; yea, though we are to 
esteem and inwardly afl'ect men as we see them holy, 
we are not bound to shew them the outward effects of 
our love answerably. The nearer persons are tied to 
us in natural and civil bonds, the more must our pro- 
vidence be for them, and love shewed them in out- 
ward things, unless their foohsh lewdness disprivilege 
them this way ; for then the proverb taketh place, 
' A wise servant may be prefeiTed before a foolish 

Use 1. This, then, doth reprove many who indeed 
hate, and would shew it, were it policy, those who 
endeavour to live hohly, traduce the name of saints, 
nickname them as puritans, such who cannot be them- 
selves but when they are in company with swearers, 
gamesters, good fellows, such who will seem to relish 
some odd persons who are indeed truly holy, but 
others in whom holiness is apparent, they cannot en- 

dure ; it is to be feared they love those whom they do, 
not because they see holiness, but for some by-respects 
which within themselves they have conceived. Some 
who are all for a sound, just dealing, well natured 
man, though he be never such a stranger from matter 
of religion. Yea, I would many of the Lord's chil- 
dren, through self-love, did not love too well persons 
who can humour them, and find the length of their 
foot, better than such who shew more conscience of 
obeying God. 

Use 2. Let us not be in the number of these. If 
thou hast any love to God, love his children thou dost 
see like him. How canst thou take pleasm-e, and out 
of thy voluntary converse with them who are not 
sanctified ? Were the wife that lieth in thy bosom 
without that bodily life thou livest, couldst thou take 
pleasure to converse by her ? And canst thou, having 
the life of God, delight thyself in such who are dead 
in their sins and trespasses ? 

Ver. 16. I cease not to give thanlLS for yon, malcinrf 
mention of you in my prayers. 

Now he comes unto the fact, which standeth of 
thanksgiving and prayer ; his prayer being first gene- 
rally mentioned, then more particularly declared to 
the end. 

In this 16th verse mark three things : 1, that on 
hearsay of their faith and love, he is thankful to God ; 
2, that he doth pray for them ; 3, the manner that 
he doth it, without ceasing. 

Doct. 1. Observe from the first, the graces of God 
in others must move Christians, especially ministers, 
to be thankful to God ; Paul doth it everywhere, look 
the beginnings of his epistles ; yea. Christians did no 
less for Paul, Gal. i. 24, they did glorify God in him. 
The nature of envy maketh a man like those who 
have sore eyes ; they are grieved at the spiritual good 
of others, as the sore eye is to see this corporal light. 
An example we have of it in Cain to Abel ; but love 
doth congratulate, rejoiceth with thankfulness to sec 
truth of knowledge, of grace, of holy practice, 1 Cor. 
xiii. Besides, the third commandment doth bind us 
to give honour to God, by praising him for these his 
works of grace in others. If a schoolmaster bring a 
rude, untoward boy to behaviour and forwardness in 
learning, we much commend him that he hath wrought 
so far on so undisposed a subject ; but how much more 
is he to be magnified who doth work such alterations 
in sinners, dead in their sins and trespasses ! 

Secondly, The nature of joy is to enlarge the heart 
to thankfulness. Now, true Christians, especiallj' 
ministers, can see nothing which doth more glad them 
than men walking as the truth is, in Christ : 3 John 
4, ' I have no joy like to this, when I see my children 
walk in the truth.' 

Use 1. Wherefore let us all labour to find this in 
ourselves. That we are thankfully afl'ccted to God in 
the coming on of other, it is an evidence of true grace 

Ver. 16. J 



in our hearts. Everything rejoiceth to see the in- 
crease of those who are like to itself, especially 
ministers must praise God in the towarduess of those 
who belong to them. What natural parent can see 
the outward prosperity of his children, but that he is 
delighted in it, and thankful to the authors of it ? 

I'se 2. Secondly, seeing that this is the eflTect the 
grace of others hath in the godly, what may we think 
of them who are vexed to see the coming on of others 
to a godly course, yea, who will not stick to curse 
them by whom they are seduced to this puritan strict- 
ness ? Surely that seed of the old serpent is strong 
in them, which doth make them so full of enmity 
against those in whose hearts the seed of grace is now 
sown through God's mercy. 

Use 3. This sheweth Christians what they are to do. 
Would they have their minister made glad, and their 
hearts enlarged to thanksgiving ? Let them shew- 
forth the power of grace in their conversation : ' If 
you stand stedfast,' saith Paul, 1 Thes. iii. 8; whereas, 
if they lie in grievous state, it doth so grieve their 
ministers, that nothing can refresh them but their 
amendment by whom they are grieved, 2 Cor. ii. 
Natural parents are so ali'ected, that while their chil- 
dren stand well with them, they think there is no 
cross ; but if a cross befall them here, they can find 
no content for the time in anything beside. 

Doct. 2. Observe secondly, that Christians are to 
help each other with prayer, especially ministers their 
converted people. God requireth it of all Christians, 
and doth ergo make promises that our prayers shall 
be available, as well for others as for ourselves, 
James v. But ministers by office are God's remem- 
brancers, and must offer incense as well as teach, 
Deut. iii. 3, which our Saviour likewise did before his 
ofl'ering up himself, John xvii. The bounty of God 
doth encourage us unto it, who hath said, that they 
who have anything in truth shall have more ; it is but 
as a pledge of his further grace to be bestowed. 

Again, the devil is busy, seeking to bring them back 
who now are taken fi-om under his power. We see 
by woful experience how many are turned back from good 
beginnings ; we have need therefore to support them, 
and when ministers should have parent-like affections, 
how can they but seek theii- good ? How many wishes 
will natural parents have about their natural children ! 
Wherefore let us all seek to God each for other. 
What will we do for him whom we will not lend a 
word to for his good '? Especially, let us ministers 
say as Samuel, 1 Sam. x., ' God forbid I should cease 
to pray for you, and so sin against God.' 

Docl. 3. The last thing is, that he prayed incessantly ; 
whence observe, that we must with perseverance follow 
God in those things we pray for. This our Saviour 
teaeheth by those two parables, Luke xi., of him 
that went to borrow three loaves, and, Luke x., of the 
widow following the unrighteous judge. There are 
many conditions in prayer, in regard of the persons 

to whom we pray ; persons and things for which we 
pray ; persons who pray ; finally, in regard of the 
prayer itself, as that it should bc'humble, fervent, and 
continual. God doth prevent us with some things, 
he doth give us speedily other some, but there are 
others again for which he will have us follow him 
with continuance, before he bestow them ; for should 
we still no sooner ask than receive, prayer were rather 
a matter of experience than of failh. He doth eri/n 
see it fit thus to exercise our sanctity, faith, patience ; 
thus to try whether our request come from unsettled 
humour, or from poverty of spirit and thirsting desire. 
Thus he doth prepare us to receive the things we ask 
in greater measure ; for the wider the soul is enlarged 
in desire, the more abundantly God meaneth to fill it 
in his time. Again, by this mean he doth make us 
possess his blessings with more delight and carefulness 
than otherwise we would, not to mention that we in 
our fii-st seeking things are unfit often to receive 

But here two questions shall be briefly answered. 
First, whether it be sin always to cease from asking 
this or that. Secondly, whether all ceasing to go on 
in prayer doth make our former prayer fruitless. 

1. To the first I answer, Not all ceasing, but ceas- 
ing out of unbelief or impenitence, is sinful ; first, 
when we have obtained this or that, we may cease to 
beg any longer as we did before. Even as the body 
resteth, when it is now come to the place to which it 
moveth, so the soul, when it hath attained that to 
which it went by unfeigned desire. 

Secondly, When we find the thing not to be profit- 
able for us, or otherwise not pleasing to God. Thus 
Paul was taught to see the use of that buffeting re- 
maining with him. Thus when Jeremiah learned that 
God had not to give, nor would not be entreated for 
the prosperity of the people, he did desist, though he 
did well before in asking of it ; for that revealed will, 
and not the secret, is that to which our actions must 
be conformed. Though here is something extraor- 
dinary in these examples, yet God doth often let his 
children see that they did afl'ect things not good for 
them, by leading them into fuller knowledge of their 
own hearts, and by letting them find the fruit of some 
outward disturbances, the removal whereof they sought 
earnestly, so that they coiTcct themselves, and no 
more seek to be free from that which they find so neces- 
sary by good experience : this desisting is holy and 
good. Thirdly, there is a desisting overtaking (Jod's 
children, when God doth lock up their hearts that 
they have not power to seek the good of some persons 
or churches as heretofore they have done ; which, 
when it is not contracted or canscd by some sinful 
indisposition in the party, but from a secret of God 
not moving the spirit in this kind, that so way may 
be made for his judgments, it is such a ceasing as can- 
not be condemned for sin, though it m.ay always be 
bewailed as a secret desertion, which doth foretell 



[Chap. I. 

heavy tilings ensuing. Fonrtbly, we cease to pray as 
before for things without sin, when now God hath, as 
it were, spoken within our spirits, that we shall have 
the thing we have asked, and bid our souls after a 
sort return to rest. For from whence we find God 
thus good unto us, we follow not with our accustomed 
fervency, though execution delayed may cause us 
some time seek the seasonable performance of it, the 
soul is more in joyful expectance, less than before in 
careful petition. The ceasing therefore forbidden is, 
when before we receive things, we do, through unbe- 
lief and impatience, give over, either for a time, which 
befalleth God's children, or altogether. 

2. The latter question is answered thus. Look, as 
a brunt of unbelief doth not evacuate our faith formerly 
grounded on God's promise ; for David his saying, 
that Saul would at length catch him, and flying out 
of unbelief to Gath, did not make his foi'mer faith in 
vain ; so intermission for a brunt, while the fit of un- 
belief, dejection of mind, or impatiency lasteth, doth 
not hinder, but that we shall receive the things we 
have unfeignedly desired. 

The use is, to stir us up that we faint not in follow- 
ing God. We love not to be troubled, and even 
molested with instancy ; but nothing is more accept- 
able to God than this violence, which will not let him go 
till he hath blessed us. Ay, but I seek and see nothing 
of my prayers ; the harvest cometh not so soon as the 
seed is sown. Though thou feelest not the things 
thou asketh, nor removal of those evils whereof thou 
complainest, yet thou dost not know what evil this 
course of following God doth keep from thee, nor 
what good in other kinds he doth thee for it. Agiiin, 
thou shalt reap in time if thou utterly faint not, for 
that which is denied us in life, is often by God's most 
wise disposition granted in the end of it. But to come 
to the prayer itself. 

Yer. 17. Now followeth his prayer, in" which we 
mark the person to whom he prayeth, with his de- 
scription : first, from his relation, to Christ ; secondly, 
from the attribute of his glory, God of Christ, the 
Fatlur qffflonj. 2. The benefits for which he praj'eth ; 
touching which, three things are to be observed: first, 
the benefits to be bestowed, which are propounded in 
this verse, and further declared in the beginning of 
the verse following ; secondly, the way by which they 
should be given them, in the end of this verse, wis- 
dom and revelation through the knowledge, or acknow- 
ledging of Christ; thirdly, the end, that thus they 
might know both the thiugs kept for them in the 
heavens, and that which had been bestowed upon 

To open the words of this ver.se. The Father of 
plory doth note out God as glorious by nature in 
himself, and the fountain of that glorious life which is 
communicated with any of his creatures. The spirit 
of u'isdom is put for the gift of wisdom, which is be- 

stowed on us ; and it is called the spirit of wisdom, 
both because the Spirit doth beget it in us, as also 
because the same Spirit is with it to sustain it, and 
perfect it ; thirdly, because the wisdom itself is of a 
spiritual nature, moving them in whom it is to work 
after the direction of it. 

The spirit of revelation. Revelation is extraordinary, 
or ordinary, and it is nothing but the gift of illumina- 
tion, or that light which the Spirit causeth to shine 
about our minds, by which, as a mean, things spiritual 
are made manifest to the eye of our understanding, as 
by the light of the sun things bodily are made mani- 
fest to the eye of our body ; and the Spirit causeth 
this, and continueth it, even as the sun doth cause 
and continue this uatm'al light which we hare with us 
all the day long. 

KnoivUJije of Christ is put for that affectionate 
knowing and acknowledging of him. The sum is, 
Since I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, I go to 
him who is the God of this Christ on whom you have 
believed, who is the Father glorious himself by nature, 
and the author of all that glory which is communicated 
with his children, entreating him to give unto you that 
spiritualgift of wisdom, whereby you may be able to 
understand, and thatlight of his Spirit which doth make 
manifest the things spiritual, which are to be under- 
stood of you ; and this I wish you, through the further 
knowing and acknowledging of that Christ, in whom 
you have beheved. More plainly, I desire for you, that 
God will give you eyes of your understanding so en- 
lightened, that you may know him. 

Doct. 1. Observe then, first, that we must so con- 
sider of God, when we come unto him in prayer, as 
that we may see in him the things we desire. The 
apostle going to prayer for these Ephesians, who had 
believed on Christ, and about to seek the glorious 
gifts of the Spirit, which might help them to know the 
glory reserved for them, he settetli God before him, 
as the God of that Christ, whom these had now re- 
ceived by faith into their hearts, and the Father of all 
glory, both of them strengthening his faith. For he 
could not think that God, the God of Chi-ist, would 
be wanting to those who were Christ's, or that the 
Father of all glory would deny these glorious gifts, 
which he was about to entreat. When men come to 
ask at those who have enough of that they seek, and 
to ask it in such measure only as that it is not any- 
thing for those they sue unto to vouchsafe, they easily 
persuade themselves that they shall speed. This 
maki'th Paul still set God before him, as having that 
in him for which he prayeth : ' The God of peace 
sanctify you throughout;' 1 Thes. v., ' Subdue those 
lusts which fight against yourselves.' So seeking the 
consummation, or perfecting of the believing Hebrews, 
he doth set God before him, as who had from the 
lowest humiliation brought the head of them to glory, 
Heb. xiii. Thus the church. Acts iv., seeking courage, 
and that wonders might be wrought, they set God be- 

Vkk. 17.] 



fore them, as the God of power, who Lad made 
heaven, earth, sea, &c. 

Use. Wherefore learn thus to help thy faitb. 
Woiildst thou h;ive remission of sin ? Consider of 
God, as a God with whom there is plenty of redemp- 
tion or forgiveness. Wouldst thou have ease in any 
misery and grief? Consider of him as a Father of all 
mercy and consolation, when thou comcst to him ; 
this doth strengthen faith, and inflame all'ection. We 
seek things mox'e secureh', when we know them to be 
where we are in looking them ; and we follow them 
more aflectionately, when now we are gotten after a 
manner into the sight of them. 

Doct. 2. Observe, secondly, that even true believers 
have great want of heavenly wisdom ; as children and 
3'outh, when they have in their measure that wisdom 
which bclongeth to their kind, j-et they want in great 
measure the same wisdom in which they partake. So 
it is with God's children : when now they have that 
wisdom from above in some degree, yet they are 
many degrees short of that which is to be attained. 
Yea, our Saviour himself, the head of us, did so re- 
ceive wisdom, that there was place for growth and in- 
crease in it, Luke ii. 5'2. What doth the want of 
wisdom in c'.iildi-en, which we may not observe in our- 
selves ? They see not things, together with the end 
they work unto ; and hence it is, they count such 
things good, as to their senses seem so for the present. 
They think those love them, who cocker them, and 
that those do not love them who reprove them, or 
hold them in, more than they are willing. Thus wo 
think it happiness to have that contenteth us, to be 
free from that which is grievous to flesh or spirit. We 
think God loves while he smiles on us, and that he 
doth not love us, when he doth frown on us, and make 
us drink a wormwood draught day by day. Again, 
chiLlren, through want of wisdom, are unwilling to 
sutler that should do them good, backward to that 
would do them good another day ; for a matter of 
present pleasure, will part with things of no small 
profit. Are not the best of us unwilling to come 
under God's yoke, though there is no other way to find 
rest to our souls ? Are we not most backward to renew 
our faith, repentance, to endeavour further the work 
of moriification ? Do we not, for a little pleasure of 
sinful lusts, part with our peace, yea, the health of 
our spirits too often ? Thirdly, children, for want of 
wisdom, forget the beatings past, when now the smart 
is over, and fall to the same faults which have made 
them smart heretofore ; and is it not so with us ? How 
soon is the grief of sin escaped us forgotten ! How 
soon do we stumble at the same stone, returning to 
sin in the same kind wherein wo have formerly offended I 
Finally, as children and youth, through want of wis- 
dom, speak and do many things full of folly, so we let 
fall in word and deed, alas, how many things, in 
which the work and direction of true wisdom is want- 
ing ! 

Use. Let ns then labour to find this want in our- 
selves, and see our folly, that we may be made wise. 
The more we grow in years, the more we see what 
lack of civil wisdom we had in youth ; so it should bo 
here, the ancientcr we grow in Christianity, the nioro 
we should discern the folly in us, and want of wisdom 
which is from above. 

Let us not be dismayed, who are conscious of lack 
this way': things are not begun and perfected at once; 
wisdom must get up from one degree to another in 

Doct. 3. Observe, thirdly, that he prayeth for re- 
velation as well as wisdom ; that we have need not 
only of wisdom whereby to understand, but of light 
manifesting the spiritual things which are to be under- 
stood of us. He prayeth both for one and other, wis- 
dom and revelation. To have inward faculty of 
seeing, is one thing ; to have outward light, by mean 
whereof to see, is another. Light must come to light 
before we can see ; the light in the eye must meet 
with the outward light of the sun, or a caudle, or 
some other lightsome body, or nothing is perceived. 
So the light of wisdom which is inherent in the soul, 
must have shining to it this light of revelation, which 
doth make manifest things spiritual, or, though onr 
sight be never so quick, we shall be environed with 
darkness. The Spirit is fitly, ai/o, compared with 
fire, which hath not only heat resolving numbness, 
and making stark joints active, but it hath light 
grateful to the eye of the body. So the Spirii hath 
both love, which warnieth our frozen hearts and affec- 
tions, and also this light of revelation, which delight- 
eth the eye of the understanding, and manifesteth to 
the view of it things that are heavenly. 

Use. Wherefore let us seek to God for this comT ••'- 
able elfcct of his Spirit. Even as he can lay his h.ind 
on this bodily light by a cloud, intercepting the ship- 
iug of it, so can he withdraw this illumination of his 
Spirit, and cause us to grope as it were in darkness, 
though the eye of our minds were neither shut up nor 
otherwise troubled. Do we not sometimes see things 
comfortable, and on a sudden feel them eclipsed, when 
no sin hath inwardly altered the state of onr souls, 
this heavenly illumination now spreading itself through 
the word of promise wo set before us, now presently 
withdrawn or much obscured ? It is a wonder how 
weak men of understanding and godly wisdom should 
see clearly and joyfully the things of their peace, yea, 
the will of God, in which they are to walk; and men 
for conscience equal to them, for understanding and 
godly wisdom far before, should walk only enabled 
with much ado to carry on their course in faith and 
obedience. I cannot find any reason for it, bnt in this 
outward revelation, which shineth far more brightly 
to the one than the other. Now, by moonlight a weak 
eye will read or write better than the sharpest sight 
can by twilight, when now day first breaketh. 

Duct. 4.. Observe, fourthly, who it is that worketh 


[Chap. I. 

in us all true wisdom, even God by the Spirit of 
Christ. I told you it is therefore called the Spirit of 
wisdom, because the Spirit from the Father and the 
Son doth work it in us. It is not pregnancy of natural 
wit can make us wise to salvution, nor ripeness of 
years, not many wise, and grace we see is not common 
to grey hairs ; it is a Spirit, and ' the inspiration of 
the Almighty, that giveth understanding,' Job xx.\ii. 8. 
Nevertheless, we do attain ripeness of wisdom by 
means, even as we see in natural men, they come to 
a more full measure of civil wisdom, not without means 
making way to it. How doth a foolish youth grow a 
wise man ? First, one day teacheth another ; he, as 
his days increase, getteth knowledge of many things. 
Secondly, he tasteth, as we say, many waters ; and 
findeth by experience the good in some things, the evil 
in other some. Thirdly, he groweth by some means 
weaned fi-om his youthful lusts, which like a back bias 
did draw after themselves the understanding. Thus 
when his knowledge is increased, when he hath 
gathered experience and sowed his wild oats, as we 
say, he groweth a wise, staid person. In the same 
manner, when God hath brought us on to know, to 
prove things by our own experience, and to be weaned 
from the lusts of sin, which are the true folly bound 
in our hearts, then he causeth wisdom in far greater 
measure to enter into us. We see then to whom we 
must give all thanks for what wisdom soever we have 
received, and to whom we must fly for the increasing 
of it, even to God, who giveth it plentifully, and np- 
braideth us not. See what is written verse 8. 

Ver. 18. Now followeth the manner or way in which 
he would have them bestowed, thiotir/h the knouiedge, 
or acknouiedging of Christ. 

Duct. 1. Observe, to grow up in the acknowledging 
of Christ, is the way to attain the more full measure 
of the Spirit in every kind, 2 Peter i. Everything is 
said to be given us, which respecteth life or godliness, 
through the knowledge or acknowledging of Christ. 
When we first come to know him as the truth is in 
him, we partake according to our measure in his 
Spirit ; when we gi-ow to behold him as in a mirror 
or glass more clearly, we are turned into the same 
glorious image, by the Spirit of the Lord, more and 
more. When we shall see him and know him evidently 
and fully, we shall be as he is, 1 John iii. The more 
we know him, the more fully he dwelleth in us, the 
more we enjoy the influence of his Spirit ; even as 
this bodily sun, the nearer it approacheth to us, the 
more we have the hght and heat of it. 

Ihe. Wherefore let us labour to grow up in the 
knowledge and affectionate acknowledging of Christ 
our Saviour. It is read of those Indian gymno- 
sophists, that they would lie all the day gazing upon 
the beauty of this bodily sun ; but how should we 
delight with the eye of the mind to contemplate on 
this Suu of righteousness, which, while we view, it 

will transform us into the same glorious image which 
himself enjoyeth ! 

Now followeth the end ; but before he setteth it 
down, he doth more clearly and fully lay down the 
thing which he entreated for them ; for these words 
ai'e governed of tbe verb given in the former verse, 
and are ergo put in the same case with the former, 
viz. the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, and that with- 
out any particle which should couple them, because 
they are brought in by way of explanation, in which 
case the copulative is often omitted, as ver. 7, 1 Peter 
i. 3, 4. For to have eyes of understanding enlight- 
ened, differeth not from that former, to have given the 
spirit of wisdom and revelation, but that it doth more 
roundly and fully note the same benefit, and that with- 
out any insinuation of the cause, viz. that Spirit from 
which it Cometh. This then thus cometh : when I 
ask for you a spirit of wisdom and revelation, my 
meaning is, to speak more roundly and nakedly, I ask 
that he would give you eyes of understanding enlight- 
ened. The end followeth, first propounded, then more 
clearly expounded. Propounded in those words, ' That 
you may know the hope of his calling.' For clearing 
whereof you must know, that hope is put for things 
hoped for, not for the grace of hope, which springeth 
from faith. Thus we say, he is a man of fair hopes, 
we mean goodly lands, which in likelihood will befall 
him. Now, this hope is described from an antecedent 
benefit the ground of it, viz. God's calling them by the 
gospel ; and whereas there is an outward significative 
ell'ectual calling, wherewith many are called, who are 
not separated from others, this is meant of that in- 
ward operative and eflectual calling, which the Scrip- 
ture doth describe with additions, viz. that it is a 
calling 'according to purpose,' a high and heavenly 
calling, a holy calling. The end of the verse ex- 
poundeth this hope by this, that it is an inheritance, 
described from the glory, yea, the riches or abundance 
of glory, adjoined unto it, and from the persons who 
are the subject of it, the saints. 

The sum of the verse : when I ask for you a spirit 
of wisdom and revelation, my meaning is, I ask at 
God that he would give you the eyes of your under- 
standing enlightened, that ye may be able to know 
those good things which you have in hope, having 
been called of God to tbe obtaining of them, through 
the ministry of the gospel ; even to know what is the 
abundant glory of that his inheritance, which he will 
of grace distribute amongst the saints. For the par- 
ticle we read, in the saints, doth signify in or amongst, 
and is so read Acts xxvi. 18. 

Doct. 1. Observe, then, first, that those whose 
spiritual sight is restored have need still to depend on 
God that their eyes may be more and more enlightened 
by him. These were now light in the Lord, hud their 
eyes opened, yet thus he prayeth for thera. As it is 
with bodily sicknesses, when we recover out of them, 
health cometh not all at once, but by ounces, as we 

Vkr. 18.] 



say, so in spiritual. When God doth now raise ns up 
from our death, \vc neither are fully sanctified nor yet 
fully enlightened. It is with us as with the blind man, 
Mark viii. 24, we see, but confusedly and iiidistinctly. 
Now, this enl Ightening comprehendeth these four things, 
which we have still need to seek to God for. 

First, The removal of those things which put im- 
pediment to our sight. A seeing eye may have mists 
dazzling it, humours falling and distilling into it, yea, 
.some film or skin growing over it ; so an eye of the 
soul, which now seoth, may have the mists of igno- 
rance, clouds of lusts, veils of hardness of heart, all 
hindering this faculty of seeing, in the action of it. 
We must therefore look to God for the eye-salve, and 
the help of his hand in these regards. 

Secondly, We have need that the inward light of 
knowledge be augmented in us. The inward light of 
the bodily eye is not so great in an infant as it is now 
in a man grown ; so it is that the inward light of the 
mind, by an addition of wisdom and knowledge, taketh 

The third thing we have still need of is, that God 
should shine unto us with a light of revelation in his 
word ; for as the bodily eye cannot be enlightened to 
see till it hath outward light afforded, so it is with 
the soul, and the eye thereof. But of this before is 

The fourth thing is a direction and application of 
the eye of our mind, to behold things that are spiri- 
tual. If the natural man and all his faculties move 
in God, much more the spiritual, Prov. xx. 12. God 
is said to make the eye seeing and the ear hearing, 
that is, not only to create them, but govern and apply 
them to that they do ; otherwise we might be like to 
Hagar, not seeing that which was before our eyes. 
Even as it is not the eye so much that seeth as the 
soul in and by the eye, whence it is, that if the mind 
be abstracted in some serious thought, men see not 
that which is before them ; so it is not so much the 
eye of our understanding as the Spirit of Christ, which 
is the soul of the body mystic, which doth cause sight 
in us. We do everything but secondarily and instru- 
nientally, it being God who givcth principally both to 
will and to do ; and all these are here to bo conceived, 
because the end which the apostle doth aim at cannot 
be attained without them. 

Use 1. To comfort weak ones who know but any- 
thing, if it be in truth, so as it maketh them endeavour 
more conscionably to obey. Hadst thou long been 
without sight, shouldst thou but be able to discern 
thy hand held just before thine eyes, it would glad 
thee, because it is a token of sight now coming on thee ; 
so this little sight, when the heart is conscionably 
affected, is a pledge of more returning to us, who are 
darkness itself, quite devoid of saving knowledge by 

f'sc 2. This must make us still follow God, and use 
all means to be further enlightened. Were our eyes 

sore, and the sight of them not perished, but depraved 
only, or diminished, what would we not do to get 
help ? Yea, we would abide strong smarting waters, 
but wo would mend this defect in them ; how much 
more should we seek to amend all defects in the eyes 
of our understandings ! 

Observe, secondly, from hence, that he doth pray 
that they might know their hope, the matter of their 
inheritance ; that even true believers know not at 
first, in any measure, those hopes which are kept in 
heaven fur them. Naturally, wo know nothing of the 
hope to come. When God doth now regenerate to 
these hopes, we do know them in some measure, but 
nothing as we ought, and may come to know them, if 
we be not wanting to ourselves. Even as earthly 
heirs in their minority, through want of earthly wis- 
dom, they know in general that they have inheritances, 
and where they lie, but they do not particularly and 
exactly know the several lordships which belong to 
them, the worth of them, itc, yet the nearer they come 
to age, the more they wind out such particulars. So 
it is with us ; we do at first know things very con- 
fusedly, and the nearer we grow to our salvation, the 
more we come into the understanding of these things. 

Now, the reason why these hopes are not so known, 
is partly in the excellency of them, and the glorious 
light which is in them. If the law bath his wonders 
in it, Ps. cxix. 18, what a wonderful thing is this, 
which is the upshot of all, the gospel ! Again, the 
weak sight we see of younglings in Christianity, is not 
proportioned and fitted as yet to so high an object as 
this is. Bring the light of a candle near to the natural 
babe, and it cannot endure to look up against it. 
Thirdly, even as children are so taken up with their 
childish common wealth, that they cannot bend them- 
selves to the more serious consideration of more im- 
portant matters, so believers are a great while so 
carnally afiected that they cannot set themselves to 
purpose about this contemplation. Fourthly, and 
lastly, as heirs in earth want not crafty companions 
about them, who will keep them from knowing the 
worth of things which belong to them, so the devil 
doth labour nothing more than to keep us hoodwinked 
this way. 

Use 1. The use is, first, to rebuke such who will 
not seek to have further knowledge of their excellent 
hopes kept for them in the heavens. Men will pry 
into all their hopes and possibilities in earth ; yea, if 
it be a thing which, in reversion, may do good happily 
to some of their children, they will make account of 
it ; they will know these things too' well till they are 
proud, count them fools who know them not, and yet 
never seek to know their freehold in heaven. 

Use 2. In the second place, this must stir us up to 
seek after those hopes, to get the knowledge of the 
things kept for us. These are not like earthly hopes ; 
they make their eyes fall out who wait on them, and 
sometime never come near them. Such were Absa- 



[Chap. I. 

lom's and Adouijah's hopes ; sometime they are gotten, 
but prove no blessing, it being with them as it was 
with the quails which were given Israel. But what 
if they be gotten and possessed ? In death they 
perish, for death divorceth a man from all these earthly 
things he enjoyeth. But these hopes will not let us be 
ashamed ; these are good and blessed hopes, yea, life 
itself, a living hope. Till we know this hope we have 
in heaven, we cannot be heavenly minded ; for where 
a man hath hope, thither his soul will look out, and 
be more than where he is bodily present. This is it 
which maketh us purge ourselves. Men that hope to 
stand before princes will refine their behaviours, and 
furnish themselves with all kinds of complement. 
This knowledge of our hope is the spur of action ; 
men work cheerfully when they know an ample reward 
abideth them. It is a ground of all patience, sweet 
in hope maketh that which is sour for the present go 
down more sweetly. 

Duct. 3. Observe, thirdly, hope of his cullinrf. That 
there is no grounded hope, but only of such things as 
God hath called us to obtain. We could not have 
hope of salvation, God's kingdom, life eternal, had not 
God called us hereunto: 1 Thes. i. 12, ' He hath called 
us to his kingdom and glory ;' 2 Thes. ii. 14, ' He 
hath culled us to obtain life.' Eir/o, Col. i., it is 
said that the Colossians now had a hope laid up in 
heaven, when they had heard the word of truth, even 
the gospel of salvation. As no man can hope to stand 
before a mortal prince in place of dignity and oiEce, 
till the king do call him thereunto, so none can 
groundedly look to be in glorious condition in God's 
kingdom till he have called him hereunto. Here, 
briefly, it shall not be amiss to consider what this 
calling is. 2. How we may know that we are effec- 
tually called. 

For the first, this calling is such a revealing of his 
grace within our heart?, or minds, as doth make us 
come to him and follow him for the obtaining of life 
through Christ. As a man hath both a soul and a 
body, so this cull standeth not only in the outward 
word, which soundeth in the ear, but that inward re- 
velation which God maketh within the heart : ' I will 
speak to their hearts.' The heart of Lydia was 
opened. Secondly, I say it maketh us come and fol- 
low God for obtaining life and glory, to which he hath 
called us ; for God speaketh inwardly and outwardly 
to many who are not efl'ectually called, because God 
doth not intend to convert them and make them fol- 
low ; but this calling according to his purpose is 
never without eflect. It is with us in this call as it 
was with those Christ called to follow him. Mat. iv. 
20 ; he did so reveal his wiU within them, that they 
presently obeyed. 

We may know ourselves called, first, if our hearts 
answer God. Thus Paul, Acts ix., ' Lord, what wilt 
thou I should do?' Acts xxvi., 'I was not disobedient to 
the heavenly vision.' When God speaketh within us 

his grace, or calleth us to this or that, according to- 
his eflectual purpose, our hearts, echo-wise, resound, 
' Thou art our God,' Hosea ii. 23 ; ' Speak, Lord, 
thy servant heareth.' 

Secondly, It is seen by this, that it maketh us sepa- 
rate and stand out from the world. If a governor 
call out a servant to do this or that, he is separated 
from all his fellow-servants, and set apart for a busi- 
ness wherein they intermeddle not. So it is here, 
from what time God doth call us unto salvation, he 
doth set us apart fi-om all others, to be, as it were, 
' the first-fruits of his creatures,' James i. 18, even 
from profane persons, civil men without religion, re- 
ligious men in show without power, heretics, schis- 
matics ; his calling doth make us come out from these, 
so that we cannot be of one heart with them, nor they 
with us. 

Thirdly, By the spirit received. When God called 
Saul, he did put into him another spirit, agreeing to 
the condition whereto he was called ; and men called 
to places of dignity, presently there is a spring of 
spirits in them answering that estate. So God also, 
when he calleth to his kingdom and glory, he doth 
give them a spirit which doth aspire and make them 
endeavour to that prize of this their high calling in 

Lastly, By thankfulness to God in regard of this 
favour, that he hath called us out of our natural estate 
of misery to such hope in Christ. 

Use 1. The use is, to let men see their vanity, who, 
though they obey no part of God's will revealed to 
them, though they are so far from separating from 
profane, worldly-minded persons, that they cannot be 
themselves in any other company ; they traduce others 
as proud, singular, humorous puritans ; who have no 
spirit apparent but a spirit of pride, wrath, lust, &c., 
yet they hope for salvation and God's kingdom. This 
is to hope to have this or that from God, before he 
hath called me to obtain it, which is all one as if I 
should hope to be lord chamberlain, though the king 
never made me hear any inkling of such a matter. 

Use 2. This must stir us up to get knowledge of 
this, that we are called. Hence followeth all grounded 
hope. Beside, this is all our stay ; he who hath called 
us is able to possess us of that vvherenuto he hath 
called us. If earthly kings call a subject to this or 
that honour, their call is efl'ectuiil, accompanied with 
that power which will set them in it. So the Lord 
will certainly set us in possession of that to which he 
hath called us in Christ. As God's call and anoint- 
ing David to the kingdom did sustain him against all 
encounters, so must it do with us, who are called and 
anointed in spiritual manner to that heavenly king- 
dom : ' He who hath called you to his eternal king- 
dom, after ye have suflered a while, strengthen yon, 
stablish you,' 1 Peter v. 

Duct. 4. From his exposition of the hope to which 
we are called, observe, first, that the inheritance kept 

Vek. is.] 



for us is aliundantly glorious. This word riches set 
lit'foro niiything, dolh signify the abundant measure 
of that to which it is annexed : ' Oh the riches of the 
wisdom of God !' Rom. xi. The state we are in is 
niui-h diflerent from that which is reserved for us, 
Isa. Ixiv. ' The things aro wonderful which God will 
wiirk for his,' 2 Cor. iv. We are passing through this 
vale of misery to an excellent eternal weight of glory. 
An heir nppiirent in his mother's womb, or childhood, 
hath nothing to the glory which he cometh to have 
when now he swaycth the sceptre, and sittcth in the 
throne of his majesty. So it is with us ; that we have 
now is nothing to the glory of that which shall in the 
last time be manifested. The inheritance of a king- 
dom hath annexed to it great glory ; as, for example, 
Solomon's kingdom, when the queen of Sheba did ob- 
serve it, her siurit failed through astonishment. 
What was his kingdom in comparison of this eternal 
one to which we are called ? He had royal apparel 
wherewith he was clothed ; and to see a king in his 
richest robes, as, say, in his parliament robes, is a 
sight somewhat glorious ; nevertheless, the lily (as 
our Saviour speaketh) doth exceed all that art can set 
them out with ; but the saints shall shine as the sun, 
and bo clothed, as it were, with light itself, as was 
shewn in Christ his transfiguration. He had a sump- 
tuous palace, but not to bo compared with those eternal 
mansions in the thii-d heavens prepared for us. He 
was accompanied with the peers of his kingdom, but 
we shall have the presence of God himself, Christ, the 
Spirit, angels. Finally, ho had a most magnificent 
provision for his table, but not like the manna, not 
like that true tree of Ufc which we shall feed off in the 
paradise of our God. 

f'sc 1. Wherefore, let us draw up our ' ^arts. 
Eichcs and glory, what do they not with mortal men ? 
but, alas, these worldly riches and glorious dignities 
are but pictures, not having the substance of that they 
shew for. Men will sue upon their knees to recover 
small inheritances on earth. While time lasteth, seek 
this inheritance. Let us think what a heartbreak it 
is to a n.an when he doth find that, by some default, 
he hath forfeited some earthly matters which he might 
Lave hi Id had he been wary ; but what a grief and 
coufusion will this cause, when men shall see that, 
through carelessness, they have lost an everlasting in- 
heritance of glory which they might have attained ! 
There is but one life betwixt us and possession, why 
should we be so negligent as we are ? 

The poor children of God must hence comfort them- 
Belves that God hath thus exalted them, and not envy 
Morldly men their full estates in this presint world. 
Heirs are glad to borrow trifles with servants son.e- 
time while they are under government; so God doth 
hold his children low for a while in this present life. 
Again, why should we envy them, seeing they liave 
but a state of life granted them in this mo^t renjote 
and utmost part of our inheritance ? Will a child 

think much a parent should give a pension for life out 
of this or that, while he hath far greater things left 
him ; yea, the inheritance of that also, out of which 
an annuity, as it were, for a time is granted to some 
other ? Thus it is our Father dealeth with us, while 
he doth both reserve for us greater things, and also 
bequeath the everlasting inheritance of heaven and 
earth to us, in which wicked ones have but a state of 
life, till wo shall come to our full age in Christ. Soo 
more of this, ver. 11. 

iJoct. 5. Observe, lastly, who they are to whom 
belongeth this inheritance, viz., the saints ; such as 
are not only cleansed from the guilt of dead works, 
but by the Spirit of Christ renewed to tine holiness, 
and brought to walk in all holy conversation, 2 Peter 
iii. 11,1 Thes. iv. 7 ; for we are called in Christ, both 
to outward and inward sauctification ; see Acts xxvi. 18, 
so likewise Col. i., ' To receive inheritance with the 
saints,' ' Made us fit to have inheritance with the 
saints in light.' If you ask this question, Why we 
shall have the inheritance of life ? it is answered. The 
grace of God in Christ is the cause why we obtain it. 
If you ask. Who shall have it ? see Ps. xxiv. 3, 4, he 
whose hands are innocent, whose heart is pure, who 
looketh not to vanity. This inheritance, as the glory 
of it decayeth not, no, doth not so much as wither, so 
it is for state an undefilcd inheritance ; no unclean 
thing may enter. Rev. xxi. Again, to whom do men 
leave inheritances ? Is it not to children or allies who 
have the same flesh and blood, as it were, with them ? 
So God will not give his inheritance but to those 
who have the divine nature, and are made holy 
in some likeness as he is holy, though not in like 

Use 1. The use is, to let many see how they deceive 
themselves who look to be saved, but love not holi- 
ness ; they love to live after their ignorance and lusts ; 
they will mock at men who will not run to the same 
excess of riot which themselves do. Know this, that 
when wise men will not leave their substance to chil- 
dren of an adulteress, God will never give thee the 
inheritance of glory while thou coutiuuest a child of 
this world, loving nothing so much as the pleasures, 
pomp, and profits of it. 

Lhe 2. Let us, in the second place, labour for holi- 
ness. True holiness, it is not a good nature, nor 
moral justice, nor external profession of religion, so 
far as standeth with our own wills ; no, where we first 
renounce our will, there we first begin to be holy. 
What, then, maketh saints to find out how our whole 
nature is polluted, to strike at the root, and seek to 
get purged of that sin which dwelleth in us ; to fight 
against those sins, custom, complexion, age, company, 
most incline us unto ; to seek to God to make us grow 
up in bolincf s and his fear, — he that doth these things 
is happy ; ho that doth not these things is but a 
painted sheath and whited sepulchre ; he hath nothing 
but a powerless show, which the Lord ahhonelh. 



[Chap. I. 

Ver. 19. And what is the exceeditig greatness of his 
poirer towards us who believe, according to the working 
of his mighty power. 

The second thing to be known is the power of God ; 
not that absolute power by which he can do whatever 
is possible, but that power, joined with his will, which 
was put forth for finishing the work of faith in them 
who believed. This power is described by the quan- 
tity in those words, ' the exceeding greatness of his 
power ;' from the persons whom it respecteth, ' to- 
wards us who now believe ;' the principal cause of 
their believing being next adjoined, viz., the efficacy 
of his mighty power, which was put forth in raising 
Christ from the dead. The sum : that you may not 
only know the hope of glory laid up for you, but also 
more fully see the excellent great power which hath 
wrought, doth work, and will work out for us who 
believe, all that salvation and glory we hope for in the 
heavens ; for us, I say, who are brought to believe by 
the self- same etiectual working of God's almighty 
power, which he wrought or shewed while he raised 
Christ from the dead. 

Doct. 1. Observe, then, first, that God's believing 
children know not at first anything clearly the great 
power of God which worketh in them. God doth 
work wonderfully : ' Passing by us, and we see him 
not : changing his place, and we observe him not,' 
Job ix. 11 ; 'It is as nothing which we know of his 
ways,' Job xxvi. 14. And as he revealeth his wisdom 
in affiicting ns once, twice, and we hear him not, so 
he doth again and again manifest his power, but we 
are not able to conceive it. This is part of that light 
to which is no access ; the eye of our minds, especially 
at first, weak, not able to look against it. 

Use 1. We must not then be discouraged if we 
cannot conceive of God in any measure as we desire. 
Our children at four or five years old, what do they 
know of our wisdom, knowledge, strength ? There is 
a commonwealth in the head of a man, no part whereof 
once entereth into their childish understanding. When 
our children can so little trace the ways of us their 
earthly parents, how much less able are we anything 
fully to know the working of the strength, wisdom, 
mercy, which are in our heavenly Father ? Some may 
think it strange that so exceeding great a power should 
work and not be discerned, when the least bodily force 
put to us is presently perceived ; but it is not with 
this power as with bodily ; their working is violent 
and manifest, the working of this is sweet and imper- 
ceivable ; and when the heavens by their influence 
work on bodies, and yet are not as commonly dis- 
cerned, how much less is it to be wondered at if this 
spiritual almighty power do insinuate itself in such 
sort as it is not commonly observed by us ! Again, 
as the brightest light, while it shineth in a thick cloud, 
seemeth rather darkness than light, so this power, 
while it worketh in midst of manifold weaknesses, is 
not to outward appearance so powerful as it is in itself. 

Use 2. Let ns labour more and more to know this 
power of our God put forth for us. We love to know 
the strength of things or earthly persons to whom we 
trust ; for till we know ourselves on sure hand, our 
thoughts are not secure. Thus we should delight to 
know this power of God, to whom we trust, as the 
tower of our strength and rock of our salvation. The 
power of God is an article of belief, not that it is (if 
we speak of it absolutely) a thing promised, but it is 
a property of him who promiseth, without which re- 
vealed and believed, our faith in the promises would 
waver, and be of none efiect. If one not worth two- 
pence would promise me to help me with twenty 
pound, I could not rest in his promise, because I am 
not persuaded he is of ability to perform ; so, longer 
than we can persuade ourselves of God's power to 
perform, we cannot believe this or that promised. 
Hence Abraham believed God's power as a supporter 
of him against such temptation as said that the thing 
formerly promised in Isaac could not take effect ; and 
so Paul, 2 Tim. i., ' I know whom I have believed, 
who is able to keep that I have trusted him with to 
that day.' How could we ever believe that hope 
touching the resurrection and glorification of our 
bodies, did we not believe this, as a revealed property 
in God promising, viz., that he is of such power as 
can subdue all things to itself? Again, the want of 
the knowledge of this power of God maketh many who 
otherwise use all good means think. Oh, such a thing 
will never be holpen with them. 

But it may be asked, by what means we may come 
to know this power better '? 

Ans. First, By seeking to God, who hath promised 
we shall know him to the least of us ; praying him to 
open our eyes, that we may somewhat more see this 
his glory. Secondly, by looking into that double 
mirror of his word and of his works, through which 
the light of this his glorious power reflecteth to our 
sight. Thirdly, by observing the experience we have 
ourselves of this power, both working in us and for us. 

Boct. 2. Observe, secondly, who they are in whom 
this power worketh, and for whom it is ready to work, 
even true believers. We come to have the divine 
power giving us, or working for us, all things to life 
and godliness, through the acknowledging of Christ. 
The more we are united with anything, the more we 
feel the virtue of it working upon us, and assimilating 
and mailing us like itself ; as we see in things cast 
into the fire, which the fire doth so work on, that it 
turneth them into fire, or maketh them red-hot and 
fiery like itself. Thus the more we by belief are 
united with God in Christ, the more doth his virtue or 
power work upon us, both in conforming us to him- 
self, and in doing otherwise whatever is behoveful. 
There are sundry things, in regard whereof this so 
excellent power hath wrought and doth work in be- 
lievers ; and some things in regard whereof it is ready 
to work .''irther. What a power is that which doth so 

Ver. 19.] 



change them, and make them lambs of lions, chaste 
and sober of filthy and iutomporatu, humble of proud ; 
a thing more hard than for a camel to pass by the eye 
of a needle ! Secondly, to continue and promote the 
work of sauctification in us, who arc carnal, sold under 
sin ; a thing no less strange than to keep in fire, and 
make it burn higher and higher, on the water. 

Thirdly, The quickening of us with heavenly desires 
and holy ail'ectious is no small power ; neither is it 
less wonderful than to see iron and load flying upward, 
were it no less frequently wrought than the other. 
Again, what a power is it that inwardly coniirmcth 
and strengtheneth us, that we are not overcome; yea, 
that doth chain up these spirits of darkness, that they 
are not able disturbantly to assail us ! These things 
are daily done in us. Now this power is ready to 
work, in times to come, our dehverance from all evils, 
the further supply of graces which we yet find our- 
selves to want, the further healing of our sinful natures, 
the full redemption of our souls and bodies. 

Use 1. The use is, first, to stir us up to thankful- 
ness, who have found the power of God working thus 
for us ; yea, that it is with us, to work further for us 
whatever belongeth to our salvation. They who did 
find Christ's miracles, power, casting out devils in 
them, healing leprosies, they were bound to praise 
him ; but we are epitomes of all his miraculous cures ; 
in healing us, he doth shew them all. Dumb spirits, 
deaf spirits, crooked spirits, who do so hold the joints 
of our hearts downwards that they cannot look up ; 
leprosies, lunacies, &c., that is done in us which 
answereth them all ; but that his power should be 
still toward us, to work further things in our behalf, 
this is matter of much rejoicing. Fear not, thou whose 
heart believeth ; in fire and water he is with thee to 
deliver thee. If thou doest see no footsteps or prints 
of some graces in thyself which thou much desirest, 
that power is with thee which calleth and maketh the 
things which are not stand forth as if they were. If 
thou hast sinful inclinations of never such strength 
and continuance, that power is with thee which can 
dry up these issues, and heal infii-mities of longest 

Use 2. Secondly, let us labour, as we will have this 
power work more and more in us, so to grow up in 
belief. Christ could not shew his apparent miraculous 
power where unbelief hindered ; so he will not display 
this power in those who labour not by faith to give 
him glory. It is one thing to know this power, 
another thing to have this power working in us. The 
means of the former were above briefly touched. It 
shall not be amiss to mention some also concerning 
this latter. The first is, I say, growing up in faith ; 
the second is a conscience of our own inability. St 
Paul was full of this ; ' we are not able to think a 
thought' ; ' when we were of no strength.' As one must 
have conscience of his folly before he can be made 
wise, so before we can have the power of God work 

in us and strengthen us, we must be conscious of onr 
own utter inability to every good word and work. 
Thirdly, we must submit ourselves to all kind of weak 
estates and conditions into which God shall lead us ; 
for God doth commonly manifest his power in in- 
firmities, as Paul speaketh, 2 Cor. xii. Lastly, we 
must glorify this power, in that it doth or hath wrought 
for us ; this is Paul's practice everywhere : ' I can 
do everything, Christ strengthening me ;' 'I strive, 
through the power that worketh in me mightily,' 
Col. i. 29. 

Boci. 3. Observe, lastly, that it is the effectual 
working of God's almighty power which hringeth us 
to believe. The gospel is called ' the power of God ;' 
that is, an instrument of God's almighty power which 
worketh faith in us to salvation; so Col. ii. 12. Faith 
is said to be of God's effectual working ; and, 2 Cor. 
iv. G, God, who brought hght out of darkness, is said 
to have shined into our hearts, and to have enlightened 
us with the knowledge of God's glory in the face of 
Christ ; for the creating of us anew in Christ is a 
greater work than giving us our natural being in Adam, 
and ergo, may not be ascribed to any power which is 
not almighty ; which will yet be more apparent if we 
consider what state we are in of ourselves when he 
bringeth us to believe : ' We are dead,' Eph. ii. Now 
to raise from natural death, is an effect proper to that 
power almighty. Secondly, if we consider what powers 
do hold us captive, even those strong ones whom none 
but the strongest can overmaster. Thirdly, if we con- 
sider to what estate God doth hft us np by believing, 
even to such an estate as is without comparison more 
excellent than that wo received. Now to bring us 
from death, under which so mighty ones hold us cap- 
tive, to such a life, so unutterably glorious, must needs 
be the working of a power almighty. 

Use 1. Wherefore let us look to him who hath thus 
mightily brought us to beheve, that he would finish 
our faith by tLe same power ; the same power which 
maketh these things conserveth them also. Happy is 
he who doth see this power ready to confirm him in 
beheving to the end. 

Use 2. We see how they are deceived who make 
God by his grace to convert us, so that he leaveth it 
in our power whether we will come to him by faith or 
no : as if God did set his grace forth as chapmen do 
wares, which the customer may choose whether he 
will buy or no. But who can resist in that which 
God's almighty power is put forth to work ? Could 
his power be resisted, it were not almighty. 

Use 3. Lastly, we may see hence how many persons 
deceive themselves, who think faith but a matter of 
opinion, or imagination of things absent ; who, though 
they never felt the power of God working in them, yet 
persuade themselves they have faith as well as another ; 
as if it were so slight a thing which no less power must 
work in us than that which raised Christ from the 
dead. But having thus despatched the point for com- 




[Chap. I. 

inon edification, I will, for the benefit of such who are 
more ripe in understanding, set down my judgment 
in these three points following. Here three things 
are, for further understanding of this point, to be 
considered : First, In what standeth that eflectual 
help by which we come unto God. Secondly, In what 
order it doth make us come to God ; whether imme- 
diately, or by some preparation going before. Thirdly, 
Whether it leave the will at liberty actually to resist 
it, yea or no. 

1. To the first, it is plain that the efiectual help 
which maketh us come to God by belief is the efficacy 
of God's almighty power put forth to such purpose ; 
for so far as God doth intend to work, so far he put- 
teth forth his omnipotent power to accomphsh. But 
God doth intend to make some before other some 
come unto him, and, eiyo, he doth stretch out the arm 
of his power to effect this in them. Nevertheless, to 
speak more fully, though this be the principal, it is 
not the sole cause in conversion. We may then con- 
sider three causes. First, the principal, viz., this 
power ; secondly, the instrumental, both of the word 
sounding in our ears, and the inward illumination and 
inspiration wrought within us, by which, as an internal 
word, God speaketh in the mind; thu-dly, a formal 
cause, a fi-ee gracious disposition or habit of faith, by 
which the will is inclined, agreeably to the disposition 
of it, to come unto God ; so that the more full answer 
to this question, viz.. What is all that eflectual help 
whereby I come to God ? is this. It is a mixed thing, 
standing partly of that almighty power of his put forth 
for my good, partly of that word, outward and inward, 
by and with which his power is put forth ; partly in 
that spirit of faith and supernatural life which his 
almighty power, through his word, bringeth forth in 
my soui. What was that help whereby Christ made 
Lazarus able to come to him out of the grave of 
natural death ? The principal was Christ's power 
almighty, the instrumental his voice ; the former 
cause immediately helping to it, or working it, was 
the spirit of natural life, which the power of Christ, 
by his word, restored to this dead c ' pse which now 
was fallen. And thus you have the elfectual help or 
grace by which we come actually to convert. For 
that God's power put forth to work good for us is a 
help given from his free grace or his free favour to- 
ward us, cannot be doubted, when the Scripture everj'- 
■where maketh him our helper, from his mere gi-ace. 
If we lend our arm or hand to help one, being no way 
tied to it, it is a help given from our free favour. 
That his call, inward or outward, and habit of grace 
wrought in us, may be fitly called grace, efl'ectually 
helpful to the acts brought forth by them, none de- 
nieth, though all will not have habit needful to our 
first conversion. And this first thing is well to be 
noted ; for from hence we may gather in what standeth 
the efficacy of grace efl'ectual to conversion, viz., in 
God's effectual power, put forth to execute his inten- 

tion which he hath of converting some actually before 
other some. It doth not stand in any congruity or 
temperature of grace correspondent to our nature ; 
for this doth argue that there is inwardly an incor- 
rupted, a co-natural disposition to receive grace. This 
maketh the effect of conversion to depend as much on 
the active capacity of the will as on the grace of God ; 
nay more, for it maketh the grace of God work it 
morally and externally, and the will of man from a 
power within itself, which doth more inwardly enter 
the effect of conversion than the other, as he who 
persuadeth me to give an alms, is the cause of it so 
essentially as I am, who out of my pleasm-e give it 
upon his first motion. 

2. To the second I answer, that God doth use so 
to work our coming to him by beUef, that he doth first 
for the most part prepare us thereunto. As, before 
we engraft a scion, we cut it and set it for incision ; 
and if a timber log lie sunk into mud, men set to their 
tacklings &ist to draw it out of the mire, before they 
lay it in on cart to carry it away. Thus God doth by 
his power often work some preparative change in a 
sinner, before he doth by his power and word work 
the spirit of faith in them, and make them come to 
him. Thus God, by afflictions, is said to bore the 
ear, and to prepare to conversion. When Manasseh 
was humbled in great misery, he sought the Lord. 
Thus, by conviction of sin, they were pricked in heart, 
and said, ' What shall we do to be saved ?' and then 
speedily received the gospel, believing. Sometimes 
by extraordinary terrors, rising from external acci- 
dents, yea, hidden natural causes. Thus the jailor 
was prepared ; and Paul himself, by an exti'aordinary 
j vision, was brought to great astonishment. Some- 
j time by restraining ; giving common gifts, which make 
I men for degree nearer, that is, in their kind and state 
not so much removed as others in the same state and 
kind with them. Thus Christ said to the young man, 
who was rich and unconverted, that he was ' near the 
; kingdom.' Nay, God may, by giving a man up to the 
height of some sin, or sins, prepare one to conversion ; 
as Paul and Manasses, the one left to persecuting, the 
other to those horrible outrages ; that look, as physi- 
cians, by ripening diseases, make way to heal them ; 
for sick matter is never more easily brought away than 
when it in ripeness and quantity exceedeth. Con- 
cerning this matter, for our better understanding, let 
these conclusions be remembered : 

First, That these preparations are not absolutely 
necessary; for we see that God doth give to iniiiuts 
sanctifying grace, in whom none of these preparative 
operations can take place. 

Secontlly, We do not find that they have been always 
used, and therefore this matter is to be understood as 
a thing most commonly falling forth, not otherwise. 
How was Matthew called ? Even at his custom. He 
followed presently ; not as Judas, but as a true con- 
vert to Christ. So in Lydia; for life and death being 

Ver. 19.] 



such contraries, as have no third thins between thorn 
which doth partake in them both, the one may be 
changed into the other without anythinfj preparatory. 
Thirdly, All things which God doth prepare to the 
receiving of grace, and coming to him, they make not 
of themselves anything to the introducing of grace, 
further than God intcndoth this eflect by them. Fear 
of hell, conscience of sin, never such afflictions, moral 
parts, and all gifts which may be without sanctifying 
grace and true belief, many have all these, who yet 
never turn nnfeignedly to God. When the sickness 
is now grown greater in quantity, this, absolutely 
taken, maketh the patient further oil' health. But the 
physician may intend this, because he doth see his 
medicine will the better work on it, and educe it, when 
it is grown to such ripeness. If a man fall out of a 
dead palsy into a light frenzy, frenzy, of itself, is no 
preparation to health ; but to the physician who can 
work on him more fitly in this taking than in the 
other, it may be a preparative to health. Thus to be 
like an aguish man on his good days, or like to some 
madmen in the time of their intermissions, is in itself 
as far from state of health as otherwise ; but yet the 
physician may use such a state as a way to health, 
choosing rather to deal with him in this taking than 
in the fit. Thus it is not the height of sin ; it is not 
fear of hell, though contrary to the apoplexy of deep 
security ; it is not a moral course, which cometh not 
from true sanctification, that of themselves can make 
nearer the state of gi-ace, but only in regard of God, 
who doth intend to turn them hereunto. Thus if God 
stir up a man to live according to the light of nature 
virtuously, it may be, in regard of God's intention, a 
preparing him to receive further grace of eflectual 
vocation ; but all a man can do from natural strength 
of itself profiteth nothing. 

Fourthly, That where effectual raising np the heart 
to faith beginneth, there God's preparative works take 
an end ; for as that which prepares the ground for 
seed now ceaseth when the seed is to bo sown, so all 
these things, which, as they are preparations, do no- 
thing but fit the soil of the heart for God's effectual 
calling to be given, they have their end when this im- 
mortal seed cometh to be sown in us ; beside that, a 
man is no sooner called than he receiveth a spirit of 
faith, by which he is, as by a new heavenly form, in 
some manner quickened. 

Fifthly, The papists' doctrine is here very defec- 
tive, and false in part. Defective, for they speak no- 
thing of preparatory courses, by which God doth 
bring us to come unto him by faith, but of such like 
operations by which God prepareth ns, and we prepare 
ourselves, to be justified. Now we prepare ourselves 
to justification when the Spirit doth, without any habit 
of grace, lift ns np to supernatural acts of behef, hope 
in God, love, sorrow for sin, and fear of hell ; in which 
many things are erroneous. As, first, that they make 
as lifted up to acts of this nature without habits, which 

is to make a blind man see without giving his eye new 
sight ; to make us bring good fi-uits while yet we are 
not made good trees ; to make us be justified by one 
faith, come into grace by our faith, stand in grace by 
another. The school not understanding the doctrine 
of preparation, consider of it philosophically, as a 
thing between nature and grace. Now between the 
things wo work out of natural strength and those we 
do meritoriously from grace now infused into us, and 
inherent in us, they devise a third kind of works, 
which neither come from any power of ours merely, 
nor yet from any supernatural grace inherent in us ; 
and these are works done by eternal* aid of the Spirit ; 
whereas all the Scripture make that faith which is 
required to justification to be the same with that which 
worketh by love ; to be a faith fully formed, coming 
from a spirit of faith, that is, an habitual gift wrought 
by the Spirit ; to be a faith believing on God, which 
the best pillars of popish learning confess to be an act 
of formed faith. Beside, they err when they make 
fear of hell a thing immediately disposing to justifica- 
tion, when the work of this is to move us to seek out 
of ourselves after some word of faith, and this is cast 
forth proportionably as faith and love enters. It may 
prepare to our conversion, not to our justification im- 
mediately. Again, when they make love actual to go 
before justification, whereas love doth follow; for we 
love because we have found love first. Now no love 
is felt from God till remission of sin and acceptance 
to life in some measure are felt and perceived. Should 
God lift us up to love him before his justification, he 
should, by making us love him, prepare us to be loved 
of him : ' She loveth much, because much is forgiven 
her.' In a word, setting-aside the act of a true faith, 
coming from an inward gift of the Spirit, inclining the 
heart to believe, there is no other thing preparing to 
justification immediately. Where this is, there to- 
gether in time justification is received ; there the 
Spirit of love and hope are not wanting : ' He who 
believeth, is passed from death to hfe.' Nevertheless 
we do long after, not feel ourselves justified, nor per- 
ceive grace to dwell in us so fully and manifestly as 
we desire. Hence it is that sometimes we are in fear; 
sometime believe, hope; sometime wo are in repentant 
sorrow ; and by these we are led Loth to the manifest per- 
ceiving of that which is wrought in us, and to the more 
full measure of peace and grace which we much desire. 
The second question then. In what order God's 
power doth bring us to believe ? is thus answered. 
That most commonly he doth in some kind change 
us, and make more fit, that so his word may be re- 
vealed in us, which, accompanied with his mighty 
power, doth bring forth that supernatural habit of 
faith by which he doth incline us to move unto him. 

3. Now for the third thing. Whether this help doth 
leave the will at liberty actually to resist it ? yea or 
no. The answer is, it doth not. That which the 
» Qu. ' external ' ?— Ed. 



[Chap. I. 

omcipotency of God is put forth to work in the crea- 
ture, that the creature cannot resist. But God put- 
toth forth his omnipotency, and by the eflectual work- 
ing of it, be may bring us to believe. The first part 
is not denied. The second is here plainly set down, 
viz., that God doth bring us to believe by the effectual 
■working of no less power than that which raised Christ 
from the dead. 

That which maketh God's aid and grace put under 
the power of man, and not man's will to be under it, 
that is a Pelagian heresy. But to say that, notwith- 
standing God's helping grace, man may resist, is to 
put grace in man's power, not to put man's will under 
the power of grace. 

For the first part of the reason, we may see it ; for 
Pelagius taken up, because he yielded nothing to grace 
as he ought, granted that he did not prefer it before' 
the will, but put it under the power of it.* That 
which maketh man able to frustrate God's counsel 
touching his conversion, is not to be granted; but power 
to resist all God can work, maketh him have power 
to frustrate God's counsel. Indeed, it would bo thus 
in power of the creature to make God perjured in the 
things be hath sworn. To the second part of this 
reason some may happily answer, that this power 
maketh not man able to resist God, because he doth 
in his counsel decree nothing, but so that be doth see 
this power is ready infallibly to perform it. But this 
is nothing that God doth so will and decree that he 
knoweth the creature will not resist him ; for this doth 
infer no more, but that God shall not miss of any thing 
he willeth ; it doth not prove -he may not, but it ab- 
horreth from Christian ears to say there is any power 
which may possibly make- God a liar, as well as 
to say, God shall not be found true in that he hath 

That which is wrought in the will, not from any 
natural power of suffering, but from the obedience in 
which it is to God's almighty power, that the will hath 
no power to decline. 

But the work of conversion to God is wrought in 
it, from the obedience in which it standeth to God's 
almighty power. 

To understand it, things have a power of suffering, 
from their natures inclining them to suffer this or 
that, as wax is naturally inclined to melt with beat, or 
a power which cannot but obey some agent working 
on them from without. Thus a piece of wood may be 
made into an image. Now, in regard of God, all 
things are in such a state of obedience, that they will 
come to anything ho will bring them. A stone, by 
this power, may be made into a man, even a son of 
Abraham. Now that which things suffer from this 
power, whereby they obey agents working on them 
from without, that they cannot avoid ; for everything, 
80 far as it is come in obedience to another, so far 
it cannot resist. Now, that conversion is wrought 
* Aug. de Ihuieaibus, 88. 

in the will, as it standeth only in obedience to God's 
power, is plain ; for it hath no natural inclination to 
suffer anything, both for the being and manner of it, 
above nature ; for there is no natural power in an eye, 
now blind, to receive sight, which is not in ilself, not 
only in regard of the manner in which it is to be 
restored, a thing supernatural ; how much less in the 
eye of the mind, now become darkness, to receive the 
light of saving knowledge, which is every way a thing, 
both for matter and manner, supernatural unto it. 
Beside, if there were a power natural to receive con- 
version, then there must be some agent in nature able 
to work conversion ; for there is not found a power 
natural of suff'ering in anything, but that we see also 
in nature a correspondent power working upon it. 
Wherefore the wdl, not from any natm-al inclination 
it hath, suffering this work of conversion, must needs 
sufl'er it as it is in obedience to God's almighty power. 
Now to say it may resist, as it is in obedience, is to 
speak things contradictory. The Scriptm-e doubteth 
not to say in effect, that God's will of predestinating, 
calling, and shewing mercy to salvation, is uuresist- 
ible : ' Who hath resisted his will ?' Rom. ix. ; and if 
it were needful, it might be shewed, especially out of 
Tertullian and Austin, that God's grace hath the free 
will under the power of it. Out of Austin, that God, 
by his omnipotent power, inclineth wills whither he 
willeth, having them more in his power than we our- 
selves ; that his grace doth help us, indeciinahiUter tt 
inscparahiUler ; which is all one as if he should say, 
it doth help our infirmity, not only infallibly, but irre- 
sistibly ; that it is not rejected of any hard heart, be- 
cause it is given to take away that hardness of heart 
which might resist ; that the will of tho Creator is the 
necessity of things, on God's decree necessity foUow- 
eth. But this labour is superfluous to my intent. 

But it may be objected, that this doth take away the 
liberty of the will in converting, if the will be not able 
to do otherwise ; for that which the will doth, not 
having power to do otherwise, in that it is not free. I 
answer with limitation, that which doth, having power 
to do otherwise, from change in second causes com- 
pelling it so to do, in that it is not free. Otherwise, 
when this necessity cometh from God's almighty will, 
by himself determining of it ; for this doth so sweetly 
determine the creature, that the power of it is no way 
changed or diminished ; as the omnipotent will of God 
doth so in the fuUing out of a contingent thing, as the 
not breaking Christ's bones, as that the nature of con- 
tingency, in regard of all secondary causes, is no whit 
impaired. I answer, secondly, that this opinion doth 
gi'ound the freedom of will falsely ; for the freedom 
of will, as it is a faculty voluntary or elective, doth 
not require this iudifferency of exercising tho act of it 
divers ways for the constituting of it. To clear this 
the more, consider that Hberty may seem to spring 
from three roots. 

First, From this indetermined iudifferency, whereby 

Ver. 19.] 



the will is free, nothing determining it otherwise, as 
well to move itself to a diverse thing, as that whereto 
it moveth. Secondlj', In ref^ard of the flexibility 
which is in the habitual inclination, which might bend 
as easily to another diverse thing, or to suspend, as to 
move whereto it moveth. 

Si'cdikIIij, In regard of flexibility, which is in the 
habitual inclination, which might bend as easily to 
another diverse thing, as to that whereto it goeth. 

Thiidhj, In regard of the judgment, which doth go 
before the act of it, judging freely of it as a thing 
which it is able to do, or not to do ; or if it come into 
comparison with other, judging of it as a thing to be 
done before other, and so moving to it. Now this I 
take to be the tnie root of liberty, whence actions are 
said free, because we out of a free judgment move 
about them for to do a thing, or to speak a thing, thus 
or thus, out of judgment thinking it free, or deter- 
mining one, when it considcreth a diverse thing 
which it might do also, this makcth the action 
free ; yea, so free, that it is done with election ; for 
though the thing I work be necessary in regard of 
God's will which hath determined it, yet I work it 
freely, while I do it out of such a practical judgment 
going before. As a man, though he speak things for 
the matter of them never so true, yet while he speak- 
cth out of a judgment that the thing is false, he 
speaketh falsely, though the thing spoken be otherwise 
true ; neither doth God maintain a false judgment in 
man, because his judgment of other things free to him, 
is with this limitation in him, for aught he knoweth; 
and to do any thing from my will with judgment, that 
it is possible for me in some sort if I would do other- 
wise, is enough to free working. To place the free- 
dom of the judgment in judging the mean we use 
inditferent, such as may be used and not used, and 
yet the end attained, which I like not, because Chris- 
tians cannot esteem and account of faith, repentance, as 
means indifl'erent, when nevertheless they believe and 
repent freely. 

Now, though the will was in creation, and is in 
Christians inclinable to contraries, yet I do not think 
liberty to stand in this native flexibility, which is in- 
clined hither or thither, much less in liberty of exer- 
cising power to and fro, as being herein by no power 
predetermined. For, fii-st, the will seemcth to be said 
free in regard of something no way bound, but the in- 
difierency of the inclination in exercise is bound by 
God's decree, so that nothing can be done but what 
he hath determined. 

Secondly, In men distracted in reason, the inherent 
flexibility of will is not altered, the exercise is no more 
physically predetermined than before, and yet they 
work not with liberty. Thirdly, Were liberty in the 
flexibility, then the more our wills were flexible to 
things opposite, the more perfect were our liberty. 
Whereas we see Christians, the more they grow in 
grace, the more their inclinableness to sin is dimi- 

nished ; and when they have attained perfection, this 
flexibleness to evil shall bo totally removed. 

The first opening must be more nearly scanned. 
Many will have liberty nothing but such a freedom, 
whereby God hath made his creature every way unde- 
termined, so that when he doth any thing, he hath full 
power to do the contrary, or to suspend. Now, though 
this freedom might be defended against whatsoever is 
in any second cause, viz., in this sense, that he is free 
to exercise his power as well another way as this he 
moveth, for anything that any creature can do in 
heaven or earth, nay, for aught he can sec in himself 
also ; but to hold this absolute in regard of God him- 
self, is a most prodigious conceit. Liberty in this 
sense, accidentally, contingency, necessity, these are 
modalities agreeing to eflects, as effects are in order 
to their second causes, not to God, who most cer- 
tainly, necessarily, and wisely hath willed them. Fire 
burneth not necessarily to God's power, who can at 
pleasure change it, or restrain the second act of it ; 
nothing falleth out accidentally, as referred to him 
whose wise intention reacheth to every thing. So for 
contingency also, and liberty in the sense before 
named. But it shall not be amiss to shew some rea- 
sons why this is to be rejected. 

1. That which exempteth a creature from being as 
an instrument under the power of God, is absurd ; but 
this doth so. It is proved thus : that which giveth 
the creature a power to do as he will, when God hath 
done all be may unto him, that doth make him no 
instrument subject to God's power ; but this opinion 
doth say, that when God hath done all he may, the 
creature is free to do as he will. Some are not ashamed 
to say that God doth not work out of his omnipotency 
in the free wiU of the creature ; other some are not 
ashamed to say, that even in works of grace, the will 
is not properly termed an instrumental cause under 
God. Some deny the assumption and proof of it, be- 
cause this power came from God, and is sustaiuid by 
him, and he can do what he will in man. But to this 
I saj', a thing communicated and maintained to me 
by another, is that it is : so this power, though given 
and maintained by God, yet is a power exempt so far, 
that he may not bj' any power overrule it ; and though 
God can do what he will, yet it is one thing to be able 
to do a thing by persuasion, which I may refuse, an- 
other thing to do it by power, which I cannot refuse. 
This latter by this opinion is denied. 

That which taketh away God's infallible prescience, 
is not to be granted ; but to say the will of man is 
free, no way determined, doth so ; for knowledge is 
measured by the thing to be known, and therefore, 
when the thing to be known is every way uncertain, 
everywhere undetermined, knowledge cannot be cer- 
tain. The second part of the reason is denied ; for 
they say, that God, by a kind of knowledge, doth see 
what a free creature now made will do, if he bo set in 
snch and such circumstances. I answer, he doth in- 



[Chap. I. 

deed, because he doth see how his power would deter- 
mine him iu such and such occasions ; but to make 
him see determination, when neither himself hath any- 
way determined him, when the circumstances do it 
not, when nothing in the free creature doth determine 
him, is to make him see that which neither is in the 
creature, nor in himself to be seen. But let us ask 
this question. How doth God see his creature would 
work thus or thus, set in such and such circumstances, 
because it is the nature of it to do so ? Whence doth 
he see it is the nature of it so to be carried ? Here 
nothing can be answered, but because his wisdom and 
power, the one hath advised, the other hath eflectually 
wrought that he should do so, or that to which he con- 

2. In a word, God cannot know this or that man's 
conversion certainly fi'om eternity, but he must see it 
certain in himself, willing it, or in the causes of it, or 
he must see it from all eternity, as being present to 
himself out of the causes ; the former way, this opi- 
nion denieth ; the latter is true, for God cannot see 
these things as existing forth of the causes from eter- 
nity to eternity, but thej' must have co-eternal exist- 
ence with him. He hath in eternity all things thus 
present, because God's indivisible eternity is before, 
in, and after all measure of time ; but that he hath 
them present from eternity to eternity, is an incon- 
ceivable absurdity. 

3. If God do not determine and apply, the creature 
to will and work that which he worketh in the creature, 
then the creature is the cause why God worketh, and 
by consequent why he willeth this or that ; but the 
creature is not the cause why God worketh and willeth. 
The first part is plain, for God's concourse working 
this or that, must either go before the will, and so 
cause it to will, else it must follow, accomphshing that 
which man's will willeth. Now the second part some 
openly grant, but it is most absm'd, both because it 
maketh God follow and cause a kind of tendance on 
man's will, as also by reason it maketh the will of man 
have a causal force on God himself. James saith, 
' We may not say, I ^\'ill go to such a place, unless 
God will.' This doctrine maketh God say, I will 
work conversion, faith, repentance, in such a person, 
if he will. 

4. If the liberty of will stand in such a power free 
for exercise, then Christ had not liberty or freedom of 
will ; for God the Son owing it, as a conjoined instru- 
ment to it, self-guidance in everything, should it have 
failed in any circumstance of due obedience, God him- 
self should have been guilty. Now, Christ bad liberty, 
and such as is the ground not only of working that 
which is good and praiseworthy, but that which was in 
some sort meritorious. But we will not prosecute 
these points, which we shall have occasion in other 
places to unfold. The truth is, that whether we look 
at the preparation God maketh in some, or at the faith 
itself, both are wonderful. What a power is that 

which shaketh the hearts of the most secure sinners ! 
It is a strong wind which shaketh an oak, but to bring 
a heart like the jailor's to tremble, is a matter arguing a 
mighty power. Again, to give a hand or eye to one 
blind and maimed were much ; but the hand and eye 
of faith, great is the power by which they are re- 

Ver. 20. Now followeth the description of that 
power which brought them to believe, fi'om that which 
it wrought in Christ our head, viz. : 1. His resurrec- 
tion, which is set down from the state in which he was 
raised; raising liimfrom the dead. 2. The exaltation 
of Christ, which his power wrought ; .in which we are 
to mark, first, the kingly power he hath received, 
and set him at his right handj secondly, the place 
where he hath it, in the heavens above, these visible 
heavens, for so the word signifieth. 3. Thirdly, the 
persons, which are of two sorts : first, those who are 
subject to this power, as it is more generally taken, 
verse 21, and part of the 22d ; secondly, those who 
are subject to this power, as it is in special manner 
tempered with grace, in the words following, a head 
to his church ; the more particular consideration 
whereof shall not here be unfolded. First, to clear 
this 20th and 21st verses, and part of the 22d verse. 
First, we must mark that which is a word having re- 
ference to the efhcacy or eflfectual working of mighty 
power, which was wrought in Christ when he was now 
raised from the dead ; as if it were not his mind to 
express a power like it for kind, so much as the self- 
same singular working which was wrought in our 
head. Secondly, to understand the raising him from 
the dead, we must know what death here is meant, 
and in what it standeth; secondly, what this resurrec- 
tion included. Christ suffered a supernatural death, 
so far as might stand with the unity of his manhood 
to the person of God the Son, and with the holiness 
of his nature; but here is only meant that natural 
death, which did a time hold bis human nature in the 
state of it. This death stood, first, in separation of 
natural soul and body ; secondly, in the loss of all 
that sensitive life which the soul caused, and continued 
in the body ; thirdly, in the ceasing of all actions 
wrought by the body as an instrument ; fourthly, in a 
desire to be again conjoined unto the body. Now, 
then, the resurrection is such a work of God's power, 
which brought again the soul of Christ to that body, 
from which it had been a little divorced, which caused 
it bring forth life iu that body, work by it as an in- 
strument joined with it; finally, joy in the conjunction 
of it. 

For better clearing Christ's exaltation, we must 
first know what it is to be set at God's right hand ; 
secondly, what heavens are here to be understood ; 
thirdly, what persons are meant by inincipalities, 
powers ; fourthly, what is meant by putting all things 
under his /eel. 

VKit 20.] 



1. For the first, Saint Paul and Peter do constrae 
it by reigning immediately over every creature, till the 
mystery of our redemption shall bo finished, 1 Cor. 
XV. 25, compared with Ps. ex. 1. So to the Hebrews, 
he doth construe it, the setting Christ in the throne of 
m^iesty, Heb. i. 3, 8 ; Heb. xii. 2, ' At the right 
hand of the throne of God.' Saint Peter makcth it 
all one with making him Christ and Lord ; see Acts 
ii. 35, 30, chapter v. 31. But for the further open- 
ing, wo mast know, 1, what it is that is given; 2, to 
whom, and in what respect ; 3, how long it is to con- 
tinue. To the first, I answer, that it is not the might 
of divine sovereignty over the creature ; for this doth 
80 follow the nature of God, that it is necessary with 
every person that hath this nature. This the Son 
could not relinquish, this he cannot be taken unto, as 
which doth necessarily agree to him, as God blessed 
for ever. What is it then ? A right of executing 
immediately and in a manner appropriate to this per- 
Bou the sovereign dominion of God, over every crea- 
ture. So that though the Father and Spirit have a 
right and sovereignty over the creature, yet they do 
not immediately execute this in such sort as the Son 
doth, which makoth Christ say, John v. 22, ' The 
Father judgoth none, but hath given all judgment 
unto the Son.' The Son, by voluntary dispensation 
Sent by the Father, did empty himself, and lay aside, 
not onl}' the right of having dominion over every 
creature, but of exercising and shewing it forth in that 
nature he had assumed. The Father, by voluntary 
dispensation, doth resign to the Son the immediate exe- 
cution of all power over every creature, till the time 
that all things be subdued under him. This right the 
one relinquished in the time of his humiliation, the 
other doth answerably leave a time for the exaltation 
of his Son. 

2. To the second I answer, This sovereignty is given 
to the person of the Son, both as God and man now 
ascended ; as God, for it is a power which none that 
is a pure creature can take or execute ; and the Scrip- 
ture saith, ' The Lord said to my Lord,' that is, to 
David's seed, as he was David's Lord, according as 
Christ expoundeth it by his question. Now David's 
seed was not David's Lord as man, but as God. 
That it is given as man, is plain, because it is given 
him now ascended into heaven with his human nature. 
Again, that power is given to Christ as man, which is 
to be executed by him as man ; but this kingdom is 
executed by Christ, so that his manhood doth concur 
as an instrument working with his Godhead in the 
administration of it : John v. 27, ' He bath given 
him power to execute judgment, inasmuch as he is 
Son of man.' 

3. The third is plain, out of that Ps. ex., and Paul 
construing it, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 25, namely, that Christ 
shall give np his kingdom, and cease to sit at the right 
band of God in this manner in which now he doth ; 
for then he shall no longer by his manhood execute 

government, neither shall he in manner appropriate 
his person, but together with the Father and Spirit, 
like as they, so shall he jointly with them rule, and 
be all in all for ever. 

The second point for clearing the text is, what 
heavi'iix are herc^understood. Those which Paul calleth 
the third heaven, above the air, clouds, and starry 
firmament. Faith doth believe a place above these, . 
though philosophy know it not. 

To the third I answer, the persons over whom . 
Christ is advanced arc first described more particu- 
larly, but jet obscurely; secondly, more generally and 
plainly. The particular enumeration in these words, 
principalities, potters, mifllits, doviinntioits. The more 
full and plain opening of them in the words following, 
evrrij ttaine ; that is, every creature howsoever named, 
whether in this world, or whether belonging to the 
world to come. 

But it is a question who are meant by the former 
words. Ans. They are commonly understood of 
angels, but I take the first two to be names of excel- 
lency, found in this present world. First, principalities 
and powers, when they are put for angelical natures, 
they are not termed so simply, but wth an addition 
of the place, as Eph. iii. 10, Eph. vi. 12 ; but these 
words put for human excellencies, we read them 
simply, without anything added. Tit. iii. 1, 'Be sub- 
ject to principalities and powers.' Again, I think this 
distribution of power, named in this world and in that 
to come, respecteth something in this enumeration 
fore-named : the former, these two first named ; the 
latter, the couple following. Thus I think also Col. 
i. 16, that enumeration of ' thrones, dominions, prin- 
cipalities, powers ; ' the first two respect things 
invisible, or things in heaven ; the latter two, things 
on earth ; for he seemeth to illustrate each part of 
the distribution by the particulars there inferred. 
Wherefore we may thus conceive of them : 

Principalities signify those in principal authority. 

Pouers, all secondary powers sent from them, as 
Peter speaketh. 

By mit/his, I understand angels, putting forth might 
in some miraculous effects of mercj' or judgment ; 
such as the angel who did smite so many hundred 
thousands in a night, the angel which did the miracu- 
lous cure at the pool, John v. 

By dominations, I understand such angels, whose 
ministry God nseth in the government of kingdoms and 
provinces ; for that God doth use their ministry, this 
may be gathered both out of Daniel and Ecclesiastes. 

The putting! oil things nnder his feet, noteth nothing 
but that subjection in which everything is to Christ, 
God only excepted ; read Heb. ii. 8. These things 
for opening the diflSculties incident. The sum is, I 
wish your eyes opened, that you may know the power 
of God toward you who believe, through the working 
of the power which was wrought in Christ, when God 
did raise him from the lowest degree of his humiliation. 



[Chap. I 

even the state of the dead, and did crown him with 
dignity, and kingly glory in the heaTens, not only 
giving him prerogative before both principalities and 
powers, such as we see in earth ; yea, before mights 
and dominations, such as belong to the world to come ; 
but giving him power over these and all creatures, so 
as he hath them under his foot. 

Voct. 1. Observe then, first, from the 20th verse, 
'Which he wrought in Christ.' That the self-same 
power put forth, in raising Christ our head, is that sin- 
gular power which raiseth us. For look as the al- 
mighty power put forth to make Adam a living spirit, 
was it which doth quicken us in our order, and bring 
us to have life and being from him, thus the self- 
same power which raised Christ to be a second Adam, 
and quickening spirit to all who belong to him, that is 
the power which doth cause us in our time receive this 
supernatural life and being from him. For Christ his 
resurrection is both the resurrection of our souls and 
bodies, inasmuch as he is raised up, that he may be a 
fountain and root of all supernatural life, his human 
nature concurring with the divine, as an instrument 
with that which is more principal in the producing of 

Use 1. By this we see farther the vanity of such who 
make God to do nothing in our conversion but that which 
we may resist. Could we resist his power which made 
the first Adam a fountain of generation unto us all? 
And shall sre be able to resist the almighty power of 
God, raising Christ as a fountain and root of spiritual 
regeneration to all who are his ? 

Use 2. This should make us thankful to God that 
he hath put forth such power towards us in the resur- 
rection of his Son. We deem it as his favour, who 
did appoint we should descend carnally from the first 
parent of us, according to the flesh ; but this is far 
more worthy of praise, that even in raising [Christ] he 
should think on us, and appoint us to receive a resurrec- 
tion of soul and body from him, in due time and order. 

Doct. 2. Observe, secondly, that Christ is raised 
from state of the dead, that God doth leave his dear- 
est children to the depth of miseries before he send 
rehef. His own Son, left to conflict with a spiritual 
kind of death, with desertion in regard of love eclipsed; 
which impression of wrath, as due to our sins, with 
all the powers of darkness assailing him with natural 
death in regards before opened, his own Son left to 
this gulf of evils before salvation was shewed. This 
he doth to glorify his power, which doth not so brightly 
appear till things are desperate. Secondly, that we 
mif,'ht the better in extremities learn to trust on him 
to bring us to this, he is glad to make onr cases past 
all help we can perceive. And thirdly, to the end he 
may the more endear his benefits, he doth let us con- 
flict long in the want of them. 

Use. Let us not then be dismayed whatever we 
sufler. I hope we are not yet come to death ; let us 
look at Christ, and not wish to be free from such con- 

dition, which our Lord and master hath endured be- 
fore us. The rather let us have patience, however 
we be tried, because God can never come with help 
too late, as men may, who bring things sometime to 
no purpose, when the matter is past help. 

Doct. 3. In that Christ is raised. Observe, that 
God never so leaveth his, but he sendeth salvation in 
due time. He left his people in Egypt, in Babylon, 
till their civil state was dead and desperate ; yet he 
deUvered them. If he let them be swallowed, like 
Jonah, yet he will bring them forth again, and shew 
them his salvation ; for God is a helper at time of 
need. Such is his faithfulness, in the mountain he 
will provide, as Abraham said. Thus, though he let 
his own Son die, yet he saveth him in due season, and 
delivereth him. There is a double salvation, one pro- 
tecting and keeping evil that it shall not come near 
us, nor once seize on us ; the other is a keeping of 
us so as it shall not hold us, much less prevail over 
us. Thus God saved his Christ accordingly as he 
asked, ' When he prayed with strong cries to him that 
was able to save him fi-om death,' Heb. v. 9. 

Use. Wherefore, let this onr Saviour's case com- 
fort us in greatest evils. If the example of Job is to 
be looked at, how much more this standard of ex- 
amples ! What though thou seemest never so for- 
saken ? What though many evils have seized on 
thee ? Fear not, stand still, salvation will shine forth 
in due season. God is not like the devil and wicked 
ones ; when they have brought one into the briers, 
there they leave him on plain field : ' I have sinned 
in betraying innocent blood.' ' What is that to us ?' 
say they. But God will be with us in the evils, yea, 
in seven, to save and deliver us. 

Doct. 4. Observe, again, that God doth not only 
raise him up, but set him at his right hand ; glory 
correspondent to his humiliation. Observe that God 
doth make the abasements of his children be the 
forerunners of their greatest glory. As the pride of 
wicked ones doth lacquey as it were, and run by their 
ensuing ruin ; so, on the contrary, the sufferings and 
humiliations of God's children have ensuing answer- 
able glory. He was made less than a worm, and 
here is taken to the right band above angels. It 
pleaseth God not only to exalt his humbled children, 
but in the degree also in which he had abased them, 
according to that prayer of Moses, Ps. xc, ' Comfort 
us, according to the years wherein we have suflered 
affliction ;' as, on the contrary, we see him bringing 
judgment on the wicked, in the same measure in which 
they have taken in the delights of sin, Kev. xviii. 7. 
True it is, that this doth not hold universally in this 
present hfe, but when the definite sentence is now to 
be given them, according to works shall every soul 
receive proportioned recompence. 

Use. Let us then by this take comfort in afflictions. 
Was this Christ's case only ? Nay, see James i. 10, 
' Rejoice in afflictions ; for when you are tried, you 

Ver. 20] 



shall receive the crown of victory.' The wicked's 
woe is sown in their rejoicing, but in our darkness light 
is sown for the righteous. Let us think God doth 
but prove us, that he may in his duo time do us good. 
Blood and sweat go before victory, and before the 
earthly harvest is gotten in. We must not then think 
it strange, if God cause us to know sufl'erings before 
he shew us those glorious mercies which he hath pro- 
pared for us. 

Doct. 5. ButtoconsiderthismatterofChrist'sexalta- 
tion more particularly. First, when it is said he is set at 
God's right hand, above principalities, observe that 
our Saviour Christ as man is taken to have a prero- 
gative before every other creature. For, first, this 
phrase noteth the pre-eminence of him, as next to 
God himself; that look, as one made a king hath a 
dignity above all persons named in his kingdom, 
dukes, earls, lords, so our Saviour, taken up as man 
to this kingly dignity, must needs be in pre-eminence 
before them. It is no wonder, for this nature essen- 
tially apportaineth to that person which made all these 
things; see Rev. iv. 11, the Lamb is 'worthy to re- 
ceive glory, for by him all things were made, for him 
they were created.' 

Secondly, Every person, the nearer he is in conjanc- 
tion of blood to an earthly king, the more he hath 
prerogative before others more disjoined. So this 
created nature, seeing it is made one personally with 
God, by how much it is more nearly united, by so 
much it is fit that it should have prerogative before 
others. Not to speak that being heir of all things, it 
is meet that he should be before all, who are but parts 
of his inheritance ; and having more excellent endow- 
ments, I mean created gifts than any other, it is meet 
he should have the first place before all other. 

Use 1. Wherefore, what reverence are we to shew 
him in all our services about him, whose excellency is 
80 high above every creature ? Earthly dignities do 
80 dazzle our eyes, that we know not with what sub- 
mission sufficient to fall down before them. 

Use 2. Again, having so eminent a person for our 
Saviour and mediator, let us cleave contented to him, 
caring to know nothing but him, accounting all dross 
and dung, that we may be found in Christ. Let none 
deceive yoa with traditions of men and vain philo- 
sophy ; you are complete in him who is the head of 
principalities and powers. The papists, did they 
consider the excellency of Christ our Saviour, could 
not, as they do, fly so many ways for help out of him. 

Doct. 6. Observe, secondly, that Christ, not only 
as God, but as man also, hath power above every 
creature ; for to be set at God's right hand, is to re- 
ceive a power imperial over everj- creature ; which is 
further apparent while he saith, Christ is so placed 
above all, that all are subject under his feet : ' To 
me is given all power in heaven and earth,' that is, 
power whereunto every creature is subject. He 
8peaketh of it as done, because it was immediately to 

be performed ; in which manner ho spake before of 
his body and blood. This person as God, receiving 
by voluntary dispensation this honour from the Father, 
that ho should, in an immediate and appropriate 
manner, execute government over all the creatures in 
heaven and earth ; the same person as man, partici- 
pating in this kingly divine authority, so far that he 
should instrnmentally concur in executing all that 
judgment which Christ, according to his divine nature, 
did principally effect. This the Scripture doth lay 
down, as in regard of earthly powers they are subject : 
for he is ' ruler of the kings of the earth,' Rev. i. 5. 
He hath this royal style ' written on his thigh,' as it 
were, ' King of kings. Lord of lords,' Rev. xix. 16. 
That he hath power over angels is plain, both by the 
reverence they do him, and their obedience towards 
him, Heb. i. When ho brought his Son into the 
world, he bade all the angels should adore him, every 
knee boweth to him, the evil angels yielding sign of 
subjection, either deceitfully to wrong end, or by force 
compelieJ, though their state is such that they cannot 
do it religiously as the other. That all the angels are 
iu obedience to him, is plain ; the good are sent forth 
by him to be ministering spirits for our good. Now, 
he that hath power to dispose of and employ them, 
hath power to take account how that ho setteth them 
about is discharged ; the evil angels are likewise at 
his disposition, for they could not enter the swine 
without his leave ; they are subject to his judgment. 
When the saints shall judge the angels, what power 
hath Christ himself this way ? 

Use 1. First, from this of Christ's prerogative and 
powerful authority, insinuated in this phrase of sitting 
at God's right hand, we see that the meaning of this 
phrase is not to be admitted to equality with the 
divine nature, for this Christ ever had as God ; neither 
to be admitted into the divine blessedness settledly to 
enjoy it, for Christ as God ever had, and could not 
but have, that essential beatitude, and that blessedness 
which he receiveth as man is not to have end, which 
this sitting at God's right hand is to have ; neither is 
that filling Christ's human nature with supernatural 
gifts of knowledge, power, &c., the proper thing this 
article layeth down ; for these gifts shall dwell with 
him for ever ; he shall sit in this manner on the 
throne of majesty but for a time. Much less is the 
Lutherans' sense to be approved, who make Christ's 
placing at God's right hand to import thus much, that 
the human nature of Christ is elevated to this honour, 
that it may freely use the divine attributes, omni- 
science, omnipresence, omnipotency, so as to become 
by them omniscient, omnipresent, onmipotcnt, no less 
properly than the divine, though after a manner far 
otherwise : the divine nature being thus of itself by 
natural necessity; the human being thus by union 
with the divine, by gracious communication of these 
unto it, with liberty to use them for the perfecting of 
itself. That look, as we conceive a sinner justified or 



[Chap. I. 

made righteous with Christ's righteousness, not as in- 
herent subjectively in him, but in Christ, yet really 
communicated with him, so as he is made righteous 
with it ; thus do they say the human nature of Christ 
is made omnipresent with the omnipresence of the 
divine nature, not as a thing subjectively inhering in 
it, but so really communicated with it that it is made 
truly omnipresent by it, though the divine attribftte 
never go forth of the nature of God, in which as the 
proper subject they grant it immoveably inherent. It 
sball not be amiss for the instruction of some, a little 
to open what I think to be their opinion. 

They hold with us, that the union of the divine and 
human nature standeth in this, that they both are 
united in the singularity of one and the selfsame per- 
son ; that the properties of the divine nature abide 
immoveably in it, never going out of it ; and that the 
human nature, when now it hath the free liberty of 
perfecting itself by use of the divine properties, that 
the human nature then hath, and holdeth it finite* and 
proper qualities abiding in it. Such like things as 
these they religiously affirm with us. 

In what, then, will you say, do they differ from us ? 
So far as I can conceive, then, in these three things : 

1. Upon the union of these natures they think such 
a communication to follow of the divine properties ; 
for example's sake, omnipotency, as that the human 
nature is made truly omnipotent, not by any confusion 
of properties, nor yet by any bare communion and con- 
course of it to the same effect, each nature working 
that which belongeth to it with communion of the 
other, for this we grant ; but by a real donation, by 
which the divine omnipotency doth so become the omni- 
potency of the human nature, that it may work omnipo- 
tently with it, no less than the divine nature doth itself. 

2. They say that Christ's humiliation stood in this, 
that his human nature did suspend to use fully these 
divine properties communicated with it. 

3. That the exaltation, or setting Christ at the right 
hand, is the elevating his human nature to the full 
and free uses of the divine properties, so that his 
human nature by actual use hereof is become omni- 
scient, omnipresent ; but as this last is a misinter- 
preting of this article, so the ground of this error is, 
that they suppose a false effect of personal union, 
namely, such a real communication, for the union 
cannot cause the human nature pai-take more in the 
properties of the divine than it causeth the divine par- 
take in the properties of the human. Again, if a true 
real communication did follow of divine attributes, it. 
must needs be of all, seeing these are the divine 
essence, which can no way be divided. Beside, in 
the union of body and soul, which is personal, the life 
of the soul is not communicated with the body, but an 
effect of it only. Beside, to what end should created 
gifts serve when now more noble properties do enter ? 
Nut to mention that infinite perfections cannot perfect 

* Qu. 'infinite"? — Ed. 

finite natures, no more than reasonable perfections can 
make perfect unreasonable creatures. 

Finally, this opinion maketh the divine properties 
become instrumentary faculties, as it were, to a finite 
nature. This by the way. 

Use 2. A second use is to let us see what reason 
we have to subject ourselves to him. Seeing he hath all 
power, we had need to salute him with the kiss of 
obedience, lest we be consumed. These who have 
earthly power, we swear allegiance, and obey them in 
all things ; how much more should we do it here ! 
Such as disobey him, are careless to get knowledge, to 
believe, to repent, they shall find it hard to kick 
against the pricks ; they shall one day hear this Lamb, 
like a lion, speaking these terrible words, ' Bring them 
hither who will not I should reign over them, that I 
may slay them.' 

Use 3. This must strengthen our confidence that 
our Saviour hath all things subject, that no devil can 
stir him further than he giveth leave. We have men, 
evil angels, sin, troubles, everything resisting ; let us 
not be dismayed, but look to him who hath all things 
put under his feet. But if all things be put under him, 
how come we who are his to be thus encountered in re- 
gard of the power received to subdue them ? They 
are all put under him ; but in regard of the execution 
they are not yet put under, as Heb. ii. 8, the apostle 
himself aeknowledgeth. 

Doct. Thirdly, Observe the place where Christ is 
crowned with this gloiy and dignit3". He is at the 
right hand in the heavens, before and above all things. 
This is plain, that this his sovereignty is a consequent 
following on his ascension into heaven. It is plain 
likewise that he is so ascended into heaven, that the 
heavens must contain him till he come to judgment, 
Acts iii. Look as kings ai'e crowned in the chief cities 
of their kingdoms, and keep their residence in their 
palaces near unto them ; so it was decent that our 
Saviour should be crowned in this heavenly Jerusalem, 
and keep his residence as it were in his heavenly man- 

Use 1. This should draw up our hearts to heaven, 
whither our Saviour is entered, where he now sitteth 
in majesty. Should we have some friends highly ad- 
vanced, though in parts very remote from us, we would 
long to see them, and make a journey to them. 

Use 2. This doth assure us that all we who are 
Christ's shall in due time be brought to heaven where 
he is. The head and members must not still be 
divorced. Beside that, he prayed that where he is, 
there we should be also, John xvii. 

Use 3. We see ubiquity and all real presence (as 
real is opposed to spiritual, not to an imaginary 
presence), we see it overthrown ; for if he sit in 
heaven at God's right hand, then to sit at God's right 
hand is not to be made everywhere present ; for he 
could not be said to be made everywhere in the heavens 
without a contradiction, no more than to be made 

Veb. 22.] 



infinite within limited bounds of being. I take it for 
granted that the heavens can signify nothing but a 
place limited for the extent of it ; and it is against the 
papists a sufficient reason, he is ascended, and sitteth 
in heaven ; cnjo, he is not here, according to the 
angel's reasoning : Mat. xxviii. 6, ' He is not here, 
for he is risen.' The^' did not know this new philo- 
sophy, that Christ might be risen from that place, and 
yet be corporally present in it too. 

Doct. Lastly, Mark the distinction of worlds. Ob- 
serve there is a world to come, in which Christ, and 
those who are Christ's, shall reign for ever. This 
world waxeth old ; the fashion of it passeth. It is 
called the present evil world ; but there is a world to 
come in which all things shall be restored, which God 
hath made subject to his Chiist as the heir of it, Heb. 
i. 8, in which we shall be ' joint-heirs with him.' 
Abraham had a promise not only of seed, but that he 
should bo heir of this world, a type whereof the land 
of Canaan was. Even as the first Adam, and all that 
Cixme from him, had a world, this in which we are, 
prepared for them ; so the second Adam, and all that 
are his, have a world also belonging unto them. 

Use. Let us then comfort ourselves in this : though 
in this present evil world we sufl'er many things, there 
is a world which shall last for aye, in which we shall 
reign with Christ, blessed for ever. Li this world to 
come shall all tears be wiped from our eyes, and aU 
our sins be so forgiven, that there shall be no step nor 
print appearing of them ; forgiven, not in regard of 
sentence only interlocutory, but in regai-J of full de- 
claration and execution, to which that place in Matthew 
seemeth to have respect : ' He that blasphemeth against 
the Spirit, shall not be forgiven, neither in this world, 
nor in the world _to come.' 

Ver. 22. Now foUoweth the special sovereignty : 
Artd hath given him a head over all to his church, which 
is his body, the fulness of him uho jilleth all in all. 

For understanding these words, we must note that 
the word head is used sometime for one who in any 
kind is before and above other ; and in this large sense 
Christ is the head of angels and all men. Man is the 
head of the woman, Christ of man, God of Christ : 
1 Cor. xi., 'He is the head of all principalities and 
powers ;' but here it signifieth that Christ is so over 
his chm'ch, that he is in a more near and communi- 
cative sort conjoined in it, as the head is with the body 
and members, which are annexed and subjected to it. 

A head over all. This may be referred to the 
church, as making a comparison twixt Christ's superi- 
ority over his church and angels in this sense. God 
gave Christ that he should be a head, principally 
and above all other things beside, to his church ; thus 
chap, vi., ' Above all, put on the shield of faith,' or it 
may be referred to him who is given our head in this 
sense. God gave him to be head to us, who is over 
all things, because the special sovereignty is noted in 

his being a head. This word being taken in the strict- 
est acceptation, and because it aflbrdeth matter of con- 
sideration, we will take the latter sense, to his church. 
This word church sometime noteth one congregation of 
men called forth of the world, as the church at Corinth, 
Cenchrea; sometime it is taken to signify the multitude 
of them who are foreknown of God, and appointed to 
salvation, for all who are gathered by God's effectual 
calling in heaven and earth, and who are in their time 
to be made partakers of his holy and ell'octual calling. 
Thus, Heb. xii. 28, we find it taken thus here ; for all 
the body which doth make full and perfect Christ 
mystically considered is hero to be understood. 

Which is his body. Not his natm-al, but mystical 

The fulness ; that is, which maketh him full and 
complete as he is a head ; for a head without a body 
is maimed, though otherwise such is his perfection and 
fulness that he ' fiUeth all in all.' The sum is : though 
God hath set Christ over every creature, yet he hath 
given him that he should be over his chiu'ch as a head 
in a more near and communicative power ; him, I say, 
hath he given to be a head to the whole multitude of 
believers, who is in dignity and power above every 
creature. Now, as he is a head to the university of 
true believers, so the united multitude of them are as 
a body mystical to him, making him fuirand complete 
so far forth as he is a head ; him, I say, in whom 
dweUeth all fulness, so that he filleth all in all. In 
the end of the 22d verse we are to mark, first, that 
Christ is given to be| a head to his church ; secondly, 
the quality of him given to be our head, or of our 
head that is over aU. The church is described, from 
the mutual respect which it standeth in to Christ, as a 
head, ' which is his body.' Secondly, from the eft'ect of 
it, to be gathered from those last words, which is the 
fulness, that is, which maketh full him who filleth all 
in all. 

Doct. The first thing to be observed is, that Chi'ist 
is made as a head, having a more near and communi- 
cative sovereignty over believers than over any other. 
Look, as the king hath a more intimate and amiable 
superiority and regiment over his queen than over any 
other subject ; so it is here in Christ our King, whose 
dominion toward his church, which is his queen and 
spouse, is more amiably tempered and nearly aflected 
than is his government over any other. This will ap- 
pear by considering how much nearer and communi- 
cative ho is to us than to angels, creatures otherwise 
most excellent. Fii-st, look as the natural head and 
members are of the self-same special kind for nature ; 
the head standeth of skin, flesh, bones, and so do the 
members also ; thus it is that Christ is one with us, 
in regard he hath taken the self-same nature with us, 
standing as well of that which is outward and sensitive, 
as of that which is inward and intellectual. In this 
he Cometh nearer us than angels : he took not the 
nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham, Heb. ii. 



[Chap. I. 

Secondly, Christ doth by his sufl'erings procure for 
us all blessings spiritual and temporal ; maketh a pur- 
chase of them with his blood. Now be in his death 
respected not angels in like kind ; that look as kings 
provide many things for their queens, which they do 
not for other subjects, so doth Christ for us. 

Thirdly, He doth unite us to himself more nearly 
than angels. They are united to him by knowledge 
and love, such as do come from the power of that 
understanding and love which they have of their own 
from the first creation, but we are united here by know- 
ledge of faith and love ; hereafter by glorious light 
and love, such as Christ himself by his Spirit begetteth 
in us, as the members of the body are united with 
nerves and sinews, such bands as take their beginning 
from the head. 

Fourthly, He doth communicate with us that whole 
life of grace and glory which we have and shall receive, 
as the natural members have no sense or motion which 
floweth nut into them from the head ; but the angels 
have a blessed life, for the substance not coming to 
them by Christ considered as a mediator, even that 
blessed life in which first they were created; that which 
Cometh to them is only an augmentation of happiness, 
their illumination and their joy being in many regards 
much increased. They who learn by that they ob- 
serve in the church falling out, what do they here, 
think we, by enjoying the presence of God-man, now 
ascended and glorified ! and they who joy in heaven 
at the conversion of one sinner, how many ways by 
Christ is their joy enlarged ! 

Fifthly, He doth not direct them as he doth us ; he 
doth govern and direct them as a king doth voluntary 
ready subjects, by an external signification of his will 
only ; but he doth direct and move us outwardly by 
signifying his will, inwardly by sending his Spirit, 
which might move us with efiicacy to that he sheweth, 
as a natural head doth the members of it. 

Sixthly, and lastly, He doth not confirm that as he 
confirmeth us ; for he hath neither gotten by his death 
for them this grace of perseverance to the end, neither 
doth he shadow them and follow them with aids out- 
ward and inward, as he doth us, lest our faith should 
be prevailed against. They have been no doubt con- 
firmed from the beginning, both by force of their elec- 
tion, and preventing them with actual grace, which 
made them with effect execute whatever thing it was 
in which it pleased God to prove their obedience. 
If they have anj' confirmation from Christ their king, 
it is such an one as doth make them strong to subdue 
evil angels, or any opposing them in businesses in 
which their ministry by Christ is employed, such an 
one may be gathered, Dan. x. 13. 

Use 1. First then, seeing Christ is given us as a 
head so nearly and communicatively joined unto us, 
let us abhor that sacrilegious usurpation which the 
pope committeth, while he challengeth us to be head 
of the church ; that which the Scripture doth attribute 

as proper to Christ, is not to be given to any other. 
But they distinguish that the Scripture maketh Christ 
the principal and invisible head, but this hinders not 
why there should not be a visible secondary ministerial 
head. Ans. There needeth not a ministerial head to 
supply Christ's bodily absence ; for as kings are in 
body present at court only, and yet well enough go- 
vern their bodies politic, so Christ, in regard of his 
bodily presence in heaven, can well enough rule that 
part of his body in earth without the supply of a visible 
head. Were the pope a ministerial head, he might 
do that which the principal, whose room he supplieth, 
as viceroys do, that in the kingdoms over which they 
are set, which the kings might do in their own per- 
sons, whose rooms they supply ; but the pope cannot 
do any inward thing which the head of the church is 
to perform. 3. Were there a ministerial head, there 
should be a lord-like power over part of the church 
out of Christ's person in some other creature ; then 
should there be more lords than one, contrary to that 
in 1 Cor. xii. 5, 'There are divisions of ministries, 
but one Lord.' Look, as great lords in earth have in 
their houses ministries of more and less honour, from 
the steward to the scullery, but no lord-like or master- 
like power in any beside themselves, so is in Christ 
and his church, which is the house of God, wherein he 
is the Lord, apostles, others having more or less hon- 
ourable services, but no mister-like power over the 
meanest of their fellow-servants. 

Use 2. We see hence the great grace of Christ, who 
doth so nearly unite himself with us. Kings in earth, 
the nearer they come to any subject, the more they 
shew their love ; but this is the greatest grace they 
can shew, when they make themselves to become one 
with any of their subjects. Thus Christ could not 
shew us greater grace than to make us one with him- 
self, as a conjugal head ruling over us. 

We see, hence, that we may assure ourselves we 
shall lack nothing, who have Christ become a head to 
us in so near and communicative sort as this is. There 
are some official parts in the body which have that 
they have, not for themselves only, but for the whole 
body. Thus the stomach hath meats, the liver blood; 
such is the head. Now, it were an unnatural part for 
these to keep that they have to themselves, as for the 
liver to keep in all the blood and not impart it by 
veins to the rest of the body ; so Christ, who can do 
nothing which doth not beseem him, he having for all 
of us the fulness of grace and glory, according to that 
Ps. xvi. 2, ' My good is for the saints,' ho cannot but 
be most ready to communicate with us everything that 
is good ; only let us renew our faith and repentance, 
that so we stop not the passage of this spirit from this 
our head. If the natural head of the natural body be 
never so full of spirits, if the \essels that convey it be 
once obstructed, as in the palsy, the body then is with- 
out sense and motion. We may apply it to our- 
selves, &c. 

Ver. 23.] 



Observe, secondlj-, that he saith, this our head is 
oier all. Whence note, that God, of his grace, hath 
not only given ns a head, but such a head to whom 
all things are subject ; he who must be a saving head 
to us, there is great need he should be over all. Could 
he not bind that strong one, and cause him re-deliver 
his possession, how should wo bo ever set at libert}' ! 
Could he not dissolve the work of Satan, swallow up 
death, create life and quiekeuance in us, our case were 
lamentable. This is to be marked, for it is a spur to 
thanksgiving. It is grace shewed a commonwealth 
when, wanting a head, it hath a tolerable one bestowed. 
But when God doth, as he did by us, give us a king, 
great before his entertainment amongst us, whose 
power might the better procure our woal, and secure 
our peace, this is a double mercy ; so it is to give us 
a head, yea, a head over all, so mighty that we may 
sleep on each ear without fear of any enemy. 

Secondly, This doth shew us a gi'ound of confidence. 
What need we fear any creature, who have him that 
is over every creature ? If he be ours, who can be 
against us ? Look, as queens on earlh, they fear not 
subjects' displeasure, because they are so nearly united 
to him who commandeth every subject ; so it may be 
with every true member of the church, if our unbe- 
lieving hearts say not nay. 

Ver. 23. Whicli is the body. Doct. Observe, that 
as Christ is the head of believers, so they are his 
body, and every believing soul a member of this bod)-, 
whereof he is the head. Believers arc so said the 
body, as the body standeth in opposition to the head, 
not as it includeth the head within the compass of it, 
accordingly as we use it when we say here lies such a 
man's body ; for here we put body for an essential 
part of such a man's person, not as opposed to the 
head, but as including the head with the rest of the 
members, under the conception of it. But the church 
is said to be a body, as the body is distinguished 
from the head, whose body it is, and, en/o, it is so 
said the body, that Christ, who is the head of this 
body, is distinguished from it. Now, the multitude 
of believers are fitly so called ; for as in a body are 
divers members, having their several faculties for the 
good use of the whole, so in the church there are 
divers kinds of members, some taught, some teaching, 
some governing, some governed, some distributing, 
yea, every member hath, as it were, his distinct grace, 
whereby he may serve to the good of the whole. But 
for further clearing of this, I will shew who are of 
already and belonging to this bod}'. Secondly, In 
what regard every believer may be said a member of 
the body of Christ. To the first I answer, that those 
only are his body who are so joined to him, or are by 
God's effectual calling so to be joined to him, that they 
shall find salvation in him ; or those who have, or 
shall, proceed by spiritual regeneration from him, and 
' grow up to a perfect man in him,' Eph. v. He is 

called the head of the church, and the saviour of his 
body. As the church and his body, so his headship 
and salvation, being of equal extent; to which pur- 
pose ho saith, John vi., that ' it is the will of the 
Father that he should not lose any of those who are 
given him,' but that he should both begin and perfect 
their salvation, even raise them up to life eternal at 
the last day. Or this body is the multitude of such 
as have or shall in spiritual manner proceed from 
Christ, and grow up in him ; lor, as all who have de- 
scended, and shall descend, from the fii'st Adam, are a 
complete body natural under Adam, the head and root 
of them (I take natural, as it may bo opposed to 
Adam's personal body), so the multitude of those 
children who are given to this second Adam, (' Lo, I 
and the children whom thou hast given me'), they 
make up the whole body, whereof Christ, the second 
Adam, is the head. For though there be virtue in 
Christ able to have procured the salvation of others, 
and though there be a passive capacity in all mankind 
to be converted by him, upon supposition God would 
so have determined, yet can he not be said a head of 
any but those only whom God hath destiuated to con- 
vert and bring to salvation by him, as it is in the first 
Adam, who cannot be said a head of any but who are 
and shall in time actually, according to God's deter- 
mination, be propagated from him, though there want- 
cth not in Adam and his both a generative force, and 
matter passive, of which many others might be en- 
gendered, if God had been so pleased to ordain. To 
the second, the faithful are fitly said a body, inasmuch 
as they have connection with Christ, the Spirit which 
Cometh from Christ uniting itself with them, and so 
making them one with Christ, that though between us 
and his body there is a bodily distance, which is not 
in the head and members of a body natural, yet the 
Spirit which cometh from him doth so join us with 
him that nothing cometh twixt him and us ; that look, 
as the body of the sun being far distant, nevertheless, 
the fight that cometh from it doth immediately unite 
itself with our sight, so it is that Christ bodily in 
heaven, yet the Spirit coming from him doth imme- 
diately so join itself with the faithful soul, that it mak- 
eth the faithful soul one also with Christ, whose Spirit 
it is. 

2. The same life of grace, for kind, which is in 
Christ, is in every faithful soul, as the same sense and 
motion which is in the head, is, for kind, in the body 
also ; for look, as that fire kindled is of the same 
nature with the fire kindling, so this fulness of grace 
in Christ is of the same nature with that which it doth 
in some manner bring forth in us. 

Lastly, Every faitiiful soul is governed by Christ 
outwardly and inwardly, as a member of the body by 
the head. The head doth not only shew the foot 
whither to go, but imparts spirits which stir up the 
faculty of moving, and so cause it to go. Thus we 
are outwardly by Christ's words directed, inwardly by 



[Chap. I. 

his Spirit : ' So many as are Christ's, are led by the 
Spirit of Christ.' 

Use 1. The use is, first, for further confutation. 
For if the faithful have none for a head, but they are 
a body to that person, then surely they have not the 
pope for then- head in any propriety of speech, or they 
must as properly be said the body of the pope ; yet 
papists, who make no doubt to use the other phrase, 
strain courtesy here, and will not say the church is 
the body of the pope, but they might as well con- 
fidently say. This man is father to this child, and yet 
be afraid to say. This child is son to such a man. 

Use 2. Seeing we are his body, let us not doubt but 
he hath fellow-feeling with us, and doth, so far as may 
stand with a glorified condition, commiserate our dis- 
tresses. Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ? He 
that toucheth you, toucheth the apple of my eye ; can 
the finger ache, but the head feeleth ? 

Use 3. This doth shew us our duty, that we must 
endeavour to subject ourselves wholly to Christ. If 
the head would direct one way, and the members take 
another, what a confusion were this in the natural 
body ! Let us labour to deny oar own wills, and lay 
them'down before Christ ; as ever we will with comfort 
call upon him to be a head to us, let us behave our- 
selves as obedient members to him. Some bend the 
will of Christ, like a leaden rule, to their own will, and 
so far they will go in religion as shall humour them, 
and stand with their pleasure. But let us know that 
true religion never begirmeth till in preparation of 
mind we address ourselves to deny and subject our 
wills to that whatsoever Christ shall signify as his will 
out of his word. 

Doct. 2. Observe, again, that he saith this body is 
' his fulness,' that Christ doth not count himself full 
and complete without all his faithful members. Hence 
it is, that while all Christ's members are gathered, we 
are said not to be grown up to that age wherein Christ 
is full, or to the age of the fullness of Christ, Eph. iv. 
13. For as it hath pleased Christ to make himself a 
head to us, we may say of him, as St Paul saith of the 
head, 1 Cor. xii, ' Can the head say to the foot, I have 
no need of thee ?' For as the head is not in full per- 
fection till it have every member, and that in the 
growth which appertalneth to it, so Christ, our head, 
is not complete till he have all his members, and that 
in their several perfections belonging to them ; even 
as it is between kings, who are heads politic, and their 
people, though for their persons they are never so 
complete, yet the multitude of then* subjects addeth 
no small glory to them ; so it is twixt Christ our king, 
and us his people. 

Use 1. Which consideration doth first shew us, that 
none of those who either live knit to Christ only by 
external profession, yea, none of those who receive 
some ell'ects of the Spirit, which for a time only abide 
in them, none of all those who in the end shall hear 
that sentence, ' Depart from me,' were ever true parts 

of Christ's body ; for Christ is made the fuller and 
complete by all his true members, and should be 
maimed if he lacked one of them ; these, crf/ii, be- 
longed to his body, as a wooden leg or glass doth to 
the body of a man, or, at the most, as a bunching 
wen, which is more inwardly continued, and hath a 
kind of life, but is not quickened as a member of it, 
and therefore it remaineth the more complete when 
such are cut off from it. 

Use 2. Is every believing soul a member, making 
Christ, their head, more full? This, then, doth as- 
sure us that Christ will keep us, who are true members 
of him, and not sufler anything to separate us from 
him. Is it not a blemish in the body, wherein one 
member only is wanting ? So Christ should be 
maimed, if we were any of us lost, who exist in him 
as living members of him. Beside, what natural head 
would part with a member, were it in the power of it 
still to enjoy it? Wherefore, when Christ wanteth no 
power, we may assure ourselves he wanteth no will to 
preserve us in that union and communion which, as 
members, we have attained with him. 

Use 8. This doth let us see a gi-ound of patience 
against the contempt to which true Christians are sub- 
ject in this present world. Men often deem them the 
refuse and offal of all others ; but this may encourage, 
Christ doth think so honourably of us, that he count- 
eth himself maimed and imperfect without us. If 
great ones favour and respect us, we pass not what 
inferior persons think of us ; so should it be here, we 
should digest disgrace from men more easily, to think 
that our great G-od and Saviour hath us in such 

Observe, lastly, from this description of Christ, ttlw 
filleth all in all, that whatsoever thing is in us as 
Christians, all of it is from Christ : Col. ii. 10, ' In 
him we are complete,' filled with all heavenly gifts, 
which serve to remove evil, or set us in state of blessed- 
ness ; so Col. iii. 11, ' Put on the new man, in which 
Christ is all in all.' For look, as whatever things are 
in natural men, are all from the old Adam, as, for 
example, that they are of this complexion, this stature, 
feature, sex, in regard of their body ; that they are 
of sharp minds, reaching wits, or otherwise; that they 
are in this country, in this civil condition, whatever 
they have according to the fashion of this world which 
passeth, all is from the first Adam ; so look about 
thee, whatever thing is to be seen in a Christian as a 
Christian, all is from Christ, this second Adam, ' who 
filleth all in all.' Should we have anything which we 
received not from him, we might so far boast in our- 
selves, eri/o, we have not anything which is not given 
us by Christ, that all our rejoicing might be in God 
through him. He doth furnish us with the whole suit 
of grace and glory, that his magnificence might not in 
the least degi-ee be obscured. For the clearer open- 
ing of this point, two things are here to be considered. 

1. First, What the things are wherewith he filleth us. 

Ver. 23.] 



2. Secondly, How we come to be filled. 

1. The things are, all that fulness of God, which 
beginneth in grace, is then perfected in glory when 
God shall be all in all. More particularly he doth 
fill us with righteousness and life, for everything filleth 
other with such as itself hath ; now as the first Adam 
filleth his with siu and death, so the second Adam 
hath treasured iu him righteousness and life for all 
that are his, therefore he is said, Daniel ix. 24, to 
have taken away sin, and brought to us eternal right- 
eousness, and ho is said, 2 Tim. i. 10, to have took 
away death, and brought to light life and immortality. 
The life is either the life of grace or of glory ; the life 
of grace is inward, or outward. The inward grace of 
Christ, being that which doth dwell in the soul, prin- 
cipally changing it in the understanding, will, and 
atlections of it, which doth also secondarily shew itself 
in the body, both making the outward man more 
amiable and awful : ' Wisdom makoth the face to shine ;' 
and also subjecting the members of it to itself, so as 
they become ' weapons of righteousness,' Rom. vi. 
Even as that cloud of God's presence first filled the 
sanctuary, and thence spread itself into the whole 
house, so the soul, being first ' filled with all know- 
ledge and goodness,' Rom. xv. 14, they break out 
thence, and shew themselves in the body, as the out- 
ward temple : ' Know ye not, year bodies are the 
temple of the Holy Ghost ?' Now the external grace 
which we receive from Christ, is that whereby we are 
in this or that state and condition, some teachers, 
some governors, some taught and governed. Even as 
the natural force of Adam doth frame the matter of 
natural body, one part into an eye, another into a 
hand, kc, so this is from Christ, that the multitude of 
God's chosen, who are the matter of his body mysti- 
cal, some are made members of one kind, some of 
another. The life of glory is that which we look for 
from Christ in the heavens, both for substance and 
circumstance of it. For look as we have, not only 
from our parents, a natural life for the substance both 
of soul and body, but also all the circumstantial 
joy, which from times, places, creatures, are incident 
to us, so we shall have in Christ, and from him, not 
only that glorious light of understanding and love, 
wherewith we shall love God, now seeing him as he is ; 
not only those glorious endowments of the body, 
whereby it shall become strong, immortal, glorious, 
spiritual ; but all the circumstantial joy which shall in 
heaven be incident to our estates now glorified, we 
shall be filled with it all through him. 

2. For the second point, how we come to be filled, 
these three things must bo observed. First, that all 
fulness is in Christ, who hath received it without 
measure. We have it from him ' according to the mea- 
sure of his gift,' John i., Eph. iv. As the sun hath 
fulness of light, in that perfection which doth agree t-j 
light, the moon hath light from the sun in that mea- 
sure wherein it is capable; so Christ, the Sun of right- 

eousness, he hath fulness without measure ; but the 
church, with all her members, are tilled from him, 
according to the capacity of them, as members under 

We must know by what means we receive our ful- 
ness from Christ ; to which the answer is, by being 
partakers of Christ himself, we come to be filled with 
the fulness of grace and glory in him. As by eating 
and taking the substance of earthly nourishments, we 
come to have the virtue in them, oven to be tilled with 
spirits and blood engendered from them, so in Christ 
is life ; by getting him, we come to partake in this life 
which floweth from him. More particularly, the 
means by which we come to be made partakers of 
Christ, and so bo filled, they be such means as convey 
Christ to us, or make us receive him. The first are 
the word and sacraments ; for as persons by their 
words, and by a ring, do contract and give themselves 
fully the one to the other, so doth Christ by his word 
offering us himself, and by his sacraments as pledges 
and tokens, convey himself and bestow himself on us. 
Now we receive him partly by humility, which doth 
empty us of ourselves, and make room for him, for 
poverty and hunger are everywhere made the fore- 
runners of being filled ; partly by belief, which doth 
feed on him and apply him ; partly by walking in 
Christ, and exercising ourselves spiritually : ' Be filled 
with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in psalms,' &c. 
Our walking in Christ maketh him settle and root 
more and more in us; now the further he dwelleth in 
us, the more he filleth us ; beside that, the nature of 
fire is to burn out further when it is blowed and 

The last thing to be marked is, the order and de- 
grees wherein we come to be filled. Now Christ doth 
fill us, first, in regard of parts at our first conversion, 
inasmuch as ho doth give us such grace as doth 
oppose all sin, and incline us to all obedience, that 
thongh we can accomplish nothing as we desire, yet 
in the inner man, as we are new creatures, we delight 
in the law of God. As the frame of an infant is full 
for the members, though it is small for quantity, so is 
the frame of our grace. Secondly, we ai'e filled with 
fulness, after a sort, for the present age of childhood 
in which we now live. Thus the Romans are said to 
be full of goodness and all knowledge, full after a sort 
for this state of childhood in which we here live, full 
in comparison of more imperfect beginnings. Thirdly, 
and lastly, we are absolutely filled with all that fulness 
which doth belong to us as members of Christ, and 
that is to be done in heaven hereafter. Look, as the 
first Adam communicateth and filleth his children with 
this natural life, so as they are first infants, then ripe for 
children, then men ; so Christ doth gradually impart 
unto us his members in this fulness which dwelleth 
in him. 

Use 1. We see, then, that all fulness is from Christ. 
How do they then forget themselves who seek right- 



[Chap. I. Ver. 23. 

eousness out of him ! That befalleth them, they leave 
the well-head of all grace and glory, and dig cisterns 
which will not hold water. 

Use 2. This doth teach us to come to Christ. Boun- 
tiful lords want none to retain to them ; happy is he who 
may shroud himself under their wings. Shall we not 
press with reverence to this Lord of lords, who doth 
till all in all with his spiritual blessings, who keepeth 
an open house, inviteth, 'Ho, whosoever thirsteth, let 
him come and drink, yea, drink freely the waters of 
life;' and John vii. 37, ' Whosoever cometh to me, I 

will not cast him forth.' Christ may complain, as he 
did sometime with that people of the Jews, ' How oft 
would I have gathered you, but you would not!' So 
he may say to us, How oft would I have had you, 
blind, naked, miserable by nature, come to me, that 
ye might be filled with righteousness and life, but ye 
have refused ! Well, did we know what we are called 
to, and what we might find in him, then would we 
come and be suitors to him: John iv. 10, 'But, alas, 
this is hid from our eyes.' 

Chap. 11. Vkr. 1.] 




VER. 1. AikI ynii hath he qiiickciwd that were ihnd 
ill tivxpasaes and sins. The epistle, as I shewed, 
is divided into three parts. 1, The preface ; 2, the 
matter ; 3, the conclusion. Tho matter is propounded 
generally, verso 8 ; prosecuted from tho beginning of 
the -Ith verso to the 21st verse of tho sixth chapter. 
It is either doctrinal or exhortatory. The doctrinal 
is comprehended in the four first chapters, in which 
the benefits the elect enjoy by Christ are laid down 
simply, chap. i. ; comparatively in this chapter; withal 
the scandal of tho cross removed, that these things 
might tho better be received. 

Now this chapter doth contain these two proposi- 
tions ; 1, That we, when dead in sin, were raised up 
in Christ, to ver. 10 ; 2, A deduction hence, which 
iiiforreth the happy estate of tho Ephosiaus. These 
words hang as a proof of 'jthat power which is put 
forth toward us that believe,' chap. i. ver. 19, in this 

In such who, being some time dead, are raised up 
(ver. G, Ye are ' set in heaven with Christ') here 
worketh no less power than that which raised Christ 
from the dead. But you also (not only Christ, but 
you) hath God quickened, &c. ; therefore there is an 
exceeding power manifested in j'ou. 

Such whom God (being dead) hath raised up in 
Christ, such, whatsoever they have been, are near to 
God in Christ, having entrance unto God in Christ : 
' But you have been quickened and raised up, and sot 
in heavenly places in him.' Therefore remember, 
that whatsoever you have been, you are now thus and 
thus in Christ. 

Now touching the discourse, each part is amplified 
from the causes. 1, Their death is set down from 
the kind ; 2, From the causes, which are outward 
and inward ; 3, From comparison, which is added by 
wa}' of prevention. 

First, In general observe how that the apostle doth 
open to them their condition by nature, before ho 
bringeth forth the grace manifested in Christ. 

Secondly, That he tollcth us what is our condition 
by nature, dead. 

Thirdly, What this death of tho soul is, a life dead 
ill trespasses and sins. 

Fourthly, That we are not dead in some ono or few 
sins, but in many sins, in trespasses. From tho first 

Doct. All men by nature are dead to God. We 

are not like a man in sleep, nor like the Samaritan, 
greatly wounded ; but we are stark dead in regard of 
the life of God: Col. ii. 6, 13, llom. iii. 9-11, &c., 
he proveth that ' all, both Jews and Gentiles,' were 
by nature corrupted altogether, shut out of glory : 
1 Cor. vi. 10, 11, ' Adulterers, idolaters, thieves, co- 
vetous, &c., shall not enter into the kingdom of God. 
Such were you.' Ye wore ' of no strength,' s.iith the 
apostle, Rom. v. 6, no, not of feeble strength. And 
of the natural man it is said, Luke xv. 32, ' My son 
was dead, but is alive ;' Mat. viii., ' Let the dead bury 
their dead.' 

A man is by nature every day dead. His body is 
mortal, in dying from his birth. Eternal death of 
soul and body hangeth over him. His soul is quite 
dead. For God (in regard of his presence of sanc- 
tifying grace) going from a man he dieth in soul ; as 
the soul going from the body, natural life is extinct. 
What this death is, compare Gal. ii. 19, 20, and vi. 
12, 14-lG, Col. iii. 2, 3, 1 John ii. 15, 16. 

Ohj. But it may be said. Why, man hath some 
relics of knowledge, and some of the heathen have 
excelled in virtuous acts without grace. 

Ans. 1. Every knowledge is not the life of God, 
strict!}' so called ; but that knowledge which afi'octeth 
the heart to follow God, to trust in him, love him, 
&c. Otherwise tho devils do know God in their kind. 

Ans. 2. The knowledge of man is able to make him 
inexcusable only, not able to make him live according 
to God. For those heathens' virtues they were but 
pictures, without tho soul and life of virtue in them. 
Good trees they were not, and therefore their fruit 
could not be good. All is not gold that glisters. 

Tho symptoms of this death are apparent in every 
min. The want of the degrees of motion in the soul 
they are four: 1, To understand; 2, To think; 3, 
To will ; 4, To do. Now all these, the knowledge, 
tho willing, tho doing, nay, the very thinking of a 
good thought, are not in nature ; there is a loss of all 
tho senses. Look, as a dead body seeth not, hcaroth 
not, hath no common sense, so is man by nature ; he 
seeth not God passing by him again and again in 
mercy and judgment. Ho hath no care of the heart 
to hear God ; he is not touched with the feeling of 
God's judgments, works, words. The tokens of death 
are everywhere upon him. 

Use 1. This, then, confuteth all doctrines of free 
will, or of some power in man which, holpen a little, 



[Chap. II. 

can help itself. Dead men have nothing in them to 
help themselves towards this world ; so it is with us 
towards the other. Yea, we see hence that it is not 
suggestions to the mind nor exhortations that will do 
it. We do but tell a dead man a tale, and all in vain, 
until God create a new light in the mind, and take 
away the heart of stone, and give us tender new heai'ts. 
Let us confess our utter impotency, adumfiia, and 
give glory to God. 

Use 2. Hence also must be enforced to the natural 
man what is his estate ; dead in his soul (as Timothy* 
speaks of the woman that lived in adultery. We are 
' estranged from the life of God,' Eph. iv. 18). He 
heareth not the thunder of God's law, nor his sweet 
promises ; he seeth no heavenly thing, neither God, 
nor any spiritual matter ; he tasteth no relish in any 
meat of the soul ; he speaketh not a word ' powdered 
with grace,' Col. iv. 6 ; he stirreth not hand nor foot 
to that which is good. The world is full of these 
dead ghosts; ' twice dead,' as Jude speaketh, ver. 12. 
Yea, the relics of this spiritual death hangeth about 
us all. How should this humble us ! Ob what a 
grief should it be to think that God, the hfe of our 
souls, is departed ! If thou shouldst feel thy soul 
ready to &j out of thy body, would it not grieve thee ? 
We are all of us quickened but in part ; this death is 
still with us. We hear it in company, in trading, in 
performance of any Christian duty. Whither can we 
turn ourselves but it is present ? 

Use 8. Mark a further use from this point ; that we 
■who are alive through grace must not associate our- 
selves with those who are mere natural men ; for we 
see that no living thing will abide that which is dead. 
The brute beasts will start at dead carrion. Our 
dearest friends we put from us when dead ; but, alas, 
the Lord's children now go hand in hand with such 
who have not a spark of grace in them ! Oh this 
death is not terrible. We are all so much in it, that 
we see not the filthiness of it. As a black hue among 
blackamores is not reproachful, so dead ones with us, 
whose graces are ready to die, agi-ee well enough. 

Use 4. Labour every one to become sensible of our 
spiritual death, which in great part possesseth every 
one of us. This must not be shaken hands with. It 
begetteth meekness ; it maketh us haste after our full 
redemption ; it maketh us taste the sweetness of 
grace. We must have ears, therefore, all to hear on 
this side, both we that are called and uncalled. 

Jjoct. Secondly, Observe what is the life that is led 
in sinful pleasure, in vain fashions of the world ; it is 
the vei7 death of the soul. As St Paul, 1 Tim. v. 6, 
speaks of the ' voluptuous woman,' that she was dead 
above ground ' while she was alive,' so our Saviour 
saith of the church of Sardis, Rev. iii. 1, it had ' a 
name to live, but it was dead.' And in the Proverbs, 
ix. 18, those that came to Folly's feast, it is said ' they 

* That is, Paul to Timotliy.— Ed. 

are dead.' What is death ? Is it not the absence of 
life, the soul being gone, with the entrance of corrup- 
tion ? And what is sin ? Is it not the absence of 
saving knowledge, righteousness and holiness, with 
the corruption of the mind, will, affections, so that the 
spiritual stench of it streameth out at the eye lust, 
at the ear itching after vanity ; at the mouth rotten- 
ness is the best, I mean unfruitful speech. Look, as 
holiness is the beginning of life everlasting, which 
goeth on till it end in glory, so is sin the death of the 
soul, which doth, if the grace of Christ heal it not, 
never stay till it come to everlasting damnation. As 
for sinful actions, they are nothing but the stench 
which Cometh from the dead corpse; I mean the body 
of sin dwelling within us ; for even as noisome savours 
come from a putrefied body, so do these motions fi'om 
a corrupted soul. 

Use 1. What, then, may we think of the gallant 
course of many that live revelling, carding, dicing, 
dancing, feasting, that walk with swollen hearts, con- 
temning others ? So, many men are dead while they 
live in anger, intemperanc}', covetousness, selflove, 
uncleanness, vanity, &c. Oh, they think it is the 
only life, and that there is no other, because God gave 
them never to see other. Man without mirth is like 
a body without a soul. Put them from their gamings, 
from their cups, their smoke, their whorish looks and 
courtings, &c., and you kill them. 

Use 2. This should teach us to consider of sin, and 
our estate through it, that we who have not thought 
of it, maj' j'et set our hearts to the way of life ; that 
we may be thankful who have escaped from it ; that 
we may take heed of it, and labour to be healed more 
and more of it. Should some learned physicians tell 
you such or such a deadly disease were growing ou 
your body, how would you th:ink him, and make use 
of it! Oh, it is well with thee, if God make thee 
wise, that thou hearest this day how thou art dead in 
spirit. We are glad when we escape some great 
bodily sickness, and if there dwell relics of sick mat- 
ter with us, we keep rules de sanitate tuenda. How 
much more should we be wise for our souls ! 

Doet. Further, that he saith they were dead hi 
trespasses, it doth teach us what is the life of a natural 
man, even a death in trespass, a whole life of siu ; 
tota injidelirim rila jKcialiim. Like tree, like fruit; 
' The ver\ consciences of tbem are polluted,' Tit. i. 15 ; 
for ' without faith, it is impossible to please God,' 
Heb. xi. G. True it is, that outwardly they do many 
things that are lamlal'le, but still they flalk in the 
flesh. The devil h; th conjured them so into that 
circle, that they cannot stir forth of it. Look, as in 
the flesh of a henst there is some part of great use, 
bought up at a gr. :il price, other some that is cast 
away, yet all is flet-h, so, in the life of the natural 
man, some works aie of good use, and in commenda- 
tion with man, some are abominable; but all are of 
the flesh. So the viitiious actions of natural mcu 

Ver. 2.] 


have that appearance of good, but want the soul anil 
life of it in wliicli it consisteth. 

Vie. It teacbeth us not to rest in this, tbat we are 
neither thief nor whore ; for be our life never so civil, 
it is a death in sin till grace (juioken. There is 
&itX^ //.atia, a double madness, as Hippocrates ob- 
servoth ; the one very light ami toying, the other more 
sober and solemn, in which men sit still, musing 
deeply upon some fancies. Such a difl'erence we have 
in spiritual frenzies ; some are very sober over other, 
as we see the lives of some natural men gravely 
ordered, and morally, in comparison of others ; but 
yet all is deluded frenzy before God. 

Doct. Secondly, hence mark that our course in 
actual sin doth sink us deeper and deeper in death : 
' You, when you were dead in trespasses ;' intimating 
thus much, that the custom of their trespasses did 
hold them under deith. Even as the more the body 
putrefies, it goeth further into death ; so here, the 
more the soul doth exercise itself in evil, the deeper 
it sinketh into the death of it. It is fitly likened to 
the stone of the sepulchre (I mean this custom of 
actual sinning), for it doth seal us up, and keep us 
down more strongly under it. Upon this ground the 
prophet asketh, ' How shall the leopard change his 
spots, those that are accustomed to do evil learn to 
do well ?' Jer. xiii. 23. 

Use. Which must make ns take heed how we go on 
in a sinful course, for it makoth us rot in spiritual 
death, and maketh it more difficult for us to return. 
Many that procrastinate repentance, they think not on 

Ver. 2. Wherein ye walked. Observe what is the 
life of the nnrcgenerate person. It is a walk or course, 
or full race in transgression ; for this phrase of walk- 
ing is so to be taken as the gradation in the 1st Psalm. 
It is more than to stand, and doth signify an habitual 
conversing : so it is taken Gen. vi. 9, ' Noah walked 
with God.' NMiatsoever they occupy themselves in, it 
is all sin, ' not one that doth good,' none that can pos- 
sibly do anything truly good, till the heart bo purified 
by faith, ^^^latsoever the natural man can think of, 
it is either apparent virtue or manifest vice. If he 
walk in outward virtue, he walketh in glistering sins ; 
if in vices, then manifestly transgressing ; and this 
was our estate. 

Use. Which should make us the more careful to re- 
deem the time respited, that ' henceforth we live (as 
much time as remaineth in the flesh), not after the 
lusts of men, but after the will of God ; for it is suffi- 
cient that we have spent the time of the life past after 
the lusts of our hearts,' &c., 1 Peter iv. 3. 

AccoiiUnij to till' course of this u-orhl. Doct. Here ob- 
serve what is an occasion which doth prick us forward 
in this course, even the corrupt customs of such 
amongst whom we live ; such fashions as by ages to- 
gether have taken place, such do draw us further aud 

further on to wickedness. This is no small means of 
holding us in sin, and heartening us in it, when we 
see it the fashion of many, even of all those in whom 
is not the love of the Father ; therefore the apostlo 
doth exhort so forcibly from it : Rom. xii. 2, ' Fashion 
not yourselves like unto this world ; ' 1 Peter i. 18, 
' From your vain conversation, received by tradition 
from your fathers.' It is a strong stream that comes 
by a new fashion, it is received of all almost, and it 
carrieth many to speedy destruction. Thus the devil, 
by the sins of the times and persons amongst whom we 
live, much weakens our love : ' Through abundance of 
iniquity love waxeth cold,' Mat. xxiv. 12 ; the ex- 
amples of others, like a back-bias, drawing us from the 
preciseness of our care in some duties in which we 
endeavoured before to walk with God. Sometimes 
the scoffing and injurious spitefulness of wicked ones, 
making ns afraid to shew our love, as we would and 
should with liberty beseeming. Even as damps put 
out a light, so this fog of sin suffocates and smothers 
the lightsome blaze of saving graces in the godly, 
though it cannot thoroughly quench them in us. The 
times will be ready to tell us that drunkenness, whoring, 
officious lies, meriy meetings and vanities of good 
fellowship, are no such great sins or matters of ofl'ence 
as some would make them. But the time will come 
that the patrons and practisers of these shall feel the 
sting and guilt of them to lie as heavy upon their 
hearts as a mountain of lead, aud to afi'right the con- 
science with the unsupportable horrors and damnation 
of hell. Lewd companions will call and cry unto you 
(as the lewd woman unto the young man, Prov. vii.) 
with all persuasive and plausible enticements they can 
devise ; and as she flourished over beastly and abo- 
minable whoredom, with the names of love and dal- 
liance, Prov. vii. 18, so with these, pouring in of 
strong drink, ale-house hunting, petty oaths, profane, 
filthy, and girding jests, &c., are nothing but good- 
fellowship, sociableness, necessary recreations, exercise 
of wit, or at worst unavoidable, and so naturally par- 
donable infirmities. But if you listen unto them and 
be led by them, these sins that are now so ' sweet in 
your mouths,' shall ' turn unto gi'avel in your bellies, 
to rottenness in your bones,' Job xx. 12-14, to the 
gall of asps in your consciences, and to a fire of ven- 
geance in your bowels, which will burn to destruction. 
And after the prince that rulelh in the air. Doct. 
Here observe, who it is that doth efl'ectually work us 
to his pleasure, even Satan. As we are dead, so we 
are under the power of the devil ; we are even ridden 
on by him, and he sitting in our corrupt hearts, doth 
ride us and rule us at his pleasure. We are all by 
nature ' taken of the devil in his snare to do his wifl," 
2 Tim. ii. 2(5. Not in this regard only, because we can- 
not by our own power escape from the tjranny of 
Satan, but liecause he doth work effectually in "our 
hearts. Tbat look, as tempests do whirl things abont 
in ihtm, so doth he at his pleasure our blinded under- 



[Chap. II. 

standings and crooked wills, which are turned from the 
way of (iod's commandments. We are said (before 
Gnd drith deliver us by the ministry of the Spirit, 
which i-: his mighty arm and finger) to be ' under the 
power of Satan,' Acts xxvi. 18. And our Saviour 
teachet!i how that ' the strong man holdeth fast all, till 
by a stronger he be cast out,' Lnke xi. 22. All men 
are in uue of these two kingdoms and governments : 
either in the kingdom of the beloved Son of God, or 
else they are under the kingdom of darkness, yea, of 
Satan, thralls and vassals held by him. And for 
those possessions so frequent in the time of Christ, 
they were not only that the works of God might be 
manifest, but that we might learn that they are thralls 
to Satan, the strong tyrant and cruel dragon, till they 
are set at liberty by him that ' leadeth such captivity 
captive,' Eph. iv. 8. 

Use 1. This then doth let us see how woful our 
estate is, who are held fast under the power of Satan, 
till by Christ we are delivered, Ps. cxxvii. 4, 5. Blen 
think the devil not half so fearful as he is, and so smart 
by him before they discern their danger. Be wise in 
time, and prevent so great mischief of a subtle, mali- 
cious, and implacable enemy. 

Use 2. Again, it doth let us see, that no power but 
the power of God can set us free, and that we are not 
without great resistance delivered. Be the more thank- 
ful for grace, and make the better use of thy liberty, 
for his glory that gave it. 

Use 3. Let us take notice here who it is that thus doth 
stir when we are drawn into any sin : it is Satan. Every 
man is possessed of this evil spirit more or less. It 
is manifest ; for our most spiritual temptations, as 
thoughts against God, and such like, having no out- 
ward olijrct or insinuation to solicit us by, cannot but 
proceed from the devil within us. His priviness to ouv 
thoughts, so soon as they begin to stir and to betray 
themselves sensibly in the working of our spirits, if 
good, hindered by him ; if evil, seconded by him ; if 
indifferent, perverted by him to his own advantage ; 
yields us daily this woful experience of his inbeing 
within us, and working all sin in us. 

Prince. Mat. xii. 24, ' He casteth out devils by the 
prince of devils,' therefore it is said, the ' devil and his 
angels.' The ' angel of Satan,' Kev. xii. 9, one worse 
than another. 

Of the power of the air. Noting the seats of the spirits, 
ra^Ta^uaag, which hath a double construction. The 
distribution by many places doth not make but that 
both some are, and all shall be, locally in hell. Neither 
when we hear that some are in the air, some in the 
earth, must we conceive that hell is everywhere where 
God will have it ; no more than from the presence of 
angels here or there by dispensation, we should con- 
clude that heaven is everywhere, where God would 
have it. 

Ti'/io uarketh. Doct. Observe hence, the great effi- 
cacy that Satan hath in evils committed in persons. 

for this word fvtoyoZvrog, noteth a power and effectual 
working. When the Lord doth permit, he can effectu- 
ally work either in the body or in the soul, inclining 
it to his will. He is continually working, moving, and 
operating in it, therefore said to be the Spirit that now 
worketh ; for so the particle vvv noteth a continued 
act, with the participle of the present tense insyoOvros, 
a powerful efficacy, as the soul worketh in the body the 
motion and sway of all the members. The body is 
acted and moved by him ; the mind also is ruled, be- 
cause he doth so apply himself to the fancy and affec- 
tion, and so worketh in the one and other, that he thus 
worketh the soul to his obedience. And this efficacy 
hath three branches : the one outward, which is to pre- 
fer objects to the senses ; the other two inward, in the 
fancy and affections. 

Use. Watch him therefore the more carefully, resist 
him the more valiantly, pray the more earnestly, put 
on the armour of God the more diligently, keep it on 
the more watchfully, use it the more constantly, grow 
in grace, be reverent and conscionable in holy ordi- 
nances, get help of others, and afford thy help to others 
that they may be delivered from so active an adversary. 

The sons of disobedience. An Hebraism, more emi- 
nent ones, as scribes and pharisees : ' I will be a lying 
spirit,' 1 Kings xsii. 22 ; ' teaching doctrines of devils,' 

1 Tim. iv. 1 ; and, hearers not obeying ; such as are 
blinded, have the seed picked up as it is sowed, popish 
affected ; such as ' resist the truth,' such as perish, 

2 Cor. iv. 3, 4 ; that is, of unbelievers, 2 Thes. ii. 9, 
10 ; ' taken in the snare of the devil,' 2 Tim. ii. 26, 
it being just with God to deliver them up. And this 
being the nature of resisters of the light, that they 
may grow worse, ' deceiving and being deceived,' 2 
Tim. iii. 13. Such were the pharisees and the Jews, 
and such among these Ephesians as obeyed not the 
truth, but became ' dangerous wolves not sparing the 
flock,' Acts XX. 29. We may range them into orders 
of governors, teachers, hearers. In the primitive 
church, the devil did work in these sons of disobedience 
three ways : 1, caused them to sow tares ; 2, to live 
flagitiously ; 3, to persecute. In the papists all three 
have place, and they do as lively resemble the father 
of these, the devil, as if they had been spit out of his 

Obs. By reason of our unbelief and rebellion, the 
devil hath advantage in us ; his power is by means of 
sin. He can but persuade, allure, suggest, and excite. 
Tempting Christ, and finding nothing in him, he could 
prevail nothing, John xiv. 30. 

Use. Against such as will excuse the matter, and 
lay all on the devil, like Eve, ' The serpent deceived 
me,' the devil owed me a shame, and now hath paid 
me home ; had I been left to myself, it had been long 
enough ere I wouldTiave done so wickedly. Nay, but 
man, thou art a child of disobedience, and grievest, 
quenchest, resistest the good Spirit of God, who worketh 
sometime in thy heart, and would frame thee to holy 

Ver. 3.] 



obedience ; thence God permittetli, and the devil ob- 
taineth this advantage a<:;aiust thee, to till thee with 
all uurighteousuess. Aud certainly the enemy had 
never gotten the stioiig castle of thine heart, if thyself 
had not first betrayed and laid it open uuto hiui. 

Ver. 3. Aiiiiinrf uliom ire had our conrcrsalion. Now 
he doth come and amplify it by comparison drawn 
from the hke, aud he muketh the state even of himself 
and the believing Jews like in two things : 

1. In sin actual. 

2. In the guilt of punishment. 

Amonijuhom. That is, amongst which sons of dis- 
obedience, in whom Satan worketh at his pleasure. 

He also in time j'ltsl coiiferseJ iii the conciipisaiice of 
thejiesh. Conversation being here put, 1, fur habitual 
vitiosity ; 2, for the undeliberate stirring aud itching 
of it ; the latter being the imperfect agitation of the 
former, called the passions of the flesh actively con- 
strued. It is taken in the second sense, for these two 
are everywhere distinguished, the corruption, the mo- 
tions of corruption, Kom. vi. 7, 12, James i. 14, 15. 
Now, after he shewcth what this walkini/ in them was, 
a doing whatsoever this corruption willed. For to have 
concupiscence is one thing ; to walk in them, or be in 
them, another thiug. He that saith he hath them not, 
lieth, and the truth is not in him ; but he that is in 
Christ, walketh not after them. Making the seat of 
this corruption not only the sensual part, but the mind 
of man. 

2. The equality in sin or punishment. We u-ere hij 
nature the son-i of wrath, as uell as the rest. Simply by 
nature, comparatively as the rest. The sum is this : 
' When I remember your estate, I forget not our own ; 
for though we have many outward privileges, yet such 
as do not commend us before God, but in time past 
we were like you, walking in the suggestions and mo- 
tions of our corruptions, doing whatsoever our corru[)t 
will and minds desired ; neither so only in our lives, 
but in our nativities, such who by nature were sinful, 
and threatened, yea, subject to judgment even as any 
other, there being bj- nature no excellency of the Jew 
above the Gentile.' 

Docl. First, then, we have to consider how that the 
chosen of God, before their conversion, have nothing 
in them ditl'cring from other sinners : ' The election of 
God standeth sure,' 2 Tim. ii. 19. But before he call 
efl'oetually, it doth put nothing in the part3- elected : 
' Know ye not that drunkards, thieves, covetous?' &c. 
' Such were some of you ; but now ye are washed,' &c., 
1 Cor. vi. 9. Even those whom God taketh to mercy, 
they were sinful as others, before by his grace they 
were changed. Paul, Mary Magdalene, these Ephe- 
sians now converted, what they had been, look ver. 11. 
And why ? 1 , That the mercy of God may be raag- 
nitied and made manifest in the Iree grace of justifica- 
tion ; 2, that love may be engendered in us justified. 
Mary, who bad ni;iny sins forgiven, loved niii. h. 

Use 1. So that this serveth for our comfort against 
that we have been. God cuts all scores betwixt him 
and his children : thou mayest now sleep quietly on 
both sides, the coast is clear ; well may sius humble 
thee, and bring thee on thy knees to Christ, they shall 
not condemn thee. 

Use 2. For a ground of hope touching some who as 
yet are without, and sitm hopeless : ' iJy the grace of 
God we are that we are,' 1 Cor. xv. 10. Despair of 
none. 'Where God is purposed to shew mercy, he can 
rescue the prey ; not only out of the devil's jaws, but 
even out of his maw also, as Jouah out of the bellv of 

Duct. Mark hero again that Paul and those of the 
circumcision, when they walked in the flesh, were alike 
before God to the uucircumciscd. Whence observe, 
that where there is no true fear of God, no outward 
circumstances, or privileges above others will com- 
mend us before him. God's people, a people of Sodom 
and Gomorrah, Isa. i. 10 ; God's people, when they 
obey not, theirciixumcisiou is made uncircumcision, 
Rom. ii. 25. 

t'lij. But how can it be truly said, seeing that tie 
one profess the true God, the other doth not? 

Alts. 1. lu deeds they deny him; 2, in deeds they 
set up false goJs, their lusts, pleasures, riches, &c. ; 
and they are more abominable before him when the}- 
profane his outward worship, Titus i. 10. Thus with us, 
look whatsoever we may think of ourselves, yet while we 
live in the flesh, we are no better than Turks or pagans 
for the present. St Paul might have pleaded more 
than we ; he was brought up at the feet of GamaUil, 
his life was unblameable in the law ; our hopes are 
better that are under the net, but our condition before 
God is no otherwise. 

Use. Fear to continue as nature made thee, even 
when it is most decked aud adorned. 

Jjoil. Hence we are further taught, that we must not 
be ashamed to confess ourselves sinners with the first. 
So Paul : 1 Tim. i. 15, ' Christ came to save sinners, 
whereof I am chief.' David : Ps. xxxii. 4, ' I wdl 
confess against myself.' Isaiah : chap. vi. 5, ' W^oo 
is me, I am a man of polluted lips.' Job : chap, 
xxxix. 37, ' I abhor m3'self ;' xlii. 5, (i, ' I am vile.' 
The most upright are most forward in confession ; 
Joshua vii. 19. It is the proper fruit of grace truly 
tasted ; it will freely confess and give glory to God. 

Use. It doth rebuke the shamefaceduess of mauy. 
They think. Oh, should they say what sometimes 
they were, it would be a discredit aud blemish to their 
good name. This being indeed the way to get gloi-y 
with God and with the godly, by taking shame to 

Doct. Observe again what is the state of men by 
nature, they are such on whom the wrath of God 
abidelh. We are, from the verj' conception and 
birth, such on whom God's indignation is pouied out, 
yra, such on whom the full vials of God's wrath are 



[Chap. 11. 

pouvecl out, together with our being God's anger is 
towards us, as in ourselves considered. Let us take 
notice of the evils which do accompany us from the 
birth, that we may understand the better that we ai'e 
indeed children of wrath. 

1. We are born such from whom God is separated: 
' Your sins have separated twixt you and your God,' 
La. lis. 2. AVe are ' strangers to God from the 
womb,' Ps. Iviii. 3. 

2. We are given up to Satan; children of the devil, 
of darkness, under the power of the devil, the prince 
of darkness, and are in all kind of darkness ; of igno- 
rance : ' None understandeth, none seeketh after God,' 
Ps. xiv. 2. Darkness of lusts and ungodliness, dark- 
ness of condition ; God's anger abideth on all that do 
not believe ; oh most dismal cloud ! 

3. We are subject to every curse in this life, whe- 
ther spiritual or corporal. 

4. To death temporal. 

5. To death eternal. 

How comes all this to pass ? Because we all by 
nature are sinful ; together with our beings, we are 
defiled ; we are sinners, and so ' come short of the 
glory of God,' Eom. iii. 24. 

The papists hold these four points tending to this 
text : 

1. That we are sinful, for God could not subject us 
to wrath but for sin : Rom. i. 18, ' The wrath of God 
is revealed against all iniquity.' 

2. That this sin is by nature together with our being 
conjoined, because by nature with our fii-bt being we 
are subject to wrath. 

3. That all of us by nature are sinful, for sin im- 

4. The best of them grant, that likewise we are sin- 
ful, and for sin deserving death. 

We further affirm, that all of us are sinners, deserv- 
ing wrath for the lust and proneness that is in us to 
evil. This also they grant to go with original sin, and 
to be a consequence of it ; but they will not have it sin 
properly to which wrath belougeth.* 

Use 1. It rebuketh such as shift off and slight over 
their sins : We hope we are not the worst ; we live 
homely, neighbourly, and quietly, doing as we would 
be done by ; for the devil, we defy him ; for the curse 
and hell, we hope God will be mercifid. These men 
would make them be persuaded their case is worse 
than it is. But these persons shall know one day ex- 
perimentally our reports come far short of the matter. 
Who knows the power of thy wrath ? None but the 
damned. Believe it, and so avoid the mischief. 

Use 2. Again, it must teach us to come out of our- 
selves. If a favourite should lose the favour of a 
prince, not to see the face of him, as Absalom ; if a 
tenant were cast forth of his hold ; if a man for some 
ofi'ence should be in the hands of some hard Cerberus- 
like keeper, should have his house on fire ; would we 
* Cone. Trid. sess. 6. decret. 

not hold these conditions fearful and full of confusion? 
What, then, shall the state of such be as are discoun- 
tenanced with God, ' whose loving-kindness is better 
than life,' Ps. Ixiii. 3, whose wrath and anger is more 
bitter than death ! Well may they take their leave 
of all created comforts that stand under God's dis- 
pleasure, who at an instant can turn them out of all ; 
' whose wrath is a consuming fire,' Heb. xii. 29. 

Use 3. Thirdly, It must teach us often to view our- 
selves. Why are these left as pricks in our sides, 
blindness of mind, crookedness of will, laws of evil in 
our members rebelling, sickness, poverty, reproach, 
but to humble us ? ' Whoso blesseth himself, the 
Lord's jealousy shall smoke against that soul,' Deut. 
xxix. 19, 20. Our age is so full of Sadducees, that 
John Baptist or the spirit of Elias bad need to be sent 
amongst us ; for though like trumpets we daily sound 
these things, none, when hearing this, bethiuketh how 
he may escape this fire which burneth to destruction, 
but they hope they are in as good state as these that 
make more show. 

By nature. Doct. Whence it is plain, that by 
nature all of us are sinful ; sinful not only in regard 
of Adam's sin imputed, but of corruption or concupi- 
scence with which we are conceived, Ps. li. 5 and 
Iviii. 3, Gen. viii. 21, Ezek. xvi. 4-6, Isa. liii. 6 
and i. 4. 

The papists go thus far : 1. Say they, We could not 
be the children of wrath in justice if there were not 
matter of wrath with us. 2. There is first the re- 
bellion of our parents, ours, because we were in his 
loins. 3. There is the habitual aversion of our minds 
from God, which they grant an habitual iniquity, for 
which little ones are guilty of wrath. We hold fur- 
ther that for concupiscence, that is, the rebellion of 
the law of the members against the law of the Si)irit 
of God, that for this, as sin properly, they are the 
children of wrath. This the papists deny to be sin, 
and will have it sin only because it is caused by sin, 
and is the matter of sin, but not sin properly. Con- 
cupiscence is sin as caused from sin, guilty with that 
guilt which it may cause. Concupiscence, not sin pro- 
perly, not a foundation of guilt in itself. But both the 
habit and indeliberate motions are sins forbidden in 
the law ; for there not deliberate consent, but the root, 
even the liesh and the passions unconsented to, for 
the other are forbidden. In the fonner, such a thing 
is here forbidden which Paul could not attain to but 
by the law ; now he was no Cyclop. Again, Paul 
calleth it sin, and giveth to it the formal cause of sin. 
Whatsoever letteth the whole strength and might from 
obeying the law, is against the law, and accursed. 
God would not have created man with it. Why ? 
Because it is not in a reasonable creature a pure ataxy, 
but an iniquity ; and the goodness of the reasonable 
creature is the conformity of the powers of it to the 
law of God. That power which is bound to be con- 
formable and is not, that power is a breach ; but such 

Vku. 3.J 



is this, for the l:i\v requires that all onr powers should 
love God with all the heart, mind, strength ; neither 
doth bind the action voliintary, but the whole frame 
of the snnl. The papists say it is often called sin, not 
improperly, but as having resistance to the law of the 
mind and the law of God. Others grant that though 
in regard of the guilt it is not sin to the regenerate in 
Christ, yet if it be considered in itself, it may fitly be 
called sin. Aiis. It is mediately, in regard wo all in 
Adam willing did that which hath brought it upon us. 
Habitual aversion is sufficient. 2. It is potentially 
approved, willed, afl'ected, &c. 

Csf 1. To let us see it is not custom, or example, 
or imitation only, whereby we are sinners, as Pelagius 
taught. No, it is from inbred corruption ; our foun- 
tain is envenomed, and so are all the streams that 
issue from us. 

2. To help us in repentance ; therefore the remain- 
ders of it continue though the guilt be removed, and 
the dominion captivated ; j-et they remain, to teach us 
still to bewail our condition in this regard, and to 
humble us : ' Wre'ched man that I am. who shall 
deliver me?' Rom. vii. 24. 

3. Hence we are exercised to renew our repentance 
and a broken spirit. 

■1. Hence we are given to sec in what need we stand 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of him alone. 

5. This must be confessed of the saints in the prac- 
tice of repentance, and which all of us must eye and 
bewail with Paul and Moses ; it being an excellent 
assurance of our true conversion where this is bewailod. 
The world and unregenerate men in their profession of 
repentance never rise to see this or to bewail it, which 
is the fountain and spawn of all unrighteousness. We 
cannot think we are innocent. 

6. To reprove the pharisaical conceits of many, who 
were never altered, though at a day old thej- were 
sinful to death ; yet after many fruits of this secret 
sin they think themselves righteous, though we charge 
them with this as sinners from the womb, such whose 
lives are dead in lusts ; why, they are not the worst. 
Nay, some so sottish that they will not believe that 
children have any sin. Why (say they), what is more 
innocent than a little infant ? And doth not Christ 
s ly, Mat. xviii. 3, ' Unless ye become as one of these, 
ye cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven ' ? One 
of these not simply, but taken of one blessed b}- me, 
having on them no actual guilt, and by my gi-ace hav- 
ing their native corruption pardoned. This teacheth 
that grace makoth children free from sin, and instead 
of inheriting wTath, heirs of heaven. How may we 
fear when onr first infancy was thus sinful ! None 
complaineth, none feel themselves laden, none hunger- 
ing and thirsting, every man carried away by Satan, 
that none might return to Christ and be saved. They 
hope they have good hearts to God, when indeed a 
very progeny of vipers. Do I walk after the flesh, the 
lust of my eye, fleshly minded, that is, not making my 

calling a race of conscionable obedience, continually 
walking before God, and ever and anon lifting up my 
heart for the kingdom, ' labouring for the bread that 
perisheth not,' John vi. 27, ' possessing as if I pos- 
sessed not,' 1 Cor. vii. 30 ; but go on, my heart and 
head full of worldly cares, living in idleness and lusts 
of the flesh? These are the bitter fruits of a sinful 
and cursed nature. If we see not our natures, the 
stink and unsavoury vapours which ascend out of th m, 
of strife, of unbelief, of pride, of voluptuousness, of 
revenge, we want the principal ground of all humilia- 
tion and repentance : the only spur which maketh us 
seek righteousness out of ourselves, in Christ alone. 

])oct. A fourth consolation is this : What is the 
conversation of many outward worshippers of God ? 
It is fleshly and carnal. Paul was an outward wor- 
shipper of God a great while, was one that had the 
seal of righteousness in his flesh, was baptized, was a 
diligent Sabbath-keeper, was ' brought up at the feet 
of Gamaliel,' as a son of the prophet, a blameless 
walker of criminal matters ; yet all this his service 
changed not his conversation. Before the grace of 
God changed him, he walked still sensual and fleshly. 
Isaiah tells us of some, chap. i. 15, who were wor- 
shippers, comers to the temple ; but what was found 
in their lives? Covetousness, oppression, presump- 
tion, as if God were beholding to them for their out- 
ward worship. So in Ezekiel the prophet, chap, xxxiii. 
31, complains of the hypocrisy of his hearers that 
would ' come and sit before him, and hear what God 
saith, yet would not leave their covetousness,' pro- 
faning the most holy word of God. Always there 
were such who did give God their bodies, but with 
outward service made no surrender of their hearts : 
Jer. vii. 0, 10, 'Will you steal, mnrder,'and commit 
adultery, &c., and come and stand before me in this 
house ?' Such were in Christ's time : ' This people 
draw near with their lips, but their hearts are far from 
me,' Mat. xv. 8. In the apostles' time, many of their 
followers and hearers, notwithstanding their outward 
obedience, were unreformed, God not dispensing the 
grace of election so largely as of outward calling. The 
condition of the visible church always was and is to 
be such as shall have virgins and lamps oilless. A 
glass for these times especially, of which Paul and 
Peter have foretold, 2 Tim. iii. 5, ' that men shall not 
join the power of godliness with the show of it,' that 
' men shall walk after their lusts.' How many who, 
notwithstanding they are not to be blamed for their 
homage to God, yet remain as Paul, a great while un- 
altered in their conversation ? Like Paul's widows, 
we hear and hear, but laden with many lusts, and 
therefore hear much and profit little. How many of 
us yet hearing live in covetousness, in incontinency, 
in intemperance, in stomachfulness, in self-love, and 
vain gloi-y ; many in idleness here and there tattling, 
and solacing our hearts with idle discourse ; herein 
another tasting a spiced cup, herein a third walking 



[Chap. II. 

as Paul or other, before God visited them, in the out- 
Tvard observance of his worship, but yet yielding 
obedience to their own wills and lusts of their own 
hearts : ' Woe to them who come near me with their 
lips.' These are they that cause the gospel to be re- 
moved by unworthy walking, for God when it is un- 
fruitful will translate it where it shall be fruitful. He 
can bear the Turk and papist, and the profuLe atheist, 
better than you. Lev. x. 3, for he will ' be sanctified in 
them that come near him.' 

Use 1. Wherefore let us sift ourselves ; pray to God 
to open our hearts. That is true and right which cometh 
from the inward form ; this ocl_y worketh ond distin- 
guisheth. Power of grace must be measured, not so 
much by the work external as the state of the person 
working. He hath power who worketh from a living 
heart, whose labour is within as well as without, who 
strikes at the inward roots of evil, whose obedience is 
universal. An hypocrite is worse aflected in good than 
a good man in evil ; he hath no mind to that good he 
doth, but liketh better of the contrary. A good man 
doth grieve at the evil he doth, and loveth the con- 
trary. God regardeth not so much action, as vigour 
in the action. Some do strive all for fonnality. Some 
do count it religion enough to rail on idleness and 
formality, and to be able to discourse of a question. 

Use 2. We are hereby taught not to rest in any out- 
ward right, nor content ourselves with the work done, 
but examine how we do things. 

1. That we do everything for God, practising the 
first commandment in every one, doing all for love of 
God, not putting him ofl' with every slight and sorry 
service, as if anything were good enough for him. 

2. To do everything as before Goil, so as is be- 
seeming the purity of his nature, spiritual and holy, 
with reverence of his glorious presence. 

8. To make sure we grow by our duties we under- 
take ; all true gi'ace groweth by the exercise of it. 

4. To labour against hypocrisy, heaviness, deadness, 
and our particular corruptions ; and to shake up our- 
selves when we go about business of this nature. 

5. To think how far civil men may go to do that 
and more, for q>ialitcrcttnqnc dtfiiiicli is the intent and 
utmost mark of formalists. We must put to our best 
afl'ections and our delight in the full bent and strength ; 
otherwise it were easy being a Christian, might we 
under this piofession let our graces loose as we would. 

Doct. Here we may further observe what it is that 
bcareth sway in the unregcnerate ; it is his corrupt 
will and mind ; for so the apostle here saith, ' in ful- 
filling the will of the flesh and of the mind.' So Paul 
speaketh, Piom. vii. 5, ' When we were in the flesh ;' 
Titus iii. 3, ' Carried about with divers lusts ;' and 
Peter saith, those that are not called eflectually, they 
are in their conversation conformed to lusts of igno- 
rance. Thus the secure gallants' life is squared, 
following the sight of their own eyes, ' walking in their 
own ways,' as Acts xiv. 10 ; till God give repentance. 

they stray like sheep in the paths of their own concu- 
piscences. As, on the contrary ' they that are in the 
Spirit walk after the Spiiit ; so they that are in the 
flesh, after the lusts of the flesh,' Gal. v. 24, 25. 

Use 1. It convinceth us whether we are in our 
natural estate or no ; have an eye to the coarse and 
strain of our will and mind ; what is it we specially 
aa';-ct, desire, and seek after. This detecteth the vain 
presumption of many, who think if they can [say] the 
creed, have Christendom, be orderly churchmen, say the 
Lord's prayer, think this is Christianity enough. As 
for putting ofl' their corrupt nature and fiuful lusts, 
to which naturally their hearts incline, and ^hereunto 
they live in perpetual slavery and bondage, they think 
it needless, and that God, who hath made and knowetli 
our natures, doth not expect that we should be fi^ce 
from that which is a nature in us. 

Use 2. This is aground of dehortation, to fight against 
and renounce our own wills and fleshly desires, resist 
our sinful lusts, as ever we will assure ourselves our 
nature to be regenerate. What a shame for Cbristiaiis 
nut to have power over their inordinate lusting in 
meats and drinks, when a dog will be trained to stand 
upon a table and touch nothing which is not given 
him ! The lusts of a man's mind and will, will never 
be satisfied if it be served. What was Amnon \he 
better when he had gotten the will of his sister by 
violence ? 2 Sam. xiii. 7. Nay, the very lusting for 
a thing maketh a good man he dare not touch it, when 
now it is present. When David had a month's mind 
to the waters of Bethlehem, he would not touch it when 
now it was brought to him. 

Ukc 3. This letteth us see a diflierent property of 
one in Christ from him that is not. He that is in 
Christ is not a harbinger and purveyor, making pro- 
vision to fulfil the will of the flesh. Sin hath not 
willing obeisance performed to it ; it reigneth not : in 
the other, it bath his full swing ; they are thralls and 
vassals to the flesh: 'He sets himself in an evil way, be 
imagiueth mischief ; he hardencth his face, and will not 
be abashed' in his course, Ps. xxxvi. 4. Sin is sweet 
to him, as a lozenge under his tongue, Prov. xxi. 1 ; it is 
meat and drink to have their wills. The godly, over- 
borne by rebellion of their wills, their hearts smito 
them ; they go forth and weep ; for as meat unwhole- 
some taken into a stomach which hath strength of 
nature causeth after vomit and sickness, so where there 
is this life of grace, this poison of sin once taken down 
cannot but make a sick soul. 

Doct. Lastly, Here observe that even the children 
of the godly are by nature children of wrath, and 
not only those born out of the covenant, but even 
those to whom the pi'omises, as the apostle witnesseth, 
that to them and their children belong the promises, 
Acts ii. 39, even these are by nature no better than 
others. The apostle at large doth prove this conclu- 
sion : ' The Jew by nature hath no pre-eminence above 
the Gentiles, but is under sin aid under death, hath 

Veu. 4.] 



his mouth stopped,' Rom. ii'., from all plea for himself, 
as well as the Gcutile ; aud David confesscth this, 
that though he came of righteous Jesse, 5'tt ' he was 
born in sin, aud conceived in iniquity,' Ps. li. G ; for 
even righteous parents do propagate posterity, not by 
force of regeneration, but carnal generation. They 
beget not as new creatures in Christ, but as old, even 
iu Adam. 

Olij. But here it may be objected, that the Scripture 
teileth us that God is the God of the seed of the godly. 
Now there is no benefit, if pardon of sin aud life ever- 
lasting belong not to infants upon this, that God is 
their God. 

Obj. And it is said that the children of one be- 
lieving parent are holy, 1 Cor. vii. 14, which cannot 
be meant of legitimate, for so they might be if neither 
were a believer ; nor only a member of the visible 
church, for so they might be if neither were. 

Alts. This is true, aud so is the other. They fight 
not because the respects are divers. Purents, there- 
fore, have a double person, the one of Adam, the other 
of members of the second Adam. Now iu the first 
respect they bring forth children of wrath ; iu the 
second, children of the covenant, children of graces, I 
may say. 

But here many doubts may be moved. 

Quest. 1. First, how the parent whose faith is but 
for himself to live by, can by his faith insinuate his 
children into the covenant. 

Quest. 2. Again, when many a Noah have Hams, 
how faith can believe such a thing, for the thing be- 
lieved must be infallible. 

Alls. To the first, the fiiith of the parent doth brinr; 
the child into the covenant ; yet so as the child livcth 
by his own faith, which is not to be denied in such as 
surviving come to fellowship of like precious faith. 

01>J. But many infants die before they come to hear 
and to have faith, for aught we know. What may be 
sai 1 to this case ? 

Alls. They live by their faith, because iu this case 
the faith of the father is the child's faith also ; for 
look, as it was just with God to reckon the deed of 
Adam all our deeds, so it is not ill beseeming his 
mercy and justice to let in th's case the faith of the 
parent stand for the child. 

Alls. For the second: Faith is not wavering, though 
the event answer not, because it doth not absolutely 
apprehend this salvation for every one, but Icaveth 
place to God's secret judgments. 

Ohj. But how can it thus conditionally believe with- 
out wavering ? 

Alls. It is one thing to waver, another thing to be- 
lieve with condition. We believe we shall have out- 
ward things, yet with a condition. 

Quest. A third question is, how this distinction can 
escape a contradiction. That which is true, must be 
true in some time. Now if an infant may bo born 
having the covenant (which iu some case wo teach). 

there is no time in which this infant can bo said a chill 
of wrath. 

Alt':. It folio weth not, for there is nothing wherein 
it may not be said a child, though it be born with ap- 
plication of the covenant ; for as the parent hath a 
double person, so hath the infant. In the one it is a 
child of the covenant, in the other of wrath. Mark 
for conclusion these three things. 

1. Every one is a son of wrath in Adam, even in 
that instant and in God's eye, with whom there is 
neither past nor to come. We, we are all of us 

2. This wrath abideth till application is made of the 
blood of Christ. 

3. If this be even with oar first being whensoever 
it is, it taketh not away the respect of our natural 
condition : miserable man th:it I am I &c. This 
was true of John Baptist, yet from the womb he was 

Use. 1. To confute the slanderous papists and 
Lutherans, who would make us anabap'ists, as deny- 
ing sin original, denying the guilt of it. Where we 
teach it in infants, we teach it worlhy of wra:h, 
teach the persons as coming of Adam, children of 
wi-alh, yet as in the covenant of grace to have pardon, 
and the seal is a seal set to this, not as a foundation 
or beginning of it. 

Secondly, We may see what it is that is born of the 
flesh, and therefore take occasion by it to humble our- 
selves even in the compassing posterity, and to lay 
hold of that most precious promise which assureth us 
that God will be our God, and the God of our seed. 
Gen. xvii. 7, though we may leave place for his secret 
will, which tendeth to his glory. 

Thirdly, That he saith, ice all, it doth give us to see 
the falsehood of that dream of our lady's birth without 
original sin. The apostle doth say, that all the Jews 
were by nature children of wrath ; ' every mouth 
stopped, none that doth good, no not one,' Rom. iii. 
12, 19 : yet the papist will have a canvass touching 
our lady, whether by some extraordinary dispensation 
she might not be excepted. Thus while (most foolishly) 
they will advance her above all Christian people, they 
do thrust her out from having fellowship in the com- 
mon salvation, Christ coming • to save his people 
from sin,' Hat. i. 21. 

Ver. 4. Bill God, who is rich in meicij, throwjh his 
(jrent lore wherewith he loved us. 

Thus far the apostle hath laid down this sentence, 
concerning our quality and condition. Now he Com- 
eth to fill up the sentence, for the sense being 
hitherto suspended, ' You, and we all of us, dead in 
sin, hath ho quickened.' Now, this latter part hath 
three branches to be considered : 

1. The causes working this. 

2. The order of working it. 
8. The end. 



[Chap. II. 

The first in the 4th verse ; the second by a grada- 
tion, verses 5, 6 ; the third, verse 7. Whence to the 
lOih verse is inferred our free salvation, which in the 
6th verse was by the way interserted. 

Now, the first cause is God the Father, here de- 
scribed from his rich mercy ; and lest we should mar- 
vel how God should come to be merciful to us, he 
tellcth the fountain of this mercy, his great love. So 
that this verse doth give us to consider of two pro- 
perties of God, 

1. His mercy. 

2. His love, favour, grace, kindness ; the one the 
fountain of the other. 

Docl. First, Here we see, that God is a God of rich 
mercies ; and the consideration' hereof is not lightly 
to be passed, because no man is so blind that hath 
not this in bis mouth. This then is our rejoicing, to 
know God, not so much what he is, or his essence, as 
of what property he is unto us. Both the works, the 
word of God do witness it. All bis ways have the 
saints approved, as merciful and faithful, Ps. xsv. 10: 
and Paul calleth God, ' a God of all compassions, 
Father of mercies,' 2 Cor. i. 3 : and though there is 
not greater or lesser in God (whatsoever is in him, 
being himself, be being infinite), yet in regard of 
works there is a common inferior mercy, and a sin- 
gular rich mercy : that is over all his works, this such 
as he taketh to be over his, even those ' vessels of 
mercy,' Rom. ix. 23. Look, by how much the nearer 
the creature is in affinity to God, the nearer is the 
blessedness of it to God. I need not to prosecute the 
doctrine which so many have amply laid down. But 
let us consider the use. 

Vae 1. That great commandment of the law (the 
having God for our God) doth command to know, and 
to acknowledge this truth always, that he is most 
merciful to us. Have all creatures eyes to look up 
to the mercy of God in their necessities, and to trust 
to his faithfulness for help and succour in their 
miseries, and shall his childi-en be blind '? Jehoshaphat 
said, 2 Cbron. xx. 20, 'Lord, we know not what to do, 
but our eyes are unto thee.' 

Use 2. This doth reprove our weakness. We say he 
is a merciful God, but when he doth delay, or renew 
his witnesses against us, we think be hath shut up his 
mercy and loving compassions. Again, when we 
think that God will not forgive our sins, then this 
mercy of God is forgotten. Again, when men think 
God's hand is hard towards them, and conceive of his 
dealing as cruel, where then is this sentence, that he 
is rich in mercy ? 

Ohj. But you will say. What though he hath 
shewed us mercy, may we not complain in this kind 
when his hand tm-neth ? I answer, He never turucth 
from these mercies : ' If my children' (saith the Lord) 
' oifciid, I will correct them wilh rods, but my mercy 
will I not take from them,' Ps. Ixxxix. 32, 83. We 
must therefore return in a holy blush, and learn to 

say, ' Yet God is good to Israel,' Ps. Ixxiii. 1 ; ' It is 
his mercy that we are not consumed,' Lam. iii. 22. 

Use 3. It doth serve to bear off a temptation of un- 
worthiness. Satan will tell the humbled soul. Thou 
art a grievous sinner, privy in thy own heart to many 
foul and abominable corruptions : thou hast grieved 
the Spirit, trespassed against thy enlightening, &c. 
How canst thou look to be saved, or once come before 
God with any comfort ? Hereunto the faithful soul 
must be ready to reply. Yet the mercies of God, and 
the merits of Christ Jesus, do infinitely exceed them ; 
neither are the mercies of God abridged by sins of 
infirmity, but rather thereby the more specified and 
declared. Thus resting upon the rock of eternity, and 
the impregnable truth of God's gracious promises, he 
casts himself into the bottomless sea of God's mercies, 
with this resolution, that if he must needs perish, 
they shall hale and pull him from the most tender 
bowels and everlasting compassion of his blessed God, 
to whom his soul is fled. 

Use 4. This is a virtue of our heavenly Father to 
be imitated, ' Be merciful, as your heavenly Father is 
merciful,' Luke vi. 3G. 

Ohj. But it may be said. How should God be mer- 
ciful to me, for I am his enemy, and a son of his 
wrath, and mercy is so far from such that it rejoiceth 
against the judgment of those whom he hateth ? 

Ans. If this fear proceed out of an unfeigned long- 
ing after God's mercy, and to be delivered from that 
misery whereof thou complainest, then be of good 
comfort ; for if ever thou hast tasted of the sweetness 
of this grace, thou shaft be sure to have it again. 
' He retaineth not his anger for ever, because mercy 
pleaseth him,' Micah vii. 18. 

He is the Son,* his mercj' (as all other his pro- 
perties) is in God infinitely, eternally', and unchange- 
ably : ' For a moment, in mine anger, I hid my face, 
but with everlasting mercy have I had compassion on 
thee,' Isa. liv. 8. 

Now, the fountain of this mercy is God's love to 
us from eternity, which inclined towards us when we 
were hateful. When he bad determined to manifest 
this love, then according to mercy he saved us. Grace, 
and mercy, and his giving Christ, all is from hence. 
' He so loved the world,' John iii. 10. For had the 
Lord hated us, be would have glorified himself in 
our deserved misery. 

Mercy shall triumph against judgment, of those 
whom he loveth. And experience sheweth, that the 
straitest conjunction in greatest love, breedeth the 
most tender compassions in miseries. 

Ohj. But here is a difficulty to be cleared. In the 
verse before, he saith, we are the children of God's 
wrath ; here he saith, we are such whom God did so 
greatly love, that lie took pity on our misery, and 
healed us in Christ. But the answer is easy. 

Ans. By considering that love and wrath might 
* Qu. ' Sun' ?— Ed. 

Ver. 5.] 



stand logotbcr. For tho parent may be thoruuglily 
augry with the child whom ho tenderly loveth ; and 
so it was with God, wlio knew how to love, with that 
eternal love, and yet how to be augry with us. llatred 
and love expel each other, but anger and love may 
stand together. 

l>l>j. But this doth not seem clear to me (may some 
say), because tho Scripture doth make God's good 
will to be towards us through Christ ; he hath made 
us beloved in him, we are reconciled to him in Christ ; 
so everywhere. 

Alls. For answer. There is a double love : the one 
internal with God ; the other external, manifested in 
the creature. 

Now, this internal love is everlasting ; it was the 
foundation of mercy, of the giving of Christ in mercy. 
But that external, manifested in the creature, is 
nothing but a stream swimming out of this, before 
held down by justice; and this comcth through Christ. 
So saith Saint John, 1 John iv. 9, ' Herein was the 
love of God manifested, that he sent his Son,' &c. 
And all our salvation is by mercy, as Paul to Titus 
calleth it, Titus iii. 5 ; it is the epiphany of the 
Lord's kindness, and external love to mankind, Titus 
ii. 11. 

God then (we see) doth love his, before Christ be 
given to them as a mediator for them. Though in 
God this love is but one most simply, as himself is 
most simply one, yet for the change that it maketh 
in the creature, and to help our weak uuderstandiiig, 
a former and a latter love may be considered ; for 
there ariseth a grace of God unto us from the blood 
of Christ, of justification unto life. Thus Christ is 
called the ' mediator of the Xew Testament,' Heb. ix. 
15 ; and in this respect the Scripture putteth our 
reconciliation to God, in the death of Christ, 2 Cor. 
V. 19, Horn. iii. 24. These and the like places must 
not be so understood, as if the Lord himself before 
entirely hated us ; but because that in Christ that 
former love of God springeth forth, which while 
justice was unsatisfied lay hid. For there was a love 
lo us before Christ ; and the giving of Christ was the 
etl'ect of it, as John iii. 16. It is good for a child 
sometime not to know how well his father loves him. 
And a kind-hearted father doth of.eu bear a secret in- 
wai'd atfection toward an ungracious sou whom he 
hath cast out from him, though he will not suffer it 
to appear, till by mediation and humble request of 
some friend he make it appear to his son. And thus, 
to say that the Lord altogether hated us in himself, 
until Christ made intercession, is such an assertion as 
is not found. 

For Christ made intercession, called, or uncalled. 
Ii called, there was great love in the Father calling 
h.m to undertake that office for us. If we say un- 
called, it is contrary to Scripture, in which nothing is 
more evident than the calling, anointing, and sending 
of the Son by the Father. 

])i)ct. Well then, from the order we se? what it ia 
which is the principal procuring cause of pity towards 
us in our miseries; it is love of God. So that if we 
would see evidences of love to our neighbour, wo may 
gather them hence, by seeing what mercies are with 
us, and bowels 3carning in their miseries ; no com- 
passion, no love. Again, that there is a great love in 
God, even when he is angry with us, such a love as 
makes him give his Son to death. 

Use. 1. This then may serve to confirm us in 
assurance of God's favour toward us : Rom v. 10, 
' If when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God 
by the death of his Son, much more shall we be saved 
by his life.' If a man out of love have sought the 
friendship of his enemj-, and used means to be recon- 
ciled to him, is it not likely that he will be constant 
in his love to hiiu to the end ? But howsoever it fall 
out with man, most sure it is that God will not 
change ; for ' whom he once loveth, he lovelh to the 
end,' John xiii. 2 ; ' I the Lord change not, therefore 
ye sons of Jacob are not consumed,' Mai. iii. 7. 

Use 2. It teacheth us our duty to God and man ; 
he hath loved us first, therefore must we love him 
again, 1 Johniv. 19. His love must constrain us, 2 Cor. 
v. 14 ; and our love is a reflexion of his to us. ' And 
if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another,' 
1 John iv. 11. 

Yer. 5. Eien xrheii roc trere dead by sins, hath quick- 
ened us tof/ether in Christ, by whose yrace ye are saved. 

I have spoken of this death before, of the kind of 
it, of the symptoms or tokens of it, and uses of the 
doctrine, upon the first verse. Now, I will add some 
things which this context doth admonish, and I then 

First, How we can be said to be dead when there is 
some sparks of divine knowledge in us. Secondly, 
What this word trespass meaneth, and how it differeth 
from the word sins being joined with it. 

To the first, the light of knowledge in us is such as 
doth not give life, but is imperfect, tending to leave 
us without e.\cuse. 

Again, it may he doubted whether we are bom with 
this light, as tlie seeds of it, or whether afterward by 
the book of the creature and Scripture it comes to be 
manifested to us. It is not knowledge that life 
standeth in, for the devils then could not be without 
a spiritual life ; but it is the kind of knowledge, even 
that which is spiritual and heavenly, and this is not 
in any by nature in any measure. 

For the word trespass, rrasa<TTu/j,a, it signifieth pro- 
perly an error of ignorance. 

The other word sin, a.,u,aiTia, signifieth an aberra- 
tion from the law, without this respect. 

Quickened. There is a threefold death, so a three- 
fold life : 

Of nature ; grace ; glory. 

Here he speaketh of the life of grace, wherein those 



[ClTAP. II. 

believing Ephesians who Lad been dead, were now alive. 
Interlacing our free salvation, he cometh to the 
second degree, our resurrection in Christ. There is 
a double resurrection ; the one is the resurrection of 
the just and unjust, of the body, as in the creed we 
profess to believe a resurrection at the last dav, as 
John vi. 89. 

The other resurrection is from the death of sin, in 
Bome measure to be quickened by the voice of Christ, 
so that we hve a new life, even the life of God ; being 
before all of us ' by natuie dead in sin, and trespasses, 
and the uncirciimcisiou of the heart ;' blind in our 
minds, and so ' estranged from the life of God ;' hard 
in our hearts, unholy in our afl'ections. Now this 
first resurrection stands in this, that we live a new 
life, even the life of God, which standeth in the light 
of the mind, in fleshy tenderness of hearts, in the holy 
motions of the afl'ections, that in the virtue of Christ's 
resurrection we rise to newness of life, that in him we 
be a new creatui-e, 2 Cor. v. 17. 

The third thing is that which followeth, ylorifybui 
ill the lieaveiis ; and this is that he speaketh of when 
he saith, in Christ we are set in htaveuly places. So 
that the words jointly considered, tend to this sense ; 
Even when we were dead in our sins, stinking in our 
lusts and corrupt natures, then did God of his rich 
mercy bring us to life, raising us tip together in 

And when he saith in Clirist, it is plain that we are 
saved of his mere grace ; yea, though we dwell in 
these mortal bodies, yet we have in Christ the resur- 
rection of these bodies ; yea, though we are now absent 
from the Lord, pilgrims here, yet in Christ we are 
after a sort set gloriously in the heavens, we are 
already seised of those everlasting mansions. The 
dignity of the person giving extendeth the mercy, and 
the grievousness of our misery doth exceedingly am- 
plify the mercy. 

Doct. Observe, first, what it is which setteth out 
the rich kindness of God ; it is this, even our misery 
and wretchedness wherein he findeth us : Ezek. xvi. 
8-6, ' When thy navel was not cut, nor washed in 
water, nor salted with salt ; when no eye pitied thee, 
when polluted in thj- blood, &c. ; even then I said 
unto thee. Thou shall live.' 1 Cor. vi., ' Fornicators, 
idoLiters, adulterers, wantons, buggerers, thieves, 
covetous, drunkards. Sec, such (saith the apostle) were 
some of you.' Titus iii. 8, ' Ye were in times past 
unwise, disobedient, deceived, serving lusts and 
divers flea^ivres, living in maliciousness and envy, 
hateful, and hating one another. But when the 
bountifuluess and love of God our Saviour appeared,' 
&c. ' In this appeared love, not that we loved him, 
but that he loved us first,' 1 John iv. 10. ' Even 
when we were enemies, he reconciled us to himself by 
the death of his Son,' Rom. v. 10. If it be well con- 
sidered, it will make us to see the rich mercy of God 
to man. 

There are three things that do especially lead ns 
into these treasures of rich mercy : 

1. The one our estate wherein God findeth us. 

2. The state wherein God setteth us before he 
leave us. 

3. The way or means whereby he compasseth our 
deliverance from death, and our glorious salvation. 

The first is set down in this 5th verse. 

The second in the 6th verse. 

The third, left to bo gathered from these words, 
' together with Christ.' 

These might be particularly amplified. 

Use 1. This teacheth what we must do, if we would 
see the love of God to us ; get a true knowledge and 
sense of natural condition ; dead men, in whom there 
is cot by nature the least spark of spiritual and hea- 
venly life, our natural life being but a shadow of life ; 
it is but a goodly vizor drawn over a dead and rotten 
corpse : Rev. iii. 1, ' Thou hast a name that thou 
hvest, but thou art dead," saith our Saviour to the 
angel of Sardis. The consideration of this will work 
true humihty, and a thankful acknowledgment of 
God's unspeakable love and mercy. What was it 
but the due pondering of these things that did carry 
David to such an admiration of God's bounty towards 
himself and all men, crying out, Ps. cxliv. 8, ' Lord, 
what is man that thou regai-dest him ?' and forceth 
the prophet to this confession : Lam iii. 12, ' It is the 
Lord's mercy that we are not consumed, because his 
compassions fail not.' 

Use 2. This also is a gi-ound of hope, that God will 
never leave us ; for that mercy of God, which, when 
we are dead, did put life into us, and quicken us, will 
now much more help us, and comfort us in all our 
miseries, James i. 17, for 'with him is no change ; 
his mercies endure for ever.' As a mother, when she 
has borne, and brought forth, and endured the hardest 
hand of labour and pain, will think nothing too much 
she doeth for the fruit of her womb she dearly loveth : 
Isa. xlix. 15, ' Can a mother forget her child, and not 
have compassion on the son of her womb ? Though 
they should forget, yet will not I forget thee, saith 
the Lord.' Rom. v., ' If, when we were enemies, we 
were reconciled to God by the death of his Son ; much 
more, being now reconciled, shall we be saved bv his 

Boct. Observe, further, that man hath no power to 
gave himself; no disposition to the salvation which is 
entered through faith in Christ. He hath made us 
fit ; that which we are, we are through the grace of 
God. Look what disposition there is in a carrion to 
life, there is that in our stinking souls to the life of 
grace : ' Out of me can ye do nothing,' John xv. 5. 

Ohj. But if we cannot further ourselves towards 
salvation, then the prol'anest beast is as near God as 
the best and justest churchman unconverted. 

Jns. I answer : no nearer for kind, but nearer in 
regard he is not so far removed in this kind. 

Veu. 5.] 


A man having new sent oat his spirit, and one 
stinking in the grave, the one may be said nearer to 
life than the other, in regard he is not entered so far 
into the des^rees of corruption in which the other lieth; 
and yet the one can no more help himself to life than 
the other. So a fox and an ass, the one may be said 
nearer to reason than the other, because in degree of 
unreasonableness he is not so much removed ; yet in 
kind they are both one, and can do nothing which 
might change their kind. So here, they are said 
nearer respectively, in regard of other sinners more re- 
mote, not that absolutely thej* are near ; as an ape 
may be said comparatively to be reasonable. 

Use. This confuteth the enemies of Go I's grace, 
papists and Lutherans, who make man have some 
relics of strength, whereby, being excited, and pre- 
sented, and shewed a fit object, he can of himself turn 
to God. But what were it available, to come to a 
blind man and shew him the sun, and tell him of it ? 
Till he have an insight given him, all is vain. So 
hero nccdeth a creating, renewing grace, not a bare 
mending or repairing what is amiss. 

Ohj. But if we cannot at all dispose ourselves to 
life, why are we called upon ? Why should we hear 
the word ? &c. 

Ana. Because these things are good, such as God 
requireth, which we must not leave off, because we 
cannot do them pleasingly, but labour to attain the 
right manner. 

Secondly, That we may not set ourselves farther off 
salvation, which we may, though we cannot do that 
which may help forward our calling. It is forlorn, 
desperate folly, when we are in some degrees of evil, 
to think the crow can be no blacker than her wing, 
and so throw down ourselves deeper into mischief. 
Though as we use them these prepare us not, yet as 
God doth use them they do prepare us ; as when one 
striketh a knife into his lungs, God may so guide it as 
to heal an imposthume. A man taking drink intem- 
perately, and sinning, God may heal a sickness by it. 

Use 2. Hence learn we to detest those works of 
congruity, and confess we can do nothing ; cry to God, 
' Turn thou us, and we shall be turned.' A mother 
will not cast away her child for an itch, or the rising 
of pimples, which for the present deform ; she bought 
it too dear to part with it so lightly. So our God will 
not for infirmities cast us off, he hath bought us at too 
dear a rat« so to part with us. 

QiiUkeiieti us in Christ. Ohs. What is the state to 
which the believer is brought ? He is made partaker 
of the life of God. It may be said of him which is 
spoken of the prodigal child, who, though he had been 
dead, yet is now alive, Luke xv. 32. So these brought 
unto the faith, though before dead, yet now are brought 
to life. The apostle, dead in trespasses and sins, as 
the rest, came to have Christ living in him, Gal. 
ii. 20 ; being set into Christ, he had fellowship in the 
death and resurrection of Christ, Philip, iii. 10. 

The Colossians, dead in the uncircnmcision of hearts, 
came to be brought to life with Christ, their sins being 
forgiven them, Col. iii. 3. We have experience of it, 
who were blind, uncircumcised in heart, savouring 
earthly things, walking from trespass to trespass, ut- 
terly unacquainted with the life of God, ' now light in 
the Lord,' Eph. v. 8, now our hearts pricked for sin, 
trembling at the word, pressed to obedience, now 
affecting heavenly things, walking in righteousness, 
finding that God in Christ dwelleth in us. AuJ for 
better conceiving it, it is fit to consider, 

1. What it is. 

2. Who is the author of it. 

3. In what order it is wrought. 

4. The property of it. 

1. It is nothing but the created gift of grace, which 
frameth the whole man to live according to God, or 
supernatural grace giving life, and bringing forth mo- 
tions according to God, as the natural life. 

2. The power of God alone, with the word and 
sacraments, give this life, called therefore ' immortal 
seed.' By the word we are all quickened and con- 
formed to the imago of the second Adam, called there- 
fore ' the word of life :' ' Who hath brought life and 
immortality to light by the gospel.' 

3. For the order, there is first a taking away of 
sins; for while we live in them we are in death. 
Secondly, there is a taking of life in our behalf. 
Thirdly, a holding out of these things, with the voice 
of God unto the soul : ' The dead in their graves shall 
hear the voice of the Son of God, and shall live,' John 
V. 25. A receiving of Christ, a forgiving of our sins, 
and quickening with the Spirit. 

4. The property of which life is eternal, and hath 
no ending. Christ being raised, dieth no more, nor a 

Quest. How may we know that we are alive ? 

Aiu. Every life seeks its own preservation ; as 
natural life seeks that which is fit for that life, so doth 
this spiritual life that which is fit for itself: as the 
word of God, 1 Peter ii. 2, ' And the things that are 
above, where Christ sitteth ;' Col. iii. 1, 'The food 
which perisheth not, but endures for ever.' As the 
life is immortal, so it seeks immortal food by which 
it liveth to God ; the Ufe of grace, it is maintained by 
bread from heaven, from the living God. 

Every natural life, in the several kinds of it, seeks 
its preservation of him, and by him that is the author 
of it. Children of their parents, yea, and ' the eyes 
of all creatures look to the Creator,' Ps. civ. So here, 
they that are quickened with the life of God, are ever 
and anon running to him as their Father, crying and 
calling upon him for supply in all their wants ; by 
the spirit of adoption, they cry Ahba, Rom. viii. 15. 

He that hath this spiritual life in any measure is 
sensible, and ever complaining of spiritual death and of 
corrupt nature, the sight whereof is most noisome to 
his sense. A dead man perceives no stench to come 



[Chap. II. 

from him. An evident sign of spiritual life, to sigh 
an I groan under the body, and to cry out, ' miser- 
able,' &c., Rom. vii. 24; Good Lord, what a state is 
this ; what a bed-rid disposition doth hang about me, 
that I can neither find comfortable sense nor motion 
towards things spiritual ! Every man, the more 
quick with the Spii'it, the more complaining in this 

Life is active and stirring. If I see an image still 
without motion, I know, for all the eyes and nose, 
&c., it hath no life in it. So the want of spiritual 
motion in the soul to God-ward, and the practice of 
godliness, argueth want of spiritual life. 

Love to the brethren : ' By this we know we are 
translated from death to life, because we love the 
brethren,' 1 John iii. 14. 

Use 1. This is a matter of admiration, of joy, and 
thanksgiving. If a man were recovered of a deadly 
disease, when past hope, how would he tell of it, and 
hold himself bound to the man by whose skill and en- 
deavour he hath been raised ! How much more 
should we record and tell of God's unspeakable mercy 
and love to us ; that when we were not only sick in 
soul, but even stark dead and void of all spiritual life, 
sense, and motion, hath breathed into our dead hearts 
the breath of that spiritual life of grace, and hath 
made us now to stand up from the dead and live in 
his sight ? Have not we cause to rejoice, and say, 
' Thanks be to God ; we were the servants of sin' ? 
Eom. vi. 17. But if we creep up out of some deadly 
sickness, we will tell of it, and say, What a glorious 
and wonderful power of God was it to raise me ! But 
when our souls creep out of sin and hellish igno- 
rance, the darkness of denth, how should this much 
more affect and cause us to magnify such a power of 

Use 2. This letteth us see the fearful condition of 
nnregenerate men ; they lie exposed to the sun as dead 
carcases, the stink of whose nature is noisome to each 
livinc creature. That they cannot see it, is because 
the hght of nature, through the strength of rebellious 
affections and common custom in sin, is so extin- 
guished, that it cannot truly inform the conscience 
touching our own conditions; and in that we feel it 
not, it is because our hearts are stone dead, and ut- 
terly void of that power of life conferred by the Holy 
Ghost, which should indeed make them feel the dis- 
ease of sin. 

Fearful, therefore, is the estate of those men which 
never onco suspect themselves of nourishing this mon- 
ster, which feedeth itself strong in them, to deprive 
them of life, but hand-over-head sleep in their filthi- 
ness, and never examine themselves as touching any 
token of spiritual life, to secure themselves of part 
and portion in that blessed land of the living. In this 
estate men fare as they which are infected with some 
mortal pestilence, who, although they are tainted, yet 
not feeling it, go about their business cheerfully, eat. 

drink, and are merry; yea, and make a jest, and tush 
at the plague, and behold suddenly are stricken them- 
selves, and laid in the grave. So an nnregenerate 
man, having both the disease of sin in his bones, yei, 
and the funestal and deadly marks in his soul, yet 
being void of that rare grace of godly wisdom to dis- 
cern it, runneth on in his dying life from town to 
town, from house to house, infecting others with the 
stink of his sores, and running botches, yea, and plays 
with sin in his common talk, as a child doth with a 
fawning cur in a string, till it being too strong for 
him, plucks him down to hell, and returns upon him 
with the sharp stinging teeth of everlasting death and k 

Use 3. This must stir us up to feel ourselves quick- 
ened with an everlasting life, and more and more to 
seek and labour for the augmentation of it. The wo- 
man of Samaria, when Christ told her there were 
living waters, of which whoso drank did never so 
thirst more, she cried, ' Lord, give me of that 
water,' John iv. 15. Look up to Christ, that quick- 
ening Spirit, shew him thy relics of spiritual death, 
and pray him to swallow them up victoriously in the 
Ufa of grace. 

Ver. 6. And hath raised m up iof/elher. Resurrec- 
tion is metaphorical or proper : metaphorical, when a 
man swimmeth out of some deadly evils ; proper, when 
a man being fallen down by death, riseth up by new 
quickenance : this is first and second. The first, 
when the soul, fallen down from God into death of 
sin, doth come to be quickened with the life of God. 
The latter, of the body, whether extraordinary, which 
is the privilege of some few, or common to all. Now, 
we that are in Christ, have all kinds of resurrection 
after some manner : 1. Our condition most deadly we 
get out of; 2. Our soul is quickened; 8. For our bod)-, 
it is hid in Christ, we have it in hope. 

Doct. Observe here, what God hath given us in his 
Son, even the resurrection of these bodies. We are 
dead by reason of sin, and these our bodies are sown 
in mortality, and see coiTuption, yet we have them in 
Christ raised up ; yea, after a sort we in present may 
see this exemplified : 1. In that our head is raised; 
for whatsoever may be said of the head, may be spoken 
of the members. If the head be safe above water, 
and living, the body may be said (though covered) to 
live likewise : so that our head, Christ Jesus, having 
this resurrection, we ate already seised of it in our 
head. 2. Again, we have it already ; why ? Because 
that power which must raise us up, it is with Christ, 
jier iiiodiim rediiiiddiititt : all things tending to our sal- 
vation are put in his hands ; there is not a resuiTec- 
tion and life, for his own person alone, but the 
treasures of life, even the hidden life which every 
member must have, is already seised by him. 3. We 
all of us have right to it, though we as yet enter not 
upon it. 4. Last of all, we have entrance even pre- 

Ver. C] 



senlly, because he rose for us, and representing ns, 
even as a burgess of a parliament doth a corporation. 
So that we see where is the evidence of our resurrec- 
tion, even Christ raised as our head, is a most infal- 
lible pledge unto us. If Christ be risen, then must 
we, for our resurrection is hid in him. 

Now our resurrection may be considered two ways : 

1. As wrought in our head. 

2. As applied actually in us. 

As we, in regard of our natural life may be con- 

1. As wfi have this life in our root, in our parents, 
in whom we are semiiiali ratiottc, as an ear of corn is 
in the seed. 

2. Our life may be considered as now_in us re- 
ceived from them. 

Now, when they are said to be raised up in Christ, 
it may be understood both ways, both in regard of 
their resurrection, as it was made in Christ the head 
of them, and as it was in part applied in them. For 
all the resurrection we hiivo in Christ is not yet re- 
ceived, we have it by faith hid in him, even the resur- 
rection of our bodies. As Ailam was a root of death 
to all that were his, neither were they born of him 
sooner than mortality did seize on them ; so Christ 
is a root of resurrection : 1 Cor. xv. 22, ' As in Adam 
all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive.' We 
must not think that when Christ was raised, it was no 
more than when Lazarus, or some other private per- 
son, was raised ; but his rising was all our resurrection, 
inasmuch as it was in the name of us all, and had in 
it a seed- like virtue to work the resurrection of us all. 
Hence it cometh that we no sooner come to be in him, 
but the power of his resurrection is felt of us, making 
us rise to newness of life. lu Christ, all things are 
new : 2 Cor. v. 17, ' Who hath learned Christ as the 
truth is in Christ,' have so learned him that they are 
dead to sin, the life of the old man, and are alive in 
the life of grace. 

For look, as a member, truly by inward ligaments 
knit with a living head, hath life in it ; so we, when 
we come to be in Christ, raised up and living to God 
in life glorious, we cannot but live in him. 

There are some principal evidences of our part in 
Christ's resurrection. 

1. The Spirit ^'iven us : 'If the Spirit which raised 
Christ our Lord from the dead dwell in you.' He 
doth send into them that are united with him the 
Spirit of life from himself; that is, the Holy Ghost, 
to dwell in them by the created gifts of grace, which 
is life supernatural. They shall hear my voice who 
are doad ; that is, they shall believe, and shall live. 

2. The will c<f the Father touching us, that Christ 
should raise us up at the last day. 

3. The statute made bj' Christ, in which wo have 
it, even before it be applied. Christ doth successively 
perfect tiiis life, never leaving till he have in soul and 
body conformed us for our model to his blessed soul 

and glorious body. The raising of our souls dead, 
a greater work than to raise a church- yard of bodies. 

4. A lively hope of an eternal inheritance, 1 Peter 
i. 8. 

5. A holy love of God's children, 1 John iii. 14. 
G. A living faith ; for the same omnipotent action 

of (iod which raised Christ from the dead, is it which 
begettcth faith in us : Eph. i. 19, 20, ' Which believe, 
according to the working of his mighty power, which 
he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the 

Use 1. Wherefore, let us learn to admire, and give 
glory to God's power, which workcth our fiiith. If wo 
saw a man raised from the dead, oh how would we 
speak of such a wondrous power ! But this is the 
same which raised Christ from the dead, which raiseth 
us to believe. If wo creep up from some deadly sick- 
ness, we tell what a power of God it was to raise us ; 
but when our souls creep out of hellish darkness and 
death, to believe on the living God, it is as nothing 
with us. 

Use 2. Again, to consider of our resurrection, which 
we have through Christ, is a forcible motive to make 
us cleave to him. If Peter said, ' Whither shall we 
go ? Thou hast the words of life ;' how much more 
may we say, How should wo start from the Lord ! 
Thou hast raised us up when we were dead ! 

Use 3. How did Lazarus (think you), and others 
whom Chi-ist raised up, love him, and rest in him, 
when this bodily life was again given them, though 
they were within a while to die again I But how 
much more would it bind us to Christ, if we saw how 
he hath raised our souls, being stark dead, with such 
a resurrection as that they shall never die again ! 

Wherefore, how woful is the' state of many that 
profess Christ, yet live in ignorance, know not what 
a resurrection meaneth, are dead while they are alive, 
in all kind of sin and wantonness ! These never 
were in Christ, but like as glass eyes are set in the 
body, or wooden legs, which being by outward means 
joined to it, do not receive life and sense with other 
members. We never knew communion with him who 
is the quickening Spirit, if we be dead in our sins. 

Use 4. Lastly, It is matter of comfort against the 
infirmities and death of these bodies ; by his blood 
he hath made a new and living way, he hath led the 
dance ; though thou of thyself hast no right to it, yet 
in Christ, thy head, thou hast as good right to it as 
any heir apparent to his lands. 

Dovt. Observe again, we are by nature all shut out 
of the paradise of God, we come short of his glory, 
but in Christ, God hath been pleased to restore us to 
the happy condition, in the resurrection of Christ : 
1 Peter i. 3, ' Who hath begotten us again unto a 
hvely hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from 
the dead.' Christ our head sitteth in glory ; ho hath 
done it for us : ' I go to prepare mansions for you,' 
John xiv. 2. He entered the holy of holies in our 



[Chap. II, 

name, and so after a sort presented us before God, as 
the priest under the law ; ' he beareth in his breast 
the names of all his Israel,' when he cometh into the 
presence of God, so as we all may be said, and that 
truly, to ' sit in the heavens.' He hath all that glo- 
rious life in him, with which we are in the heavens 
to be glorified. Joint purchasers ; we have by him 
rii^ht to it in faith, as an heir in minority to his 
lather's inheritance. 

We by nature are all of us unfit for God's king- 
dom ; and so our Saviour saith, John iii. 5, that 
' unless we be born again, we cannot enter into God's 
kingdom.' What disposition can be in such as are 
children and thralls of the devil, to be the sons and 
heirs of God ? No, there is nothing in v.s but enmity 
against God. We love hell as if there were no heaven : 
Ezek. xvi. 3, 6, ' Wo are such as have an Amorite to 
our father, an Hittite to our mother, as lie weltering 
in our blood.' Now, who can make me owner of that 
which I am not, nor cannot be willing with. We see in 
our outward afi'airs, an outlandish man, a foreigner, 
cannot have inheritance in our land until he be natu- 
ralised. The son of a traitor, whose lands are con- 
fiscate, cannot inherit them, as before, until his blood 
be restored ; so it is with us, we are all strangers by 
nature to God, and heaven where he dwelleth ; we 
are a tainted blood, rebels from the womb, and so, till 
God restore us, and make us fit, we cannot have part 
in this heavenly inheritance. 

Use 1. This one prerogative (that we are made to 
sit in heavenly places), duly considered, reproveth the 
misdemeanour of the wicked in regard of their poor 
brethren ; for come in place where they are, like Og 
king of Bashan, they set up their bristles agninst them, 
and esteem them as the base oifscourings of the earth, 
and refuse of the people. For what say they ? I 
scorn thee that thou shouldst control me, a chief man 
of the town where I dwell ; and shall I be taken up 
with every beggar ? Alas ! thou art the cursed beggar 
in the rich man's weed ; this man whom thou thus 
disdainest is the right heir ; thou hast gotten his right, 
and that thou shalt know when the Lord of the whole 
earth shall cast thee out of his ground, throwing thy 
body into the earth as a stinking carrion, and thy soul 
into hell. Then shalt thou know the state of all things 
turned upside down ; and then thou, which before wast 
a lord on earth, and seated among princes, shalt now 
be a slave in hell ; and the poor creature which feared 
the Lord, proving his title before the throne of the 
Lamb, and shewing his evidence in Christ, shall be 
made heir of all, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. 

Use 2. A strong comfort against all crosses and 
tribulations, to think one day we shall, to the utter 
flitting of all incredulity, and unbelief, and cheering 
of our languishing spirits, see God face to face, and 
behold his living spouse to our everlasting comfort. 
Now, while we are in these bodies of clay, we are like 

the moon being eclipsed ; bat when once we shall put 
off this mortality, as the livery which Adam giveth to 
all his children, then shall we be as glorious as the 
sun in his strength. Poverty, dishonour, deformity, 
and all the outcries of this hospital of the body, shall 
be left behind, like unto Elijah's cloak when he was 
caught up into heaven, 2 Kings ii. 13 ; and instead 
thereof, all regal and kingly excellency put upon us. 
Nay, the stately majesty of a prince is as far differing 
from the estate of the worst of God's saints, as the 
state of a bridge beggar is inferior unto the greatest 
monarch in the world. How doth this cross the 
opinion of the world touching the baseness of the 
saints ! 

U-te 3. This may serve, then, to expel all fears: 'Fear 
not, little flock ; it is your Father's pleasiu'e to give you 
a kingdom,' Luke xii. 82. We are already seised on 
it ; we have made entrance upon it. Oh that we did but 
know our own happiness ! We would not so hang the 
head as discomfited persons, but look up to that in- 
comparable weight of glory ; run our race and finish 
our course with joy ; yea, and abide all the miseries 
of this life with patience ; know that all the^e are 
nothing worthy of the life to come. And as the heir 
within a month of his lands taketh such a delight in 
thought thereof that it surpriseth all present extremi- 
ties, so let the certainty and unspeakable felicity of the 
life to come so steel thee throughout, that the frown- 
ing of all creatures may be slighted of as matters of 

Use 4. Pray for the Spirit, which teacheth us to 
know what are our hopes kept for us in the heavens ; 
for where a man's hope is, thither will his soul look 
out, and be more there than where he is bodily present. 
This is it which will make us purge ourselves, 1 John 
iii. 3. It is the spur of action ; men work cheerfully 
when they know an ample reward abidcth them : ' Oh 
that you knew,' saith Christ, ' the things which con- 
cern your peace 1' Luke xix. 42. Prize the gospel ; 
by it immortality is brought to light, called riches of 
the gospel, 2 Tim. i. 10. 

Ver. 7. Tliat lie miijht shew in the arjes to come the 
exceeding riches of his grace, through his kindness to- 
icards »s in Christ Jesus. 

The end followeth, That he might shew in times to 
come, &c. We must here consider, 1, the time ; 2, 
the grace itself ; 3, wherein it standeth, in kindness 
manifested through Christ. 

The times, doth note out all the time ensuing this 
instant wherein the apostle did write, but especially 
those times wherein these things which Christ hath 
purchased for us shall be applied in us ; so that, taken 
thus, it doth let us see a great difiereuce twixt these 
times and the former. These times which are to come 
are times of refreshing, the riches of God's mercy, and 
shall bo more and more manifested ; these are the 
' days of salvation,' the ' acceptable time,' 1 Cor. vi. 2 ; 

Ve«. 7.] 



' now the grace of God hath appeared,' Titus ii. 11 ; 

now that love of GoJ to mankind hath appeared. The 
grace of God was hid in a mystery before : ' The law 
was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus 
Christ,' John i. 17. 

D'jcl. Observe, hence, that the days since Christ, 
and of the gospel, are the most glorious, blessed, and 
happy daj's that did ever shine unto the earth. Of all 
that great body of time which lies between the creation 
and the end of the world, this is the best. Time, as 
of itself, is not any ways active or productive of any 
roal ellects, because it is a kind of quantity ; so neither 
intrinsecally impressioned with diflbrence, or degrees 
of excellency or illness, but according to the things 
done in that time, good or bad. 

These latter times, then, that are crowned with so 
much honour and blessedness, are naturally no better 
than the days of the prophets, or the darker times of 
sacrifice and ceremony ; but it is the more real, actual, 
and visible opening of the mysteries of (Jod's rich grace 
which doth ennoble, sweeten, and glorify them. Now 
the excellency of this time of Christ is magnified with 
many high attributes everywhere in the prophets, 
Isa. xxiv. 21, 23 ; chap. xxv. C, &c. ; chap. Is. 9, 
and Ixii. 3, and Ixvi. 10, &c. But of this we shall 
speak more when we come to the 11th and 15th 

Doct. Again, consider the times to come. They are 
times wherein this shall be most of ail cleared ; for 
though we see the grace of God, and the efiects pre- 
pared by it, yet we see them in a glass ; no eye seeth, 
no heart, no ear ; but in times to come this shall be 
perfectly revealed. We have yet but the first linea- 
ments of mercy drawn forth, but then we shall see the 
same perfected ; God shall be marvellous in his saints, 
his glorious mercy shining so brightly in their glorious 
salvation. Even as the justice of God, it is not yet 
so revealed as it shall be in times to come, when jus- 
tice shall return. to judgment, Ps. xciv. 15; when 
God's justice, -which now^ delayeth, shall shew itself in 
judgment, both of full deliverance to his, and of full 
vengeance against the wicked. So we see, then, our 
happiness, to whom these things are revealed in the 
word. We see, again, that there is a further manifes- 
tation of mercy to be made when the Lord's season 
shall come in the times that are ensuing. 

Use. So that we must be thankful for that we have 
and see, and must, when we cannot find such grace 
and mercy compass us as we desire, know that there 
are times to come for which the full manifestation of 
God's mercy is reserved, Jude 21. 

Doct. I have told you what the quantity and quality 
of this grace should teach us ; only one thing mark, 
what leadeth us to see the riches of God's grace, even 
to consider the height of happiness to which we are 
lifted up in Christ. God hath set us already in 
heavenly places, that he may in time to come shew 
how rich his mercy is to us, when he shall apply this 

to us in order. The glorious condition to which we 
are raised doth extol the greatness of God's mercies. 

Use. And we must help ourselves this way to raise 
up our hearts to some good strain of consideration ; 
for when the high God doth call it ' glorious grace,' 
' rich grace,' ' rich mercy,' ' his kindness towards us 
in Christ ;' resting on Christ, and us in Christ, he 
would have us thoroughly to conceive of it, and be 
taken up in astonishment and admiration hereof, to 
' know the length, the breadth, height, and depth oi 
this love and mercy of God, which passeth knowledge.' 

Docl. Here now observe what is the end of all God's 
grace and mercy towards believers in Christ. Where- 
fore doth God bestow this rich grace upon his elect ? 
It is only for the manifestation of his glory, and the 
praise of his name, that the glory of his saving attri- 
butes might be made manifest. Wherefore do men 
build great and magnificent houses, but for advance- 
ment of their honour, and to make their names great 
when they are gone ? So wherefore doth God raise 
up poor miserable sinners, under the power of the devil, 
out of the dungeon of darkness, but that he might 
shew how rich a God he is in grace and mercy, ' that 
we should be to the praise of the glorj' of his grace' ? 
Eph. i. 6. God is more glorified in the redemption of 
his people than in creating the whole world. 

Usf. This must teach us, whatsoever good things 
God hath bestowed upon us, that we make God known 
by it ; we must ' shew forth the virtues of him who 
hath called us out of darkness into his marvellous 
light,' 1 Peter ii. 9 ; we are made ' temples of the 
living God,' 1 Cor. vi. 16, wherein must be manifested 
his infinite wisdom, power, love, mercy, and glory : 
not to make ourselves known, but God, that he may 
come in acquaintance with others by that glory that 
appears in thee : 1 Peter iv. 11, 'If any man speak, 
let him speak the wisdom of God ; if he minister, let 
him do it of the ability that God giveth ; that in all 
things God may be glorified.' 

In the (iijes to come ; that is, that all men in after 
times may consider and take notice of God's exceeding 
great mercy and grace towards us, in quickening us, 
raising us up from death, and seating us in heaven 
with Christ. 

Doct. Whence observe, all the saving graces of God 
are such as are most worthy consideration of all Chris- 
tians in all ages ; worthy to be chronicled and regis- 
tered unto all posterity. 

This Paul professed and proclaimed : 1 Tim. i. 15, 
' I was a blasphemer, a persecutor, an oppressor ; but 
I was received to mercy,' &c. ' Notwithstanding, for 
this cause was I received to mercy, that Jesus Christ 
should first shew on me all long-sufi'ering, unto the 
ensample of them which shall in time to come believe 
in him unto eternal life ;' as if he should have said, 
Let all in after time, how notorious and sinful soever, 
let them look upon me, a pattern of God's infinite 
mercy, exceeding all sin and miserv. ' Come,' saith 




[Chap. II. 

David, Ps. Ixvi. 16, ' I will tell you what the Lord 
hath done for my soul. 1 cried unto him, and he 
heard me : I will therefore extol him with my tongue.' 
So again, Ps. Ixxi. 18, • Forsake me not, God, until 
I have declared thine arm unto this generation, and 
thy power unto all that shall come.' 

Use. If we be God's children, shew it by bringing 
forth eternal and immortal fruit to his glory, ' as trees 
of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, in whom 
he may be glorified,' Isa. Ix. 21, and Ixi. 3. Think, 
and speak, and do nothing, but what we are content 
to have registered ; much less ashamed to do anything 
of which we would not be accountable for it again, as 
assuredly we shall. Whatsoever we do by the Spii-it, 
shall stand upon record to all eternity : Rev. xiv. 13, 
' Blessed are they that die in the Lord ; they rest from 
their labours, and their works follow them.' 1 Peter 
i. 7, their faith, when tried, ' shall be found unto 
their praise, honour, and glory, at the appearing of 
Jesus Christ.' 

Throuf/h his kindness in Christ. Doct. Observe here 
in what things the special favour of God standeth, 
even in the giving of Christ, with the benefits of Christ. 
He is made the matter in which this exceeding grace 
of his is taken up ; and so everywhere the Scripture 
doth speak : 1 John iv. 9, ' Herein is the love of God 
seen, that he sent his only begotten Son into the world, 
that we should live by him.' Christ, when we were 
yet of no strength, died for us, Rom. v. 6 ; we are 
quickened in Christ, raised in him, our sins pardoned 
in him ; a new life in Christ, Satan subdued unto us 
in Christ ; in Christ crucified all victory is obtained 
against all infernal enemies, all our growth iu Christ : 
in a word, in Christ we have all sufficiency for gi\ace 
and glory. God, when he made Adam lord of the 
whole earth, did shew love ; but the gift of the whole 
earth is nothing to this gift of Christ, in whom we 
have God himself, and all that heaven is worth, made 
sure to us. God hath made him a common concep- 
tacle and tn asury of all saving good to bis church : 
' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased,' 
Mat. iii. 1'7. 

Usel. Wouldst thou know the love of God ? Measure 
it not by any outward thing, by wealth, honour, or out- 
ward prosperity, for this is common with infidels and 
reprobates, whcm the Lord abhorreth. No, there is 
no outward created comfort can secure us of God's 
favour ; only the having of Christ, and the receiving 
of him by faith, as a gift from the Father, this only 
is"it__which is the special pledge of God's favour and 
love. What is all the wicked have, the dew of heaven, 
gladness of heart, the sunshine ? If they have not 
the righteousness of Christ to cover them, the life of 
Christ to quicken them, such things as eye never saw, 
their condition is woful. 

i'se 2. This must make us rest only in Christ, like 
Paul, Caring to know nothing but him, ' counting all 
things but dung and dross in comparison of him,' 

Philip, iii. 7, 8. ' Through him we have an entrance 
with boldness to the Father,' Eph. iii. 12. Art thou 
burdened with sin, and afraid to come before God '? 
Why, set Christ betwixt God and thee ; he is a screen 
to keep ofl' the fire of God's anger ; he is our peace- 
maker, Isa. ix. 6, to make all whole again, ' a sweet- 
smeUing savour, acceptable to God,' Eph. v. 2. 

In Chriat Jesus. Doct. Observe here, all God's 
kindness, and all the fruits of his kindness, must come 
to us only through Christ : ' He hath reconciled all 
things to himself by Jesus Christ, whom God hath 
set forth to be a reconciliation,' &c., as a propitiatoiy 
sacrifice, in which he would return into favour with 
us. ' God was in Christ reconciling the world to him- 
self.' Christ immediately, by himself, doth procure 
us favour. And this was that which all the atone- 
ments made by propitiatory sacrifices did pre-signify 
unto us : ' He is made unto us of God the Father, 
wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemp- 
tion,' 1 Cor. i. 30. 

Use 1. This doth serve to beat down those holds 
of presumption which many nourish to destruction ; 
for many think that they are in God's favour, an J yet 
are such as have not Christ, such as have no portion 
in the benefits of Christ, if they be blessed as well as 
others, with heahh, peace, wealth, if money come in 
apace, and that their condition outwardly prosper ; 
whenas indeed without Christ (as all this may be, ;ind 
is with most) these are no other than common favours 
which he vouchsafeth to strangers, and such as are 
none of his household ; and therefore they build on a 
sandy foundation. Saul, and Esau, and every cursed 
reprobate, may partake hereof. Eccles. is. 2, No 
man, by any ontward matter, can know himself to be 
loved or hated. 

Use 2. Again, a fiei-j" dart may hence be quenched, 
which the devil castcth against believers in the con- 
science of sin, the consideration of their crosses so 
manifold. Thou art continually followed with crosses 
and afflictions, poverty, sickness, and dost thou not 
see what strange adversities do continually betide 
thee ? and canst thou le persuaded that God loves 
thee ? It is impossible ; thou dost but deceive thy- 
self. Thus will the devil suggest. But thou must 
uphold thyself with this consideration, that God's 
favour and love is not to be grounded upon us by the 
presence of any such outward appeai-ances. No, 
though poor, yet thou hast the riches of God's mercy ; 
thou hast Christ, the heir of all : 1 Cor. iii. 22, ' If 
he be ours, Apollos is ours, Cephas is ours ; life and 
death, things present and to come, the world and all 
is ours ; we Christ's, and Christ God's.' In him let 
our souls rest and rejoice ; I say again, always rejoice 
in him. The Holy Ghost can speak to thee thus : 
Rev. ii. n, ' I know thy poverty, but thou art rich,' 
in compai'ison of whom the greatest monaix-h in the 
world, being without Christ, is a stark beggar. 

Doct. Further, here observe, that all our blessings 

Veu. 7.] 



are treasuroJ up, even with Christ Jesus. Ho is, as 
it were, the matter of which God hath framed all our 
good, the common coneoptacle in which all spiritual 
blessings are reposed, that from his fulness every 
member might be served, John i. 10 ; in whom are 
hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Col. 
ii. 3. lie is the well-head and fountain from whom 
streamcth all saving good ; the vein is in Christ, thence 
it springeth to the fountain, and so omptiotli itself by 
streams. So all those things are, 1, originally in God, 
who is life ; 2, in Christ made flesh, upon whom this 
grace is poured without all measure ; 3, in us, who 
shall have from his fulness. For as the garments of 
Aaron were moistened with that which dropped, Ps. 
cxxxiii., so shall this spiritual ointment trickle upon 
ns from Christ, when, by the application of faith, we 
shall be made one with him. 

Use. This teacheth ns whom we must hold by, even 
to be filled with all spiritual good, even .Jesus Christ. 
Cleave only to him ; he tilloth all in all, in him we are 
complete, Col. ii. 10 ; therefore, rest on Christ as all- 
sufficient. Wo fitly leave men, seeking supply at God ; 
but to turn from God to men is to dig puddles, and 
leave the spring of living waters, Jer. ii. 13. It is 
mere ignorance of Christ that maketh men look to 
merits, to the pope's treasury, whenas, even to our 
setting in glory, all is given us in Christ : ' Yet not I,' 
saith Paul, ' but Christ in me,' Gal. ii. 20. Mark 
how Paul here acknowledgeth his life to come from 
Christ, in whom everything is laid down to be con- 
veyed to ns. Lot us then say with Peter, John vi. 
68, ' WTaither shall we go ? thou hast the words of 
Ufe ;' thou art all-sufficient. 

Quest. But how come we to all this blessedness in 
Christ ? 

Alts. Hence it is, even from the personal union of 
our nature with Christ, that he dwelleth in our natm-e 
substantially, having united it to him as a part of his 
person. Hence it cometh, that Christ man doth send 
out all the streams of grace and good things to all his 
members, because this fountain dwelleth in him : ' In 
him dwelleth all fulness of the Godhead,' Col. ii. 9. 

Did not the divine nature, which is the fountain of 
all life, natural and supernatural, did not this dwell 
with this human nature, wa could not be enlightened 
and quickened by it ; so that it is the power of divine 
nature in Christ which doth properly and efficiently 
work these things, even as we see the body of the sun 
doth enlighten all. This must bo held, that neither 
the omnipotent power of creating spiritual graces, nor 
yet the omnipotent action which doth produce them, 
is in the human nature, or proceedeth from the human 
nature working to the same eflfects, according to the 
property of it. This is the order, then, which we must 
conceive and hold, viz. 

1. The divine nature that createth them, and in- 
fnseth them into this or that man, through Christ 
man, being as a common conceptacle and conduit, 

taking away sin and the cause,* that so way might be 
made for this promised Spirit. 

2. By intorceding mediator-liko for them. 

3. By willing the going of such graces from him, as 
who is with God tho Son but one worker. They are, 
therefore, the works not of a human, but a divine per- 
son. For though the nature, according to which they 
are wrought, bo human, yet the person working is the 
person of tho Son of God. 

Saint Paul giveth graces by laying on of hands with 
prayer, but, 

1. Not as if this were any way his work, but as en- 
treating it from God in Christ, whose it is. 

2. Not from power any way within his person, but 
without him, even the power of another. 

3. Not conjoined with God, as the body with the 
soul, but as an instrument with God ; as when I use 
another thing or person in doing this or that without 
myself. Hence it is, that Christ man doth give graces 
iiutlioritutive el elJtcUee ; yea, according to his human 
action, doth effect them in the highest degree that an 
instrumental operation can effect anything ; whereas 
Saint Paul giveth them miiiktraliter, signifying what 
God doth in Christ, rather than what himself doth. 
He that planteth and w.itoreth is nothing ; all the 
efficacy of his action is to get Christ, God man, to 
give the graces he entreateth. 

Use. Hence we are exhorted not to rest in man for 
these graces. ' The ilesh protiteth nothing; the Spirit 
quickeneth,' John vi. ; that is, Christ's human nature 
could not give all these precious benefits unto you, 
unless the quickening Spirit did dwell in it, in whom 
all fulness dwelleth, yo are complete. 

Use. Hath God. opened unto us such a rich trea- 
sury in Christ, in whom we shall find no lack ? This 
discovereth tho gross folly of papists, that look out 
after other mediators, works, their own righteousness, 
satisfactions, indulgences, imputing the sufierings of 
men to them ; they have left the Lord Jesus, and are 
run a-whoring after their own inventions. 

Use. Lastly, on this ground invite men to Christ. 
How is the case altered if a poor woman should marry 
the prince ! So, if we blind, naked, beggarly things 
marry this prince of glory, our poverty shall be ex- 
changed with riches. Would wo have our consciences 
comfortably settled iu the persuasion of our reconcile- 
ment unto God, we must look at him who gocth be- 
tween God and us. When we have offended some 
great personages, if some mean one should move them 
in our behalf, it would not so stay us ; for we know 
they will often not hear them speak, or have them in 
light regard, if they give them hearing ; but if we can 
procure such as be their peers to deal effectually for 
us, we doubt not but that things shall be well com- 
pounded. What will they deny such as are equal to 
themselves, and most nearly acquainted with them ? 
So with us, if we have Christ, &c. 
♦ Qu. ' curse ' ? — Ed. 



[Chap. II. 

Doct. Again, this phrase, In Christ, doth give ns to 
cousider how that in all things Christ hath the pre- 
eminence ; all the benefits we come to in him, he him- 
self is first possessed of them. And this is that the 
apostle speaketh to the Colossians, chap. i. 18, that 
he is the first-fruits of the dead, that in all things he 
might have the pre-eminence ; and this is that which 
(1 Cor. XV.) is taught, when he calleth Christ ' the 
first-fruils of them that sleep,' and teacheth that the 
same things shall be applied in us, but in our order, 
' first Christ, then they that are of Christ.' He is 
the Lord of the quick and of the dead, and by whom 
all are quickened. 

Christ's resurrection hath a special pre-eminence 
and privilege above all others, for all others before 
were not begotten from among the dead, because they 
were raised up with mortality, tending to death again ; 
but in that he died, he died but once, not long to be 
held of it, but in that he is risen, he is raised to life 
for ever ; death shall no more have power over him. 

Again, all other rose as private and singular men, 
not as public persons in the name of other, giving 
hope to all other of their resurrection ; therefore they 
were not the first-fruits duly gathered, but like a singu- 
lar ear of corn more timely gathered. Now Christ is 
risen (as he died) not for himself only, but for all us, 
and we all are raised in him ; as a burgess of a parlia- 
ment, what he doth or speaketh, it is in the name of 
the corporation, who doth it in him. 

Lastly, he raised himself, as he was the Lord from 
heaven, the quickening spirit. ' Destroy this temple, 
and in three days I will raise it up,' John ii. 19. 

Great, therefore, every way is the prerogative of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. All spiritual and saving blessings 
are first in Christ, and by faith are derived to us from 
Christ ; and before we can have any of these blessings 
which come from Christ, we must have Christ by faith. 
Our redemption Christ hath begged, or rather bought, 
of his Father ; yet we are of ourselves as if there were 
no such matter, till by faith we come to be in him. 

Suppose there were twenty traitors in the Towerwho 
lay condemned ; say again, the prince should yield 
his father such satisfaction for some whom he would 
save, wherewith the king, his father, should rest con- 
tent, and give him their pardon thereupon ; here the 
thing is done betwixt the king and his son, yet till the 
prince send to them, write to the keeper to deliver 
such and such, they are in the state they were, and 
so continue. So it is with God, and Christ, and us ; 
the redemption, all is concluded betwixt God and his 
beloved Son. Christ hath the pre-eminence and 
privilege of it ; yet till this is efl'ectually made known 
to (lur hearts, so that we believe on this grace of 
Christ, we are as we were, in hold, in the fear of our 
Ctuiieuination. 'We are justified through the re- 
demption that is in Christ,' Rom. iii. 24, but so that, 
before it can be applied in us, we must have faith in 
h's blood. 

Use. If, then, all grace be first in Christ, before we 
come to have it, then come forth of yourselves to 
Christ, get him to dwell in your hearts by faith, and 
then all is yours. It is an ill benefit that is not worth 
the fetching, but this is the greatest. 

Doct. Lastly, from hence note the stability of all 
the blessings given to the faithful ; for that we have 
all these things kept by Christ, it doth assure that 
nothing shall be able to separate us and them : ' I 
know,' saith Paul, ' whom I have trusted, and that he 
is able to keep that which is committed to him,' 2 Tim. 
i. 12. ' None shall take you out of my hands,' John 
s. 29. And if we do but consider his person, that all 
power is given him in heaven and earth, we cannot 
doubt but he will most certainly bring all to fellowship 
of those blessings which he keepeth for them ; he is 
all things for us, Col. iii. 11, which reserved with him, 
he will give us in his time. His power, who can call 
this into question '? His will, who can doubt of, see- 
ing he hath been made a curse, and shed his blood for 
the purchase of them unto us. ' Christ is stronger 
than he that is in the world,' 1 John iv. 4. 

Use 1. So then this is full of comfort. If one had 
earthly treasure, we are glad when it is so bestowed 
that we may be sure of it, and sing care away. Well, 
Christ is in heaven, our true treasure, whither the 
thief, nor moth, nor canker can come. This is our 
happiness, that he keepeth our treasure ; it is out of 
the reach of devils and men; were it in our own hand, 
we would soon betray it. If we are set in heaven with 
Christ, Christ may as soon be pulled out of heaven as 
we disappointed of our inheritance. 

Use 2. Note here, the way to make our soul safe, 
it is to give it to Christ to keep, it is never safe in 
our own hands. If we had Adam's grace, it would 
not be safe, the devil would soon rob us of it. Repose 
all in the power of Christ, ' he neither slumbereth nor 
sleepoth.' No wisdom or strength is able to overcome 
Christ ; that which is committed to him is out of all 
gun-shot. Therefore learn we to resign up all to 
Christ, then are we safe as in a strong tower unto sal- 
vation ; this made Paul so comfortably to triumph over 
all : Rom. viii. 38, 39, ' I am persuaded neither life 
nor death, principalities nor powers, things present, 
nor to come, nor any creature, shall be able to sepa- 
rate mc from the love of God in Christ.' 

Yer. 8. />'(/ grace are ye saved throiujli faith ; and 
that not of yourselves : it is the gift of God. 

Now he Cometh to set down our free salvation, 
having reference to that he had formerly set down, 
and confirming it, which every one may be able to 
gather, when he hcareth the discourse above named ; 
for when they had heard that they were dead, and that 
the}' were quickened in Christ, how that God did thus 
only for the glory of his rich grace, every one might 
think. If we are thus in ourselves, if God hath done 
all for us, out of ourselves, in Christ, if there is nothing 

Vkr. S.] 



but his rich pjace that may glotr, then it seemeth 
that all our salvation is of mere grace. Tbe apostle, 
therefore, grnnteth all to any one that shoukl thus 
conclude, and hiyeth down this apostolical doctrine 
more at large, so as he beateth down every height 
advanced against this truth of God. And, first, he lay- 
elh down the true causes positively in this 8th verse. 
Secondly, he rejecteth the false supposed cause nega- 
tively, which he backeth with a reason upon reason, 
as shall be more familiarly opened. For the better 
nndorstanding of the sentence, we will unfold the par- 
ticular words whvre it is necessarj-. 

For this word t/race, it is put sometime for the 
favour of God, sometime for the efl'ect of God's favour 
in us, as when Paul saith, ' Not I, but the grace of 
God in me,' sometime for thankfulness ; the second 
caused by the first, the third by the second. 

Bat here it is me.int of the rich grace in God out 
of us, as which standelh only in kindness in Christ ; 
and works, and the new creature, which is the life of 
grace in ns, are after executed ; these are not spoken 
of, these may stand with grace, we may rejoice in 
these without impeachment. Now the favour of God 
is twofold : — 

1. A more common and inferior grace. 

2. A more special and rich grace ; for if the law 
had given life, God should have shewed grace, and in 
grace was the covenant of the law contracted. But 
here is meant a more plentiful grace, in which the 
New Testament, with all the benefits of it, have their 

IIV lire sand. There is a double salvation for man: 
' God is the Saviour of all,' (God saveth man and 
beast), ' but especially of them that believe,' 1 Tim. 
iv. 10. Now this is to be considered two ways, either 
as begun, or as complete. Now he speakelh roundly 
and amply of our salvation, from beginning to the 
ending, as the context cleareth against all exception. 

Throuijh faith. Faith is considered two ways, the 
one absolutely in itself, as a virtue, and a radical vir- 
tue ; the other in relation to Christ. Now thus it is 
here to be construed. Faith on Christ, Christ now be- 
lieved on, and faith which is through him, are equi- 
pollent, taken both as one. Faith therefore noteth 
Christ applied in us by belief; these two you may see 
ranged under grace, as which only can stand with it : 
Rom. iii. 24, ' We are justified freely by grace,' &c. 
The apostle cometh to prevent the corruption of man, 
thus surmising from this, that 'we are saved by faith,' 
that then something is to be given to us. Why'? Be- 
cause we of our own free wills believed? No; though 
of faith, yet you cannot challenge anything, because 
it is not from any strength in you, by which you be- 
lieved, but the Lord did give you this, he did draw 
yon, or you could never have believed, and therefore 
the apostle addeth, ' It is the gift of God.' 

Now he coutenteth not himself to have set down 
the true causes, bat doth discover all false ones. 

knowing how deep this error is rooted in onr natures, 

every one setting up his own righteousness, yea, the 
Holy Ghost foreseeing that men should so hardly fore- 
go salvation by works, that they would rather have 
this doctrine grounded itself; wherefore he saith, 
'not of works,' and backeth by reason, because works, 
as they stand not with grace, so they are enemies to 
the gloiy of God, inasmuch as they set up glory in us : 
' Lest any should boast himself.' 

But it is objected that the apostle speaketh this of 
works of nature, or works of ceremony, or that works 
of grace do stand with his grace, or that rejoicing is 
forbidden in the works we do by our own strength, 
not in those we do by his grace dwelling in us. 

To this the apostle replieth in effect. Whatsoever 
you are, or can do, it is not to bo trusted or rejoiced 
in. Why? Because it is of God, and this is your 
bounden duty, as being created even unto that pur- 
pose. That which you arc not of yourselves, you must 
not boast yourselves, as deserving the same; but your 
salvation is not of yourselves, it is of God ; whatso- 
ever you are, you are it of God ; whatsoever good 
thing you do, it is the end for which he hath created 
you, it is given you by him, therefore you have no 
cause or matter whereof to boast. 

A'o( of us. Not by reason that we are of any desert 
of graces in us, or not through any power in us, for 
in the last verse he confirmeth, not of us, not of works ; 
this proposition is thus cleared. 

Dmi. Now then, first, wo have here to consider, 
what is the ground of all our salvation ? It is the free 
favour of God. This must be a little cleared in proof, 
that though the inward graces be taken as I told you, 
yet in the business of our salvation, it cannot signify 
the gifts of grace in us. And here are so many argu- 
ments near the test, that I need not go further. 

1. First, in the fourth verse, when he had said, 
' God, who is rich in mercy, af his yrenl lore hath 
quickened us,' he interserteth abruptly, 'By grace are 
ye saved.' Now if grace were any other thing than 
the love and mercy of God, the apostle might be chal- 
lenged of this absurd collection. 

2. Again, in the verse before, he doth construe this 
grace of God, his kindness to us in Christ, that lovo 
of his, which hath raised him to prepare all things for 
us in Christ Jesus. 

3. And lastly, in the verse following, he doth ex- 
clude either the graces in us, or the works which come 
from us, when we are new creatures, renewed for the 
quality by God's Spirit. 

If these were not sufficient, I would wish yon to 
weigh that place, 2 Tim. i. 9, ' According to his pur- 
pose and grace, given before all worlds.' So that it 
is not anything in us, but God's favour which doth 
work all for us. 

And the better to see this, we mast consider the 
diflerence betwixt the covenant of the law and of the 



[Chap. II. 

For the first, there was the grace of God in this, 
that Lo would contract a covenant with man of right- 
eousness anJ lite, when all that man could do were 
ofliees due for that which he had already received in 
his creation. 

But, fu'st, this covenant was not stricken in a 

Secondly, This covenant was not to be performed 
for any other, but for the righteousness which should 
have been found in ourselves. 

Thirdly, We should in this covenant have procured 
the blessings of God unto ourselves, so that though 
there was grace in a large sense, that God would enter 
covenant when he was not bound, yet if we consider 
that iu the gifts inherent in us by creation it was 
founded, that for our righteousness and works we 
should have had the things covenanted applied, that 
we should then ourselves have procured these things, 
here is grace, that God entered covenant. But not 
any rich grace, because man, if he had stood, might 
have challenged his justification and life, as due debt 
for his works, not as mere gifts fi'om grace. But now 
the Lord doth all of grace. 

1. For, first, the foundation of our righteousness 
and life, he hath made out of us, in his Son Christ 

2. For his Christ apprehended, he doth perform all 
things, not for anything in us, but for his Christ; he 
doth not make us procurers of those things, but in 
Christ doth himself prepare them for us, that our re- 
joicing might be in him. In this there is grace; and 
rich grace of the gospel, that God doth covenant in 
the mediator; that he doth give us Christ, and reveal 
him in us ; that he doth for Christ make us partakers 
of righteousness and life, which is grace, the law re- 
quiring that for inherent righteousness we should be 
justified. Neither Pelagius nor the papists know the 
grace of the covenant, for this is not that rich grace, 
because God, having pardoned our sin, doth give us 
the grnces of his Spirit, whereby we might be righteous, 
and live. For if this were all, that we are saved, and 
first of grace, because God undeservedly hath given 
us those virtues which make us righteous, and deserve 
salvation, for thus Adam standing, might be said to 
be saved by grace, because the merits (if he had any) 
were given him of the grace of God, the perseverance 
in the use of his free will, he could not have had it 
unless he had received it from God. The point, then, 
is clear, that God himself, in great favour and riches 
of mercy, doth justify us: Titus ii. 11, 'The grace of 
God, bringing salvation unto all men, hath appeared.' 
So that the mere grace of God (not excited by any 
works, but working of its own accord) hath the whole 
stroke in our salvation. This is a truth which was 
well known in the time of the Old Testament, ' By 
mercy and truth iniquity shall be forgiven,' Prov. 
xvi. G. The reason is, because God's glory is most 
dear unto him, neither can he endure therein to have 

any partner. Wherefore (in the business of our sal- 
vation) he doth so work, that man may have no mat- 
ter of rejoicing out of God, who doth all this work in 
himself, and out of man, ' that whoso rejoiceth, might 
rejoice only iu the Lord,' 1 Cor. i. 31. 

Use 1. Now this doctrine, that the grace of God is 
all in all about our salvation, even this gi-ace of the 
gospel, it doth teach us the error of the popish 
church, in holding a concurrence of our works, Ac. 
But of this more afterwards. In the mean time we 
are to know, that if our justification be of grace, 
there can be no relics of holiness, nor works of om' 
own that concur thereunto, for the apostle makes a 
flat opposition betwixt grace and works : Rom. xi. C, 
' If it be of grace, it is no more of works, else were 
grace no more grace.' These are so opposite, that, 
like fire and water, they expel each other ; and as 
one saith well. Gratia niillo modo r/talia, nisi sit om- 
nimodo <iratuita, grace is no way to be accounted 
grace, unless every way it be most free. ' By gi'ace 
are ye saved,' &c. And the apostle, 'we are justified 
fredtj,' dciisidv, which word answereth to the Hebrew 
chirma ,'■' which is very emphatical, and is especially 
taken up in three cases : — 

1. When a man doth a thing without hope of the 
least profit. 

2. When a man doth a thing without cause, rashly 
or lightly ; but this sense is not here pertinent. 

8. When a man doth a thing undeservedly, nothing 
moving him thereunto, but much which might lead 
him to the contrary ; and thus it is here to be under- 

For when there was nothing in us which might 
procure it, nay, much which might exasperate the 
Lord against us, then he saved us freely of his gi'ace. 

Use 2. Secondly, This doctrine hath matter of much 
comfort in it for us ; for if our salvation be of mere 
grace, and depend not on our own worth, endeavour, 
and holiness, why should we fear ? If it were for 
anything in us to be procured, we might utterlj' 
despair. Alas ! what are we (poor crawling worms), 
that we should be of any worth in God's sight, before 
whom the stars are unclean ! What is our holiness 
but a filthy menstruous clout, and whereunto can our 
endeavours reach in anything to God-ward ! But 
now, since ' it is not in him that willeth, nor in him 
that runneth, but in God that hath mercy,' Rom. 
ix. 16, we may boldly accept and confidently trust in 
this free grace of God, although we be unworthy of 
it. For why should we put away this rich grace 
ofl'ered and revealed to us ? AVhy should we not 
cheerful!}' embrace it and rejoice in it, specially since 
it hath appeared unto all ; and Gcd (without respect 
of persons) hath set it to be enjoyed of the poor, 
base, low, and unlearned, as well as of the rich, high, 
noble, and learned '? And it is not true humility, but 
a sottish j)ride, to put away, and judge ourselves un- 
* Qu. DJn ?— Ed. 

Vini. 8.] 



worthy of this salvation, whereof it hath pleased God 
(in rich mercy) to deem us worthy. 

U.^e 3. This must further teach us, to live worthy 
this rich grace : Titus ii. 10, ' The grace of God hath 
appeared, teaching us to deny all ungodliness,' &c. 
We must take heed wo turn it not into wantonness, 
and make it a bolster for the flesh. 

Mark secondly, the apostle saith, Mr are saved. He 
doth not say, we are in part saved, reconciled, and 
indued with the Spirit of God, which yet is true, but 
we are saved with himself. The salvation before 
mentioned, doth teach us to be understood of full 

Docl. Whence wc learn, that to the full glorifying of 
ns in heaven, all is from the free, mere grace of God. 
He doth not begin, and leave us at halves to shift for 
ourselves, but ho goeth through : ' He that beginncth 
will finish,' Philip, i. 6, working all our salvation of 
his grace. ' When we were enemies,' Rom. v. 10, 
though he was justly oflendcd with us, yet did he 
find a way of our reconciliation ; when we were dead in 
sins, and could not bo subject to him, he did turn us 
to him, and begin in us this salvation ; the inheritance 
is of grace. When we grieve him with sin, when we 
arc ready to be driven out by enemies, even then the 
Lord doth keep ns by his strength unto that salvation 
he hath prepared. And the Scriptures everywhere 
do set out the glory of God's grace, in that wonderful 
glory shall be given us, more than in these beginnings, 
which, if merit came into these, having been utterly 
excluded in the other, the Lord's grace should fail 
when we come to the point of our salvation, and con- 
fess therein a partner with it, the works of men. 

Use. This must teach us, from the beginning to 
the ending, to acknowledge the grace of God, and 
hang on it, as all-suflicient for our full and perfect 
salvation. Where the Lord lays a foundation of his 
saving grace, he will build upon it, and never leave it 
till he have perfected his work. ' We are kept by the 
power of God unto salvation,' 1 Peter i. 5. And 
therefore the apostle saith, ' Receiving the end of 
j'our faith, the salvation of your souls,' 1 Peter i. 9. 
'He that halh begun a good work in you, will finish 
it unto the day of Christ,' Philip, i. G. ' He is the 
a'lthor and finisher of our faith,' Heb. xii. 2. 

Tliroiit/h faith ; that is (as I have construed), by 
Christ believed on, or faith on Christ, for you must 
always take it with the object. 3I;irk then, first, 

Duct. How that the grace of God and faith stand 
together; they do not one take away the other. 
Faith hath been always requisite, as the instrument 
to take Christ our righteousness, that so we might 
(in God's sight) bo justified. This is taught every- 
where : Gal. iii. 22, ' The Scripture hath concluded 
all under sin, that the promise, by the faith of Jesus 
Christ, shonld be given to all;' and John iii. 16, 
' God so loved tlio world, that he hath given his only 
begotten Son, that whosoever beUeveth on him should 

have everlasting life.' Where we see faith to be 
brought in as the instrument, without which neither 
the promise can be appropriated, nor salvation at- 
tained. So Acts xvi. 80, 81, 'What shall I do to 
be saved?' It is answered, 'Believe on the Lord 
Jesus.' And truly the righteousness of Christ hath 
not been of more ancient time given to men, than 
faith hath been appointed the receiver hereof, called 
therefore ' the righteousness of faith,' Philip, iii. 9. 

Object. But it may be objected (as we have before 
taught), that the grace of God cannot stand with any- 
thing in man. How then (will you ask) can it stand 
with faith ? 

Ans. It is true, that the grace of God doth not 
brook anything inherent in man, and of man, and 
yet notwithstanding may well agree with faith. 

1. For faith is not of man, no, not in man by 
nature, ' for all men have not faith,' 2 Thess. iii. 2, 
but it is in man renewed, and as a gift of mere grace. 

2. Secondly, Faith doth not justifj-, as it is an in- 
herent quality in us, but as it apprehendeth Christ 
Jesus the Redeemer, ' who is made unto us of God 
righteousness,' 1 Cor. i. 80. Thus you see that faith 
is not at all prejudicial to God's favour. And this is 
not the only reason, because that faith is given of 
grace, xi^dsiarai, for then all the gifts of the Holy 
Ghost might come likewise into the article of justifica- 

3. Again, faith receiveth only, and sheweth to 
God, that righteousness and merit of Christ which 
God hath given, and only for that thing received, not 
for receiving, doth seek to be justified. 

4. Again, faith receiving Christ, standeth ^"ith 
grace, because it is of grace that the faithful soul 
laying hold of Christ is justified, for the law knoweth 
not this righteousness, but biddeth us bring our own ; 
it is therefore the Lord's grace that accepteth faith 
for the righteousness of the believer, in the agree- 
ment of acceptation, and therefore faith is said to be 
imputed for righteousness. 

Olij. But then here we may answer a cavil ; 
some may ask. How we can be said to be saved by 
grace alone, sometime by faith alone, sometime by 
mercy, by Christ ; when, if by any of these alone, the 
other should be excluded ? 

Alls. I answer, The word alone excludeth such 
causes as fight with these, or any of them (for fight 
with one, and fight with all), not those that are sub- 

Use. This then doth let us see how absurd they 
are that will make faith and God's grace fight together, 
which the Lord hath so sweetly coujiled. This by 
the way. 

Doct. I come now to the main doctrine, which is 
this, viz., that God's grace doth so save, that first we 
must be true believers ; grace and belief must not be 
severed in the matter of salvation. ' God so loved 
the world, that whosoever bclieveth in him,' &c., John 



[Chap. II. 

111. 16. Look, as in the covenant of the law, ' Do 
this and live ;' no deed, no life ; so in this covenant 
of the gospel, wherein the Lord promiseth for Christ 
to pardon sin, to justify, to accept to eternal life, 
here it may be said, no faith, no portion in the pro- 
mises of God, in the grace of God in Christ Jesus, 
for look, as plasters unapplied, so is Christ unbelieved. 
Nay, more, hast thou not faith ? Whilst thus thou 
art, God will not justify thee, nor accept thee to life ; 
for to pronounce thee just that dost not believe on 
Christ, were to pronounce the guilty innocent, which 
is an abomination with God. For hence it is, that 
God's mercy and justice kiss (oflfering no violence to 
each other), because God doth so of grace save us 
(sinners in ourselves), that first he maketh us (through 
Christ applied) righteous, and worthy salvation, worthy 
in regard of his just acceptation. 

TJse. WTiereas the Lord doth so justify us of gi-ace, 
that we are also made just in the redemption of Christ, 
we may see and contemplate that admirable mystery, 
how the Lord's justice and mercy should accord in 

1. There is aU justice unto Christ, whose soul felt 
the anger of God in that extremity, that his body 
(affected therewith) did sweat clotty blood, who was 
broken even with hellish torment by the -hand of God 
for our sins, and was humbled to the death of the 

2. There is all mercy to us ; it is mercy that the 
satisfaction of Christ should be ours, that all he did 
should be accounted as done by ourselves. It is 
mercy that Christ himself, the satisfier, should be given 
us, saith Paul, Rom. viii. 32. He hath gratified us 
with bis Son, e^agiaaro, he hath bestowed him freely 
on us. 

Now we will, for our more fruitful considering of 
the point, set down these four things : — 

1. What is the act of faith. 

2. What is the sul ject in which it is. 

3. What object it hath. 
i. What properties. 

1. First, For the act of faith, it standeth in these 
two things, knowledge and apprehension. 

Faith therefore is by a synecdoche called knowledge : 
' By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify 
many,' Isa. liii. ' This is life eternal, to know,' &c., 
John xvii. 3. 

The apprehension likewise, or receiving of the 
thing believed, is no less certain ; the Scripture so 
construing faith : John i. 12, ' So many as received 
him, to them he gave power to be called the sons of 
God.' ' For he that hath received his testimony, 
hath sealed that God is true.' ' He that believeth 
not, maketh God a liar.' And this is the principal 
thing in justifying faith ; for the devils know, and 
many can prophesy in his name, to whom he will 
say, ' Depart, ye workers of iniquity, I know you not,' 
Mat. vii. 23. 

Quest. But how is this apprehension made, whether 
by the understanding and acknowledgment, Col. ii. 2. 
or by the will ? 

^•1/is. I answer, By both : 1, By assent in the un- 
derstanding; 2, By affiance and confidence in the 
will ; the latter cometh from the former. And from 
this second degree it cometh, that faith hath the force 
of quieting, according to that, ' Being justified by 
faith, we have peace with God,' Rom. v. 1. 

Ohj. But it may be said, confidence is an eflfect of 
faith, therefore not the act of faith. 

Ans. It is both the formal act and effect, diversely 
considered : the act, as it apprehendeth and resteih 
on Christ ; the effect, as it bringeth forth true peace 
and liberty. 

Ohj. But it may be said, faith causeth confidence, 
therefore is not confidence. 

Ans. It foUoweth not ; the fire giveth me light and 
heat, is it not therefore light and hot ? 

2. Secondly, For the subject of faith ; I answer, 
it is the heart only : ' With the heart man beheveth 
to salvation,' Rom. s. 10 ; ' If thou believest with all 
thine heart,' Acts viii. 37 ; ' Trust on the Lord wiih 
all thy heart,' Prov. iii. 5. And it were better to 
stay in these bounds of the Scripture than to mince 
these things. The old Scriptures have in them the 
doctrine of faith, and yet they have not proper words 
for the mind, brain, will, in them all ; now the proper 
functions of these two powers do both concur in faith. 
And though some have counted it strange, yet in 
school doctrine this hath been justified, that one and 
the self-same habit may be in two diverse powers of 
the mind. A great deal of discourse about free will 
was very absurd, if this were not warrantable; for 
the Scripture useth words noting the function of the 
W;ll, receiving, coining, &c. Again, when the mind 
hath determined this or that as true and good to me, 
the will presently embraceth from the determination. 
TNTien the understanding hath judged aright of the 
promises, and adjudged them to ourselves that they 
belong to us, then the will welcomes them, claps about 
them, hugs them, and (as it is, Heb. xi. 13) kisses 
them, a.aTaau/j.iiir.1. This last act is the very pith of 
faith, that which is called application, ' My Lord, and 
my God,' John xx. 28; and as Paul saith of himself. 
Gal. ii. 20, ' I live by the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave himself for me,' speaking in 
the person of true believers. 

3. Thirdly, The object of faith must be considered 
generally ; the full object, and the particular object 
about which it is occupied, as justifying. 

(1.) The general or common object is even all those 
things about which faith is conversant, iu the whole 
obedience of it, when now we are justified. It doth 
not justify, but only as it apprehendeth Christ, or the 
righteousness of God, and pnrdon of sin in Christ. 

(2.) Christ with all his benefits, or the benefits with 
Christ, are the object of faith. And this the Scrip- 

Vut 8.] 



hire and experience doth manifest, that Christ, as in 
whom is forgiveness of sin, ami hfe, is it which faith 
only lavcth hold of, as it justificth and saveth. 

Ohj. But it maj- be objected, if a man believe for- 
giveness of sin in Christ to justification, then he 
bclieveth his sins are pardoned before they are par- 
doned, before he is justified. 

Alts. I answer, They arc together in time, thongh 
in nature there is an antecedency. 

Quest. But how can the pardon of sins, which yet 
is not really applied, to be believed ? 

Alls. I answer, It is in the eternal determination, in 
the purchase of Christ, in the word of truth, it is suf- 
ficient for faith, that it is in the word of promise. 

4. For the properties of faith which justifieth : 

(1.) It is persevering: ' A shield against all the 
fiery darts of the devil,' Eph. vi. IC. It cannot be 
lost, nor overcome of any creature, because it is built 
on the rock Christ ; so as the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against it. ' This is our victory, whereby we 
overcome the world, even our faith,' 1 John v. 4. 

(2.) It is hvely, working by love : Gal. v. C, ' It 
maketh that we shall neither be idle nor unprofitable.' 
It is no dead thing which will stand us in stead. 
There are indeed many kinds of these dead faiths : 
some are blind presumptions, which are merely coun- 
terfeit ; some are historical persuasions, touching the 
truth of the articles of religion, without any particular 
confidence ; some are common illuminations iu the points 
of the gospel, with misgrounded persuasions, like that 
of Haman's: Esther vi. G, ' What shall be done to the 
man whom the king will honour ? ' He no sooner 
heard it was in the heart of the king to honour a man, 
but who should the person be beside himself? These 
are called faith, because they are inferior operations of 
the Spirit, and have an illumination like as faith hath, 
though they difier much from that which is justifying 
and saving. 

(8.) Saving faith is sincere and sound, called there- 
fore ' faith without hypocrisy,' cr/cr/j amrrox^iro;, 1 Tim. 
i. 5 ; as which hath his saving efl'cct, ' Receiving the 
end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls,' 
1 Pet. i. 9. All othtr faiths are like slips, they will 
not pass in heaven for the obtaining of spiritual bless- 
ings through Christ, because they do not truly and 
inwardly unite us with Christ, otherwise than as a wen 
is united with the body. 

(4.) It is a precious faith, 2 Pet. i. 1 ; within itself 
a pearl, rare, and of greatest worth, the least grain 
better than a kingdom ; most rare, ' All men have not 
faith,' therefore called ' the faith of God's elect,' Titus 
i. 1, because it is given to none else; more precious 
than gold ; for the efl'ect, it entitleth to Christ, and 
all treasures of grace and glory in him. 

Use 1. If this be so now, as I have proved, that 
God's grace doth not save but by faith, many are 
hereby to be convinced. As the devil pleaded to 
Christ God's protection, though he should throw him- 

self down, so we shall do well, though we go on in 
unbelief. But mark, I pray you, ' Without faith it is 
impossible to please God,' Heb. xi. G. Except God 
be pleased, thou canst not be saved. Now then, the 
matter being of life and death, it concerns thee to look 
well to it, whether thou have a true faith or no. 

Ol'j. Why, would you make me a Jew ? I hope I 
have a good faith, else I would be sorry. 

Alls. Indeed, I confess I have no knowledge. But 
what then ? 

Why then, out of thine own mouth thon shalt be 
judged, and by thine own words thou shalt be con- 
demned. Because thou hast no knowledge, therefore 
thou hast no faith, neither that of miracles, historical, 
nor any at all ; for the common nature of all faith is, 
to give assent unto the word of God. Now this assent 
cannot be where the word is not known. Thou, then, 
being ignorant of the word, art altogether unfaithful, 
and without faith. Nay, in this respect thou bast 
less faith than the devil himself ; for he believes his- 
torically that which thou neither knowest nor believcst, 
as having it confirmed unto him by daily and infallible 
experience. Nay, further, I tell thee plainly, that if 
thou die in this thine ignorance and blindness, there 
is, of the two, more hope of the devil's salvation than 
of thine. 

But to pass by these, and come unto a certain reli- 
gious person, who I warrant you is wholly devout, 
and can good skill in his creed, acknowledge every 
article, though not in the same sense as the Holy 
Ghost teacheth it, but as the church teacheth it. 
Would you know whom I mean ? Why, it is an holy 
Catholic (as he terms himself) of an ancient house, 
whose whole descent lies in gilded veloped parchments, 
and unwritten verities ; one that can his creed rolia- 
tim in Latin (as we do in English) ; yet I must tell 
you that, re ipsa, the very same person razeth many 
a fundamental article. To give yon instance in one 
or two for all : They say they believe in Christ, and 
yet join works in the matter of their salvation ; and 
as for Christ, the surname of our blessed Saviour, 
they cut him short of his three oflices, king, priest, 
and prophet, by their tyrannous pope, merits, and 
traditions, putting aga'n a reed in his hand, clothing 
him in purple, crying. Hail, King of the Jens, and 
yet crucify him. They say they believe remission of 
sins, and yet teach that a man may not be assured of 
his own salvation, though it be included in every 
article of our faith. What should I stand here to rip 
up the paunch of all their abominable heresies ? By 
these you may judge of the rest, and safely conclude, 
they have no faith at all ; nay, in this respect, less 
than the devil himself, who said, ' Jesus I acknow- 
ledge, and Paul ; but who are ye ?' Acts xix. 

But here comes a third person to be examined, one 
that comes near to a puritan (as the common atheists 
of this age term them), but yet not a puritan ; he it 
is that believeth all the articles of faith, consenteth to 



[Chap. II. 

them, professeth them, yea (and which makes him 
diiJ'erent from all the former), he doth inwardly rejoice, 
and is afl'ected with them in some measure. Would 
Ton have me point out this man unto you who it is ? 
Why, it is he that causeth the gospel of God to be 
evil spoken of, because men in truth take him to be 
him, whom indeed he is not. Very devout on the 
Sunday (as they call it), but as profane as the worst 
on Monday. This man, you shall see him sometime 
very devout, and to look towards heaven with his eyes 
as a penitentiary, yea, and to stretch forth his hands 
to the poor in gifts eleemosynary ; yea, and if you 
mark it, so will some drunkard too, he will, upon his 
ale-bench, play the divine, and with a counterfeit 
sobriety praise God ; and as for the poor, if the toy 
take liim in the head, he will disburse, and give him 
all that he hath in his purse, and yet neither holy nor 
charitable. Even so this soul having once tasted, in 
Christ's wine-cellar, of that comfortable nectar which 
the saints of God drink of, viz., the blood of Christ, 
he may for a time look with a cheerful hue, and fresh 
countenance, walk and talk much like a Christian, but 
in truth nothing less but a faithless wretch, and un- 
conscionable temporizer. 

Quest. But it will be then here demanded, how this 
man may be known and discerned from him that hath 
indeed a true, justifying, and saving faith. 

Alts. I answer, It is as hard for a man to know him, 
as it is to discern him that hath a vizor before his 
face. He is so close veiled andmasked with the show 
of holiness, that a man may pry into the very face of 
him, and yet never the nearer, until he discover him- 
self by some flinching revolt, and apparent apostasy. 
Judas, you know, went a long time unkenned in regard 
of the apostles, albeit very expert and well-discerning 
men ; he was well accounted of, put in trust, and car- 
ried the bag, until our Lord Christ Jesus, by the power 
of his transcendent Godhead, did discover and detect 

But yet, that we may not altogether be deceived, 
let us try the spirits, whether they be of God or not, 
so far forth as we are men, and therefore can but pro- 
bably conjecture ; howsoever, in regard of ourselves, 
we may grant either by way of affirming or denying 
in our own consciences. Let us well observe, and we 
shall iiud, that the man that hath this temporary faith, 
Inth (as I have said) but a general knowledge. 

1. He knows Christ but by hearsay, or, as it were. 
In' the face, he hath no inward familiarity and com- 
munion with him. And this knowledge is wrought 
in him pnrtly by the Spirit opening the eye of his 
mind, as the oculist that brings a man to a confused 
kenning of the light, or rather a mist ; partly also 
1 y the often hearing of the word, conferring, reading, 
ai:d the like. 

2. Secondly, His heart is seldom or never touched 
with the sharp point of his sins. And therefore you 
shall see commonlv, that this man will be full of 

scurrilous and idle talk, ready upon all occasions to 
lavish into vanity. 

3. Thirdly, His conference will be cold and careless, 
and for the most part about unnecessary and curious 
arguments : as whether we shall know one another in 
heaven or not, whether hell be in the air, in the earth, 
or where it is, &c. ; all tending to controversy and 
mere vanity. 

4. You shall see that this person, howsoever he 
seem to be reformed in himself, yet he will utterly 
refuse to reform his family. 

5. This man makes it a special part of his religion 
to be talking of other men's bloody sins, but cannot 
abide (with the stork) to peck his own breast, that it 
may bleed afresh for his own sins, and to grieve and 
complain of his own infirmities and wants. 

6. Howsoever he seem forward in religion, and 
very precise outwardly, yet he will have an eye still 
to the door, and to em-ich himself by any unconscion- 
able cheat. 

7. Lastly, outward crosses in the world, prejudicial 
to his state, or to his good name, makes him in the 
end to renounce and cast away all religion, and to 
curse himself for all his forwardness. These and the 
like symptoms alway accompany a temporary faith ; 
the profl'ers whereof I grant are in the best, but ever 
encountered and opposed by the prowess and valiancy 
of the Spirit. 

Use 2. Here is rich comfort to every believer ; this 
is a happy privilege for him, that he is not liable to 
damnation. He is justified in God's court from his 
sins, for by faith he is made one with Christ, Rom. 
viii. 1 : 'Go thy waj', thy faith hath saved thee.' 

Use 3. All are hence to be admonished, first, to try 
our faith, bring it to the touch-stone. We would be 
loath to take a piece of monev' that were counterfeit ; 
oh, then, take heed the devil cheat us not with mock 
faiths, which profit nothing. Such as never try their 
faith, it is a sign they have not faith in truth. iSV- 
coniUij, Thou must use all endeavour to come to faith. 
It is begotten by the word preached, as the only in- 
strument, Rom. i. 16, X. 14. True faith is begotten 
and continually nourished by the word ; it is the air 
in which it breatheth. 

Not of yourselves. Poet. Observe, hence, that no 
power in man doth quicken him, nor no virtue, quality, 
or dignity, when he is now quickened, doth merit his 
salvation. Paul accounted this inherent righteousness 
conformable to the law dross and dung in this case, 
Philip, iii. 7, 8. Oh what can it do, that in us is as 
water in a muddy channel ! What is the power of it 
to work salvation, which, if the strength of God 
should not, for his mercy sake, uphold, it would be 
quenched incessantly. What can our dignity do in 
meriting '? As sons, we are entitled to the inheritance ; 
but the claim of sonship and merit are fiat contrary. 
The papists confess that life is merited by Christ, and 
is made ours by the right of inheritance. So far we 

Veu. 8.] 



go with them ; yea, touching works, they hold many 
things with us. 

1. That no works of themselves can merit life 

2. That works clone before conversion can merit 
notliini]; at God's hand, much less life everlasting. 

8. That there is no merit at God's hand without 
his mercy ; no exact merit, as often there is amongst 
min. All these are true. The point whereabout we 
diss(n', is, that with the merit of Clirist, and free pro- 
mise, they will have the merit of works joined, as 
done b_v them who arc adopted children. Now that 
•which directly must bo opposed unto this is, that 
God's gracious promising, and giving it to us in 
Christ, cannot stand with the merit of our works. 

Ohj. Bat why, then, doth God promise life ever- 
lasting to works : ' If ye mortify the deeds of the flesh, 
ye shall live,' llom. viii. 13 ; ' If ye sow to the Spirit, 
you shall reap of the Spirit life everlasting,' Gal. vi. 8. 

Ans. There are some conditions simply conditional, 
that do well stand with grace. 

1. Such are those conditions whereon, they only 
interceding, wo promise and undertake to do a matter, 
or bestow a kindness on any ; as. Go with me to such 
B place, and I will give thee hidden treasure ; Come 
to mo to-morrow, and I will give thee an hundred 

2. There are other conditions which have the reason 
of a cause meritorious ; such do not only intercede, 
but deserve, upon contracts, as much as wo promise ; 
as, Do my work well, and I will pay you truly. Of 
this kind are those conditions which are contained in 
the law, ' Do this and live.' As for the other of the 
gospel, they are only bare and simple conditions, 
which deserve nothing, but must intercede and precede 
the bestowing of eternal life. And here it were worth 
our labour to consider the grounds of merit which the 
papists lay down in the chief of their arguments. 
They are these in brief: 1, Christ's merit; 2, Our 
adoption; 3, Our works; 4, God's covenanting with us. 

But none of these are sufficient to establish merit. 

1. For, first, we cannot merit, as children, eternal 
life, because it is our right by birth. No child can 
be said to merit the inheritance to which he is born ; 
and how doth any merit that which is his right al- 
ready ? 

2. Nor do our works of themselves merit, when all 
obedience is but a witness of our thankfulness ; nor 
is ihiro any proportion between the duty and the in- 

3. Neither yet as they are dyed with the blood of 
Christ, or do come from his Sjiirit ; for as they are of 
Christ, dwelling in us by his Spirit, so arc they also 
from ourselves, having a law of sin dwelling in us, and 
lusting against the Spirit, which maketh them to be 
done imperfectly, and by halves. 

Ol'j. It is further objected, that life everlasting is a 
rewai-d, and that rewards are deserved. 

Ann. I answer, All rewards are not due upon, nor 
given for desert ; there is a reward given by favour. 
When Paul saith, that ' to him that worketh the re- 
ward is counted not by favour, but by debt,' doth he 
not insinuate so much, that some often receive even 
liberal rewards only upon the favour of the donor ? 
And our Saviour saith, Luke vi. 32, ' And if you love 
them that love you, what thanks shall yo have ?' The 
word x.Hii, which signiticth a gratuity (as it wore), 
and a reward of free favour, importing thus much, 
that what reward men have of God, even upon their 
best service, it is but %«;<;, a gratuity, no of £;/.>i,'xa, 
no debt upon desert. 

Ohj. Lastl}', they say that which is given according 
to works is deserved by works. Bat so is eternal 

Ans. That indeed which is given according unto 
works, as the meritorious causes thereof, that may 
well bo said to be deserved by works. But now 
eternal life is not so given, but is bestowed according 
to works, as they are testimonies of our faith, whereby 
we rest on Christ only for our salvation, and for whose 
sake only believed on they expect eternal life. 

Use. This must learn us to renounce whatsoever 
we ai'e, in regard of resting in it as a cause of salva- 
tion. Look in the ninth of Deuteronomy, verse 4, 
' Say not in thy heart. For my righteousness the Lord 
hath brought me in to possess this land,' &c. No, we 
must put over all to the free grace of God in Christ, 
counting our best deeds as menstruous garments, 
reckoning ' all as dross and dung to win Christ ;' that 
is, ' to be found not having our own righteousness, 
but that which is through faith,' Philip, iii. 0. 

It is the (lift of God. So the apostle saith expressly : 
Rom. vi. 23, ' The gift of God is eternal life, through 
Jesus Christ.' The last salvation is made no less of 
the promise and grace than is our justification, and 
righteousness, and life : Piom. v. 15, ' If through the 
otience of one many be dead, much more the grace ot 
God, and the gift by gi'ace, which is by one man, Jesus 
Christ, hath abounded unto many.' 

Ohj. How can it be called a reward ? 

Ans. It is so called metaphorically, not that pro- 
perly it is a recompense or wage, but because it fol- 
loweth in the end of working. A reward may be given 
of mere bounty and mercy. 

Ohj. But when the Scripture calleth it now wages, 
now a gift, how shall I know where it is properly 
taken ? 

Ans. The Scripture telleth us that the word fiifl is 
properly taken for a bequest, without the desert oi 
anything in us, or work that can come from us. No- 
thing more free than gift, so let us hold our salvation 
most free. Umne domtm e.r dilectione donnntis pro/i- 
chcitiir. A reward may be a largess of bounty. 

But the papists will tell us it is a gift figuratively, 
by a catachresis. They say it is God's gift, because 
it is given of God, whereby it is deserved. This can- 



[Chap. II. 

not stand with this text, Not of ws, not of worJcs. This 
were an intolerable eatachresis, to say that the thing I 
buy with my money were a free gift to me, which the 
papists must here yield. Again, if it were therefore 
only of grace, and a gift, then it might as truly be 
said not to be of grace, and not a gift of God, which 
some impiously spare not to speak. Again, it were a 
contradiction to call it a gift ; buying with the penny, 
and receiving of gift, these are contrary, God taking 
at my hand as good as he giveth, taking that for which 
he cannot deny me heaven in just exchange. 

Ver. 9. Xot of xfurks, lest any man should hoast 

In the verse before, the apostle sheweth the foun- 
tain of all saving good to be the free grace of God, 
and the qualification in us (hi/ faith) which makes us 
capable of all thnt good. Now he proceeds, in way 
of amplification, to shew that no works are of virtue 
to bring us to salvation. This the apostle setteth 
down in opposition to the corrupt judgment of the 
world, affirming that all salvation in heaven, and as- 
surance of it here, is not by works, but of the mere 
grace of God. And this he proves by the end of the 
grace of God, which is to exclude all glory and boast- 
ing in ourselves. 

Dnct. Here, then, observe, that nothing which we 
do doth merit our salvation, or is a cause procuring 
it unto us. Thus the apostle doth everywhere shut 
out the desert of works from being causes of salvation. 
God even in Abraham hath shewed us an ensample, 
who had the inheritance given him not upon working, 
but believing : ' His faith was accounted to him for 
righteousness,' Kom. iv. 22, Gal. iii. 6. And that of 
Sarah and Hagar, howHagar's sons could not inherit; 
that is, they that are according to the covenant of the 
law could not by the works of the law be justified, 
Gal. iv. 23. 

Obj. But the papists will except that they are 
works of the ceremonial law ; or if of the moral law, 
j'et such as literally only, and not spiritually, have 
conformity with it. 

Ans. But in Abraham this is refuted, whose works 
(now being justified) are debarred from being his 
righteousness before God, or giving title to the true 
Canaan. Again, the apostle doth beat all such ex- 
ceptions flat to the ground in this text, letting us 
plainly see that he understanrieth those works which 
we do now ' created in Christ,' Eph. ii. 10. And 
this legal sentence of ' Do and live,' in which tenure 
the law runneth, the apostle teacheth that it bath no 
place in the believers. But it will not be amiss, 1, 
to demonstrate it by reason ; 2, to clear the main 
objections, and so to come to the use. 

Reason 1. Our works even of sanctification cannot 
merit our salvation, because they are the motions of 
us already saved ; they are the eflccts of salvation 
already revealed in us, not the causes of that we have 

not. The Scripture knoweth not but one only way 
to salvation, which is successively promoted : ' Whom 
God justifieth, them he glorifieth,' Rom. viii. 80. 

Hcasou 2. Secondly, Works are imperfect in us, the 
flesh .Tnd spirit so striving, that the action even of 
that which is predominant is brought forth (by reason 
of this strife) with great imperfection. 

Beason 3. Infants are saved, but they have no merits ; 
for the habits of holiness are not meritorious, as being 
freely received. Salvation, therefore, is grounded on 
some other thing than works, or infants could not be 
heirs of heaven. 

Ohj. It will be granted it is so ; it is both an in- 
heritance as we are sons, and a reward deserved as 

Ans. But this will not stand ; these two titles one 
overthrow the other : ' If of the law, then not of 
faith,' Gal. iii. 14. 

Reason 4. That for which we are accounted righteous, 
for that we are saved also ; in what our righteousness 
is grounded, in that our salvation is grounded. For 
what is our justifying ? It is the acquitting of us from 
sin and death, and accepting of us as righteous to 
life. Now how plainly the one and the other is 
gi'ounded in him, I leave it to their judgment who are 
anything experienced in the Scripture : ' God hath 
sent his Son, that we might live in him.' Ho hath 
made us righteous in him. He is ' Jehovah, our 
righteousness.' He is ' made unto us wisdom, right- 
eousness,' &c. ' That which was impossible to the 
flesh, being weak, God sent his Son, &c., that the 
righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us,' 
Rom. viii. 3. 

Ohj. But it is objected, first, from the names where- 
of it is called, as a reward, wages, a crown, a prize, the 

Secondly, From the covenant. 

Thirdly, From the efficiency which the Scripture 
seemeth to place in works to this purpose. 

Fourthly, From the rule after which salvation is 

Fifthly, From the justice of God. 

Sixthly, From the absurdities of the contrary doc- 

Ans. 1. To the first I answer. The names of reward, 
wages, prize, &c., are figuratively to be conceived, that 
look, what the prize and crown is to him that striveth 
and fighteth, what recompense is to him that giveth 
aught, what wages to him that laboureth, the same is 
glory to him that receiveth it. Again, it is all these 
of grace, and free, not of desert and debt. 

2. Secondly, Whereas it is objected from the cove- 
nant ; I answer. We are under no covenant of works. 

Ohj. S. But the gospel saith, ' If yo mortify the 
deeds of the flesh, yc shall live,' Rom. viii. 13. 

Ans. I answer. Such promises do toll us uho shall 
live, not lehij they shall hve. Sec<mdly, They are made 
to persons now by faith already iu Christ, and so first 

Ver. 9.] 



justiGed and saved. That question, ' What shall we do 
to be saved '?' it saith, ' Believe.' But Christ answered, 
* Do this and live.' I answer, There are two sorts of 
promises, legal and evangelical. These are general, 
as for justification and life ; special, such as arc given 
for the exercising of faith in the believer. Now to 
know the diti'erence betwixt legal and evangelical, 
general and special, will make us see what we are to 
account of this objection. 

The legal and evangelical diflfer thus : these latter 
are made in Christ ; those other.vise for obedience full 
and perfect, performed by the person himself. 

Quest. But how do these special promises differ from 
the general in the gospel'? 

Alls. In the subject, the condition, the end. 1. 
While they are as seed, and as a way gone, which doth 
bring us to a treasure freely bestowed. 2. While they 
do increase faith, which we look for in well-doing, or 
suffering, our faith, which is an instrumental cause, 
more and more is strengthened, and so consequently 
more and more salvation is apprehended ; and thus I 
think that the word i^/d^otra should be construe!. 
They are a seed improperly, because they are the 
manifestation of our faith, after the race of good works 
glory springeth up, as if by them they were caused. 
3. When faith is the root of good works, that which is 
spoken of them must principally be referred to the 

4. To the fourth, all those places prove no merit of 
works, but a measure of glory conformable to works : 
' that I may know as I am known.' 

Quest. But why after works ? 
Alls. Because they are evidences of faith, because 
more known, and convincing; to encourage them. 

5. Ohj. For the fifth, God doth justly give us life to 
work, therefore there is that biudeth him, as deserving 
it with him. 

Alls. It foUoweth not. The justice of God is mani- 
fested, not for the dignity of the person or of the work 
he doth of debt, give the crown as deserved ; but be- 
cause he is faithful to make good what he hath freely 
promised : ' God is just, if any confess his sin,' 1 John 
i. 9. God is just, when he doth justify the wicked, 
believing on Christ. Again, there is no covenant 
which should make these things due upon working. 
Now, by their own doctrine, without a covenant they 
cannot merit. And this may be held for a conclusion, 
that in all recompense of works, if the works of the 
law could be brought to God, there is no debt in re- 
gard of the desert of the work, but only in regard of 
God's fidelity. 

The principal conditional agreement is such, where 
the condition is the cause of the thing promised, the 
accessary condition. Agreements are sucli, where we 
undertake only upon, not for, the condition, to do this 
or that. For example, serve mo by the year, this I 
■will give thee. Son, ply your book, be a good boy, 
each a house and lands shall be thine. 

Quest. But why are these not as well to be taken for 
causes as the other ? 

Alls. Because they are made to such as now by faith 
are in Christ, and have by another title the things pro- 
mised ; to the persons working, not to the work. Why 
should not the speech to my child make the condition 
the cause of his inheritance ? Because it foUoweth 
his birth. 

Lastly, To works, as evident testimonies of the 
causes, not as causes deserving. Il is not said to God, 
Give that thou hast received ; but, Give that thou hast 
promised. Nothing but God's free promise maketh 
heaven due. Now these things must be received in 
love, or else all is nothing. And motives thus to en- 
tertain them ai'e these : 

1. God's mercy, justice, glory. 

2. Man cannot be humbled. 

3. The conscience cannot be established in com- 

But the ground of all this popish cavilling against 
the truth riseth out of ignorance. 

1. Ignorance, what works can merit. 

2. Ignorance, that this, with our glorification, is but 
one single salvation, though accomplished successively. 

3. Ignorance, that Christ and merits fight together. 

4. Ignorance, of our imperfection in righteousness 
and works. 

And thus much for this, which overthrown, all merit 
is overthrown ; for without a covenant on God's part 
grounding merit, there can be no desert with God. 

Now the things objected in way of reproachful con- 
sequence are. 

First, That we disgrace works. To which we an- 
swer, that we give them all their privileges, in regard 
of the fountain, coverture, acceptat'on, recompense ; 
everything but walking cheek by joul with Christ in 
the work of salvation ; and thus to grace them, is in- 
deed to disgrace them. 

Secondly, They say again, that we preach licen- 
tiousness. When Paul heard that objected, ' Let us 
do evil, that good may come thereof,' Rom. iii. 8 ; and 
' let us sin that grace may abound,' Rom. vi. 1, 2 ; 
we cannot wonder that we are thus maliciously de- 

Thirdly, They say again that we take away all the 
spur of good working, and kill the heart. If I shall 
get nothing by my works, to what end should I work ? 
As good play for nothing, as work for nothing. 

If all were such mercenary minds as the papists, 
with whom it is true, no penny no paternoster, it were 
something they said, yet false ; for we teach a most 
plentiful and ample recompense of works. Here only 
is the difference : they say this recompense is grounded 
on the desert of their works. We say, in the free 
vouchsafing and acceptance of God. But, indeed, 
themselves kill the heart of all working ; for if I must 
first deserve it, then my conscience can never bo settled 
peaceably. For I can never assure myself that I have 



[Chap. II. 

works enough, nor tbat those I have are good enough. 
When a man is here, then his heart faileth and fainteth ; 
for as good never a whit, as no whit better. Even as 
a labourer that should in the heat of his work be 
brought into doubt of his reward, he would set him 
down and say, As good play for nought as work for 

Use 1. To let us see how our religion doth lift up 
the grace of God, and depress man ; two tokens of true 
religion. For that religion which sincerely defendeth 
the graces of God, which setteth up no rejoicing in 
man, so derogatory to the glory of God, which puUeth 
down the pharisaical feathers wherewith man prideth 
himself, and holdeth Christ so, as adjoining nothing 
which might make him in vain, that only is the right 
religion. But this doth our doctrine, &c. As con- 
trariwise, that exalteth man above himself, and de- 
tracteth from the glory of God and the praise of his 
grace, which is all in all in the matter of man's salva- 
tion, is the badge of antichrist and his devilish doc- 

Use 2. This letteth us also see the arrogant spirit 
of the papists. When the saints have found and ac- 
knowledged themselves ' less than the least of God's 
benefits,' Gen. sxxii. 10 ; when they have cried out, 
' What shall they give to God for all his benefits ? ' 
Ps. cxvi. 12. These sacrifice to their own net, dero- 
gate from the glory of God's rich mercy and grace, 
from the all-sufficiency of Christ's merits, blasphe- 
onsly affirming they have deserved heaven, even the 
fulness of all happiness. The apostle here, we see, 
speaketh to the Ephesians now in Christ, who could 
not conceive that they might place any rejoicing in the 
fruits of Gentilism. Nay, even works of grace, the 
apostle doth so forbid rejoicing even in them, that he 
doth transfer it whollj' out of ourselves, upon that 
which God hath done for us in Christ. Adam might 
not thus rejoice, who yet might have rejoiced in works 
had he stood ; for works of grace cannot be rejoiced 
in as any way procuring causes of salvation. 

Use 3. Take no thought for salvation by works, learn 
to cast thyself by faith into the meritorious arms of 
Christ thy Saviour, and against all contradictions of 
sin and Satan (suggesting thy own unworthiness), cleave 
fast unto him as all-sufliciont for thy salvation. 

Now foUoweth the end why God hath placed the 
matter of man's salvation wholly in the free grace of 
God : ' Lost any man,' saith the apostle, ' should 
boast himself.' That no man might have any cause 
to boast. 

Doct. Obserre that there is not left anything in man, 
wherein he may rojoice as deserving salvation, Rom. 
iii. 26, 27. Having said, that ' God is just, and a 
justifier of him that is of the faith of Jesus,' he addcth, 
' Where is then the rejoicing ? It is excluded. By 
what law ? Of works? Nay, bnt by the law of faith.' 
So, 1 Cor. i. 31, having shewed what rich treasures 
come by Christ, he addeth upon it, that ' He that re- 

joiceth, let him rejoice in the Lord ; ' ' Whom believ- 
ing, we rejoice with joy unspeakable and glorious,' 1 
Peter i. 8 ; ' We rejoice under the hope of the glory 
of God,' Rom. V. 2. But there is nothing in man 
which may make him glory, as being a procurer and 
deserver of his salvation. Why so ? Because what- 
soever he is, or can do, it must be all reckoned as loss 
in this business ; for this is the end of the whole mys- 
tery of our salvation, that we might be all in God, out 
of ourselves. 

Ohj. But it may be objected, that the saints have 
boasted themselves of their works before God. 

Ans. There is a double boasting, or rejoicing in 
works : the one, as in means of procuring our salva- 
tion ; the other, as in testimonies of faith and a good 
conscience, and of a person to be saved. The saints 
never rejoiced in the former, but in this latter kind. 
Or thus, the one of reconciliation, and hope of life, 
which is grounded in faith alone : Rom. v. 1, 3, 
' Being justified by faith, we have peace with God,' 
&c.; ' We rejoice in tribulation.' The other, of a good 
conscience, which is in works. For as the fruits do 
testify of the tres, that it is good or evil, so do works 
of the man. 

Use. We see then what the papists are, and their 
religion ; for they derogate, as from God's grace, so 
from his glory, to set up boasting of man ; just phari- 

Ohj. But the apostle seemeth to forbid it, saying, 
Why rejoicest thou in that thou hast, as if thou hadst 
not received it ? 

Ans. The apostle doth take away this, with this 
consideration, as if things were of ourselves ; but doth 
not therefore give leave to rejoice in these things, if 
we know they are given ; for he placeth our rejoicing 
out of ourselves and our gifts. 

The papists yield it inexpedient, not safe without 
sundry provisions diligently observed : as, that it be 
of good things ; that we know them of God ; that \va 
remember imperfections ; that we go forward. 

Use. Wherefore, the truth being so clear in our own 
consciences, we must learn our duties. Let our re- 
joicing before God be only in his love, in Christ ; 
glory in nothing but in the eternal love of God that 
saves us : ' We are the circumcision, which worship 
God in spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have 
no confidence in the flesh,' Philip, iii. 3. 

Dod. Another point here to be observed is this, 
That whatsoever we receive in Christ, cannot stand in 
desert of salvation. 

The reason is plain. First, whatsoever must be 
meritorious in salvation and righteousness, must be 
given us in creation. The covenant of the law was 
stricken with Adam on his perseverance in inno- 
cency, and on the works of those strengths received 
in innocency. If a man could now fulfil all the law, 
being in Christ, he conld not challenge righteousness 
in the law. Why, but the Scripture saith, ' Do 

Ver. 10.] 



this, and live.' True, but it meaneth, of thy own 

Second!}', Whatsoevi-r is received in Christ, mast 
stand with grace ; for grace, Christ, faith, stand to- 
gether. But whatsoever in us should deserve, cannot 
stand with grace ; therefore, whatsoever we are in 
Christ, cannot deserve. Faith is not of doing, grace 
is not of working. 

Thirdly, If this which we become in Christ should 
enable us to justifj- and save ourselves, then Christ 
should bring us back again to the law ; but we are 
dead to the law, Rom. vi.. Gal. ii. 

Fourthly, If we should, by that wo are in Christ, 
desen-o our salvation, then Christ should make us our 
own saviours. It' Christ have deserved it, we have 
not ; if we have, he hath not. 

Fifthly, It is a contradiction to say Christ hath de- 
served heaven for us, so that he maketh us deserve it ; 
as if it should he said, One hath paid my debt for me, 
so I will pay it myself ; one hath purchased such a 
thing for me, but so that I must purchase it myself. 

()hj. But it may be said. It is no prejudice that 
Christ should merit in us, as God is more glorious 
that he doth many things mediately than if he should 
do them alone, as he giveth light but by the sun. 

Ans. This urged and granted, Christ should effi- 
ciently, TKe/oniKililtr, merit. What we come to receive 
in Christ is salvation and glory. If Christ should 
make us also by grace to deserve, then he should 
make us able to make his death in vain. Anything 
joined with Christ doth overthrow Christ. Christ 
hath not deserved that his own desert should be in 

You may see, then, that the true scope of the text 
in a word is, to shut out the works of grace from our 
whole salvation as desert. The papists shut out all 
our works done before gi'ace, from deserving our sal- 
vation begun, our pardon of sin, and sanctification 
habitual. See how the spirit of popery crosseth the 
Scripture ; to say Christ's merit is communicable, is 
wicked, for it is as incommunicable as his person or 
Godhead ; to say this was his merit, that we should 
be able to deserve and procure, and so save ourselves, 
is a most impudent falsehood. Forgiveness of sins, 
life, salvation, he died for, that we might receive these 
things through him ; bat that we might deserve them 
for ourselves, there is not a word. 

These four false conclusions are held by the papists : 

1. 'VN'orks only of nature and ceremonial are ex- 

2. Works of grace are God's penny, and may de- 
serve without impeachment to his grace. 

3. Works that we have in Christ may be rejoiced 
in and trusted to. 

4. Because of Christ and his merit, our works come 
to be meritorious. 

How absurd, and contrary to Scripture and reason 
these are, I have proved ; and now I proceed. 

Vor. 10. For irc arc his ii-mkiitdiishiji, created in 
Clirist Je>:us unto (/ood uorks, which God hath ordained 
that tee should walk in them. 

The apostle having shewed that our salvation is 
only of grace, and the means by which we are made 
capable of nil saving good in Christ by faith, exclud- 
ing all causes in man, and that from the end, lest he 
should boast himself; he now gives a reason why 
God's grace is ail in all, drawn from our redemption 
by Christ. As in the first creation there was no dis- 
position in man to make himself a man, so no virtue 
in man new created to make him able to bring him- 
self to eternal life : he confers nothing to the works of 
his new creation in Christ, no motion of man's will, 
thought, or desire, or any preparatory work ; all pro- 
ceeds from the infinite creating power of God, he gives 

The scope of this verse is, first, to lay down a rea- 
son why we, by that we are, and works, cannot merit ; 
secondly, to prevent an objection touching works. 
For, works excluded, it may be asked what place they 
have, if they do not merit in the matter of salvation ? 
The apostle answers, that though they are excluded in 
case of salvation, yet they have their place ; for thc^y 
are ways in which the heirs of salvation must walk in. 

Sum. The words then render a reason, proving tbo 
matter before, describing good works from God pre- 
paring them, and from the cud of them in regard 
of us. 

The acception of the word created tcacheth us, 

1. That there is no preparant matter in us for sal- 
vation, not a capacity. 

2. What is the state of all the faithful ? New 

3. That wc cannot resist the work of God ; it is not 
in our power to withstand our creation, or a creating 
force of God. 

In Christ Jesus. All of us had our being in the 
first Adam. So was the second Adam the Lord from 
heaven, ^uoToih;. As in Adam radically all our lives 
were, we being in his loins, successively to descend 
from him, so in Christ is all the spiritual fife origin- 
ally, and we come to be quickened in our time. So 
that a man can no more resist his generation than he 
could his natural generation : ' Out of me ye can do 
nothing,' John xv. 5. Who is the subject of good 
works? A believer. Were not this absurd, if one 
should say, I have paid thy debt, but yet I will have 
thee pay it too ; I have bought such a thing for thee, 
yet I will give thee money, and have thee buy it too ? 
So say they, Christ hath deserved and purchased 
heaven, yet he gives us grace, which is as it were 
God's penny, and bids us buy it after. 

Ohj. But yet they may say, it is not altogether 
bootless, because it doth amplify the worthiness of 
Christ's merit, that we should be made by it able to 
merit in ourselves. 

Ans. The Cretans, though usual liars, stained not 



[Chap. II. 

everything. How absurd is ttis, if one should say, 
it greatly glorifies the regal dignity of a king, that he 
should not only be so in his own person, but make 
all his subjects so with him ? Besides, it taketh for 
granted a notable falsehood, namely, that Christ de- 
served that we should deserve. 

What is this new creation "? It is nothing but the 
divine quality throughout man. The parts of it, as of 
the natural man, are the holiness of the soul and 
body ; the manner of bringing it forth, it is in these 
two points, in the conception and forming of it, as in 
the infant : cid conceptioiiem, there is amoris ardvr et 

Doct. Hence v\-e learn what all the faithful are ; 
they are ' new creatures in Chiist ;' they are such 
who are ci-eated anew, and made partakers of another 
nature than this they bring from then- mother's womb ; 
even ' a divine nature ' they partake in, as Peter 
speaketh, 2' Peter i. 4. The apostle everywhere tell- 
eth the faithful that now they were not old creatures : 
' Old things are passed away, all become new,' 2 Cor. 
v. 17. ' Ye were sometimes thus and thus, once 
darkness, now light,' Eph. v. 8. ' Such were some 
of you,' 1 Cor. vi. 11. ' ^^Tiosoever is in Christ, is 
a new creature,' 2 Cor. v. 17. ' Know ye not, so 
many as have been baptized into Christ, have been 
baptized into his death ?' Eom. vi. 3. Kenewed in 
understanding, in will, in aflfections, in all the mem- 
bers, by having them made ' weapons of righteous- 
ness,' Rom. vi. 13. 

Use 1. This doth witness to many, that they are not 
believers as yet, and therefore under wrath. A\'liy ? 
Because they live in the old man, in their old con- 
cupiscences, of hatred, pride, lust, covetousness, un- 
belief, vanities of good fellowship. Now this doth shake 
a great many who, though there is some change, yet 
there is no new creature ; there is in some the tongue 
tipped with good words, but that is all ; in other some 
an outward profession, but no power of godliness, no 
change in the heart and reins ; for whatsoever hath 
faith, is ' puri6ed in heart.' Acts xv. 9. In other 
some, a forsaking of sins by halves, as Herod ' did 
many things,' Mark vi. 20. Apt and forward some 
are in censuring such and such men, sitting on the 
skirts of many I etter than themselves ; but so long as 
the love of any sin is retained, there is no pai-t of new 
creation in that person. 

Use 2. Again, if we will be assured, that we by faith 
are in Christ, let us then be able to prove to ourselves 
that we are new creatures, that we have found the 
death and life of Christ to work in us a death of our 
corruption, and a life of righteousness : ' Circumci- 
sion is nothing, nor uncircumcision, but a new crea- 
ture,' Gal. vi. 15. 

The parts of this new creation are holiness of the 
spirit, and of the body, mind, will, affections, and 
every member of the bodj- ; he is sanctified throughout, 
1 Thcs. V. 23. In a natural creature, a part of the 

body may be wanting, but no such defect in the new 
creature. In this new creation, the person begotten 
resembles him that begets ; in his will, afl'ections, and 
inclinations, holds a suitable correspondency to him. 
Let men tiy themselves by this ; so long as men are 
so unlike to Christ, and so contrary unto him, and 
are rather like to Satan in their courses, inclinations, 
and affections, it may be said to them as, John 
viii. 41, to the Jews, ' Ye are of the devil your father,' 
rather than of God, to whom they are in all things so 

There are degrees of new creatures or kinds. 

Babes in Christ ; young ones ; old men, the perfec- 
tion of stature. 

We have not all a like measure of grace ; but God 
giveth men graces answerable to their callings, afflic- 
tions, and crosses. God fits his graces according to 
the exigent of the person. 

Again, God giveth graces and strength according 
to the means of growth in proportion. A man living 
long nnder means, yet a novice, a babe, in respect of 
the proportion of the time he hath been a new crea- 
sure, may be stronger than he ; as the poor woman 
that cast her mite into the treasury, gave more than 
the rest, not in quantity, but in proportion. Thus 
the Hebrews, chap. v. 12. 

The signs of this new creation are, 

1. Change ; as in every generation there is a great 
change, as in creation of the world, when out of the 
confused chaos was drawn this beautiful frame of the 
world ; such is the change in forming of the new 
creature in Christ ; of a sinful, ignorant, and wicked 
man, he is made holy, glorious, righteous, light in the 

2. Spiritual motion in the heart ; for when the seed 
of grace is cast into the dead soul of a man, presently 
itbeginneth to move towards God; he finds a heavenly 
disposition of heart to seek God. 

3. A hungering desire after the sincere milk of the 
word ; a note of a new-born babe, 1 Peter ii. 2. 

4. Desire to draw o\\ others to grace, i Life, when 
grown to strength, is generative ; so it is in all who 
are quickened with the life of Christ ; they labour to 
breathe the same life into others, especially when 
come to any growth in grace. 

Uw 3. This letteth us see the wretched folly aud 
madness of many, who will not stick utterly to deny 
this point of themselves ; they are no changelings, the 
men they were ; and wise ones think it would argue 
them to be of gi-eat levity, if they should be ashamed 
of the ways to which they have still accustomed them- 
selves. They count it fond, fickle hghtness not to 
keep on the same course, to be more devout, more 
curious, and circumspect, shy of their companions to 
which they are inhauntcd. This they account an nn- 
staid fondness, and a fruit of an unsettled brain. 

]\'orkiii<inship created. Doct. This doth teach us 
that in the whole work of man's regeneration he doth 

Vee. 10.] 



neither confer anything, neither is able to resist the 
same, for the property of a creation is this, that it 
neither is holpen nor can be resisted by the thing 
created. Created is taken properly or figuratively ; 
properly, to bring things which are not to being ; or it 
RJgnifieth to bring things which have a being, to a 
better being. Thus the psalmist prayeth, ' Create in 
mo a clean heart,' Ps. li. 10 ; but here it is not thus 
taken. But as in the creation, so in the regeneration ; 
the Lord doth bring us from no beiug in regard of 
grace to live the life of grace, and therefore his creating 
force, as it is nothing furthered, so cannot it be re- 
sisted by us : ' He calleth the things that are not as 
if they were,' Rom. iv. 17. There is not any power 
in us unto these things : ' The natural man cannot 
conceive the things of God.' ' None can come to me 
unless the Father draw him;' and therefore the church 
saith, Cant. i. 4, ' Draw me, and I will follow thee.' 
There is no power, whether that which sheweth itself 
as not hindered, as sight now looking on a thing, or 
that which, though hindered, it doth not work, yet 
the power is safe ; as a man asleep, though his senses 
inward and outward cease to work, yet he hath power 
both to reason, to see, and hear. Now, there is no such 
power ; for the life of God, which is the soul of the 
spiritual man, from which all faculty should flow, as 
the powers natural do from the soul, this life of God 
is utterly extinguished ; nay, there is throughout an 
utter enmity crept in, so that the understanding counts 
as foolishness the wisdom of God ; the will is enemy- 
like atlected to the things of God. 

Ohj. JIan being able to add nothing, yet he may 
choose whether he will come. 

Aiis. As absurd. We are ' a workmanship created 
of God.' Now, unless we make the creating power of 
God resistible by the corrupt will of man, which is 
exceeding absurd, we cannot think that howsoever his 
will is in itself afl'ected (for so we yield it), we cannot 
think how he should have power in eflect to withstand. 

True it is that God doth not so convert as to de- 
stroy the liberty of will ; but thus be saveth, not by 
leaving this creating virtue in the sway of man's plea- 
sure, but by extending it so efleclually that it maketh 
a man of unwilling willing. 

Use 1. Against the papists in point of free will, 
merit of congruity, &c. 

2. To let us see that all is of God. If he hath 
created, then we were as a mass receiving : ' It is he 
that hath made us, and not we ourselves,' Ps. c. ; 'He 
is the potter, we the clay.' 

His iiorkmanship in Christ. Doct. Here, then, mark 
who is the author of our new creation ; even God. It 
is not the power of a man, but the creating force of 
the Almighty is put forth in this business. It is a 
work of the infinite power of God. The Scriptures 
are plentiful to prove it : John i. 13, ' We are begotten, 
not of the lust of the flesh, nor the will of man, nor of 
blood, but of God,' through the immortal seed ; 

James i. 8, ' Of his own will begat he ns by the word 
of truth ;' 1 John iii. 9, ' lie that is bom of God, sin- 
neth not.' This is the joint work of the whole Ti iuity, 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost : ' Every good gift 
Cometh down from the Father of lights ;' ho ' of bis 
own good pleasure hath begotten us,' James i. 17. 
Of Christ you shall hear afterwards : ' One Lord, of 
whom are all things, and we by him.' Of the Spirit : 
' Uuless a man bo born of the Spirit and water,' Jolin 
iii. 6. And there is no power but of God that could 
create us, for there must be a power greater and 
stronger than the powers of darkness. There must Le 
a quickening virtue which can bring life out of de;itli, 
which none can do but he that is essentially life. 
Again, if the creation of heaven and earth were an in- 
communicable work, how much more this, which is far 
more glorious. 

Obj. But the ministers of the gospel are said to en- 
lighten the eyes, and to turn from darkness to light, 
from Satan to the living God, Acts xxvi. 18. 

Ans. We do irithout, that which God doth imrardlij 
alone. We say. Arise, but it is God that quickcueth. 
The word of itself is but a dead letter ; but when God's 
Spirit goeth with it by a quickening power, then it 
becometh an immortal seed in the heart to conceive 
and form the new creature. No power or virtue, no, 
not the word or sacraments, can produce such a blessed 
efiect, except God himself put to his own hand and em- 
ploy his own infinite power ; they can never beget in 
a man a new mind and heart : ' Who is Paul, and who 
is Apollos ?' 1 Cor. iii. 5. ^^'hat, are all the ministers 
in the world available to make a Christian ? Alas, 
they are but men like ourselves : ' Paul may plant, 
and Apollos water, but it is God that giveth the in- 
crease.' ' That your faith and hope (saith Paul) may 
stand, not in the wisdom of man, but in the power of 

Fse 1. This letteth ns see the inestimable dignity 
of the saints, that they are a most divine generation, 
a heavenly company. Even in this regard the world 
counteth it (and deservedly) a great thing to be of the 
blood royal, or bo nobly descended. But all this new 
creature in thee cometh from the immortal seed of the 
word, and from the efficacy of God himself begetting 
thee ; in which respect the meanest of God's children 
doth as far outstrip the greatest princes and monarchs 
in the world in glory and honour, as the state of the 
poorest bridge-beggar is inferior to the greatest poten- 
tates upon the earth. 

Usi\ Again, it doth teach us to whom we are to as- 
cribe whatsoever we are. We must sing with the 
faithful : ' Not we ourselves, but the Lord's hands 
have made us to be his people, even the sheep of liis 
pasture,' Ps. c. 3, for so the new creatures are some- 
times called. Yea, this letteth ns see on whom wo 
must depend for the promoting and preserving of this 
creature, for it is his part to govern and preserve who 
doth mightily bring forth ; he beginncth, he must end. 



[Chap. II. 

Shall God travail, and not bring forth ? If we be 
lumps of flesh nnshapen, he can form and fashion us 
' from glory to glory by his Spirit,' 2 Cor. iii. 18. 

In Christ. Duct. Here we see in whom it is. 
Though all our salvation is ascribed to God, yet the 
person in and by whom we come to have these things 
is Christ Jesus. And it doth not only note the order 
of working, but it noteth who is, as it were, the root 
in whom all the heirs of life are framed ; yea, it noteth 
to us the merit of Christ, that hath procured this for 
us with God, and the efficacy of Christ Jesus, who is 
a quickening head, in due order reviving every member. 

1. For, first, before we come to have this life of 
God dwelling in us, the Lord hath after a sort wrought 
in Christ ; for as all of us had life given us in Adam 
radically (yea, those that have not yet being), so that 
they shall descend from him by carnal propagation, so 
God hath made Christ a common stock, from whom 
he will have every one to draw life, which is treasured 
in him, not that carnally they must descend, but by a 
spiritual ingi-afting of them into him. In him, there- 
fore, as a second Adam, hath God created us again. 

2. But this is not all, for even in Christ we have 
this, not only because it is first laid down in him, but 
because he hath deserved we should be made by God 
new creatures. Because God hath in Christ first 
' reconciled us to himself,' 2 Cor. v. 18, Christ did give 
his life for the life of the world. 

3. Again, in Christ, because he doth efi'ectually apply 
this unto us, and in our time doth quicken us. He 
is that ' quickening Spirit,' the Lord from heaven,' 
1 Cor. XV. 45. 

Use. So then this doth teach us that God by Christ 
hath quickened us. How greatly are we bound to him ! 
for it is but speaking the word and it is done, in the 
first creation of all things. Here more is required : 
the giving of his Son, sending him down from heaven, 
not sparing him. Christ did not saj'. Be sared, but 
endured words.* stripes, yea, an accursed death, that 
he might be a treasury of these things for us, and a 
dispenser of them unto us, when we first come to have 
spiritual being. 

Unto good xrorks. Doct. 1. Here many things must 
be marked : first, how that the new creature and new 
works go together. The one cannot be severed from 
the other. When once we come to put on the new man, 
wo shall then find that our actions shall be reformed. 
This might be shewed in every new creature. Look 
at Paul : instead of persecuting the gospel. Gal. i. 23, 
when he was converted, he preached the gospel : in- 
stead of persecuting the professors of it, he did with 
joy suffer for it, and did gather with diligence to re- 
lieve the necessities of Christian professors. Instead 
of conversing in the flesh, he 'had his conversation in 
heaven ' while he was on earth, Philip, iii. 20. If one 
be ' risen with Christ,' then he will ' seek the things 

* Qu. 'wounds '?— Ed. 

above,' Col. iii. 1, of which he hath been careless; 
then he will labour to mortify his corruption which he 
hath cherished, then he will think, speak, and work 
righteously ; for as the natural life doth work forth in 
his actions, in sense, motion, breathing, and in dis- 
course, so this life of God cannot be idle. This in 
the new creature of the heart will be working, breath- 
ing itself in spiritual sighs and groans. And look, af, 
on the contrary, the old man hath his works, Col. iii. 
9, ' Put oft' the old man, with his works,' so hath this 
also. Grace, it is called a law, Rom. vii. 23, because 
it doth command in a man ; he cannot sin, ' for the 
seed abideth,' 1 John iii. 9, and sets him about works 
which are suitable to it. What are these works ? 
The putting ofi' all evil, ' flying the corruptions in the 
world through lust,' 2 Peter i. 4, keeping our souls 
unspotted of the sins of the times, the working of 
righteousness. Now, all righteous duties are either 
obedience to things commanded, or Christian sufi'ering 
for Christ and for the gospel ; in both is the new crea- 
ture employed. 

Use 1. Many hence are reproved, who will dream 
that their hearts are good, while their actions are 
naught, as if God did make a new creature for old 
works : ' If j-e were of God, ye would do the works of 

Use 2. Again, it doth let us see how we may know 
that we are made new creatures ; even thus, if we have 
good works. God cannot have the heart while the 
devil hath the works, following our own hearts, swear- 
ing, Ij'ing, &c. A good tree will have good fruit. Out 
of the evil heart come adulteries, murders, and idle 
talking, fellowship with the unfruitful works of dark- 
ness. As is the fountain, such will be the streams 
that flow from it. 

When corruption so far prevaileth to carry men 
after the pleasures of sin, vanities of the times, eagerly 
seeking the commodities of this life, with neglect of 
things heavenly, these cannot stand with this new man. 
Many think if they can [say] the creed, have Chris- 
tendom, be orderly churchmen, say the Lord's prayer, 
receive at Easter, they think this is Christianity 
enough, and that now they have learned Christ, and 
are become new men. As for putting off sinful lusts, 
to which naturally their hearts incline, they think it 
needless, and that God who hath made and knowcth 
our natures doth not expect that we should be free 
from that which is a nature in us ; but this is to got 
our lesson by rote ; he that crucifieth not his natural 
lusts and inclinations hath no union or communion 
with Christ. 

But.if any weak soul should think, because they feel 
sin raging in them, and themselves captives to it, that 
therefore sin is not mortified in them, and that their 
state is as yet the same ; you must know it is one 
thing not to have our sins mortified, another thing not 
to feci any stirring and moving of it in us. It is said 
trulv then to be killed, when that is done, on which it 

Ykr. ]().] 



will (lie in time, though it take on a while. Ho that 
feeleth it a burden desireth to be set free from it, that 
renewelh his faith to Christ, who is made of God his 
sanctilier, and restcth on him to see all these works 
of the devil utterl}' dissolved ; he is a now creature in 
Christ ; for this contradiction of flesh and spirit 
argueth a double nature included, whereof none arc 
pai'takers but such as are lorn anew of God, and truly 

Ihicl. 2. Observe, secondlj', in that he saith, ice 
tiie created niilo pood tioihs, when it is that we come 
to have good works, even when we are made new in 
Christ. Before that a man come to be new in Christ, 
he cannot do anj-thing, not only not meritorious, but 
anything which is good. ' Out of me ye can do 
nothing,' John sv. 5 ; you can bear no good fruit, 
such with which God, the husbandman, is pleased. 
Nay, no deed that is answerable to the law of God can 
be done before we be anew created. ' 1 will put my 
Spirit into you, and take away the heart of stone, and 
give you hearts of flesh, and will make you to walk in 
my ways,' Ezek. xxxvi. 2G, 27. The doing of God's 
commandments doth follow the circumcision of the 
heart ; for the law is spiritual, and nothing that is not 
spiritually good can be conformable to the law. We 
are a new frame, created of God to good works. Now, 
therefore, till a man come to be a new creature in 
Christ, he is not able to do anything that is good. 

And if the things which are necessary conditions of 
a good work be considered, it will be more plain. It 
must be done, 

1. From the heart. 

2. In the obedience of faith. ! 
8. To God's glory. 

1. For of the heart Christ saith, ' Out of me ye can 
do nothing;' and James, chap. iii. 11, 'Can clean 
water come out of a muddy fountain ? Can a man 
gather figs of thorns ?' 

2. In obedience ; for otherwise it is not any ser- 
vice of God, and to right purpose. All the contrary 
discourse doth lean upon a false supposition, that there 
is a strength of nature in innocency, without grace 
superadded, that is proportionable to work a work 
answerable to the law. For this is false, that nature, 
without the grace of the Spirit, is able to do a work 
answerable to the law. 2. If this were, yet this is a 
second false supposition, that these may be found any- 
where not weakened ; for this never was, nor never 
shall be, God giving at once with the natural being a 
supernatural quality of grace. 

8. And for God's glory, the apostle is express : 1 
Cor. X. 81, ' Whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever 
ye do, do all to the glory of God.' 

Use 1. This doth serve to confute the papists about 
their works of preparation to the grace of God,' &c. 

I'sf 2. To let us see when we come to work good 
works, even when we are made new creatures. 

Obj. But it may bo asked, Low they can be called 

good works, seeing the best have their defects and im- 

Alls. Because they have both a purified fountain. 
' To the pure all things are pure,' Titus i. 15, and be- 
cause they have a coverture in regard of all their want; 
both of these faith doth give, ' but without faith it is 
impossible to please God,' Heb. xi. C. Faith maketh 
the person acceptable. ' The Lord hath respect to 
Abil and to his ofi'oring, but unto Cain and his 
ofllring ho had no respect,' Gen. iv. ' Now by 
faith Abel ofl'ered a better sacrifice than Cain,' Heb. 
si. 4. 

Use 3. It doth let us see what to think of most of 
our good deeds. They are but shining vices ; they 
are such as shall be indictments against us, if they 
proceed not from a renewed nature. 

Obj. But some will say. If it be so that the best 
works of unregenerate men are sin, then it seems un- 
lawful for him to pray. If he pray not, it is condem- 
nation ; if he pray, it is no less. 

Ans. He is bound to pray, but not to sin in prayer. 
The second commandment cnjoincth to bow down and 
worship God in prayer, and the third binds him ever 
to do it well, lest he pray in sin, and so take God's 
name in vain. What then must he do ? Only the 
grace of repentance can reconcile these two, and make 
him acceptable to God in all his works he takes in 

Doct. 3. In the third place, we must mark a not- 
able motive to good works, that they are the very end 
of our creation. For look, as we plant our orchards 
to this end, that they may bring us fruit, so doth the 
Lord plant us ; and this is his purpose, that we may 
bring him fruit. Hence are his people called ' trees 
of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, in whom he 
may be glorified,' Isa. Ixi. 8. ' Herein is my Father 
glorified, that ye bear much fruit,' John xv. 8. This 
is the end why he hath so dearly bought us, ' that 
we might serve him in holiness and righteousness ;' 
' that we might be a peculiar people, zealous of good 
works,' Titus ii. 1-1. God doth not give to us his life 
to leave us idle or ill occupied. If God find not these 
with us, he will cut us down as superfluous and unpro- 
fitable branches, fit for nothing but to make fuel for 
the fire of his indignation. This is one of the special 
ends of all that ever God did for us in the work of 
grace : 1 Peter ii. 9, ' Ye are a chosen generation, a 
royal priesthood, a holy nation.' To what end ? 
' That ye might shew forth the virtues of him that 
hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous 
light ;' that ye might show forth by these graces God's 
own virtues, that ye might resemble and express the 
graces of God himself. This, I say, makes much for 
God's glory ; it is the special thing that we must aim 
at, that we may express his holiness, and so glorify 
our heavenly Father. ' Let your light so shine before 
men, that they may see your good works, and glorify 
your Father which is in heaven,' Mat. v. 16. ^ 

14 8 


[Chap. IT. 

Use. This teachetb us then, that we honour and 
glorify God in, by, and with our graces. Hast thou 
faith ? Honour God with thy faith, shewing the works 
thereof. It is reason that every one should have the 
honour of his own. This is the ground of the apostle's 
exhortation, ' Glorify God in your bodies, and in your 
souls, for they are Christ's,' 1 Cor. vi. 20. This 
should provoke us to walk worthy our high and holy 
calling. God hath made thee a glorious creature, and 
for glory ; therefore shew forth thyself, and carry thy- 
self in all thy ways worthy of that glory that God hath 
expressed upon thee. Let God reap where he hath 
sowed. God hath sowed upon thee, in thy new crea- 
tion, the seed of glory with a very plentiful hand ; 
therefore let him reap abundance of glory from thee 
in thy heart and life. Search and seek, and enter into 
that inquiry of the prophet in the 116th Psalm, ver. 
12, ' What shall I render ?' &c. All his glory is upon 
me, the glory of his infinite wisdom, mercy, goodness. 
What shall I render to the Lord for all this ? Upon 
this meditation, say with the prophet, ver. 13, ' I will 
take the cup,' &c. We see plainly that other creatures 
they glorify God in their kind ; they fulfil the law that 
is imposed upon them in their creation, that is, in 
their kind, to glorify God ; man only, that hath the 
greatest cause, and best means, he only comes be- 

Note. Note here, in that he saith, in CJirist Jesus 
unto good icorks, noteth him as a patient, and matter 
of all our blessedness. In Christ, that is, by being 
ingraffed into him by faith. In him, that is, as the 
immediate worker from the Father. 

The first, when he speaketh of things done by God 
absolutely, without respect of application in us. 

The second, when he speaketh of such benefits as 
we find now being in Christ. 

The third, when he speaketh of things already 
wrought in us, as when the right hand doth lift up the 
left. The soul, which putteth itself forth in the head 
and foot, is the cause of it ; but not as it is in the head, 
but as it putteth forth the faculty of moviug in the hand. 
So the Godhead, absolutely considered, of the Father, 
may be said the author of the whole work of our re- 
demption ; but yet this cometh to be done by the God- 
head immediately, as it is now considered in the per- 
stn of the Son. We must look at these things as 
we do at the sun ; if we will see it more fully than our 
eye can bear, we are blinded with brightness. And so, 
if we pry too curiously into such things, our sight will 
be dazzled with unsearchable glory. Christ is the 
second Adam. As from Adam by propagation we re- 
ceive our being, so from the second Adam, who is a 
quickening spirit, the Lord from heaven, we have all 
the spiritual being of our whole persons. God doth 
not work in us, but through Christ. Whatsoever God 
the Son did do in his own flesh, the Father, in the 
moving of it, did it, and the Spirit did it. But yet 
immediately the second person did it as being nearly 

knit by unity of nature, which neither the Father was 
nor the Spirit; so whatsoever is done in us, the Father 
doth, and the Spirit doth it but in Christ, and from 
Christ, as who is more immediately coupled to us than 
the Father and the Spirit. We have neither their 
communion nor, by consequence, their working, but 
by means of the Son. 

Use 1. We do see who it is that doth work all our 
works for us ; he that giveth the work must be glori- 
fied. We must come to God if we do a public duty; 
if a private, in which we have any comfort, to bless 
him that had prepared such a thing for us his unpro- 
fitable servants. 

Use 2. We must learn to stay ourselves on Christ 
when we have not those good things, nor cannot ac- 
complish them as we desire ; for who can receive any- 
thing which is not given him from above '? But this 
comfort must be applied where there is in the con- 
science testimony of true desire and acceptable dili- 

Use 3. Thirdly, It doth teach us to expect the 
Lord's defence, and to endure, according to his will, 
all such ways as by event and his word we can gather 
to be prepared by him. 

M'hich God hatJi prepared for ris to iralk in. He 
describeth good works in way of prevention, ' which 
God hath prepared.' 

In what things this standeth. 

1. In predestinating these things. For so we may 
see that Paul, Kom. i. 1, and Jeremiah, chap. i. 5, 
and others, the calling, and works of their calling, they 
were prepared for them before they were in the womb, 
by God's predestination. Yet thus far of every work 
it may be said, God in some sort doth pre-ordain: 'I 
create the smith,' Isa. liv. 16. 

2. That God doth in the commandments reveal 
them unto us, and this is a way wherein our works 
are prepared to our hand ; for the law of God doth 
rule them out before our eyes. 

3. God hath set us samples, both his own and his 

4. God doth give the concourse of grace, which 
maketh able for this or that work. 

5. He doth excite the will, for such is our dulness 
that we must have our will raised by him to will. 

6. Again, he doth preserve us, that now, willing, we 
may work ; and all these are included in this word pre- 

To ttallc in. Not like Herod, sometime to step 
this way, to set forward only for a spurt, and so sit 
down ; for to u-alk is a progressive motion, a going on, 
to have our whole conversation in them. 

Doct. Observe, then, we must walk in those ways 
that are prepared of God. ' Enoch walked with God,' 
Noah ; David, ' I will walk in the uprightness of my 
heart in the midst of my house,' Ps. ci. ' Pass the 
whole time of your pilgrimage in fear,' 1 Peter i. 17. 
Our life must be a tracing of the commandments ; we 

Ver. 11.] 



must not salute the ways of God as chapmen coming 
to fairs. We must walk in the ways of God, Ps. cxis. 
He that still wins not, loseth. ' I press forward,' 
saith Paul, Philip, iii. 14. This is certain, that man 
that comes in this life to the end of his walk, and there 
sets down his rest from going further, ho never as yet 
set right forward in the way to heaven. No, God's 
children are walking children. The apostle calleth for 
it of the fonvardest : 1 Thes. iv. 1, 'Abound more 
and more ;' ' Let him that is holy be more holy still,' 
Rev. xix. ; ' Work out your salvation,' Philip, ii. 12. 
Men in the world may come to such contirmcd estates 
that they may give over trading, and live commodi- 
ously on things already gotten ; but it is not thus with 
the soul, which, where it ceaseth to profit, waxeth 

Use 1. As thon wonldst have comfort that thou art 
a new creature in Christ, made alive by the Spirit, try 
it by this, how thou walkest. Look not so much upon 
that thon doest at some times by fits and starts, but 
look to thy walking, how thou goest on ; what increase 
of faith, what strength thou gainest daily against cor- 
ruption ; what spiritual liveliness and power to wrestle 
against temptations, and to withstand and overcome 
the lusts and rebellions of thy heart ; how thon dost 
hold on in the constant practice of holy duties ; how 
dost thou gather strength to the inner man ? how is 
thy knowledge bettered, thy love inflamed ? &c. These 
are the lively motions of the new creature. He is not 
said properly to walk, who can go twice or thrice about 
his chamber, stir himself on some plain ground for a 
quarter of an hour, but he that can go ou strongly 
and freely upon a hill in ways uneven ; so Christians, 
who can go while God maketh their way iuoflensive, 
putting everything by which might hinder, but pre- 
sently give over if aught disturbeth, they are not come 
to this walldug in those ways which God hath pre- 
pared for his. 

Use 2. Wherefore let us strive forward, exercise our 
faculties we have received, and look to him who hath 
said, he will ' put his Spirit into us, and make us walk 
in his commandments.' Because we feel it painful to 
the flesh when we are in spiritual duties, hence it is 
that we choose rather to sit still than to feel disturb- 
ance. But even as aching limbs are recovered by ex- 
ercising of them (use limbs and have limbs, as we say), 
and are lost by the contrary, so it is here ; we sh;ill 
outgrow these spiritual infirmities, if we will hold on 
in practice, and keep a constant walk with God in the 
ways he hath appointed to us ; for mere walking is 
not fit for the new creature : ' Thou shall not turn to 
the right hand nor to the left,' but thou must obey 
that voice behind thee, saying, ' This is the way, walk 
in it,' Isa. xxx. 21. Many walk in ways, but better 
be asleep on their beds. Ye are children of the light, 
walk so ; this maketh the way of a Christian a strait 
way, a naiTow gate, because it is thus straitly im- 
paled and hedged in ; there is not elbow-room in it 

for corruption, and sensnal lusts, and lawless thoughts, 
to sport themselves. 

Ver. 11. Where/ore remember, that ye being in lime 
past Gentiles in the Jlesh, and called Uncircuincision of 
them which are called Circumcision in the Jlesh made 
with hands. 

Where/ore, a note of inference ; thus, 

Whoso, being dead, come to be quickened in Christ 
as their head, they, whatsoever they have ibeen, are 
near citizens of the household, the temple of God. 

But you hath he quickened ; crpo, itc. 

Now this is set down by way of exhortation and 

llemcmlcr. And that he might the better imprint 
the benefit, he doth amplify it by their former condi- 
tion in Gentilism. In this verse and the next, their 
former condition is set down either generally or more 
specially. Generally, they were Gentiles in the flesh; 
the special difl'erenccs following upon it, 

1. They had not the seal of God's covenant. 

2. They had not the foundation of God's cove- 

3. They had no communion with the church. 

4. They had no propriety in the covenant, or pro- 
mulgation of the covenant. 

5. Without the benefit of the covenant, the thing 
hoped for. 

6. Without God. 

Now in this verse we are to consider, 

1 . Of the general difi'erence of the Jew and Gentiles 
in the flesh. 

2. It is to be marked that they are called Uncir- 
cumcision, whether they were rightly so called. 

3. What was the principal note of people distin- 
guished from people ; the sacraments. 

4. The description of circumcision, there being two 
parts or kinds, inward and outward. 

The thing is, 1, propounded ; 2, proved from verse 
14th to the 19th ; 3, amphfied. Propounded, ' In 
Christ you are near.' 

(1.) He who is the author of all peace twixt man 
and man, in him yon are made near; but this is 

(2.) He who hath made us into one, and abolished 
all enmity twixt man and man, and God and man, 
' that he might make us one man, and reconcile us 
to God,' he is the author of our peace ; but this is 
Christ, ver. 14-16. 

2. He thus proveth it : whosoever hath published 
our. peace, ver. 17. 

8. He in whom we find entrance to the Father, he 
is our peace, ver. 18. 

Doct. In general observe, there must be a remem- 
brance of our miserable condition by nature. The 
Lord, for this cause only, doth leave a stink of sin in 
us, which may break out often to our heaviness. Now, 
instead of setting down this by way of conclusion, he 



[Chap. II. 

delivereth it in an apostolical exhortation, with appli- 
cation to the persons whom he exhorteth. 2. The 
thing he would have rememhered, twofold : 

1. What they had been. 

2. What they were. 

Now this latter part in the verse, to the end of the 
chapter, is proved and amplified : proved to the 19th 
verse, amplified from thence to the end. 

Doct. Here then, fii-st, in general we see what is the 
duty of the ministers of God ; even this, to open unto 
you what you are by natiu'e, and to prompt with new 
remembrance of it when now you are converted. Thus 
Paul to the Corinthians, having said that no whore- 
mongers, murderers, covetous, extortioners, and drunk- 
ards shall inherit the kingdom of God, he telleth them, 
' Such were some of you : but ye are justified,' &c., 
1 Cor. vi. 11. So Titus iii. 3, ' We in times past 
were disobedient, deceived,' &c. So Paul tells the 
Romans at large, ' Ye were the servants of sin,' &c., 
Rom. vi. 17. 

For this is, 1, a gi-ound of meekness towards others. 

2. Of stirring up groans. 

3. Of tasting the benefits of redemption. 

4. Of provoking to fruitfulness : Rom. vi. 19, 'As 
ye have given yom- members servants to uncleanness, 
and to iniquity ; so now give your members servants 
unto righteousness in holiness ;' 1 Peter iv. 3, ' It is 
sufficient that we have spent the time past after the 
lust of the Gentiles,' &c. 

5. Again, it is the ground of a holy blush, with 
which all must walk before God. It is a good salad, 
and maketh Christ with his benefits relish better. 

' AMiat fruit have you in those things whereof ye are 
now ashamed ?' Rom. vi. 21. In Paul was a remem- 
I ranee of that he had been ; whereupon he was so 
humbled, that he hung down his head, as denying 
himself worthy the name of an apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 9. 

6. It is also a special furtherance of God's glory, 
■which cannot he safe if his works should not be had 
in remembrance. The Lord forbade the Israelites to 
forget what things he had done ; how he had cast out 
nations, taken them from bondage ; for this end, that 
it might be remembered. Hence it is that the name 
of that converts have been, is continued upon them. 
Matthew is called the jmblicaii, though now he was not 
so ; Simon, tlie leper. 

Use. This must not be heavy to any to hear of, and 
it must be practised by us all, to remember what we 
are and were before God taught us to know him in 
C'brist. We must not, with the priest, forget our old 
clerkship ; we must still carry in mind our natural 
estate ; this will make us thankful, diligent, and 

Gentiles in the flesh. In conniption, in the flesh in 
regard of the outward man, rejoicing in the llesh ; a 
profane nation, without the seal of the covenant in 
their flesh ; this is put diay.cirr/.uie, yon Gentiles, not 
of us Jews. Mark, further, that he saith, These were 

called Uncircumcision, of the Circumcision in the flesh 
made with hands. This dill'erence fi-om God's people 
was in name ; diversity of names beseemeth diversities 
of people separate in religion. Now the Jews and 
Gentiles were severed both before God, and one from 
another ; they have interchangeably, passing betwixt 
them one and the other, names of difi'erence, chcum- 
cised and uncircumcised. The Lord's people, while 
that unity continued, were one uniform name together; 
when they gi-ew into divers sects, then likewise they 
grew to diversity of names within themselves, as 
Essenes, Scribes, Pharisees, Herodians, etc. So in 
the New Testament, there was but one name to the 
professors of Christ Jesus ; first Jisciples, which at 
Antioch was fitly, and with the confession of the mouth 
which tendeth to salvation, changed to the name of 
Christians ; and this continued. The apostle, there- 
fore, when men would bring in new heads of families 
after theirs, dealeth roundly against them, 1 Cor. i. 
12, 13, shewing why they were not thus to distinguish 
themselves one from another in regard of such to whom 
they did adhere ; and justly, for shall we be such as 
are in one body and one spirit, one hope of calling, 
one Lord, one baptism, one God the Father, may not 
one name serve the turn ? A^'hat if there be some 
accessarj- difl'erences, shall they be able to change the 
name ? The better, not the greater part, must give 
the denomination ; therefore it is lamentable to see 
how full the Christian world is of names importing 
difi'erence ; of Puritans, Formalists, Calviuists, Lu- 
therans. The Gentiles called the people of God one 
name, the people of God called them another. But 
let not us, who are all his people, have diversities of 
names one for another : ' K ye bite one another, and 
devour one another, take heed ye be not consumed 
one of another,' Gal. v. 15. And it is pity there is 
no more kissing of the main thing in which we con- 
spire, and mutual toleration of lesser matters in which 
many are diversely minded ; for in some cases tolera- 
tion may be used without sin : Philip, iii. 15, ' As 
many as be perfect, be thus minded : and if ye be 
otherwise minded, God shall reveal even the same 
unto you ;' which I speak out of the simplicity of my 
judgment, not desirous to give the least wipe on one 
side, or to insinuate on the other. These names are 
naught, they are breaches of the commandment ; and 
as they are bred of variance, so they cherish dissen- 
sion, which is the viper that eateth through the bowels 
of the church. It is the solace of the enemy, open or 
secret ; let us therefore bury them. 

Again, you must mark, that amongst many things 
which might have been chosen, this is it that maketh 
the difl'erent denomination, even circumcision. 

Doct. Whence observe, that the sacraments of the 
church are principal bonds of the union of it ; the not 
communicating in them a most special difi'erence : 
1 Cor. X. 13, ' We are all baptized into one Spirit.' 
When the apostle, Eph. iv., reckoneth up the grounds 

Ver. 12.] 



of unity, this is ono main one, baptism ; and we see 
here that the conjunction of God's people, and their 
disjunction of those that were not, are set down from 
communicating in circumcision. There are many ends 
of the sncrament ; for they are seals of the covenant, 
they are bonds obliging us to thankful obedience, they 
are cords of love and notes of distinction ; and so was 
this of circumcision ordained to distinguish the people 
of God from others uueircumcised. 

Use. This, then, must be a ground of knitting, even 
unity in sacraments ; because, ' though many, yet wo 
are one bread, one body,' 1 Cor. x. 17. ' We are 
baptized into one,' Christ Jesus. 

Again, we see how Christendom doth distinguish us 
from all Turks, pagans, all without ; yea, in this point 
the papists and we differ, who have sacraments that 
are not bonds of faithful people together, many of their 
sacraments not agreeing to many that arc faithful ; 
who take away the cup that we all are commanded to 
drink,'that wo may, through communion in that blood, 
have the Spirit, which coupleth everj- member to- 

The last thing to be marked is, the manner in which 
these things are set down, to be circumcised in the flesh 
made with hands. 

Docl. 'WTionce wo must mark, that there is an out- 
ward action in the sacrament upon the outward man, 
which must be distinguished from the inward action 
which God worketh on the soul. This circumcision 
was a seal of the righteousness of faith, yet what the 
ministry of man did in it, the first institution will tes- 
tify to Abraham. And, Exodus xii. 48, Lev. xii. 3, 
there being a further action to be looked for, Moses, 
in Dent. x. IG, and the scripture of the New Testa- 
ment doth distinctly set down a double circumcision : 
one ' of the llcsh, in the letter, made with hands,' 
Horn. ii. 28, 29 ; ' circumcision of the flesh ; and cir- 
cumcision of the heart,' Col. ii. 11, which here are 
expressed, not made with hands, but of God. Thus 
it is in baptism ; wo must know that there is an action 
of man reaching to the flesh, the washing away of the 
filth of it, 1 Peter iii. 21 ; and an action of God, which 
washelh the conscience from the guilt of dead works, 
a baptism of water and of the Spirit, outward and in- 
ward. Not that there are two baptisms ; but there is 
one baptism, which is distinguished into the outward 
and inward actions, as parts of one entire baptism. 
Even as when we conceive thus of man as outward 
and inward, wo do not multiply men, but do consider 
one and the self-same man in a double kind. 

Use 1. And this must be marked, that God may not 
be robbed of his glory, that the papists' and Lutherans' 
errors may be avoided. The papists will have the 
minister's action lifted up by God, to the taking away 
of the soul's sin. But then it could not be truly said 
that the removal of corruption from the spirit were not 
done by the hand of man. As because God doth by 
meats maintain our life, he by his blessing giving that 

virtue to them, it cannot* be truly said that our life ia 
sustained by meat and drink. 

Use 2. We must not tie God's working to circum- 
cision, or think there is no efl'ectual grace with these 
things, if we feel not tho working presently. God 
burns with tire, so that it is a natural instrument, and 
cannot suspend the ofl'ect. God gives gi'aco with the 
sacrament, as a voluntary instrument, when it pleaseth 
him. The sun shinoth, though the blind ones sec not; 
and the seed is seed, though it presently spring not. 

Secondly, Wo must look that we content not our- 
selves with the one. 

1. That we conceive no virtue communicated with 
these external things. 

2. That we tie not God to any circumstances of 
time, wherein to work by them. 

3. That all the efficacy of the sacrament is from 
faith, and endeth in faith. 

Use. 1. It signifieth; 2, it sealeth; 8, it is an instru- 
ment applying, as going into the pool of Bethesda, it 
was the mean of healing them, their going in ; yet no 
virtue infused into the water, but a virtue in the water 
put forth. 

Doct. Mark hero further one point, how tho people 
of God esteem of the Gentiles, even as a profane and 
wild kind of persons ; there was nothing more con- 
temptuous than to be an uueircumcised one. So that 
we learn hence, that the high things of the worl.!, if 
not taken to the mercy of God, and to communion 
with him, what are they in the eyes of the godly ? 
Vile and sinful. The person who is heir of glory, 
what doth he think of that forlorn person ? He is vile 
in his eyes. How did David reckon of the Philistine 
but as a dog ? 

Ver. 12. That ye were at that time without Christ, and 
were nlieiis/rom the coinmoincealth of Israel, and were 
strangers from the cnrenanis of promise, and had no 
hope, and were witliont God in the world. 

Here he cometh to the things he would have re- 
membered, their misery standing in five points : iirst, 
withont Christ. The apostle spcaketh not of that tliey 
were in God's counsel, or in respect of Christ's redemp- 
tion, but in regard of actual application. 

Docl. Whence we may see what is the head of all 
spiritual misery ; it is this, to be without Christ Jesus. 
This doth lead the dance to all the rest. Whoso hath 
Christ, with him shall have all things also, Horn, 
viii. 82. All the good things of God are his; but who 
wanteth Christ, he is in death, under wrath, poor, 
neither having things spiritual, nor true son- like title 
to things temporal ; he is without the Father. Now, 
there are two ways of being without Christ : 1 , the 
one, in regard of that presence of his in tho word and 
sacraments ; 2, the other, of dwelling in us by his 
Spirit : ' He that is in me bringeth forth fruit,' J.ihn 
sv. 5, that is, so far as by the apprehension of know- 
• Qu. ' can ' ?— Ed. 



[Chap. II. 

ledge, and so far forth as by putting tne on in the 
sacrament. This must here be understood, 1, by 
hearing of him, and putting him on in the sacrament; 

2, by a perfunctory and common work of the Spirit ; 

3, by true faith. Kow, these every way were without 
him, without the true belief, without any of those more 
superficial works, without so much as hearing of Christ. 

Use 1. Now, this must be laid to heait with us, as 
being a glass for us to look in ; we were in time past 
as they ; but now we have Christ in regard of his 
manifestation, in word and sacraments, and many in 
temporary hypocritical persuasions. But how few are 
not without him in regard of his dwelling in them ! 
Now, if we be such, it is not only a miserable condi- 
tion, but it had been better with us that we had never 
heard of him, as sometimes it had been with these 
Gentiles. If Christ were with us, that we had him, 
we should be led with his Spirit, we should not give 
ourselves to fulfil our lusts : ' Whoso are led by the 
Spirit, fulfil not the lusts of the flesh,' Rom. xiii. 14. 
Whoso hath put on Christ, must ' take no care to 
fulfil the lusts of corruption.' He hath put on Christ, 
that hath ' crucified the flesh, with the lusts of it,' 
Gal. V. 24. ' Whosoever is in Christ, is become a 
new creature,' 2 Cor. v. 17. Now, all such as have 
not him are worse than heathen, if so they should 
continue, for it were better for them if they had never 
heard him named than not to beheve : ' This is con- 
demnation, that men believe not in the name of the 
Son of God,' John iii. 19. This of all other shall be 
the most fearful in the day of reckoning. In hearing 
of him, j-ou are lifted up to heaven ; but if you be with- 
out him, he coming thus near unto you, it shall sink 
you lower in hell than the uncircumcised heathen : 
' He that hath the Son hath life ; he that hath not the 
Son hath not life,' 1 John v. 12. 

Seeing our life and death standeth in this, to have 
Christ, I would give a thousand millions for him, may 
some say. No, ho is no sale- ware, neither can be be 
purchased by money, or money worth ; if thou wouldst 
have him, thou must have him as a free gift, thou 
must sue for him in forma pauperis : I am a poor, 
miserable man, I must unlap my sores before him, 
and shew him my nakedness. Hereupon a poor soul 
in his rags steps into God's presence, and challcngeth 
Christ as a gift from the hand of the Father. Thus 
by faith he comes to be possessed of Christ. 

The better to understand this point, consider what 
is done on God's part, whether he hath not given 
sufficient ground whereupon to rest our faith. Surely 
if we would devise how a man may give a gift in a 
more advimtageous manner without all exception, we 
cannot devise it more free than that gift of God in 
giving Christ. God oflers him : ' He that will come, 
let him come,' Rev. xxii. 17. What can be more free 
than this ? If you doubt of it, I will read unto you 
that great proclamation: Isa. Iv. 1, 'Ho, every one 
that thirsteth, come,' &c. The Lord there sctteth the 

conduit running with wine. ' If any be athirst, let 
him come ; buy without silver,' &c. Rev. xxii. 17, 
' The Spirit and the Bride say. Come ; whosoever will, 
let him take of the water of life freely.' Here faith 
layeth hold, and receiveth Christ tendered as a gift out 
of his Father's hand. 

Use 2. Again, we may see here what is his gi-ace 
unto us, who before that we knew good or evil should 
put his Christ upon us, if our unbelief had not resisted 
the proffer of God ; for in thy infancy God sprinkled 
the blood of his Son upon thee, and brought thee from 
death to life with Christ. 

Again, that thou shouldst have Christ held out and 
painted before thee, especially that thou shouldst be 
drawn of God to go unto him by the trust and afliance 
of thy heart, ' Blessed are your eyes that see these 
things,' Luke x. 23. If to be without him be the 
fountain of all misery, to have him is a well-spring of 
life and blessedness : ' By him we have peace with 
God,' Rom. v. 1. By him title to all things, Rom. viii. 
32. By Christ, the change of all crosses, of death : 
' Christ shall be to me in life and death advantage.' 

Stranyers from tlte commonweaWi of Israel. Doct. 
That is, such as had no communion with the church. 
So that we see a second degree of misery is this, to 
be barred from communion and fellowship with the 
church of God. As it is a most excellent privilege to 
have fellowship with the saints, and is that heaven on 
earth, so to be secluded from this is no small misery. 

Ileason 1. For, fii'st, they that are without can have 
no fellowship with God : ' Where two or three are in 
his name, there is he,' Mat. xviii. 20. He ' wallveth 
among the candlesticks,' Rev. i. 13 ; he (Jjvelleth with 
the saints. 

Reason 2. Secondly, They must needs be under the 
effoctual tyranny of Satan ; therefore when one is cast 
out of the church of God, he is ' delivered up to Satan,' 
1 Tim. i. 20. 

Ileason. 8. Thirdly, He is without all means; for 
whoso will have God his Father, must have the church 
his mother. And the net of God, which must draw 
us out of our woful condition, is not spread but in his 

Use 1. This should make us recount how miserable 
we have been in our pi'edecessors, and still to look that 
we be not such, who though they are bodily amongst 
the people of God, yet are not of them : ' They went 
out from us, because they were not of us ; if they had 
been of us, they would have continued with us.' 

Use 2. This must also make us acknowledge the 
bounty of Christ, who hath made us to be born the 
Israehtes of God, even amongst the church of God, 
so that we have the means of doctrine, and govern- 
ment, attained communion with Christ, and com- 
munion one with another. The Lord commanded of 
the Gentiles they should not come into the congrega- 
tion of his people ; the vile and precious could not be 

Veb. 12. J 



How sLoulJ we bless God for his goodness in this 
regard ! What stayed the omnipotent arm of God 
from creating us in that vast compass of time, I mean 
that almost lour thousaud years Letweon the creation 
and Christ's coming ; and from planting us without 
the palo of the church, where we should have had no 
means or ordinary possihility of salvation, but have 
lived and died in cursed paganism, and heathenish 
idolatry '? It was nothing but his mere mercy, respit- 
ing and reserving our being upon earth unto these 
more blessed and glorious days of the gospel. Let 
us for ever put this point as a perfume into our daily 
sacritice of thanksgiving and praise, with addition of 
further thankful acknowledgment that wo have been 
born and brought up in that golden knot of time (us 
it were), and the very diamond of the ring of all that 
happier revolution since Christ's suflerings : I mean, 
in the glorious breaking out of the gospel from under 
the clouds of popery ; whereas if wo had sprung up 
iu those darksome times, we had a thousand to one 
been choked, and for ever perished in the mists and 
fogs of their comfortless doctrines. 

Nay, and yet further (that whereas for all the hap- 
piness of the times), our lot of living in this world 
might have lit among the Turks and inlidels (a 
world to Christendom), in popish kingdoms, or in the 
persecuted and schismatical parts of the true churcli. 
It hath pleased our blessed and most bounlil'ul Lord 
God to put us also into this little nook of the earth, 
where the gospel shines with such glory, truth, aud 
peace. Let us therefore be thankful, and bring forth 
fruits answerable to this rich mercy of God vouchsafed 
to us, lest he take away his candlestick, and deface 
the face of our churches, causing us to want our holy 

Use 3. Thirdly, Let us not leave our fellowship, 
and estrange ourselves from God's people, from tho 
assemblies, as Brownists and other novelists do. To 
be discommoned a town, or for a citizen to be banished 
a city, is a great evil ; but to bo an exile from God's 
city, an<l discommoned from the communion of saints, 
this is lamentable indeed. Why should we, like 
prodigals, withdraw ourselves from our Father's house, 
and bring upon ourselves, by such singular separating, 
this great miser}-, to be estranged from them who are 
God's true Israel ? 

It is again to be observed, that this phrase a'»r,').Xo- 
rj/w/i£rti noteth more in these Gentiles, as being sepa- 
rated from the presence of God's people, the not being 
members of God's Israel ; it noteth also an alienaiiou 
of the affection from them. This word is thus taken. 
Col. i. 21, 'Ye being estranged, and enemies, xa/' syj- 
6^oi/;, in understanding ;' and thus it was in this 
matter. For administration, the doctrine of Israel 
was a wall of separation, was hatred to the heathen ; 
they were not only forth from being in it, or of it, but 
in affection were alienated, and hated it. 

Duct. This doth teach us, how the natural man 

hateth conjunction with them, where only salvation is 
to be found. Tho wisdom of man cannot be subject 
to tho wisdom of God, the doctrine of God, tho dis- 
cipline of God, tho whole policy of the Israel of God. 
Man by nature is so estranged from it, that it is hateful 
to him. Though tho Gentiles were miserable, and no 
way to come out but by joining themselves as pro- 
selytes with the people of God, yet they abhorred iu 
hearty affection to join with tho Israel of God. 

Use. Aud it is even so now, that men are even 
most averse from that which should be most beneficial 
to them. Men should choose to live under the hear- 
ing of the word, sacraments, discipline ; but they for 
the most part there bestow themselves, where they 
may bo least troubled with these matters. So, whore 
they should have their ej'es to tho saints, who can 
teach them, who can exhort them, could wisely and 
faithfully reprove them, Prov. xv. 12, they take such 
companions as will rather entice and di'aw them to 
folly aud wickedness. So the wilful papists will not 
bo drawn to the assemblies ; the fool will not come 
to the wise ; ' They hate the light, because their deeds 
are evil,' John iii. 19, 20. 

Slraiti/crs Jruiii the coi'cnants of the law, and of the 
gospel ; for these two covenants were well known in 
Israel. It noteth two things : 

1. That they were strangers from the doctrine. 

2. That they were not confederates with God ; for 
without the one, they could not be the other. The 
doctrine of the covenant unknown, they could not be 
confederates with God : Acts xiv. 10, the Lord ' left 
them to then- own ways;' Acts xvii. 30, ' The times 
of that ignorance God regarded not, but now exhorteth 
them to repent.' ' God gave his testimonies to Jacob, 
and his statutes to Israel,' Ps. cxlvii. 19. The cove- 
nants are a propriety of the Israelites ; so that tho 
promulgation of tho covenant was not vouchsafed the 
Gentiles, because the Ljrd regarded not them so far. 
And he being debtor to none, did freely choose Israel, 
giacing them with his covenant above other. 

Duit. 1. Now, then, here we see fii'st, what is a 
great misery, to be without the doctrine of the cove- 
nants of God ; and so, not to be in covenant with him, 
he to bo our God, and we his people. It must needs 
be woful. For this taken away, the means of our 
coming to Christ, of om- having communion with him, 
aud one with another, is intercepted ; without this, 
nothing but darkness, shadow of death. 'How can 
we believe, if we have not heard?' Rom. x. 11. This 
is reckoned as one of tho Israelites' chief privileges, 
Ps. cxhv. 15, to have God for their God, and to 
be his people ; this is reckoned all happiness. 
The covenant is tho gi'ound of all benefits : man 
could not obtain anything from God but by that 

t^^e 1. This letteth us see our misery, if we be 
strangeis from the covenant : ' 'Wliit hast thou to do 
to take my covenant in thy mouth, aud hatest to be 



[Chap. II. 

re''ormed ?' Ps. 1. 16. So that all these are strangers 
from the covenant, that ai-e not reformed in their ways ; 
a woful thing. They have no right to any portion, 
any bequest therein. 

Use 2. This teacheth us to see our happiness, who 
have these things sealed from our birth in our eyes 
and hearts ; for by vu'tue of this covenant God is be- 
come our God : ' I will be his God, and he shall be 
my son,' Kev. xsii. 8. As the husband saith. This 
woman is mine ; so the woman saith, This man is 
mine. In like manner, God by his covenant ha\-ing 
married us unto himself, and plighted his faithful love 
to his children : Hos. ii., ' I have married thee unto 
myself. This is my people' (saith God) ; and the 
people say boldly, ' This is my God.' Or as the 
father saith, This is my son ; so the son saith. This 
is my father. God doth convey himself (through his 
Holy Spirit) into our hearts, with such strict fami- 
liarity, that he is said to ' dwell with them,' 2 Cor. 
vi. IC. So that, as a man may say of the thing which 
he hath in true possession. This is mine ; so may we 
say of God, He is mine, seeing I have him within me, 
and have a true possession of him. 

Now, whether we have God thus, or not, it will 
appear by the moving of the heart. For, as he that 
hath the spirit of Satan shall find him ever egging 
and provoking him to evil, and as it were jogging him 
on to one filthiness or other ; so he that hath the 
Spirit of God shall find it, and feel it active and 
stirring in him, to the reforming of the whole man, 
enlightening his understanding, reforming bis will, 
correcting his thoughts, and sitting as it were in 
commission over the whole man, ruling and governing 
him in spite of the power of Satan, and privy con- 
spiracy of his own flesh. 

He that perceiveth this monarchy of the Spirit, 
overruling the tyrannous assaults aforesaid, may well 
be assured he is taken into covenant, and hath the 
Spirit put into his heart, and so consequently that he 
is no stranger to the covenant of God. 

Duct. Secondly, This doth let us see, that the 
Lord left the Gentiles without the means of calling 
them to salvation. For the clearing of it, we must 
set down three things': 


1. That the doctrine of the covenant is the only 
ordinary means. 

2. That the Lord did deny them this. 

3. That it was not anything but his mere pleasure, 
which did make him give it to the Jew, and deny it 
the Gentile. 

It was not the law of nature, if one could follow it, 
that could bring him to salvation. It is not the book 
of the creature ; it is not every man's humour, and 
secret whispering of the doctrine of Christ, such as 
might, from the Egyptian bondage, or the traific of 
some private persons, or the captivity, be here and 
there scattered among the Gentiles : Ps. cslvii., ' He 
manifestcth his word to Jacob, his statutes and his 

judgments to Israel : be hath not so done to any 
nation.' It was not anything but his pleasure: Deut. 
is. 4, ' Say not in thy heart, For my righteousness the 
Lord hath brought me in to possess this land,' &c. 
This made the separation, and was the fountain of 
all that love to his people, above the rest of the 

It is plain, then, how that the Gentiles were thus 
without the doctrine of the covenant, God not pleasing 
to vouchsafe it. The gospel is ' the power of God 
unto salvation,' Eom. i. 16. ' It pleased God, by the 
foolishness of preaching, to save them that believe,' 
1 Cor. iv. They had not Christ once named ; it was 
denied in every age, before the flood, after the giving 
of the law. God cast Cain from his face, from the 
society of his, in the means of his presence ; so that 
a distinction grew between the sons of God and of 
men : the one had the worship of God, the other had 
not. After the flood, the posterity of Ham ; in the 
tents of Shem was the Lord known. At the law 
giving, we see that the Lord denied the ordinance of 
Levi to any nation, but to Israel. Yea, in time of 
Christ, the Gentiles were denied, as dogs, ' the bread 
of the children :' Mat. xv., 'I am not sent but unto 
the lost sheep of the house of Israel : Mat. s., ' Go 
not in the way of the Gentiles.' Paul now girt to 
this business, is forbidden to preach in Asia : Acts 
xvi., ' God sufl'ered them to walk in their own ways.' 
The sending, or the not sending of labourers into the 
harvest, is belonging to the Lord : the Lord killed 
that rebellious people with kindness, when others that 
had no such means would have been more fruitful : 
' I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy,' 
Rom. is. 

So that it doth let us see, that the Lord may justly 
leave men without the means of salvaiion ; and that 
he doth so, not giving them his word, much less giving 
his Son to die for them, or willing their salvation. 
And moreover, that the Gentiles had not the covenant, 
the tables, the doctrine of it, or confederacy in it, it 
was the prerogative of Israel. 

2. Secondly, If the posterity of Abraham (in regard 
of the flesh) were secluded, how can we dream that 
the Gentiles should be admitted ? But Israelites, 
Midianites, Edomites, were excluded. No outward 
thing can ground our hope. 

^^ithout hope. Docl. Observe what is a great 
misery, even this, to be without hope. The Gentiles 
were without the thing hoped for, without any expecta- 
tion of it, utterly hopeless. Now, this is a pitiful 
condition, when we are without hope for hereafter. 
Hope is ' the anchor of the soul,' Heb. vi. 19. So 
that as a ship on the main sea, tossed and hoisted up 
and down, in continual danger of shipwreck, so is the 
soul without hope. Again, it is the spur of all diligent 
endeavour : ' He that hath this hope purgeth himself,' 
1 Juhu iii. 3. Again, it is the ground of all joy and 
peace, and but for hope the heart would burst. Their 

Ver. 1.1] 



heals weiv uiicovoRil, so that ever}" wound was deadly 
to them : ' The helmet of salvation' is hope, Eph. vi. 

Uxc 1. Now, then, we must examine ourselves, for 
such were we ; which must be remembered. What 
was then our estate, when our souls waved up and 
down without an anchor ; when we in evils had no 
hope of particular issue, or of that general redemption ; 
when we were comfortless, and without any prick to 
incite us ? 

Use. 2. Again, we must look whether we have hope, 
for else we are miserable : ' Thy hypocrites' hope shall 
perish,' Job viii. 13. He may boast that he looketh 
for life, but his hope is tried in the day of adversity : 
Job xxvii. 8, ' AMiat hope hath the hy|50cnte, when 
he hath heaped up riches, if God take away his soul ?' 
Every man may swim, while he is held up by the 
chin. No unbeliever can have hope, for this doth as 
a handmaid follow faith ; after the measure of belief 
is hope proportioned : ' My flesh doth rest in hope,' 
Ps. xvi. 9 : ' If thou kill me, yet will I hope in thee,' 
Job xiii. 15. 

Without God. Three ways a man may be said to 
be without God : 

1. By profane atheism. 

2. By false worship. 

8. By want of spiritual worship. 

For a mau may be said in some sense to have God, 
that hath an acknowledgment of a divine power. 
Agiin, a man may be said to have God, and the true 
God outwardly, who doth make outward profession 
and worship such as is taught of God. And man 
Cometh truly to have God, when he knoweth him in 
Christ, when he loveth him, fearoth him, tiustcth in 
him. Now, he speaketh here of the Ephesians, that 
both outwardly and inwardly, in regard of outward 
and inward worship, were without God ; for other- 
^^•ise they had conscience of a divine power, and were 
worshippers of the great Diana. 

Doct. This, then, is a wonderful misery of any, to 
be without God. God is a fountain of life ; whoso is far 
from him must perish. 'Blessed arc the people whose 
God is the Lord,' Ps. cxliv. 15. Cursed are they that 
are far from him, he is the fountain of life, ' the Father 
of lights,' James i. IC. ' Thou cuttest off all that go 
a-whoring after other gods': 'Cursed be ho that is 
withdrawn from the Lord his God,' Ps. Ixxiii. 27. 
Idolaters, either by false worship, or by hearts with- 
drawn from God, shall not enter into the kingdom of 
God ; all by nature are estranged, yea, enemies to 
God ; the hypocrite forgets God. ' He that keeps my 
commandments, the Father and the Son dwell in him,' 
John xiv. 23. 

Use. If all our misery be in the want of having God 
for our God, then let us examine our state, whether 
we have him or no. God in Christ saith, he will take 
us for his people ; we promise that we will have him 
for our God. Now the having of (iod for our God 

doth comprise all our duty to God, thit we set up God 
in our hearts as God ; which thing we do, 

1. When we grow up to know him in all things. We 
cannot have God our God till we come to know him 
in Christ. Ignorance doth estrange us from Goil, and 
knowledge doth ac(juaint us with him. For look, as 
the eye becometh one with that which it seeth, and is 
after a sort in that light it beholds, so we are by the 
vision of God, which is begun in us, one with him, 
and in him. 

2. Secondly, When we make him our trust, hanging 
all our hopes on his mercy and truth towards us. 
Whoso reposeth all his confidence in God, he taketh 
him in so doing for his God, trusting on him for the 
giving and maintaining of all our good, both temporal 
and eternal, leaning on him for all defence, and de- 
liverance from evils spiritual, yea, and coq)oral, cast- 
ing all our care on him : ' Having no confidence in the 
flesh, but rejoicing in Christ Jesus,' Philip, iii. 3. 

3. Thirdly, When we love him above all. Love, we 
know, makes man and woman one, and the same doth 
hand-fast us to God. When our hearts can say, ' Lord, 
what have we in heaven but thee? or in earth in com- 
parison of thee?' Ps. Ixxiii. 25. This is seen by that 
joy and delight we have in coming privately or publicly 
into God's house or presence, when our hearts ' long 
to be dissolved, and to be with Christ,' Philip, i. 23. 
When we hear God's name blasphemed, and all wicked- 
ness committed, our hearts melt away with grief, and 
our eyes gush out tears, when we delight in his sta- 
tutes more than in all wealth. 

4. Fourthly, We have God for our God, when above 
all wo fear him, and dread to offend him, because he 
hath been gracious unto us, and hath power to do with 
us as he pleaseth ; when we tremble at his judg- 
ments, which so long have been upon us, and still 
hover about us ; when we fear by the least sin to dis- 
please him ; when om- hearts are reverently affected 
in his presence, afraid to trespass against his statutes, 
the breach of which is punishable with eternal death. 

5. Fifthly, When we make him our chief and only 
joy : ' Rejoicing always in the Lord,' Philip, iv. 4. For 
what we make our chief joy, that is our god, for the 
heart resteth principally in that ^^■ith which it is most 
dehghted. Now what is more equal than that we 
should solace ourselves in him with joy unspeakable 
and glorious, who hath delivered us from death, and 
sin, and Satan ; in him who is a fountain of all good, 
and defender of us from all evil, able to maintain all 
the good, both spiritual and corporal, which we have, 
and give us whatsoever is wanting? 

Ver. 18. liut note, in Christ Jesus, ye which icere 
oncef/ir off are made near by the blood of Christ. 

Now he Cometh to the second thing he would have 

them remember, that is, what now they were ; and it 

, may be brought in by way of prevention, for, lest they 

! should be swallowed up of sorrow, in recounting their 



[Chap. II. 

former condition, the apostle annexeth, that their grief 
might be sweetened, their opposite condition. 
In the words you have to consider : — 

1. The persons, described from their being in Christ, 
as members with the head. 

2. From that they had been in time past. 

8. Their contrary condition, that now they were 

4. The meritorious cause of it, by the blood of 

Doct. 1. First, then, from the order of the apostle, we 
see that we must so look on our misery, that we re- 
member also our estate by mercy. These two do well 
agree together, the one corrects the other, so that both 
are wholesome. Purging medicines, without restora- 
tives interlaced, will weaken too much. Paul doth 
not only shew them their estate of nature, but it being 
a bitter pill, doth gild it over, with annexing their 
comfortable condition in Christ. He had no sooner 
said to the Corinthians, ' Such were some of you,' but 
he presently addeth, ' But now ye are justified,' &c., 
1 Cor. vi. 11; nor to the Colossians, 'You were dead 
in trespasses, but you are quickened,' &c.. Col. ii. 13; 
nor to Titus, you were thus and thus, &c., Titus iii. 
3, 4 ; but ever hath as a counter-poison added unto it, 
the change made by grace in them so miserable. We 
must have one eye cast downward on our unworthi- 
ness, and another upward on the grace of God, and 
benefits by grace. 

The apostle, when he had cast down himself in 
thinking on his wretchedness, doth raise up himself 
through Christ, Eom. vii. 24, 25. And he seldom 
tclleth any of their misery (which is to be marked), 
but he doth likewise annex what they were by the 
mercy of God. For the apostle, who saith of himself, 
he was 'not ignorant of the devil's enterprises,' 2 Cor. 
ii. 11, did note right well, that the devil will labour 
to swallow up in soitow, as well as to kill by carnal 
security. And look, as extreme medicines are not 
alone wholesome, unless they be corrected with con- 
traries, so the apostle, who knoweth well how to divide 
aright, knew right well that it was not safe to leave 
them to the swallowing of those former pills, unless the 
bitterness of them were some way allayed. 

Use. It doth teach us how to dispense the word in 
wisdom, and Christians how to carry themselves; they 
must not be all in one extreme, like those philosophers 
that are either alway weeping or else alway laughing, i 
but if there be heaviness with them in the evening, i 
they must look to that which may bring joj- in the 
morning; and as a man after hard labour delighteth to 
take the air in a garden, so must they, when they have 
humbled their souls in viewing their misery, refresh 
themselves in walking among those sweet flowers, even 
the benefits of God. 

Dud. 2. Secondly, We see here how the Lord doth 
bring such as arc furthest estranged from him to bo 
near unto him : ' Many that are first shall be last, and 

the last shall be first,' and ' shall come to sit down 
with Abraham and Isaac in the kingdom of God,' when 
the childi'en in appearance are excluded, ' Yon, when 
ye were enemies, your minds set on evil works, you 
hath he reconciled,' Col. i. 21. Mark here the free 
and large grace of God ; if we had been enemies in 
heart only, it had been much to find favour, but when 
we have made a trade of evil works, and lived all our 
lives in open rebellion, how undeserved and how rich 
is the grace which giveth pardon ! If the king pardon 
one whose good will is doubtful, and take him to grace, 
it is much; but when one hath lived in making attempts 
on his person, then to forget and to forgive were more 
than credible clemency. The love of God is seen in 
this, that when we were enemies, he gave his Son to 
reconcile us ; and his free love, that of mere grace, 
not of our righteousness, nay, against our deserving, 
saveth us. 

He doth it for many reasons : 

1. To shew the abundance of grace: 'Where sin 
aboundeth, there gi'ace aboundeth much more,' Rom. 
V. 20. 

2. To shew us precedents of mercy, as Paul saith 
of himself, ' For this cause was I received to mercy, 
that Jesus Christ should first shew on me all long-suf- 
feriug, unto the example of them which shall in time 
to come believe in him unto eternal life,' 1 Tim. i. 16. 

3. To increase love in us new converts towards him : 
' She loved much, because much was forgiven her,' 
Luke vii. 47. And this is love indeed, that he loveth 
us first, even when we hate ; he carrieth even hell it- 
self into heaven. 

Use 1. Hereby we see, that none hath cause to put 
from him the benefits tendered, and desperately to 
deny himself the grace of salvation ; ' The grace of 
God hath appeared unto all,' Titus ii. 11, and excludeth 
none but such as exclude themselves. 

Vse 2. Secondly, It doth make us able to expect 
with patience the return of such as are far wide ; lie 
they where they will, bound with never so many and 
so strong chains, God is able to draw them to himself; 
publicans and harlots he calls to his kingdom. De- 
spair we then of none, he can pull Jonah out of the 
belly of hell. Examples hereof the Scripture hath 
plenty, IVIanasseh, Paul, the thief. Gentiles ; for 
'greater is he that is in us, than he that is in the 
world,' 1 John iv. 4 ; ' The Lord rules in the midst of 
his enemies,' Ps. ex. 2. 

Vse 3. Lastly, It doth comfort us in the assured 
hope of our salvation, and may assure us that he will 
not fail us till he hath bronght us to salvation, now 
we are friends, ' who, when we were enemies, recon- 
ciled us, and made us near : much more now, being 
reconciled, shall we he saved by his life,' Rom. v. 10. 

Doct. 8. Thirdly, We see what a change is made in 
those that are now in Christ. The case is altered: their 
condition, from cursedness, is turned into blessedness; 
they, from being aliens from God's people, made to 

Ver. 13.] 



be near every way to God in Christ. As it maketh a 
new creiUure, renewed unto light, a new conversation, 
renewed unto the same, so a new condition, lightsome, 
that is, blessed and prosperous, for this is the fruit of 
conversion. This may be amplified, from considering 
the particulars of our estate, out and in Christ : ' Old 
things are passed away, and all made new,' 2 Cor. v. 
17, new man, a new condition. 

For the new creature you have heard of, the new 
conversation is plain, if j-ou have learned Christ, ' I 
live by the faith of the Son of God, who hath given 
himself for mo,' Gal. ii. 20. So for their estate, full 
of all blessedness. God dwelleth with Christ, we 
therefore being in him, must needs have communion 
with the Father and Spirit. Again, Christ is the head 
of his members, we must therefore needs be near to 
those that are iu affinity with Christ, as in a marriage 

Use. So that hence wo may judge of our being in 
Christ, even by that we find in him. Look, whatsoever 
you have been, if you once come into Christ you will 
be altered ; so that whoso walk in darkness, in strife, 
envying, coveting, in voluptuousness, all which are 
enmity with God, they are not come near to Christ : 
' For they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh, 
with the lusts thereof,' Gal. v. 24. 

By the blond of Christ. Doct. This is the last 
thing to be marked, what it is by which we come to 
be reconciled to God ; it is the blood of Christ. Bnt 
before we come to consider of it, it is fit to answer 
some questions, which will help us to more fruitful 

Qaest. 1. Fii-st, What is to be understood by the 
blood of Christ ? 

Ans. I answer, his bodily death, or bloodshed, with 
the curse, for it is a synecdoche. By blood is meant 
a bloody death ; by bloodj- death, a death on the cross ; 
by the death of the cross, a cursed death. Though 
Christ's intercession hath his place in appeasing God, 
and other actions, yet this death is chiefly named, be- 
cause the force that other things have to pacify God 
is derived from this sacrifice. 

Quest. 2. Secondly, it may be asked, WLy the 
Scripture everywhere nameth blood ? 

Ans. 1. To shew in it an accomplishment of types. 

2. Because it was most sensible. 

8. Because in it was the perfection of all his obe- 
dience for us. 

4. In opposition to the blood of beasts, he doth 
thus point at the body, whereof those Levitical sacri- 
fices were shadows. 

QueU. 8. The third question is, Whence this blood 
hath that force ? 

Ans. Partly hence, that it is the bloody death of 
God ; and partly, that it was endured with feeling the 
infinite wrath of God. 

Now, to consider of the thing, that in Christ his 
bloody accursed death we come to be near to God. 

We come to have hope, we come to have all spiritual 

privileges, redemption through his blood : ' Wo are 
redeemed from our vain conversation, not with silver 
and gold, but by the precious blood of Christ Jesus, 
as of a Lamb undcfiled, and without spot,' 1 Peter i. 
18, 19, whom God hath set forth ' to be a reconcilia- 
tion through faith in his blood,' Rom. iii. 25. It is 
Christ his blood which breaketh down the wall of par- 
tition : ' Ho purgeth us from our sins in his Hood." 

Use 1. It tcacheth us, what it is that the eye of our 
faith should principally respect, and look upon in 
Christ, viz., the blood of Christ, the cross of Christ, 
the obediecco and sufl'erings of Christ ; in a word, 
Christ crucified, that is the subject that our faith must 
take hold on. Christ crucified is the object of our 
knowledge, 1 Cor. ii. 2 ; the matter of our rojoicing, 
Gal. vi. 14 ; the ground and foundation of our faith, 
Rom. iii. 25. It is a world of heavenly comforts, 
that a spiritual mind may gather unto himself, in the 
due meditation and beholding of the death of Christ. 

When we think of Christ crucified, and shedding of 
his blood, there we may see, 

1. Our sins punished to the full. 

2. Our sins pardoned to the full. 

3. Our sins crucified and mortified by his Hood. 

4. The flesh crucified. Gal. v. 14. 

5. Ourselves crucified to the world, and the wurld 
to us. Gal. vi. 14. 

6. There we behold how patient we should be in 
aflliction, even to the death. 

7. There is the picture of our whole life, wliich 
must be a continual course of mortification. 

8. There is the seasoning of our death, that when- 
soever it Cometh, it shall be a sweet passage to a bet- 
ter life. 

9. There we see all evils turned to our good. 

10. Lastly, therein we see all good things pur- 
chased for us, grace, mercy, and peace, and eternal 

Yea, a heaven of treasure and riches gathered for 
us ; and that we are made partakers of, by a due view 
of meditation of Christ crucified. And, therefore, who- 
soever would have any true relish of Christ, he must 
labour for the relish of the blood of Christ. 

Use 2. It teaeheth us the difliculty of the work of 
our redemption, which could not be efi"ected but by 
the blood of Christ, the Son of God. Oh how deeply 
had we plunged ourselves into a bottomless sea of 
miseries, that nothing could pluck us out but the 
death and blood of Jesus Christ ! How fast did the 
filth of sin seize upon us, both in our bodies and souls, 
that nothing could wash us, and cleanse us from it, 
but the blood of Christ ! How fearfully had we en- 
thralled ourselves to death, hell, and destruction, that 
nothing could deliver and free us but the blood of 
Christ ! llow infinitely had we exposed ourselves to 
the wrath and vengeance of God, that he being a God 
of compassion, and of himself most gracious, and 



[Chap. II. 

ready to forgive, yet lie could not be moved to liave 
pity and compassion upon us, but only by the cruel 
and cursed death of the Lord Jesus ! The more dif- 
ficult the work on his part, the greater was his love to 
us, and therefore the more thankfulness we are to ren- 
der unto him. 

Use 3. Thirdly, This doth let us see the preciousness 
of the work of our redemption. If we should tender 
a great mass of money, we should have it in esteem 
that cost us so dear ; but this hath cost the very blood 
of the Son of God himself. How highly did the Lord 
value our souls, who was pleased himself (that knew 
the worth of everything) to set our souls at such an 
high rate as the blood of Christ ! How dearly did 
he esteem and love us, when he would come and pur- 
chase these poor souls of ours, and pay so high a 
price for them ! 

Use 4. This doth shew us how horrible sin is, to 
engender in us godly grief; such epicurism is in us, 
that we count sin a light hurt, which anything will 
salve. But whoso duly weigheth this, that sin, ere 
it could be done away and satisfied, hath made the 
Lord of glory to empty himself of his majesty, to shed 
his precious blood ; this will make his heart to melt 
and bleed within him for his sins : ' I will pour' (saith 
the Lord, Zech. xii. 10), ' upon the house of David, 
and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of 
grace and compassion ; and they shall look upon him 
whom they have pierced,' &c. If once the Lord make 
us turn our eyes to Christ, and to regard what he hath 
suffered for our sins, nothing will more than that 
humble us with godly sorrow, and bruise our hearts 
for them. 

Use 5. Lastly, It doth assure us of God's love for 
the time to come : ' If, when we were enemies, we 
were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much 
more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life,' 
Rom. V. 10. If a man, out of his love, hath sought 
the friendship of his enemy, and used means to bo 
reconciled to him, is it not likely that he will be con- 
stant in this love, and take all ways to maintain it to 
the end ? But howsoever it fall out with man, who 
is variable, most sure it is, that God, since his love 
was so wonderful towards us when we were enemies, 
that he gave his Son for us, to reconcile us to him, 
will now much more freely exercise his love toward 
us, and firmly abide in his good will unto us, that en- 
mity being undone and dissolved. 

Ver. 14. For lie is our peace, irJiich hath made of 
both one, and hath broken the stop of the partition wall. 

Now followeth the proof : For he is our peace. He 
hath taken away all enmity, and made us one with 
God and ourselves ; he is the author of our peace. 
Therefore we have this set down, that Christ is our 
peace, that is, the author of peace ; the abstract put 
for the concrete, as wisdom, to make us wise. 

Secondly, This is proved by the cffoct, and manner 

of working the effect, Ee hath made both one. The 
manner of working, by taking away that which hin- 
dered peace, set down in three phrases, all signifying 
one thing, though different, in regard of diverse con- 
siderations. The end of this is set down, in regard 
of men, and in regard of God. Now, then, herein we 
win consider of this : 

1. That Christ is the author of peace. 

2. The branches of it. 

3. Objections against it. 

4. The uses of it. 

Doct. Observe first, Christ Jesus is the author of 
all out peace. All true peace cometh by Christ ; so 
it was foretold by the prophets : called ' the Prince of 
peace,' Isa. is. G. The true Solomon, in whom that 
is only accomplished, even abundance of eternal peace : 
Zech. ix. 10, ' The bow of battle shall be broken, and 
he shall speak peace unto the heathen.' The angels 
sing, ' Peace on earth,' when Christ entereth, Luke 
ii. 14. For better understanding, we are to know 
wherein this peace standeth, and that is in two things : 

1. In restoring the amity and friendship which we 
had in creation, but lost by the fall. 

2. In vanquishing those enemies which had taken 
us captive, and wrongfully detained us. We must 
take with us the consideration of our estate in our- 
selves, o)iposite to this peace we find in Christ. Men, 
considered in themselves, are still waging a fivefold 
war : 

(1.) With God ; for, Rom. v. 10, ' We were ene- 
mies to God,' Col. i. 20 ; so that we neither are, nor 
can be, subject to the law of righteousness. As 
thus we are towards God, so his wrath is kindled 
against us. 

(2.) We are at war with the angels ; breaking 
peace with the Creator, we can have no truce with 
the creature. 

(3.) There is a war twist us and the creature; for 
that is ready to minister to the Lord of hosts, and to 
take revenge of us, as in ourselves considered. As 
he that loseth the favour of the lord and master, 
loseth also the love of the true and trusty servant ; so 
we, having brought upon ourselves the displeasure of 
almighty God, all creatures are ready pressed upon the 
will of God to conspire our destraction. 

(4.) Man is at war with man, wolves one to an- 

(5.) Man is at war with himself, having accusing 
and excusing thoughts, by which he is in himself rent 
asunder, Rom. ii. 15. 

Now Christ hath put an end to all these wars ; at his 
coming all are hushed, and peace made on all hands. 

(1.) He hath reconciled us to God, 2 Cor. v. 19, 
Rom. V. 1. ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I rest 
well pleased,' Mat. iii. 17. This was it which all the 
atonements made by propitiatory sacrifices did pre- 
signify ; even how this high priest, Jesus Christ, 
should, with the sacrifice of his body, make God and 

Ver. 14.] 



US one again in mntual love, as he and the Father 
are one. 

(2.) The good angels come to be at one with ns in 
Christ. The,v rejoice in a sinner's conversion, Luke 
XV. 10 ; now ' niiuistcriiig spirits for the good of the 
elect,' Heb. i. 14 ; they preach peace, and are thank- 
ful for our weal and happiness. 

(3.) We have peace with the creatures; as was pro- 
mised, Hosea ii. 18, Job v. 28, ' The heavens hear 
the earth, the earth the com, wine, and oil.' 

(4.) In Christ, outward and iuward peace amongst 
men ; Jew and Gentile hath ho united, oil in one 
heart, knit together in the bond of peace, foretold by 
the prophet, Isa. ii. 4, and xi. 7. 

(5.) In Christ we came to have peace of conscience 
in ourselves, even ' that peace which passeth under- 
standing,' a continual feast ; boldness, and confidence 
to God-ward, Eph. iii. 12. 

Ohj. 1. But it may be objected, first, what Christ 
saith, He came not ' to send peace, but a sword.' 

Alls. This doth not make anything against it, that 
he is the author of peace ; for the same peace is not 
understood in both these places. He came not to send 
peace ; that is, carnal peace : he is the author only of 
spiritual peace. 

Olij. 2. Secondly, It is objected, that the state of 
the Jews, to whom he came, was turbulent, full of 
tumult, till they were subverted. 

Alls. True, the state of the temple and Jews was 
troublesome ; but so, that the world could not take 
awaj' this peace : ' My peace I give unto you, and 
none «hall take it from you,' John xvi. 22. 

OIjJ. 3. Thirdly, It is objected, that we find in our- 
Belves, since we came to be in him, more disquietness 
than we ever tasted before. 

Alls. To which I answer, 'Uliat we find in the world 
■we must look for : ' In the world ye shall have atflic- 
tion.' And what we find in ourselves, taketh away 
the feehng of peace, not peace . itself, like as in 
juggling, things remain unaltered, though our sense 
is corrupted. 

Secondly, He is an author of peace, but applieth it 
successively by degrees : like master, like man ; like 
prince, like people. Christ for a while endured many 
and gi-eat troulJes, and so must his members. 

Use 1. This doth let us see to what we must look 
in all our terrors of conscience, by apprehension of 
God's wrath, even to Jesus Christ, he who hath with 
his blood quenched this wildfiie ; for ' God's wrath is 
a consuming fire,' Heb. xii. 29. We with screens do 
keep the fire from our faces and eyes ; but they arc 
wise which put between their souls and God's wrath 
this screen of Christ's reconciliation, lest this fire burn 
to the pit of destruction. This doth still the con- 
science, and fill it with good hope. When wo have 
oflfended some great personages, if some mean one 
should move them in our behalf, it would not so stay 
us, for we know they will not often hear them speak, or 

have them but in light regard, if they give them hear- 
ing; but if we can procure such as be their peers, to deal 
efl'ectually for us, wo doubt not but things shall be 
well c(mipounded ; what will they deny to such as be 
equal to themselves ? So with us, &c. 

Use 2. Again, this must make us cleave unto Christ, 
even to let our teudcrest bowels love him that hath done 
this for us. Oh, if one do but take up some hurtful 
jar betwixt us and some other, whoso favour wo have 
found very beneficial to us, and whoso displeasure we 
know may prove prejudicial, wo would be very thank- 
ful to him. If one should mollify the king's displea- 
sure, and make him favour us, would we not with all 
love embrace him ? Christ hath healed worse things 
betwixt God and thee, how shouldst thou love him ! 

Use 3. Seeing Christ alone is the author of all true 
peace, this should cause us to seek to be under his 
kingdom, yea, to give our eyelids no rest till we were 
got under the regiment of Christ. Look how you 
would do if the enemy were entered your gates, taken 
your wives and children, spoiled you of your goods. 
If there were a town near unto you, where you might 
prevent such danger, and find safe protection, and live 
peaceably and securely, who would not with all expe- 
dition betake him thither ? Why, so it should be 
with us. By nature we are taken, spoiled. Now the 
Prince of peace protectcth all with the cover of his 
wings, so that there is no destruction, no desolation 
within the walls of his regiment. If we love not to be 
spoiled, we would fly to him most certainly. 

Use 4. This is also for our imitation, to become 
followers of Christ, that we learn to be peacemakers, 
and to be of a loving, meek, and peaceable disposition. 
This is the wisdom from above, James i. 17. 

Use 5. This letteth us see the miserable condition 
of the wicked ; they not being in Christ, can have no 
peace : ' There is no peace (saith my God) to the 
wicked,' Isa. Ivii. 21. Men out of Christ have no 
peace with the creatures, nor one with another, but 
are wolves, hons, leopards, one to another. 

Ol'j. How can this be ? We live quietly and neigh- 
bour-like one by another. 

Alls. Though a snake play with a man, not offer to 
sting or hurt, yet it is a snake ; so, though these fruits 
are prevented and restrained by God's providence, yet 
the root liveth within thee. Man by nature is cruel 
and unpeaceable, his feet swift to shed blood, he 
knoweth not the way of peace, Rom. iii. 15, 17. 

Whicli hatli made i>J hoth one. Doct. Observe then, 
first, the sepai-ation of this people before this work of 

Concerning which, mark, 

1. When it begun chiefly. 

2. In what it stood. 

3. Before whom. 

4. How long it endured. 

1. It began after the people's return out of Egypt, 
and when they were now by lot under Joshua assigned 



[Chap. II. 

to Canaan for their polity and place, in which they 
were bounded. There was a separation from the be- 
oinning, of faithful and unfaithful, Cain and Abel, sons 
of God aud men. So after the flood, Ham and Japhet 
from Shem ; but this entered after, and was more con- 

2. It stood not only in things temporal, but spiri- 
tual, they having Christ looking on them through the 
lattice-windows of their ceremonial worship : ' The 
law a schoolmaster to Christ,' Gal. iii. 24, ' an intro- 
duction of a better hope.' They had light and life, 
when the rest were in darkness and shadow of death. 

3. God was the author of it. See Deut. xxxii. 8-10. 

4. It endured until the death and resurrection of 

Now it followeth, to consider of the uniting of 
the Jew and Gentile by means of Christ. Thus the 
prophets did foretell this taking of the Gentiles to fel- 
lowship with the church : in Christ ' all the nations of 
the earth should be blessed,' Gen. xxii. 18 ; ' All the 
nations should flow unto the house of God, and should 
worship one God with Jacob,' Isa. ii. 2. And God 
saith, that he will ' make a path from Egypt to Ashur ; 
and Ashur shall come into Egypt, and Egypt into 
Ashur : so the Egyptians shall worship with Ashur,' 
Isa. xis. 23. Now in Christ these promises were yea 
and amen, all of them accomplished, when Christ said, 
' It is finished,' John xix. 30. Whereupon presently, 
he that had forbidden his apostles to go into the way 
of the Gentiles, Mat. x. 5, he doth bid them ' Go teach 
all nalions,' Mat. xxviii. 19, 

Now, secondly, consider in what this onement 
standeth. It is a strait conjunction, even into one 
man mystical, of which we shall speak hereafter. In 
the mean while, the fourth chapter of this epistle will 
open unto you the contents of this union. They were 
not now worshippers of Diana, but had one God with 
the Jew ; they were joint worshippers of the true God, 
one in spirit ; an efl'ect of which in them was, to be 
of one heart and mind, in one hope, in one faith. 

Obj. 1. It may be objected, that Christ his making 
way for the Gentiles, was the occasion of rejecting of 
the Jew, as concerning the gospel : ' They are enemies 
for yom- sake, the casting away of them is the recon- 
ciliation of the world,' Rom. xi. 15. 

2. Secondly, We see that still there are differences, 
as of Jew, Turk, and Christians. 

Ans. For the first, the rejecting of Israel is but in 
part, and for a time. 2. This is though said to be 
done, because it is in part done ; for the full accom- 
plishment shall be when all Israel, all the people of 
Jew and Gentile aie called. 3. Therefore we are one, 
not that the Jews and we now go band in hand, but 
that the ancient church and we do conspire. 

For the second : 1 , God hath even a hidden church 
in Turkey ; 2, they are not of God's setting, but of 
man's taking up, to distinguish them that gather them- 
selves to the churches from other. 

Obj. But their children are unholy. 

Ans. It is good to be sober here ; for the present 
estate of men cut off from the church, doth not preju- 
dice their children. The right to the tables iloth not 
require the immediate parents' faith of necessity, but 
any within the thousandth generation ; neither would 
the apostle, finding infants of deceased parents (where 
they planted churches) have denied them baptism. 

iV. It doth bind us to thanksgiving. If we could 
recount the great comfort of tbis benefit, we should 
break out into thankfulness. The union of two king- 
doms, the union of any churches of the papists with 
us, would it not rejoice us? Every good subject will 
seek the enlargement of the king's territories, and the 
rooting out of all opposites that set themselves against 
the welfare of his kingdom. How much more should 
it be our joy to see the kingdom of Christ propagated, 
and ourselves with the saints of all the earth linked 
in one ! 

Hathbrokendowntheslopoftkeparlitionii-all. Doct. 1. 
Observe, what is the way to peace ; namely, to take 
away that which debars it. ' Cast out the whisperers ; ' 
' What peace,' saith Jehu, ' can there be, while the 
fornications of Jezebel are unrevenged ? ' 2 Ivings ix. 
22. A folly to meditate of peace between God and us, 
or man and man, out of this order. As if one would 
make two rooms one, or make closes into one, he must 
beat down the wall, and pull up the hedge that maketh 
the partition. 

Doct. 2. Secondly, Mark what was the use of the 
ceremonial worship; to hem the Jews in among them- 
selves, and to separate them from the Gentiles : Gal. 
iii. 23, ' Before faith came, we were kept under the 
law, and shut up unto the faith which should after- 
wards be revealed.' It had many ends : to teach 
them their guilt; it was a bill against them to drive 
them to Christ, to typify out Christ in his oflices ; they 
were shadows of him the body, sinews to tie them to- 
gether, to be exercises of their faith and obedience, to 
be rules of their distinction, to be as a wall about them, 
keeping them apart from the nations, and the nations 
from them ; that is to be marked of the ceremonies of 
sacrificing and of circumcision. 

The moral laws were not a wall of partition, for the 
Gentile was bound to them, did in some things the 
work of them, was plagued from heaven in all ages for 
the breach of them. Yea, if the Gentile had come 
amongst the Jews, he might have been forced to the 
work of them, as Neh. siii. 21, the foreign merchants, 
for breaking the Sabbaths, are brought to order. It 
was not the judicial, founded in natural equity, as the 
letting their land rest every seventh year ; or touching 
persons, as the law of divorce, selling children ; or of 
ceremony, as the judicial, of flying to a city of refuge 
in case of involuntary murder. But these, circum- 
cision, this made the Gentiles let fly names at them : 
Credat Judceus Apcthi, iron rr/o. Sacrifices, these were 
an abomination to the Egyptians, Exod. viii. 26. Ap- 

Yer. 15.J 



parel, gestures, distinctions of meats, swine's flesh, it 
is not their idolatry only, hut their superstitions, which 
do m;ike a divorce twist them and us ; and we see that 
with us matter of ceremony hath the same use. If of 
God, they do both serve to bo bonds of unity, and wails 
of separation from those without ; if of man, they do 
bind such together as receive them, and are a wall be- 
twixt such and others who cannot yield to entertain 
them. I would it were not too apparent, that they 
from their first admission were occasion and prop of 
difl'erence : and now Christians are subdivided by them 
into conformable and unconformable. 

JZsf. The use hereof is, to let us see what the form 
of God's worship is to us : it is as a wall about us, both 
guarding us lest we go out, and keeping others from 
having access to us. And it letteth us see, what is the 
best constitution of worship, the spiritual worship, with 
what care we are to maintain it, if we will have the 
city of God in safety. For, look, as a breach made in 
the wall, the city is soon entered. The papist hath 
polished his doctrine ; for what, but in religious rites 
and practice, stands all their worship ? Never more 
extremely observed ; teaching everything by some 
sensible significant rite or other. Whereas, God will 
have no sensible rites in his church, teaching anything 
to the mind, but baptism, and his supper, which him- 
self hath ordained as sufficient. Wicked therefore is 
their practice, that would still bring the church to be 
in the ABC, and to use the fescue, from which Christ 
by his death hath delivered it. 

We learn hence, to turn away from monitory and 
signifying signs ; why should we rake up that which 
is happily buried ? True it is, God's worship is for 
the substance of it spiritual, and was always ; but for 
the manner of it, it was carnal ; that is, standing of 
sensible and fleshly observations, which Goi did pre- 
scribe, not as simpl}' delighting in them, but as accom- 
modating himself to the childish condition of the church 
in those times, wherein the more plentiful presence of 
spiritual gifts was not obtained, Christ not being as yet 
manifested and glorified. 

Ver. 15. In abrogating through his fiesh the haired; 
that is, the law of the commandments, which standeth in 
ordinances, for to make of twain one new man in him- 
self, so making peace. 

Hatred. Doct. Observe hence, how those without 
are affected to the discipline and worship which God 
himself erected ; they have it in utter hatred : ' The 
natural man doth not entertain the things of God,' 1 
Cor. ii. 14 ; ' The wisdom of the flesh cannot be sub- 
ject to the wisdom of God, but is enmity against it,' 
Rom. viii. 7. Though that this divine service and 
worship did only (of all worship in the earth) lead to 
the knowledge of ourselves by Christ, and salvation in 
him ; yet the Gentile, because it savoured not with 
corrupt nature, had it in detestation. And so it is the 
portion of the wisdom of God, to be rejected with the 

world. We see, that the orders which Christ hath left 
for the governing of his church, the simplicity of the 
word and sacraments, and the whole worship of God, 
how dotii the papist (to let the Jew and Turk alone) 
like of it ? It is hateful to him, it is too base, too 
contemptible, hath no pomp or state in it, nothing 
pleasing to nature, and the sense of man ; and there- 
fore they have found out such pomp for the eye, such 
presuming and incense, that it would ravish a man to 
come into their temple ; like lips, like lettuce. So, 
whereas excommunication, the preaching of the word, 
the sacraments, the works of mercy, prayer, fasting on 
occasions, are recommended to us by God, as his only 
pure worship, the true administering of censures, the 
earth cannot bear it. The thief endureth to hear of 
hemp, as well as unruly lustful men to be shackled in 
the fear of being excommunicate. And for the word, 
they cry down with this preaching despitefully. And 
there being but three lights : 1, one of conscience ; 2, 
of conversation ; 3, of the word ; as they have made 
sure with the former, so they would have the third 
extinct too. For fasting, the same might be said, they 
love no such exercise as afflicteth the soul. For be- 
sides the enmity of man's understanding, there is 
baseness in the spiritual and glorious simplicity of 
the true discipline and worship of God ; and further, 
a kind of violencing the unregenerate part, which, 
touching the freehold of a carnal man, will not there- 
fore easily be digested. 

Use 1. The use is, that we be not dismayed at any 
hatred, nor think we are not right, because our way is 
ill entreated ; nay, the wisdom of God shall be hated, 
and have none to justify her but her children, Luke 
vii. 35. Yea, this is a token that we are in the blessed 
way, when we find hatred ; and though a man cannot say 
that religion and worship, which carnal men hate, is the 
right (for the proof is but probable), yet one may say, 
that what carnal men hate, as they are unregenerate, 
not as misled in particular errors, that is of God. 

Use 2. Secondly, It doth teach us to hate the gar- 
ment spotted, else their zeal will condemn us, as colder 
for God than they for Baal. 

The second thing that he saith, the law in rites, if 
he had said the law of commandments, we might have 
conceived the speech of the ten commandments ; but 
he saith, for specification, the law of commandments 
and rites about ordinances. 

The apostL', therefore, doth insinuate thus much, 
that the laws commanding are of divers kinds. There 
is a law of commandments, which the apostle, putting 
alone, doth put for the ten commandments, giving the 
general name to the most excellent kind. There is a 
law of commandments about judgments, which note 
out the laws governing the state politic of the Jews. 
There is a law of commandments in rites touching 
ordinances ecclesiastical; this distinction is well known. 
But it becometh you to see what footing such things 
have in the word , Many arguments there are proving 



[Chap. II. 

it, as from the nature of laws, from times noting dif- 
ference, from d'fferent circumstances of delivery, from 
limitations of Scripture ; I do but point at them as in 
the test. 

The third thing to be marked is the abolishment of 
these laws ; whereof, for more ample consideration of 
the point, consider what our Saviour saith : Mat. v. 
18, 19, ' One tittle of the law shall not escape,' &c. ; 
and Rom. iii. 31, where the apostle affirmeth that the 
doctrine of faith and the gospel do not abolish the 
law, but establish it. Here both the words, the former 
in one, the latter in the other, is denied of the law, 
which here are affirmed of it ; so that the doctrine 
ariseth more fully, viz., 

Doct. That these laws, especially this of rites, is 
utterly abolished, otherwise than the law moral, the 
curse whereof in us receiving alteration ; for as these 
phrases testify, there is such removal of these laws 
made, as that in regard of bond they are a nullity, 
they stand repealed, and men are freed from them, as 
if they never had been given. Aud to spare proof of 
a thing fore-prophesied, executed, really applied, such 
as this abrogating was, I will, 1, clear only the manner 
of their removal ; 2, shew you the reasons ; 3, the 

1. First, therefore, for the moral law. There is no 
change made in that law, the law itself, but the order 
of it in us is changed ; for we are freed, 1, from jus- 
tification by it ; 2, from the curse ; 3, from the rigour 
of it, but yet so as all this order must have his accom- 
plishment in another for us. Therefore, the apostle 
never snith, The law is dead, but 'We are dead to 
the law," Rom. vii. 4, Gal. ii. 19. 

2. Secondly, the laws judicial are of three kinds. 

(1.) The one of such as are grounded on unchange- 
able reason ; as the law of punishing voluntai-y murder 
with death. Now these are not to be altered in the 
general, though the kind of death may be changed. 

(2.) They are such as are clothed with ceremony of 
type or order ; or, 

(3.) So tempered to state, persons, &c. 

(1.) For the first, we are free from them as ordi- 
nances political delivered ; they bind us, 1, as the 
perpetual equity of God, agreeable to the law of nature 
and moral, is in them ; 2, we are bound, not to the 
particular determination of punishment, but the gene- 
ral ; with liberty both to intend and exchange the 
kind, and to mitigate or release the kind ; freed from 
all particularities and circumstnnce, bound only to the 
substance, or somewhat proportionable. 

(2.) The second, not grounded on unchangeable 
equity, and clothed with ceremony, no way bind, yet 
may without sin be taken into use ; the ceremony 
ceased, the general equity remaineth ; the particular 
determination bindeth none. 

(3.) For the third, how far the ceremony is abro- 
gated ? 

Ceremonies were either typical or of order only. 

without signification. Now the first are repealed, in 
regard of bond to them, in regard of use, in way of 
signification, in way of worship, yet so may be used 
as to prevent ofi'ence. This we are to know, that the 
ceremonies of the Jews were not only taken away, as 
they were types foreshewing things to come, but as 
they were a worldly or carnal elementary kind of in- 
struction, or as they were sensible trainings of them 
to which God did condescend, because it was the baby- 
age of the church, wherein men were carnal in great 
measure, but in little measure spiritual. True it is, 
God's worship is for the substance of it spiritual, and 
was always ; but for the manner of it, it was cnrnal, 
that is, standing of sensible and fleshly observatio;:s, 
which God did prescribe, not as simply delighted ia 
them, but as accommodating himself to the childish 
condition of the church in those times. This was the 
wisdom of God in training the minority of his people. 
The use of them remaineth in Hberty, without these 
formal respects, with these three Umitations : 

1 . To open a door of edification. 

2. To avoid scandal of the weaker. 

3. To keep the due time, till refractory wilfulness, 
rather than teachable infii-mity, craveth their continu- 

Ceremonies for order are abolished, this general 
remaining, that all things be done in order ; it being 
in the power of the church to conclude ministerial 
rites tending to order. 

Now for the reasons of their removal. 

1. The ends of these laws are ceased. If reason is 
the soul of a law, look then, as when a soul departetb, 
the body dieth, so when the reason ceaseth, the law 
is abolished. 

2. They were given but for a time. Now, a law 
given to a certain time, the law, when that date i x- 
pireth, is a nullity ; everj-thing runneth as before ; it 
is a dead thing till it be quickened, till the time of 
correction, &c. 

3. The nature of ihem. They were shadows ; when 
the sun riseth, shadows are echpsed. The state of us 
in minority might require them, but men at years 
need no guardian. 

Use 1. The use is, to let ns see the Lord's indnl- 
gency to us ; and it should bind us to most free ser- 
vice. Circumcision, sacrifices, infinite circumstances, 
they were tied unto to observe, which we are freed of. 

Use 2. Secondly, it letteth us see the law's liberty 
to change his services ; not that God becometh an- 
other, because his service one while is thus, another 
thus : as if a stripling have a disease, the physician 
prescribeth one thing, if when a grown man, he giveth 
another, his art is constant, though his precept changeth ; 
so God, in our infancy, in one kind he ministereth to 
us, in our constant and grown age, in another. And 
wo owe him the revereiice, how oft soever he shall 
reveal himself thus or thus, to give attendance. 

Use 3. It doth confute the papists, as reversers of 

Ver 1 5.] 



the liberty by Christ, and setters up of thit he hath 
pulled down, in tbe'r service setting up a foolish imi- 
tation of the old worship. 

Tlirniii/li liis ilesh, that is, bis manhood ; in the days 
of his llesh an 1 his m inhood ; a synecdoche, for this 
o;ir nature is an instrument personally united, in whom 
the second person worketh, and by which, as by a 
conduit, be conveyoth our spiritual life. 

Dod. So that we see what it was which put an end 
unto these shadows ; it was Christ crucitiod. The 
exhibition of Christ did not do this, nor yet his teach- 
ing, for the ceremonies were applied in bis blessed 
tlesh, and bo taught men to go and observe the law of 
Jloses ; but when his hour was come, that ho should 
in that priest-like office of offering himself to bis king- 
dom, and eternal intercession, then he uiilod all these 
to his cross, and abolished them ; at his death, the 
veil rent in sunder, and, as Daniel hid foretold, he 
should be slain, and abjlish the sacrifice. For what 
things were ag;iinst uniting of bis people, against us 
as bills witnessing guilt, and types of Christ dying, 
those were to end in death : ' If I be lifted up, I will 
draw all unto me ;' the handwriting of ordinances, 
shadows, the bo ly of all is Christ. 

Ihe 1. How we are to esteem this liberty, and to 
reckon of it. Look bow things bequeathed by death 
are accounted of, as we will stand for the privileges of 
our towns ; and in a city, how a charter on such and 
such consideration, granted in such a king's days, 
Ac. ; how much more in these granted by God, through 
the purchase of the sufferint,'s of Christ ? ' We must 
stand in the liberty whereof Christ hath made us free,' 
Gal. V. 1. We sec all shadows abolished ; the shadow 
and the body will not stand together. As painters 
who take an imperfect draught of a thing, when they 
have now finished their master table, they cast away 
all their former rudiments, so God, having now brought 
the true image of heavenly things, doth cast off those 
imperfect shadows which had formerly been in use. 

Use 2. This letteth us see a right property of pha- 
risaical spirits, that stand precisely on every trilling 
ceremony, not caring for the great things of the law, 
and the true spiritual obedience of it ; they will tithe 
mint and cummin precisely, wash hands and cups, 
their hearts being all foul, and full of lusts. For look, 
as idle bodies which will not follow due labour, they 
will go with their talcs, as a pedlar with his pack, from 
one to another ; yea, their fingers shall go, and their 
feet shall speak ; they will occupy themselves busily 
in that which is superfluous ; so here, when men will 
not exercise themselves in the power of godliness, it 
is strange how they will abound, and how eagerly they 
will stand upon kissings and cringings, &c. This may 
be seen in the church of Rome, who, not knowing the 
powerful ordinances of God, have turned all into such 
dumb shows, as arc the mass, their processions, as 
full of superfluous observations as empty of substance. 
For to make of ticain one. Dod. Mark, fii'st, how 

highly the peace of the church is to be rated. Go! 
letteth all his own institutions bo ropaalod, that this 
may bo procured. It is plain, from the argument ia 
the text, that the union of the faithful is highly rated 
with him. 

1. He that giveth his Son to death for this purpose. 

2. He that beateth down all bis own ordinances 
rather than this should be prejudiced. He doth not 
pass what question his glory might come into with 
men so obstinate, as if his service were a monthly 
matter, and the least innovation dangerous ; but so 
dear reconcilement is, that nothing may stand twixt 
him and it. Psalm cxxxiii. doth wholly handle this 
theme. What an excellent thing concord of brethren 
is ! He doth liken it to ointments (now those were in 
delight), to the dew of heaven, which made all things 

Vie 1. It teachetb us what is our duty, even to 
prize peace with our brethren : ' Inasmuch as in you 
lieth, have peace with all mm. Be of one mind, live 
in peace, and the God of love and peace shall bo with 
you,' 2 Cor. xiii. 11. Ceremonies were of Gol'soivn 
ordaining, yet they weighed lighter than this unity, 
and must yield to it. And the rather, it is good to 
look at the example of God, lest the examples of mon 
sway us a wrong way. We think though matters of 
ceremony are thought but light matters, yet we see 
great learned men otherwise minded. But if we will 
go by example and fact, let us look at God, who is 
without all exception ; be beateth down bis own, 
giveth bis Son to bo crucified, to conclude a truce 
twixt his people and those that were not his people. 

Use 2. Again, as we must prize it, so we must seek 
it : ' seek the peace of Jerusalem.' Sundry reasons for 
it : it weakens the faith of many ; it threateneth a 
consumption of all. Dissidia iioslni iimicnnim dis- 
peiidia, hostiiim compendia.* ' If ye bite one another, 
take heed ye be not consumed one of another,' Gal. v. 
15. It strengthens the enemy ; some one way, some 
another. He is the best that is of Gallio's religion, 
and careth for no such things. 

Use 3. This reprovetb such especially as make a 
secession and departure from the church of God, our 
visible assemblies, either upon dislike of some dis- 
orders in admiuistnition ecclesiastical, or disallowed 
forms, and manner of procuring things, which the 
communion of saints for full complement and perfec- 
tion requireth. This is not, in my conceit, so much 
to reform, as to deform, to massacre the body, to 
divide the head ; as appeareth by the Corinthians, 
who, notwithstanding they held Christ the foundation, 
yet parted Christ, 1 Cor. i. 12, 13, in that they ad- 
dicted themselves to divers teachers of the same gospel. 
Admit she be strangely attired ; so was her husband, 
when also in purple. It is fornication only that makes 
the divorce ; and therefore for any to murmur in ai-gu- 
ment, as touching a repudiating bill, is too officiously 
* lliuron. 



[Chap. II. 

to meddle between the bark and the tree, and out of 
jars and discords, over-bolJly to pronounce them 
sundered whom the Father, as yet, in his wisdom hath 
given and coupled. And surely he that recommended 
unto us the dwelling with our wives, as men of know- 
ledge, 1 Peter iii. 7, knoweth well how to deal with 
his church, notwithstanding her manifold imperfec- 

Olij. What then, say you, shall we submit to that 
which is evil ? 

Ans. Let every man (as it was said of the tree in 
the garden) bring forth fruit in his kind, that is, walk 
within compass of his calling. Whatsoever lieth not 
in us to reform, it shall be our zeal and piety to tole- 
rate, and with patience to forbear. Especially in 
things of this nature, which concerns not so much that 
outward and aspectable communion, which we have 
either with God or men, essentially required in a 
visible state, as the due ordering and carrying of every 
business in the said communion, wherein there may 
be many superfluities and defects, salva tamen ecclesia ; 
yea, and such a church, notwithstanding, as wherein 
the best and truest members (circumstances con- 
Bidered) may have more cause to rejoice than to grieve. 

To make of ticuin one new man in himself. Here 
we are to observe, 

1. The persons, with their condition : us two. 

2. In whom : in hiviself. 

3. To what we are framed : one new man. 

4. The union itself, or kind of it ; the form of it 
we have spoken : the creatinr/. 

So that three things would be considered : 

1. The way of uniting us. 

2. The strait conjunction of all the faithful. 

3. The fruit of our being in Christ, or whence all 
true peace floweth. 

1. Doct. Observe, first, The way we come to be one, 
is in getting fellowship with Christ, who is one and the 
head of all. And this Hosea foretold, speaking of 
this union of Israel, that they should go and gather 
themselves together under one head ; for what is the 
ground of the unity in all the members ? That they 
have this conjunction under one bead. So it is in the 
spiritual consideration, and therefore the ground of 
making us one, is the anaxifaXalxoii spoken of in the 
first chapter. Look, as it is with two never so dis- 
joined, take some man and woman, let them and their 
allies be utterly alienated ; yet, if marriage be made 
between them, they come interchangeably to be near 
in kin, each to the friends of the other, the husband's 
brother the wife's brother, hers the husband's. So, 
when by faith we are married to Christ, so that he is 
one flesh with us spiritually, all his brethren become 
ours, and we thus in him come to be one. 

Use 1. The papists therefore, the Jew, the Turk, 
not holding Christ the head, cannot be one with us. 
Sue Col. ii. 19. 

Use 2. It teacheth us what wc must do, if we would 

grow into acquaintance with God and his people ; we 
must become members of Christ, the head. 

Doct. Secondly, mark, one man. Observe how 
straitly the faithful come to be combined. To be of 
one nation had been somewhat, to be one kindred, to 
be one household ; but the believing come to be one 
man, ' all one in Christ Jesus,' Gal. iii. 28 : ' Till we 
all meet together into one perfect man, through the 
unity of faith,' Eph. iv. No conjimetion in the world 
so coupled ; the man and wife ai'e near, even one flesh 
after some sort, but yet they are not one person any 
way. But the godl)' gathered, when they come to be 
in Christ, become one person with the rest of the faith- 
ful spiritually. 

There is to the constituting of man three things. 
See 1 Cor. xii. 12, 13. 

1. A soul ; 2, a body ; 3, a personal union of these 
two to one man. So there is, 1, one soul, even the 
Spirit. 2. One body ; the head, Christ ; the mem- 
bers, every believer. 3. A concm-ring of these to 
make one mystical person, the which is called Christ 
mystical ; and all the believing of all ages shall make 
but this one Christ. 

Use 1. How doth it reprove strangeness, shyness, 
contention, hatred, unmercifulness ? &c. What union 
is this ? Or how are we of Christ's body ? 

Use 2. It doth teach us to seek the good one of 
another, to do honour one to another. Beasts will 
gore and doss amongst themselves, but who ever vio- 
lenced himself? 

Use 3. Again, seeing we are one man, and so mem- 
bers one of another, it teacheth care for the whole, 
fellow-feehng in joy and heaviness, 1 Cor. xii. 26, 27. 

New man. Doct. This is a consideration, that, if it 
meets us every day, we mnst not baulk. It doth 
teach us what is the condition of all such as come to 
be in Christ ; they are such as must be renewed : such 
with whom all old things must grow out of acquaint- 
ance. ' Whosoever is in Christ, is a new creature,' 
2 Cor. V. 17. 

Now, to understand this, mark what it is to be an 
old one ; and that standeth in two things : 

1. To be in fleshly corruption, in blindness, un- 
righteousness, unholiness, to be overspread with dark- 
ness, and the deceivable lusts of sin. 

2. To be under the difl'erence, and in the adminis- 
tration of outward things. As in the outward man 
there is difl'erence of country, of liberty, of wealth, of 
learning, &c. 

Now, to be in Christ a new man is, 1, to have the 
spirit of our minds renewed, our wills altered, our 
afl'ections sanctified ; 2, to be made dead to the ad- 
miring of all outward things, swallowed up in the 
acknowledgment of nothing but Jesus Christ. And 
this the Scripture coufirmeth, which maketh the new 
man to stand, 1, in restoring the image of God; 2, 
in ceasing of all outward respects, Christ coming in 
the room of them all, and being all in all. Col. iii. 

Ver. 16.] 



11, 'Neither circumcision nor nncircumcision avail- 
eth, but a new creature ;' Gal. v. C, ' Neither Jew 
nor Grecian, male nor female, but Christ is all in all.' 

It is with us as with wild olives' graffs, which grow 
np to change, according to the stock into which thej' 
are ingrafled. Thus it is with the faithful, who find 
that, since they knew Christ effectually, their minds, 
wills, and affections have been changed ; they have 
not thought so highly of outward things, as when they 
knew no better. Nay, they acknowledge no man as 
blessed, according to outward things. ' If ye have 
known Christ after the flesh, henceforth know ye him 
no more,' 2 Cor. v. IG. Their eyes are closed upon 
the world as a crucified thing to them, and their hearts 
and affections are set on Christ, and the things wherein 
Christ abideth. 

i'se. This doth convince to men that, as yet, they 
are not in Christ. The man walking in lust, whose 
heart is stuffed with cares of the world, is not in 
Christ ; the more any admire these outward things, 
and knowcth no better, is not in Christ. ' I account 
all loss in comparison of Christ,' Philip, iii. 7, 8 ; 
' Yon that are Christ's, have crucified the flesh, with 
the lusts thereof,' Gal. v. 24. Other things cannot 
longer occupy the heart whose aftections are possessed, 
and filled with Christ. For look, as a woman, the 
more she groweth np in love of her husband, the more 
she groweth out of lusting after any other (the heart 
can truly love but one at once) ; so were our aU'ec- 
tions once taken up with the love of our heavenly hus- 
band, they would grow out of adulterous desires, and 
delights in the things of this world. 

So maldnrj peace. Doct. Observe what is the foun- 
tain of all true peace ; it floweth hence, from our con- 
junction with Christ. The apostle, Eph. iv. 3, exhort- 
ing them to ' keep the bond of unity in peace,' doth 
lay down this as the principal ; they were one body, 
ver. 4, giving us to understand that hence it is that 
we come to be in peace, because we are made one man 
in Christ Jesus. Peace goeth not before, but foUow- 
eth our uniting in Christ: Col. iii. 15, ' Let peace rule 
in your hearts, whereunto ye are called in one body ;' 
be of sweet or gracious behaviour, and this followeth 
on the knowledge of God. First, there must be an 
agreeing of us, before there can be a peaceable walk- 
ing of us. Now, it is our insition into him which 
maketh us lose those wolfish and lion-like qualities 
which are with us by nature. 

Use 1. By this we see how it is with us ; if we be 
in Christ, then we shall be of one heart, as was said 
of the multitude of believers, all of one mind. Then 
there will be no hurt in us, how intolerable soever we 
have been ; of lions, we shall bo made harmless com- 
panions to lambs themselves. 

L'fe 2. Secondly, By this we may try whether we be 
in Christ, by that love we bear to his members. 
' Hereby we know we are translated from death to life, 
because we love the brethren,' 1 John iii. 14. 

Use 8. Thirdly, We are not to wonder if we see 
want of peace, for we know the cause, all are not in 
Christ. And how should the seed of the serpent and 
of the woman agree, there being intestine enmity to be 
expected ? Politicians, if they pacify jairing affections, 
they take this way to make union by entreaty of uiar- 
riiige. Contract thy soul to Christ, and so thou shalt 
be at peace with thy Father in heaven. 

Ver. 16. And that he might reconcile both unto God 
ill one hodij by his cross, and slai) hatred thereby. 

Now followeth the end in regard of God, and in it 
is to be considered, 

1. Our reconciliation itself. 

2. The order of it : us both in one body, that is, 
now being incorporate in Christ, and so coucorporate 
with his members. 

3. To whom. 

4. The cause : (1.) More remote, himself crucified. 
(2.) More immediate, the abolishing of hatred in 

Doct. 1. The word reconcile, with the third circum- 
stance, to God, doth teach us two things ; the one 
included, namely, that there is a difference or enmity 
by nature twixt God and us. Mediation is not of 
those that are one, but of those that are at odds, that 
are two ; so iu setting free, so in redeeming, these 
phrases import we are bond slaves and captives. And 
this is that the Scripture openeth, that oui- sins do 
make a wall of separation, they do make God an 
enemy to us, sons of his wrath : ' Our wisdom is 
enmity against God,' Rom. viii. 7 ; averse and repug- 
nant to the will of God ; ' Our miuds set upon evil 
works,' Col. i. 21. We are all by nature enemy-like 
afl'ected to God and his people. The judgment of 
every man naturally counteth the things of God fool- 
ishness, 1 Cor. ii. 14. In his affections he doth not 
savour them ; he counteth his commandments a yoke 
intolerable, and maketh a tush at sincere obedience. 
For the saint, ' the righteous is abomination to the 
wicked,' Prov. xxix. 27. Were not the Jews a mock 
in the mouth of the heathen ? Did they not reproach 
them for their circumcision ? Gal. iv. 29 : ' All the 
amity of the world is enmity with God,' James iv. 4. 

Use 1. Let us hereby see ourselves, we are alto- 
gether by nature thus, we have ' a law in our flesh, 
rebelling against the law of our minds,' not enduring 
the spiritual obedience of God's law, Rom. vii. 23. 
What is all our love of this world ? Is it not enmity 
against God ? If a woman cared not for her own hus- 
band, but were bent to the embrace of other men, were 
she not enemy-like afl'ected to him ? So we to God. 
What is enmity, if this bo not ? Not to care lor him 
and his ways, to incline and look another way. For 
the saints, they are our enemies, as we think, and 
they are hateful of all other to us. Our spiritual 
frenzy liketh not them of all others whose presence 
doth bind us in some sort. 



[Chap. II. 

Use 2. We must labour to be changed, seeking to 
God to give ns anoiher mind. "Who can endure to 
hear these terms, Thou art an enemy, a hater of God ? 
Yet who laboureth to be free from the thing, praying 
to God to purge forth the secret hatred, which mak- 
eth him he cannot assent to and afi'eet that which is 
good ■? Could an honest woman find a strange heart 
tow;iril her liusband, would she not be ashamed of it, 
Libour to the contrary ? Dost thou find a heart 
averfC, not aflected toward thy God ? Oh wilt thou 
rot cry, ' Who shall deliver me from this body of 
death ?' Rom. vii. 24. Seek to God to put enmity 
rgaiust the seed of the serpent, and to circumcise thy 
heart, making thee love him, Deut. xxx. 6. ' Who 
ever hardened his heart against God, and prospered ?' 
Job ix. 4. 

Dort. 2. Secondly, We see here that there is a re- 
conciliation wrought betwixt us and God : 2 Cor. 
V. 19, 'God was, in Christ, reconciling tlie world unto 
himself.' And on the entrance of Christ you see that 
f/nad iri/l is suug to the sons of men, Luke ii. 14. AVe 
by nature are full of pollution, which the eyes of God's 
holiuefs cannot behold ; but in Christ, who is the 
I well-beloved, in whom he is well pleased,' Mat. 
iii. 17, he cometh to be well pleased with us, to bear 
us great good will, and to be delighted in us. This 
the Lord promised, Isa. Ixv. 18, ' I will make Jeru- 
salem a rejoicing, and her people a joy ;' which shew- 
eth nothing else, but that God's favour, his pleasure 
and good will, should be toward every member of his 
church on the face of the earth ; yea, in Isa. Ixii. 4, 
he promiseth that the church in the Kew Testament 
shall be called his i/cyi/cZ/w/i, nn'SSn, for the Lord 
should delight in her. But to see the heavenly mean- 
ing of this more brightly, we are to know, that as 
hatred or displeasure are not properly in God as 
ail'ections, but therefore given to him, because he 
shuniieth a thing and punisheth it, which men do 
when they hate or are displeased with anything ; 
even so, reconciliation is attributed to God, because 
he worketh the same which man doth, bearing good will, 
and being kindly and favourably afl'ected. 

Now, if one should ask in what this standcth, I 
answer: 1, in the removal of all that which was hate- 
ful ; 2, in that the love of God is procured ; 3, in 
that the fruits of his love are communicated. 'By 
Moses was the law, but grace and truth came bv Jesus 
Christ,' John i. 17. 

Ute 1. It teacheth us that we labour to know our- 
selves reconciled to God in Chr:st, and fur assurance 
of it by the Spirit of God. To stir us up to this, con- 
sider, Is God our enemy ? Who then can be our 
fiicnd V As the apostle saith, on the contrary, Rom. 
viii. 31, ' If God be with us, who can be against us ?' 
So if he be against us, who can be for us ? In his 
favour is life, his wrath and anger is more bitter than 
death ; if all the world be not worth one smile of his 
countenance, a ho for all the world would cudnre the 

frowns of his face ? Ahasnerus was angry with 
Haman ; Haman's face was presently covered, dark- 
ness and blackness best befitted him when now the 
king was angi-y with him? Was it thus with him 
when but man frowned ? Then, well may they take 
their leave of all outward comforts, that stand under 
the wrath of God. If the displeasure of a king be 
death, how many deaths must God's displeasure be, 
whose wrath is everlasting, and burns to hell and 
destruction ? 

Use 2. Have we therefore broken our peace with 
God, lost his favour ? What is to be done ? Take 
a course to live again, seek and sue unto him in 
Christ, whom he hath set forth to be a reconciliation 
for us, through faith in his blood ; and that God, who 
chargeth us to forget all quarrels and wrongs, when 
once our brethren call for peace, he will himself make 
good that which he hath promised, saying, ' Return 
unto me, and I will return unto vou, saith the Lord,' 
Zech. i. 8. 

Doct. 3. Thirdly, We see hence in what order we 
come to be reconciled to God : We must get fellowship 
with Christ, we must be incorporated in him, and with 
believers, before we can be reconciled with him ; for 
we, being one body with Christ and his members, 
come to be reconciled. Though some think that this 
body is to be understood of Christ his personal body, 
they are mistaken, for it hath reference to one man, 
and is the same with e{,(!Bu/j,oL, chap. iii. 6, and chap, 
iv. 4, h cu,aoi, Col. iii. 15. He would have then said, 
his body of his flesh and his cross is put for his body 
crucified. Whosoever comes to salvation, and tastes 
the fruit of his favour, must iii'st be in this body ; 'for 
he is the Saviour of his body,' Eph. v. 23. For 
though we by nature are traitors, and the vengeance of 
God is in part on us, and hanging over us, yet when 
we come into union with Christ, the Son of his good 
pleasure, and with the multitudes of his beloved ones 
in Christ, all our defaults are covered, and anger ceas- 
ing, the good will of God is inclined to us, his right- 
eousness, the head, shining through every member, as 
the righteousness of it now in him. 

Unc 1. AVe see then, by this, the necessity of com- 
ing to be of his body ; if ever we have God reconciled, 
or any spiritual blessing from him, we must come to 
it in this body. We choose to be of such corpora- 
tions in which we have most immunities ; strive, then, 
to be of this corporation : ' If we walk in light, wo 
have fellowship with Christ, and one with another, 
and the blood of Christ clcanscth us from all sin,' 
1 John i. 7. 

Cue 2. Secondly, It Ictteth us see what is the con- 
dition of all such who are not of this body, who may 
assure themselves they are not of this body : the head 
hath nothing for anything out of the body, no influ- 
ence of life or communication of any saving good. 
Wherefore, as you would have any benefit by Chi'ist, 
labour to come into this body ; not to be as wens and 

Ver. 17.] 



woodun legs, but to be living members, such as have 
Clirist living in you, teaching you by his Spirit to 
think, speak, and do all things. It is good being 
n:embers of good corporations, which have great en- 
dowments, privileges, patrons; but there is not a body 
like to this, which hath all the unsearchable riches of 
Jesus Christ given it, in which only there is salva- 

t'sc 8. Lastly, Observe the dignity of the faithful, 
and near conjunction with Christ ; they are the body 
of Christ, not the natural body united to the second 
person, nor the sacramental body, but a mystical 
body ; such who by force of Christ his Spirit are knit 
to him, and receive all things from him proportionablv, 
as the body natui'al doth from the head. Many other 
comparisons, as of vine and branches, man and wife, 
&c., do set it down ; but none more Uvely than this, 
which is most frequented. 

Cue 4. This also may assure us of Christ his love : 
' Who ever hated his own flesh ?' Eph. v. 29. ' He 
that touchelh you, toucheth the apple of my eye,' 
Zech. ii. 8. It letteth us see the fearfulness of abus- 
ing the godly that are truly faithful ; they lift at mill- 
stones, prevail not, but must be crushed to pieces, 
chap. xii. 3. 

Jly ItU cross. The meaning of which is, himself 
(Tueilied, as Gal. vi. 14, ' God forbid that I should 
rejoice in anything but in the cross of our Lord 
Jesus Christ.' Col. ii. 15, ' He triuaaphed over prin- 
cipalities and powers in the same cross.' 1 Cor. ii. 2, 
'I esteem to know nothing among you, but Christ 

Duct. We see, then, what Christ hath done, that he 
might make a peace twist us and God : he hath offered 
himself upon the cross. It is Christ's sacrifice, which 
restoreth amity twist God and us ; which was typically 
taught, inasmuch as the Lord smclled a savour of 
rest from the sacrifices ofiered for sin ; and the apostle, 
telling us how ' God was in Christ reconciUug the 
world to himself,' 2 Cor. v. 19, doth shew, that this 
was by making Christ a sacrifice for sin. The which 
will be thus cleared to you, if you consider what things 
must be wrought for the mutual reconciliation of God 
and man, which are these four ; two on God's part, 
two on man's. 

As, 1, the matter kindling God's anger must be 

2. God's favour must be procured in the offending 

3. The enmity of our nature must be abolished. 

4. Our love must be regaiued to him ; as in the 
pacification of two disngreeing, we must first still the 
anger, work the aflection to re-entertain as herei )fore, 
else we should only make him no enemy, not a friend 
also. In the party ofl'ending, we must make him lay 
as.i.io rancour, and persuade him to love, and the 
oflioes of love toward him whom he hath ofl"ended. 
Now, that which taketh away sin, and so anger against 

sin, is Christ crucified : Heb. is. 22, ' Without shed- 
ding of blood, no remission of sin.' ' The blood of 
Christ purgeth all sin,' 1 John i. 9. 2. That for 
which God doth not only put aside anger, but become 
a Father to us, is the looking on his Son oflered a 
savour of rest, ' in whom,' he saith, ' I am well 
pleased,' Mat. iii. 17. That Spirit which killeth our 
enmity, healeth our poisoned natures, makclh us live 
fruitful in all these things which are pleasing to God; 
all is given us through Christ crucified, this Spirit 
which doth circumcise the heart to love God. 

U.se 1. So, then, we see what we must look to, if 
the wrath of God do sting us. Christ crucified is the 
propitiatory sacrifice ; even as they looked to that 
brazen sei-pent, so must we to Christ : ' The correc- 
tion of our peace was on him,' Isa. liii. If wo would 
have the love of God broken out on us, we must hold 
Christ crucified. 

Use 2. It doth confirm our faith, that the Lord 
Jesus will bring us to glory: Rom. v. 10, 'For if, 
when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by 
the death of his Son ; much more, being reconciled, 
we shall be saved by his life.' 

Use 3. A ground of eshortation unto all, that they 
would be reconciled; we else make the blood of Christ 
a vain thing, when we will not be reconciled to God. 
Like as a traitor in hold for treason, should still plot 
and practise more villany ; and when the prince had 
procured his pardon, should still conspire, and not 
listen to the benefit, nor set his heart to return into 
the king's favour. 

Yer. 17. And came and preached peace to you ichich 
were afar off, and to them that were near. 

Now he Cometh to the second thing that maketh us 
actually near to God, and one to another. There 
must be not only the perfecting of this matter in Christ 
himself, but the application in us ; therefore the 
second part of the proof, that in Christ we are made 
near, is on this manner. 

He that hath effectually published this peace to Jew 
and Gentile, in him we are near. 

But Christ hath efi'octually preached, and by preach- 
ing applied this to us. Errfo, &c. 

Now, the second part of the reason is in this verse, 
the conclusion is before. For the words, interpreters 
with one consent do construe this coming of his first 
coming, this preaching both of that he did in his own 
person, and that which he did and doth by delegates. 

But though thus it would afl"ord matter profitable, 
his first coming, his personal executing ministry, yet 
I think it is not the meaning of this place to mention 
that preaching which was before the death of Christ. 

The scope will teach us how far we may lay out this 
circumstance, and have it correspondent to the rest. 
The scope is to shew how the Jew and the Gentile are 
made one body. Now, the procuring of it in regard 
of Christ is laid down before. The means, therefore, 



[Chap. II. 

of applying this must be snch a preaching of Christ as 
is commou to all, as doth draw all to him. 

Again, he speaketh of a coming and preaching which 
followeth his cro:>s ; now, that went before. Construe 
it, then, thus : as be had wrought these things in 
himself, so he applied them in us, and came for this 
purpose in spirit and power in preaching, that is, with 
effect opening to us the gospel of peace in his apostles' 
ministry, not to us near only, that is, us Jews, but to 
yon afar off, you Gentiles. 

Doct. First, then, that Christ is said to come to us, 
teacheth us that Christ is so absent from us, that he 
hath not quite forsaken us : ' I am with you to the end 
of the world,' Mat. xxviii. 20 ; ' I and my Father will 
come in, and sup with him,' Rev. iii. 20. There are 
throe comings of Christ, the one in the flesh, called 
the coming of his kingdom. Mat. xvi. 28, John sxi. 22, 
Johnxvi. 16; the other of judgment, called the second ; 
but there is one betwixt these two, and that is, the 
coming in spirit and power in his kingdom, as the 
gospel speaketh; and this is one piece of the promised 
coming: John xvi., 'There are here which shall not 
taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in 
his kingdom,' Mat. xvi. 28. Thus doth Christ come 
daily. ^Mien the word is effectual in you, Jesus 
Christ by his Spirit is come to your hearts. 

Secondly, That he saith, Chiist preached to them, 
that the reconciliation made by him might take place 
in them, it doth teach thus much : that look, what 
Christ hath purchased on his cross, that he doth apply 
to us by the ministry of his word. 

Doct. It was not enough that Christ had reconciled 
God to us ; but the ' ministry of reconciliation' must 
be betrusted to the apostle, that this might be made to 
find place in them ; for Christ hath not so purchased 
these things in himself that they should without any 
thing on our part have effect in us, but so that they 
shall come (in us believing) to find accomplishment. 
Now, therefore, they must be held out in a word of 
faith, which is the word preached : ' For how can we 
believe without hearing ' (Rom. x. 14, 17) the word of 
the gospel preached ? so that this, that between the 
procuring of all spiritual things in Christ, and the 
fruitful efl'ect of this in ns, there must come the minis- 
try to this purpose. 

Use. It must tuach us, that as we would have any 
part in that which Christ hath wrought, so to cleave 
nnto the pubhshing of the gospel. By the gospel we 
come to be possessed of those unsearchable riches of 
Christ by the glad tidin.ss of it which God doth send 
by his messengers : 2 Tim. i. 10, our Savionr Jesus 
Christ ' hath brought life and immortality to light 
through the gospel ;' for look, as we cannot know 
what is done in France till some come over thence 
and tell us the news there, so we cannot know what is 
done in heaven till God send down the news of it unto 
us. For the gospel, indeed, is nothing but news from 
heaven touching righteousness and life eternal through 

faith on Christ Jesus. And as, when things are lost, 
we cannot come by them till we have word from the 
crier or others that they are found, so our life, which 
we have all quite lost by nature, we cannot get it again, 
until God by his xri^uxa;, viz. preachers of his gospel, 
send us word of it. We must, therefore, stir up our 
attention to this word, which discovereth such wealth. 
If one can tell us of some rich purchase at a cheap 
rate, of some gainful bargain, &c., how will we hear on 
that side ! The gospel telleth us of all blessedness in 
this life and that to come through faith in Christ, in 
comparison of which all the wealth in India is but dross 
and dung. Give, therefore, the more dihgent heed, 
believe and obey. 

Thirdly, That he saith, Christ preached ' to them 
afar off.' Now, he was never a minister, but ' of the 
circumcision,' Rom. xv. 8, ' to the lost sheep of the 
house of Israel,' Mat. xv. 24, in his own person. 

Doct. Therefore we see that Christ is present, and 
hath a part in preaching, even when men preach : ' Ye 
seek a proof of Christ speaking in me,' 2 Cor. xiii. 2 ; 
' It is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father 
which speaketh in you,' Mat. x. 20 ; ' The Spirit of 
the Lord is upon me, and hath anointed me that I 
should preach,' ic, Isa. Ixi. 1. Paul was sent for 
execution of the ministry of the gospel. Acts xxvi. 16, 
18. All is from the Spirit of Christ, God exhorting 
by us ; for this is the office of Christ our gi-eat prophet, 
not only in his own person, to open to us the will of 
his Father, nor to furnish out by his command minis- 
ters of his word, but to be present and teach in- 
wardly in the heart with that word which is outwardly 
sounded into the ear by men, extraordinary or or- 
dinary ; and thus he is with them to the end of the 
world. This was his promise, ' I will be with you,' 
not only infallibly to assist you, but to teach inwardly 
with your word, not only in your mouths, but in the 
mouth of all pastors and teachers, ' to the end of the 
world.' Thus Paul preached to the ear, but Christ to 
the heart of Lydia. 

Use 1. This must teach us to look up to Christ as 
the chief prophet amongst us, and the chief preacher, 
whosoever speaketh. When we speak, he holdeth ns 
in his hand. It is he that speaketh to the heart, we 
can but recommend to the ear, and there we leave ; 
but the affections, and the heart, and understanding, he 
preacheth to them : We are ' all of us taught of God,' 
Isaiah liv. 13. Want of this teaching maketh weak 

Use 2. It maketh us see the fearful judgment which 
abideth this age, which heareth not the beloved of the 
Father, whom we are bid to hear, who speaketh to us : 
' If the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every 
transgression received a just recompence of reward, 
how shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation ?' 
Heb. ii. 2, 3. 

Doct. Secondly, Mark here, that Christ preacheth 
to all, to Jew and Gentile dispersed, to the end of the 

Ver. 17.] 



world. And truly he that in so few years did shed 
the savour of himself through the earth may well be 
said a diligent teacher. Ho is faithful in executing 
all his offices, so in his dispensation on the earth 
diligent himself, preaching to his, sending to them, 
yea, once running forth unto the borders ot Tyre and 
Sidon. Whence one of the ancients doth resemble 
Christ in those da3's of his flesh to a young woman 
full breasted, that hath both sulticient for her own at 
home, and to lend a draught to her neighbour's child 
in case of absence. 

Use. We must imitate this faithful diligence which 
Christ sheweth over every sheep, and his whole sheep- 
fold in the particular flocks committed to us, to be 
' instant in season and out of season,' '2 Tim. iv. 2. 
Dry breasts are a curse, though many wilfully choose 
to have them ; so in ministers, ' clouds without rain,' 
Jude 12, breasts without milk, a woful judgment. 

' Doct. Lastly, Mark here : after the death of Christ 
all are preached unto. This was before promised in 
the prophets by Christ : ' When I am lifted up, I will 
draw all unto me' ; that is, teach all, so that they shall 
lenrn from me, and be drawn unto me. 

Use. So that we see the words of God fall not to 
the ground, but have their accomplishment ; for this 
was Christ's calling, not only to be a minister of cir- 
cumcision, but a doctor and ' light of the Gentiles.' 
' Behold, I gave him for a witness to the people, for a 
prince and a master unto the people,' Isa. Iv. 4. 

Peace. Voct. Obser\-e that the gospel of Christ, 
which he himself and which his ministers do preach, 
is a gospel of peace. Christ, therefore, is called a 
'preacher of peace:' Zech. ix. 10, 'He shall speak 
peace unto the heathen ;' and the ministry committed 
to us is called ' a word of reconciliation' twixt God 
and us, 2 Cor. v. 18. It calleth upon men to be at 
peace, be of one mind. The two commandments of 
the gospel are, to believe and love one another with 
brotherly love ; and those that were cast into this 
mould, it is said of them that they were ' of one heart,' 
Acts ii. 4G. 

Use 1. This answereth to the profane objections 
of such as load the gospel and preaching with im- 
putation of unpeaceableness. Neighbours lived quietly 
together, less spent in law. When there was not so 
much of this which we call preaching, we see all were 
of one mind ; now twenty sects and opinions in the 
world since this came up. They say it breeds differ- 
ence even among those betwixt whom formerly there 
was the best agreement. 

Ans. For answer, we may not marvel at this, that 
resistance doth always accompany the first publishing 
of the truth, so also division of hearts doth follow it ; 
and to this end is that speech of Christ to his dis- 
ciples, ' Think not that I came to send peace into the 
earth' (that is, such peace as the world dreameth of), 
' but the sword,' Mat. x. 34. We read that when 
Paul exercised bis ministry at Iconium, there was much 

ado : ' and the people of the city were divided, and 
some were with the Jews, and some with the apostles.' 
This made him to be accused before the civil magis- 
trate for ' a pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition,' 
Acts xxiv. 5, according as at this day, /actions and 
liiimoious, is a common imputation. 

Now a division cannot choose but follow preaching; 
for whenas among the hearers some mock, some 
cleave unto the teachers, some believe, and others be- 
lieve not, and men fall to have great reasoning among 
themselves, there cannot but follow a kind of division 
and siding ; so that they which in their ignorance 
accorded together, are by the working of the word 
sundered ; and some became zealous followers, others 
malicious opposcrs, and some neuters, neither cold 
nor hot, but just of deputy Gallio his religion, who 
• cared nothing for those things,' Acts xviii. 17. By 
this it appeareth that division and tumult must needs 
follow the soundness of settled preaching, though 
those that are reclaimed to the knowledge of God are 
all ' of one heart and of one soul,' Acts iv. 32, ' pro- 
ceeding by one rule, minding one thing,' Philip, iii. IG, 
and ' endeavouring to keep the unity of the spirit in 
the bond of peace,' Eph. iv. 3. 

Use 2. Here we sec the fnltilling of that which was 
forespoken : ' The Gentiles shall have hope in his 
doctrine,' John xii. ; ' When I am lifted up, I will 
draw all,' that is, I will teach, and bring to me by 
virtue of the Spirit, Jew and Gentile. 

Inasmuch as this is here accomplished, it doth teach 
us the faithfulness of God in making all his word good 
in due season : ' This word is pure as silver often 
tried,' Ps. xii. ; and ' heaven and earth may pass, but 
not one jot or tittle of this word shall pass unaccom- 
plished,' Mat. V. 18. The former things are come to 
pass ; therefore we must learn to gi-ow up by experi- 
ence in the full belief of that God speaketh, even when 
we see it not yet take place. 

Men will easily, if they have things at hand, say, 
God is true this way and that way ; but when we see